WorldWideScience

Sample records for laser-fusion target fabrication

  1. Advanced laser fusion target fabrication research and development proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stupin, D.M.; Fries, R.J.

    1979-05-01

    A research and development program is described that will enable the fabrication of 10 6 targets/day for a laser fusion prototype power reactor in 2007. We give personnel and cost estimates for a generalized laser fusion target that requires the development of several new technologies. The total cost of the program between 1979 and 2007 is $362 million in today's dollars

  2. Laser fusion target fabrication. Status report, 30 April 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, R.J.; Farnum, E.H.

    1974-11-01

    The laser fusion target fabrication effort at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory has been successful in producing targets of the general design requested by, and with a range of parameters acceptable to, the theoretical designers and to the laser/target interaction physics experimentalists. Many novel techniques for handling and measuring the properties of various types of hollow microballoons were developed. (U.S.)

  3. Design and fabrication of foam-insulated cryogenic target for wet-wall laser fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norimatsu, T.; Takeda, T.; Nagai, K.; Mima, K.; Yamanaka, T.

    2003-01-01

    A foam insulated cryogenic target was proposed for use in a future laser fusion reactor with a wet wall. This scheme can protect the solid DT layer from melting due to surface heating by adsorption of metal vapor without significant reduction in the target gain. Design spaces for the injection velocity and the acceptable vapor pressure in the reactor are discussed. Basic technology to fabricate such structure was demonstrated by emulsion process. Concept of a cryogenic fast-ignition target with a gold guiding cone was proposed together with direct injection filling of liquid DT. (author)

  4. Investigation on fabrication and positioning of cryogenic shell laser fusion targets. Annual report, October 1, 1977--November 30, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.

    1978-01-01

    The research has been directed toward fabrication and positioning of cryogenic shell laser fusion targets, with particular emphasis on the development of a scheme which would allow for continuous fabrication, inspection, and delivery of the targets. Specifically, progress has been made in each of the following areas: (1) fabrication of a uniform layer of solid DT inside a glass microshell using a combination of helium gas jets and a heater wire; (2) levitation-freezing of a DT-filled glass microshell as a method for fabricating and positioning a cryogenic shell target; (3) a target fabrication system intended for continuous fabrication, inspection, and delivery of cryogenic targets; and (4) development of diagnostics for inspection, recording, and analysis of a solid DT layer inside a glass microshell, and for observing the parameters controlling the target freezing process

  5. Investigation on cryogenic laser fusion targets: fabrication, characterization, and transport. Annual report, December 1, 1978-November 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.

    1979-01-01

    The research has been directed toward fabrication, characterization, and positioning of cryogenic shell laser fusion targets, with particular emphasis on the development of a scheme which would allow for continuous fabrication, inspection, and delivery of the targets. Specifically, progress has been made in the following areas: (1) Fabrication of a uniform spherical shell of DT-condensate using a cold-wall target-freezing-cell. (2) Fabrication of a uniform spherical shell of liquid DT using a room-temperature wall target-freezing-cell. (3) Support-free cryogenic target fabrication using cold-gas-levitation. (4) Continuous fabrication of cryogenic targets using free-fall method. (5) Automatic characterization of DT-layer uniformity. (6) Sorting of DT-filled glass microshells using an interference microscope. (7) Development of an a-c interference microscope for accurate characterization of moving targets. (8) Development of a machine which is capable of producing a continuous stream of uniform DT spheres of controllable sizes. (9) Theoretical study on the behavior of liquid hydrogen contained in a spherical shell

  6. Recent developments in laser-fusion target coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, R.J.; Catlett, D.S.; Fossey, D.; Mayer, A.; McCreary, W.J.; Powell, B.W.; Simonsic, G.A.

    1976-01-01

    Techniques to fabricate hollow, spherical, multilayered laser-fusion targets are described. The first is a glow discharge polymerization process for plastic coating. A chemical vapor deposition process for depositing Mo/Re alloys is also discussed along with some new techniques for electrodeless plating and for electroplating a wide variety of metals

  7. Electrolytic coating of microparticles for laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, A.; Catlett, D.S.

    1977-04-01

    An electroplating apparatus for applying uniform metallic coatings that have excellent surface finishes to discrete microparticles is described. The device is used to electrodeposit metals onto thin-walled metal, metallized glass, or plastic mandrels. The apparatus and process were developed for fabrication of microsphere pressure vessels to be used as targets in laser fusion research

  8. Spinning targets for laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, D.E.; Ryutov, D.D.

    1995-09-01

    Several techniques for spinning the ICF targets up prior to or in the course of their compression are suggested. Interference of the rotational shear flow with Rayleigh-Taylor instability is briefly discussed and possible consequences for the target performance are pointed out

  9. Laser-fusion target fabrication: application of organic coatings to metallic and nonmetallic micropellets by the glow-discharge polymerization of p-xylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonsic, G.A.

    1976-01-01

    Laser-fusion targets require thin, uniform organic-film coatings. A coating technique involving glow-discharge polymerization is described for applying highly adherent, extremely uniform, thin films of a high-temperature polymer to a variety of microsubstrates. Polymeric coatings as thick as 10 μm have been successfully deposited on hollow, spherical, 40- to 250-μm-diam micropellets of glass, metal-coated glass, and nickel/manganese alloy. Experimental yields of coatings of a quality acceptable for laser-fusion targets are typically greater than 90 percent

  10. Plasma processed coating of laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.L.; Letts, S.A.; Myers, D.W.; Crane, J.K.; Illige, J.D.; Hatcher, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    Coatings for laser fusion targets have been deposited in an inductively coupled discharge device by plasma polymerization. Two feed gases were used: perfluoro-2-butene, which produced a fluorocarbon coating (CF 1 3 ) with a density of 1.8 g/cc, and trans-2-butene which produced a hydrocarbon coating (CH 1 3 ) with a density of 1.0 g/cc. Uniform pin-hole free films have been deposited to a thickness of up to 30 μm of fluorocarbon and up to 110 μm of hydrocarbon. The effect of process variables on surface smoothness has been investigated. The basic defect in the coating has been found to result from shadowing by a small surface irregularity in an anisotropic coating flux

  11. Method for mounting laser fusion targets for irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, R. Jay; Farnum, Eugene H.; McCall, Gene H.

    1977-07-26

    Methods for preparing laser fusion targets of the ball-and-disk type are disclosed. Such targets are suitable for irradiation with one or two laser beams to produce the requisite uniform compression of the fuel material.

  12. Investigation on non-glass laser fusion targets: their fabrication, characterization, and transport. Charged Particle Research Laboratory report No. 2-81, progress report, June 1, 1980-January 31, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.

    1981-01-01

    A summary is presented of the research progress made under LLNL Subcontract 8320003 for the period of June 1, 1980 through January 31, 1981. The main theme of the research has continued to be the development of techniques for fabricating, characterizing, and transporting laser fusion targets on a continuous basis. The target fabrication techniques are intended mainly for non-glass spherical shell targets, both cryogenic and non-cryogenic. Specifically, progress has been made in each of the following categories. (1) Investigation of liquid hydrogen behavior inside a spherical laser fusion target. (2) Development of automated target characterization scheme. (3) Study of cryogenic target fabrication scheme utilizing cold-gas-levitation and electric field positioning. (4) Development of a cryogenic target fabrication system based on target free-fall method. (5) Generation of hydrogen powder using electro-hydrodynamic spraying. (6) Study of target-charging techniques for application to contactless cryogenic target fabrication. (7) Development of hollow metal sphere production technique. A brief summary of the research progress made in each category is presented

  13. Parametric study of a target factory for laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherohman, J.W.; Meier, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of a target factory leading to the derivation of production rate equations has provided the basis for a parametric study. Rate equations describing the production of laser fusion targets have been developed for the purpose of identifying key parameters, attractive production techniques and cost scaling relationships for a commercial target factory

  14. Electrostatic levitation and transport of laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.L.; Hendricks, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    Several levitation concepts have been evaluated resulting in the electrostatic quadrupole being chosen as the most universal. A levitator has been constructed to handle laser fusion targets during and between the processing steps. The levitator is based on a quadrupole rail which is segmented to provide electrically controlled transport and confinement along the rail. This device has demonstrated transport both vertical and horizontal of targets with appropriate mass to size ratios and exhibits remarkably stable confinement at atmospheric pressure

  15. Ion tail filling in laser-fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, D.B.

    1975-06-01

    Thermonuclear burn begins in laser-fusion targets with the collapse of the imploding fuel shell. At this instant the ion velocity distribution is non-Maxwellian, requiring correction to the commonly used computer simulation codes. This correction is computed and compared with that arising from the loss of fast ions in marginal (rho R less than 0.01 gm cm -2 ) targets. (U.S.)

  16. Ultrasmooth plasma polymerized coatings for laser-fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letts, S.A.; Myers, D.W.; Witt, L.A.

    1980-01-01

    Coatings for laser fusion targets were deposited up to 135 μm thick by plasma polymerization onto 140 μm diameter DT filled glass microspheres. Ultrasmooth surfaces (no defect higher than 0.1 μm) were achieved by eliminating particulate contamination. Process generated particles were eliminated by determining the optimum operating conditions of power, gas flow, and pressure, and maintaining these conditions through feedback control. From a study of coating defects grown over known surface irregularities, a quantitative relationship between irregularity size, film thickness, and defect size was determined. This relationship was used to set standards for the maximum microshell surface irregularity tolerable in the production of hydrocarbon or fluorocarbon coated laser fusion targets

  17. Metal coatings for laser fusion targets by electroplating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illige, J.D.; Yu, C.M.; Letts, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    Metal coated laser fusion targets must be dense, uniform spherically symmetric to within a few percent of their diameters and smooth to better than a few tenths of a micron. Electroplating offers some unique advantages including low temperature deposition, a wide choice of elements and substantial industrial plating technology. We have evaluatd electroless and electroplating systems for gold and copper, identified the factors responsible for small grain size, and plated glass microspheres with both metals to achieve smooth surfaces and highly symmetric coatings. We have developed plating cells which sustain the microspheres in continuous random motion during plating. We have established techniques for deposition of the initial conductive adherent layer on the glass microsphere surface. Coatings as thick as 15 μm have been made. The equipment is simple, relatively inexpensive and may be adopted for high volume production of laser fusion targets

  18. Method for nondestructive fuel assay of laser fusion targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnum, Eugene H.; Fries, R. Jay

    1976-01-01

    A method for nondestructively determining the deuterium and tritium content of laser fusion targets by counting the x rays produced by the interaction of tritium beta particles with the walls of the microballoons used to contain the deuterium and tritium gas mixture under high pressure. The x rays provide a direct measure of the tritium content and a means for calculating the deuterium content using the initial known D-T ratio and the known deuterium and tritium diffusion rates.

  19. Method for nondestructive fuel assay of laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnum, E.H.; Fries, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for nondestructively determining the deuterium and tritium content of laser fusion targets by counting the x rays produced by the interaction of tritium beta particles with the walls of the microballoons used to contain the deuterium and tritium gas mixture under high pressure. The x rays provide a direct measure of the tritium content and a means for calculating the deuterium content using the initial known D-T ratio and the known deuterium and tritium diffusion rates

  20. Automated laser fusion target production concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1977-01-01

    A target production concept is described for the production of multilayered cryogenic spherical inertial confinement fusion targets. The facility is to deliver targets to the reactor chamber at rates up to 10 per second and at costs consistent with economic production of power

  1. Ultrasmooth plasma polymerized coatings for laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letts, S.A.; Myers, D.W.; Witt, L.A.

    1980-01-01

    Coatings for laser fusion were deposited up to 135μm thick by plasma polymerization onto 140 μm diameter DT filled glass microspheres. Ultrasmooth surfaces (no defect higher than 0.1 μm) were achieved by eliminating particulate contamination. Process generated particles were eliminated by determining the optimum operating conditions of power (20 watts), gas flow (0.3 sccm trans-2-butene, 10.0 sccm hydrogen), and pressure (75 millitorr), and maintaining these conditions through feedback control. From a study of coating defects grown over known surface irregularities, a quantitative relationship between irregularity size, film thickness, and defect size was determined. This relationship was used to set standards for the maximum microshell surface irregularity tolerable in the production of hydrocarbon or fluorocarbon coated laser fusion targets

  2. Electrostatics, small particles, and laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1978-01-01

    The success of any Inertial Confinement Fusion system for the production of useful power depends critically on the production of suitable targets. This is true whether the arrangement is that proposed by Nuckolls et al. or some other arrangement. The target must have characteristics such as material composition, structure, and surface finish which are tailored to the laser pulse length, energy, peak and average power and pulse shape. To provide useful power on a continuous basis, it is likely that the repetition rate will be 1.0 to 10 per second. Thus, in a 24 hour running period 864,000 targets may be necessary and one must be placed at the focal point of the laser every tenth of a second. For economic operation it is necessary that the targets be produced at costs of less than $1.00 per target

  3. Preliminary analysis of a target factory for laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherohman, J.W.; Hendricks, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of a target factory leading to the determination of production expressions has provided for the basis of a parametric study. Parameters involving the input and output rate of a process system, processing yield factors, and multiple processing steps and production lines have been used to develop an understanding of their dependence on the rate of target injection for laser fusion. Preliminary results have indicated that a parametric study of this type will be important in the selection of processing methods to be used in the final production scheme of a target factory

  4. Interaction physics for megajoule laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruer, W.L.

    1992-02-01

    Some little-explored interaction phenomena for targets irradiated with megajoule lasers are considered. Simple estimates show that the laser plasma interaction then occurs in a hot (multi-keV) plasma with density much less than the critical density. In such plasmas, Raman and Brillouin scattering into the forward hemisphere are potentially significant. A simple model shows that Raman forward scattering can be saturated at low levels by ponderomotive detuning. Calculations also illustrate a suppression of ponderomotive filamentation by plasma-induced beam smoothing

  5. Laser-fusion targets for reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.H.; Thiessen, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a target having a centrally located substantially spherically configured quantity of solid fuel for implosion by a pulse of laser energy and having no material therein with a Z of over about 13. The improvement consists of: means in spaced apart and non-contiguous relationship surrounding the fuel for at least providing an atmosphere about the fuel for ensuring electron transport around the fuel and enhancing subsequent implosion symmetry of the fuel, the fuel being configured as a hollow shell; the means consisting of at least one outer layer of substantially solid atmosphere forming material having a Z of 1-13. The atmosphere forms material comprising a shell positioned about the fuel defining a space therebetween, the space being filled with He, the fuel and the shell of atmosphere forming material being each composed of DT, the layer of atmosphere forming material being impacted and at least partially exploded by at least one separate and distinct laser prepulse to produce the atmosphere about the fuel prior to implosion of the fuel by the pulse of laser energy

  6. Technological aspects of cryogenic laser-fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musinski, D.L.; Henderson, T.M.; Simms, R.J.; Pattinson, T.R.; Jacobs, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    Most current laser-fusion targets consist of hollow spherical glass shells which have been filled with a mixture of gaseous deuterium-tritium fuel. Theoretical considerations suggest that optimum yields can be obtained from these targets if the fuel is condensed as a uniform liquid or solid layer on the inner surface of the glass shell at the time it is irradiated. In principle, this can be accomplished in a straightforward way by cooling the target below the condensation or freezing point of the fuel. In practice, cryogenic targets can appear in routine laser experiments only when the necessary cryogenic technology is reliably integrated into experimental target chambers. Significant progress has been made recently in this field. The authors will discuss the scientific basis and the various technological features of a system which has allowed the successful irradiation of uniform solid-fuel-layer targets

  7. Physics of laser fusion. Volume II. Diagnostics of experiments on laser fusion targets at LLNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstrom, H.G.

    1982-01-01

    These notes present the experimental basis and status for laser fusion as developed at LLNL. There are two other volumes in this series: Vol. I, by C.E. Max, presents the theoretical laser-plasma interaction physics; Vol. III, by J.F. Holzrichter et al., presents the theory and design of high-power pulsed lasers. A fourth volume will present the theoretical implosion physics. The notes consist of six sections. The first, an introductory section, provides some of the history of inertial fusion and a simple explanation of the concepts involved. The second section presents an extensive discussion of diagnostic instrumentation used in the LLNL Laser Fusion Program. The third section is a presentation of laser facilities and capabilities at LLNL. The purpose here is to define capability, not to derive how it was obtained. The fourth and fifth sections present the experimental data on laser-plasma interaction and implosion physics. The last chapter is a short projection of the future.

  8. Physics of laser fusion. Volume II. Diagnostics of experiments on laser fusion targets at LLNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstrom, H.G.

    1982-01-01

    These notes present the experimental basis and status for laser fusion as developed at LLNL. There are two other volumes in this series: Vol. I, by C.E. Max, presents the theoretical laser-plasma interaction physics; Vol. III, by J.F. Holzrichter et al., presents the theory and design of high-power pulsed lasers. A fourth volume will present the theoretical implosion physics. The notes consist of six sections. The first, an introductory section, provides some of the history of inertial fusion and a simple explanation of the concepts involved. The second section presents an extensive discussion of diagnostic instrumentation used in the LLNL Laser Fusion Program. The third section is a presentation of laser facilities and capabilities at LLNL. The purpose here is to define capability, not to derive how it was obtained. The fourth and fifth sections present the experimental data on laser-plasma interaction and implosion physics. The last chapter is a short projection of the future

  9. Laser fusion: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, K.

    1975-01-01

    The laser fusion concept is described along with developments in neodymium and carbon dioxide lasers. Fuel design and fabrication are reviewed. Some spin-offs of the laser fusion program are discussed. (U.S.)

  10. Maximum entropy restoration of laser fusion target x-ray photographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brolley, J.E.; Lazarus, R.B.; Suydam, B.R.

    1976-01-01

    Maximum entropy principles were used to analyze the microdensitometer traces of a laser-fusion target photograph. The object is a glowing laser-fusion target microsphere 0.95 cm from a pinhole of radius 2 x 10 -4 cm, the image is 7.2 cm from the pinhole and the photon wavelength is likely to be 6.2 x 10 -8 cm. Some computational aspects of the problem are also considered

  11. Electroless or autocatalytic coating of microparticles for laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, A.; Catlett, D.S.

    1977-04-01

    Use of a novel device for applying uniform metallic coatings to spherical microparticles is described. The apparatus deposits electroless metal coatings on hollow, thin-walled metal or sensitized nonmetallic micromandrels. The apparatus and process were developed for fabrication of microsphere pressure vessels for use as targets in laser-initiated fusion research

  12. Method for selecting hollow microspheres for use in laser fusion targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnum, Eugene H.; Fries, R. Jay; Havenhill, Jerry W.; Smith, Maurice Lee; Stoltz, Daniel L.

    1976-01-01

    Hollow microspheres having thin and very uniform wall thickness are useful as containers for the deuterium and tritium gas mixture used as a fuel in laser fusion targets. Hollow microspheres are commercially available; however, in commercial lots only a very small number meet the rigid requirements for use in laser fusion targets. Those meeting these requirements may be separated from the unsuitable ones by subjecting the commercial lot to size and density separations and then by subjecting those hollow microspheres thus separated to an external pressurization at which those which are aspherical or which have nonuniform walls are broken and separating the sound hollow microspheres from the broken ones.

  13. Repetitive laser fusion experiment and operation using a target injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Yasuhiko; Komeda, Osamu; Mori, Yoshitaka

    2017-01-01

    Since 2008, a collaborative research project on laser fusion development based on a high-speed ignition method using repetitive laser has been carried out with several collaborative research institutes. This paper reports the current state of operation of high repetition laser fusion experiments, such as target introduction and control based on a target injection system that allows free falling under 1 Hz, using a high repetition laser driver that has been under research and development, as well as the measurement of targets that freely fall. The HAMA laser driver that enabled high repetition fusion experiments is a titanium sapphire laser using a diode-pumped solid-state laser KURE-I of green light output as a driver pump light source. In order to carry out high repetition laser fusion experiments, the target injection device allows free falling of deuterated polystyrene solid sphere targets of 1 mm in diameter under 1 Hz. The authors integrated the developed laser and injection system, and succeeded first in the world in making the nuclear fusion reaction continuously by hitting the target to be injected with laser, which is essential technology for future laser nuclear fusion reactor. In order to realize repetition laser fusion experiments, stable laser, target synchronization control, and target position measurement technologies are indispensable. (A.O.)

  14. Low-density hydrocarbon foams for laser fusion targets: Progress report, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.; Cook, R.C.; Haendler, B.L.; Hair, L.M.; Kong, F.M.; Letts, S.A.

    1987-06-01

    We describe progress made during 1986 in the development of direct-drive hydrocarbon foam targets for laser fusion. The foam materials are polystyrene and resorcinolformaldehyde. The processes for making the foams, their properties, characterization techniques, and the relationships of their properties to target specifications are presented. In the final section, we discuss statistical experimental design techniques that are being used to optimize the foams. 12 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Conceptual design considerations and neutronics of lithium fall laser fusion target chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.R.; Thomson, W.B.

    1978-01-01

    Atomics International and Lawrence Livermore Laboratory are involved in the conceptual design of a laser fusion power plant incorporating the lithium fall target chamber. In this paper we discuss some of the more important design considerations for the target chamber and evaluate its nuclear performance. Sizing and configuration of the fall, hydraulic effects, and mechanical design considerations are addressed. The nuclear aspects examined include tritium breeding, energy deposition, and radiation damage

  16. Determination of the pr of laser fusion targets using the α-particle TOF technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slivinsky, V.W.; Lent, E.; Shay, H.D.; Manes, K.R.

    1975-01-01

    A computer code was written to describe the alpha particle energy loss. The problem of a symmetric compression of the DT gas by an exploding microsphere is analyzed. The code calculates the energy spectrum of a Gaussian distribution of alpha particles after passing through the compressed gas and the exploded glass. The calculations are being used to determine design parameters for diagnostic instruments for measuring charged particle energy distributions from laser fusion targets

  17. Neutron penumbral imaging of laser-fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, R.A.; Ress, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    Using a new technique, penumbral coded-aperture imaging, the first neutron images of laser-driven, inertial-confinement fusion targets were obtained. With these images the deuterium-tritium burn region within a compressed target can be measured directly. 4 references, 11 figures

  18. X-ray absorption in characterization of laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, X.; Coudeville, A.; Eyharts, P.; Perrine, J.P.; Rouillard, R.

    1982-11-01

    Many plastic or metal coated targets are opaque, so their thickness and thickness uniformity cannot be obtained by optical means. Therefore, we have built and tested a new system using monochromatic X-ray absorption measurements. This system is also able to perform non-destructive measurements of argon fill pressure in glass microballoons. The X-ray source is a diffraction tube with a chromium target and fine focus (0.4 x 0.8 mm 2 ). Since monochromatic calculations are involved in this method, we use electronic discrimination to isolate the chromium Kα line (5.4 keV) from the bremsstrahlung spectrum. The detectors are xenon-filled proportional counters. The system is composed of two beams (10 μm in diameter), one used as a reference and the other as the measurement arm. A PET desk computer is coupled ot the experiment. We achieved a precision better than 10% for gold layers in the range of 0.1 to 1 μm, and better than 20% for argon pressures in the range of 5 - 13 bars

  19. System for automatic x-ray-image analysis, measurement, and sorting of laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singleton, R.M.; Perkins, D.E.; Willenborg, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the Automatic X-Ray Image Analysis and Sorting (AXIAS) system which is designed to analyze and measure x-ray images of opaque hollow microspheres used as laser fusion targets. The x-ray images are first recorded on a high resolution film plate. The AXIAS system then digitizes and processes the images to accurately measure the target parameters and defects. The primary goals of the AXIAS system are: to provide extremely accurate and rapid measurements, to engineer a practical system for a routine production environment and to furnish the capability of automatically measuring an array of images for sorting and selection

  20. Spatially and temporally resolved x-ray emission from imploding laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attwood, D.T.; Coleman, L.W.; Boyle, M.J.; Phillion, D.W.; Swain, J.E.; Manes, K.R.; Larsen, J.T.

    1976-09-01

    The Livermore 15 psec x-ray streak camera has been used in conjunction with 6 μm diameter pinholes to record well resolved implosion histories of DT filled laser fusion targets. The space-time compression data provide clearly identified implosion velocities, typically 3 x 10 7 cm/sec for two-sided clamshell irradiation of a 70 μm/sup D/, .5 μm wall DT filled glass microshell. Single-sided irradiation results show hydrodynamic convergence at the target center, followed by an asymmetric but two-sided target disassembly. These experiments were performed at the two arm Janus Laser facility, which typically delivered a total of 0.4 TW in a 70 psec pulse for these experiments

  1. Copper-coated laser-fusion targets using molecular-beam levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocke, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    A series of diagnostic experiments at the Shiva laser fusion facility required targets of glass microspheres coated with 1.5 to 3.0 μm of copper. Previous batch coating efforts using vibration techniques gave poor results due to microsphere sticking and vacuum welding. Molecular Beam Levitation (MBL) represented a noncontact method to produce a sputtered copper coating on a single glassmicrosphere. The coating specifications that were achieved resulted in a copper layer up to 3 μm thick with the allowance of a maximum variation of 10 nm in surface finish and thickness. These techniques developed with the MBL may be applied to sputter coat many soft metals for fusion target applications

  2. Laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, D.E.T.F.

    1976-01-01

    A short survey is given on laser fusion its basic concepts and problems and the present theoretical and experimental methods. The future research program of the USA in this field is outlined. (WBU) [de

  3. Cryogenic-laser-fusion target implosion studies performed with the OMEGA uv-laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, F.J.; Letzring, S.A.; Verdon, C.P.; Skupsky, S.; Keck, R.L.; Knauer, J.P.; Kremens, R.L.; Bradley, D.K.; Kessler, T.; Delettrez, J.; and others.

    1989-01-01

    A series of direct-drive laser-fusion implosion experiments was performed on cryogenically cooled, DT-filled glass microballoons with the OMEGA 24-beam uv (351-nm) laser system. The targets consisted of glass microballoons having radii of 100 to 150 μm, wall thicknesses of 3 to 7 μm, filled with DT gas at pressures of 75 to 100 atm. The targets were cooled to below the freezing point of DT, in situ, by a cryogenic target system. The targets were irradiated by approximately 1 to 1.2 kJ of uv light in 650-ps Gaussian pulses. The on-target irradiation uniformity was enhanced for these experiments by the use of distributed phase plates, which brought the estimated irradiation nonuniformities to ∼12% (σ rms ). Target performance was diagnosed by an array of x-ray, plasma, and nuclear instruments. The measured target performance showed ∼70% absorption, thermonuclear yields of 10 6 to 10 8 neutrons, and final fuel areal densities of 20 to 40 mg/cm 2 for the optimum targets examined in these experiments. Fuel densities at the time of thermonuclear neutron production, inferred from direct measurements of the fuel areal density, were in the range of 20 to 50 g/cm 3 (100 to 200 times the density of liquid DT) for the optimum targets

  4. Miniature proportional counter for compression measurements of laser-fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, S.M.; Dellis, J.H.; Bennett, C.K.; Campbell, E.M.

    1981-10-01

    Direct drive laser fusion targets consisting of DT gas encapsulated in glass microshells produce 14.1 MeV neutrons that can interact with silicon-28 nuclei in the glass to produce a 2.2 minute aluminum-28 activity. From the number of 28 Al nuclei created and the neutron yield, the compressed glass areal density can be found. To determine the number of activated atoms created, we collect approximately one-half of the target debris on a thin metal foil which is transferred to our beta-gamma coincidence detector. This detector consists of a 25 cm x 25 cm NaI(Tl) crystal having a 5 cm x 15 cm well. We have recently built a miniature proportional counter that fits into this well and is used to detect beta particles. It is constructed of .025 cm thick copper and has nine separate chambers through which methane flows. The coincidence background is 0.14 cpm and the measured beta efficiency is 45%. We are now building a .0125 cm thick counter made of aluminum having a predicted efficiency of > 90%

  5. Laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliezer, S.

    1982-02-01

    In this paper, the physics of laser fusion is described on an elementary level. The irradiated matter consists of a dense inner core surrounded by a less dense plasma corona. The laser radiation is mainly absorbed in the outer periphery of the plasma. The absorbed energy is transported inward to the ablation surface where plasma flow is created. Due to this plasma flow, a sequence of inward going shock waves and heat waves are created, resulting in the compression and heating of the core to high density and temperature. The interaction physics between laser and matter leading to thermonuclear burn is summarized by the following sequence of events: Laser absorption → Energy transport → Compression → Nuclear Fusion. This scenario is shown in particular for a Nd:laser with a wavelength of 1 μm. The wavelength scaling of the physical processes is also discussed. In addition to the laser-plasma physics, the Nd high power pulsed laser is described. We give a very brief description of the oscillator, the amplifiers, the spatial filters, the isolators and the diagnostics involved. Last, but not least, the concept of reactors for laser fusion and the necessary laser system are discussed. (author)

  6. Generation of sphere and shell laser fusion targets. Final report, October 1, 1976--November 30, 1977. Report No. 1-78

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.

    1978-01-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate methods of fabricating sphere and shell laser fusion targets. A hollow hydrogen pellet generator has been constructed, and experiments have been performed to study the effects of system parameters on the production of hollow droplets. Techniques for coating hydrogen pellets with high Z material have been studied, and a system has been constructed to coat spherical solid hydrogen pellets with neon. A preliminary experiment has been performed to freeze the deuterium gas inside a glass microsphere using cold He gas jet. Based on this, two systems have been designed and are under construction to investigate methods of obtaining and retaining uniform D-T layer on the inside surface of a microsphere using cold gas jets

  7. Laser fusion overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.

    1976-01-01

    Because of recent breakthroughs in the target area, and in the glass laser area, the scientific feasibility of laser fusion--and of inertial fusion--may be demonstrated in the early 1980's. Then the development in that time period of a suitable laser (or storage ring or other driving source) would make possible an operational inertial fusion reactor in this century. These are roughly the same time scales as projected by the Tokamak magnetic confinement approach. It thus appears that the 15-20 year earlier start by magnetic confinement fusion may be overcome. Because inertial confinement has been demonstrated, and inertial fusion reactors may operate on smaller scales than Tokamaks, laser fusion may have important technical and economic advantages

  8. Design study of laser fusion rocket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Hideki; Shoyama, Hidetoshi; Kanda, Yukinori

    1991-01-01

    A design study was made on a rocket powered by laser fusion. Dependence of its flight performance on target gain, driver repetition rate and fuel composition was analyzed to obtain optimal design parameters of the laser fusion rocket. The results indicate that the laser fusion rocket fueled with DT or D 3 He has the potential advantages over other propulsion systems such as fission rocket for interplanetary travel. (author)

  9. Time resolved x-ray pinhole photography of compressed laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attwood, D.T.

    1976-01-01

    Use of the Livermore x-ray streak camera to temporally record x-ray pinhole images of laser compressed targets is described. Use is made of specially fabricated composite x-ray pinholes which are near diffraction limited for 6 A x-rays, but easily aligned with a He--Ne laser of 6328 A wavelength. With a 6 μm x-ray pinhole, the overall system can be aligned to 5 μm accuracy and provides implosion characteristics with space--time resolutions of approximately 6 μm and 15 psec. Acceptable criteria for pinhole alignment, requisite x-ray flux, and filter characteristics are discussed. Implosion characteristics are presented from our present experiments with 68 μm diameter glass microshell targets and 0.45 terawatt, 70 psec Nd laser pulses. Final implosion velocities in excess of 3 x 10 7 cm/sec are evident

  10. Target fabrication using laser and spark erosion machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, X.; Coudeville, A.; Eyharts, P.; Perrine, J.P.; Rouillard, R.

    1982-01-01

    Fabrication of laser fusion targets requires a number of special techniques. We have developed both laser and spark erosion machining to produce minute parts of complex targets. A high repetition rate YAG laser at double frequency is used to etch various materials. For example, marks or patterns are often necessary on structured or advanced targets. The laser is also used to thin down plastic coated stalks. A spark erosion system has proved to be a versatile tool and we describe current fabrication processes like cutting, drilling, and ultra precise machining. Spark erosion has interesting features for target fabrication: it is a highly controllable and reproducible technique as well as relatively inexpensive

  11. SOLASE: a conceptual laser fusion reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.; Moses, G.A.

    1977-12-01

    The SOLASE conceptual laser fusion reactor has been designed to elucidate the technological problems posed by inertial confinement fusion reactors. This report contains a detailed description of all aspects of the study including the physics of pellet implosion and burn, optics and target illumination, last mirror design, laser system analysis, cavity design, pellet fabrication and delivery, vacuum system requirements, blanket design, thermal hydraulics, tritium analysis, neutronics calculations, radiation effects, stress analysis, shield design, reactor and plant building layout, maintenance procedures, and power cycle design. The reactor is designed as a 1000 MW/sub e/ unit for central station electric power generation

  12. SOLASE: a conceptual laser fusion reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.; Moses, G.A.

    1977-12-01

    The SOLASE conceptual laser fusion reactor has been designed to elucidate the technological problems posed by inertial confinement fusion ractors. This report contains a detailed description of all aspects of the study including the physics of pellet implosion and burn, optics and target illumination, last mirror design, laser system analysis, cavity design, pellet fabrication and delivery, vacuum system requirements, blanket design, thermal hydraulics, tritium analysis, neutronics calculations, radiation effects, stress analysis, shield design, reactor and plant building layout, maintenance procedures, and power cycle design. The reactor is designed as a 1000 MW/sub e/ unit for central station electric power generation

  13. Automated computer analysis of x-ray radiographs greatly facilitates measurement of coating-thickness variations in laser-fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stupin, D.M.; Moore, K.R.; Thomas, G.D.; Whitman, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    An automated system was built to analyze x-ray radiographs of laser fusion targets which greatly facilitates the detection of coating thickness variations. Many laser fusion targets reqire opaque coatings 1 to 20 μm thick which have been deposited on small glass balloons 100 to 500 μm in diameter. These coatings must be uniformly thick to 1% for the targets to perform optimally. Our system is designed to detect variations as small as 100 A in 1-μm-thick coatings by converting the optical density variations of contact x-ray radiographs into coating thickness variations. Radiographic images are recorded in HRP emulsions and magnified by an optical microscope, imaged onto television camera, digitized and processed on a Data General S/230 computer with a code by Whitman. After an initial set-up by the operator, as many as 200 targets will be automatically characterized

  14. Assessing infrared intensity using the evaporation rate of liquid hydrogen inside a cryogenic integrating sphere for laser fusion targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwano, K.; Iwamoto, A.; Asahina, T.; Yamanoi, K.; Arikawa, Y.; Nagatomo, H.; Nakai, M.; Norimatsu, T.; Azechi, H.

    2017-07-01

    Infrared (IR) heating processes have been studied to form a deuterium layer in an inertial confinement fusion target. To understand the relationship between the IR intensity and the fuel layering time constant, we have developed a new method to assess the IR intensity during irradiation. In our method, a glass flask acting as a dummy target is filled with liquid hydrogen (LH2) and is then irradiated with 2-μm light. The IR intensity is subsequently calculated from the time constant of the LH2 evaporation rate. Although LH2 evaporation is also caused by the heat inflow from the surroundings and by the background heat, the evaporation rate due to IR heating can be accurately determined by acquiring the time constant with and without irradiation. The experimentally measured IR intensity is 0.66 mW/cm2, which agrees well with a value estimated by considering the IR photon energy balance. Our results suggest that the present method can be used to measure the IR intensity inside a cryogenic system during IR irradiation of laser fusion targets.

  15. Assessing infrared intensity using the evaporation rate of liquid hydrogen inside a cryogenic integrating sphere for laser fusion targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwano, K; Iwamoto, A; Asahina, T; Yamanoi, K; Arikawa, Y; Nagatomo, H; Nakai, M; Norimatsu, T; Azechi, H

    2017-07-01

    Infrared (IR) heating processes have been studied to form a deuterium layer in an inertial confinement fusion target. To understand the relationship between the IR intensity and the fuel layering time constant, we have developed a new method to assess the IR intensity during irradiation. In our method, a glass flask acting as a dummy target is filled with liquid hydrogen (LH 2 ) and is then irradiated with 2-μm light. The IR intensity is subsequently calculated from the time constant of the LH 2 evaporation rate. Although LH 2 evaporation is also caused by the heat inflow from the surroundings and by the background heat, the evaporation rate due to IR heating can be accurately determined by acquiring the time constant with and without irradiation. The experimentally measured IR intensity is 0.66 mW/cm 2 , which agrees well with a value estimated by considering the IR photon energy balance. Our results suggest that the present method can be used to measure the IR intensity inside a cryogenic system during IR irradiation of laser fusion targets.

  16. Technology of solid-fuel-layer targets for laser-fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musinski, D.L.; Henderson, T.M.; Pattinson, T.R.; Tarvin, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    An apparatus which produces uniform solid-fuel layers in glass-shell targets for laser irradiation is described. A low-power cw laser pulse is used to vaporize the fuel within a previously frozen target which is maintained in a cold-helium environment by a cryogenic shroud. The rapid refreezing that follows the pulse forms a uniform fuel layer on the inner surface of the glass shell. This apparatus and technique meet the restrictions imposed by the experimental target chamber. The method does not perturb the target position; nor does it preclude the usual diagnostic experimets since the shroud is retracted before the main laser pulse arrives. Successful laser irradiation and implosion of solid-fuel-layer targets at KMSF have confirmed the effectiveness and reliability of this system and extended the range of laser-target-interaction studies in the cryogenic regime

  17. Low-density hydrocarbon foams for laser fusion targets: Progress report, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haendler, B.L.; Buckley, S.R.; Chen, C.

    1988-06-01

    This report describes progress made in the development of direct-drive hydrocarbon foam targets for laser inertial confinement fusion during 1987. The foam materials are polystyrene, resorcinol-formaldehyde, carbonized resorcinol-formaldehyde, and cellulose acetate. The processes for making the foams, their properties, characterization techniques, and the relationship of their properties to target specifications are presented. Progress in the creation and testing of prototype targets is also described

  18. Alternate laser fusion drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleasance, L.D.

    1979-11-01

    One objective of research on inertial confinement fusion is the development of a power generating system based on this concept. Realization of this goal will depend on the availability of a suitable laser or other system to drive the power plant. The primary laser systems used for laser fusion research, Nd 3+ : Glass and CO 2 , have characteristics which may preclude their use for this application. Glass lasers are presently perceived to be incapable of sufficiently high average power operation and the CO 2 laser may be limited by and issues associated with target coupling. These general perceptions have encouraged a search for alternatives to the present systems. The search for new lasers has been directed generally towards shorter wavelengths; most of the new lasers discovered in the past few years have been in the visible and ultraviolet region of the spectrum. Virtually all of them have been advocated as the most promising candidate for a fusion driver at one time or another

  19. FABRICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FAST IGNITION TARGETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HILL, D.W; CASTILLO, E; CHEN, K.C; GRANT, S.E; GREENWOOD, A.L; KAAE, J.L; NIKROO, A; PAGUIO, S.P; SHEARER, C; SMITH, J.N Jr.; STEPHENS, R.B; STEINMAN, D.A; WALL, J.

    2003-09-01

    OAK-B135 Fast ignition is a novel scheme for achieving laser fusion. A class of these targets involves cone mounted CH shells. The authors have been fabricating such targets with shells with a wide variety of diameters and wall thicknesses for several years at General Atomics. In addition, recently such shells were needed for implosion experiments at Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) that for the first time were required to be gas retentive. Fabrication of these targets requires producing appropriate cones and shells, assembling the targets, and characterization of the assembled targets. The cones are produced using micromachining and plating techniques. The shells are fabricated using the depolymerizable mandrel technique followed by micromachining a hole for the cone. The cone and the shell then need to be assembled properly for gas retention and precisely in order to position the cone tip at the desired position within the shell. Both are critical for the fast ignition experiments. The presence of the cone in the shell creates new challenges in characterization of the assembled targets. Finally, for targets requiring a gas fill, the cone-shell assembly needs to be tested for gas retention and proper strength at the glue joint. This paper presents an overview of the developmental efforts and technical issues addressed during the fabrication of fast ignition targets

  20. CO2-laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, E.E. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The basic concept of laser fusion is described, with a set of requirements on the laser system. Systems and applications concepts are presented and discussed. The CO 2 laser's characteristics and advantages for laser fusion are described. Finally, technological issues in the development of CO 2 laser systems for fusion applications are discussed

  1. Studies on the robustness of shock-ignited laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atzeni, S; Schiavi, A; Marocchino, A

    2011-01-01

    Several aspects of the sensitivity of a shock-ignited inertial fusion target to variation of parameters and errors or imperfections are studied by means of one-dimensional and two-dimensional numerical simulations. The study refers to a simple all-DT target, initially proposed for fast ignition (Atzeni et al 2007 Phys. Plasmas 7 052702) and subsequently shown to be also suitable for shock ignition (Ribeyre et al 2009 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 51 015013). It is shown that the growth of both Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) at the ablation front is reduced by laser pulses with an adiabat-shaping picket. An operating window for the parameters of the ignition laser spike is described; the threshold power depends on beam focusing and synchronization with the compression pulse. The time window for spike launch widens with beam power, while the minimum spike energy is independent of spike power. A large parametric scan indicates good tolerance (at the level of a few percent) to target mass and laser power errors. 2D simulations indicate that the strong igniting shock wave plays an important role in reducing deceleration-phase RTI growth. Instead, the high hot-spot convergence ratio (ratio of initial target radius to hot-spot radius at ignition) makes ignition highly sensitive to target mispositioning.

  2. Laser fusion target illumination optimization with consideration of the beam divergence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grzanna, J.; Schoennagel, H.

    1982-09-01

    Using a focusing system with a great focal length it is demonstrated that the radiation divergence considerably influences the illumination optimization. If the channel beam is composed of several single beams, there are two optimum illumination variants: the channel beam tangent and the single beam tangent illumination. Further, it is shown that the illumination channel distribution function can vary in the central region without any effect on the illumination uniformity. The deviation at the periphery is more critical. The most homogeneous illumination and favourable energy transfer would be obtained by low radiation divergence and optimum lateral and axial defocusing of the single beam imaging a suitable near-field intensity pattern on the target surface. It is emphasized that the estimation was made without considering the plasma parameters and the dynamic variation in time. (author)

  3. Optical diagnostics of CO2 laser-fusion targets using backscattered light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casperson, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    With the f/2.4 focusing optics on one of the eight Helios CO 2 laser beam lines, direct backscattered light from a variety of glass microballoon targets has been observed. The quantities that have been measured include: (1) the total backscattered energy; (2) relative amplitudes of the backscattered fundamental and low harmonics (n = 1, 2, 3) of the 10.6 μm incident light; (3) the 3/2 harmonic emission from a double pulse backscatter experiment; (4) the temporally resolved 10.6 μm light using a fast pyroelectric detector and a Los Alamos 5-GHz oscilloscope; and (5) the time-integrated spectrally resolved fundamental using a 3/4 meter spectrometer and a high resolution pyroelectric detector array (resolution approx. 40 A at 10.6 μm). The suitability of these diagnostics for evaluating the CO 2 laser plasma in terms of stimulated scattering processes, plasma density gradients, velocity of the critical surface, etc., is discussed

  4. Laser fusion program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmett, J.L.

    1977-01-01

    This program is structured to proceed through a series of well defined fusion milestones to proof of the scientific feasibility, of laser fusion with the Shiva Nova system. Concurrently, those key technical areas, such as advanced lasers, which are required to progress beyond proof of feasibility, are being studied. We have identified and quantified the opportunities and key technical issues in military applications, such as weapons effects simulations, and in civilian applications, such as central-station electric power production. We summarize the current status and future plans for the laser fusion program at LLL, emphasizing the civilian applications of laser fusion

  5. Laser Fusion: status, future, and tritium control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyle, P.E.

    1978-11-01

    At Livermore the 10 kJ, 20 to 30 TW Shiva facility is now operational and producing regular new fusion results. Design work has begun on a 200 to 300 TW laser designed to carry the program through the first breakeven demonstration experiments in the mid-1980's. Confidence in reaching this goal is based on the significant progress we have made in state-of-the-art, high-power Nd:glass laser technology, in experimental laser fusion and laser plasma interaction physics, and in theoretical and analytical computer codes which reliably model and predict experimental results. For all of these experiments, a variety of fusion targets are being fabricated in the laboratory, and the control and handling of tritium is now a regular and routine part of ongoing inertial fusion experiments. Target design with gains of about 1000 have been studied and the means to mass produce such pellets at low cost are also being developed

  6. Argus Laser Fusion Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speck, D.R.; Simmons, W.W.

    1976-01-01

    ARGUS is a two-beam Nd: glass laser system built for laser fusion irradiation experiments. It is the first glass laser system planned and built with the understanding that small-scale beam break-up is the dominant performance limiting factor in obtaining high output power. Accordingly, five vacuum spatial filters are located at strategic intervals along each chain to eliminate the accumulated small-scale filamentation. This strategy permits cascading of amplifiers to obtain a focusable output of more than one terawatt per arm in a spatially clean beam of 20 centimeter diameter. Beam diagnostics which characterize each shot include the time-integrated spatial profile and the time resolved intensity/power at the target. Demonstrated performance to date includes: (1) Peak power in excess of 2 TW at the target is achieved with regularity. (2) Maximum system brightness is in excess of 10 17 watts/cm 2 ster. (3) Shot-to-shot pointing stability within 50 μ radians is achieved over periods of days. (4) Successful target experiments have been performed with pulses of from 30 to 500 ps duration

  7. Laser fusion diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, L.W.

    1978-01-01

    The current status of the capability of laser fusion diagnostics is reviewed. Optical and infrared streak cameras provide one time resolution measurement capability of less than 10 ps, while x-ray streak cameras provide 15 ps time resolution in the range of about 1--30 keV presently. Time integrated spatial resolutions of 1 μm are provided with a variety of optical techniques. Ultraviolet holographic interferometry has measured electron densities above 10 21 cm -3 with 1 μm spatial resolution and 15 ps temporal resolution. X-ray microscopes provide 3 μm time integrated resolution and the x-ray streak pinhole camera has 6 μm spatial resolution. Development of the framing camera has thus far provided 50 μm spatial resolution with 125 ps frame duration and the third order reconstruction of zone plate images has provided 3 μm resolutions for alpha particles. Time integrated measurements of x-rays span the range shown. Finally, the new Shiva neutron spectrometer increases the energy resolution capability of that technique to 25 keV for 14-MeV neutrons. These combined capabilities provide a unique set of diagnostics for the detailed measurement of the interaction of laser light with targets and a subsequent performance of those targets

  8. Diagnostics developments and applications for laser fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, L.W.

    1977-01-01

    Some diagnostics techniques applied to current laser fusion target experiments are reviewed. Specifically, holographic interferometry of target plasmas, coded aperture imaging of thermonuclear alpha-particles and neutron energy spectrum measurements are discussed

  9. Mirror position display equipment for the target chamber mirror mounts of the LASL HELIOS laser fusion facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, F.D.; Remington, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    Equipment has been fabricated which records the absolute positions of sixteen mirror mounts used to direct and focus eight high-energy laser beams for research in laser induced fusion. Each mirror mount is driven by three stepping motors, controlled to produce the motions of Focus, Tilt, and Rotate relative to the target. Stepping of the motors is sensed by incremental optical encoders coupled to the motor drive shafts. Outputs from the encoder tracks are multiplexed to a microprocessor which transmits motor step information via a fiber optical data link to a Mirror Position Display chassis. This unit accumulates the steps, stores the motor positions, displays mirror position data to the operator, and provides the equipment control functions. Standby battery power is included to retain the motor step data in the event of power failure

  10. Construction of a large laser fusion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurley, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    Construction of a large laser fusion machine is nearing completion at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL). Shiva, a 20-terawatt neodymium doped glass system, will be complete in early 1978. This system will have the high power needed to demonstrate significant thermonuclear burn. Shiva will irradiate a microscopic D-T pellet with 20 separate laser beams arriving simultaneously at the target. This requires precise alignment, and stability to maintain alignment. Hardware for the 20 laser chains is composed of 140 amplifiers, 100 spatial filters, 80 isolation stages, 40 large turning mirrors, and a front-end splitter system of over 100 parts. These are mounted on a high stability, three dimensional spaceframe which serves as an optical bench. The mechanical design effort, spanning approximately 3 years, followed a classic engineering evolution. The conceptual design phase led directly to system optimization through cost and technical tradeoffs. Additional manpower was then required for detailed design and specification of hardware and fabrication. Design of long-lead items was started early in order to initiate fabrication and assembly while the rest of the design was completed. All components were ready for assembly and construction as fiscal priorities and schedules permitted

  11. Radiographic detection of 100 A thickness variations in 1-μm-thick coatings applied to submillimeter-diameter laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stupin, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    We have developed x-ray radiography to measure thickness variations of coatings on laser fusion targets. Our technique is based on measuring the variation in x-ray transmission through the targets. The simplest targets are hollow glass microshells or microballoons 100 to 500 μm in diameter, that have several layers of metals or plastics, 1 to 100 μm thick. Our goal is to examine these opaque coatings for thickness variations as small as 1% or 0.1%, depending on the type of defect. Using contact radiography we have obtained the desired sensitivity for concentric and elliptical defects of 1%. This percentage corresponds to thickness variations as small as 100 A in a 1-μm-thick coating. For warts and dimples, the desired sensitivity is a function of the area of the defect, and we are developing a system to detect 0.1% thickness variations that cover an area 10 μm by 10 μm. We must use computer analysis of contact radiographs to measure 1% thickness variations in either concentricity or ellipticity. Because this analysis takes so long on our minicomputer, we preselect the radiographs by looking for defects at the 10% level on a video image analysis system

  12. Development of our laser fusion integration simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.; Zhai, C.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Zheng, W.; Yong, H.; Zeng, Q.; Hang, X.; Qi, J.; Yang, R.; Cheng, J.; Song, P.; Gu, P.; Zhang, A.; An, H.; Xu, X.; Guo, H.; Cao, X.; Mo, Z.; Pei, W.; Jiang, S.; Zhu, S. P.

    2013-01-01

    In the target design of the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program, it is common practice to apply radiation hydrodynamics code to study the key physical processes happening in ICF process, such as hohlraum physics, radiation drive symmetry, capsule implosion physics in the radiation-drive approach of ICF. Recently, many efforts have been done to develop our 2D integrated simulation capability of laser fusion with a variety of optional physical models and numerical methods. In order to effectively integrate the existing codes and to facilitate the development of new codes, we are developing an object-oriented structured-mesh parallel code-supporting infrastructure, called JASMIN. Based on two-dimensional three-temperature hohlraum physics code LARED-H and two-dimensional multi-group radiative transfer code LARED-R, we develop a new generation two-dimensional laser fusion code under the JASMIN infrastructure, which enable us to simulate the whole process of laser fusion from the laser beams' entrance into the hohlraum to the end of implosion. In this paper, we will give a brief description of our new-generation two-dimensional laser fusion code, named LARED-Integration, especially in its physical models, and present some simulation results of holhraum. (authors)

  13. Civilian applications of laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniscalco, J.; Blink, J.; Buntzen, R.; Hovingh, J.; Meier, W.; Monsler, M.; Walker, P.

    1978-01-01

    The commercial aspects of laser fusion were evaluated in an attempt to relate the end products (neutrons and energy) to significant commercial applications. We have found that by far the largest markets and highest payoffs for laser fusion are associated with electric power production. Hence, much of this report evaluates the prospects of producing commercial electricity with laser fusion. To this end, we have described in detail a new and promising laser fusion concept--the liquid lithium waterfall reactor. In addition, we have taken the most attractive features from our laser fusion studies and used them to compare laser fusion to other long-range sources of energy (breeder reactors and solar energy). It is our contention that all three sources of electrical energy should be developed to the point where the final selections are primarily based on economic competitiveness. The other potential applications of laser fusion (fissile fuel production, synthetic fuel production, actinide burning, and propulsion) are also discussed, and our preliminary plan for the engineering development of laser fusion is presented

  14. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory laser-fusion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstrom, H.G.

    1982-01-01

    The goals of the Laser-Fusion Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are to produce well-diagnosed, high-gain, laser-driven fusion explosions in the laboratory and to exploit this capability for both military applications and for civilian energy production. In the past year we have made significant progress both theoretically and experimentally in our understanding of the laser interaction with both directly coupled and radiation-driven implosion targets and their implosion dynamics. We have made significant developments in fabricating the target structures. Data from the target experiments are producing important near-term physics results. We have also continued to develop attractive reactor concepts which illustrate ICF's potential as an energy producer

  15. Civilian applications of laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniscalco, J.; Blink, J.; Buntzen, R.; Hovingh, J.; Meier, W.; Monsler, M.; Walker, P.

    1977-01-01

    The commercial aspects of laser fusion were evaluated in an attempt to relate the end products (neutrons and energy) to significant commercial applications. It was found that by far the largest markets and highest payoffs for laser fusion are associated with electric power production. Hence, much of this report evaluates the prospects of producing commercial electricity with laser fusion. To this end, we have described in detail a new and promising laser fusion concept--the liquid lithium waterfall reactor. In addition, we have taken the most attractive features from our laser studies and used them to compare laser fusion to other long-range sources of energy (breeder reactors and solar energy). It is our contention that all three sources of electrical energy should be developed to the point where the final selections are primarily based on economic competitiveness. The other potential applications of laser fusion (fissile fuel production, synthetic fuel production, actinide burning, and propulsion) are also discussed, and our preliminary plan for the engineering development of laser fusion is presented

  16. Civilian applications of laser fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maniscalco, J.; Blink, J.; Buntzen, R.; Hovingh, J.; Meier, W.; Monsler, M.; Walker, P.

    1977-11-17

    The commercial aspects of laser fusion were evaluated in an attempt to relate the end products (neutrons and energy) to significant commercial applications. It was found that by far the largest markets and highest payoffs for laser fusion are associated with electric power production. Hence, much of this report evaluates the prospects of producing commercial electricity with laser fusion. To this end, we have described in detail a new and promising laser fusion concept--the liquid lithium waterfall reactor. In addition, we have taken the most attractive features from our laser studies and used them to compare laser fusion to other long-range sources of energy (breeder reactors and solar energy). It is our contention that all three sources of electrical energy should be developed to the point where the final selections are primarily based on economic competitiveness. The other potential applications of laser fusion (fissile fuel production, synthetic fuel production, actinide burning, and propulsion) are also discussed, and our preliminary plan for the engineering development of laser fusion is presented.

  17. Commercial application of laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, L.A.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamentals of laser-induced fusion, some laser-fusion reactor concepts, and attendant means of utilizing the thermonuclear energy for commercial electric power generation are discussed. Theoretical fusion-pellet microexplosion energy release characteristics are described and the effects of pellet design options on pellet-microexplosion characteristics are discussed. The results of analyses to assess the engineering feasibility of reactor cavities for which protection of cavity components is provided either by suitable ablative materials or by diversion of plasmas by magnetic fields are presented. Two conceptual laser-fusion electric generating stations, based on different laser-fusion reactor concepts, are described

  18. Tomography of laser fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceglio, N.M.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental programs exist in a number of laboratories throughout the world to test the feasibility of using powerful laser systems to drive the implosion of hydrogen isotope fuel to thermonuclear burn conditions. In a typical experiment multiple laser beams are focused onto a glass microshell (typically 50 μm to 200 μm diameter) filled with an equimolar D-T gas mixture. X-ray and particle emissions from the target provide important information about the hydrodynamic implosion of the glass shell and the associated compression and heating of the D-T fuel. Standard diagnostics for imaging such emissions are the grazing incidence reflection (GIR) x-ray microscope and the pinhole camera. Recently, a particular coded imaging technique, Zone Plate Coded Imaging (ZPCI), has been successfully used for x-ray and particle microscopy of laser fusion plasmas. ZPCI is highly attractive for investigating laser produced plasmas because it possesses a tomographic capability not shared by either the GIR or pinhole imaging techniques. This presentation provides a brief discussion of the tomographic potential of ZPCI. In addition, the first tomographic x-ray images (tomographic resolution approximately 74 μm) of a laser produced plasma are presented

  19. Development scenario for laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniscalco, J.A.; Hovingh, J.; Buntzen, R.R.

    1976-01-01

    This scenario proposes establishment of test and engineering facilities to (1) investigate the technological problems associated with laser fusion, (2) demonstrate fissile fuel production, and (3) demonstrate competitive electrical power production. Such facilities would be major milestones along the road to a laser-fusion power economy. The relevant engineering and economic aspects of each of these research and development facilities are discussed. Pellet design and gain predictions corresponding to the most promising laser systems are presented for each plant. The results show that laser fusion has the potential to make a significant contribution to our energy needs. Beginning in the early 1990's, this new technology could be used to produce fissile fuel, and after the turn of the century it could be used to generate electrical power

  20. Power balancing of multibeam laser fusion lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seka, W.; Morse, S.; Letzring, S.; Kremens, R.; Kessler, T.J.; Jaanimagi, P.; Keck, R.; Verdon, C.; Brown, D.

    1989-01-01

    The success of laser fusion depends to a good degree on the ability to compress the target to very high densities of ≥1000 times liquid DT. To achieve such compressions require that the irradiation nonuniformity must not exceed ∼1% rms over the whole time of the compression, particularly during the early phases of irradiation. The stringent requirements for the irradiation uniformity for laser fusion have been known for quite some time but until recently the energy balance was mistakenly equated to power balance. The authors describe their effort on energy balance and irradiation patterns on the target. They significantly improved the laser performance with respect to overall intensity distributions on target including the implementation of distributed (random) phase plates in each high power beam. However, the slightly varying performance of the third harmonic conversion crystals in the twenty-four beams of their laser system was generally compensated for by appropriately adjusted 1.054μm input laser energy. Computational analysis of the results of the recent high density campaign are shown

  1. Experimental laser fusion devices and related vacuum problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neal, W.C.; Campbell, D.E.; Glaros, S.S.; Hurley, C.A.; Kobierecki, M.W.; McFann, C.B. Jr.; Monjes, J.A.; Patton, H.G.; Rienecker, F. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Laser fusion experiments require hard vacuum in the laser-beam spatial filters, target chambers and for target diagnostics instruments. Laser focusing lenses and windows, and target alignment windows must hold vacuum without optical distortion, and must be protected from target debris. The vacuum must be sufficient to prevent residual gas breakdown in focused laser light, avoid arcing at high voltage terminals, minimize contamination and melting of cryogenic targets, and prevent adsorption of the target's microfusion radiation before it reaches the diagnostics instruments

  2. Present status and future prospects for direct drive laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodner, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    If one assumes that the best short wavelength laser will have an efficiency of 5--7%, and if one assumes that reasonable cost electricity requires that the product of laser efficiency and pellet gain be greater than 10--15, then pellet grains for laser fusion must be at least 150--300. The only laser fusion concept with any potential for energy applications then seems to be directly driven targets with moderately thin shells and 1/4 micron KrF laser light. This direct drive concept has potential pellet energy gains of 200--300

  3. Reactor concepts for laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.R.; Maniscalco, J.A.

    1977-07-01

    Scoping studies were initiated to identify attractive reactor concepts for producing electric power with laser fusion. Several exploratory reactor concepts were developed and are being subjected to our criteria for comparing long-range sources of electrical energy: abundance, social costs, technical feasibility, and economic competitiveness. The exploratory concepts include: a liquid-lithium-cooled stainless steel manifold, a gas-cooled graphite manifold, and fluidized wall concepts, such as a liquid lithium ''waterfall'', and a ceramic-lithium pellet ''waterfall''. Two of the major reactor vessel problems affecting the technical feasibility of a laser fusion power plant are: the effects of high-energy neutrons and cyclical stresses on the blanket structure and the effects of x-rays and debris from the fusion microexplosion on the first-wall. The liquid lithium ''waterfall'' concept is presented here in more detail as an approach which effectively deals with these damaging effects

  4. Laser fusion experiments at LLL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstrom, H.G.

    1980-06-16

    These notes present the experimental basis and status for laser fusion as developed at LLL. Two other chapters, one authored by K.A. Brueckner and the other by C. Max, present the theoretical implosion physics and laser plasma interaction physics. The notes consist of six sections. The first is an introductory section which provides some of the history of inertial fusion and a simple explanation of the concepts involved. The second section presents an extensive discussion of diagnostic instrumentation used in the LLL Laser Fusion Program. The third section is a presentation of laser facilities and capabilities at LLL. The purpose here is to define capability, not to derive how it was obtained. The fourth and fifth sections present the experimental data on laser-plasma interaction and implosion physics. The last chapter is a short projection of the future.

  5. Laser fusion experiments at LLL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstrom, H.G.

    1980-01-01

    These notes present the experimental basis and status for laser fusion as developed at LLL. Two other chapters, one authored by K.A. Brueckner and the other by C. Max, present the theoretical implosion physics and laser plasma interaction physics. The notes consist of six sections. The first is an introductory section which provides some of the history of inertial fusion and a simple explanation of the concepts involved. The second section presents an extensive discussion of diagnostic instrumentation used in the LLL Laser Fusion Program. The third section is a presentation of laser facilities and capabilities at LLL. The purpose here is to define capability, not to derive how it was obtained. The fourth and fifth sections present the experimental data on laser-plasma interaction and implosion physics. The last chapter is a short projection of the future

  6. Helios, a 20 TW CO2 laser fusion facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladish, J.S.

    1979-01-01

    Since June 1978 the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's Helios CO 2 laser fusion facility has been committed to an experimental target program to investigate the feasibility of laser produced inertial confinement fusion. This system is briefly described, and preliminary experimental results are reported

  7. Laser fusion experiments at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstrom, H.G.

    1975-01-01

    A short review is given of some of the important dates in the experimental fusion program at Livermore. A few of the parameters of the laser systems which are being used for these experiments are mentioned. Some information about specialized diagnostics which have been developed at the Livermore Laboratory for these experiments is described. The focusing arrangements for each of the systems are discussed. Experiments both on planar targets and on targets for laser fusion are described

  8. Development of a focussing-crystal spectrograph for x-rays from laser-fusion targets. Final report for the period ending September 30, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaakobi, B.; Burek, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    The report is arranged in five major sections, Section II describes the measurements of mica and lithium fluoride crystal properties before and after the cylindrical bending required for a Von-Hamos spectrograph. It also describes the property of mosaic focussing and the measurements of the spatial as well as spectral resolutions of bent crystals. Section III describes the imaging calculations which relate the instrument focussing capability to source misalignment. These calculations demonstrate the necessity to maintain fabrication and alignment precision which is about equal to the radiation source size, if the full potential of the instrument is to be realized. Section IV shows x-ray spectra obtained on the OMEGA 24 laser facility at LLE. The targets used were plastic shells, coated with copper either on the outside or the inside surface, germania shells, and krytpon-filled glass shells. The data indicate deeper heat penetration on the target surface, than predicted by a flux-limited heat transport model. In Section V, we list new spectral lines involving multiple electron excitation, which are observed here for the first time and whose wavelengths are calculated using Hartrer-Fock methods

  9. Quantitative measurements with x-ray microscopes in laser-fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, F.J.; Su, Q.

    1995-01-01

    X-ray imaging of laser-fusion target implosions has been performed on the University of Rochester's OMEGA laser system by means of grazing-incidence optical imaging with Kirkpatrick--Baez (KB) microscopes. High spatial resolution imaging (∼5 μm) of hard x-ray emission (up to ∼7 keV) has been achieved. New grazing-incidence optics are currently being fabricated for the OMEGA Upgrade experimental laser-fusion facility. Projected performance indicates that resolution may be increased to ∼2 μm at the center of the field of view and sensitivity extended to ∼8 keV. Uses of KB microscopes on the OMEGA Upgrade will include hard x-ray imaging, grating-dispersed imaged spectroscopy, and framed imaging. A novel technique for monochromatic imaging with KB microscopes has also been demonstrated enabling images of target emission in a narrow energy band (10 to 20 eV) to be obtained

  10. Theory of high density laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, G.B.; Nuckolls, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    A basic laser fusion scheme is presented. Some of its subtleties are described and the theoretical difficulties which now appear to be the major obstacles are considered. Interpretations of some recent laser compression experiments are given. (U.S.)

  11. SOLASE conceptual laser fusion reactor study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, G.A.; Conn, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.; Cooper, G.W.; Howard, J.; Magelssen, G.R.

    1978-01-01

    A conceptual laser fusion reactor for electric power, SOLASE, has been designed. The SOLASE design utilizes a 1 MJ, 6.7% efficient laser to implode 20 fusion targets per second. The target gain is 150 and produces a net electrical power of 1000 MW. The reactor cavity is spherical with a 6 m radius. The first wall is graphite and has a neutron wall loading of 5 MW/m 2 . It is protected from the target debris by low pressure xenon gas that is introduced into the cavity. The blanket structure is a honeycombed graphite composite. The tritium breeding and heat transport medium is Li 2 O in the form of pellets that flow through the blanket. The tritium breeding ration is 1.34. Temperature decoupling of the graphite structure and the Li 2 O coolant enables the structure to operate at temperatures that minimize radiation damage effects. The graphite blanket is replaced every year but exhibits low levels of radioactivity so that limited hands on maintenance is possible two weeks after shutdown, thus facilitating rapid replacement

  12. Soft x-ray streak camera for laser fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stradling, G.L.

    1981-04-01

    This thesis reviews the development and significance of the soft x-ray streak camera (SXRSC) in the context of inertial confinement fusion energy development. A brief introduction of laser fusion and laser fusion diagnostics is presented. The need for a soft x-ray streak camera as a laser fusion diagnostic is shown. Basic x-ray streak camera characteristics, design, and operation are reviewed. The SXRSC design criteria, the requirement for a subkilovolt x-ray transmitting window, and the resulting camera design are explained. Theory and design of reflector-filter pair combinations for three subkilovolt channels centered at 220 eV, 460 eV, and 620 eV are also presented. Calibration experiments are explained and data showing a dynamic range of 1000 and a sweep speed of 134 psec/mm are presented. Sensitivity modifications to the soft x-ray streak camera for a high-power target shot are described. A preliminary investigation, using a stepped cathode, of the thickness dependence of the gold photocathode response is discussed. Data from a typical Argus laser gold-disk target experiment are shown

  13. Conceptual design of laser fusion reactor KOYO-fast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomabechi, K.; Kozaki, Y.; Norimatsu, T.

    2006-01-01

    A conceptual design of the laser fusion reactor KOYO-F based on the fast ignition scheme is reported including the target design, the laser system and the design for chamber. A Yb-YAG ceramic laser operated at 200 K is the primary candidate for the compression laser and an OPCPA (optical parametric chirped pulse amplification) system is the one for the ignition laser. The chamber is basically a wet wall type but the fire position is vertically off-set to simplify the protection scheme of the ceiling. The target consists of foam insulated, cryogenic DT shells with a LiPb, reentrant guide-cone. (authors)

  14. Evaluation of ammonia-borane as a laser-fusion-target material. Final progress report, March 1, 1978-May 31, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geanangel, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    Significant results from the previous three quarterly reports are reviewed. Ammonia-borane should be zone sublimed prior to use in fabrication experiments because it is found to undergo an unspecified decomposition which lowers the melting point but does not release significant amounts of hydrogen. Ammonia-borane microballoons, formed by the liquid droplet method, were mounted on glass stalks using epoxy cement and inspected by optical and electron microscopy. Microballoons which had been gold-coated showed expansion and severe surface cracking not visible in optical micrographs or in electron micrographs of uncoated shells. Heating from gold deposition is believed to be responsible for the degradation. Several good quality microballoons were observed. Uncoated, these showed no expansion or surface cracking in the vacuum of the SEM

  15. Computer simulation of superthermal transport for laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kershaw, D.S.

    1979-01-01

    The relativistic multigroup diffusion equations describing superthermal electron transport in laser fusion plasmas were derived in an earlier UCRL. A successful numerical scheme based on these equations which is now being used to model laser fusion experiments is described

  16. Tritium-doping enhancement of polystyrene by ultraviolet laser and hydrogen plasma irradiation for laser fusion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasa, Yuki, E-mail: iwasa-y@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Yamanoi, Kohei; Iwano, Keisuke; Empizo, Melvin John F.; Arikawa, Yasunobu; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Sarukura, Nobuhiko; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Takagi, Masaru; Norimatsu, Takayoshi; Azechi, Hiroshi [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Noborio, Kazuyuki; Hara, Masanori; Matsuyama, Masao [Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, Organization for Promotion of Research, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Tritium-doped polystyrene films are fabricated by the Wilzbach method with UV laser and hydrogen plasma irradiation. • The 266-nm laser-irradiated, 355-nm laser-irradiated, and hydrogen plasma-irradiated polystyrene films exhibit higher PSL intensities and specific radioactivities than the non-irradiated sample. • Tritium doping by UV laser irradiation can be largely affected by the laser wavelength because of polystyrene’s absorption. • Hydrogen plasma irradiation results to a more uniform doping concentration even at low partial pressure and short irradiation time. • UV laser and plasma irradiations can be utilized to fabricate tritium-doped polystyrene shell targets for future laser fusion experiments. - Abstract: We investigate the tritium-doping enhancement of polystyrene by ultraviolet (UV) laser and hydrogen plasma irradiation. Tritium-doped polystyrene films are fabricated by the Wilzbach method with UV laser and hydrogen plasma. The 266-nm laser-irradiated, 355-nm laser-irradiated, and hydrogen plasma-irradiated polystyrene films exhibit higher PSL intensities and specific radioactivities than the non-irradiated sample. Tritium doping by UV laser irradiation can be largely affected by the laser wavelength because of polystyrene’s absorption. In addition, UV laser irradiation is more localized and concentrated at the spot of laser irradiation, while hydrogen plasma irradiation results to a more uniform doping concentration even at low partial pressure and short irradiation time. Both UV laser and plasma irradiations can nevertheless be utilized to fabricate tritium-doped polystyrene targets for future laser fusion experiments. With a high doping rate and efficiency, a 1% tritium-doped polystyrene shell target having 7.6 × 10{sup 11} Bq g{sup −1} specific radioactivity can be obtained at a short period of time thereby decreasing tritium consumption and safety management costs.

  17. Pellet design for a laser fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiessen, A.R.; Nuckolls, J.

    1974-01-01

    The requirements for laser fusion pellet design are discussed. Computer calculations are presented of a capsule consisting of a spherical solid drop of DT surrounded by a concentric shell of DT. Gains greater than 40 fold are achieved with laser energies of approximately 0.5 MJ, and peak powers of about 10 16 W. (U.S.)

  18. Laser fusion project second annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumbaugh, W.H.; Morgan, D.W.; Flannery, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    This research program is devoted to the preparation and characterization of fluoride glasses for laser fusion. The overall objective is to explore and characterize fluoride glass systems to find a glass with the lowest possible nonlinear refractive index, satisfactory chemical durability, and physical properties which enable coating large optical quality pieces

  19. Conceptual design of a laser fusion power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniscalco, J.A.; Meier, W.R.; Monsler, M.J.

    1977-01-01

    A conceptual design of a laser fusion power plant is extensively discussed. Recent advances in high gain targets are exploited in the design. A smaller blanket structure is made possible by use of a thick falling region of liquid lithium for a first wall. Major design features of the plant, reactor, and laser systems are described. A parametric analysis of performance and cost vs. design parameters is presented to show feasible design points. A more definitive follow-on conceptual design study is planned

  20. Low pressure gas filling of laser fusion microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, J.C.; Dressler, J.L.; Hendricks, C.D.

    1979-01-01

    In our laser fusion microsphere production, large, thin gel-microspheres are formed before the chemicals are fused into glass. In this transient stage,, the gel-microspheres are found to be highly permeable to argon and many other inert gases. When the gel transforms to glass, the argon gas, for example, is trapped within to form argon filled, fusion target quality, glass microspheres. On the average, the partial pressure of the argon fills attained in this process is around 2 x 10 4 Pa at room temperature

  1. Laser target fabrication, structure and method for its fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnum, Eugene H.; Fries, R. Jay

    1985-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a laser target structure and its method of fabrication. The target structure comprises a target plate containing an orifice across which a pair of crosshairs are affixed. A microsphere is affixed to the crosshairs and enclosed by at least one hollow shell comprising two hemispheres attached together and to the crosshairs so that the microsphere is juxtapositioned at the center of the shell.

  2. Laser fusion systems for industrial process heat. Third semiannual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, F.J.; Denning, R.S.; Dykhuizen, R.C.; Goldthwaite, W.H.; Kok, K.D.; Skelton, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    This report concentrates not only on the design of the laser fusion system but also on the cost of this system and the costs of alternative sources of energy that are expected to be in competition with the laser fusion system. The absolute values of the cost of the laser fusion system are limited by the estimates of the cost of the components and subsystems making up the laser fusion energy station. The method used in calculating costs of the laser fusion and alternative systems are laid out in detail

  3. APT target-blanket fabrication development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, D.L.

    1997-06-13

    Concepts for producing tritium in an accelerator were translated into hardware for engineering studies of tritium generation, heat transfer, and effects of proton-neutron flux on materials. Small-scale target- blanket assemblies were fabricated and material samples prepared for these performance tests. Blanket assemblies utilize composite aluminum-lead modules, the two primary materials of the blanket. Several approaches are being investigated to produce large-scale assemblies, developing fabrication and assembly methods for their commercial manufacture. Small-scale target-blanket assemblies, designed and fabricated at the Savannah River Site, were place in Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) for irradiation. They were subjected to neutron flux for nine months during 1996-97. Coincident with this test was the development of production methods for large- scale modules. Increasing module size presented challenges that required new methods to be developed for fabrication and assembly. After development, these methods were demonstrated by fabricating and assembling two production-scale modules.

  4. Development of cryogenic targets for laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grilly, E.R.

    1977-01-01

    The best method of cooling D-T to get the condensate into a uniform spherical layer seems to be through a high conductance fiber. One end of this is cemented to the bottom of the microballoon container and the other end kept at 2 to 10 K above the freezing temperature. Future tests will be made with thin fibers of various materials in order to minimize mass

  5. Micromachining of laser fusion target parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weir, J.T.; Hendricks, C.D.; Weinstein, B.W.; Willenborg, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    A 5W argon ion laser that operates CW is used. A broad band rear mirror is tuned to maximum power output. The beam is directed vertically by an adjustable turning prism, through a beam splitter, and then focused with an ordinary microscope objective lens onto the material to be cut. The beam splitter allows a telescope and television camera arranged to view the cutting through the same lens that is focusing the laser. The object to be cut is mounted on a micromanipulator which can move the object in two dimensions in the focal plane of the laser

  6. Preparation of lithium deuteride laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevender, T.S.; Lynch, A.W.

    1977-01-01

    Techniques for the handling and spheroidization of LiD powders are presented. Particle inspection procedures and a description of both the mathematical and experimental aspects of LiD isotope and exchange experiments are also described

  7. R and D toward highly repetitive laser fusion demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Nakahiro; Matsukado, Koji; Watari, Takeshi; Sekine, Takashi; Takeuchi, Yasuki; Kawashima, Toshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    Hamamatsu Photonics conducts research on a unique continuous neutron generation method by integrating and utilizing elemental technologies such as laser, target, and measurement for laser nuclear fusion research. In addition, in collaboration with the Graduate School for the Creation of New Photonics Industries, Toyota Motor Corporation, and others, it is conducting research on laser fusion. As a high power laser of element technology, it constructed an ultrahigh intensity laser system by combining glass slab laser KURE-I and ultrahigh intensity femtosecond laser MATSU-I equipped with titanium sapphire transmitter, and achieved a peak output of 20 TW, It plans to further increase this to 100 TW. As other element technologies, it is also considering nuclear fusion fuel - target technology and light - high energy particle measurement technology. Regarding the demonstration of continuous generation of laser fusion neutrons, it performed 100 times of continuous laser beam irradiation at 1 Hz, and actually measured the number of neutrons generated. It measured 4.5x10 4 pieces of neutrons on average (maximum 10 5 ) with a frequency of 98%. Since 100% of neutron generation should occur in principle, in the future it will be necessary to enhancing laser collecting intensity and to improve solid particle number density in order to put this process into practical use as a neutron source. (A.O.)

  8. LIFE Target Fabrication Research Plan Sept 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, R; Biener, J; Kucheyev, S; Montesanti, R; Satcher, J; Spadaccini, C; Rose, K; Wang, M; Hamza, A; Alexander, N; Brown, L; Hund, J; Petzoldt, R; Sweet, W; Goodin, D

    2008-11-10

    The target-system for the baseline LIFE fast-ignition target was analyzed to establish a preliminary estimate for the costs and complexities involved in demonstrating the technologies needed to build a prototype LIFE plant. The baseline fast-ignition target upon which this analysis was developed is shown in Figure 1.0-1 below. The LIFE target-system incorporates requirements for low-cost, high throughput manufacture, high-speed, high accuracy injection of the target into the chamber, production of sufficient energy from implosion and recovery and recycle of the imploded target material residue. None of these functions has been demonstrated to date. Existing target fabrication techniques which lead to current 'hot spot' target costs of {approx}$100,000 per target and at a production rate of 2/day are unacceptable for the LIFE program. Fabrication techniques normally used for low-cost, low accuracy consumer products such as toys must be adapted to the high-accuracy LIFE target. This will be challenge. A research program resulting is the demonstration of the target-cycle technologies needed for a prototype LIFE reactor is expected to cost {approx}$51M over the course of 5 years. The effort will result in targets which will cost an estimated $0.23/target at a rep-rate of 20 Hz or about 1.73M targets/day.

  9. Project Plan Remote Target Fabrication Refurbishment Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, Gary L.; Taylor, Robin D.

    2009-01-01

    In early FY2009, the DOE Office of Science - Nuclear Physics Program reinstated a program for continued production of 252 Cf and other transcurium isotopes at the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The FY2009 major elements of the workscope are as follows: (1) Recovery and processing of seven transuranium element targets undergoing irradiation at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at ORNL; (2) Development of a plan to manufacture new targets for irradiation beginning in early- to mid-FY10 to supply irradiated targets for processing Campaign 75 (TRU75); and (3) Refurbishment of the target manufacturing equipment to allow new target manufacture in early FY10 The 252 Cf product from processing Campaign 74 (recently processed and currently shipping to customers) is expected to supply the domestic demands for a period of approximately two years. Therefore it is essential that new targets be introduced for irradiation by the second quarter of FY10 (HFIR cycle 427) to maintain supply of 252 Cf; the average irradiation period is ∼10 HFIR cycles, requiring about 1.5 calendar years. The strategy for continued production of 252 Cf depends upon repairing and refurbishing the existing pellet and target fabrication equipment for one additional target production campaign. This equipment dates from the mid-1960s to the late 1980s, and during the last target fabrication campaign in 2005- 2006, a number of component failures and operations difficulties were encountered. It is expected that following the target fabrication and acceptance testing of the targets that will supply material for processing Campaign 75 a comprehensive upgrade and replacement of the remote hot-cell equipment will be required prior to subsequent campaigns. Such a major refit could start in early FY 2011 and would take about 2 years to complete. Scope and cost estimates for the repairs described herein were developed, and authorization for the work

  10. The development of laser fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mima, Kunioki

    1998-01-01

    Laser fusion research started soon after the invention of laser. In 1972, the research was declassified and nuclear fusion by laser inplosion was proposed by J. Nuckolls. Since then, 26 years has passed and laser implosion experiments demonstrated 1000 times solid density compression. By the demonstration of 1000 times solid density, the mission of the laser fusion research shifted from 'implosion physics' to 'ignition and high gain', namely demonstration of fusion output of 100 times input laser energy. By the recent developments of laser technology, ultra intense laser became available and opened up a new ignition scheme which is called 'Fast Ignition'. The technology for the diode pumped solid state laser (DPSSL) is developed toward a laser driver for reactor. U.S. and France are constructing MJ lasers for demonstrating ignition and burn and Osaka University is investigating the fast ignition and the equivalent plasma of confinement (EPOC) toward high gain. (author)

  11. The development of laser fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mima, Kunioki [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Inst. of Laser Engineering

    1998-11-01

    Laser fusion research started soon after the invention of laser. In 1972, the research was declassified and nuclear fusion by laser inplosion was proposed by J. Nuckolls. Since then, 26 years has passed and laser implosion experiments demonstrated 1000 times solid density compression. By the demonstration of 1000 times solid density, the mission of the laser fusion research shifted from `implosion physics` to `ignition and high gain`, namely demonstration of fusion output of 100 times input laser energy. By the recent developments of laser technology, ultra intense laser became available and opened up a new ignition scheme which is called `Fast Ignition`. The technology for the diode pumped solid state laser (DPSSL) is developed toward a laser driver for reactor. U.S. and France are constructing MJ lasers for demonstrating ignition and burn and Osaka University is investigating the fast ignition and the equivalent plasma of confinement (EPOC) toward high gain. (author)

  12. The KMSF laser fusion programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, R.L.; Campbell, P.M.; Charatis, G.

    1979-01-01

    Laser-driven implosion experiments have been performed at both 1.06μm and 0.53μm. The fractional absorption was greater at 0.53μm although with the laser power available at 0.53μm it was not possible to observe effects of a high-temperature corona. Other experiments were performed using cryogenic targets at 1.06μm. It was found that the neutron yield and peak fuel densities were greater when the fuel formed a liquid or solid layer on the inside of the spherical glass-shell targets. (author)

  13. Progress of laser fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Chiyoe

    1988-01-01

    The history of the research on nuclear fusion utilizing laser is described. It started in USSR in 1968, but the full scale start of laser implosion nuclear fusion was in 1972. In Osaka University, nuclear fusion neutrons were detected with a solid deuterium target and the phenomenon of parametric abnormal absorption in laser plasma was found in 1971. The new type target for implosion nuclear fusion ''Canon ball'' was devised in 1975. The phenomenon of the abnormal transmission of laser beam through a thin metal film in a multiple film target was found in 1976, and named ''Osaka effect''. Also the development of lasers has been advanced, and in 1983, a largest glass laser in the world, Gekko 12, with 12 beams, 30 kJ output, 55 TW, was completed. The new target LHART was devised, which enabled the generation of 10 trillion D-T reaction neutrons. Due to the development of high power laser technology, the realization of the new design of fuel pellets, the evaluation of the data by computer simulation, and the realization of new plasma diagnostic method, the research on laser nuclear fusion has developed rapidly, and the attainment of break-even is expected in 1990s. The features of inertial nuclear fusion are enumerated. (Kako, I.)

  14. Trends in laser-plasma-instability experiments for laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    Laser-plasma instability experiments for laser fusion have followed three developments. These are advances in the technology and design of experiments, advances in diagnostics, and evolution of the design of high-gain targets. This paper traces the history of these three topics and discusses their present state. Today one is substantially able to produce controlled plasma conditions and to diagnose specific instabilities within such plasmas. Experiments today address issues that will matter for future laser facilities. Such facilities will irradiate targets with ∼1 MJ of visible or UV light pulses that are tens of nanoseconds in duration, very likely with a high degree of spatial and temporal incoherence. 58 refs., 4 figs

  15. Laser fusion experiments, facilities and diagnostics at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstrom, H.G.

    1980-02-01

    The progress of the LLL Laser Fusion Program to achieve high gain thermonuclear micro-explosions is discussed. Many experiments have been successfully performed and diagnosed using the large complex, 10-beam, 30 TW Shiva laser system. A 400 kJ design of the 20-beam Nova laser has been completed. The construction of the first phase of this facility has begun. New diagnostic instruments are described which provide one with new and improved resolution, information on laser absorption and scattering, thermal energy flow, suprathermal electrons and their effects, and final fuel conditions. Measurements were made on the absorption and Brillouin scattering for target irradiations at both 1.064 μm and 532 nm. These measurements confirm the expected increased absorption and reduced scattering at the shorter wavelength. Implosion experiments have been performed which have produced final fuel densities over the range of 10x to 100x liquid DT density

  16. Mechanical technology unique to laser fusion experimental systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurley, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    Hardware design for laser fusion experimental machines has led to a combination of engineering technologies that are critical to the successful operation of these machines. These large opto-mechanical systems are dependent on extreme cleanliness, accommodation to efficient maintenance, and high stability. These three technologies are the primary mechanical engineering criteria for laser fusion devices

  17. Prospect of laser fusion power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Sadao

    1998-01-01

    Inertial fusion ignition, burn and energy gain are expected to be achieved within the first decade of next century with new Megajoule laser facilities which are under construction in the USA and France. Fusion reactor design studies indicate that Inertial Fusion Energy(IFE) power plants are technically feasible and have attractive safety and environmental features. The recent progress on implosion physics and relevant technologies require us to consider a strategic approach toward IFE development. The design study for a laser fusion power plant KOYO has been conducted as a joint program of universities, national laboratories and industries in Japan and also with international collaborations. The progress of high power laser technology gives us feasible project toward a laser driven IFE Power Plant. The technical breakthrough in the field of diode pumped solid state laser (DPSSL) has opened wide application of power laser to industrial technologies. Laser fusion energy development will be proceeded jointly with industrial photonics research and development. International collaborations are also promoted for efficient progress and activation of R and D on advanced technologies which are required for IFE and also useful for modern industries. (author). 7 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  18. Fabrication of implanted $^{22}$Na targets

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    A knowledge of the $^{22}$Na(p,$\\gamma$)$^{23}$ Mg reaction rate is of significant astrophysical interest. In order to complete previous studies of this reaction, radioactive $^{22}$Na targets of high purity are required. We ask for support to fabricate these targets via the implantation technique at ISOLDE GPS (off—line mode) using $^{22}$Na nuclides in an Al matrix produced in Nov. 1990 at the PSI (Zürich). The $^{22}$Na nuclides are released and ionized in a surface ionisation source, mass-analyzed at ISOLDE GPS, and implanted in a Ni-Ta backing and a C—foil in a special implantation setup.

  19. Optical design considerations for laser fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monsler, M.J.; Maniscalco, J.A.

    1977-09-01

    The plan for the development of commercial inertial confinement fusion (ICF) power plants is discussed, emphasizing the utilization of the unique features of laser fusion to arrive at conceptual designs for reactors and optical systems which minimize the need for advanced materials and techniques requiring expensive test facilities. A conceptual design for a liquid lithium fall reactor is described which successfully deals with the hostile x-ray and neutron environment and promises to last the 30 year plant lifetime. Schemes for protecting the final focusing optics are described which are both compatible with this reactor system and show promise of surviving a full year in order to minimize costly downtime. Damage mechanisms and protection techniques are discussed, and a recommendation is made for a high f-number metal mirror final focusing system

  20. Factors affecting potential market penetration of laser fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deonigi, D.E.; Fraley, D.W.

    1979-08-01

    A mini-model has been constructed to estimate the optimal size of laser fusion power plants and to estimate the allowable cost of the first such plant in relation to the next best alternative. In estimating the costs of laser fusion, the mini-model incorporates such factors as market penetration, learning, economies of scale, system size, transmission costs, reserve requirements, development and licensing costs and site costs. The results of the mini-model simulations indicate that the optimal laser fusion plant size is approximately 3 GWe; risk considerations unincorporated in the mini-model suggest an optimal size closer to 2.5 GWe

  1. Self-sustaining nuclear pumped laser-fusion reactor experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boody, F.P.; Choi, C.K.; Miley, G.H.

    1977-01-01

    The features of a neutron feedback nuclear pumped (NFNP) laser-fusion reactor equipment were studied with the intention of establishing the feasibility of the concept. The NFNP laser-fusion concept is compared schematically to electrically pumped laser fusion. The study showed that, once a method of energy storage has been demonstrated, a self-sustaining fusion-fission hybrid reactor with a ''blanket multiplication'' of two would be feasible using nuclear pumped Xe F* excimer lasers having efficiencies of 1 to 2 percent and D-D-T pellets with gains of 50 to 100

  2. Design windows of laser fusion power plants and conceptual design of laser-diode pumped slab laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozaki, Y.; Eguchi, T.; Izawa, Y.

    1999-01-01

    An analysis of the design space available to laser fusion power plants has been carried out, in terms of design key parameters such as target gain, laser energy and laser repetition rate, the number of fusion react ion chambers, and plant size. The design windows of economically attractive laser fusion plants is identified with the constraints of key design parameters and the cost conditions. Especially, for achieving high repetition rate lasers, we have proposed and designed a diode-pumped solid-state laser driver which consists of water-cooled zig-zag path slab amplifiers. (author)

  3. Economic requirements for competitive laser fusion power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, W.J.; Meier, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    An economic model of a laser fusion commercial power plant is used to identify the design and operating regimes of the driver, target and reaction chamber that will result in economic competitiveness with future fission and coal plants. The authors find that, for a plant with a net power of 1 GW/sub e/, the cost of the driver must be less than $0.4 to 0.6 B, and the recirculating power fraction must be less than 25%. Target gain improvements at low driver energy are the most beneficial but also the most difficult to achieve. The optimal driver energy decreases with increasing target technology. The sensitivity of the cost of electricity to variations in cost and performance parameters decreases with increasing target technology. If chamber pulse rates of a few Hz can be achieved, then gains of 80-100 are sufficient, and higher pulse rates do not help much. Economic competitiveness becomes more difficult with decreasing plant size. Finally, decreasing the cost of the balance of plant has the greatest beneficial effect on economic competitiveness

  4. Tenth target fabrication specialists` meeting: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foreman, L.R.; Stark, J.C. [comp.

    1995-11-01

    This tenth meeting of specialists in target fabrication for inertial confinement is unique in that it is the first meeting that was completely unclassified. As a result of the new classification, we were able to invite more foreign participation. In addition to participants from the US, UK, and Canada, representatives from France, Japan, and two Russian laboratories attended, about 115 in all. This booklet presents full papers and poster sessions. Indirect and direct drive laser implosions are considered. Typical topics include: polymer or aluminium or resorcinol/formaldehyde shells, laser technology, photon tunneling microscopy as a characterization tool, foams, coatings, hohlraums, and beryllium capsules. Hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, and beryllium are all considered as fuels.

  5. Tenth target fabrication specialists' meeting: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foreman, L.R.; Stark, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    This tenth meeting of specialists in target fabrication for inertial confinement is unique in that it is the first meeting that was completely unclassified. As a result of the new classification, we were able to invite more foreign participation. In addition to participants from the US, UK, and Canada, representatives from France, Japan, and two Russian laboratories attended, about 115 in all. This booklet presents full papers and poster sessions. Indirect and direct drive laser implosions are considered. Typical topics include: polymer or aluminium or resorcinol/formaldehyde shells, laser technology, photon tunneling microscopy as a characterization tool, foams, coatings, hohlraums, and beryllium capsules. Hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, and beryllium are all considered as fuels

  6. Radiological safety design considerations for a laser-fusion facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    Detailed neutronics and photonics calculations have been performed for analyzing prompt and residual radiations and required shielding associated with the design of a laser-fusion facility with a nominal yield of 10 19 neutrons per D--T burn pulse. The standard Livermore Monte Carlo codes and nuclear data cross section libraries were used in calculations. The Bateman equation was used to calculate the accumulation and decay of radionuclide chain products. A number of activation sensitivity experiments were conducted and the results were found to be in very good agreement within 10 percent of those calculated. It has been found that neutron yields of 2 x 10 19 per day can be conducted continuously if the reactor chamber is Kevlar-epoxy or silica, the primary shield is 0.60-m of water immediately on the chamber, and the building concrete is 1.80 m thick. These precautions result in dose equivalents below the primary protection limits inside the target room after a few hours of cool-down per each 10 19 pulse, 10 percent of the primary protection limits immediately outside the target room, and 1 percent of the natural background level at the nearest site boundary

  7. Conceptual design study for a laser fusion hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniscalco, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and Bechtel Corporation have been involved in a joint effort to conceptually design a laser fusion hybrid reactor. The design which has evolved is a depleted-uranium fueled fast-fission blanket which produces fissile plutonium and electricity. A major objective of the design study was to evaluate the feasibility of producing fissile fuel with laser fusion. This feasibility evaluation was carried out by analyzing the integrated engineering performance of the complete conceptual design and by identifying the required laser/pellet performance. The performance of the laser fusion hybrid has also been compared to a typical fast breeder reactor. The results show that the laser fusion hybrid produces enough fissile material to fuel more than six light water reactors (LWRs) of equivalent thermal power while operating in a regime which requires an order of magnitude less laser and pellet performance than pure laser fusion. In comparison to a fast breeder reactor the hybrid produces 10 times more fissile fuel. An economic analysis of the design shows that the cost of electricity in a combined hybrid-LWR scenario increases by only 20 to 40 percent when the capital cost of the hybrid ranges from 2 to 3 times more than an LWR

  8. Conceptual design study for a laser fusion hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniscalco, J.A.

    1976-09-01

    Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and Bechtel Corporation have been involved in a joint effort to conceptually design a laser fusion hybrid reactor. The design which has evolved is a depleted-uranium fueled fast-fission blanket which produces fissile plutonium and electricity. A major objective of the design study was to evaluate the feasibility of producing fissile fuel with laser fusion. This feasibility evaluation was carried out by analyzing the integrated engineering performance of the complete conceptual design and by identifying the required laser/pellet performance. The performance of the laser fusion hybrid has also been compared to a typical fast breeder reactor. The results show that the laser fusion hybrid produces enough fissile material to fuel more than six light water reactors (LWR's) of equivalent thermal power while operating in a regime which requires an order of magnitude less laser and pellet performance than pure laser fusion. In comparison to a fast breeder reactor the hybrid produces 10 times more fissile fuel. An economic analysis of the design shows that the cost of electricity in a combined hybrid-LWR scenario is insensitive to the capital cost of the hybrid, increasing by only 20 to 40 percent when the capital cost of the hybrid ranges from 2 to 3 times more than an LWR

  9. Technology assessment of laser-fusion power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, L.A.; Frank, T.G.

    1976-01-01

    The inherent features of laser-induced fusion, some laser-fusion reactor concepts, and attendant means of utilizing the thermonuclear energy for commercial electric power generation are discussed. Theoretical fusion-pellet microexplosion energy release characteristics are described and the effects of pellet design options on pellet-microexplosion characteristics are discussed. The results of analyses to assess the engineering feasibility of reactor cavities for which protection of cavity components is provided either by suitable ablative materials or by diversion of plasmas by magnetic fields are presented. Two conceptual laser-fusion electric generating stations, based on different laser-fusion reactor concepts, are described. Technology developments for ultimate commercial application are outlined

  10. ROK-PRC Cooperation on Laser Fusion Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Yong Joo; Han, J. M.; Lee, S. M.; Nam, S. M.; Kwan, D. H.; Cha, Y. H.; Baek, S. H.

    2009-03-01

    International treaties on the reduction of green-house gases are now being established worldwide and Korea is supposed to join these treaties in a near future. Meanwhile the energy production via fission reactors proposed as a solution to this global environmental contamination has still inherent problems in that it also produces long-life radioactive nuclear waste in the long run, causing many serious social issues. Now the ultimate solution in this situation is believed to be the production of energy by the nuclear fusion reaction. In this project, the collaboration regarding high energy laser fusion has been carried out mainly at the Chinese facility such as ShengGuang II (SG II) laser facility, and ultrahigh intensity laser system of KAERI has been used for the small scale laser fusion and production of fast neutrons. Thomson scattering experiment to analyze the fusion plasma, opacity measurement to understand and develop the computer simulation techniques have been carried out at SG II facility, and experiments on implosion reaction which is basic to laser fusion as well as that of X-ray absorption and transmission have been done at the GEKKO XII facility of ILE, Japan. Satisfactory results both for Korea and China have been deduced by the strategy of project such that different approaches for high energy laser fusion and low energy laser fusion were applied. That is, Korean partner could get opportunities of doing experiments at the large laser facilities to get plasma diagnostic technologies and high density simulation technologies, besides the opportunity to participate in the K-C-J collaborative experiments of implosion and X-ray spectroscopy. And Chinese partner could solve their problem related to the laser fusion and neutron generation which were not successful even with their far high 300TW laser system

  11. Fabrication of polystyrene hollow microspheres as laser fusion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    free from preheating problems and have emerged as good alternative to .... carry a system over the energy barrier comes from the Brownian motion of the ... This increase implies an increase in the electrical contribution to the free energy of the .... microsphere is mainly determined by rotational speed of the magnetic stirrer.

  12. Targets and processes for fabricating same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jesse D; Malekos, Steven; Le Galloudec, Nathalie; Korgan, Grant; Cowan, Thomas; Sentoku, Yasuhiko

    2016-05-17

    In particular embodiments, the present disclosure provides targets including a metal layer and defining a hollow inner surface. The hollow inner surface has an internal apex. The distance between at least two opposing points of the internal apex is less than about 15 .mu.m. In particular examples, the distance is less than about 1 .mu.m. Particular implementations of the targets are free standing. The targets have a number of disclosed shaped, including cones, pyramids, hemispheres, and capped structures. The present disclosure also provides arrays of such targets. Also provided are methods of forming targets, such as the disclosed targets, using lithographic techniques, such as photolithographic techniques. In particular examples, a target mold is formed from a silicon wafer and then one or more sides of the mold are coated with a target material, such as one or more metals.

  13. Targets and processes for fabricating same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Thomas [Dresden, DE; Malekos, Steven [Reno, NV; Korgan, Grant [Reno, NV; Adams, Jesse [Reno, NV; Sentoku, Yasuhiko [Reno, NV; Le Galloudec, Nathalie [Reno, NV; Fuchs, Julien [Paris, FR

    2012-07-24

    In particular embodiments, the present disclosure provides targets including a metal layer and defining a hollow inner surface. The hollow inner surface has an internal apex. The distance between at least two opposing points of the internal apex is less than about 15 .mu.m. In particular examples, the distance is less than about 1 .mu.m. Particular implementations of the targets are free standing. The targets have a number of disclosed shaped, including cones, pyramids, hemispheres, and capped structures. The present disclosure also provides arrays of such targets. Also provided are methods of forming targets, such as the disclosed targets, using lithographic techniques, such as photolithographic techniques. In particular examples, a target mold is formed from a silicon wafer and then one or more sides of the mold are coated with a target material, such as one or more metals.

  14. Mathematical modelling and linear stability analysis of laser fusion cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermanns, Torsten; Schulz, Wolfgang; Vossen, Georg; Thombansen, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    A model for laser fusion cutting is presented and investigated by linear stability analysis in order to study the tendency for dynamic behavior and subsequent ripple formation. The result is a so called stability function that describes the correlation of the setting values of the process and the process’ amount of dynamic behavior.

  15. X-ray imaging in the laser-fusion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCall, G.H.

    1977-01-01

    Imaging devices which are used or planned for x-ray imaging in the laser-fusion program are discussed. Resolution criteria are explained, and a suggestion is made for using the modulation transfer function as a uniform definition of resolution for these devices

  16. Laser requirements for a laser fusion energy power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen; E.Bodner; Andrew; J.Schmitt; John; D.Sethian

    2013-01-01

    We will review some of the requirements for a laser that would be used with a laser fusion energy power plant, including frequency, spatial beam smoothing, bandwidth, temporal pulse shaping, efficiency, repetition rate, and reliability. The lowest risk and optimum approach uses a krypton fluoride gas laser. A diode-pumped solid-state laser is a possible contender.

  17. Mathematical modelling and linear stability analysis of laser fusion cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanns, Torsten; Schulz, Wolfgang [RWTH Aachen University, Chair for Nonlinear Dynamics, Steinbachstr. 15, 52047 Aachen (Germany); Vossen, Georg [Niederrhein University of Applied Sciences, Chair for Applied Mathematics and Numerical Simulations, Reinarzstr.. 49, 47805 Krefeld (Germany); Thombansen, Ulrich [RWTH Aachen University, Chair for Laser Technology, Steinbachstr. 15, 52047 Aachen (Germany)

    2016-06-08

    A model for laser fusion cutting is presented and investigated by linear stability analysis in order to study the tendency for dynamic behavior and subsequent ripple formation. The result is a so called stability function that describes the correlation of the setting values of the process and the process’ amount of dynamic behavior.

  18. Direct measurement of the impulse in a magnetic thrust chamber system for laser fusion rocket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeno, Akihiro; Yamamoto, Naoji; Nakashima, Hideki [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Science, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-kouen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Fujioka, Shinsuke; Johzaki, Tomoyuki [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-087 (Japan); Mori, Yoshitaka [Graduate School for the Creation of New Photonics Industries, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 431-1202 (Japan); Sunahara, Atsushi [Institute for Laser Technology, Suita, Osaka 565-087 (Japan)

    2011-08-15

    An experiment is conducted to measure an impulse for demonstrating a magnetic thrust chamber system for laser fusion rocket. The impulse is produced by the interaction between plasma and magnetic field. In the experiment, the system consists of plasma and neodymium permanent magnets. The plasma is created by a single-beam laser aiming at a polystyrene spherical target. The impulse is 1.5 to 2.2 {mu}Ns by means of a pendulum thrust stand, when the laser energy is 0.7 J. Without magnetic field, the measured impulse is found to be zero. These results indicate that the system for generating impulse is working.

  19. Operational characteristics of the OMEGA short-wavelength laser fusion facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soures, J.M.; Hutchison, R.; Jacobs, S.; McCrory, R.L.; Peck, R.; Seka, W.

    1984-01-01

    Twelve beams of the OMEGA, 24 beam direct-drive laser facility have been converted to 351-nm wavelength operation. The performance characteristics of this short-wavelength facility will be discussed. Beam-to-beam energy balance of +-2.3% and on-target energy, at 351-nm, in excess of 70 J per beam have been demonstrated. Long-term performance (>600 shots) of the system has been optimized by appropriate choice of index matching liquid, optical materials and coatings. The application of this system in direct-drive laser fusion experiments will be discussed

  20. Alignment system for large high-power CO2 laser fusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bausman, M.D.; Liberman, I.; Manning, J.P.; Singer, S.

    1977-01-01

    Aligning a pulsed CO 2 laser fusion system involves control systems which insure that the centers of beams follow a prescribed path to within 1 mm, that the pointing of the beams is correct to approximately 20 microradians, and that focal spot at the location of the experimental fusion target be placed to accuracies of 10 to 20 micrometers laterally and approximately 50 micrometers axially. These alignments are accomplished by a variety of sensing techniques which include thermal pinholes and quadrant detectors, Seebeck effect silicon detectors, and imaging autocollimating Hartmann test procedures employing ir vidicon systems

  1. Proceedings of the twelfth target fabrication specialists` meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    Research in fabrication for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) comprises at least three broad categories: targets for high energy density physics on existing drivers, ignition capsule fabrication, and cryogenic fuel layer formation. The latter two are being pursued primarily for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Scientists from over 14 laboratories, universities, and businesses contributed over 100 papers on all aspects of ICF target fabrication. The NIF is well along in construction and photos of poured concrete and exposed steel added to the technical excitement. It was clear from the meeting that there has been significant progress toward the fabrication of an ignition target for NIF and that new techniques are resulting in higher quality targets for high energy density research.

  2. Double-shell target fabrication workshop-2016 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y. Morris [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Oertel, John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Farrell, Michael [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Baumann, Ted [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Huang, Haibo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nikroo, Abbas [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-01-10

    On June 30, 2016, over 40 representatives from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), General Atomics (GA), Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), Schafer Corporation, and NNSA headquarter attended a double-shell (DS) target fabrication workshop at Livermore, California. Pushered-single-shell (PSS) and DS metalgas platforms potentially have a large impact on programmatic applications. The goal of this focused workshop is to bring together target fabrication scientists, physicists, and designers to brainstorm future PSS and DS target fabrication needs and strategies. This one-day workshop intends to give an overall view of historical information, recent approaches, and future research activities at each participating organization. Five topical areas have been discussed that are vital to the success of future DS target fabrications, including inner metal shells, foam spheres, outer ablators, fill tube assembly, and metrology.

  3. Proceedings of the twelfth target fabrication specialists' meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Research in fabrication for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) comprises at least three broad categories: targets for high energy density physics on existing drivers, ignition capsule fabrication, and cryogenic fuel layer formation. The latter two are being pursued primarily for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Scientists from over 14 laboratories, universities, and businesses contributed over 100 papers on all aspects of ICF target fabrication. The NIF is well along in construction and photos of poured concrete and exposed steel added to the technical excitement. It was clear from the meeting that there has been significant progress toward the fabrication of an ignition target for NIF and that new techniques are resulting in higher quality targets for high energy density research

  4. Nuclear target foil fabrication for the Romano Event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weed, J.W.; Romo, J.G. Jr.; Griggs, G.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Vacuum Processes Lab, of LLNL's M.E. Dept. - Material Fabrication Division, was requested to provide 250 coated Parylene target foils for a nuclear physics experiment titled the ROMANO Event. Due to the developmental nature of some of the fabrication procedures, approximately 400 coated foils were produced to satisfy the event's needs. The foils were used in the experiment as subkilovolt x-ray, narrow band pass filters, and wide band ultraviolet filters. This paper is divided into three sections describing: (1) nuclear target foil fabrication, (2) Parylene substrate preparation and production, and (3) foil and substrate inspections

  5. Multigigahertz beam diagnostics for laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.C.; Hodson, E.K.; Carlson, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    A system to make ultra wideband measurements of fast laser pulses and their induced target interactions at a distance of approximately 38 m from the target location is discussed. The system has demonstrated an overall bandwidth of 3 GHz with projected unfolding to 4 GHz. This system allows high resolution temporal history diagnostics in a remote location providing high EMI and radiation immunity

  6. Acidic aqueous uranium electrodeposition for target fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saliba-Silva, A.M.; Oliveira, E.T.; Garcia, R.H.L.; Durazzo, M.

    2013-01-01

    Direct irradiation of targets inside nuclear research or multiple purpose reactors is a common route to produce 99 Mo- 99m Tc radioisotopes. The electroplating of low enriched uranium over nickel substrate might be a potential alternative to produce targets of 235 U. The electrochemistry of uranium at low temperature might be beneficial for an alternative route to produce 99 Mo irradiation LEU targets. Electrodeposition of uranium can be made using ionic and aqueous solutions producing uranium oxide deposits. The performance of uranium electrodeposition is relatively low because a big competition with H 2 evolution happens inside the window of electrochemical reduction potential. This work explores possibilities of electroplating uranium as UO 2 2+ (Uranium-VI) in order to achieve electroplating uranium in a sufficient amount to be commercially irradiated in the future Brazilian RMB reactor. Electroplated nickel substrate was followed by cathodic current electrodeposition from aqueous UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 solution. EIS tests and modeling showed that a film formed differently in the three tested cathodic potentials. At the lower level, (-1.8V) there was an indication of a double film formation, one overlaying the other with ionic mass diffusion impaired at the interface with nickel substrate as showed by the relatively lower admittance of Warburg component. (author)

  7. Measurements required to construct the Shiva laser fusion facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rien, H.J.

    1979-01-01

    The construction of a large laser fusion system involves all aspects of metrology. This report covers some of the technical problems encountered and how the science of weights and measures was used to identify and solve them. The techniques used range from very simple and inexpensive handheld equipment to sophisticated scientific apparatus costing thousands of dollars. The success of the 30 trillion watt Shiva laser system would not have been possible without reliable and accurate measurements

  8. Development of laser technology in Research Center of Laser Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Wanguo; Deng Ying; Zhou Wei

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the progress in the construction of SG-Ⅲ laser facility, integrated Testbed and XG-Ⅲ laser facility and that in the upgrade of the prototype of SG-Ⅲ, and the development in assembling and installing technology, and the achievements in maintaining cleanliness project and metrology in Laser Fusion Research Center, China Academy of Engineering Physics in China in 2012. (authors)

  9. High volume fabrication of laser targets using MEMS techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spindloe, C; Tomlinson, S; Green, J; Booth, N.; Tolley, M K; Arthur, G; Hall, F; Potter, R; Kar, S; Higginbotham, A

    2016-01-01

    The latest techniques for the fabrication of high power laser targets, using processes developed for the manufacture of Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) devices are discussed. These laser targets are designed to meet the needs of the increased shot numbers that are available in the latest design of laser facilities. Traditionally laser targets have been fabricated using conventional machining or coarse etching processes and have been produced in quantities of 10s to low 100s. Such targets can be used for high complexity experiments such as Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) studies and can have many complex components that need assembling and characterisation with high precision. Using the techniques that are common to MEMS devices and integrating these with an existing target fabrication capability we are able to manufacture and deliver targets to these systems. It also enables us to manufacture novel targets that have not been possible using other techniques. In addition, developments in the positioning systems that are required to deliver these targets to the laser focus are also required and a system to deliver the target to a focus of an F2 beam at 0.1Hz is discussed. (paper)

  10. Conceptual design of a fast-ignition laser fusion reactor FALCON-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, T.; Ogawa, Y.; Okano, K.; Hiwatari, R.; Asaoka, Y.; Someya, Y.; Sunahara, A.; Johzaki, T.

    2008-10-01

    A new conceptual design of the laser fusion power plant FALCON-D (Fast ignition Advanced Laser fusion reactor CONcept with a Dry wall chamber) has been proposed. The fast ignition method can achieve the sufficient fusion gain for a commercial operation (∼100) with about 10 times smaller fusion yield than the conventional central ignition method. FALCON-D makes full use of this property and aims at designing with a compact dry wall chamber (5 - 6 m radius). 1-D/2-D hydrodynamic simulations showed the possibility of the sufficient gain achievement with a 40 MJ target yield. The design feasibility of the compact dry wall chamber and solid breeder blanket system was shown through the thermomechanical analysis of the dry wall and neutronics analysis of the blanket system. A moderate electric output (∼400 MWe) can be achieved with a high repetition (30 Hz) laser. This dry wall concept not only reduces some difficulties accompanied with a liquid wall but also enables a simple cask maintenance method for the replacement of the blanket system, which can shorten the maintenance time. The basic idea of the maintenance method for the final optics system has also been proposed. Some critical R and D issues required for this design are also discussed. (author)

  11. Laser fusion implosion and plasma interaction experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstrom, H.G.

    1977-08-01

    Results related to the propagation, absorption and scattering of laser light by both spherical and planar targets are described. The absorption measurements indicate that for intensities of interest, inverse bremsstrahlung is not the dominant absorption mechanism. The laser light scattered by the plasma is polarization dependent and provides evidence that Brillouin scattering and resonance absorption are operative. Special diagnostics have been designed and experiments have been performed to elucidate the nature of these two processes. Implosion results on glass microshell targets filled with DT gas are also summarized. These experiments are for targets intentionally operated in the portion of parameter space characteristic of exploding pusher events. Experiments have been performed over a yield range from 0 to 10 9 neutrons per event. It is shown how this data can be normalized with a simple scaling law

  12. 1978 annual report on laser fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.R.

    1978-01-01

    Progress during this period is reported for each of the following topics: (1) spherical shell fuel containers, (2) polymer research, (3) cryogenic technology, (4) fabrication technology, (5) implosion physics, (6) fast ion measurements of laser-produced spherical plasmas, (7) absorbed energy measurements, (8) diagnostics, (9) fast ion energy loss in dense plasmas, (10) electron transport, (11) ionization equation of state, (12) profile modification by pondermotive forces, (13) pondermotive potential effects on Ohm's law, (14) effect of flux-limited thermal transport on critical surface jump conditions, (15) spherical rarefaction shocks, (16) explosively heated Gaussian objects, (17) bandwidth broadening, (18) frequency doubling experiments, (19) advanced laser candidates, (20) glass laser operation, and (21) 2TW laser upgrade

  13. Laser fusion experiments at 2 TW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storm, E.K.; Ahlstrom, H.G.; Boyle, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Solid State Laser System, Arqus, has successfully performed laser implosion experiments at power levels exceeding 2 TW. D-T filled glass microspheres have been imploded to yield thermonuclear reaction products in excess of 5 x 10 8 per event. Neutron and α time-of-flight measurements indicate that D-T ion temperatures of approximately 5-6 keV and a density confinement time product (n tau) of approximately 1 x 10 12 were obtained in these experiments. Typically two 40J, 40 psec pulses of 1.06 μm light were focused on targets using 20 cm aperture f/1 lenses, producing intensities at the target in excess of 10 16 W/cm 2 . An extensive array of diagnostics routinely monitored the laser performance and the laser target interaction process. Measurements of absorption and asymmetry in both the scattered light distribution and the ion blow off is evidence for non-classical absorption mechanisms and density scale heights of the order of 2 μm or less. The symmetry of the thermonuclear burn region is investigated by monitoring the α-particle flux in several directions, and an experiment to image the thermonuclear burn region is in process. These experiments significantly extend our data base and our understanding of laser induced thermonuclear implosions and the basic laser plasma interaction physics from the 0.4 to 0.7 TW level of previous experiments

  14. Laser fusion experiments at 2 TW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storm, E.K.; Ahlstrom, H.G.; Boyle, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Solid State Laser System, Argus, has successfully performed laser implosion experiments at power levels exceeding 2 TW. D-T filled glass microspheres have been imploded to yield thermonuclear reaction products in excess of 5 x 10 8 per event. Neutron and α time-of-flight measurements indicate that D-T ion temperatures of approximately 5 to 6 keV and a density confinement time product (n tau) of approximately 1 x 10 12 were obtained in these experiments. Typically two 40J, 40 psec pulses of 1.06 μm light were focused on targets using 20 cm aperture f/l lenses, producing intensities at the target in excess of 10 16 W/cm 2 . An extensive array of diagnostics routinely monitored the laser performance and the laser target interaction process. Measurements of absorption and asymmetry in both the scattered light distribution and the ion blow off is evidence for non-classical absorption mechanisms and density scale heights of the order of 2 μm or less. The symmetry of the thermonuclear burn region is investigated by monitoring the α-particle flux in several directions, and an experiment to image the thermonuclear burn region is in process. These experiments significantly extend our data base and our understanding of laser induced thermonuclear implosions and the basic laser plasma interaction physics from the 0.4 to 0.7 TW level of previous experiments

  15. Progress toward high-gain laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storm, E.

    1988-01-01

    A 1985-1986 Review of the US inertial confinement fusion program by the National Academy of Sciences concluded that five more years might be required to obtain enough data to determine the future course of the program. Since then, data from the Nova laser and from the Halite/Centurion program have resolved most of the outstanding problems identified by the NAS review. In particular, we now believe that we can produce a sufficiently uniform target; that we can keep the energy content in hot electrons and high-energy photons low enough (/approximately/1--10% of drive energy, depending on target design) and achieve enough pulse-shaping accuracy (/approximately/10%, with a dynamic range of 100:1) to keep the fuel on a near-Fermi-degenerate adiabat; that we can produce an /approximately/100-Mbar pressure pulse of sufficient uniformity (/approximately/1%), and can we control hydrodynamic instabilities so that the mix of the pusher into the hot spot is low enough to permit marginal ignition. These results are sufficiently encouraging that the US Department of Energy is planning to complete a 10-MJ laboratory microfusion facility to demonstrate high-gain ICF in the laboratory within a decade. 22 refs., 1 fig

  16. Nova: the laser fusion breakeven experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godwin, R.O.; Glaze, J.A.; Hagen, W.F.; Holzrichter, J.F.; Simmons, W.W.; Trenholme, J.B.

    1979-01-01

    A new laboratory building is being constructed adjacent to the Shiva laser to house the Phase I $137M ten-beam Nova laser and a target chamber designed for twenty beams. The first ten beams will be operational in early 1980. Following Phase I, it is planned that the Shiva laser will be shut down and upgraded into ten Nova laser beams. These beams will then be combined with Nova Phase I beams to provide the full twenty beams having a minimum output energy of 300 kJ in a 3 nc pulse, or a power capability of 300 terawatts (10 12 watts) in a 100 ps pulse. This paper will describe the Phase I engineering project

  17. Fabrication of laser-target components by semiconductor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tindall, W.E.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes the design and fabrication of a unique silicon substrate with which laser-target components can be mass produced. Different sizes and shapes of gold foils from 50 to 3000 microns in diameter and up to 25 microns thick have been produced with this process since 1976

  18. Energy efficiency improvement target for SIC 34 - fabricated metal products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrer, T. G.; Billhardt, C. F.; Farkas, M. S.

    1977-03-15

    A March 15, 1977 revision of a February 15, 1977 document on the energy improvement target for the Fabricated Metal Products industry (SIC 34) is presented. A net energy savings in 1980 of 24% as compared with 1972 energy consumption in SIC 34 is considered a realistic goal. (ERA citation 04:045008)

  19. Collimator design for neutron imaging of laser-fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommargren, G.E.; Lerche, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    Several pinhole collimator geometries for use in neutron imaging experiments have been modeled and compared. Point spread functions are shown for a cylinder, hyperbola, intersecting cones, and a five-zone approximation to the intersecting cones. Of the geometries studied, the intersecting cones appear the most promising with respect to neutron efficiency, field of view, and isoplanatism

  20. Present status of laser fusion fuel pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Sadao; Mima, Kunioki; Norimatsu, Takayoshi; Takagi, Masaru.

    1986-01-01

    Accompanying the advance of pellet implosion experiment, the data base required for fuel pellet design has been steadily accumulated. The clarification of the physics related to the process of absorbing laser beam, energy transport, the generation of ablative pressure, the hydrodynamic mechanism of implosion, the energy transmission to fuel core and so on progressed, and the design data supported by these results are prepared. Based on the data base like this, the design of fuel pellets taking the optimization of implosion in consideration is carried out. The various fuel pellets designed in this way are tested for their effectiveness by implosion experiment. For this purpose, the high performance measurement of implosion and the high accuracy manufacture of fuel pellets become very important. In this paper, the present state of the research on the method of laser implosion, the example of pellet design and the law of proportion, the manufacturing techniques of the fuel pellets having various structures, the techniques dealing with tritium and so on is summarized, and the direction of future research and development is ascertained. At present, implosion experiment is carried out mostly by hanging a pellet target with a fiber of several μm diameter, but the fiber impairs the symmetry of implosion. The levitation techniques without contact is required. (Kako, I.)

  1. Quality assurance in the Antares laser fusion construction project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    The Antares CO 2 laser facility came on line in November 1983 as an experimental physics facility; it is the world's largest CO 2 laser fusion system. Antares is a major component of the Department of Energy's Inertial Confinement Fusion Program. Antares is a one-of-a-kind laser system that is used in an experimental environment. Given limited project funds and tight schedules, the quality assurance program was tailored to achieve project goals without imposing oppressive constraints. The discussion will review the Antares quality assurance program and the utility of various portions to completion of the project

  2. Optical performance of the Gemini carbon dioxide laser fusion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, V.K.; Hayden, J.J.; Liberman, I.

    1979-01-01

    The performance of the Gemini two beam carbon dioxide laser fusion system was recently upgraded by installation of optical components with improved quality in the final amplifier. A theoretical analysis was conducted in conjunction with measurements of the new performance. The analysis and experimental procedures, and results obtained are reported and compared. Good agreement was found which was within the uncertainties of the analysis and the inaccuracies of the experiments. The focal spot Strehl ratio was between 0.24 and 0.3 for both beams

  3. Design and Fabrication of Titanium Target for Portable Neutron Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Cheol Ho; Oh, Byunghoon; Chang, Daesik; Jang, Dohyun; In Sang Yeol; Park, Jaewon; Hong, Kwangpyo

    2014-01-01

    For the neutron generator to produce a neutron flux of the above order, a target that produces fast neutrons in the generator plays an important role, and the target is used and applied to develop the generator due to its simplicity and inexpensive. Making suitable targets for neutron production, especially mono-energy neutrons, has always been of interest. These targets have been used for neutron production reaction studies, calibration of detectors, and neutron therapy. Different studies have been carried out on deuterium and tritium for making solid targets to produce mono-energy neutron from D-D and D-T reactions. A lot of investigations have been carried out on solid target properties such as lifetime, thermal stability, neutron yield, and energy. Vaporized zirconium and titanium layers on a high thermal conductivity substrate (Cu, Mo, Ag) have been used as deuterium and tritium absorbing metals. The density of titanium is smaller than zirconium and the range of charged particles in the titanium targets is more than that in zirconium targets. Thus, titanium targets have more neutron yield than zirconium targets in a low energy beam and titanium is usually used to make a target. The titanium target was designed and simulated to determine the suitable thickness of the target. As a result of the simulation, the target was fabricated to generate fast neutrons by the reaction. The thickness of the target was measured using a profiler. The thickness of the two targets is 2.108 and 2.190 μm. The target will be applied to produce neutrons in a neutron generator

  4. COST-EFFECTIVE TARGET FABRICATION FOR INERTIAL FUSION ENERGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GOODIN, D.T; NOBILE, A; SCHROEN, D.G; MAXWELL, J.L; RICKMAN, W.S

    2004-03-01

    A central feature of an Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) power plant is a target that has been compressed and heated to fusion conditions by the energy input of the driver. The IFE target fabrication programs are focusing on methods that will scale to mass production, and working closely with target designers to make material selections that will satisfy a wide range of required and desirable characteristics. Targets produced for current inertial confinement fusion experiments are estimated to cost about $2500 each. Design studies of cost-effective power production from laser and heavy-ion driven IFE have found a cost requirement of about $0.25-0.30 each. While four orders of magnitude cost reduction may seem at first to be nearly impossible, there are many factors that suggest this is achievable. This paper summarizes the paradigm shifts in target fabrication methodologies that will be needed to economically supply targets and presents the results of ''nth-of-a-kind'' plant layouts and concepts for IFE power plant fueling. Our engineering studies estimate the cost of the target supply in a fusion economy, and show that costs are within the range of commercial feasibility for laser-driven and for heavy ion driven IFE

  5. Conceptual design of a laser fusion power plant. Part I. An integrated facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    This study is a new preliminary conceptual design and economic analysis of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) power plant performed by Bechtel under the direction of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The purpose of a new conceptual design is to examine alternatives to the LLNL HYLIFE power plant and to incorporate information from the recent liquid metal cooled power plant conceptual design study (CDS) into the reactor system and balance of plant design. A key issue in the design of a laser fusion power plant is the degree of symmetry in the illumination of the target that will be required for a proper burn. Because this matter is expected to remain unresolved for some time, another purpose of this study is to determine the effect of symmetry requirements on the total plant size, layout, and cost

  6. Data acquisition and processing system at the NOVETTE laser-fusion facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, J.M.; Severyn, J.R.; Kroepfl, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    The computer hardware and software used for acquisition and processing of data from experiments at the NOVETTE laser fusion facility are described. Nearly two hundred sensors are used to measure the performance of millimeter extent targets irradiated by multi-kilojoule laser pulses. Sensor output is recorded on CAMAC based digitizers, CCD arrays, and film. CAMAC instrument outputs are acquired and collected by a network of LSI-11 microprocessors centrally controlled by a VAX 11/780. The user controls the system through menus presented on color video displays equipped with touch panels. The control VAX collects data from all microprocessors and CCD arrays and stores them in a file for transport to a second VAX 11/780 which is used for processing and final analysis. Transfer is done through a high speed fiber-optic link. Relational data bases are used extensively in the processing and archiving of data

  7. LBNF 1.2 MW TARGET: CONCEPTUAL DESIGN & FABRICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowley, Cory F. [Fermilab; Ammigan, K. [Fermilab; Anderson, K. [Fermilab; Hartsell, B. [Fermilab; Hurh, P. [Fermilab; Hylen, J. [Fermilab; Zwaska, R. [Fermilab

    2015-06-29

    Fermilab’s Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) will utilize a modified design based on the NuMI low energy target that is reconfigured to accommodate beam operation at 1.2 MW. Achieving this power with a graphite target material and ancillary systems originally rated for 400 kW requires several design changes and R&D efforts related to material bonding and electrical isolation. Target cooling, structural design, and fabrication techniques must address higher stresses and heat loads that will be present during 1.2 MW operation, as the assembly will be subject to cyclic loads and thermal expansion. Mitigations must be balanced against compromises in neutrino yield. Beam monitoring and subsystem instrumentation will be updated and added to ensure confidence in target positioning and monitoring. Remote connection to the target hall support structure must provide for the eventual upgrade to a 2.4 MW target design, without producing excessive radioactive waste or unreasonable exposure to technicians during reconfiguration. Current designs and assembly layouts will be presented, in addition to current findings on processes and possibilities for prototype and final assembly fabrication.

  8. LBNF 1.2 MW Target: Conceptual Design & Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowley, C. [Fermilab; Ammigan, K. [Fermilab; Anderson, K. [Fermilab; Hartsell, B. [Fermilab; Hurh, P. [Fermilab; Hylen, J. [Fermilab; Zwaska, R. [Fermilab

    2015-06-01

    Fermilab’s Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) will utilize a modified design based on the NuMI low energy target that is reconfigured to accommodate beam operation at 1.2 MW. Achieving this power with a graphite target material and ancillary systems originally rated for 400 kW requires several design changes and R&D efforts related to material bonding and electrical isolation. Target cooling, structural design, and fabrication techniques must address higher stresses and heat loads that will be present during 1.2 MW operation, as the assembly will be subject to cyclic loads and thermal expansion. Mitigations must be balanced against compromises in neutrino yield. Beam monitoring and subsystem instrumentation will be updated and added to ensure confidence in target positioning and monitoring. Remote connection to the target hall support structure must provide for the eventual upgrade to a 2.4 MW target design, without producing excessive radioactive waste or unreasonable exposure to technicians during reconfiguration. Current designs and assembly layouts will be presented, in addition to current findings on processes and possibilities for prototype and final assembly fabrication.

  9. A 1-kJ KrF laser system for laser fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owadano, Y.; Okuda, I.; Tanimoto, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Yaoita, A.; Komeiji, S.; Yano, M.

    1987-01-01

    Ultraviolet laser light has several advantages in coupling with a laser fusion target, and the KrF laser is considered to be a promising candidate for the driver because of its short wavelength, high overall efficiency, and scalability to a megajoule class system. The Electrotechnical Laboratory is developing a 1-kJ class KrF laser system to perform target-shooting experiments in the 10/sup 13/-10/sup 15/-W/cm/sup 2/, 10-20-ns range and to investigate the possibility of a compact laser fusion driver which operates at a high pumping density and high laser power density. Based on the pulsed-power technology used in Amp2 and the characteristics of the Kr-rich mixture measured, Amp3 was designed to operate at high optical power density with a Kr-rich mixture. Amp3 has four PFLs charged by a single 40-kJ Marx generator and four e-beam diodes (550 kV, 4 Ω) arranged cylindrically around the laser cell. The active volume is 660 cm/sup 2/ (29 cm in diameter) X 1 m, and 2-atm Kr is pumped at a density of 1.9 MW/cm/sup 3/. Output energy of 1 kJ is expected at an intrinsic efficiency of 8.3% and overall efficiency of 2.5%. Output energy fluence is 1.5 J/cm/sup 2/ (15 MW/cm/sup 2/) on average, which is lower than the damage threshold of our fully reflecting AR coatings (>3 J/cm/sup 2/)

  10. Concepts for fabrication of inertial fusion energy targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobile, A. (Arthur), Jr.; Hoffer, J. K. (James K.); Gobby, P. L. (Peter L.); Steckle, W. P. (Warren P.), Jr.; Goodin, D. T. (Daniel T.); Besenbruch, G. E. (Gottfried E.); Schultz, K. R. (Kenneth R.)

    2001-01-01

    Future inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants will have a Target Fabrication Facility (TFF) that must produce approximately 500,000 targets per day. To achieve a relatively low cost of electricity, the cost to produce these targets will need to be less than approximately $0.25 per target. In this paper the status on the development of concepts for a TFF to produce targets for a heavy ion fusion (HIF) reactor, such as HYLIFE II, and a laser direct drive fusion reactor such as Sombrero, is discussed. The baseline target that is produced in the HIF TFF is similar to the close-coupled indirect drive target designed by Callahan-Miller and Tabak at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. This target consists of a cryogenic hohlraum that is made of a metal case and a variety of metal foams and metal-doped organic foams. The target contains a DT-filled CH capsule. The baseline direct drive target is the design developed by Bodner and coworkers at Naval Research Laboratory. HIF targets can be filled with DT before or after assembly of the capsule into the hohlraum. Assembly of targets before filling allows assembly operations to be done at room temperature, but tritium inventories are much larger due to the large volume that the hohlraum occupies in the fill system. Assembly of targets cold after filling allows substantial reduction in tritium inventory, but this requires assembly of targets at cryogenic temperature. A model being developed to evaluate the tritium inventories associated with each of the assembly and fill options indicates that filling targets before assembling the capsule into the hohlraum, filling at temperatures as high as possible, and reducing dead-volumes in the fill system as much as possible offers the potential to reduce tritium inventories to acceptable levels. Use of enhanced DT ice layering techniques, such as infrared layering can reduce tritium inventories significantly by reducing the layering time and therefore the number of capsules being layered

  11. Information management data base for fusion target fabrication processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, J.

    1983-01-01

    A computer-based data management system has been developed to handle data associated with target fabrication processes including glass microballoon characterization, gas filling, materials coating, and storage locations. The system provides automatic data storage and computation, flexible data entry procedures, fast access, automated report generation, and secure data transfer. It resides on a CDC CYBER 175 computer and is compatible with the CDC data base language Query Update, but is based on custom fortran software interacting directly with the CYBER's file management system. The described data base maintains detailed, accurate, and readily available records of fusion targets information

  12. Fabrication and characterization of cryogenic targets for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, H.; Kim, K.

    1979-08-01

    A new technique has been developed which is capable of fabricating uniform cryogenic targets for use in inertial confinement fusion. The essence of the technique is to directly wet a target with a cold helium gas jet, which results in freezing of the DT mixture contained in the target. A controlled amount of current is pulsed through a heater wire surrounding the target, giving rise to fast evaporation and refreezing of the DT-condensate into a uniform layer. Experiments, which have been performed with D 2 -filled glass microshells, successfully produce uniform layers of both liquid and solid D 2 inside the glass shells. A set of data illustrating the technique is presented and analyzed

  13. Powder Metallurgy Fabrication of Molybdenum Accelerator Target Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowden, Richard Andrew [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kiggans Jr., James O. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nunn, Stephen D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Parten, Randy J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Powder metallurgy approaches for the fabrication of accelerator target disks are being examined to support the development of Mo-99 production by NorthStar Medical Technologies, LLC. An advantage of powder metallurgy is that very little material is wasted and, at present, dense, quality parts are routinely produced from molybdenum powder. The proposed targets, however, are thin wafers, 29 mm in diameter with a thickness of 0.5 mm, with very stringent dimensional tolerances. Although tooling can be machined to very high tolerance levels, the operations of powder feed, pressing and sintering involve complicated mechanisms, each of which affects green density and shrinkage, and therefore the dimensions and shape of the final product. Combinations of powder morphology, lubricants and pressing technique have been explored to produce target disks with minimal variations in thickness and little or no distortion. In addition, sintering conditions that produce densities for optimum target dissolvability are being determined.

  14. Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinman, D.

    1994-03-01

    On December 30, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities which took place under this contract during the period of October 1, 1992 through September 30, 1993. During this period, GA was assigned 18 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. These tasks included ''Capabilities Activation'' and ''Capabilities Demonstration'' to enable us to begin production of glass and composite polymer capsules. Capsule delivery tasks included ''Small Glass Shell Deliveries'' and ''Composite Polymer Capsules'' for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). We also were asked to provide direct ''Onsite Support'' at LLNL and LANL. We continued planning for the transfer of ''Micromachining Equipment from Rocky Flats'' and established ''Target Component Micromachining and Electroplating Facilities'' at GA. We fabricated over 1100 films and filters of 11 types for Sandia National Laboratory and provided full-time onsite engineering support for target fabrication and characterization. We initiated development of methods to make targets for the Naval Research Laboratory. We investigated spherical interferometry, built an automated capsule sorter, and developed an apparatus for calorimetric measurement of fuel fill for LLNL. We assisted LANL in the ''Characterization of Opaque b-Layered Targets.'' We developed deuterated and UV-opaque polymers for use by the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) and devised a triple-orifice droplet generator to demonstrate the controlled-mass nature of the microencapsulation process

  15. Sub-nanosecond cinematography in laser fusion research: current techniques and applications at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, L.W.

    1985-01-10

    Progress in laser fusion research has increased the need for detail and precision in the diagnosis of experiments. This has spawned the development and use of sophisticated sub-nanosecond resolution diagnostic systems. These systems typically use ultrafast x-ray or optical streak cameras in combination with spatially imaging or spectrally dispersing elements. These instruments provide high resolution data essential for understanding the processes occurring in the interaction of high intensity laser light with targets. Several of these types of instruments and their capabilities will be discussed. The utilization of these kinds of diagnostics systems on the nearly completed 100 kJ Nova laser facility will be described.

  16. Automated characterization of glass microspheres used for laser fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, Tsuyoshi; Norimatsu, Takayoshi; Izawa, Yasukazu; Yamanaka, Chiyoe.

    1985-01-01

    In laser fusion experiments glass microspheres of 100 to 1000 μm in diameter and 1 to 20 μm in wall thickness are most commonly used as fuel containers. The glass microspheres should be characterized precisely to meet stringent experimental requirements. Much time is consumed to characterize and select good quality spheres among thousands of spheres. We have developed an automated system to characterize and select glass microspheres. The system consists of charger, quadrupole rail, image processing and X-Y stage control with micro-computer. Total processing time primarily depends on the time required for image analysis, which should be compromised with the accuracy of characterization. The time for simple characterization requires about 10 sec. at present. (author)

  17. Laser Fusion: The First Ten Years 1962-1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidder, R.E.

    2006-01-01

    This account of the beginning of the program on laser fusion at Livermore in 1962, and its subsequent development during the decade ending in 1972, was originally prepared as a contribution to the January 1991 symposium 'Achievements in Physics' honoring Professor Keith Brueckner upon his retirement from the University of San Diego at La Jolla. It is a personal recollection of work at Livermore from my vantage point as its scientific leader, and of events elsewhere that I thought significant. This period was one of rapid growth in which the technology of high-power short-pulse lasers needed to drive the implosion of thermonuclear fuel to the temperature and density needed for ignition was developed, and in which the physics of the interaction of intense light with plasmas was explored both theoretically and experimentally

  18. Laser Fusion: The First Ten Years 1962-1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidder, R E

    2004-01-01

    This account of the beginning of the program on laser fusion at Livermore in 1962, and its subsequent development during the decade ending in 1972, was originally prepared as a contribution to the January 1991 symposium ''Achievements in Physics'' honoring Professor Keith Brueckner upon his retirement from the University of San Diego at La Jolla. It is a personal recollection of work at Livermore from my vantage point as its scientific leader, and of events elsewhere that I thought significant. This period was one of rapid growth in which the technology of high-power short-pulse lasers needed to drive the implosion of thermonuclear fuel to the temperature and density needed for ignition was developed, and in which the physics of the interaction of intense light with plasmas was explored both theoretically and experimentally

  19. Laser fusion and future energy sources - some recent results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hora, H.

    1979-01-01

    While the laser fusion is at present producing more genuine fusion neutrons than the tokamak with magnetic confinement, if use of short laser pulses is preferred, the then appearing nonlinear effect causes considerable complications. Nonlinear processes for the preferred geometry of perpendicular incidence can avoid the problems of resonance absorption, while parametric instabilities have no quantitative influence on the energy balance. The early stages of interaction show the generation of thick 'cold' compressing plasma blocks which can be used for a nonlinear force fast pusher compression of high efficiency (low entropy production). A short time interaction results in a fast thermalization of the plasma corona by soliton decay and this provides the necessary condition for Nuckolls' gasdynamic ablation compression. For longer duration of high intensity irradiation, a pulsation of reflectivity and thermalization will complicate the interaction

  20. Addressing key science and technology issues for IFE chambers, target fabrication and target injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.R.; Goodin, D.T.; Nobile, A.

    2003-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in the development of high repetition rate chambers, target fabrication and injection for inertial fusion energy (IFE) for both heavy ion and laser drivers. Research is being conducted in a coordinated manner by national laboratories, universities and industry. This paper provides an overview of U.S. research activities and discusses how interface considerations (such as beam propagation and target survival during injection) impact design choices. (author)

  1. A pin diode x-ray camera for laser fusion diagnostic imaging: Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jernigan, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    An x-ray camera has been constructed and tested for diagnostic imaging of laser fusion targets at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) of the University of Rochester. The imaging detector, developed by the Hughes Aircraft Company, is a germanium PIN diode array of 10 x 64 separate elements which are bump bonded to a silicon readout chip containing a separate low noise amplifier for each pixel element. The camera assembly consists of a pinhole alignment mechanism, liquid nitrogen cryostat with detector mount and a thin beryllium entrance window, and a shielded rack containing the analog and digital electronics for operations. This x-ray camera has been tested on the OMEGA laser target chamber, the primary laser target facility of LLE, and operated via an Ethernet link to a SUN Microsystems workstation. X-ray images of laser targets are presented. The successful operation of this particular x-ray camera is a demonstration of the viability of the hybrid detector technology for future imaging and spectroscopic applications. This work was funded by the Department of Energy (DOE) as a project of the National Laser Users Facility (NLUF)

  2. Advances in target design and fabrication for experiments on NIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obrey K.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability to build target platforms for National Ignition Facility (NIF is a key feature in LANL's (Los Alamos National Laboratory Target Fabrication Program. We recently built and manufactured the first LANL targets to be fielded on NIF in March 2011. Experiments on NIF require precision component manufacturing and accurate knowledge of the materials used in the targets. The characterization of foams and aerogels, the Be ignition capsule, and machining unique components are of main material focus. One important characterization metric the physics' have determined is that the knowledge of density gradients in foams is important. We are making strides in not only locating these density gradients in aerogels and foams as a result of how they are manufactured and machined but also quantifying the density within the foam using 3D confocal micro x-ray fluorescence (μXRF imaging and 3D x-ray computed tomography (CT imaging. In addition, collaborative efforts between General Atomics (GA and LANL in the characterization of the NIF Ignition beryllium capsule have shown that the copper in the capsule migrates radially from the capsule center.

  3. Laser development for laser fusion applications research. Progress report, October 1977--March 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-06-01

    Research progress is reported on three laser programs being developed for the commercialization of laser-fusion energy. The lasers include iodine, hydrogen fluoride and Group VI atoms (e.g., O, S, Se, Te)

  4. Design and evaluation of a laser fusion energy station for industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kok, K.D.; Bates, F.J.; Denning, R.S.; Triplett, M.B.; Waddell, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    The identification and development of long-term energy options is important in the continued growth of industry in the United States. Fusion and particularly laser fusion is one of the possible options. This paper applies the criteria used by industry in the selection of an energy source to the first of a series of conceptual designs for a laser fusion energy station. Several conclusions are presented including the constraints placed on the design by the criteria

  5. Laser fusion: an assessment of pellet injection, tracking and beam pointing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monsler, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    A conceptual design is presented for a target injection and final optical system which can be integrated with a lithium waterfall laser fusion reactor and operate repetitively within the presented tolerances. A high f-number focusing system using coated metal optics at 30 to 60 meters distance is suggested. An intermediate section of the differentially pumped beam tube contains flowing xenon which effectively shields the optics from debris and x rays, allowing the mirrors to operate at least a year without optical degradation. Pellets are injected with a repeating gas gun positioned horizontally just above the laser beam. No pellet trajectory correction is desired or required. Simple tracking of the target using a low power laser illuminator, a position sensing photodetector, and a trajectory prediction scheme are assumed. Two-degree of freedom x-y beam steering is preferred, without focus capability. Both the tracker and the adaptive mirror are placed in the laser building, well away from the fixed final optical mirror which faces the microexplosion

  6. Energy efficiency improvement target for SIC 34 - fabricated metal products. Revised target support document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrer, T. G.; Billhardt, C. F.; Farkas, M. S.

    1977-02-15

    In accordance with section 374 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), Pub. L. 94-163, the Federal Energy Administration (FEA) proposed industrial energy efficiency improvement targets for the ten most energy-consumptive manufacturing industries in the U.S. Following public hearings and a review of the comments made, the final targets for Fabricated Metal Products (SIC 34) were established and are described. Using 1972 data on the energy consumed to produce specific metal products, it was concluded that a 24% reduction in energy consumption for SIC 34 is a viable goal for achievement by 1980. (ERA citation 04:045006)

  7. Laser Giant Ion Source and the Prepulse Effects for Picosecond Interaction for High Gain Laser Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hora, Heinrich; Badziak, J.; Parys, P.; Wolowski, J.; Woryna, E.; Boody, F.P.; Hoepfl, R.; Jungwirth, K.; Ullschmied, J.; Kralikova, B.; Krasa, J.; Laska, L.; Pfeifer, M.; Rohlena, K.; Skala, J.; Perina, V.

    2003-01-01

    By studying laser driven ion sources which produce giant ion emission current densities exceeding the few mA/cm2 of classical ion sources (MEVVA or ECR) by more than six orders of magnitude, we unexpectedly measured an anomalous low ion energy with ps laser pulses.The emission is basically different from that with the fastest ion energies in the MeV to GeV range due to relativistic self focusing and from the second fastest ion group due to quiver-thermalization processes. We report on specifically designed experiments with gold targets where 0.5 ns laser pulses produce MeV Au-ions in accordance with relativistic self focusing in strong contrast to ps pulses where a 400 times higher intensity from TW pulses is needed to arrive at the same ion energies. These can be explained by a basically new model without self-focusing as a skin layer effect where the absence of a prepulse is essential. This has consequences for the application of laser driven ion sources and may improve the hitherto highest published laser fusion gains with 50 TW-ps laser pulses without the usual spherical precompression

  8. Shiva and Nova: progress of laser fusion at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstrom, H.G.

    1979-01-01

    Over the last several years we have made significant progress in the understanding of the laser plasma interaction through the use of new diagnostic instrumentation and techniques. We have also implemented the Shiva system and operated the world's most complex laser system and produced significant target data. In the implosion experiments with the Shiva system, we have archieved densities greater than 100 x liquid density of DT. The significance of this result is that we have had to overcome the questions of achieving a spherically symmetric implosion and obviating the problem of Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We see no major obstacle in the future to attaining the densities appropriate to efficient burn of microfusion pellets for application to fusion reactors. Further, we have identified a laser system which may provide the architecture required for a fusion reactor driver and we have an agressive on going program to investigate this option for a fusion reactor driver. In addition, our Systems Studies Program has identified a reactor configuration which solves many of the important problems associated with laser fusion reactors. This is not to say that a question of the configuration of an inertial confinement fusion reactor has been settled but rather that there is a very attractive possibility and one which can be used to judge other possibilities and grade them with respect to their performance compared to the Hylife reaction chamber. Thus we hold great hope for the possibility of inertial confinement fusion as an eventual energy source to provide energy for the world

  9. Design optimization of single-main-amplifier KrF laser-fusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.B.; Pendergrass, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    KrF lasers appear to be a very promising laser fusion driver for commercial applications. The Large Amplifier Module for the Aurora Laser System at Los Alamos is the largest KrF laser in the world and is currently operating at 5 kJ with 10 to 15 kJ eventually expected. The next generation system is anticipated to be a single-main-amplifier system that generates approximately 100 kJ. This paper examines the cost and efficiency tradeoffs for a complete single-main-amplifier KrF laser fusion experimental facility. It has been found that a 7% efficient $310/joule complete laser-fusion system is possible by using large amplifier modules and high optical fluences

  10. Generation of short optical pulses for laser fusion. M.L. report No. 2451

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuizenga, D.J.

    1975-06-01

    This report considers some of the problems involved in generating the required short pulses for the laser-fusion program. Short pulses are required to produce the laser fusion, and pulses produced synchronously with this primary pulse are required for plasma diagnostics. The requirements of these pulses are first described. Several methods are considered in order to generate pulses at 1.064 μ to drive the Nd:Glass amplifiers to produce laser fusion. Conditions for optimum energy extraction per short pulse for Nd:YAG and Nd:Glass lasers are given. Four methods are then considered to produce these pulses: (1) using a fast switch to chop the required pulse out of a much longer Q-switched pulse; (2) active mode locking; (3) passive mode locking; and (4) a combination of active and passive mode locking. The use of cavity dumping is also considered to increase the energy per short pulse

  11. Effects of pellet yield on electricity cost in laser fusion generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohachevsky, I.O.; Booth, L.A.; Hafer, J.F.; Pendergrass, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    The dependence of capital and net electricity production costs on fuel pellet yield is investigated for laser fusion reactors based on the magnetically protected and the wetted wall reactor cavity concepts. It is determined that above a certain pellet yield, which depends on the cavity concept, diseconomies of scale occur and the costs per unit output increase with increasing fuel pellet yield. This behavior, determined with the trade-off and analysis computer code TROFAN, is explained through analytical examination of the scaling rules for the laser fusion reactor components

  12. Tabular equation of state of lithium for laser-fusion reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, D.A.; Ross, M.; Rogers, F.J.

    1979-01-01

    A tabular lithium equation of state was formulated from three separate equation-of-state models to carry out hydrodynamic simulations of a lithium-waterfall laser-fusion reactor. The models we used are: ACTEX for the ionized fluid, soft-sphere for the liquid and vapor, and pseudopotential for the hot, dense liquid. The models are smoothly joined over the range of density and temperature conditions appropriate for a laser-fusion reactor. We also fitted the models into two forms suitable for hydrodynamic calculations

  13. Tabular equation of state of lithium for laser-fusion reactor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, D.A.; Ross, M.; Rogers, F.J.

    1979-01-19

    A tabular lithium equation of state was formulated from three separate equation-of-state models to carry out hydrodynamic simulations of a lithium-waterfall laser-fusion reactor. The models we used are: ACTEX for the ionized fluid, soft-sphere for the liquid and vapor, and pseudopotential for the hot, dense liquid. The models are smoothly joined over the range of density and temperature conditions appropriate for a laser-fusion reactor. We also fitted the models into two forms suitable for hydrodynamic calculations.

  14. An overview of the development of the first wall and other principal components of a laser fusion power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethian, John D.; Raffray, A. Rene; Latkowski, Jeffery; Blanchard, James P.; Snead, Lance; Renk, Timothy J.; Sharafat, Shahram

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces the JNM Special Issue on the development of a first wall for the reaction chamber in a laser fusion power plant. In this approach to fusion energy a spherical target is injected into a large chamber and heated to fusion burn by an array of lasers. The target emissions are absorbed by the wall and encapsulating blanket, and the resulting heat converted into electricity. The bulk of the energy deposited in the first wall is in the form of X-rays (1.0-100 keV) and ions (0.1-4 MeV). In order to have a practical power plant, the first wall must be resistant to these emissions and suffer virtually no erosion on each shot. A wall candidate based on tungsten armor bonded to a low activation ferritic steel substrate has been chosen as the initial system to be studied. The choice was based on the vast experience with these materials in a nuclear environment and the ability to address most of the key remaining issues with existing facilities. This overview paper is divided into three parts. The first part summarizes the current state of the development of laser fusion energy. The second part introduces the tungsten armored ferritic steel concept, the three critical development issues (thermo-mechanical fatigue, helium retention, and bonding) and the research to address them. Based on progress to date the latter two appear to be resolvable, but the former remains a challenge. Complete details are presented in the companion papers in this JNM Special Issue. The third part discusses other factors that must be considered in the design of the first wall, including compatibility with blanket concepts, radiological concerns, and structural considerations

  15. An overview of the development of the first wall and other principal components of a laser fusion power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethian, John D.; Raffray, A. Rene; Latkowski, Jeffery; Blanchard, James P.; Snead, Lance; Renk, Timothy J.; Sharafat, Shahram

    2005-12-01

    This paper introduces the JNM Special Issue on the development of a first wall for the reaction chamber in a laser fusion power plant. In this approach to fusion energy a spherical target is injected into a large chamber and heated to fusion burn by an array of lasers. The target emissions are absorbed by the wall and encapsulating blanket, and the resulting heat converted into electricity. The bulk of the energy deposited in the first wall is in the form of X-rays (1.0-100 keV) and ions (0.1-4 MeV). In order to have a practical power plant, the first wall must be resistant to these emissions and suffer virtually no erosion on each shot. A wall candidate based on tungsten armor bonded to a low activation ferritic steel substrate has been chosen as the initial system to be studied. The choice was based on the vast experience with these materials in a nuclear environment and the ability to address most of the key remaining issues with existing facilities. This overview paper is divided into three parts. The first part summarizes the current state of the development of laser fusion energy. The second part introduces the tungsten armored ferritic steel concept, the three critical development issues (thermo-mechanical fatigue, helium retention, and bonding) and the research to address them. Based on progress to date the latter two appear to be resolvable, but the former remains a challenge. Complete details are presented in the companion papers in this JNM Special Issue. The third part discusses other factors that must be considered in the design of the first wall, including compatibility with blanket concepts, radiological concerns, and structural considerations.

  16. An overview of the development of the first wall and other principal components of a laser fusion power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethian, John D. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Av. SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)]. E-mail: sethian@this.nrl.navy.mil; Raffray, A. Rene [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Latkowski, Jeffery [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Blanchard, James P. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Snead, Lance [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Renk, Timothy J. [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Sharafat, Shahram [University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2005-12-15

    This paper introduces the JNM Special Issue on the development of a first wall for the reaction chamber in a laser fusion power plant. In this approach to fusion energy a spherical target is injected into a large chamber and heated to fusion burn by an array of lasers. The target emissions are absorbed by the wall and encapsulating blanket, and the resulting heat converted into electricity. The bulk of the energy deposited in the first wall is in the form of X-rays (1.0-100 keV) and ions (0.1-4 MeV). In order to have a practical power plant, the first wall must be resistant to these emissions and suffer virtually no erosion on each shot. A wall candidate based on tungsten armor bonded to a low activation ferritic steel substrate has been chosen as the initial system to be studied. The choice was based on the vast experience with these materials in a nuclear environment and the ability to address most of the key remaining issues with existing facilities. This overview paper is divided into three parts. The first part summarizes the current state of the development of laser fusion energy. The second part introduces the tungsten armored ferritic steel concept, the three critical development issues (thermo-mechanical fatigue, helium retention, and bonding) and the research to address them. Based on progress to date the latter two appear to be resolvable, but the former remains a challenge. Complete details are presented in the companion papers in this JNM Special Issue. The third part discusses other factors that must be considered in the design of the first wall, including compatibility with blanket concepts, radiological concerns, and structural considerations.

  17. Applications of the lots computer code to laser fusion systems and other physical optics problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, G.; Wolfe, P.N.

    1979-01-01

    The Laser Optical Train Simulation (LOTS) code has been developed at the Optical Sciences Center, University of Arizona under contract to Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL). LOTS is a diffraction based code designed to beam quality and energy of the laser fusion system in an end-to-end calculation

  18. Role of Fabrication on Materials Compatibility in APT Target/Blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, N.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.; Dunn, K.; Fisher, D.L.

    1998-09-01

    This paper summarizes several of the options associated with the fabrication of selected target/blanket components. In addition, the materials characterization technologies required to validate these components performance is presented

  19. The fabrication techniques of Z-pinch targets. Techniques of fabricating self-adapted Z-pinch wire-arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Longhui; Wei Yun; Liu Debin; Sun Zuoke; Yuan Yuping

    2002-01-01

    In order to fabricate wire arrays for use in the Z-pinch physical experiments, the fabrication techniques are investigated as follow: Thickness of about 1-1.5 μm of gold is electroplated on the surface of ultra-fine tungsten wires. Fibers of deuterated-polystyrene (DPS) with diameters from 30 to 100 microns are made from molten DPS. And two kinds of planar wire-arrays and four types of annular wire-arrays are designed, which are able to adapt to the variation of the distance between the cathode and anode inside the target chamber. Furthermore, wire-arrays with diameters form 5-24 μm are fabricated with tungsten wires, respectively. The on-site test shows that the wire-arrays can self-adapt to the distance changes perfectly

  20. Performance of Shiva as a laser fusion irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speck, D.R.; Bliss, E.S.; Glaze, J.A.; Johnson, B.C.; Manes, K.R.; Ozarski, R.G.; Rupert, P.R.; Simmons, W.W.; Swift, C.D.; Thompson, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    Shiva is a 20 beam Nd:Glass Laser and Target Irradiation Facility at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The laser system and integrated target facility evolved during the last year from a large, untested, experimental laser system to a target irradiation facility which has provided significant laser driven inertial confinement fusion data. The operation of the facility is discussed

  1. Double-shell inertial confinement fusion target fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatcher, C.W.; Lorensen, L.E.; Weinstein, B.W.

    1980-01-01

    First generation hemishells, from which spherical shells are constructed, were fabricated by micromachining coated mandrels and by molding. The remachining of coated mandrels are described in detail. Techniques were developed for coating the microsized mandrels with polymeric and metallic materials by methods including conformal coating, vapor deposition, plasma polymerization and thermoforming. Micropositioning equipment and bonding techniques have also been developed to assemble the hemishells about a fuel pellet maintaining a spherical concentricity of better than 2 μm and voids in the hemishell bonding line of a few hundred angstroms or less

  2. Rapid fabrication and characterization of sine wave targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, R.D.; Armijo, E.; Gobby, P.; Hatch, D.; Rivera, G.; Salzer, L.; Townsend, J.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of surface perturbations on Inertial Confinement Fusion target performance is currently being researched at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). These perturbations can cause hydrodynamic instabilities which in turn reduce the targets' yield. To systematically measure the growth of these instabilities requires targets to be produced which have perturbations of a known amplitude and spatial frequency. The authors have recently assembled hardware onto one of their diamond turning lathes which enables them to machine and measure these sine waves in about 15 minutes. This is a significant reduction in time from the two and one half hours required by the previous method. This paper discusses the hardware, how it works, and how well the system is working for them to produce these targets

  3. Fabrication of 94Zr thin target for RDM lifetime measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Chandan Kumar; Rohilla, Aman; Chamoli, S.K.; Abhilash, S.R.; Kabiraj, D.; Singh, R.P.; Mehta, D.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the activity was to make a thin target of isotopically enriched 94 Zr for lifetime measurement experiment to be done with the plunger setup at the Inter University Accelerator Center (IUAC) Delhi

  4. Target fabrication using laser and spark erosion machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, X.; Coudeville, A.; Eyharts, P.; Perrine , J.P.; Rouillard, R.

    1981-11-01

    Lasers and E.D.M. (electrical discharge machining) are both extremely useful tools for machining the small targets needed in inertial confinement studies. Lasers are currently used in a wide range of target problems and it appears that E.D.M. has a still wider range of applications for plane and spherical targets. The problems of material deformation and tool breaking are practically eliminated as the electrode and the machined part are not in mechanical contact. In comparison with laser micromachining E.D.M. offers: larger versatility with the possibility of new developments and applications; higher production speed for thin conducting materials; lower initial and operating costs; the processes are well controlled, reproducible and can be easily automated; the operation is safe without the dangers associted with lasers

  5. An Overview of the Target Fabrication Operations at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibbard, R L; Bono, M J

    2005-01-01

    The Target Engineering team at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) builds precision laser targets for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the Omega Laser in Rochester, NY, and other experimental facilities. The physics requirements demand precision in these targets, which creates a constant need for innovative manufacturing processes. As experimental diagnostics improve, there is greater demand for precision in fabrication, assembly, metrology, and documentation of as-built targets. The team specializes in meso-scale fabrication with core competencies in diamond turning, assembly, and metrology. Figure 1 shows a typical diamond turning center. The team builds over 200 laser targets per year in batches of five to fifteen targets. Thus, all are small-lot custom builds, and most are novel designs requiring engineering and process development. Component materials are metals, polymers and low density aerogel foams. Custom fixturing is used to locate parts on the Diamond Turning Machines (DTM) and assembly stations. This ensures parts can be repeatably located during manufacturing operations. Most target builds involve a series of fabricating one surface with features and then relocating the components on another fixture to finish the opposite side of the component. These components are then assembled to complete multiple-component targets. These targets are typically built one at a time. Cost and efficiency are issues with production of targets, and the team is developing batch processing techniques to meet precision target specifications and cost goals. Three example target builds will highlight some of the fabrication and material issues faced at LLNL. A low temperature Rayleigh Taylor target shows how multiple precision targets can be fabricated out of a single large disk. The ignition double shell targets highlight the required manufacturing complexity. A low density aerogel target highlights some material handling and assembly issues. The metrology

  6. Fabrication of cryogenic inertial-confinement-fusion targets using target free-fall technique. Report No. 2-82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.; Murphy, M.J.

    1982-04-01

    Techniques for fabricating cryogenic inertial confinement fusion targets (i.e., spherical shells containing a uniform layer of DT ice) are investigated using target free-fall concept. Detection and characterization of the moving targets are effected by optoelectronic means, of which the principal is an RF ac-interferometer. This interferometer system demonstrates, for the first time, the speed capabilities of the phase-modulation ac-interferometry. New techiques developed for handling, holding, launching, and transporting targets are also described. Results obtained at both room and cryogenic temperatures are presented

  7. Conceptual design of laser fusion reactor, SENRI-I - 1. concept and system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ido, S.; Naki, S.; Norimatsu, T.

    1981-01-01

    Design features of a laser fusion reactor concept SENRI-I and new concepts are reviewed and discussed. The unique feature is the utilization of a magnetic field to guide and control the inner liquid Li flow. Basic requirements and typical parameters used in the design are presented. Items to be discussed are constitution of the system, performance of liquid Li flow, neutronics, thermo-electric cycle, fuel cycle and new concepts

  8. All Solid State Optical Pulse Shaper for the OMEGA Laser Fusion Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okishev, A.V.; Skeldon, M.D.; Keck, R.L.; Seka, W.

    2000-01-01

    OAK-B135 All Solid State Optical Pulse Shaper for the OMEGA Laser Fusion Facility. The authors have developed an all-solid-state, compact, computer-controlled, flexible optical pulse shaper for the OMEGA laser facility. This pulse shaper produces high bandwidth, temporally shaped laser pulses that meet OMEGA requirements. The design is a significant simplification over existing technology with improved performance capabilities

  9. Stagnation of ablated metal vapor in laser fusion reactor with liquid wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norimatsu, T.; Nagatomo, H.; Azechi, H.; Furukawa, H.; Shimada, Y.; Kurahashi, S.; Kunugi, T.; Kajimura, Y.

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, formation of clusters by ablated materials and those stagnation at the center of a laser fusion reactor with liquid wall are discussed using improved simulation code DECORE. We will report 1) numerical simulation on formation of clusters immediately before the stagnation, 2) preliminary results on the cluster formation at the first bounce of the stagnation, 3) experimental result on the diameter measurement of micro droplets formed in a simulation experiment with back-side irradiation of laser. (author)

  10. Phase aberrations and beam cleanup techniques in carbon-dioxide laser fusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, V.K.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the various carbon dioxide laser fusion systems at Los Alamos from the point of view of an optical designer. The types of phase aberrations present in these systems, as well as the beam cleanup techniques that can be used to improve the beam optical quality, are discussed. As this is a review article, some previously published results are also used where relevant

  11. First wall response to energy disposition in conceptual laser fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovingh, J.

    1976-02-01

    Discussed are energy depositions in the first wall of various proposed laser-fusion reactors and the effect of pulse time on the stress and temperature in the first wall. Simple models can be used to estimate the temperature and stress rise from x-rays and neutrons. More complex analysis is needed to estimate the response of the first wall to reflected laser light and the pellet debris

  12. Materials processing in space: ICF target fabrication implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1982-01-01

    During the last quarter of 1982, the Novette laser will become operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The primary characteristics of the Novette laser are shown. In many ways, the new laser will serve as a proving ground and test bed for the Nova laser which is also under construction and should be operational in early 1985. Tables provide the Nova operational characteristics. The advent of the two new lasers, Novette and Nova, will make it possible to study many new and exciting aspects of laser-target interactions and of many implosion physics experiments which have previously not been possible. Some of the most interesting and exciting work will be the exploration of the parameters critical to the ignition of a significant thermonuclear burn in the deuterium-tritium fuel in the targets

  13. Fabrication of a tantalum-clad tungsten target for KENS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Masayoshi; Kikuchi, Kenji; Kurishita, Hiroaki; Li, J.-F.; Furusaka, Michihiro

    2001-01-01

    Since the cold neutron source intensity of KENS (the spallation neutron source at High Energy Accelerator Research Organization) was decreased into about a third of the designed value because a cadmium liner at the cold neutron source deformed and obstructed the neutron beam line, the target-moderator-and-reflector assembly (TMRA) has been replaced by a new one aimed at improving the neutron performance and recovering the cold neutron source. The tantalum target has also been replaced by a tantalum-clad tungsten one. In order to bond the tantalum-clad with the tungsten block, a hot isostatic press (HIP) process was applied and optimized. It was found that gaseous interstitial impurity elements severely attacked tantalum and embrittled, and that the getter materials such as zirconium and tantalum were effective to reduce the embrittlement

  14. Laser fusion reactor design in a fast ignition with a dry wall chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Yichi; Goto, Takuya; Ninomiya, Daisuke; Hiwatari, Ryoji; Asaoka, Yoshiyuki; Okano, Kunihiko

    2007-01-01

    One of the critical issues in laser fusion reactor design is high pulse heat load on the first wall by the X-rays and the fast/debris ions from fusion burn. There are mainly two concepts for the first wall of laser fusion reactor, a dry wall and a liquid metal wall. We should notice that the fast ignition method can achieve sufficiently high pellet gain with smaller (about 1/10 of the conventional central ignition method) input energy. To take advantage of this property, the design of a laser fusion reactor with a small size dry wall chamber may become possible. Since a small fusion pulse leads to a small electric power, high repetition of laser irradiation is required to keep sufficient electric power. Then we tried to design a laser fusion reactor with a dry wall chamber and a high repetition laser. This is a new challenging path to realize a laser fusion plant. Based on the point model of the core plasma, we have estimated that fusion energy in one pulse can be reduced to be 40 MJ with a pellet gain around G>100. To evaluate the validity of this simple estimation and to optimize the pellet design and the pulse shaping for the fast ignition scenario, we have introduced 1-D hydrodynamic simulation code ILESTA-1D and carried out implosion simulations. Since the code is one-dimensional, the detailed physics process of fast heating cannot be reproduced. Thus the fast heating is reflected in the code as the additional artificial heating source in the energy equation. It is modeled as a homogeneous heating of electrons in core region at the time just before when the maximum compression is achieved. At present we obtained the pellet gain G∝100 with the same input energy as the above estimation by a simple point model (350kJ for implosion, 50kJ for heating and assuming 20% coupling of heating laser). A dry wall is exposed to several threats due to the cyclic load by the high energy X-ray and charged particles: surface melting, physical and chemical sputtering

  15. The recent progress of laser fusion research and future scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, C.

    1986-01-01

    The plasma compression of spherical fuel pellets is performed by irradiation laser beams on the surface of targets. The short wavelength laser or Xray is effective to get high coupling of laser and plasmas without preheating. The implosion uniformity is essentially important to attain the high compression. As for the direct implosion, the multibeam irradiation is necessary to keep a good uniformity of illumination. Extremely high aspect ratio targets are successfully imploded withy neutron yield 10/sup 12/ or more. The shock wave multiplexing is introduced by tailored laser pulses synchronizing with the compression stagnation. Implosion instability seems to be prevented by this scheme. Energy recovering by nuclear fusion is about 10/sup -3/ of the incident laser beam. The indirect implosion using the Cannonball target is very effective to keep the high absorption and the implosion uniformity. However the suprathermal electrons are increased especially at the region of the beam inlet holes. The larger cavity irradiated by the shorter wavelength laser indicates the better results. The Xray conversion by laser is intensively studied using metal targets. Magnetically Insulated Inetially Confined Fusion (MICF) is tested by using CO/sub 2/ lasers. The basic structure of the MICF target is a double shell structure. The irradiation of laser beams through holes of the outer shell produces a toroidal magnetic field due to the current loop produced by the ejected hot electrons. Self organized magnetic field is expected to confine the plasma energy. Plasmas are preserved by the inertial confinement scheme. The experimental results are very interesting to design a hybrid fusion device

  16. Fabrication and Evaluation of Tinidazole Microbeads for Colon Targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit K. Pandey

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of present investigation was to develop and evaluate multiparticulate system exploiting pH-sensitive property and specific biodegradability of calcium alginate microbeads, for colon- targeted delivery of Tinidazole for the treatment of amoebic colitis. Methods: Calcium alginate beads containing Tinidazole were prepared by ionotropic gelation technique followed by coating with Eudragit S100 using solvent evaporation method to obtain pH sensitive microbeads. Various formulation parameters were optimized which included concentration of sodium alginate (2% w/v, curing time (20 min and concentration of pectin (1% w/ v. All the formulations were evaluated for surface morphology, particle size analysis, entrapment efficiency and in-vitro drug release in conditions simulating colonic fluid in the presence of rat caecal (2% w/v content. Results: The average size of beads of optimized formulation (FT4 was found to be 998.73依5.12 毺 m with entrapment efficiency of 87.28依2.19 %. The invitro release of Eudragit S100 coated beads in presence of rat caecal content was found to be 70.73%依1.91% in 24 hours. Data of in-vitro release was fitted into Higuchi kinetics and Korsmeyer Peppas equation to explain release profile. The optimized formulation (FT4 showed zero order release. Conclusions: It is concluded that calcium alginate microbeads are the potential system for colon delivery of Tinidazole for chemotherapy of amoebic infection.

  17. Fabrication technology for a series of cylindrical thin-wall cavity targets

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng Yong; Sun Zu Oke; Wang Ming Da; Zhou La; Zhou Zhi Yun

    2002-01-01

    Cylindrical thin-wall cavity targets have been fabricated to study the behavior of superthermal electrons and their effects on inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Self-supporting cavity targets having adjustable, uniform wall thickness, and low surface roughness were required. This required production of high-quality mandrels, coating them by sputtering or electroplating, developing techniques for measurement of wall thickness and other cavity parameters, improving the uniformity of rotation of the mandrels, and preventing damage to the targets during removal from the mandrels. Details of the fabrication process are presented. Experimental results from the use of these targets are presented. These results, in good agreement with simulations, indicate that the use of thin-wall cavity targets is an effective method for studying superthermal electrons in ICF.

  18. Light absorption and scattering mechanisms in laser fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.; Estabrook, K.G.; Kruer, W.L.; Langdon, A.B.; Lasinski, B.F.; Max, C.E.; Randall, C.; Thomson, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    The picture of laser light absorption and scattering which is emerging from theory and computer simulation studies of laser-plasma interactions is described. On the subject of absorption, we discuss theoretical and experimental evidence that resonance absorption in a steepened density profile is a dominant absorption mechanism. Recent work also indicates the presence of critical surface ripples, which we study using two and three dimensional computer simulations. Predictions of hot electron spectra due to resonance absorption are described, as are effects of plasma outflow. We then discuss two regimes where stimulated scattering may occur. Brillouin scattering is expected in the underdense target blow-off, for long laser pulses, and is limited by ion heating. Raman scattering in the background gas of a reactor target chamber is predicted to be at most a 10 percent effect for 1 μm lasers

  19. Direct-drive laser-fusion in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCrory, R.L.; Soures, J.M.; Audebert, P.

    1986-01-01

    Direct-drive experiments at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) and the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) are presently addressing issues in pellet compression and heating: efficiency of coupling of laser energy to the target and the coupling of absorbed energy to the fuel, drive uniformity, hydrodynamic stability, preheat arising from laser plasma instabilities and x-rays, and target diagnostics. The 24-beam, 2500-Joule, 351 nm OMEGA laser system at LLE has been used in an experimental effort to achieve high compressed DT fuel densities. Detailed hydrodynamic computer simulations at NRL predict that the growth rate of the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability is less than the classical values. Recent Rayleigh-Taylor experiments ar NRL are testing these predictions

  20. Complete fabrication of target experimental chamber and implement initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Dickinson, M.R.; Henestroza, E.; Katayanagi, T.; Jung, J.Y.; Lee, C.W.; Leitner, M.; Ni, P.; Roy, P.; Seidl, P.; Waldron, W.; Welch, D.

    2008-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (HIFS-VNL) has completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for future Warm Dense Matter (WDM) experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. This achievement provides to the HIFS-VNL unique and state-of-the-art experimental capabilities in preparation for the planned target heating experiments using intense heavy ion beams

  1. Calorimeters for diagnosis of laser-fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, S.R.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of calorimeters have been developed for measuring ions, x-rays, and scattered radiation emanating from laser-pulse-imploded fusion targets. The ion and x-ray calorimeters use metal or glass absorbers to reflect or transmit most of the scattered laser radiation; the versions using metal absorbers also incorporate a differential construction to compensate for the fraction of the scattered laser radiation that is absorbed. The scattered-radiation calorimeters use colored glass to absorb the radiation and a transparent glass shield to remove ions and x rays. Most of the calorimeters use commercial semiconductor thermoelectric modules as the temperature sensors

  2. Laser-fusion research progress report, January--June 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-08-01

    Three prototypical laser systems; iodine, and HF, are being developed. The iodine laser program is designed to delineate possible problem areas in the development of higher-power iodine lasers and to improve its efficiency to where net energy gain is possible using complex targets or hybrid, fusion-fission reactors. To provide data for the oxygen laser, studies are under way on excited-state production efficiencies, electron-beam device development, and low-pressure gain phenomena. In the HF-laser program, technology is being developed applicable to high-power, high-gain laser systems

  3. Large aperture components for solid state laser fusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, W.W.

    1978-01-01

    Solid state lasers for fusion experiments must reliably deliver maximum power to small (approximately .5 mm) targets from stand-off focal distances of 1 m or more. This requirement places stringent limits upon the optical quality, resistance to damage, and overall performance of the several major components--amplifiers, Faraday isolators, spatial filters--in each amplifier train. Component development centers about achieving (1) highest functional material figure of merit, (2) best optical quality, and (3) maximum resistance to optical damage. Specific examples of the performance of large aperture components will be presented within the context of the Argus and Shiva laser systems, which are presently operational at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Shiva comprises twenty amplifiers, each of 20 cm output clear aperture. Terawatt beams from these amplifiers are focused through two opposed, nested clusters of f/6 lenses onto such targets. Design requirements upon the larger aperture Nova laser components, up to 35 cm in clear aperture, will also be discussed; these pose a significant challenge to the optical industry

  4. Uniformity analysis for a direct-drive laser fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, L.D.; Skupsky, S.; Goldman, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    We show the results of an analysis of the uniformity for a direct-drive reactor using 20, 32, 60, or 96 beams. Several of these options achieve less than the 1% nonuniformity that is required. These options are considered for the cases where the solid angle fraction of the beam ports is 2% and 8%. The analysis is facilitated by separating the contributions due to the geometrical effects related to the number and orientation of the beams from those due to the spatial profile of the individual beams. Emphasis is placed on the wavelength of the nonuniformities, as the shorter wavelength nonuniformities are more easily smoothed by thermal conduction within the target. The analysis demonstrates that the longer wavelengths can be minimized by suitable choices of geometry and by maintaining beam balance, whereas the shorter wavelength nonuniformities can be reduced by optimizing parameters such as the focal position and the spatial intensity profile of each beam. The tolerances required for beam-to-beam energy balance will be discussed

  5. The assurance management program for the Nova laser fusion project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    In a well managed project, Quality Assurance is an integral part of the management activities performed on a daily basis. Management assures successful performance within budget and on schedule by using all the good business, scientific, engineering, quality assurance, and safety practices available. Quality assurance and safety practices employed on Nova are put in perspective by integrating them into the overall function of good project management. The Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) approach is explained in general terms. The laser ICF and magnetic fusion facilities are significantly different in that the laser system is used solely as a highly reliable energy source for performing plasma physics experiments related to fusion target development; by contrast, magnetic fusion facilities are themselves the experiments. The Nova project consists of a 10-beam, 74 cm aperture neodymium-glass laser experimental facility which is being constructed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy. Nova has a total estimated cost of $176M and will become operational in the Fall of 1984. The Nova laser will be used as the high energy driver for studying the regime of ignition for ICF. The Nova assurance management program was developed using the quality assurance (QA) approach first implemented at LLNL in early 1978. The LLNL QA program is described as an introduction to the Nova assurance management program. The Nova system is described pictorially through the Nova configuration, subsystems and major components, interjecting the QA techniques which are being pragmatically used to assure the successful completion of the project

  6. First wall studies of a laser-fusion hybrid reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovingh, J.

    1976-09-01

    The design of a first wall for a 20 MW thermonuclear power laser fusion hybrid reactor is presented. The 20 mm thick graphite first wall is located 3.5 m from the DT microexplosion with a thermonuclear yield of 10 MJ. Estimates of the energy deposition, temperature, stresses, and material vaporized from the first wall due to the interaction of the x-rays, charged particle debris, and reflected laser light with the graphite are presented, along with a brief description of the analytical methods used for these estimations. Graphite is a viable first wall material for inertially-confined fusion reactors, with lifetimes of a year possible

  7. Interferogram reduction and interpretation as applied to the optical analysis of a laser fusion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, V.K.; Sollid, J.E.; Hall, W.S.; Liberman, I.; Lawrence, G.

    1978-01-01

    The 10 kJ Eight-Beam CO 2 Laser Fusion System, currently under construction at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL), has approximately 100 optical elements per beam. The nominal system is diffraction limited and degradations in performance are caused primarily by imperfect components and alignment errors. Consequently, analysis and predictions for the system are very much dependent on the proper description of the imperfect components. The approach taken at LASL has been to characterize the components interferometrically. An example of this procedure, using an actual interferogram of a manufactured component, will be presented and the various limitations will be discussed

  8. Experimental demonstration of ion extraction from magnetic thrust chamber for laser fusion rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Naoya; Yamamoto, Naoji; Morita, Taichi; Edamoto, Masafumi; Nakashima, Hideki; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Yogo, Akifumi; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Sunahara, Atsushi; Mori, Yoshitaka; Johzaki, Tomoyuki

    2018-05-01

    A magnetic thrust chamber is an important system of a laser fusion rocket, in which the plasma kinetic energy is converted into vehicle thrust by a magnetic field. To investigate the plasma extraction from the system, the ions in a plasma are diagnosed outside the system by charge collectors. The results clearly show that the ion extraction does not strongly depend on the magnetic field strength when the energy ratio of magnetic field to plasma is greater than 4.3, and the magnetic field pushes back the plasma to generate a thrust, as previously suggested by numerical simulation and experiments.

  9. Process for the fabrication of aluminum metallized pyrolytic graphite sputtering targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Ramsey, Philip B.; Juntz, Robert S.

    1995-01-01

    An improved method for fabricating pyrolytic graphite sputtering targets with superior heat transfer ability, longer life, and maximum energy transmission. Anisotropic pyrolytic graphite is contoured and/or segmented to match the erosion profile of the sputter target and then oriented such that the graphite's high thermal conductivity planes are in maximum contact with a thermally conductive metal backing. The graphite contact surface is metallized, using high rate physical vapor deposition (HRPVD), with an aluminum coating and the thermally conductive metal backing is joined to the metallized graphite target by one of four low-temperature bonding methods; liquid-metal casting, powder metallurgy compaction, eutectic brazing, and laser welding.

  10. Fabrication of off-axis parabolic mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezik, M.J.; Gerth, H.L.; Sladky, R.E.; Washington, C.A.

    1978-08-01

    The report describes the fabrication process, including metal preparation, copper electroplating, single-crystal-diamond turning, optical inspection, and polishing, used to manufacture the focusing mirrors for the 10-kJ laser fusion experiment being conducted by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Fabrication of these mirrors by the techniques described resulted in diffraction-limited optics at a 10.6 μm wavelength

  11. Fabrication of 94Zr thin target for recoil distance doppler shift method of lifetime measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, C.K.; Rohilla, Aman; Abhilash, S.R.; Kabiraj, D.; Singh, R.P.; Mehta, D.; Chamoli, S.K.

    2014-01-01

    A thin isotopic 94 Zr target of thickness 520μg/cm 2 has been prepared for recoil distance Doppler shift method (RDM) lifetime measurement by using an electron beam deposition method on tantalum backing of 3.5 mg/cm 2 thickness at Inter University Accelerator Center (IUAC), New Delhi. To meet the special requirement of smoothness of surface for RDM lifetime measurement and also to protect the outer layer of 94 Zr from peeling off, a very thin layer of gold has been evaporated on a 94 Zr target on a specially designed substrate holder. In all, 143 mg of 99.6% enriched 94 Zr target material was utilized for the fabrication of 94 Zr targets. The target has been successfully used in a recent RDM lifetime measurement experiment at IUAC

  12. Fabrication of 94Zr thin target for recoil distance doppler shift method of lifetime measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, C. K.; Rohilla, Aman; Abhilash, S. R.; Kabiraj, D.; Singh, R. P.; Mehta, D.; Chamoli, S. K.

    2014-11-01

    A thin isotopic 94Zr target of thickness 520 μg /cm2 has been prepared for recoil distance Doppler shift method (RDM) lifetime measurement by using an electron beam deposition method on tantalum backing of 3.5 mg/cm2 thickness at Inter University Accelerator Center (IUAC), New Delhi. To meet the special requirement of smoothness of surface for RDM lifetime measurement and also to protect the outer layer of 94Zr from peeling off, a very thin layer of gold has been evaporated on a 94Zr target on a specially designed substrate holder. In all, 143 mg of 99.6% enriched 94Zr target material was utilized for the fabrication of 94Zr targets. The target has been successfully used in a recent RDM lifetime measurement experiment at IUAC.

  13. Fabrication of {sup 94}Zr thin target for recoil distance doppler shift method of lifetime measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, C.K.; Rohilla, Aman [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Abhilash, S.R.; Kabiraj, D.; Singh, R.P. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Mehta, D. [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Chamoli, S.K., E-mail: skchamoli@physics.du.ac.in [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2014-11-11

    A thin isotopic {sup 94}Zr target of thickness 520μg/cm{sup 2} has been prepared for recoil distance Doppler shift method (RDM) lifetime measurement by using an electron beam deposition method on tantalum backing of 3.5 mg/cm{sup 2} thickness at Inter University Accelerator Center (IUAC), New Delhi. To meet the special requirement of smoothness of surface for RDM lifetime measurement and also to protect the outer layer of {sup 94}Zr from peeling off, a very thin layer of gold has been evaporated on a {sup 94}Zr target on a specially designed substrate holder. In all, 143 mg of 99.6% enriched {sup 94}Zr target material was utilized for the fabrication of {sup 94}Zr targets. The target has been successfully used in a recent RDM lifetime measurement experiment at IUAC.

  14. Fabrication and testing of gas filled targets for large scale plasma experiments on Nova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, G.F.; Spragge, M.; Wallace, R.J.; Rivers, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    An experimental campaign on the Nova laser was started in July 1993 to study one st of target conditions for the point design of the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The targets were specified to investigate the current NIF target conditions--a plasma of ∼3 keV electron temperature and an electron density of ∼1.0 E + 21 cm -3 . A gas cell target design was chosen to confine as gas of ∼0.01 cm 3 in volume at ∼ 1 atmosphere. This paper will describe the major steps and processes necessary in the fabrication, testing and delivery of these targets for shots on the Nova Laser at LLNL

  15. Laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, M.H.; Oxford Univ.

    1990-04-01

    The use of lasers to drive implosions for the purpose of inertially confined fusion is an area of intense activity where progress compares favourably with that made in magnetic fusion and there are significant prospects for future development. In this brief review the basic concept is summarised and the current status is outlined both in the area of laser technology and in the most recent results from implosion experiments. Prospects for the future are also considered. (author)

  16. Fabrication and testing of W7-X pre-series target elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boscary, J; Boeswirth, B; Greuner, H; Grigull, P; Missirlian, M; Plankensteiner, A; Schedler, B; Friedrich, T; Schlosser, J; Streibl, B; Traxler, H

    2007-01-01

    The assembly of the highly-loaded target plates of the WENDELSTEIN 7-X (W7-X) divertor requires the fabrication of 890 target elements (TEs). The plasma facing material is made of CFC NB31 flat tiles bonded to a CuCrZr copper alloy water-cooled heat sink. The elements are designed to remove a stationary heat flux and power up to 10 MW m -2 and 100 kW, respectively. Before launching the serial fabrication, pre-series activities aimed at qualifying the design, the manufacturing route and the non-destructive examinations (NDEs). High heat flux (HHF) tests performed on full-scale pre-series TEs resulted in an improvement of the design of the bond between tiles and heat sink to reduce the stresses during operation. The consequence is the fabrication of additional pre-series TEs to be tested in the HHF facility GLADIS. NDEs of this bond based on thermography methods are developed to define the acceptance criteria suitable for serial fabrication

  17. Information-management data base for fusion-target fabrication processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, J.

    1982-01-01

    A computer-based data-management system has been developed to handle data associated with target-fabrication processes including glass microballoon characterization, gas filling, materials coating, and storage locations. The system provides automatic data storage and computation, flexible data-entry procedures, fast access, automated report generation, and secure data transfer. It resides on a CDC CYBER 175 computer and is compatible with the CDC data-base-language Query Update, but is based on custom FORTRAN software interacting directly with the CYBER's file-management system. The described data base maintains detailed, accurate, and readily available records of fusion targets information

  18. Double-shell target designs for the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory eight-beam laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindel, J.M.; Stroscio, M.A.

    1978-03-01

    We investigate two double-pusher laser fusion targets, one that incorporates an outer exploding pusher shell and another that uses velocity multiplication. Specific designs are presented for the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Eight-Beam Laser System

  19. Transport effects with hot electrons in laser fusion. Final report, October 1, 1981-February 28, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shkarofsky, I.P.

    1983-02-01

    Two explanations are offered which can account for heat inhibition found in laser-fusion experiments. The first explanation requires an anisotorpic electron velocity distribution with a higher temperature parallel to the surface than into the surface. This provides axial heat inhibition. Lateral heat inhibition is associated with azimuthal magnetic fields. The second explanation requires the presence of both hot suprathermal and thermal electrons. The hot electrons can cause the flux limiter to decrease substantially below the free-streaming limit in an intermediate range of collisionality. Conditions for this situation occur in the coronal region. We compare a Maxwellian distribution to an exp(-v 5 /v 5 /sub c/) variation for the cold electrons and find that the flux limiter decreases more for the latter case. The effects of collisions between cold and hot electrons is also looked into. The Cartesian tensor approach is used in the above investigations with various forms for the zeroth order electron velocity distribution function

  20. Preliminary design and neutronic analysis of a laser fusion driven actinide waste burning hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berwald, D.H.; Duderstadt, J.J.

    1979-01-01

    The laser fusion driven actinide waste burner (LDAB) system investigated uses partitioned fission power reactor generated actinide wastes dissolved in a molten tin alloy as feed material (or fuel). A novel fuel processing concept based on the high-temperature precipitation of ''actinide--nitrides'' from a liquid tin solution is proposed. This concept will allow for fission product removal to be performed entirely within the device at high burnup. No attempt has been made to optimize this system, but potential performance is impressive. The equilibrium LDAB design consumes 7.6 MT/y of actinide waste. This corresponds to the waste output from 136 light water reactors [1000 MW (electric)]. The mean life of an actinide atom in the LDAB is only 4.5 y; and actinides, once charged to the LDAB, might be reprocessed fewer times during irradiation than in previously proposed systems

  1. Analysis of plasma behavior in a magnetic nozzle of laser fusion rocket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamine, Yoshihiko; Yoshimi, Naofumi; Nakama, Yuji; Muranaka, Takanobu; Mayumi, Takao; Nakashima, Hideki

    1997-01-01

    A magnetic nozzle concept in a laser fusion rocket is suitable for controlling the fusion plasma flow and it has an advantage that thermalization with wall structures in a thrust chamber can be avoided. Rayleigh-Taylor instability would occur at the surface of expanding plasma and it would lead to the degradation of thrust efficiency, due to diffusion of the plasma through ambient decelerating magnetic field. A 3D hybrid particle-in-cell code has been developed to analyze the plasma instability in the magnetic nozzle. The resultant linear growth rate γ of the instability is found to be 2.96 x 10 6 and it is in good agreement with the theoretical value from conventional Rayleigh Taylor instability. (author)

  2. Ultrafast gated intensifier design for laser fusion x-ray framing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Wiedwald, J.D.; Kalibjian, R.; Thomas, S.W.; Cook, W.M.

    1983-01-01

    A major challenge for laser fusion is the study of the symmetry and the hydrodynamic stability of imploding fuel capsules. Streaked x-radiography, in one space and one time dimension, does not provide sufficient information. Two (spatial) dimensional frames of 10 to 100 ps duration are required with good image quality, minimum geometrical distortion (approximately 1%), dynamic range greater than 1000 and greater than 200 x 200 pixels. A gated transmission line imager (TLI) can meet these requirements with frame times between 30 and 100 ps. An instrument of this type is now being developed. Progress on this instrument including theory of operation, ultrafast pulse generation and propagation, component integration, and high resolution phosphor screen development are presented

  3. Laser-fusion 40Ar/39Ar Ages of Darwin Impact Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Ching-Hua; Howard, Kieren T.; Chung, Sun-Lin; Meffre, Sebastien

    2002-11-01

    Three samples of Darwin Glass, an impact glass found in Tasmania, Australia at the edge of the Australasian tektite strewn field were dated using the 40Ar/39Ar single-grain laser fusion technique, yielding isochron ages of 796-815 ka with an overall weighted mean of 816 ± 7 ka. These data are statistically indistinguishable from those recently reported for the Australasian tektites from Southeast Asia and Australia (761-816 ka; with a mean weighted age of 803 ± 3 ka). However, considering the compositional and textural differences and the disparity from the presumed impact crater area for Australasian tektites, Darwin Glass is more likely to have resulted from a distinct impact during the same period of time.

  4. Vapor phase coatings of metals and organics for laser fusion target applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonsic, G.A.; Powell, B.W.

    Techniques for applying a variety of metal and organic coatings to 50- to 500 μm diameter glass micro-balloons are discussed. Coating thicknesses vary from 1- to 10 μm. Physical vapor deposition (PVD), chemical vapor deposition (CVD), and electrolytic and electroless plating are some of the techniques being evaluated for metal deposition. PVD and glow discharge polymerization are being used for the application of organic coatings. (U.S.)

  5. Influences on target irradiation symmetry in CO2 laser-fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carman, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    The existence of very steep density profiles and high upper shelf densities imply that the CO 2 laser deposits its energy spatially quite close to the ablation surface where calculations indicate that a high degree of symmetry must exist in order to achieve the necessary high compression ratios. Thus, energy transport provides only limited improvement in the ablative symmetry over that achieved in the irradiation symmetry. Current data suggests that a balance between radiation pressure and hydrodynamic pressure underestimates the density to which the CO 2 laser light penetrates for early times

  6. Plasma polymerization coating of D-T filled glass shells for laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.L.; Hatcher, C.W.; Hendricks, C.D.; Letts, S.A.; Lorensen, L.E.

    1977-01-01

    Three plasma sources are described which activate monomers of perfluoro-2-butene or tetrafluoroethylene to produce coatings 10 to 20 μm thick with surfaces finishes <0.1 μm. Electrical and chemical controls of the polymerization processes are shown to improve the surface finish

  7. Elimination of defects in plasma polymerized films used in laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letts, S.A.; Johnson, W.L.; Myers, D.W.; Illige, J.D.; Lorensen, L.E.; Hatcher, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    This study was conducted to understand and control the parameters governing the formation of defects in plasma polymerized surfaces. An inductively-coupled discharge was used as the source of activated monomer. Four types of well characterized surface irregularities were produced on glass slides which were subsequently fluorocarbon coated. Optimization of the process variables is discussed

  8. Automatic gas-levitation system for vacuum deposition of laser-fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, C.W.; Cameron, G.R.; Krenik, R.M.; Crane, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    An improved simple system has been developed to gas-levitate microspheres during vacuum-deposition processes. The automatic operation relies on two effects: a lateral stabilizing force provided by a centering-ring; and an automatically incremented gas metering system to offset weight increases during coating

  9. Conceptual design of a fast-ignition laser fusion reactor based on a dry wall chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Y; Goto, T; Okano, K; Asaoka, Y; Hiwatari, R; Someya, Y

    2008-01-01

    The fast ignition is quite attractive for a compact laser fusion reactor, because a sufficiently high pellet gain is available with a small input energy. We designed an inertial fusion reactor based on Fast-ignition Advanced Laser fusion reactor CONcept, called FALCON-D, where a dry wall is employed for a chamber wall. A simple point model shows that the pellet gain G∼100 is available with laser energies of 350kJ for implosion, 50kJ for heating. This results in the fusion yield of 40 MJ in one shot. By increasing the repetition rate up to 30 Hz, the fusion power of 1.2 GWth becomes available. Plant system analysis shows the net electric power to be about 0.4 GWe In the fast ignition it is available to employ a low aspect ratio pellet, which is favorable for the stability during the implosion phase. Here the pellet aspect ratio is reduced to be 2 ∼ 4, and the optimization of the pulse shape for the implosion laser are carried out by using the 1-D hydrodynamic simulation code ILESTA-1D. A ferritic steel with a tungsten armour is employed for the chamber wall. The feasibility of this dry wall concept is studied from various engineering aspects such as surface melting, physical and chemical sputtering, blistering and exfoliation by helium retention, and thermo-mechanical fatigue, and it is found that blistering and exfoliation due to the helium retention and fatigue failure due to cyclic thermal load are major concerns. The cost analysis shows that the construction cost is moderate but the cost of electricity is slightly expensive

  10. Conceptual design of a fast-ignition laser fusion reactor based on a dry wall chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Y [High Temperature Plasma Center, University of Tokyo, Chiba (Japan); Goto, T; Okano, K [Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, Chiba (Japan); Asaoka, Y; Hiwatari, R [Central Research Institute for Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo (Japan); Someya, Y [Graduate School of Engineering, Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)], E-mail: ogawa@ppl.k.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2008-05-15

    The fast ignition is quite attractive for a compact laser fusion reactor, because a sufficiently high pellet gain is available with a small input energy. We designed an inertial fusion reactor based on Fast-ignition Advanced Laser fusion reactor CONcept, called FALCON-D, where a dry wall is employed for a chamber wall. A simple point model shows that the pellet gain G{approx}100 is available with laser energies of 350kJ for implosion, 50kJ for heating. This results in the fusion yield of 40 MJ in one shot. By increasing the repetition rate up to 30 Hz, the fusion power of 1.2 GWth becomes available. Plant system analysis shows the net electric power to be about 0.4 GWe In the fast ignition it is available to employ a low aspect ratio pellet, which is favorable for the stability during the implosion phase. Here the pellet aspect ratio is reduced to be 2 {approx} 4, and the optimization of the pulse shape for the implosion laser are carried out by using the 1-D hydrodynamic simulation code ILESTA-1D. A ferritic steel with a tungsten armour is employed for the chamber wall. The feasibility of this dry wall concept is studied from various engineering aspects such as surface melting, physical and chemical sputtering, blistering and exfoliation by helium retention, and thermo-mechanical fatigue, and it is found that blistering and exfoliation due to the helium retention and fatigue failure due to cyclic thermal load are major concerns. The cost analysis shows that the construction cost is moderate but the cost of electricity is slightly expensive.

  11. Conceptual design of a fast-ignition laser fusion reactor based on a dry wall chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Y.; Goto, T.; Okano, K.; Asaoka, Y.; Hiwatari, R.; Someya, Y.

    2008-05-01

    The fast ignition is quite attractive for a compact laser fusion reactor, because a sufficiently high pellet gain is available with a small input energy. We designed an inertial fusion reactor based on Fast-ignition Advanced Laser fusion reactor CONcept, called FALCON-D, where a dry wall is employed for a chamber wall. A simple point model shows that the pellet gain G~100 is available with laser energies of 350kJ for implosion, 50kJ for heating. This results in the fusion yield of 40 MJ in one shot. By increasing the repetition rate up to 30 Hz, the fusion power of 1.2 GWth becomes available. Plant system analysis shows the net electric power to be about 0.4 GWe In the fast ignition it is available to employ a low aspect ratio pellet, which is favorable for the stability during the implosion phase. Here the pellet aspect ratio is reduced to be 2 ~ 4, and the optimization of the pulse shape for the implosion laser are carried out by using the 1-D hydrodynamic simulation code ILESTA-1D. A ferritic steel with a tungsten armour is employed for the chamber wall. The feasibility of this dry wall concept is studied from various engineering aspects such as surface melting, physical and chemical sputtering, blistering and exfoliation by helium retention, and thermo-mechanical fatigue, and it is found that blistering and exfoliation due to the helium retention and fatigue failure due to cyclic thermal load are major concerns. The cost analysis shows that the construction cost is moderate but the cost of electricity is slightly expensive.

  12. Target fabrication and development in the Centre d'Etudes de Limeil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, X.; Coudeville, A.; Eyharts, P.; Perrine, J.P.; Rouillard, R.

    1983-10-01

    The present state of research in Limeil laboratory for the production of inertial confinement fusion targets is described in this communication. A summary of typical areas, previously investigated, including new developments, is as follows: - production of hollow glass microspheres, having wide outside diameter range and aspect-ratio, using dried-alcogels, - preparation and fabrication of low density foams having plane or hemispherical shape, - deposition of a wide range of conductive materials as well as silicon and organic polymers, - development of laser and spark erosion machining which are useful tools for producing minute parts of complex targets, - characterization and analysis of plastic or coal metal coated targets, are done by using interferometry techniques and X-ray image analysis as well as X-ray absorption measurements

  13. Recent Developments in Fabrication of Direct Drive Cylinder Targets for Hydrodynamics Experiments at the OMEGA Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobile, A.; Balkey, M.M.; Bartos, J.J.; Batha, S.H.; Day, R.D.; Elliott, J.E.; Elliott, N.E.; Gomez, V.M.; Hatch, D.J.; Lanier, N.E.; Fincke, J.R.; Manzanares, R.; Pierce, T.H.; Sandoval, D.L.; Schmidt, D.W.; Steckle, W.P.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental campaigns are being conducted at the 60 beam OMEGA laser at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics to acquire data to validate hydrodynamic models in the high energy-density regime. This paper describes targets that have been developed and constructed for these experimental campaigns. Targets are 860 μm inner diameter by 2.2 mm length cylinders with 70 μm thick polymer ablator. On the ablator inner surface and located halfway along the axis of the cylinder is a 500 μm wide Al marker band. Band thicknesses in the range 8-16 microns are used. CH foam with densities in the range 30-90 mg/cc fills the inside of the cylinder. While these targets have been fabricated for years, several new improvements and features have recently been developed. Improvements include the use of epoxy instead of polystyrene for the ablator, and the use of electrodeposited Al for the marker band. A critical feature of the target is the surface feature that is placed on the marker band. Experiments are aimed at understanding the hydrodynamic behavior of imploding cylinders as a function of this surface feature. Recent development work has focused on production of engineered surface features on the target marker band. Using a fast tool servo on a diamond turning lathe, a wide range of specified surface features have been produced. This paper will address improvements to the cylinder targets as well as current development efforts

  14. Pre-series and testing route for the serial fabrication of W7-X target elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boscary, J.; Greuner, H.; Friedrich, T.; Traxler, H.; Mendelevitch, B.; Boeswirth, B.; Schlosser, J.; Smirnow, M.; Stadler, R.

    2009-01-01

    The fabrication of the actively cooled high-heat flux divertor of the WENDELSTEIN 7-X stellarator (W7-X) requires the delivery of 890 target elements, which are designed to withstand a stationary heat flux of 10 MW/m 2 . The organization of the manufacturing and testing route for the serial fabrication is the result of the pre-series activities. Flat CFC Sepcarb NB31 tiles are bonded to CuCrZr copper alloy cooling structure in consecutive steps. A copper layer is active metal cast to CFC tiles, and then an OF-copper layer is added by hot isostatic pressing to produce bi-layer tiles. These tiles are bonded by electron beam welding onto the cooling structure, which was manufactured independently. The introduction of the bi-layer technology proved to be a significant improvement of the bond reliability under thermal cycling loading. This result is also the consequence of the improved bond inspections throughout the manufacturing route performed in the ARGUS pulsed thermography facility of PLANSEE. The repairing process by electron beam welding of the bonding was also qualified. The extended pre-series activities related to the qualification of fabrication processes with the relevant non-destructive examinations aim to minimize the risks for the serial manufacturing and to guarantee the steady-state operation of the W7-X divertor.

  15. An Effort to Improve U Foil Fabrication Technology of Roll-casting for Fission Mo Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Kyu; Woo, Yun Myeong; Kim, Ki Hwan; Oh, Jong Myeong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Sim, Moon Soo [Chungnam University, Green Energy Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Mo-99 isotope has been produced mainly by extracting fission products of {sup 235}U. The targets for irradiating in reactor have used as stainless tube coated with highly enriched UO{sub 2} at the inside surface and highly enriched UAlx plate cladded with aluminum. In connection with non-proliferation policy the RERTR program developed a new process of Mo-99 using low enriched uranium (LEU) instead of highly enriched uranium (HEU). LEU should be put about five times more quantity than HEU because the {sup 235}U contents of LEU and HEU are 20% and higher than 90%, respectively. Accordingly pure uranium metal foil target was adopted as a promising target material due to high uranium density. ANL and BATAN developed a Cintichem process using uranium metal foil target of 130 {mu}m in thickness jointly and the RERTR program is trying to disseminate the new process world-widely. However, uranium foil is made by lots of times rolling work on uranium plate, which is laborious and tedious. In order to avoid this difficulty KAERI developed a new process of making foil directly from uranium melt by roll casting. This process is very much simple, productive, and cost-effective. But the outside surface of foil is generally very rough. A typical transverse cross section had a minimum thickness of 65 {mu}m and a maximum thickness of 205 {mu}m. This roughness could affect (1) target fabrication, where the U foil, or the Ni foil might be damaged during drawing, and (2) irradiation behavior, where gaps between the target walls and the U metal might affect cooling of the target

  16. Fabrication of a nanocarrier system through self-assembly of plasma protein and its tumor targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Guangming; Zhi Feng; Wang Kaikai; Tang Xiaolei; Yuan Ahu; Zhao Lili; Ding Dawei; Hu Yiqiao

    2011-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) nanoparticles hold great promise as a nanocarrier system for targeted drug delivery. The objective of this study was to explore the possibility of preparing size controllable albumin nanoparticles using the disulfide bond breaking reagent β-mercaptoethanol (β-ME). The results showed that the protein concentration and temperature had positive effects on the sizes of the albumin nanoparticles, while pH had a negative effect on the rate of nanoparticle formation. The addition of β-ME induced changes in HSA secondary structure and exposed the hydrophobic core of HSA, leading to the formation of nanoparticles. Human serum albumin nanoparticles could be internalized by MCF-7 cells and mainly accumulated in cytoplasm. After injection in tumor bearing mice, the HSA nanoparticles accumulated in tumor tissues, demonstrating the targeting ability of the nanoparticles. Therefore, human serum albumin can be fabricated into nanoparticles by breaking the disulfide bonds and these nanoparticles exhibit high tumor targeting ability. Human serum albumin nanoparticles could be ideal for the targeted delivery of pharmacologically active substances.

  17. Cost Modeling for Fabrication of Direct Drive Inertial Fusion Energy Targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickman, William Samuel; Goodin, Daniel T.

    2003-01-01

    Chemical engineering analyses are underway for a commercial-scale [1000-MW(electric)] divinyl benzene foam-based Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) Target Fabrication Facility (TFF). This facility is designed to supply 500,000, 4-mm-outer diameter targets per day - coated via interfacial polycondensation, dried with supercritical CO 2 , sputter coated with Au and/or Pd, and filled with deuterium-tritium layered at cryogenic temperatures and injected into the fusion chamber. Such targets would be used in a direct-drive IFE power plant.The work uses manufacturing processes being developed in the laboratory, chemical engineering scaleup principles, and established cost-estimating methods. The plant conceptual design includes a process flow diagram, mass and energy balances, equipment sizing and sketches, storage tanks, and facility views.The cost estimate includes both capital and operating costs. Initial results for a TFF dedicated to one 1000-MW(electric) plant indicate that the costs per target are well within the commercially viable range. Larger TFF plants [3000 MW(electric)] are projected to lead to significantly reduced costs per injected target. Additional cost reductions are possible by producing dried, sputter-coated empty shells at a central facility that services multiple power plants.The results indicate that the installed capital cost is about $100 million and the annual operating costs will be about $20 million, for a cost per target of about $0.17 each. These design and cost projections assume that a significant process development and scaleup program is successfully completed for all of the basic unit operations included in the facility

  18. Ultra-hard AlMgB14 coatings fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering from a stoichiometric target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishin, A. M.; Khartsev, S. I.; Böhlmark, J.; Ahlgren, M.

    2015-01-01

    For the first time hard aluminum magnesium boride films were fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering from a single stoichiometric ceramic AlMgB14 target. Optimized processing conditions (substrate temperature, target sputtering power and target-to-substrate distance) enable fabrication of stoichiometric in-depth compositionally homogeneous films with the peak values of nanohardness 88 GPa and Young's modulus 517 GPa at the penetration depth of 26 nm and, respectively, 35 and 275 GPa at 200 nm depth in 2 μm thick film.

  19. Fabrication of high specificity hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles assisted by Eudragit for targeted drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Xiaodong; Chen, Lijue; Velleman, Leonora; Li, Chengpeng; Zhu, Haijin; He, Canzhong; Wang, Tao; Shigdar, Sarah; Duan, Wei; Kong, Lingxue

    2015-05-01

    Hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs) are one of the most promising carriers for effective drug delivery due to their large surface area, high volume for drug loading and excellent biocompatibility. However, the non-ionic surfactant templated HMSNs often have a broad size distribution and a defective mesoporous structure because of the difficulties involved in controlling the formation and organization of micelles for the growth of silica framework. In this paper, a novel "Eudragit assisted" strategy has been developed to fabricate HMSNs by utilising the Eudragit nanoparticles as cores and to assist in the self-assembly of micelle organisation. Highly dispersed mesoporous silica spheres with intact hollow interiors and through pores on the shell were fabricated. The HMSNs have a high surface area (670 m(2)/g), small diameter (120 nm) and uniform pore size (2.5 nm) that facilitated the effective encapsulation of 5-fluorouracil within HMSNs, achieving a high loading capacity of 194.5 mg(5-FU)/g(HMSNs). The HMSNs were non-cytotoxic to colorectal cancer cells SW480 and can be bioconjugated with Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) for efficient and specific cell internalization. The high specificity and excellent targeting performance of EGF grafted HMSNs have demonstrated that they can become potential intracellular drug delivery vehicles for colorectal cancers via EGF-EGFR interaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Biased Target Ion Beam Deposition and Nanoskiving for Fabricating NiTi Alloy Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Huilong; Horn, Mark W.; Hamilton, Reginald F.

    2016-12-01

    Nanoskiving is a novel nanofabrication technique to produce shape memory alloy nanowires. Our previous work was the first to successfully fabricate NiTi alloy nanowires using the top-down approach, which leverages thin film technology and ultramicrotomy for ultra-thin sectioning. For this work, we utilized biased target ion beam deposition technology to fabricate nanoscale (i.e., sub-micrometer) NiTi alloy thin films. In contrast to our previous work, rapid thermal annealing was employed for heat treatment, and the B2 austenite to R-phase martensitic transformation was confirmed using stress-temperature and diffraction measurements. The ultramicrotome was programmable and facilitated sectioning the films to produce nanowires with thickness-to-width ratios ranging from 4:1 to 16:1. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis confirmed the elemental Ni and Ti make-up of the wires. The findings exposed the nanowires exhibited a natural ribbon-like curvature, which depended on the thickness-to-width ratio. The results demonstrate nanoskiving is a potential nanofabrication technique for producing NiTi alloy nanowires that are continuous with an unprecedented length on the order of hundreds of micrometers.

  1. Camera-laser fusion sensor system and environmental recognition for humanoids in disaster scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Inho; Oh, Jaesung; Oh, Jun-Ho; Kim, Inhyeok

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to develop a vision sensor system and a recognition algorithm to enable a humanoid to operate autonomously in a disaster environment. In disaster response scenarios, humanoid robots that perform manipulation and locomotion tasks must identify the objects in the environment from those challenged by the call by the United States’ Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, e.g., doors, valves, drills, debris, uneven terrains, and stairs, among others. In order for a humanoid to undertake a number of tasks, we con- struct a camera–laser fusion system and develop an environmental recognition algorithm. Laser distance sensor and motor are used to obtain 3D cloud data. We project the 3D cloud data onto a 2D image according to the intrinsic parameters of the camera and the distortion model of the lens. In this manner, our fusion sensor system performs functions such as those performed by the RGB-D sensor gener- ally used in segmentation research. Our recognition algorithm is based on super-pixel segmentation and random sampling. The proposed approach clusters the unorganized cloud data according to geometric characteristics, namely, proximity and co-planarity. To assess the feasibility of our system and algorithm, we utilize the humanoid robot, DRC-HUBO, and the results are demonstrated in the accompanying video.

  2. Progress in direct-drive laser fusion using GEKKO XII/PW facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, T.

    2002-01-01

    Extensive studies have been carried out for the fast-ignitor laser fusion which can provide one of the most feasible short tracks in the fusion energy development. We have upgraded the heating laser up to 1 PW(500 J/500 fs) and have started comprehensive studies on the transport of high current relativistic electron beam in the dense plasma. Substantial heating of the core plasma up to 1 keV is expected with implosion plasma produced by the Gekko XII laser. We have experimentally obtained for the first time all parameters to decide the growth rate of Rayleigh-Taylor instability using the HIPER irradiation system which can generate ablation pressure up to 60 Mbar and newly developed advanced x-ray diagnostic tools. We have proposed the FIREX (Fast Ignitor Realization Experiment) program for demonstrating the proof-of-principle of fast ignitor scheme. By the irradiation of ∼10 kJ/2-10 ps laser onto a DT core plasma formed by the GEKKO-XII, we are aiming at temperature of >8 keV and the fusion gain near unity. (author)

  3. Camera-laser fusion sensor system and environmental recognition for humanoids in disaster scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Inho [Institute for Human and Machine Cognition (IHMC), Florida (United States); Oh, Jaesung; Oh, Jun-Ho [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Inhyeok [NAVER Green Factory, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    This research aims to develop a vision sensor system and a recognition algorithm to enable a humanoid to operate autonomously in a disaster environment. In disaster response scenarios, humanoid robots that perform manipulation and locomotion tasks must identify the objects in the environment from those challenged by the call by the United States’ Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, e.g., doors, valves, drills, debris, uneven terrains, and stairs, among others. In order for a humanoid to undertake a number of tasks, we con- struct a camera–laser fusion system and develop an environmental recognition algorithm. Laser distance sensor and motor are used to obtain 3D cloud data. We project the 3D cloud data onto a 2D image according to the intrinsic parameters of the camera and the distortion model of the lens. In this manner, our fusion sensor system performs functions such as those performed by the RGB-D sensor gener- ally used in segmentation research. Our recognition algorithm is based on super-pixel segmentation and random sampling. The proposed approach clusters the unorganized cloud data according to geometric characteristics, namely, proximity and co-planarity. To assess the feasibility of our system and algorithm, we utilize the humanoid robot, DRC-HUBO, and the results are demonstrated in the accompanying video.

  4. Performance of a 200-J KrF laser amplifier for laser fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owadano, Y.; Okuda, I.; Tanimoto, M.; Kasai, T.; Matsumoto, Y.; Yaoita, A.; Nemoto, F.; Komeiji, S.; Yano, M.

    1986-01-01

    An e-beam-pumped KrF laser has been developed as a middle-stage amplifier of a 1-kJ system for laser fusion research. The laser consists of one Marx generator (1MV, 11kJ), two PFLs (4.6 Ω, 100ns) with laser triggered output switches, two e-beam diodes (10 X 60 cm/sup 2/), and a laser cell (20- X 20- X 60-cm/sup 3/ active volume). Two e-beams are injected into the cell through carbon-sprayed Kapton anode and pressure foils. Up to now, a 120-J (70-ns) laser pulse has been generated with a 90% output coupling flat-flat resonator at 80% voltage operation. Overall efficiency is 1.5% in this case. A series of experiments has been performed with the laser to measure gain characteristics of a Kr-rich mixture, which is predicted to be more efficient than a normal Ar mixture in a high-laser-intensity region (>10 MW cm/sup -2/). An injection-locked oscillator mode was used to obtain a well-defined high-intensity laser beam, and a saturated intracavity intensity was measured

  5. Fluorescence-pumped photolytic gas laser system for a commercial laser fusion power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monsler, M.J.

    1977-01-01

    The first results are given for the conceptual design of a short-wavelength gas laser system suitable for use as a driver (high average power ignition source) for a commercial laser fusion power plant. A comparison of projected overall system efficiencies of photolytically excited oxygen, sulfur, selenium and iodine lasers is described, using a unique windowless laser cavity geometry which will allow scaling of single amplifier modules to 125 kJ per aperture for 1 ns pulses. On the basis of highest projected overall efficiency, a selenium laser is chosen for a conceptual power plant fusion laser system. This laser operates on the 489 nm transauroral transition of selenium, excited by photolytic dissociation of COSe by ultraviolet fluorescence radiation. Power balances and relative costs for optics, electrical power conditioning and flow conditioning of both the laser and fluorescer gas streams are discussed for a system with the following characteristics: 8 operating modules, 2 standby modules, 125 kJ per module, 1.4 pulses per second, 1.4 MW total average power. The technical issues of scaling visible and near-infrared photolytic gas laser systems to this size are discussed

  6. The expected environmental consequences and hazards of laser-fusion electric generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devaney, J.J.; Pendergrass, J.H.

    The operation of an expected early form of a laser-fusion electric power plant is described and the hazards and the environmental effects of such a station are estimated. Possible environmental impacts and hazards to mankind can occur from nuclear excursions or explosions, nuclear weapon proliferation, loss of coolant accident (LOCA), tritium releases, chemical fires and accompanying releases of radioactivity or chemicals, induced radioactivity releases (other than tritium), radioactive waste disposal, lasers, normal electrical generation and steam plant effects, external intrusions, natural disasters, land use, resource and transportation use, thermal pollution, and air and water pollution. We find the principle environmental effects to be those of a medium size chemical plant. Electric, magnetic, steam, and radioactive hazards are of a lower order. Indeed in the event of extraordinary success in getting high temperatures and densities so that more difficult nuclear species can be reacted, such as protons with boron-11, there will be no radioactivity at all and also enormously lower hazardous chemical inventories. In our plant designs, for any fusion fuels, nuclear explosions (or even excursions beyond design limits) are not possible. (author)

  7. Theoretical analysis of material removal mechanisms in pulsed laser fusion cutting of ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintero, F [Dpto FIsica Aplicada, Universidad de Vigo, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, Lagoas-Marcosende 9, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Varas, F [Dpto Matematica Aplicada II, Universidad de Vigo, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, Lagoas-Marcosende 9, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Pou, J [Dpto FIsica Aplicada, Universidad de Vigo, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, Lagoas-Marcosende 9, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Lusquinos, F [Dpto FIsica Aplicada, Universidad de Vigo, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, Lagoas-Marcosende 9, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Boutinguiza, M [Dpto FIsica Aplicada, Universidad de Vigo, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, Lagoas-Marcosende 9, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Soto, R [Dpto FIsica Aplicada, Universidad de Vigo, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, Lagoas-Marcosende 9, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Perez-Amor, M [Dpto FIsica Aplicada, Universidad de Vigo, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, Lagoas-Marcosende 9, 36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2005-02-21

    It is well known that the efficiency of material removal mechanisms has a crucial influence on the performance and quality of the laser cutting process. However, they are very difficult to study since the physical processes and parameters which govern them are quite complicated to observe and measure experimentally. For this reason, the development of theoretical models to analyse the material removal mechanisms is very important for understanding the characteristics and influence of these processes. In this paper, a theoretical model of the pulsed laser fusion cutting of ceramics is presented. The material removal mechanisms from the cutting front are modelled under the assumption that the ceramic material may be, simultaneously, melted and evaporated by the laser radiation. Therefore, three ejection mechanisms are investigated together: ejection of molten material by the assist gas, evaporation of the liquid and ejection of molten material due to the recoil pressure generated by the evaporation from the cutting front. The temporal evolution of the material removal mechanisms and the thickness of the molten layer are solved for several laser pulse modes. Theoretical results are compared with experimental observations to validate the conclusions regarding the influence of frequency and pulse length on the cutting process.

  8. Fabrication of the wing and vertical target dummy armour prototypes of the ITER divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grattarola, M.; Bet, M.; Biagiotti, B.; Gandini, G.; Merola, M.; Ottonello, G.B.; Riccardi, B.; Vieider, G.; Zacchia, F.

    2000-01-01

    The dummy armour prototypes are identical to the reference components in terms of geometry, cooling circuit and material except for the armour material, which is replaced by an equivalent thickness of copper alloy. The main objectives of the dummy armour prototypes are the demonstration of the overall engineering concept of the Divertor, the integration in a 3 deg. cassette together with components manufactured by the other ITER Home Teams and the successive thermo-hydraulic tests on the whole Divertor module. This paper describes the realization of both the wing and the vertical target dummy armour prototypes focusing on the critical aspects of the fabrication and their impact on a further industrialization of the components

  9. Fabrication of the wing and vertical target dummy armour prototypes of the ITER divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grattarola, M. E-mail: gratta@ari.ansaldo.it; Bet, M.; Biagiotti, B.; Gandini, G.; Merola, M.; Ottonello, G.B.; Riccardi, B.; Vieider, G.; Zacchia, F

    2000-11-01

    The dummy armour prototypes are identical to the reference components in terms of geometry, cooling circuit and material except for the armour material, which is replaced by an equivalent thickness of copper alloy. The main objectives of the dummy armour prototypes are the demonstration of the overall engineering concept of the Divertor, the integration in a 3 deg. cassette together with components manufactured by the other ITER Home Teams and the successive thermo-hydraulic tests on the whole Divertor module. This paper describes the realization of both the wing and the vertical target dummy armour prototypes focusing on the critical aspects of the fabrication and their impact on a further industrialization of the components.

  10. HRP facility for fabrication of ITER vertical target divertor full scale plasma facing units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visca, Eliseo; Roccella, S.; Candura, D.; Palermo, M.; Rossi, P.; Pizzuto, A.; Sanguinetti, G.P.; Mancini, A.; Verdini, L.; Cacciotti, E.; Cerri, V.; Mugnaini, G.; Reale, A.; Giacomi, G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • R&D activities for the manufacturing of ITER divertor high heat flux plasma-facing components (HHFC). • ENEA and Ansaldo have jointly manufactured several actively cooled monoblock mock-ups and prototypical components. • ENEA and ANSALDO NUCLEARE jointly participate to the European program for the qualification of the manufacturing technology for the ITER divertor IVT. • Successful manufacturing by HRP (Hot Radial Pressing) of first full-scale full-W armored IVT qualification prototype. - Abstract: ENEA and Ansaldo Nucleare S.p.A. (ANN) have being deeply involved in the European development activities for the manufacturing of the ITER Divertor Inner Vertical Target (IVT) plasma-facing components. During normal operation the heat flux deposited on the bottom segment of divertor is 5–10 MW/m 2 but the capability to remove up to 20 MW/m 2 during transient events of 10 s must also be demonstrated. In order to fulfill ITER requirements, ENEA has set up and widely tested a manufacturing process, named Hot Radial Pressing (HRP). The last challenge is now to fabricate full-scale prototypes of the IVT, aimed to be qualified for the next step, i.e. the series production. On the basis of the experience of manufacturing hundreds of small mock-ups, ENEA designed and installed a new suitable HRP facility. The objective of getting a final shaped plasma facing unit (PFU) that satisfies these requirements is an ambitious target because tolerances set by ITER/F4E are very tight. The setting-up of the equipment started with the fabrication of full scale and representative ‘dummies’ in which stainless steel instead of CFC or W was used for monoblocks. The results confirmed that dimensions were compliant with the required tolerances. The paper reports a brief description of the innovative HRP equipment and the dimensional check results after HRP of the first full-scale full-W PFU.

  11. HRP facility for fabrication of ITER vertical target divertor full scale plasma facing units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visca, Eliseo, E-mail: eliseo.visca@enea.it [Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, IT-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Roccella, S. [Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, IT-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Candura, D.; Palermo, M. [Ansaldo Nucleare S.p.A., Corso Perrone 25, IT-16152 Genova (Italy); Rossi, P.; Pizzuto, A. [Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, IT-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Sanguinetti, G.P. [Ansaldo Nucleare S.p.A., Corso Perrone 25, IT-16152 Genova (Italy); Mancini, A.; Verdini, L.; Cacciotti, E.; Cerri, V.; Mugnaini, G.; Reale, A.; Giacomi, G. [Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, IT-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • R&D activities for the manufacturing of ITER divertor high heat flux plasma-facing components (HHFC). • ENEA and Ansaldo have jointly manufactured several actively cooled monoblock mock-ups and prototypical components. • ENEA and ANSALDO NUCLEARE jointly participate to the European program for the qualification of the manufacturing technology for the ITER divertor IVT. • Successful manufacturing by HRP (Hot Radial Pressing) of first full-scale full-W armored IVT qualification prototype. - Abstract: ENEA and Ansaldo Nucleare S.p.A. (ANN) have being deeply involved in the European development activities for the manufacturing of the ITER Divertor Inner Vertical Target (IVT) plasma-facing components. During normal operation the heat flux deposited on the bottom segment of divertor is 5–10 MW/m{sup 2} but the capability to remove up to 20 MW/m{sup 2} during transient events of 10 s must also be demonstrated. In order to fulfill ITER requirements, ENEA has set up and widely tested a manufacturing process, named Hot Radial Pressing (HRP). The last challenge is now to fabricate full-scale prototypes of the IVT, aimed to be qualified for the next step, i.e. the series production. On the basis of the experience of manufacturing hundreds of small mock-ups, ENEA designed and installed a new suitable HRP facility. The objective of getting a final shaped plasma facing unit (PFU) that satisfies these requirements is an ambitious target because tolerances set by ITER/F4E are very tight. The setting-up of the equipment started with the fabrication of full scale and representative ‘dummies’ in which stainless steel instead of CFC or W was used for monoblocks. The results confirmed that dimensions were compliant with the required tolerances. The paper reports a brief description of the innovative HRP equipment and the dimensional check results after HRP of the first full-scale full-W PFU.

  12. Laser fusion program at LASL. Progress report, January 1--June 30, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, E.

    1976-11-01

    Progress in the development of high-energy short-pulse CO/sub 2/ laser systems for fusion research is reported. The Single-Beam System continued to be used in target experiments at a peak intensity of 7 x 10/sup 14/ W/cm/sup 2/, and the system was improved. The status of the Two-Beam System, on which target experiments have begun with 300-J, 1-ns pulses in one beam, is described. Construction and checkout of the Eight-Beam System are continuing. Further design studies for the High-Energy Gas Laser Facility and the initiation of a prototype program are reported. The rare-gas oxides and dimeric mercury were emphasized in investigations into new lasers for fusion research. Experimental kinetics studies, a study of heat-pipe containment of metal vapors, theoretical support, and optical-damage investigations are described. Significant experimental and theoretical results are reported on the question of wavelength-scaling in laser-plasma interaction physics. Studies of vacuum insulation as a means of preventing target preheat by hot electrons are also summarized. Analyses of the ponderomotive force in laser-plasma interactions and of the relationship between x-ray spectrum and suprathermal electron distribution are described. Improvements to the MCRAD and LASNEX design codes are outlined, and a LASNEX analysis of a target heated by laser-generated fast ions is discussed. Improved methods of screening, characterizing, and fabricating microballoons and more complex targets are described, and progress in applying uniform layers of DT ice on the inside of a microballoon is reported. Improvements in diagnostics include x-ray streak photographs, the fabrication of x-ray microscope systems, and x-ray film imaging. New results in our feasibility and systems studies are presented, including the wetted-wall and magnetically protected reactor concepts, the effect of ionized debris on cavity walls, the fusion-fission breeder concept, and the production of synthetic fuels by fusion

  13. Conception and fabrication of innovative Am-Based targets: the ca mix/Cochix experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, N.; Croixmarie, Y.; Abonneau, E.; Ottaviani, J.P.; Donnet, L.; Desmouliere, F.; Konings, R.J.M.; Fernandez, A.

    2003-01-01

    A large experimental programme has been planned to be carried out in the French PHENIX reactor. The purpose is to evaluate the technical feasibility of minor actinide transmutation in fast reactors. Two major series of experiments have been designed for the heterogeneous transmutation mode. The first one, the MATINA (Matrices for Incineration of Actinides) series, aims at testing both different inert matrices in a fast flux and different concepts. The study is generic and focuses on the material behaviour under representative irradiation conditions. Targets are free of minor actinides to make the fabrication and design steps easier and faster. The second one, ECRIX, CAMIX (Compounds of Americium in PHENIX) and COCHIX (Concept Optimized microstructure in PHENIX), is a further step in the demonstration phase of the ''once-through'' transmutation and deals with Am-bearing targets irradiated in a fast neutron spectrum ''locally'' moderated. The moderator materials tested will be calcium hydride CaH 2-x (cases of ECRIX-H, CAMIX and COCHIX) and boron carbide 11 B 4 C (case of ECRIX-B) in order to accelerate the process of transmutation significantly. (author)

  14. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support: Annual report, October 1, 1997 - September 30, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, J.

    1998-12-01

    During this period, General Atomics (GA) and their partner Schafer Corporation were assigned 17 formal tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program and its five laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct ''On-site Support'' at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). They fabricated and delivered over 1,200 hohlraum mandrels and numerous other micromachined components to LLNL, LANL, and SNLA. They produced more than 1,300 glass and plastic target capsules for LLNL, LANL, SNLA, and the University of Rochester/Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). They also delivered nearly 2,000 various target foils and films for Naval Research Lab (NRL) and UR/LLE in FY98. This report describes these target fabrication activities and the target fabrication and characterization development activities that made the deliveries possible. During FY98, great progress was made by the GA/Schafer-UR/LLE-LANL team in the design, procurement, installation, and testing of the OMEGA Cryogenic Target System (OCTS) that will field cryogenic targets on OMEGA. The design phase was concluded for all components of the OCTS and all major components were procured and nearly all were fabricated. Many of the components were assembled and tested, and some have been shipped to UR/LLE. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the OMEGA laser and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which will require targets containing cryogenic layered D 2 or deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel. They are part of the National Cryogenic Target Program and support experiments at LLNL and LANL to generate and characterize cryogenic layers for these targets. They also contributed cryogenic support and developed concepts for NIF cryogenic targets. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks

  15. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support: Annual report, October 1, 1997--September 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, J. [ed.

    1998-12-01

    During this period, General Atomics (GA) and their partner Schafer Corporation were assigned 17 formal tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program and its five laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct ``On-site Support`` at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). They fabricated and delivered over 1,200 hohlraum mandrels and numerous other micromachined components to LLNL, LANL, and SNLA. They produced more than 1,300 glass and plastic target capsules for LLNL, LANL, SNLA, and the University of Rochester/Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). They also delivered nearly 2,000 various target foils and films for Naval Research Lab (NRL) and UR/LLE in FY98. This report describes these target fabrication activities and the target fabrication and characterization development activities that made the deliveries possible. During FY98, great progress was made by the GA/Schafer-UR/LLE-LANL team in the design, procurement, installation, and testing of the OMEGA Cryogenic Target System (OCTS) that will field cryogenic targets on OMEGA. The design phase was concluded for all components of the OCTS and all major components were procured and nearly all were fabricated. Many of the components were assembled and tested, and some have been shipped to UR/LLE. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the OMEGA laser and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which will require targets containing cryogenic layered D{sub 2} or deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel. They are part of the National Cryogenic Target Program and support experiments at LLNL and LANL to generate and characterize cryogenic layers for these targets. They also contributed cryogenic support and developed concepts for NIF cryogenic targets. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  16. Fabrication Method of the Mo-99 Target with Advanced Planar Flow Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, M. S.; Lee, J. H. [Chungnam University, Green Energy Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, C. K.; Woo, Y. M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Mo-99 is a parent isotope of Tc-99m for medical diagnosis and very significant owing to its large fraction over 80% of the whole demand of medical radioisotopes in the all countries. Mo-99 isotope has been produced mainly by {sup 235}U which is extracting fission products. All the major providers of fission Mo have used HEU as a target material. But RERTR program that is non-proliferation policy encourages using HEU to LEU. KAERI has developed a processing to be able to produce a uranium foil continuously at one go. This processing gave an opportunity for LEU target using uranium foil to be commercialized. It correspond RERTR program. KAERI developed a new process of making foil directly from uranium melt by PFC. This process is simple, productive, and cost-effective. But the foil{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot}s air-side surface is generally very rough. A typical transverse cross section had a minimum thickness of 65 {mu}m and a maximum thickness of 205 {mu}m. This roughness could affect target fabrication and irradiation behavior. After issuing this problem KAERI launched a further effort since 2008. A new equipment was designed and manufactured in the industry in 2009. While the new equipment being test-operating, some occurrence of appearing problems appeared. Since 2010, Equipment was moved to KAERI, we performed many experiments using depleted uranium, and go get satisfied some results. We have got interesting results and manufactured uranium foil. A typical transverse cross section had a minimum thickness of 87 {mu}m and a maximum thickness of 194 {mu}m. However, the average thickness is 130 {mu}m as a result of measurement by a micrometer

  17. Fabrication Method of the Mo-99 Target with Advanced Planar Flow Casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, M. S.; Lee, J. H.; Kim, C. K.; Kim, W. J.

    2011-01-01

    Mo-99 is a parent isotope of Tc-99m for medical diagnosis and very significant owing to its large fraction over 80% of the whole demand of medical radioisotopes in the all countries. Mo-99 isotope has been produced mainly by 235 U which is extracting fission products. All the major providers of fission Mo have used HEU as a target material. But RERTR program that is nonproliferation policy encourages using HEU to LEU. KAERI has developed a processing to be able to produce a uranium foil continuously at one go. This processing gave an opportunity for LEU target using uranium foil to be commercialized. It correspond RERTR program. KAERI developed a new process of making foil directly from uranium melt by PFC. This process is simple, productive, and cost-effective. But the foil's air-side surface is generally very rough. A typical transverse cross section had a minimum thickness of 65 μm and a maximum thickness of 205 μm. This roughness could affect target fabrication and irradiation behavior. After issuing this problem KAERI launched a further effort since 2008. A new equipment was designed and manufactured in the industry in 2009. While the new equipment being test-operating, some occurrence of appearing problems appeared. Since 2010, Equipment was moved to KAERI, we performed many experiments using depleted uranium, and go get satisfied some results. We have got interesting results and manufactured uranium foil. A typical transverse cross section had a minimum thickness of 87 μm and a maximum thickness of 194 μm. The average thickness is 120 μm as a result of calculation

  18. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support: Annual report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppe, M.

    1997-02-01

    On December 30, 1990, the U.S. Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. In September 1995 this contract ended and a second contract was issued for us to continue this ICF target support work. This report documents the technical activities of the period October 1, 1995 through September 30, 1996. During this period, GA and our partners WJ Schafer Associates (WJSA) and Soane Technologies, Inc. (STI) were assigned 14 formal tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its five laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct open-quotes Onsite Supportclose quotes at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). We fabricated and delivered over 800 gold-plated hohlraum mandrels to LLNL, LANL and SNLA. We produced nearly 1,200 glass and plastic target capsules for LLNL, LANL, SNLA and University of Rochester/Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). We also delivered over 100 flat foil targets for Naval Research Lab (NRL) and SNLA in FY96. This report describes these target fabrication activities and the target fabrication and characterization development activities that made the deliveries possible. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the OMEGA laser and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which will require capsules containing cryogenic layered D 2 or deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel. We are part of the National Cryogenic Target Program to create and demonstrate viable ways to generate and characterize cryogenic layers. Substantial progress has been made on ways to both create and characterize viable layers. During FY96, significant progress was made in the design of the OMEGA Cryogenic Target System that will field cryogenic targets on OMEGA

  19. Optical design and analysis of carbon dioxide laser fusion systems using interferometry and fast Fourier transform techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, V.K.

    1979-01-01

    The optical design and analysis of the LASL carbon dioxide laser fusion systems required the use of techniques that are quite different from the currently used method in conventional optical design problems. The necessity for this is explored and the method that has been successfully used at Los Alamos to understand these systems is discussed with examples. This method involves characterization of the various optical components in their mounts by a Zernike polynomial set and using fast Fourier transform techniques to propagate the beam, taking diffraction and other nonlinear effects that occur in these types of systems into account. The various programs used for analysis are briefly discussed

  20. Interferogram reduction and interpretation as applied to the optical analysis of the 10 kJ LASL laser fusion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, V.K.; Hall, W.S.; Liberman, I.; Lawrence, G.

    1978-01-01

    The LASL 10 kJ Eight-Beam CO 2 Laser Fusion System, currently under construction, has approximately one hundred optical elements per beam. The nominal system is diffraction limited and degradations in performance are primarily caused by imperfect components as well as alignment errors. Consequently, analysis and predictions for the system are very much dependent on the proper description of the imperfect components. The approach taken at LASL has been to characterize the components interferometrically. Interferograms of the various components are made at the 633 nm He--Ne wavelength. Detailed results of the analysis for one complete leg of the eight-beam system is presented

  1. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support. Annual report, October 1, 1996 - September 30, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, J.

    1998-03-01

    This report documents the technical activities of the period October 1, 1996 through September 30, 1997. During this period, GA and their partner Schafer Corporation were assigned 13 formal tasks in support of the ICF program and its five laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct open-quotes Onsite Supportclose quotes at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). Over 700 gold-plated hohlraum mandrels were fabricated and delivered to LLNL, LANL and SNLA. More than 1600 glass and plastic target capsules were produced for LLNL, LANL, SNLA and University of Rochester/Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). Nearly 2000 various target foils and films were delivered for Naval Research Lab (NRL) and UR/LLE in FY97. This report describes these target fabrication activities and the target fabrication and characterization development activities that made the deliveries possible. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the OMEGA laser and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which will require targets containing cryogenic layered D 2 or deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel. This project is part of the National Cryogenic Target Program and support experiments at LLNL and LANL to generate and characterize cryogenic layers for these targets. During FY97, significant progress was made in the design and component testing of the OMEGA Cryogenic Target System that will field cryogenic targets on OMEGA. This included major design changes, reduction in equipment, and process simplifications. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks

  2. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support. Annual report, October 1, 1996--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, J. [ed.

    1998-03-01

    This report documents the technical activities of the period October 1, 1996 through September 30, 1997. During this period, GA and their partner Schafer Corporation were assigned 13 formal tasks in support of the ICF program and its five laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct {open_quotes}Onsite Support{close_quotes} at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). Over 700 gold-plated hohlraum mandrels were fabricated and delivered to LLNL, LANL and SNLA. More than 1600 glass and plastic target capsules were produced for LLNL, LANL, SNLA and University of Rochester/Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). Nearly 2000 various target foils and films were delivered for Naval Research Lab (NRL) and UR/LLE in FY97. This report describes these target fabrication activities and the target fabrication and characterization development activities that made the deliveries possible. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the OMEGA laser and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which will require targets containing cryogenic layered D{sub 2} or deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel. This project is part of the National Cryogenic Target Program and support experiments at LLNL and LANL to generate and characterize cryogenic layers for these targets. During FY97, significant progress was made in the design and component testing of the OMEGA Cryogenic Target System that will field cryogenic targets on OMEGA. This included major design changes, reduction in equipment, and process simplifications. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  3. SIRIUS-P: An inertially confined direct drive laser fusion power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sviatoslavsky, I.N.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Moses, G.A.; Bruggink, D.; Engelstad, R.L.; Khater, H.Y.; Larsen, E.M.; Lovell, E.G.; MacFarlane, J.J.; Mogahed, E.A.; Peterson, R.R.; Sawan, M.E.; Wang, P.; Wittenberg, L.J.

    1993-03-01

    The SIRIUS-P conceptual design study is of a 1000 MWe laser driven inertial confinement fusion power reactor utilizing near symmetric illumination of direct drive targets. The reference driver is a KrF laser; however, any other laser capable of delivering short wavelength energy can be substituted. Sixty beams providing a total of 3.4 MJ of energy are used at a repetition rate of 6.7 Hz and a target gain of 118. The spherical chamber has an internal diameter of 6.5 m and consists of two independent components, a first wall assembly fabricated from a c/c composite and a blanket assembly made of SiC. First wall protection is provided by a xenon buffer gas at a pressure of 0.5 torr. The chamber is cooled by a flowing granular bed of solid ceramic material, TiO 2 for the first wall assembly and Li 2 O for the blanket assembly. The chamber is housed within a 42 m radius cylindrical reactor building which is 86 m high and which shares the same vacuum space as the chamber. All the laser beams are brought in at the bottom of the building, first onto a dielectrically coated final focusing mirror and finally onto a metallic grazing incidence mirror which reflects them into the chamber through beam ports open to the building. Neutron traps behind the grazing incidence mirrors are used to prolong the lifetimes of the final focusing optics. The nominal cost of electricity from this system is 65 mills/kwh assuming an 8% interest rate on capital

  4. Fabrication and characterization of UV-emitting nanoparticles as novel radiation sensitizers targeting hypoxic tumor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squillante, Michael R.; Jüstel, Thomas; Anderson, R. Rox; Brecher, Charles; Chartier, Daniel; Christian, James F.; Cicchetti, Nicholas; Espinoza, Sara; McAdams, Daniel R.; Müller, Matthias; Tornifoglio, Brooke; Wang, Yimin; Purschke, Martin

    2018-06-01

    Radiation therapy is one of the primary therapeutic techniques for treating cancer, administered to nearly two-thirds of all cancer patients. Although largely effective in killing cancer cells, radiation therapy, like other forms of cancer treatment, has difficulty dealing with hypoxic regions within solid tumors. The incomplete killing of cancer cells can lead to recurrence and relapse. The research presented here is investigating the enhancement of the efficacy of radiation therapy by using scintillating nanoparticles that emit UV photons. UV photons, with wavelengths between 230 nm and 280 nm, are able to inactivate cells due to their direct interaction with DNA, causing a variety of forms of damage. UV-emitting nanoparticles will enhance the treatment in two ways: first by generating UV photons in the immediate vicinity of cancer cells, leading to direct and oxygen-independent DNA damage, and second by down-converting the applied higher energy X-rays into softer X-rays and particles that are more efficiently absorbed in the targeted tumor region. The end result will be nanoparticles with a higher efficacy in the treatment of hypoxic cells in the tumor, filling an important, unmet clinical need. Our preliminary experiments show an increase in cell death using scintillating LuPO4:Pr nanoparticles over that achieved by the primary radiation alone. This work describes the fabrication of the nanoparticles, their physical characterization, and the spectroscopic characterization of the UV emission. The work also presents in vitro results that demonstrate an enhanced efficacy of cell killing with x-rays and a low unspecific toxicity of the nanoparticles.

  5. Helical-type device and laser fusion. Rivals for tokamak-type device at n-fusion development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Under the current policy on the research and development of nuclear fusion in Japan, as enunciated by the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan, the type of a prototype fusion reactor will be chosen after 2020 from tokamak, helical or some other type including the inertial confinement fusion using lasers. A prototype fusion reactor is the next step following the tokamak type International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). With the prototype reactor, the feasibility as a power plant will be examined. At present the main research and development of nuclear fusion in Japan are on tokamak type, which have been promoted by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). As for the other types of nuclear fusion, researches have been carried out on the helical type in Kyoto University and National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS), the mirror type in Tsukuba University, the tokamak type using superconductive coils in Kyushu University, and the laser fusion in Osaka University. The features and the present state of research and development of the Large Helical Device and the laser fusion which is one step away from the break-even condition are reported. (K.I.)

  6. Laser ``M'egajoule'' cryogenic target program: from target fabrication to conformation of the deuterium-tritium ice layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Rémy; Durut, Frédéric; Reneaume, Benoît; Chicane, Cédric; Théobald, Marc; Breton, Olivier; Martin, Michel; Fleury, Emmanuel; Vincent-Viry, Olivier; Bachelet, Franck; Jeannot, Laurent; Geoffray, Isabelle; Botrel, Ronan; Dauteuil, Christophe; Hermerel, Cyril; Choux, Alexandre; Bednarczyk, Sophie; Legaie, Olivier

    2008-11-01

    For the French inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments, cryogenic target assemblies (CTAs) for the LMJ program are manufactured and filled at CEA Valduc (Dijon) in the cryogenic targets filling station (IRCC). They will be moved at about 20 K into a transport cryostat for cryogenic targets and will be driven from CEA/Valduc to CEA/CESTA (Bordeaux). Cryogenic targets will then be transferred by several cryogenic grippers on the cryogenic target positioner before shots. The CTA has to meet severe specifications and involves a lot of challenging tasks for its manufacture. To fill CTAs by permeation with deuterium-tritium (DT), the IRCC need to meet strict thermal, mechanical and dimensional specifications. To obtain a good combustion yield, a very homogenous DT ice layer and very smooth roughness at 1.5 K below the DT triple point are also required. This paper deals with the up to date main issues in the different fields of the LMJ cryogenic target program.

  7. Super liquid density target designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Y.L.; Bailey, D.S.

    1976-01-01

    The success of laser fusion depends on obtaining near isentropic compression of fuel to very high densities and igniting this fuel. To date, the results of laser fusion experiments have been based mainly on the exploding pusher implosion of fusion capsules consisting of thin glass microballoons (wall thickness of less than 1 micron) filled with low density DT gas (initial density of a few mg/cc). Maximum DT densities of a few tenths of g/cc and temperatures of a few keV have been achieved in these experiments. We will discuss the results of LASNEX target design calculations for targets which: (a) can compress fuel to much higher densities using the capabilities of existing Nd-glass systems at LLL; (b) allow experimental measurement of the peak fuel density achieved

  8. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support: Annual report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppe, M. [ed.

    1995-04-01

    On December 30, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. During the period, GA was assigned 17 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. This year they achieved full production capabilities for the micromachining, dimensional characterization and gold plating of hohlraums. They fabricated and delivered 726 gold-plated mandrels of 27 different types to LLNL and 48 gold-plated mandrels of two different types to LANL. They achieved full production capabilities in composite capsule production ad delivered in excess of 240 composite capsules. They continuously work to improve performance and capabilities. They were also directed to dismantle, remove, and disposition all equipment at the previous contractor (KMSF) that had radioactive contamination levels low enough that they could be exposed to the general public without radiological constraints. GA was also directed to receive and store the tritium fill equipment. They assisted LANL in the development of techniques for characterization of opaque targets. They developed deuterated and UV-opaque polymers for use by the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) and devised a triple-orifice droplet generator to demonstrate the controlled-mass nature of the microencapsulation process. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at NIF and the Omega Upgrade. Both facilities will require capsules containing layered D{sub 2} or D-T fuel. They continued engineering and assembly of equipment for a cryogenic target handling system for UR/LLE that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic deuterium or deuterium-tritium fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments.

  9. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support: Annual report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppe, M.

    1995-04-01

    On December 30, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. During the period, GA was assigned 17 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. This year they achieved full production capabilities for the micromachining, dimensional characterization and gold plating of hohlraums. They fabricated and delivered 726 gold-plated mandrels of 27 different types to LLNL and 48 gold-plated mandrels of two different types to LANL. They achieved full production capabilities in composite capsule production ad delivered in excess of 240 composite capsules. They continuously work to improve performance and capabilities. They were also directed to dismantle, remove, and disposition all equipment at the previous contractor (KMSF) that had radioactive contamination levels low enough that they could be exposed to the general public without radiological constraints. GA was also directed to receive and store the tritium fill equipment. They assisted LANL in the development of techniques for characterization of opaque targets. They developed deuterated and UV-opaque polymers for use by the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) and devised a triple-orifice droplet generator to demonstrate the controlled-mass nature of the microencapsulation process. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at NIF and the Omega Upgrade. Both facilities will require capsules containing layered D 2 or D-T fuel. They continued engineering and assembly of equipment for a cryogenic target handling system for UR/LLE that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic deuterium or deuterium-tritium fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments

  10. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support. Annual report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppe, M.

    1996-05-01

    On December 30, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities of the period October 1, 1994 through September 30, 1995. During this period, GA was assigned 15 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct ''Onsite Support'' at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the OMEGA Upgrade. Both facilities will require capsules containing layered D 2 or deuterium-tritium (D-T) fuel. The authors are part of the National Cryogenic Target Program to create and demonstrate viable ways to generate and characterize cryogenic layers. Progress has been made on ways to both create viable layers and to characterize them. They continued engineering, assembly and testing of equipment for a cryogenic target handling system for University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks

  11. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support. Annual report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppe, M. [ed.

    1996-05-01

    On December 30, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities of the period October 1, 1994 through September 30, 1995. During this period, GA was assigned 15 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct ``Onsite Support`` at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the OMEGA Upgrade. Both facilities will require capsules containing layered D{sub 2} or deuterium-tritium (D-T) fuel. The authors are part of the National Cryogenic Target Program to create and demonstrate viable ways to generate and characterize cryogenic layers. Progress has been made on ways to both create viable layers and to characterize them. They continued engineering, assembly and testing of equipment for a cryogenic target handling system for University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  12. Fabrication of 121Sb isotopic targets for the study of nuclear high spin features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, K. Rojeeta; Kumar, Suresh; Kumar, Neeraj; Abhilash, S. R.; Kabiraj, D.

    2018-06-01

    Isotopic 121Sb targets with 197Au backing have been prepared by Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) method using the diffusion pump based coating unit at target laboratory, Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi, India. The target thickness was measured by stylus profilo-meter and the purity of the targets was investigated by Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDXA). One of these targets has been used in an experiment which was performed at IUAC for nuclear structure study through fusion evaporation reaction. The excitation function of the 121Sb(12C, yxnγ) reaction has been performed for energies 58 to 70 MeV in steps of 4 MeV. The experimental results were compared with the calculations of statistical models : PACE4 and CASCADE. The methods adopted to achieve best quality foils and good deposition efficiency are reported in this paper.

  13. Proceedings of JSPS-CAS core university program seminar on target materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Z.Z.; Norimatsu, T.

    2008-02-01

    China-Japan Bilateral Collaboration on the Study of Ultrahigh Density Plasma has been established since 2001 and its second phase is conducting from 2006. Target materials are key issue of the Study of Ultrahigh Density Plasma, and the second of target fabrication was opened at the 2005 Workshop on Ultrahigh Density Plasma Production, Application and theory for Laser Fusion at Nine Village Valley, Sichuan. It achieved great successes in high-level academic exchange and efficient presentation of state-of-the-art development in this research field. However, in order to attract greater attention and participation of more scientists in these fields, the organizing committee decided to further specify and enlarge the scale of the workshop to be China-Japan Bilateral Seminar on Target Materials 2007 in Huang Shan in southern Anhui Province of east China. The seminar had more than 20 participants from 7 universities and 3 institutes in Japan and China. They exchanged state-of-the-art development in nanomaterials, capsule fabrication and low density materials toward target of high power laser. This issue is the collection of the paper presented at the seminar. The 17 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  14. Design and fabrication of a CH/Al dual-layer perturbation target for hydrodynamic instability experiments in ICF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Jun [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Special Artificial Microstructure Materials and Technology, School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Xie, Zhiyong [Shanghai Institute of Laser Plasma, Shanghai 201800 (China); Du, Ai [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Special Artificial Microstructure Materials and Technology, School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Ye, Junjian [Shanghai Institute of Laser Plasma, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zhang, Zhihua; Shen, Jun [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Special Artificial Microstructure Materials and Technology, School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhou, Bin, E-mail: zhoubin863@tongji.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Special Artificial Microstructure Materials and Technology, School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2014-04-15

    Highlights: • Sinusoidal perturbed Al foil was prepared by single-point diamond turning. • Perturbed Al foil was measured by surface profiler and white light interferometer. • Perturbed Al foil and CH layer adhered with each other via a hot-press process. • Parameters and cross-section of the CH–Al perturbation target was characterized. - Abstract: A polystyrene (CH)/aluminum (Al) dual-layer perturbation target for hydrodynamic instability experiments in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) was designed and fabricated. The target was composed of a perturbed 40 μm Al foil and a CH layer. The detailed fabrication method consisted of four steps. The 40 μm Al foil was first prepared by roll and polish process; the perturbation patterns were then introduced on the surface of the Al foil by the single-point diamond turning (SPDT) technology; the CH layer was prepared via a simple method which called spin-coating process; finally, the CH layer was directly coated on the perturbation surface of Al foil by a hot-press process to avoid the use of a sticker and to eliminate the gaps between the CH layer and the Al foil. The parameters of the target, such as the perturbation wavelength (T) and perturbation amplitude (A), were characterized by a QC-5000 tool microscope, an alpha-step 500 surface profiler and a NT1100 white light interferometer. The results showed that T and A of the target were about 52 μm and 7.34 μm, respectively. Thickness of the Al foil (H1), thickness of the CH layer (H2), and cross-section of the dual-layer target were characterized by a QC-5000 tool microscope and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). H1 and H2 were about 40 μm and 15 μm, respectively, the cross-sectional photographs of the target showed that the CH layer and the Al foil adhered perfectly with each other.

  15. Fabrication of thin-wall, freestanding inertial confinement fusion targets by chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, D.W.; McCreary, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    To meet the requirements for plasma physics experiments in the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) program, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) in fluid beds was used to fabricate freestanding tungsten spheres and cylinders with wall thicknesses less than 5.0 μm. Molybdenum and molybdenum alloy (TZM) mandrels of the desired geometry were suspended in a carrier bed of dense microspheres contained in an induction-heated fluid-bed reactor. The mandrels were free to float randomly through the bed, and using the reaction WF 6 +3H 2 →/sub /KW +6HF, very fine-grained tungsten was deposited onto the surface at a rate and in a grain size determined by temperature, gas flow rate, system pressure, and duration of the reaction. After coating, a portion of each mandrel was exposed by hole drilling or grinding. The mandrel was then removed by acid leaching, leaving a freestanding tungsten shape. Experimental procedures, mandrel preparation, and results obtained are discussed

  16. Overview on the target fabrication facilities at ELI-NP and ongoing strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghiu, C. C.; Leca, V.; Popa, D.; Cernaianu, M. O.; Stutman, D.

    2016-10-01

    Along with the development of petawatt class laser systems, the interaction between high power lasers and matter flourished an extensive research, with high-interest applications like: laser nuclear physics, proton radiography or cancer therapy. The new ELI-NP (Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics) petawatt laser facility, with 10PW and ~ 1023W/cm2 beam intensity, is one of the innovative projects that will provide novel research of fundamental processes during light-matter interaction. As part of the ELI-NP facility, Targets Laboratory will provide the means for in-house manufacturing and characterization of the required targets (mainly solid ones) for the experiments, in addition to the research activity carried out in order to develop novel target designs with improved performances. A description of the Targets Laboratory with the main pieces of equipment and their specifications are presented. Moreover, in view of the latest progress in the target design, one of the proposed strategies for the forthcoming experiments at ELI-NP is also described, namely: ultra-thin patterned foil of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coated with a carbon-based ultra-low density layer. The carbon foam which behaves as a near-critical density plasma, will allow the controlled-shaping of the laser pulse before the main interaction with the solid foil. Particular emphasis will be directed towards the target's design optimization, by simulation tests and tuning the key-properties (thickness/length, spacing, density foam, depth, periodicity etc.) which are expected to have a crucial effect on the laser-matter interaction process.

  17. Research on the wetted first wall concept for future laser fusion reactors. Final report No. 1, October 1, 1974--January 31, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, M.A.; Munir, Z.A.

    1976-01-01

    Research is in progress to determine the feasibility of the wetted first wall concept for a future laser fusion reactor. The basic idea involves the use of a thin coating of lithium on the inner wall of the laser fusion containment vessel to protect it from the micro-explosion blast debris. This report contains a review of the available information on contact angles and wettability of alkali metals on various metal substrates as well as a review of literature on thin falling liquid films. A proposed experiment to measure the contact angles of lithium on stainless steel and niobium is described. The requirements for a second experiment to measure certain key characteristics of thin falling films are also included

  18. Computer programs for capital cost estimation, lifetime economic performance simulation, and computation of cost indexes for laser fusion and other advanced technology facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendergrass, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    Three FORTRAN programs, CAPITAL, VENTURE, and INDEXER, have been developed to automate computations used in assessing the economic viability of proposed or conceptual laser fusion and other advanced-technology facilities, as well as conventional projects. The types of calculations performed by these programs are, respectively, capital cost estimation, lifetime economic performance simulation, and computation of cost indexes. The codes permit these three topics to be addressed with considerable sophistication commensurate with user requirements and available data

  19. Interaction of a laser beam with a target. Application to the fabrication of granular superconducting films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desserre, Jacques.

    1974-01-01

    The aim was to prepare a superconductor of high T(c). First are given the different simplified theories (BCS, Mac Millan) whereby the critical temperature of a superconductor can be calculated, with a view to its optimization. A material and a preparation technique were chosen on the basis of these theories. The method uses phenomena which occur during the interaction of a coherent pulsed light beam, emitted by a laser, with the surface of a metallic or nonmetallic target. Different theoretical models of this interaction are proposed. Special attention is paid to complex targets (alloys, compounds) and the construction of a model describing the vaporization of a compound is suggested. By a suitable choice of laser, based on the energy emission profile and the value of the energy supplied, congruent vaporization of the target is possible. The technique was applied to the preparation of thin layers by condensation onto a substrate of the vapor and the plasma emitted during the interaction. The deposits generally have the same structure as the bulk compound used as target while the atomic composition of the film may be slightly different. Thin layers of Ni 3 Mn, CdTe, ZnC, HfC were prepared in this way without treatment of the deposits after condensation. Simultaneous vaporization of the compound ReBe 22 in the bulk state gave filaments made up of small grains (20A), identical in composition with the target. The beryllium α phase (compact hexagonal) was identified but the electron diffraction study showed the existence of several other phases of unknown structure. The superconducting properties changed with time [fr

  20. Fabrication and characterisation of composite targets for the transmutation of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naestren, C.; Haas, D.; Fernandez, A.; Somers, J.

    2006-01-01

    Transmutation of transuranic elements separated from spent fuel is a way to reduce the toxicity of long-lived nuclides in the waste before disposal. Plutonium and the minor actinides (MA) are reintroduced into the fuel cycle for further irradiation and incineration. Currently CERMET fuel forms, in which a ceramic actinide is dispersed in a matrix, are considered for MA transmutation. In a first step, PuO 2 beads are produced by a sol gel method in which a Pu nitrate solution is converted to solid, dust-free, particles. These porous beads are then infiltrated with an americium nitrate solution to the incipient wetness point and calcined to give the (PuAm)O 2 beads, which are blended with a metal matrix and compacted and sintered to form the final fuel pellet. The matrix used is molybdenum due to its high thermal conductivity and low neutron capture cross section, if it is enriched in 92 Mo. In this work, optimization of the bead porosity is investigated to achieve a higher Am content by infiltration. Addition of carbon to the mother solution in the sol gel step increases the bead porosity but it also changes both bead and final fuel pellet microstructure. A surrogate fuel, with cerium simulating the actinides has been fabricated and its mechanical stability and bead characteristics investigated as a function of carbon content and thermal treatment. The characterization of the surrogate fuel by ceramography, density, porosity, bead-quality, etc., is a necessary step in the process optimization, to be transferred to the production of the actinide samples. This process is now at an advanced stage and is being used for the production of fuels for irradiation tests in the Phenix (Futurix) and HFR-Petten (HELIOS) reactors. In parallel, studies on the dissolution of the fuel pellets, with the aim of dissolving the Mo-matrix while keeping the CeO 2 beads intact, have been initiated. Thus, Mo can be recycled for further fuel fabrication either from production scraps or from

  1. Production and characterization of thin 7Li targets fabricated by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, J.; Fonseca, M.; Luis, H.; Mateus, R.; Marques, H.; Jesus, A.P.; Ribeiro, J.P.; Teodoro, O.M.N.D.; Rolfs, C.

    2009-01-01

    Very high fluence implantation of 7 Li + ions was used to promote the formation of a thin and high density 7 Li target in the surface region of Al samples. The implanted volume was characterized by particle induced gamma-ray emission, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and nuclear reaction analysis, revealing that the implanted surface is a combination of Li 2 CO 3 , metallic lithium, LiOH and C, with almost no Al present. Radiation damage effects by proton beams were studied by observing the evolution of the 7 Li(p, α) 4 He nuclear reaction yield with the accumulated charge, at different proton energies, revealing high stability of the produced Li target.

  2. Application of ultra-fast high-resolution gated-image intensifiers to laser fusion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieber, A.J.; Benjamin, R.F.; Sutphin, H.D.; McCall, G.H.

    1975-01-01

    Gated-image intensifiers for fast framing have found high utility in laser-target interaction studies. X-ray pinhole camera photographs which can record asymmetries of laser-target interactions have been instrumental in further system design. High-resolution high-speed x-ray images of laser irradiated targets are formed using pinhole optics and electronically amplified by proximity focused channelplate intensifiers before being recorded on film. Spectral resolution is obtained by filtering. In these applications shutter duration is determined by source duration. Electronic gating serves to reduce background thereby enhancing signal-to-noise ratio. Cameras are used to view the self light of the interaction but may also be used for shadowgraphs. Sources for shadowgraphs may be sequenced to obtain a series of pictures with effective rates of 10 10 frame/s. Multiple aperatures have been used to obtain stereo x-ray views, yielding three dimensional information about the interactions. (author)

  3. Fabrication of genetically engineered polypeptide@quantum dots hybrid nanogels for targeted imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Yao, Ming-Hao; Zhao, Dong-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Shuai; Jin, Rui-Mei; Zhao, Yuan-Di; Liu, Bo

    2017-08-01

    Nanogels have been widely used as multifunctional drug delivery carriers because of high water content, biocompatibility, and high loading capability. We designed and biosynthesized two triblock artificial polypeptides PC10A and PC10ARGD as vehicles for encapsulating hydrophobic materials. These polypeptides can form nanogels by self-assembly when the concentration is below 2% ( w/ v). The physical properties of nanogels, including size, surface potential, and targeting domain, are able to be tuned. Hydrophobic materials from molecular size to nano-size can be loaded into the polypeptide nanogels to form hybrid nanogels. Hydrophobic quantum dots CdSe@ZnS below 10 nM were loaded into the polypeptide nanogels by ultrasonic treatment. Encapsulation endows hydrophobic QDs with good tunability of size, water solubility, stability, targeting, and biocompatibility. PC10ARGD nanogels and PC10ARGD@QDs hybrid nanogels showed excellent biocompatibility, which the cellular viabilities of HeLa and MCF-7 cells treated with 1% PC10ARGD nanogels and PC10ARGD@QDs hybrid nanogels contained 20 nM QDs were above 90 and 80%, respectively. PC10ARGD@QDs hybrid nanogels with an arginine-glycine-aspartic acid motif present efficient receptor-mediated endocytosis in α v β 3 overexpressing HeLa cells but not in the control MCF-7 cells as analyzed by confocal microscopy. These results demonstrate that such polypeptide nanogels as nanocarriers are expected to have great potential applications in biomedicine.

  4. Current trends in laser fusion driver and beam combination laser system using stimulated Brillouin scattering phase conjugate mirrors for a fusion driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Hong Jin

    2008-01-01

    Laser fusion energy (LFE) is well known as one of the promising sources if clean energy for mankind. Laser fusion researches have been actively progressed, since Japan and the Soviet Union as well as USA developed ultrahigh power lasers at the beginning of 1970s. At present in USA, NIF (National Ignition Facility), which is the largest laser fusion facility in the world, is under construction and will be completed in 2008. Japan as a leader of the laser fusion research has developed a high energy and high power laser system, Gekko XII, and is under contemplation of FIREX projects for the fast ignition. China also has SG I, II lasers for performing the fusion research, and SG III is under construction as a next step. France is also constructing LMJ (Laser countries, many other developed countries in Europe, such as Russia, Germany, UK, and so on, have their own high energy laser systems for the fusion research. In Korea, the high power laser development started with SinMyung laser in KAIST in 1994, and KLF (KAERI Laser Facility) of KAERI was recently completed in 2007. For the practical use of laser fusion energy, the laser driver should be operated with a high repetition rate around 10Hz. Yet, current high energy laser systems, Such as NIF, Gekko XII, and etc., can be operated with only several shots per day. Some researchers have developed their own techniques to reduce the thermal loads of the laser material, by using laser diodes as pump sources and ceramic laser materials with high thermal energy scaling up for the real fusion driver. For this reason, H. J. Kong et al. proposed the beam combination laser system using stimulated Brillouin scattering phase conjugate mirrors (SBS PCMs) for a fusion driver. Proposed beam combination has many advantages for energy scaling up; it is composed by simple optical systems with small amount of components, there is no interaction between neighbored sub beams, the SBS PCMs can be used for a high energy beam reflection with

  5. Fabrication and evaluation of tumor-targeted positive MRI contrast agent based on ultrasmall MnO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haitao; Yue, Tao; Xu, Ke; Golzarian, Jafar; Yu, Jiahui; Huang, Jin

    2015-07-01

    Gd(III) chelate is currently used as positive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent in clinical diagnosis, but generally induces the risk of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) due to the dissociated Gd(3+) from Gd(III) chelates. To develop a novel positive MRI contrast agent with low toxicity and high sensitivity, ultrasmall MnO nanoparticles were PEGylated via catechol-Mn chelation and conjugated with cRGD as active targeting function to tumor. Particularly, the MnO nanoparticles with a size of ca. 5nm were modified by α,β-poly(aspartic acid)-based graft polymer containing PEG and DOPA moieties and, meanwhile, conjugated with cRGD to produce the contrast agent with a size of ca. 100nm and a longitudinal relaxivity (r1) of 10.2mM(-1)S(-1). Such nanoscaled contrast agent integrated passive- and active-targeting function to tumor, and its efficient accumulation behavior in tumor was verified by in vivo distribution study. At the same time, the PEG moiety played a role of hydrophilic coating to improve the biocompatibility and stability under storing and physiological conditions, and especially might guarantee enough circulation time in blood. Moreover, in vivo MRI revealed a good and long-term effect of enhancing MRI signal for as-fabricated contrast agent while cell viability assay proved its acceptable cytotoxicity for MRI application. On the whole, the as-fabricated PEGylated and cRGD-functionalized contrast agent based on ultrasmall MnO nanoparticles showed a great potential to the T1-weighted MRI diagnosis of tumor. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Pulse propagation properties in high-power CO2 laser system for laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daido, H.; Inoue, M.; Fujita, H.; Matoba, M.; Nakai, S.

    1981-01-01

    The simulation results of nonlinear propagation properties in the CO 2 laser system using a simulation model of the SF 6 saturable absorbers and the CO 2 laser amplifiers agree well with the experimental results. The technical problems of the simultaneous irradiation of the multi-beams to a target are also discussed. (author)

  7. Theoretical and numerical analysis of auxiliary heating for cryogenic target fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaohu; Tian Chenglin; Yin Yan; Xu Han; Zhuo Hongbin

    2008-01-01

    In order to compensate for the nonspherical-symmetric heat flux in the hohlraum, auxiliary heating is usually applied to the outside wall of the hohlraum during the cooling process. A one-dimensional heat exchange theoretical model has been proposed in the indirect-drive target, to analyze the required auxiliary heat flux. With a two dimensional axisymmetric model, the auxiliary heating mechanism has been simulated by FLUENT code. The optimum heat flux which is 635 W/m 2 has been obtained as the heaters around the outside of the hohlraum about 1.3 mm above and below the mid-plane. The result is in good agreement with the theoretical model. (authors)

  8. Fabrication of self supporting metallic rare earth targets using a piezo-electric quartz as substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonetti, C.P.

    1975-01-01

    Metallic self-supporting targets of cerium and praseodymium of 1 to 2.5mg/cm 2 on a diameter of 18mm were made using the process of evaporation by electron bombardment. Materials are placed on a piezo-electric quartz which permits the direct and precise measurement of the mass of the deposit. Then, such a deposit must be removed and placed on a frame in an environment of argon gas. This method is important because it can be used for small quantities of materials (case of separated isotopes). These high purity foils are used for the study of (d,n) reactions with the Tandem Van de Graaff Accelerator [fr

  9. Diagnostics for the laser fusion program: plasma physics on the scale of microns and picoseconds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attwood, D.T.

    1978-01-01

    Laser induced fusion is the forerunner of a class of inertial confinement schemes in which hydrogen isotopes are heated to thermonuclear conditions in a very short period. The process is characterized by such short time scales that fuel confinement is achieved through its' own finite mass and expansion velocity, approaching 1 μm/psec for ignition temperatures of order 10 keV (10 8 0 K). With current laser powers limited to several terrawatts one readily estimates, on the basis of energy conservation, target mass, and expansion velocity, that target size and laser pulse duration are on the order of 100 μm and 100 psec, respectively. Within these constraints, targets have been heated and confined to the point where thermonuclear conditions have been achieved. This paper describes a sampling of diagnostic techniques with requisite resolution (microns and picoseconds) to accurately describe the dynamics of a laser driven compression. As discussed in each case cited, these in turn provide insight to and quantitative measure of, the physical processes dominating the implosion. The success of the inertial confinement fusion program is strongly dependent on the continued development of such diagnostics and the understanding they provide

  10. Laser fusion experiments at 2 TW. [Argus system; implosion of D-T filled glass microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storm, E.K.; Ahlstrom, H.G.; Boyle, M.J.

    1976-10-01

    The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Solid State Laser System, Arqus, has successfully performed laser implosion experiments at power levels exceeding 2 TW. D-T filled glass microspheres have been imploded to yield thermonuclear reaction products in excess of 5 x 10/sup 8/ per event. Neutron and ..cap alpha.. time-of-flight measurements indicate that D-T ion temperatures of approximately 5-6 keV and a density confinement time product (n tau) of approximately 1 x 10/sup 12/ were obtained in these experiments. Typically two 40J, 40 psec pulses of 1.06 ..mu..m light were focused on targets using 20 cm aperture f/1 lenses, producing intensities at the target in excess of 10/sup 16/ W/cm/sup 2/. An extensive array of diagnostics routinely monitored the laser performance and the laser target interaction process. Measurements of absorption and asymmetry in both the scattered light distribution and the ion blow off is evidence for non-classical absorption mechanisms and density scale heights of the order of 2 ..mu..m or less. The symmetry of the thermonuclear burn region is investigated by monitoring the ..cap alpha..-particle flux in several directions, and an experiment to image the thermonuclear burn region is in process. These experiments significantly extend our data base and our understanding of laser induced thermonuclear implosions and the basic laser plasma interaction physics from the 0.4 to 0.7 TW level of previous experiments.

  11. 2-D simulations of the implosion, collapse and stagnation of laser fusion shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atzeni, S.; Guerrieri, A.

    1989-01-01

    We discuss the method, model and first results of 2-D numerical simulations of the entire history of gas-filled shells irradiated by laser pulses with long wavelength non-uniformities. Although this issue has already been addressed in connection with the design of reactor targets, or with the interpretation of experimental results, a complete, clear, and quantitative picture of the relevant phenomenology is still missing. In general, the history of a target can be divided into three phases, namely, the acceleration and inertial phase of the implosion (I;t≤t 0 ), the shock collapse and reflection (II,t 0 ≤t≤t ' 0 ) and the stagnation (t ' 0 ≤t≤t 1 ). In a previous study, we were able to study quantitatively phase I and to get some qualitative information on phase II. At t≅t 0 , however, negative area zones occurred in the mesh of our purely Lagrangian code, and the simulations became unreliable. We have now upgraded our code, by introducing an automatic mesh-rezoning package, which allows us to follow with reasonable accuracy phase II and III of the target implosion. (author) 9 refs., 6 figs

  12. Laser Fusion Program at LASL. Progress report, July 1--December 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoberne, F.

    1978-12-01

    Progress in the development of high-energy short-pulse CO 2 laser systems for fusion research is reported. Among the achievements discussed are an increase in on-target energy of the Two-Beam System to 375 J per beam; operation of one Eight-Beam System module at the design point of 1.2 kJ at a power of > 2 TW; and the on-schedule development of our 100- to 200-TW laser Antares. Target designs based on the LASNEX code incorporating new theoretical insights are described, culminating in a double-shell exploding-pusher target that attains a high degree of symmetry through hot-electron transport in an exploding outer shell. Studies of laser light absorption are outlined, which confirmed that the values for CO 2 are nearly identical to those obtained with Nd:glass lasers. Unique diagnostics are described, which allow one to measure properties of x-ray emission not previously accessible, and which provide absorption data of sufficient accuracy for direct comparison with theory. Finally, various feasibility and systems studies are summarized, such as the successful modeling of short-pulse amplification in large three-pass CO 2 laser amplifiers, as verified experimentally

  13. Laser Fusion Program at LASL. Progress report, July 1--December 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoberne, F. (comp.)

    1978-12-01

    Progress in the development of high-energy short-pulse CO/sub 2/ laser systems for fusion research is reported. Among the achievements discussed are an increase in on-target energy of the Two-Beam System to 375 J per beam; operation of one Eight-Beam System module at the design point of 1.2 kJ at a power of > 2 TW; and the on-schedule development of our 100- to 200-TW laser Antares. Target designs based on the LASNEX code incorporating new theoretical insights are described, culminating in a double-shell exploding-pusher target that attains a high degree of symmetry through hot-electron transport in an exploding outer shell. Studies of laser light absorption are outlined, which confirmed that the values for CO/sub 2/ are nearly identical to those obtained with Nd:glass lasers. Unique diagnostics are described, which allow one to measure properties of x-ray emission not previously accessible, and which provide absorption data of sufficient accuracy for direct comparison with theory. Finally, various feasibility and systems studies are summarized, such as the successful modeling of short-pulse amplification in large three-pass CO/sub 2/ laser amplifiers, as verified experimentally.

  14. An Effort to Improve Uranium Foil Target Fabrication Technology by Single Roll Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Moon Soo; Lee, Jong Hyeon [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Technetium-99({sup 99m}Tc) is the most commonly used radioisotope in nuclear medicine for diagnostic procedures. It is produced from the decay of its parent Mo-99, which is sent to the hospital or clinic in the form of a generator. Recently, all of the major providers of Mo-99 have used high-enrichment uranium (HEU) as a target material in a research and test reactor. As a part of a nonproliferation effort, the RERTR program has investigated the production of the fission isotope Mo-99 using low-enrichment uranium(LEU) instead of HEU since 1993, a parent nuclide of {sup 99m}Tc , which is a major isotope for a medical diagnosis. As uranium foils have been produced by the conventional method on a laboratory scale by a repetitive hot-rolling method with significant problems in foil quality, productivity and economic efficiency, attention has shifted to the planar flow casting(PFC) method. In KAERI, many experiments are performed using depleted uranium(DU).

  15. Tamper temperature and compression from simultaneous proton and alpha-particle measurements in laser fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cover, R.A.; Kubis, J.J.; Mayer, F.J.; Slater, D.C.

    1978-01-01

    The energy loss per unit path length for a charged particle incident on a spatially uniform isothermal Maxwellian plasma is a function of the temperature and density of the medium. Within this model the temperature and compression rhoΔr of the tamper of a laser-driven microshell target can be accurately determined, in the absence of electrostatic acceleration, by the simultaneous measurement of the energy loss from 3.52-MeV α particles from D-T reactions and 3.02-MeV protons from D-D reactions

  16. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support. Annual report 10/1/98 through 9/30/99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, Jane

    1999-01-01

    General Atomics (GA) has served as the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy since December 30, 1990. This report documents the technical activities of the period October 1, 1998 through September 30, 1999. During this period, GA and our partner Schafer Corporation were assigned 17 formal tasks in support of the ICF program and its five laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct ''Onsite Support'' at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory (SNL). We fabricated and delivered over 1790 hohlraum mandrels and numerous other micromachined components to LLNL, LANL, and SNL. We produced more than 1380 glass and plastic target capsules over a wide range of sizes and designs (plus over 300 near target-quality capsules) for LLNL, LANL, SNL, and University of Rochester/Laboratory for Laser Energetic (UR/LLE). We also delivered various target foils and films for Naval Research Lab (NRL) and UWLLE in FY99. We fabricated a device to polish NIF-sized beryllium shells and prepared a laboratory for the safe operation of beryllium polishing activities. This report describes these target fabrication activities and the target fabrication and characterization development activities that made the deliveries possible. During FY99, the GA/Schafer portion of the GA/Schafer-UR/LLE-LANL team effort for design, procurement, installation, and testing of the OMEGA Cryogenic Target System (OCTS) that will field cryogenic targets on OMEGA was completed. All components of the OCTS were procured, fabricated, assembled, tested, and shipped to UR/LLE. Only minor documentation tasks remain to be done in FY00. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the OMEGA laser and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which will require targets containing cryogenic layered D2 or deuterium

  17. Physics of laser fusion. Volume III. High-power pulsed lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzrichter, J.F.; Eimerl, D.; George, E.V.; Trenholme, J.B.; Simmons, W.W.; Hunt, J.T.

    1982-09-01

    High-power pulsed lasers can deliver sufficient energy on inertial-confinement fusion (ICF) time scales (0.1 to 10 ns) to heat and compress deuterium-tritium fuel to fusion-reaction conditions. Several laser systems have been examined, including Nd:glass, CO 2 , KrF, and I 2 , for their ICF applicability. A great deal of developmental effort has been applied to the Nd:glass laser and the CO 2 gas laser systems; these systems now deliver > 10 4 J and 20 x 10 12 W to ICF targets. We are constructing the Nova Nd:glass laser at LLNL to provide > 100 kJ and > 100 x 10 12 W of 1-μm radiation for fusion experimentation in the mid-1980s. For ICF target gain > 100 times the laser input, we expect that the laser driver must deliver approx. 3 to 5 MJ of energy on a time scale of 10 to 20 ns. In this paper we review the technological status of fusion-laser systems and outline approaches to constructing high-power pulsed laser drivers

  18. Systems Modeling For The Laser Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.R.; Abbott, R.; Beach, R.; Blink, J.; Caird, J.; Erlandson, A.; Farmer, J.; Halsey, W.; Ladran, T.; Latkowski, J.; MacIntyre, A.; Miles, R.; Storm, E.

    2008-01-01

    A systems model has been developed for the Laser Inertial Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) power plant. It combines cost-performance scaling models for the major subsystems of the plant including the laser, inertial fusion target factory, engine (i.e., the chamber including the fission and tritium breeding blankets), energy conversion systems and balance of plant. The LIFE plant model is being used to evaluate design trade-offs and to identify high-leverage R and D. At this point, we are focused more on doing self consistent design trades and optimization as opposed to trying to predict a cost of electricity with a high degree of certainty. Key results show the advantage of large scale (>1000 MWe) plants and the importance of minimizing the cost of diodes and balance of plant cost

  19. The status of laser fusion research at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwood, S.D.

    1983-01-01

    The basic concept of achieving efficient thermonuclear fusion has been proven conclusively in nuclear weapons. The fundamental issue for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is, how small can the fuel mass be. - The ICF programme has two long-term goals. The first is to provide a laboratory capability for studying weapon physics. The attainment of this goal is not represented by any one event. Rather, benefits to the weapons programme are being accrued continuously with greater understanding and improved diagnostics of materials under the extreme conditions of density and temperature similar to those achieved in nuclear explosions. The second goal is to provide a controllable source of fusion energy. This goal will be much more difficult to attain and not only requires the achievement of fusion in the laboratory but also a demonstration of engineering feasibility. In the Los Alamos programme the testing of targets uniquely designed for drive with the carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) laser is emphasized. The two major facilities for this study are the eight-beam Helios system and the Antares laser system. Some recent results to be discussed demonstrate the dominant effect of self-generated magnetic fields in controlling energy transport by hot electrons. An understanding of this physics may permit the design of targets for CO 2 that are self-shielding in terms of hot-electron pre-heat. Another consequence of the magnetic insulation is efficient energy conversion to ion motion. This occurs over a much larger surface than originally irradiated by the laser with in excess of 50 percent of the absorbed energy converted to ion motion in some experiments. (author)

  20. Pulse shaping and energy storage capabilities of angularly multiplexed KrF laser fusion drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmberg, R. H.; Giuliani, J. L.; Schmitt, A. J.

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes a rep-rated multibeam KrF laser driver design for the 500kJ Inertial Fusion test Facility (FTF) recently proposed by NRL, then models its optical pulse shaping capabilities using the ORESTES laser kinetics code. It describes a stable and reliable iteration technique for calculating the required precompensated input pulse shape that will achieve the desired output shape, even when the amplifiers are heavily saturated. It also describes how this precompensation technique could be experimentally implemented in real time on a reprated laser system. The simulations show that this multibeam system can achieve a high fidelity pulse shaping capability, even for a high gain shock ignition pulse whose final spike requires output intensities much higher than the ˜4MW/cm2 saturation levels associated with quasi-cw operation; i.e., they show that KrF can act as a storage medium even for pulsewidths of ˜1ns. For the chosen pulse, which gives a predicted fusion energy gain of ˜120, the simulations predict the FTF can deliver a total on-target energy of 428kJ, a peak spike power of 385TW, and amplified spontaneous emission prepulse contrast ratios IASE/Ilaser.

  1. Synthesis of the studies on fuels and transmutation targets (fabrication, design, irradiation damage and dissolution) realized in the framework of the Bataille law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillon, S.

    2004-12-01

    This document presents the different studied fuels and targets for the transmutation of the minor actinides and of the long life fission products for PWR/EPR and Fast neutron Reactor/EFR of today technology; the results of studies on the behavior under ions irradiation and in experimental nuclear reactor; the knowledge in terms of design, simulation and sizing; the development in terms of fabrication; the knowledge on the dissolution aptitude of these fuels and targets. (A.L.B.)

  2. Electron beam fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauser, M.J.; Sweeney, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    R The behavior of the DT filled gold shells when irradiated by a variety of pulse shapes was studied. In these pulses the power (and beam current) was varied, but the voltage was kept constant at 1 MeV. In general the performance of the target, for a given peak power, was not significantly affected by the pulse shape. Pulses with rise times of up to half the implosion time do not significantly degrade the target performance. The use of the ''optimal pulse'' of laser fusion with a fixed peak power does not appear to improve the performance of these targets. The main function of the ''optimal pulse'' is to produce a large rho r of the target during the thermonuclear burn. In e-beam targets a total rho r of 5--10 g/cm 2 can be obtained without pulse shaping; the problem here is one of achieving high enough temperatures to ignite the DT. (U.S.)

  3. Structure and properties of nanoparticles fabricated by laser ablation of Zn metal targets in water and ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetlichnyi, V. A.; Lapin, I. N.

    2013-10-01

    Size characteristics, structure, and spectral and luminescent properties of nanoparticles fabricated by laser ablation of zinc metal targets in water and ethanol are experimentally investigated upon excitation by Nd:YAG-laser radiation (1064 nm, 7 ns, and 15 Hz). It is demonstrated that zinc oxide nanoparticles with average sizes of 10 nm (in water) and 16 nm (in ethanol) are formed in the initial stage as a result of ablation. The kinetics of the absorption and luminescence spectra, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray structural analysis demonstrate that during long storage of water dispersions and their drying, nanoparticles efficiently interact with carbon dioxide gas of air that leads to the formation of water-soluble Zn(CO3)2(OH)6. In ethanol, Zn oxidation leads to the formation of stable dispersions of ZnO nanoparticles with 99% of the wurtzite phase; in this case, the fluorescence spectra of ZnO nanoparticles change with time, shifting toward longer wavelength region from 550 to 620 nm, which is caused by the changed nature of defects.

  4. Fabrication of aerogel capsule, bromine-doped capsule, and modified gold cone in modified target for the Fast Ignition Realization Experiment (FIREX) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Keiji; Yang, H.; Norimatsu, T.; Azechi, H.; Belkada, F.; Fujimoto, Y.; Fujimura, T.; Fujioka, K.; Fujioka, S.; Homma, H.; Ito, F.; Iwamoto, A.; Jitsuno, T.; Kaneyasu, Y.; Nakai, M.; Nemoto, N.; Saika, H.; Shimoyama, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Yamanaka, K.; Mima, K.

    2009-09-01

    The development of target fabrication for the Fast Ignition Realization EXperiment (FIREX) Project is described in this paper. For the first stage of the FIREX Project (FIREX-I), the previously designed target has been modified by using a bromine-doped ablator and coating the inner gold cone with a low-density material. A high-quality bromine-doped capsule without vacuoles was fabricated from bromine-doped deuterated polystyrene. The gold surface was coated with a low-density material by electrochemical plating. For the cryogenic fuel target, a brand new type of aerogel material, phloroglucinol/formaldehyde (PF), was investigated and encapsulated to meet the specifications of 500 µm diameter and 20 µm thickness, with 30 nm nanopores. Polystyrene-based low-density materials were investigated and the relationship between the crosslinker content and the nanopore structure was observed.

  5. Fabrication and Characterization of Targets for Shock Propagation and Radiation Burnthrough Measurements on Be-0.9 AT. % Cu Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobile, A.; Dropinski, S.C.; Edwards, J.M.; Rivera, G.; Margevicius, R.W.; Sebring, R.J.; Olson, R. E.; Tanner, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    Beryllium-copper alloy (Be0.9%Cu) ICF capsules are being developed for the pursuit of thermonuclear ignition at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Success of this capsule material requires that its shock propagation and radiation burnthrough characteristics be accurately understood. To this end, experiments are being conducted to measure the shock propagation and radiation burnthrough properties of Be0.9%Cu alloy. These experiments involve measurements on small Be0.9%Cu wedge, step and flat samples. Samples are mounted on 1.6-mm-diameter x 1.2-mm-length hohlraums that are illuminated by the OMEGA laser at the University of Rochester. X-rays produced by the hohlraum drive the sample. A streaked optical pyrometer detects breakout of the shock produced by the X-ray pulse. In this paper we describe synthesis of the alloy material, fabrication and characterization of samples, and assembly of the targets. Samples were produced from Be0.9%Cu alloy that was synthesized by hot isostatic pressing of Be powder and copper flake. Samples were 850 μm diameter disks with varying thickness in the case of wedge and step samples, and uniform thickness in the case of flat samples. Sample thickness varied in the range 10-90 μm. Samples were prepared by precision lathe machining and electric discharge machining. The samples were characterized by a Veeco white light interferometer and an optical thickness measurement device that simultaneously measured the upper and lower surface contours of samples using two confocal laser probes. Several campaigns with these samples have been conducted over the past two years

  6. Coatings for laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowdermilk, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    Optical coatings are used in lasers systems for fusion research to control beam propagation and reduce surface reflection losses. The performance of coatings is important in the design, reliability, energy output, and cost of the laser systems. Significant developments in coating technology are required for future lasers for fusion research and eventual power reactors

  7. Effect of positively charged particles on sputtering damage of organic electro-luminescent diodes with Mg:Ag alloy electrodes fabricated by facing target sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouji Suemori

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the influence of the positively charged particles generated during sputtering on the performances of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs with Mg:Ag alloy electrodes fabricated by sputtering. The number of positively charged particles increased by several orders of magnitude when the target current was increased from 0.1 A to 2.5 A. When a high target current was used, many positively charged particles with energies higher than the bond energy of single C–C bonds, which are typically found in organic molecules, were generated. In this situation, we observed serious OLED performance degradation. On the other hand, when a low target current was used, OLED performance degradation was not observed when the number of positively charged particles colliding with the organic underlayer increased. We concluded that sputtering damage caused by positively charged particles can be avoided by using a low target current.

  8. Development of key technologies in DPSSL system for fast-ignition, laser fusion reactor - FIREX, HALNA, and protection of final optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norimatsu, T.; Azechi, H.; Fujimoto, Y.; Jitsuno, T.; Kanabe, T.; Kodama, R.; Kondo, K.; Miyanaga, N.; Nagatomo, H.; Nakatsuka, M.; Shiraga, H.; Tanaka, K.A.; Tsubakimoto, K.; Yamanaka, M.; Yasuhara, R.; Izawa, Y.; Kawashima, T.; Kurita, T.; Matsumoto, O.; Tsuchiya, Y.; Sekine, T.; Kan, H.

    2005-01-01

    A critical path to a laser fusion power plant is construction of a reliable, efficient, high repetitive energy driver including the relation with the reactor environment. At ILE, Osaka University, FIREX project has been proposed and the phase I to show heating of compressed fuel to 5 keV has started with construction of the FIREX laser. This project will demonstrate physics of fast ignition and elemental studies are carried out to obtain persuasive data to find the path to the goal. A diode-laser-pumped, solid-state-laser (DPSSL) HALNA-10 succeeded in operation of 7.5J output power at 10 Hz rep-rate. Contamination of final optics by metal vapor was studied using a 1/10 model of the beam duct. The result indicated that contamination can be controlled with high speed shutters and a low pressure buffer gas. (author)

  9. Tritium inventory of a target factor in an ICF power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherohman, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    A preliminary parametric study has been performed to estimate the tritium inventory of a conjectured Target Factory. The inventory of a proposed tritiated fuel processing system was determined as a function of production efficiency, storage factor, and time interval for the slowest processing step. Results indicated that a study of this type will be beneficial in evaluating possible processing schemes for the production of tritiated laser fusion targets

  10. Conceptual design considerations and neutronics of lithium fall laser target chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.R.; Thomson, W.B.

    1978-01-01

    Atomics International and Lawrence Livermore Laboratory are involved in the conceptual design of a laser fusion power plant incorporating the lithium fall target chamber. In this paper we discuss some of the more important design considerations for the target chamber and evaluate its nuclear performance. Sizing and configuration of the fall, hydraulic effects, and mechanical design considerations are addressed. The nuclear aspects examined include tritium breeding, energy deposition, and radiation damage

  11. Conceptual design study of the hylife lithium waterfall laser fusion chamber. FY 1978 annual report to Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Conceptual design studies of the target chamber defined the general configuration and dimensions of the chamber and the inlet plenum, orifice plate, and nozzle plate concepts required to generate the desired lithium jet fall. Preliminary studies were performed of the target chamber interfaces with the liquid lithium supply system, the laser system, the pellet injection system, and the target chamber mounting and support system. Target chamber environmental effects resulting from typical thermonuclear burns were evaluated. The outlet region of the target chamber was outlined conceptually, and preliminary design considerations were given to the annular graphite reflector regions of the target chamber and the associated liquid lithium coolant passages

  12. Fabrication of targets for transmutation of americium : synthesis of inertial matrix by sol-gel method. Procedure study on the infiltration of a radioactive solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Carretero, A.

    2002-01-01

    Transmutation and incineration are innovative options in the management and disposal of fission products and actinides. nevertheless, the fabrication of targets for transmutation and incineration of actinides and fission products require a reconsideration of conventional processes (mechanical blending) and the development of new procedures compatible with the high activity of these materials. This work presents th R and D of a new fabrication method called INRAM (Infiltration of Radioactive Materials) based on the infiltration of an actinide solution in a porous non radiotoxic material in the form of a pellet (up to 12% An), or beads (up to 40% An) produced by sol-gel. The first method have been used for the fabrication of spinel (MgAl 2 O 4 ) targets containing 11% Am, which have been irradiated in HFR-Petten (358.4 full power days). Post-test burn-up calculations showed that at the end of the irradiation the initial Am-241 concentration was reduced to 4%. The fraction of the initial americum atoms that have been fissioned is 28%. The main advantage of the INRAM method is that matrices with low or zero activity can be fabricated and formed into the required shape in an unshielded facility. This method offers other advantages over conventional ones, such as the active wastes are reduced, is easy to automate, adoptable to telemanipulation and dust free, which facilitate operator intervention and minimise radiation exposure to the personal. In addition, the infiltrant needs only be present in liquid form, i. e. it could be transferred directly from the reprocessing plant for fabrication into targets without conversion into-solid form. In order to optimise the infiltration process in depth investigations of all important process parameters, e. g. infiltration kinetics and metal (pu, Am) concentration in the feed solution, and also on extensive study or powder metallurgy parameters for the preparation of high quality fuel pellets with a high density, have been made. In

  13. Synthesis of ITO Powder by Dry Process and Lifetime Characteristics of the ITO Target Fabricated with its Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Seiichiro; Itoh, Hironori; Komatsu, Ryuichi

    Lifetime of an indium tin oxide (ITO) target is an important characteristic in the production of liquid crystal displays (LCDs). Increasing the sintering density of the ITO target is assumed to lead to an increased lifetime. So far, it has been clarified that the carbon concentration in In2O3 powder, the raw material of ITO targets, influences remarkably the target lifetime. In this study, with the aim of reducing the concentration of carbon in In2O3 powder, the synthesis of In2O3 powder containing dissolved Sn by a dry process was performed.

  14. Fabrication and characterization of tungsten and graphite based PFC for divertor target elements of ITER like tokamak application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khirwadkar, S.S., E-mail: sameer@ipr.res.in [Institute For Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Singh, K.P.; Patil, Y.; Khan, M.S.; Buch, J.J.U.; Patel, Alpesh; Tripathi, Sudhir [Institute For Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Jaman, P.M.; Rangaraj, L.; Divakar, C. [Materials Science Division, National Aerospace Laboratories, CSIR, Bangalore, Karnataka (India)

    2011-10-15

    The development of the fabrication technology of macro-brush configuration of tungsten (W) and carbon (graphite and CFC) plasma facing components (PFCs) for ITER like tokamak application is presented. The fabrication of qualified joint of PFC is a requirement for fusion tokamak. Vacuum brazing method has been employed for joining of W/CuCrZr and C/CuCrZr. Oxygen free high conductivity (OFHC) copper casting on W tiles was performed followed by machining, polishing and ultrasonic cleaning of the samples prior to vacuum brazing. The W/CuCrZr and graphite/CuCrZr based test mockups were vacuum brazed using silver free alloys. The mechanical shear and tensile strengths were evaluated for the W/CuCrZr and graphite/CuCrZr brazed joint samples. The micro-structural examination of the joints showed smooth interface. The details of fabrication and characterization procedure for macro-brush tungsten and carbon based PFC test mockups are presented.

  15. Exploding pusher targets illuminated using f/1 lenses at approx. 0.4 TW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storm, E.K.; Ahlstrom, H.G.; Holzrichter, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    A series of laser fusion microimplosion experiments have been performed with the LLL two beam laser system JANUS. The JANUS laser is capable of focusing up to 400 gigawatts of 1.06 μm laser power (32J in 80 psec) on microscopic laser fusion targets, producing intensities in excess of 10 17 w/cm 2 . In these experiments the targets were Deuterium--Tritium (DT) gas filled, thin walled (.5 to 1.0 μm) SiO 2 microshells with diameters of 40 to 100 μm. Targets with these dimensions, properties and laser powers operate in what has become known as the exploding pusher mode. A summary of the salient points of each design limit is illustrated

  16. Inertial-confinement-fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1982-01-01

    Much of the research in laser fusion has been done using simple ball on-stalk targets filled with a deuterium-tritium mixture. The targets operated in the exploding pusher mode in which the laser energy was delivered in a very short time (approx. 100 ps or less) and was absorbed by the glass wall of the target. The high energy density in the glass literally exploded the shell with the inward moving glass compressing the DT fuel to high temperatures and moderate densities. Temperatures achieved were high enough to produce DT reactions and accompanying thermonuclear neutrons and alpha particles. The primary criteria imposed on the target builders were: (1) wall thickness, (2) sphere diameter, and (3) fuel in the sphere

  17. Laser program annual report, 1977. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, C.F.; Jarman, B.D.

    1978-07-01

    This volume contains detailed information on each of the following sections: (1) fusion target design, (2) target fabrication, (3) laser fusion experiments and analysis, (4) advanced lasers, (5) systems and applications studies, and (6) laser isotope separation program

  18. Laser program annual report, 1977. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, C.F.; Jarman, B.D. (eds.)

    1978-07-01

    This volume contains detailed information on each of the following sections: (1) fusion target design, (2) target fabrication, (3) laser fusion experiments and analysis, (4) advanced lasers, (5) systems and applications studies, and (6) laser isotope separation program. (MOW)

  19. Indium oxide co-doped with tin and zinc: A simple route to highly conducting high density targets for TCO thin-film fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadeddin, I.; Hilal, H. S.; Decourt, R.; Campet, G.; Pecquenard, B.

    2012-07-01

    Indium oxide co-doped with tin and zinc (ITZO) ceramics have been successfully prepared by direct sintering of the powders mixture at 1300 °C. This allowed us to easily fabricate large highly dense target suitable for sputtering transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films, without using any cold or hot pressing techniques. Hence, the optimized ITZO ceramic reaches a high relative bulk density (˜ 92% of In2O3 theoretical density) and higher than the well-known indium oxide doped with tin (ITO) prepared under similar conditions. All X-ray diagrams obtained for ITZO ceramics confirms a bixbyte structure typical for In2O3 only. This indicates a higher solubility limit of Sn and Zn when they are co-doped into In2O3 forming a solid-solution. A very low value of electrical resistivity is obtained for [In2O3:Sn0.10]:Zn0.10 (1.7 × 10-3 Ω cm, lower than ITO counterpart) which could be fabricated to high dense ceramic target suing pressure-less sintering.

  20. Final report on production of Pu-238 in commercial power reactors: target fabrication, postirradiation examination, and plutonium and neptunium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pobereskin, M.; Langendorfer, W.; Lowry, L.; Farmelo, D.; Scotti, V.; Kruger, O.

    1975-01-01

    Considerable interest has been generated in more extensive applications of radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) systems. This raises questions concerning the availability of 238 Pu to supply an expanding demand. The development of much of this demand will depend upon a considerable reduction in cost of 238 Pu. Two neptunia--zirconia--fuel target rods, containing four sections each of different NpO 2 concentrations, were irradiated in the Connecticut Yankee Reactor for approximately one year. Following irradiation both target rods were subjected to nondestructive examination. One rod was chosen for destructive testing and analysis. Post-irradiation chemical analyses included total Pu and Np, ppM 236 Pu/ 238 Pu, and Pu isotopic abundance. The results of these analyses and of electron microprobe analysis which provided the relative Pu concentration across the pellet diameters are tabulated. It was concluded that the feasibility of all operations involved in the production of 238 Pu by irradiation of 237 NpO 2 targets in commercial nuclear power reactors was demonstrated and that the demonstration should be extended to a pilot-scale leading to installation of a full production capacity. (U.S.)

  1. Color separation gratings for diverting the unconverted light away from the NIF target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, S.N.; Rushford, M.C.; Thomas, I.M.; Herman, S.M.; Britten, J.A.; Shore, B.W.; Perry, M.D.

    1997-01-01

    Most of the glass laser based inertial confinement fusion systems around the world today employ non-linear frequency conversion for converting the 1.053 micrometer light at the fundamental frequency (referred to as 1ω light) to either its second harmonic (called 2ω) at 527 nm or to its third harmonic (called 3ω) at 351 nm. Shorter wavelengths are preferred for laser fusion because of the improved coupling of the laser light to the fusion targets due to reduced fast electron production at shorter wavelengths. The frequency conversion process, however, is only about 60-70% efficient and the residual 30-40% of the energy remains at 1ω and 2ω frequencies. Color separation gratings (CSGs) offer a versatile approach to reducing and possibly eliminating the unconverted light at the target region. A CSG consists of a three- level lamellar grating designed so that nearly all of the 3ω light passes through undiffracted while the residual 1ω and 2ω energy is diverted into higher diffraction orders. The diffraction angle is determined solely by the grating period. We have demonstrated the concept of using a color separation grating. We fabricated a 345 micrometer period CSG in fused silica using lithographic processes and wet etching. The measured far field indicates that greater than 95% of the incident light is preserved in the 3ω zeroth order while less than 5% of unconverted 1ω and 2ω light is remaining in the zeroth order. We would like to add that diffractive optics fabricated in fused silica by wet etching in hydrofluoric acid should have high damage threshold. Our experience suggests that the damage threshold of the etched substrate is at least as high as the unetched part. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  2. Minimalism in fabrication of self-organized nanogels holding both anti-cancer drug and targeting moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungwon; Park, Kyong Mi; Ko, Jin Young; Kwon, Ick Chan; Cho, Hyeon Geun; Kang, Dongmin; Yu, In Tag; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Na, Kun

    2008-05-01

    Recent researches to develop nano-carrier systems in anti-cancer drug delivery have focused on more complicated design to improve therapeutic efficacy and to reduce side effects. Although such efforts have great impact to biomedical science and engineering, the complexity has been a huddle because of clinical and economic problems. In order to overcome the problems, a simplest strategy to fabricate nano-carriers to deliver doxorubicin (DOX) was proposed in the present study. Two significant subjects (i) formation of nanoparticles loading and releasing DOX and (ii) binding specificity of them to cells, were examined. Folic acid (FA) was directly coupled with pullulan (Pul) backbone by ester linkage (FA/Pul conjugate) and the degree of substitution (DS) was varied, which were confirmed by 1H NMR and UV spectrophotometry. Light scattering results revealed that the nanogels possessed two major size distributions around 70 and 270 nm in an aqueous solution. Their critical aggregation concentrations (CACs) were less than 10 microg/mL, which are lower than general critical micelle concentrations (CMCs) of low-molecular-weight surfactants. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed well-dispersed nanogel morphology in a dried state. Depending on the DS, the nanogels showed different DOX-loading and releasing profiles. The DOX release rate from FA8/Pul (with the highest DS) for 24h was slower than that from FA4/or FA6/Pul, indicating that the FA worked as a hydrophobic moiety for drug holding. Cellular uptake of the nanogels (KB cells) was also monitored by confocal microscopy. All nanogels were internalized regardless of the DS of FA. Based on the results, the objectives of this study, to suggest a new method overcoming the complications in the drug carrier design, were successfully verified.

  3. Intrinsic ZnO films fabricated by DC sputtering from oxygen-deficient targets for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cell application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chongyin Yang; DongyunWan; Zhou Wang; Fuqiang Huang

    2011-01-01

    Intrinsic zinc oxide films, normally deposited by radio frequency (RF) sputtering, are fabricated by direct current (DC) sputtering. The oxygen-deficient targets are prepared via a newly developed double crucible method. The 800-nm-thick film obtaines significantly higher carrier mobility compareing with that of the 800-nm-thick ZnO film. This is achieved by the widely used RF sputtering, which favors the prevention of carrier recombination at the interfaces and reduction of the series resistance of solar cells. The optimal ZnO film is used in a Cu (In, Ga) Se2 (CIGS) solar cell with a high efficiency of 11.57%. This letter demonstrates that the insulating ZnO films can be deposited by DC sputtering from oxygen-deficient ZnO targets to lower the cost of thin film solar cells.%Intrinsic zinc oxide films,normally deposited by radio frequency (RF) sputtering,are fabricated by direct current (DC) sputtering.The oxygen-deficient targets are prepared via a newly developed double crucible method.The 800-nm-thick film obtaines significantly higher carrier mobility compareing with that of the 800-nm-thick ZnO film.This is achieved by the widely used RF sputtering,which favors the prevention of carrier recombination at the interfaces and reduction of the series resistance of solar cells.The optimal ZnO film is used in a Cu (In,Ga) Se2 (C1GS) solar cell with a high efficiency of 11.57%.This letter demonstrates that the insulating ZnO films can be deposited by DC sputtering from oxygen-deficient ZnO targets to lower the cost of thin film solar cells.High resistance transparent intrinsic zinc oxide (i-ZnO)thin film has been widely nsed as the front electrode in transparent electronics and photovoltaic devices because of its low cost and nontoxicity.Owing to its unique characteristics of high transparency and adjustable resistivity in a certain range,the use of i-ZnO thin films as diffusion barrier layers of a-Si/μc-Si,CdTe,and CIGS thin-film solar cells has been advantageous

  4. Fabrication of nano-mosquitocides using chitosan from crab shells: Impact on non-target organisms in the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Anitha, Jaganathan; Dinesh, Devakumar; Suresh, Udaiyan; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Paulpandi, Manickam; Vadivalagan, Chitravel; Amuthavalli, Pandiyan; Wang, Lan; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Wei, Hui; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Kumar, Suresh; Pugazhendy, Kannaiyan; Higuchi, Akon; Nicoletti, Marcello; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-10-01

    Mosquitoes are arthropods of huge medical and veterinary relevance, since they vector pathogens and parasites of public health importance, including malaria, dengue and Zika virus. Currently, nanotechnology is considered a potential eco-friendly approach in mosquito control research. We proposed a novel method of biofabrication of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using chitosan (Ch) from crab shells. Ch-AgNP nanocomposite was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, FTIR, SEM, EDX and XRD. Ch-AgNP were tested against larvae and pupae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi obtaining LC50 ranging from 3.18 ppm (I) to 6.54 ppm (pupae). The antibacterial properties of Ch-AgNP were proved against Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhi, while no growth inhibition was reported in assays conducted on Proteus vulgaris. Concerning non-target effects, in standard laboratory considtions the predation efficiency of Danio rerio zebrafishes was 68.8% and 61.6% against I and II instar larvae of A. stephensi, respectively. In a Ch-AgNP-contaminated environment, fish predation was boosted to 89.5% and 77.3%, respectively. Quantitative analysis of antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT and LPO from hepatopancreas of fresh water crabs Paratelphusa hydrodromous exposed for 16 days to a Ch-AgNP-contaminated aquatic environment were conducted. Notably, deleterious effects of Ch-AgNP contaminating aquatic enviroment on the non-target crab P. hydrodromous were observed, particularly when doses higher than 8-10ppm are tested. Overall, this research highlights the potential of Ch-AGNP for the development of newer control tools against young instar populations of malaria mosquitoes, also highlighting some risks concerned the employ of nanoparticles in aquatic environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Argus target chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rienecker, F. Jr.; Glaros, S.S.; Kobierecki, M.

    1975-01-01

    A target chamber for application in the laser fusion program must satisfy some very basic requirements. (1) Provide a vacuum on the order of 10 -6 torr. (2) Support a microscopically small target in a fixed point in space and verify its location within 5 micrometers. (3) Contain an adjustable beam focusing system capable of delivering a number of laser beams onto the target simultaneously, both in time and space. (4) Provide access for diagnostics to evaluate the results of target irradiation. (5) Have flexibility to allow changes in targets, focusing optics and number of beams. The ARGUS laser which is now under construction at LLL will have a target chamber which meets these requirements in a simple economic manner. The chamber and auxiliary equipment are described, with reference to two double beam focusing systems; namely, lenses and ellipsoidal mirrors. Provision is made for future operation with four beams, using ellipsoidal mirrors for two-sided illumination and lens systems for tetragonal and tetrahedral irradiation

  6. Effect of dopants and thermal treatment on properties of Ga-Al-ZnO thin films fabricated by hetero targets sputtering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, JeongSoo; Matsushita, Nobuhiro; Kim, KyungHwan

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we fabricated Ga and Al doped ZnO (Ga-Al-ZnO; GAZO) thin films by using the facing targets sputtering system under various conditions such as input current and thermal treatment temperature. The properties of the as-deposited GAZO thin films were examined by four-point, UV/Vis spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The result showed that the lowest sheet resistance of the films was 59.3 ohm/sq and transmittance was about 85%. After thermal treatment, the properties of GAZO thin films were improved. The lowest sheet resistance (47.3 ohm/sq) of the GAZO thin films were obtained at thermal treatment temperature of 300 °C, considered to be the result of continuous substitutions by dopants and improved crystallinity by the thermal treatment. - Highlights: ► Ga and Al doped ZnO thin films were prepared by hetero targets sputtering system. ► Free electrons were increased due to the continuous substitutions of Ga and Al. ► Crystallinity was improved by recombination of particles with increasing of temperature

  7. Fabrication and application of a magnetic-targeting and controlled-release system using ST68-based microbubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Zhanwen; Ke Hengte; Wang Jinrui; Zhao Bo; Qu Enze; Yue Xiuli; Dai Zhifei

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To manufacture magnetic microbubbles with dual-response to ultrasound and magnetic fields. Methods: Microbubbles of ultrasound contrast agent (ST68) based on a surfactant were prepared by the acoustic cavitation method. Fe 3 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles with negative charge were synthesized using the polyol procedure. Magnetic microbubbles were generated by depositing polyethylenimine and Fe 3 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles alternately onto the microbubbles using the layer-by-layer self-assembly. In vitro ultrasonography was performed on a silicone tube with/without magnetic microbubbles (3 × 10 8 /ml) by a self-made device to observe the movement of magnetic microbubbles under the effects of magnetic field. In vivo imaging was performed on the kidney of New Zealand rabbits before and after the injection of magnetic microbubbles. Results: The Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles carried a stable negative charge of (-24.6 ± 6.7) mV and more than 98% of the particles were less than 8 μm in diameter, meeting the size requirement of an ultrasound contrast agent for intravenous administration. There was no echoic signal in the silicone tube before injection of magnetic microbubbles, but there were strong echoic signals after injection. After applying a magnetic field, the magnetic microbubbles moved along the direction of the magnetic flux. In vivo ultrasound imaging could not visualize the kidney before injection of magnetic microbubbles, but could remarkably visualize the kidney after injection. Conclusions: The magnetic microbubbles exhibit favorable magnetic targeting and ultrasound contrast enhancement characteristics. Such properties may serve as the foundation to study their potential for simultaneous diagnosis and treatment in the future. (authors)

  8. Conceptual design of the fast ignition laser fusion power plant (KOYO-Fast). 6. Design of chamber and reactor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozaki, Yasuji; Norimatsu, Takayoshi; Furukawa, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Takumi; Souman, Yoshihito; Nishikawa, Masabumi; Tomabechi, Ken

    2007-01-01

    A conceptual design of the reactor chamber system with LiPb liquid wall based on the fast ignition cone target design and the related reactor systems with exhaust system, laser beam shutter, blanket and cooling system are summarized. The multi overflow fall method was investigated as the structure of chamber and repeating 4 Hz pulse potential. The ablation depth of LiPb liquid wall was estimated and the conditions of repeat of operation were evaluated. The basic design of chamber, selection and conditions of liquid wall chamber, recycle type multi overflow fall (MOF) wall, LiPb two layers blanket structure, basic specification of reactor system, laser beam line shutter, design of chamber exhaust system, cooling system, tritium recovery system, power plant total design and arrangement of chamber and laser beam, and issues are stated. (S.Y.)

  9. Effects of hot isostatic pressing on the elastic modulus and tensile properties of 316L parts made by powder bed laser fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavery, N.P., E-mail: N.P.Lavery@swansea.ac.uk [Materials Research Centre, College of Engineering, Swansea University Bay Campus, Fabian Way, Swansea SA1 8EP (United Kingdom); Zienkiewicz Centre for Computational Engineering, College of Engineering, Swansea University Bay Campus, Fabian Way, Swansea SA1 8EP (United Kingdom); Cherry, J.; Mehmood, S. [Materials Research Centre, College of Engineering, Swansea University Bay Campus, Fabian Way, Swansea SA1 8EP (United Kingdom); Zienkiewicz Centre for Computational Engineering, College of Engineering, Swansea University Bay Campus, Fabian Way, Swansea SA1 8EP (United Kingdom); Davies, H. [Materials Research Centre, College of Engineering, Swansea University Bay Campus, Fabian Way, Swansea SA1 8EP (United Kingdom); Girling, B.; Sackett, E. [Materials Research Centre, College of Engineering, Swansea University Bay Campus, Fabian Way, Swansea SA1 8EP (United Kingdom); Zienkiewicz Centre for Computational Engineering, College of Engineering, Swansea University Bay Campus, Fabian Way, Swansea SA1 8EP (United Kingdom); Brown, S.G.R. [Materials Research Centre, College of Engineering, Swansea University Bay Campus, Fabian Way, Swansea SA1 8EP (United Kingdom); Sienz, J. [Zienkiewicz Centre for Computational Engineering, College of Engineering, Swansea University Bay Campus, Fabian Way, Swansea SA1 8EP (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-02

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of 316L steel have been examined for parts built by a powder bed laser fusion process, which uses a laser to melt and build parts additively on a layer by layer basis. Relative density and porosity determined using various experimental techniques were correlated against laser energy density. Based on porosity sizes, morphology and distributions, the porosity was seen to transition between an irregular, highly directional porosity at the low laser energy density and a smaller, more rounded and randomly distributed porosity at higher laser energy density, thought to be caused by keyhole melting. In both cases, the porosity was reduced by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). High throughput ultrasound based measurements were used to calculate elasticity properties and show that the lower porosities from builds with higher energy densities have higher elasticity moduli in accordance with empirical relationships, and hot isostatic pressing improves the elasticity properties to levels associated with wrought/rolled 316L. However, even with hot isostatic pressing the best properties were obtained from samples with the lowest porosity in the as-built condition. A finite element stress analysis based on the porosity microstructures was undertaken, to understand the effect of pore size distributions and morphology on the Young's modulus. Over 1–5% porosity range angular porosity was found to reduce the Young's modulus by 5% more than rounded porosity. Experimentally measured Young's moduli for samples treated by HIP were closer to the rounded trends than the as-built samples, which were closer to angular trends. Tensile tests on specimens produced at optimised machine parameters displayed a high degree of anisotropy in the build direction and test variability for as-built parts, especially between vertical and horizontal build directions. The as-built properties were generally found to have a higher yield stress, but

  10. Effects of hot isostatic pressing on the elastic modulus and tensile properties of 316L parts made by powder bed laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavery, N.P.; Cherry, J.; Mehmood, S.; Davies, H.; Girling, B.; Sackett, E.; Brown, S.G.R.; Sienz, J.

    2017-01-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of 316L steel have been examined for parts built by a powder bed laser fusion process, which uses a laser to melt and build parts additively on a layer by layer basis. Relative density and porosity determined using various experimental techniques were correlated against laser energy density. Based on porosity sizes, morphology and distributions, the porosity was seen to transition between an irregular, highly directional porosity at the low laser energy density and a smaller, more rounded and randomly distributed porosity at higher laser energy density, thought to be caused by keyhole melting. In both cases, the porosity was reduced by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). High throughput ultrasound based measurements were used to calculate elasticity properties and show that the lower porosities from builds with higher energy densities have higher elasticity moduli in accordance with empirical relationships, and hot isostatic pressing improves the elasticity properties to levels associated with wrought/rolled 316L. However, even with hot isostatic pressing the best properties were obtained from samples with the lowest porosity in the as-built condition. A finite element stress analysis based on the porosity microstructures was undertaken, to understand the effect of pore size distributions and morphology on the Young's modulus. Over 1–5% porosity range angular porosity was found to reduce the Young's modulus by 5% more than rounded porosity. Experimentally measured Young's moduli for samples treated by HIP were closer to the rounded trends than the as-built samples, which were closer to angular trends. Tensile tests on specimens produced at optimised machine parameters displayed a high degree of anisotropy in the build direction and test variability for as-built parts, especially between vertical and horizontal build directions. The as-built properties were generally found to have a higher yield stress, but lower upper

  11. Fabricated Elastin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Giselle C; Aghaei-Ghareh-Bolagh, Behnaz; Brackenreg, Edwin P; Hiob, Matti A; Lee, Pearl; Weiss, Anthony S

    2015-11-18

    The mechanical stability, elasticity, inherent bioactivity, and self-assembly properties of elastin make it a highly attractive candidate for the fabrication of versatile biomaterials. The ability to engineer specific peptide sequences derived from elastin allows the precise control of these physicochemical and organizational characteristics, and further broadens the diversity of elastin-based applications. Elastin and elastin-like peptides can also be modified or blended with other natural or synthetic moieties, including peptides, proteins, polysaccharides, and polymers, to augment existing capabilities or confer additional architectural and biofunctional features to compositionally pure materials. Elastin and elastin-based composites have been subjected to diverse fabrication processes, including heating, electrospinning, wet spinning, solvent casting, freeze-drying, and cross-linking, for the manufacture of particles, fibers, gels, tubes, sheets and films. The resulting materials can be tailored to possess specific strength, elasticity, morphology, topography, porosity, wettability, surface charge, and bioactivity. This extraordinary tunability of elastin-based constructs enables their use in a range of biomedical and tissue engineering applications such as targeted drug delivery, cell encapsulation, vascular repair, nerve regeneration, wound healing, and dermal, cartilage, bone, and dental replacement. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Tolerance of laser-driven microshell targets to fluorescence and prepulse energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, T.; Moncur, N.K.; Sullivan, D.

    1976-01-01

    Glass-shell targets currently being used for laser-fusion experiments are susceptible to damage by preenergy from the laser. This energy can result from amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) throughout the laser chain during the period of high-population inversion or it can take the form of a short prepulse nanoseconds before the main laser pulse. We point out the energy levels which a typical target can tolerate in the form of ASE and prepulses. These energies are low enough that special precautions must be taken to prevent significant perturbations of the target or its environment before the main laser pulse

  13. Irradiation uniformity of spherical targets by multiple uv beams from OMEGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beich, W.; Dunn, M.; Hutchison, R.

    1984-01-01

    Direct-drive laser fusion demands extremely high levels of irradiation uniformity to ensure uniform compression of spherical targets. The assessment of illumination uniformity of targets irradiated by multiple beams from the OMEGA facility is made with the aid of multiple beams spherical superposition codes, which take into account ray tracing and absorption and a detailed knowledge of the intensity distribution of each beam in the target plane. In this report, recent estimates of the irradiation uniformity achieved with 6 and 12 uv beams of OMEGA will be compared with previous measurements in the IR, and predictions will be made for the uv illumination uniformity achievable with 24 beams of OMEGA

  14. Laser fusion project: initial report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, D.C.; Dumbaugh, W.H.; Morgan, D.W.; Spivack, B.D.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of the first year program is to explore and characterize fluoride glass systems to find a glass with the lowest possible nonlinear refractive index, satisfactory chemical durability, and physical properties which enable casting large optical quality pieces. A second part of this objective is to explore techniques for forming optical quality fluoride glass. Beryllium fluoride type glasses offer the best approach. In order to achieve the objectives, the first main task is to provide a facility and equipment to safely work in beryllium fluoride type systems. The main emphasis of this report is a description of facility and equipment along with a schedule for the first year's research. Some preliminary exploration of the beryllium fluoride type glasses has indicated that achievement of the objectives is feasible. Expansion coefficients (25 to 300 0 C) are in the 150 x 10 -7 / 0 C region and annealing points are around 350 0 C. A number of beryllium-free fluoride glasses have also been made in small quantities

  15. Laser fusion study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    The following appendices are included: (1) sensor performance calculation techniques, (2) focus sensing, (3) purchased item data, (4) pointing and focusing configuration tradeoff studies, (5) false start centering sensor, (6) RCA application notes on quad delection, (7) elliptical flex pivot analysis, (8) servo mirrors cross coupling, (9) optical misalignment analysis, (10) stress induced birefrigent quarter-wave retarder, (11) data bulletin on incramute damping alloy, (12) the utilization of stepping motors, and (13) computer program listing for stepper motor load simulation

  16. Laser fusion and precision engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Sadao

    1989-01-01

    The development of laser nuclear fusion energy for attaining the self supply of energy in Japan and establishing the future perspective as the nation is based in the wide fields of high level science and technology. Therefore to its promotion, large expectation is placed as the powerful traction for the development of creative science and technology which are particularly necessary in Japan. The research on laser nuclear fusion advances steadily in the elucidation of the physics of pellet implosion which is its basic concept and compressed plasma parameters. In September, 1986, the number of neutron generation 10 13 , and in October, 1988, the high density compression 600 times as high as solid density have been achieved. Based on these results, now the laser nuclear fusion is in the situation to begin the attainment of ignition condition for nuclear fusion and the realization of break even. The optical components, high power laser technology, fuel pellet production, high resolution measurement, the simulation of implosion using a supercomputer and so on are closely related to precision engineering. In this report, the mechanism of laser nuclear fusion, the present status of its research, and the basic technologies and precision engineering are described. (K.I.)

  17. Fabrication Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fabrication Facilities are a direct result of years of testing support. Through years of experience, the three fabrication facilities (Fort Hood, Fort Lewis, and...

  18. Study the target effect on the structural, surface and optical properties of TiO2 thin film fabricated by RF sputtering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Sumit; Tiwary, Rohit; Shubham, Kumar; Chakrabarti, P.

    2015-04-01

    The effect of target (Ti metal target and TiO2 target) on Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) thin films grown on ITO coated glass substrate by RF magnetron sputtering has been investigated. A comparative study of both the films was done in respect of crystalline structure, surface morphology and optical properties by using X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) studies and ellipsometric measurements. The XRD results confirmed the crystalline structure and indicated that the deposited films have the intensities of anatase phase. The surface morphology and roughness values indicated that the film using Ti metal target has a smoother surface and densely packed with grains as compared to films obtained using TiO2 target. A high transmission in the visible region, and direct band gap of 3.67 eV and 3.75 eV for films derived by using Ti metal and TiO2 target respectively and indirect bandgap of 3.39 eV for the films derived from both the targets (Ti metal and TiO2 target) were observed by the ellipsometric measurements.

  19. Digital fabrication

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The Winter 2012 (vol. 14 no. 3) issue of the Nexus Network Journal features seven original papers dedicated to the theme “Digital Fabrication”. Digital fabrication is changing architecture in fundamental ways in every phase, from concept to artifact. Projects growing out of research in digital fabrication are dependent on software that is entirely surface-oriented in its underlying mathematics. Decisions made during design, prototyping, fabrication and assembly rely on codes, scripts, parameters, operating systems and software, creating the need for teams with multidisciplinary expertise and different skills, from IT to architecture, design, material engineering, and mathematics, among others The papers grew out of a Lisbon symposium hosted by the ISCTE-Instituto Universitario de Lisboa entitled “Digital Fabrication – A State of the Art”. The issue is completed with four other research papers which address different mathematical instruments applied to architecture, including geometric tracing system...

  20. Heavy-ion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adair, H.L.; Kobisk, E.H.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter examines the characteristics of targets required in heavy-ion accelerator physics experiments. The effects of target parameters on heavy-ion experimental results are reviewed. The target fabrication and characterization techniques used to minimize experimental problems during heavy-ion bombardment are described. Topics considered include target thickness and uniformity, target lifetime, target purity, substrate materials, Doppler shift effects, metal preparations, and target preparation methods

  1. Magnetic control system targeted for capsule endoscopic operations in the stomach--design, fabrication, and in vitro and ex vivo evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Gi-Shih; Liu, Chih-Wen; Jiang, Joe-Air; Chuang, Cheng-Long; Teng, Ming-Tsung

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents a novel solution of a hand-held external controller to a miniaturized capsule endoscope in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Traditional capsule endoscopes move passively by peristaltic wave generated in the GI tract and the gravity, which makes it impossible for endoscopists to manipulate the capsule endoscope to the diagnostic disease areas. In this study, the main objective is to present an endoscopic capsule and a magnetic field navigator (MFN) that allows endoscopists to remotely control the locomotion and viewing angle of an endoscopic capsule. The attractive merits of this study are that the maneuvering of the endoscopic capsule can be achieved by the external MFN with effectiveness, low cost, and operation safety, both from a theoretical and an experimental point of view. In order to study the magnetic interactions between the endoscopic capsule and the external MFN, a magnetic-analysis model is established for computer-based finite-element simulations. In addition, experiments are conducted to show the control effectiveness of the MFN to the endoscopic capsule. Finally, several prototype endoscopic capsules and a prototype MFN are fabricated, and their actual capabilities are experimentally assessed via in vitro and ex vivo tests using a stomach model and a resected porcine stomach, respectively. Both in vitro and ex vivo test results demonstrate great potential and practicability of achieving high-precision rotation and controllable movement of the capsule using the developed MFN.

  2. Effects of Sb-doping on the grain growth of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin films fabricated by means of single-target sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shu; Wu, Lu; Yue, Ruoyu; Yan, Zongkai; Zhan, Haoran; Xiang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of Sb doping on the kinetics of grain growth in Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) thin films during annealing, CIGS thin films were sputtered onto Mo coated substrates from a single CIGS alloy target, followed by chemical bath deposition of Sb 2 S 3 thin layers on top of CIGS layers and subsequent annealing at different temperatures for 30 min in Se vapors. X-ray diffraction results showed that CIGS thin films were obtained directly using the single-target sputtering method. After annealing, the In/Ga ratio in Sb-doped CIGS thin films remained stable compared to undoped film, possibly because Sb can promote the incorporation of Ga into CIGS. The grain growth in CIGS thin films was enhanced after Sb doping, exhibiting significantly larger grains after annealing at 400 °C or 450 °C compared to films without Sb. In particular, the effect was strikingly significant in grain growth across the film thickness, resulting in columnar grain structure in Sb-doped films. This grain growth improvement may be led by the diffusion of Sb from the front surface to the CIGS-Mo back interface, which promoted the mass transport process in CIGS thin films. - Highlights: ► Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) thin films made by sputtering from a single CIGS target. ► Chemical bath deposition used to introduce antimony into CIGS absorber layers. ► In/Ga ratio decreases in Sb-doped annealed films, comparatively to undoped films. ► Sb-doped CIGS films are superior to undoped films in terms of grain-growth kinetics

  3. Influence of the laser pulse repetition rate and scanning speed on the morphology of Ag nanostructures fabricated by pulsed laser ablation of solid target in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolov, A. S.; Balchev, I. I.; Nedyalkov, N. N.; Kostadinov, I. K.; Karashanova, D. B.; Atanasova, G. B.

    2017-11-01

    Nanostructures of noble metal were produced by pulsed laser ablation in liquid. A solid Ag target was immersed in double distilled water and a CuBr laser in a master oscillator—power amplifier configuration oscillating at 511 nm and emitting pulses with duration of 30 ns at a repetition rate of up to 20 kHz was employed to produce different colloids. The impact was studied of the laser pulse repetition rate and the beam scanning speed on the morphology of the nanostructures formed. Further, the optical extinction spectra of the colloids in the UV/VIS range were measured and used to make an indirect assessment of the changes in the shape and size distribution of the nanostructures. The transmission values in the near UV range were used to estimate the efficiency of the ablation process under the different experimental conditions implemented. A visualization of the nanostructures was made possible by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The structure and phase composition of the nanoparticles were studied by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), while the alteration of the target surface caused by the impact of the high-repetition-rate laser illumination was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The optimal conditions were determined yielding the highest efficiency in terms of amount of ablated material.

  4. Studies of self focusing and filamentation instabilities in short wavelength laser fusion: Final technical report for the period 29 May 1986-28 April 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Chan.

    1988-04-01

    Azimuthal periodic breakup of a radially modulated 0.35 μm laser beam has been inferred in plasmas produced from solid targets. The breakup is more severe in gold plasmas compared to glass or aluminum plasmas and occurs at rather modest laser intensities of /approximately/5 /times/ 10 12 Wcm 2 . Thermal filamentation is suggested as the mechanism for the observed beam breakup

  5. In-Ga-Zn-oxide thin-film transistors with Sb2TeOx gate insulators fabricated by reactive sputtering using a metallic Sb2Te target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, Woo-Seok

    2011-01-01

    Using reactive sputtering, we made transparent amorphous Sb 2 TeO x thin films from a metallic Sb 2 Te target in an oxidizing atmosphere. In-Ga-Zn-oxide thin-film transistors (IGZO TFTs) with Sb 2 TeO x gate insulators deposited at room temperature showed a large hysteresis with a counter clockwise direction, which was caused by mobile charges in the gate insulators. The problems of the mobile charges was solved by using Sb 2 TeO x films formed at 250 .deg. C. After the IGZO TFT had been annealed at 200 .deg. C for 1 hour in an O 2 ambient, the mobility of the IGZO TFT was 22.41 cm 2 /Vs, and the drain current on-off ratio was ∼10 8 .

  6. The Nike KrF laser facility: Performance and initial target experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obenschain, S. P.; Bodner, S. E.; Colombant, D.; Gerber, K.; Lehmberg, R. H.; McLean, E. A.; Mostovych, A. N.; Pronko, M. S.; Pawley, C. J.; Schmitt, A. J.; Sethian, J. D.; Serlin, V.; Stamper, J. A.; Sullivan, C. A.; Dahlburg, J. P.; Gardner, J. H.; Chan, Y.; Deniz, A. V.; Hardgrove, J.; Lehecka, T.; Klapisch, M.

    1996-05-01

    Krypton-fluoride (KrF) lasers are of interest to laser fusion because they have both the large bandwidth capability (≳THz) desired for rapid beam smoothing and the short laser wavelength (1/4 μm) needed for good laser-target coupling. Nike is a recently completed 56-beam KrF laser and target facility at the Naval Research Laboratory. Because of its bandwidth of 1 THz FWHM (full width at half-maximum), Nike produces more uniform focal distributions than any other high-energy ultraviolet laser. Nike was designed to study the hydrodynamic instability of ablatively accelerated planar targets. First results show that Nike has spatially uniform ablation pressures (Δp/pNike laser in producing uniform illumination, and its performance in correspondingly uniform acceleration of targets.

  7. Target support for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, K.R.

    1995-08-01

    General Atomics (GA) plays an important industrial support role for the US Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program in the area of target technology. This includes three major activities: target fabrication support, target handling systems development, and target chamber design. The work includes target fabrication for existing ICF experiments, target and target system development for future experiments, and target research and target chamber design for experiments on future machines, such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

  8. Preparation and properties of polymer foams for ICF targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letts, S.A.; Lucht, L.M.

    1986-09-01

    Low density small cell sized foams were developed to localize the liquid DT layer in a direct drive wetted foam laser fusion target. We have developed foams made from ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene gels and polystyrene inverse emulsions. Materials in the density range of from 0.020 to 0.300 g/cc were prepared and characterized for cell size, mechanical properties, machinability, specific surface area, and wetting. Foams with a density of 0.05 g/cc were made with a cell size of less than 5 μm. A cell structure model was developed which relates the density and specific surface area to cell size and cell wall thickness. Wetting tests in organic solvents and in liquid hydrogen were used to characterize the capillary pressure, pore structure and uniformity of the foams. 13 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Advanced fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper deals with the fabrication of advanced fuels, such as mixed oxides for Pressurized Water Reactors or mixed nitrides for Fast Breeder Reactors. Although an extensive production experience exists for the mixed oxides used in the FBR, important work is still needed to improve the theoretical and technical knowledge of the production route which will be introduced in the future European facility, named Melox, at Marcoule. Recently, the feasibility of nitride fuel fabrication in existing commercial oxide facilities was demonstrated in France. The process, based on carbothermic reduction of oxides with subsequent comminution of the reaction product, cold pressing and sintering provides (U, Pu)N pellets with characteristics suitable for irradiation testing. Two experiments named NIMPHE 1 and 2 fabricated in collaboration with ITU, Karlsruhe, involve 16 nitride and 2 carbide pins, operating at a linear power of 45 and 73 kW/m with a smear density of 75-80% TD and a high burn-up target of 15 at%. These experiments are currently being irradiated in Phenix, at Marcoule. (orig.)

  10. An Ethology of Urban Fabric(s)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritsch, Jonas; Thomsen, Bodil Marie Stavning

    2014-01-01

    The article explores a non-metaphorical understanding of urban fabric(s), shifting the attention from a bird’s eye perspective to the actual, textural manifestations of a variety of urban fabric(s) to be studied in their real, processual, ecological and ethological complexity within urban life. We...... effectuate this move by bringing into resonance a range of intersecting fields that all deal with urban fabric(s) in complementary ways (interaction design and urban design activism, fashion, cultural theory, philosophy, urban computing)....

  11. Spectroscopic Measurements of Target Preheating on OMEGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elton, R.C.; Griem, H.R.; Iglesias, E.J.

    2000-01-01

    The preheating of laser-heated microballoon targets has been measured by time-resolved x-ray and extreme ultraviolet (euv) spectroscopy on the 30 kJ, 351 nm, 60-beam laser-fusion system at the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics. Thin coatings of aluminum overcoated with magnesium served as indicators. both the sequence of the x-ray line emission and the intensity of euv radiation were used to determine a preheating peaking at ∼ 10 ns prior to onset of the main laser pulse, with a power density ≅1% of the main pulse. The measurements are supported by numerical modeling. Further information is provided by absorption spectra from the aluminum coating, backlighted by continuum from the heated surface. The exact source of the preheating energy remains unknown at present, but most likely arrives from early laser leakage through the system. The present target diagnostic is particularly useful when all beams cannot be monitored directly at all laser wavelengths

  12. Laser-fusion rocket for interplanetary propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyde, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    A rocket powered by fusion microexplosions is well suited for quick interplanetary travel. Fusion pellets are sequentially injected into a magnetic thrust chamber. There, focused energy from a fusion Driver is used to implode and ignite them. Upon exploding, the plasma debris expands into the surrounding magnetic field and is redirected by it, producing thrust. This paper discusses the desired features and operation of the fusion pellet, its Driver, and magnetic thrust chamber. A rocket design is presented which uses slightly tritium-enriched deuterium as the fusion fuel, a high temperature KrF laser as the Driver, and a thrust chamber consisting of a single superconducting current loop protected from the pellet by a radiation shield. This rocket can be operated with a power-to-mass ratio of 110 W gm -1 , which permits missions ranging from occasional 9 day VIP service to Mars, to routine 1 year, 1500 ton, Plutonian cargo runs

  13. The prospect of laser fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, C.

    2000-01-01

    The inertial confinement fusion research has developed remarkably in these 30 years, which enables us to scope the inertial fusion energy in the next century. The recent progress in the ICF is briefly reviewed. The GEKKO XII n d glass laser has succeeded to get the long cherished world's purpose that was to compress a D-T fuel up to 1000 times the normal density. The neutron yield was some what less than the expected value. The MJ laser system is under construction expecting to ignite and bum a fuel. The alternative way is to use a PW short pulse laser for the fast ignition. The inertial fusion energy strategy is described with economic overviews on IFE power plants. Various applications of IFE are summarized. (author)

  14. Laser fusion hybrid reactor systems study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-07-01

    The work was performed in three phases. The first phase included a review of the many possible laser-reactor-blanket combinations and resulted in the selection of a ''demonstration size'' 500 MWe plant for further study. A number of fast fission blankets using uranium metal, uranium-molybdenum alloy, and uranium carbide as fuel were investigated. The second phase included design of the reactor vessel and internals, heat transfer system, tritium processing system, and the balance of plant, excluding the laser building and equipment. A fuel management scheme was developed, safety considerations were reviewed, and capital and operating costs were estimated. Costs developed during the second phase were unexpectedly high, and a thorough review indicated considerable unit cost savings could be obtained by scaling the plant to a larger size. Accordingly, a third phase was added to the original scope, encompassing the redesign and scaling of the plant from 500 MWe to 1200 MWe

  15. Laser fusion system design study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The following studies were completed: (1) The synthesis of a pointing/control system compatible with existing and advanced laser opto-mechanical configurations. (2) Attainment of the required pointing angle, longitudinal focus, and differential pathlength accuracies. (3) Maximum modularization of the sensor and gimbal assemblies to provide the required accuracies at minimum cost. Detailed information is given on each. (MOW)

  16. Optical coatings for laser fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowdermilk, W.H.; Milam, D.; Rainer, F.

    1980-01-01

    Lasers for fusion experiments use thin-film dielectric coatings for reflecting, antireflecting and polarizing surface elements. Coatings are most important to the Nd:glass laser application. The most important requirements of these coatings are accuracy of the average value of reflectance and transmission, uniformity of amplitude and phase front of the reflected or transmitted light, and laser damage threshold. Damage resistance strongly affects the laser's design and performance. The success of advanced lasers for future experiments and for reactor applications requires significant developments in damage resistant coatings for ultraviolet laser radiation

  17. Aerodynamic window for a laser fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Wataru

    1983-01-01

    Since the window of a laser system absorbs a part of the laser energy, the output power is determined by the characteristics of the window. The use of an aerodynamic window has been studied. The required characteristics are to keep the large pressure difference. An equation of motion of a vortex was presented and analyzed. The operation power of the system was studied. A multi-stage aerodynamic window was proposed to reduce the power. When the jet flow of 0.3 of the Mach number is used, the operation power will be several Megawatt, and the length of an optical path will be about 100 m. (Kato, T.)

  18. Laser fusion and high energy density science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Ryosuke

    2005-01-01

    High-power laser technology is now opening a variety of new fields of science and technology using laser-produced plasmas. The laser plasma is now recognized as one of the important tools for the investigation and application of matter under extreme conditions, which is called high energy density science. This chapter shows a variety of applications of laser-produced plasmas as high energy density science. One of the more attractive industrial and science applications is the generation of intense pulse-radiation sources, such as the generation of electro-magnetic waves in the ranges of EUV (Extreme Ultra Violet) to gamma rays and laser acceleration of charged particles. The laser plasma is used as an energy converter in this regime. The fundamental science applications of high energy density physics are shown by introducing laboratory astrophysics, the equation of state of high pressure matter, including warm dense matter and nuclear science. Other applications are also presented, such as femto-second laser propulsion and light guiding. Finally, a new systematization is proposed to explore the possibility of the high energy density plasma application, which is called high energy plasma photonics''. This is also exploration of the boundary regions between laser technology and beam optics based on plasma physics. (author)

  19. Laser fusion power reactor system (LFPRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacik, W.P.

    1977-01-01

    This report gives detailed information for each of the following areas: (1) reference concept description, (2) nuclear design, (3) structural design, (4) thermal and fluid systems design, (5) materials design and analysis, (6) reactor support systems and balance of plant, (7) instrumentation and control, (8) environment and safety, (9) economics assessment, and (10) development requirements

  20. Swift fabrication of Ag nanostructures using a colloidal solution of Holostemma ada-kodien (Apocynaceae) - Antibiofilm potential, insecticidal activity against mosquitoes and non-target impact on water bugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyahya, Sami A; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Kadaikunnan, Shine; Khaled, Jamal M; Mothana, Ramzi A; Al-Anbr, Mohammed N; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Ishwarya, Ramachandran; Yazhiniprabha, Mariappan; Benelli, Giovanni

    2018-04-01

    Recent research in entomology and parasitology focused on the efficacy of green fabricated nanomaterials as novel insecticides. In this study, we synthesized poly-dispersed and stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using the leaf extract of Holostemma ada-kodien. The nanostructures were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, and X-ray diffraction analysis. The efficacy of H. ada-kodien leaf extract and AgNPs in vector control was evaluated against the mosquitoes Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus, which act as major vectors of important parasitic and arboviral diseases. AgNPs showed higher toxicity if compared to the H. ada-kodien leaf aqueous extract, LC 50 towards larvae of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus were 12.18, 13.30, and 14.70 μg/mL, respectively. When the AgNPs were tested on non-target water bugs, Diplonychus indicus, the LC 50 value was 623.48 μg/mL. Furthermore, 100 μl/mL of AgNPs achieved significant antimicrobial activity against Bacillus pumilus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, and Candida albicans. Light and confocal laser scanning microscopy highlighted a major impact of the H. ada-kodien-synthesized AgNPs on the external topography and architecture of microbial biofilms, both on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Overall, this study sheds light on the insecticidal and antibiofilm potential of H. ada-kodien-synthesized AgNPs, a potential green resource for the rapid synthesis of polydispersed and highly stable AgNPs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Fabrication and Prototyping Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The Fabrication and Prototyping Lab for composite structures provides a wide variety of fabrication capabilities critical to enabling hands-on research and...

  2. Fabrication of recyclable superhydrophobic cotton fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang Wook; Park, Eun Ji; Jeong, Myung-Geun; Kim, Il Hee; Seo, Hyun Ook; Kim, Ju Hwan; Kim, Kwang-Dae; Kim, Young Dok

    2017-04-01

    Commercial cotton fabric was coated with SiO2 nanoparticles wrapped with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer, and the resulting material surface showed a water contact angle greater than 160°. The superhydrophobic fabric showed resistance to water-soluble contaminants and maintained its original superhydrophobic properties with almost no alteration even after many times of absorption-washing cycles of oil. Moreover, superhydrophobic fabric can be used as a filter to separate oil from water. We demonstrated a simple method of fabrication of superhydrophobic fabric with potential interest for use in a variety of applications.

  3. Polymorphous computing fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Christophe Czeslaw [Los Alamos, NM; Gokhale, Maya B [Los Alamos, NM; McCabe, Kevin Peter [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-01-18

    Fabric-based computing systems and methods are disclosed. A fabric-based computing system can include a polymorphous computing fabric that can be customized on a per application basis and a host processor in communication with said polymorphous computing fabric. The polymorphous computing fabric includes a cellular architecture that can be highly parameterized to enable a customized synthesis of fabric instances for a variety of enhanced application performances thereof. A global memory concept can also be included that provides the host processor random access to all variables and instructions associated with the polymorphous computing fabric.

  4. [Glass Development Laser (GDL) Facility upgrade.] LLE Review. Quarterly report, October-December 1984. Volume 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.

    1984-01-01

    This volume of the LLE Review contains articles on the upgrade of the GDL (Glass Development) system, theoretical advances in the laser fusion effort, improved target fabrication capabilities, x-ray laser research, developments in the picosecond optics research of the LLE advanced technology program, and on the National Laser Users Facility activities for October-December 1984. 56 refs., 31 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Mechanical properties of vapor-deposited thin metallic films: a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, P.H.

    1982-01-01

    The mechanical properties of vapor-deposited thin metallic films are being studied in conjunction with the target fabrication group associated with the laser-fusion energy program. The purpose of the work is to gain an understanding as to which metals are structurally best suited to contain a glass microsphere filled with deuterium-tritium (D-T) gas at large internal pressures

  6. On the efficiency of conical targets for laser thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovskij, A.V.; Korobkin, V.V.

    1981-01-01

    Advantages and drawbacks of conical targets (CT) for laser fusion (LF) are discussed. Possibility of the laser power reduction, laser pulse lengthening and neutron yield increase are analyzed for an ideal conical target with absolutely rigid and heat-proof walls as compared to a spherical target of the same mass. A simple theory is suggested which makes it possible to take into account an effect of walls on the fusion process in the conical target with gaseous fuel and heavy shell. Energy losses due to wall deformations and heat conduction are estimated. An influence of these effects on the neutron yield is estimated. CT used in the LF experiments are found to have serious drawbacks in comparison with spherical ones. These drawbacks are connected with the effect of walls on the processes taking place in CT. Analysis of CT, for which the effect of walls is not significant, points up some definite advantages of CT as compared with spherical one. These advantages are the possibility of laser pulse lengthening and laser power reduction in comparison with the irradiation of a sphere of an equal mass. These two positive qualities are connected with the fact that CT has large linear dimensions [ru

  7. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THIN GDP SHELLS USED AS CRYOGENIC DIRECT DRIVE TARGETS AT OMEGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NIKROO, A.; CZECHOWICZ, D.; CHEN, K.C.; DICKEN, M.; MORRIS, C.; ANDREWS, R.; GREENWOOD, A.L; CASTILLO, E.

    2003-09-01

    OAK-B135 Thin glow discharge polymer (GDP) shells are currently used as the targets for cryogenic direct drive laser fusion experiments. These shells need to be filled with nearly 1000 atm of D 2 and cooled to cryogenic temperatures without failing due to buckling and bursting pressures they experience in this process. Therefore, the mechanical and permeation properties of these shells are of utmost importance in successful and rapid filling with D 2 . In this paper, they present an overview of buckle and burst pressures of several different types of GDP shells. These include those made using traditional GDP deposition parameters (standard GDP) using a high deposition pressure and using modified parameters (strong GDP) of low deposition pressure that leads to more robust shells

  8. Mechanical design of experimental apparatus for FIREX cryo-target cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, A.; Norimatsu, T.; Nakai, M.; Sakagami, H.; Fujioka, S.; Shiraga, H.; Azechi, H.

    2016-05-01

    Mechanical design of an experimental apparatus for FIREX cryo-target cooling is described. Gaseous helium (GHe) sealing system at a cryogenic environment is an important issue for laser fusion experiments. The dedicated loading system was designed for a metal gasket. We take U-TIGHTSEAL® (Usui Kokusai Sangyo Kaisha. Ltd.) with an indium plated copper jacket as an example. According to its specification, a linear load of 110 N/m along its circumference is the optimum compression; however a lower load would still maintain helium (He) leak below the required level. Its sealing performance was investigated systematically. Our system demanded 27 N/mm of the load to keep He leak tightness in a cryogenic environment. Once leak tightness was obtained, it could be reduced to 9.5 N/mm.

  9. Fabrication of targets for transmutation of americium : synthesis of inertial matrix by sol-gel method. Procedure study on the infiltration of a radioactive solutions; Fabricacion de blancos para la transmutacion de americio: sintesis de matrices inertes por el metodo sol-gel. Estudio del procedimiento de infiltracion de disoluciones radiactivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Carretero, A [Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    Transmutation and incineration are innovative options in the management and disposal of fission products and actinides. nevertheless, the fabrication of targets for transmutation and incineration of actinides and fission products require a reconsideration of conventional processes (mechanical blending) and the development of new procedures compatible with the high activity of these materials. This work presents th R and D of a new fabrication method called INRAM (Infiltration of Radioactive Materials) based on the infiltration of an actinide solution in a porous non radiotoxic material in the form of a pellet (up to 12% An), or beads (up to 40% An) produced by sol-gel. The first method have been used for the fabrication of spinel (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) targets containing 11% Am, which have been irradiated in HFR-Petten (358.4 full power days). Post-test burn-up calculations showed that at the end of the irradiation the initial Am-241 concentration was reduced to 4%. The fraction of the initial americum atoms that have been fissioned is 28%. The main advantage of the INRAM method is that matrices with low or zero activity can be fabricated and formed into the required shape in an unshielded facility. This method offers other advantages over conventional ones, such as the active wastes are reduced, is easy to automate, adoptable to telemanipulation and dust free, which facilitate operator intervention and minimise radiation exposure to the personal. In addition, the infiltrant needs only be present in liquid form, i. e. it could be transferred directly from the reprocessing plant for fabrication into targets without conversion into-solid form. In order to optimise the infiltration process in depth investigations of all important process parameters, e. g. infiltration kinetics and metal (pu, Am) concentration in the feed solution, and also on extensive study or powder metallurgy parameters for the preparation of high quality fuel pellets with a high density, have been

  10. Targets development at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.L.; Hebron, D.; Derzon, M.; Olson, R.; Alberts, T.

    1997-01-01

    For many years, Sandia National Laboratories under contract to the Department of Energy has produced targets designed to understand complex ion beam and z-pinch plasma physics. This poster focuses on the features of target designs that make them suitable for Z-pinch plasma physics applications. Precision diagnostic targets will prove critical in understanding the plasma physics model needed for future ion beam and z-pinch design. Targets are designed to meet specific physics needs; in this case the authors have fabricated targets to maximize information about the end-on versus side-on x-ray emission and z-pinch hohlraum development. In this poster, they describe the fabrication and characterization techniques. They include discussion of current targets under development as well as target fabrication capabilities. Advanced target designs are fabricated by Sandia National Laboratories in cooperation with General Atomics of San Diego, CA and W.J. Schafer Associates, Inc. of Livermore, CA

  11. Project and supply agreement. The text of the agreement of 15 January 1993 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Republic of Indonesia and the Government of the United States of America concerning the transfer of enriched uranium for the fabrication of targets for the production of radioisotopes for medical purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The text of the Project and Supply Agreement, which was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 4 December 1992 and concluded on 15 January 1993 between the Agency and the Governments of the Republic of Indonesia and the United States of America for the transfer of enriched uranium for the fabrication of targets for the production of radioisotopes for medical purposes is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The agreement entered into force on 15 January 1993, pursuant to Article XII.1

  12. Phase-modulation interferometer for ICF-target characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    Characterization requirements for high gain laser fusion targets are severe. We are required to detect defects on the surfaces of opaque and transparent shells with an amplitude resolution of +- 5 nm and a spatial resolution of 1 to 10 μm. To achieve this we have developed a laser-illuminated phase-modulation interferometer. This instrument is based on a photoelastic polarization modulation technique which allows one to convert phase information into an intensity modulation which can be easily and sensitively measured using ac signal processing techniques. This interferometer has detected path length changes as small as 1 nm and the required spatial resolution is assured by using a microscope objective to focus the probe laser beam down to a small (approx. 1 μm) spot on the surface of a microballoon. The interferometer will soon be coupled to an LSI-11 controlled 4π sphere manipulator which will allow us to automatically inspect the entire surface area of a target sphere

  13. Dynamics of Laser-Driven Shock Waves in Solid Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Karasik, M.; Velikovich, A. L.; Serlin, V.; Weaver, J.; Schmitt, A. J.; Obenschain, S. P.; Grun, J.; Metzler, N.; Zalesak, S. T.; Gardner, J. H.; Oh, J.; Harding, E. C.

    2009-11-01

    Accurate shock timing is a key issue of both indirect- and direct-drive laser fusions. The experiments on the Nike laser at NRL presented here were made possible by improvements in the imaging capability of our monochromatic x-ray diagnostics based on Bragg reflection from spherically curved crystals. Side-on imaging implemented on Nike makes it possible to observe dynamics of the shock wave and ablation front in laser-driven solid targets. We can choose to observe a sequence of 2D images or a continuous time evolution of an image resolved in one spatial dimension. A sequence of 300 ps snapshots taken using vanadium backlighter at 5.2 keV reveals propagation of a shock wave in a solid plastic target. The shape of the shock wave reflects the intensity distribution in the Nike beam. The streak records with continuous time resolution show the x-t trajectory of a laser-driven shock wave in a 10% solid density DVB foam.

  14. Current progress in NIF target concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gobby, P.L.; Foreman, L.R.; Thoma, D.J.; Jacobson, L.A.; Hollis, R.V.; Barrera, J.; Mitchell, M.A.; Salazar, M.A.; Salzer, L.J.

    1996-01-01

    Target concepts for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) require progress in the art and science of target fabrication. Three distinct issues are addressed: beryllium fuel capsules, foam-buffered direct drive, and high-density gas-filled hohlraums. In all cases experiments on the existing Nova laser at LLNL are either in progress or planned for the near future to test the various concepts. Consequently, target fabrication must be able to deliver targets appropriate for each

  15. Fabrication and calibration of FORTIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Brian T.; McCandliss, Stephan R.; Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Kruk, Jeffery; Feldman, Paul D.; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Li, Mary J.; Rapchun, David A.; Lyness, Eric; Moseley, S. H.; Siegmund, Oswald; Vallerga, John; Martin, Adrian

    2011-09-01

    The Johns Hopkins University sounding rocket group is entering the final fabrication phase of the Far-ultraviolet Off Rowland-circle Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy (FORTIS); a sounding rocket borne multi-object spectro-telescope designed to provide spectral coverage of 43 separate targets in the 900 - 1800 Angstrom bandpass over a 30' x 30' field-of- view. Using "on-the-fly" target acquisition and spectral multiplexing enabled by a GSFC microshutter array, FORTIS will be capable of observing the brightest regions in the far-UV of nearby low redshift (z ~ 0.002 - 0.02) star forming galaxies to search for Lyman alpha escape, and to measure the local gas-to-dust ratio. A large area (~ 45 mm x 170 mm) microchannel plate detector built by Sensor Sciences provides an imaging channel for targeting flanked by two redundant spectral outrigger channels. The grating is ruled directly onto the secondary mirror to increase efficiency. In this paper, we discuss the recent progress made in the development and fabrication of FORTIS, as well as the results of early calibration and characterization of our hardware, including mirror/grating measurements, detector performance, and early operational tests of the microshutter arrays.

  16. Fabric based supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong, S; Tudor, M J; Beeby, S P; Owen, J R

    2013-01-01

    Flexible supercapacitors with electrodes coated on inexpensive fabrics by the dipping technique. This paper present details of the design, fabrication and characterisation of fabric supercapacitor. The sandwich structured supercapacitors can achieve specific capacitances of 11.1F/g, area capacitance 105 mF.cm −2 and maintain 95% of the initial capacitance after cycling the device for more than 15000 times

  17. Fabrics in Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Anne Louise

    2007-01-01

    sensing of fabrics in function. It is proposed that tactile and visual sensing of fabrics is a way to investigate and express emotional utility values. The further purpose is to use experiments with repertory grid models as part of the mapping of the entire research project and also as a basis...

  18. Fabricating architectural volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feringa, Jelle; Søndergaard, Asbjørn

    2015-01-01

    The 2011 edition of Fabricate inspired a number of collaborations, this article seeks to highlight three of these. There is a common thread amongst the projects presented: sharing the ambition to close the rift between design and fabrication while incorporating structural design aspects early on...

  19. Smart Fabrics Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Cory; Potter, Elliott; Potter, Elliott; McCabe, Mary; Baggerman, Clint

    2010-01-01

    Advances in Smart Fabrics technology are enabling an exciting array of new applications for NASA exploration missions, the biomedical community, and consumer electronics. This report summarizes the findings of a brief investigation into the state of the art and potential applications of smart fabrics to address challenges in human spaceflight.

  20. Optics fabrication technical challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabassier, G.; Ferriou, N.; Lavastre, E.; Maunier, C.; Neauport, J.; Taroux, D.; Balla, D.; Fornerod, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    Before the production of all the LMJ (MEGAJOULE laser) optics, the CEA had to proceed with the fabrication of about 300 large optics for the LIL (laser integration line) laser. Thanks to a fruitful collaboration with high-tech optics companies in Europe, this challenge has been successfully hit. In order to achieve the very tight requirements for cleanliness, laser damage threshold and all the other high demanding fabrication specifications, it has been necessary to develop and to set completely new fabrication process going and to build special outsize fabrication equipment. Through a couple of examples, this paper gives an overview of the work which has been done and shows some of the results which have been obtained: continuous laser glass melting, fabrication of the laser slabs, rapid-growth KDP (potassium dihydrogen phosphate) technology, large diffractive transmission gratings engraving and characterization. (authors)

  1. The Nike KrF laser facility: Performance and initial target experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obenschain, S.P.; Bodner, S.E.; Colombant, D.; Gerber, K.; Lehmberg, R.H.; McLean, E.A.; Mostovych, A.N.; Pronko, M.S.; Pawley, C.J.; Schmitt, A.J.; Sethian, J.D.; Serlin, V.; Stamper, J.A.; Sullivan, C.A.; Dahlburg, J.P.; Gardner, J.H.; Chan, Y.; Deniz, A.V.; Hardgrove, J.; Lehecka, T.; Klapisch, M.

    1996-01-01

    Krypton-fluoride (KrF) lasers are of interest to laser fusion because they have both the large bandwidth capability (approx-gt THz) desired for rapid beam smoothing and the short laser wavelength (1/4 μm) needed for good laser endash target coupling. Nike is a recently completed 56-beam KrF laser and target facility at the Naval Research Laboratory. Because of its bandwidth of 1 THz FWHM (full width at half-maximum), Nike produces more uniform focal distributions than any other high-energy ultraviolet laser. Nike was designed to study the hydrodynamic instability of ablatively accelerated planar targets. First results show that Nike has spatially uniform ablation pressures (Δp/p<2%). Targets have been accelerated for distances sufficient to study hydrodynamic instability while maintaining good planarity. In this review we present the performance of the Nike laser in producing uniform illumination, and its performance in correspondingly uniform acceleration of targets. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  2. New polymorphous computing fabric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolinski, Christophe; Gokhale, Maya; McCabe, Kevin P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces a new polymorphous computing Fabric well suited to DSP and Image Processing and describes its implementation on a Configurable System on a Chip (CSOC). The architecture is highly parameterized and enables customization of the synthesized Fabric to achieve high performance for a specific class of application. For this reason it can be considered to be a generic model for hardware accelerator synthesis from a high level specification. Another important innovation is the Fabric uses a global memory concept, which gives the host processor random access to all the variables and instructions on the Fabric. The Fabric supports different computing models including MIMD, SPMD and systolic flow and permits dynamic reconfiguration. We present a specific implementation of a bank of FIR filters on a Fabric composed of 52 cells on the Altera Excalibur ARM running at 33 MHz. The theoretical performance of this Fabric is 1.8 GMACh. For the FIR application we obtain 1.6 GMAC/s real performance. Some automatic tools have been developed like the tool to provide a host access utility and assembler.

  3. Fabrication and characterisation of fabric supercapacitor

    OpenAIRE

    Yong, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Fabric supercapacitor is a flexible electrochemical device for energy storage application. It is designed to power up flexible electronic systems used for, for example, information sensing, data computation and communication. The development of a flexible supercapacitor is important for e-textiles since supercapacitor can achieve higher energy density than a standard parallel plate capacitor and a larger power density compared with a battery. This research area is currently facing barriers on...

  4. Junction and circuit fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackel, L.D.

    1980-01-01

    Great strides have been made in Josephson junction fabrication in the four years since the first IC SQUID meeting. Advances in lithography have allowed the production of devices with planar dimensions as small as a few hundred angstroms. Improved technology has provided ultra-high sensitivity SQUIDS, high-efficiency low-noise mixers, and complex integrated circuits. This review highlights some of the new fabrication procedures. The review consists of three parts. Part 1 is a short summary of the requirements on junctions for various applications. Part 2 reviews intergrated circuit fabrication, including tunnel junction logic circuits made at IBM and Bell Labs, and microbridge radiation sources made at SUNY at Stony Brook. Part 3 describes new junction fabrication techniques, the major emphasis of this review. This part includes a discussion of small oxide-barrier tunnel junctions, semiconductor barrier junctions, and microbridge junctions. Part 3 concludes by considering very fine lithography and limitations to miniaturization. (orig.)

  5. Construction, fabrication, and installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This standard specifies the construction, fabrication, and installation requirements that apply to concrete containment structures of a containment system designated as class containment components, parts and appurtenances for nuclear power plants

  6. Experimental Fabrication Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Provides aviation fabrication support to special operations aircraft residing at Fort Eustis and other bases in the United States. Support is also provided to AATD...

  7. Alloy Fabrication Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL’s Alloy Fabrication Facility in Albany, OR, researchers conduct DOE research projects to produce new alloys suited to a variety of applications, from gas...

  8. Minor Actinide Laboratory at JRC-ITU: Fuel fabrication facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, A.; McGinley, J.; Somers, J.

    2008-01-01

    The Minor Actinide Laboratory (MA-lab) of the Institute for Transuranium Elements is a unique facility for the fabrication of fuels and targets containing minor actinides (MA). It is of key importance for research on Partitioning and Transmutation in Europe, as it is one of the only dedicated facilities for the fabrication of MA containing materials, either for property measurements or for the production of test pins for irradiation experiments. In this paper a detailed description of the MA-Lab facility and the fabrication processes developed to fabricate fuels and samples containing high content of minor actinides is given. In addition, experience gained and improvements are also outlined. (authors)

  9. Fabricating nuclear components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Activities of the Nuclear Engineering Division of Vickers Ltd., particularly fabrication of long slim tubular components for power reactors and the construction of irradiation loops and rigs, are outlined. The processes include hydraulic forming for fabrication of various types of tubes and outer cases of fuel transfer buckets, various specialised welding operations including some applications of the TIG process, and induction brazing of specialised assemblies. (U.K.)

  10. Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levesque, Stephen [EWI, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2013-04-05

    This report summarizes the activities undertaken by EWI while under contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) for the management and operation of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium (NFC). The NFC was established by EWI to independently develop, evaluate, and deploy fabrication approaches and data that support the re-establishment of the U.S. nuclear industry: ensuring that the supply chain will be competitive on a global stage, enabling more cost-effective and reliable nuclear power in a carbon constrained environment. The NFC provided a forum for member original equipment manufactures (OEM), fabricators, manufacturers, and materials suppliers to effectively engage with each other and rebuild the capacity of this supply chain by : Identifying and removing impediments to the implementation of new construction and fabrication techniques and approaches for nuclear equipment, including system components and nuclear plants. Providing and facilitating detailed scientific-based studies on new approaches and technologies that will have positive impacts on the cost of building of nuclear plants. Analyzing and disseminating information about future nuclear fabrication technologies and how they could impact the North American and the International Nuclear Marketplace. Facilitating dialog and initiate alignment among fabricators, owners, trade associations, and government agencies. Supporting industry in helping to create a larger qualified nuclear supplier network. Acting as an unbiased technology resource to evaluate, develop, and demonstrate new manufacturing technologies. Creating welder and inspector training programs to help enable the necessary workforce for the upcoming construction work. Serving as a focal point for technology, policy, and politically interested parties to share ideas and concepts associated with fabrication across the nuclear industry. The report the objectives and summaries of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

  11. Inertial-confinement-fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets are made as simple flat discs, as hollow shells or as complicated multilayer structures. Many techniques have been devised for producing the targets. Glass and metal shells are made by using drop and bubble techniques. Solid hydrogen shells are also produced by adapting old methods to the solution of modern problems. Some of these techniques, problems and solutions are discussed. In addition, the applications of many of the techniques to fabrication of ICF targets is presented

  12. A triple axes multiple target holder assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribedi, L.C.; Narvekar, S.D.; Pillay, R.G.; Tandon, P.N.

    1993-01-01

    We have designed and fabricated a rotatable target holder assembly capable of accommodating 27 targets. The target foils are mounted along two concentric circles on a ss wheel. On the outer circle 18 targets can be mounted each 20deg apart, and on the inner circle the remaining targets are positioned each 40deg apart. The self supporting or carbon backed targets are mounted on thin frames and are placed concentrically at the targets are mounted on thin frames and are placed concentrically at the target position on the wheel. Three degrees of freedom are provided to the target holder assembly. (author). 1 fig

  13. Mechanical properties, chemical analysis and evaluation of antimicrobial response of Si-DLC coatings fabricated on AISI 316 LVM substrate by a multi-target DC-RF magnetron sputtering method for potential biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bociaga, Dorota; Sobczyk-Guzenda, Anna; Szymanski, Witold; Jedrzejczak, Anna; Jastrzebska, Aleksandra; Olejnik, Anna; Jastrzebski, Krzysztof

    2017-09-01

    In this study silicon doped diamond-like carbon (Si-DLC) coatings were synthesized on two substrates: silicon and AISI 316LVM stainless steel using a multi-target DC-RF magnetron sputtering method. The Si content in the films ranged between 4 and 16 at.%, and was controlled by the electrical power applied in RF regime to Si cathode target. The character of the chemical bonds was revealed by FTIR analysis. With the addition of silicon the hydroxyl absorption (band in the range of 3200-3600 cm-1) increased what suggests more hydrophilic character of the coating. There were also observed significant changes in bonding of Si atoms. For low content of dopant, Si-O-Si bond system is predominant, while for the highest content of silicon there is an evidence of the shift to Si-C bonds in close proximity to methyl groups. The Raman spectroscopy revealed that the G peak position is shifted to a lower wavenumber and the ID/IG ratio decreased with increasing Si content, which indicates an increase in the C-sp3 content. Regardless of the coatings' composition, the improvement of hardness in comparison to pure substrate material (AISI 316 LVM) was observed. Although the reduction of the level of hardness from the level of 10.8 GPa for pure DLC to about 9.4 GPa for the silicon doped coatings was observed, the concomitant improvement of films adhesion with higher amount of Si was revealed. Although incorporation of the dopant to DLC coatings increases the number of E. coli cells which adhered to the examined surfaces, the microbial colonisation remains on the level of substrate material. The presented results prove the potential of Si-DLC coatings in biomedical applications from the point of view of their mechanical properties.

  14. Understanding core conductor fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, D E

    2011-01-01

    ESD Association standard test method ANSI/ESD STM2.1 - Garments (STM2.1), provides electrical resistance test procedures that are applicable for materials and garments that have surface conductive or surface dissipative properties. As has been reported in other papers over the past several years 1 fabrics are now used in many industries for electrostatic control purposes that do not have surface conductive properties and therefore cannot be evaluated using the procedures in STM2.1 2 . A study was conducted to compare surface conductive fabrics with samples of core conductor fibre based fabrics in order to determine differences and similarities with regards to various electrostatic properties. This work will be used to establish a new work item proposal within WG-2, Garments, in the ESD Association Standards Committee in the USA.

  15. Fabrication of multilayer nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Jasveer, E-mail: kaurjasveer89@gmail.com; Singh, Avtar; Kumar, Davinder [Department of Physics, Punjabi University Patiala, 147002, Punjab (India); Thakur, Anup; Kaur, Raminder, E-mail: raminder-k-saini@yahoo.com [Department of Basic and Applied Sciences, Punjabi University Patiala, 147002, Punjab (India)

    2016-05-06

    Multilayer nanowires were fabricated by potentiostate ectrodeposition template synthesis method into the pores of polycarbonate membrane. In present work layer by layer deposition of two different metals Ni and Cu in polycarbonate membrane having pore size of 600 nm were carried out. It is found that the growth of nanowires is not constant, it varies with deposition time. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to study the morphology of fabricated multilayer nanowires. An energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) results confirm the composition of multilayer nanowires. The result shows that multilayer nanowires formed is dense.

  16. MOX Fabrication Isolation Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric L. Shaber; Bradley J Schrader

    2005-08-01

    This document provides a technical position on the preferred level of isolation to fabricate demonstration quantities of mixed oxide transmutation fuels. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative should design and construct automated glovebox fabrication lines for this purpose. This level of isolation adequately protects the health and safety of workers and the general public for all mixed oxide (and other transmutation fuel) manufacturing efforts while retaining flexibility, allowing parallel development and setup, and minimizing capital expense. The basis regulations, issues, and advantages/disadvantages of five potential forms of isolation are summarized here as justification for selection of the preferred technical position.

  17. Fabrication of multilayer nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Jasveer; Singh, Avtar; Kumar, Davinder; Thakur, Anup; Kaur, Raminder

    2016-01-01

    Multilayer nanowires were fabricated by potentiostate ectrodeposition template synthesis method into the pores of polycarbonate membrane. In present work layer by layer deposition of two different metals Ni and Cu in polycarbonate membrane having pore size of 600 nm were carried out. It is found that the growth of nanowires is not constant, it varies with deposition time. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to study the morphology of fabricated multilayer nanowires. An energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) results confirm the composition of multilayer nanowires. The result shows that multilayer nanowires formed is dense.

  18. Text-Fabric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Text-Fabric is a Python3 package for Text plus Annotations. It provides a data model, a text file format, and a binary format for (ancient) text plus (linguistic) annotations. The emphasis of this all is on: data processing; sharing data; and contributing modules. A defining characteristic is that

  19. PIGMI mechanical fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, V.E.

    1976-01-01

    A prime goal of the mechanical design effort associated with the PIGMI (Pion Generator for Medical Irradiations) program is to investigate new materials and fabrication techniques in an effort to obtain increased machine efficiency and reliability at a reasonable cost. The following discussion deals with the modeling program that LASL is pursuing for 450-MHz and 1350-MHz PIGMI development. (author)

  20. Micromechanical Structures Fabrication; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajic, S

    2001-01-01

    Work in materials other than silicon for MEMS applications has typically been restricted to metals and metal oxides instead of more ''exotic'' semiconductors. However, group III-V and II-VI semiconductors form a very important and versatile collection of material and electronic parameters available to the MEMS and MOEMS designer. With these materials, not only are the traditional mechanical material variables (thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, Young's modulus, etc.) available, but also chemical constituents can be varied in ternary and quaternary materials. This flexibility can be extremely important for both friction and chemical compatibility issues for MEMS. In addition, the ability to continually vary the bandgap energy can be particularly useful for many electronics and infrared detection applications. However, there are two major obstacles associated with alternate semiconductor material MEMS. The first issue is the actual fabrication of non-silicon micro-devices and the second impediment is communicating with these novel devices. We have implemented an essentially material independent fabrication method that is amenable to most group III-V and II-VI semiconductors. This technique uses a combination of non-traditional direct write precision fabrication processes such as diamond turning, ion milling, laser ablation, etc. This type of deterministic fabrication approach lends itself to an almost trivial assembly process. We also implemented a mechanical, electrical, and optical self-aligning hybridization technique for these alternate-material MEMS substrates

  1. Fabrication activity for nanophotonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malureanu, Radu; Chung, Il-Sug; Carletti, Luca

    We present the fabrication and characterization of new structures and materials to be used in nanophotonics. The first structure presented is a fractal metallic metasurface designed to be used as a high-sensitivity sensor for 810nm wavelength. A second structure is a high index contrast grating...

  2. Fabrication of inert matrices for heterogeneous transmutation. EFTTRA-T2 (RAS 2) irradiation programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boshoven, J.G.; Hein, H.; Konings, R.J.M.

    1996-07-01

    This report describes the fabrication of targets containing inert matrices for the heterogeneous transmutation of plutonium and minor actinides. These targets will be irradiated in the EFTTRA-T2 (RAS-2) irradiation programme. The selection, preparation and characterization of the inert matrices and fabrication and loading of the irradiation capsules are discussed. (orig.)

  3. Status report, canister fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Claes-Goeran; Eriksson, Peter; Westman, Marika [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Emilsson, Goeran [CSM Materialteknik AB, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2004-06-01

    The report gives an account of the development of material and fabrication technology for copper canisters with cast inserts during the period from 2000 until the start of 2004. The engineering design of the canister and the choice of materials in the constituent components described in previous status reports have not been significantly changed. In the reference canister, the thickness of the copper shell is 50 mm. Fabrication of individual components with a thinner copper thickness is done for the purpose of gaining experience and evaluating fabrication and inspection methods for such canisters. As a part of the development of cast inserts, computer simulations of the casting processes and techniques used at the foundries have been performed for the purpose of optimizing the material properties. These properties have been evaluated by extensive tensile testing and metallographic inspection of test material taken from discs cut at different points along the length of the inserts. The testing results exhibit a relatively large spread. Low elongation values in certain tensile test specimens are due to the presence of poorly formed graphite, porosities, slag or other casting defects. It is concluded in the report that it will not be possible to avoid some presence of observed defects in castings of this size. In the deep repository, the inserts will be exposed to compressive loading and the observed defects are not critical for strength. An analysis of the strength of the inserts and formulation of relevant material requirements must be based on a statistical approach with probabilistic calculations. This work has been initiated and will be concluded during 2004. An initial verifying compression test of a canister in an isostatic press has indicated considerable overstrength in the structure. Seamless copper tubes are fabricated by means of three methods: extrusion, pierce and draw processing, and forging. It can be concluded that extrusion tests have revealed a

  4. Status report, canister fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Claes-Goeran; Eriksson, Peter; Westman, Marika; Emilsson, Goeran

    2004-06-01

    The report gives an account of the development of material and fabrication technology for copper canisters with cast inserts during the period from 2000 until the start of 2004. The engineering design of the canister and the choice of materials in the constituent components described in previous status reports have not been significantly changed. In the reference canister, the thickness of the copper shell is 50 mm. Fabrication of individual components with a thinner copper thickness is done for the purpose of gaining experience and evaluating fabrication and inspection methods for such canisters. As a part of the development of cast inserts, computer simulations of the casting processes and techniques used at the foundries have been performed for the purpose of optimizing the material properties. These properties have been evaluated by extensive tensile testing and metallographic inspection of test material taken from discs cut at different points along the length of the inserts. The testing results exhibit a relatively large spread. Low elongation values in certain tensile test specimens are due to the presence of poorly formed graphite, porosities, slag or other casting defects. It is concluded in the report that it will not be possible to avoid some presence of observed defects in castings of this size. In the deep repository, the inserts will be exposed to compressive loading and the observed defects are not critical for strength. An analysis of the strength of the inserts and formulation of relevant material requirements must be based on a statistical approach with probabilistic calculations. This work has been initiated and will be concluded during 2004. An initial verifying compression test of a canister in an isostatic press has indicated considerable overstrength in the structure. Seamless copper tubes are fabricated by means of three methods: extrusion, pierce and draw processing, and forging. It can be concluded that extrusion tests have revealed a

  5. Automated breeder fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldmann, L.H.; Frederickson, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) Project is to develop remotely operated equipment for the processing and manufacturing of breeder reactor fuel pins. The SAF line will be installed in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF). The FMEF is presently under construction at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford site near Richland, Washington, and is operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The fabrication and support systems of the SAF line are designed for computer-controlled operation from a centralized control room. Remote and automated fuel fabriction operations will result in: reduced radiation exposure to workers; enhanced safeguards; improved product quality; near real-time accountability, and increased productivity. The present schedule calls for installation of SAF line equipment in the FMEF beginning in 1984, with qualifying runs starting in 1986 and production commencing in 1987. 5 figures

  6. OPO fabric decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severa, J.; Bar, J.; Grujbar, V.

    1978-01-01

    Samples of five polypropylene-based man-made fabrics were studied with regard to the degree of contamination and possibilities of decontamination in order to assess their suitability as material for protective clothing in the nuclear industry. The contamination degree of the fabrics in an aqueous solution of a fission product mixture was found to be low. Soaking in a mixture of the Sapon detergent and sodium hexametaphosphate at a concentration of both materials of 1 g/l with subsequent washing in a solution of the Zenit detergent at a concentration of 3 g/l was suggested as the most suitable decontamination procedure. It reduces the initial contamination by almost 99%. (Z.M.)

  7. CERN: Fixed target targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-03-15

    Full text: While the immediate priority of CERN's research programme is to exploit to the full the world's largest accelerator, the LEP electron-positron collider and its concomitant LEP200 energy upgrade (January, page 1), CERN is also mindful of its long tradition of diversified research. Away from LEP and preparations for the LHC proton-proton collider to be built above LEP in the same 27-kilometre tunnel, CERN is also preparing for a new generation of heavy ion experiments using a new source, providing heavier ions (April 1992, page 8), with first physics expected next year. CERN's smallest accelerator, the LEAR Low Energy Antiproton Ring continues to cover a wide range of research topics, and saw a record number of hours of operation in 1992. The new ISOLDE on-line isotope separator was inaugurated last year (July, page 5) and physics is already underway. The remaining effort concentrates around fixed target experiments at the SPS synchrotron, which formed the main thrust of CERN's research during the late 1970s. With the SPS and LEAR now approaching middle age, their research future was extensively studied last year. Broadly, a vigorous SPS programme looks assured until at least the end of 1995. Decisions for the longer term future of the West Experimental Area of the SPS will have to take into account the heavy demand for test beams from work towards experiments at big colliders, both at CERN and elsewhere. The North Experimental Area is the scene of larger experiments with longer lead times. Several more years of LEAR exploitation are already in the pipeline, but for the longer term, the ambitious Superlear project for a superconducting ring (January 1992, page 7) did not catch on. Neutrino physics has a long tradition at CERN, and this continues with the preparations for two major projects, the Chorus and Nomad experiments (November 1991, page 7), to start next year in the West Area. Delicate neutrino oscillation effects could become visible for the first

  8. Intentionally fabricated autobiographical memories

    OpenAIRE

    Justice, LV; Morrison, CM; Conway, MA

    2017-01-01

    Participants generated both autobiographical memories (AMs) that they believed to be true and intentionally fabricated autobiographical memories (IFAMs). Memories were constructed while a concurrent memory load (random 8-digit sequence) was held in mind or while there was no concurrent load. Amount and accuracy of recall of the concurrent memory load was reliably poorer following generation of IFAMs than following generation of AMs. There was no reliable effect of load on memory generation ti...

  9. Colored fused filament fabrication

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Haichuan; Lefebvre, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    Filament fused fabrication is the method of choice for printing 3D models at low cost, and is the de-facto standard for hobbyists, makers and schools. Unfortunately, filament printers cannot truly reproduce colored objects. The best current techniques rely on a form of dithering exploiting occlusion, that was only demonstrated for shades of two base colors and that behaves differently depending on surface slope. We explore a novel approach for 3D printing colored objects, capable of creating ...

  10. On stimulated scattering of laser light in inertial fusion energy targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolic, Lj; Skoric, M.M.; Ishiguro, S.; Sato, T.

    2002-11-01

    Propagation of a laser light through regions of an underdense plasma is an active research topic in laser fusion. In particular, a large effort has been invested in studies of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) which can reflect laser energy and produce energetic particles to preheat a fusion energy target. Experiments, theory and simulations agree on a complex interplay between various laser-plasma instabilities. By particle-in-cell simulations of an underdense electron-plasma, we have found, apart from the standard SRS, a strong backscattering near the electron plasma frequency at densities beyond the quarter critical. This novel instability, recognized in recent experiments as stimulated laser scattering on a trapped electron-acoustic mode (SEAS), is absent from a classical theory of laser-parametric instabilities. A parametric excitation of SEAS instability, is explained by a three-wave resonant decay of the incident laser light into a standing backscattered wave and a slow trapped electron acoustic wave (ω p ). Large SEAS pulsations, eventually suppressed by relativistic heating of electrons, are observed in our simulations. This phenomenon seems relevant to future hohlraum target and fast ignition experiments. (author)

  11. Materials at extreme conditions: ICF targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Currently two simple theories are heavily used in laser-fusion research: the Thomas-Fermi-Dirac statistical model, and an atomic ionization model based on screened hydrogen like energy levels. Recent improvements in these theories are summarized. We show representation calculations of thermodynamic properties, ionization, x-ray emission rates and fast-ion stopping powers, and give a brief sketch of the major unresolved scientific questions

  12. CERN: Fixed target targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: While the immediate priority of CERN's research programme is to exploit to the full the world's largest accelerator, the LEP electron-positron collider and its concomitant LEP200 energy upgrade (January, page 1), CERN is also mindful of its long tradition of diversified research. Away from LEP and preparations for the LHC proton-proton collider to be built above LEP in the same 27-kilometre tunnel, CERN is also preparing for a new generation of heavy ion experiments using a new source, providing heavier ions (April 1992, page 8), with first physics expected next year. CERN's smallest accelerator, the LEAR Low Energy Antiproton Ring continues to cover a wide range of research topics, and saw a record number of hours of operation in 1992. The new ISOLDE on-line isotope separator was inaugurated last year (July, page 5) and physics is already underway. The remaining effort concentrates around fixed target experiments at the SPS synchrotron, which formed the main thrust of CERN's research during the late 1970s. With the SPS and LEAR now approaching middle age, their research future was extensively studied last year. Broadly, a vigorous SPS programme looks assured until at least the end of 1995. Decisions for the longer term future of the West Experimental Area of the SPS will have to take into account the heavy demand for test beams from work towards experiments at big colliders, both at CERN and elsewhere. The North Experimental Area is the scene of larger experiments with longer lead times. Several more years of LEAR exploitation are already in the pipeline, but for the longer term, the ambitious Superlear project for a superconducting ring (January 1992, page 7) did not catch on. Neutrino physics has a long tradition at CERN, and this continues with the preparations for two major projects, the Chorus and Nomad experiments (November 1991, page 7), to start next year in the West Area. Delicate neutrino oscillation effects could become

  13. OMEGA ICF experiments and preparations for direct drive on NIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCrory, R.L.; Bahr, R.E.; Betti, R.

    2001-01-01

    Direct-drive laser-fusion ignition experiments rely on detailed understanding and control of irradiation uniformity, the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, and target fabrication. LLE is investigating various theoretical aspects of a direct-drive NIF ignition target based on an 'all-DT' design: a spherical target of ∼3.4-mm diameter, 1 to 2 μm of CH wall thickness, and an ∼340-μm DT-ice layer near the triple point of DT (∼19 K). OMEGA experiments are designed to address the critical issues related to direct-drive laser fusion and to provide the necessary data to validate the predictive capability of LLE computer codes. The cryogenic targets to be used on OMEGA are hydrodynamically equivalent to those planned for the NIF. The current experimental studies on OMEGA address the essential components of direct-drive laser fusion: irradiation uniformity and laser imprinting, Rayleigh-Taylor growth and saturation, compressed core performance and shell fuel mixing, laser plasma interactions and their effect on target performance, and cryogenic target fabrication and handling. (author)

  14. Omega experiments and preparation for moderate-gain direct-drive experiments on Nif

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mr Crory, R.L.; Bahr, R.E.; Boehly, T.R.

    2000-01-01

    Direct-drive laser-fusion ignition experiments rely on detailed understanding and control of irradiation uniformity, Rayleigh-Taylor instability, and target fabrication. LLE is investigating various theoretical aspects of a direct-drive NIF ignition target based on an 'all-DT' design: a spherical target of ∼ 3.5 mm diameter, 1 to 2 μm if CH wall thickness, and a ∼ 350 μm DT-ice layer near the triple point of DT (μ19K). OMEGA experiments are designed to address the critical issues related to direct-drive laser fusion and to provide the necessary data to validate the predictive capability of LLE computer codes. The future cryogenic targets used on OMEGA are hydrodynamically equivalent to those planned for the NIF. The current experimental studies on OMEGA address all of the essential components of direct-drive laser fusion: irradiation uniformity and laser imprinting, Rayleigh-Taylor growth and saturation, compressed core performance and shell-fuel mixing, laser-plasma interactions and their effect on target performance, and cryogenic target fabrication and handling. (authors)

  15. Description of ECRI (CNEA'S MTR fuel fabrication plant)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echenique, P.; Fabro, J.; Podesta, D.; Restelli, M.; Rossi, G.; Alvarez, L.; Adelfang, P.

    2002-01-01

    The ECRI Plant is dedicated to the development and fabrication of high-density fuel elements and targets for 99 Mo. In this sector had been done the start up Fuel Elements for the Reactors of Peru, Iran, Algeria and Egypt. All of them were made with U 3 O 8 . The targets for 99 Mo using HEU were fabricated too in the last years. The new material of high-density for Fuel Elements as U 3 Si 2 were done in this sector, three prototypes were fabricated, two are still under irradiation. (P06 and P07). As new developments we are working with U-Mo (7%) Fuel Plates with both material Korean and HMD. This work is under the RERTR Program and two fuel elements, manufactured by us, with both powders, will be irradiated in Petten. For 99 Mo targets, we are fabricating miniplates of LEU with an AlUx powder by pulvi-metallurgy technique. And it is under development the foils targets under the RERTR Program. A general view of the fabrication facilities and control sector will be shown. The different operations that are done in each sector will be explained. All our activities will be certified under the ISO 9000 and we are working hard to get it in the middle of 2003. (author)

  16. Target laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ephraim, D.C.; Pednekar, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    A target laboratory to make stripper foils for the accelerator and various targets for use in the experiments is set up in the pelletron accelerator facility. The facilities available in the laboratory are: (1) D.C. glow discharge setup, (2) carbon arc set up, and (3) vacuum evaporation set up (resistance heating), electron beam source, rolling mill - all for target preparation. They are described. Centrifugal deposition technique is used for target preparation. (author). 3 figs

  17. FPGA fabric specific optimization for RLT design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perwaiz, A.; Khan, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a technique custom to the optimization requirements suited for a particular family of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). As FPGAs have introduced re configurable black boxes there is a need to perform optimization across FPGAs slice fabric in order to achieve optimum performance. Though the Register Transfer Level (RTL) Hardware Descriptive Language (HDL) code should be technology independent but in many design instances it is imperative to understand the target technology especially once the target device embeds dedicated arithmetic blocks. No matter what the degree of optimization of the algorithm is, the configuration of target device plays an important role as far as the device utilization and path delays are concerned Index Terms: Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA), Compression Tree, Bit Width Reduction, Look Ahead Pipelining. (author)

  18. Intraocular lens fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, Mike A. (Albuquerque, NM); Foreman, Larry R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01

    This invention describes a method for fabricating an intraocular lens made rom clear Teflon.TM., Mylar.TM., or other thermoplastic material having a thickness of about 0.025 millimeters. These plastic materials are thermoformable and biocompatable with the human eye. The two shaped lenses are bonded together with a variety of procedures which may include thermosetting and solvent based adhesives, laser and impulse welding, and ultrasonic bonding. The fill tube, which is used to inject a refractive filling material is formed with the lens so as not to damage the lens shape. A hypodermic tube may be included inside the fill tube.

  19. Intraocular lens fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, M.A.; Foreman, L.R.

    1997-07-08

    This invention describes a method for fabricating an intraocular lens made from clear Teflon{trademark}, Mylar{trademark}, or other thermoplastic material having a thickness of about 0.025 millimeters. These plastic materials are thermoformable and biocompatable with the human eye. The two shaped lenses are bonded together with a variety of procedures which may include thermosetting and solvent based adhesives, laser and impulse welding, and ultrasonic bonding. The fill tube, which is used to inject a refractive filling material is formed with the lens so as not to damage the lens shape. A hypodermic tube may be included inside the fill tube. 13 figs.

  20. Mask fabrication process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, Gregory F.

    2000-01-01

    A method for fabricating masks and reticles useful for projection lithography systems. An absorber layer is conventionally patterned using a pattern and etch process. Following the step of patterning, the entire surface of the remaining top patterning photoresist layer as well as that portion of an underlying protective photoresist layer where absorber material has been etched away is exposed to UV radiation. The UV-exposed regions of the protective photoresist layer and the top patterning photoresist layer are then removed by solution development, thereby eliminating the need for an oxygen plasma etch and strip and chances for damaging the surface of the substrate or coatings.

  1. Advanced fabrication technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheely, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    The Fuel Cycle Plant is a multipurpose nuclear facility located on the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in eastern Washington state. The facility is part of the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory which is operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company for the Department of Energy. The Fuel Cycle Plant is currently being prepared to support the Liquid Metal Reactors Program with fuel fabrication services for the Fast Flux Test Facility and other LMR programs. This report describes the technical innovations to be utilized in the operation of this plant

  2. Effects of thin high-Z layers on the hydrodynamics of laser-accelerated plastic targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obenschain, S.P.; Colombant, D.G.; Karasik, M.; Pawley, C.J.; Serlin, V.; Schmitt, A.J.; Weaver, J.L.; Gardner, J.H.; Phillips, L.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Chan, Y.; Dahlburg, J.P.; Klapisch, M.

    2002-01-01

    Experimental results and simulations that study the effects of thin metallic layers with high atomic number (high-Z) on the hydrodynamics of laser accelerated plastic targets are presented. These experiments employ a laser pulse with a low-intensity foot that rises into a high-intensity main pulse. This pulse shape simulates the generic shape needed for high-gain fusion implosions. Imprint of laser nonuniformity during start up of the low intensity foot is a well-known seed for hydrodynamic instability. Large reductions are observed in hydrodynamic instability seeded by laser imprint when certain minimum thickness gold or palladium layers are applied to the laser-illuminated surface of the targets. The experiment indicates that the reduction in imprint is at least as large as that obtained by a 6 times improvement in the laser uniformity. Simulations supported by experiments are presented showing that during the low intensity foot the laser light can be nearly completely absorbed by the high-Z layer. X rays originating from the high-Z layer heat the underlying lower-Z plastic target material and cause large buffering plasma to form between the layer and the accelerated target. This long-scale plasma apparently isolates the target from laser nonuniformity and accounts for the observed large reduction in laser imprint. With onset of the higher intensity main pulse, the high-Z layer expands and the laser light is transmitted. This technique will be useful in reducing laser imprint in pellet implosions and thereby allow the design of more robust targets for high-gain laser fusion

  3. Ice targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, C.; Stark, C.; Tanaka, N.; Hodgkins, D.; Barnhart, J.; Kosty, J.

    1979-12-01

    This report presents a description of ice targets that were constructed for research work at the High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS) and at the Energetic Pion Channel and Spectrometer (EPICS). Reasons for using these ice targets and the instructions for their construction are given. Results of research using ice targets will be published at a later date

  4. Reforming Shapes for Material-aware Fabrication

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yongliang; Wang, Jun; Mitra, Niloy J.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. As humans, we regularly associate shape of an object with its built material. In the context of geometric modeling, however, this inter-relation between form and material is rarely explored. In this work, we propose a novel data-driven reforming (i.e.; reshaping) algorithm that adapts an input multi-component model for a target fabrication material. The algorithm adapts both the part geometry and the inter-part topology of the input shape to better align with material-aware fabrication requirements. As output, we produce the reshaped model along with respective part dimensions and inter-part junction specifications. We evaluate our algorithm on a range of man-made models and demonstrate a variety of model reshaping examples focusing only on metal and wooden materials.

  5. Gel Fabrication of Molybdenum “Beads”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowden, Richard Andrew [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Armstrong, Beth L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Cooley, Kevin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division

    2016-11-01

    Spherical molybdenum particles or “beads” of various diameters are of interest as feedstock materials for the additive manufacture of targets and assemblies used in the production of 99Mo medical isotopes using accelerator technology. Small metallic beads or ball bearings are typically fabricated from wire; however, small molybdenum spheres cannot readily be produced in this manner. Sol-gel processes are often employed to produce small dense microspheres of metal oxides across a broad diameter range that in the case of molybdenum could be reduced and sintered to produce metallic spheres. These Sol-gel type processes were examined for forming molybdenum oxide beads; however, the molybdenum trioxide was chemically incompatible with commonly used gelation materials. As an alternative, an aqueous alginate process being assessed for the fabrication of oxide spheres for catalyst applications was employed to form molybdenum trioxide beads that were successfully reduced and sintered to produce small molybdenum spheres.

  6. Reforming Shapes for Material-aware Fabrication

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yongliang

    2015-08-10

    © 2015 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. As humans, we regularly associate shape of an object with its built material. In the context of geometric modeling, however, this inter-relation between form and material is rarely explored. In this work, we propose a novel data-driven reforming (i.e.; reshaping) algorithm that adapts an input multi-component model for a target fabrication material. The algorithm adapts both the part geometry and the inter-part topology of the input shape to better align with material-aware fabrication requirements. As output, we produce the reshaped model along with respective part dimensions and inter-part junction specifications. We evaluate our algorithm on a range of man-made models and demonstrate a variety of model reshaping examples focusing only on metal and wooden materials.

  7. Materials considerations in accelerator targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, H. B. Jr.; Iyer, N. C.; Louthan, M. R. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Future nuclear materials production and/or the burn-up of long lived radioisotopes may be accomplished through the capture of spallation produced neutrons in accelerators. Aluminum clad-lead and/or lead alloys has been proposed as a spallation target. Aluminum was the cladding choice because of the low neutron absorption cross section, fast radioactivity decay, high thermal conductivity, and excellent fabricability. Metallic lead and lead oxide powders were considered for the target core with the fabrication options being casting or powder metallurgy (PM). Scoping tests to evaluate gravity casting, squeeze casting, and casting and swaging processes showed that, based on fabricability and heat transfer considerations, squeeze casting was the preferred option for manufacture of targets with initial core cladding contact. Thousands of aluminum clad aluminum-lithium alloy core targets and control rods for tritium production have been fabricated by coextrusion processes and successfully irradiated in the SRS reactors. Tritium retention in, and release from, the coextruded product was modeled from experimental and operational data. The model assumed that tritium atoms, formed by the 6Li(n,a)3He reaction, were produced in solid solution in the Al-Li alloy. Because of the low solubility of hydrogen isotopes in aluminum alloys, the irradiated Al-Li rapidly became supersaturated in tritium. Newly produced tritium atoms were trapped by lithium atoms to form a lithium tritide. The effective tritium pressure required for trap or tritide stability was the equilibrium decomposition pressure of tritium over a lithium tritide-aluminum mixture. The temperature dependence of tritium release was determined by the permeability of the cladding to tritium and the local equilibrium at the trap sites. The model can be used to calculate tritium release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy targets during postulated accelerator operational and accident conditions. This paper describes

  8. Materials considerations in accelerator targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, H.B. Jr.; Iyer, N.C.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Future nuclear materials production and/or the burn-up of long lived radioisotopes may be accomplished through the capture of spallation produced neutrons in accelerators. Aluminum clad-lead and/or lead alloys has been proposed as a spallation target. Aluminum was the cladding choice because of the low neutron absorption cross section, fast radioactivity decay, high thermal conductivity, and excellent fabricability. Metallic lead and lead oxide powders were considered for the target core with the fabrication options being casting or powder metallurgy (PM). Scoping tests to evaluate gravity casting, squeeze casting, and casting and swaging processes showed that, based on fabricability and heat transfer considerations, squeeze casting was the preferred option for manufacture of targets with initial core cladding contact. Thousands of aluminum clad aluminum-lithium alloy core targets and control rods for tritium production have been fabricated by coextrusion processes and successfully irradiated in the SRS reactors. Tritium retention in, and release from the coextruded product was modeled from experimental and operational data. Newly produced tritium atoms were trapped by lithium atoms to form a lithium tritide. The effective tritium pressure required for trap or tritide stability was the equilibrium decomposition pressure of tritium over a lithium tritide-aluminum mixture. The temperature dependence of tritium release was determined by the permeability of the cladding to tritium and the local equilibrium at the trap sites. The model can be used to calculate tritium release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy targets during postulated accelerator operational and accident conditions. This paper describes the manufacturing technologies evaluated and presents the model for tritium retention in aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy tritium production targets

  9. Fabrication of zein nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecha, Jarupat

    The concerns on the increase of polluting plastic wastes as well as the U.S. dependence on imported petrochemical products have driven an attention towards alternative biodegradable polymers from renewable resources. Zein protein, a co-product from ethanol production from corn, is a good candidate. This research project aims to increase zein value by adopting nanotechnology for fabricating advanced zein packaging films and zein microfluidic devices. Two nanotechnology approaches were focused: the polymer nanoclay nanocomposite technique where the nanocomposite structures were created in the zein matrix, and the soft lithography and the microfluidic devices where the micro and nanopatterns were created on the zein film surfaces. The polymer nanoclay nanocomposite technique was adopted in the commonly used zein film fabrication processes which were solvent casting and extrusion blowing methods. The two methods resulted in partially exfoliated nanocomposite structures. The impact of nanoclays on the physical properties of zein films strongly depended on the film preparation techniques. The impact of nanoclay concentration was more pronounced in the films made by extrusion blowing technique than by the solvent casting technique. As the processability limitation for the extrusion blowing technique of the zein sample containing hight nanoclay content, the effect of the nanoclay content on the rheological properties of zein hybrid resins at linear and nonlinear viscoelastic regions were further investigated. A pristine zein resin exhibited soft solid like behavior. On the other hand, the zein hybrid with nanoclay content greater than 5 wt.% showed more liquid like behavior, suggesting that the nanoclays interrupted the entangled zein network. There was good correspondence between the experimental data and the predictions of the Wagner model for the pristine zein resins. However, the model failed to predict the steady shear properties of the zein nanoclay nanocomposite

  10. Fabrication of Foam Shells for ICF Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czechowicz, D. G.; Acenas, O.; Flowers, J. S.; Nikroo, A.; Paguio, R. R.; Schroen, D. G.; Streit, J.; Takagi, M.

    2004-11-01

    The General Atomics/Schafer team has developed processes to fabricate foam shells targets suitable for ICF experiments. The two most common chemical systems used to produce foam shells have been resorcinol-formaldehyde (R/F) aerogel and divinylbenzene (DVB). Spherical targets have been made in the form of shells and beads having diameters ranging from approximately 0.5 mm to 4.0 mm, and having densities from approximately 100 mg/cc to 250 mg/cc. The work on R/F foam shells has been concentrated on 1) shell fabrication process improvement to obtain high yields ( ˜25%) and 2) depositing a reliable permeation barrier to provide shells for ongoing direct drive experiments at LLE. Development of divinylbenzene foam shells has been mainly directed towards Inertial Fusion Energy applications (at densities as low as 30 mg/cc) and recently for shells for experiments at LLE. Details of the relevant metrology and properties of these foams as well as the range of targets currently available will be discussed.

  11. National Ignition Facility Target Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wavrik, R W; Cox, J R; Fleming, P J

    2000-01-01

    On June 11, 1999 the Department of Energy dedicated the single largest piece of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. The ten (10) meter diameter aluminum target high vacuum chamber will serve as the working end of the largest laser in the world. The output of 192 laser beams will converge at the precise center of the chamber. The laser beams will enter the chamber in two by two arrays to illuminate 10 millimeter long gold cylinders called hohlraums enclosing 2 millimeter capsule containing deuterium, tritium and isotopes of hydrogen. The two isotopes will fuse, thereby creating temperatures and pressures resembling those found only inside stars and in detonated nuclear weapons, but on a minute scale. The NIF Project will serve as an essential facility to insure safety and reliability of our nation's nuclear arsenal as well as demonstrating inertial fusion's contribution to creating electrical power. The paper will discuss the requirements that had to be addressed during the design, fabrication and testing of the target chamber. A team from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and LLNL with input from industry performed the configuration and basic design of the target chamber. The method of fabrication and construction of the aluminum target chamber was devised by Pitt-Des Moines, Inc. (PDM). PDM also participated in the design of the chamber in areas such as the Target Chamber Realignment and Adjustment System, which would allow realignment of the sphere laser beams in the event of earth settlement or movement from a seismic event. During the fabrication of the target chamber the sphericity tolerances had to be addressed for the individual plates. Procedures were developed for forming, edge preparation and welding of individual plates. Construction plans were developed to allow the field construction of the target chamber to occur parallel to other NIF construction activities. This was

  12. Microwave modeling of laser plasma interactions. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-08-01

    For a large laser fusion targets and nanosecond pulse lengths, stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and self-focusing are expected to be significant problems. The goal of the contractual effort was to examine certain aspects of these physical phenomena in a wavelength regime (lambda approx.5 cm) more amenable to detailed diagnostics than that characteristic of laser fusion (lambda approx.1 micron). The effort was to include the design, fabrication and operation of a suitable experimental apparatus. In addition, collaboration with Dr. Neville Luhmann and his associates at UCLA and with Dr. Curt Randall of LLNL, on analysis and modelling of the UCLA experiments was continued. Design and fabrication of the TRW experiment is described under ''Experiment Design'' and ''Experimental Apparatus''. The design goals for the key elements of the experimental apparatus were met, but final integration and operation of the experiment was not accomplished. Some theoretical considerations on the interaction between Stimulated Brillouin Scattering and Self-Focusing are also presented

  13. Pulsed power for angular multiplexed laser fusion drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eninger, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of using rare gas-halide lasers, in particular the KrF laser, as inertial confinement fusion (ICF) drivers has been assessed. These lasers are scalable to the required high energy (approx. =1-5 MJ) in a short pulse (approx. =10 ns) by optical angular multiplexing, and integration of the output from approx. =100 kJ laser amplifier subsystems. The e-beam current density (approx. =50A/cm 2 ) and voltage (approx. =800 kV) required for these power amplifiers lead to an e-beam impedance of approx. =0.2Ω for approx. =300 ns pump time. This impedance level requires modularization of the large area e-gun, a) to achieve a diode inductance consistent with fast current risetime, b) to circumvent dielectric breakdown constraints in the pulse forming lines, and c) to reduce the requirement for guide magnetic fields. Pulsed power systems requirements, design concepts, scalability, tradeoffs, and performance projections are discussed in this paper

  14. Scaling of electron beam sources for laser fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlitt, L.G.; Bradley, L.P.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a scheme for constructing electron beam machines capable of pumping large volumes of gas, to analyze their performance within the framework of existing knowledge of the physical mechanisms involved, to use this analysis to assess the viability of the overall concept, pinpoint weaknesses in the understanding of the physics, identify the most important limiting physical processes, and hence to propose a program to prepare for the eventual construction of a large scale gas laser system. (auth)

  15. Measurements of laser parameters for the Shiva laser fusion facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozarski, R.G.

    1979-01-01

    Large laser systems require numerous laser diagnostics to provide configuration, performance and maintenance data to permit efficient operation. The following diagnostics for a large laser system named Shiva are discussed: (1) description of Shiva laser system, (2) what measurements are desired and or required and why, (3) what measurement techniques and packages are employed and a brief description of the operating principles of the sensors employed, and (4) the laser diagnostic data acquisition and display system

  16. Existence and lifetime of laser fusion pellets containing tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devaney, J.J.

    1979-05-01

    Cryogenic pellets containing significant amounts of solid tritium cannot be maintained in a pure vacuum for longer than (typically) some tens of seconds because radiative cooling at low temperatures is inefficient. The steady state temperatures in typical one- and two-shell pellet designs both in vacuum and with external cooling, as well as the lifetimes of pellets following cooling removal, are calculated

  17. Electric power from laser fusion: the HYLIFE concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monsler, M.; Blink, J.; Hovingh, J.; Meier, W.; Walker, P.; Maniscalco, J.

    1978-06-01

    A high yield lithium injection fusion energy chamber is described which can conceptually be operated with pulsed yields of several thousand megajoules a few times a second, using less than one percent of the gross thermal power to circulate the lithium. Because a one meter thick blanket of lithium protects the structure, no first wall replacement is envisioned for the life of the power plant. The induced radioactivity is reduced by an order of magnitude over solid blanket concepts. The design calls for the use of common ferritic steels and a power density approaching that of a LWR, promising shortened development times over other fusion concepts and reactor vessel costs comparable to a LMFBR

  18. Progress of laser fusion at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstrom, H G [California Univ., Livermore (USA). Lawrence Livermore Lab.

    1979-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion is the present and future source of energy in our universe. Derivatives, such as solar, geothermal, wind, and biomass are proposed as future substitutes for possible fuel sources. All of these possible sources of energy while they may be considered to be renewable do not fulfill the single most important criteria of being unlimited. Fuel reserves of more than 100 billion years are accepted as 'unlimited'. The understanding of fusion has many 'fathers', Bethe, Teller and many others, it has also has proponents (too many to list) as the world's energy supply. This author hopes that this Program's efforts will contribute positively to the advance to the time when fusion energy will positively contribute to the energy supply for mankind. Controlled fusion is judged by us to be the world's most challenging technological problem. The potential benefit to mankind of an unlimited source of energy and thus a higher standard of living make the acceptance of this challenge worth our while. There are many dedicated scientists working on controlled fusion to make this dream a reality. Magnetic and inertial fusion are in a horse race that must not be allowed to falter or to be cancelled. Fusion is the future of the world and one of these approaches to fusion is vital to our future generations.

  19. Assurance management program for the 30 Nova laser fusion project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    The Nova assurance management program was developed using the quality assurance (QA) approach first implemented at LLNL in early 1978. The LLNL QA program is described as an introduction to the Nova assurance management program. The Nova system is described pictorially through the Nova configuration, subsystems and major components, interjecting the QA techniques which are being pragmatically used to assure the successful completion of the project

  20. Radiative processes in a laser-fusion plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, P.M.; Kubis, J.J.; Mitrovich, D.

    1976-01-01

    Plasmas compressed and heated by an intense laser pulse offer promise for the ignition of propagating thermonuclear burn and, ultimately, for use in fusion reactors. It is evident theoretically that the emission and absorption of x-rays by the plasma has a significant effect on the dynamics of the laser compression process. In order to achieve densities high enough for efficient thermonuclear burn, the fusion pellet must be compressed along a low adiabat. This will not be possible if the compressed region of the pellet is significantly preheated by x-rays originating in the hot outer regions. A satisfactory model of compression hydrodynamics must, therefore, include a comprehensive treatment of radiation transport based on a non-LTE model of the plasma. The model must be valid for Fermi-Dirac statistics, since high compression along a low adiabat will, in general, produce degenerate electron distributions. This report is concerned with the plasma model and the corresponding radiation emission and absorption coefficients, including nonthermal processes which occur in the laser deposition region

  1. Effects of fluid instabilities on laser fusion pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mead, W.C.; Lindl, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    A direct two-dimensional simulation method for fluid flow and plasma physics was used. The computer code LASNEX models the plasma phenomena of laser light absorption by inverse bremsstrahlung and plasma instabilities; energy transport and partition, using flux-limited diffusion and separate ion, electron, and radiation temperatures; and, optionally, effects of multigroup photon and particle transport and magnetic field physics. The fluid dynamics itself is Lagrangian, with an equation of state used to determine pressure, energy, and opacity as a function of density and temperature. Thermonuclear burn of compressed matter is included to permit evaluation of output to input energy ratios. The code tests with anomalies are described. Current understanding of fluid instability in the presence of ablation is discussed. (U.S.)

  2. Laser fusion study. Final report, volume I, study results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    The primary goal of this study was to devise, evaluate, and conceptually design a complete, end-to-end, alignment system capable of handling 30 to 32 Shiva amplifier chains to specified accuracies in space and time. A secondary goal was to accomplish the primary goal with an acceptably low development and procurement cost and with an acceptably high day-after-day performance reliability. This report presents such a system: it is comprised of sensors, actuating mechanisms, controls, and displays that perform well within the current art-state. (U.S.)

  3. Laser fusion systems for industrial process heat. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, F.J.; Denning, R.S.; Dykhuizen, R.C.; Goldthwaite, W.H.; Hall, E.H.; Kok, K.D.; Skelton, J.C.; Walters, C.T.

    1979-06-01

    This volume contains the detailed technical data developed during the study and describes the models used to calculate and develop the detailed technical data. Thus the reader can obtain a basic understanding of the study and its results by reading Volume I while the person interested in the technical data and methods used to develop the conclusions will want to review Volume II

  4. X-ray diodes for laser fusion plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, R.H.; Lee, P.; Saloman, E.B.; Nagel, D.J.

    1981-02-01

    Photodiodes with x-ray sensitive photocathodes are commonly used as broadband x-ray detectors in fusion plasma diagnostics. We have measured the risetime of the detector system and have measured the quantum efficiency between 1 to 500 A of numerous photocathode materials of practical interest. The materials studied include aluminum, copper, nickel, gold, three forms of carbon, chromium, and cesium iodide. The results of the measurements are compared with Henke's semiempirical model of photoyield. We have studied the effects of long-term cathode aging and use as a plasma diagnostic on cathode quantum efficiency. In addition, we have measured the x-ray mass-absorption coefficient of several ultrasoft x-ray windows in energy regions where data were unavailable. Windows studied were made of aluminum, Formvar, polypropylene, and Kimfoil. Measurements between 1 to 50 A were performed with the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's low-energy x-ray calibration facility, and the measurements between 50 to 550 A were performed at the National Bureau of Standard's synchrotron ultraviolet radiation facility

  5. Progress of laser fusion at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstrom, H.G.

    1979-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion is the present and future source of energy in our universe. Derivatives, such as solar, geothermal, wind, and biomass are proposed as future substitutes for possible fuel sources. All of these possible sources of energy while they may be considered to be renewable do not fulfill the single most important criteria of being unlimited. Fuel reserves of more than 100 billion years are accepted as 'unlimited'. The understanding of fusion has many 'fathers', Bethe, Teller and many others, it has also has proponents (too many to list) as the world's energy supply. This author hopes that this Program's efforts will contribute positively to the advance to the time when fusion energy will positively contribute to the energy supply for mankind. Controlled fusion is judged by us to be the world's most challenging technological problem. The potential benefit to mankind of an unlimited source of energy and thus a higher standard of living make the acceptance of this challenge worth our while. There are many dedicated scientists working on controlled fusion to make this dream a reality. Magnetic and inertial fusion are in a horse race that must not be allowed to falter or to be cancelled. Fusion is the future of the world and one of these approaches to fusion is vital to our future generations

  6. Wide spectrum antireflective coating for laser fusion systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoldas, B.E; Partlow, D.P.; Smith, H.D.; Mattox, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    A method of depositing a laser damage resistant, wide-spectrum antireflective coating on fused silica has been developed. This work was sponsored under a subcontract with the University of California, with technical direction from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The coating is applied from a specific silanol polymer solution and converted to a porous SiO 2 film. The pore size of the film is first reduced by a heat treatment to prevent uv scattering. Then gradation of the pore volume is achieved by a mild etching to a sufficient depth to prevent a smoother index transition from air to the substrate glass. The resulting antireflectivity covers the entire transmission range of silica and may be extended to a wavelength as short as 250 nm. Laser damage thresholds as high as 9 j/cm 2 have been demonstrated on processed samples

  7. Laser fusion systems design study. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    This study investigated: (1) the formulation and evaluation of an alignment system to accomplish pointing, focusing, centering and translation for the 20-arm SHIVA laser, (2) the formulation and evaluation of concepts for the correction of static phase distortions introduced by the accumulated optical elements in the laser chains, (3) the formulation and evaluation of concepts for the correction of optical path length differences between the arms of the SHIVA system, and (4) the conceptual design of appropriate control system hardware. (U.S.)

  8. Laser fusion - an introductory review of the present position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnedal, M.

    1973-01-01

    The present state of research into the production of the thermonuclear reaction 2 D + 3 T→n+ 4 He by means of a laser beam is reviewed with special emphasis on the Lawson criterion and the effective absorption of the laser energy by the plasma. (H.E.G.)

  9. Intentionally fabricated autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Lucy V; Morrison, Catriona M; Conway, Martin A

    2018-02-01

    Participants generated both autobiographical memories (AMs) that they believed to be true and intentionally fabricated autobiographical memories (IFAMs). Memories were constructed while a concurrent memory load (random 8-digit sequence) was held in mind or while there was no concurrent load. Amount and accuracy of recall of the concurrent memory load was reliably poorer following generation of IFAMs than following generation of AMs. There was no reliable effect of load on memory generation times; however, IFAMs always took longer to construct than AMs. Finally, replicating previous findings, fewer IFAMs had a field perspective than AMs, IFAMs were less vivid than AMs, and IFAMs contained more motion words (indicative of increased cognitive load). Taken together, these findings show a pattern of systematic differences that mark out IFAMs, and they also show that IFAMs can be identified indirectly by lowered performance on concurrent tasks that increase cognitive load.

  10. NCSX Vacuum Vessel Fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viola ME; Brown T; Heitzenroeder P; Malinowski F; Reiersen W; Sutton L; Goranson P; Nelson B; Cole M; Manuel M; McCorkle D.

    2005-01-01

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is being constructed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in conjunction with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The goal of this experiment is to develop a device which has the steady state properties of a traditional stellarator along with the high performance characteristics of a tokamak. A key element of this device is its highly shaped Inconel 625 vacuum vessel. This paper describes the manufacturing of the vessel. The vessel is being fabricated by Major Tool and Machine, Inc. (MTM) in three identical 120 o vessel segments, corresponding to the three NCSX field periods, in order to accommodate assembly of the device. The port extensions are welded on, leak checked, cut off within 1-inch of the vessel surface at MTM and then reattached at PPPL, to accommodate assembly of the close-fitting modular coils that surround the vessel. The 120 o vessel segments are formed by welding two 60 o segments together. Each 60 o segment is fabricated by welding ten press-formed panels together over a collapsible welding fixture which is needed to precisely position the panels. The vessel is joined at assembly by welding via custom machined 8-inch (20.3 cm) wide spacer ''spool pieces''. The vessel must have a total leak rate less than 5 X 10 -6 t-l/s, magnetic permeability less than 1.02(micro), and its contours must be within 0.188-inch (4.76 mm). It is scheduled for completion in January 2006

  11. Design & fabrication of cantilever array biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Anja; Thundat, T

    2009-01-01

    Surface immobilization of functional receptors on microfabricated cantilever arrays offers a new paradigm for the development of biosensors based on nanomechanics. Microcantilever-based systems are capable of real-time, multiplexed detection of unlabeled disease markers in extremely small volumes......, electronic processing, and even local telemetry on a single chip have the potential of satisfying the need for highly sensitive and selective multiple-target detection in very small samples. Here we will review the design and fabrication process of cantilever-based biosensors....

  12. Fabrication of superhydrophobic cotton fabrics using crosslinking polymerization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bin; Chen, Zhenxing; Sun, Yongli; Yang, Huawei; Zhang, Hongjie; Dou, Haozhen; Zhang, Luhong

    2018-05-01

    With the aim of removing and recycling oil and organic solvent from water, a facile and low-cost crosslinking polymerization method was first applied on surface modification of cotton fabrics for water/oil separation. Micro-nano hierarchical rough structure was constructed by triethylenetetramine (TETA) and trimesoyl chloride (TMC) that formed a polymeric layer on the surface of the fabric and anchored Al2O3 nanoparticles firmly between the fabric surface and the polymer layer. Superhydrophobic property was further obtained through self-assembly grafting of hydrophobic groups on the rough surface. The as-prepared cotton fabric exhibited superoleophilicity in atmosphere and superhydrophobicity both in atmosphere and under oil with the water contact angle of 153° and 152° respectively. Water/oil separation test showed that the as-prepared cotton fabric can handle with various oil-water mixtures with a high separation efficiency over 99%. More importantly, the separation efficiency remained above 98% over 20 cycles of reusing without losing its superhydrophobicity which demonstrated excellent reusability in oil/water separation process. Moreover, the as-prepared cotton fabric possessed good contamination resistance ability and self-cleaning property. Simulation washing process test showed the superhydrophobic cotton fabric maintained high value of water contact angle above 150° after 100 times washing, indicating great stability and durability. In summary, this work provides a brand-new way to surface modification of cotton fabric and makes it a promising candidate material for oil/water separation.

  13. CACAO facility. Radioactive targets at Orsay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacri, C.O.; Petitbon-Thevenet, V.; Mottier, J.; Lefort, H.; Durnez, A.; Fortuna, F.

    2014-01-01

    CACAO, Chimie des Actinides et Cibles radioActives a Orsay (actinide chemistry and radioactive targets at Orsay), is a new laboratory dedicated to the fabrication and characterization of radioactive targets. It is supported by the radiochemistry group and the stable target service of the IPNO. The recurring needs of physicists working in the nuclear fuel cycle physics and the growing difficulties to obtain radioactive targets elsewhere were the main motivating factors behind the construction of this new laboratory. The first targets of 235,238 U and 232 Th have already been prepared although the full operating licenses still need to be obtained. In this paper, the installation and the equipment of CACAO will be described. An extensive study of a U test target fabricated by the CACAO laboratory has been performed and results are reported here. The different techniques used to characterize the deposit are presented and the outcome is discussed. (author)

  14. Process for fabrication of cermets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landingham, Richard L [Livermore, CA

    2011-02-01

    Cermet comprising ceramic and metal components and a molten metal infiltration method and process for fabrication thereof. The light weight cermets having improved porosity, strength, durability, toughness, elasticity fabricated from presintered ceramic powder infiltrated with a molten metal or metal alloy. Alumina titanium cermets biocompatible with the human body suitable for bone and joint replacements.

  15. CW RFQ fabrication and engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrage, D.; Young, L.; Roybal, P.

    1998-01-01

    The design and fabrication of a four-vane RFQ to deliver a 100 mA CW proton beam at 6.7 MeV is described. This linac is an Oxygen-Free Electrolytic (OFE) copper structure 8 m in length and was fabricated using hydrogen furnace brazing as the joining technology

  16. Simulations of tungsten, tungsten-coated and tungsten-doped targets at low KrF laser intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombant, D.; Klapisch, M.; Lehecka, T.; Seely, J.; Schmitt, A.; Obenschain, S.

    1998-11-01

    High-Z coatings can be used to create X-rays to preheat the ablator, thus reducing the laser imprint and the R-T instability. Targets with tungsten coated on the surface or mixed with CH have recently been irradiated using Nike at intensities of a few 10^12W/cm^2, typical of the foot of a laser fusion pulse. The present simulations in 1D have been carried out to provide an interpretation of these experiments and to validate the code for radiation-preheated target designs(S. E. Bodner et al., Phys. Plasmas, 5, 1901 (1998).). All computations were performed in non-LTE(M. Busquet, Phys. Fluids B, 5, 4191 (1993); M. Klapisch, A. Bar-Shalom, J. Oreg and D. Colombant, Phys. Plasmas, 5, 1919 (1998).). Low resolution X-ray spectra obtained from on-line computations are compared to time-integrated experimental spectra between 100 eV and 500 eV. Agreements and differences between computations and experiments will be discussed.

  17. DRAPING SIMULATION OF WOVEN FABRICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, William [General Motors LLC; Jin, Xiaoshi [ESI Group NA; Zhu, Jiang [Optimal CAE; Wathen, Terrence [General Motors LLC; Doroudian2, Mark [ESI Group NA; Aitharaju, Venkat [General Motors LLC

    2016-09-07

    Woven fabric composites are extensively used in molding complex geometrical shapes due to their high conformability compared to other fabrics. Preforming is an important step in the overall process, where the two-dimensional fabric is draped to become the three-dimensional shape of the part prior to resin injection. During preforming, the orientation of the yarns may change significantly compared to the initial orientations. Accurate prediction of the yarn orientations after molding is important for evaluating the structural performance of the final part. This paper presents a systematic investigation of the angle changes during the preform operation for carbon fiber twill and satin weave fabrics. Preforming experiments were conducted using a truncated pyramid mold geometry designed and fabricated at the General Motors Research Laboratories. Predicted results for the yarn orientations were compared with experimental results and good agreement was observed

  18. Antiproton Target

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Antiproton target used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). The first type of antiproton production target used from 1980 to 1982 comprised a rod of copper 3mm diameter and 120mm long embedded in a graphite cylinder that was itself pressed into a finned aluminium container. This assembly was air-cooled and it was used in conjunction with the Van der Meer magnetic horn. In 1983 Fermilab provided us with lithium lenses to replace the horn with a view to increasing the antiproton yield by about 30%. These lenses needed a much shorter target made of heavy metal - iridium was chosen for this purpose. The 50 mm iridium rod was housed in an extension to the original finned target container so that it could be brought very close to the entrance to the lithium lens. Picture 1 shows this target assembly and Picture 2 shows it mounted together with the lithium lens. These target containers had a short lifetime due to a combination of beam heating and radiation damage. This led to the design of the water-cooled target in...

  19. Secure Automated Fabrication: an overview of remote breeder fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyman, D.H.; Graham, R.A.

    1983-10-01

    The Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) line is an automated, remotely controlled breeder fuel pin fabrication process which is to be installed in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF). The FMEF is presently under construction at Hanford and is scheduled for completion in 1984. The SAF line is scheduled for startup in 1987 and will produce mixed uranium-plutonium fuel pins for the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP). The fabrication line and support systems are described

  20. MOX fuel fabrication at AECL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimayuga, F.C.; Jeffs, A.T.

    1995-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication activities are conducted in the Recycle Fuel Fabrication Laboratories (RFFL) at the Chalk River Laboratories. The RFFL facility is designed to produce experimental quantities of CANDU MOX fuel for reactor physics tests or demonstration irradiations. From 1979 to 1987, several MOX fuel fabrication campaigns were run in the RFFL, producing various quantities of fuel with different compositions. About 150 bundles, containing over three tonnes of MOX, were fabricated in the RFFL before operations in the facility were suspended. In late 1987, the RFFL was placed in a state of active standby, a condition where no fuel fabrication activities are conducted, but the monitoring and ventilation systems in the facility are maintained. Currently, a project to rehabilitate the RFFL and resume MOX fuel fabrication is nearing completion. This project is funded by the CANDU Owners' Group (COG). The initial fabrication campaign will consist of the production of thirty-eight 37-element (U,Pu)O 2 bundles containing 0.2 wt% Pu in Heavy Element (H.E.) destined for physics tests in the zero-power ZED-2 reactor. An overview of the Rehabilitation Project will be given. (author)

  1. Fabric circuits and method of manufacturing fabric circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Andrew W. (Inventor); Dobbins, Justin A. (Inventor); Scully, Robert C. (Inventor); Trevino, Robert C. (Inventor); Lin, Greg Y. (Inventor); Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A flexible, fabric-based circuit comprises a non-conductive flexible layer of fabric and a conductive flexible layer of fabric adjacent thereto. A non-conductive thread, an adhesive, and/or other means may be used for attaching the conductive layer to the non-conductive layer. In some embodiments, the layers are attached by a computer-driven embroidery machine at pre-determined portions or locations in accordance with a pre-determined attachment layout before automated cutting. In some other embodiments, an automated milling machine or a computer-driven laser using a pre-designed circuit trace as a template cuts the conductive layer so as to separate an undesired portion of the conductive layer from a desired portion of the conductive layer. Additional layers of conductive fabric may be attached in some embodiments to form a multi-layer construct.

  2. Fabrication of cotton fabric with superhydrophobicity and flame retardancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Wang, Chengyu

    2013-07-25

    A simple and facile method for fabricating the cotton fabric with superhydrophobicity and flame retardancy is described in the present work. The cotton fabric with the maximal WCA of 160° has been prepared by the covalent deposition of amino-silica nanospheres and the further graft with (heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetradecyl) trimethoxysilane. The geometric microstructure of silica spheres was measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The cotton textiles before and after treatment were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The wetting behavior of cotton samples was investigated by water contact angle measurement. Moreover, diverse performances of superhydrophobic cotton textiles have been evaluated as well. The results exhibited the outstanding superhydrophobicity, excellent waterproofing durability and flame retardancy of the cotton fabric after treatment, offering a good opportunity to accelerate the large-scale production of superhydrophobic textiles materials for new industrial applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fabrication of nanowires and nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Piraux, L.

    2009-01-01

    We report on different approaches that we have adopted and developed for the fabrication of nanowires and nanostructures. Methods based on template synthesis and on self organization seem to be the most promising for the fabrication of nanomaterials and nanostructures due to their easiness and low...... cost. The development of a supported nanoporous alumina template and the possibility of using this template to combine electrochemical synthesis with lithographic methods open new ways for the fabrication of complex nanostructures. The numerous advantages of the supported template and its compatibility...

  4. Quantum Bridge Fabrication Using Photolithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinones, R.

    2001-01-01

    The need for high-speed performance electronics in computers integrated circuits and sensors, require the fabrication of low energy consumption diodes. Nano fabrication methods require new techniques and equipment. We are currently developing a procedure to fabricate a diode based on quantum-effects. The device will act like a traditional diode, but the nanometer scale will allow it to reach high speeds without over heating. This new diode will be on a nano-bridge so it can be attenuated by an electromagnetic wave. The goal is to obtain similar current vs voltage response as in a silicon diode

  5. Fabricating Copper Nanotubes by Electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, E. H.; Ramsey, Christopher; Bae, Youngsam; Choi, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Copper tubes having diameters between about 100 and about 200 nm have been fabricated by electrodeposition of copper into the pores of alumina nanopore membranes. Copper nanotubes are under consideration as alternatives to copper nanorods and nanowires for applications involving thermal and/or electrical contacts, wherein the greater specific areas of nanotubes could afford lower effective thermal and/or electrical resistivities. Heretofore, copper nanorods and nanowires have been fabricated by a combination of electrodeposition and a conventional expensive lithographic process. The present electrodeposition-based process for fabricating copper nanotubes costs less and enables production of copper nanotubes at greater rate.

  6. Target technologies for laser inertial confinement fusion: state-of-the-art and future perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lin; Du Kai

    2013-01-01

    Targets are physical base of the laser inertial confinement fusion (ICF) researches. The quality of the targets has extremely important influences on the reliabilities and degree of precision of the ICF experimental results. The characteristics of the ICF targets, such as complexity and microscale, high precision, determine that the target fabrication process must be a system engineering. This paper presents progresses on the fabrication technologies of ICF targets. The existing problem and the future needs of ICF target fabrication technologies are also discussed. (authors)

  7. Fabrication of FORTIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCandliss, Stephan R.; Fleming, Brian; Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Kruk, Jeffrey; Feldman, Paul D.; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Li, Mary J.; Goodwin, Phillip A.; Rapchun, David; Lyness, Eric; Brown, Ari D.; Moseley, Harvey; Siegmund, Oswald; Vallerga, John

    2010-07-01

    The Johns Hopkins University sounding rocket group is building the Far-ultraviolet Off Rowland-circle Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy (FORTIS), which is a Gregorian telescope with rulings on the secondary mirror. FORTIS will be launched on a sounding rocket from White Sand Missile Range to study the relationship between Lyman alpha escape and the local gas-to-dust ratio in star forming galaxies with non-zero redshifts. It is designed to acquire images of a 30' x 30' field and provide fully redundant "on-the-fly" spectral acquisition of 43 separate targets in the field with a bandpass of 900 - 1800 Angstroms. FORTIS is an enabling scientific and technical activity for future cutting edge far- and near-uv survey missions seeking to: search for Lyman continuum radiation leaking from star forming galaxies, determine the epoch of He II reionization and characterize baryon acoustic oscillations using the Lyman forest. In addition to the high efficiency "two bounce" dual-order spectro-telescope design, FORTIS incorporates a number of innovative technologies including: an image dissecting microshutter array developed by GSFC; a large area (~ 45 mm x 170 mm) microchannel plate detector with central imaging and "outrigger" spectral channels provided by Sensor Sciences; and an autonomous targeting microprocessor incorporating commercially available field programable gate arrays. We discuss progress to date in developing our pathfinder instrument.

  8. Natural fabric of Hildegardia populifolia composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Guduri, BBR

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of Hildegardia populofolia fabric content, fabric orientation, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and silane coupling agent treatment on the surface properties of the fabric, mechanical and fracture properties of Hildegardia populifolia...

  9. Properties of natural fabric Polyalthia cerasoides

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jayaramudu, J

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available of this fabric were compared with those of two natural fabrics reported in the literature. This uniaxial fabric has sufficient tensile modulus and can be used as reinforcement in the development of green composites....

  10. Fabrication of integrated metallic MEMS devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yalcinkaya, Arda Deniz; Ravnkilde, Jan Tue; Hansen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    A simple and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible fabrication technique for microelectromechanical (MEMS) devices is presented. The fabrication technology makes use of electroplated metal layers. Among the fabricated devices, high quality factor microresonators are characteri......A simple and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible fabrication technique for microelectromechanical (MEMS) devices is presented. The fabrication technology makes use of electroplated metal layers. Among the fabricated devices, high quality factor microresonators...

  11. Power plant production of inertial confinement fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.; Johnson, W.L.

    1979-01-01

    Many of the current techniques for fabricating experimental targets appear to be directly extendable to the high-rate, low-cost production of reactor targets. This report describes several new techniques that, in conjunction with the expansion of existing techniques, can constitute a target factory. We have evaluated this concept on the basis of a generalized reactor target design and the projected specifications of reactor-grade targets

  12. Pilling Resistance of Knitted Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita BUSILIENĖ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Knitted fabrics with different quantity of elastane, conspicuous by high viscosity and elasticity, having one of the most important performance properties - resistance to pilling are often used in the production of high quality sportswear. During technological process imitating operating conditions, the behaviour of knitted fabrics may be changed by different industrial softeners from 12 % to 20 % of active substance, for example fatty acid condensate (Tubingal 5051 or silicone micro emulsion (Tubingal SMF. The aim of this investigation is to define the influence of fibrous composition and chemical softeners to the propensity of fuzzing and pilling of plain and plated jersey pattern knitted fabrics. The results of investigations showed that fibrous composition and thickness of materials (up to 6 % and washing as well as softening (from 33 % to 67 % change the resistance of knitted fabrics to pilling.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.3.597

  13. Geoacoustic Physical Model Fabrication Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Fabricates three-dimensional rough surfaces (e.g., fractals, ripples) out of materials such as PVC or wax to simulate the roughness properties associated...

  14. Fabricating plasmonic components for nanophotonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Nielsen, Rasmus Bundgaard; Jeppesen, Claus

    2009-01-01

    We report on experimental realization of different metal-dielectric structures that are used as surface plasmon polariton waveguides and as plasmonic metamaterials. Fabrication approaches based on different lithographic and deposition techniques are discussed....

  15. New fabrication techniques for the nuclear fuels of tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babelot, J.F.; Bokelund, H.; Gerontopoulos, P.; Gueugnon, J.F.; Richter, K.

    1995-01-01

    The shift of the emphasis of the work at the Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU) from the development of fuels based on uranium and plutonium to safety aspects concerning the use of plutonium and other of actinides, necessitates the production of targets containing appreciable amounts of minor actinides for irradiation experiments. The handling of minor actinides requires additional protective measures, combined with improved fuel fabrication techniques. The boundary conditions for a suitable process are flexibility, adaptability to remote control, and minimization of dust formation. A method based on the sol-gel fabrication technique meets these criteria, and was selected for the present developments at ITU. (author)

  16. Microencapsulation and fabrication of fuel pellets for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolen, R.L. Jr.; Kool, L.B.

    1981-01-01

    Various microencapsulation techniques were evaluated for fabrication of thermonuclear fuel pellets for use in existing experimental facilities studying inertial confinement fusion and in future fusion-power reactors. Coacervation, spray drying, in situ polymerization, and physical microencapsulation methods were employed. Highly spherical, hollow polymeric shells were fabricated ranging in size from 20 to 7000 micron. In situ polymerization microencapsulation with poly(methyl methacrylate) provided large shells, but problems with local wall defects still must be solved. Extension to other polymeric systems met with limited success. Requirements for inertial confinement fusion targets are described, as are the methods that were used

  17. Silicone nanocomposite coatings for fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberts, Kenneth (Inventor); Lee, Stein S. (Inventor); Singhal, Amit (Inventor); Ou, Runqing (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A silicone based coating for fabrics utilizing dual nanocomposite fillers providing enhanced mechanical and thermal properties to the silicone base. The first filler includes nanoclusters of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and a metal oxide and a second filler of exfoliated clay nanoparticles. The coating is particularly suitable for inflatable fabrics used in several space, military, and consumer applications, including airbags, parachutes, rafts, boat sails, and inflatable shelters.

  18. Safeguards through secure automated fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMerschman, A.W.; Carlson, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company, a prime contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy, is constructing the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) line for fabrication of mixed oxide breeder fuel pins. Fuel processing by automation, which provides a separation of personnel from fuel handling, will provide a means whereby advanced safeguards concepts will be introduced. Remote operations and the inter-tie between the process computer and the safeguards computer are discussed

  19. Targeted Learning

    CERN Document Server

    van der Laan, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    The statistics profession is at a unique point in history. The need for valid statistical tools is greater than ever; data sets are massive, often measuring hundreds of thousands of measurements for a single subject. The field is ready to move towards clear objective benchmarks under which tools can be evaluated. Targeted learning allows (1) the full generalization and utilization of cross-validation as an estimator selection tool so that the subjective choices made by humans are now made by the machine, and (2) targeting the fitting of the probability distribution of the data toward the targe

  20. Target preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinn, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    A few of the more interesting of the 210 targets prepared in the Laboratory last year are listed. In addition the author continues to use powdered silver mixed with /sup 9,10/BeO to produce sources for accelerator radio dating of Alaskan and South Polar snow. Currently, he is trying to increase production by multiple sample processing. Also the author routinely makes 3 μg/cm 2 cracked slacked carbon stripper foils and is continuing research with some degree of success in making enriched 28 Si targets starting with the oxide