WorldWideScience

Sample records for laser plasma electron

  1. Laser frequency modulation with electron plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, T. J.; Latorre, V. R.

    1972-01-01

    When laser beam passes through electron plasma its frequency shifts by amount proportional to plasma density. This density varies with modulating signal resulting in corresponding modulation of laser beam frequency. Necessary apparatus is relatively inexpensive since crystals are not required.

  2. Electron distribution function in laser heated plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourkal, E.; Bychenkov, V. Yu.; Rozmus, W.; Sydora, R.; Kirkby, C.; Capjack, C. E.; Glenzer, S. H.; Baldis, H. A.

    2001-01-01

    A new electron distribution function has been found in laser heated homogeneous plasmas by an analytical solution to the kinetic equation and by particle simulations. The basic kinetic model describes inverse bremsstrahlung absorption and electron--electron collisions. The non-Maxwellian distribution function is comprised of a super-Gaussian bulk of slow electrons and a Maxwellian tail of energetic particles. The tails are heated due to electron--electron collisions and energy redistribution between superthermal particles and light absorbing slow electrons from the bulk of the distribution function. A practical fit is proposed to the new electron distribution function. Changes to the linear Landau damping of electron plasma waves are discussed. The first evidence for the existence of non-Maxwellian distribution functions has been found in the interpretation, which includes the new distribution function, of the Thomson scattering spectra in gold plasmas [Glenzer , Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 97 (1999)

  3. Wave function of free electron in a strong laser plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shitong; Shen Wenda; Guo Qizhi

    1993-01-01

    The wave function of free electron in a strong laser plasma is obtained by solving exactly the Dirac equation in a curved space-time with optical metric for the laser plasma. When the laser field is diminished to zero, the wave function is naturally reduced to relativistic wave function of free electron. The possible application of the wave function is discussed

  4. Electron acceleration using laser produced plasmas

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Landua, Rolf

    2005-01-01

    Low density plasmas have long been of interest as a potential medium for particle acceleration since relativistic plasma waves are capable of supporting electric fields greater than 100 GeV/m. The physics of particle acceleration using plasmas will be reviewed, and new results will be discussed which have demonstrated that relatively narrow energy spread (<3%) beams having energies greater than 100 MeV can be produced from femtosecond laser plasma interactions. Future experiments and potential applications will also be discussed.

  5. Nonlinear electron transport in magnetized laser plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kho, T.H.; Haines, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    Electron transport in a magnetized plasma heated by inverse bremsstrahlung is studied numerically using a nonlinear Fokker--Planck model with self-consistent E and B fields. The numerical scheme is described. Nonlocal transport is found to alter many of the transport coefficients derived from linear transport theory, in particular, the Nernst and Righi--Leduc effects, in addition to the perpendicular heat flux q/sub perpendicular/, are substantially reduced near critical surface. The magnetic field, however, remains strongly coupled to the nonlinear q/sub perpendicular/ and, as has been found in hydrosimulations, convective amplification of the magnetic field occurs in the overdense plasma

  6. UV laser ionization and electron beam diagnostics for plasma lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govil, R.; Volfbeyn, P.; Leemans, W.

    1995-04-01

    A comprehensive study of focusing of relativistic electron beams with overdense and underdense plasma lenses requires careful control of plasma density and scale lengths. Plasma lens experiments are planned at the Beam Test Facility of the LBL Center for Beam Physics, using the 50 MeV electron beam delivered by the linac injector from the Advanced Light Source. Here we present results from an interferometric study of plasmas produced in tri-propylamine vapor with a frequency quadrupled Nd:YAG laser at 266 nm. To study temporal dynamics of plasma lenses we have developed an electron beam diagnostic using optical transition radiation to time resolve beam size and divergence. Electron beam ionization of the plasma has also been investigated

  7. Optimization and application of electron acceleration in relativistic laser plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenigstein, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes experiments and simulations of the acceleration of electrons to relativistic energies (toward γ e ∼ 10 3 ) by structures in plasmas which are generated by ultrashort (pulse length < 10 -14 s) laser pulses. The first part of this work discusses experiments in a parameter space where quasimonoenergetic electron bunches are generated in subcritical (gaseous) plasmas and compares them to analytical scalings. A primary concern in this work is to optimize the stability of the energy and the pointing of the electrons. The second part deals with acceleration of electrons along the surface of solid substrates by laser-plasma interaction. The measurements show good agreement with existing analytical scalings and dedicated numerical simulations. In the third part, two new concepts for multi-stage acceleration will be presented and parameterised by analytical considerations and numerical simulations. The first method uses electron pairs, as produced in the first part, to transfer energy from the first bunch to the second by means of a plasma wave. The second method utilizes a low intensity laser pulse in order to inject electrons from a neutral gas into the accelerating phase of a plasma wave. The final chapter proposes and demonstrates a first application that has been developed in collaboration with ESA. The use of electron beams with exponential energy distribution, as in the second part of this work, offers the potential to investigate the resistance of electronic components against space radiation exposure.

  8. Investigation of electron heating in laser-plasma interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Parvazian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available  In this paper, stimulated Raman scattering (SRS and electron heating in laser plasma propagating along the plasma fusion is investigated by particle-in cell simulation. Applying an external magnetic field to plasma, production of whistler waves and electron heating associated with whistler waves in the direction perpendicular to external magnetic field was observed in this simulation. The plasma waves with low phase velocities, generated in backward-SRS and dominateing initially in time and space, accelerated the backward electrons by trapping them. Then these electrons promoted to higher energies by the forward-SRS plasma waves with high phase velocities. This tow-stage electron acceleration is more efficient due to the coexistence of these two instabilities.

  9. Investigation of electron heating in laser-plasma interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvazian, A.; Haji Sharifi, K.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, stimulated Raman scattering and electron heating in laser plasma propagating along the plasma fusion is investigated by particle-in cell simulation. Applying an external magnetic field to plasma, production of whistler waves and electron heating associated with whistler waves in the direction perpendicular to external magnetic field was observed in this simulation. The plasma waves with low phase velocities, generated in backward-stimulated Raman scattering and dominating initially in time and space, accelerated the backward electrons by trapping them. Then these electrons promoted to higher energies by the forward-stimulated Raman scattering plasma waves with high phase velocities. This two-stage electron acceleration is more efficient due to the coexistence of these two instabilities.

  10. Laser-electron Compton interaction in plasma channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelsky, I.V.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Hirose, T.

    1998-10-01

    A concept of high intensity femtosecond laser synchrotron source (LSS) is based on Compton backscattering of focused electron and laser beams. The short Rayleigh length of the focused laser beam limits the length of interaction to a few picoseconds. However, the technology of the high repetition rate high-average power picosecond lasers required for high put through LSS applications is not developed yet. Another problem associated with the picosecond laser pulses is undesirable nonlinear effects occurring when the laser photons are concentrated in a short time interval. To avoid the nonlinear Compton scattering, the laser beam has to be split, and the required hard radiation flux is accumulated over a number of consecutive interactions that complicates the LSS design. In order to relieve the technological constraints and achieve a practically feasible high-power laser synchrotron source, the authors propose to confine the laser-electron interaction region in the extended plasma channel. This approach permits to use nanosecond laser pulses instead of the picosecond pulses. That helps to avoid the nonlinear Compton scattering regime and allows to utilize already existing technology of the high-repetition rate TEA CO 2 lasers operating at the atmospheric pressure. They demonstrate the advantages of the channeled LSS approach by the example of the prospective polarized positron source for Japan Linear Collider

  11. Unlimited electron acceleration in laser-driven plasma waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsouleas, T.; Dawson, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that the limitation to the energy gain of 2(ω/ω/sub p/) 2 mc 2 of an electron in the laser-plasma beat-wave accelerator can be overcome by imposing a magnetic field of appropriate strength perpendicular to the plasma wave. This accelerates particles parallel to the phase fronts of the accelerating wave which keeps them in phase with it. Arbitrarily large energy is theoretically possible

  12. Accelerator for medical applications and electron acceleration by laser plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokai, Tomonao; Uesaka, Mitsuru

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the current status of radiation therapies in Japan and updated medical accelerators are reviewed. For medical use, there is a strong demand of a compact and flexible accelerator. At present, however, we have only two choices of the S-band linac with one or two rotation axis combined with the multi leaf collimator, or the X-band linac with a rather flexible robotic arm. In addition, the laser plasma cathode that is the second generation of the laser wake-field accelerator (LWFA) is studied as a high-quality electron source for medical use though it is still at the stage of the basic research. The potential of LWFA as medical accelerator near future is discussed based on updated results of laser plasma cathode experiment in Univ. of Tokyo. (author)

  13. Laser plasma acceleration of electrons with multi-PW laser beams in the frame of CILEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cros, B., E-mail: brigitte.cros@u-psud.fr [LPGP, CNRS and Université Paris Sud, Orsay (France); Paradkar, B.S. [LPGP, CNRS and Université Paris Sud, Orsay (France); Davoine, X. [CEA DAM DIF, Arpajon F-91297 (France); Chancé, A. [CEA IRFU-SACM, Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Desforges, F.G. [LPGP, CNRS and Université Paris Sud, Orsay (France); Dobosz-Dufrénoy, S. [CEA DSM-IRAMIS-SPAM, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Delerue, N. [LAL, CNRS and Universit Paris Sud, Orsay (France); Ju, J.; Audet, T.L.; Maynard, G. [LPGP, CNRS and Université Paris Sud, Orsay (France); Lobet, M.; Gremillet, L. [CEA DAM DIF, Arpajon F-91297 (France); Mora, P. [CPhT, CNRS and Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Schwindling, J.; Delferrière, O. [CEA IRFU-SACM, Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Bruni, C.; Rimbault, C.; Vinatier, T. [LAL, CNRS and Universit Paris Sud, Orsay (France); Di Piazza, A. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Grech, M. [LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, Palaiseau (France); and others

    2014-03-11

    Laser plasma acceleration of electrons has progressed along with advances in laser technology. It is thus expected that the development in the near-future of multi-PW-class laser and facilities will enable a vast range of scientific opportunities for laser plasma acceleration research. On one hand, high peak powers can be used to explore the extremely high intensity regime of laser wakefield acceleration, producing for example large amounts of electrons in the GeV range or generating high energy photons. On the other hand, the available laser energy can be used in the quasi-linear regime to create accelerating fields in large volumes of plasma and study controlled acceleration in a plasma stage of externally injected relativistic particles, either electrons or positrons. In the frame of the Centre Interdisciplinaire de la Lumière EXtrême (CILEX), the Apollon-10P laser will deliver two beams at the 1 PW and 10 PW levels, in ultra-short (>15fs) pulses, to a target area dedicated to electron acceleration studies, such as the exploration of the non-linear regimes predicted theoretically, or multi-stage laser plasma acceleration.

  14. Ultrafast Diagnostics for Electron Beams from Laser Plasma Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matlis, N.H.; Bakeman, M.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Gonsalves, T.; Lin, C.; Nakamura, K.; Osterhoff, J.; Plateau, G.R.; Schroeder, C.B.; Shiraishi, S.; Sokollik, T.; van Tilborg, J.; Toth, Cs.; Leemans, W.P.

    2010-01-01

    We present an overview of diagnostic techniques for measuring key parameters of electron bunches from Laser Plasma Accelerators (LPAs). The diagnostics presented here were chosen because they highlight the unique advantages (e.g., diverse forms of electromagnetic emission) and difficulties (e.g., shot-to-shot variability) associated with LPAs. Non destructiveness and high resolution (in space and time and energy) are key attributes that enable the formation of a comprehensive suite of simultaneous diagnostics which are necessary for the full characterization of the ultrashort, but highly-variable electron bunches from LPAs.

  15. Ultrafast Diagnostics for Electron Beams from Laser Plasma Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlis, N. H.; Bakeman, M.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Gonsalves, T.; Lin, C.; Nakamura, K.; Osterhoff, J.; Plateau, G. R.; Schroeder, C. B.; Shiraishi, S.; Sokollik, T.; van Tilborg, J.; Toth, Cs.; Leemans, W. P.

    2010-06-01

    We present an overview of diagnostic techniques for measuring key parameters of electron bunches from Laser Plasma Accelerators (LPAs). The diagnostics presented here were chosen because they highlight the unique advantages (e.g., diverse forms of electromagnetic emission) and difficulties (e.g., shot-to-shot variability) associated with LPAs. Non destructiveness and high resolution (in space and time and energy) are key attributes that enable the formation of a comprehensive suite of simultaneous diagnostics which are necessary for the full characterization of the ultrashort, but highly-variable electron bunches from LPAs.

  16. Electron Beam Charge Diagnostics for Laser Plasma Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kei; Gonsalves, Anthony; Lin, Chen; Smith, Alan; Rodgers, David; Donahue, Rich; Byrne, Warren; Leemans, Wim

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive study of charge diagnostics is conducted to verify their validity for measuring electron beams produced by laser plasma accelerators (LPAs). First, a scintillating screen (Lanex) was extensively studied using subnanosecond electron beams from the Advanced Light Source booster synchrotron, at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The Lanex was cross calibrated with an integrating current transformer (ICT) for up to the electron energy of 1.5 GeV, and the linear response of the screen was confirmed for charge density and intensity up to 160 pC/mm 2 and 0.4 pC/(ps mm 2 ), respectively. After the radio-frequency accelerator based cross calibration, a series of measurements was conducted using electron beams from an LPA. Cross calibrations were carried out using an activation-based measurement that is immune to electromagnetic pulse noise, ICT, and Lanex. The diagnostics agreed within ±8%, showing that they all can provide accurate charge measurements for LPAs.

  17. Measurements of plasma temperature and electron density in laser ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of 6 ns focussed onto a copper solid sample in air at atmospheric pressure is studied spectroscopically. ... Pulsed laser-induced plasmas (LIPs) of metals and alloys formed at laser pulse ir- radiances near the .... fibre-based collection system.

  18. Free-electron laser driven by the LBNL laser-plasma accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, C.B.; Fawley, W.M.; Gruner, F.; Bakeman, M.; Nakamura, K.; Robinson, K.E.; Toth, Cs.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W.P.

    2008-01-01

    A design of a compact free-electron laser (FEL), generating ultra-fast, high-peak flux, XUV pulses is presented. The FEL is driven by ahigh-current, 0.5 GeV electron beam from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) laser-plasma accelerator, whose active acceleration length is only a few centimeters. The proposed ultra-fast source (∼10 fs) would be intrinsically temporally synchronized to the drive laser pulse, enabling pump-probe studies in ultra-fast science. Owing to the high current (>10 kA) of the laser-plasma-accelerated electron beams, saturated output fluxes are potentially greater than 10 13 photons/pulse. Devices based both on self-amplified spontaneous emission and high-harmonic generated input seeds, to reduce undulator length and fluctuations, are considered.

  19. Design of a free-electron laser driven by the LBNL laser-plasma-accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, C.B.; Fawley, W.M.; Montgomery, A.L.; Robinson, K.E.; Gruner, F.; Bakeman, M.; Leemans, W.P.

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the design and current status of a compact free-electron laser (FEL), generating ultra-fast, high-peak flux, VUV pulses driven by a high-current, GeV electron beam from the existing Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) laser-plasma accelerator, whose active acceleration length is only a few cm. The proposed ultra-fast source would be intrinsically temporally synchronized to the drive laser pulse, enabling pump-probe studies in ultra-fast science with pulse lengths of tens of fs. Owing to the high current ( and 10 kA) of the laser-plasma-accelerated electron beams, saturated output fluxes are potentially greater than 1013 photons/pulse. Devices based both on SASE and high-harmonic generated input seeds, to reduce undulator length and fluctuations, are considered

  20. Electron plasma waves in CO/sub 2/ laser plasma interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldis, H.A.; Villeneuve, D.M.; Walsh, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    During the past few years, the use of Thomson scattering in CO/sub 2/ laser produced plasmas has permitted the identification and study of electron plasma waves and ion waves, driven by various instabilities in the plasma corona, such as Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS), two plasmon decay, and Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS). Since these instabilities may coexist in the plasma, the density fluctuations associated with one wave may influence the behaviour of one or more of the other instabilities. The authors discuss the experimental evidence of such effects and, in particular, the consequences of a recent experiment in which the ion waves driven by SBS were observed to adversely affect the production of the electron plasma waves driven by SRS. In that experiment, a strong correlation was observed between the onset of SBS and the disappearance of the electron plasma waves driven by SRS at low densities (n/sub e/ n/sub e/ > 0.05 n/sub c/)

  1. First observations of acceleration of injected electrons in a laser plasma beatwave experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahim, N.A.; Martin, F.; Bordeur, P.; Heighway, E.A.; Matte, J.P.; Pepin, H.; Lavigne, P.

    1986-01-01

    The first experimental observations of acceleration of injected electrons in a laser driven plasma beatwave are presented. The plasma waves were excited in an ionized gas jet, using a short pulse high intensity CO 2 laser with two collinearly propagating beams (at λ = 9.6 μm and 10.6 μm) to excite a fast wave (v/sub p/ = c). The source of electrons was a laser plasma produced on an aluminum slab target by a third, synchronized CO 2 laser beam. A double-focusing dipole magnet was used to energy select and inject electrons into the beatwave, and a second magnetic spectrograph was used to analyze the accelerated electrons. Electron acceleration was only observed when the appropriate resonant plasma density was produced (∼ 10 17 cm -3 ), the two laser lines were incident on the plasma, and electrons were injected into this plasma from an external source

  2. Electron structure of atoms in laser plasma: The Debye shielding model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sako, Tokuei; Okutsu, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Kaoru

    2005-01-01

    The electronic structure and the energy spectra of multielectron atoms in laser plasmas are examined by the Debye shielding model. The effect of the plasma environment on the electrons bound in an atom is taken into account by introducing the screened Coulomb-type potentials into the electronic Hamiltonian of an atom in place of the standard nuclear attraction and electron repulsion potentials. The capabilities of this new Hamiltonian are demonstrated for He and Li in laser plasmas. (author)

  3. Acceleration of laser-injected electron beams in an electron-beam driven plasma wakefield accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knetsch, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    Plasma wakefields deliver accelerating fields that are approximately a 100 times higher than those in conventional radiofrequency or even superconducting radiofrequency cavities. This opens a transformative path towards novel, compact and potentially ubiquitous accelerators. These prospects, and the increasing demand for electron accelerator beamtime for various applications in natural, material and life sciences, motivate the research and development on novel plasma-based accelerator concepts. However, these electron beam sources need to be understood and controlled. The focus of this thesis is on electron beam-driven plasma wakefield acceleration (PWFA) and the controlled injection and acceleration of secondary electron bunches in the accelerating wake fields by means of a short-pulse near-infrared laser. Two laser-triggered injection methods are explored. The first one is the Trojan Horse Injection, which relies on very good alignment and timing control between electron beam and laser pulse and then promises electron bunches with hitherto unprecedented quality as regards emittance and brightness. The physics of electron injection in the Trojan Horse case is explored with a focus on the final longitudinal bunch length. Then a theoretical and numerical study is presented that examines the physics of Trojan Horse injection when performed in an expanding wake generated by a smooth density down-ramp. The benefits are radically decreased drive-electron bunch requirements and a unique bunch-length control that enables longitudinal electron-bunch shaping. The second laser-triggered injection method is the Plasma Torch Injection, which is a versatile, all-optical laser-plasma-based method capable to realize tunable density downramp injection. At the SLAC National Laboratory, the first proof-of-principle was achieved both for Trojan Horse and Plasma Torch injection. Setup details and results are reported in the experimental part of the thesis along with the commissioning

  4. Free-electron laser with a plasma wave wiggler propagating through a magnetized plasma channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafari, S; Jafarinia, F; Mehdian, H

    2013-01-01

    A plasma eigenmode has been employed as a wiggler in a magnetized plasma channel for the generation of laser radiation in a free-electron laser. The short wavelength of the plasma wave allows a higher radiation frequency to be obtained than from conventional wiggler free-electron lasers. The plasma can significantly slow down the radiation mode, thereby relaxing the beam energy requirement considerably. In addition, it allows a beam current in excess of the vacuum current limit via charge neutralization. This configuration has a higher tunability by controlling the plasma density in addition to the γ-tunability of the standard FEL. The laser gain has been calculated and numerical computations of the electron trajectories and gain are presented. Four groups (I–IV) of electron orbits have been found. It has been shown that by increasing the cyclotron frequency, the gain for orbits of group I and group III increases, while a decrease in gain has been obtained for orbits of group II and group IV. Similarly, the effect of plasma density on gain has been exhibited. The results indicate that with increasing plasma density, the orbits of all groups shift to higher cyclotron frequencies. The effects of beam self-fields on gain have also been demonstrated. It has been found that in the presence of beam self-fields the sensitivity of the gain increases substantially in the vicinity of gyroresonance. Here, the gain enhancement and reduction are due to the paramagnetic and diamagnetic effects of the self-magnetic field, respectively. (paper)

  5. Shack-Hartmann Electron Densitometer (SHED): An Optical System for Diagnosing Free Electron Density in Laser-Produced Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Free Electron Density in Laser-Produced Plasmas by Anthony R Valenzuela Approved for public release; distribution is...AND SUBTITLE Shack-Hartmann Electron Densitometer (SHED): An Optical System for Diagnosing Free Electron Density in Laser-Produced Plasmas 5a...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The Shack-Hartmann Electron Densitometer is a novel method to diagnose ultrashort pulse laser–produced plasmas

  6. Electron beam charge diagnostics for laser plasma accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nakamura

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study of charge diagnostics is conducted to verify their validity for measuring electron beams produced by laser plasma accelerators (LPAs. First, a scintillating screen (Lanex was extensively studied using subnanosecond electron beams from the Advanced Light Source booster synchrotron, at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The Lanex was cross calibrated with an integrating current transformer (ICT for up to the electron energy of 1.5 GeV, and the linear response of the screen was confirmed for charge density and intensity up to 160  pC/mm^{2} and 0.4  pC/(ps  mm^{2}, respectively. After the radio-frequency accelerator based cross calibration, a series of measurements was conducted using electron beams from an LPA. Cross calibrations were carried out using an activation-based measurement that is immune to electromagnetic pulse noise, ICT, and Lanex. The diagnostics agreed within ±8%, showing that they all can provide accurate charge measurements for LPAs.

  7. Microwave free-electron laser applications for electron cyclotron heating of plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomassen, K.

    1990-01-01

    Millimeter wave power may be the ideal source of heat for the plasma, but advances in technology are needed to meet requirements of next generation fusion devices. Free electron lasers (FEL) are one candidate for such sources, and this paper reviews the progress, issues of physics and technology, and potential benefits for fusion from these devices

  8. Microwave free-electron laser applications for electron cyclotron heating of plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomassen, K.I.

    1990-01-01

    Millimeter wave power may be the ideal source of heat for a plasma, but advances in technology are needed to meet requirements of next generation fusion devices. Free electron lasers (FEL) are one candidate for such sources, and this paper reviews the progress, issues of physics and technology, and potential benefits for fusion from these devices. 15 refs., 13 figs

  9. Electron trajectory evaluation in laser-plasma interaction for effective output beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobdeh, P.; Sadighi-Bonabi, R.; Afarideh, H.

    2010-06-01

    Using the ellipsoidal cavity model, the quasi-monoenergetic electron output beam in laser-plasma interaction is described. By the cavity regime the quality of electron beam is improved in comparison with those generated from other methods such as periodic plasma wave field, spheroidal cavity regime and plasma channel guided acceleration. Trajectory of electron motion is described as hyperbolic, parabolic or elliptic paths. We find that the self-generated electron bunch has a smaller energy width and more effective gain in energy spectrum. Initial condition for the ellipsoidal cavity is determined by laser-plasma parameters. The electron trajectory is influenced by its position, energy and cavity electrostatic potential.

  10. Bunch decompression for laser-plasma driven free-electron laser demonstration schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Seggebrock

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs require a very high electron beam quality in terms of emittance and energy spread. Since 2004 high quality electrons produced by laser-wakefield accelerators have been demonstrated, but the electron quality up to now did not allow the operation of a compact x-ray FEL using these electrons. Maier et al. [Phys. Rev. X 2, 031019 (2012PRXHAE2160-330810.1103/PhysRevX.2.031019] suggested a concept for a proof-of-principle experiment allowing FEL operation in the vacuum ultraviolet range based on an optimized undulator and bunch decompression using electron bunches from a laser-plasma accelerator as currently available. In this paper we discuss in more detail how a chicane can be used as a bunch stretcher instead of a bunch compressor to allow the operation of a laser-wakefield accelerator driven FEL using currently available electrons. A scaling characterizing the impact of bunch decompression on the gain length is derived and the feasibility of the concept is tested numerically in a demanding scenario.

  11. The acceleration of particles by relativistic electron plasma waves driven by the optical mixing of laser light in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahim, N.A.; Douglas, S.R.

    1992-03-01

    Electron acceleration by relativistic large-amplitude electron plasma waves is studied by theory and particle simulations. The maximum acceleration that can be obtained from this process depends on many different factors. This report presents a study of how these various factors impact on the acceleration mechanism. Although particular reference is made to the laser plasma beatwave concept, the study is equally relevant to the acceleration of particles in the plasma wakefield accelerator and the laser wakefield accelerator

  12. Relativistic electron kinetic effects on laser diagnostics in burning plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirnov, V. V.; Den Hartog, D. J.

    2018-02-01

    Toroidal interferometry/polarimetry (TIP), poloidal polarimetry (PoPola), and Thomson scattering systems (TS) are major optical diagnostics being designed and developed for ITER. Each of them relies upon a sophisticated quantitative understanding of the electron response to laser light propagating through a burning plasma. Review of the theoretical results for two different applications is presented: interferometry/polarimetry (I/P) and polarization of Thomson scattered light, unified by the importance of relativistic (quadratic in vTe/c) electron kinetic effects. For I/P applications, rigorous analytical results are obtained perturbatively by expansion in powers of the small parameter τ = Te/me c2, where Te is electron temperature and me is electron rest mass. Experimental validation of the analytical models has been made by analyzing data of more than 1200 pulses collected from high-Te JET discharges. Based on this validation the relativistic analytical expressions are included in the error analysis and design projects of the ITER TIP and PoPola systems. The polarization properties of incoherent Thomson scattered light are being examined as a method of Te measurement relevant to ITER operational regimes. The theory is based on Stokes vector transformation and Mueller matrices formalism. The general approach is subdivided into frequency-integrated and frequency-resolved cases. For each of them, the exact analytical relativistic solutions are presented in the form of Mueller matrix elements averaged over the relativistic Maxwellian distribution function. New results related to the detailed verification of the frequency-resolved solutions are reported. The precise analytic expressions provide output much more rapidly than relativistic kinetic numerical codes allowing for direct real-time feedback control of ITER device operation.

  13. Laser pulse guiding and electron acceleration in the ablative capillary discharge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameshima, T.; Kotaki, H.; Kando, M.; Daito, I.; Kawase, K.; Fukuda, Y.; Homma, T.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Chen, L. M.; Kondo, S.; Bobrova, N. A.; Sasorov, P. V.; Bulanov, S. V.

    2009-01-01

    The results of experiments are presented for the laser electron acceleration in the ablative capillary discharge plasma. The plasma channel is formed by the discharge inside the ablative capillary. The intense short laser pulse is guided over a 4 cm length. The generated relativistic electrons show both the quasimonoenergetic and quasi-Maxwellian energy spectra, depending on laser and plasma parameters. The analysis of the inner walls of the capillaries that underwent several tens of shots shows that the wall deformation and blistering resulted from the discharge and laser pulse effects.

  14. Simultaneous streak and frame interferometry for electron density measurements of laser produced plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quevedo, H. J., E-mail: hjquevedo@utexas.edu; McCormick, M.; Wisher, M.; Bengtson, Roger D.; Ditmire, T. [Center for High Energy Density Science, Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    A system of two collinear probe beams with different wavelengths and pulse durations was used to capture simultaneously snapshot interferograms and streaked interferograms of laser produced plasmas. The snapshots measured the two dimensional, path-integrated, electron density on a charge-coupled device while the radial temporal evolution of a one dimensional plasma slice was recorded by a streak camera. This dual-probe combination allowed us to select plasmas that were uniform and axisymmetric along the laser direction suitable for retrieving the continuous evolution of the radial electron density of homogeneous plasmas. Demonstration of this double probe system was done by measuring rapidly evolving plasmas on time scales less than 1 ns produced by the interaction of femtosecond, high intensity, laser pulses with argon gas clusters. Experiments aimed at studying homogeneous plasmas from high intensity laser-gas or laser-cluster interaction could benefit from the use of this probing scheme.

  15. Electron acceleration by femtosecond laser interaction with micro-structured plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goers, Andy James

    Laser-driven accelerators are a promising and compact alternative to RF accelerator technology for generating relativistic electron bunches for medical, scientific, and security applications. This dissertation presents three experiments using structured plasmas designed to advance the state of the art in laser-based electron accelerators, with the goal of reducing the energy of the drive laser pulse and enabling higher repetition rate operation with current laser technology. First, electron acceleration by intense femtosecond laser pulses in He-like nitrogen plasma waveguides is demonstrated. Second, significant progress toward a proof of concept realization of quasi-phasematched direct acceleration (QPM-DLA) is presented. Finally, a laser wakefield accelerator at very high plasma density is studied, enabling relativistic electron beam generation with ˜10 mJ pulse energies. Major results from these experiments include: • Acceleration of electrons up to 120 MeV from an ionization injected wakefield accelerator driven in a 1.5 mm long He-like nitrogen plasma waveguide • Guiding of an intense, quasi-radially polarized femtosecond laser pulse in a 1 cm plasma waveguide. This pulse provides a strong drive field for the QPM-DLA concept. • Wakefield acceleration of electrons up to ˜10 MeV with sub-terawatt, ˜10 mJ pulses interacting with a thin (˜200 mum), high density (>1020 cm-3) plasma. • Observation of an intense, coherent, broadband wave breaking radiation flash from a high plasma density laser wakefield accelerator. The flash radiates > 1% of the drive laser pulse energy in a bandwidth consistent with half-cycle (˜1 fs) emission from violent unidirectional acceleration of electron bunches from rest. These results open the way to high repetition rate (>˜kHz) laser-driven generation of relativistic electron beams with existing laser technology.

  16. Measurements of plasma temperature and electron density in laser

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The temperature and electron density characterizing the plasma are measured by time-resolved spectroscopy of neutral atom and ion line emissions in the time window of 300–2000 ns. An echelle spectrograph coupled with a gated intensified charge coupled detector is used to record the plasma emissions.

  17. Feasibility study of the plasma electron density measurement by electromagnetic radiation from the laser-driven plasma wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, D G; Kim, J J; Suk, H; Hur, M S

    2012-01-01

    When an intense laser beam is focused in a plasma, a plasma wake wave is generated and the oscillatary motion of the plasma electrons produces a strong electromagnetic wave by a Cherenkov-like process. Spectrum of the genetated electromagnetic wave has dependence on the plasma density. In this paper, we propose to use the emitted electromagnetic radiation for plasma diagnostic, which may provide an accurate information for local electron densities of the plasma and will be very useful for three-dimensional plasma density profiles by changing the focal point location of the laser beam. Two-dimensional (2-D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation is used to study the correlation between the spectrum of the emitted radiation and plasma density, and the results demonstrate that this method is promising for the electron density measurement in the plasma.

  18. Direct acceleration of electrons by a CO2 laser in a curved plasma waveguide

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, Longqing; Shen, Baifei

    2016-01-01

    Laser plasma interaction with micro-engineered targets at relativistic intensities has been greatly promoted by recent progress in the high contrast lasers and the manufacture of advanced micro- and nano-structures. This opens new possibilities for the physics of laser-matter interaction. Here we propose a novel approach that leverages the advantages of high-pressure CO 2 laser, laser-waveguide interaction, as well as micro-engineered plasma structure to accelerate electrons to peak energy greater than 1 GeV with narrow slice energy spread (~1%) and high overall efficiency. The acceleration gradient is 26 GV/m for a 1.3 TW CO2 laser system. The micro-bunching of a long electron beam leads to the generation of a chain of ultrashort electron bunches with the duration roughly equal to half-laser-cycle. These results open a way for developing a compact and economic electron source for diverse applications.

  19. Electron self-injection and acceleration in the bubble regime of laser-plasma interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostyukov, I.; Nerush, E.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The intense laser-plasma and beam-plasma interactions are highly nonlinear-phenomena, which besides being of fundamental interest, attract a great attention due to a number of important applications. One of the key applications is particle acceleration based on excitation of the strong plasma wakefield by laser pulse. In the linear regime of interaction when the laser intensity is low the plasma wake is the linear plasma wave. Moreover, the ponderomotive force of the laser pulse pushes out the plasma electrons from high intensity region leaving behind the laser pulse the plasma cavity - bubble, which is almost free from the plasma electrons. This is the bubble the laser-plasma interaction. Although the bubble propagates with velocity, which is close to speed of light, the huge charge of unshielded ions inside the plasma cavity can trap the cold plasma electrons. Moreover, the electrons are trapped in the accelerated phase of the bubble plasma field thereby leading to efficient electron acceleration. The electron self-injection is an important advantage of the plasma-based acceleration, which allows to exclude the beam loading system requiring accurate synchronization and additional space. The recent experiments have demonstrated high efficiency of the electron self-injection. The beam quality is often of crucial importance in many applications ranging from inertial confinement fusion to the x-ray free electron lasers. Despite a great interest there is still a little theory for relativistic electron dynamics in the plasma wake in multidimensional geometry including electron self-injection. The dynamics of the self-injected electrons can be roughly divided into three stage: (i) electron scattering by the laser pulse, (ii) electron trapping by the bubble, (iii) electron acceleration in the bubble. We developed two analytical models for electron dynamics in the bubble field and verify them by direct measurements of model parameters

  20. Relativistic electron acceleration by net inverse bremsstrahlung in a laser-irradiated plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.H.; Chen, K.W.

    1985-01-01

    Using the quantum-kinetic method, the net acceleration of relativistic electrons in a laser-irradiated plasma is studied as a function of the relevant parameters of the incident laser wave and the plasma wave. It is suggested that, in general, the net acceleration in laser-produced turbulent plasmas is primarily due to inverse bremsstrahlung proceses, and the acceleration gradient exceeds several hundreds gigavolt per meter when the electron energy is large (TeV) and the momentum spread of the beam is properly controlled

  1. Probing plasma wakefields using electron bunches generated from a laser wakefield accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C. J.; Wan, Y.; Guo, B.; Hua, J. F.; Pai, C.-H.; Li, F.; Zhang, J.; Ma, Y.; Wu, Y. P.; Xu, X. L.; Mori, W. B.; Chu, H.-H.; Wang, J.; Lu, W.; Joshi, C.

    2018-04-01

    We show experimental results of probing the electric field structure of plasma wakes by using femtosecond relativistic electron bunches generated from a laser wakefield accelerator. Snapshots of laser-driven linear wakes in plasmas with different densities and density gradients are captured. The spatiotemporal evolution of the wake in a plasma density up-ramp is recorded. Two parallel wakes driven by a laser with a main spot and sidelobes are identified in the experiment and reproduced in simulations. The capability of this new method for capturing the electron- and positron-driven wakes is also shown via 3D particle-in-cell simulations.

  2. Target Surface Area Effects on Hot Electron Dynamics from High Intensity Laser-Plasma Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-19

    Science, University ofMichigan, AnnArbor,MI 48109-2099, USA E-mail: czulick@umich.edu Keywords: laser- plasma ,mass-limited, fast electrons , sheath...New J. Phys. 18 (2016) 063020 doi:10.1088/1367-2630/18/6/063020 PAPER Target surface area effects on hot electron dynamics from high intensity laser... plasma interactions CZulick, ARaymond,AMcKelvey, VChvykov, AMaksimchuk, AGRThomas, LWillingale, VYanovsky andKKrushelnick Center forUltrafast Optical

  3. Plasma conditions for non-Maxwellian electron distributions in high current discharges and laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitney, K.G.; Pulsifer, P.E.

    1993-01-01

    Results from the standard quasilinear theory of ion-acoustic and Langmuir plasma microturbulence are incorporated into the kinetic theory of the electron distribution function. The theory is then applied to high current discharges and laser-produced plasmas, where either the current flow or the nonlinear laser-light absorption acts, respectively, as the energy source for the microturbulence. More specifically, the theory is applied to a selenium plasma, whose charge state is determined under conditions of collisional-radiative equilibrium, and plasma conditions are found under which microturbulence strongly influences the electron kinetics. In selenium, we show that this influence extends over a wide range of plasma conditions. For ion-acoustic turbulence, a criterion is derived, analogous to one previously obtained for laser heated plasmas, that predicts when Ohmic heating dominates over electron-electron collisions. This dominance leads to the generation of electron distributions with reduced high-energy tails relative to a Maxwellian distribution of the same temperature. Ion-acoustic turbulence lowers the current requirements needed to generate these distributions. When the laser heating criterion is rederived with ion-acoustic turbulence included in the theory, a similar reduction in the laser intensity needed to produce non-Maxwellian distributions is found. Thus we show that ion-acoustic turbulence uniformly (i.e., by the same numerical factor) reduces the electrical and heat conductivities, as well as the current (squared) and laser intensity levels needed to drive the plasma into non-Maxwellian states

  4. Creation of electron-positron plasma with superstrong laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narozhny, N.B.; Fedotov, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    We present a short review of recent progress in studying QED effects within the interaction of ultra-relativistic laser pulses with vacuum and e - e + plasma. Current development in laser technologies promises very rapid growth of laser intensities in the near future. Two exa-watt class facilities (ELI and XCELS, Russia) in Europe are already in the planning stage. Realization of these projects will make available a laser intensity of 10 26 W/cm 2 or even higher. Therefore, discussion of nonlinear optical effects in vacuum are becoming compelling for experimentalists and are currently gaining much attention. We show that, in spite of the fact that the expected field strength is still essentially less than E S = m 2 c 3 /eℎ = 1.32*10 16 V/cm, the nonlinear vacuum effects will be accessible for observation at the ELI and XCELS facilities. The most promising effect for observation is pair creation by a laser pulse in vacuum. It is shown, that at intensities of about 5*10 25 W/cm 2 , creation even of a single pair is accompanied by the development of an avalanche QED cascade. There exists a distinctive feature of the laser-induced cascades, as compared with the air showers arising due primarily to cosmic rays entering the atmosphere. In our case the laser field plays not only the role of a target (similar to a nucleus in the case of air showers) but is also responsible for the acceleration of slow particles. It is shown that the effect of pair creation imposes a natural limit for the attainable laser intensity and, apparently, the field strength E ≅ E S is not accessible for a pair-creating electromagnetic field at all. (authors)

  5. Electron accelerator with a laser ignition for investigation of beam plasma by optical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabanov, S.N.; Korolev, A.A.; Kul'beda, V.E.; Razumovskij, A.I.; Trukhin, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    Facility to conduct investigations into dense gas beam plasma is described. Facility comprises: electron accelerator (200-300 keV, 5kA, 20ns), OGM-40 ignition ruby laser LZhI-501 diagnostic laser (with 0.55-0.66 μm tunable wave length), Michelson interferometer and diagnostic equipment for optical measurements. Laser ignition of spark gap is introduced to strong synchronization (±10ns) of radiation pulse of diagnostic laser with beam current pulse

  6. Calculating the radiation characteristics of accelerated electrons in laser-plasma interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X. F.; Yu, Q.; Qu, J. F.; Kong, Q.; Gu, Y. J.; Ma, Y. Y.; Kawata, S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we studied the characteristics of radiation emitted by electrons accelerated in a laser–plasma interaction by using the Lienard–Wiechert field. In the interaction of a laser pulse with a underdense plasma, electrons are accelerated by two mechanisms: direct laser acceleration (DLA) and laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA). At the beginning of the process, the DLA electrons emit most of the radiation, and the DLA electrons emit a much higher peak photon energy than the LWFA electrons. As the laser–plasma interaction progresses, the LWFA electrons become the major radiation emitter; however, even at this stage, the contribution from DLA electrons is significant, especially to the peak photon energy.

  7. Electron transport phenomena and dense plasmas produced by ultra-short pulse laser interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    Recent experiments with femtosecond lasers provide a test bed for theoretical ideas about electron processes in hot dense plasmas. We briefly review aspects of electron conduction theory likely to prove relevant to femtosecond laser absorption. We show that the Mott-Ioffe-Regel limit implies a maximum inverse bremsstrahlung absorption of about 50% at temperatures near the Fermi temperature. We also propose that sheath inverse bremsstrahlung leads to a minimum absorption of 7-10% at high laser intensity

  8. Measurements of Electron Density Profiles of Plasmas Produced by Nike KrF Laser for Laser Plasma Instability (LPI) Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Obenschain, S. P.; Schmitt, A. J.; Kehne, D. M.; Karasik, M.; Chan, L.-Y.; Serlin, V.; Phillips, L.

    2013-10-01

    Knowing spatial profiles of electron density (ne) in the underdense coronal region (n Nike LPI experiment, a side-on grid imaging refractometer (GIR) was deployed for measuring the underdense plasma profiles. Plasmas were produced from flat CH targets illuminated by Nike KrF laser with total energies up to 1 kJ of 0.5 ~ 1 nsec FWHM pulses. The GIR resolved ne up to 3 ×1021 /cm3 in space taking 2D snapshot images of probe laser (λ = 263 nm, Δt = 10 ps) beamlets (50 μm spacing) refracted by the plasma at a selected time during the laser illumination. The individual beamlet transmittances were also measured for Te estimation. Time-resolved spectrometers with an absolute-intensity-calibrated photodiode array and a streak camera simultaneously detected light emission from the plasma in spectral ranges relevant to Raman (SRS) and two plasmon decay instabilities. The measured spatial profiles are compared with simulation results from the FAST3D radiation hydrocode and their effects on the LPI observations are investigated. Work supported by DoE/NNSA and performed at Naval Research Laboratory.

  9. Relativistic electron drift in overdense plasma produced by a superintense femtosecond laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastunkov, V.S.; Krainov, V.P.

    2004-01-01

    The general peculiarities of electron motion in the skin layer at the irradiation of overdense plasma by a superintense linearly polarized laser pulse of femtosecond duration are considered. The quiver electron energy is assumed to be a relativistic quantity. Relativistic electron drift along the propagation of laser radiation produced by a magnetic part of a laser field remains after the end of the laser pulse, unlike the relativistic drift of a free electron in underdense plasma. As a result, the penetration depth is much larger than the classical skin depth. The conclusion has been made that the drift velocity is a nonrelativistic quantity even at the peak laser intensity of 10 21 W/cm 2 . The time at which an electron penetrates into field-free matter from the skin layer is much less than the pulse duration

  10. Laser pulse propagation and enhanced energy coupling to fast electrons in dense plasma gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, R J; Carroll, D C; Yuan, X H; Brenner, C M; Coury, M; Quinn, M N; Tresca, O; McKenna, P; Burza, M; Wahlström, C-G; Lancaster, K L; Neely, D; Lin, X X; Li, Y T

    2014-01-01

    Laser energy absorption to fast electrons during the interaction of an ultra-intense (10 20 W cm −2 ), picosecond laser pulse with a solid is investigated, experimentally and numerically, as a function of the plasma density scale length at the irradiated surface. It is shown that there is an optimum density gradient for efficient energy coupling to electrons and that this arises due to strong self-focusing and channeling driving energy absorption over an extended length in the preformed plasma. At longer density gradients the laser filaments, resulting in significantly lower overall energy coupling. As the scale length is further increased, a transition to a second laser energy absorption process is observed experimentally via multiple diagnostics. The results demonstrate that it is possible to significantly enhance laser energy absorption and coupling to fast electrons by dynamically controlling the plasma density gradient. (paper)

  11. On the physics of electron ejection from laser-irradiated overdense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thévenet, M.; Vincenti, H.; Faure, J. [Laboratoire d' Optique Appliquée, ENSTA ParisTech, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, Université Paris-Saclay, 828 bd des Maréchaux, 91762 Palaiseau Cedex (France)

    2016-06-15

    Using 1D and 2D PIC simulations, we describe and model the backward ejection of electron bunches when a laser pulse reflects off an overdense plasma with a short density gradient on its front side. The dependence on the laser intensity and gradient scale length is studied. It is found that during each laser period, the incident laser pulse generates a large charge-separation field, or plasma capacitor, which accelerates an attosecond bunch of electrons toward vacuum. This process is maximized for short gradient scale lengths and collapses when the gradient scale length is comparable to the laser wavelength. We develop a model that reproduces the electron dynamics and the dependence on laser intensity and gradient scale length. This process is shown to be strongly linked with high harmonic generation via the Relativistic Oscillating Mirror mechanism.

  12. Hot electron effects on the satellite spectrum of laser-produced plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdallah, J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, PO Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Faenov, A.Y.; Pikuz, T.A. [MISDC, NPO ' VNIIFTRI' , Mendeleevo, Moscow Region, 141570 (Russian Federation); Wilke, M.D.; Kyrala, G.A.; Clark, R.E.H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, PO Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1999-05-01

    In laser-produced plasmas, the interaction of the intense laser light with plasma electrons can produce high-energy superthermal electrons with energies in the keV range. These hot electrons can influence the level populations which determine spectral line structure. In the present paper, the effect of hot electrons on the X-ray satellite spectrum of laser-produced plasmas is studied. Calculated spectra are compared with experimental observations. Magnesium targets irradiated by three different types of laser pulses are considered. These include, a high-intensity 600 fs Nd-glass laser, a 1 ns Nd-glass laser, and a 2ns CO{sub 2} laser. The Nd-glass laser experiments were conducted recently at the Los Alamos Trident Facility and the CO{sub 2} data were recorded by MISDC. High-resolution spectra were measured near the He-like resonance line of magnesium. The calculations employ an electron energy distribution which includes a thermal and a hot electron component, as part of a detailed collisional-radiative model. Plasma parameters including electron temperature, density, and hot electron fraction are estimated by choosing best fits to the experimental measurements. The calculations show that hot electrons can cause several anomalous effects. The Li-like jkl, abcd, and qr satellites can show intensities which are generally attributed to electron densities in excess of 10{sup 23} cm{sup -3}. In addition, the relative amplitude of the intercombination line can be unusually large even at high electron densities due to enhanced collisional excitation of the 1s2p{sup 3}P state by hot electrons. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  13. Parametric study of transport beam lines for electron beams accelerated by laser-plasma interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scisciò, M.; Lancia, L.; Migliorati, M.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Antici, P.

    2016-03-01

    In the last decade, laser-plasma acceleration of high-energy electrons has attracted strong attention in different fields. Electrons with maximum energies in the GeV range can be laser-accelerated within a few cm using multi-hundreds terawatt (TW) lasers, yielding to very high beam currents at the source (electron bunches with up to tens-hundreds of pC in a few fs). While initially the challenge was to increase the maximum achievable electron energy, today strong effort is put in the control and usability of these laser-generated beams that still lack of some features in order to be used for applications where currently conventional, radio-frequency (RF) based, electron beam lines represent the most common and efficient solution. Several improvements have been suggested for this purpose, some of them acting directly on the plasma source, some using beam shaping tools located downstream. Concerning the latter, several studies have suggested the use of conventional accelerator magnetic devices (such as quadrupoles and solenoids) as an easy implementable solution when the laser-plasma accelerated beam requires optimization. In this paper, we report on a parametric study related to the transport of electron beams accelerated by laser-plasma interaction, using conventional accelerator elements and tools. We focus on both, high energy electron beams in the GeV range, as produced on petawatt (PW) class laser systems, and on lower energy electron beams in the hundreds of MeV range, as nowadays routinely obtained on commercially available multi-hundred TW laser systems. For both scenarios, our study allows understanding what are the crucial parameters that enable laser-plasma accelerators to compete with conventional ones and allow for a beam transport. We show that suitable working points require a tradeoff-combination between low beam divergence and narrow energy spread.

  14. Prediction of hot electron production by ultraintense KrF laser-plasma interactions on solid-density targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Susumu; Takahashi, Eiichi; Miura, Eisuke; Owadano, Yoshiro; Nakamura, Tatsufumi; Kato, Tomokazu

    2002-01-01

    The scaling of hot electron temperature and the spectrum of electron energy by intense laser plasma interactions are reexamined from a viewpoint of the difference in laser wavelength. Laser plasma interaction such as parametric instabilities is usually determined by the Iλ2 scaling, where I and λ is the laser intensity and wavelength, respectively. However, the hot electron temperature is proportional to (ncr/ne0)1/2 [(1 + a 0 2 ) 1/2 - 1] rather than [(1 + a 0 2 ) 1/2 - 1] at the interaction with overdense plasmas, where ne0 is a electron density of overdense plasmas and a0 is a normalized laser intensity

  15. Plasma heating in a long solenoid by a laser or a relativistic electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.

    1975-01-01

    Advances in the technology of a large energy laser and/or relativistic electron beam (REB) generator have made it possible to seriously consider a long solenoid reactor concept. This concept has been reviewed. The physical problems in the plasma heating of the long solenoid by a laser or a REB are studied

  16. Electrons trajectories around a bubble regime in intense laser plasma interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Ding; Xie, Bai-Song; Ali Bake, Muhammad; Sang, Hai-Bo; Zhao, Xue-Yan; Wu, Hai-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Some typical electrons trajectories around a bubble regime in intense laser plasma interaction are investigated theoretically. By considering a modification of the fields and ellipsoid bubble shape due to the presence of residual electrons in the bubble regime, we study in detail the electrons nonlinear dynamics with or without laser pulse. To examine the electron dynamical behaviors, a set of typical electrons, which locate initially at the front of the bubble, on the transverse edge and at the bottom of the bubble respectively, are chosen for study. It is found that the range of trapped electrons in the case with laser pulse is a little narrower than that without laser pulse. The partial phase portraits for electrons around the bubble are presented numerically and their characteristic behaviors are discussed theoretically. Implication of our results on the high quality electron beam generation is also discussed briefly

  17. En Route: next-generation laser-plasma-based electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidding, Bernhard

    2008-05-01

    Accelerating electrons to relativistic energies is of fundamental interest, especially in particle physics. Today's accelerator technology, however, is limited by the maximum electric fields which can be created. This thesis presents results on various mechanisms aiming at exploiting the fields in focussed laser pulses and plasma waves for electron acceleration, which can be orders of magnitude higher than with conventional accelerators. With relativistic, underdense laser-plasma-interaction, quasimonoenergetic electron bunches with energies up to ∼50 MeV and normalized emittances of the order of 5mmmrad have been generated. This was achieved by focussing the ∼80 fs, 1 J pulses of the JETI-laser at the FSU Jena to intensities of several 10 19 W=cm 2 into gas jets. The experimental observations could be explained via ''bubble acceleration'', which is based on self-injection and acceleration of electrons in a highly nonlinear breaking plasma wave. For the rst time, this bubble acceleration was achieved explicitly in the self-modulated laser wakefield regime (SMLWFA). This quasimonoenergetic SMLWFA-regime stands out by relaxing dramatically the requirements on the driving laser pulse necessary to trigger bubble acceleration. This is due to self-modulation of the laser pulse in high-density gas jets, leading to ultrashort laser pulse fragments capable of initiating bubble acceleration. Electron bunches with durations < or similar 5 fs can thus be created, which is at least an order of magnitude shorter than with conventional accelerator technology. In addition, more than one laser pulse fragment can be powerful enough to drive a bubble. Distinct double peaks have been observed in the electron spectra, indicating that two quasimonoenergetic electron bunches separated by only few tens of fs have formed. This is backed up by PIC-Simulations (Particle-in-Cell). These results underline the feasibility of the construction of small table-top accelerators, while at the

  18. Electron Hole Plasma in Solids Induced by Ultrashort XUV Laser Pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rethfeld, B.; Medvedev, N.

    2013-01-01

    Irradiation of solids with ultrashort XUV laser pulses leads to an excitation of electrons from the valence band and deeper shells to the conduction band leading to a nonequilibrium highly energetic electron hole plasma. We investigate the transient electron dynamics in a solid semiconductor and metal (silicon and aluminum, respectively) under irradiation with a femtosecond VUV to XUV laser pulse as used in experiments with the Free Electron Laser FLASH at DESY in Hamburg, Germany. Applying the Asymptotical Trajectory Monte-Carlo technique, we obtain the transient energy distribution of the excited and ionized electrons within the solid. Photon absorption by electrons in different bands and secondary excitation and ionization processes are simulated event by event. The method was extended in order to take into account the electronic band structure and Pauli's principle for electrons in the conduction band. In this talk we review our results on the dynamics of the transient electron-hole plasma, in particular its transient density and energy distribution in dependence on laser and material parameters. For semiconductors we introduce the concept of an ''effective energy gap'' for collective electronic excitation, which can be applied to estimate the free electron density after high-intensity ultrashort XUV laser pulse irradiation. For aluminum we demonstrate that the electronic spectra depend on the relaxation kinetics of the excited electronic subsystem. Experimentally observed spectra of emitted photons from irradiated aluminum can be explained well with our results. (author)

  19. Thomson scattering from near-solid density plasmas using soft x-ray free electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holl, A; Bornath, T; Cao, L; Doppner, T; Dusterer, S; Forster, E; Fortmann, C; Glenzer, S H; Gregori, G; Laarmann, T; Meiwes-Broer, K H; Przystawik, A; Radcliffe, P; Redmer, R; Reinholz, H; Ropke, G; Thiele, R; Tiggesbaumker, J; Toleikis, S; Truong, N X; Tschentscher, T; Uschmann, I; Zastrau, U

    2006-11-21

    We propose a collective Thomson scattering experiment at the VUV free electron laser facility at DESY (FLASH) which aims to diagnose warm dense matter at near-solid density. The plasma region of interest marks the transition from an ideal plasma to a correlated and degenerate many-particle system and is of current interest, e.g. in ICF experiments or laboratory astrophysics. Plasma diagnostic of such plasmas is a longstanding issue. The collective electron plasma mode (plasmon) is revealed in a pump-probe scattering experiment using the high-brilliant radiation to probe the plasma. The distinctive scattering features allow to infer basic plasma properties. For plasmas in thermal equilibrium the electron density and temperature is determined from scattering off the plasmon mode.

  20. Conceptual design of a laser-plasma accelerator driven free-electron laser demonstration experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seggebrock, Thorben

    2015-01-01

    Up to now, short-wavelength free-electron lasers (FEL) have been systems on the scale of hundreds of meters up to multiple kilometers. Due to the advancements in laser-plasma acceleration in the recent years, these accelerators have become a promising candidate for driving a fifth-generation synchrotron light source - a lab-scale free-electron laser. So far, demonstration experiments have been hindered by the broad energy spread typical for this type of accelerator. This thesis addresses the most important challenges of the conceptual design for a first lab-scale FEL demonstration experiment using analytical considerations as well as simulations. The broad energy spread reduces the FEL performance directly by weakening the microbunching and indirectly via chromatic emittance growth, caused by the focusing system. Both issues can be mitigated by decompressing the electron bunch in a magnetic chicane, resulting in a sorting by energies. This reduces the local energy spread as well as the local chromatic emittance growth and also lowers performance degradations caused by the short bunch length. Moreover, the energy dependent focus position leads to a focus motion within the bunch, which can be synchronized with the radiation pulse, maximizing the current density in the interaction region. This concept is termed chromatic focus matching. A comparison shows the advantages of the longitudinal decompression concept compared to the alternative approach of transverse dispersion. When using typical laser-plasma based electron bunches, coherent synchrotron radiation and space-charge contribute in equal measure to the emittance growth during decompression. It is shown that a chicane for this purpose must not be as weak and long as affordable to reduce coherent synchrotron radiation, but that an intermediate length is required. Furthermore, the interplay of the individual concepts and components is assessed in a start-to-end simulation, confirming the feasibility of the

  1. Conceptual design of a laser-plasma accelerator driven free-electron laser demonstration experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seggebrock, Thorben

    2015-07-08

    Up to now, short-wavelength free-electron lasers (FEL) have been systems on the scale of hundreds of meters up to multiple kilometers. Due to the advancements in laser-plasma acceleration in the recent years, these accelerators have become a promising candidate for driving a fifth-generation synchrotron light source - a lab-scale free-electron laser. So far, demonstration experiments have been hindered by the broad energy spread typical for this type of accelerator. This thesis addresses the most important challenges of the conceptual design for a first lab-scale FEL demonstration experiment using analytical considerations as well as simulations. The broad energy spread reduces the FEL performance directly by weakening the microbunching and indirectly via chromatic emittance growth, caused by the focusing system. Both issues can be mitigated by decompressing the electron bunch in a magnetic chicane, resulting in a sorting by energies. This reduces the local energy spread as well as the local chromatic emittance growth and also lowers performance degradations caused by the short bunch length. Moreover, the energy dependent focus position leads to a focus motion within the bunch, which can be synchronized with the radiation pulse, maximizing the current density in the interaction region. This concept is termed chromatic focus matching. A comparison shows the advantages of the longitudinal decompression concept compared to the alternative approach of transverse dispersion. When using typical laser-plasma based electron bunches, coherent synchrotron radiation and space-charge contribute in equal measure to the emittance growth during decompression. It is shown that a chicane for this purpose must not be as weak and long as affordable to reduce coherent synchrotron radiation, but that an intermediate length is required. Furthermore, the interplay of the individual concepts and components is assessed in a start-to-end simulation, confirming the feasibility of the

  2. Production and applications of quasi-monoenergetic electron bunches in laser-plasma based accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glinec, Y.; Faure, J.; Ewald, F.; Lifschitz, A.; Malka, V.

    2006-01-01

    Plasmas are attractive media for the next generation of compact particle accelerators because they can sustain electric fields larger than those in conventional accelerators by three orders of magnitude. However, until now, plasma-based accelerators have produced relatively poor quality electron beams even though for most practical applications, high quality beams are required. In particular, beams from laser plasma-based accelerators tend to have a large divergence and very large energy spreads, meaning that different particles travel at different speeds. The combination of these two problems makes it difficult to utilize these beams. Here, we demonstrate the production of high quality and high energy electron beams from laser-plasma interaction: in a distance of 3 mm, a very collimated and quasi-monoenergetic electron beam is emitted with a 0.5 nanocoulomb charge at 170 ± 20 MeV. In this regime, we have observed very nonlinear phenomena, such as self-focusing and temporal self-shortenning down to 10 fs durations. Both phenomena increase the excitation of the wakefield. The laser pulse drives a highly nonlinear wakefield, able to trap and accelerate plasma background electrons to a single energy. We will review the different regimes of electron acceleration and we will show how enhanced performances can be reached with state-of-the-art ultrashort laser systems. Applications such as gamma radiography of such electron beams will also be discussed

  3. Ion emission from laser-produced plasmas with two electron temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickens, L.M.; Allen, J.E.; Rumsby, P.T.

    1978-01-01

    An analytic theory for the expansion of a laser-produced plasma with two electron temperatures is presented. It is shown that from the ion-emission velocity spectrum such relevant parameters as the hot- to -cold-electron density ratio, the absolute hot- and cold-electron temperatures, and a sensitive measure of hot- and cold-electron temperature ratio can be deduced. A comparison with experimental results is presented

  4. Electron acceleration in laser-plasma interaction: development and characterization of an optical injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechatin, C.

    2009-09-01

    In any particle accelerator, the injector plays a crucial role since it determines most of the characteristics of the accelerated beam. This is also true for laser-plasma accelerators, that are based on the interaction of an ultra short, ultra intense laser with an underdense plasma. However, due to the compactness of these accelerators, injection is a real challenge: to obtain a good beam quality, injected electron beams have to be ultra short and precisely synchronized with the laser. In this manuscript, the relevance of an optical injector, that relies on a second laser pulse, is experimentally demonstrated. With this injector, mono energetic electron beams have been produced in a stable manner. Moreover, this injector gives control over the electron beam parameters. Using the parameters of the second laser pulse, it has been proven that the energy, the charge and the energy spread of the accelerated beam can be simply tuned. Those additional controls make it possible to study in great details the physical phenomena at play during the acceleration. Beam loading effects, due to the interaction of the accelerated bunch with the plasma, have been identified and studied. With optimized injector parameters, the narrowest electron beams measured to date in the laser plasma interaction have been obtained, with a relative energy spread of 1%. (author)

  5. Ion response to relativistic electron bunches in the blowout regime of laser-plasma accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, K I; Rozmus, W; Bychenkov, V Yu; Naseri, N; Capjack, C E; Brantov, A V

    2010-11-05

    The ion response to relativistic electron bunches in the so called bubble or blowout regime of a laser-plasma accelerator is discussed. In response to the strong fields of the accelerated electrons the ions form a central filament along the laser axis that can be compressed to densities 2 orders of magnitude higher than the initial particle density. A theory of the filament formation and a model of ion self-compression are proposed. It is also shown that in the case of a sharp rear plasma-vacuum interface the ions can be accelerated by a combination of three basic mechanisms. The long time ion evolution that results from the strong electrostatic fields of an electron bunch provides a unique diagnostic of laser-plasma accelerators.

  6. High quality electron beams from a plasma channel guided laser wakefield accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geddes, C.G.R.; Toth, Cs.; Tilborg, J. van; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C.B.; Bruhwiler, D.; Nieter, C.; Cary, J.; Leemans, W.P.

    2004-01-01

    Laser driven accelerators, in which particles are accelerated by the electric field of a plasma wave driven by an intense laser, have demonstrated accelerating electric fields of hundreds of GV/m. These fields are thousands of times those achievable in conventional radiofrequency (RF) accelerators, spurring interest in laser accelerators as compact next generation sources of energetic electrons and radiation. To date however, acceleration distances have been severely limited by lack of a controllable method for extending the propagation distance of the focused laser pulse. The ensuing short acceleration distance results in low energy beams with 100% electron energy spread, limiting applications. Here we demonstrate that a relativistically intense laser can be guided by a preformed plasma density channel and that the longer propagation distance can result in electron beams of percent energy spread with low emittance and increased energy, containing >10 9 electrons above 80 MeV. The preformed plasma channel technique forms the basis of a new class of accelerators, combining beam quality comparable to RF accelerators with the high gradients of laser accelerators to produce compact tunable high brightness electron and radiation sources

  7. Hot electron spatial distribution under presence of laser light self-focusing in over-dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, T; Yabuuchi, T; Habara, H; Kondo, K; Kodama, R; Mima, K; Tanaka, K A; Lei, A L

    2008-01-01

    In fast ignition for laser thermonuclear fusion, an ultra intense laser (UIL) pulse irradiates an imploded plasma in order to fast-heat a high-density core with hot electrons generated in laser-plasma interactions. An UIL pulse needs to make plasma channel via laser self-focusing and to propagate through the corona plasma to reach close enough to the core. Hot electrons are used for heating the core. Therefore the propagation of laser light in the high-density plasma region and spatial distribution of hot electron are important in issues in order to study the feasibility of this scheme. We measure the spatial distribution of hot electron when the laser light propagates into the high-density plasma region by self-focusing

  8. Test of models for electron transport in laser produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombant, D.G.; Manheimer, W.M.; Busquet, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines five different models of electron thermal transport in laser produced spherical implosions. These are classical, classical with a flux limit f, delocalization, beam deposition model, and Fokker-Planck solutions. In small targets, the results are strongly dependent on f for flux limit models, with small f's generating very steep temperature gradients. Delocalization models are characterized by large preheat in the center of the target. The beam deposition model agrees reasonably well with the Fokker-Planck simulation results. For large, high gain fusion targets, the delocalization model shows the gain substantially reduced by the preheat. However, flux limitation models show gain largely independent of f, with the beam deposition model also showing the same high gain

  9. Time-resolved measurements with streaked diffraction patterns from electrons generated in laser plasma wakefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhaohan; Nees, John; Hou, Bixue; Krushelnick, Karl; Thomas, Alec; Beaurepaire, Benoît; Malka, Victor; Faure, Jérôme

    2013-10-01

    Femtosecond bunches of electrons with relativistic to ultra-relativistic energies can be robustly produced in laser plasma wakefield accelerators (LWFA). Scaling the electron energy down to sub-relativistic and MeV level using a millijoule laser system will make such electron source a promising candidate for ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) applications due to the intrinsic short bunch duration and perfect synchronization with the optical pump. Recent results of electron diffraction from a single crystal gold foil, using LWFA electrons driven by 8-mJ, 35-fs laser pulses at 500 Hz, will be presented. The accelerated electrons were collimated with a solenoid magnetic lens. By applying a small-angle tilt to the magnetic lens, the diffraction pattern can be streaked such that the temporal evolution is separated spatially on the detector screen after propagation. The observable time window and achievable temporal resolution are studied in pump-probe measurements of photo-induced heating on the gold foil.

  10. Method of measuring directed electron velocities in flowing plasma using the incoherent regions of laser scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacoby, B.A.; York, T.M.

    1979-02-01

    With the presumption that a shifted Maxwellian velocity distribution adequately describes the electrons in a flowing plasma, the details of a method to measure their directed velocity are described. The system consists of a ruby laser source and two detectors set 180 0 from each other and both set at 90 0 with respect to the incident laser beam. The lowest velocity that can be determined by this method depends on the electron thermal velocity. The application of this diagnostic to the measurement of flow velocities in plasma being lost from the ends of theta-pinch devices is described

  11. The effect of quantum correction on plasma electron heating in ultraviolet laser interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zare, S.; Sadighi-Bonabi, R., E-mail: Sadighi@sharif.ir; Anvari, A. [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9567, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yazdani, E. [Department of Energy Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hora, H. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia)

    2015-04-14

    The interaction of the sub-picosecond UV laser in sub-relativistic intensities with deuterium is investigated. At high plasma temperatures, based on the quantum correction in the collision frequency, the electron heating and the ion block generation in plasma are studied. It is found that due to the quantum correction, the electron heating increases considerably and the electron temperature uniformly reaches up to the maximum value of 4.91 × 10{sup 7 }K. Considering the quantum correction, the electron temperature at the laser initial coupling stage is improved more than 66.55% of the amount achieved in the classical model. As a consequence, by the modified collision frequency, the ion block is accelerated quicker with higher maximum velocity in comparison with the one by the classical collision frequency. This study proves the necessity of considering a quantum mechanical correction in the collision frequency at high plasma temperatures.

  12. Laser-driven relativistic electron dynamics in a cylindrical plasma channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Pan-Fei; Lv, Wen-Juan; Li, Xiao-Liang; Tang, Rong-An; Xue, Ju-Kui

    2018-03-01

    The energy and trajectory of the electron, which is irradiated by a high-power laser pulse in a cylindrical plasma channel with a uniform positive charge and a uniform negative current, have been analyzed in terms of a single-electron model of direct laser acceleration. We find that the energy and trajectory of the electron strongly depend on the positive charge density, the negative current density, and the intensity of the laser pulse. The electron can be accelerated significantly only when the positive charge density, the negative current density, and the intensity of the laser pulse are in suitable ranges due to the dephasing rate between the wave and electron motion. Particularly, when their values satisfy a critical condition, the electron can stay in phase with the laser and gain the largest energy from the laser. With the enhancement of the electron energy, strong modulations of the relativistic factor cause a considerable enhancement of the electron transverse oscillations across the channel, which makes the electron trajectory become essentially three-dimensional, even if it is flat at the early stage of the acceleration. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11475027, 11765017, 11764039, 11305132, and 11274255), the Natural Science Foundation of Gansu Province, China (Grant No. 17JR5RA076), and the Scientific Research Project of Gansu Higher Education, China (Grant No. 2016A-005).

  13. Synchronisation of electron-beam controlled CO2 lasers with a plasma mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basov, N.G.; Boiko, V.A.; Danilychev, V.A.; Zvorykin, V.D.; Lobanov, A.N.; Kholin, I.V.; Chugunov, A.Y.

    1979-03-01

    A new approach to the development of laser systems for spherically symmetrical compression of thermonuclear targets which essentially involves using a plasma formed by the action of laser radiation on the surface of a target as a common mirror for high-power electron-beam-controlled CO 2 lasers distributed uniformly around a sphere has been proposed. The achievement of the required time-synchronised operation of several lasers to obtain symmetrical irradiation is discussed here. It is found that the lasers cannot be synchronised accurately by stabilising only the electrical parameters of the systems. Even if the laser pumping systems are switched on strictly simultaneously, small random fluctuations in the pumping level, active mixture composition, optical Q factor of the resonators and other parameters give rise to an appreciable scatter in the output pulse evolution times. Methods for precise synchronisation based on introducing optical coupling between the laser resonators are proposed. (UK)

  14. Electron Parametric Instabilities Driven by Relativistically Intense Laser Light in Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, H. C.; Mason, P.; Parr, D. M.

    1999-08-01

    A unified treatment of electron parametric instabilities driven by ultraintense laser light in plasma is described. It is valid for any intensity, polarization, plasma density, and scattering geometry. The method is applied to linearly polarized light in both underdense plasma and overdense plasma accessible by self-induced transparency. New options arise which are hybrids of stimulated Raman scattering, the two plasmon decay, the relativistic modulational and filamentation instabilities, and stimulated harmonic generation. There is vigorous growth over a wide range of wave numbers and harmonics.

  15. Particle-in-cell simulations of high energy electron production by intense laser pulses in underdense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susumu, Kato; Eisuke, Miura; Kazuyoshi, Koyama [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Mitsumori, Tanimoto [Meisei Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Hino, Tokyo (Japan); Masahiro, Adachi [Hiroshima Univ., Graduate school of Advanced Science of Matter, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The propagation of intense laser pulses and the generation of high energy electrons from underdense plasmas are investigated using two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. When the ratio of the laser power to the critical power of relativistic self-focusing gets the optimal value, the laser pulse propagates in a steady way and electrons have maximum energies. (author)

  16. Particle-in-cell simulations of high energy electron production by intense laser pulses in underdense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susumu, Kato; Eisuke, Miura; Kazuyoshi, Koyama; Mitsumori, Tanimoto; Masahiro, Adachi

    2004-01-01

    The propagation of intense laser pulses and the generation of high energy electrons from underdense plasmas are investigated using two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. When the ratio of the laser power to the critical power of relativistic self-focusing gets the optimal value, the laser pulse propagates in a steady way and electrons have maximum energies. (author)

  17. Dynamics of electron acceleration in laser-driven wakefields. Acceleration limits and asymmetric plasma waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popp, Antonia

    2011-12-16

    The experiments presented in this thesis study several aspects of electron acceleration in a laser-driven plasma wave. High-intensity lasers can efficiently drive a plasma wave that sustains electric fields on the order of 100 GV/m. Electrons that are trapped in this plasma wave can be accelerated to GeV-scale energies. As the accelerating fields in this scheme are 3-4 orders of magnitude higher than in conventional radio-frequency accelerators, the necessary acceleration distance can be reduced by the same factor, turning laser-wakefield acceleration (LWFA) into a promising compact, and potentially cheaper, alternative. However, laser-accelerated electron bunches have not yet reached the parameter standards of conventional accelerators. This work will help to gain better insight into the acceleration process and to optimize the electron bunch properties. The 25 fs, 1.8 J-pulses of the ATLAS laser at the Max-Planck-Institute of Quantum Optics were focused into a steady-state flow gas cell. This very reproducible and turbulence-free gas target allows for stable acceleration of electron bunches. Thus the sensitivity of electron parameters to subtle changes of the experimental setup could be determined with meaningful statistics. At optimized experimental parameters, electron bunches of {approx}50 pC total charge were accelerated to energies up to 450 MeV with a divergence of {approx}2 mrad FWHM. As, in a new design of the gas cell, its length can be varied from 2 to 14 mm, the electron bunch energy could be evaluated after different acceleration distances, at two different electron densities. From this evolution important acceleration parameters could be extracted. At an electron density of 6.43. 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} the maximum electric field strength in the plasma wave was determined to be {approx}160 GV/m. The length after which the relativistic electrons outrun the accelerating phase of the electric field and are decelerated again, the so-called dephasing length

  18. Dynamics of electron acceleration in laser-driven wakefields. Acceleration limits and asymmetric plasma waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, Antonia

    2011-01-01

    The experiments presented in this thesis study several aspects of electron acceleration in a laser-driven plasma wave. High-intensity lasers can efficiently drive a plasma wave that sustains electric fields on the order of 100 GV/m. Electrons that are trapped in this plasma wave can be accelerated to GeV-scale energies. As the accelerating fields in this scheme are 3-4 orders of magnitude higher than in conventional radio-frequency accelerators, the necessary acceleration distance can be reduced by the same factor, turning laser-wakefield acceleration (LWFA) into a promising compact, and potentially cheaper, alternative. However, laser-accelerated electron bunches have not yet reached the parameter standards of conventional accelerators. This work will help to gain better insight into the acceleration process and to optimize the electron bunch properties. The 25 fs, 1.8 J-pulses of the ATLAS laser at the Max-Planck-Institute of Quantum Optics were focused into a steady-state flow gas cell. This very reproducible and turbulence-free gas target allows for stable acceleration of electron bunches. Thus the sensitivity of electron parameters to subtle changes of the experimental setup could be determined with meaningful statistics. At optimized experimental parameters, electron bunches of ∼50 pC total charge were accelerated to energies up to 450 MeV with a divergence of ∼2 mrad FWHM. As, in a new design of the gas cell, its length can be varied from 2 to 14 mm, the electron bunch energy could be evaluated after different acceleration distances, at two different electron densities. From this evolution important acceleration parameters could be extracted. At an electron density of 6.43. 10 18 cm -3 the maximum electric field strength in the plasma wave was determined to be ∼160 GV/m. The length after which the relativistic electrons outrun the accelerating phase of the electric field and are decelerated again, the so-called dephasing length, was found to be 4.9 mm

  19. Electron Generation and Transport in Intense Relativistic Laser-Plasma Interactions Relevant to Fast Ignition ICF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Tammy Yee Wing [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The reentrant cone approach to Fast Ignition, an advanced Inertial Confinement Fusion scheme, remains one of the most attractive because of the potential to efficiently collect and guide the laser light into the cone tip and direct energetic electrons into the high density core of the fuel. However, in the presence of a preformed plasma, the laser energy is largely absorbed before it can reach the cone tip. Full scale fast ignition laser systems are envisioned to have prepulses ranging between 100 mJ to 1 J. A few of the imperative issues facing fast ignition, then, are the conversion efficiency with which the laser light is converted to hot electrons, the subsequent transport characteristics of those electrons, and requirements for maximum allowable prepulse this may put on the laser system. This dissertation examines the laser-to-fast electron conversion efficiency scaling with prepulse for cone-guided fast ignition. Work in developing an extreme ultraviolet imager diagnostic for the temperature measurements of electron-heated targets, as well as the validation of the use of a thin wire for simultaneous determination of electron number density and electron temperature will be discussed.

  20. Suprathermal Electron Generation and Channel Formation by an Ultrarelativistic Laser Pulse in an Underdense Preformed Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malka, G.; Gaillard, R.; Miquel, J.L.; Rousseaux, C.; Bonnaud, G.; Busquet, M.; Lours, L.; Fuchs, J.; Pepin, H.; Fuchs, J.; Amiranoff, F.; Baton, S.D.

    1997-01-01

    Relativistic electrons are produced, with energies up to 20MeV, by the interaction of a high-intensity subpicosecond laser pulse (1 μm , 300 fs , 10 19 W/cm 2 ) with an underdense plasma. Two suprathermal electron populations appear with temperatures of 1 and 3MeV. In the same conditions, the laser beam transmission is increased up to 20% 30%. We observe both features along with the evidence of laser pulse channeling. A fluid model predicts a strong self-focusing of the pulse. Acceleration in the enhanced laser field seems the most likely mechanism leading to the second electron population. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  1. Three electron beams from a laser-plasma wakefield accelerator and the energy apportioning question

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, X; Reboredo Gil, David; Welsh, Gregor H; Li, Y.F; Cipiccia, Silvia; Ersfeld, Bernhard; Grant, D. W; Grant, P. A; Islam, Muhammad; Tooley, M.B; Vieux, Gregory; Wiggins, Sally; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Jaroszynski, Dino

    2017-01-01

    Laser-wakefield accelerators are compact devices capable of delivering ultra-short electron bunches with pC-level charge and MeV-GeV energy by exploiting the ultra-high electric fields arising from the interaction of intense laser pulses with plasma. We show experimentally and through numerical simulations that a high-energy electron beam is produced simultaneously with two stable lowerenergy beams that are ejected in oblique and counter-propagating directions, typically carrying off 5–10% of the initial laser energy. A MeV, 10s nC oblique beam is ejected in a 30°–60° hollow cone, which is filled with more energetic electrons determined by the injection dynamics. A nC-level, 100s keV backward-directed beam is mainly produced at the leading edge of the plasma column. We discuss the apportioning of absorbed laser energy amongst the three beams. Knowledge of the distribution of laser energy and electron beam charge, which determine the overall efficiency, is important for various applications of laser-wake...

  2. Resonant third-harmonic generation of a short-pulse laser from electron-hole plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kant, Niti [Department of Physics, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab 144 402 (India); Nandan Gupta, Devki [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007 (India); Suk, Hyyong [Advanced Photonics Research Institute (APRI) and Graduate Program of Photonics and Applied Physics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500 712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    In semiconductors, free carriers are created in pairs in inter-band transitions and consist of an electron and its corresponding hole. At very high carrier densities, carrier-carrier collisions dominate over carrier-lattice collisions and carriers begin to behave collectively to form plasma. Here, we apply a short-pulse laser to generate third-harmonic radiation from a semiconductor plasma (electron-hole plasma) in the presence of a transverse wiggler magnetic-field. The process of third-harmonic generation of an intense short-pulse laser is resonantly enhanced by the magnetic wiggler, i.e., wiggler magnetic field provides the necessary momentum to third-harmonic photons. In addition, a high-power laser radiation, propagating through a semiconductor imparts an oscillatory velocity to the electrons and exerts a ponderomotive force on electrons at the third-harmonic frequency of the laser. This oscillatory velocity produces a third-harmonic longitudinal current. And due to the beating of the longitudinal electron velocity and the wiggler magnetic field, a transverse third-harmonic current is produced that drives third-harmonic electromagnetic radiation. It is finally observed that for a specific wiggler wave number value, the phase-matching conditions for the process are satisfied, leading to resonant enhancement in the energy conversion efficiency.

  3. Resonant third-harmonic generation of a short-pulse laser from electron-hole plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kant, Niti; Nandan Gupta, Devki; Suk, Hyyong

    2012-01-01

    In semiconductors, free carriers are created in pairs in inter-band transitions and consist of an electron and its corresponding hole. At very high carrier densities, carrier-carrier collisions dominate over carrier-lattice collisions and carriers begin to behave collectively to form plasma. Here, we apply a short-pulse laser to generate third-harmonic radiation from a semiconductor plasma (electron-hole plasma) in the presence of a transverse wiggler magnetic-field. The process of third-harmonic generation of an intense short-pulse laser is resonantly enhanced by the magnetic wiggler, i.e., wiggler magnetic field provides the necessary momentum to third-harmonic photons. In addition, a high-power laser radiation, propagating through a semiconductor imparts an oscillatory velocity to the electrons and exerts a ponderomotive force on electrons at the third-harmonic frequency of the laser. This oscillatory velocity produces a third-harmonic longitudinal current. And due to the beating of the longitudinal electron velocity and the wiggler magnetic field, a transverse third-harmonic current is produced that drives third-harmonic electromagnetic radiation. It is finally observed that for a specific wiggler wave number value, the phase-matching conditions for the process are satisfied, leading to resonant enhancement in the energy conversion efficiency.

  4. Specular Reflectivity and Hot-Electron Generation in High-Contrast Relativistic Laser-Plasma Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, Gregory Elijah [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-intense laser (> 1018 W/cm2) interactions with matter are capable of producing relativistic electrons which have a variety of applications in state-of-the-art scientific and medical research conducted at universities and national laboratories across the world. Control of various aspects of these hot-electron distributions is highly desired to optimize a particular outcome. Hot-electron generation in low-contrast interactions, where significant amounts of under-dense pre-plasma are present, can be plagued by highly non-linear relativistic laser-plasma instabilities and quasi-static magnetic field generation, often resulting in less than desirable and predictable electron source characteristics. High-contrast interactions offer more controlled interactions but often at the cost of overall lower coupling and increased sensitivity to initial target conditions. An experiment studying the differences in hot-electron generation between high and low-contrast pulse interactions with solid density targets was performed on the Titan laser platform at the Jupiter Laser Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, CA. To date, these hot-electrons generated in the laboratory are not directly observable at the source of the interaction. Instead, indirect studies are performed using state-of-the-art simulations, constrained by the various experimental measurements. These measurements, more-often-than-not, rely on secondary processes generated by the transport of these electrons through the solid density materials which can susceptible to a variety instabilities and target material/geometry effects. Although often neglected in these types of studies, the specularly reflected light can provide invaluable insight as it is directly influenced by the interaction. In this thesis, I address the use of (personally obtained) experimental specular reflectivity measurements to indirectly study hot-electron generation in the context of high-contrast, relativistic

  5. 0.56 GeV laser electron acceleration in ablative-capillary-discharge plasma channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameshima, Takashi; Kurokawa, Shin-ichi; Nakajima, Kazuhisa; Hong Wei; Wen Xianlun; Wu Yuchi; Tang Chuanming; Zhu Qihua; Gu Yuqiu; Zhang Baohan; Peng Hansheng; Sugiyama, Kiyohiro; Chen, Liming; Tajima, Toshiki; Kumita, Tetsuro

    2008-01-01

    A high-quality electron beam with a central energy of 0.56 GeV, an energy spread of 1.2% rms, and a divergence of 0.59 mrad rms was produced by means of a 4 cm ablative-capillary-discharge plasma channel driven by a 3.8 J27 fs laser pulse. This is the first demonstration of electron acceleration with an ablative capillary discharge wherein the capillary is stably operated in vacuum with a simple system triggered by a laser pulse. This result of the generation of a high-quality beam provides the prospects to realize a practical accelerator based on laser-plasma acceleration. (author)

  6. A general theory of electronic parametric instability of relativistically intense laser light in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, D.M.

    2000-04-01

    This thesis studies the propagation and stability of ultraintense laser light in plasma. A new method is devised, both general and inclusive yet requiring only modest computational effort. The exact anharmonic waveforms for laser light are established. An examination of their stability extends the theory of electron parametric instabilities to relativistic regimes in plasmas of any density including classically overdense plasma accessible by self-induced transparency. Such instabilities can rapidly degrade intense pulses, but can also be harnessed, for example in the self-resonant laser wakefield accelerator. Understanding both the new and established regimes is thus basic to the success of many applications arising in high-field science, including novel x-ray sources and ignition of laser fusion targets, as well as plasma-based accelerator schemes. A covariant formulation of a cold electron fluid plasma is Lorentz transformed to the laser group velocity frame; this is the essence of the method and produces a very simple final model. Then, first, the zero-order laser 'driver' model is developed, in this frame representing a spatially homogeneous environment and thus soluble numerically as ordinary differential equations. The linearised first-order system leads to a further set of differential equations, whose solution defines the growth and other characteristics of an instability. The method is exact, rugged and flexible, avoiding the many approximations and restrictions previously necessary. This approach unifies all theory on purely electronic parametric instabilities over the last 30 years and, for the first time in generality, extends it into the ultrahigh relativistic regime. Besides extensions to familiar parametric instabilities, such as Stimulated Raman Scattering and Two-Plasmon Decay, strong stimulated harmonic generation emerges across a wide range of harmonics with high growth rates, presenting a varied and complex physical entity

  7. Plasma Density Tapering for Laser Wakefield Acceleration of Electrons and Protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, A.; Gordon, D.; Kaganovich, D.; Sprangle, P.; Helle, M.; Hafizi, B.

    2010-01-01

    Extended acceleration in a Laser Wakefield Accelerator can be achieved by tailoring the phase velocity of the accelerating plasma wave, either through profiling of the density of the plasma or direct manipulation of the phase velocity. Laser wakefield acceleration has also reached a maturity that proton acceleration by wakefield could be entertained provided we begin with protons that are substantially relativistic, ∼1 GeV. Several plasma density tapering schemes are discussed. The first scheme is called ''bucket jumping'' where the plasma density is abruptly returned to the original density after a conventional tapering to move the accelerating particles to a neighboring wakefield period (bucket). The second scheme is designed to specifically accelerate low energy protons by generating a nonlinear wakefield in a plasma region with close to critical density. The third scheme creates a periodic variation in the phase velocity by beating two intense laser beams with laser frequency difference equal to the plasma frequency. Discussions and case examples with simulations are presented where substantial acceleration of electrons or protons could be obtained.

  8. Probing electron acceleration and x-ray emission in laser-plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaury, C.; Ta Phuoc, K.; Corde, S.; Brijesh, P.; Lambert, G.; Malka, V.; Mangles, S. P. D.; Bloom, M. S.; Kneip, S.

    2013-01-01

    While laser-plasma accelerators have demonstrated a strong potential in the acceleration of electrons up to giga-electronvolt energies, few experimental tools for studying the acceleration physics have been developed. In this paper, we demonstrate a method for probing the acceleration process. A second laser beam, propagating perpendicular to the main beam, is focused on the gas jet few nanosecond before the main beam creates the accelerating plasma wave. This second beam is intense enough to ionize the gas and form a density depletion, which will locally inhibit the acceleration. The position of the density depletion is scanned along the interaction length to probe the electron injection and acceleration, and the betatron X-ray emission. To illustrate the potential of the method, the variation of the injection position with the plasma density is studied

  9. Collective laser light scattering from electron density fluctuations in fusion research plasmas (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzhauer, E.; Dodel, G.

    1990-01-01

    In magnetically confined plasmas density fluctuations of apparently turbulent nature with broad spectra in wave number and frequency space are observed which are thought to be the cause for anomalous energy and particle transport across the confining magnetic field. Collective laser light scattering has been used to study the nature of these fluctuations. Specific problems of scattering from fusion plasmas are addressed and illustrated with experimental results from the 119 μm far infrared laser scattering experiment operated on the ASDEX tokamak. Using the system in the heterodyne mode the direction of propagation with respect to the laboratory frame can be determined. Spatial resolution has bean improved by making use of the change in pitch of the total magnetic field across the minor plasma radius. Special emphasis is placed on the ohmic phase where a number of parameter variations including electron density, electron temperature, toroidal magnetic field, and filling gas were performed

  10. Theory of free-electron-laser heating and current drive in magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.I.; Cohen, R.H.; Nevins, W.M.; Rognlien, T.D.

    1991-01-01

    The introduction of a powerful new microwave source, the free-electron laser, provides new opportunities for novel heating and current-drive schemes to be used in toroidal fusion devices. This high-power, pulsed source has a number of technical advantages for these applications, and its use is predicted to lead to improved current-drive efficiencies and opacities in reactor-grade fusion plasmas in specific cases. The Microwave Tokamak Experiment at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory will provide a test for some of these new heating and current-drive schemes. Although the motivation for much of this research has derived from the application of a free-electron laser to the heating of a tokamak plasma at a frequency near the electron cyclotron frequency, the underlying physics, i.e., the highly nonlinear interaction of an intense, pulsed, coherent electromagnetic wave with an electron in a magnetized plasma including relativistic effects, is of general interest. Other relevant applications include ionospheric modification by radio-frequency waves, high-energy electron accelerators, and the propagation of intense, pulsed electromagnetic waves in space and astrophysical plasmas. This review reports recent theoretical progress in the analysis and computer simulation of the absorption and current drive produced by intense pulses, and of the possible complications that may arise, e.g., parametric instabilities, nonlinear self-focusing, trapped-particle sideband instability, and instabilities of the heated plasma

  11. A “slingshot” laser-driven acceleration mechanism of plasma electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiore, Gaetano, E-mail: gaetano.fiore@na.infn.it [Dip. di Matematica e Applicazioni, Università “Federico II”, Complesso Universitario M. S. Angelo, Via Cintia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario M. S. Angelo, Via Cintia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); De Nicola, Sergio [SPIN-CNR, Complesso Universitario M. S. Angelo, Via Cintia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario M. S. Angelo, Via Cintia, 80126 Napoli (Italy)

    2016-09-01

    We briefly report on the recently proposed Fiore et al. [1] and Fiore and De Nicola [2] electron acceleration mechanism named “slingshot effect”: under suitable conditions the impact of an ultra-short and ultra-intense laser pulse against the surface of a low-density plasma is expected to cause the expulsion of a bunch of superficial electrons with high energy in the direction opposite to that of the pulse propagation; this is due to the interplay of the huge ponderomotive force, huge longitudinal field arising from charge separation, and the finite size of the laser spot.

  12. Kinetic magnetization by fast electrons in laser-produced plasmas at sub-relativistic intensities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pisarczyk, T.; Gus'kov, S. Yu.; Chodukowski, T.; Dudžák, Roman; Korneev, Ph.; Demchenko, N. N.; Kalinowska, Z.; Dostál, Jan; Zaras-Szydlowska, A.; Borodziuk, S.; Juha, Libor; Cikhardt, Jakub; Krása, Josef; Klír, Daniel; Cikhardtová, B.; Kubeš, P.; Krouský, Eduard; Krůs, Miroslav; Ullschmied, Jiří; Jungwirth, Karel; Hřebíček, Jan; Medřík, Tomáš; Golasowski, Jiří; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Renner, Oldřich; Singh, Sushil K.; Kar, S.; Ahmed, H.; Skála, Jiří; Pisarczyk, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 10 (2017), s. 1-11, č. článku 102711. ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 654148 - LASERLAB-EUROPE Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389021 Keywords : laser-produced plasma * femtosecond polaro-interferometry * spontaneous magnetic fiel * spatial and temporal electron density distribution Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.115, year: 2016

  13. Wave mode instabilities in a two-stream free-electron laser with a background plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadrifard, Shabnam; Maraghechi, B; Mohsenpour, T

    2013-01-01

    A theory is presented for a two-stream free-electron laser (FEL) with a background plasma. A dispersion relation (DR) for the unstable couplings of wave modes is derived using fluid formulation. This DR is solved numerically to find the unstable modes and their growth rate. The effect of the velocity difference of the two electron beams as well as the background plasma on the FEL resonance and the two-stream instability is studied. It is shown that their separate as well as combined effects can increase the growth rates. (paper)

  14. Electron kinetics in a laser plasma with increased collisionality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mašek, Jan; Rohlena, Karel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 165, 6-10 (2010), s. 405-411 ISSN 1042-0150 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : ion sources * stimulated Raman scattering * Vlasov-Maxwell model * Raman cascading Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.660, year: 2010

  15. submitter Parametric study of transport beam lines for electron beams accelerated by laser-plasma interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Scisciò, M; Migliorati, M; Mostacci, A; Palumbo, L; Papaphilippou, Y; Antici, P

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, laser-plasma acceleration of high-energy electrons has attracted strong attention in different fields. Electrons with maximum energies in the GeV range can be laser-accelerated within a few cm using multi-hundreds terawatt (TW) lasers, yielding to very high beam currents at the source (electron bunches with up to tens-hundreds of pC in a few fs). While initially the challenge was to increase the maximum achievable electron energy, today strong effort is put in the control and usability of these laser-generated beams that still lack of some features in order to be used for applications where currently conventional, radio-frequency (RF) based, electron beam lines represent the most common and efficient solution. Several improvements have been suggested for this purpose, some of them acting directly on the plasma source, some using beam shaping tools located downstream. Concerning the latter, several studies have suggested the use of conventional accelerator magnetic devices (such as quadrupo...

  16. Enhanced laser-energy coupling to dense plasmas driven by recirculating electron currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, R. J.; Wilson, R.; King, M.; Williamson, S. D. R.; Dance, R. J.; Armstrong, C.; Brabetz, C.; Wagner, F.; Zielbauer, B.; Bagnoud, V.; Neely, D.; McKenna, P.

    2018-03-01

    The absorption of laser energy and dynamics of energetic electrons in dense plasma is fundamental to a range of intense laser-driven particle and radiation generation mechanisms. We measure the total reflected and scattered laser energy as a function of intensity, distinguishing between the influence of pulse energy and focal spot size on total energy absorption, in the interaction with thin foils. We confirm a previously published scaling of absorption with intensity by variation of laser pulse energy, but find a slower scaling when changing the focal spot size. 2D particle-in-cell simulations show that the measured differences arise due to energetic electrons recirculating within the target and undergoing multiple interactions with the laser pulse, which enhances absorption in the case of large focal spots. This effect is also shown to be dependent on the laser pulse duration, the target thickness and the electron beam divergence. The parameter space over which this absorption enhancement occurs is explored via an analytical model. The results impact our understanding of the fundamental physics of laser energy absorption in solids and thus the development of particle and radiation sources driven by intense laser–solid interactions.

  17. Observations of MeV electrons and scattered light from intense, subpicosecond laser-plasma interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darrow, C.; Lane, S.; Klem, D.; Perry, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the authors present work in progress in their experimental investigation of the coupling of intense, subpicosecond laser pulses with plasmas preformed on solid targets. (This situation is to be contrasted with the interaction of intense laser fields with solid-density matter. A subject which has generated considerable interest in the last several years.) The characterization of the energy distribution of energetic electrons which escape a solid target irradiated by an intense laser is discussed. The authors have also performed experiments to study the excitation of parametric instabilities near the quarter-critical layer and second-harmonic generation near the critical layer in the plasma. They discuss some preliminary scattered light spectroscopy measurements

  18. Parallel ion flow velocity measurement using laser induced fluorescence method in an electron cyclotron resonance plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Shinji; Okamoto, Atsushi; Terasaka, Kenichiro; Ogiwara, Kohei; Tanaka, Masayoshi Y.; Aramaki, Mitsutoshi

    2010-01-01

    Parallel ion flow velocity along a magnetic field has been measured using a laser induced fluorescence (LIF) method in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) argon plasma with a weakly-diverging magnetic field. To measure parallel flow velocity in a cylindrical plasma using the LIF method, the laser beam should be injected along device axis; however, the reflection of the incident beam causes interference between the LIF emission of the incident and reflected beams. Here we present a method of quasi-parallel laser injection at a small angle, which utilizes the reflected beam as well as the incident beam to obtain the parallel ion flow velocity. Using this method, we observed an increase in parallel ion flow velocity along the magnetic field. The acceleration mechanism is briefly discussed on the basis of the ion fluid model. (author)

  19. Determination of plasma temperature and electron density in river sediment plasma using calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austria, Elmer S. Jr.; Lamorena-Lim, Rheo B.

    2015-01-01

    Calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (CF-LIBS) technique is an approach used to quantitatively measure elemental composition of samples without the use of standard reference materials (SRMs). Due to the unavailability of most SRMs for specific samples, the CF-LIBS approach is steadily becoming more prevalent. CF-LIBS also minimizes interferences from the sample matrix by accounting spectral line intensifies of different elements. The first part of the CF-LIBS algorithm is the calculation of plasma temperature and electron density of the sample while the second part deals with the self-absorption correction and quantitative elemental analysis. In this study, the precursor parameters for the algorithm - plasma temperature and electron density - were measured through the neutral atom and ion line emissions of Fe and Cu in the time window of 0.1 to 10 μs. Plasma from river sediment samples were produced by a 1064 nm nanosecond pulsed Nd:YAG laser at atmospheric pressure. The plasma temperature and electron density were calculated from the Boltzmann plot and Saha-Boltzmann equation methods, respectively. These precursor parameters can be used in calculating the time window wherein the plasma is optically thin at local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and for quantitative multi-elemental analysis. (author)

  20. Dielectric constant and laser beam propagation in an underdense collisional plasma: effects of electron temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Xiongping; Qin Zhen; Xu Bin; Cai Zebin

    2011-01-01

    Dielectric constant and laser beam propagation in an underdense collisional plasma are investigated, using the wave and dielectric function equations, for their dependence on the electron temperature. Simulation results show that, due to the influence of the ponderomotive force there is a nonlinear variation of electron temperature in an underdense collisional plasma, and this leads to a complicated and interesting nonlinear variation of dielectric constant; this nonlinear variation of dielectric constant directly affects the beam propagation and gives rise to laser beam self-focusing in some spatial-temporal regions; in particular, the beam width and the beam intensity present an oscillatory variation in the self-focusing region. The influence of several parameters on the dielectric function and beam self-focusing is discussed.

  1. Induction-linac based free-electron laser amplifiers for plasma heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    We describe an induction-linac based free-electron laser amplifier that is presently under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. It is designed to produce up to 2 MW of average power at a frequency of 250 GHz for plasma heating experiments in the Microwave Tokamak Experiment. In addition, we shall describe a FEL amplifier design for plasma heating of advanced tokamak fusion devices. This system is designed to produce average power levels of about 10 MW at frequencies ranging form 280 to 560 GHz. 7 refs., 1 tab

  2. Preliminary design of experiment high power density laser beam interaction with plasmas and development of a cold cathode electron beam laser amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosavi, R.K.; Kohanzadeh, Y.; Taherzadeh, M.; Vaziri, A.

    1976-01-01

    This experiment is designed to produce plasma by carbon dioxide pulsed laser, to measure plasma parameters and to study the interaction of the produced plasma with intense laser beams. The objectives of this experiment are the following: 1. To set up a TEA CO 2 laser oscillator and a cold cathode electron beam laser amplifier together as a system, to produce high energy optical pulses of short duration. 2. To achieve laser intensities of 10 11 watt/cm 2 or more at solid targets of polyethylene (C 2 H 4 )n, lithium hydride (LiH), and lithium deuteride in order to produce high temperature plasmas. 3. To design and develop diagnostic methods for studies of laser-induced plasmas. 4. To develop a high power CO 2 laser amplifier for the purpose of upgrading the optical energy delivered to the targets

  3. Laser-plasma based electron acceleration studies planned at CAT, Indore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naik, P.A.; Gupta, P.D.

    2005-01-01

    The Laser Plasma Division at the Centre for Advanced Technology is engaged in a variety of R and D activities on laser-plasma interaction with special emphasis on laser-matter interaction at ultra-high intensities. An important aspect of our future work is studies in laser-plasma based acceleration using an elaborate infrastructural set-up of ultra-fast laser and plasma diagnostic systems and recently acquired 10 TW, 50 fs Ti: Sapphire laser system. This paper presents outline of the planned studies in this field. (author)

  4. En Route: next-generation laser-plasma-based electron accelerators; En Route: Elektronenbeschleuniger der naechsten Generation auf Laser-Plasma-Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidding, Bernhard

    2008-05-15

    Accelerating electrons to relativistic energies is of fundamental interest, especially in particle physics. Today's accelerator technology, however, is limited by the maximum electric fields which can be created. This thesis presents results on various mechanisms aiming at exploiting the fields in focussed laser pulses and plasma waves for electron acceleration, which can be orders of magnitude higher than with conventional accelerators. With relativistic, underdense laser-plasma-interaction, quasimonoenergetic electron bunches with energies up to {approx}50 MeV and normalized emittances of the order of 5mmmrad have been generated. This was achieved by focussing the {approx}80 fs, 1 J pulses of the JETI-laser at the FSU Jena to intensities of several 10{sup 19}W=cm{sup 2} into gas jets. The experimental observations could be explained via 'bubble acceleration', which is based on self-injection and acceleration of electrons in a highly nonlinear breaking plasma wave. For the rst time, this bubble acceleration was achieved explicitly in the self-modulated laser wakefield regime (SMLWFA). This quasimonoenergetic SMLWFA-regime stands out by relaxing dramatically the requirements on the driving laser pulse necessary to trigger bubble acceleration. This is due to self-modulation of the laser pulse in high-density gas jets, leading to ultrashort laser pulse fragments capable of initiating bubble acceleration. Electron bunches with durations laser pulse fragment can be powerful enough to drive a bubble. Distinct double peaks have been observed in the electron spectra, indicating that two quasimonoenergetic electron bunches separated by only few tens of fs have formed. This is backed up by PIC-Simulations (Particle-in-Cell). These results underline the feasibility of the construction of small table

  5. Non-Maxwellian electron distributions resulting from direct laser acceleration in near-critical plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Toncian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The irradiation of few-nm-thick targets by a finite-contrast high-intensity short-pulse laser results in a strong pre-expansion of these targets at the arrival time of the main pulse. The targets decompress to near and lower than critical densities with plasmas extending over few micrometers, i.e. multiple wavelengths. The interaction of the main pulse with such a highly localized but inhomogeneous target leads to the generation of a short channel and further self-focusing of the laser beam. Experiments at the Glass Hybrid OPCPA Scaled Test-bed (GHOST laser system at University of Texas, Austin using such targets measured non-Maxwellian, peaked electron distribution with large bunch charge and high electron density in the laser propagation direction. These results are reproduced in 2D PIC simulations using the EPOCH code, identifying direct laser acceleration (DLA [1] as the responsible mechanism. This is the first time that DLA has been observed to produce peaked spectra as opposed to broad, Maxwellian spectra observed in earlier experiments [2]. This high-density electrons have potential applications as injector beams for a further wakefield acceleration stage as well as for pump-probe applications.

  6. Study of laser driven plasma based electron acceleration and Bremsstrahlung radiation emission using ultra-high intensity laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, B.S.

    2013-01-01

    High energy particle accelerators are one of the most important inventions of the twentieth century which have led to enormous advances in basic scientific understanding of world around us. Despite their grand success, the present day high energy accelerators are hitting practical limits due to their large size and cost. This is because the accelerating gradients in conventional radio-frequency (RF) accelerators are typically limited to < 50 MV/m by the field breakdown of the accelerating structure. To address this major issue, many advanced accelerator techniques have been proposed and some of them are being actively pursued. Laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) in plasma medium is one of the techniques being most actively pursued world over due to extremely large acceleration gradients of the order of 100 GV/m possible in this scheme which promises significant reduction of the size and cost of the future high energy accelerators. The present thesis work mainly deals with laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) of self-injected electrons to 10s of MeV energy in plasma medium of length of the order of 500 μm using the table-top 10 TW laser at Laser Plasma Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology

  7. Fast ions and hot electrons in the laser--plasma interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gitomer, S.J.; Jones, R.D.; Begay, F.; Ehler, A.W.; Kephart, J.F.; Kristal, R.

    1986-01-01

    Data on the emission of energetic ions produced in laser--matter interactions have been analyzed for a wide variety of laser wavelengths, energies, and pulse lengths. Strong correlation has been found between the bulk energy per AMU for fast ions measured by charge cups and the x-ray-determined hot electron temperature. Five theoretical models have been used to explain this correlation. The models include (1) a steady-state spherically symmetric fluid model with classical electron heat conduction, (2) a steady-state spherically symmetric fluid model with flux limited electron heat conduction, (3) a simple analytic model of an isothermal rarefaction followed by a free expansion, (4) the lasneX hydrodynamics code [Comments Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 2, 85 (1975)], calculations employing a spherical expansion and simple initial conditions, and (5) the lasneX code with its full array of absorption, transport, and emission physics. The results obtained with these models are in good agreement with the experiments and indicate that the detailed shape of the correlation curve between mean fast ion energy and hot electron temperature is due to target surface impurities at the higher temperatures (higher laser intensities) and to the expansion of bulk target material at the lower temperatures (lower laser intensities)

  8. Electron Acceleration and the Propagation of Ultrashort High-Intensity Laser Pulses in Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaofang; Krishnan, Mohan; Saleh, Ned; Wang, Haiwen; Umstadter, Donald

    2000-01-01

    Reported are interactions of high-intensity laser pulses (λ=810 nm and I≤3x10 18 W /cm 2 ) with plasmas in a new parameter regime, in which the pulse duration (τ=29 fs ) corresponds to 0.6-2.6 plasma periods. Relativistic filamentation is observed to cause laser-beam breakup and scattering of the beam out of the vacuum propagation angle. A beam of megaelectronvolt electrons with divergence angle as small as 1 degree sign is generated in the forward direction, which is correlated to the growth of the relativistic filamentation. Raman scattering, however, is found to be much less than previous long-pulse results. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  9. Study of electrons distribution produced by laser-plasma interaction on x-ray generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikzad, L.; Sadighi-Bonabi, R.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. In the present work, X-ray beams are generated from interaction of relativistic electron beams produced by interaction of 500 mJ, 30 femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulses with thin solid targets such as lead, molybdenum and tungsten. After interaction of an intense pulsed laser with He gas-jet, a micron-scale laser produced plasma, creates and accelerates electron bunches, which propagate in the ion channel produced in the wake of the laser pulse. When an electron bunch is injected into the bubble in phase with its field, it will gain relativistic energies within very short distance. These accelerated electrons with Megaelectron-Volt energy and different distributions, can interact with targets to generate X-ray radiation with Kiloelectron-Volt energy, providing to be close enough to the gas-jet, where the relativistic accelerated electrons exist. Here, to determine the results, Monte Carlo simulation (MCNP-4C code) is employed to present Bremsstrahlung and characteristic X-ray production by quasi-Maxwellian and quasi-monoenergetic electron beams for three samples with different thicknesses. The outcome shows that for one specific electron spectrum and one definite target, the energy which the maximum characteristic x-ray flux takes place, varies with thickness. Also, for each material the energy which this maximum happens is constant for all thicknesses, for both produced electron spectra. For each sample, x-ray flux is calculated for different thicknesses and the thickness which the maximum characteristic x-ray flux occurs is obtained. Besides, it is concluded that by increasing the atomic number of the target, maximum X-ray flux moves towards higher energy. Also, comparison of the results for three targets and two electron distributions shows that by using quasi-monoenergetic electron spectra, more intense and narrower characteristic X-ray can be produced compared to the quasi-Maxwellian electron distribution, almost for all

  10. Motion of the plasma critical layer during relativistic-electron laser interaction with immobile and comoving ion plasma for ion acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahai, Aakash A.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the motion of the plasma critical layer by two different processes in the relativistic-electron laser-plasma interaction regime (a 0 >1). The differences are highlighted when the critical layer ions are stationary in contrast to when they move with it. Controlling the speed of the plasma critical layer in this regime is essential for creating low-β traveling acceleration structures of sufficient laser-excited potential for laser ion accelerators. In Relativistically Induced Transparency Acceleration (RITA) scheme, the heavy plasma-ions are fixed and only trace-density light-ions are accelerated. The relativistic critical layer and the acceleration structure move longitudinally forward by laser inducing transparency through apparent relativistic increase in electron mass. In the Radiation Pressure Acceleration (RPA) scheme, the whole plasma is longitudinally pushed forward under the action of the laser radiation pressure, possible only when plasma ions co-propagate with the laser front. In RPA, the acceleration structure velocity critically depends upon plasma-ion mass in addition to the laser intensity and plasma density. In RITA, mass of the heavy immobile plasma-ions does not affect the speed of the critical layer. Inertia of the bared immobile ions in RITA excites the charge separation potential, whereas RPA is not possible when ions are stationary

  11. Optimization of laser parameters to obtain high-energy, high-quality electron beams through laser-plasma acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samant, Sushil Arun; Sarkar, Deepangkar; Krishnagopal, Srinivas; Upadhyay, Ajay K.; Jha, Pallavi

    2010-01-01

    The propagation of an intense (a 0 =3), short-pulse (L∼λ p ) laser through a homogeneous plasma has been investigated. Using two-dimensional simulations for a 0 =3, the pulse-length and spot-size at three different plasma densities were optimized in order to get a better quality beam in laser wakefield accelerator. The study reveals that with increasing pulse-length the acceleration increases, but after a certain pulse-length (L>0.23λ p ) the emittance blows-up unacceptably. For spot-sizes less than that given by k p0 r s =2√(a 0 ), trapping is poor or nonexistent, and the optimal spot-size is larger. The deviation of the optimal spot-size from this formula increases as the density decreases. The efficacy of these two-dimensional simulations has been validated by running three-dimensional simulations at the highest density. It has been shown that good quality GeV-class beams can be obtained at plasma densities of ∼10 18 cm -3 . The quality of the beam can be substantially improved by selecting only the high-energy peak; in this fashion an energy-spread of better than 1% and a current in tens of kA can be achieved, which are important for applications such as free-electron lasers.

  12. Electron bunch diagnostics for laser-plasma accelerators, from THz to X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plateau, G.

    2011-10-01

    This thesis presents a series of single-shot non-intrusive diagnostics of key attributes of electron bunches produced by a laser-plasma accelerator (LPA). Three injection mechanisms of the LPA are characterized: channeled and self-guided self-injection, plasma down-ramp injection, and two-beam colliding pulse injection. New diagnostic techniques are successfully demonstrated: up to 8 times higher sensitivity wavefront sensor-based plasma density measurements, strong spatio-temporal coupling of the focused THz pulse is demonstrated using the temporal electric-field cross-correlation (TEX) of a long chirped probe with a short probe and confirms the two-component structure of the bunch observed by electron spectrometry, and normalized transverse emittances as low as 0.1 mm mrad are demonstrated for 0.5 GeV-class beams produced in a capillary-guided LPA by characterizing the betatron radiation emitted by the electrons inside the plasma using a new single-shot X-ray spectroscopy technique. (author)

  13. Pilot study of synchronization on a femtosecond scale between the electronic gun REGAE and a laser-plasma accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titberidze, Mikheil

    2017-10-01

    Laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) is a novel technique to accelerate charged particles. Acceleration is achieved by a high-power laser pulse transmitting a gas target where electrons and ions form a strong wakefield with gradients up to 100 GVm -1 . Hence, the size of the laser-plasma accelerator (LPA) is significantly smaller compared to conventional radio frequency (RF) accelerators, because its accelerating gradients are 3 orders of magnitude higher. At present, electron beams generated by LWFA do not satisfy all requirements to make them directly usable for applications such as LPA driven free-electron laser (FEL). Pointing stability and relatively high energy spread are the major limiting factors. Typically, plasma electrons are self-injected in the plasma wake which is created by a high-power laser. There is a lack of control for the injection process and there is no direct access for diagnostics. In order to overcome these challenges and better understand the overall LWFA process, external injection experiments are planned at Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) in the framework of the Laboratory for Laser and beam-driven plasma Acceleration (LAOLA) collaboration. Thus, well characterized and ultrashort (< 10 fs) electron bunches from the conventional RF accelerator Relativistic Electron Gun for Atomic Exploration (REGAE) will be injected into the laser driven plasma wake. This approach allows to reconstruct and map the plasma wakefield by post diagnosing the injected electron bunches by measuring the energy spectra of it for different injection times. To conduct such a pump-probe type of experiment, synchronization with fs accuracy is required between the electron bunches from REGAE and the high-power driver laser. Two main aspects of the laser synchronization are presented in this thesis. First, a detailed experimental investigation of the conventional, fast photodiode based direct conversion laser-to-RF synchronization setup and its limitations are

  14. Pilot study of synchronization on a femtosecond scale between the electronic gun REGAE and a laser-plasma accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titberidze, Mikheil

    2017-10-15

    Laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) is a novel technique to accelerate charged particles. Acceleration is achieved by a high-power laser pulse transmitting a gas target where electrons and ions form a strong wakefield with gradients up to 100 GVm{sup -1}. Hence, the size of the laser-plasma accelerator (LPA) is significantly smaller compared to conventional radio frequency (RF) accelerators, because its accelerating gradients are 3 orders of magnitude higher. At present, electron beams generated by LWFA do not satisfy all requirements to make them directly usable for applications such as LPA driven free-electron laser (FEL). Pointing stability and relatively high energy spread are the major limiting factors. Typically, plasma electrons are self-injected in the plasma wake which is created by a high-power laser. There is a lack of control for the injection process and there is no direct access for diagnostics. In order to overcome these challenges and better understand the overall LWFA process, external injection experiments are planned at Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) in the framework of the Laboratory for Laser and beam-driven plasma Acceleration (LAOLA) collaboration. Thus, well characterized and ultrashort (< 10 fs) electron bunches from the conventional RF accelerator Relativistic Electron Gun for Atomic Exploration (REGAE) will be injected into the laser driven plasma wake. This approach allows to reconstruct and map the plasma wakefield by post diagnosing the injected electron bunches by measuring the energy spectra of it for different injection times. To conduct such a pump-probe type of experiment, synchronization with fs accuracy is required between the electron bunches from REGAE and the high-power driver laser. Two main aspects of the laser synchronization are presented in this thesis. First, a detailed experimental investigation of the conventional, fast photodiode based direct conversion laser-to-RF synchronization setup and its limitations

  15. Feasibility of Optical Transition Radiation Imaging for Laser-driven Plasma Accelerator Electron-Beam Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumpkin, A. H. [Fermilab; Rule, D. W. [Unlisted, US, MD; Downer, M. C. [Texas U.

    2017-10-09

    We report the initial considerations of using linearly polarized optical transition radiation (OTR) to characterize the electron beams of laser plasma accelerators (LPAs) such as at the Univ. of Texas at Austin. The two LPAs operate at 100 MeV and 2-GeV, and they currently have estimated normalized emittances at ~ 1-mm mrad regime with beam divergences less than 1/γ and beam sizes to be determined at the micron level. Analytical modeling results indicate the feasibility of using these OTR techniques for the LPA applications.

  16. Study of early laser-induced plasma dynamics: Transient electron density gradients via Thomson scattering and Stark Broadening, and the implications on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diwakar, P.K.; Hahn, D.W.

    2008-01-01

    To further develop laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as an analytical technique, it is necessary to better understand the fundamental processes and mechanisms taking place during the plasma evolution. This paper addresses the very early plasma dynamics (first 100 ns) using direct plasma imaging, light scattering, and transmission measurements from a synchronized 532-nm probe laser pulse. During the first 50 ns following breakdown, significant Thomson scattering was observed while the probe laser interacted with the laser-induced plasma. The Thomson scattering was observed to peak 15-25 ns following plasma initiation and then decay rapidly, thereby revealing the highly transient nature of the free electron density and plasma equilibrium immediately following breakdown. Such an intense free electron density gradient is suggestive of a non-equilibrium, free electron wave generated by the initial breakdown and growth processes. Additional probe beam transmission measurements and electron density measurements via Stark broadening of the 500.1-nm nitrogen ion line corroborate the Thomson scattering observations. In concert, the data support the finding of a highly transient plasma that deviates from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions during the first tens of nanoseconds of plasma lifetime. The implications of this early plasma transient behavior are discussed in the context of plasma-analyte interactions and the role on LIBS measurements

  17. Aspects of electron acoustic wave physics in laser backscatter from plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sircombe, N J; Arber, T D; Dendy, R O

    2006-01-01

    Recent experimental results from the Trident laser confirm the importance of kinetic effects in determining laser reflectivities at high intensities. Examples observed include scattering from low frequency electron acoustic waves (EAWs) and the first few stages of a cascade towards turbulence through the Langmuir decay instability. Interpretive and predictive computational capability in this area is assisted by the development of Vlasov codes, which offer high velocity space resolution in high energy regions of particle phase space and do not require analytical pre-processing of the fundamental equations. A direct Vlasov solver, capable of resolving these kinetic processes, is used here to address fundamental aspects of the existence and stability of the electron acoustic wave, together with its collective scattering properties. These simulations are extended to realistic laser and plasma parameters characteristic of single hot-spot experiments. Results are in qualitative agreement with experiments displaying both stimulated Raman and stimulated electron acoustic scattering. The amplitude of simulated EAWs is greater than that observed experimentally and is accompanied by a higher phase velocity. These minor differences can be attributed to the limitations of a one-dimensional collisionless model

  18. Magnetic field in laser plasmas: non-local electron transport and reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riquier, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of the inertial confinement fusion, a pellet filled with the deuterium-tritium fuel is imploded, either through laser irradiation (direct drive, laser - low atomic number target interaction) or by the black body radiation from a cavity converting the laser radiation (indirect drive, laser - high atomic number target interaction). In both cases, a correct modeling of the electron transport is of first importance in order to have predictive hydro-radiative simulations. Nonetheless, it has been shown early on that the hypothesis of the linear transport are not valid in the framework of a solid target irradiated by a high power laser (I≅10 14 W/cm 2 ). This is due in part to very steep temperature gradients (kinetic effects, so-called 'non-local') and because of a magnetic field self-generated through the thermo-electric effect. Finally, the heat flux and the magnetic field are strongly coupled through two mechanisms: the advection of the field with the heat flux (Nernst effect) and the rotation and inhibition of the heat flux by the plasma's magnetization (Righi-Leduc effect).In this manuscript, we will first present the various electron transport models, particularly the non-local with magnetic field model included in the hydro-radiative code FCI2. Following, in order to validate this model, we will compare it first against a kinetic code, and then with an experiment during which the magnetic field has been probed through proton radiography. Once the model validated, we will use FCI2 simulations to explain the source and transport of the field, as well as its effect on the interaction. Finally, the reconnection of the magnetic field, during the irradiation of a solid target by two laser beams, will be studied. (author) [fr

  19. Few femtosecond, few kilo-ampere electron bunch produced by a laser-plasma accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundh, O.; Lim, J.; Rechatin, C.; Ammoura, L.; Goddet, J.P.; Malka, V.; Faure, J.; Ben-Ismail, A.; Davoine, X.; Lefebvre, E.; Gallot, G.

    2011-01-01

    Particle accelerators driven by the interaction of ultra-intense and ultrashort laser pulses with a plasma can generate accelerating electric fields of several hundred giga-volts per meter and deliver high-quality electron beams with low energy spread, low emittance and up to 1 GeV peak energy. Moreover, it is expected they may soon be able to produce bursts of electrons shorter than those produced by conventional particle accelerators, down to femtosecond durations and less. Here we present wide-band spectral measurements of coherent transition radiation which we use for temporal characterization. Our analysis shows that the electron beam, produced using controlled optical injection, contains a temporal feature that can be identified as a 15 pC, 1.4-1.8 fs electron bunch (root mean square) leading to a peak current of 3-4 kA depending on the bunch shape. We anticipate that these results will have a strong impact on emerging applications such as short-pulse and short-wavelength radiation sources, and will benefit the realization of laboratory-scale free-electron lasers. (authors)

  20. Process analysis of recycled thermoplasts from consumer electronics by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Herbert; Panne, Ulrich; Niessner, Reinhard

    2002-09-01

    An experimental setup for direct elemental analysis of recycled thermoplasts from consumer electronics by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy (LIPS, or laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, LIBS) was realized. The combination of a echelle spectrograph, featuring a high resolution with a broad spectral coverage, with multivariate methods, such as PLS, PCR, and variable subset selection via a genetic algorithm, resulted in considerable improvements in selectivity and sensitivity for this complex matrix. With a normalization to carbon as internal standard, the limits of detection were in the ppm range. A preliminary pattern recognition study points to the possibility of polymer recognition via the line-rich echelle spectra. Several experiments at an extruder within a recycling plant demonstrated successfully the capability of LIPS for different kinds of routine on-line process analysis.

  1. Development and characterization of plasma targets for controlled injection of electrons into laser-driven wakefields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinwaechter, Tobias; Goldberg, Lars; Palmer, Charlotte; Schaper, Lucas; Schwinkendorf, Jan-Patrick; Osterhoff, Jens

    2012-10-01

    Laser-driven wakefield acceleration within capillary discharge waveguides has been used to generate high-quality electron bunches with GeV-scale energies. However, owing to fluctuations in laser and plasma conditions in combination with a difficult to control self-injection mechanism in the non-linear wakefield regime these bunches are often not reproducible and can feature large energy spreads. Specialized plasma targets with tailored density profiles offer the possibility to overcome these issues by controlling the injection and acceleration processes. This requires precise manipulation of the longitudinal density profile. Therefore our target concept is based on a capillary structure with multiple gas in- and outlets. Potential target designs are simulated using the fluid code OpenFOAM and those meeting the specified criteria are fabricated using femtosecond-laser machining of structures into sapphire plates. Density profiles are measured over a range of inlet pressures utilizing gas-density profilometry via Raman scattering and pressure calibration with longitudinal interferometry. In combination these allow absolute density mapping. Here we report the preliminary results.

  2. Matching sub-fs electron bunches for laser-driven plasma acceleration at SINBAD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, J., E-mail: jun.zhu@desy.de [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Universität Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany); Assmann, R.W.; Dorda, U.; Marchetti, B. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-09-01

    We present theoretical and numerical studies of matching sub-femtosecond space-charge-dominated electron bunch into the Laser-plasma Wake Field Accelerator (LWFA) foreseen at the SINBAD facility. The longitudinal space-charge (SC) effect induced growths of the energy spread and longitudinal phase-space chirp are major issues in the matching section, which will result in bunch elongation, emittance growth and spot size dilution. In addition, the transverse SC effect would lead to a mismatch of the beam optics if it were not compensated for. Start-to-end simulations and preliminary optimizations were carried out in order to understand the achievable beam parameters at the entrance of the plasma accelerator.

  3. Measurements of electron density and temperature profiles in plasma produced by Nike KrF laser for laser plasma instability research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Karasik, M.; Chan, L. Y.

    2015-08-01

    A grid image refractometer (GIR) has been implemented at the Nike krypton fluoride laser facility of the Naval Research Laboratory. This instrument simultaneously measures propagation angles and transmissions of UV probe rays (λ = 263 nm, Δt = 10 ps) refracted through plasma. We report results of the first Nike-GIR measurement on a CH plasma produced by the Nike laser pulse (˜1 ns FWHM) with the intensity of 1.1 × 1015 W/cm2. The measured angles and transmissions were processed to construct spatial profiles of electron density (ne) and temperature (Te) in the underdense coronal region of the plasma. Using an inversion algorithm developed for the strongly refracted rays, the deployed GIR system probed electron densities up to 4 × 1021 cm-3 with the density scale length of 120 μm along the plasma symmetry axis. The resulting ne and Te profiles are verified to be self-consistent with the measured quantities of the refracted probe light.

  4. The TELEC - A plasma type of direct energy converter. [Thermo-Electronic Laser Energy Converter for electric power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    The Thermo-Electronic Laser Energy Converter (TELEC) is a high-power density plasma device designed to convert a 10.6-micron CO2 laser beam into electric power. Electromagnetic radiation is absorbed in plasma electrons, creating a high-electron temperature. Energetic electrons diffuse from the plasma and strike two electrodes having different areas. The larger electrode collects more electrons and there is a net transport of current. An electromagnetic field is generated in the external circuit. A computer program has been designed to analyze TELEC performance allowing parametric variation for optimization. Values are presented for TELEC performance as a function of cesium pressure and for current density and efficiency as a function of output voltage. Efficiency is shown to increase with pressure, reaching a maximum over 45%.

  5. X-ray spectroscopic technique for energetic electron transport studies in short-pulse laser/plasma interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tutt, T.E.

    1994-12-01

    When a solid target is irradiated by a laser beam, the material is locally heated to a high temperature and a plasma forms. The interaction of the laser with plasma can produce energetic electrons. By observing the behavior of these {open_quotes}hot{close_quotes} electrons, we hope to obtain a better understanding of Laser/Plasma Interactions. In this work we employ a layered-fluorescer technique to study the transport, and therefore the energetics, of the electrons. The plasma forms on a thin foil of metallic Pd which is bonded to thin layer of metallic Sn. Electrons formed from the plasma penetrate first the Pd and then the Sn. In both layers the energetic electrons promote inner (K) shell ionization of the metallic atoms which leads to the emission of characteristic K{sub {alpha}} x-rays of the fluorescers. By recording the x-ray spectrum emitted by the two foils, we can estimate the energy-dependent range of the electrons and their numbers.

  6. On the influence of electron heat transport on generation of the third harmonic of laser radiation in a dense plasma skin layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isakov, Vladimir A; Kanavin, Andrey P; Uryupin, Sergey A

    2005-01-01

    The flux density is determined for radiation emitted by a plasma at the tripled frequency of an ultrashort laser pulse, which produces weak high-frequency modulations of the electron temperature in the plasma skin layer. It is shown that heat removal from the skin layer can reduce high-frequency temperature modulations and decrease the nonlinear plasma response. The optimum conditions for the third harmonic generation are found. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  7. Laser injection of ultra-short electron bursts for the diagnosis of Hall thruster plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albarede, L; Gibert, T; Lazurenko, A; Bouchoule, A

    2006-01-01

    The present developments of Hall thrusters for satellite control and space mission technologies represent a new step towards their routine use in place of conventional thermal thrusters. In spite of their long R and D history, the complex physics of the E x B discharge at work in these structures has prevented, up to now, the availability of predictive simulations. The electron transport in the accelerating layers of these thrusters is one of the remaining challenges in this direction. From the experimental point of view, any diagnostics of electron transport and electric field in this critical layer would be welcome for comparison with code predictions. Appropriate diagnostics are difficult, due to the very aggressive local plasma conditions. This paper presents the first step in the development of a new tool for characterization of the plasma electric field in the very near exhaust thruster plume and comparison with simulation code predictions. The main idea is to use very short bursts of electrons, probing local electron dynamics in this critical plume area. Such bursts can be obtained through photoelectric emission induced by a UV pulsed laser beam on a convenient target. A specific study, devoted to the characterization of the electron burst emission, is presented in the first section of the paper; the implementation and testing of the injection of electrons in the critical layer of Hall thruster plasma is described in the second section. The design and testing of a fast and sensitive system for characterizing the transport of injected bursts will be the next step of this program. It requires a preliminary evaluation of electron trajectories which was achieved by using simulation code. Simulation data are presented in the last section of the paper, with the full diagnostic design to be tested in the near future, when runs will be available in the renewed PIVOINE facility. The same electron burst injection could also be a valuable input in the present

  8. Shaping of pulses in optical grating-based laser systems for optimal control of electrons in laser plasma wake-field accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, Cs.; Faure, J.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Tilborg, J. van; Leemans, W.P.

    2003-01-01

    In typical chirped pulse amplification (CPA) laser systems, scanning the grating separation in the optical compressor causes the well know generation of linear chirp of frequency vs. time in a laser pulse, as well as a modification of all the higher order phase terms. By setting the compressor angle slightly different from the optimum value to generate the shortest pulse, a typical scan around this value will produce significant changes to the pulse shape. Such pulse shape changes can lead to significant differences in the interaction with plasmas such as used in laser wake-field accelerators. Strong electron yield dependence on laser pulse shape in laser plasma wake-field electron acceleration experiments have been observed in the L'OASIS Lab of LBNL [1]. These experiments show the importance of pulse skewness parameter, S, defined here on the basis of the ratio of the ''head-width-half-max'' (HWHM) and the ''tail-width-halfmax'' (TWHM), respectively

  9. Parametric emittance measurements of electron beams produced by a laser plasma accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, S. K.; van Tilborg, J.; Schroeder, C. B.; Lehe, R.; Tsai, H.-E.; Swanson, K. K.; Steinke, S.; Nakamura, K.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Benedetti, C.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2018-05-01

    Laser plasma accelerators (LPA) offer an exciting possibility to deliver high energy, high brightness electrons beams in drastically smaller distance scales than is typical for conventional accelerators. As such, LPAs draw considerable attention as potential drivers for next generation light sources and for a compact linear collider. In order to asses the viability of an LPA source for a particular application, the brightness of the source should be properly characterized. In this paper, we present charge dependent transverse emittance measurements of LPA sources using both ionization injection and shock induced density down ramp injection, with the latter delivering smaller transverse emittances by a factor of two when controlling for charge density. The single shot emittance method is described in detail with a discussion on limitations related to second order transport effects. The direct role of space charge is explored through a series of simulations and found to be consistent with experimental observations.

  10. Laser Plasmas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -focusing in a plasma ... Center for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110 016, India; Tata Consultancy Services, Gurgaon, India; Ideal Institute of Technology, Ghaziabad, India; Center for Research in Cognitive, ...

  11. Signal enhancement of neutral He emission lines by fast electron bombardment of laser-induced He plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hery Suyanto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A time-resolved spectroscopic study is performed on the enhancement signals of He gas plasma emission using nanosecond (ns and picosecond (ps lasers in an orthogonal configuration. The ns laser is used for the He gas plasma generation and the ps laser is employed for the ejection of fast electrons from a metal target, which serves to excite subsequently the He atoms in the plasma. The study is focused on the most dominant He I 587.6 nm and He I 667.8 nm emission lines suggested to be responsible for the He-assisted excitation (HAE mechanism. The time-dependent intensity enhancements induced by the fast electrons generated with a series of delayed ps laser ablations are deduced from the intensity time profiles of both He emission lines. The results clearly lead to the conclusion that the metastable excited triplet He atoms are actually the species overwhelmingly produced during the recombination process in the ns laser-induced He gas plasma. These metastable He atoms are believed to serve as the major energy source for the delayed excitation of analyte atoms in ns laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS using He ambient gas.

  12. Signal enhancement of neutral He emission lines by fast electron bombardment of laser-induced He plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suyanto, Hery [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Udayana University, Kampus Bukit Jimbaran, Denpasar 80361, Bali (Indonesia); Pardede, Marincan [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Pelita Harapan, 1100 M.H. Thamrin Boulevard, Lippo Village, Tangerang 15811 (Indonesia); Hedwig, Rinda [Department of Computer Engineering, Bina Nusantara University, 9 K.H. Syahdan, Jakarta 14810 (Indonesia); Marpaung, Alion Mangasi [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Jakarta State University, Rawamangun, Jakarta 12440 (Indonesia); Ramli, Muliadi [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Syiah Kuala University, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, NAD (Indonesia); Lie, Tjung Jie; Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik, E-mail: kurnia18@cbn.net.id [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia); Abdulmadjid, Syahrun Nur [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Syiah Kuala University, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, NAD (Indonesia); Tjia, May On [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia); Physics of Magnetism and Photonics Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, 10 Ganesha,Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Kagawa, Kiichiro [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia); Fukui Science Education Academy, Takagi Chuo 2 chome, Fukui 910-0804 (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    A time-resolved spectroscopic study is performed on the enhancement signals of He gas plasma emission using nanosecond (ns) and picosecond (ps) lasers in an orthogonal configuration. The ns laser is used for the He gas plasma generation and the ps laser is employed for the ejection of fast electrons from a metal target, which serves to excite subsequently the He atoms in the plasma. The study is focused on the most dominant He I 587.6 nm and He I 667.8 nm emission lines suggested to be responsible for the He-assisted excitation (HAE) mechanism. The time-dependent intensity enhancements induced by the fast electrons generated with a series of delayed ps laser ablations are deduced from the intensity time profiles of both He emission lines. The results clearly lead to the conclusion that the metastable excited triplet He atoms are actually the species overwhelmingly produced during the recombination process in the ns laser-induced He gas plasma. These metastable He atoms are believed to serve as the major energy source for the delayed excitation of analyte atoms in ns laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) using He ambient gas.

  13. Optically controlled laser-plasma electron accelerator for compact gamma-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmykov, S. Y.; Davoine, X.; Ghebregziabher, I.; Shadwick, B. A.

    2018-02-01

    Generating quasi-monochromatic, femtosecond γ-ray pulses via Thomson scattering (TS) demands exceptional electron beam (e-beam) quality, such as percent-scale energy spread and five-dimensional brightness over 1016 A m-2. We show that near-GeV e-beams with these metrics can be accelerated in a cavity of electron density, driven with an incoherent stack of Joule-scale laser pulses through a mm-size, dense plasma (n 0 ˜ 1019 cm-3). Changing the time delay, frequency difference, and energy ratio of the stack components controls the e-beam phase space on the femtosecond scale, while the modest energy of the optical driver helps afford kHz-scale repetition rate at manageable average power. Blue-shifting one stack component by a considerable fraction of the carrier frequency makes the stack immune to self-compression. This, in turn, minimizes uncontrolled variation in the cavity shape, suppressing continuous injection of ambient plasma electrons, preserving a single, ultra-bright electron bunch. In addition, weak focusing of the trailing component of the stack induces periodic injection, generating, in a single shot, a train of bunches with controllable energy spacing and femtosecond synchronization. These designer e-beams, inaccessible to conventional acceleration methods, generate, via TS, gigawatt γ-ray pulses (or multi-color pulse trains) with the mean energy in the range of interest for nuclear photonics (4-16 MeV), containing over 106 photons within a microsteradian-scale observation cone.

  14. Saturable absorption of an X-ray free-electron-laser heated solid-density aluminum plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rackstraw, D.S.; Ciricosta, O.; Vinko, S.M.; Barbrel, B.; Burian, Tomáš; Chalupský, Jaromír; Cho, B.I.; Chung, H.-K.; Dakovski, G.L.; Engelhorn, K.; Hájková, Věra; Heimann, P.; Holmes, M.; Juha, Libor; Krzywinski, J.; Lee, R. W.; Toleikis, S.; Turner, J.J.; Zastrau, U.; Wark, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 1 (2015), "015003-1"-"015003-5" ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-29772S; GA MŠk(CZ) LG13029 Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100101221 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : free electron laser * x-ray * ionization of plasmas Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 7.645, year: 2015

  15. Measurement of electron density and electron temperature of a cascaded arc plasma using laser Thomson scattering compared to an optical emission spectroscopic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, WANG; Cong, LI; Jielin, SHI; Xingwei, WU; Hongbin, DING

    2017-11-01

    As advanced linear plasma sources, cascaded arc plasma devices have been used to generate steady plasma with high electron density, high particle flux and low electron temperature. To measure electron density and electron temperature of the plasma device accurately, a laser Thomson scattering (LTS) system, which is generally recognized as the most precise plasma diagnostic method, has been established in our lab in Dalian University of Technology. The electron density has been measured successfully in the region of 4.5 × 1019 m-3 to 7.1 × 1020 m-3 and electron temperature in the region of 0.18 eV to 0.58 eV. For comparison, an optical emission spectroscopy (OES) system was established as well. The results showed that the electron excitation temperature (configuration temperature) measured by OES is significantly higher than the electron temperature (kinetic electron temperature) measured by LTS by up to 40% in the given discharge conditions. The results indicate that the cascaded arc plasma is recombining plasma and it is not in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). This leads to significant error using OES when characterizing the electron temperature in a non-LTE plasma.

  16. Electron injection and acceleration in the plasma bubble regime driven by an ultraintense laser pulse combined with using dense-plasma wall and block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue-Yan; Xie, Bai-Song; Wu, Hai-Cheng; Zhang, Shan; Hong, Xue-Ren; Aimidula, Aimierding

    2012-03-01

    An optimizing and alternative scheme for electron injection and acceleration in the wake bubble driven by an ultraintense laser pulse is presented. In this scheme, the dense-plasma wall with an inner diameter matching the expected bubble size is placed along laser propagation direction. Meanwhile, a dense-plasma block dense-plasma is adhered inward transversely at some certain position of the wall. Particle-in-cell simulations are performed, which demonstrate that the block plays an important role in the first electron injection and acceleration. The result shows that a collimated electron bunch with a total number of about 4.04×108μm-1 can be generated and accelerated stably to 1.61 GeV peak energy with 2.6% energy spread. The block contributes about 50% to the accelerated electron injection bunch by tracing and sorting statistically the source.

  17. Time-resolved electron thermal conduction by probing of plasma formation in transparent solids with high power subpicosecond laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vu, Brian -Tinh Van [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1994-02-01

    This dissertation work includes a series of experimental measurements in a search for better understanding of high temperature (104-106K) and high density plasmas (1022-1024cm-3) produced by irradiating a transparent solid target with high intensity (1013 - 1015W/cm2) and subpicosecond (10-12-10-13s) laser pulses. Experimentally, pump and probe schemes with both frontside (vacuum-plasma side) and backside (plasma-bulk material side) probes are used to excite and interrogate or probe the plasma evolution, thereby providing useful insights into the plasma formation mechanisms. A series of different experiments has been carried out so as to characterize plasma parameters and the importance of various nonlinear processes. Experimental evidence shows that electron thermal conduction is supersonic in a time scale of the first picosecond after laser irradiation, so fast that it was often left unresolved in the past. The experimental results from frontside probing demonstrate that upon irradiation with a strong (pump) laser pulse, a thin high temperature (~40eV) super-critical density (~1023/cm3) plasma layer is quickly formed at the target surface which in turn becomes strongly reflective and prevents further transmission of the remainder of the laser pulse. In the bulk region behind the surface, it is also found that a large sub-critical (~1018/cm3) plasma is produced by inverse Bremsstrahlung absorption and collisional ionization. The bulk underdense plasma is evidenced by large absorption of the backside probe light. A simple and analytical model, modified from the avalanche model, for plasma evolution in transparent materials is proposed to explain the experimental results. Elimination of the bulk plasma is then experimentally illustrated by using targets overcoated with highly absorptive films.

  18. Time-resolved electron thermal conduction by probing of plasma formation in transparent solids with high power subpicosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vu, B.T.V.

    1994-02-01

    This dissertation work includes a series of experimental measurements in a search for better understanding of high temperature (10 4 -10 6 K) and high density plasmas (10 22 -10 24 cm -3 ) produced by irradiating a transparent solid target with high intensity (10 13 - 10 15 W/cm 2 ) and subpicosecond (10 -12 -10 -13 s) laser pulses. Experimentally, pump and probe schemes with both frontside (vacuum-plasma side) and backside (plasma-bulk material side) probes are used to excite and interrogate or probe the plasma evolution, thereby providing useful insights into the plasma formation mechanisms. A series of different experiments has been carried out so as to characterize plasma parameters and the importance of various nonlinear processes. Experimental evidence shows that electron thermal conduction is supersonic in a time scale of the first picosecond after laser irradiation, so fast that it was often left unresolved in the past. The experimental results from frontside probing demonstrate that upon irradiation with a strong (pump) laser pulse, a thin high temperature (∼40eV) super-critical density (∼10 23 /cm 3 ) plasma layer is quickly formed at the target surface which in turn becomes strongly reflective and prevents further transmission of the remainder of the laser pulse. In the bulk region behind the surface, it is also found that a large sub-critical (∼10 18 /cm 3 ) plasma is produced by inverse Bremsstrahlung absorption and collisional ionization. The bulk underdense plasma is evidenced by large absorption of the backside probe light. A simple and analytical model, modified from the avalanche model, for plasma evolution in transparent materials is proposed to explain the experimental results. Elimination of the bulk plasma is then experimentally illustrated by using targets overcoated with highly absorptive films

  19. Creation and diagnosis of a solid-density plasma with an X-ray free-electron laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vinko, S.M.; Ciricosta, O.; Cho, B.I.; Engelhorn, K.; Chung, H.-K.; Brown, C.R.D.; Burian, Tomáš; Chalupský, Jaromír; Falcone, R.W.; Graves, C.; Hájková, Věra; Higginbotham, A.; Juha, Libor; Krzywinski, J.; Lee, H.J.; Messerschmidt, M.; Murphy, C. D.; Ping, Y.; Scherz, A.; Schlotter, W.; Toleikis, S.; Turner, J.J.; Vyšín, Luděk; Wang, T.; Wu, B.; Zastrau, U.; Zhu, D.; Lee, R. W.; Heimann, P.A.; Nagler, B.; Wark, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 482, č. 7383 (2012), s. 59-63 ISSN 0028-0836 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN300100702; GA MŠk LC510; GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/1312; GA MŠk LA08024; GA AV ČR IAAX00100903; GA MŠk(CZ) ME10046 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : x-ray laser * free-electron laser * hot dense plasma s * astrophysics * inertial fusion Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 38.597, year: 2012

  20. Transmutation prospect of long-lived nuclear waste induced by high-charge electron beam from laser plasma accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. L.; Xu, Z. Y.; Luo, W.; Lu, H. Y.; Zhu, Z. C.; Yan, X. Q.

    2017-09-01

    Photo-transmutation of long-lived nuclear waste induced by a high-charge relativistic electron beam (e-beam) from a laser plasma accelerator is demonstrated. A collimated relativistic e-beam with a high charge of approximately 100 nC is produced from high-intensity laser interaction with near-critical-density (NCD) plasma. Such e-beam impinges on a high-Z convertor and then radiates energetic bremsstrahlung photons with flux approaching 1011 per laser shot. Taking a long-lived radionuclide 126Sn as an example, the resulting transmutation reaction yield is the order of 109 per laser shot, which is two orders of magnitude higher than obtained from previous studies. It is found that at lower densities, a tightly focused laser irradiating relatively longer NCD plasmas can effectively enhance the transmutation efficiency. Furthermore, the photo-transmutation is generalized by considering mixed-nuclide waste samples, which suggests that the laser-accelerated high-charge e-beam could be an efficient tool to transmute long-lived nuclear waste.

  1. On the Acceleration and Transport of Electrons Generated by Intense Laser-Plasma Interactions at Sharp Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Joshua Joseph

    The continued development of the chirped pulse amplification technique has allowed for the development of lasers with powers of in excess of 10 15W, for pulse lengths with durations of between .01 and 10 picoseconds, and which can be focused to energy densities greater than 100 giga-atmospheres. When such lasers are focused onto material targets, the possibility of creating particle beams with energy fluxes of comparable parameters arises. Such interactions have a number of theorized applications. For instance, in the Fast Ignition concept for Inertial Confinement Fusion [1], a high-intensity laser efficiently transfers its energy into an electron beam with an appropriate spectra which is then transported into a compressed target and initiate a fusion reaction. Another possible use is the so called Radiation Pressure Acceleration mechanism, in which a high-intensity, circularly polarized laser is used to create a mono-energetic ion beam which could then be used for medical imaging and treatment, among other applications. For this latter application, it is important that the laser energy is transferred to the ions and not to the electrons. However the physics of such high energy-density laser-matter interactions is highly kinetic and non-linear, and presently not fully understood. In this dissertation, we use the Particle-in-Cell code OSIRIS [2, 3] to explore the generation and transport of relativistic particle beams created by high intensity lasers focused onto solid density matter at normal incidence. To explore the generation of relativistic electrons by such interactions, we use primarily one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D), and a few three-dimensional simulations (3D). We initially examine the idealized case of normal incidence of relatively short, plane-wave lasers on flat, sharp interfaces. We find that in 1D the results are highly dependent on the initial temperature of the plasma, with significant absorption into relativistic electrons only

  2. Semianalytical study of the propagation of an ultrastrong femtosecond laser pulse in a plasma with ultrarelativistic electron jitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanović, Dušan, E-mail: dusan.jovanovic@ipb.ac.rs [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade, Zemun (Serbia); Fedele, Renato, E-mail: renato.fedele@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli “Federico II,” M.S. Angelo, Napoli (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di M.S. Angelo, Napoli (Italy); Belić, Milivoj, E-mail: milivoj.belic@qatar.tamu.edu [Texas A and M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); De Nicola, Sergio, E-mail: sergio.denicola@spin.cnr.it [SPIN-CNR, Complesso Universitario di M.S. Angelo, Napoli (Italy)

    2015-04-15

    The interaction of a multi-petawatt, pancake-shaped laser pulse with an unmagnetized plasma is studied analytically and numerically in a regime with ultrarelativistic electron jitter velocities, in which the plasma electrons are almost completely expelled from the pulse region. The study is applied to a laser wakefield acceleration scheme with specifications that may be available in the next generation of Ti:Sa lasers and with the use of recently developed pulse compression techniques. A set of novel nonlinear equations is derived using a three-timescale description, with an intermediate timescale associated with the nonlinear phase of the electromagnetic wave and with the spatial bending of its wave front. They describe, on an equal footing, both the strong and the moderate laser intensity regimes, pertinent to the core and to the edges of the pulse. These have fundamentally different dispersive properties since in the core the electrons are almost completely expelled by a very strong ponderomotive force, and the electromagnetic wave packet is imbedded in a vacuum channel, thus having (almost) linear properties. Conversely, at the pulse edges, the laser amplitude is smaller, and the wave is weakly nonlinear and dispersive. New nonlinear terms in the wave equation, introduced by the nonlinear phase, describe without the violation of imposed scaling laws a smooth transition to a nondispersive electromagnetic wave at very large intensities and a simultaneous saturation of the (initially cubic) nonlocal nonlinearity. The temporal evolution of the laser pulse is studied both analytically and by numerically solving the model equations in a two-dimensional geometry, with the spot diameter presently used in some laser acceleration experiments. The most stable initial pulse length is estimated to exceed ≳1.5–2 μm. Moderate stretching of the pulse in the direction of propagation is observed, followed by the development of a vacuum channel and of a very large

  3. 1979 CECAM workshop on transport of fast electrons in laser fusion plasmas. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    Attention is given to three problem areas in laser-driven electron transport: (1) ion-acoustic turbulence as a source of inhibition, (2) the effects of anti E times anti j heating of the thermals, and (3) the possibility of thermal inhibition by thermal electron runaway or trapping

  4. Distribution and evolution of electrons in a cluster plasma created by a laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, M.B.

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the properties and the character of the evolution of an electron subsystem of a large cluster (with a number of atoms n ∼ 10 4 -10 6 ) interacting with a short laser pulse of high intensity (10 17 -10 19 W/cm 2 ). As a result of ionization in a strong laser field, cluster atoms are converted into multicharged ions, part of the electrons being formed leaves the cluster, and the other electrons move in a self-consistent field of the charged cluster and the laser wave. It is shown that electron-electron collisions are inessential both during the cluster irradiation by the laser pulse and in the course of cluster expansion; the electron distribution in the cluster therefore does not transform into the Maxwell distribution even during cluster expansion. During cluster expansion, the Coulomb field of a cluster charge acts on cluster ions more strongly than the pressure resulting from electron-ion collisions. In addition, bound electrons remain inside the cluster in the course of its expansion, and cluster expansion therefore does not lead to additional cluster ionization

  5. Physics of laser plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubenchik, A.; Witkowski, S.

    1991-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive review of laser fusion plasma physics and contains the most up-to-date information on high density plasma physics and radiation transport, useful for astrophysicists and high density physicists

  6. Laser-driven electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    The following possibilities are discussed: inverse free electron laser (wiggler accelerator); inverse Cerenkov effect; plasma accelerator; dielectric tube; and grating linac. Of these, the grating acceleraton is considered the most attractive alternative

  7. Development of a high repetition rate laser-plasma accelerator for ultra-fast electron diffraction experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaurepaire, B.

    2009-01-01

    Electronic microscopy and electron diffraction allowed the understanding of the organization of atoms in matter. Using a temporally short source, one can measure atomic displacements or modifications of the electronic distribution in matter. To date, the best temporal resolution for time resolved diffraction experiments is of the order of a hundred femto-seconds (fs). Laser accelerators are good candidates to reach the femtosecond temporal resolution in electron diffraction experiments. Such accelerators used to work at a low repetition rate, so that it was necessary to develop a new one operating at a high repetition rate in order to accumulate a large amount of data. In this thesis, a laser-plasma accelerator operating at the kHz repetition rate was developed and built. This source generates electron bunches at 100 keV from 3 mJ and 25 fs laser pulses. The physics of the acceleration has been studied, and the effect of the laser wavefront on the electron transverse distribution has been demonstrated. (author)

  8. Electron acceleration and generation of high-brilliance x-ray radiation in kilojoule, subpicosecond laser-plasma interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ferri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Petawatt, picosecond laser pulses offer rich opportunities in generating synchrotron x-rays. This paper concentrates on the regimes accessible with the PETAL laser, which is a part of the Laser Megajoule (LMJ facility. We explore two physically distinct scenarios through Particle-in-Cell simulations. The first one realizes in a dense plasma, such that the period of electron Langmuir oscillations is much shorter than the pulse duration. Hallmarks of this regime are longitudinal breakup (“self-modulation” of the picosecond-scale laser pulse and excitation of a rapidly evolving broken plasma wake. It is found that electron beams with a charge of several tens of nC can be obtained, with a quasi-Maxwellian energy distribution extending to a few-GeV level. In the second scenario, at lower plasma densities, the pulse is shorter than the electron plasma period. The pulse blows out plasma electrons, creating a single accelerating cavity, while injection on the density downramp creates a nC quasi-monoenergetic electron bunch within the cavity. This bunch accelerates without degradation beyond 1 GeV. The x-ray sources in the self-modulated regime offer a high number of photons (∼10^{12} with the slowly decaying energy spectra extending beyond 60 keV. In turn, quasimonoenergetic character of the electron beam in the blowout regime results in the synchrotron-like spectra with the critical energy around 10 MeV and a number of photons >10^{9}. Yet, much smaller source duration and transverse size increase the x-ray brilliance by more than an order of magnitude against the self-modulated case, also favoring high spatial and temporal resolution in x-ray imaging. In all explored cases, accelerated electrons emit synchrotron x-rays of high brilliance, B>10^{20}  photons/s/mm^{2}/mrad^{2}/0.1%BW. Synchrotron sources driven by picosecond kilojoule lasers may thus find an application in x-ray diagnostics on such facilities such as the LMJ or National

  9. Plasma emission spectroscopy of solids irradiated by intense XUV pulses from a free electron laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dzelzainis, T.W.J.; Chalupský, Jaromír; Fajardo, M.; Fäustlin, R.; Heimann, P.A.; Hájková, Věra; Juha, Libor; Jurek, Karel; Khattak, F.Y.; Kozlová, Michaela; Krzywinski, J.; Lee, R. W.; Nagler, B.; Nelson, A.J.; Rosmej, F.B.; Soberierski, R.; Toleikis, S.; Tschentscher, T.; Vinko, S.M.; Wark, J. S.; Whitcher, T.; Riley, D.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2010), 109-112 ISSN 1574-1818 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC510; GA MŠk(CZ) LC528; GA MŠk LA08024; GA AV ČR IAAX00100903 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : XUV emission spectroscopy * free-electron laser * warm dense matter Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.206, year: 2010

  10. Effect of an ultrafast laser induced plasma on a relativistic electron beam to determine temporal overlap in pump–probe experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scoby, Cheyne M., E-mail: scoby@physics.ucla.edu [UCLA Department of Physics, 475 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Li, R.K.; Musumeci, P. [UCLA Department of Physics, 475 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    In this paper we report on a simple and robust method to measure the absolute temporal overlap of the laser and the electron beam at the sample based on the effect of a laser induced plasma on the electron beam transverse distribution, successfully extending a similar method from keV to MeV electron beams. By pumping a standard copper TEM grid to form the plasma, we gain timing information independent of the sample under study. In experiments discussed here the optical delay to achieve temporal overlap between the pump electron beam and probe laser can be determined with ∼1ps precision.

  11. Effect of an ultrafast laser induced plasma on a relativistic electron beam to determine temporal overlap in pump–probe experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoby, Cheyne M.; Li, R.K.; Musumeci, P.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we report on a simple and robust method to measure the absolute temporal overlap of the laser and the electron beam at the sample based on the effect of a laser induced plasma on the electron beam transverse distribution, successfully extending a similar method from keV to MeV electron beams. By pumping a standard copper TEM grid to form the plasma, we gain timing information independent of the sample under study. In experiments discussed here the optical delay to achieve temporal overlap between the pump electron beam and probe laser can be determined with ∼1ps precision

  12. Relativistic effects in ultra-high-intensity laser-plasma interaction: electron parametric instabilities and ponderomotive force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesnel, Brice

    1998-01-01

    This research thesis reports a theoretical and numeric study of the behaviour of two non linear phenomena of the laser-plasma interaction physics in a relativistic regime: the electronic parametric instabilities, and the ponderomotive force. In a first part, the author establishes the three-dimensional scattering relationship of electron parametric instabilities for a circularly polarised wave propagating in a homogeneous and cold plasma, without limitations of wave intensity, nor of plasma density. Results are verified by comparison with those of two-dimensional numerical simulations. The Weibel instability is also briefly studied in relativistic regime. In the second part, the author establishes an expression of the ponderomotive force exerted by an ultra-intense laser pulse in the vacuum about the focus point. A numerical code of integration of equations of motion of an electron in the laser field is used for the different expressions corresponding different approximation degrees. Results are used to interpret a recent experiment, and to critic other theoretical works [fr

  13. Interaction of an ultra-intense laser pulse with a dense plasma: heating and transport of electrons and ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toupin, Catherine

    1999-01-01

    This work was aimed at characterizing the acceleration and transport of the plasma electrons and ions during the interaction of an ultra-intense laser pulse with a dense plasma. Our main tool was numerical simulation with kinetic particle-in-cell codes. During the interaction, the target surface electrons are accelerated up to high energies inward the target. The electron acceleration mechanisms are proved to strongly depend on the density profile deformation due to the ion motion. This motion has been studied as well and different acceleration mechanisms have been identified: pushing in of the target surface by the laser ponderomotive pressure, acceleration by an electrostatic shock or by breaking of an ion acoustic wave, acceleration by the space charge force induced by radial expulsion of the electrons out of a channel drilled in a slightly overcritical plasma. The electrons and ions accelerated at the target surface penetrate inward the target and interact with it. The competition between the focussing due to the self-generated magnetic field, driven by the very important electron current, and the scattering induced by collisions has been analyzed. In a homogeneous, hot plasma, the existence of an optimum current for which the propagation length without scattering is maximum, has been demonstrated. The electron drag-back effect of the axial electric field is also proved to be more significant than the friction due to collisions. By penetrating into the target, the accelerated ions can produce neutrons if the target is deuterated. A strong correlation between the ion acceleration mechanisms and the angle and energy distributions of the produced neutrons has been underlined. (author) [fr

  14. Control of quasi-monoenergetic electron beams from laser-plasma accelerators with adjustable shock density profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hai-En; Swanson, Kelly K.; Barber, Sam K.; Lehe, Remi; Mao, Hann-Shin; Mittelberger, Daniel E.; Steinke, Sven; Nakamura, Kei; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Schroeder, Carl; Esarey, Eric; Geddes, Cameron G. R.; Leemans, Wim

    2018-04-01

    The injection physics in a shock-induced density down-ramp injector was characterized, demonstrating precise control of a laser-plasma accelerator (LPA). Using a jet-blade assembly, experiments systematically varied the shock injector profile, including shock angle, shock position, up-ramp width, and acceleration length. Our work demonstrates that beam energy, energy spread, and pointing can be controlled by adjusting these parameters. As a result, an electron beam that was highly tunable from 25 to 300 MeV with 8% energy spread (ΔEFWHM/E), 1.5 mrad divergence, and 0.35 mrad pointing fluctuation was produced. Particle-in-cell simulation characterized how variation in the shock angle and up-ramp width impacted the injection process. This highly controllable LPA represents a suitable, compact electron beam source for LPA applications such as Thomson sources and free-electron lasers.

  15. A new method for detection of the electron temperature in laser-plasma short wave cut off of stimulated Raman scattering spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiatai

    1994-01-01

    From the theory of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) three wave interaction, a new method of detecting the electron temperature in laser-plasma is obtained. SRS spectrum obtained from Shenguang No. 12 Nd-laser experiments are analysed. Using the wave length of short wave cut off of SRS, the electron temperature in corona plasma region is calculated consistently. These results agree reasonable with X-ray spectrum experiments

  16. Production of high-quality electron bunches by dephasing and beam loading in channeled and unchanneled laser plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geddes, C.G.R.; Toth, Cs.; Tilborg, J. van; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C.B.; Bruhwiler, D.; Nieter, C.; Cary, J.; Leemans, W.P.

    2005-01-01

    High-quality electron beams, with a few 10 9 electrons within a few percent of the same energy above 80 MeV, were produced in a laser wakefield accelerator by matching the acceleration length to the length over which electrons were accelerated and outran (dephased from) the wake. A plasma channel guided the drive laser over long distances, resulting in production of the high-energy, high-quality beams. Unchanneled experiments varying the length of the target plasma indicated that the high-quality bunches are produced near the dephasing length and demonstrated that channel guiding was more stable and efficient than relativistic self-guiding. Consistent with these data, particle-in-cell simulations indicate production of high-quality electron beams when trapping of an initial bunch of electrons suppresses further injection by loading the wake. The injected electron bunch is then compressed in energy by dephasing, when the front of the bunch begins to decelerate while the tail is still accelerated

  17. A study of fast electron energy transport in relativistically intense laser-plasma interactions with large density scalelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, R. H. H.; Norreys, P. A. [Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, Oxford OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Perez, F.; Baton, S. D. [LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, UMR 7605, CNRS/CEA/UPMC, Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Santos, J. J.; Nicolai, Ph.; Hulin, S. [Univ. Bordeaux/CNRS/CEA, CELIA, UMR 5107, 33405 Talence (France); Ridgers, C. P. [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Davies, J. R. [GoLP, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear - Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Lancaster, K. L.; Trines, R. M. G. M. [Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, Oxford OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Bell, A. R.; Tzoufras, M. [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, Oxford OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Rose, S. J. [Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    A systematic experimental and computational investigation of the effects of three well characterized density scalelengths on fast electron energy transport in ultra-intense laser-solid interactions has been performed. Experimental evidence is presented which shows that, when the density scalelength is sufficiently large, the fast electron beam entering the solid-density plasma is best described by two distinct populations: those accelerated within the coronal plasma (the fast electron pre-beam) and those accelerated near or at the critical density surface (the fast electron main-beam). The former has considerably lower divergence and higher temperature than that of the main-beam with a half-angle of {approx}20 Degree-Sign . It contains up to 30% of the total fast electron energy absorbed into the target. The number, kinetic energy, and total energy of the fast electrons in the pre-beam are increased by an increase in density scalelength. With larger density scalelengths, the fast electrons heat a smaller cross sectional area of the target, causing the thinnest targets to reach significantly higher rear surface temperatures. Modelling indicates that the enhanced fast electron pre-beam associated with the large density scalelength interaction generates a magnetic field within the target of sufficient magnitude to partially collimate the subsequent, more divergent, fast electron main-beam.

  18. Measurements of Electron Temperature and Density Profiles of Plasmas Produced by Nike KrF Laser for Laser Plasma Instability (LPI) Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Obenschain, S. P.; Schmitt, A. J.; Kehne, D. M.; Karasik, M.; Chan, L.-Y.; Serlin, V.; Phillips, L.

    2012-10-01

    ExperimentsfootnotetextJ. Oh, et al, GO5.4, APS DPP (2010).^,footnotetextJ. L. Weaver, et al, GO5.3, APS DPP (2010). using Nike KrF laser observed LPI signatures from CH plasmas at the laser intensities above ˜1x10^15 W/cm^2. Knowing spatial profiles of temperature (Te) and density (ne) in the underdense coronal region (0 Nike LPI experiment, a side-on grid imaging refractometer (GIR)footnotetextR. S. Craxton, et al, Phys. Fluids B 5, 4419 (1993). is being deployed for measuring the underdense plasma profiles. The GIR will resolve Te and ne in space taking a 2D snapshot of probe laser (λ= 263 nm, δt = 10 psec) beamlets (50μm spacing) refracted by the plasma at a selected time during the laser illumination. Time-resolved spectrometers with an absolute-intensity-calibrated photodiode array and a streak camera will simultaneously monitor light emission from the plasma in spectral ranges relevant to Raman (SRS) and two plasmon decay (TDP) instabilities. The experimental study of effects of the plasma profiles on the LPI initiation will be presented.

  19. Characterization of Electron Temperature and Density Profiles of Plasmas Produced by Nike KrF Laser for Laser Plasma Instability (LPI) Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Phillips, L.; Obenschain, S. P.; Schmitt, A. J.; Kehne, D. M.; Chan, L.-Y.; Serlin, V.

    2011-10-01

    Previous experiments with Nike KrF laser (λ = 248 nm , Δν ~ 1 THz) observed LPI signatures near quarter critical density (nc / 4) in CH plasmas, however, detailed measurement of the temperature (Te) and density (ne) profiles was missing. The current Nike LPI campaign will perform experimental determination of the plasma profiles. A side-on grid imaging refractometer (GIR) is the main diagnostic to resolve Te and ne in space taking 2D snapshots of probe laser (λ = 266 nm , Δt = 8 psec) beamlets (50 μm spacing) refracted by the plasma at laser peak time. Ray tracing of the beamlets through hydrodynamically simulated (FASTRAD3D) plasma profiles estimates the refractometer may access densities up to ~ 0 . 2nc . With the measured Te and ne profiles in the plasma corona, we will discuss analysis of light data radiated from the plasmas in spectral ranges relevant to two plasmon decay and convective Raman instabilities. Validity of the (Te ,ne) data will also be discussed for the thermal transport study. Work supported by DoE/NNSA and ONR and performed at NRL.

  20. Colliding pulse injection experiments in non-collinear geometry for controlled laser plasma wakefield acceleration of electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, Carl B.; Esarey, Eric H.; Geddes, Cameron G.R.; Leemans, Wim P.; Nakamura, Kei; Panasenko, Dmitriy; Schroeder, Carl B.; Bruhwiler, D.; Cary, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    An optical injection scheme for a laser-plasma based accelerator which employs a non-collinear counter-propagating laser beam to push background electrons in the focusing and acceleration phase via ponderomotive beat with the trailing part of the wakefield driver pulse is discussed. Preliminary experiments were performed using a drive beam of a 0 = 2.6 and colliding beam of a 1 = 0.8 both focused on the middle of a 200 mu m slit jet backed with 20 bar, which provided ∼ 260 mu m long gas plume. The enhancement in the total charge by the colliding pulse was observed with sharp dependence on the delay time of the colliding beam. Enhancement of the neutron yield was also measured, which suggests a generation of electrons above 10 MeV

  1. Electron density measurement of a colliding plasma using soft x-ray laser interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, A.S.; Back, C.A.; Barbee, T.W.Jr.; Cauble, R.; Celliers, P.; DaSilva, L.B.; Glenzer, S.; Moreno, J.C.; Rambo, P.W.; Stone, G.F.; Trebes, J.E.; Weber, F.

    1996-05-01

    The understanding of the collision and subsequent interaction of counter-streaming high-density plasmas is important for the design of indirectly-driven inertial confinement fusion (ICF) hohlraums. We have employed a soft x-ray Mach-Zehnder interferometer, using a Ne- like Y x-ray laser at 155 angstrom as the probe source, to study interpenetration and stagnation of two colliding plasmas. We observed a peaked density profile at the symmetry axis with a wide stagnation region with width of order 100 μm. We compare the measured density profile with density profiles calculated by the radiation hydrodynamic code LASNEX and a multi-specie fluid code which allows for interpenetration. The measured density profile falls in between the calculated profiles using collisionless and fluid approximations. By using different target materials and irradiation configurations, we can vary the collisionality of the plasma. We hope to use the soft x-ray laser interferometry as a mechanism to validate and benchmark our numerical codes used for the design and analysis of high-energy- density physics experiments

  2. Simulation of enhanced characteristic x rays from a 40-MeV electron beam laser accelerated in plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Nikzad

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Simulation of x-ray generation from bombardment of various solid targets by quasimonoenergetic electrons is considered. The electron bunches are accelerated in a plasma produced by interaction of 500 mJ, 30 femtosecond laser pulses with a helium gas jet. These relativistic electrons propagate in the ion channel generated in the wake of the laser pulse. A beam of MeV electrons can interact with targets to generate x-ray radiation with keV energy. The MCNP-4C code based on Monte Carlo simulation is employed to compare the production of bremsstrahlung and characteristic x rays between 10 and 100 keV by using two quasi-Maxwellian and quasimonoenergetic energy distributions of electrons. For a specific electron spectrum and a definite sample, the maximum x-ray flux varies with the target thickness. Besides, by increasing the target atomic number, the maximum x-ray flux is increased and shifted towards a higher energy level. It is shown that by using the quasimonoenergetic electron profile, a more intense x ray can be produced relative to the quasi-Maxwellian profile (with the same total energy, representing up to 77% flux enhancement at K_{α} energy.

  3. Temperature and Electron Density Determination on Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Plasmas: A Physical Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najarian, Maya L.; Chinni, Rosemarie C.

    2013-01-01

    This laboratory is designed for physical chemistry students to gain experience using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in understanding plasma diagnostics. LIBS uses a high-powered laser that is focused on the sample causing a plasma to form. The emission of this plasma is then spectrally resolved and detected. Temperature and electron…

  4. Katherine E. Weimer Award: X-ray light sources from laser-plasma and laser-electron interaction: development and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Felicie

    2017-10-01

    Bright sources of x-rays, such as synchrotrons and x-ray free electron lasers (XFEL) are transformational tools for many fields of science. They are used for biology, material science, medicine, or industry. Such sources rely on conventional particle accelerators, where electrons are accelerated to gigaelectronvolts (GeV) energies. The accelerated particles are wiggled in magnetic structures to emit x-ray radiation that is commonly used for molecular crystallography, fluorescence studies, chemical analysis, medical imaging, and many other applications. One of the drawbacks of these machines is their size and cost, because electric field gradients are limited to about 100 V/M in conventional accelerators. Particle acceleration in laser-driven plasmas is an alternative to generate x-rays via betatron emission, Compton scattering, or bremsstrahlung. A plasma can sustain electrical fields many orders of magnitude higher than that in conventional radiofrequency accelerator structures. When short, intense laser pulses are focused into a gas, it produces electron plasma waves in which electrons can be trapped and accelerated to GeV energies. X-ray sources, driven by electrons from laser-wakefield acceleration, have unique properties that are analogous to synchrotron radiation, with a 1000-fold shorter pulse. An important use of x-rays from laser plasma accelerators is in High Energy Density (HED) science, which requires laser and XFEL facilities to create in the laboratory extreme conditions of temperatures and pressures that are usually found in the interiors of stars and planets. To diagnose such extreme states of matter, the development of efficient, versatile and fast (sub-picosecond scale) x-ray probes has become essential. In these experiments, x-ray photons can pass through dense material, and absorption of the x-rays can be directly measured, via spectroscopy or imaging, to inform scientists about the temperature and density of the targets being studied. Performed

  5. Lasers as a tool for plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahoda, F.C.

    1981-01-01

    Lasers can be used as non-perturbative probes to measure many plasma parameters. Plasma refractivity is primarily a function of electron density, and interferometric measurements of phase changes with either pulsed or CW lasers can determine this parameter with spatial or temporal resolution over several orders of magnitude sensitivity by using laser wavelengths from the near uv to the far infrared. Laser scattering from free electrons yields the most fundamental electron temperature measurements in the plasma parameter range where individual scattering events are uncorrelated in phase and ion temperature or plasma wave and turbulence structure in the opposite limit. Laser scattering from bound electrons can be many orders of magnitude larger if the laser is matched to appropriate resonance frequencies and can be used in specialized circumstances for measuring low-ionized impurity or dominant species neutral concentrations and velocities

  6. Time-resolved probing of electron thermal conduction in femtosecond-laser-pulse-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vue, B.T.V.

    1993-06-01

    We present time-resolved measurements of reflectivity, transmissivity and frequency shifts of probe light interacting with the rear of a disk-like plasma produced by irradiation of a transparent solid target with 0.1ps FWHM laser pulses at peak intensity 5 x 10 l4 W/CM 2 . Experimental results show a large increase in reflection, revealing rapid formation of a steep gradient and overdense surface plasma layer during the first picosecond after irradiation. Frequency shifts due to a moving ionization created by thermal conduction into the solid target are recorded. Calculations using a nonlinear thermal heat wave model show good agreement with the measured frequency shifts, further confining the strong thermal transport effect

  7. Three electron beams from a laser-plasma wakefield accelerator and the energy apportioning question

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yang, X.; Brunetti, E.; Gil, D.R.; Welsh, G.H.; Li, F.Y.; Cipiccia, S.; Ersfeld, B.; Grant, D.W.; Grant, P.A.; Islam, M.R.; Tooley, M.P.; Vieux, Grégory; Wiggins, S.M.; Sheng, Z.M.; Jaroszynski, D.A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, Mar (2017), s. 1-7, č. článku 43910. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162; GA MŠk LQ1606 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 654148 - LASERLAB-EUROPE Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : relativistic electrons * driven * radiation * wake * dosimetry * regime * code Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  8. Near-GeV-energy laser-wakefield acceleration of self-injected electrons in a centimeter-scale plasma channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsung, F.S.; Narang, Ritesh; Joshi, C.; Mori, W. B.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L.O.

    2004-01-01

    The first three-dimensional, particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of laser-wakefield acceleration of self-injected electrons in a 0.84 cm long plasma channel are reported. The frequency evolution of the initially 50 fs (FWHM) long laser pulse by photon interaction with the wake followed by plasma dispersion enhances the wake which eventually leads to self-injection of electrons from the channel wall. This first bunch of electrons remains spatially highly localized. Its phase space rotation due to slippage with respect to the wake leads to a monoenergetic bunch of electrons with a central energy of 0.26 GeV after 0.55 cm propagation. At later times, spatial bunching of the laser enhances the acceleration of a second bunch of electrons to energies up to 0.84 GeV before the laser pulse intensity is significantly reduced

  9. 5. Laser plasma interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labaune, C.; Fuchs, J.; Bandulet, H.

    2002-01-01

    Imprint elimination, smoothing and preheat control are considerable problems in inertial fusion and their possible solution can be achieved by using low-density porous materials as a buffer in target design. The articles gathered in this document present various aspects of the laser-plasma interaction, among which we have noticed: -) numerical algorithmic improvements of the Vlasov solver toward the simulation of the laser-plasma interaction are proposed, -) the dependence of radiation temperatures and X-ray conversion efficiencies of hohlraum on the target structures and laser irradiation conditions are investigated, -) a study of laser interaction with ultra low-density (0,5 - 20 mg/cm 3 ) porous media analyzing backscattered light at incident laser frequency ω 0 and its harmonics 3*ω 0 /2 and 2*ω 0 is presented, -) investigations of laser interaction with solid targets and crater formation are carried out with the objective to determine the ablation loading efficiency, -) a self organization in an intense laser-driven plasma and the measure of the relative degree of order of the states in an open system based on the S-theorem are investigated, and -) the existence and stability of electromagnetic solitons generated in a relativistic interaction of an intense laser light with uniform under-dense cold plasma are studied

  10. Measurements of line-averaged electron density of pulsed plasmas using a He-Ne laser interferometer in a magnetized coaxial plasma gun device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, D.; Sakuma, I.; Kitagawa, Y.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2012-10-01

    In next step of fusion devices such as ITER, lifetime of plasma-facing materials (PFMs) is strongly affected by transient heat and particle loads during type I edge localized modes (ELMs) and disruption. To clarify damage characteristics of the PFMs, transient heat and particle loads have been simulated by using a plasma gun device. We have performed simulation experiments by using a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) device at University of Hyogo. The line-averaged electron density measured by a He-Ne interferometer is 2x10^21 m-3 in a drift tube. The plasma velocity measured by a time of flight technique and ion Doppler spectrometer was 70 km/s, corresponding to the ion energy of 100 eV for helium. Thus, the ion flux density is 1.4x10^26 m-2s-1. On the other hand, the MCPG is connected to a target chamber for material irradiation experiments. It is important to measure plasma parameters in front of target materials in the target chamber. In particular, a vapor cloud layer in front of the target material produced by the pulsed plasma irradiation has to be characterized in order to understand surface damage of PFMs under ELM-like plasma bombardment. In the conference, preliminary results of application of the He-Ne laser interferometer for the above experiment will be shown.

  11. Energy transport in laser produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, M.H.

    1989-06-01

    The study of energy transport in laser produced plasmas is of great interest both because it tests and develops understanding of several aspects of basic plasma physics and also because it is of central importance in major applications of laser produced plasmas including laser fusion, the production of intense X-ray sources, and X-ray lasers. The three sections cover thermal electrons (energy transport in one dimension, plane targets and lateral transport from a focal spot, thermal smoothing, thermal instabilities), hot electrons (preheating in one dimension, lateral transport from a focal spot) and radiation (preheating in one dimension, lateral transport and smoothing, instabilities). (author)

  12. Phase space linearization and external injection of electron bunches into laser-driven plasma wakefields at REGAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeitler, Benno Michael Georg

    2017-01-01

    Laser Wake field Acceleration (LWFA) has the potential to become the next-generation acceleration technique for electrons. In particular, the large field gradients provided by these plasma-based accelerators are an appealing property, promising a significant reduction of size for future machines and user facilities. Despite the unique advantages of these sources, however, as of today, the produced electron bunches cannot yet compete in all beam quality criteria compared to conventional acceleration methods. Especially the stability in terms of beam pointing and energy gain, as well as a comparatively large energy spread of LWFA electron bunches require further advancement for their applicability. The accelerated particles are typically trapped from within the plasma which is used to create the large field gradients in the wake of a high-power laser. From this results a lack of control and access to observing the actual electron injection - and, consequently, a lack of experimental verification. To tackle this problem, the injection of external electrons into a plasma wakefield seems promising. In this case, the initial beam parameters are known, so that a back-calculation and reconstruction of the wakefield structure are feasible. Such an experiment is planned at the Relativistic Electron Gun for Atomic Exploration (REGAE). REGAE, which is located at DESY in Hamburg, is a small linear accelerator offering unique beam parameters compatible with the requirements of the planned experiment. The observations and results gained from such an external injection are expected to improve the beam quality and stability of internal injection variants, due to the broadened understanding of the underlying plasma dynamics. Furthermore, an external injection will always be required for so-called staging of multiple LWFA-driven cavities. Also, the demonstration of a suchlike merging of conventional and plasma accelerators gives rise to novel hybrid accelerators, where the matured

  13. Phase space linearization and external injection of electron bunches into laser-driven plasma wakefields at REGAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeitler, Benno Michael Georg [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Mathematik, Informatik und Naturwissenschaften

    2017-01-15

    Laser Wake field Acceleration (LWFA) has the potential to become the next-generation acceleration technique for electrons. In particular, the large field gradients provided by these plasma-based accelerators are an appealing property, promising a significant reduction of size for future machines and user facilities. Despite the unique advantages of these sources, however, as of today, the produced electron bunches cannot yet compete in all beam quality criteria compared to conventional acceleration methods. Especially the stability in terms of beam pointing and energy gain, as well as a comparatively large energy spread of LWFA electron bunches require further advancement for their applicability. The accelerated particles are typically trapped from within the plasma which is used to create the large field gradients in the wake of a high-power laser. From this results a lack of control and access to observing the actual electron injection - and, consequently, a lack of experimental verification. To tackle this problem, the injection of external electrons into a plasma wakefield seems promising. In this case, the initial beam parameters are known, so that a back-calculation and reconstruction of the wakefield structure are feasible. Such an experiment is planned at the Relativistic Electron Gun for Atomic Exploration (REGAE). REGAE, which is located at DESY in Hamburg, is a small linear accelerator offering unique beam parameters compatible with the requirements of the planned experiment. The observations and results gained from such an external injection are expected to improve the beam quality and stability of internal injection variants, due to the broadened understanding of the underlying plasma dynamics. Furthermore, an external injection will always be required for so-called staging of multiple LWFA-driven cavities. Also, the demonstration of a suchlike merging of conventional and plasma accelerators gives rise to novel hybrid accelerators, where the matured

  14. Influence of matrices on electron temperature of laser micro-plasma in argon atmosphere at reduced pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Qinlin; Zhou Yulong; Zhang Bo; Zhang Qiulin; Zhang Jinping; Huai Sufang

    2007-01-01

    Laser micro-spectral analysis coupled with CCD spectrometer was used in this experiment. With Fe I 356.54 nm and Fe I 358.12 nm as analysis spectral lines, the micro-plasma temperature and its spatial distribution were investigated in different matrices, namely Mg, Al, Si, and steel alloy6-0. The electron temperature as a function of location in each matrix and the differences of that at the same location in different matrices were determined and an explanation was given. Finally, with Cu I 324.75 nm and Zn I 394.50 nm as analysis spectral lines, we have successfully used the calculated micro-plasma temperature to discuss the matrix effect. (authors)

  15. Spatial distribution of ion energy related on electron density in a plasma channel generated in gas clusters by a femtosecond laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, S. M.; Han, J. M.; Cha, Y. H.; Lee, Y. W.; Rhee, Y. J.; Cha, H. K.

    2008-01-01

    Neutron generation through Coulomb explosion of deuterium contained gas clusters is known as one of the very effective methods to produce fusion neutrons using a table top terawatt laser. The energy of ions produced through Coulomb explosions is very important factor to generate neutrons efficiently. Until the ion energy reaches around∼MeV level, the D D fusion reaction probability increases exponentially. The understanding of laser beam propagation and laser energy deposition in clusters is very important to improve neutron yields. As the laser beam propagates through clusters medium, laser energy is absorbed in clusters by ionization of molecules consisting clusters. When the backing pressure of gas increases, the average size of clusters increases and which results in higher energy absorption and earlier termination of laser propagation. We first installed a Michelson interferometer to view laser beam traces in a cluster plume and to measure spatial electron density profiles of a plasma channel which was produced by a laser beam. And then we measured the energy of ions distributed along the plasma channel with a translating slit to select ions from narrow parts of a plasma channel. In our experiments, methane gas was used to produce gas clusters at a room temperature and the energy distribution of proton ions for different gas backing pressure were measured by the time of flight method using dual micro channel plates. By comparing the distribution of ion energies and electron densities, we could understand the condition for effective laser energy delivery to clusters

  16. Quantum regime of a plasma-wave-pumped free-electron laser in the presence of an axial magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirvani, H; Jafari, S

    2018-03-01

    The quantum regime of a plasma-whistler-wave-pumped free-electron laser (FEL) in the presence of an axial-guide magnetic field is presented. By quantizing both the plasma whistler field and axial magnetic field, an N-particle three-dimensional Hamiltonian of quantum-FEL (QFEL) has been derived. Employing Heisenberg evolution equations and introducing a new collective operator which controls the vertical motion of electrons, a quantum dispersion relation of the plasma whistler wiggler has been obtained analytically. Numerical results indicate that, by increasing the intrinsic quantum momentum spread and/or increasing the axial magnetic field strength, the bunching and the radiation fields grow exponentially. In addition, a spiking behavior of the spectrum was observed with increasing cyclotron frequency which provides an enormous improvement in the coherence of QFEL radiation even in a limit close-to-classical regime, where an overlapping of these spikes is observed. Also, an upper limit of the intrinsic quantum momentum spread which depends on the value of the cyclotron frequency was found.

  17. Measurements of Laser Plasma Instability (LPI) and Electron Density/Temperature Profiles in Plasmas Produced by the Nike KrF Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Serlin, V.; Obenschain, S. P.

    2016-10-01

    We will present results of simultaneous measurements of LPI-driven light scattering and density/temperature profiles in CH plasmas produced by the Nike krypton fluoride laser (λ = 248 nm). The primary diagnostics for the LPI measurement are time-resolved spectrometers with absolute intensity calibration in spectral ranges relevant to the optical detection of stimulated Raman scattering or two plasmon decay. The spectrometers are capable of monitoring signal intensity relative to thermal background radiation from plasma providing a useful way to analyze LPI initiation. For further understanding of LPI processes, the recently implemented grid image refractometer (Nike-GIR)a is used to measure the coronal plasma profiles. In this experiment, Nike-GIR is equipped with a 5th harmonic probe laser (λ = 213 nm) in attempt to probe into a high density region over the previous peak density with λ = 263 nm probe light ( 4 ×1021 cm-3). The LPI behaviors will be discussed with the measured data sets. Work supported by DoE/NNSA.

  18. Comparison of measured with calculated dose distribution from a 120-MeV electron beam from a laser-plasma accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundh, O.; Rechatin, C.; Faure, J.; Ben-Ismaïl, A.; Lim, J.; De Wagter, C.; De Neve, W.; Malka, V.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the dose distribution of a 120-MeV laser-plasma accelerated electron beam which may be of potential interest for high-energy electron radiation therapy. Methods: In the interaction between an intense laser pulse and a helium gas jet, a well collimated electron beam with very high energy is produced. A secondary laser beam is used to optically control and to tune the electron beam energy and charge. The potential use of this beam for radiation treatment is evaluated experimentally by measurements of dose deposition in a polystyrene phantom. The results are compared to Monte Carlo simulations using the geant4 code. Results: It has been shown that the laser-plasma accelerated electron beam can deliver a peak dose of more than 1 Gy at the entrance of the phantom in a single laser shot by direct irradiation, without the use of intermediate magnetic transport or focusing. The dose distribution is peaked on axis, with narrow lateral penumbra. Monte Carlo simulations of electron beam propagation and dose deposition indicate that the propagation of the intense electron beam (with large self-fields) can be described by standard models that exclude collective effects in the response of the material. Conclusions: The measurements show that the high-energy electron beams produced by an optically injected laser-plasma accelerator can deliver high enough dose at penetration depths of interest for electron beam radiotherapy of deep-seated tumors. Many engineering issues must be resolved before laser-accelerated electrons can be used for cancer therapy, but they also represent exciting challenges for future research.

  19. Comparison of measured with calculated dose distribution from a 120-MeV electron beam from a laser-plasma accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundh, O; Rechatin, C; Faure, J; Ben-Ismaïl, A; Lim, J; De Wagter, C; De Neve, W; Malka, V

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the dose distribution of a 120-MeV laser-plasma accelerated electron beam which may be of potential interest for high-energy electron radiation therapy. In the interaction between an intense laser pulse and a helium gas jet, a well collimated electron beam with very high energy is produced. A secondary laser beam is used to optically control and to tune the electron beam energy and charge. The potential use of this beam for radiation treatment is evaluated experimentally by measurements of dose deposition in a polystyrene phantom. The results are compared to Monte Carlo simulations using the geant4 code. It has been shown that the laser-plasma accelerated electron beam can deliver a peak dose of more than 1 Gy at the entrance of the phantom in a single laser shot by direct irradiation, without the use of intermediate magnetic transport or focusing. The dose distribution is peaked on axis, with narrow lateral penumbra. Monte Carlo simulations of electron beam propagation and dose deposition indicate that the propagation of the intense electron beam (with large self-fields) can be described by standard models that exclude collective effects in the response of the material. The measurements show that the high-energy electron beams produced by an optically injected laser-plasma accelerator can deliver high enough dose at penetration depths of interest for electron beam radiotherapy of deep-seated tumors. Many engineering issues must be resolved before laser-accelerated electrons can be used for cancer therapy, but they also represent exciting challenges for future research. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  20. Effect of an ultrafast laser induced plasma on a relativistic electron beam to determine temporal overlap in pump-probe experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoby, Cheyne M; Li, R K; Musumeci, P

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we report on a simple and robust method to measure the absolute temporal overlap of the laser and the electron beam at the sample based on the effect of a laser induced plasma on the electron beam transverse distribution, successfully extending a similar method from keV to MeV electron beams. By pumping a standard copper TEM grid to form the plasma, we gain timing information independent of the sample under study. In experiments discussed here the optical delay to achieve temporal overlap between the pump electron beam and probe laser can be determined with ~1 ps precision. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Electron temperature anisotropy modeling and its effect on anisotropy-magnetic field coupling in an underdense laser heated plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morreeuw, J.P.; Dubroca, B. [CEA Centre d' Etudes Scientifiques et Techniques d' Aquitaine, 33 - Le Barp (France); Sangam, A.; Dubroca, B.; Charrier, P.; Tikhonchuk, V.T. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., CELIA, 33 - Talence (France); Sangam, A.; Dubroca, B.; Charrier, P. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., MAB, 33 - Talence (France)

    2006-06-15

    The laser interaction with an underdense plasma leads to an anisotropic laser heating of electrons. This temperature anisotropy gradient in turn is the source of an early magnetic field, which has an important effect on the plasma evolution, due to the thermal flux reduction. We describe the temperature anisotropy by an evolution equation including the anisotropy-magnetic field coupling and observe a rather efficient magnetic field generation. However at high anisotropy levels, a small-scale instability emerges, leading to a serious problem in numerical calculations. We introduce the kinetics effects, which fix the problem by the anisotropy diffusion through the heat flux tensor. A constant-coefficient Fokker-Planck model in the 2-dimensional geometry allows us to derive an anisotropy diffusion term. The diffusion coefficient is fitted from the kinetic theory of the collisional anisotropic (Weibel) instability growth rate. Such an anisotropy diffusion term wipes out the unphysical instability without any undesirable smoothing. This diffusion along with the viscosity term leads also to a quite good restitution of the Weibel instability growth rate and to the short wavelength cutoff, even in a weakly collisional situation. This allows us to use such a model to predict the emergence of the Weibel instability as well as its saturation. (authors)

  2. Laser-plasma acceleration with multi-color pulse stacks: Designer electron beams for advanced radiation sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmykov, Serge; Shadwick, Bradley; Ghebregziabher, Isaac; Davoine, Xavier

    2015-11-01

    Photon engineering offers new avenues to coherently control electron beam phase space on a femtosecond time scale. It enables generation of high-quality beams at a kHz-scale repetition rate. Reducing the peak pulse power (and thus the average laser power) is the key to effectively exercise such control. A stepwise negative chirp, synthesized by incoherently stacking collinear sub-Joule pulses from conventional CPA, affords a micron-scale bandwidth. It is sufficient to prevent rapid compression of the pulse into an optical shock, while delaying electron dephasing. This extends electron energy far beyond the limits suggested by accepted scalings (beyond 1 GeV in a 3 mm plasma), without compromising beam quality. In addition, acceleration with a stacked pulse in a channel favorably modifies electron beam on a femtosecond time scale, controllably producing synchronized sequences of 100 kA-scale, quasi-monoenergetic bunches. These comb-like, designer GeV electron beams are ideal drivers of polychromatic, tunable inverse Thomson γ-ray sources. The work of SYK and BAS is supported by the US DOE Grant DE-SC0008382 and NSF Grant PHY-1104683. Inverse Thomson scattering simulations were completed utilizing the Holland Computing Center of the University of Nebraska.

  3. Free-Free Transitions of e-H System Inside a Dense Plasma Irradiated by a Laser Field at Very Low Incident Electron Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Sinha, C.

    2012-01-01

    The free-free transition is studied for an electron-hydrogen in the ground state at low incident energies in the presence of an external homogenous, monochromatic, and linearly polarized laser-field inside a hot dense plasma.The effect of plasma screening is considered in the Debye-Huckel approximation. The calculations are performed in the soft photon limit, assuming that the plasma frequency is much higher than the laser frequency. The incident electron is considered to be dressed by the laser field in a nonperturbative manner by choosing the Volkov solutions in both the initial and final channels. The space part of the scattering wave function for the electron is solved numerically by taking into account the electron exchange. The laser-assisted differential and total cross sections are calculated for single-photon absorption /emission and no photon exchange in the soft photon limit, the laser intensity being much less than the atomic field intensity. The calculations have been carried out for various values of Debye parameter, ranging from 0.005 to 0.12. A strong suppression is noted in the laser-assisted cross sections as compared to the field-free situation. A significant difference is noted for the singlet and triplet cross sections. The suppression is much more in the triplet states.

  4. Laser produced plasma density measurement by Mach-Zehnder interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaziri, A.; Kohanzadeh, Y.; Mosavi, R.K.

    1976-06-01

    This report describes an optical interferometric method of measuring the refractive index of the laser-produced plasma, giving estimates of its electron density. The plasma is produced by the interaction of a high power pulsed CO 2 laser beam with a solid target in the vacuum. The time varying plasma has a transient electron density. This transient electron density gives rise to a changing plasma refractive index. A Mach-Zehnder ruby laser interferometer is used to measure this refractive index change

  5. Direct electron and ion fluid computation of high electrostatic fields in dense inhomogeneous plasmas with subsequent nonlinear optical and dynamical laser interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalousis, P.

    1984-01-01

    Nonthermal direct electrodynamic interaction between laser energy and a fully ionized plasma was studied. The particular emphasis is on the action of nonlinear forces, in which the optical electromagnetic fields act on the plasma electrons which then transfer their energy to the ions electrostatically. Instead of the usual single fluid model, the plasma is treated as two separate conducting fluids for electrons and ions, coupled by momentum and Coulomb interactions. The equations governing the two fluids are derived from first principles, and numerical algorithms for computing these equations are developed, enabling the plasma oscillatons to be resolved and studied. Fully ionized plasma expansion without laser irradiation is studied first numerically. Remarkable damping mechanisms by coupling to ion oscillations have been observed. Inhomogeneities in densities of the two fluids result in large electrostatic fields and double layers are generated. There is quite close agreement between numerically calculated electrostatic fields and analytical solutions. Laser interaction with fully ionized plasma is also studied numerically. The generation of cavitons is numerically observed, and it is inferred that laser plasma interactions produce very high electrostatic fields in the vicinity of cavitons. It is further shown that charge neutrality is not necessarily maintained in a caviton

  6. Staging of laser-plasma accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinke, S., E-mail: ssteinke@lbl.gov; Tilborg, J. van; Benedetti, C.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Gonsalves, A. J.; Nakamura, K.; Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Daniels, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Swanson, K. K.; Shaw, B. H.; Leemans, W. P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    We present results of an experiment where two laser-plasma-accelerator stages are coupled at a short distance by a plasma mirror. Stable electron beams from the first stage were used to longitudinally probe the dark-current-free, quasi-linear wakefield excited by the laser of the second stage. Changing the arrival time of the electron beam with respect to the second stage laser pulse allowed reconstruction of the temporal wakefield structure, determination of the plasma density, and inference of the length of the electron beam. The first stage electron beam could be focused by an active plasma lens to a spot size smaller than the transverse wake size at the entrance of the second stage. This permitted electron beam trapping, verified by a 100 MeV energy gain.

  7. Free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, J.M.; Billardon, M.

    1986-01-01

    Operation principle of a laser and an oscillator are recalled together with the klystron one. In the free electron laser, electrons go through an undulator or an optical klystron. Principles of the last one are given. The two distinct ways of producing coherent radiation with an undulator and an optical klystron are presented. The first one is the use of the free electron laser, the second is to make use of the spontaneous emission generation (harmonics generation). The different current types of free electron lasers are presented (Stanford, Los Alamos, Aco at Orsay). Prospects and applications are given in conclusion [fr

  8. Laser beam-plasma plume interaction during laser welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jacek; Moscicki, Tomasz; Szymanski, Zygmunt

    2003-10-01

    Laser welding process is unstable because the keyhole wall performs oscillations which results in the oscillations of plasma plume over the keyhole mouth. The characteristic frequencies are equal to 0.5-4 kHz. Since plasma plume absorbs and refracts laser radiation, plasma oscillations modulate the laser beam before it reaches the workpiece. In this work temporary electron densities and temperatures are determined in the peaks of plasma bursts during welding with a continuous wave CO2 laser. It has been found that during strong bursts the plasma plume over the keyhole consists of metal vapour only, being not diluted by the shielding gas. As expected the values of electron density are about two times higher in peaks than their time-averaged values. Since the plasma absorption coefficient scales as ~N2e/T3/2 (for CO2 laser radiation) the results show that the power of the laser beam reaching the metal surface is modulated by the plasma plume oscillations. The attenuation factor equals 4-6% of the laser power but it is expected that it is doubled by the refraction effect. The results, together with the analysis of the colour pictures from streak camera, allow also interpretation of the dynamics of the plasma plume.

  9. Lasers plasmas and magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertazzi, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    We studied the coupling between a laser produced plasmas and a magnetic field in two cases: 1) in the context of Inertial Fusion Confinement (ICF), we first studied how magnetic fields are self generated during the interaction between a target and a laser, then 2) to progress in the understanding of the large-scale shaping of astrophysical jets, we studied the influence of an externally applied magnetic field on the dynamics of a laser-produced plasma expanding into vacuum. The first part of this thesis is thus dedicated to a numerical and experimental study of the self generated magnetic fields that are produced following the irradiation of a solid target by a high power laser (having pulse duration in the nanosecond and picosecond regimes). These fields play an important role in the frame of ICF since they influence the dynamics of the electrons produced during the laser-matter interaction, and thus condition the success of ICF experiments. The second part of this thesis is a numerical and experimental study of the influence of an externally applied magnetic field on the morphology of a laser produced plasma freely otherwise expanding into vacuum. This work aims at better understanding the observed large-scale collimation of astrophysical jets which cannot be understood in the frame of existing models. We notably show that a purely axial magnetic field can force an initially isotropic laboratory flow, scaled to be representative of a flow emerging from a Young Star Object, in a re-collimation shock, from which emerges a narrow, well collimated jet. We also show that the plasma heating induced at the re-collimation point could explain the 'puzzling' observations of stationary X ray emission zones embedded within astrophysical jets. (author) [fr

  10. Relativistic laser channeling in plasmas for fast ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, A. L.; Pukhov, A.; Kodama, R.; Yabuuchi, T.; Adumi, K.; Endo, K.; Freeman, R. R.; Habara, H.; Kitagawa, Y.; Kondo, K.; Kumar, G. R.; Matsuoka, T.; Mima, K.; Nagatomo, H.; Norimatsu, T.; Shorokhov, O.; Snavely, R.; Yang, X. Q.; Zheng, J.; Tanaka, K. A.

    2007-12-01

    We report an experimental observation suggesting plasma channel formation by focusing a relativistic laser pulse into a long-scale-length preformed plasma. The channel direction coincides with the laser axis. Laser light transmittance measurement indicates laser channeling into the high-density plasma with relativistic self-focusing. A three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation reproduces the plasma channel and reveals that the collimated hot-electron beam is generated along the laser axis in the laser channeling. These findings hold the promising possibility of fast heating a dense fuel plasma with a relativistic laser pulse.

  11. Optical plasma torch electron bunch generation in plasma wakefield accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wittig

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel, flexible method of witness electron bunch generation in plasma wakefield accelerators is described. A quasistationary plasma region is ignited by a focused laser pulse prior to the arrival of the plasma wave. This localized, shapeable optical plasma torch causes a strong distortion of the plasma blowout during passage of the electron driver bunch, leading to collective alteration of plasma electron trajectories and to controlled injection. This optically steered injection is more flexible and faster when compared to hydrodynamically controlled gas density transition injection methods.

  12. Electron plasma waves and plasma resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, R N; Braithwaite, N St J

    2009-01-01

    In 1929 Tonks and Langmuir predicted of the existence of electron plasma waves in an infinite, uniform plasma. The more realistic laboratory environment of non-uniform and bounded plasmas frustrated early experiments. Meanwhile Landau predicted that electron plasma waves in a uniform collisionless plasma would appear to be damped. Subsequent experimental work verified this and revealed the curious phenomenon of plasma wave echoes. Electron plasma wave theory, extended to finite plasmas, has been confirmed by various experiments. Nonlinear phenomena, such as particle trapping, emerge at large amplitude. The use of electron plasma waves to determine electron density and electron temperature has not proved as convenient as other methods.

  13. Collisional absorption of two laser beams in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, M.; Acharya, R.

    1977-04-01

    The collisional absorption of two laser beams is considered by solving the kinetic equation for the plasma electron. Results show that the simultaneous effect of two laser beams on the heating rate is greater as compared with the individual contribution of each laser beam when the two laser beams have a difference of frequencies equal to the plasma frequency

  14. 30th Course of the International School of Quantum Electronics on Atoms, Solids and Plasmas in Super-Intense Laser Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Joachain, Charles; Martellucci, Sergio; Chester, Arthur; Atoms, Solids and Plasmas in Super-intense Laser Fields "Ettore Majorana"

    2000-01-01

    The recent developement of high power lasers, delivering femtosecond pulses of 20 2 intensities up to 10 W/cm , has led to the discovery of new phenomena in laser interactions with matter. At these enormous laser intensities, atoms, and molecules are exposed to extreme conditions and new phenomena occur, such as the very rapid multi photon ionization of atomic systems, the emission by these systems of very high order harmonics of the exciting laser light, the Coulomb explosion of molecules, and the acceleration of electrons close to the velocity of light. These phenomena generate new behaviour of bulk matter in intense laser fields, with great potential for wide ranging applications which include the study of ultra-fast processes, the development of high-frequency lasers, and the investigation of the properties of plasmas and condensed matter under extreme conditions of temperature and pressure. In particular, the concept of the "fast ignitor" approach to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) has been p...

  15. Compact disposal of high-energy electron beams using passive or laser-driven plasma decelerating stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonatto, A.; Schroeder, C. B.; Vay, J. -L.; Geddes, C. R.; Benedetti, C.; Esarey and, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2014-07-13

    A plasma decelerating stage is investigated as a compact alternative for the disposal of high-energy beams (beam dumps). This could benefit the design of laser-driven plasma accelerator (LPA) applications that require transportability and or high-repetition-rate operation regimes. Passive and laser-driven (active) plasma-based beam dumps are studied analytically and with particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations in a 1D geometry. Analytical estimates for the beam energy loss are compared to and extended by the PIC simulations, showing that with the proposed schemes a beam can be efficiently decelerated in a centimeter-scale distance.

  16. Nonlinear laser-plasma interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaw, P. K.

    2017-12-01

    Soon after lasers were invented, there was tremendous curiosity on the nonlinear phenomena which would result in their interaction with a fully ionized plasma. Apart from the basic interest, it was realized that it could be used for the achievement of nuclear fusion in the laboratory. This led us to a paper on the propagation of a laser beam into an inhomogeneous fusion plasma, where it was first demonstrated that light would go up to the critical layer (where the frequency matches the plasma frequency) and get reflected from there with a reflection coefficient of order unity. The reflection coefficient was determined by collisional effects. Since the wave was expected to slow down to near zero group speed at the reflection point, the dominant collision frequency determining the reflection coefficient was the collision frequency at the reflection point. It turned out that the absorption of light was rather small for fusion temperatures. This placed a premium on investigation of nonlinear phenomena which might contribute to the absorption and penetration of the light into high-density plasma. An early investigation showed that electron jitter with respect to ions would be responsible for the excitation of decay instabilities which convert light waves into electrostatic plasma waves and ion waves near the critical frequency. These electrostatic waves would then get absorbed into the plasma even in the collisionless case and lead to plasma heating which is nonlinear. Detailed estimates of this heating were made. Similar nonlinear processes which could lead to stimulated scattering of light in the underdense region (ω >ω _p) were investigated together with a number of other workers. All these nonlinear processes need a critical threshold power for excitation. Another important process which was discovered around the same time had to do with filamentation and trapping of light when certain thresholds were exceeded. All of this work has been extensively verified in

  17. Progress of Laser-Driven Plasma Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Kazuhisa

    2007-01-01

    There is a great interest worldwide in plasma accelerators driven by ultra-intense lasers which make it possible to generate ultra-high gradient acceleration and high quality particle beams in a much more compact size compared with conventional accelerators. A frontier research on laser and plasma accelerators is focused on high energy electron acceleration and ultra-short X-ray and Tera Hertz radiations as their applications. These achievements will provide not only a wide range of sciences with benefits of a table-top accelerator but also a basic science with a tool of ultrahigh energy accelerators probing an unknown extremely microscopic world.Harnessing the recent advance of ultra-intense ultra-short pulse lasers, the worldwide research has made a tremendous breakthrough in demonstrating high-energy high-quality particle beams in a compact scale, so called ''dream beams on a table top'', which represents monoenergetic electron beams from laser wakefield accelerators and GeV acceleration by capillary plasma-channel laser wakefield accelerators. This lecture reviews recent progress of results on laser-driven plasma based accelerator experiments to quest for particle acceleration physics in intense laser-plasma interactions and to present new outlook for the GeV-range high-energy laser plasma accelerators

  18. Boltzmann equation analysis of electrons swarm parameters and properties of excited particle number densities in Xe/Ne plasmas. Laser absorption effect; Xe/Ne plasma chudenshi yuso keisu narabi ni reiki ryushisu mitsudo tokusei no Boltzmann hoteishiki kaiseki. Laser ko kyushu koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, S.; Sugawara, H.; Ventzek, P.; Sakai, Y. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1998-06-01

    Xe/Ne plasmas are important for plasma display panels and VUV light sources. However, reactions between electrons and excited particles in the mixtures are so complicated that influence of the reactions on the plasma properties is not understood well. In this work, taking account of reactions through which electrons are produced, such as cumulative and Penning ionization, and of transition between excited levels, the electron and excited particle properties in Xe/Ne plasmas are calculated using the Boltzmann equation. The ionization coefficient and electron drift velocity agreed with experimental data. The influence of laser absorption in Xe/Ne plasmas on the plasma properties is also discussed. 25 refs., 15 figs.

  19. Free-Free Transitions of the e-H System Inside a Dense Plasma Irradiated by a Laser Field at Very Low Incident-Electron Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Sinha, C.

    2012-01-01

    The free-free transition is studied for an electron-hydrogen atom in ground state when a low-energy electron (external) is injected into hydrogenic plasma in the presence of an external homogenous, monochromatic, and linearly polarized laser field. The effect of plasma screening is considered in the Debye-Huckel approximation. The calculations are performed in the soft photon limit. The incident electron is considered to be dressed by the laser field in a nonperturbative manner by choosing the Volkov solutions in both the initial and final channels. The space part of the scattering wave function for the electron is solved numerically by taking into account the electron exchange. The laser-assisted differential and total cross sections are calculated for single-photon absorption or emission and no-photon exchange in the soft photon limit, the laser intensity being much less than the atomic field intensity. The calculations have been carried out for various values of Debye parameter, ranging from 0.005 to 0.12. A strong suppression is noted in the laser-assisted cross sections as compared to the field-free situation. A significant difference is noted for the singlet and triplet cross sections. The suppression is much more in the triplet states.

  20. Model for Generation of Neutrons in a Compact Diode with Laser-Plasma Anode and Suppression of Electron Conduction Using a Permanent Cylindrical Magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikanov, A. E.; Vovchenko, E. D.; Kozlovskii, K. I.; Rashchikov, V. I.; Shatokhin, V. L.

    2018-04-01

    A model for acceleration of deuterons and generation of neutrons in a compact laser-plasma diode with electron isolation using magnetic field generated by a hollow cylindrical permanent magnet is presented. Experimental and computer-simulated neutron yields are compared for the diode structure under study. An accelerating neutron tube with a relatively high neutron generation efficiency can be constructed using suppression of electron conduction with the aid of a magnet placed in the vacuum volume.

  1. Nonlinear dynamics of circularly polarized laser pulse propagating in a magnetized plasma with superthermal ions and mixed nonthermal high-energy tail electrons distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etemadpour, R.; Dorranian, D., E-mail: doran@srbiau.ac.ir [Laser Laboratory, Plasma Physics Research Center, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sepehri Javan, N. [Department of Physics, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, P.O. Box 179, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The nonlinear dynamics of a circularly polarized laser pulse propagating in the magnetized plasmas whose constituents are superthermal ions and mixed nonthermal high-energy tail electrons is studied theoretically. A nonlinear equation which describes the dynamics of the slowly varying amplitude is obtained using a relativistic two-fluid model. Based on this nonlinear equation and taking into account some nonlinear phenomena such as modulational instability, self-focusing and soliton formation are investigated. Effect of the magnetized plasma with superthermal ions and mixed nonthermal high-energy tail electrons on these phenomena is considered. It is shown that the nonthermality and superthermality of particles can substantially change the nonlinearity of medium.

  2. Nonlinear dynamics of circularly polarized laser pulse propagating in a magnetized plasma with superthermal ions and mixed nonthermal high-energy tail electrons distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etemadpour, R.; Dorranian, D.; Sepehri Javan, N.

    2016-01-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of a circularly polarized laser pulse propagating in the magnetized plasmas whose constituents are superthermal ions and mixed nonthermal high-energy tail electrons is studied theoretically. A nonlinear equation which describes the dynamics of the slowly varying amplitude is obtained using a relativistic two-fluid model. Based on this nonlinear equation and taking into account some nonlinear phenomena such as modulational instability, self-focusing and soliton formation are investigated. Effect of the magnetized plasma with superthermal ions and mixed nonthermal high-energy tail electrons on these phenomena is considered. It is shown that the nonthermality and superthermality of particles can substantially change the nonlinearity of medium.

  3. Generation of fast electrons in the external corona of laser plasma by the Raman scattering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mašek, Martin; Rohlena, Karel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 163, 4-6 (2008), 551-558 ISSN 1042-0150 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/2475 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : Vlasov equation * stimulated Raman scattering * Raman cascade Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.415, year: 2008

  4. Calculating the radiation characteristics of accelerated electrons in laser-plasma interactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Li, X.F.; Yu, Q.; Gu, Yanjun; Qu, J.F.; Ma, Y.Y.; Kong, Q.; Kawata, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 3 (2016), s. 1-5, č. článku 033113. ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162; GA MŠk LQ1606 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : wakefield accelerator * x-rays * beams * driven Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.115, year: 2016

  5. High excitation of the species in nitrogen–aluminum plasma generated by electron cyclotron resonance microwave discharge of N2 gas and pulsed laser ablation of Al target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Peipei; Li, Yanli; Cai, Hua; You, Qinghu; Yang, Xu; Huang, Feiling; Sun, Jian; Xu, Ning; Wu, Jiada

    2014-01-01

    A reactive nitrogen–aluminum plasma generated by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) microwave discharge of N 2 gas and pulsed laser ablation of an Al target is characterized spectroscopically by time-integrated and time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The vibrational and rotational temperatures of N 2 species are determined by spectral simulation. The generated plasma strongly emits radiation from a variety of excited species including ambient nitrogen and ablated aluminum and exhibits unique features in optical emission and temperature evolution compared with the plasmas generated by a pure ECR discharge or by the expansion of the ablation plume. The working N 2 gas is first excited by ECR discharge and the excitation of nitrogen is further enhanced due to the fast expansion of the aluminum plume induced by target ablation, while the excitation of the ablated aluminum is prolonged during the plume expansion in the ECR nitrogen plasma, resulting in the formation of strongly reactive nitrogen–aluminum plasma which contains highly excited species with high vibrational and rotational temperatures. The enhanced intensities and the prolonged duration of the optical emissions of the combined plasma would provide an improved analytical capability for spectrochemical analysis. - Highlights: • ECR discharge and pulsed laser ablation generate highly excited ECR–PLA plasma. • The expansion of PLA plasma results in excitation enhancement of ECR plasma species. • The ECR plasma leads to excitation prolongation of PLA plasma species. • The ECR–PLA plasma emits strong emissions from a variety of excited species. • The ECR–PLA plasma maintains high vibrational–rotational temperatures for a long time

  6. Measurement of Debye length in laser-produced plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehler, W.

    1973-01-01

    The Debye length of an expanded plasma created by placing an evacuated chamber with an entrance slit in the path of a freely expanding laser produced plasma was measured, using the slab geometry. An independent measurement of electron density together with the observed value for the Debye length also provided a means for evaluating the plasma electron temperature. This temperature has applications in ascertaining plasma conductivity and magnetic field necessary for confinement of the laser produced plasma. Also, the temperature obtained would be useful in analyzing electron-ion recombination rates in the expanded plasma and the dynamics of the cooling process of the plasma expansion.

  7. Anisotropic instability in a laser heated plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangam, A.; Morreeuw, J.-P.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.

    2007-01-01

    The theory of the Weibel instability induced by the inverse Bremsstrahlung absorption of a laser light in an underdense plasma is revisited. It is shown that previous analyses have strongly overestimated the effect by neglecting the stabilizing term related to the interaction of the generated quasistatic magnetic field with the laser-heated electrons. The revised model leads to a reduction of the growth rate by more than a factor of 10, to strong reduction of the domain of unstable modes and to inversion of the direction of the unstable wave vectors in the long wavelength limit. The consequences of this instability on the laser plasma interaction are also discussed

  8. Ion plasma electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakalopulos, G.

    1976-01-01

    In the disclosed electron gun positive ions generated by a hollow cathode plasma discharge in a first chamber are accelerated through control and shield grids into a second chamber containing a high voltage cold cathode. These positive ions bombard a surface of the cathode causing the cathode to emit secondary electrons which form an electron beam having a distribution adjacent to the cathode emissive surface substantially the same as the distribution of the ion beam impinging upon the cathode. After passing through the grids and the plasma discharge chamber, the electron beam exits from the electron gun via a foil window. Control of the generated electron beam is achieved by applying a relatively low control voltage between the control grid and the electron gun housing (which resides at ground potential) to control the density of the positive ions bombarding the cathode

  9. Plasma electron losses in a multidipole plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haworth, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    The magnitude of the plasma electron cusp losses in a multidipole plasma device is determined by using a plasma electron heating technique. This method consists of suddenly generating approximately monoenergetic test electrons inside the multidipole plasma, which is in a steady-state equilibrium prior to the introduction of the test electrons. The Coulomb collisions between the test electrons and the plasma electrons result in heating the plasma electrons. The experimentally measured time evolution of the plasma electron temperature is compared with that predicted by a kinetic-theory model which calculates the time evolution of the test electron and the plasma electron distribution functions. The analytical solution of the plasma electron heating rate when the test electrons are first introduced into the plasma predicts that there is no dependence on ion mass. Experimental results in helium, neon, argon, and krypton multidipole plasmas confirm this prediction. The time-evolved solution of the kinetic equations must be solved numerically, and these results (when coupled with the experimental heating results) show that the plasma electron cusp-loss width is on the order of an electron Larmor radius

  10. Plasma relativistic microwave electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzelev, M.V.; Loza, O.T.; Rukhadze, A.A.; Strelkov, P.S.; Shkvarunets, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    One formulated the principles of plasma relativistic microwave electronics based on the induced Cherenkov radiation of electromagnetic waves at interaction of a relativistic electron beam with plasma. One developed the theory of plasma relativistic generators and accelerators of microwave radiation, designed and studied the prototypes of such devices. One studied theoretically the mechanisms of radiation, calculated the efficiencies and the frequency spectra of plasma relativistic microwave generators and accelerators. The theory findings are proved by the experiment: intensity of the designed sources of microwave radiation is equal to 500 μW, the frequency of microwave radiation is increased by 7 times (from 4 up to 28 GHz), the width of radiation frequency band may vary from several up to 100%. The designed sources of microwave radiation are no else compared in the electronics [ru

  11. Laser plasma interactions in hohlraums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruer, W.L.

    1994-10-05

    Lasers plasma instabilities are an important constraint in x-ray driven inertial confinement fusion. In hohlraums irradiated with 1.06 {mu}m light on the Shiva laser, plasma instabilities were extremely deleterious, driving the program to the use of shorter wavelength light. Excellent coupling has been achieved in hohlraums driven with 0.35 {mu}m light on the Nova laser. Considerable attention is being given to the scaling of this excellent coupling to the larger hohlraums for an ignition target. Various instability control mechanisms such as large plasma wave damping and laser beam incoherence are discussed, as well as scaling experiments to check the instability levels.

  12. The application of laser plasma in ophthalmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Yujiang; Luo Le; Sun Yabing

    2000-01-01

    The production and development of laser plasma are introduced, and the contribution of laser biomedicine and laser plasma technology to ophthalmology is analyzed. The latest three progresses (laser photocoagulation, photo-refractive keratotomy and laser iridectomy) of laser plasma applications in ophthalmology are presented

  13. High average power CW FELs [Free Electron Laser] for application to plasma heating: Designs and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booske, J.H.; Granatstein, V.L.; Radack, D.J.; Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Bidwell, S.; Carmel, Y.; Destler, W.W.; Latham, P.E.; Levush, B.; Mayergoyz, I.D.; Zhang, Z.X.

    1989-01-01

    A short period wiggler (period ∼ 1 cm), sheet beam FEL has been proposed as a low-cost source of high average power (1 MW) millimeter-wave radiation for plasma heating and space-based radar applications. Recent calculation and experiments have confirmed the feasibility of this concept in such critical areas as rf wall heating, intercepted beam (''body'') current, and high voltage (0.5 - 1 MV) sheet beam generation and propagation. Results of preliminary low-gain sheet beam FEL oscillator experiments using a field emission diode and pulse line accelerator have verified that lasing occurs at the predicted FEL frequency. Measured start oscillation currents also appear consistent with theoretical estimates. Finally, we consider the possibilities of using a short-period, superconducting planar wiggler for improved beam confinement, as well as access to the high gain, strong pump Compton regime with its potential for highly efficient FEL operation

  14. Interaction of Intense Lasers with Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvets, Gennady

    1995-01-01

    This thesis addresses two important topics in nonlinear laser plasma physics: the interaction of intense lasers with a non thermal homogeneous plasma, the excitation of laser wakefields in hollow plasma channels, and the stability of channel guided propagation of laser pulses. In the first half of this thesis a new theoretical approach to the nonlinear interaction of intense laser pulses with underdense plasmas is developed. Unlike previous treatments, this theory is three-dimensional, relativistically covariant, and does not assume that astudied. An experimental check of this calculation is suggested, based on the predicted non-linear polarization rotation (the second harmonic is emitted polarized perpendicularly to polarization of the incident signal). The concept of renormalization is applied to the plasma and electromagnetic radiation (photons and plasmons). To the lowest order, this corresponds to relativistically correcting the electron mass for its oscillation in an intense EM field and to replacing the vacuum dispersion relation by the usual relativistic plasma dispersion relation. This renormalization procedure is then carried to higher order in epsilon=omega_sp{p} {2}a^2/[(1+a^2/2)^ {3/2}omega^2]. This yields the nonlinear modification of the index of refraction of a strong electromagnetic wave and the dispersion of a weak probe in the presence of the wave. In the second part of this thesis the stability of short laser pulses propagating through parabolic channels and the wake excitation of hollow plasma channels are studied. The stability of a channel guided short laser pulse propagation is analyzed for the first time. Perturbations to the laser pulse are shown to modify the ponderomotive pressure, which distorts the dielectric properties of the plasma channel. The channel perturbation then further distorts the laser pulse. A set of coupled mode equations is derived, and a matrix dispersion relation is obtained analytically. The ponderomotive excitation

  15. Plasmas and intense laser light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, E.T.

    1984-01-01

    The present article begins with a description of the laser technology required to reach the high irradiances of interest and provides a brief outline of the more important diagnostic techniques used in investigating the plasmas. An introduction to plasma waves is given and the linear and nonlinear excitation of waves is discussed. The remainder of the article describes some of the experimental evidence supporting the interpretation of the plasma behaviour at high laser-light intensities in terms of the excitation of plasma waves and the subsequent heating of plasma by these waves. (author)

  16. Coupling of laser energy into plasma channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, D. A.; Giacone, R. E.; Bruhwiler, D. L.; Busby, R.; Cary, J. R.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2007-01-01

    Diffractive spreading of a laser pulse imposes severe limitations on the acceleration length and maximum electron energy in the laser wake field accelerator (LWFA). Optical guiding of a laser pulse via plasma channels can extend the laser-plasma interaction distance over many Rayleigh lengths. Energy efficient coupling of laser pulses into and through plasma channels is very important for optimal LWFA performance. Results from simulation parameter studies on channel guiding using the particle-in-cell (PIC) code VORPAL [C. Nieter and J. R. Cary, J. Comput. Phys. 196, 448 (2004)] are presented and discussed. The effects that density ramp length and the position of the laser pulse focus have on coupling into channels are considered. Moreover, the effect of laser energy leakage out of the channel domain and the effects of tunneling ionization of a neutral gas on the guided laser pulse are also investigated. Power spectral diagnostics were developed and used to separate pump depletion from energy leakage. The results of these simulations show that increasing the density ramp length decreases the efficiency of coupling a laser pulse to a channel and increases the energy loss when the pulse is vacuum focused at the channel entrance. Then, large spot size oscillations result in increased energy leakage. To further analyze the coupling, a differential equation is derived for the laser spot size evolution in the plasma density ramp and channel profiles are simulated. From the numerical solution of this equation, the optimal spot size and location for coupling into a plasma channel with a density ramp are determined. This result is confirmed by the PIC simulations. They show that specifying a vacuum focus location of the pulse in front of the top of the density ramp leads to an actual focus at the top of the ramp due to plasma focusing, resulting in reduced spot size oscillations. In this case, the leakage is significantly reduced and is negligibly affected by ramp length

  17. Study of a continuous plasma generated by electron bombardment and its mixing with a laser induced plasma. Influence of collisions on resonance cone phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besuelle, E.

    1997-01-01

    This thesis deals with three different fields of plasma physics. In the first part, we studied free expansion of an ionised uranium vapour generated in an electron beam evaporator. The electron temperature and the electron density of the expanding plasma have been measured by a Langmuir probe. The experimental results have been compared with the ones obtained by numerical simulation using a fluid code. The calculated points are in the error bars. We observe that there are two electron populations with different temperatures, which undergo a mixing during the plasma expansion. The neutral density influence on the electron temperature by collisional relaxation is also studied. The second part deals with a plasma diagnostic which can replace Langmuir probe in the case of a cold magnetized plasma: the resonance cone phenomenon. After recalling the wave propagation theory in a cold plasma, we introduce a new calculation of the potential radiated by an antenna in a collisional magnetized plasma. The domain where the resonance cone exists in considerably reduced because of collisions. More of that, the cone angle is reduced by this phenomenon too. The experiments performed show that we must take into account a wave turbulence phenomenon to explain the High collision frequency that we observe. The third part is about the study of the expansion of a plasma into another one. We solve this problem with fluid codes and Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code. THe electron families have a counter stream motion locally. Then, we study the electrostatic extraction of two plasmas-one pulsed, one continuous-in which we observe electron unfurling. (author)

  18. Rapid localized deactivation of self-assembled monolayers by propagation-controlled laser-induced plasma and its application to self-patterning of electronics and biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongsu; Kwon, Seung-Gab; Back, Seunghyun; Kang, Bongchul

    2018-03-01

    We present a novel laser-induced surface treatment process to rapidly control the spatial wettabilities of various functional solutions with submicron to micron resolutions. Ultrathin hydrophobic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) that little absorb typical laser lights due to short penetration depth were selectively deactivated by instantaneous interaction with laser-induced metallic plasmas. The spatial region of the deactivated SAM, which corresponds to process resolution, is adjustable by controlling the spatial propagation of the plasma. This method leads to the parallel formation of hydrophilic functional solutions on glass substrates with a minimum resolution on the submicron scale. To show its feasibility in device engineering fields, this method was applied to the cost-effective fabrication of electronics and biosensors. Rapid self-patterning of electronic and biological functional solutions (silver nanoparticle solution and streptavidin protein solution) was successfully realized by selective deactivation of two different SAMs (tridecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetrahydrooctyltrichlorosilane (FOTS) for electronics and the hetero-hybrid SAM (octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS)/2-[methoxy(polyethyleneoxy)propyl] trichlorosilane (PEG)) for biosensors). As a result, this method can be exploited for the rapid and low-cost fabrication of various thin film devices such as electronics, biosensors, energy, displays, and photonics.

  19. Absorption of turbulent laser plasma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silin, V.P.

    1979-02-01

    Some theoretical results relating to the interaction of high-power laser radiation with a plasma are presented including the development of a theory of parametric instabilities in an inhomogeneous laser plasma which shows that the size of the spatial region in which the turbulent state develops is comparable with the characteristic dimension of a several-fold fluctuation in the plasma density close to its critical value. The conditions are identified under which parametric turbulence gives an anomalous effective collision frequency substantially greater than the normal electron-ion collision frequency. Even during the build-up of strong parametric turbulence, conditions are found for the development of anomalous dissipation which results in heating of the bulk of the electrons. Under opposite conditions, the dynamic behaviour due to the influence of the ponderomotive forces associated with the p component of the radiation field shows that under slow plasma flow conditions, a considerable proportion of the laser energy absorbed by the plasma is transferred to the fast electrons. Suppression of the Cherenkov mechanism for generation of the fast electron component is observed on transition to fast plasma flow conditions. (author)

  20. Production of extended plasma channels in atmospheric air by amplitude-modulated UV radiation of GARPUN-MTW Ti : sapphire—KrF laser. Part 2. Accumulation of plasma electrons and electric discharge control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvorykin, V. D.; Ionin, Andrei A.; Levchenko, A. O.; Mesyats, Gennadii A.; Seleznev, L. V.; Sinitsyn, D. V.; Smetanin, Igor V.; Sunchugasheva, E. S.; Ustinovskii, N. N.; Shutov, A. V.

    2013-04-01

    The problem of the production of extended (~1 m) plasma channels is studied in atmospheric air by amplitude-modulated laser pulses of UV radiation, which are a superposition of a subpicosecond USP train amplified in a regenerative KrF amplifier with an unstable confocal resonator and a quasi-stationary lasing pulse. The USPs possess a high (0.2-0.3 TW) peak power and efficiently ionise oxygen molecules due to multiphoton ionisation, and the quasi-stationary lasing pulse, which has a relatively long duration (~100 ns), maintains the electron density at a level ne = (3-5) × 1014 cm—3 by suppressing electron attachment to oxygen. Experiments in laser triggering of high-voltage electric discharges suggest that the use of combined pulses results in a significant lowering of the breakdown threshold and enables controlling the discharge trajectory with a higher efficiency in comparison with smooth pulses. It was shown that controlled breakdowns may develop with a delay of tens of microseconds relative to the laser pulse, which is many orders of magnitude greater than the lifetime of free electrons in the laser-induced plasma. We propose a mechanism for this breakdown, which involves speeding-up of the avalanche ionisation of the air by negative molecular oxygen ions with a low electron binding energy (~0.5 eV) and a long lifetime (~1 ms), which are produced upon cessation of the laser pulse.

  1. Electron acceleration in a plane laser beam

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petržílka, Václav; Krlín, Ladislav; Tataronis, J. A.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 52, supplement D (2002), s. 279-282 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology/20th./. Prague, 10.06.2002-13.06.2002] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : electron acceleration, laser beam Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.311, year: 2002

  2. Pulsed Plasma Electron Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasik, Yakov

    2008-11-01

    Pulsed (˜10-7 s) electron beams with high current density (>10^2 A/cm^2) are generated in diodes with electric field of E > 10^6 V/cm. The source of electrons in these diodes is explosive emission plasma, which limits pulse duration; in the case E Saveliev, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 093308 (2005). Ya. E. Krasik, A. Dunaevsky, and J. Felsteiner, Phys. Plasmas 8, 2466 (2001). D. Yarmolich, V. Vekselman, V. Tz. Gurovich, and Ya. E. Krasik, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 075004 (2008). J. Z. Gleizer, Y. Hadas and Ya. E. Krasik, Europhysics Lett. 82, 55001 (2008).

  3. Low-energy x-ray and electron physics and applications to diagnostics development for laser-produced plasma research. Final report, April 30, 1980-April 29, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henke, B.L.

    1981-08-01

    This final report describes a collaborative extension of an ongoing research program in low-energy x-ray and electron physics into particular areas of immediate need for the diagnostics of plasmas as involved in laser-produced fusion research. It has been for the continued support for one year of a post-doctoral research associate and for three student research assistants who have been applied to the following specific efforts: (1) the continuation of our research on the absolute characterization of x-ray photocathode systems for the 0.1 to 10 keV photon energy region. The research results were applied collaboratively to the design, construction and calibration of photocathodes for time-resolved detection with the XRD and the streak and framing cameras; (2) the design, construction and absolute calibration of optimized, bolt-on spectrographs for the absolute measurement of laser-produced plasma spectra.

  4. Low-energy x-ray and electron physics and applications to diagnostics development for laser-produced plasma research. Final report, April 30, 1980-April 29, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henke, B.L.

    1981-08-01

    This final report describes a collaborative extension of an ongoing research program in low-energy x-ray and electron physics into particular areas of immediate need for the diagnostics of plasmas as involved in laser-produced fusion research. It has been for the continued support for one year of a post-doctoral research associate and for three student research assistants who have been applied to the following specific efforts: (1) the continuation of our research on the absolute characterization of x-ray photocathode systems for the 0.1 to 10 keV photon energy region. The research results were applied collaboratively to the design, construction and calibration of photocathodes for time-resolved detection with the XRD and the streak and framing cameras; (2) the design, construction and absolute calibration of optimized, bolt-on spectrographs for the absolute measurement of laser-produced plasma spectra

  5. Summary Report of Working Group 6: Laser-Plasma Acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leemans, Wim P.; Downer, Michael; Siders, Craig

    2006-01-01

    A summary is given of presentations and discussions in the Laser-Plasma Acceleration Working Group at the 2006 Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop. Presentation highlights include: widespread observation of quasi-monoenergetic electrons; good agreement between measured and simulated beam properties; the first demonstration of laser-plasma acceleration up to 1 GeV; single-shot visualization of laser wakefield structure; new methods for measuring <100 fs electron bunches; and new methods for 'machining' laser-plasma accelerator structures. Discussion of future direction includes: developing a roadmap for laser-plasma acceleration beyond 1 GeV; a debate over injection and guiding; benchmarking simulations with improved wake diagnostics; petawatt laser technology for future laser-plasma accelerators

  6. A laser plasma beatwave accelerator experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahim, N.A.

    1987-03-01

    An experiment to test the laser plasma beatware accelerator concept is outlined. A heuristic estimate of the relevant experimental parameters is obtained from fluid theory and considerations of wave-particle interactions. Acceleration of 10 MeV electrons to approximately 70 MeV over a plasma length of 3 cm appears to be feasible. This corresponds to an accelerating gradient of approximately 2.5 GeV/m

  7. Axial- and radial-resolved electron density and excitation temperature of aluminum plasma induced by nanosecond laser: Effect of the ambient gas composition and pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud S. Dawood

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The spatial variation of the characteristics of an aluminum plasma induced by a pulsed nanosecond XeCl laser is studied in this paper. The electron density and the excitation temperature are deduced from time- and space- resolved Stark broadening of an ion line and from a Boltzmann diagram, respectively. The influence of the gas pressure (from vacuum up to atmospheric pressure and compositions (argon, nitrogen and helium on these characteristics is investigated. It is observed that the highest electron density occurs near the laser spot and decreases by moving away both from the target surface and from the plume center to its edge. The electron density increases with the gas pressure, the highest values being occurred at atmospheric pressure when the ambient gas has the highest mass, i.e. in argon. The excitation temperature is determined from the Boltzmann plot of line intensities of iron impurities present in the aluminum target. The highest temperature is observed close to the laser spot location for argon at atmospheric pressure. It decreases by moving away from the target surface in the axial direction. However, no significant variation of temperature occurs along the radial direction. The differences observed between the axial and radial direction are mainly due to the different plasma kinetics in both directions.

  8. Precise Charge Measurement For Laser Plasma Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kei; Gonsalves, Anthony; Lin, Chen; Sokollik, Thomas; Shiraishi, Satomi; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Osterhoff, Jens; Donahue, Rich; Rodgers, David; Smith, Alan; Byrne, Warren; Leemans, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Cross-calibrations of charge diagnostics are conducted to verify their validity for measuring electron beams produced by laser plasma accelerators (LPAs). Employed diagnostics are a scintillating screen, activation based measurement, and integrating current transformer. The diagnostics agreed within ±8 %, showing that they can provide accurate charge measurements for LPAs provided they are used properly.

  9. Development of a Nomarski-type multi-frame interferometer as a time and space resolving diagnostics for the free electron density of laser-generated plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerner, M.; Frank, A.; Pelka, A.; Schaumann, G.; Schoekel, A.; Schumacher, D.; Roth, M.; Fils, J.; Blazevic, A.; Hessling, T.; Basko, M. M.; Maruhn, J.; Tauschwitz, An.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the development and set-up of a Nomarski-type multi-frame interferometer as a time and space resolving diagnostics of the free electron density in laser-generated plasma. The interferometer allows the recording of a series of 4 images within 6 ns of a single laser-plasma interaction. For the setup presented here, the minimal accessible free electron density is 5 x 10 18 cm -3 , the maximal one is 2 x 10 20 cm -3 . Furthermore, it provides a resolution of the electron density in space of 50 μm and in time of 0.5 ns for one image with a customizable magnification in space for each of the 4 images. The electron density was evaluated from the interferograms using an Abel inversion algorithm. The functionality of the system was proven during first experiments and the experimental results are presented and discussed. A ray tracing procedure was realized to verify the interferometry pictures taken. In particular, the experimental results are compared to simulations and show excellent agreement, providing a conclusive picture of the evolution of the electron density distribution.

  10. The evolution of two-dimensional effects in fast electron transport from high intensity laser plasma interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiranoff, F.; Eidmann, K.; Sigel, R.; Fedosejevs, R.; Maaswinkel, A.; Teng, Y.L.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Hares, J.D.; Bradley, D.K.; MacGowan, B.J.

    1982-04-01

    Measurements of local and remote energy deposition by fast electrons have been made in 1.3 μm and 1.05 μm laser irradiation experiments with plane targets and various pulse lengths. From optical and X-ray streak photography and spatially resolved Kα yield measurements it is found that up to 30% of the absorbed laser energy spreads laterally to distances of several millimeters from the focal spot with a spreading velocity in excess of 10 8 cm sec -1 . (orig.)

  11. Comparison in electron density distribution of tokamak plasma between ruby-laser scattering and milli-meter wave interferometric measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matoba, Tohru; Funahashi, Akimasa; Itagaki, Tokiyoshi; Takahashi, Koki; Kumagai, Katsuaki

    1976-08-01

    The electron density in JFT-2 tokamak has been measured by two methods, i.e. Thomson scattering of ruby-laser light and interferometry of millimeter wave. Two-dimensional distribution of the scattered light intensities were obtained by scattering measurement; absolute calibration was made by normalizing the scattered intensities with the averaged density determined from interferometric measurement. The horizontal density distributions in laser scattering were compared with those in from the averaged densities measured with a 4-mm interferometer through inverse-transformation. Agreement is good between the two measurements, except where they give erroneous data because of irreproducibility of the discharge. (auth.)

  12. Accurate Alignment of Plasma Channels Based on Laser Centroid Oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; Lin, Chen; Osterhoff, Jens; Shiraishi, Satomi; Schroeder, Carl; Geddes, Cameron; Toth, Csaba; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim

    2011-01-01

    A technique has been developed to accurately align a laser beam through a plasma channel by minimizing the shift in laser centroid and angle at the channel outptut. If only the shift in centroid or angle is measured, then accurate alignment is provided by minimizing laser centroid motion at the channel exit as the channel properties are scanned. The improvement in alignment accuracy provided by this technique is important for minimizing electron beam pointing errors in laser plasma accelerators.

  13. Electron trapping in the electrosound solitary wave for propagation of high intensity laser in a relativistic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidari, E; Aslaninejad, M; Eshraghi, H

    2010-01-01

    Using a set of relativistic equations for plasmas with warm electrons and cold ions, we have investigated the effects of trapped electrons in the propagation of an electrosound wave and discussed the possibility of the formation of electromagnetic solitons in a plasma. The effective potential energy and deviations of the electron and ion number densities in this relativistic model have been found. We have obtained the governing equations for the amplitude of the HF field with relativistic corrections. In order to show the destructive impact of the trapped electrons on the solitary wave, a relativistic effective potential and the governing equation have been found. It is shown that for certain values of the parameters the condition of localization of the HF amplitude is violated. In addition, it is shown that as the flow velocity of the plasma changes, the shape of the solitary wave shows two opposing behaviours, depending on whether the solitary wave velocity is larger than the flow velocity or smaller. Also, the existence of stationary solitary waves which are prohibited for nonrelativistic plasma has been predicted. Finally, we have obtained the Korteweg-de Vries equation showing the relativistic, trapping and nonlinearity effects.

  14. Warm Dense Matter and Strongly Coupled Plasmas Created by Intense Heavy Ion Beams and XUV-Free Electron Laser: An Overview of Spectroscopic Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosmej, F B [University of Provence et CNRS, Centre St. Jerome, PIIM-DGP, case 232, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Lee, R W [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Riley, D [Queens University of Belfast, University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Meyer-ter-Vehn, J [Max-Planck Institute for Quantum Optics, 85748 Garching (Germany); Krenz, A [Max-Planck Institute for Quantum Optics, 85748 Garching (Germany); Tschentscher, T [HASYLAB at DESY, Nothkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Tauschwitz, An [University of Frankfurt, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Frankfurt (Germany); Tauschwitz, A [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung GSI, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Lisitsa, V S [Russian Research Center Kurchatov, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Faenov, A Ya [VNIIFTRI, Multi Charged Ion Spectra Data Center, 141570 Mendeleevo (Russian Federation)

    2007-06-15

    High density plasma physics, radiation emission/scattering and related atomic physics, spectroscopy and diagnostics are going to make large steps forward due to new experimental facilities providing beams of intense heavy ions and X/XUV free electron laser radiation. These facilities are currently being established at GSI-Darmstadt and DESY-Hamburg in Germany to access new and complementary parameter regimes for basic research which have never been obtained in laboratories so far: homogenous benchmark samples near solid density and temperatures from eV up to keV. This will provide important impact to many disciplines like astrophysics, atomic physics in dense environments, dense and strongly coupled plasma effects, radiation emission, equation of state. The spectroscopic analysis of the radiation emission plays a key role in this research to investigate the dynamics of electric fields in multi-particle coupled Coulomb systems and the modification of plasma statistics.

  15. Laser-aided plasma diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donne, A. J. H.; Barth, C. J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper will focus on two types of laser-aided diagnostics: Thomson scattering and laser-induced fluorescence. Thomson scattering is a very powerful diagnostic, which is applied at nearly every magnetic confinement device. Depending on the experimental conditions different plasma parameters can

  16. Principles of laser-plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malka, V.; Mora, P.

    2009-01-01

    The continuing development of powerful laser systems has permitted to extend the interaction of laser beams with matter far into the relativistic domain in which extremely high electric and magnetic fields are generated. Thanks to these tremendous fields, that only plasma can support and sustain, new and compact approaches for producing energetic particle beams have been recently achieved (for example the bubble regime and the colliding laser pulses scheme). The incredible progress of these laser-plasma accelerators has allowed physicists to produce high quality beams of energetic radiation and particles. These beams have interesting properties such as shortness, brightness and spatial quality, and could lend themselves to applications in many fields, including medicine (radiotherapy, proton therapy, imaging), radiation biology (short-time-scale), chemistry (radiolysis), physics and material science (radiography, electron and photon diffraction), security (material inspection), and of course accelerator science. Stimulated by the advent of compact and powerful lasers, with moderate costs and high repetition rate, this research field has witnessed considerable growth in the past few years, and the promises of laser-plasma accelerators are in tremendous progress. The recent years in particular have seen spectacular progress in the acceleration of electrons and of ions, both in terms of energy and in terms of quality of the beams. (authors)

  17. Controlling Laser Plasma Instabilities Using Temporal Bandwidth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsung, Frank; Weaver, J.; Lehmberg, R.

    2016-10-01

    We are performing particle-in-cell simulations using the code OSIRIS to study the effects of laser plasma interactions in the presence of temporal bandwidth under conditions relevant to current and future experiments on the NIKE laser. Our simulations show that, for sufficiently large bandwidth (where the inverse bandwidth is comparable with the linear growth time), the saturation level, and the distribution of hot electrons, can be effected by the addition of temporal bandwidths (which can be accomplished in experiments using beam smoothing techniques such as ISI). We will quantify these effects and investigate higher dimensional effects such as laser speckles. This work is supported by DOE and NRL.

  18. Interactions between laser and arc plasma during laser-arc hybrid welding of magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liming; Chen, Minghua

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents the results of the investigation on the interactions between laser and arc plasma during laser-arc hybrid welding on magnesium alloy AZ31B using the spectral diagnose technique. By comparably analyzing the variation in plasma information (the shape, the electron temperature and density) of single tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding with the laser-arc hybrid welding, it is found that the laser affects the arc plasma through the keyhole forming on the workpiece. Depending on the welding parameters there are three kinds of interactions taking place between laser and arc plasma.

  19. Diagnostics of ytterbium/aluminium laser plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, J.; Lee, R.W.; Landen, O.L.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Lewis, C.L.; Busquet, M.

    1986-11-01

    Microdot spectroscopy was used to study the x-ray emission from laser-produced plasmas consisting of 10% ytterbium, 90% aluminium. Spectra were recorded with a space-resolving flat crystal (PET) mini-spectrometer in the 4.0-8.0 A range. The Janus research laser at LLNL irradiated the targets with green (0.53 μm) light in a 1 nsec pulse. The power density was varied between 4x10 13 and 3x10 14 W/cm 2 . The plasma electron density and temperature were determined from the aluminium XI, XII and XIII line emission. By examining correlations between changes in the plasma conditions with changes in the ytterbium spectra, we will determine the potential for using ytterbium line emission as a plasma diagnostic

  20. Radiation sources based on laser-plasma interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaroszynski, D.A.; Bingham, R.; Brunetti, E.; Ersfeld, B.; Gallacher, J.G.; Geer, van der S.B.; Issac, R.; Jamison, S.P.; Jones, D.; Loos, de M.J.; Lyachev, A.; Pavlov, V.M.; Reitsma, A.J.W.; Saveliev, Y.M.; Vieux, G.; Wiggins, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    Plasma waves excited by intense laser beams can be harnessed to produce femtosecond duration bunches of electrons with relativistic energies. The very large electrostatic forces of plasma density wakes trailing behind an intense laser pulse provide field potentials capable of accelerating charged

  1. Spectrochemical analysis using laser plasma excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radziemski, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on analyses of gases, liquids, particles, and surfaces in which laser plasma is used to vaporize and excite a material. The authors present a discussion of the interaction between laser radiation and a solid and some recent analytical results using laser plasma excitation on metals. The use of laser plasmas as an ablation source is also discussed

  2. The use of laser beams for plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gex, J.P.; Jolas, A.; Launspach, J.; Schirmann, D.

    1975-01-01

    The optical properties of lasers allow them to be a promising source for plasma diagnosis. The Q-switched lasers provide the opportunity to make observations in a very short time interval down to a few picoseconds. The laser space and time coherence properties allow interferometric measurements of plasma electron densities. Thus in the experiments of laser-matter interactions, the radiation obtained by frequency conversion of the Nd: glass laser emission is used for density measurements (up to 10 20 cm -3 ) in small scale plasmas (approximately equal to 1mm). Owing to the monochromaticity and high intensity of the Q-switched laser radiation, density fluctuations and microscopic instabilities of the plasma can be studied by Thompson scattering measurements. Finally, some statistically isotropic media become birefringent under the action of the strong electrical field of the laser beam radiation. This effect can be used for laser pulse duration measurements in a range not exceeding a few picoseconds [fr

  3. Staging laser plasma accelerators for increased beam energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panasenko, Dmitriy; Shu, Anthony; Schroeder, Carl; Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; Matlis, Nicholas; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Plateau, Guillaume; Lin, Chen; Toth, Csaba; Geddes, Cameron; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim

    2008-01-01

    Staging laser plasma accelerators is an efficient way of mitigating laser pump depletion in laser driven accelerators and necessary for reaching high energies with compact laser systems. The concept of staging includes coupling of additional laser energy and transporting the electron beam from one accelerating module to another. Due to laser damage threshold constraints, in-coupling laser energy with conventional optics requires distances between the accelerating modules of the order of 10m, resulting in decreased average accelerating gradient and complicated e-beam transport. In this paper we use basic scaling laws to show that the total length of future laser plasma accelerators will be determined by staging technology. We also propose using a liquid jet plasma mirror for in-coupling the laser beam and show that it has the potential to reduce distance between stages to the cm-scale.

  4. Probing of flowing electron plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himura, H.; Nakashima, C.; Saito, H.; Yoshida, Z.

    2001-01-01

    Probing of streaming electron plasmas with finite temperature is studied. For the first time, a current-voltage characteristic of an electric probe is measured in electron plasmas. Due to the fast flow of the electron plasmas, the characteristic curve spreads out significantly and exhibits a long tail. This feature can be explained calculating the currents collected to the probe. In flowing electron plasmas, the distribution function observed in the laboratory frame is non-Maxwellian even if the plasmas come to a state of thermal equilibrium. Another significant feature of the characteristic is that it determines a floating potential where the current equals zero, despite there being very few ions in the electron plasma. A high impedance probe, which is popularly used to determine the space potential of electron plasmas, outputs the potential. The method is available only for plasmas with density much smaller than the Brillouin limit

  5. Laser-plasma interactions for fast ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, A. J.; Fiuza, F.; Debayle, A.; Johzaki, T.; Mori, W. B.; Patel, P. K.; Sentoku, Y.; Silva, L. O.

    2014-05-01

    In the electron-driven fast-ignition (FI) approach to inertial confinement fusion, petawatt laser pulses are required to generate MeV electrons that deposit several tens of kilojoules in the compressed core of an imploded DT shell. We review recent progress in the understanding of intense laser-plasma interactions (LPI) relevant to FI. Increases in computational and modelling capabilities, as well as algorithmic developments have led to enhancement in our ability to perform multi-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of LPI at relevant scales. We discuss the physics of the interaction in terms of laser absorption fraction, the laser-generated electron spectra, divergence, and their temporal evolution. Scaling with irradiation conditions such as laser intensity are considered, as well as the dependence on plasma parameters. Different numerical modelling approaches and configurations are addressed, providing an overview of the modelling capabilities and limitations. In addition, we discuss the comparison of simulation results with experimental observables. In particular, we address the question of surrogacy of today's experiments for the full-scale FI problem.

  6. MODULATED PLASMA ELECTRON BEAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, L. H.

    1963-08-15

    Techniques have been developed for producing electron beams of two amperes or more, from a plasma within a hollow cathode. Electron beam energies of 20 kilovolts are readily obtained and power densities of the order of 10,000 kilowatts per square inch can be obtained with the aid of auxiliary electromagnetic focusing. An inert gas atmosphere of a few microns pressure is used to initiate and maintain the beam. Beam intensity increases with both gas pressure and cathode potential but may be controlled by varying the potential of an internal electrode. Under constant pressure and cathode potential the beam intensity may be varied over a wide range by adjusting the potential of the internal control electrode. The effects of cathode design on the volt-ampere characteristics of the beam and the design of control electrodes are described. Also, performance data in both helium and argon are given. A tentative theory of the origin of electrons and of beam formation is proposed. Applications to vacuum metallurgy and to electron beam welding are described and illustrated. (auth)

  7. Laser-plasma booster for ion post acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoh D.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A remarkable ion energy increase is demonstrated for post acceleration by a laser-plasma booster. An intense short-pulse laser generates a strong current by high-energy electrons accelerated, when this intense short-pulse laser illuminates a plasma target. The strong electric current creates a strong magnetic field along the high-energy electron current in plasma. During the increase phase in the magnetic field, a longitudinal inductive electric field is induced for the forward ion acceleration by the Faraday law. Our 2.5-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations demonstrate a remarkable increase in ion energy by several tens of MeV.

  8. Plasma Wave Electronic Terahertz Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shur, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Plasma waves are oscillations of electron density in time and space. In deep submicron field effect transistors plasma wave frequencies lie in the terahertz range and can be tuned by applied gate bias...

  9. Tomography of laser fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceglio, N.M.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental programs exist in a number of laboratories throughout the world to test the feasibility of using powerful laser systems to drive the implosion of hydrogen isotope fuel to thermonuclear burn conditions. In a typical experiment multiple laser beams are focused onto a glass microshell (typically 50 μm to 200 μm diameter) filled with an equimolar D-T gas mixture. X-ray and particle emissions from the target provide important information about the hydrodynamic implosion of the glass shell and the associated compression and heating of the D-T fuel. Standard diagnostics for imaging such emissions are the grazing incidence reflection (GIR) x-ray microscope and the pinhole camera. Recently, a particular coded imaging technique, Zone Plate Coded Imaging (ZPCI), has been successfully used for x-ray and particle microscopy of laser fusion plasmas. ZPCI is highly attractive for investigating laser produced plasmas because it possesses a tomographic capability not shared by either the GIR or pinhole imaging techniques. This presentation provides a brief discussion of the tomographic potential of ZPCI. In addition, the first tomographic x-ray images (tomographic resolution approximately 74 μm) of a laser produced plasma are presented

  10. Measurement of the electron density of a plasma by interferometry with a He - Ne laser ({lambda} = 3.39 {mu}); Mesure de la densite electronique d'un plasma par interferometrie avec un laser He - Ne ({lambda} = 3.39 {mu})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belland, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    The characteristics of the He-Ne gas laser used in a simple interferometric technique have been studied. After passing through the plasma, the beam is reflected back into the laser cavity, and the intensity of the laser itself, modulated by this optical feedback, is used to observe the fringes. Furthermore, owing to the coupling of the two laser transitions 0.63{mu} (red) and 3.39{mu} (infra red), interferences in the infra red can be detected by a simple photomultiplier monitoring the red line. This method has been applied to two plasma machines (E.P.P.E. and SABLIER) for spatial and temporal measurements of the mean electron density. (author) [French] Nous avons etudie les caracteristiques d'un laser a gaz He-Ne utilise dans une technique simple d'interferometrie. La lumiere qui traverse le plasma est reinjectee dans le laser, et l'intensite propre de celui-ci, modulee par cette reinjection, sert a observer les franges. De plus, a cause du couplage des deux transitions laser: 0.63{mu} (rouge) et 3.39{mu} (infrarouge), les interferences dans l'infrarouge peuvent etre detectees par un simple photomultiplicateur sensible au rouge. Nous avons applique cette methode a deux machines a plasma (E.P.P.E. et SABLIER) pour la mesure de la densite electronique moyenne en fonction du temps et de l'espace. (auteur)

  11. Laser plasma LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.B.; Baggett, N.; Claus, J.; Fernow, R.; Ghosh, A.; Giordano, S.; Radeka, V.; Stumer, I.; Takacs, P.; Warren, J.

    1985-01-01

    The grating accelerator concept is reviewed. The use of a double row of conducting droplets instead of a conventional grating constrains the fields to a narrow band. The use of droplets also allows fields that will destroy the structure. RF modelling results are presented together with a simple theory of the fields. Coupling to incoming radiation is described. A possible laser specification is also given. (orig.)

  12. Laser plasma LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.B.; Baggett, N.; Claus, J.

    1984-01-01

    The grating accelerator concept is reviewed. The use of a double row of conducting droplets instead of a conventional grating constrains the fields to a narrow band. The use of droplets also allows fields that will destroy the structure. The rf modeling results are presented together with a simple theory of the fields. Coupling to incoming radiation is described. A possible laser specification is also given. 9 references, 8 figures

  13. Plasma Channel Diagnostic Based on Laser Centroid Oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; Lin, Chen; Osterhoff, Jens; Shiraishi, Satomi; Schroeder, Carl; Geddes, Cameron; Toth, Csaba; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim

    2010-01-01

    A technique has been developed for measuring the properties of discharge-based plasma channels by monitoring the centroid location of a laser beam exiting the channel as a function of input alignment offset between the laser and the channel. The centroid position of low-intensity ( 14 Wcm -2 ) laser pulses focused at the input of a hydrogen-filled capillary discharge waveguide was scanned and the exit positions recorded to determine the channel shape and depth with an accuracy of a few %. In addition, accurate alignment of the laser beam through the plasma channel can be provided by minimizing laser centroid motion at the channel exit as the channel depth is scanned either by scanning the plasma density or the discharge timing. The improvement in alignment accuracy provided by this technique will be crucial for minimizing electron beam pointing errors in laser plasma accelerators.

  14. Development of plasma cathode electron guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oks, Efim M.; Schanin, Peter M.

    1999-05-01

    The status of experimental research and ongoing development of plasma cathode electron guns in recent years is reviewed, including some novel upgrades and applications to various technological fields. The attractiveness of this kind of e-gun is due to its capability of creating high current, broad or focused beams, both in pulsed and steady-state modes of operation. An important characteristic of the plasma cathode electron gun is the absence of a thermionic cathode, a feature which leads to long lifetime and reliable operation even in the presence of aggressive background gas media and at fore-vacuum gas pressure ranges such as achieved by mechanical pumps. Depending on the required beam parameters, different kinds of plasma discharge systems can be used in plasma cathode electron guns, such as vacuum arcs, constricted gaseous arcs, hollow cathode glows, and two kinds of discharges in crossed E×B fields: Penning and magnetron. At the present time, plasma cathode electron guns provide beams with transverse dimension from fractional millimeter up to about one meter, beam current from microamperes to kiloamperes, beam current density up to about 100 A/cm2, pulse duration from nanoseconds to dc, and electron energy from several keV to hundreds of keV. Applications include electron beam melting and welding, surface treatment, plasma chemistry, radiation technologies, laser pumping, microwave generation, and more.

  15. Optical characteristics of a gallium laser plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuaibov, A.K.; Shimon, L.L.; Dashchenko, A.I.; Shevera, I.V.; Chuchman, M.P.

    2001-01-01

    Results are presented from studies of the emission from an erosion gallium laser plasma at a moderate intensity (W = (1-5) x 10 8 W/cm 2 ) of a 1.06-μm laser radiation. It is shown that, under these conditions, the lower excited states of gallium atoms are populated most efficiently. Among the ions, only the most intense GaII lines are observed in the emission spectrum. The populations of GaI and GaII excited states are not related to direct electron excitation, but are determined by the recombination of gallium ions with slow electrons. The recombination times of GaIII and GaII ions in the core of the plasma jet are determined from the waveforms of emission in the GaII and GaI spectral lines and are equal to 10 and 140 ns, respectively. The results obtained are of interest for spectroscopic diagnostics of an erosion plasma produced from gallium-containing layered crystals during the laser deposition of thin films

  16. A novel nuclear pyrometry for the characterization of high-energy bremsstrahlung and electrons produced in relativistic laser-plasma interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, M. M.; Sonnabend, K.; Harres, K.; Roth, M.; Brambrink, E.; Vogt, K.; Bagnoud, V.

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel nuclear activation-based method for the investigation of high-energy bremsstrahlung produced by electrons above 7 MeV generated by a high-power laser. The main component is a novel high-density activation target that is a pseudo alloy of several selected isotopes with different photo-disintegration reaction thresholds. The gamma spectrum emitted by the activated targets is used for the reconstruction of the bremsstrahlung spectrum using an analysis method based on Penfold and Leiss. This nuclear activation-based technique allows for the determination of the number of bremsstrahlung photons per energy bin in a wide range energy without any anticipated fit procedures. Furthermore, the analysis method also allows for the determination of the absolute yield, the energy distribution, and the temperature of high-energy electrons at the relativistic laser-plasma interaction region. The pyrometry is sensitive to energies above 7 MeV only, i.e., this diagnostic is insensitive to any low-energy processes.

  17. A novel nuclear pyrometry for the characterization of high-energy bremsstrahlung and electrons produced in relativistic laser-plasma interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, M. M.; Sonnabend, K.; Harres, K.; Roth, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Schlossgartenstr. 9, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Brambrink, E. [Laboratoire pour l' Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, UMR 7605 CNRS-CEA-Ecole Polytechnique-Universite Paris VI, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Vogt, K.; Bagnoud, V. [GSI - Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    We present a novel nuclear activation-based method for the investigation of high-energy bremsstrahlung produced by electrons above 7 MeV generated by a high-power laser. The main component is a novel high-density activation target that is a pseudo alloy of several selected isotopes with different photo-disintegration reaction thresholds. The gamma spectrum emitted by the activated targets is used for the reconstruction of the bremsstrahlung spectrum using an analysis method based on Penfold and Leiss. This nuclear activation-based technique allows for the determination of the number of bremsstrahlung photons per energy bin in a wide range energy without any anticipated fit procedures. Furthermore, the analysis method also allows for the determination of the absolute yield, the energy distribution, and the temperature of high-energy electrons at the relativistic laser-plasma interaction region. The pyrometry is sensitive to energies above 7 MeV only, i.e., this diagnostic is insensitive to any low-energy processes.

  18. Spectrum diagnoses of laser plasma in 'ablation mode' laser propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ling; Tang Zhiping; Tong Huifeng; Su Maogen; Xue Simin

    2007-01-01

    The propellant materials (LY12 aluminium, No.45 steel, H62 brass, graphite, polyvinyl chloride, polyoxymethylene) in laser propulsion are ablated by a Nd: YAG laser (1.06 μm, 10 ns). The space-resolved and the power density-depended emission spectrums of aluminum and copper plasma are recorded and analyzed. Under the local thermo equilibrium assumption, the electronic temperature and density as well as the average intensity of ionization from the relative intensity of characteristic spectrum for aluminum are obtained. Their dependence on laser power-density and spatial variation are also investigated. The ablation imagines (the ejected plumes) of the six materials in vacuum are obtained and discussed by using a B shutter camera. (authors)

  19. Electron beam induced emission from carbon plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whetstone, S.; Kammash, T.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma use as a lasing medium has many potential advantages over conventional techniques including increased power levels and greater wavelength ranges. The basic concept is to heat and then rapidly cool a plasma forcing inversion through bottleneck creation between the recombination reaction populating a given energy level and the subsequent decay processes. Much effort has been devoted to plasmas heated by lasers and pinch devices. The authors are concerned here with electron beam heated plasmas focusing on the CIV 5g-4f transition occurring at 2530 Angstroms. These studies were initiated to provide theoretical support for experiments being performed at the University of Michigan using the Michigan Electron Long-Pulse Beam Accelerator (MELBA)

  20. Free-electron laser results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, W.E.; Brau, C.A.; Newnam, B.E.; Warren, R.W.; Winston, J.; Young, L.M.

    1981-01-01

    The Los Alamos free-electron laser (FEL) amplifier experiment was designed to demonstrate high efficiency for transfer of energy from an electron beam to a light beam in the magnetic field of a tapered wiggler. Initial results indicate an energy transfer consistent with theory. Distinct groups of decelerated electrons as well as accelerated electrons are clearly present in the energy spectrum of electrons emerging from the wiggler when the laser light is present. The observed energy decrease for the electrons captured in the decelerating bucket is approx. 6% and the average decrease of the entire energy distribution is approx. 2% for the conditions of these initial measurements

  1. Interaction of ultra-short ultra-intense laser pulses with under-dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solodov, A.

    2000-12-01

    Different aspects of interaction of ultra-short ultra-intense laser pulses with underdense plasmas are studied analytically and numerically. These studies can be interesting for laser-driven electron acceleration in plasma, X-ray lasers, high-order harmonic generation, initial confinement fusion with fast ignition. For numerical simulations a fully-relativistic particle code WAKE was used, developed earlier at Ecole Polytechnique. It was modified during the work on the thesis in the part of simulation of ion motion, test electron motion, diagnostics for the field and plasma. The studies in the thesis cover the problems of photon acceleration in the plasma wake of a short intense laser pulse, phase velocity of the plasma wave in the Self-Modulated Laser Wake-Field Accelerator (SM LWFA), relativistic channeling of laser pulses with duration of the order of a plasma period, ion dynamics in the wake of a short intense laser pulse, plasma wave breaking. Simulation of three experiments on the laser pulse propagation in plasma and electron acceleration were performed. Among the main results of the thesis, it was found that reduction of the plasma wave phase velocity in the SM LWFA is crucial for electron acceleration, only if a plasma channel is used for the laser pulse guiding. Self-similar structures describing relativistic guiding of short laser pulses in plasmas were found and relativistic channeling of initially Gaussian laser pulses of a few plasma periods in duration was demonstrated. It was shown that ponderomotive force of a plasma wake excited by a short laser pulse forms a channel in plasma and plasma wave breaking in the channel was analyzed in detail. Effectiveness of electron acceleration by the laser field and plasma wave was compared and frequency shift of probe laser pulses by the plasma waves was found in conditions relevant to the current experiments. (author)

  2. Laser-heated emissive plasma probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrittwieser, Roman; Ionita, Codrina; Balan, Petru; Gstrein, Ramona; Grulke, Olaf; Windisch, Thomas; Brandt, Christian; Klinger, Thomas; Madani, Ramin; Amarandei, George; Sarma, Arun K

    2008-08-01

    Emissive probes are standard tools in laboratory plasmas for the direct determination of the plasma potential. Usually they consist of a loop of refractory wire heated by an electric current until sufficient electron emission. Recently emissive probes were used also for measuring the radial fluctuation-induced particle flux and other essential parameters of edge turbulence in magnetized toroidal hot plasmas [R. Schrittwieser et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 50, 055004 (2008)]. We have developed and investigated various types of emissive probes, which were heated by a focused infrared laser beam. Such a probe has several advantages: higher probe temperature without evaporation or melting and thus higher emissivity and longer lifetime, no deformation of the probe in a magnetic field, no potential drop along the probe wire, and faster time response. The probes are heated by an infrared diode laser with 808 nm wavelength and an output power up to 50 W. One probe was mounted together with the lens system on a radially movable probe shaft, and radial profiles of the plasma potential and of its oscillations were measured in a linear helicon discharge.

  3. Laser-heated emissive plasma probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrittwieser, Roman; Ionita, Codrina; Balan, Petru; Gstrein, Ramona; Grulke, Olaf; Windisch, Thomas; Brandt, Christian; Klinger, Thomas; Madani, Ramin; Amarandei, George; Sarma, Arun K.

    2008-01-01

    Emissive probes are standard tools in laboratory plasmas for the direct determination of the plasma potential. Usually they consist of a loop of refractory wire heated by an electric current until sufficient electron emission. Recently emissive probes were used also for measuring the radial fluctuation-induced particle flux and other essential parameters of edge turbulence in magnetized toroidal hot plasmas [R. Schrittwieser et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 50, 055004 (2008)]. We have developed and investigated various types of emissive probes, which were heated by a focused infrared laser beam. Such a probe has several advantages: higher probe temperature without evaporation or melting and thus higher emissivity and longer lifetime, no deformation of the probe in a magnetic field, no potential drop along the probe wire, and faster time response. The probes are heated by an infrared diode laser with 808 nm wavelength and an output power up to 50 W. One probe was mounted together with the lens system on a radially movable probe shaft, and radial profiles of the plasma potential and of its oscillations were measured in a linear helicon discharge

  4. Laser-heated emissive plasma probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrittwieser, Roman; Ionita, Codrina; Balan, Petru; Gstrein, Ramona; Grulke, Olaf; Windisch, Thomas; Brandt, Christian; Klinger, Thomas; Madani, Ramin; Amarandei, George; Sarma, Arun K.

    2008-08-01

    Emissive probes are standard tools in laboratory plasmas for the direct determination of the plasma potential. Usually they consist of a loop of refractory wire heated by an electric current until sufficient electron emission. Recently emissive probes were used also for measuring the radial fluctuation-induced particle flux and other essential parameters of edge turbulence in magnetized toroidal hot plasmas [R. Schrittwieser et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 50, 055004 (2008)]. We have developed and investigated various types of emissive probes, which were heated by a focused infrared laser beam. Such a probe has several advantages: higher probe temperature without evaporation or melting and thus higher emissivity and longer lifetime, no deformation of the probe in a magnetic field, no potential drop along the probe wire, and faster time response. The probes are heated by an infrared diode laser with 808nm wavelength and an output power up to 50W. One probe was mounted together with the lens system on a radially movable probe shaft, and radial profiles of the plasma potential and of its oscillations were measured in a linear helicon discharge.

  5. PIC simulation of electron acceleration in an underdense plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Darvish Molla

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the interesting Laser-Plasma phenomena, when the laser power is high and ultra intense, is the generation of large amplitude plasma waves (Wakefield and electron acceleration. An intense electromagnetic laser pulse can create plasma oscillations through the action of the nonlinear pondermotive force. electrons trapped in the wake can be accelerated to high energies, more than 1 TW. Of the wide variety of methods for generating a regular electric field in plasmas with strong laser radiation, the most attractive one at the present time is the scheme of the Laser Wake Field Accelerator (LWFA. In this method, a strong Langmuir wave is excited in the plasma. In such a wave, electrons are trapped and can acquire relativistic energies, accelerated to high energies. In this paper the PIC simulation of wakefield generation and electron acceleration in an underdense plasma with a short ultra intense laser pulse is discussed. 2D electromagnetic PIC code is written by FORTRAN 90, are developed, and the propagation of different electromagnetic waves in vacuum and plasma is shown. Next, the accuracy of implementation of 2D electromagnetic code is verified, making it relativistic and simulating the generating of wakefield and electron acceleration in an underdense plasma. It is shown that when a symmetric electromagnetic pulse passes through the plasma, the longitudinal field generated in plasma, at the back of the pulse, is weaker than the one due to an asymmetric electromagnetic pulse, and thus the electrons acquire less energy. About the asymmetric pulse, when front part of the pulse has smaller time rise than the back part of the pulse, a stronger wakefield generates, in plasma, at the back of the pulse, and consequently the electrons acquire more energy. In an inverse case, when the rise time of the back part of the pulse is bigger in comparison with that of the back part, a weaker wakefield generates and this leads to the fact that the electrons

  6. Magnetized relativistic electron-ion plasma expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkhelifa, El-Amine; Djebli, Mourad

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of relativistic laser-produced plasma expansion across a transverse magnetic field is investigated. Based on a one dimensional two-fluid model that includes pressure, enthalpy, and rest mass energy, the expansion is studied in the limit of λD (Debye length) ≤RL (Larmor radius) for magnetized electrons and ions. Numerical investigation conducted for a quasi-neutral plasma showed that the σ parameter describing the initial plasma magnetization, and the plasma β parameter, which is the ratio of kinetic to magnetic pressure are the key parameters governing the expansion dynamics. For σ ≪ 1, ion's front shows oscillations associated to the break-down of quasi-neutrality. This is due to the strong constraining effect and confinement of the magnetic field, which acts as a retarding medium slowing the plasma expansion.

  7. Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Annual Reports 1996 and 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatramani, N.

    1999-04-01

    This report describes the activity of the Laser and Plasma Technology Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre during the two year period 1996- 1997. This division is engaged in the research and development of high power beams mainly laser, plasma and electron beams. Laser and Plasma Technology Division has strived to establish indigenous capability to cater to the requirements of Department of Atomic Energy. This involves development and technology readiness study of laser, plasma and electron beam devices. In addition, studies are also carried out on related physical phenomenon with a view to gain better understanding of the devices. This report has been compiled from individual reports of various groups/sections working in the division. A list of publications by the several members of the division is also included. (author)

  8. Tunable Laser Plasma Accelerator based on Longitudinal Density Tailoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; Lin, Chen; Panasenko, Dmitriy; Shiraishi, Satomi; Sokollik, Thomas; Benedetti, Carlo; Schroeder, Carl; Geddes, Cameron; Tilborg, Jeroen van; Osterhoff, Jens; Esarey, Eric; Toth, Csaba; Leemans, Wim

    2011-07-15

    Laser plasma accelerators have produced high-quality electron beams with GeV energies from cm-scale devices and are being investigated as hyperspectral fs light sources producing THz to {gamma}-ray radiation and as drivers for future high-energy colliders. These applications require a high degree of stability, beam quality and tunability. Here we report on a technique to inject electrons into the accelerating field of a laser-driven plasma wave and coupling of this injector to a lower-density, separately tunable plasma for further acceleration. The technique relies on a single laser pulse powering a plasma structure with a tailored longitudinal density profile, to produce beams that can be tuned in the range of 100-400 MeV with percent-level stability, using laser pulses of less than 40 TW. The resulting device is a simple stand-alone accelerator or the front end for a multistage higher-energy accelerator.

  9. Fast-electron-relaxation measurement for laser-solid interaction at relativistic laser intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.; Shepherd, R.; Chung, H. K.; Kemp, A.; Hansen, S. B.; Wilks, S. C.; Ping, Y.; Widmann, K.; Fournier, K. B.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Dyer, G.; Faenov, A.; Pikuz, T.

    2007-01-01

    We present measurements of the fast-electron-relaxation time in short-pulse (0.5 ps) laser-solid interactions for laser intensities of 10 17 , 10 18 , and 10 19 W/cm 2 , using a picosecond time-resolved x-ray spectrometer and a time-integrated electron spectrometer. We find that the laser coupling to hot electrons increases as the laser intensity becomes relativistic, and that the thermalization of fast electrons occurs over time scales on the order of 10 ps at all laser intensities. The experimental data are analyzed using a combination of models that include Kα generation, collisional coupling, and plasma expansion

  10. Spectroscopic diagnostics of plasma during laser processing of aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lober, R; Mazumder, J

    2007-01-01

    The role of the plasma in laser-metal interaction is of considerable interest due to its influence in the energy transfer mechanism in industrial laser materials processing. A 10 kW CO 2 laser was used to study its interaction with aluminium under an argon environment. The objective was to determine the absorption and refraction of the laser beam through the plasma during the processing of aluminium. Laser processing of aluminium is becoming an important topic for many industries, including the automobile industry. The spectroscopic relative line to continuum method was used to determine the electron temperature distribution within the plasma by investigating the 4158 A Ar I line emission and the continuum adjacent to it. The plasmas are induced in 1.0 atm pure Ar environment over a translating Al target, using f/7 and 10 kW CO 2 laser. Spectroscopic data indicated that the plasma composition and behaviour were Ar-dominated. Experimental results indicated the plasma core temperature to be 14 000-15 300 K over the incident range of laser powers investigated from 5 to 7 kW. It was found that 7.5-29% of the incident laser power was absorbed by the plasma. Cross-section analysis of the melt pools from the Al samples revealed the absence of any key-hole formation and confirmed that the energy transfer mechanism in the targets was conduction dominated for the reported range of experimental data

  11. Spectroscopic diagnostics of plasma during laser processing of aluminium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lober, R.; Mazumder, J.

    2007-10-01

    The role of the plasma in laser-metal interaction is of considerable interest due to its influence in the energy transfer mechanism in industrial laser materials processing. A 10 kW CO2 laser was used to study its interaction with aluminium under an argon environment. The objective was to determine the absorption and refraction of the laser beam through the plasma during the processing of aluminium. Laser processing of aluminium is becoming an important topic for many industries, including the automobile industry. The spectroscopic relative line to continuum method was used to determine the electron temperature distribution within the plasma by investigating the 4158 Å Ar I line emission and the continuum adjacent to it. The plasmas are induced in 1.0 atm pure Ar environment over a translating Al target, using f/7 and 10 kW CO2 laser. Spectroscopic data indicated that the plasma composition and behaviour were Ar-dominated. Experimental results indicated the plasma core temperature to be 14 000-15 300 K over the incident range of laser powers investigated from 5 to 7 kW. It was found that 7.5-29% of the incident laser power was absorbed by the plasma. Cross-section analysis of the melt pools from the Al samples revealed the absence of any key-hole formation and confirmed that the energy transfer mechanism in the targets was conduction dominated for the reported range of experimental data.

  12. The interaction of intense subpicosecond laser pulses with underdense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coverdale, Christine Ann [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1995-05-11

    Laser-plasma interactions have been of interest for many years not only from a basic physics standpoint, but also for their relevance to numerous applications. Advances in laser technology in recent years have resulted in compact laser systems capable of generating (psec), 1016 W/cm2 laser pulses. These lasers have provided a new regime in which to study laser-plasma interactions, a regime characterized by Lplasma ≥ 2LRayleigh > cτ. The goal of this dissertation is to experimentally characterize the interaction of a short pulse, high intensity laser with an underdense plasma (no ≤ 0.05ncr). Specifically, the parametric instability known as stimulated Raman scatter (SRS) is investigated to determine its behavior when driven by a short, intense laser pulse. Both the forward Raman scatter instability and backscattered Raman instability are studied. The coupled partial differential equations which describe the growth of SRS are reviewed and solved for typical experimental laser and plasma parameters. This solution shows the growth of the waves (electron plasma and scattered light) generated via stimulated Raman scatter. The dispersion relation is also derived and solved for experimentally accessible parameters. The solution of the dispersion relation is used to predict where (in k-space) and at what frequency (in ω-space) the instability will grow. Both the nonrelativistic and relativistic regimes of the instability are considered.

  13. Characterization of thermal plasmas by laser light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, S.C.; Lassahn, G.D.; Reynolds, L.D.; Fincke, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    Characterization of an atmospheric pressure free-burning arc discharge and a plasma jet by lineshape analysis of scattered laser light is described. Unlike emission spectroscopy, this technique provides direct measurement of plasma gas temperature, electron temperature and electron density without the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). Plasma gas velocity can also be determined from the Doppler shift of the scattered laser light. Radial gas temperature, electron temperature and electron density profiles are presented for an atmospheric pressure argon free-burning arc discharge. These results show a significant departure from LTE in the arc column, contradicting results obtained from emission spectroscopy. Radial gas temperature and gas velocity profiles in the exit plane of a subsonic atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet are also presented. In this case, the results show the plasma jet is close to LTE in the center, but not in the fringes. The velocity profile is parabolic

  14. Continuation of the Application of Parallel PIC Simulations to Laser and Electron Transport Through Plasmas Under Conditions Relevant to ICF and SBSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren B Mori

    2007-01-01

    In 2006/2007 we continued to study several issues related to underdense laser-plasma interactions. We have been studying the onset and saturation of Raman backscatter for NIF conditions, nonlinear plasma oscillations, and the two-plasmon decay instability

  15. Laser radiation forces in laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamper, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    There are two contributions to laser radiation forces acting on the electrons. Transfer of momentum from the fields to the electrons results in a field pressure contribution and occurs whenever there is absorption or reflection. The quiver pressure contribution, associated with electron quiver motion, is due to inhomogeneous fields inducing momentum transfer within the electron system. It is shown that the ponderomotive force with force density, (epsilon-1)/8πdel 2 >, does not include the field contribution and does not lead to a general description of macroscopic processes. A theory is discussed which does give a general macroscopic description (absorption, reflection, refraction, and magnetic field generation) and which reduces to the ponderomotive force for purely sinusoidal fields in a neutral, homogeneous, nonabsorbing plasma

  16. Measurements of laser-hole boring into overdense plasmas using x-ray laser refractometry (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, R.; Takahashi, K.; Tanaka, K.A.; Kato, Y.; Murai, K.; Weber, F.; Barbee, T.W.; DaSilva, L.B.

    1999-01-01

    We developed a 19.6 nm laser x-ray laser grid-image refractometer (XRL-GIR) to diagnose laser-hole boring into overdense plasmas. The XRL-GIR was optimized to measure two-dimensional electron density perturbation on a scale of a few tens of μm in underdense plasmas. Electron density profiles of laser-produced plasmas were obtained for 10 20 - 10 22 cm -3 with the XRL-GIR and for 10 19 - 10 20 cm -3 from an ultraviolet interferometer, the profiles of which were compared with those from hydrodynamic simulation. By using this XRL-GIR, we directly observed laser channeling into overdense plasmas accompanied by a bow shock wave showing a Mach cone ascribed to supersonic propagation of the channel front. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  17. Laser and Plasma Technology Division : annual report (1990-91)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    A brief account of the research and development (R and D) activities carried out by Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay during the period 1990-91 is presented. The R and D activities are reported under the headings: 1) Laser Activities, 2) Thermal Plasma Activities, and 3) Electron Beam Activities. List of publications including journal articles, papers published in symposia, conferences etc. is given at the end. (original). figs

  18. Laser and Plasma Technology Division annual report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatramani, N.; Verma, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    A brief account of the research and development (R and D) activities carried out by Laser and Plasma Technology Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay during the period 1994 is presented. The activities are reported under the headings: 1) laser activities, 2) thermal plasma activities, 3) electron beam activity. At the end of each section, a list of publications by the staff members in the field indicated by the title of the section is given. (author). refs., tabs., figs

  19. Laser and Plasma Technology Division : annual report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A brief account of the research and development (R and D) activities carried out by Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay during 1991 is presented. The R and D activities are reported under the headings (1) Laser Activities, (2) Thermal Plasma Activities, (3) Electron Beam Activities and (4) Divisional Workshop Activities. List of publications is given at the end of each activity heading

  20. Laser and Plasma Technology Division annual report 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatramani, N; Verma, R L [eds.; Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Laser and Plasma Technology Div.

    1996-12-31

    A brief account of the research and development (R and D) activities carried out by Laser and Plasma Technology Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay during the period 1994 is presented. The activities are reported under the headings: (1) laser activities, (2) thermal plasma activities, (3) electron beam activity. At the end of each section, a list of publications by the staff members in the field indicated by the title of the section is given. (author). refs., tabs., figs.

  1. Photonic Free-Electron Lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Slot, Petrus J.M.; Denis, T.; Lee, J.H.H.; van Dijk, M.W.; Boller, Klaus J.

    2012-01-01

    A photonic free-electron laser (pFEL) produces coherent Cerenkov radiation from a set of parallel electron beams streaming through a photonic crystal. The function of the crystal is to slow down the phase velocity of a copropagating electromagnetic wave, such that also mildly relativistic electrons

  2. Relativistic and nonlinear radiation interaction between laser beams and plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, E.L.; Hora, H.

    1981-01-01

    Starting from a combination of Maxwell's laws for the electromagnetic field and the conservation equations for a fully ionized plasma, the appropriate equations describing electrodynamic laser propagation and plasma dynamic particle motion are developed and solved. Calculations for multiply ionized transient conditions are carried out to yield electric field amplitudes, radial electron number density distributions and the progress of formation of a self-focused beam filament as a function of the target plasma density distribution and the laser pulse power-time history, among other parameters. Separate solutions emphasizing field-induced plasma motion on the one hand and significant beam contraction on the other are illustrated

  3. The ETA-II linear induction accelerator and IMP wiggler: A high-average-power millimeter-wave free-electron laser for plasma heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, S.L.; Scharlemann, E.T.

    1993-01-01

    The authors have constructed a 140-GHz free-electron laser to generate high-average-power microwaves for heating the MTX tokamak plasma. A 5.5-m steady-state wiggler (Intense Microwave, Prototype-IMP) has been installed at the end of the upgraded 60-cell ETA-II accelerator, and is configured as an FEL amplifier for the output of a 140-GHz long-pulse gyrotron. Improvements in the ETA-II accelerator include a multicable-feed power distribution network, better magnetic alignment using a stretched-wire alignment technique (SWAT), and a computerized tuning algorithm that directly minimizes the transverse sweep (corkscrew motion) of the electron beam. The upgrades were first tested on the 20-cell, 3-MeV front end of ETA-II and resulted in greatly improved energy flatness and reduced corkscrew motion. The upgrades were then incorporated into the full 60-cell configuration of ETA-II, along with modifications to allow operation in 50-pulse bursts at pulse repetition frequencies up to 5 kHz. The pulse power modifications were developed and tested on the High Average Power Test Stand (HAPTS), and have significantly reduced the voltage and timing jitter of the MAG 1D magnetic pulse compressors. The 2-3 kA, 6-7 MeV beam from ETA-II is transported to the IMP wiggler, which has been reconfigured as a laced wiggler, with both permanent magnets and electromagnets, for high magnetic field operation. Tapering of the wiggler magnetic field is completely computer controlled and can be optimized based on the output power. The microwaves from the FEL are transmitted to the MTX tokamak by a windowless quasi-optical microwave transmission system. Experiments at MTX are focused on studies of electron-cyclotron-resonance heating (ECRH) of the plasma. The authors summarize here the accelerator and pulse power modifications, and describe the status of ETA-II, IMP, and MTX operations

  4. The ETA-II linear induction accelerator and IMP wiggler: A high-average-power millimeter-wave free-electron-laser for plasma heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, S.L.; Scharlemann, E.T.

    1992-05-01

    We have constructed a 140-GHz free-electron laser to generate high-average-power microwaves for heating the MTX tokamak plasma. A 5.5-m steady-state wiggler (intense Microwave Prototype-IMP) has been installed at the end of the upgraded 60-cell ETA-II accelerator, and is configured as an FEL amplifier for the output of a 140-GHz long-pulse gyrotron. Improvements in the ETA-II accelerator include a multicable-feed power distribution network, better magnetic alignment using a stretched-wire alignment technique (SWAT). and a computerized tuning algorithm that directly minimizes the transverse sweep (corkscrew motion) of the electron beam. The upgrades were first tested on the 20-cell, 3-MeV front end of ETA-II and resulted in greatly improved energy flatness and reduced corkscrew motion. The upgrades were then incorporated into the full 60-cell configuration of ETA-II, along with modifications to allow operation in 50-pulse bursts at pulse repetition frequencies up to 5 kHz. The pulse power modifications were developed and tested on the High Average Power Test Stand (HAPTS), and have significantly reduced the voltage and timing jitter of the MAG 1D magnetic pulse compressors. The 2-3 kA. 6-7 MeV beam from ETA-II is transported to the IMP wiggler, which has been reconfigured as a laced wiggler, with both permanent magnets and electromagnets, for high magnetic field operation. Tapering of the wiggler magnetic field is completely computer controlled and can be optimized based on the output power. The microwaves from the FEL are transmitted to the MTX tokamak by a windowless quasi-optical microwave transmission system. Experiments at MTX are focused on studies of electron-cyclotron-resonance heating (ECRH) of the plasma. We summarize here the accelerator and pulse power modifications, and describe the status of ETA-II, IMP, and MTX operations

  5. Synchronization of sub-picosecond electron and laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenzweig, J.B.; Le Sage, G.P.

    1999-01-01

    Sub-picosecond laser-electron synchronization is required to take full advantage of the experimental possibilities arising from the marriage of modern high intensity lasers and high brightness electron beams in the same laboratory. Two particular scenarios stand out in this regard, injection of ultra-short electron pulses in short wavelength laser-driven plasma accelerators, and Compton scattering of laser photons from short electron pulses. Both of these applications demand synchronization, which is sub-picosecond, with tens of femtosecond synchronization implied for next generation experiments. The design of a microwave timing modulator system is now being investigated in more detail. (AIP) copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  6. Diagnostics of laser ablated plasma plumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amoruso, S.; Toftmann, B.; Schou, Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    The effect of an ambient gas on the expansion dynamics of laser ablated plasmas has been studied for two systems by exploiting different diagnostic techniques. First, the dynamics of a MgB2 laser produced plasma plume in an Ar atmosphere has been investigated by space-and time-resolved optical...... of the laser ablated plasma plume propagation in a background gas. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V All rights reserved....

  7. Electron beam manipulation, injection and acceleration in plasma wakefield accelerators by optically generated plasma density spikes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittig, Georg; Karger, Oliver S.; Knetsch, Alexander [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Hamburg, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Xi, Yunfeng; Deng, Aihua; Rosenzweig, James B. [Particle Beam Physics Laboratory, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Bruhwiler, David L. [RadiaSoft LLC, Boulder, CO 80304 (United States); RadiaBeam Technologies LLC (United States); Smith, Jonathan [Tech-X UK Ltd, Daresbury, Cheshire WA4 4FS (United Kingdom); Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Jaroszynski, Dino A.; Manahan, Grace G. [Physics Department, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Hidding, Bernhard [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Hamburg, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Physics Department, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-01

    We discuss considerations regarding a novel and robust scheme for optically triggered electron bunch generation in plasma wakefield accelerators [1]. In this technique, a transversely propagating focused laser pulse ignites a quasi-stationary plasma column before the arrival of the plasma wake. This localized plasma density enhancement or optical “plasma torch” distorts the blowout during the arrival of the electron drive bunch and modifies the electron trajectories, resulting in controlled injection. By changing the gas density, and the laser pulse parameters such as beam waist and intensity, and by moving the focal point of the laser pulse, the shape of the plasma torch, and therefore the generated trailing beam, can be tuned easily. The proposed method is much more flexible and faster in generating gas density transitions when compared to hydrodynamics-based methods, and it accommodates experimentalists needs as it is a purely optical process and straightforward to implement.

  8. Measurement of the fast electron distribution in laser-plasma experiments in the context of the 'fast ignition' approach to inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batani, Dimitri; Morace, Alessio

    2010-01-01

    The recent 'fast ignition approach' to ICF relies on the presence of fast electrons to provide the 'external' ignition spark triggering the nuclear fusion reaction in the compressed core of a thermonuclear target. Such fast electron beam is produced by the interaction of a short-pulse high-intensity laser with the target itself. In this context, it becomes essential to characterize the density of fast electrons and their average energy (i.e. the 'laser to fast electron' energy conversion efficiency) but also the finer details of the velocity and angular distribution. In this work we will discuss several techniques used to determine the fast electron distribution function.

  9. Diagnostics of laser-produced plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batani Dimitri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the general challenges of plasma diagnostics for laser-produced plasmas and give a few more detailed examples: spherically bent crystals for X-ray imaging, velocity interferometers (VISAR for shock studies, and proton radiography.

  10. Non-equilibrium Modeling of the Fe XVII 3C/3D Line Ratio in an Intense X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Excited Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, S. D.; Ballance, C. P.; Li, Y.; Fogle, M.; Fontes, C. J.

    2015-03-01

    Recent measurements using an X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) and an Electron Beam Ion Trap at the Linac Coherent Light Source facility highlighted large discrepancies between the observed and theoretical values for the Fe xvii 3C/3D line intensity ratio. This result raised the question of whether the theoretical oscillator strengths may be significantly in error, due to insufficiencies in the atomic structure calculations. We present time-dependent spectral modeling of this experiment and show that non-equilibrium effects can dramatically reduce the predicted 3C/3D line intensity ratio, compared with that obtained by simply taking the ratio of oscillator strengths. Once these non-equilibrium effects are accounted for, the measured line intensity ratio can be used to determine a revised value for the 3C/3D oscillator strength ratio, giving a range from 3.0 to 3.5. We also provide a framework to narrow this range further, if more precise information about the pulse parameters can be determined. We discuss the implications of the new results for the use of Fe xvii spectral features as astrophysical diagnostics and investigate the importance of time-dependent effects in interpreting XFEL-excited plasmas.

  11. Charge Diagnostics for Laser Plasma Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, K.; Gonsalves, A.J.; Lin, C.; Sokollik, T.; Smith, A.; Rodgers, D.; Donahue, R.; Bryne, W.; Leemans, W.P.

    2010-01-01

    The electron energy dependence of a scintillating screen (Lanex Fast) was studied with sub-nanosecond electron beams ranging from 106 MeV to 1522 MeV at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron booster accelerator. The sensitivity of the Lanex Fast decreased by 1percent per 100 MeV increase of the energy. The linear response of the screen against the charge was verified with charge density and intensity up to 160 pC/mm2 and 0.4 pC/ps/mm2, respectively. For electron beams from the laser plasma accelerator, a comprehensive study of charge diagnostics has been performed using a Lanex screen, an integrating current transformer, and an activation based measurement. The charge measured by each diagnostic was found to be within +/-10 percent.

  12. Charge Diagnostics for Laser Plasma Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, K.; Gonsalves, A. J.; Lin, C.; Sokollik, T.; Smith, A.; Rodgers, D.; Donahue, R.; Bryne, W.; Leemans, W. P.

    2010-01-01

    The electron energy dependence of a scintillating screen (Lanex Fast) was studied with sub-nanosecond electron beams ranging from 106 MeV to 1522 MeV at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron booster accelerator. The sensitivity of the Lanex Fast decreased by 1% per 100 MeV increase of the energy. The linear response of the screen against the charge was verified with charge density and intensity up to 160 pC/mm 2 and 0.4 pC/ps/mm 2 , respectively. For electron beams from the laser plasma accelerator, a comprehensive study of charge diagnostics has been performed using a Lanex screen, an integrating current transformer, and an activation based measurement. The charge measured by each diagnostic was found to be within ±10%.

  13. Laser-plasma interactions and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Neely, David; Bingham, Robert; Jaroszynski, Dino

    2013-01-01

    Laser-Plasma Interactions and Applications covers the fundamental and applied aspects of high power laser-plasma physics. With an internationally renowned team of authors, the book broadens the knowledge of young researchers working in high power laser-plasma science by providing them with a thorough pedagogical grounding in the interaction of laser radiation with matter, laser-plasma accelerators, and inertial confinement fusion. The text is organised such that the theoretical foundations of the subject are discussed first, in Part I. In Part II, topics in the area of high energy density physics are covered. Parts III and IV deal with the applications to inertial confinement fusion and as a driver of particle and radiation sources, respectively. Finally, Part V describes the principle diagnostic, targetry, and computational approaches used in the field. This book is designed to give students a thorough foundation in the fundamental physics of laser-plasma interactions. It will also provide readers with knowl...

  14. Laser beam trapping and propagation in cylindrical plasma columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feit, M.D.; Fleck, J.A. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis of the scheme to heat magnetically confined plasma columns to kilovolt temperatures with a laser beam requires consideration of two propagation problems. The first question to be answered is whether stable beam trapping is possible. Since the laser beam creates its own density profile by heating the plasma, the propagation of the beam becomes a nonlinear phenomenon, but not necessarily a stable one. In addition, the electron density at a given time depends on the preceding history of both the medium and the laser pulse. A self-consistent time dependent treatment of the beam propagation and the medium hydrodynamics is consequently required to predict the behavior of the laser beam. Such calculations have been carried out and indicate that propagation of a laser beam in an initially uniform plasma can form a stable filament which alternately focuses and defocuses. An additional question that is discussed is whether diffractive losses associated with long propagation paths are significant

  15. Study of laser plasma interactions in the relativistic regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umstadter, D.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the first experimental demonstration of electron acceleration by a laser wakefield over instances greater than a Rayleigh range (or the distance a laser normally propagates in vacuum). A self-modulated laser wakefield plasma wave is shown to have a field gradient that exceeds that of an RF linac by four orders of magnitude (E => 200 GV/m) and accelerates electrons with over 1-nC of charge per bunch in a beam with space-charge-limited emittance (1 mm-mrad). Above a laser power threshold, a plasma channel, created by the intense ultrashort laser pulse (I approx. 4 x1018 W/CM2, gamma = 1 micron, r = 400 fs), was found to increase the laser propagation distance, decrease the electron beam divergence, and increase the electron energy. The plasma wave, directly measured with coherent Thomson scattering is shown to damp-due to beam loading-in a duration of 1.5 ps or approx. 100 plasma periods. These results may have important implications for the proposed fast ignitor concept

  16. Laser optically pumped by laser-produced plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silfvast, W.T.; Wood, O.R. II.

    1975-01-01

    Laser solids, liquids and gases are pumped by a new technique in which the output from an efficient molecular laser, such as a CO 2 laser, ionizes a medium, such as xenon, into a generally cylindrical plasma volume, in proximity to the pumped laser body. Breakdown yields a visible and ultraviolet-radiation-emitting plasma in that volume to pump the laser body. The spectral radiance of the plasma is significantly higher than that produced by a dc-discharge-heated plasma at nearly all wavelengths in the plasma spectrum. The risetime of radiation from the laser-produced plasma can also be significantly shorter than that of a dc heated plasma. A further advantage resides in the fact that in some applications the attenuating walls needed by flashlamps may be eliminated with the result that laser threshold is more readily reached. Traveling wave excitation may be provided by oblique incidence of the pumping laser beam through the ionizable medium to create sequential ionization of portions of that medium along the length of the pumped laser body. (auth)

  17. Imaging femtosecond laser-induced electronic excitation in glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Xianglei; Mao, Samuel S.; Russo, Richard E.

    2003-01-01

    While substantial progress has been achieved in understanding laser ablation on the nanosecond and picosecond time scales, it remains a considerable challenge to elucidate the underlying mechanisms during femtosecond laser material interactions. We present experimental observations of electronic excitation inside a wide band gap glass during single femtosecond laser pulse (100 fs, 800 nm) irradiation. Using a femtosecond time-resolved imaging technique, we measured the evolution of a laser-induced electronic plasma inside the glass and calculated the electron number density to be on the order of 10 19 cm -3

  18. Dynamics of intense laser channel formation in an underdense plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.; Petrov, G.M.; Velikovich, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    Efficient guiding and propagation of multi-keV x-rays in plasmas can be achieved by dynamically modifying the media through plasma channel formation. The dynamics of plasma channel formation is studied in preformed underdense plasma irradiated by a high intensity laser. This is done by a two-dimensional model coupling laser propagation to a relativistic particle-in-cell model. For laser intensity of 10 20 W/cm 2 and a laser beam width of 5 μm the channel formation proceeds on a time scale of 60-70 fs in uniform plasma with density 10 18 cm -3 . The channel closes shortly after the rear of the laser pulse has passed due to Coulomb attraction from the ion core. Electron cavitation occurs only if the laser intensity is above a certain threshold intensity and the laser pulse duration exceeds 100 fs. X-ray generation and propagation is feasible for ultrarelativistic laser pulses with small beam width, less than ∼20 μm, and duration of more than 100 fs

  19. Calculation of high-pressure argon plasma parameters produced by excimer laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Norio; Yamada, Jun

    2000-01-01

    When a XeCl excimer laser light was focused in a high-pressure argon gas up to 150 atm, a dense plasma developed not only backward but also forward. It is important to study on the electron density and temperature of the laser-induced plasma in the high-pressure gas. The electron density and temperature in high-pressure argon plasma produced by XeCl excimer laser has been calculated and compared with the experimental data. (author)

  20. Laser surface wakefield in a plasma column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbunov, L.M.; Mora, P.; Ramazashvili, R.R.

    2003-01-01

    The structure of the wakefield in a plasma column, produced by a short intense laser pulse, propagating through a gas affected by tunneling ionization is investigated. It is shown that besides the usual plasma waves in the bulk part of the plasma column [see Andreev et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 3999 (2002)], the laser pulse also generates electromagnetic surface waves propagating along the column boundary. The length of the surface wake wave substantially exceeds the length of the plasma wake wave and its electromagnetic field extends far outside the plasma column

  1. Recent developments in understanding the physics of laser produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezzerides, B.; DuBois, D.F.; Forslund, D.W.; Kindel, J.M.; Lee, K.; Lindman, E.L.

    1976-01-01

    The absorption of intense laser light by a plasma is known to produce a high energy component of electrons. Even though the hot electron pressure may be larger than the cold background pressure, the background temperature can control the self-consistent profile modification. Since temperatures in high intensity experiments seem to be similar for CO 2 and Nd glass lasers, the profile modification may be so severe for CO 2 and Nd glass lasers, the profile modification may be so severe for CO 2 that orders of magnitude change in density can occur over microns, leading to a softened electron spectrum. However, the resulting equilibrium of laser pressure balancing plasma pressure is unstable even when flow is properly taken into account. We also briefly discuss recent results for self-generated magnetic fields including important kinetic effects

  2. Electron cyclotron resonance plasma photos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racz, R.; Palinkas, J. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/c (Hungary); University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1 (Hungary); Biri, S. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/c (Hungary)

    2010-02-15

    In order to observe and study systematically the plasma of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources (ECRIS) we made a high number of high-resolution visible light plasma photos and movies in the ATOMKI ECRIS Laboratory. This required building the ECR ion source into an open ECR plasma device, temporarily. An 8MP digital camera was used to record photos of plasmas made from Ne, Ar, and Kr gases and from their mixtures. We studied and recorded the effect of ion source setting parameters (gas pressure, gas composition, magnetic field, and microwave power) to the shape, color, and structure of the plasma. The analysis of the photo series gave us many qualitative and numerous valuable physical information on the nature of ECR plasmas.

  3. Electron cyclotron resonance plasma photos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racz, R.; Palinkas, J.; Biri, S.

    2010-01-01

    In order to observe and study systematically the plasma of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources (ECRIS) we made a high number of high-resolution visible light plasma photos and movies in the ATOMKI ECRIS Laboratory. This required building the ECR ion source into an open ECR plasma device, temporarily. An 8MP digital camera was used to record photos of plasmas made from Ne, Ar, and Kr gases and from their mixtures. We studied and recorded the effect of ion source setting parameters (gas pressure, gas composition, magnetic field, and microwave power) to the shape, color, and structure of the plasma. The analysis of the photo series gave us many qualitative and numerous valuable physical information on the nature of ECR plasmas.

  4. Study of a Laser-Produced Plasma by Langmuir Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, C. T.; Hasimi, M.; Pant, H. C.

    1977-01-01

    -emission peak and the main plasma from the target. The flow velocity, density and electron temperature of the plasma were determined. The expansion of the plasma was found to be adiabatic, yielding gamma =5/3. The spatial distribution of the plasma was observed to be strongly anisotropic.......The structure, the parameters and the expansion of the plasma produced by focusing a 7 J, 20 ns Nd-glass laser on stainless-steel and glass targets suspended in a high-vacuum chamber were investigated by Langmuir probes. It was observed that the probe signals consisted of a photoelectric...

  5. Plasma discreteness effects in the presence of an intense, ultrashort laser pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savchenko, V.I.; Fisch, N.J.

    1996-03-01

    Discrete effects of the plasma irradiated by an ultrashort, intense laser pulse are investigated. Although, for most plasmas of interest, the damping of the laser pulse is due to collective plasma effects, in certain regimes the energy absorbed in the plasma microfields can be important. A scattering matrix is derived for an electron scattering off an ion in the presence of an intense laser field.

  6. Plasma discreteness effects in the presence of an intense, ultrashort laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savchenko, V.I.; Fisch, N.J.

    1996-03-01

    Discrete effects of the plasma irradiated by an ultrashort, intense laser pulse are investigated. Although, for most plasmas of interest, the damping of the laser pulse is due to collective plasma effects, in certain regimes the energy absorbed in the plasma microfields can be important. A scattering matrix is derived for an electron scattering off an ion in the presence of an intense laser field

  7. Laser-induced gas plasma machining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elhadj, Selim; Bass, Isaac Louis; Guss, Gabriel Mark; Matthews, Manyalibo J.

    2017-10-17

    Techniques for removing material from a substrate are provided. A laser beam is focused at a distance from the surface to be treated. A gas is provided at the focus point. The gas is dissociated using the laser energy to generate gas plasma. The substrate is then brought in contact with the gas plasma to enable material removal.

  8. Fine Structure of a Laser-Plasma Filament in Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenmann, Shmuel; Pukhov, Anatoly; Zigler, Arie

    2007-01-01

    The ability to select and stabilize a single filament during propagation of an ultrashort high-intensity laser pulse in air makes it possible to examine the longitudinal structure of the plasma channel left in its wake. We present detailed measurements of plasma density variations along laser propagation. Over the length of the filament, electron density variations of 3 orders of magnitude are measured. They display evidence of a meter-long postionization range, along which a self-guided structure is observed coupled with a low plasma density, corresponding to ∼3 orders of magnitude decrease from the peak density level

  9. Fine Structure of a Laser-Plasma Filament in Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Shmuel; Pukhov, Anatoly; Zigler, Arie

    2007-04-01

    The ability to select and stabilize a single filament during propagation of an ultrashort high-intensity laser pulse in air makes it possible to examine the longitudinal structure of the plasma channel left in its wake. We present detailed measurements of plasma density variations along laser propagation. Over the length of the filament, electron density variations of 3 orders of magnitude are measured. They display evidence of a meter-long postionization range, along which a self-guided structure is observed coupled with a low plasma density, corresponding to ˜3 orders of magnitude decrease from the peak density level.

  10. Ponderomotive Acceleration of Hot Electrons in Tenuous Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyko, V.I.; Fraiman, G.M.; Dodin, I.Y.; Fisch, N.J.

    2009-01-01

    The oscillation-center Hamiltonian is derived for a relativistic electron injected with an arbitrary momentum in a linearly polarized laser pulse propagating in tenuous plasma, assuming that the pulse length is smaller than the plasma wavelength. For hot electrons generated at collisions with ions under intense laser drive, multiple regimes of ponderomotive acceleration are identified and the laser dispersion is shown to affect the process at plasma densities down to 10 17 cm -3 . Assuming a/γ g 0 ∼ g , where a is the normalized laser field, and γ g is the group velocity Lorentz factor. Yet γ ∼ Γ is attained within a wide range of initial conditions; hence a cutoff in the hot electron distribution is predicted

  11. High energy electron acceleration with PW-class laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanii, N.; Kondo, K.; Yabuuchi, T.; Tsuji, K.; Kimura, K.; Fukumochi, S.; Kashihara, M.; Tanimoto, T.; Nakamura, H.; Ishikura, T.; Kodama, R.; Mima, K.; Tanaka, K. A.; Mori, Y.; Miura, E.; Suzuki, S.; Asaka, T.; Yanagida, K.; Hanaki, H.; Kobayashi, T.

    2008-01-01

    We performed electron acceleration experiment with PW-class laser and a plasma tube, which was created by imploding a hollow polystyrene cylinder. In this experiment, electron energies in excess of 600 MeV have been observed. Moreover, the spectra of a comparatively high-density plasma ∼10 19 cm -3 had a bump around 10 MeV. Additionally, we performed the absolute sensitivity calibration of imaging plate for 1 GeV electrons from the injector Linac of Spring-8 in order to evaluate absolute number of GeV-class electrons in the laser acceleration experiment

  12. Laser treatment of plasma sprayed HA coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khor, KA; Vreeling, A; Dong, ZL; Cheang, P

    1999-01-01

    Laser treatment was conducted on plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings using a Nd-YAG pulse laser. Various laser parameters were investigated. The results showed that the HA surface melted when an energy level of greater than or equal to 2 J and a spot size of 2 mm was employed during

  13. Plasma dynamics from laser ablated solid lithium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    b; 52.25.-b; 52.70.-m. 1. Introduction. Pulsed laser ablation of a solid sample generates a dense plasma emission in the shape of ... The multichannel analyser plate of the ICCD was gated for as less as 4 ns using ... to explain the atomic collision processes [4]. .... Within duration of laser pulse, there occurs laser-solid interac-.

  14. Thermonuclear fusion plasma produced by lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, C.; Yokoyama, M.; Nakai, S.; Sasaki, T.; Yoshida, K.; Matoba, M.; Yamabe, C.; Tschudi, T.; Yamanaka, T.; Mizui, J.; Yamaguchi, N.; Nishikawa, K.

    1975-01-01

    Recently, much attention has been focused on laser fusion schemes using high-density plasmas produced by implosion. Scientific-feasibility laser-fusion experiments are now in time. But the physics of interaction between laser and plasma, the high-compression technique and the development of high-power lasers are still important problems to be solved if laser fusion is to make some progress. In the field of laser-plasma coupling, experiments were carried out in which hydrogen and deuterium sticks were bombarded by laser beams; in these experiments, a glass-laser system, LETKKO-I, with an energy of 50 J in a nanosecond pulse, and a double-discharge TEA CO 2 laser system with an energy of 100 J in a 100-ns pulse were used. A decrease in reflectivity occurred at a laser intensity one order of magnitude higher than the parametric-instability threshold. Self-phase modulation of scattered light due to modulational instability was found. A Brillouin-backscattering isotope effect due to the hydrogen and deuterium plasma has also been observed in the red-side part of the SHG-light. Preliminary compression experiments have been carried out using a glass-laser system LETKKO-II, with an energy of 250-1000 J in a ns-pulse. A hologram has been used to study shock waves in the plasma due to the SHG-light converted from the main laser beam. Development of high-power lasers has been promoted, such as disc-glass lasers, E-beam CO 2 lasers and excimer lasers. (author)

  15. Electrons and atoms in intense laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidovich, L.

    1982-01-01

    Several non-linear effects that show up when electrons and atoms interact with strong laser fields are considered. Thomson scattering, electron potential scattering in the presence of a laser beam, atomic ionization by strong laser fields, the refraction of electrons by laser beams and the Kapitza-Dirac effect are discussed. (Author) [pt

  16. Electrons and atoms in intense laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidovich, L.

    1982-11-01

    Several non-linear effects that show up when electrons and atoms interact with strong laser fields are considered. Thomson scattering, electron potential scattering in the presence of a laser beam, atomic ionization by strong laser fields, the refraction of electrons by laser beams and the Kapitza-Dirac effect are discussed. (Author) [pt

  17. Electron acceleration by CO/sub 2/ laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, H.; Kitagawa, Y.; Daido, H.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments on electron acceleration have been performed by LEKKO VIII CO/sub 2/ laser system. The laser light was focused by an off-axis parabolic mirror with the F-number of 1.5 and irradiated to thin foil and pipe targets in order to obtain uniform underdense plasmas. Energy spectrum of electrons was measured by an electron spectrometer in the range of 0.3-1.1 MeV. In the single frequency case, electrons up to 1 MeV were observed in the direction of the laser axis for the laser intensity above 1.6 x 10/sup 14/ W/cm/sup 2/ which was equal to the estimated threshold for forward Raman scattering. Amount of high energy electrons depended on the interaction length and the background hot electron temperature. More electrons could resonate with the plasma wave for the higher hot electron temperature. This was confirmed by particle simulation. In most experiments, the plasma density was estimated of about 0.1 n/sub c/. When the plasma density was reduced to 0.01 n/sub c/ using pre-pulse, high energy electrons were not observed because of the low background hot electron temperature and the higher instability threshold. In the two frequency case, energetic electron beam injection is planned for efficient coupling with fast plasma wave. Pipe target seems to be hopeful because 1) the laser light is confined by the plasma fiber and 2) the phase velocity of the plasma wave is controlled by the transverse mode

  18. Analysis of rare earth elements in coal fly ash using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert L.; Bank, Tracy; Montross, Scott; Roth, Elliot; Howard, Bret; Verba, Circe; Granite, Evan

    2018-05-01

    Reference standard NIST SRM 1633b and FA 345, a fly ash sample from an eastern U.S. coal power plant, were analyzed to determine and quantify the mineralogical association of rare earth elements (REE). These analyses were completed using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and a scanning electron microscope, equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDS). Internal standardization was avoided by quantifying elemental concentrations by normalizing to 100% oxides. Mineral grains containing elevated REE concentrations were found in diverse chemical environments, but were most commonly found in regions where Al and Si were predominant. Dividing the spot analyses into time segments yielded plots that showed the REE content changing over time as individual mineral grains were being ablated. SEM-EDS images of FA 345 confirmed the trends that were found in the LA-ICP-MS results. Small grains of apatite, monazite, or zircon were frequently observed as free mineral grains or embedded in amorphous aluminosilicate glass and were not associated with ferrous particles. This finding is consistent with previous reports that magnetic enrichment may be an effective way of concentrating non-magnetic REE phases. Furthermore, aggressive mechanical and chemical-based separation schemes will be required to separate and recover REE from aluminosilicate glass.

  19. Influence of the laser pulse duration on laser-produced plasma properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drogoff, B Le; Margot, J; Vidal, F; Laville, S; Chaker, M; Sabsabi, M; Johnston, T W; Barthelemy, O

    2004-01-01

    In the framework of laser-induced plasma spectroscopy (LIPS) applications, time-resolved characteristics of laser-produced aluminium plasmas in air at atmospheric pressure are investigated for laser pulse durations ranging from 100 fs to 270 ps. Measurements show that for delays after the laser pulse longer than ∼100 ns, the plasma temperature increases slightly with the laser pulse duration, while the electron density is independent of it. In addition, as the pulse duration increases, the plasma radiation emission lasts longer and the spectral lines arise later from the continuum emission. The time dependence of the continuum emission appears to be similar whatever the duration of the laser pulse is, while the temporal evolution of the line emission seems to be affected mainly by the plasma temperature. Finally, as far as spectrochemical applications (such as LIPS) of laser-produced plasmas are concerned, this study highlights the importance of the choice of appropriate temporal gating parameters for each laser pulse duration

  20. Characteristics of plasma plume in fiber laser welding of aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Ming; Chen, Cong; Hu, Ming; Guo, Lianbo; Wang, Zemin, E-mail: zmwang@mail.hust.edu.cn; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-30

    Highlights: • Spectroscopic properties of fiber laser induced Al plasma plume are measured. • The plume is usually a metal vapor dominated weakly ionized plasma. • The plume is a strongly ionized plasma after laser power is higher than 5 kW. • Plasma shielding effect must be considered after laser power reaches 5 kW. • Plasma shielding effect is dominated by inverse bremsstrahlung absorption. - Abstract: To understand the laser–matter interaction in fiber laser welding of aluminum alloys, the effects of laser power on the characteristics of fiber laser induced plasma plume were studied by emission spectroscopic analysis firstly. The plasma characteristic parameters including electron temperature, electron density, ionization degree, and inverse bremsstrahlung linear absorption coefficient were computed according to the spectral data. It was found that the laser power of 5 kW is a turning point. After the laser power reaches 5 kW, the plume changes from a metal vapor dominated weakly ionized plasma to a strongly ionized plasma. The corresponding phenomena are the dramatic increase of the value of characteristic parameters and the appearance of strong plasma shielding effect. The calculation of effective laser power density demonstrated that the plasma shielding effect is dominated by inverse bremsstrahlung absorption. The finding suggested the plasma shielding effect must be considered in fiber laser welding of aluminum alloys, rather than is ignored as claimed in previous view.

  1. Intense pulsed sources of ions and electrons produced by lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrabier, G.; Consoli, T.; Slama, L.

    1966-11-01

    We describe a device for the acceleration of the plasma burst produced by focusing a laser beam into a metal target. We extract the electrons and the ions from the plasma. The maximum current is around 2000 amperes during few microseconds. The study of the effect of the kind of the target on the characteristics of the current shows the great importance of the initial conditions that is the ionisation potential of the target and the energy laser. (authors) [fr

  2. Propagation of highly aberrated laser beams in nonquadratic plasma waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feit, M.D.; Fleck, J.A. Jr.; Morris, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    The propagation of a laser beam in a plasma column several meters long with a realistic electron density distribution is examined. The electron density distribution is based on laser-beam heating at z=0, but is otherwise uncoupled to the laser beam. The aberrated nature of the resulting lenslike medium leads to essentially aperiodic beam properties, which contrast with the completely periodic properties of Gaussian beams propagating in quadratic lenslike media. The beam is nonetheless stably trapped. These aberrated-beam properties also help to stabilize the beam against axial variations in refractive index

  3. Plasma wave amplitude measurement created by guided laser wakefield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojda, Franck

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of an intense laser pulse of short duration with a plasma produces a plasma wave with large amplitude in its wake, which is associated with a longitudinal electric field. It can be used to accelerate relativistic electrons injected into the wave to energies in the GeV range over distances of the order of a few centimeters, short compared to acceleration lengths in conventional accelerators. The control of the electron beam characteristics during the acceleration process is fundamental for achieving a usable laser-plasma acceleration stage. The main result of this thesis is the creation and characterization of a plasma wave in a weakly nonlinear regime over a length of several centimeters. Capillary tubes are used to guide the laser beam over these distances, while maintaining a large enough intensity (∼ 10 17 W/cm 2 ). The guided laser beam ionizes the gas in the tube and creates the plasma wave. A diagnostic based on the modification of the laser pulse spectrum was used to determine the amplitude of the plasma wave along the tube. The amplitude of the plasma wave was studied as a function of gas filling pressure, length of the capillary and laser energy. Experimental results are compared; they are in excellent agreement with analytical results and modeling. They show that the electric field associated with the plasma wave is between 1 and 10 GV/m over a length of up to 8 cm. This work has demonstrated the ability to create a controlled plasma wave in a weakly nonlinear regime. (author)

  4. Simulation of laser interaction with ablative plasma and hydrodynamic behavior of laser supported plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong Huifeng; Yuan Hong [Institute of Fluid Physics, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-101, Mianyang, Sichuan 621900 (China); Tang Zhiping [CAS Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior and Design of Materials, Department of Mechanics and Mechanical Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2013-01-28

    When an intense laser beam irradiates on a solid target, ambient air ionizes and becomes plasma, while part of the target rises in temperature, melts, vaporizes, ionizes, and yet becomes plasma. A general Godunov finite difference scheme WENO (Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory Scheme) with fifth-order accuracy is used to simulate 2-dimensional axis symmetrical laser-supported plasma flow field in the process of laser ablation. The model of the calculation of ionization degree of plasma and the interaction between laser beam and plasma are considered in the simulation. The numerical simulations obtain the profiles of temperature, density, and velocity at different times which show the evolvement of the ablative plasma. The simulated results show that the laser energy is strongly absorbed by plasma on target surface and that the velocity of laser supported detonation (LSD) wave is half of the ideal LSD value derived from Chapman-Jouguet detonation theory.

  5. Laser control of electron matter waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, E.; Becker, M.; Luiten, O.J.; Batelaan, H.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years laser light has been used to control the motion of electron waves. Electrons can now be diffracted by standing waves of light. Laser light in the vicinity of nanostructures is used to affect free electrons, for example, femto-second and atto-second laser-induced electrons are emitted

  6. Laser and Plasma Technology Division annual report 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatramani, N.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the activity of the Laser and Plasma Technology Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai during the period 1995. This division is engaged in the research and development of high power beams namely lasers, plasma and electron beams which are characterized by high power density. This division has strived to establish indigenous capability to cater to the requirements of the Department of Atomic Energy. The broad program objectives of the division are (1) development and technology readiness studies of laser, plasma and electron beam devices; (2) studies on related physical phenomena with a view to gain better understanding of the devices and (3) improvements in technology and exploration of new areas. This report has been compiled from individual reports of various groups/sections with marginal editing. At the end of each section; a list of publications by the staff members in the field indicated by the title of the section is given. refs., figs., tabs

  7. Investigation of relativistic laser-plasmas using nuclear diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, Marc M.

    2011-01-01

    The present work explores with the development of a novel nuclear diagnostic method for the investigation of the electron dynamics in relativistic laser-plasma interactions. An additional aim of this work was the determination of the real laser peak intensity via the interaction of an intense laser short-pulse with a solid target. The nuclear diagnostics is based on a photo-neutron disintegration nuclear activation method. The main constituent of the nuclear diagnostic are novel pseudoalloic activation targets as a kind of calorimeter to measure the high-energy bremsstrahlung produced by relativistic electrons. The targets are composed of several stable isotopes with different (γ,xn)-reaction thresholds. The activated nuclides were identified via the characteristic gamma-ray decay spectrum by using high-resolution gamma spectroscopy after the laser irradiation. Via the gamma spectroscopy the (γ,xn)-reaction yields were determined. The high-energy bremsstrahlung spectrum has been deconvolved using a novel analysis method based on a modified Penfold-Leiss method. This facilitates the reconstruction of the spectrum of bremsstrahlung photons without any anticipated fit procedures. Furthermore, the characterization of the corresponding bremsstrahlung electrons in the interaction zone is accessible immediately. The consolidated findings about the properties of the relativistic electrons were used to determine the real peak intensity at the laser-plasma interaction zone. In the context of this work, experiments were performed at three different laser facilities. First Experiments were carried out at the 100 TW laser facility at Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intense (LULI) in France and supplementary at the Vulcan laser facility at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in United Kingdom. The main part of the activation experiments were performed at the PHELIX laser facility (Petawatt High Energy Laser for heavy Ion EXperiments) at GSI-Helmholtzzentrum fuer

  8. Laser wakefield electron acceleration. A novel approach employing supersonic microjets and few-cycle laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, Karl

    2011-01-01

    This thesis covers the few-cycle laser-driven acceleration of electrons in a laser-generated plasma. This process, known as laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA), relies on strongly driven plasma waves for the generation of accelerating gradients in the vicinity of several 100 GV/m, a value four orders of magnitude larger than that attainable by conventional accelerators. This thesis demonstrates that laser pulses with an ultrashort duration of 8 fs and a peak power of 6 TW allow the production of electron energies up to 50 MeV via LWFA. The special properties of laser accelerated electron pulses, namely the ultrashort pulse duration, the high brilliance, and the high charge density, open up new possibilities in many applications of these electron beams. (orig.)

  9. High-energy 4ω probe laser for laser-plasma experiments at Nova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenzer, S.H.; Weiland, T.L.; Bower, J.; MacKinnon, A.J.; MacGowan, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    For the characterization of inertial confinement fusion plasmas, we implemented a high-energy 4ω probe laser at the Nova laser facility. A total energy of >50 J at 4ω, a focal spot size of order 100 μm, and a pointing accuracy of 100 μm was demonstrated for target shots. This laser provides intensities of up to 3x10 14 Wcm -2 and therefore fulfills high-power requirements for laser-plasma interaction experiments. The 4ω probe laser is now routinely used for Thomson scattering. Successful experiments were performed in gas-filled hohlraums at electron densities of n e >2x10 21 cm -3 which represents the highest density plasma so far being diagnosed with Thomson scattering. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  10. Hydrodynamic simulation of X-UV laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, M.; Zeitoun, P.; Gauthier, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    With the construction of novel X-UV sources, such as V-UV FEL's (free-electron lasers), X-UV laser-matter interaction will become available at ultra-high intensities. But even table-top facilities such as X-UV lasers or High Harmonic Generation, are starting to reach intensities high enough to produce dense plasmas. X-UV laser-matter interaction is studied by a 1-dimensional hydrodynamic Lagrangian code with radiative transfer for a range of interesting X-UV sources. Heating is found to be very different for Z=12-14 elements having L-edges around the X-UV laser wavelength. Possible absorption mechanisms were investigated in order to explain this behaviour, and interaction with cold dense matter proved to be dominant. Plasma sensitivity to X-UV laser parameters such as energy, pulse duration, and wavelength was also studied, covering ranges of existing X-UV lasers. We found that X-UV laser-produced plasmas could be studied using table-top lasers, paving the way for future V-UV-FEL high intensity experiments. (authors)

  11. Qualitative analysis of plasma created by shock laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grevey, D.; Maiffredy, L.; Vannes, A.B.; Gobin, P.F.

    1987-01-01

    The origin of effects observed of the surface of metals treated by lasers was studied. High speed cinematography (20,000 frames/sec) was used to follow the evolution of plasma shape from start to finish. An Nd glass laser and FeNi targets were used. The irradiated surface was examined using optical and scanning electron-microscopes. The phenomenology of plasma formation, and plasma expansion are summarized. Liquid spattering and concentric waves on the target surface are revealed. Results suggest that the main agent of the effects in laser-target interactions is the plasma, which creates compression waves inside the target. These waves quickly become a shock wave which can modify the microstructure of the target [fr

  12. Novel aspects of direct laser acceleration of relativistic electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefiev, Alexey

    2015-11-01

    Production of energetic electrons is a keystone aspect of ultraintense laser-plasma interactions that underpins a variety of topics and applications, including fast ignition inertial confinement fusion and compact particle and radiation sources. There is a wide range of electron acceleration regimes that depend on the duration of the laser pulse and the plasma density. This talk focuses on the regime in which the plasma is significantly underdense and the laser pulse duration is longer than the electron response time, so that, in contrast to the wakefield acceleration regime, the pulse creates a quasi-static channel in the electron density. Such a regime is of particular interest, since it can naturally arise in experiments with solid density targets where the pre-pulse of an ultraintense laser produces an extended sub-critical pre-plasma. This talk examines the impact of several key factors on electron acceleration by the laser pulse and the resulting electron energy gain. A detailed consideration is given to the role played by: (1) the static longitudinal electric field, (2) the static transverse electric field, (3) the electron injection into the laser pulse, (4) the electromagnetic dispersion, and (5) the static longitudinal magnetic field. It is shown that all of these factors lead, under conditions outlined in the talk, to a considerable electron energy gain that greatly exceeds the ponderomotive limit. The static fields do not directly transfer substantial energy to electrons. Instead, they alter the longitudinal dephasing between the electrons and the laser pulse, which then allows the electrons to gain extra energy from the pulse. The talk will also outline a time-resolution criterion that must be satisfied in order to correctly reproduce these effects in particle-in-cell simulations. Supported by AFOSR Contract No. FA9550-14-1-0045, National Nuclear Security Administration Contract No. DE-FC52-08NA28512, and US Department of Energy Contract No. DE-FG02

  13. Decay of cystalline order and equilibration during the solid-to-plasma transition induced by 20-fs microfocused 92-eV free-electron-laser pulses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Galtier, E.; Rosmej, F.B.; Dzelzainis, T.; Riley, D.; Khattak, F.Y.; Heimann, P.; Lee, R. W.; Nelson, A.J.; Vinko, S.M.; Whitcher, T.; Wark, J. S.; Tschentscher, T.; Toleikis, S.; Fäustlin, R.R.; Sobierajski, R.; Jurek, M.; Juha, Libor; Chalupský, Jaromír; Hájková, Věra; Kozlová, Michaela; Krzywinski, J.; Nagler, B.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 16 (2011), "164801-1"-"164801-4" ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/10/2302; GA MŠk LA08024; GA AV ČR IAAX00100903; GA MŠk(CZ) ME10046 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : X-ray lasers * free-electron lasers * X-ray emission spectroscopy Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 7.370, year: 2011

  14. Transient Plasma Photonic Crystals for High-Power Lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, G; Spatschek, K H

    2016-06-03

    A new type of transient photonic crystals for high-power lasers is presented. The crystal is produced by counterpropagating laser beams in plasma. Trapped electrons and electrically forced ions generate a strong density grating. The lifetime of the transient photonic crystal is determined by the ballistic motion of ions. The robustness of the photonic crystal allows one to manipulate high-intensity laser pulses. The scheme of the crystal is analyzed here by 1D Vlasov simulations. Reflection or transmission of high-power laser pulses are predicted by particle-in-cell simulations. It is shown that a transient plasma photonic crystal may act as a tunable mirror for intense laser pulses. Generalizations to 2D and 3D configurations are possible.

  15. Externally Controlled Injection of Electrons by a Laser Pulse in a Laser Wakefield Electron Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Chen Szu Yuan; Chen Wei Ting; Chien, Ting-Yei; Lee, Chau-Hwang; Lin, Jiunn-Yuan; Wang, Jyhpyng

    2005-01-01

    Spatially and temporally localized injection of electrons is a key element for development of plasma-wave electron accelerator. Here we report the demonstration of two different schemes for electron injection in a self-modulated laser wakefield accelerator (SM-LWFA) by using a laser pulse. In the first scheme, by implementing a copropagating laser prepulse with proper timing, we are able to control the growth of Raman forward scattering and the production of accelerated electrons. We found that the stimulated Raman backward scattering of the prepulse plays the essential role of injecting hot electrons into the fast plasma wave driven by the pump pulse. In the second scheme, by using a transient density ramp we achieve self-injection of electrons in a SM-LWFA with spatial localization. The transient density ramp is produced by a prepulse propagating transversely to drill a density depression channel via ionization and expansion. The same mechanism of injection with comparable efficiency is also demonstrated wi...

  16. Metal surface nitriding by laser induced plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomann, A. L.; Boulmer-Leborgne, C.; Andreazza-Vignolle, C.; Andreazza, P.; Hermann, J.; Blondiaux, G.

    1996-10-01

    We study a nitriding technique of metals by means of laser induced plasma. The synthesized layers are composed of a nitrogen concentration gradient over several μm depth, and are expected to be useful for tribological applications with no adhesion problem. The nitriding method is tested on the synthesis of titanium nitride which is a well-known compound, obtained at present by many deposition and diffusion techniques. In the method of interest, a laser beam is focused on a titanium target in a nitrogen atmosphere, leading to the creation of a plasma over the metal surface. In order to understand the layer formation, it is necessary to characterize the plasma as well as the surface that it has been in contact with. Progressive nitrogen incorporation in the titanium lattice and TiN synthesis are studied by characterizing samples prepared with increasing laser shot number (100-4000). The role of the laser wavelength is also inspected by comparing layers obtained with two kinds of pulsed lasers: a transversal-excited-atmospheric-pressure-CO2 laser (λ=10.6 μm) and a XeCl excimer laser (λ=308 nm). Simulations of the target temperature rise under laser irradiation are performed, which evidence differences in the initial laser/material interaction (material heated thickness, heating time duration, etc.) depending on the laser features (wavelength and pulse time duration). Results from plasma characterization also point out that the plasma composition and propagation mode depend on the laser wavelength. Correlation of these results with those obtained from layer analyses shows at first the important role played by the plasma in the nitrogen incorporation. Its presence is necessary and allows N2 dissociation and a better energy coupling with the target. Second, it appears that the nitrogen diffusion governs the nitriding process. The study of the metal nitriding efficiency, depending on the laser used, allows us to explain the differences observed in the layer features

  17. Downshift of electron plasma oscillations in the electron foreshock region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuselier, S.A.; Gurnett, D.A.; Fitzenreiter, R.J.; NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD)

    1985-01-01

    Electron plasma oscillations in the earth's electron foreshock region are observed to shift above and below the local electron plasma frequency. As plasma oscillations shift downward from the plasma frequency, their bandwidth increases and their wavelength decreases. Observations of plasma oscillations well below the plasma frequency are correlated with times when ISEE 1 is far downstream of the electron foreshock boundary. Although wavelengths of plasma oscillations below the plasma frequency satisfy k x lambda-De approximately 1 the Doppler shift due to the motion of the solar wind is not sufficient to produce the observed frequency shifts. A beam-plasma interaction with beam velocities on the order of the electron thermal velocity is suggested as an explanation for plasma oscillations above and below the plasma frequency. Frequency, bandwidth, and wavelength changes predicted from the beam-plasma interaction are in good agreement with the observed characteristics of plasma oscillations in the foreshock region. 28 references

  18. Downshift of electron plasma oscillations in the electron foreshock region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuselier, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    Electron plasma oscillations in the Earth's electron foreshock region are observed to shift above and below the local electron plasma frequency. As plasma oscillations shift from the plasma frequency, their bandwidth increases and their wavelength decreases. Observations of plasma oscillations well below the plasma frequency are correlated with times when ISEE-I is far downstream of the electron foreshock boundary. Although wavelengths of plasma oscillations below the plasma frequency satisfy klambda/sub De/ approx. = 1, the Doppler shift due to the motion of the solar wind is not sufficient to produce the observed frequency shifts. A beam-plasma interaction with beam velocities on the order of the electron thermal velocity is suggested as an explanation for plasma oscillations above and below the plasma frequency. Frequency, bandwidth, and wavelength changes predicted from the beam-plasma interaction are in good agreement with the observed characteristics of plasma oscillations in the foreshock region

  19. Free-electron lasers 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroff, Y.

    1989-01-01

    This book presents papers on free-electron laser technology. The authors cover technological developments on existing FELs, new FEL research, and the use of FELs in experimental investigations. Among the studies reported are lasing in the visible and UV on the Novosibirsk VEPP-3 storage ring, description of Japanese FEL research, and Mark III FEL, and the Paladin results

  20. Free Electron Lasers in 2005

    CERN Document Server

    Colson, W B; Voughs, T

    2005-01-01

    Twenty-eight years after the first operation of the short wavelength free electron laser (FEL) at Stanford University, there continue to be many important experiments, proposed experiments, and user facilities around the world. Properties of FELs in the infrared, visible, UV, and x-ray wavelength regimes are listed and discussed.

  1. Free Electron Lasers in 2004

    CERN Document Server

    Colson, William B

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-seven years after the first operation of the short wavelength free electron laser (FEL) at Stanford University, there continue to be many important experiments, proposed experiments, and user facilities around the world. Properties of FELs operating in the infrared, visible, UV, and x-ray wavelength regimes are listed and discussed.

  2. Scaling electron acceleration in the bubble regime for upcoming lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, O.; Tueckmantel, T.; Pukhov, A.

    2014-01-01

    Electron acceleration in the laser-plasma bubble appeared to be the most successful regime of laser wake field acceleration in the last decade. The laser technology became mature enough to generate short and relativistically intense pulses required to reach the bubble regime naturally delivering quasi-monoenergetic bunches of relativistic electrons. The upcoming laser technology projects are promising short pulses with many times more energy than the existing ones. The natural question is how will the bubble regime scale with the available laser energy. We present here a parametric study of laser-plasma acceleration in the bubble regime using full three dimensional particle-in-cell simulations and compare numerical results with the analytical scalings from the relativistic laser-plasma similarity theory. Our simulations and the theory match almost perfectly for spot sizes above R = 2λ and laser amplitudes above a 0 = 4. We also studied the emission of synchrotron radiation by the accelerated electrons. Both classical and a QED model were applied. We found borders, at which theory and simulations stopped matching. With small spot radii (R < 2λ) we almost never observed the formation of a bubble structure or any form of mono-energetic acceleration. Low laser amplitudes lead to higher energies than predicted by the theory

  3. Electron density measurements on the plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueckle, B.

    1976-01-01

    The paper presents a determination of the maximum electron density in a plasma focus, produced with the NESSI experimental setup, by the method of laser beam deflection. For each discharge a time-resolved measurement was performed at four different places. Neutron efficiency as well as the time of the initial X-ray emission was registrated. The principle and the economic aspects of the beam deflection method are presented in detail. The experimental findings and the resulting knowledge of the neutron efficiency are discussed. (GG) [de

  4. Local thermodynamic equilibrium considerations in powerchip laser-induced plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merten, Jonathan A., E-mail: jmerten@astate.edu; Smith, Benjamin W., E-mail: bwsmith@chem.ufl.edu; Omenetto, Nicoló, E-mail: omenetto@chem.ufl.edu

    2013-05-01

    Time-resolved emission experiments are reported in the fast-decaying transient plasma induced by a microchip laser on an aluminum target in three different cover gases, i.e., air, argon and helium. The laser operates at 532 nm, with a repetition frequency of 1 kHz and a pulse width of less than 0.5 ns. The overall persistence of plasma emission is of the order of 100 ns. We examine the existence of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) by evaluating the temporal criteria required (in addition to the McWhirter criterion), as recommended by Cristoforetti et al. (Spectrochim. Acta Part B 65, 2010, 86–95). The temporal criteria examine the evolution of temperature and electron number density and compare their rate of change to the rate at which electron collisions can thermalize the change. These considerations are used to determine time windows in which LTE may be present. Our results suggest that calibration-free LIBS measurements with these lasers may be possible for some elements at early times, especially under argon. - Highlights: ► Powerchip laser-induced plasma evolution is affected by cover gas. ► Plasma often out of LTE, despite fulfilling the McWhirter criterion ► Calibration-free LIBS may be possible with powerchip laser plasmas.

  5. Local thermodynamic equilibrium considerations in powerchip laser-induced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merten, Jonathan A.; Smith, Benjamin W.; Omenetto, Nicoló

    2013-01-01

    Time-resolved emission experiments are reported in the fast-decaying transient plasma induced by a microchip laser on an aluminum target in three different cover gases, i.e., air, argon and helium. The laser operates at 532 nm, with a repetition frequency of 1 kHz and a pulse width of less than 0.5 ns. The overall persistence of plasma emission is of the order of 100 ns. We examine the existence of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) by evaluating the temporal criteria required (in addition to the McWhirter criterion), as recommended by Cristoforetti et al. (Spectrochim. Acta Part B 65, 2010, 86–95). The temporal criteria examine the evolution of temperature and electron number density and compare their rate of change to the rate at which electron collisions can thermalize the change. These considerations are used to determine time windows in which LTE may be present. Our results suggest that calibration-free LIBS measurements with these lasers may be possible for some elements at early times, especially under argon. - Highlights: ► Powerchip laser-induced plasma evolution is affected by cover gas. ► Plasma often out of LTE, despite fulfilling the McWhirter criterion ► Calibration-free LIBS may be possible with powerchip laser plasmas

  6. High current plasma electron emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiksel, G.; Almagri, A.F.; Craig, D.

    1995-07-01

    A high current plasma electron emitter based on a miniature plasma source has been developed. The emitting plasma is created by a pulsed high current gas discharge. The electron emission current is 1 kA at 300 V at the pulse duration of 10 ms. The prototype injector described in this paper will be used for a 20 kA electrostatic current injection experiment in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed-field pinch. The source will be replicated in order to attain this total current requirement. The source has a simple design and has proven very reliable in operation. A high emission current, small size (3.7 cm in diameter), and low impurity generation make the source suitable for a variety of fusion and technological applications

  7. Infrared laser scattering system for plasma diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraoka, K; Hiraki, N; Kawasaki, S [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1975-05-01

    The possibility of observing the collective scattering of infrared laser light from plasmas is discussed in terms of the laser power requirement, the necessary optical system and the detector performance, and is shown to be feasible with the present day techniques to get the ion temperature by means of a CO/sub 2/ laser on theta pinch plasmas. Based on this estimate, the construction of the TEA CO/sub 2/ laser and the preparations of the optical components have been started and some preliminary results of these are described.

  8. Infrared laser scattering system for plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraoka, Katsunori; Hiraki, Naoji; Kawasaki, Shoji

    1975-01-01

    The possibility of observing the collective scattering of infrared laser light from plasmas is discussed in terms of the laser power requirement, the necessary optical system and the detector performance, and is shown to be feasible with the present day techniques to get the ion temperature by means of a CO 2 laser on theta pinch plasmas. Based on this estimate, the construction of the TEA CO 2 laser and the preparations of the optical components have been started and some preliminary results of these are described. (auth.)

  9. Betatron radiation from a laser-plasma accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnell, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The presented thesis investigates the processes which lead to the generation of highenergetic X-ray radiation, also known as ''betatron radiation'', by means of a relativistic laser-plasma interaction. The generated betatron radiation has been extensively characterized by measuring its radiated intensity, energy distribution, far-field beam profile, and source size. It was shown for the first time that betatron radiation can be used as a non-invasive diagnostic tool to retrieve very subtle information on the electron acceleration dynamics within the plasma wave. Furthermore, a compact polarimeter setup has been developed in a unique experiment in which the polarization state of the laser-plasma generated betatron radiation was measured in single-shot mode. This lead to a detailed study of the orientation of the electron trajectory within the plasma interaction. By controlling the injection of the electrons into the plasma wave it was demonstrated that one can tune the polarization state of the emitted X-rays. This result is very promising for further applications, particularly for feeding the electrons into an additional conventional accelerator or a permanent magnet based undulator for the production of intense X-ray beams. During this work, the experimental setup for accelerating electrons and generating high-energy X-ray beams was consistently improved: to enhance both its reliability and stability. Subsequently, the betatron radiation was used as a reliable diagnostic tool of the electron dynamics within the plasma. Parallel to the experimental work, 3-Dimensional Particle-In-Cell (3D-PlC) simulations were performed together with colleagues from the University of Duesseldorf. The simulations included the electron acceleration and the X-ray generation processes together with the recoil force acting on an accelerating electron caused by the emitted radiation during which one can also ascertain its polarization state. The simulations proved to be in good agreement

  10. Spatial diagnostics of the laser induced lithium fluoride plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baig, M. A.; Qamar, Aisha; Fareed, M. A.; Anwar-ul-Haq, M.; Ali, Raheel [Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2012-06-15

    We present spatial characteristics of the lithium fluoride plasma generated by the fundamental and second harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser. The plume emission has been recorded spatially using five spectrometers covering the spectral region from 200 nm to 720 nm. The electron density is measured from the Stark broadened line profile of the line at 610.37 nm, whereas the plasma temperature has been determined using the Boltzmann plot method including all the observed spectral lines of lithium. Both the plasma parameters; electron density and plasma temperature decrease with the increase of the distance from the target surface. The thermal conduction towards the target, the radiative cooling of the plasma, and the conversion of thermal energy into kinetic energy are the main mechanisms responsible for the spatially decrease of the plasma parameters.

  11. Polarization spectroscopy on laser-produced plasmas and Z-pinch plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong E. [POSTECH, Kyungbuk (Korea); Baronova, Elena O. [RRC Kurchatov Institute, Nuclear Fusion Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Jakubowski, Lech [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Swierk-Otwock (Poland)

    2002-08-01

    PPS experiments on laser-produced plasmas are reviewed. Polarization is interpreted in terms of the anisotropic velocity distribution of electrons due to non-local transport. The polarization of an x-ray laser, and recent results regarding the recombining plasma are also presented. X-ray polarization spectroscopy experiments on heliumlike ion lines from a vacuum spark and from a plasma focus are presented: in both cases, the resonance line of the heliumlike ions shows polarization in the direction perpendicular to the discharge axis. Two possible interpretations are suggested. (author)

  12. Research on imploded plasma heating by short pulse laser for fast ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, R.; Kitagawa, Y.; Mima, K.

    2001-01-01

    Since the peta watt module (PWM) laser was constructed in 1995, investigated are heating processes of imploded plasmas by intense short pulse lasers. In order to heat the dense plasma locally, a heating laser pulse should be guided into compressed plasmas as deeply as possible. Since the last IAEA Fusion Conference, the feasibility of fast ignition has been investigated by using the short pulse GEKKO MII glass laser and the PWM laser with GEKKO XII laser. We found that relativistic electrons are generated efficiently in a preformed plasma to heat dense plasmas. The coupling efficiency of short pulse laser energy to a solid density plasma is 40% when no plasmas are pre-formed, and 20% when a large scale plasma is formed by a long pulse laser pre-irradiation. The experimental results are confirmed by numerical simulations using the simulation code 'MONET' which stands for the Monte-Carlo Electron Transport code developed at Osaka. In the GEKKO XII and PWM laser experiments, intense heating pulses are injected into imploded plasmas. As a result of the injection of heating pulse, it is found that high energy electrons and ions could penetrate into imploded core plasmas to enhance neutron yield by factor 3∼5. (author)

  13. Analytical calculations of intense Gaussian laser beam propagating in plasmas with relativistic collision correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ying; Yuan Chengxun; Gao Ruilin; Zhou Zhongxiang

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical investigations of a Gaussian laser beam propagating in relativistic plasmas have been performed with the WKB method and complex eikonal function. We consider the relativistic nonlinearity induced by intense laser beam, and present the relativistically generalized forms of the plasma frequency and electron collision frequency in plasmas. The coupled differential equations describing the propagation variations of laser beam are derived and numerically solved. The obtained simulation results present the similar variation tendency with experiments. By changing the plasma density, we theoretically analyze the feasibility of using a plasmas slab of a fixed thickness to compress the laser beam-width and acquire the focused laser intensity. The present work complements the relativistic correction of the electron collision frequency with reasonable derivations, promotes the theoretical approaching to experiments and provides effective instructions to the practical laser-plasma interactions.

  14. Langmuir probe study of plasma expansion in pulsed laser ablation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T.N.; Schou, Jørgen; Lunney, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    Langmuir probes were used to monitor the asymptotic expansion of the plasma produced by the laser ablation of a silver target in a vacuum. The measured angular and temporal distributions of the ion flux and electron temperature were found to be in good agreement with the self-similar isentropic...... and adiabatic solution of the gas dynamics equations describing the expansion. The value of the adiabatic index gamma was about 1.25, consistent with the ablation plume being a low temperature plasma....

  15. Stark broadening in hot, dense laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tighe, R.J.; Hooper, C.F. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Broadened Lyman-α x-ray lines from neon X and argon XVIII radiators, which are immersed in a hot, dense deuterium or deuterium-tritium plasma, are discussed. In particular, these lines are analyzed for several temperature-density cases, characteristic of laser-produced plasmas; special attention paid to the relative importance of ion, electron, and Doppler effects. Static ion microfield distribution functions are tabulated

  16. Electron beam cooling by laser

    CERN Document Server

    Urakawa, J; Terunuma, N; Taniguchi, T; Yamazaki, Y; Hirano, K; Nomura, M; Sakai, I; Takano, M; Sasao, N; Honda, Y; Noda, A; Bulyak, E; Gladkikh, P; Mystykov, A; Zelinsky, A; Zimmermann, Frank

    2004-01-01

    In 1997, Z.Huang and R.Ruth proposed a compact laser-electron storage ring (LESR) for electron beam cooling or x-ray generation. Because the laser-wire monitor in the ATF storage ring has worked well and demonstrated the achievement of the world's smallest transverse emittance for a circulating electron beam, we have started the design of a small storage ring with about 10 m circumference and the development of basic technologies for the LESR. In this paper, we describe the design and experimental results of pulse stacking in a 42-cm long optical cavity. Since our primary purpose is demonstrating the proof-of-principle of the LESR, we will then discuss the future experimental plan at the KEK-ATF for the generation of high average-brilliance gamma-rays.

  17. Laser-pulsed Plasma Chemistry: Laser-initiated Plasma Oxidation Of Niobium

    OpenAIRE

    Marks R.F.; Pollak R.A.; Avouris Ph.; Lin C.T.; Thefaine Y.J.

    1983-01-01

    We report the first observation of the chemical modification of a solid surface exposed to an ambient gas plasma initiated by the interaction of laser radiation with the same surface. A new technique, which we designate laser-pulsed plasma chemistry (LPPC), is proposed for activating heterogeneous chemical reactions at solid surfaces in a gaseous ambient by means of a plasma initiated by laser radiation. Results for niobium metal in one atmosphere oxygen demonstrate single-pulse, self-limitin...

  18. Confirmation of radiation pressure effects in laser--plasma interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attwood, D.T.; Sweeney, D.W.; Auerbach, J.M.; Lee, P.H.Y.

    1977-10-01

    Interferometric data resolved in 1μm and 15 psec confirms the dominant role of radiation pressure during high intensity laser-plasma interactions. Specifically observed manifestations include electron density profiles steepened to 1 μm scale length, clearly defined upper and lower density shelves, and small and large scale deformation of transverse isodensity surfaces

  19. Interaction of ultra-short ultra-intense laser pulses with under-dense plasmas; Interaction d'impulsions laser ultra-courtes et ultra-intenses avec des plasmas sous denses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solodov, A

    2000-12-15

    Different aspects of interaction of ultra-short ultra-intense laser pulses with underdense plasmas are studied analytically and numerically. These studies can be interesting for laser-driven electron acceleration in plasma, X-ray lasers, high-order harmonic generation, initial confinement fusion with fast ignition. For numerical simulations a fully-relativistic particle code WAKE was used, developed earlier at Ecole Polytechnique. It was modified during the work on the thesis in the part of simulation of ion motion, test electron motion, diagnostics for the field and plasma. The studies in the thesis cover the problems of photon acceleration in the plasma wake of a short intense laser pulse, phase velocity of the plasma wave in the Self-Modulated Laser Wake-Field Accelerator (SM LWFA), relativistic channeling of laser pulses with duration of the order of a plasma period, ion dynamics in the wake of a short intense laser pulse, plasma wave breaking. Simulation of three experiments on the laser pulse propagation in plasma and electron acceleration were performed. Among the main results of the thesis, it was found that reduction of the plasma wave phase velocity in the SM LWFA is crucial for electron acceleration, only if a plasma channel is used for the laser pulse guiding. Self-similar structures describing relativistic guiding of short laser pulses in plasmas were found and relativistic channeling of initially Gaussian laser pulses of a few plasma periods in duration was demonstrated. It was shown that ponderomotive force of a plasma wake excited by a short laser pulse forms a channel in plasma and plasma wave breaking in the channel was analyzed in detail. Effectiveness of electron acceleration by the laser field and plasma wave was compared and frequency shift of probe laser pulses by the plasma waves was found in conditions relevant to the current experiments. (author)

  20. Electron beam pumped KrF lasers for fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethian, J.D.; Friedman, M.; Giuliani, J.L. Jr.; Lehmberg, R.H.; Obenschain, S.P.; Kepple, P.; Wolford, M.; Hegeler, F.; Swanekamp, S.B.; Weidenheimer, D.; Welch, D.; Rose, D.V.; Searles, S.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the development of electron beam pumped KrF lasers for inertial fusion energy. KrF lasers are an attractive driver for fusion, on account of their demonstrated very high beam quality, which is essential for reducing imprint in direct drive targets; their short wavelength (248 nm), which mitigates the growth of plasma instabilities; and their modular architecture, which reduces development costs. In this paper we present a basic overview of KrF laser technology as well as current research and development in three key areas: electron beam stability and transport; KrF kinetics and laser propagation; and pulsed power. The work will be cast in context of the two KrF lasers at the Naval Research Laboratory, The Nike Laser (5 kJ, single shot), and The Electra Laser (400-700 J repetitively pulsed)

  1. Laser-Plasma Modeling Using PERSEUS Extended-MHD Simulation Code for HED Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Nathaniel; Seyler, Charles

    2017-10-01

    We discuss the use of the PERSEUS extended-MHD simulation code for high-energy-density (HED) plasmas in modeling the influence of Hall and electron inertial physics on laser-plasma interactions. By formulating the extended-MHD equations as a relaxation system in which the current is semi-implicitly time-advanced using the Generalized Ohm's Law, PERSEUS enables modeling of extended-MHD phenomena (Hall and electron inertial physics) without the need to resolve the smallest electron time scales, which would otherwise be computationally prohibitive in HED plasma simulations. We first consider a laser-produced plasma plume pinched by an applied magnetic field parallel to the laser axis in axisymmetric cylindrical geometry, forming a conical shock structure and a jet above the flow convergence. The Hall term produces low-density outer plasma, a helical field structure, flow rotation, and field-aligned current, rendering the shock structure dispersive. We then model a laser-foil interaction by explicitly driving the oscillating laser fields, and examine the essential physics governing the interaction. This work is supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration stewardship sciences academic program under Department of Energy cooperative agreements DE-FOA-0001153 and DE-NA0001836.

  2. Space-Time Characterization of Laser Plasma Interactions in the Warm Dense Matter Regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, L F; Uschmann, I; Forster, E; Zamponi, F; Kampfer, T; Fuhrmann, A; Holl, A; Redmer, R; Toleikis, S; Tschentsher, T; Glenzer, S H

    2008-04-30

    Laser plasma interaction experiments have been performed using a fs Titanium Sapphire laser. Plasmas have been generated from planar PMMA targets using single laser pulses with 3.3 mJ pulse energy, 50 fs pulse duration at 800 nm wavelength. The electron density distributions of the plasmas in different delay times have been characterized by means of Nomarski Interferometry. Experimental data were compared with hydrodynamic simulation. First results to characterize the plasma density and temperature as a function of space and time are obtained. This work aims to generate plasmas in the warm dense matter (WDM) regime at near solid-density in an ultra-fast laser target interaction process. Plasmas under these conditions can serve as targets to develop x-ray Thomson scattering as a plasma diagnostic tool, e.g., using the VUV free-electron laser (FLASH) at DESY Hamburg.

  3. Free-electron laser theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dattoli, G.; Torre, A.

    1989-01-01

    The essential features of the theory of the free electron laser (FEL) are given in some detail. Beginning with an explanation of the basic gain mechanism, the lectures continue with a discussion of the problems associated with single-passage and recirculated (storage-ring) operation. Pulse propagation effects and the so-called 'lethargic' behaviour are analysed more completely. Finally, elements of FEL quantum theory are reported, in order to clarify the laser process from the microscopic point of view. Appendices give a fuller treatment of optical cavities and undulator magnets. (orig.)

  4. Plasma Arc Augmented CO2 laser welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Andersen, Mikkel; Frederiksen, Niels

    2001-01-01

    In order to reduce the hardness of laser beam welded 2.13 mm medium strength steel CMn 250, a plasma arc has been used simultaneously with a 2.6 kW CO2 laser source. In a number of systematic laboratory tests, the plasma arc current, plasma gas flow and distance to the laser source were varied...... with all laser parameters fixed. The welds were quality assessed and hardness measured transversely to the welding direction in the top, middle and root of the seam. In the seams welded by laser alone, hardness values between 275 and 304 HV1 were measured, about the double of the base material, 150 HV1...

  5. Topics in high-intensity laser plasma interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leemans, W.P.

    1991-01-01

    The interaction of high intensity laser pulses with pre-formed and laser-produced plasmas is studied. Through experiments and simulations we have investigated stimulated Compton scattering in preformed plasmas and the plasma physics aspects of tunnel-ionized gases. A theoretical study is presented on the nonlinear dynamics of relativistic plasma waves driven by colinear optical mixing. The electron density-fluctuation spectra induced by stimulated Compton scattering have been directly observed for the first time. A CO2 laser was focused into pre-formed plasmas with densities n(e) varied from 0.4-6 x 10(exp 16) cu cm. The fluctuations corresponding to backscatter were probed using Thomson scattering. At low n(e), the scattered spectra peak at a frequency shift Delta omega is approximately kv e and appears to be in a linear regime. At the highest n(e), a nonlinear saturation of the SCS instability is observed due to a self-induced perturbation of the electron distribution function. Tunnel-ionized plasmas have been studied through experiments and particle simulations. Experimentally, qualitative evidence for plasma temperature control by varying the laser polarization was obtained by the measurement of stimulated Compton scattering fluctuation spectra and x-ray emission from such plasmas. A higher parallel temperature than expected from the single-particle tunneling model was observed. Simulations indicate that stochastic heating and the Weibel instability play an important role in plasma heating in all directions and isotropization. The non-linear dynamics associated with beatwave (Delta omega, Delta k) excited long wavelength plasma waves in the presence of strong, short wavelength density ripple have been examined, using the relativistic Lagrangian oscillator model. This model shows period doubling that roughly follows Feigenbaum scaling, and a transition to chaos

  6. Numerical simulation of laser filamentation in underdense plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Lichun; Chen Zhihua; Tu Qinfen

    2000-01-01

    Developing process of filamentation and effect of characteristic parameters in underdense plasma have been studied using numerical simulation method. Production and development of two-dimensional cylinder filamentation instability were presented clearly. The results indicate incidence laser intensity and plasma background density are important factors affecting convergent intensity. At the same time, it was showed that different laser wavelength or different electron background density could affect filamentation process. The results are consistent with theory and experiments of alien reports. It can provide reference for restraining filamentation

  7. effect of the plasma ion channel on self-focusing of a Gaussian laser pulse in underdense plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Irani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available  We have considered the self-focusing of a Gaussian laser pulse in unmagnetized plasma. High-intensity electromagnetic fields cause the variation of electron density in plasma. These changes in the special conditions cause the acceleration of electrons to the higher energy and velocities. Thus the equation of plasma density evolution was obtained considering the electrons ponderomotive force. Then, an equation for the width of laser pulse with a relativistic mass correction term and the effect of ion channel were derived and the propagation of high-intensity laser pulse in an underdense plasma with weak relativistic approximation was investigated. It is shown that the ratio of ion channel radius to spot size could result in different forms of self focusing for the laser pulse in plasma.

  8. LASER PLASMA AND LASER APPLICATIONS: Plasma transparency in laser absorption waves in metal capillaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, V. N.; Kozolupenko, A. P.; Sebrant, A. Yu

    1988-12-01

    An experimental investigation was made of the plasma transparency to heating radiation in capillaries when absorption waves propagated in these capillaries as a result of interaction with a CO2 laser pulse of 5-μs duration. When the length of the capillary was in excess of 20 mm, total absorption of the radiation by the plasma was observed at air pressures of 1-100 kPa. When the capillary length was 12 mm, a partial recovery of the transparency took place. A comparison was made with the dynamics and recovery of the plasma transparency when breakdown of air took place near the free surface.

  9. Angular distribution of laser ablation plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, K.; Kanesue, T.; Dabrowski, R.; Okamura, M.

    2010-01-01

    An expansion of a laser induced plasma is fundamental and important phenomena in a laser ion source. To understand the expanding direction, an array of Langmuir probes were employed. The chosen ion for the experiment was Ag 1+ which was created by a second harmonics of a Nd-YAG laser. The obtained angular distribution was about ±10 degree. This result also indicates a proper positioning of a solenoid magnet which enhances ion beam current.

  10. Self-focusing of laser beam crossing a laser plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakos, J.S.; Foeldes, I.B.; Ignacz, P.N.; Soerlei, Zs.

    1983-03-01

    A crossed-beam experiment was performed to clarify the mechanism of self-focusing in a laser produced spark. The plasma was created by one beam and self-focusing was observed in the weak probe beam which crossed the plasma. Experimental results show that the cause of self-focusing is the nonuniform heating mechanism. (author)

  11. Free Electron Laser in Poland

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2009-01-01

    The idea of building a new IVth generation of light sources of high luminosity, which use accelerators, arose in the 80ties of XXth century. Now, in a numerable synchrotron and laser laboratories in Europe, there is carried out, since a couple of years, intense applied research on free electron lasers (FEL) [17,18]. Similarly, in this country, free electron laser in Poland – POLFEL [9] is, in a design, a coherent light source of the IVth generation, characterized by very short pulses in the range of 10-100fs, of big power 0,2GW and UV wavelength of 27nm, of average power 1W, with effective high power third harmonic of 9nm. The laser consists of a linear superconducting accelerator 100m in length, undulator and experimental lines. It generates a monochromatic and coherent radiation and can be tuned from THz range via IR, visible to UV, and potentially to X-rays. The linac works in quasi-CW or real-CW mode. It is planned by IPJ [9,10] and XFEL-Poland Consortium [16] as a part of the ESFRI [1] priority EuroFEL...

  12. Inverse Free Electron Laser accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, A.; Gallardo, J.; van Steenbergen, A.; Sandweiss, J.

    1992-09-01

    The study of the INVERSE FREE ELECTRON LASER, as a potential mode of electron acceleration, is being pursued at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Recent studies have focussed on the development of a low energy, high gradient, multi stage linear accelerator. The elementary ingredients for the IFEL interaction are the 50 MeV Linac e - beam and the 10 11 Watt CO 2 laser beam of BNL's Accelerator Test Facility (ATF), Center for Accelerator Physics (CAP) and a wiggler. The latter element is designed as a fast excitation unit making use of alternating stacks of Vanadium Permendur (VaP) ferromagnetic laminations, periodically interspersed with conductive, nonmagnetic laminations, which act as eddy current induced field reflectors. Wiggler parameters and field distribution data will be presented for a prototype wiggler in a constant period and in a ∼ 1.5 %/cm tapered period configuration. The CO 2 laser beam will be transported through the IFEL interaction region by means of a low loss, dielectric coated, rectangular waveguide. Short waveguide test sections have been constructed and have been tested using a low power cw CO 2 laser. Preliminary results of guide attenuation and mode selectivity will be given, together with a discussion of the optical issues for the IFEL accelerator. The IFEL design is supported by the development and use of 1D and 3D simulation programs. The results of simulation computations, including also wiggler errors, for a single module accelerator and for a multi-module accelerator will be presented

  13. Atto-second control of collective electron motion in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borot, Antonin; Malvache, Arnaud; Chen, Xiaowei; Jullien, Aurelie; Lopez-Martens, Rodrigo; Geindre, Jean-Paul; Audebert, Patrick; Mourou, Gerard; Quere, Fabien

    2012-01-01

    Today, light fields of controlled and measured waveform can be used to guide electron motion in atoms and molecules with atto-second precision. Here, we demonstrate atto-second control of collective electron motion in plasmas driven by extreme intensity (approximate to 10 18 W cm -2 ) light fields. Controlled few-cycle near-infrared waves are tightly focused at the interface between vacuum and a solid-density plasma, where they launch and guide sub-cycle motion of electrons from the plasma with characteristic energies in the multi-kilo-electron-volt range-two orders of magnitude more than has been achieved so far in atoms and molecules. The basic spectroscopy of the coherent extreme ultraviolet radiation emerging from the light-plasma interaction allows us to probe this collective motion of charge with sub-200 as resolution. This is an important step towards atto-second control of charge dynamics in laser-driven plasma experiments. (authors)

  14. PIC Simulation of Laser Plasma Interactions with Temporal Bandwidths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsung, Frank; Weaver, J.; Lehmberg, R.

    2015-11-01

    We are performing particle-in-cell simulations using the code OSIRIS to study the effects of laser plasma interactions in the presence of temperal bandwidths under conditions relevant to current and future shock ignition experiments on the NIKE laser. Our simulations show that, for sufficiently large bandwidth, the saturation level, and the distribution of hot electrons, can be effected by the addition of temporal bandwidths (which can be accomplished in experiments using smoothing techniques such as SSD or ISI). We will show that temporal bandwidth along play an important role in the control of LPI's in these lasers and discuss future directions. This work is conducted under the auspices of NRL.

  15. Light absorption and scattering mechanisms in laser fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.; Estabrook, K.G.; Kruer, W.L.; Langdon, A.B.; Lasinski, B.F.; Max, C.E.; Randall, C.; Thomson, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    The picture of laser light absorption and scattering which is emerging from theory and computer simulation studies of laser-plasma interactions is described. On the subject of absorption, we discuss theoretical and experimental evidence that resonance absorption in a steepened density profile is a dominant absorption mechanism. Recent work also indicates the presence of critical surface ripples, which we study using two and three dimensional computer simulations. Predictions of hot electron spectra due to resonance absorption are described, as are effects of plasma outflow. We then discuss two regimes where stimulated scattering may occur. Brillouin scattering is expected in the underdense target blow-off, for long laser pulses, and is limited by ion heating. Raman scattering in the background gas of a reactor target chamber is predicted to be at most a 10 percent effect for 1 μm lasers

  16. Simulation of QED effects in ultrahigh intensity laser-plasma interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostyukov, I.; Nerush, E.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Due to an impressive progress in laser technology, laser pulses with peak intensity of nearly 2 x 10 22 W/cm 2 are now available in laboratory. When the matter is irradiated by so intense laser pulses high energy density plasma is produced. Besides of fundamental interest such plasma is the efficient source of particles and radiation with extreme parameters that opens bright perspectives in developments of advanced particle accelerators, next generation of radiation sources, laboratory modelling of astrophysics phenomena etc. Even high laser intensity the radiation reaction and QED effects become important. One of the QED effects, which recently attracts much attention, is the electron-positron plasma creation in strong laser field. The plasma can be produced via electromagnetic cascades: the seeded charged particles is accelerated in the field of counter-propagating laser pulses, then they emit energetic photons, the photons by turn decay in the laser field and create electron-positron pairs. The pair particles accelerated in the laser field produce new generation of the photons and pairs. For self-consistent study of the electron-positron plasma dynamics in the laser field we develop 2D code based on particle-in-cell and Monte-Carlo methods. The electron, positron and photon dynamics as well as evolution of the plasma and laser fields are calculated by PIC technique while photon emission and pair production are calculated by Monte-Carlo method. We simulate pair production in the field of counter-propagating linearly polarized laser pulses. It is shown that for the laser intensity above threshold the plasma production becomes so intense that the laser pulse are strongly absorbed in the plasma. The laser intensity threshold and the rate of laser field absorption are calculated. Acknowledgements. This work has been supported by federal target 'The scientific and scientific-pedagogical personnel of innovation in Russia' and by

  17. A simple electron plasma wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodin, G.; Stenflo, L.

    2017-01-01

    Considering a class of solutions where the density perturbations are functions of time, but not of space, we derive a new exact large amplitude wave solution for a cold uniform electron plasma. This result illustrates that most simple analytical solutions can appear even if the density perturbations are large. - Highlights: • The influence of large amplitude electromagnetic waves on electrostatic oscillations is found. • A generalized Mathieu equation is derived. • Anharmonic wave profiles are computed numerically.

  18. A simple electron plasma wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodin, G., E-mail: gert.brodin@physics.umu.se [Department of Physics, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå (Sweden); Stenflo, L. [Department of Physics, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden)

    2017-03-18

    Considering a class of solutions where the density perturbations are functions of time, but not of space, we derive a new exact large amplitude wave solution for a cold uniform electron plasma. This result illustrates that most simple analytical solutions can appear even if the density perturbations are large. - Highlights: • The influence of large amplitude electromagnetic waves on electrostatic oscillations is found. • A generalized Mathieu equation is derived. • Anharmonic wave profiles are computed numerically.

  19. Study on Laser Induced Plasma Produced in Liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, N.; Yamada, J.

    2003-01-01

    When an intense laser light is focused in liquid, a hot plasma is produced at the focal spot. The breakdown threshold and the transmittance of sodium choroids solution are observed using excimer laser or YAG laser. The breakdown threshold decreases with increasing NaCl concentration. Threshold intensity of plasma produced by YAG laser is lower than excimer laser. The behavior of plasma development is observed by a streak camera. The plasma produced by a YAG laser develops only backward. However, the plasma produced by excimer laser develops not only backward but also forward same as the plasma development in high-pressure gases

  20. Particle-in-cell modeling of laser Thomson scattering in low-density plasmas at elevated laser intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powis, Andrew T.; Shneider, Mikhail N.

    2018-05-01

    Incoherent Thomson scattering is a non-intrusive technique commonly used for measuring local plasma density. Within low-density, low-temperature plasmas and for sufficient laser intensity, the laser may perturb the local electron density via the ponderomotive force, causing the diagnostic to become intrusive and leading to erroneous results. A theoretical model for this effect is validated numerically via kinetic simulations of a quasi-neutral plasma using the particle-in-cell technique.

  1. Propagation of Gaussian laser beam in cold plasma of Drude model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ying; Yuan Chengxun; Zhou Zhongxiang; Li Lei; Du Yanwei

    2011-01-01

    The propagation characters of Gaussian laser beam in plasmas of Drude model have been investigated by complex eikonal function assumption. The dielectric constant of Drude model is representative and applicable in describing the cold unmagnetized plasmas. The dynamics of ponderomotive nonlinearity, spatial diffraction, and collision attenuation is considered. The derived coupling equations determine the variations of laser beam and irradiation attenuation. The modified laser beam-width parameter F, the dimensionless axis irradiation intensity I, and the spatial electron density distribution n/n 0 have been studied in connection with collision frequency, initial laser intensity and beam-width, and electron temperature of plasma. The variations of laser beam and plasma density due to different selections of parameters are reasonably explained, and results indicate the feasible modification of the propagating characters of laser beam in plasmas, which possesses significance to fast ignition, extended propagation, and other applications.

  2. Studies of intense-laser plasma instabilities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Láska, Leoš; Krása, Josef; Badziak, J.; Jungwirth, Karel; Krouský, Eduard; Margarone, Daniele; Parys, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 272, May (2013), 94-98 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E09092; GA MŠk(CZ) LC528; GA AV ČR IAA100100715 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : laser plasma instabilities * self-generated magnetic field * longitudinal structure of the expanding plasma Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.538, year: 2013

  3. Multistage Coupling of Laser-Wakefield Accelerators with Curved Plasma Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, J.; Chen, M.; Wu, W. Y.; Weng, S. M.; Sheng, Z. M.; Schroeder, C. B.; Jaroszynski, D. A.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.; Mori, W. B.; Zhang, J.

    2018-04-01

    Multistage coupling of laser-wakefield accelerators is essential to overcome laser energy depletion for high-energy applications such as TeV-level electron-positron colliders. Current staging schemes feed subsequent laser pulses into stages using plasma mirrors while controlling electron beam focusing with plasma lenses. Here a more compact and efficient scheme is proposed to realize the simultaneous coupling of the electron beam and the laser pulse into a second stage. A partly curved channel, integrating a straight acceleration stage with a curved transition segment, is used to guide a fresh laser pulse into a subsequent straight channel, while the electrons continue straight. This scheme benefits from a shorter coupling distance and continuous guiding of the electrons in plasma while suppressing transverse beam dispersion. Particle-in-cell simulations demonstrate that the electron beam from a previous stage can be efficiently injected into a subsequent stage for further acceleration while maintaining high capture efficiency, stability, and beam quality.

  4. Laser Thomson scattering diagnostics of non-equilibrium high pressure plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraoka, K.; Uchino, K.; Bowden, M.D.; Noguchi, Y.

    2001-01-01

    For various applications of non-equilibrium high pressure plasmas, knowledge of electron properties, such as electron density, electron temperature and/or electron energy distribution function (eedf), is prerequisite for any rational approach to understanding physical and chemical processes occurring in the plasmas. For this purpose, laser Thomson scattering has been successfully applied for the first time to measure the electron properties in plasmas for excimer laser pumping and in microdischarges. Although this diagnostic technique is well established for measurements in high temperature plasmas, its applications to these glow discharge plasmas have had various inherent difficulties, such as a presence of high density neutral particles (>10 21 m -3 ) in the excimer laser pumping discharges and an extremely small plasma size (<0.1 mm) and the presence of nearby walls for microdischarges. These difficulties have been overcome and clear signals have been obtained. The measured results are presented and their implications in the respective discharge phenomena are discussed

  5. Laser-heating of hydrogen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foeldes, I.B.; Ignacz, P.N.; Kocsis, G.

    1990-10-01

    The possibility of creating a fully ionized hydrogen plasma to investigate the capture of slow antiprotons is discussed. Laser heating of the initially discharge-created arc or Z-pinch plasma is proposed. Within the framework of a simple 1-dimensional model based on the energy balance equation alone it is shown that plasma equilibrium can be sustained for 10 μs. A simple pulsed CO 2 laser with this pulse duration and an energy of about 10-30 J is sufficient for heating. (author) 16 refs.; 3 figs

  6. High energy gain electron beam acceleration by 100TW laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotaki, Hideyuki; Kando, Masaki; Kondo, Shuji; Hosokai, Tomonao; Kanazawa, Shuhei; Yokoyama, Takashi; Matoba, Toru; Nakajima, Kazuhisa

    2001-01-01

    A laser wakefield acceleration experiment using a 100TW laser is planed at JAERI-Kansai. High quality and short pulse electron beams are necessary to accelerate the electron beam by the laser. Electron beam - laser synchronization is also necessary. A microtron with a photocathode rf-gun was prepared as a high quality electron injector. The quantum efficiency (QE) of the photocathode of 2x10 -5 was obtained. A charge of 100pC from the microtron was measured. The emittance and pulse width of the electron beam was 6π mm-mrad and 10ps, respectively. In order to produce a short pulse electron beam, and to synchronize between the electron beam and the laser pulse, an inverse free electron laser (IFEL) is planned. One of problems of LWFA is the short acceleration length. In order to overcome the problem, a Z-pinch plasma waveguide will be prepared as a laser wakefield acceleration tube for 1 GeV acceleration. (author)

  7. Laser-plasma interactions in magnetized environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuan; Qin, Hong; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2018-05-01

    Propagation and scattering of lasers present new phenomena and applications when the plasma medium becomes strongly magnetized. With mega-Gauss magnetic fields, scattering of optical lasers already becomes manifestly anisotropic. Special angles exist where coherent laser scattering is either enhanced or suppressed, as we demonstrate using a cold-fluid model. Consequently, by aiming laser beams at special angles, one may be able to optimize laser-plasma coupling in magnetized implosion experiments. In addition, magnetized scattering can be exploited to improve the performance of plasma-based laser pulse amplifiers. Using the magnetic field as an extra control variable, it is possible to produce optical pulses of higher intensity, as well as compress UV and soft x-ray pulses beyond the reach of other methods. In even stronger giga-Gauss magnetic fields, laser-plasma interaction enters a relativistic-quantum regime. Using quantum electrodynamics, we compute a modified wave dispersion relation, which enables correct interpretation of Faraday rotation measurements of strong magnetic fields.

  8. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of tantalum plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Sidra; Bashir, Shazia; Hayat, Asma; Khaleeq-ur-Rahman, M.; Faizan–ul-Haq [Centre for Advanced Studies in Physics, GC University, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2013-07-15

    Laser Induced Breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) of Tantalum (Ta) plasma has been investigated. For this purpose Q-switched Nd: YAG laser pulses (λ∼ 1064 nm, τ∼ 10 ns) of maximum pulse energy of 100 mJ have been employed as an ablation source. Ta targets were exposed under the ambient environment of various gases of Ar, mixture (CO{sub 2}: N{sub 2}: He), O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and He under various filling pressure. The emission spectrum of Ta is observed by using LIBS spectrometer. The emission intensity, excitation temperature, and electron number density of Ta plasma have been evaluated as a function of pressure for various gases. Our experimental results reveal that the optical emission intensity, the electron temperature and density are strongly dependent upon the nature and pressure of ambient environment. The SEM analysis of the ablated Ta target has also been carried out to explore the effect of ambient environment on the laser induced grown structures. The growth of grain like structures in case of molecular gases and cone-formation in case of inert gases is observed. The evaluated plasma parameters by LIBS analysis such as electron temperature and the electron density are well correlated with the surface modification of laser irradiated Ta revealed by SEM analysis.

  9. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of tantalum plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Sidra; Bashir, Shazia; Hayat, Asma; Khaleeq-ur-Rahman, M.; Faizan–ul-Haq

    2013-01-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) of Tantalum (Ta) plasma has been investigated. For this purpose Q-switched Nd: YAG laser pulses (λ∼ 1064 nm, τ∼ 10 ns) of maximum pulse energy of 100 mJ have been employed as an ablation source. Ta targets were exposed under the ambient environment of various gases of Ar, mixture (CO 2 : N 2 : He), O 2 , N 2 , and He under various filling pressure. The emission spectrum of Ta is observed by using LIBS spectrometer. The emission intensity, excitation temperature, and electron number density of Ta plasma have been evaluated as a function of pressure for various gases. Our experimental results reveal that the optical emission intensity, the electron temperature and density are strongly dependent upon the nature and pressure of ambient environment. The SEM analysis of the ablated Ta target has also been carried out to explore the effect of ambient environment on the laser induced grown structures. The growth of grain like structures in case of molecular gases and cone-formation in case of inert gases is observed. The evaluated plasma parameters by LIBS analysis such as electron temperature and the electron density are well correlated with the surface modification of laser irradiated Ta revealed by SEM analysis

  10. Laser and Plasma Technology Division annual report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatramani, N.; Verma, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    The report describes the research and development (R and D) activities of Laser and Plasma technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay during 1992. The broad programme objectives of the Division are: (1) development and technology readiness studies of laser, plasma and electron beam devices, (2) studies on related physical phenomena with a view to gain better understanding of the devices, and (3) improvements in technology and exploration of new areas. The R and D activities are reported under the sections entitled: (1) Laser Activities, (2) Thermal Plasma Activities, and (3) Electron Beam Activities. At the end of each section, a list of publications by the staff members in the field indicated by the title of the section is given. Some of the highlights of R and D work during 1992 are:(1) fabrication of an electron beam sustained CO 2 laser, (2) commissioning of a 6.5 m high LMMHD (Liquid Metal Magneto-hydrodynamic) generator loaded with 1.5 tons of mercury, (3) fabrication of electron beam processing equipment, and (4) study of the magnetic properties of vanadium nitride films produced by reactive sputtering in an indigenously developed DC magnetron sputtering equipment. (author). 56 figs., 6 tabs

  11. Observation of plasma motion in a coaxial plasma opening switch with a chordal laser interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teramoto, Y.; Urakami, H.; Akiyama, H.; Kohno, S.; Katsuki, S.

    2002-01-01

    Electron densities in a coaxial plasma opening switch were measured at many lines-of-slight. In the present experiment, electron density was measured by a He-Ne laser interferometer with chordal lines-of sight. In order to observe the motion of the POS plasma, the electron density contours during the conduction, opening and post-opening phases were drawn by combining the results of interferometer experiments. The radial and axial motion of POS plasma was investigated from the density contours. As conduction time progressed, the POS plasma moved toward downstream. At 800 ns, which corresponds to the time of opening in the current waveform, low-density region less than 10 15 cm -2 is seen at 10 mm from the cathode. After the opening was completed, the low-density gap disappeared and the shape of the corn-shape-like plasma was distorted. (author)

  12. Observation of plasma motion in a coaxial plasma opening switch with a chordal laser interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teramoto, Y.; Urakami, H.; Akiyama, H. [Kumamoto Univ., Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto (Japan); Kohno, S. [Ariake National College of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Fukuoka (Japan); Katsuki, S. [Kumamoto Univ., Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    Electron densities in a coaxial plasma opening switch were measured at many lines-of-slight. In the present experiment, electron density was measured by a He-Ne laser interferometer with chordal lines-of sight. In order to observe the motion of the POS plasma, the electron density contours during the conduction, opening and post-opening phases were drawn by combining the results of interferometer experiments. The radial and axial motion of POS plasma was investigated from the density contours. As conduction time progressed, the POS plasma moved toward downstream. At 800 ns, which corresponds to the time of opening in the current waveform, low-density region less than 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} is seen at 10 mm from the cathode. After the opening was completed, the low-density gap disappeared and the shape of the corn-shape-like plasma was distorted. (author)

  13. Extremely short relativistic-electron-bunch generation in the laser wakefield via novel bunch injection scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khachatryan, A.G.; van Goor, F.A.; Boller, Klaus J.; Reitsma, A.J.W.; Jaroszynski, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Recently a new electron-bunch injection scheme for the laser wakefield accelerator has been proposed [JETP Lett. 74, 371 (2001); Phys. Rev. E 65, 046504 (2002)]. In this scheme, a low energy electron bunch, sent in a plasma channel just before a high-intensity laser pulse, is trapped in the laser

  14. The laser, measuring instrument for plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderegg, F.; Behn, R.; Paris, P.J.; Salito, S.A.; Siegrist, M.R.; Weisen, H.

    1988-06-01

    There are several different and in general complementary methods for the investigation of plasmas. All of them have different characteristics and properties covering a large spectrum of physical measuring techniques. Electromagnetic waves serving as 'thermometers' permit to detect the global behaviour of the plasma as well as that of the particles composing it. One of the advantages of these introspective methods is that it brings information on temporary and local conditions of the domain being interrogated. With the development of micro-wave sources and lasers after the war the principal tools of this type of plasma diagnostics are now available. In this paper the emphasis is on the lasers which are different according to the type of measurement. Their versatility in measuring plasma parameters is largely acknowledged. We illustrate the potential of measuring methods by lasers by means of the research work done at two experimental installations of CRPP. (author) 21 figs., 8 refs

  15. Enhanced laser beam coupling to a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiger, A.D.; Woods, C.H.

    1976-01-01

    Density perturbations are induced in a heated plasma by means of a pair of oppositely directed, polarized laser beams of the same frequency. The wavelength of the density perturbations is equal to one half the wavelength of the laser beams. A third laser beam is linearly polarized and directed at the perturbed plasma along a line that is perpendicular to the direction of the two opposed beams. The electric field of the third beam is oriented to lie in the plane containing the three beams. The frequency of the third beam is chosen to cause it to interact resonantly with the plasma density perturbations, thereby efficiently coupling the energy of the third beam to the plasma. 10 claims, 2 figures

  16. Propagation of an ultra intense laser pulse in an under dense plasma: production of quasi monoenergetic electron beams and development of applications; Propagation d'une impulsion laser ultra-intense dans un plasma sous-dense: generation de faisceaux d'electrons quasi monoenergetiques et developpement d'applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glinec, Y

    2006-09-15

    This experimental study concerns the generation of electron beams with original properties. These electrons beams originate from the interaction of an ultra-intense and short laser pulse with a gas jet. Previously, these electron beams had a large divergence and a broad spectrum. A major improvement in this field was achieved when an electron beam with low divergence (10 mrad) and a peaked spectrum (170 MeV) was observed during this thesis, using a new single shot electron spectrometer. A parametric study of the interaction allowed to observe the evolution of the electron beam. Experiments have been carried out to deepen the characterization of the electron beam. The observation of transition radiation generated by the electrons at an interface shows that the electron beam interacts with the laser pulse during the acceleration. Radial oscillations of the electron beam around the laser axis, named betatron oscillations, were also observed on the electron spectra. Such a quasi-monoenergetic spectrum is essential for many applications. In order to justify the interest of this electron beam, several applications are presented: a sub-milli-metric gamma-ray radiography of dense objects, a dose profile of the electron beam comparable to present capabilities of photon sources for radiotherapy, a very short temporal profile useful for water radiolysis and the generation of a bright X-ray source with low divergence. (author)

  17. Propagation of an ultra intense laser pulse in an under dense plasma: production of quasi monoenergetic electron beams and development of applications; Propagation d'une impulsion laser ultra-intense dans un plasma sous-dense: generation de faisceaux d'electrons quasi monoenergetiques et developpement d'applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glinec, Y

    2006-09-15

    This experimental study concerns the generation of electron beams with original properties. These electrons beams originate from the interaction of an ultra-intense and short laser pulse with a gas jet. Previously, these electron beams had a large divergence and a broad spectrum. A major improvement in this field was achieved when an electron beam with low divergence (10 mrad) and a peaked spectrum (170 MeV) was observed during this thesis, using a new single shot electron spectrometer. A parametric study of the interaction allowed to observe the evolution of the electron beam. Experiments have been carried out to deepen the characterization of the electron beam. The observation of transition radiation generated by the electrons at an interface shows that the electron beam interacts with the laser pulse during the acceleration. Radial oscillations of the electron beam around the laser axis, named betatron oscillations, were also observed on the electron spectra. Such a quasi-monoenergetic spectrum is essential for many applications. In order to justify the interest of this electron beam, several applications are presented: a sub-milli-metric gamma-ray radiography of dense objects, a dose profile of the electron beam comparable to present capabilities of photon sources for radiotherapy, a very short temporal profile useful for water radiolysis and the generation of a bright X-ray source with low divergence. (author)

  18. Injection into electron plasma traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorgadze, Vladimir; Pasquini, Thomas A.; Fajans, Joel; Wurtele, Jonathan S.

    2003-01-01

    Computational studies and experimental measurements of plasma injection into a Malmberg-Penning trap reveal that the number of trapped particles can be an order of magnitude higher than predicted by a simple estimates based on a ballistic trapping model. Enhanced trapping is associated with a rich nonlinear dynamics generated by the space-charge forces of the evolving trapped electron density. A particle-in-cell simulation is used to identify the physical mechanisms that lead to the increase in trapped electrons. The simulations initially show strong two-stream interactions between the electrons emitted from the cathode and those reflected off the end plug of the trap. This is followed by virtual cathode oscillations near the injection region. As electrons are trapped, the initially hollow longitudinal phase-space is filled, and the transverse radial density profile evolves so that the plasma potential matches that of the cathode. Simple theoretical arguments are given that describe the different dynamical regimes. Good agreement is found between simulation and theory

  19. Plasma dynamics near critical density inferred from direct measurements of laser hole boring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chao; Tochitsky, Sergei Ya.; Fiuza, Frederico; Pigeon, Jeremy J.; Joshi, Chan

    2016-06-01

    We have used multiframe picosecond optical interferometry to make direct measurements of the hole boring velocity, vHB, of the density cavity pushed forward by a train of C O2 laser pulses in a near critical density helium plasma. As the pulse train intensity rises, the increasing radiation pressure of each pulse pushes the density cavity forward and the plasma electrons are strongly heated. After the peak laser intensity, the plasma pressure exerted by the heated electrons strongly impedes the hole boring process and the vHB falls rapidly as the laser pulse intensity falls at the back of the laser pulse train. A heuristic theory is presented that allows the estimation of the plasma electron temperature from the measurements of the hole boring velocity. The measured values of vHB, and the estimated values of the heated electron temperature as a function of laser intensity are in reasonable agreement with those obtained from two-dimensional numerical simulations.

  20. Propagation characteristics of a Gaussian laser beam in plasma with modulated collision frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ying; Yuan Chengxun; Zhou Zhongxiang; Gao Ruilin; Li Lei; Du Yanwei

    2012-01-01

    The propagation characteristics of a Gaussian laser beam in cold plasma with the electron collision frequency modulated by laser intensity are presented. The nonlinear dynamics of the ponderomotive force, which induce nonlinear self-focusing as opposed to spatial diffraction, are considered. The effective dielectric function of the Drude model and complex eikonal function are adopted in deriving coupled differential equations of the varying laser beam parameters. In the framework of ponderomotive nonlinearity, the frequency of electron collision in plasmas, which is proportional to the spatial electron density, is strongly interrelated with the laser beam propagation characteristics. Hence, the propagation properties of the laser beam and the modulated electron collision frequency distribution in plasma were studied and explained in depth. Employing this self-consistent method, the obtained simulation results approach practical conditions, which is of significance to the study of laser–plasma interactions.

  1. Stagnation and interpenetration of laser-created colliding plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollaine, S.M.; Albritton, J.R.; Kauffman, R.; Keane, C.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Berger, R.L.; Bosch, R.; Delameter, N.D.; Failor, B.H. (KMS Fusion, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI (USA))

    1990-11-05

    A KMS laser experiment collides Aluminum (A1) and Magnesium (Mg) plasmas. The measurements include electron density, time and space resolved Ly-alpha and He-alpha lines of Al and Mg, and x-ray images. These measurements were analyzed with a hydrodynamic code, LASNEX, and a special two-fluid code OFIS. The results strongly suggest that at early times, the Al interpenetrates the counterstreaming Mg and deposits in the dense Mg region. At late times, the Al plasma stagnates against the Mg plasma.

  2. Development of laser ablation plasma by anisotropic self-radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohnishi Naofumi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We have proposed a method for reproducing an accurate solution of low-density ablation plasma by properly treating anisotropic radiation. Monte-Carlo method is employed for estimating Eddington tensor with limited number of photon samples in each fluid time step. Radiation field from ablation plasma is significantly affected by the anisotropic Eddington tensor. Electron temperature around the ablation surface changes with the radiation field and is responsible for the observed emission. An accurate prediction of the light emission from the laser ablation plasma requires a careful estimation of the anisotropic radiation field.

  3. Plasma Profile Measurements for Laser Fusion Research with the Nike KrF Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Serlin, V.; Obenschain, S. P.

    2015-11-01

    The grid image refractometer of the Nike laser facility (Nike-GIR) has demonstrated the capability of simultaneously measuring electron density (ne) and temperature (Te) profiles of coronal plasma. For laser plasma instability (LPI) research, the first Nike-GIR experiment successfully measured the plasma profiles in density regions up to ne ~ 4 ×1021 cm-3 (22% of the critical density for 248 nm light of Nike) using an ultraviolet probe laser (λp = 263 nm). The probe laser has been recently replaced with a shorter wavelength laser (λp = 213 nm, a 5th harmonic of the Nd:YAG laser) to diagnose a higher density region. The Nike-GIR system is being further extended to measure plasma profiles in the on-going experiment using 135°-separated Nike beam arrays for the cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) studies. We present an overview of the extended Nike-GIR arrangements and a new numerical algorithm to extract self-consistant plasma profiles with the measured quantities. Work supported by DoE/NNSA.

  4. Dynamics of plasma ions motion in ultra-intense laser-excited plasma wakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Suyun; Li Jing

    2013-01-01

    The effects of heavy ions and protons motion in an ultra-intense laser-driven plasma wake are compared by rebuilding a plasma wake model. It is shown that with the same laser and plasma background electron density n 0 , the heavy ions' motion suppresses wake-field resonant excitation less than the protons' motion in their own plasma wake. Though heavy ions obtain more kinetic energy from the plasma wake, its energy density is less than that of the protons due to the ion density being far less than the proton density. As a result, the total energy of heavy ions obtained from the wake-field is far less than that of protons. The dependence of the kinetic energy and the energy density of protons and heavy ions on n 0 is discussed. (paper)

  5. Plasma plume induced during laser welding of Magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, J.; Szymanski, Z.; Azharonok, V.

    2005-01-01

    The laser welding process is influenced by the plasma produced by laser irradiation. When the pressure of the metal vapour reaches 1 atm and the plasma temperature is 10-15 kK then the electron density is about 2-3x10 23 m -3 . Under these conditions the absorption coefficient can reach several cm -1 . This means that dense plasma over the keyhole can block the laser radiation within the path of a few millimetres. Knowledge of plasma parameters helps to control technological process. The emission spectra were registered during laser welding of magnesium alloy using of a CCD camera connected to a spectrograph of focal length 1.3 m. The entrance slit of the spectrograph was perpendicular to the metal surface, so that successive tracks of the detector recorded the radiation from the plasma slices situated at different distances (heights) from the metal surface. The space-averaged electron densities are determined from the Stark broadening of the 5528.41 A Mg I spectral line and 4481.16 A Mg II line. The Stark widths of magnesium lines are taken from other paper. It has been found that the plasma density reaches 1x10 23 m -3 . Experimentally measured line broadening is obtained from the profiles of the spectral lines integrated along the line of sight (plasma diameter) and does not correspond to the maximum plasma density. Since the plasma is non-uniform, both the electron densities and temperatures obtained from spatially integrated line profiles are lower than their maximum values in the plasma centre. This effect is much stronger for the atomic line because its intensity reaches the maximum on the plasma periphery while the maximum intensity of the ionic line originates from the plasma centre. Therefore, the absorption of the laser beam evaluated from the space-averaged plasma parameters is underestimated. To find the maximum plasma density and temperature the radial temperature distribution in the plasma plume has to be reproduced. This has been done numerically by

  6. Current new applications of laser plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauer, A.A.; Forslund, D.W.; McKinstrie, C.J.; Wark, J.S.; Hargis, P.J. Jr.; Hamil, R.A.; Kindel, J.M.

    1988-09-01

    This report describes several new applications of laser-produced plasmas that have arisen in the last few years. Most of the applications have been an outgrowth of the active research in laser/matter interaction inspired by the pursuit of laser fusion. Unusual characteristics of high-intensity laser/matter interaction, such as intense x-ray and particle emission, were noticed early in the field and are now being employed in a significant variety of applications outside the fusion filed. Applications range from biology to materials science to pulsed-power control and particle accelerators. 92 refs., 23 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Prospective application of laser plasma propulsion in rocket technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xin; Zhang Jie; Li Yingjun

    2002-01-01

    Interest in laser plasma propulsion is growing intensively. The interaction of high intensity short laser pulses with materials can produce plasma expansion with a velocity of hundreds of km/s. The specific impulse of ablative laser propulsion can be many tens of times greater than that of chemical rockets. The development and potential application of laser plasma propulsion are discussed

  8. Initiation of an early-stage plasma during picosecond laser ablation of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Samuel S.; Mao, Xianglei; Greif, Ralph; Russo, Richard E.

    2000-01-01

    Picosecond time-resolved images of plasma initiation were recorded during pulsed-laser ablation of metal targets in an air atmosphere. An early-stage plasma was observed to form before the release of a material vapor plume. Close to the target surface, interferometry measurements indicate that the early-stage plasma has an electron number density on the order of 10 20 cm -3 . The longitudinal expansion of the ionization front for this plasma has a velocity 10 9 cm/s, during the laser pulse. In contrast, a material--vapor plume forms approximately 200 ps after the laser pulse, and it moves away from the target at 10 6 cm/s. The experimental observations of the early-stage plasma were simulated by using a theoretical model based on a two-fluids description of laser plasmas. The results indicate that the initiation of the plasma is due to air breakdown assisted by electron emission from the target

  9. Interferometric studies of laser-created plasmas using compact soft x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, J; Nilsen, J; Moon, S; Keenan, R; Jankowska, E; Maconi, M C; Hammarsten, E C; Filevich, J; Hunter, J R; Smith, R F; Shlyaptsev, V; Rocca, J J

    2003-01-01

    We summarize results of several successful dense plasma diagnostics experiments realized by combining two different kinds of table-top soft x-ray lasers with an amplitude division interferometer based on diffraction grating beam splitters. In the first set of experiments this robust high throughput diffraction grating interferometer (DGI) was used with a 46.9 nm portable capillary discharge laser to study the dynamics of line focus and point focus laser-created plasmas. The measured electron density profiles, which differ significantly from those expected from a classical expansion, unveil important two-dimensional effects of the dynamics of these plasmas. A second DGI customized to operate in combination with a 14.7 nm Ni-like Pd transient gain laser was used to perform interferometry of line focus laser-created plasmas with picosecond time resolution. These measurements provide valuable new benchmarks for complex hydrodynamic codes and help bring new understanding of the dynamics of dense plasmas. The instrumentation and methodology we describe is scalable to significantly shorter wavelengths, and constitutes a promising scheme for extending interferometry to the study of very dense plasmas such as those investigated for inertial confinement fusion

  10. Laser light scatter experiments on plasma focus plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzel, N.

    1985-01-01

    The plasma focus plant is an experiment on nuclear fusion, which is distinguished by a high neutron yield. Constituting an important method of diagnosis in plasma focussing, the laser light scatter method makes it possible, apart from finding the electron temperature and density, to determine the ion temperature resolved according to time and place and further, to study the occurrence of micro-turbulent effects. Starting from the theoretical basis, this dissertation describes light scatter measurements with ruby lasers on the POSEIDON plasma focus. They are given, together with earlier measurements on the Frascati 1 MJ plant and the Heidelberg 12 KJ plant. The development of the plasma parameters and the occurrence of superthermal light scatter events are discussed in connection with the dynamics of the plasma and the neutron emission characteristics of the individual plants. The results support the view that the thermo-nuclear neutron production at the plasma focus is negligible. Although the importance of micro-turbulent mechanisms in producing neutrons cannot be finally judged, important guidelines are given for the spatial and time relationships with plasma dynamics, plasma parameters and neutron emission. The work concludes with a comparison of all light scatter measurements at the plasma focus described in the literature. (orig.) [de

  11. New photoionization lasers pumped by laser-induced plasma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hube, M.; Dieckmann, M.; Beigang, R.; Welling, H.; Wellegehausen, B.

    1988-01-01

    Innershell photoionization of atomic gases and vapors by soft x rays from a laser-produced plasma is a potential method for making lasers at short wavelengths. Normally, in such experiments only a single plasma spot or plasma line is created for the excitation. This gives high excitation rates but only a short excitation length. At high excitation rates detrimental influences, such as amplified spontaneous emission, optical saturation, or quenching processes, may decrease or even destroy a possible inversion. Therefore, it seems to be more favorable to use a number of separated plasma spots with smaller excitation rates and larger excitation lengths. As a test, a three-plasma spot device was constructed and used in the well-known Cd-photoionization laser at 442 nm. With a 600-mJ Nd:YAH laser (pulse length, 8 ns) for plasma production, output energies up to 300 μJ have been measured, which is more than a doubling of so far obtained data. On innershell excitation, levels may be populated that allow direct lasers as in the case of Cd or that are metastable and cannot be directly coupled to lower levels. In this case modifications in the excitation process are necessary. Such modifications may be an optical pump process in the atom prior to the innershell photoionization or an optical pump process (population transfer process) after the innershell ionization, leading to Raman or anti-Stokes Raman-type laser emissions. With these techniques and the developed multiplasma spot excitation device a variety of new laser emissions in K and Cs ions have been achieved which are indicated in the level schemes

  12. Plasma characterization using ultraviolet Thomson scattering from ion-acoustic and electron plasma waves (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follett, R. K., E-mail: rfollett@lle.rochester.edu; Delettrez, J. A.; Edgell, D. H.; Henchen, R. J.; Katz, J.; Myatt, J. F.; Froula, D. H. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Collective Thomson scattering is a technique for measuring the plasma conditions in laser-plasma experiments. Simultaneous measurements of ion-acoustic and electron plasma-wave spectra were obtained using a 263.25-nm Thomson-scattering probe beam. A fully reflective collection system was used to record light scattered from electron plasma waves at electron densities greater than 10{sup 21} cm{sup −3}, which produced scattering peaks near 200 nm. An accurate analysis of the experimental Thomson-scattering spectra required accounting for plasma gradients, instrument sensitivity, optical effects, and background radiation. Practical techniques for including these effects when fitting Thomson-scattering spectra are presented and applied to the measured spectra to show the improvements in plasma characterization.

  13. Heating of underdense plasmas by intense lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruer, W.L.

    1972-08-01

    In this note we show that two intense driving fields with frequency much greater than the electron plasma frequency (ω/sub pe/), but with a frequency separation of nearly ω/sub pe/, will couple electron and ion plasma waves and drive them unstable. 6 refs

  14. Relativistic electromagnetic waves in an electron-ion plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chian, Abraham C.-L.; Kennel, Charles F.

    1987-01-01

    High power laser beams can drive plasma particles to relativistic energies. An accurate description of strong waves requires the inclusion of ion dynamics in the analysis. The equations governing the propagation of relativistic electromagnetic waves in a cold electron-ion plasma can be reduced to two equations expressing conservation of energy-momentum of the system. The two conservation constants are functions of the plasma stream velocity, the wave velocity, the wave amplitude, and the electron-ion mass ratio. The dynamic parameter, expressing electron-ion momentum conversation in the laboratory frame, can be regarded as an adjustable quantity, a suitable choice of which will yield self-consistent solutions when other plasma parameters were specified. Circularly polarized electromagnetic waves and electrostatic plasma waves are used as illustrations.

  15. Arbitrary electron acoustic waves in degenerate dense plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ata-ur; Mushtaq, A.; Qamar, A.; Neelam, S.

    2017-05-01

    A theoretical investigation is carried out of the nonlinear dynamics of electron-acoustic waves in a collisionless and unmagnetized plasma whose constituents are non-degenerate cold electrons, ultra-relativistic degenerate electrons, and stationary ions. A dispersion relation is derived for linear EAWs. An energy integral equation involving the Sagdeev potential is derived, and basic properties of the large amplitude solitary structures are investigated in such a degenerate dense plasma. It is shown that only negative large amplitude EA solitary waves can exist in such a plasma system. The present analysis may be important to understand the collective interactions in degenerate dense plasmas, occurring in dense astrophysical environments as well as in laser-solid density plasma interaction experiments.

  16. Laser and Plasma Technology Division annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatramani, N.; Verma, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the activities of the Laser and Plasma Technology Division during the year 1993. This Division is engaged in the research and development of high power beams namely laser, plasma and electron beams, which are characterized by high power density, normally in excess of 1 kW/mm 2 . Laser and Plasma Technology Division has strived to establish indigenous capability to cater to the requirements of the Department of Atomic Energy. The broad programme objectives of the Division are : (1) Development and technology readiness studies of laser, plasma and electron beam devices, (2) Studies on related physical phenomena with a view to gain better understanding of the devices, and (3) Improvements in technology and exploration of new areas. This report covers the activities of the Division during 1993 and describes how successfully the objectives have been met. The activities described in the report are diverse in nature. The report has been compiled from individual reports of various groups/sections with marginal editing. (author). refs., tabs., figs

  17. Laser and Plasma Technology Division annual report 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatramani, N; Verma, R L [eds.; Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Laser and Plasma Technology Div.

    1994-12-31

    This report describes the activities of the Laser and Plasma Technology Division during the year 1993. This Division is engaged in the research and development of high power beams namely laser, plasma and electron beams, which are characterized by high power density, normally in excess of 1 kW/mm{sup 2}. Laser and Plasma Technology Division has strived to establish indigenous capability to cater to the requirements of the Department of Atomic Energy. The broad programme objectives of the Division are : (1) Development and technology readiness studies of laser, plasma and electron beam devices, (2) Studies on related physical phenomena with a view to gain better understanding of the devices, and (3) Improvements in technology and exploration of new areas. This report covers the activities of the Division during 1993 and describes how successfully the objectives have been met. The activities described in the report are diverse in nature. The report has been compiled from individual reports of various groups/sections with marginal editing. (author). refs., tabs., figs.

  18. Saturation of Langmuir waves in laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, K.L.

    1996-04-01

    This dissertation deals with the interaction of an intense laser with a plasma (a quasineutral collection of electrons and ions). During this interaction, the laser drives large-amplitude waves through a class of processes known as parametric instabilities. Several such instabilities drive one type of wave, the Langmuir wave, which involves oscillations of the electrons relative to the nearly-stationary ions. There are a number of mechanisms which limit the amplitude to which Langmuir waves grow. In this dissertation, these mechanisms are examined to identify qualitative features which might be observed in experiments and/or simulations. In addition, a number of experiments are proposed to specifically look for particular saturation mechanisms. In a plasma, a Langmuir wave can decay into an electromagnetic wave and an ion wave. This parametric instability is proposed as a source for electromagnetic emission near half of the incident laser frequency observed from laser-produced plasmas. This interpretation is shown to be consistent with existing experimental data and it is found that one of the previous mechanisms used to explain such emission is not. The scattering version of the electromagnetic decay instability is shown to provide an enhanced noise source of electromagnetic waves near the frequency of the incident laser

  19. Editorial: Focus on Laser- and Beam-Driven Plasma Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Chan; Malka, Victor

    2010-04-01

    The ability of short but intense laser pulses to generate high-energy electrons and ions from gaseous and solid targets has been well known since the early days of the laser fusion program. However, during the past decade there has been an explosion of experimental and theoretical activity in this area of laser-matter interaction, driven by the prospect of realizing table-top plasma accelerators for research, medical and industrial uses, and also relatively small and inexpensive plasma accelerators for high-energy physics at the frontier of particle physics. In this focus issue on laser- and beam-driven plasma accelerators, the latest advances in this field are described. Focus on Laser- and Beam-Driven Plasma Accelerators Contents Slow wave plasma structures for direct electron acceleration B D Layer, J P Palastro, A G York, T M Antonsen and H M Milchberg Cold injection for electron wakefield acceleration X Davoine, A Beck, A Lifschitz, V Malka and E Lefebvre Enhanced proton flux in the MeV range by defocused laser irradiation J S Green, D C Carroll, C Brenner, B Dromey, P S Foster, S Kar, Y T Li, K Markey, P McKenna, D Neely, A P L Robinson, M J V Streeter, M Tolley, C-G Wahlström, M H Xu and M Zepf Dose-dependent biological damage of tumour cells by laser-accelerated proton beams S D Kraft, C Richter, K Zeil, M Baumann, E Beyreuther, S Bock, M Bussmann, T E Cowan, Y Dammene, W Enghardt, U Helbig, L Karsch, T Kluge, L Laschinsky, E Lessmann, J Metzkes, D Naumburger, R Sauerbrey, M. Scḧrer, M Sobiella, J Woithe, U Schramm and J Pawelke The optimum plasma density for plasma wakefield excitation in the blowout regime W Lu, W An, M Zhou, C Joshi, C Huang and W B Mori Plasma wakefield acceleration experiments at FACET M J Hogan, T O Raubenheimer, A Seryi, P Muggli, T Katsouleas, C Huang, W Lu, W An, K A Marsh, W B Mori, C E Clayton and C Joshi Electron trapping and acceleration on a downward density ramp: a two-stage approach R M G M Trines, R Bingham, Z Najmudin

  20. Experimental study of laser-plasma interaction physics with short laser wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labaune, C.; Amiranoff, F.; Fabre, E.; Matthieussent, G.; Rousseaux, C.; Baton, S.

    1989-01-01

    Many non-linear processes can affect laser-plasma coupling in fusion experiments. The interaction processes of interest involve three or more waves, including the incident electromagnetic wave and various selections of electromagnetic, electrostatic and accoustic waves. Whenever plasma waves are involved (stimulated Raman scattering, two-plasmon decay instability, parametric decay instability and others), energetic electrons are created through the various damping processes of these waves: these energetic electrons in turn deleteriously affect the compression phase in laser fusion experiments through pre-heating of the fuel core. Some parametric processes lead primarily to loss of incident laser energy (stimulated Brillouin scattering) while others, such as filamentation, lead to strongly enhanced local laser intensities through the focusing of part (or all) of the laser beam into filaments of very small dimensions with a concomitant expulsion of the plasma out of these regions. So filamentation destroys the uniformity of energy deposition in the plasma and prevents high compression efficiency of the target. These interaction effects are typically of parametric nature, with their thresholds and growth rates depending critically on plasma scale lengths. Since these scale lengths increase with available laser energy and since millimeter sized plasmas are expected from reactor targets which will be used in direct drive implosion experiments, a good understanding of these processes and their saturation mechanisms becomes imperative. We report here the results on absolute energy measurements and time-resolved spectra of SRS and SBS obtained in various types of plasmas where the major changes were the inhomogeneity scale lengths. (author) 7 refs., 7 figs

  1. Laser-driven electron beam and radiation sources for basic, medical and industrial sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    NAKAJIMA, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01

    To date active research on laser-driven plasma-based accelerators have achieved great progress on production of high-energy, high-quality electron and photon beams in a compact scale. Such laser plasma accelerators have been envisaged bringing a wide range of applications in basic, medical and industrial sciences. Here inheriting the groundbreaker’s review article on “Laser Acceleration and its future” [Toshiki Tajima, (2010)],1) we would like to review recent progress of producing such electron beams due to relativistic laser-plasma interactions followed by laser wakefield acceleration and lead to the scaling formulas that are useful to design laser plasma accelerators with controllability of beam energy and charge. Lastly specific examples of such laser-driven electron/photon beam sources are illustrated. PMID:26062737

  2. Optical emission spectroscopy of metal vapor dominated laser-arc hybrid welding plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribic, B.; DebRoy, T.; Burgardt, P.

    2011-01-01

    During laser-arc hybrid welding, plasma properties affect the welding process and the weld quality. However, hybrid welding plasmas have not been systematically studied. Here we examine electron temperatures, species densities, and electrical conductivity for laser, arc, and laser-arc hybrid welding using optical emission spectroscopy. The effects of arc currents and heat source separation distances were examined because these parameters significantly affect weld quality. Time-average plasma electron temperatures, electron and ion densities, electrical conductivity, and arc stability decrease with increasing heat source separation distance during hybrid welding. Heat source separation distance affects these properties more significantly than the arc current within the range of currents considered. Improved arc stability and higher electrical conductivity of the hybrid welding plasma result from increased heat flux, electron temperatures, electron density, and metal vapor concentrations relative to arc or laser welding.

  3. Electron-beam initiated HF lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, R.A.; Patterson, E.L.

    1975-01-01

    Electron beams were used to ignite hydrogen/fluorine mixtures, producing laser energies up to 4.2 kJ, and giving hope that this approach may soon produce energy levels suitable for laser-fusion studies. (auth)

  4. Laser-plasma interaction physics for shock ignition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyon C.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the shock ignition scheme, the ICF target is first compressed with a long (nanosecond pulse before creating a convergent shock with a short (∼100 ps pulse to ignite thermonuclear reactions. This short pulse is typically (∼2.1015–1016 W/cm2 above LPI (Laser Plasma Instabilities thresholds. The plasma is in a regime where the electron temperature is expected to be very high (2–4 keV and the laser coupling to the plasma is not well understood. Emulating LPI in the corona requires large and hot plasmas produced by high-energy lasers. We conducted experiments on the LIL (Ligne d'Integration Laser, 10 kJ at 3ω and the LULI2000 (0.4 kJ at 2ω facilities, to approach these conditions and study absorption and LPI produced by a high intensity beam in preformed plasmas. After introducing the main risks associated with the short pulse propagation, we present the latest experiment we conducted on LPI in relevant conditions for shock ignition.

  5. Trends in laser-plasma-instability experiments for laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    Laser-plasma instability experiments for laser fusion have followed three developments. These are advances in the technology and design of experiments, advances in diagnostics, and evolution of the design of high-gain targets. This paper traces the history of these three topics and discusses their present state. Today one is substantially able to produce controlled plasma conditions and to diagnose specific instabilities within such plasmas. Experiments today address issues that will matter for future laser facilities. Such facilities will irradiate targets with ∼1 MJ of visible or UV light pulses that are tens of nanoseconds in duration, very likely with a high degree of spatial and temporal incoherence. 58 refs., 4 figs

  6. Generation of mega-electron-volt electron beams by an ultrafast intense laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaofang; Saleh, Ned; Krishnan, Mohan; Wang Haiwen; Backus, Sterling; Murnane, Margaret; Kapteyn, Henry; Umstadter, Donald; Wang Quandong; Shen Baifei

    2003-01-01

    Mega-electron-volt (MeV) electron emission from the interaction of an ultrafast (τ∼29 fs), intense (>10 18 W/cm 2 ) laser pulse with underdense plasmas has been studied. A beam of MeV electrons with a divergence angle as small as 1 deg. is observed in the forward direction, which is correlated with relativistic filamentation of the laser pulse in plasmas. A novel net-energy-gain mechanism is proposed for electron acceleration resulting from the relativistic filamentation and beam breakup. These results suggest an approach for generating a beam of femtosecond, MeV electrons at a kilohertz repetition rate with a compact ultrafast intense laser system

  7. Study on the effects of ion motion on laser-induced plasma wakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Suyun; Yu Wei; Yuan Xiao; Xu Han; Cao, L. H.; Cai, H. B.; Zhou, C. T.

    2012-01-01

    A 2D analytical model is presented for the generation of plasma wakes (or bubbles) with an ultra-intense laser pulse by taking into account the response of plasma ions. It is shown that the effect of ion motion becomes significant at the laser intensity exceeding 10 21 W/cm 2 and plasma background density below 10 19 cm −3 . In this regime, ion motion tends to suppress the electrostatic field induced by charge separation and makes the electron acceleration less effective. As a result, the assumption of immobile ions overestimates the efficiency of laser wake-field acceleration of electrons. Based on the analytical model, the dynamics of plasma ions in laser-induced wake field is investigated. It is found that only one bubble appears as the plasmas background density exceeds the resonant density and the deposited laser energy is concentrated into the bubble, resulting in the generation of an ion bunch with extremely high energy density.

  8. The x-ray laser as a tool for imaging plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libby, S.B.; Da Silva, L.B.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.

    1995-07-01

    The x-ray laser is now being used at LLNL as a tool for measuring the behaviors of hot dense plasmas. In particular, we have used the 155 Angstrom yttrium laser to study transient plasmas by both radiography and moire deflectrometry. These techniques have been used to probe long scale length plasmas at electron densities exceeding 10 22 cm -3 . Recent advances in multilayer technology have made it possible to directly image ion densities in directly driven thin foils to an accuracy of 1--2 μm. In addition, we have constructed an x-ray laser Mach-Zehnder interferometer using multilayer beam-splitters. This interferometer yields direct 2D projections of electron densities in plasmas with micron spatial resolution. In addition, this interferometer can be used to measure spectral line shapes to high accuracy. Among the subject plasmas under study are laser irradiated planar targets, gold hohlraums, and x-ray lasers themselves

  9. Sapphire capillaries for laser-driven wakefield acceleration in plasma. Fs-laser micromachining and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwinkendorf, Jan-Patrick

    2012-05-01

    Plasma wakefields are a promising approach for the acceleration of electrons with ultrahigh (10 to 100 GV/m) electric fields. Nowadays, high-intensity laser pulses are routinely utilized to excite these large-amplitude plasma waves. However, several detrimental effects such as laser diffraction, electron-wake dephasing and laser depletion may terminate the acceleration process. Two of these phenomena can be mitigated or avoided by the application of capillary waveguides, e.g. fabricated out of sapphire for longevity. Capillaries may compensate for laser diffraction like a fiber and allow for the creation of tapered gas-density profiles working against the dephasing between the accelerating wave and the particles. Additionally, they offer the possibility of controlled particle injection. This thesis is reporting on the set up of a laser for fs-micromachining of capillaries of almost arbitrary shapes and a test stand for density-profile characterization. These devices will permit the creation of tailored gas-density profiles for controlled electron injection and acceleration inside plasma.

  10. Sapphire capillaries for laser-driven wakefield acceleration in plasma. Fs-laser micromachining and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwinkendorf, Jan-Patrick

    2012-08-15

    Plasma wakefields are a promising approach for the acceleration of electrons with ultrahigh (10 to 100 GV/m) electric fields. Nowadays, high-intensity laser pulses are routinely utilized to excite these large-amplitude plasma waves. However, several detrimental effects such as laser diffraction, electron-wake dephasing and laser depletion may terminate the acceleration process. Two of these phenomena can be mitigated or avoided by the application of capillary waveguides, e.g. fabricated out of sapphire for longevity. Capillaries may compensate for laser diffraction like a fiber and allow for the creation of tapered gas-density profiles working against the dephasing between the accelerating wave and the particles. Additionally, they offer the possibility of controlled particle injection. This thesis is reporting on the set up of a laser for fs-micromachining of capillaries of almost arbitrary shapes and a test stand for density-profile characterization. These devices will permit the creation of tailored gas-density profiles for controlled electron injection and acceleration inside plasma.

  11. Adventures in Laser Produced Plasma Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Key, M

    2006-01-13

    In the UK the study of laser produced plasmas and their applications began in the universities and evolved to a current system where the research is mainly carried out at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory Central Laser Facility ( CLF) which is provided to support the universities. My own research work has been closely tied to this evolution and in this review I describe the history with particular reference to my participation in it.

  12. Laser ablated copper plasmas in liquid and gas ambient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Bhupesh; Thareja, Raj K.

    2013-05-01

    The dynamics of copper ablated plasma plumes generated using laser ablation of copper targets in both liquid (de-ionized water) and gas (air) ambients is reported. Using time and space resolved visible emission spectroscopy (450-650 nm), the plasma plumes parameters are investigated. The electron density (ne) determined using Stark broadening of the Cu I (3d104d1 2D3/2-3d104p1 2P3/2 at 521.8 nm) line is estimated and compared for both plasma plumes. The electron temperature (Te) was estimated using the relative line emission intensities of the neutral copper transitions. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectral analysis of the ablated copper surface indicated abundance of spherical nanoparticles in liquid while those in air are amalgamates of irregular shapes. The nanoparticles suspended in the confining liquid form aggregates and exhibit a surface plasmon resonance at ˜590 nm.

  13. Induced Compton scattering of a laser in an inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.S.; Tripathi, V. K.

    2003-01-01

    A laser propagating through a high temperature low density plasma undergoes induced Compton backscattering involving the coupling of the laser pump and the scattered electromagnetic wave via the resonant electrons or the resistive quasimode. The region of nonlinear interaction is localized due to plasma inhomogeneity. At short density scale lengths when the interaction region is strongly localized and resonant electrons quickly move out of it, the electron distribution function remains Maxwellian and Compton reflectivity is significant at laser intensity >10 16 W/cm 2 . In gentle density gradients the resonant electrons are trapped in the ponderomotive and self-consistent potential well of the quasimode as they enter the interaction region. The ones with velocity v z p (v p being the phase velocity of the ponderomotive wave propagating along z direction) are accelerated to v p while those with v z >v p are retarded to v p . Since the number of the former is more than that of the latter there is a net momentum transfer to electrons. Momentum and action conservation lead to a reflectivity, R, that initially goes as the square of pump intensity, then rises gradually at higher intensity. R decreases rapidly with v th /v p , where v th is the thermal velocity of electrons

  14. Free-electron laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, Eisuke

    2003-01-01

    The principle and history of free-electron laser (FEL), first evidenced in 1977, the relationship between FEL wavelength and output power, the high-power FEL driven by the superconducting linac, the X-ray FEL by the linac, and the medical use are described. FEL is the vacuum oscillator tube and essentially composed from the high-energy linac, undulator and light-resonator. It utilizes free electrons in the vacuum to generate the beam with wavelength ranging from microwave to gamma ray. The first high-power FEL developed in Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is based on the development of superconducting linac for oscillating the highest power beam. In the medical field, applications to excise brain tumors (in US) and to reconstruct experimentally blood vessels in the pig heart (in Gunma University) by lasing and laser coagulator are in progress with examinations to remove intra-vascular cholesterol mass by irradiation of 5.7μm FEL beam. Cancer cells are considered diagnosed by FEL beam of far-infrared-THz range. The FEL beam CT is expected to have a wide variety of application without the radiation exposure and its resolution is equal or superior to that of usual imaging techniques. (N.I.)

  15. Ion turbulence and thermal transport in laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, H.C.; Boyd, T.J.M.

    1982-01-01

    In the interaction of high-intensity lasers with target plasmas the transport of thermal energy from the region in which the radiation is absorbed, to the cold dense plasma in the interior of the target, is an issue of central importance. The role of ion turbulence as a flux limiter is addressed with particular regard to recent experiments in which target plasmas were irradiated by 1.06 μm neodymium laser light at irradiances of 10 15 W cm - 2 and greater. Saturation levels of the ion-acoustic turbulence driven by a combination of a suprathermal electron current and a heat flux are calculated on the basis of perturbed orbit theory. The levels of turbulence are found to be markedly lower than those commonly estimated from simple trapping arguments and too low to explain the thermal flux inhibition observed in the experiments used as a basis for the model. (author)

  16. Spectroscopic and corpuscular analysis of laser-produced carbon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarnecka, A.; Kubkowska, M.; Kowalska-Strzeciwilk, E.; Parys, P.; Sadowski, M.J.; Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Malinowski, K.; Kwiatkowski, R.; Ladygina, M.

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes spectroscopic and corpuscular measurements of laser-produced carbon plasma, which was created at surfaces of three targets made of CFC of the Snecma-N11 type with different crystallographic orientations. In order to irradiate the investigated samples the use was made of a Nd:YAG laser. Experiments were performed in a vacuum chamber under the initial pressure equal to 5.10-5 mbar. A Mechelle 900 optical spectrometer equipped with a CCD detector was used to record spectra emitted from the produced carbon-plasma. The recorded optical spectra showed distinct carbon lines ranging from CI to CIV. Basing on the Stark broadening of the CII 426.7 nm line it was possible to estimate the electron density of plasma from each investigated sample. Corpuscular measurements of the emitted ions were carried out by means of an electrostatic ion-energy analyzer and ion collector.

  17. Collaborative Research: Tomographic imaging of laser-plasma structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downer, Michael [University of Texas at Austin

    2018-01-18

    The interaction of intense short laser pulses with ionized gases, or plasmas, underlies many applications such as acceleration of elementary particles, production of energy by laser fusion, generation of x-ray and far-infrared “terahertz” pulses for medical and materials probing, remote sensing of explosives and pollutants, and generation of guide stars. Such laser-plasma interactions create tiny electron density structures (analogous to the wake behind a boat) inside the plasma in the shape of waves, bubbles and filaments that move at the speed of light, and evolve as they propagate. Prior to recent work by the PI of this proposal, detailed knowledge of such structures came exclusively from intensive computer simulations. Now “snapshots” of these elusive, light-velocity structures can be taken in the laboratory using dynamic variant of holography, the technique used to produce ID cards and DVDs, and dynamic variant of tomography, the technique used in medicine to image internal bodily organs. These fast visualization techniques are important for understanding, improving and scaling the above-mentioned applications of laser-plasma interactions. In this project, we accomplished three things: 1) We took holographic pictures of a laser-driven plasma-wave in the act of accelerating electrons to high energy, and used computer simulations to understand the pictures. 2) Using results from this experiment to optimize the performance of the accelerator, and the brightness of x-rays that it emits. These x-rays will be useful for medical and materials science applications. 3) We made technical improvements to the holographic technique that enables us to see finer details in the recorded pictures. Four refereed journal papers were published, and two students earned PhDs and moved on to scientific careers in US National Laboratories based on their work under this project.

  18. Electron-beam-excited gas laser research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.W.; Gerardo, J.B.; Patterson, E.L.; Gerber, R.A.; Rice, J.K.; Bingham, F.W.

    1975-01-01

    Net energy gain in laser fusion places requirements on the laser that are not realized by any existing laser. Utilization of relativistic electron beams (REB's), a relatively new source for the excitation of gas laser media, may lead to new lasers that could satisfy these requirements. Already REB's have been utilized to excite gas laser media and produce gas lasers that have not been produced as successfully any other way. Electron-beam-excitation has produced electronic-transition dimer lasers that have not yet been produced by any other excitation scheme (for example, Xe 2 / sup *(1)/, Kr:O(2 1 S)/sup 2/, KrF/sup *(3)/). In addition, REB's have initiated chemical reactions to produce HF laser radiation with unique and promising results. Relativistic-electron-beam gas-laser research is continuing to lead to new lasers with unique properties. Results of work carried out at Sandia Laboratories in this pioneering effort of electron-beam-excited-gas lasers are reviewed. (U.S.)

  19. High frequency free-electron laser results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, K.; Brau, C.A.; Newman, B.E.; Stein, W.E.; Warren, R.W.; Winston, J.G.; Young, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    By looking at the free-electron laser as a particle accelerator working backwards, Morton realized that the techniques used to accelerate particles could be used to improve the performance of free-electron lasers. In particular, he predicted the capture of electrons in ''stable-phase'' regions, or ''buckets'' in the electron phase space, and proposed that by decelerating the buckets, the trapped electrons could be decelerated to extract significant amounts of their energy as optical radiation. In fact, since electrons not trapped in the stable regions are forever excluded from them--at least in the adiabatic approximation--displacement techniques could also be used to accelerate or decelerate electrons in a free-electron laser. This paper explains the principle behind ''phase-displacement'' acceleration and details an experiment carried out with a 20-MeV electron beam to test these predictions. Results obtained with a tapered-wiggler free-electron laser demonstrate the concepts proposed by Morton for enhanced efficiency. They show deceleration of electrons by as much as 7% and extraction of more than 3% of the total electron-beam energy as laser energy when the laser is operated as an amplifier. The experiment is presently being reconfigured to examine its performance as a laser oscillator

  20. Mechanism of laser beam reentry into a laser breakdown plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savic, P.; Kekez, M.M.; Makomaski, A.H.

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that the focus-directed filament often observed in streak photographs of CO 2 -laser produced gas breakdown can be explained by the lateral expansion and consequent cooling of the plasma behind the radiation supported shock. A simple analysis and more detailed numerical calculations show a temperature maximum developing in the plasma, which travels either towards or away from the light source, depending on the nature of the gas. Thus, the locus of the cutoff temperature also travels along the beam, allowing it to reenter the plasma at a velocity which may attain the speed of light. (Auth.)

  1. A plasma microlens for ultrashort high power lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzir, Yiftach; Eisenmann, Shmuel; Ferber, Yair; Zigler, Arie; Hubbard, Richard F.

    2009-07-01

    We present a technique for generation of miniature plasma lens system that can be used for focusing and collimating a high intensity femtosecond laser pulse. The plasma lens was created by a nanosecond laser, which ablated a capillary entrance. The spatial configuration of the ablated plasma focused a high intensity femtosecond laser pulse. This configuration offers versatility in the plasma lens small f-number for extremely tight focusing of high power lasers with no damage threshold restrictions of regular optical components.

  2. A plasma microlens for ultrashort high power lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katzir, Yiftach; Eisenmann, Shmuel; Ferber, Yair; Zigler, Arie; Hubbard, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    We present a technique for generation of miniature plasma lens system that can be used for focusing and collimating a high intensity femtosecond laser pulse. The plasma lens was created by a nanosecond laser, which ablated a capillary entrance. The spatial configuration of the ablated plasma focused a high intensity femtosecond laser pulse. This configuration offers versatility in the plasma lens small f-number for extremely tight focusing of high power lasers with no damage threshold restrictions of regular optical components.

  3. Compendium of laser plasma interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobin, J.-L.

    1981-10-01

    Basic mechanisms, linear and non linear, are reviewed. Absorption through inverse Bremsstrahlung, through wave-wave couplings; resonant absorption; wave breaking; ponderomotive force; harmonic generation; magnetic field generation. Subsequent plasma flows are described [fr

  4. Scaling of laser-plasma interactions with laser wavelength and plasma size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Max, C.E.; Campbell, E.M.; Mead, W.C.; Kruer, W.L.; Phillion, D.W.; Turner, R.E.; Lasinski, B.F.; Estabrook, K.G.

    1983-01-01

    Plasma size is an important parameter in wavelength-scaling experiments because it determines both the threshold and potential gain for a variety of laser-plasma instabilities. Most experiments to date have of necessity produced relatively small plasmas, due to laser energy and pulse-length limitations. We have discussed in detail three recent Livermore experiments which had large enough plasmas that some instability thresholds were exceeded or approached. Our evidence for Raman scatter, filamentation, and the two-plasmon decay instability needs to be confirmed in experiments which measure several instability signatures simultaneously, and which produce more quantitative information about the local density and temperature profiles than we have today

  5. Scaling of laser-plasma interactions with laser wavelength and plasma size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, C.E.; Campbell, E.M.; Mead, W.C.; Kruer, W.L.; Phillion, D.W.; Turner, R.E.; Lasinski, B.F.; Estabrook, K.G.

    1983-01-25

    Plasma size is an important parameter in wavelength-scaling experiments because it determines both the threshold and potential gain for a variety of laser-plasma instabilities. Most experiments to date have of necessity produced relatively small plasmas, due to laser energy and pulse-length limitations. We have discussed in detail three recent Livermore experiments which had large enough plasmas that some instability thresholds were exceeded or approached. Our evidence for Raman scatter, filamentation, and the two-plasmon decay instability needs to be confirmed in experiments which measure several instability signatures simultaneously, and which produce more quantitative information about the local density and temperature profiles than we have today.

  6. Design considerations for the use of laser-plasma accelerators for advanced space radiation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Königstein, T.; Karger, O.; Pretzler, G.; Rosenzweig, J. B.; Hidding, B.; Hidding

    2012-08-01

    We present design considerations for the use of laser-plasma accelerators for mimicking space radiation and testing space-grade electronics. This novel application takes advantage of the inherent ability of laser-plasma accelerators to produce particle beams with exponential energy distribution, which is a characteristic shared with the hazardous relativistic electron flux present in the radiation belts of planets such as Earth, Saturn and Jupiter. Fundamental issues regarding laser-plasma interaction parameters, beam propagation, flux development, and experimental setup are discussed.

  7. High magnetic field generation for laser-plasma experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, B. B.; Froula, D. H.; Davis, P. F.; Ross, J. S.; Fulkerson, S.; Bower, J.; Satariano, J.; Price, D.; Krushelnick, K.; Glenzer, S. H.

    2006-01-01

    An electromagnetic solenoid was developed to study the effect of magnetic fields on electron thermal transport in laser plasmas. The solenoid, which is driven by a pulsed power system supplying 30 kJ, achieves magnetic fields of 13 T. The field strength was measured on the solenoid axis with a magnetic probe and optical Zeeman splitting. The measurements agree well with analytical estimates. A method for optimizing the solenoid design to achieve magnetic fields exceeding 20 T is presented

  8. Collimated fast electron beam generation in critical density plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwawaki, T., E-mail: iwawaki-t@eie.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Habara, H.; Morita, K.; Tanaka, K. A. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1, Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Baton, S.; Fuchs, J.; Chen, S. [LULI, CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique-Université Pierre et Marie Curie-CEA, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Nakatsutsumi, M. [LULI, CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique-Université Pierre et Marie Curie-CEA, 91128 Palaiseau (France); European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Facility (XFEL) GmbH (Germany); Rousseaux, C. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Filippi, F. [La SAPIENZA, University of Rome, Dip. SBAI, 00161 Rome (Italy); Nazarov, W. [School of Chemistry, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9ST, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-15

    Significantly collimated fast electron beam with a divergence angle 10° (FWHM) is observed when an ultra-intense laser pulse (I = 10{sup 14 }W/cm{sup 2}, 300 fs) irradiates a uniform critical density plasma. The uniform plasma is created through the ionization of an ultra-low density (5 mg/c.c.) plastic foam by X-ray burst from the interaction of intense laser (I = 10{sup 14 }W/cm{sup 2}, 600 ps) with a thin Cu foil. 2D Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation well reproduces the collimated electron beam with a strong magnetic field in the region of the laser pulse propagation. To understand the physical mechanism of the collimation, we calculate energetic electron motion in the magnetic field obtained from the 2D PIC simulation. As the results, the strong magnetic field (300 MG) collimates electrons with energy over a few MeV. This collimation mechanism may attract attention in many applications such as electron acceleration, electron microscope and fast ignition of laser fusion.

  9. Wavelength scaling of laser plasma coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruer, W.L.

    1983-01-01

    The use of shorter wavelength laser light both enhances collisional absorption and reduces deleterious collective plasma effects. Coupling processes which can be important in reactor-size targets are briefly reviewed. Simple estimates are presented for the intensity-wavelength regime in which collisional absorption is high and collective effects are minimized

  10. Optically-ionized plasma recombination x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendt, P.; Eder, D.C.; Wilks, S.C.; Dunning, M.J.; Keane, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    Design studies for recombination x-ray lasers based on plasmas ionized by high intensity, short pulse optical lasers are presented. Transient lasing on n = 3 to n = 2 transitions in Lithium-like Neon allows for moderately short wavelengths (≤ 100 angstrom) without requiring ionizing intensities associated with relativistic electron quiver energies. The electron energy distribution following the ionizing pulse affects directly the predicted gains for this resonance transition. Efficiencies of 10 -6 or greater are found for plasma temperatures in the vicinity of 40 eV. Simulation studies of parametric heating phenomena relating to stimulated Raman and Compton scattering are presented. For electron densities less than about 2.5 x 10 20 cm -3 and peak driver intensity of 2 x 10 17 W/cm 2 at 0.25 μm with pulse length of 100 fsec, the amount of electron heating is found to be marginally significant. For Lithium-like Aluminum, the required relativistic ionizing intensity gives excessive electron heating and reduced efficiency, thereby rendering this scheme impractical for generating shorter wavelength lasing (≤ 50 angstrom) in the transient case. Following the transient lasing phase, a slow hydrodynamic expansion into the surrounding cool plasma is accompanied by quasi-static gain on the n = 4 to n = 3 transition in Lithium-like Neon. Parametric heating effects on gain optimization in this regime are also discussed. 18 refs., 6 figs

  11. Electron distribution function in electron-beam-excited plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brau, C.A.

    1976-01-01

    In monatomic plasmas excited by high-intensity relativistic electron beams, the electron secondary distribution function is dominated by elastic electron-electron collisions at low electron energies and by inelastic electron-atom collisions at high electron energies (above the excitation threshold). Under these conditions, the total rate of excitation by inelastic collisions is limited by the rate at which electron-electron collisions relax the distribution function in the neighborhood of the excitation threshold. To describe this effect quantitatively, an approximate analytic solution of the electron Boltzmann equation is obtained, including both electron-electron and inelastic collisions. The result provides a simple formula for the total rate of excitation

  12. Free-electron lasers considered for CEBAF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Spinoff development of industrial free-electron lasers is in prospect for an industry-universitylaboratory consortium centred at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility in Newport News, Virginia, site of the CEBAF 4 GeV superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) accelerator, now being commissioned (see page 42). Together with several US corporations and universities, the Laboratory is now also addressing the potential of smaller SRF electron accelerators for ''driving'' free-electron lasers (FELs)

  13. Direct longitudinal laser acceleration of electrons in free space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Carbajo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Compact laser-driven accelerators are pursued heavily worldwide because they make novel methods and tools invented at national laboratories widely accessible in science, health, security, and technology [V. Malka et al., Principles and applications of compact laser-plasma accelerators, Nat. Phys. 4, 447 (2008]. Current leading laser-based accelerator technologies [S. P. D. Mangles et al., Monoenergetic beams of relativistic electrons from intense laser-plasma interactions, Nature (London 431, 535 (2004; T. Toncian et al., Ultrafast laser-driven microlens to focus and energy-select mega-electron volt protons, Science 312, 410 (2006; S. Tokita et al. Single-shot ultrafast electron diffraction with a laser-accelerated sub-MeV electron pulse, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111911 (2009] rely on a medium to assist the light to particle energy transfer. The medium imposes material limitations or may introduce inhomogeneous fields [J. R. Dwyer et al., Femtosecond electron diffraction: “Making the molecular movie,”, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 364, 741 (2006]. The advent of few cycle ultraintense radially polarized lasers [S. Carbajo et al., Efficient generation of ultraintense few-cycle radially polarized laser pulses, Opt. Lett. 39, 2487 (2014] has ushered in a novel accelerator concept [L. J. Wong and F. X. Kärtner, Direct acceleration of an electron in infinite vacuum by a pulsed radially polarized laser beam, Opt. Express 18, 25035 (2010; F. Pierre-Louis et al. Direct-field electron acceleration with ultrafast radially polarized laser beams: Scaling laws and optimization, J. Phys. B 43, 025401 (2010; Y. I. Salamin, Electron acceleration from rest in vacuum by an axicon Gaussian laser beam, Phys. Rev. A 73, 043402 (2006; C. Varin and M. Piché, Relativistic attosecond electron pulses from a free-space laser-acceleration scheme, Phys. Rev. E 74, 045602 (2006; A. Sell and F. X. Kärtner, Attosecond electron bunches accelerated and

  14. A plasma solenoid driven by an Orbital Angular Momentum laser beam

    OpenAIRE

    Nuter, R.; Korneev, Ph.; Thiele, I.; Tikhonchuk, V.

    2018-01-01

    A tens of Tesla quasi-static axial magnetic field can be produced in the interaction of a short intense laser beam carrying an Orbital Angular Momentum with an underdense plasma. Three-dimensional "Particle In Cell" simulations and analytical model demonstrate that orbital angular momentum is transfered from a tightly focused radially polarized laser beam to electrons without any dissipative effect. A theoretical model describing the balistic interaction of electrons with laser shows that par...

  15. Cascade generation in Al laser induced plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagli, Lev; Gaft, Michael; Raichlin, Yosef; Gornushkin, Igor

    2018-05-01

    We found cascade IR generation in Al laser induced plasma. This generation includes doublet transitions 3s 25s 2S1/2 → 3s24p 2P1/2,3/2 → 3s24s 2S1/2; corresponding to strong lines at 2110 and 2117 nm, and much weaker lines at 1312-1315 nm. The 3s25s2S 1/2 starting IR generation level is directly pumped from the 3s23p 2P3/2 ground level. The starting level for UV generation at 396.2 nm (transitions 3s24s 2S1/2 → 4p 2P3/2) is populated due to the fast collisional processes in the plasma plume. These differences led to different time and special dependences on the lasing in the IR and UV spectral range within the aluminum laser induced plasma.

  16. Electron cyclotron emission imaging in tokamak plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsat, T.; Domier, C.W.; Kong, X. Y.; Liang, T. R.; N C Luhmann Jr.,; Tobias, B. J.; Lee, W.; Park, H. K.; Yun, G.; Classen, I.G.J.; Donne, A. J. H.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the recent history and latest developments of the electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic technique, wherein electron temperature is measured in magnetically confined plasmas with two-dimensional spatial resolution. The key enabling technologies for this technique are the

  17. Pulsed radiobiology with laser-driven plasma accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulietti, Antonio; Grazia Andreassi, Maria; Greco, Carlo

    2011-05-01

    Recently, a high efficiency regime of acceleration in laser plasmas has been discovered, allowing table top equipment to deliver doses of interest for radiotherapy with electron bunches of suitable kinetic energy. In view of an R&D program aimed to the realization of an innovative class of accelerators for medical uses, a radiobiological validation is needed. At the present time, the biological effects of electron bunches from the laser-driven electron accelerator are largely unknown. In radiobiology and radiotherapy, it is known that the early spatial distribution of energy deposition following ionizing radiation interactions with DNA molecule is crucial for the prediction of damages at cellular or tissue levels and during the clinical responses to this irradiation. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the radio-biological effects obtained with electron bunches from a laser-driven electron accelerator compared with bunches coming from a IORT-dedicated medical Radio-frequency based linac's on human cells by the cytokinesis block micronucleus assay (CBMN). To this purpose a multidisciplinary team including radiotherapists, biologists, medical physicists, laser and plasma physicists is working at CNR Campus and University of Pisa. Dose on samples is delivered alternatively by the "laser-linac" operating at ILIL lab of Istituto Nazionale di Ottica and an RF-linac operating for IORT at Pisa S. Chiara Hospital. Experimental data are analyzed on the basis of suitable radiobiological models as well as with numerical simulation based on Monte Carlo codes. Possible collective effects are also considered in the case of ultrashort, ultradense bunches of ionizing radiation.

  18. Investigations on laser induced nickel and titanium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.K.U.; Latif, A.; Bhatti, K.A.; Rafique, M.S.; Yousaf, M.K.

    2011-01-01

    Experiments were performed to find out plasma parameters for Nickel and Titanium metals which were irradiated in air (1 atm) to produce plasma plume using Q switched Nd: YAG pulsed laser of 1.1 MW, 10 m J, 1064 nm and 9-14 ns. Langmuir probe was used as a diagnostic tool. The signals at different probe voltages were recorded on digital storage oscilloscope. The information carried by the signals was utilized to calculate electron density, electron temperature, Debye's length and number of particles in Debye's sphere. The study shows that the calculated values of these parameters for Nickel and Titanium are different except Debye's length. Plasma parameters strongly depend on probe potentials, material used and ambient conditions. (author)

  19. Laser plasma instability experiments with KrF lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, J. L.; Karasik, M.; Serlin, V.; Obenschain, S.; Chan, L-Y.; Kehne, D.; Schmitt, A. J.; Colombant, D.; Velikovich, A.; Oh, J.; Lehmberg, R. H.; Afeyan, B.; Phillips, L.; Seely, J.; Brown, C.; Feldman, U.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Mostovych, A. N.; Holland, G.

    2007-01-01

    Deleterious effects of laser-plasma instability (LPI) may limit the maximum laser irradiation that can be used for inertial confinement fusion. The short wavelength (248 nm), large bandwidth, and very uniform illumination available with krypton-fluoride (KrF) lasers should increase the maximum usable intensity by suppressing LPI. The concomitant increase in ablation pressure would allow implosion of low-aspect-ratio pellets to ignition with substantial gain (>20) at much reduced laser energy. The proposed KrF-laser-based Fusion Test Facility (FTF) would exploit this strategy to achieve significant fusion power (150 MW) with a rep-rate system that has a per pulse laser energy well below 1 MJ. Measurements of LPI using the Nike KrF laser are presented at and above intensities needed for the FTF (I∼2x10 15 W/cm 2 ). The results to date indicate that LPI is indeed suppressed. With overlapped beam intensity above the planar, single beam intensity threshold for the two-plasmon decay instability, no evidence of instability was observed via measurements of (3/2)ω o and (1/2)ω o harmonic emissions

  20. Summary report : working group 5 on 'electron beam-driven plasma and structure based acceleration concepts'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde, M. E.; Katsouleas, T.

    2000-01-01

    The talks presented and the work performed on electron beam-driven accelerators in plasmas and structures are summarized. Highlights of the working group include new experimental results from the E-157 Plasma Wakefield Experiment, the E-150 Plasma Lens Experiment and the Argonne Dielectric Structure Wakefield experiments. The presentations inspired discussion and analysis of three working topics: electron hose instability, ion channel lasers and the plasma afterburner

  1. Intensity dependence of electron gas kinetics in a laser corona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mašek Martin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In various experimental situations relevant to the laser fusion, such as plasma near the light entrance holes of hohlraum in the indirect drive experiments or more recently in the shock ignition direct drive a relatively long underdense plasma of corona type is encountered, which is subject to an intense nanosecond laser beam. The plasma is only weakly collisional and thus in the electron phase space a complicated kinetic evolution is going on, which is taking the electron gas fairly far from the thermal equilibrium and contributes to its unstable behaviour. These phenomena impede the absorption and thermalization of the incoming laser energy, create groups of fast electrons and also may lead to a non-linear reflection of the heating laser beam. One of the key processes leading to the electron acceleration is the stimulated Raman scattering (SRS in its non-linear phase. The SRS in the presence of electron-ion collisions requires a certain threshold intensity above which the mentioned non-dissipative phenomena can occur and develop to the stage, where they may become unpleasant for the fusion experiments. To assess this intensity limit a computational model has been developed based on the Vlasov-Maxwell kinetics describing such a plasma in 1D geometry. At a relatively high intensity of 1016 W/cm2 a number of non-linear phenomena are predicted by the code such as a saturation of Landau damping, which is then translated in an unfavourable time dependence of the reflected light intensity and formation of accelerated electron groups due to the electron trapping. The purpose of the present contribution is to map the intensity dependence of this non-linear development with the aim of assessing its weight in fusion relevant situations.

  2. Diagnosing high density, fast-evolving plasmas using x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauble, R.; Da Silva, L.B.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.

    1994-09-01

    As x-ray laser (XRL) research has matured, it has become possible to reliably utilize XRLs for applications in the laboratory. Laser coherence, high brightness and short pulse duration all make the XRL a unique tool for the diagnosis of laboratory plasmas. The high brightness of XRLs makes them well-suited for imaging and for interferometry when used in conjunction with multilayer mirrors and beamsplitters. We have utilized a soft x-ray laser in such an imaging system to examine laser-produced plasmas using radiography, moire deflectometry, and interferometry. Radiography experiments yield 100-200 ps snapshots of laser driven foils at a resolution of 1-2 μm. Moire deflectometry with an XRL has been used to probe plasmas at higher density than by optical means. Interferograms, which allow direct measurement of electron density in laser plasmas, have been obtained with this system

  3. Generation conditions of CW Diode Laser Sustained Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Koji; Matsui, Makoto; Ono, Takahiro

    2016-09-01

    Laser sustained plasma was generated using 1 kW class continuous wave diode laser. The laser beam was focused on the seed plasma generated by arc discharge in 1 MPa xenon lamp. The diode laser has advantages of high energy conversion efficiency of 80%, ease of maintenance, compact size and availability of conventional quartz based optics. Therefore, it has a prospect of further development compared with conventional CO2 laser. In this study, variation of the plasma shape caused by laser power is observed and also temperature distribution in the direction of plasma radius is measured by optical emission spectroscopy.

  4. Electron cyclotron heating (ECH) of tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Katsumichi

    1990-01-01

    Electron cyclotron heating (ECH) is one of the intense methods of plasma heating, and which utilizes the collisionless electron-cyclotron-resonance-interaction between the launched electromagnetic waves (called electron cyclotron waves) and electrons which are one of the constituents of the high temperature plasmas. Another constituent, namely the ions which are subject to nuclear fusion, are heated indirectly but strongly and instantly (in about 0.1 s) by the collisions with the ECH-heated electrons in the fusion plasmas. The recent progress on the development of high-power and high-frequency millimeter-wave-source enabled the ECH experiments in the middle size tokamaks such as JFT-2M (Japan), Doublet III (USA), T-10 (USSR) etc., and ECH has been demonstrated to be the sure and intense plasma heating method. The ECH attracts much attention for its remarkable capabilities; to produce plasmas (pre-ionization), to heat plasmas, to drive plasma current for the plasma confinement, and recently especially by the localization and the spatial controllability of its heating zone, which is beneficial for the fine controls of the profiles of plasma parameters (temperature, current density etc.), for the control of the magnetohydrodynamic instabilities, or for the optimization/improvement of the plasma confinement characteristics. Here, the present status of the ECH studies on tokamak plasmas are reviewed. (author)

  5. Plasma lenses for focusing relativistic electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govil, R.; Wheeler, S.; Leemans, W.

    1997-01-01

    The next generation of colliders require tightly focused beams with high luminosity. To focus charged particle beams for such applications, a plasma focusing scheme has been proposed. Plasma lenses can be overdense (plasma density, n p much greater than electron beam density, n b ) or underdense (n p less than 2 n b ). In overdense lenses the space-charge force of the electron beam is canceled by the plasma and the remaining magnetic force causes the electron beam to self-pinch. The focusing gradient is nonlinear, resulting in spherical aberrations. In underdense lenses, the self-forces of the electron beam cancel, allowing the plasma ions to focus the beam. Although for a given beam density, a uniform underdense lens produces smaller focusing gradients than an overdense lens, it produces better beam quality since the focusing is done by plasma ions. The underdense lens can be improved by tapering the density of the plasma for optimal focusing. The underdense lens performance can be enhanced further by producing adiabatic plasma lenses to avoid the Oide limit on spot size due to synchrotron radiation by the electron beam. The plasma lens experiment at the Beam Test Facility (BTF) is designed to study the properties of plasma lenses in both overdense and underdense regimes. In particular, important issues such as electron beam matching, time response of the lens, lens aberrations and shot-to-shot reproducibility are being investigated

  6. Analysis of core plasma heating and ignition by relativistic electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Clarification of the pre-compressed plasma heating by fast electrons produced by relativistic laser-plasma interaction is one of the most important issues of the fast ignition scheme in ICF. On the basis of overall calculations including the heating process, both by relativistic hot electrons and alpha-particles, and the hydrodynamic evolution of bulk plasma, we examine the feature of core plasma heating and the possibility of ignition. The deposition of the electron energy via long-range collective mode, i.e. Langmuir wave excitation, is shown to be comparable to that through binary electron-electron collisions; the calculation neglecting the wave excitation considerably underestimates the core plasma heating. The ignition condition is also shown in terms of the intensity I(h) and temperature T(h) of hot electrons. It is found that I(h) required for ignition increases in proportion to T(h). For efficiently achieving the fast ignition, electron beams with relatively 'low' energy (e.g.T(h) below 1 MeV) are desirable. (author)

  7. Induced Current Characteristics Due to Laser Induced Plasma and Its Application to Laser Processing Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madjid, Syahrun Nur; Idris, Nasrullah; Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik; Kagawa, Kiichiro

    2011-01-01

    In laser processing, suitable conditions for laser and gas play important role in ensuring a high quality of processing. To determine suitable conditions, we employed the electromagnetic phenomena associated with laser plasma generation. An electrode circuit was utilised to detect induced current due to the fast electrons propelled from the material during laser material processing. The characteristics of induced current were examined by changing parameters such as supplied voltage, laser pulse energy, number of laser shots, and type of ambient gas. These characteristics were compared with the optical emission characteristics. It was shown that the induced current technique proposed in this study is much more sensitive than the optical method in monitoring laser processing, that is to determine the precise focusing condition, and to accurately determine the moment of completion of laser beam penetration. In this study it was also shown that the induced current technique induced by CW CO 2 laser can be applied in industrial material processing for monitoring the penetration completion in a stainless steel plate drilling process.

  8. Electron beam production by a plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.R.; Luo, C.M.; Schneider, R.F.; Rhee, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Operation of a plasma focus as a Compact Pulsed Accelerator (CPA) for ions has been previously reported. The CPA consists of: (1) a 15 μF, 3 kJ capacitor, (2) a triggered spark gap, (3) a coaxial transmission line, and (4) a Mather geometry plasma gun. Recently the authors have investigated application of the CPA as an accelerator for electrons. In the previously reported work using the standard Mather plasma gun geometry, ions were accelerated away from the plasma gun and were therefore conveniently extracted for analysis, but electrons were directed into the hollow anode where extraction is blocked by the coaxial transmission line. For investigation of accelerated electrons a new plasma gun design which allows extraction of electrons has been developed. Details of the new plasma gun design and further results of beam diagnostics are discussed

  9. Laser thermonuclear fusion with force confinement of hot plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korobkin, V.V.; Romanovsky, M.Y.

    1994-01-01

    The possibility of the utilization of laser radiation for plasma heating up to thermonuclear temperatures with its simultaneous confinement by ponderomotive force is investigated. The plasma is located inside a powerful laser beam with a tubelike section or inside a cavity of duct section, formed by several intersecting beams focused by cylindrical lenses. The impact of various physical processes upon plasma confinement is studied and the criteria of plasma confinement and maintaining of plasma temperature are derived. Plasma and laser beam stability is considered. Estimates of laser radiation energy necessary for thermonuclear fusion are presented

  10. Wake field in electron-positron plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avinash, K.; Berezhiani, V.I.

    1993-03-01

    We study the creation of wake field in cold electron positron plasma by electron bunches. In the resulting plasma inhomogeneity we study the propagation of short electromagnetic pulse. In is found that wake fields can change the frequency of the radiation substantially. (author). 7 refs, 1 fig

  11. Plasma effects in attosecond pulse generation from ultra-relativistic laser-plasma interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, T.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Particle-in-cell simulations were performed to examine the influence of plasma effects on high harmonic spectra from the interaction of ultra-intense p-polarized laser pulses with overdense plasma targets. Furthermore, a theoretical model is proposed to explain the radiation mechanism that leads to attosecond pulse generation in the reflected field. It is shown that plasma harmonic emission affects the spectral characteristics, causing deviations in the harmonic power decay as compared with the so-called universal 8/3-decay. These deviations may occur, in a varying degree, as a consequence of the extent to which the plasma line and its harmonics affect the emission. It is also found a strong correlation of the emitted attosecond pulses with electron density structures within the plasma, responsible to generate intense localised electrostatic fields. A theoretical model based on the excitation of Langmuir waves by the re-entrant Brunel electron beams in the plasma and their electromagnetic interaction with the laser field is proposed to explain the flatter power spectral emission - described by a weaker 5/3 index and observed in numerical simulations - than that of the universal decay.

  12. Laser propagation and compton scattering in parabolic plasma channel

    CERN Document Server

    Dongguo, L; Yokoya, K; Hirose, T

    2003-01-01

    A Gaussian laser beam propagating in a parabolic plasma channel is discussed in this paper. For a weak laser, plasma density perturbation induced by interaction between the laser field and plasma is very small, the refractive index can be assumed to be constant with respect to time variable. For a parabolic plasma channel, through the static propagation equation, we obtain an analytical solution of the profile function of the Gaussian laser beam for an unmatched case and give the general condition for the matched case. As the laser intensity increases, an effect due to strong laser fields is included. We discuss how to design and select the distribution of plasma density for a certain experiment in which a plasma channel is utilized to guide a laser beam. The number of scattered photons (X-rays) generated through Compton backscattering in a plasma channel is discussed. (author)

  13. Modeling the astrophysical dynamical process with laser-plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Jiangfan; Zhang Jun; Zhang Jie

    2001-01-01

    The use of the state-of-the-art laser facility makes it possible to create conditions of the same or similar to those in the astrophysical processes. The introduction of the astrophysics-relevant ideas in laser-plasma experiments is propitious to the understanding of the astrophysical phenomena. However, the great difference between the laser-produced plasmas and the astrophysical processes makes it awkward to model the latter by laser-plasma experiments. The author addresses the physical backgrounds for modeling the astrophysical plasmas by laser plasmas, connecting these two kinds of plasmas by scaling laws. Thus, allowing the creation of experimental test beds where observations and models can be quantitatively compared with laser-plasma data. Special attentions are paid on the possibilities of using home-made laser facilities to model astrophysical phenomena

  14. Study of ultra-high gradient wakefield excitation by intense ultrashort laser pulses in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotaki, Hideyuki

    2002-12-01

    We investigate a mechanism of nonlinear phenomena in laser-plasma interaction, a laser wakefield excited by intense laser pulses, and the possibility of generating an intense bright electron source by an intense laser pulse. We need to understand and further employ some of these phenomena for our purposes. We measure self-focusing, filamentation, and the anomalous blueshift of the laser pulse. The ionization of gas with the self-focusing causes a broad continuous spectrum with blueshift. The normal blueshift depends on the laser intensity and the plasma density. We, however, have found different phenomenon. The laser spectrum shifts to fixed wavelength independent of the laser power and gas pressure above some critical power. We call the phenomenon 'anomalous blueshift'. The results are explained by the formation of filaments. An intense laser pulse can excite a laser wakefield in plasma. The coherent wakefield excited by 2 TW, 50 fs laser pulses in a gas-jet plasma around 10 18 cm -3 is measured with a time-resolved frequency domain interferometer (FDI). The density distribution of the helium gas is measured with a time-resolved Mach-Zehnder interferometer to search for the optimum laser focus position and timing in the gas-jet. The results show an accelerating wakefield excitation of 20 GeV/m with good coherency, which is useful for ultrahigh gradient particle acceleration in a compact system. This is the first time-resolved measurement of laser wakefield excitation in a gas-jet plasma. The experimental results are compared with a Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulation. The pump-probe interferometer system of FDI and the anomalous blueshift will be modified to the optical injection system as a relativistic electron beam injector. In 1D PIC simulation we obtain the results of high quality intense electron beam acceleration. These results illuminate the possibility of a high energy and a high quality electron beam acceleration. (author)

  15. Magnetic field generation during intense laser channelling in underdense plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyth, A. G.; Sarri, G.; Doria, D.; Kar, S.; Borghesi, M. [School of Mathematics and Physics, The Queen' s University of Belfast, University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Vranic, M.; Guillaume, E.; Silva, L. O.; Vieira, J. [GoLP/IPFN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Amano, Y.; Habara, H.; Tanaka, K. A. [Graduate School of Engineering Osaka University. Suita, Osaka 5650871 (Japan); Heathcote, R.; Norreys, P. A. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon OX1 0Qx (United Kingdom); Hicks, G.; Najmudin, Z.; Nakamura, H. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-15

    Channel formation during the propagation of a high-energy (120 J) and long duration (30 ps) laser pulse through an underdense deuterium plasma has been spatially and temporally resolved via means of a proton imaging technique, with intrinsic resolutions of a few μm and a few ps, respectively. Conclusive proof is provided that strong azimuthally symmetric magnetic fields with a strength of around 0.5 MG are created inside the channel, consistent with the generation of a collimated beam of relativistic electrons. The inferred electron beam characteristics may have implications for the cone-free fast-ignition scheme of inertial confinement fusion.

  16. Prospects of the surfatron laser plasma accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsouleas, T.; Joshi, C.; Mori, W.; Dawson, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    The surfatron concept is proposed as a possible solution to the problem of staging in the laser-plasma beat wave accelerator scheme. Prospects of a 100 GeV particle accelerator based on the surfatron concept are explored. Finite angle optical mixing appears to be a promising solution for drastically reducing the width of the plane wave, thereby, making the required laser power and the device size realizable for a proof-of-principle experiment. Our conclusions are based mainly on analytical theory and one-dimensional particle simulations

  17. Radiative processes in a laser-fusion plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, P.M.; Kubis, J.J.; Mitrovich, D.

    1976-01-01

    Plasmas compressed and heated by an intense laser pulse offer promise for the ignition of propagating thermonuclear burn and, ultimately, for use in fusion reactors. It is evident theoretically that the emission and absorption of x-rays by the plasma has a significant effect on the dynamics of the laser compression process. In order to achieve densities high enough for efficient thermonuclear burn, the fusion pellet must be compressed along a low adiabat. This will not be possible if the compressed region of the pellet is significantly preheated by x-rays originating in the hot outer regions. A satisfactory model of compression hydrodynamics must, therefore, include a comprehensive treatment of radiation transport based on a non-LTE model of the plasma. The model must be valid for Fermi-Dirac statistics, since high compression along a low adiabat will, in general, produce degenerate electron distributions. This report is concerned with the plasma model and the corresponding radiation emission and absorption coefficients, including nonthermal processes which occur in the laser deposition region

  18. Electron Beam Propagation in a Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung W. Min

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Electron beam propagation in a fully ionized plasma has been studied using a one-dimensional particle simulation model. We compare the results of electrostatic simulations to those of electromagnetic simulations. The electrostatic results show the essential features of beam-plasma instability which accelerates ambient plasmas. The results also show the heating of ambient plasmas and the trapping of plasmas due to the locally generated electric field. The level of the radiation generated by the same non-relativistic beam is slightly higher than the noise level. We discuss the results in context of the heating of coronal plasma during solar flares.

  19. Electron heating enhancement by frequency-chirped laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdani, E.; Afarideh, H., E-mail: hafarideh@aut.ac.ir [Department of Energy Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadighi-Bonabi, R., E-mail: Sadighi@sharif.ir [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9567, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Riazi, Z. [Physics and Accelerator School, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hora, H. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia)

    2014-09-14

    Propagation of a chirped laser pulse with a circular polarization through an uprising plasma density profile is studied by using 1D-3V particle-in-cell simulation. The laser penetration depth is increased in an overdense plasma compared to an unchirped pulse. The induced transparency due to the laser frequency chirp results in an enhanced heating of hot electrons as well as increased maximum longitudinal electrostatic field at the back side of the solid target, which is very essential in target normal sheath acceleration regime of proton acceleration. For an applied chirp parameter between 0.008 and 0.01, the maximum amount of the electrostatic field is improved by a factor of 2. Furthermore, it is noticed that for a chirped laser pulse with a₀=5, because of increasing the plasma transparency length, the laser pulse can penetrate up to about n{sub e}≈6n{sub c}, where n{sub c} is plasma critical density. It shows 63% increase in the effective critical density compared to the relativistic induced transparency regime for an unchirped condition.

  20. Simulations of free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwan, T.; Godfrey, B.B.

    1979-01-01

    The generation of coherent electromagnetic radiation by the interaction of a relativistic electron beam with a static helical magnetic field is investigated using one- and two-dimensional relativistic electromagnetic plasma simulation codes. In the one-dimensional simulations, we observed the coupling between the negative energy beam mode and the positive energy electromagnetic wave. Substantial growth rate (omega 1 approx. 0.1 omega/sub pe/) of the unstable electromagnetic wave has been observed and efficiency of radiation production is found to be between 25 to 30% depending on various parameters. In the two-dimensional simulations, we observed a decrease in the growth rate, but increased efficiency due to the decrease in the phase velocity of the unstable electrostatic wave. In addition, we also observed waves propagating at an angle with respect to the electron beam. Consequently, the beam is bunched in the radial as well as the axial directions. These waves are believed to be generated by another instability which saturates at relatively low level

  1. GeV electron beams from centimeter-scale channel guided laser wakefield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonsalves, A.; Nakamura, K.; Panasenko, D.; Toth, Cs.; Esarey, E.; Schroeder; Hooker, S.M.; Leemans, W.P.; Hooker, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    Results are presented on the generation of quasi-monoenergetic electron beams with energy up to 1 GeV using a 40TW laser and a 3.3 cm-long hydrogen-filled capillary discharge waveguide. Electron beams were not observed without a plasma channel, indicating that self-focusing alone could not be relied upon for effective guiding of the laser pulse. Results are presented of the electron beam spectra, and the dependence of the reliability of producing electron beams as a function of laser and plasma parameters

  2. Optimization of laser-plasma injector via beam loading effects using ionization-induced injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, P.; Maynard, G.; Audet, T. L.; Cros, B.; Lehe, R.; Vay, J.-L.

    2018-05-01

    Simulations of ionization-induced injection in a laser driven plasma wakefield show that high-quality electron injectors in the 50-200 MeV range can be achieved in a gas cell with a tailored density profile. Using the PIC code Warp with parameters close to existing experimental conditions, we show that the concentration of N2 in a hydrogen plasma with a tailored density profile is an efficient parameter to tune electron beam properties through the control of the interplay between beam loading effects and varying accelerating field in the density profile. For a given laser plasma configuration, with moderate normalized laser amplitude, a0=1.6 and maximum electron plasma density, ne 0=4 ×1018 cm-3 , the optimum concentration results in a robust configuration to generate electrons at 150 MeV with a rms energy spread of 4% and a spectral charge density of 1.8 pC /MeV .

  3. Electron density and plasma dynamics of a colliding plasma experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiechula, J., E-mail: wiechula@physik.uni-frankfurt.de; Schönlein, A.; Iberler, M.; Hock, C.; Manegold, T.; Bohlender, B.; Jacoby, J. [Plasma Physics Group, Institute of Applied Physics, Goethe University, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    We present experimental results of two head-on colliding plasma sheaths accelerated by pulsed-power-driven coaxial plasma accelerators. The measurements have been performed in a small vacuum chamber with a neutral-gas prefill of ArH{sub 2} at gas pressures between 17 Pa and 400 Pa and load voltages between 4 kV and 9 kV. As the plasma sheaths collide, the electron density is significantly increased. The electron density reaches maximum values of ≈8 ⋅ 10{sup 15} cm{sup −3} for a single accelerated plasma and a maximum value of ≈2.6 ⋅ 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3} for the plasma collision. Overall a raise of the plasma density by a factor of 1.3 to 3.8 has been achieved. A scaling behavior has been derived from the values of the electron density which shows a disproportionately high increase of the electron density of the collisional case for higher applied voltages in comparison to a single accelerated plasma. Sequences of the plasma collision have been taken, using a fast framing camera to study the plasma dynamics. These sequences indicate a maximum collision velocity of 34 km/s.

  4. Laser plasma focus produced in a ring target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Hilaire, G.; Szili, Z.

    1976-01-01

    A new geometry for generating a laser-produced plasma is presented. A toroidal mirror is used to focus a CO 2 laser beam on the inside wall of a copper ring target. The plasma produced converges at the center of the ring where an axial plasma focus is formed. High-speed photography shows details of a plasma generated at a distance from the target surface. This new geometry could have important applications in the field of x-ray lasers

  5. Interaction between laser-produced plasma and guiding magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Jun; Takahashi, Kazumasa; Ikeda, Shunsuke; Nakajima, Mitsuo; Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Transportation properties of laser-produced plasma through a guiding magnetic field were examined. A drifting dense plasma produced by a KrF laser was injected into an axisymmetric magnetic field induced by permanent ring magnets. The plasma ion flux in the guiding magnetic field was measured by a Faraday cup at various distances from the laser target. Numerical analyses based on a collective focusing model were performed to simulate plasma particle trajectories and then compared with the experimental results. (author)

  6. Study of a continuous plasma generated by electron bombardment and its mixing with a laser induced plasma. Influence of collisions on resonance cone phenomenon; Contribution a l`etude d`un plasma cree de facon continue par bombardement electronique et de son melange avec un photo-plasma pulse. Influence des collisions sur les cones de resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besuelle, E.

    1997-02-25

    This thesis deals with three different fields of plasma physics. In the first part, we studied free expansion of an ionised uranium vapour generated in an electron beam evaporator. The electron temperature and the electron density of the expanding plasma have been measured by a Langmuir probe. The experimental results have been compared with the ones obtained by numerical simulation using a fluid code. The calculated points are in the error bars. We observe that there are two electron populations with different temperatures, which undergo a mixing during the plasma expansion. The neutral density influence on the electron temperature by collisional relaxation is also studied. The second part deals with a plasma diagnostic which can replace Langmuir probe in the case of a cold magnetized plasma: the resonance cone phenomenon. After recalling the wave propagation theory in a cold plasma, we introduce a new calculation of the potential radiated by an antenna in a collisional magnetized plasma. The domain where the resonance cone exists in considerably reduced because of collisions. More of that, the cone angle is reduced by this phenomenon too. The experiments performed show that we must take into account a wave turbulence phenomenon to explain the High collision frequency that we observe. The third part is about the study of the expansion of a plasma into another one. We solve this problem with fluid codes and Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code. THe electron families have a counter stream motion locally. Then, we study the electrostatic extraction of two plasmas-one pulsed, one continuous-in which we observe electron unfurling. (author).

  7. Electron cyclotron heating of plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guest, Gareth

    2009-01-01

    As nuclear fusion becomes an increasingly important potential energy source in these times of global oil and energy crises, the development of technologies that can lead to the realization of this virtually inexhaustible source of energy takes on ever greater urgency. Over the past decade electron cyclotron heating has undergone a significant maturation and has emerged as an essential component of the major approaches to achieving controlled nuclear fusion. The gyrotron, first developed in the Soviet Union, has made it possible to employ ECH in large tokamak and stellarator fusion devices by providing megawatts of microwave power at frequencies above 100 GHz. A contemporary VGT-8110 gyrotron, for example, shown here with Kevin Felch and Pat Cahalan of Communications and Power Industries, is capable of delivering 10 second pulses of 1 MW of power at 110 GHz. The present monograph addresses the ECH physics critical to the international fusion reactor experiment, ITER, but also presents the fundamentals of ECH that are essential to its successful implementation in applications that range from active experiments in planetary magnetospheres to commercial plasma sources for the manufacture of computer chips. The book seeks to convey the physics of ECH in an orderly and coherent fashion to a professional audience by presenting the basic theoretical foundations and then using the theory to interpret a number of established experimental results. Exercises are included to aid the reader in making the theory more concrete. (orig.)

  8. Plasmas produced by incident laser in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Campos, D. de; Boeckelmann, H.K.

    1984-01-01

    The experimental arrangement for plasma production by incident laser in solids and a system of diagnostics are presented. The system of diagnostics allows: verify the plasma generation and expansion through the ultrahigh-speed photography; obtain measurements of temperature and density by spectroscopy (using an optical analyser of multichannels) and obtain measurements of kinetic energy of ions through his fly time, using a 'Faraday cup'. A vacuum system with an adsorption pump for pre-vacuum and ionic pump was used to reduce pressure and avoid mechanical vibrations and system contaminations. (M.C.K.) [pt

  9. High-intensity-laser-electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyerhofer, D.D.

    1997-01-01

    In the field of an intense laser, photon-electron scattering becomes nonlinear when the oscillatory energy of the electron approaches its rest mass. The electron wave function is dressed by the field with a concomitant increase in the effective electron mass. When the photon energy in the electron rest frame is comparable to the electron rest mass, multiphoton Compton scattering occurs. When the photon energy is significantly lower than the electron rest mass, the electron acquires momentum from the photon field and emits harmonics. This paper reviews nonlinear photon-electron scattering processes and results from two recent experiments where they have been observed

  10. Optical measurements of lateral energy flow and plasma motion in laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, R.F.; Riffle, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    An optical system consisting of a telephoto lens and multi-image camera is described and the experimental results and their implications are presented. We will also describe the opto-electronic system that will measure the time history of the energy flow with sub-nanosecond resolution. The system will be useful to study both one- and two-dimensional geometries. The third optical diagnostic is a laser probe utilizing detection by the opto-electronic system mentioned above. This diagnostic measures plasma motion as well as energy flow. The laser probe and detection system mounts directly onto the target chamber at LASLs Gemini CO 2 laser, causing severe alignment and stability problems whose solutions will be shown

  11. Electron acceleration by laser produced wake field: Pulse shape effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Hitendra K.; Kumar, Sandeep; Nishida, Yasushi

    2007-12-01

    Analytical expressions are obtained for the longitudinal field (wake field: Ex), density perturbations ( ne') and the potential ( ϕ) behind a laser pulse propagating in a plasma with the pulse duration of the electron plasma period. A feasibility study on the wake field is carried out with Gaussian-like (GL) pulse, rectangular-triangular (RT) pulse and rectangular-Gaussian (RG) pulse considering one-dimensional weakly nonlinear theory ( ne'/n0≪1), and the maximum energy gain acquired by an electron is calculated for all these three types of the laser pulse shapes. A comparative study infers that the RT pulse yields the best results: In its case maximum electron energy gain is 33.5 MeV for a 30 fs pulse duration whereas in case of GL (RG) pulse of the same duration the gain is 28.6 (28.8)MeV at the laser frequency of 1.6 PHz and the intensity of 3.0 × 10 18 W/m 2. The field of the wake and hence the energy gain get enhanced for the higher laser frequency, larger pulse duration and higher laser intensity for all types of the pulses.

  12. Multi-GeV electron-positron beam generation from laser-electron scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranic, Marija; Klimo, Ondrej; Korn, Georg; Weber, Stefan

    2018-03-16

    The new generation of laser facilities is expected to deliver short (10 fs-100 fs) laser pulses with 10-100 PW of peak power. This opens an opportunity to study matter at extreme intensities in the laboratory and provides access to new physics. Here we propose to scatter GeV-class electron beams from laser-plasma accelerators with a multi-PW laser at normal incidence. In this configuration, one can both create and accelerate electron-positron pairs. The new particles are generated in the laser focus and gain relativistic momentum in the direction of laser propagation. Short focal length is an advantage, as it allows the particles to be ejected from the focal region with a net energy gain in vacuum. Electron-positron beams obtained in this setup have a low divergence, are quasi-neutral and spatially separated from the initial electron beam. The pairs attain multi-GeV energies which are not limited by the maximum energy of the initial electron beam. We present an analytical model for the expected energy cutoff, supported by 2D and 3D particle-in-cell simulations. The experimental implications, such as the sensitivity to temporal synchronisation and laser duration is assessed to provide guidance for the future experiments.

  13. Theoretical studies of some nonlinear laser-plasma interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.I.

    1975-01-01

    The nonlinear coupling of intense, monochromatic, electromagnetic radiation with plasma is considered in a number of special cases. The first part of the thesis serves as an introduction to three-wave interactions. A general formulation of the stimulated scattering of transverse waves by longitudinal modes in a warm, unmagnetized, uniform plasma is constructed. A general dispersion relation is derived that describes Raman and Brillouin scattering, modulational instability, and induced Thomson scattering. Raman scattering (the scattering of a photon into another photon and an electron plasma wave) is investigated as a possible plasma heating scheme. Analytic theory complemented by computer simulation is presented describing the nonlinear mode coupling of laser light with small and large amplitude, resonantly excited electron plasma waves. The simulated scattering of a coherent electromagnetic wave by low frequency density perturbations in homogeneous plasma is discussed. A composite picture of the linear dispersion relations for filamentation and Brillouin scattering is constructed. The absolute instability of Brillouin weak and strong coupling by analytic and numerical means is described

  14. Absorption of CO2 laser light by a dense, high temperature plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, N.J.; Forrest, M.J.; Morgan, P.D.; Offenberger, A.A.

    1977-01-01

    The interaction between a pulsed, CO 2 laser beam and the plasma produced in a plasma focus device is investigated theoretically and experimentally. The CO 2 laser radiation, directed orthogonal to the pinch axis and along the density gradient only weakly perturbs the focus since the radiation density of 30 J cm -3 (allowing for the Airy enhancement factor near the critical layer), is still less than the plasma thermal energy >=1 kJ cm -3 . On the contrary, the CO 2 laser beam is grossly affected by the plasma and absorption during the compressed pinch phase when the plasma frequency is much more complete than can be predicted by classical resistivity. Density fluctuations at the Langmuir frequency are measured directly for forward scattering from a probe, ruby laser beam. Since the wave numbers correspond to approximately 0.1 the Langmuir waves should appear as electron 'lines' in the scattered spectrum shifted by 427 A from the ruby laser wavelength. At low CO 2 laser pump intensity the electron wave intensity is close to the thermal level. As the pump is increased beyond a threshold of approximately 3x10 9 W/cm -2 (in vacuo) enhanced scattering is observed, reaching a factor of 30 above thermal. A WKB treatment of the electron-ion decay instability which takes into account the linear growth of waves at equal electron and ion temperatures and their convection in an inhomogeneous plasma is reasonably consistent with the observations

  15. Filamented plasmas in laser ablation of solids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Davies, J.R.; Fajardo, M.; Kozlová, Michaela; Mocek, Tomáš; Polan, Jiří; Rus, Bedřich

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 3 (2009), 035013/1-035013/12 ISSN 0741-3335 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 12843 - TUIXS Grant - others:FCT(PT) POCI/FIS/59563/2004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : magneto-hydrodynamic modelling * perturbation * filaments * x-ray * plasma Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.409, year: 2009

  16. Brillouin scatter in laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillion, D.W.; Kruer, W.L.; Rupert, V.C.

    1977-01-01

    The absorption of intense laser light is found to be reduced when targets are irradiated by 1.06 μm light with long pulse widths (150-400 psec) and large focal spots (100-250 μm). Estimates of Brillouin scatter which account for the finite heat capacity of the underdense plasma predict this reduction. Spectra of the back reflected light show red shifts indicative of Brillouin scattering

  17. Free electron laser and superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Iwata, A

    2003-01-01

    The lasing of the first free-electron laser (FEL) in the world was successfully carried out in 1977, so the history of FELs as a light source is not so long. But FELs are now utilized for research in many scientific and engineering fields owing to such characteristics as tunability of the wavelength, and short pulse and high peak power, which is difficult utilizing a common light source. Research for industrial applications has also been carried out in some fields, such as life sciences, semiconductors, nano-scale measurement, and others. The task for the industrial use of FEL is the realization of high energy efficiency and high optical power. As a means of promoting realization, the combining of an FEL and superconducting linac is now under development in order to overcome the thermal limitations of normal-conducting linacs. Further, since tuning the wavelength is carried out by changing the magnetic density of the undulator, which is now induced by moving part of the stack of permanent magnets, there is un...

  18. The possibilities of laser scattering diagnostics in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doebele, H.F.

    1974-01-01

    The laser has opened many new possibilities for plasma diagnostics. Intensive monochromatic light sources with higher precision and better time resolution have helped to improve such well-known techniques as interferometry and Schlieren method. At the same time, the range of applicability was extended into the infrared range. Due to the wave length dependence of the plasma diffraction index, the effects increase approximately lambda in interferometry and approximately lambda 2 in the Schlieren methods. The laser also helped to develop entirely new methods such as utilization of the Faraday effect in the electrons of a plasma in a magnetic field which allows the calculation of the product nsub(e) x B from the rotation of the polarization plane of monochromatic light with linear polarization. Here, too, the effect increases approximately lambda 2 , and measurements have been carried out up to FIR (HCN,337 μ). The best diagnostic possibilities are offered by the Thomson scattering diagnostics. Electron and ion temperatures, electron densities, drift velocities, magnetic fields, wave propagation and dissipation can be measured by this method. (orig./AK) [de

  19. Non LTE Effects in Laser Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapisch, Marcel

    1997-11-01

    Laser produced plasmas are not in Local Thermodynamical Equilibrium(LTE) because of the strong gradients and the escaping radiation. Departure from LTE changes the average charge state Z^*, and through it the electron temperature and other thermodynamical variables. Hydrodynamic simulations using LTE and non LTE modes show that in some cases the temperatures can change by an order of magnitude. Several rad/hydro models have solved the approximate atomic rate equations in-line within the average atom model(W. A. Lokke and W. H. Grasburger, LLNL, Report UCRL-52276 (1977),G. Pollack, LANL, Report LA-UR-90-2423 (1990)), or with global rates(M. Busquet, J. P. Raucourt and J. C. Gauthier, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 54, 81 (1995)). A new technique developed by Busquet, the Radiation Dependent Ionization Model (RADIOM)(M. Busquet, Phys. Fluids B, 5, 4191 (1993)) has been implemented in the NRL hydro-code. It uses an ionization temperature Tz to obtain the opacities and EOS in table look-ups. A very elaborate LTE atomic physics such as the STA code( A. Bar-Shalom and J. Oreg, Phys. Rev. E, 54, 1850 (1996), and ref. therein), or OPAL, can then be used off-line for generating the tables. The algorithm for Tz is very simple and quick. RADIOM has recently been benchmarked with a new detailed collisional radiative model SCROLL(A. Bar-Shalom, J. Oreg and M. Klapisch, Phys. Rev. E, to appear in July (1997)) on a range of temperatures, densities and atomic numbers. RADIOM has been surprisingly successful in calculations of non-LTE opacities.

  20. Plasma cutting or laser cutting. Plasma setsudan ka laser setsudan ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, A. (Tanaka Engineering Works Ltd., Saitama (Japan))

    1991-05-01

    Comparisons and discussions were made on the plasma cutting and laser cutting in sheet steel cutting, referring partly to gas cutting. Historically, the cutting has been developed from gas, plasma, and laser in that order, and currently these three methods are used mixedly. Generally, the plasma cutting is superior in cutting speed, but inferior in cut face quality, and it requires measures of dust collection. Due to high accuracy and quality in cut face, the laser cutting has been practically used for quite some time in the thin sheet industry, but medium to thick sheet cutting had a problem of unavailability of high output laser suitable for these ranges. However, the recent technologies have overcome the problem as a result of development at the authors {prime} company of a 2 kW class laser cutter capable of cutting 19 mm thick sheet. The cutter has been proven being particularly excellent in controllability. Choice of whether plasma or laser would depend upon which priority is to be taken, cost or accuracy. 15 figs., 3 tabs.