WorldWideScience

Sample records for laser development include

  1. Laser Cutting, Development Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1999-01-01

    In this paper a short review of the development trends in laser cutting will be given.The technology, which is the fastest expanding industrial production technology will develop in both its core market segment: Flat bed cutting of sheet metal, as it will expand in heavy industry and in cutting...... of 3-dimensional shapes.The CO2-laser will also in the near future be the dominating laser source in the market, although the new developments in ND-YAG-lasers opens for new possibilities for this laser type....

  2. Development of automatic laser welding system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohwaki, Katsura

    2002-01-01

    Laser are a new production tool for high speed and low distortion welding and applications to automatic welding lines are increasing. IHI has long experience of laser processing for the preservation of nuclear power plants, welding of airplane engines and so on. Moreover, YAG laser oscillators and various kinds of hardware have been developed for laser welding and automation. Combining these welding technologies and laser hardware technologies produce the automatic laser welding system. In this paper, the component technologies are described, including combined optics intended to improve welding stability, laser oscillators, monitoring system, seam tracking system and so on. (author)

  3. CO2 laser development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The research and development programs on high-energy, short-pulse CO 2 lasers were begun at LASL in 1969. Three large systems are now either operating or are being installed. The Single-Beam System (SBS), a four-stage prototype, was designed in 1971 and has been in operation since 1973 with an output energy of 250 J in a 1-ns pulse with an on-target intensity of 3.5 x 10 14 W/cm 2 . The Dual-Beam System (DBS), now in the final stages of electrical and optical checkout, will provide about ten times more power for two-beam target irradiation experiments. Four such dual-beam modules are being installed in the Laser-Fusion Laboratory to provide an Eight-Beam System (EBS) scheduled for operation at the 5- to 10-TW level in 1977. A fourth system, a 100- to 200-TW CO 2 laser, is being designed for the High-Energy Gas Laser Facility (HEGLF) program

  4. Laser development for laser fusion applications research. Progress report, October 1977--March 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-06-01

    Research progress is reported on three laser programs being developed for the commercialization of laser-fusion energy. The lasers include iodine, hydrogen fluoride and Group VI atoms (e.g., O, S, Se, Te)

  5. New-laser research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Two new-laser research efforts were initiated during the reporting period; the chemically pumped iodine laser and HgXe exciplex excitation by electric discharge. The chemically pumped iodine laser was recently discovered by personnel at the Air Force Weapons Laboratory. The laser offers exciting possibilities as an ICF driver because it does not require a capital-intensive pulse power source to drive it, and up to 10% efficiency may be possible. Modeling studies of the laser are in progress and its potential as a high-average power laser seems to be very favorable at this time. The HgXe exciplex radiates in a band centered at 265 nm. This system is being studied because it could be used to pump an iodine laser. Its potential as a high-power laser candidate will be assessed. An advanced oscillator system based upon a microprocessor-controlled Nd:YAG-pumped pulsed dye laser is being developed so that it can be used as the front end of new laser-fusion lasers and utilized in testing and making germane laser amplifier measurements of candidate laser systems for the wavelength region of 4000 A to 8000 A and extended range with frequency doubling and mixing. The operating requirements of the oscillator system include long-term stability, high reliability, absolute wavelength calibration and control, tunability, hands-off operation, and variable pulse width generation in the nanosecond regime

  6. New laser research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    New types of lasers must be developed to provide the desired energy per pulse, pulse length, pulse shape, wavelength, and efficiency for laser-fusion applications. This advanced laser research has focused on rare-gas oxides and on Hg 2 excimers

  7. Development of short pulse laser pumped x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, J; Osterheld, A L; Hunter, J R; Shlyaptsev, V N

    2000-01-01

    X-ray lasers have been extensively studied around the world since the first laboratory demonstration on the Novette laser at LLNL in 1984 [l]. The characteristic properties of short wavelength, high monochromaticity, collimation and coherence make x-ray lasers useful for various applications. These include demonstrations of biological imaging within the water window, interferometry of laser plasmas and radiography of laser-heated surfaces. One of the critical issues has been the high power pump required to produce the inversion. The power scaling as a function of x-ray laser wavelength follows a -k4 to law. The shortest x-ray laser wavelength of ∼ 35 (angstrom) demonstrated for Ni-like All was at the limit of Nova laser capabilities. By requiring large, high power lasers such as Nova, the shot rate and total number of shots available have limited the rapid development of x-ray lasers and applications. In fact over the last fifteen years the main thrust has been to develop more efficient, higher repetition rate x-ray lasers that can be readily scaled to shorter wavelengths. The recent state of progress in the field can be found in references. The objective of the project was to develop a soft x-ray laser (XRL) pumped by a short pulse laser of a few joules. In effect to demonstrate a robust, worlung tabletop x-ray laser at LLNL for the first time. The transient collisional scheme as proposed by Shlyaptsev et al [8, 9] was the candidate x-ray laser for study. The successful endeavour of any scientific investigation is often based upon prudent early decisions and the choice of this scheme was both sound and fruitful. It had been demonstrated very recently for Ne-like Ti at 326 A using a small tabletop laser [10] but had not yet reached its full potential. We chose this scheme for several reasons: (a) it was a collisional-type x-ray laser which has been historically the most robust; (b) it had the promise of high efficiency and low energy threshold for lasing; (c) the

  8. Improved Laser performance through Planar Waveguide Technology Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a laser technology development to improve efficiency and performance for a variety of science applications including: Lunar Ice, 2-Step Laser Tandem Mass...

  9. Recent developments in laser glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a proliferation of new glass-forming compositions including oxides, halides, oxyhalides, and chalcogenides. Many of these glasses are applicable to lasers and have greatly expanded the range of optical properties and spectroscopic parameters available to the laser designer. Our knowledge and understanding of many properties of interest for laser action - transparency, linear and nonlinear refractive indices, and damage threshold of the host glass and the absorption spectrum, radiative and nonradiative transition probabilities, fluorescence wavelength, stimulated emission cross section, and spectroscopic inhomogeneities of the lasing ion Nd 3 + - are reviewed

  10. Development scenario for laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniscalco, J.A.; Hovingh, J.; Buntzen, R.R.

    1976-01-01

    This scenario proposes establishment of test and engineering facilities to (1) investigate the technological problems associated with laser fusion, (2) demonstrate fissile fuel production, and (3) demonstrate competitive electrical power production. Such facilities would be major milestones along the road to a laser-fusion power economy. The relevant engineering and economic aspects of each of these research and development facilities are discussed. Pellet design and gain predictions corresponding to the most promising laser systems are presented for each plant. The results show that laser fusion has the potential to make a significant contribution to our energy needs. Beginning in the early 1990's, this new technology could be used to produce fissile fuel, and after the turn of the century it could be used to generate electrical power

  11. FIBER LASER CONSTRUCTION AND THEORY INCLUDING FIBER BRAGG GRATINGS Photonic Crystal Fibers (PCFs) and applications of gas filled PCFs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, Jacob O. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-08

    The principles used in fiber lasers have been around for a while but it is only within the past few years that fiber lasers have become commercially available and used in high power laser applications. This paper will focus on the basic design principles of fiber lasers, including fiber Bragg gratings, principles of operation, and forms of non-linear effects. It will describe the type and associated doping of the fiber used and difficult designs used to guide energy from the pump to the active medium. Topics covered include fiber laser design, fiber Bragg gratings, materials used, differences in quantum energy loss, thermo-optical effects, stimulated Raman scattering, Brillouin scattering, photonic crystal fibers and applications of gas filled Photonic Crystal Fibers (PCFs). Thanks to fiber lasers, the energy required to produce high power lasers has greatly dropped and as such we can now produce kW power using a standard 120V 15A circuit. High power laser applications are always requiring more power. The fiber laser can now deliver the greater power that these applications demand. Future applications requiring more power than can be combined using standard materials or configurations will need to be developed to overcome the high energy density and high non-linear optical scattering effects present during high power operations.

  12. Development of longitudinally excited CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masroon, N. S.; Tanaka, M.; Tei, M.; Uno, K.; Tsuyama, M.; Nakano, H.

    2018-05-01

    Simple, compact, and affordable discharged-pumped CO2 laser controlled by a fast high voltage solid state switch has been developed. In this study, longitudinal excitation scheme has been adapted for simple configuration. In the longitudinal excitation scheme, the discharge is produced along the direction of the laser axis, and the electrodes are well separated with a small discharge cross-section. Triggered spark gap switch is usually used to switch out the high voltage because of simple and low cost. However, the triggered spark gap operates in the arc mode and suffer from recovery problem causing a short life time and low efficiency for high repetition rate operation. As a result, there is now considerable interest in replacing triggered spark gap switch with solid state switches. Solid state switches have significant advantages compared to triggered spark gap switch which include longer service lifetime, low cost and stable high trigger pulse. We have developed simple and low cost fast high voltage solid state switch that consists of series connected-MOSFETs. It has been installed to the longitudinally excited CO2 laser to realize the gap switch less operation. Characteristics of laser oscillation by varying the discharge length, charging voltage, capacitance and gas pressure have been evaluated. Longer discharge length produce high power of laser oscillation. Optimum charging voltage and gas pressure were existed for longitudinally excited CO2 laser.

  13. Excimer laser development for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovanielli, D.

    1985-01-01

    The future utility of inertial confinement fusion requires a new driver. Successful experiments coupling laser energy to targets, and our understanding of fuel capsule behavior strongly suggest that a laboratory thermonuclear source is attainable and power production may be considered if a suitable driver with high efficiency, high repetition rate, and most importantly, low capital cost, can be identified. No adequate driver exists today; however, the krypton fluoride laser holds great promise. By the end of this decade, driver development can be brought to the point that a technically justifiable choice can be made for the future direction of ICF

  14. The development of laser fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mima, Kunioki

    1998-01-01

    Laser fusion research started soon after the invention of laser. In 1972, the research was declassified and nuclear fusion by laser inplosion was proposed by J. Nuckolls. Since then, 26 years has passed and laser implosion experiments demonstrated 1000 times solid density compression. By the demonstration of 1000 times solid density, the mission of the laser fusion research shifted from 'implosion physics' to 'ignition and high gain', namely demonstration of fusion output of 100 times input laser energy. By the recent developments of laser technology, ultra intense laser became available and opened up a new ignition scheme which is called 'Fast Ignition'. The technology for the diode pumped solid state laser (DPSSL) is developed toward a laser driver for reactor. U.S. and France are constructing MJ lasers for demonstrating ignition and burn and Osaka University is investigating the fast ignition and the equivalent plasma of confinement (EPOC) toward high gain. (author)

  15. The development of laser fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mima, Kunioki [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Inst. of Laser Engineering

    1998-11-01

    Laser fusion research started soon after the invention of laser. In 1972, the research was declassified and nuclear fusion by laser inplosion was proposed by J. Nuckolls. Since then, 26 years has passed and laser implosion experiments demonstrated 1000 times solid density compression. By the demonstration of 1000 times solid density, the mission of the laser fusion research shifted from `implosion physics` to `ignition and high gain`, namely demonstration of fusion output of 100 times input laser energy. By the recent developments of laser technology, ultra intense laser became available and opened up a new ignition scheme which is called `Fast Ignition`. The technology for the diode pumped solid state laser (DPSSL) is developed toward a laser driver for reactor. U.S. and France are constructing MJ lasers for demonstrating ignition and burn and Osaka University is investigating the fast ignition and the equivalent plasma of confinement (EPOC) toward high gain. (author)

  16. Lasers '89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.G.; Shay, T.M.

    1990-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: XUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Lasers, excimer lasers, chemical lasers, nuclear pumped lasers, high power gas lasers, solid state lasers, laser spectroscopy. The paper presented include: Development of KrF lasers for fusion and Nuclear driven solid-state lasers

  17. PHARAO space atomic clock: new developments on the laser source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccoccio, Muriel; Loesel, Jacques; Coatantiec, Claude; Simon, Eric; Laurent, Philippe; Lemonde, Pierre; Maksimovic, I.; Abgrall, M.

    2017-11-01

    The PHARAO project purpose is to open the way for a new atomic clock generation in space, where laser cooling techniques and microgravity allow high frequency stability and accuracy. The French space agency, CNES is funding and managing the clock construction. The French SYRTE and LKB laboratories are scientific and technical advisers for the clock requirements and the follow-up of subsystem development in industrial companies. EADS SODERN is developing two main subsystems of the PHARAO clock: the Laser Source and the Cesium Tube where atoms are cooled, launched, selected and detected by laser beams. The Laser Source includes an optical bench and electronic devices to generate the laser beams required. This paper describes PHARAO and the role laser beams play in its principle of operation. Then we present the Laser Source design, the technologies involved, and the status of development. Lastly, we focus of a key equipment to reach the performances expected, which is the Extended Cavity Laser Diode.

  18. Development of a high power femtosecond laser

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Neethling, PH

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Laser Research Institute and the CSIR National Laser Centre are developing a high power femtosecond laser system in a joint project with a phased approach. The laser system consists of an fs oscillator and a regenerative amplifier. An OPCPA...

  19. Laser cutting - trends in the development,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2002-01-01

    Since the laser was invented in 1960, the industrial applications of this tool has grown and grown. And - since the beginning of the 1980'ies, the major industrial application of lasers in production has been laser cutting. In this paper a short review of the development of the laser cutting...

  20. Development of high power chemical oxygen lodine laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Choi, Y. D.; Chung, C. M.; Kim, M. S.; Baik, S. H.; Kwon, S. O.; Park, S. K.; Kim, T. S

    2001-10-01

    This project is directed to construct 10kW Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser (COIL) for decommissioning of old nuclear facilities, and to get the key technology that can be used for the development of high energy laser weapon. COIL is possible up to MW class in proportion to the amount of chemical reaction. For this reason, high energy laser weapon including Airborne Laser (ABL) and Airborne Tactical Laser (ATL) has been developed as a military use in USA. Recently, many research group have been doing a development study of COIL for nuclear and industrial use in material processing such as cutting and decommissioning by combining laser beam delivery through optical fiber. The Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser of 6 kW output power has been developed in this project. The main technologies of chemical reaction and supersonic fluid control were developed. This technology can be applied for construction of 10 kW laser system. This laser can be used for old nuclear facilities and heavy industry by combining laser beam delivery through optical fiber. The development of High Energy Laser (HEL) weapon is necessary as a military use, and we conclude that Airborne Tactical Laser should be developed in our country.

  1. Development of laser materials processing and laser metrology techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Chung, Chin Man; Kim, Jeong Mook; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Kwang Suk; Baik, Sung Hoon; Kim, Seong Ouk; Park, Seung Kyu

    1997-09-01

    The applications of remote laser materials processing and metrology have been investigated in nuclear industry from the beginning of laser invention because they can reduce the risks of workers in the hostile environment by remote operation. The objective of this project is the development of laser material processing and metrology techniques for repairing and inspection to improve the safety of nuclear power plants. As to repairing, we developed our own laser sleeve welding head and innovative optical laser weld monitoring techniques to control the sleeve welding process. Furthermore, we designed and fabricated a 800 W Nd:YAG and a 150 W Excimer laser systems for high power laser materials processing in nuclear industry such as cladding and decontamination. As to inspection, we developed an ESPI and a laser triangulation 3-D profile measurement system for defect detection which can complement ECT and UT inspections. We also developed a scanning laser vibrometer for remote vibration measurement of large structures and tested its performance. (author). 58 refs., 16 tabs., 137 figs

  2. AASERT-97 Development of New Diode Lasers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peyghambarian, Nasser

    2001-01-01

    This research explored new ways for diode laser fabrications. Focused was on the development of efficient organic light emitting materials and the fabrication of laser structures incorporating these materials...

  3. Development of laser technology in Research Center of Laser Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Wanguo; Deng Ying; Zhou Wei

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the progress in the construction of SG-Ⅲ laser facility, integrated Testbed and XG-Ⅲ laser facility and that in the upgrade of the prototype of SG-Ⅲ, and the development in assembling and installing technology, and the achievements in maintaining cleanliness project and metrology in Laser Fusion Research Center, China Academy of Engineering Physics in China in 2012. (authors)

  4. Latest development of laser cutting

    OpenAIRE

    Wetzig, Andreas; Herwig, Patrick; Hauptmann, Jan; Goppold, Cindy; Baumann, Robert; Fürst, Andreas; Rose, Michael; Pinder, Thomas; Mahrle, Achim; Beyer, Eckhard

    2016-01-01

    Laser cutting was one of the first applications of laser material processing. Today, laser cutting is the most widespread application among laser material processing besides laser marking. Meanwhile, nearly each material can be cut by means of a laser, in particular since ultra short pulse lasers are available in the power range of up to 100 W. The to be cut material can come with thicknesses from a few microns till tens of millimeters as flat stock or as free form shapes. The paper will conc...

  5. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy of the uranium including calcium. Time resolved measurement spectroscopic analysis (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaoka, Katsuaki; Maruyama, Youichiro; Oba, Masaki; Miyabe, Masabumi; Otobe, Haruyoshi; Wakaida, Ikuo

    2010-05-01

    For the remote analysis of low DF TRU (Decontamination Factor Transuranic) fuel, Laser Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied to uranium oxide including a small amount of calcium oxide. The characteristics, such as spectrum intensity and plasma excitation temperature, were measured using time-resolved spectroscopy. As a result, in order to obtain the stable intensity of calcium spectrum for the uranium spectrum, it was found out that the optimum observation delay time of spectrum is 4 microseconds or more after laser irradiation. (author)

  6. An optoelectronic integrated device including a laser and its driving circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsueda, H.; Nakano, H.; Tanaka, T.P.

    1984-10-01

    A monolithic optoelectronic integrated circuit (OEIC) including a laser diode, photomonitor and driving and detecting circuits has been fabricated on a semi-insulating GaAs substrate. The OEIC has a horizontal integrating structure which is suitable for realising high-density multifunctional devices. The fabricating process and the static and dynamic characteristics of the optical and electronic elements are described. The preliminary results of the co-operative operation of the laser and its driving circuit are also presented.

  7. Laser chemical analysis: the recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauchien, P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper gives a general overview and describes the principles of the main laser-based techniques for physical and chemical analysis, and of their recent developments. Analytical techniques using laser radiations were actually developed at the end of the 1970's. The recent evolutions concern the 3 principal techniques of laser spectroscopy currently used: Raman, fluorescence (atomic and molecular) and ablation (ICP laser ablation-plasma coupling, optical emission spectroscopy on laser-induced plasma). The description of these different techniques is illustrated with some examples of applications. (J.S.)

  8. Self-mixing laser diode included in scanning microwave microscope to the control of probe nanodisplacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usanov, D. A.; Skripal, A. V.; Astakhov, E. I.; Dobdin, S. Y.

    2018-04-01

    The possibilities of self-mixing interferometry for measuring nanodisplacement of a probe included in a near-field scanning microwave microscope have been considered. The features of the formation of a laser interference signal at current modulation of the wavelength of laser radiation have been investigated. Experimental responses of a semiconductor laser system included in scanning microwave microscope to control nanodisplacement of the probe have been demonstrated.To register the nanodisplacement of the probe, it is proposed to use the method of determining the stationary phase of a laser interference signal by low-frequency spectrum of a semiconductor laser. The change of the amplitudes of the spectral components in the spectrum of the interference signal due to creation of the standing wave in the external resonator of the laser self-mixing system has been shown. The form of the interference signal at current modulation of the radiation wavelength was experimentally obtained when the probe moves with a step of 80 nm. The results of measuring nanodisplacements of an electromagnetic translator STANDA 8MVT40-13 have been demonstrated. Deviation of the nanodisplacement of the proposed method does not exceed 15%.

  9. Development of underwater laser cutting technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Seiichi; Inaba, Takanori; Inose, Koutarou; Matsumoto, Naoyuki; Sakakibara, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    In is desirable to use remote underwater device for the decommissioning work of highly radioactive components such as the nuclear internals from a view point of reducing the ranitidine exposure to the worker. Underwater laser cutting technology has advantages. First advantage in underwater laser cutting technology is that low reaction force during cutting, namely, remote operability is superior. Second point is that underwater laser cutting generates a little amount of secondary waste, because cutting kerf size is very small. Third point is that underwater laser cutting has low risk of the process delay, because device trouble is hard to happen. While underwater laser cutting has many advantages, the careful consideration in the safe treatment of the offgas which underwater laser cutting generates is necessary. This paper describes outline of underwater laser cutting technology developed by IHI Corporation (IHI) and that this technology is effective in various dismantling works in water. (author)

  10. Relay telescope including baffle, and high power laser amplifier utilizing the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, C. Brent; Hackel, Lloyd; Harris, Fritz B.

    2006-09-19

    A laser system includes an optical path having an intracavity relay telescope with a telescope focal point for imaging an output of the gain medium between an image location at or near the gain medium and an image location at or near an output coupler for the laser system. A kinematic mount is provided within a vacuum chamber, and adapted to secure beam baffles near the telescope focal point. An access port on the vacuum chamber is adapted for allowing insertion and removal of the beam baffles. A first baffle formed using an alignment pinhole aperture is used during alignment of the laser system. A second tapered baffle replaces the alignment aperture during operation and acts as a far-field baffle in which off angle beams strike the baffle a grazing angle of incidence, reducing fluence levels at the impact areas.

  11. Development of laser atomic spectroscopic technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Min; Ohr, Young Gie; Cha, Hyung Ki

    1990-06-01

    Some preliminary results on the resonant ionization spectroscopy for Na and Pb atoms are presents both in theory and in experiment. A single color multiphoton ionization process is theoretically analysed in detail, for the resonant and non-resonant cases, and several parameters determining the overall ionization rate are summarized. In particular, the AC stark shift, the line width and the non-linear coefficient of ionization rate are recalculated using the perturbation theory in resolvent approach. On the other hand, the fundamental equipments for spectroscopic experiments have been designed and manufactured, which include a Nd:YAG laser, a GIM-type dye laser, a vacuum system ionization cells, a heat pipe oven, and an ion current measuring system. The characteristics of the above equipments have also been examined. Using the spectroscopic data available, several ionization schemes are considered and the relative merits for ionization have been discussed. Moreover, the effects due to the buffer gas pressure, laser intensity, vapor density and electrode voltage have been investigated in detail. The experiments will be extended to multi-color processes with several resonances, and the ultimate goal is to develop a ultrasensitive analytical method for pollutive heavy metal atoms using the resonant ionization spectroscopy. (author)

  12. The development of laser surgery and medicine in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingzhe

    2005-07-01

    The first Chinese ruby laser was created in 1961 and it was adopted for the retina coagulation experiment in 1965. Since 1970's, lasers had been widely applied clinically including the diseases suitable to physical therapy or acupuncture. The Chinese HpD was first produced in 1981 and first case of PDT was treated using Chinese HpD and Chinese lasers in the same year. Its success brought attention establishing a research group supported by the government in 1982. A nationwide systemic research project on PDT was then carried out. The step taken for PDT also accelerated the development of various fields of laser medicine and surgery. Laser treatments had been commonly adopted in the clinics and hospitals for the diseases of the superficial lesions and the lesions can be reached by the endoscopes non-invasively in 1980's. Since 1990's, the interventional laser therapies adopted mainly were percutaneous laser angioplasty, laser treatments through laparoscope, thoracoscope, arthroscope, neuro-endoscope etc. Ultrasound guided percutaneous laser heat coagulation for small hepatic cancer revealed good results and ultrasound guided percutaneous PDT for advanced large liver cancer revealed unexpected results after five years follow-up. At present: There are more long-term follow-up patients in the clinical trial; more advanced commercial available lasers and new techniques are adopted. Since the popularization of scanning electron microscope, laser scanning confocal microscope, laser induced auto-fluorescence system, high sensitivity fluorescence microscopic imaging system etc. in the laboratories, the basic studies can be more advanced and some times, the sub-cellular level can be reached; ultra-structure histo-morphology and gene studies are involved. In dermatology, Q-switched Alexandrite laser and other Q-switched lasers are used mainly for the treatment of skin pigmentation and vascular diseases; pulsed dye laser, ultra-pulsed CO2 laser are used in resurfacing, facial

  13. Recent developments in CO2 lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Keming

    1993-05-01

    CO2 lasers have been used in industry mainly for such things as cutting, welding, and surface processing. To conduct a broad spectrum of high-speed and high-quality applications, most of the developments in industrial CO2 lasers at the ILT are aimed at increasing the output power, optimizing the beam quality, and reducing the production costs. Most of the commercial CO2 lasers above 5 kW are transverse-flow systems using dc excitation. The applications of these lasers are limited due to the lower beam quality, the poor point stability, and the lower modulation frequency. To overcome the problems we developed a fast axial- flow CO2 laser using rf excitation with an output of 13 kW. In section 2 some of the results are discussed concerning the gas flow, the discharge, the resonator design, optical effects of active medium, the aerodynamic window, and the modulation of the output power. The first CO2 lasers ever built are diffusion-cooled systems with conventional dc excited cylindrical discharge tubes surrounded by cooling jackets. The output power per unit length is limited to 50 W/m by those lasers with cylindrical tubes. In the past few years considerable increases in the output power were achieved, using new mechanical geometries, excitation- techniques, and resonator designs. This progress in diffusion-cooled CO2 lasers is presented in section 3.

  14. Coherent Doppler Laser Radar: Technology Development and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has been investigating, developing, and applying coherent Doppler laser radar technology for over 30 years. These efforts have included the first wind measurement in 1967, the first airborne flights in 1972, the first airborne wind field mapping in 1981, and the first measurement of hurricane eyewall winds in 1998. A parallel effort at MSFC since 1982 has been the study, modeling and technology development for a space-based global wind measurement system. These endeavors to date have resulted in compact, robust, eyesafe lidars at 2 micron wavelength based on solid-state laser technology; in a factor of 6 volume reduction in near diffraction limited, space-qualifiable telescopes; in sophisticated airborne scanners with full platform motion subtraction; in local oscillator lasers capable of rapid tuning of 25 GHz for removal of relative laser radar to target velocities over a 25 km/s range; in performance prediction theory and simulations that have been validated experimentally; and in extensive field campaign experience. We have also begun efforts to dramatically improve the fundamental photon efficiency of the laser radar, to demonstrate advanced lower mass laser radar telescopes and scanners; to develop laser and laser radar system alignment maintenance technologies; and to greatly improve the electrical efficiency, cooling technique, and robustness of the pulsed laser. This coherent Doppler laser radar technology is suitable for high resolution, high accuracy wind mapping; for aerosol and cloud measurement; for Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) measurements of atmospheric and trace gases; for hard target range and velocity measurement; and for hard target vibration spectra measurement. It is also suitable for a number of aircraft operations applications such as clear air turbulence (CAT) detection; dangerous wind shear (microburst) detection; airspeed, angle of attack, and sideslip measurement; and fuel savings through

  15. Copper vapour laser development for Silva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettinger, A.; Neu, M.; Chatelet, J.

    1993-01-01

    The recent developments of the components for high power Copper Vapour Laser (CVL) have been oriented towards four main goals: high quality laser beam, mainly for the CVL oscillators, increase of the extracted energy out of the amplifying stage, fully integrated and monolithic design for oscillator and amplifier, extended lifetime and high reliability. A first step of this work, which is done under contract with CILAS (Compagnie Industrielle des Lasers) led to an injection seeded oscillator and a 100 Watts amplifier; the present step concerns development of a 400 Watts class amplifier

  16. Laser spectroscopy and laser ion source development at UNISOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, C.

    1991-01-01

    The development of the laser spectroscopy facility at UNISOR will be described. The method of collinear laser-atomic beams interaction is utilized to achieve atomic spectra essentially free of Doppler spreading. Measurement of resonance fluorescence via an efficient fiber-optic light collector is used to observe the atomic excitation by the laser beam. The system has been utilized to measure the atomic lifetime of the 6p 4 Ps/2 0 level in Xe II. In other experiment the relativistic Doppler effect was measured as a test of time dilation. Hyperfine structure and isotope shift measurements have been made for a series of Tl atoms ranging in mass from 187 to 205. Magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments were deduced for several of these isotopes; these quantities and the isotope shifts added greatly to our understanding of nuclear shapes in this transition region. Future directions will focus around more sensitive detection techniques and the development of purer beams in order to enable the study of nuclei farther from stability. The development of a laser ion source which operates in a completely cold mode and utilizes resonant absorption in the ionization process world facilitate the production of ultra-pure atomic beams

  17. Use of a 3-MV proton accelerator for study of noble gases, including laser ionization of excited states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, G.S.; Judish, J.P.; Nayfeh, M.H.; Parks, J.E.; Payne, M.G.; Wagner, E.B.

    1974-01-01

    The use of a pulsed 3-MV accelerator to study energy pathways in the noble gases is described. The objectives of pathways research are to obtain (1) information on the spectrum of excited states produced by a charged particle in a noble gas, (2) the rate of decay of the various states through various channels as a function of gas pressure, and (3) the modification of the decay channels due to the introduction of foreign species. A new energy pathways model is presented for helium as a general illustration. A method for the study of excited states, using a laser ionization technique is reported. Use is made of a laser which is tuned to a resonance transition between the desired excited state and some higher excited state. Photons in the same pulse photoionize the higher excited state; thus the ionization current vs photon wavelength has a resonance structure. Absolute yields of selected excited states can be obtained whenever the photon fluence per pulse is large enough to saturate the ionization current. A general summary is given of experimental facilities which include a 3-MV Van de Graaff accelerator, electronics for measuring radiation lifetimes, vacuum ultraviolet spectrometers, and a pulsed laser facility for direct study of excited states. Finally, the relevance of pathways research to (1) the interaction of radiation with matter, (2) the development of gas lasers, and (3) methods of ultrasensitive elemental analysis is pointed out

  18. Development of broadband free electron laser technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B. C.; Jeong, Y. W.; Joe, S. O.; Park, S. H.; Ryu, J. K.; Kazakevich, G.; Cha, H. J.; Sohn, S. C.; Han, S. J.

    2003-02-01

    Layer cladding technology was developed to mitigate the fretting wear damages occurred at fuel spacers in Hanaro reactor. The detailed experimental procedures are as follows. 1) Analyses of fretting wear damages and fabrication process of fuel spacers 2) Development and analysis of spherical Al 6061 T-6 alloy powders for the laser cladding 3) Analysis of parameter effects on laser cladding process for clad bids, and optimization of laser cladding process 4) Analysis on the changes of cladding layers due to overlapping factor change 5) Microstructural observation and phase analysis 6) Characterization of materials properties (hardness wear tests) 7) Development of a vision system and revision of its related software 8) Manufacture of prototype fuel spacers. As a result, it was confirmed that the laser cladding technology could increased considerably the wear resistance of Al 6061 alloy which is the raw material of fuel spacers.

  19. Laser light scattering instrument advanced technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J. F.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this advanced technology development (ATD) project has been to provide sturdy, miniaturized laser light scattering (LLS) instrumentation for use in microgravity experiments. To do this, we assessed user requirements, explored the capabilities of existing and prospective laser light scattering hardware, and both coordinated and participated in the hardware and software advances needed for a flight hardware instrument. We have successfully breadboarded and evaluated an engineering version of a single-angle glove-box instrument which uses solid state detectors and lasers, along with fiber optics, for beam delivery and detection. Additionally, we have provided the specifications and written verification procedures necessary for procuring a miniature multi-angle LLS instrument which will be used by the flight hardware project which resulted from this work and from this project's interaction with the laser light scattering community.

  20. Development of remote laser welding technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soo-Sung; Kim, Woong-Ki; Lee, Jung-Won; Yang, Myung-Seung; Park, Hyun-Soo

    1999-01-01

    Various welding processes are now available for end cap closure of nuclear fuel element such as TIG(Tungsten Inert Gas) welding, magnetic resistance welding and laser welding. Even though the resistance and TIG welding process are widely used for manufacturing of the commercial fuel elements, it can not be recommended for the remote seal welding of fuel element at PIE facility due to its complexity of the electrode alignment, difficulty in the replacement of parts in the remote manner and its large heat input for thin sheath. Therefore, Nd:YAG laser system using the optical fiber transmission was selected for Zircaloy-4 end cap welding. Remote laser welding apparatus is developed using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser of 500 watt average power with optical fiber transmission. The laser weldability is satisfactory in respect of the microstructures and mechanical properties comparing with the TIG and resistance welding. The optimum operation processes of laser welding and the optical fiber transmission system for hot cell operation in remote manner have been developed. (author)

  1. Trend of laser research developments in global level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golnabi, H.; Mahdieh, M. H.

    2006-03-01

    An up-to-date progress of the international laser research and development is given in this article. The number of scientific publications and filed patents are considered as a figure of merit and based on these numbers the growth pace and important aspects are investigated. We have used the Science Finder Scholar search engine, which indexes more than 4000 journals, in different languages, and represents most significant published materials in laser science and engineering. The growth of the laser and related fields are described in terms of resulting scientific publications for the period of 1990-2003. The share of top nations in scientific publications, and in particular laser publications in terms of their gross domestic product (GDP) is presented. It is noted that the four countries including the USA, Japan, Germany and China have a laser publication contribution of 58.9% while the rest of the world including 189 countries contribute 41.1%. However, for the case of patent, which is a more important factor, these four countries hold a share of 90.1% while the remaining nations have a small share of 9.9%. The USA heads all the nations in the number of scientific publications, citations, and laser publications, however, in terms of accepted laser patents Japan shows a big lead. Scientific scopes of the laser systems are presented and some requirements to be met in each field are described. The key points in this field of research, which might be helpful in the future development of the laser technology are discussed.

  2. An overview of copper-laser development for isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, B.E.

    1987-01-01

    We have developed a copper-laser pumped dye-laser system that addresses all of the requirements for atomic vapor laser isotope separation. The requirement for high average power for the laser system has led to the development of copper-laser chains with injection-locked oscillators and multihundred-watt amplifiers. By continuously operating the Laser Demonstration Facility, we gain valuable data for further upgrade and optimization

  3. Development of our laser fusion integration simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.; Zhai, C.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Zheng, W.; Yong, H.; Zeng, Q.; Hang, X.; Qi, J.; Yang, R.; Cheng, J.; Song, P.; Gu, P.; Zhang, A.; An, H.; Xu, X.; Guo, H.; Cao, X.; Mo, Z.; Pei, W.; Jiang, S.; Zhu, S. P.

    2013-01-01

    In the target design of the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program, it is common practice to apply radiation hydrodynamics code to study the key physical processes happening in ICF process, such as hohlraum physics, radiation drive symmetry, capsule implosion physics in the radiation-drive approach of ICF. Recently, many efforts have been done to develop our 2D integrated simulation capability of laser fusion with a variety of optional physical models and numerical methods. In order to effectively integrate the existing codes and to facilitate the development of new codes, we are developing an object-oriented structured-mesh parallel code-supporting infrastructure, called JASMIN. Based on two-dimensional three-temperature hohlraum physics code LARED-H and two-dimensional multi-group radiative transfer code LARED-R, we develop a new generation two-dimensional laser fusion code under the JASMIN infrastructure, which enable us to simulate the whole process of laser fusion from the laser beams' entrance into the hohlraum to the end of implosion. In this paper, we will give a brief description of our new-generation two-dimensional laser fusion code, named LARED-Integration, especially in its physical models, and present some simulation results of holhraum. (authors)

  4. Method for pulse control in a laser including a stimulated brillouin scattering mirror system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, C. Brent; Hackel, Lloyd; Harris, Fritz B.

    2007-10-23

    A laser system, such as a master oscillator/power amplifier system, comprises a gain medium and a stimulated Brillouin scattering SBS mirror system. The SBS mirror system includes an in situ filtered SBS medium that comprises a compound having a small negative non-linear index of refraction, such as a perfluoro compound. An SBS relay telescope having a telescope focal point includes a baffle at the telescope focal point which blocks off angle beams. A beam splitter is placed between the SBS mirror system and the SBS relay telescope, directing a fraction of the beam to an alternate beam path for an alignment fiducial. The SBS mirror system has a collimated SBS cell and a focused SBS cell. An adjustable attenuator is placed between the collimated SBS cell and the focused SBS cell, by which pulse width of the reflected beam can be adjusted.

  5. Development in laser peening of advanced ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Pratik; Smith, Graham C.; Waugh, David G.; Lawrence, Jonathan

    2015-07-01

    Laser peening is a well-known process applicable to surface treat metals and alloys in various industrial sectors. Research in the area of laser peening of ceramics is still scarce and a complete laser-ceramic interaction is still unreported. This paper focuses on laser peening of SiC ceramics employed for cutting tools, armor plating, dental and biomedical implants, with a view to elucidate the unreported work. A detailed investigation was conducted with 1064nm Nd:YAG ns pulse laser to first understand the surface effects, namely: the topography, hardness, KIc and the microstructure of SiC advanced ceramics. The results showed changes in surface roughness and microstructural modification after laser peening. An increase in surface hardness was found by almost 2 folds, as the diamond footprints and its flaws sizes were considerably reduced, thus, enhancing the resistance of SiC to better withstand mechanical impact. This inherently led to an enhancement in the KIc by about 42%. This is attributed to an induction of compressive residual stress and phase transformation. This work is a first-step towards the development of a 3-dimensional laser peening technique to surface treat many advanced ceramic components. This work has shown that upon tailoring the laser peening parameters may directly control ceramic topography, microstructure, hardness and the KIc. This is useful for increasing the performance of ceramics used for demanding applications particularly where it matters such as in military. Upon successful peening of bullet proof vests could result to higher ballistic strength and resistance against higher sonic velocity, which would not only prevent serious injuries, but could also help to save lives of soldiers on the battle fields.

  6. Development of Ceramic Solid-State Laser Host Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Trivedi, Sudhir; Kutcher, Susan; Wang, Chen-Chia; Kim, Joo-Soo; Hommerich, Uwe; Shukla, Vijay; Sadangi, Rajendra

    2009-01-01

    Polycrystalline ceramic laser materials are gaining importance in the development of novel diode-pumped solid-state lasers. Compared to single-crystals, ceramic laser materials offer advantages in terms of ease of fabrication, shape, size, and control of dopant concentrations. Recently, we have developed Neodymium doped Yttria (Nd:Y2O3) as a solid-state ceramic laser material. A scalable production method was utilized to make spherical non agglomerated and monodisperse metastable ceramic powders of compositions that were used to fabricate polycrystalline ceramic material components. This processing technique allowed for higher doping concentrations without the segregation problems that are normally encountered in single crystalline growth. We have successfully fabricated undoped and Neodymium doped Yttria material up to 2" in diameter, Ytterbium doped Yttria, and erbium doped Yttria. We are also in the process of developing other sesquioxides such as scandium Oxide (Sc2O3) and Lutesium Oxide (Lu2O3) doped with Ytterbium, erbium and thulium dopants. In this paper, we present our initial results on the material, optical, and spectroscopic properties of the doped and undoped sesquioxide materials. Polycrystalline ceramic lasers have enormous potential applications including remote sensing, chem.-bio detection, and space exploration research. It is also potentially much less expensive to produce ceramic laser materials compared to their single crystalline counterparts because of the shorter fabrication time and the potential for mass production in large sizes.

  7. Laser Processed Condensing Heat Exchanger Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott; Wright, Sarah; Wallace, Sarah; Hamilton, Tanner; Dennis, Alexander; Zuhlke, Craig; Roth, Nick; Sanders, John

    2017-01-01

    The reliance on non-permanent coatings in Condensing Heat Exchanger (CHX) designs is a significant technical issue to be solved before long-duration spaceflight can occur. Therefore, high reliability CHXs have been identified by the Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) as critical technologies needed to move beyond low earth orbit. The Laser Processed Condensing Heat Exchanger project aims to solve these problems through the use of femtosecond laser processed surfaces, which have unique wetting properties and potentially exhibit anti-microbial growth properties. These surfaces were investigated to identify if they would be suitable candidates for a replacement CHX surface. Among the areas researched in this project include microbial growth testing, siloxane flow testing in which laser processed surfaces were exposed to siloxanes in an air stream, and manufacturability.

  8. Optical inhomogeneity developing in flashlamp photolysis lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekhin, B V; Borovkov, V V; Brodskii, A Ya; Lazhintsev, B V; Nor-Arevian, V A; Sukhanov, L V

    1980-07-01

    The paper discusses the dynamics of optical inhomogenity developing in the active medium of a high-power flashlamp-pumped photolysis laser in inverse population storage, fast inversion suppression, and free-running lasing regimes. A chemical component of the refractive index was found in a C3F7I photolysis experiment, along with the anomalous growth of a gas refractive index.

  9. Developing standard transmission system for radiology reporting including key images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seon Chil

    2007-01-01

    Development of hospital information system and Picture Archiving Communication System is not new in the medical field, and the development of internet and information technology are also universal. In the course of such development, however, it is hard to share medical information without a refined standard format. Especially in the department of radiology, the role of PACS has become very important in interchanging information with other disparate hospital information systems. A specific system needs to be developed that radiological reports are archived into a database efficiently. This includes sharing of medical images. A model is suggested in this study in which an internal system is developed where radiologists store necessary images and transmit them is the standard international clinical format, Clinical Document Architecture, and share the information with hospitals. CDA document generator was made to generate a new file format and separate the existing storage system from the new system. This was to ensure the access to required data in XML documents. The model presented in this study added a process where crucial images in reading are inserted in the CDA radiological report generator. Therefore, this study suggests a storage and transmission model for CDA documents, which is different from the existing DICOM SR. Radiological reports could be better shared, when the application function for inserting images and the analysis of standard clinical terms are completed

  10. A novel fiber laser development for photoacoustic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavas, Seydi; Aytac-Kipergil, Esra; Arabul, Mustafa U.; Erkol, Hakan; Akcaalan, Onder; Eldeniz, Y. Burak; Ilday, F. Omer; Unlu, Mehmet B.

    2013-03-01

    Photoacoustic microscopy, as an imaging modality, has shown promising results in imaging angiogenesis and cutaneous malignancies like melanoma, revealing systemic diseases including diabetes, hypertension, tracing drug efficiency and assessment of therapy, monitoring healing processes such as wound cicatrization, brain imaging and mapping. Clinically, photoacoustic microscopy is emerging as a capable diagnostic tool. Parameters of lasers used in photoacoustic microscopy, particularly, pulse duration, energy, pulse repetition frequency, and pulse-to-pulse stability affect signal amplitude and quality, data acquisition speed and indirectly, spatial resolution. Lasers used in photoacoustic microscopy are typically Q-switched lasers, low-power laser diodes, and recently, fiber lasers. Significantly, the key parameters cannot be adjusted independently of each other, whereas microvasculature and cellular imaging, e.g., have different requirements. Here, we report an integrated fiber laser system producing nanosecond pulses, covering the spectrum from 600 nm to 1100 nm, developed specifically for photoacoustic excitation. The system comprises of Yb-doped fiber oscillator and amplifier, an acousto-optic modulator and a photonic-crystal fiber to generate supercontinuum. Complete control over the pulse train, including generation of non-uniform pulse trains, is achieved via the AOM through custom-developed field-programmable gate-array electronics. The system is unique in that all the important parameters are adjustable: pulse duration in the range of 1-3 ns, pulse energy up to 10 μJ, repetition rate from 50 kHz to 3 MHz. Different photocoustic imaging probes can be excited with the ultrabroad spectrum. The entire system is fiber-integrated; guided-beam-propagation rendersit misalignment free and largely immune to mechanical perturbations. The laser is robust, low-cost and built using readily available components.

  11. Broad band tunable dye laser development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Jung Bog; Kim, Sung Ho; Go, Do Kyung; Lim, Chang Hwan; Rho, Si Pyo; Song, Kyu Seok; Lee, Byung Cheol; Rhi, Jong Hoon; Han, Jae Min; Cha, Hyung Ki; Cha, Byung Hun; Jeong, Do Yung; Han, Jae Min; Jung, Yeu Chang; Im, Ho; Yoo, Choon Sun; Jung, Byung Ik; Seok, Gum Sook

    1992-12-01

    The technical goal and objectives are the development of a tunable laser which can be tuned from UV to near IR and commercialization for uses in various fields. Two kinds of resonators are developed. User can select one resonator and change into the other without changing other parts. GIM type has a linewidth of 5GHz which is able to be used usually, and SLM type is very narrow linewidth of less than 1GHz. Each system can have one or two amplifiers depending on output power or cost. High stability and safety, cost-down, and modules into about 30 components have been tried. We hope that this laser can help developments in researches of university, industry, and institute. (Author)

  12. A Reformed CDM - including new mechanisms for sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm Olsen, K; Fenhann, J

    2009-07-01

    The annual CD4CDM Perspectives Series features a topic of pivotal importance to the global carbon market. The series seeks to communicate the diverse insights and visions of leading actors in the carbon market to better inform the decisions of professionals and policymakers in developing countries. The second theme of the series focuses on how the CDM can be reformed in a post-2012 climate regime, including new mechanism for sustainable development. Seventeen contributors from the private sector, Designated National Authorities, the Executive Board, research, and development agencies present their perspective on meeting challenges such as the unequal regional distribution of CDM projects, concerns about environmental integrity and technology transfer, complex governance procedures, and questions about the CDM's contribution to sustainable development. The new ideas and solutions to these challenges proposed by the authors in this edition of Perspectives have been solicited to help professionals and policy makers make the best decisions in the lead-up to COP 15 in Copenhagen and beyond. (au)

  13. A Reformed CDM - including new mechanisms for sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm Olsen, K.; Fenhann, J.

    2009-07-01

    The annual CD4CDM Perspectives Series features a topic of pivotal importance to the global carbon market. The series seeks to communicate the diverse insights and visions of leading actors in the carbon market to better inform the decisions of professionals and policymakers in developing countries. The second theme of the series focuses on how the CDM can be reformed in a post-2012 climate regime, including new mechanism for sustainable development. Seventeen contributors from the private sector, Designated National Authorities, the Executive Board, research, and development agencies present their perspective on meeting challenges such as the unequal regional distribution of CDM projects, concerns about environmental integrity and technology transfer, complex governance procedures, and questions about the CDM's contribution to sustainable development. The new ideas and solutions to these challenges proposed by the authors in this edition of Perspectives have been solicited to help professionals and policy makers make the best decisions in the lead-up to COP 15 in Copenhagen and beyond. (au)

  14. GSI research and development programme 1992 (including programme budget)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The main points on UNILAC will be preparatory experiments on the synthesis of the element 110 and the study of e + e 1 - pair generation for heavy ion impacts on the Coulomb barrier. Experiments on beam fragmentation, to generate and apply radioactive beams and for producing mesons and antiprotons below the threshold will be to the fore at SIS. The central detector of the 4 π detector for exclusive particle production studies will also be set to work. Up to now, the electron cooling and storage experiments have shown, in the main, how heavy ion beams such as 20 Ne, 40 Ar, 86 Kr, 136 Xe and 209 Bi are stored and can be cooled with electron beams to the highest phase space densities (Δ p/p ≅ 10 -6 , ε ≅ 0.3 π mm x mrad). The cooling experiments will be continued, particularly in order to research the conditions for beam condensation. In a series of experiments, electron-ion and laser-ion interaction processes such as radiation capture, dielectric recombination and laser-induced transitions are examined. Spectroscopy experiments on hydrogen- and helium-like heavy atoms to examined QED effects are being started. (orig.) [de

  15. Ultrashort pulsed laser technology development program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manke, Gerald C.

    2014-10-01

    The Department of Navy has been pursuing a technology development program for advanced, all-fiber, Ultra Short Pulsed Laser (USPL) systems via Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) programs. Multiple topics have been published to promote and fund research that encompasses every critical component of a standard USPL system and enable the demonstration of mJ/pulse class systems with an all fiber architecture. This presentation will summarize published topics and funded programs.

  16. Yb3+:Sr5(VO4)3F: Crystal growth, spectroscopic characterization and laser development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustamante, Andrea Nora Pino

    1999-01-01

    Crystal growth, spectroscopic characterization and laser development of Yb 3+ :SVAP [Sr 5 (VO 4 ) 3 F] was performed to demonstrate for the first time, operation of tunable laser emission centered at 1120 nm. Initially, SVAP crystals were grown with high dopant concentrations, up to 6.0 mol % of Yb 2 O 3 in the melt, in order to investigate the material for potential laser operation at a new laser wavelength. Additional research was performed to alleviate highly doped SVAP crystals of defects previously observed. Basic spectroscopic characterization including absorption and luminescent properties were measured to better understand the behavior of Yb 3+ ions in SVAP. Based upon these studies, discussion of the 1120 nm laser transition is presented as it arises from a ground state vibrational level. Investigations of the charge compensation process and the optical parameters as a function of dopant concentration are also presented. The laser development of Yb 3+ :SVAP included continuous and pulsed modes of operation of the 1044 nm and 1120 nm transitions. Initial laser action of the 1044 nm transition was achieved using a Yi: Saphire laser pump source in order to compare with previously results. Further development of a diode-pumped Yb 3+ :SVAP laser system demonstrated continuously tunable laser operation from 1103 nm for the first time. The laser investigations also proved that this high gain media does provide continuous wave laser action at 1044 nm and 1120 simultaneously without significant gain depletion. (author)

  17. Porcine skin visible lesion thresholds for near-infrared lasers including modeling at two pulse durations and spot sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, C P; Polhamus, G D; Roach, W P; Stolarski, D J; Schuster, K J; Stockton, K L; Rockwell, B A; Chen, Bo; Welch, A J

    2006-01-01

    With the advent of such systems as the airborne laser and advanced tactical laser, high-energy lasers that use 1315-nm wavelengths in the near-infrared band will soon present a new laser safety challenge to armed forces and civilian populations. Experiments in nonhuman primates using this wavelength have demonstrated a range of ocular injuries, including corneal, lenticular, and retinal lesions as a function of pulse duration. American National Standards Institute (ANSI) laser safety standards have traditionally been based on experimental data, and there is scant data for this wavelength. We are reporting minimum visible lesion (MVL) threshold measurements using a porcine skin model for two different pulse durations and spot sizes for this wavelength. We also compare our measurements to results from our model based on the heat transfer equation and rate process equation, together with actual temperature measurements on the skin surface using a high-speed infrared camera. Our MVL-ED50 thresholds for long pulses (350 micros) at 24-h postexposure are measured to be 99 and 83 J cm(-2) for spot sizes of 0.7 and 1.3 mm diam, respectively. Q-switched laser pulses of 50 ns have a lower threshold of 11 J cm(-2) for a 5-mm-diam top-hat laser pulse.

  18. Laser Light Scattering, from an Advanced Technology Development Program to Experiments in a Reduced Gravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, William V.; Tscharnuter, Walther W.; Macgregor, Andrew D.; Dautet, Henri; Deschamps, Pierre; Boucher, Francois; Zuh, Jixiang; Tin, Padetha; Rogers, Richard B.; Ansari, Rafat R.

    1994-01-01

    Recent advancements in laser light scattering hardware are described. These include intelligent single card correlators; active quench/active reset avalanche photodiodes; laser diodes; and fiber optics which were used by or developed for a NASA advanced technology development program. A space shuttle experiment which will employ aspects of these hardware developments is previewed.

  19. Development of a hydrogen fluoride laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, P.

    1974-01-01

    A hydrogen fluoride laser with variable pulse width (9 to 25 ns) was developed for measurements of shortlived dense plasmas. This multi-line laser with lambda approximately 2.9 μm operates without an optical pulse cutting system. Peak power of the pulses is about 400 kW. Measurements concerning dependence of FWHA, peak power and energy yield were carried out. Combined with an amplifier of 1 m length, peak power up to 13 MW and energies up to 0.5 J are attained. With this system, time dependence of the power amplification in the amplifier was tested for various gas mixtures. Furthermore preliminary measurements with time-resolved schlieren interferometry with this system are discussed. A plasma focus device was used as test object. (orig.) [de

  20. Inverse free-electron laser accelerator development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, A.; Gallardo, J.; Steenbergen, A. van; Sandweiss, J.; Fang, J.M.

    1994-06-01

    The study of the Inverse Free-Electron Laser, as a potential mode of electron acceleration, has been pursued at Brookhaven National Laboratory for a number of years. More recent studies focused on the development of a low energy (few GeV), high gradient, multistage linear accelerator. The authors are presently designing a short accelerator module which will make use of the 50 MeV linac beam and high power (2 x 10 11 W) CO 2 laser beam of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at the Center for Accelerator Physics (CAP), Brookhaven National Laboratory. These elements will be used in conjunction with a fast excitation (300 μsec pulse duration) variable period wiggler, to carry out an accelerator demonstration stage experiment

  1. Development of Cr,Nd:GSGG laser as a pumping source of Ti:sapphire laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Koji; Arisawa, Takashi

    1999-08-01

    Since efficiency of Cr,Nd doped gadolinium scandium gallium garnet (GSGG) laser is in principle higher than that of Nd:YAG laser, it can be a highly efficient pumping source for Ti:sapphire laser. We have made GSGG laser, and measured its oscillation properties. It was two times more efficient than Nd:YAG laser at free running mode operation. At Q-switched mode operation, fundamental output of 50 mJ and second harmonics output of 8 mJ were obtained. The developed laser had appropriate spatial profile, temporal duration, long time stability for solid laser pumping. Ti:sapphire laser oscillation was achieved by the second harmonics of GSGG laser. (author)

  2. Problems in the development of autonomous mobile laser systems based on a cw chemical DF laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, B P; Bashkin, A S; Beznozdrev, V N; Parfen'ev, M V; Pirogov, N A; Semenov, S N

    2003-01-01

    The problems involved in designing autonomous mobile laser systems based on high-power cw chemical DF lasers, whose mass and size parameters would make it possible to install them on various vehicles, are discussed. The need for mobility of such lasers necessitates special attention to be paid to the quest for ways and means of reducing the mass and size of the main laser systems. The optimisation of the parameters of such lasers is studied for various methods of scaling their systems. A complex approach to analysis of the optical scheme of the laser system is developed. (special issue devoted to the 80th anniversary of academician n g basov's birth)

  3. Development of AVLIS dye laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Akira; Nakayama, Tsuyoshi; Kato, Masaaki; Arisawa, Takashi

    1995-01-01

    CVL pumped single mode dye laser was performed. It was found that pressure tuning has some excellent feature in comparison to mechanical tuning in dye laser frequency control. For evaluation of dye laser amplifier, two-dimensional rate equation was proposed. Calculated data by this equation agreed with experimental data in large diameter input dye laser beam condition. (author)

  4. Development of high power pulsed CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Sadao; Matoba, Masafumi; Fujita, Hisanori; Daido, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Mitsuo

    1982-01-01

    The inertial nuclear fusion research using pellet implosion has rapidly progressed accompanying laser technique improvement and output increase. As the high output lasers for this purpose, Nd glass lasers or CO 2 lasers are used. The CO 2 lasers possess the characteristics required as reactor lasers, i.e., high efficiency, high frequency repetition, possibility of scale-up and economy. So, the technical development of high power CO 2 lasers assuming also as reactor drivers has been performed at a quick pace together with the research on the improvement of efficiency of pellet implosion by 10 μm laser beam. The Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, stated to build a laser system LEKKO No. 8 of 8 beams and 10 kJ based on the experiences in laser systems LEKKO No. 1 and LEKKO No. 2, and the system LEKKO No. 8 was completed in March, 1981. The operation tests for one year since then has indicated as the laser characteristics that the system performance was as designed initially. This paper reviews the structure, problems and present status of the large scale CO 2 lasers. In other words, the construction of laser system, CO 2 laser proper, oscillator, booster amplifier, prevention of parasitic oscillation, non-linear pulse propagation and fairing of output pulse form, system control and beam alignment, and high power problems are described. The results obtained are to be reported in subsequent issues. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  5. Clock Technology Development for the Laser Cooling and Atomic Physics (LCAP) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klipstein, W. M.; Thompson, R. J.; Seidel, D. J.; Kohel, J.; Maleki, L.

    1998-01-01

    The Time and Frequency Sciences and Technology Group at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has developed a laser cooling capability for flight and has been selected by NASA to support the Laser-Cooling and Atomic Physics (LCAP) program. Current work in the group includes design and development for tee two laser-cooled atomic clock experiments which have been selected for flight on the International Space Station.

  6. Development of terahertz laser diagnostics for electron density measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahata, K; Akiyama, T; Tanaka, K; Nakayama, K; Okajima, S

    2008-10-01

    A two color laser interferometer using terahertz laser sources is under development for high performance operation on the large helical device and for future burning plasma experiments such as ITER. Through investigation of terahertz laser sources, we have achieved high power simultaneous oscillations at 57.2 and 47.6 microm of a CH(3)OD laser pumped by a cw 9R(8) CO(2) laser line. The laser wavelength around 50 microm is the optimum value for future fusion devices from the consideration of the beam refraction effect and signal-to-noise ratio for an expected phase shift due to plasma. In this article, recent progress of the terahertz laser diagnostics, especially in mechanical vibration compensation by using a two color laser operation and terahertz laser beam transmission through a dielectric waveguide, will be presented.

  7. High power laser research and development at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soures, J.M.; McCrory, R.L.; Cerqua, K.A.

    1986-01-01

    As part of its research mission - to investigate the interaction of intense radiation with matter - the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) of the University of Rochester is developing a number of high-peak power and high-average-power laser systems. In this paper we highlight some of the LLE work on solid-state laser research, development and applications. Specifically, we discuss the performance and operating characteristics of Omega, a twenty-four beam, 4000 Joule, Nd:glass laser system which is frequently tripled using the polarization mismatch scheme. We also discuss progress in efforts to develop high-average-power solid-state laser systems with active-mirror and slab geometries and to implement liquid-crystal devices in high-power Nd:glass lasers. Finally we present results from a program to develop a compact, ultrahigh-peak-power solid-state laser using the concept of frequency chirped pulse amplification

  8. [The informed consent in international clinical trials including developing countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro Surís, Alexander; Monreal Agüero, Magda Elaine

    2008-01-01

    The informed consent procedure has been one of the most important controversies of ethical debates about clinical trials in developing countries. In this essay we present our recommendations about important aspects to consider in the informed consent procedure for clinical trials in developing countries. We performed a full publications review identified by MEDLINE using these terms combinations: informed consent, developing countries, less developed countries and clinical trials. To protect volunteers in less developed countries should be valuated the importance of the community in the informed consent proceeding. The signing and dating of the informed consent form is not always the best procedure to document the informed consent. The informed consent form should be written by local translators. Alternative medias of communications could be needed for communicatios of the information to volunteers. Comparing with developed countries the informed consent proceeding in clinical trials in developing countries frequently require additional efforts. The developing of pragmatic researches is needed to implement informed consent proceedings assuring subjects voluntarily in each developing country. The main aspects to define in each clinical trial for each country are the influence of the community, the effective communication of the information, the documentation of the informed consent and local authority's control.

  9. High power, short pulses ultraviolet laser for the development of a new x-ray laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meixler, L.; Nam, C.H.; Robinson, J.; Tighe, W.; Krushelnick, K.; Suckewer, S.; Goldhar, J.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.

    1989-04-01

    A high power, short pulse ultraviolet laser system (Powerful Picosecond-Laser) has been developed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) as part of experiments designed to generate shorter wavelength x-ray lasers. With the addition of pulse compression and a final KrF amplifier the laser output is expected to have reached 1/3-1/2 TW (10 12 watts) levels. The laser system, particularly the final amplifier, is described along with some initial soft x-ray spectra from laser-target experiments. The front end of the PP-Laser provides an output of 20--30 GW (10 9 watts) and can be focussed to intensities of /approximately/10 16 W/cm 2 . Experiments using this output to examine the effects of a prepulse on laser-target interaction are described. 19 refs., 14 figs

  10. Fiber Laser Component Testing for Space Qualification Protocol Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falvey, S.; Buelow, M.; Nelson, B.; Starcher, Y.; Thienel, L.; Rhodes, C.; Tull, Jackson; Drape, T.; Westfall, C.

    A test protocol for the space qualifying of Ytterbium-doped diode-pumped fiber laser (DPFL) components was developed under the Bright Light effort, sponsored by AFRL/VSE. A literature search was performed and summarized in an AMOS 2005 conference paper that formed the building blocks for the development of the test protocol. The test protocol was developed from the experience of the Bright Light team, the information in the literature search, and the results of a study of the Telcordia standards. Based on this protocol developed, test procedures and acceptance criteria for a series of vibration, thermal/vacuum, and radiation exposure tests were developed for selected fiber laser components. Northrop Grumman led the effort in vibration and thermal testing of these components at the Aerospace Engineering Facility on Kirtland Air Force Base, NM. The results of the tests conducted have been evaluated. This paper discusses the vibration and thermal testing that was executed to validate the test protocol. The lessons learned will aid in future assessments and definition of space qualification protocols. Components representative of major items within a Ytterbium-doped diode-pumped fiber laser were selected for testing; including fibers, isolators, combiners, fiber Bragg gratings, and laser diodes. Selection of the components was based on guidelines to test multiple models of typical fiber laser components. A goal of the effort was to test two models (i.e. different manufacturers) of each type of article selected, representing different technologies for the same type of device. The test articles did not include subsystems or systems. These components and parts may not be available commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS), and, in fact, many are custom articles, or newly developed by the manufacturer. The primary goal for this effort is a completed taxonomy that lists all relevant laser components, modules, subsystems, and interfaces, and cites the documentation for space

  11. Development and application of a far infrared laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Kazuya; Okajima, Shigeki; Kawahata, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    There has been a 40 years history on the application of an infrared laser to interference, polarization and scattering light sources in fusion plasma diagnostics. It is one of important light sources in ITER plasma diagnostics too. In the present review, authors recall the history of the infrared laser development especially of cw infrared lasers. In addition, the state-of-the-art technology for infrared lasers, infrared components and its applications to plasma diagnostics are discussed. (J.P.N.)

  12. Recent development of disk lasers at TRUMPF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schad, Sven-Silvius; Gottwald, Tina; Kuhn, Vincent; Ackermann, Matthias; Bauer, Dominik; Scharun, Michael; Killi, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    The disk laser is one of the most important laser concepts for today's industrial laser market. Offering high brilliance at low cost, high optical efficiency and great application flexibility the disk laser paved the way for many industrial laser applications. Over the past years power and brightness increased and the disk laser turned out to be a very versatile laser source, not only for welding but also for cutting. Both, the quality and speed of cutting are superior to CO2-based lasers for a vast majority of metals, and, most important, in a broad thickness range. In addition, due to the insensitivity against back reflections the disk laser is well suited for cutting highly reflective metal such as brass or copper. These advantages facilitate versatile cutting machines and explain the high and growing demand for disk lasers for applications besides welding applications that can be observed today. From a today's perspective the disk principle has not reached any fundamental limits regarding output power per disk or beam quality, and offers numerous advantages over other high power resonator concepts, especially over fiber lasers or direct diode lasers. This paper will give insight in the latest progress in kilowatt class cw disk laser technology at TRUMPF and will discuss recent power scaling results as well.

  13. ANSI laser standards, education (Z136.5), research, development or testing (Z136.8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barat, K.

    2014-07-01

    Several factors affect laser use in educational settings. First is the lower cost of lasers, in particular, diode have made lasers more accessible for laser classroom use (think of the hand held laser in red, green and blue). Second in the research and development, no technology has made the impact of the laser. Third the importance of introducing students to this technology. To the point no discipline is laser free. To address laser safety in the academic setting two American National Standard Institute Standards have been developed. The most recent Z136.8 Safe Use of Lasers in Research, Development and Testing Setting, published in 2012, Z136.5 Laser Safety in Education -2009 version was published. Z136.5 provides guidance for educators starting in public school and ranging into the college level. This includes classroom demonstrations and science fair demonstrations. Z136.8 is geared for the Graduate and Commercial research level. Z136.5 relies on the use of pre-approved safety lessons plans and appreciation of student maturity or lack of, Z136.8 relies heavily on cooperation between the user and the laser safety officer. The presentation will cover the contents of each and the different approaches taken.

  14. Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Milonni, Peter W

    1988-01-01

    A comprehensive introduction to the operating principles and applications of lasers. Explains basic principles, including the necessary elements of classical and quantum physics. Provides concise discussions of various laser types including gas, solid state, semiconductor, and free electron lasers, as well as of laser resonators, diffraction, optical coherence, and many applications including holography, phase conjugation, wave mixing, and nonlinear optics. Incorporates many intuitive explanations and practical examples. Discussions are self-contained in a consistent notation and in a style that should appeal to physicists, chemists, optical scientists and engineers.

  15. Laser development: Taking physics to industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Esser, D

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available & Specifications ? Few examples ? Pumping another laser ? Directed infrared countermeasures ? 3 D printing ? Gated imaging ? Concept Laser Products ? Advanced Photonics Manufacturing Facility ? CSIR 2012 Slide 2 Target Divergence... Laser application: Additive Manufacturing (3 D printing) Laser Powder layer Argon System 1 m Mode: Continuous & modulation Power : 5 000 W Beam Quality: extremely good Wavelength: 1 ?m E-to-O Efficiency: 28% 3-phase power & water cooling...

  16. Developing HYDMN code to include the transient of MNSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Barhoum, M.

    2000-11-01

    A description of the programs added to HYDMN code (a code for thermal-hydraulic steady state of MNSR) to include the transient of the same MNSR is presented. The code asks the initial conditions for the power (in k W) and the cold initial core inlet temperature (in degrees centigrade). A time-dependent study of the coolant inlet and outlet temperature, its speed, pool and tank temperatures is done for MNSR in general and for the Syrian MNSR in particular. The study solves the differential equations taken from reference (1) by using some numerical methods found in reference (3). The code becomes this way independent of any external information source. (Author)

  17. Femtosecond-laser induced dynamics of CO on Ru(0001): Deep insights from a hot-electron friction model including surface motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Robert; Floß, Gereon; Saalfrank, Peter; Füchsel, Gernot; Lončarić, Ivor; Juaristi, J. I.

    2016-10-01

    A Langevin model accounting for all six molecular degrees of freedom is applied to femtosecond-laser induced, hot-electron driven dynamics of Ru(0001)(2 ×2 ):CO. In our molecular dynamics with electronic friction approach, a recently developed potential energy surface based on gradient-corrected density functional theory accounting for van der Waals interactions is adopted. Electronic friction due to the coupling of molecular degrees of freedom to electron-hole pairs in the metal are included via a local density friction approximation, and surface phonons by a generalized Langevin oscillator model. The action of ultrashort laser pulses enters through a substrate-mediated, hot-electron mechanism via a time-dependent electronic temperature (derived from a two-temperature model), causing random forces acting on the molecule. The model is applied to laser induced lateral diffusion of CO on the surface, "hot adsorbate" formation, and laser induced desorption. Reaction probabilities are strongly enhanced compared to purely thermal processes, both for diffusion and desorption. Reaction yields depend in a characteristic (nonlinear) fashion on the applied laser fluence, as well as branching ratios for various reaction channels. Computed two-pulse correlation traces for desorption and other indicators suggest that aside from electron-hole pairs, phonons play a non-negligible role for laser induced dynamics in this system, acting on a surprisingly short time scale. Our simulations on precomputed potentials allow for good statistics and the treatment of long-time dynamics (300 ps), giving insight into this system which hitherto has not been reached. We find generally good agreement with experimental data where available and make predictions in addition. A recently proposed laser induced population of physisorbed precursor states could not be observed with the present low-coverage model.

  18. Linear scleroderma en coup de sabre including abnormal dental development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørberg, M; Lauesen, S R; Daugaard-Jensen, J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Linear scleroderma en coup de sabre (SCS) is a rare skin condition, where dense collagen is deposited in a localised groove of the head and neck area resembling the stroke of a sabre. The SCS may involve the oral cavity, but the severity and relation to this skin abnormality is unknow...... with a left-sided skin defect (SCS) and a left-sided local malformation in her dentition. It is possible that there is a developmental connection between these two left-sided defects, both with an ectodermal origin.......-UP: The patient has been regularly controlled and treated since she was first diagnosed. A surgical and orthodontic treatment was performed to ensure optimal occlusion, space and alveolar bone development. The present age of the patient is 14 years and 10 months. CONCLUSION: This case demonstrated a patient...

  19. Development of high-power CO2 lasers and laser material processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Ashish K.; Choudhary, Praveen; Kumar, Manoj; Kaul, R.

    2000-02-01

    Scaling laws to determine the physical dimensions of the active medium and optical resonator parameters for designing convective cooled CO2 lasers have been established. High power CW CO2 lasers upto 5 kW output power and a high repetition rate TEA CO2 laser of 500 Hz and 500 W average power incorporated with a novel scheme for uniform UV pre- ionization have been developed for material processing applications. Technical viability of laser processing of several engineering components, for example laser surface hardening of fine teeth of files, laser welding of martensitic steel shroud and titanium alloy under-strap of turbine, laser cladding of Ni super-alloy with stellite for refurbishing turbine blades were established using these lasers. Laser alloying of pre-placed SiC coating on different types of aluminum alloy, commercially pure titanium and Ti-6Al-4V alloy, and laser curing of thermosetting powder coating have been also studied. Development of these lasers and results of some of the processing studies are briefly presented here.

  20. Development of YAG laser cutting system for decommissioning nuclear equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Takeshi; Nitta, Kazuhiko; Hosoda, Hiroshi.

    1995-01-01

    Technology of remote controlled cutting and reduction of generative secondary products have been required to the cutting system for decommissioning nuclear equipments. At a point of view that laser cutting technology by use of a Nd:YAG laser is effective, we have developed the laser cutting machine and carried out cutting tests for several stainless steel plates. As a result, the stainless steel plate with a thickness of 22mm could be cut by using an optical fiber which can flexibly propagate laser power, and possibility of application of this laser cutting system to decommissioning nuclear equipments was verified. (author)

  1. Development of YAG laser cutting system for decommissioning nuclear equipments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasai, Takeshi [Fuji Electric Co. Research and Development Ltd., Yokosuka, Kanagawa (Japan); Nitta, Kazuhiko; Hosoda, Hiroshi

    1995-07-01

    Technology of remote controlled cutting and reduction of generative secondary products have been required to the cutting system for decommissioning nuclear equipments. At a point of view that laser cutting technology by use of a Nd:YAG laser is effective, we have developed the laser cutting machine and carried out cutting tests for several stainless steel plates. As a result, the stainless steel plate with a thickness of 22mm could be cut by using an optical fiber which can flexibly propagate laser power, and possibility of application of this laser cutting system to decommissioning nuclear equipments was verified. (author).

  2. Development of Laser Application Technology for Stable Isotope Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Do Young; Ko, Kwang Hoon; Kwon, Duck Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2007-04-15

    Tl-203 is used as a source material to produce Tl-201 radioisotope which is produced in a cyclotron by irradiating the enriched Tl-203 target. Tl-201 is a radiopharmaceutical for SPECT (single photon emission computerized tomography) to diagnose heart diseases and tumors. This Project aim to develop laser application technology to product stable isotopes such as Tl-203, Yb-168, and Yb-176. For this, photoion extraction device, atomic beam generator, dye lasers, and high power IR lasers are developed.

  3. Development of Laser Application Technology for Stable Isotope Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Do Young; Ko, Kwang Hoon; Kwon, Duck Hee

    2007-04-01

    Tl-203 is used as a source material to produce Tl-201 radioisotope which is produced in a cyclotron by irradiating the enriched Tl-203 target. Tl-201 is a radiopharmaceutical for SPECT (single photon emission computerized tomography) to diagnose heart diseases and tumors. This Project aim to develop laser application technology to product stable isotopes such as Tl-203, Yb-168, and Yb-176. For this, photoion extraction device, atomic beam generator, dye lasers, and high power IR lasers are developed

  4. Development of optical surface contouring technique using laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, Sung Hoon; Kim, Min Suk; Park, Seung Kyu

    1998-12-01

    Laser contouring system capable of measuring relief profiles using a line-shaped laser beam with anisotropic magnification optics composed with two cylindrical lenses was developed. The anisotropic magnification optical system allows it to obtain higher resolution in the relief profile measurements. The image processing and 3-D display software are developed to reconstruct 3-D shape. The power supply of laser diode with adaptive current control circuit is designed. (author). 4 refs., 5 tabs., 33 figs.

  5. Development and application of an automatic system for measuring the laser camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Shuli; Peng Mingchen; Li Kuncheng

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To provide an automatic system for measuring imaging quality of laser camera, and to make an automatic measurement and analysis system. Methods: On the special imaging workstation (SGI 540), the procedure was written by using Matlab language. An automatic measurement and analysis system of imaging quality for laser camera was developed and made according to the imaging quality measurement standard of laser camera of International Engineer Commission (IEC). The measurement system used the theories of digital signal processing, and was based on the characteristics of digital images, as well as put the automatic measurement and analysis of laser camera into practice by the affiliated sample pictures of the laser camera. Results: All the parameters of imaging quality of laser camera, including H-D and MTF curve, low and middle and high resolution of optical density, all kinds of geometry distort, maximum and minimum density, as well as the dynamic range of gray scale, could be measured by this system. The system was applied for measuring the laser cameras in 20 hospitals in Beijing. The measuring results showed that the system could provide objective and quantitative data, and could accurately evaluate the imaging quality of laser camera, as well as correct the results made by manual measurement based on the affiliated sample pictures of the laser camera. Conclusion: The automatic measuring system of laser camera is an effective and objective tool for testing the quality of the laser camera, and the system makes a foundation for the future research

  6. The development of lasers at the CEA Military Applications Direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutant, J.

    1997-01-01

    A historical review of the development of lasers and their application at the CEA to the study of plasma inertial confinement in the framework of military applications, is presented. The first solid laser was a ruby laser, and has been used for studying laser-matter interaction, which led to a better knowledge of fusion plasmas. Advancements were achieved with a new lasing medium (neodymium doped glass), the control of pulse duration and shape, parallel setting of several laser chains (OCTAL), the use of glass disks instead of bars (PHEBUS laser)... In the late 70's, power lasers reached the power needed to experiment D-T implosions and give the way to future simulations of the plasma conditions encountered in thermonuclear explosions

  7. Developments of integrated laser crystals by a direct bonding method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Akira; Fukuyama, Hiroyasu; Katsumata, Masaki; Tanaka, Mitsuhiro; Okada, Yukikatu

    2003-01-01

    Laser crystal integration using a neodymium-doped yttrium vanadate (or orthovanadate) laser crystal, and non-doped yttrium vanadate crystals that function as cold fingers has been demonstrated. A newly developed dry etching process was adopted in the preparation for contact of mechanically polished surfaces. In the heat treatment process, temperature optimization was essential to get rid of precipitation of vanadic acid caused by the thermo-chemical reaction in a vacuum furnace. The bonded crystal was studied via optical characteristics, magnified inspections, laser output performances pumped by a CW laser diode. From these experiments, it was clear that the integrated Nd:YVO 4 laser crystal, securing the well-improved thermal conductivity, can increase laser output power nearly twice that of the conventional single crystal which was cracked in high power laser pumping of 10 W due to its intrinsic poor thermal conductivity. (author)

  8. Numerical investigation of the pulsed NF3 + H2 chemical laser using a model which includes rotational relaxation and semi-classical laser equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creighton, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    Waveforms and population distributions have been calculated by a numerical model and compared with experiment for an electric-discharge-initiated, pulsed NF 3 + H 2 chemical laser. The model treats each vibrational-rotational state separately, allowing rotational relaxation between adjacent states as well as vibrational relaxation and lasing according to P-branch selection rules. Calculated waveforms agree with experiment and show several features not seen when rotational equilibrium is assumed: simultaneous lasing on many transitions, cascade behavior, spikes due to laser relaxation oscillations, non-Boltzmann rotational distributions, and ''hole burning'' in the population distributions. The calculations give insight into the physical phenomena governing the shape and duration of the waveforms. The effect of varying certain parameters, relaxation rates, temperature, pressure, and diluents, is studied. Best fit to experimental waveforms is obtained when the rotational relaxation rate and collisional line broadening rate are approximately equal at about 10 times the hard sphere collision rate. The IXION computer code, developed for these calculations, is described in detail. In addition, an analytic model is presented which accounts for major features of the total (all transitions) output waveform of the laser assuming rotational equilibrium, a steady state laser model, and constant temperature. A second computer code, MINOTAR, was developed as a general purpose chemical kinetics code. It verifies the analytic model and extends the results to adiabatic reactions where the temperature varies, and can yield waveforms using the assumptions of rotational equilibrium and a steady state laser. The MINOTAR code, being general, can also be used for chemical kinetics problems such as air pollution and combustion

  9. Development and optimization of a diode laser for photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyun Soo

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrated the development of a laser system for cancer treatment with photodynamic therapy (PDT) based on a 635 nm laser diode. In order to optimize efficacy in PDT, the ideal laser system should deliver a homogeneous nondivergent light energy with a variable spot size and specific wavelength at a stable output power. We developed a digital laser beam controller using the constant current method to protect the laser diode resonator from the current spikes and other fluctuations, and electrical faults. To improve the PDT effects, the laser system should deliver stable laser energy in continuous wave (CW), burst mode and super burst mode, with variable irradiation times depending on the tumor type and condition. The experimental results showed the diode laser system described herein was eminently suitable for PDT. The laser beam was homogeneous without diverging and the output power increased stably and in a linear manner from 10 mW to 1500 mW according to the increasing input current. Variation between the set and delivered output was less than 7%. The diode laser system developed by the author for use in PDT was compact, user-friendly, and delivered a stable and easily adjustable output power at a specific wavelength and user-set emission modes.

  10. Development of high repetition rate ultra-short pulse solid state lasers pumped by laser diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Ken-ichi; Lu, Jianren; Takaichi, Kazunori; Yagi, Hideki; Yanagitani, Takakimi; Kaminskii, Alexander; Kawanaka, Junji

    2004-01-01

    A novel technique for ceramic lasers has been developed recently. Self-energy-driven sintering of nano-and micro particles created the fully transparent Nd:YAG ceramics. The ceramic YAG demonstrated high efficiency operation (optical-to-optical conversion of 60% in end pumping) and solid-phase crystals growth and the possible scaling were investigated principally. Typical performance of ceramic YAG laser has been reviewed. The present status and future prospect of the ceramic lasers technologies were discussed. (author)

  11. Development of diode-pumped medical solid-state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Min Suk

    2000-09-01

    Two thirds of human body consists of water and the absorption of laser by water is an important factor in medical laser treatment. Er medical lasers have been used in the dermatology, ophthalmology and dental treatments due to its highest absorption by water. However, 2.9 um Er laser can not be transmitted through an optical fiber. On the other hand, Tm laser can be transmitted through an fiber and also has very high absorption by water. Therefore, Tm lasers are used in ophthalmology and heart treatment wherein the fiber delivery is very important for the treatment. Until now, mainly lamp-pumped solid-state lasers have been used in medical treatments, but the lamp-pumped solid-state lasers are being replaced with the diode-pumped solid-state lasers because the diode-pumped solid-state lasers are more compact and much easier to maintain. Following this trend, end-pumped Er and side-pumped Tm lasers have been developed and the output power of 1 W was obtained for Er and Tm respectively

  12. Development of diode-pumped medical solid-state lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Min Suk

    2000-09-01

    Two thirds of human body consists of water and the absorption of laser by water is an important factor in medical laser treatment. Er medical lasers have been used in the dermatology, ophthalmology and dental treatments due to its highest absorption by water. However, 2.9 um Er laser can not be transmitted through an optical fiber. On the other hand, Tm laser can be transmitted through an fiber and also has very high absorption by water. Therefore, Tm lasers are used in ophthalmology and heart treatment wherein the fiber delivery is very important for the treatment. Until now, mainly lamp-pumped solid-state lasers have been used in medical treatments, but the lamp-pumped solid-state lasers are being replaced with the diode-pumped solid-state lasers because the diode-pumped solid-state lasers are more compact and much easier to maintain. Following this trend, end-pumped Er and side-pumped Tm lasers have been developed and the output power of 1 W was obtained for Er and Tm respectively.

  13. Advanced laser fusion target fabrication research and development proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stupin, D.M.; Fries, R.J.

    1979-05-01

    A research and development program is described that will enable the fabrication of 10 6 targets/day for a laser fusion prototype power reactor in 2007. We give personnel and cost estimates for a generalized laser fusion target that requires the development of several new technologies. The total cost of the program between 1979 and 2007 is $362 million in today's dollars

  14. Status of the USA program on the development of submillimeter lasers to measure ion temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, C.F.; Hutchinson, D.P.; Vander Sluis, K.; Staats, P.A.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of ion laser scattering is outlined briefly and the parameters of the required submillimeter laser system are described. The current state of the development of lasers, laser and viewing dumps, and detectors is reviewed

  15. Laser-induced electron dynamics including photoionization: A heuristic model within time-dependent configuration interaction theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinkusch, Stefan; Saalfrank, Peter; Klamroth, Tillmann

    2009-09-21

    We report simulations of laser-pulse driven many-electron dynamics by means of a simple, heuristic extension of the time-dependent configuration interaction singles (TD-CIS) approach. The extension allows for the treatment of ionizing states as nonstationary states with a finite, energy-dependent lifetime to account for above-threshold ionization losses in laser-driven many-electron dynamics. The extended TD-CIS method is applied to the following specific examples: (i) state-to-state transitions in the LiCN molecule which correspond to intramolecular charge transfer, (ii) creation of electronic wave packets in LiCN including wave packet analysis by pump-probe spectroscopy, and, finally, (iii) the effect of ionization on the dynamic polarizability of H(2) when calculated nonperturbatively by TD-CIS.

  16. Development of the power control system for semiconductor lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwang Suk; Kim, Cheol Jung

    1997-12-01

    For the first year plan of this program, we developed the power control system for semiconductor lasers. We applied the high-current switching mode techniques to fabricating a power control system. Then, we investigated the direct side pumping techniques with GaA1As diode laser bars to laser crystal without pumping optics. We obtained 0.5W average output power from this DPSSL. (author). 54 refs., 3 tabs., 18 figs

  17. The Application of Cryogenic Laser Physics to the Development of High Average Power Ultra-Short Pulse Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Brown

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafast laser physics continues to advance at a rapid pace, driven primarily by the development of more powerful and sophisticated diode-pumping sources, the development of new laser materials, and new laser and amplification approaches such as optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification. The rapid development of high average power cryogenic laser sources seems likely to play a crucial role in realizing the long-sought goal of powerful ultrafast sources that offer concomitant high peak and average powers. In this paper, we review the optical, thermal, thermo-optic and laser parameters important to cryogenic laser technology, recently achieved laser and laser materials progress, the progression of cryogenic laser technology, discuss the importance of cryogenic laser technology in ultrafast laser science, and what advances are likely to be achieved in the near-future.

  18. Development of technique for laser welding of biological tissues using laser welding device and nanocomposite solder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimenko, A; Ichcitidze, L; Podgaetsky, V; Ryabkin, D; Pyankov, E; Saveliev, M; Selishchev, S

    2015-08-01

    The laser device for welding of biological tissues has been developed involving quality control and temperature stabilization of weld seam. Laser nanocomposite solder applied onto a wound to be weld has been used. Physicochemical properties of the nanocomposite solder have been elucidated. The nature of the tissue-organizing nanoscaffold has been analyzed at the site of biotissue welding.

  19. KrF laser development for fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolford, Matthew F.; Sethian, John D.; Myers, Matthew C.; Giuliani, John L.; Obenschain, Stephen P.; Hegeler, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The United States Naval Research Laboratory is developing an electron beam pumped krypton fluoride laser technology for a direct drive inertial fusion energy power plant. The repetitively pulsed krypton fluoride laser technology being developed meets the fusion energy requirements for laser beam quality, wavelength, and repetition rate. The krypton fluoride laser technology is projected, based on experiments, to meet the requirements for wall plug efficiency and durability. The projected wall plug efficiency based on experiments is greater than 7 percent. The Electra laser using laser triggered gas switches has conducted continuous operation for 90,000 shots at 2.5 Hertz operation (ten hours). The Electra laser has achieved greater than 700 Joules per pulse at 1 and 2.5 Hertz repetition rate. The comparison of krypton fluoride laser performance with krypton fluoride kinetics code shows good agreement for pulse shape and laser yield. Development and operation of a durable pulse power system with solid state switches has achieved a continuous run of 11 million pulses into a resistive load at 10 Hz. (author)

  20. Development of a handy-type laser surgical unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yusuke; Wakamatsu, Koh; Goto, Shigeru

    2005-07-01

    We proposed a concept of a handy-type laser surgical unit for use in outpatient, in ward and in open-air field. To investigate the possibility of the concept, a handy-type semiconductor laser surgical unit was developed experimentally using 2-watts power laser diode with no built-in electrical cooling unit (Peltier chip) and a small rechargeable battery. The drive circuit was constructed with only current limit and ACC circuits. The laser diode was cooled with heat sink and simple fan. Laser irradiation was set to stop at 30 degree Celsius by monitoring the temperature of laser diode with thermistor temperature sensor. With this system, 1.18 watts of laser power at the end of optical fiber with both 600 and 900mm core diameter, and about 30 minutes of continuous irradiating time with Ni-Cd battery (4.8V 1,500mA/h) could be obtained with no over heating in laser diode. The result showed that the high power semiconductor laser could be driven with small battery when specially designed. In an animal experiment, small bleeding could be managed with contact irradiation method. This kind of simple laser surgical unit is considered to be useful for the management of small bleedings in clinical.

  1. Development of portable laser peening systems for nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chida, Itaru; Uehara, Takuya; Yoda, Masaki; Miyasaka, Hiroyuki; Kato, Hiromi

    2009-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is the major factor to reduce the reliability of aged reactor components. Toshiba has developed various laser-based maintenance and repair technologies and applied them to existing nuclear power plants. Laser-based technology is considered to be the best tool for remote processing in nuclear power plants, and particularly so for the maintenance and repair of reactor core components. Accessibility could be drastically improved by a simple handling system owing to the absence of reactive force against laser irradiation and the flexible optical fiber. For the preventive maintenance, laser peening technology was developed and applied to reactor components in operating BWRs and PWRs. Laser peening is a novel process to improve residual stress from tensile to compressive on material surface layer by irradiating focused high-power laser pulses in water without any surface preparations. Laser peening systems, which deliver laser pulses with mirrors or through an optical fiber, were developed and have been applied to preventive maintenance against SCC in nuclear power reactors since 1999. Each system was composed of laser oscillators, a beam delivery system, a laser irradiation head, remote handling equipment and a monitor/control system. Beam delivery with mirrors was accomplished through alignment/tracking functions with sufficient accuracy. Reliable fiber-delivery was attained by the development of a novel input coupling optics and an irradiation head with auto-focusing. Recently, we have developed portable laser peening (PLP) system which could employ both mirror- and fiber- delivery technologies. Size and weight of the PLP system for BWR bottom was almost 1/25 compared to the previous system. PLP system would be the applicable to both BWRs and PWRs as one of the maintenance technologies. (author)

  2. Development of cryo-cell for infrared Raman laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Tetsuro; Ohmori, Takao; Saito, Hideaki

    1984-01-01

    Laser isotope separation (LIS) for uranium enrichment is remarkable for its higher efficiency and cost effectiveness over the gaseous diffusion process. A prototype Raman Laser apparatus for uranium enrichment was developed and manufactured by IHI for the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research. This apparatus is capable of emitting tunable infrared Laser beam of a wave length from 13 μm to 17 μm from its multiple pass resonator by injecting a highly coherent CO 2 Laser beam into the para-hydrogen gas vessel (kept at 100 K) to induce Raman scattering. This paper describes the Laser oscillation mechanism and the structure of the multiple pass cell; it also discusses the technical aspects that are essential for a Raman Laser apparatus. Moreover, the cooling characteristics of the present apparatus are reported by analyzing the results of tests conducted in actual service thermal conditions. (author)

  3. Development and application of the variable focus laser leveling gage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Kun; Ma Jinglong

    2005-01-01

    The variable focus laser leveling gage was developed. The performance and structure were introduced. The several alignments and tests in KrF laser angle multi-path optical system were accomplished with them. Its application in other optical equipment was discussed too. (author)

  4. Development of copper bromide laser master oscillator power

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-09

    Feb 9, 2014 ... Development of master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) system of copper bromide laser (CBL) operating at 110 W average power is reported. The spectral distribution of power at green (510.6 nm) and yellow (578.2 nm) components in the output of a copper bromide laser is studied as a function of ...

  5. NASA Laser Light Scattering Advanced Technology Development Workshop, 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, William V. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The major objective of the workshop was to explore the capabilities of existing and prospective laser light scattering hardware and to assess user requirements and needs for a laser light scattering instrument in a reduced gravity environment. The workshop addressed experimental needs and stressed hardware development.

  6. The development of novel Ytterbium fiber lasers and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Bai

    The aim of my Ph.D. research is to push the fundamental limits holding back the development of novel Yb fiber lasers with high pulse energy and short pulse duration. The purpose of developing these lasers is to use them for important applications such as multiphoton microscopy and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. My first project was to develop a short-pulse high-energy ultrafast fiber laser for multiphoton microscopy. To achieve high multiphoton efficiency and depth resolved tissue imaging, ultrashort pulse duration and high pulse energy are required. In order to achieve this, an all-normal dispersion cavity design was adopted. Output performances of the built lasers were investigated by varying several cavity parameters, such as pump laser power, fiber length and intra-cavity spectral filter bandwidth. It was found that the length of the fiber preceding the gain fiber is critical to the laser performance. Generally, the shorter the fiber is, the broader the output spectrum is. The more interesting parameter is the intra-cavity spectral filter bandwidth. Counter intuitively, laser cavities using narrower bandwidth spectral filters generated much broader spectra. It was also found that fiber lasers with very narrow spectral filters produced laser pulses with parabolic profile, which are referred to as self-similar pulses or similaritons. This type of pulse can avoid wave-breaking and is an optimal approach to generate pulses with high pulse energy and ultrashort pulse duration. With a 3nm intra-cavity spectral filter, output pulses with about 20 nJ pulse energy were produced and compressed to about 41 fs full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) pulse duration. Due to the loss in the compression device, the peak power of the compressed pulses is about 250 kW. It was the highest peak power generated from a fiber oscillator when this work was published. This laser was used for multiphoton microscopy on living tissues like Drosophila larva and fruit fly wings. Several

  7. Development of XUV-interferometry (155 angstrom) using a soft x-ray laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva, L.B.; Barbee, T.W.; Cauble, R.

    1995-01-01

    Over the past several years the authors have developed a variety of techniques for probing plasmas with x-ray lasers. These have included direct high resolution plasma imaging to quantify laser produced plasma uniformities and moire deflectometry to measure electron density profiles in one-dimension. Although these techniques have been valuable, a need existed for direct two dimensional measurements of electron densities in large high density plasmas. For this reason the authors have worked on developing a xuv interferometer compatible with the harsh environment of laser produced plasmas. This paper describes the design and presents some results showing excellent fringe visibility using the neon-like yttrium x-ray laser operating at 155 angstrom. The coherence properties of this x-ray laser source were measured using interferometry and are also discussed

  8. Development of high-power dye laser chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konagai, Chikara; Kimura, Hironobu; Fukasawa, Teruichiro; Seki, Eiji; Abe, Motohisa; Mori, Hideo

    2000-01-01

    Copper vapor laser (CVL) pumped dye laser (DL) system, both in a master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) configuration, has been developed for Atomic Vapor Isotope Separation program in Japan. Dye laser output power of about 500 W has been proved in long-term operations over 200 hours. High power fiber optic delivery system is utilized in order to efficiently transport kilowatt level CVL beams to the DL MOPA. Single model CVL pumped DL oscillator has been developed and worked for 200 hours within +/- 0.1 pm wavelength stability. Phase modulator for spreading spectrum to the linewidth of hyperfine structure has been developed and demonstrated.

  9. Development of a solid state laser of Nd:YLF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral Neto, R. do.

    1984-01-01

    The CW laser action was obtained at room temperature of a Nd:YLF crystal in an astigmatically compensated cavity, pumped by an argon laser. This laser was completely projected, constructed and characterized in our laboratories, thus having a high degree of nationalization. It initiates a broader project on lasers development that will have several applications like nuclear fusion, industry, medicine, telemetry, etc.... Throught the study of the optical properties of the Nd:YLF crystal, laser operation was predicted using a small volume gain medium on the mentioned cavity, pumped by an Ar 514,5 nm laser line. To obtain the laser action at polarizations σ (1,053 μm) and π (1,047 μm) an active medium was prepared which was a cristalline plate with a convenient crystalographic orientation. The laser characterization is in reasonable agreement with the initial predictions. For a 3.5% output mirror transmission, the oscillation threshold is about 0.15 W incident on the crystal, depending upon the sample used. For 1 W of incident pump light, the output power is estimated to be 12 mW, which corresponds to almost 1.5% slope efficiency. The versatile arrangement is applicable to almost all optically pumped solid state laser materials. (Author) [pt

  10. Current developments with TRIUMF’s titanium-sapphire laser based resonance ionization laser ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassen, J., E-mail: LASSEN@triumf.ca; Li, R. [TRIUMF (Canada); Raeder, S. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany); Zhao, X.; Dekker, T. [TRIUMF (Canada); Heggen, H. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany); Kunz, P.; Levy, C. D. P.; Mostanmand, M.; Teigelhöfer, A.; Ames, F. [TRIUMF (Canada)

    2017-11-15

    Developments at TRIUMF’s isotope separator and accelerator (ISAC) resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) in the past years have concentrated on increased reliability for on-line beam delivery of radioactive isotopes to experiments, as well as increasing the number of elements available through resonance ionization and searching for ionization schemes with improved efficiency. The current status of these developments is given with a list of two step laser ionization schemes implemented recently.

  11. Developments in lead-salt diode lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partin, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    Lead-chalcogenide diode lasers are useful as mid-infrared sources (2-1/2 <λ<30 μm), but have generally operated CW below 100K. A new materials system, PbEuSeTe, has been used to fabricate diode lasers operating from 10K (at 6.5 μm wavelength) up to 174K CW (at 4.4 μm) and up to 280K pulsed (at 3.8 μm). These are large optical cavity single quantum well devices grown by molecular beam epitaxy. These are currently the highest diode laser operating temperatures ever achieved at these wavelengths to our knowledge. Single ended output powers as high as 1 mW single mode (5 mW multimode) have been attained from mesa stripe diodes. These characteristics make these devices attractive for long wavelength fiber optic sensor/communications systems. The performance limits of these devices are discussed

  12. Initial development of a laser altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilio, J. P.

    1985-09-01

    A design study was carried out of a small, expendable, self-contained laser altimeter for overwater operation at low altitude. A .904 micrometer Gallium Arsenide laser was used to build a prototype transmitter/ receiver at a cost of less than $600 and small enough to fit inside a 5 inch diameter cylinder, 5 inches long. Tests at a height of 120 feet above the surface of a lake resulted in a signal-to-noise ratio of 6, and validated the trade-off equation used in this study. A second test model, with design improvements incorporated, is predicted to yield a SNR of over 20 for an altitude of 150 meters.

  13. Progress in solid state dye laser development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermes, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    A triaxial flashlamp (15 cm) was used to optically pump laser rods prepared from an acrylate based copolymer (0.95 cm O.D. {times} 10.0 cm L.). The performance of 13 laser dyes incorporated into this polymeric solid host is reported. The best lasing performance was obtained with sulforhodamine-B, with a calculated slope efficiency of 0.52% and a maximum single pulse output energy of 580 mJ. A commercially available fluorescent polymeric material was also evaluated. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  14. New developments in laser-based photoemission spectroscopy and its scientific applications: a key issues review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xingjiang; He, Shaolong; Liu, Guodong; Zhao, Lin; Yu, Li; Zhang, Wentao

    2018-06-01

    The significant progress in angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) in last three decades has elevated it from a traditional band mapping tool to a precise probe of many-body interactions and dynamics of quasiparticles in complex quantum systems. The recent developments of deep ultraviolet (DUV, including ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet) laser-based ARPES have further pushed this technique to a new level. In this paper, we review some latest developments in DUV laser-based photoemission systems, including the super-high energy and momentum resolution ARPES, the spin-resolved ARPES, the time-of-flight ARPES, and the time-resolved ARPES. We also highlight some scientific applications in the study of electronic structure in unconventional superconductors and topological materials using these state-of-the-art DUV laser-based ARPES. Finally we provide our perspectives on the future directions in the development of laser-based photoemission systems.

  15. Advances in solid state laser technology for space and medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byvik, C. E.; Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1988-01-01

    Recent developments in laser technology and their potential for medical applications are discussed. Gas discharge lasers, dye lasers, excimer lasers, Nd:YAG lasers, HF and DF lasers, and other commonly used lasers are briefly addressed. Emerging laser technology is examined, including diode-pumped lasers and other solid state lasers.

  16. Development of copper bromide laser master oscillator power ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-09

    Feb 9, 2014 ... Development of master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) system of copper bromide laser (CBL) operating at ... The spectral distribution of power at .... It is evident from the voltage waveforms that the breakdown voltage drops.

  17. FIR laser-development program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielwicz, E.J.; Hodges, D.T.

    1980-01-01

    The important features for a source intended for use as a local oscillator in a low noise receiver have been tested on a developmental model of a cw FIR laser package. High output power (45 mW), good long term amplitude stability (+- 3%), high spectral purity and excellent frequency stability have all been demonstrated in the laboratory environment

  18. Laser Ion Source Development for ISOL Systems at RIA

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yuan; Beene, James R; Bilheux, Hassina Z; Brueck, Kim; Geppert, Christopher; Havener, Charles; Kessler, Thomas; Krause, Herbert F; Schultz, David R; Stracener, Dan; Vane, C R; Wendt, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    The isobaric purity of radioactive ion beams (RIBs) is of crucial importance to many experiments. Laser ion sources based on resonant photoionization have already proved to be of great value at existing ISOL RIB facilities. In these ion sources, ions of a selected isotope are produced by laser radiation via stepwise atomic resonant excitations followed by ionization in the last transition. Because each element has its own unique atomic energy levels, the resonant photoionization process can provide elemental selectivity of nearly 100%. We have initiated a research effort to develop a prototype laser ion source with the potential to achieve the high selectivity and high efficiency required for research with ISOL-generated RIBs at the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA). A pilot experiment has been conducted to demonstrate resonant photoionization of three atomic species using all-solid-state tunable Ti:Sapphire lasers. Three Ti:Sapphire lasers were provided by the University of Mainz and used in the experiment for ...

  19. Development of laser cutting method for stainless steel liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Satoshi; Takahata, Masato; Wignarajah, Sivakumaran; Kamata, Hirofumi

    2007-01-01

    The present work is an attempt to develop a laser cutting method for cutting and removing stainless steel liners from concrete walls and floors in nuclear facilities. The effect of basic laser cutting parameters such as energy, cutting speed, assist gas flow etc. were first studied through cutting experiments on mock-up concrete specimens lined with 3mm thick stainless steel sheets using a 1kW Nd:YAG laser. These initial studies were followed by further studies on the effect of unevenness of the liner surface and on a new method of confining contamination during the cutting process using a sliding evacuation hood attached to the laser cutting head. The results showed that laser cutting is superior to other conventional cutting methods from the point of view of safety from radioactivity and work efficiency when cutting contaminated stainless steel liners. (author)

  20. Advanced-laser development for isotope separation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    To address a number of the issues associated with lasers appropriate for both atomic vapor and molecular laser enrichment schemes, MSNW developed pertinent technologies on two test devices. These were a high pulse rate, 100 watt excimer laser named Mistral, and a 20 watt copper-vapor laser (CVL). Mistral is a closed-loop, 100 W, kilohertz rare-gas halide laser system. The first half of the Mistral effort dealt with the study of gas flow and acoustic effects in high PRF rare-gas halide lasers. In burst-mode operation, 1250 Hz operation was demonstrated, the effects on flow quality of acoustic dampers were measured, and gas clearing factors of 2.5 at 1 kHz were demonstrated. The second half of the Mistral program dealt with extending the run time capability of the laser. This effort culminated with the continuous operation of Mistral for almost eight hours at 500 ppS, producing over 50 mJ/pulse at 308 nm on a single fill of XeCl gas mixture. At the end of the program, the effectiveness of using magnetic pulse compression in the modulator circuit of a copper-vapor laser (CVL) was also verified. The magnetic switching/pulse compression scheme as used on both the CVL and Mistral greatly extends thyratron lifetime

  1. Development and characterization of femtosecond laser driven soft x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettaibi, I.

    2005-06-01

    Coherent soft x-ray sources have an important potential for scientific, medical and industrial applications. The development of high intensity laser systems allowed the realization of new coherent and fast soft x-ray sources like high order harmonic generation and soft x-ray lasers. These sources are compact, cheaper than traditional sources such as synchrotrons, and are thus interesting. This thesis presents the study of a new soft x-ray laser pumped by a femto-second laser beam working at 10 Hz. The circularly polarized ultra intense laser is longitudinally focused in a cell filled with xenon or krypton, to obtain the amplification of two lasing lines at 41.8 nm and 32.8 nm in Pd-like xenon and Ni-like krypton respectively. We carry out an experimental and numerical study of the source to understand the importance of different parameters such as the laser intensity and polarization, the gas pressure and the cell length. We have also spatially and temporally characterized the soft x-ray laser beam. To compensate the refraction of the driving laser we have investigated guiding techniques consisting in creating a plasma channel by electric discharge or using the multiple reflections of the driving laser on the internal walls of the dielectric tubes of sapphire or glass. A spectacular improvement of the source performances has been observed in both cases. Finally, we present a preliminary study on a different x-ray scheme: the inner shell photo pumping of neutral atoms. We have developed an optical system, which should create the appropriate conditions for the realisation of short wavelength x-ray amplifier. (author)

  2. Development of tunable flashlamp excited dye laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhanthumnavin, V.; Apikitmata, S.; Kochareon, P.

    1991-01-01

    A tunable flashlamp excited dye laser (FEDL) was successfully developed for the first time in Thailand by Thai scientists at KMIT Thonburi (Bangmod). The Rhodamine 6G dissolved in ethyl alcohol was utilized as a laser medium and circulated by a pump through a laser head. The dye cuvette had an inner diameter of 4.0 mm and was 90 mm long. The cavity mirrors M 1 , and M 2 were concave mirrors with reflectivities of 100% and 73% respectively. A power supply of 0-20 kV and current of 0-50 mA charged a capacitor of 0.3 μ f at 10-15 kV which was then discharged via a spark gap through the flashlamp. The output laser wavelengths was tunable from λ = 550-640 nm. It is the first FEDL system, locally developed, which has a tunable wavelength for the laser output. The laser pulse width is about 1.0 μs with energy of 20 mJ and peak power pf 20 KW. The repetition rate of the laser is 1/15 Hz. (author). 14 refs, 7 figs

  3. Clock Technology Development in the Laser Cooling and Atomic Physics (LCAP) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Dave; Thompson, R. J.; Klipstein, W. M.; Kohel, J.; Maleki, L.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the Laser Cooling and Atomic Physics (LCAP) program. It focuses on clock technology development. The topics include: 1) Overview of LCAP Flight Projects; 2) Space Clock 101; 3) Physics with Clocks in microgravity; 4) Space Clock Challenges; 5) LCAP Timeline; 6) International Space Station (ISS) Science Platforms; 7) ISS Express Rack; 8) Space Qualification of Components; 9) Laser Configuration; 10) Clock Rate Comparisons: GPS Carrier Phase Frequency Transfer; and 11) ISS Model Views. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  4. Development of pulse laser processing for mounting fiber Bragg grating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Aikihko; Shimada, Yukihiro; Yonemoto, Yukihiro; Suzuki, Hirokazu; Ishibashi, Hisayoshi [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 8-1-7 Umebidai Kidugawa Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Applied Laser Technology Institute, Tsuruga Head Office, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 65-20 Kizaki Tsuruga Fukui 914-8585 (Japan); Technical Research and Development Institute, Kumagai Gumi Co., Ltd., 2-1 Tsukudo, Shinjuku Tokyo 162-8557 (Japan)

    2012-07-11

    Pulse laser processing has been developed for the application of industrial plants in monitoring and maintenance. Surface cleaning by nano-second laser ablation was demonstrated for decontamination of oxide layers of Cr contained steel. Direct writing by femtosecond processing induced a Bragg grating in optical fiber to make it a seismic sensor for structural health monitoring. Adhesive cement was used to fix the seismic sensor on the surface of reactor coolant pipe material. Pulse laser processing and its related technologies were presented to overcome the severe accidents of nuclear power plants.

  5. Laser-induced microstructural development and phase evolution in magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Y.C.; Zhou, W.; Li, Z.L.; Zheng, H.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Secondary phase evolution caused by laser processing was firstly reported. • Microstructure development was controlled by heat flow thermodynamics and kinetics. • Solid-state transformation resulted in submicron and nano-scale precipitates. • Cluster-shaped particles in overlapped region were due to precipitation coarsening. • Properties of materials can be tailored selectively by laser processing. -- Abstract: Secondary phase plays an important role in determining microstructures and properties of magnesium alloys. This paper focuses on laser-induced microstructure development and secondary phase evolution in AZ91D Mg alloy studied by SEM, TEM and EDS analyses. Compared to bulk shape and lamellar structure of the secondary phase in as-received cast material, rapid-solidified microstructures with various morphologies including nano-precipitates were observed in laser melt zone. Formation mechanisms of microstructural evolution and effect of phase development on surface properties were further discussed

  6. Retrofitting the Low Impact Development Practices into Developed Urban areas Including Barriers and Potential Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafique, Muhammad; Kim, Reeho

    2017-06-01

    Low impact development (LID)/green infrastructure (GI) practices have been identified as the sustainable practices of managing the stormwater in urban areas. Due to the increasing population, most of the cities are more developing which results in the change of natural area into impervious areas (roads, buildings etc.). Moreover, urbanization and climate change are causing many water-related problems and making over cities unsafe and insecure. Under these circumstances, there is a need to introduce new stormwater management practices into developed cities to reduce the adverse impacts of urbanization. For this purpose, retrofitting low impact development practices demands more attention to reduce these water-related problems and trying to make our cities sustainable. In developed areas, there is a little space is available for the retrofitting of LID practices for the stormwater management. Therefore, the selection of an appropriate place to retrofitting LID practices needs more concern. This paper describes the successfully applied retrofitting LID practices around the globe. It also includes the process of applying retrofitting LID practices at the suitable place with the suitable combination. Optimal places for the retrofitting of different LID practices are also mentioned. This paper also highlights the barriers and potential solutions of retrofitting LID practices in urban areas.

  7. Retrofitting the Low Impact Development Practices into Developed Urban areas Including Barriers and Potential Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafique Muhammad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Low impact development (LID/green infrastructure (GI practices have been identified as the sustainable practices of managing the stormwater in urban areas. Due to the increasing population, most of the cities are more developing which results in the change of natural area into impervious areas (roads, buildings etc.. Moreover, urbanization and climate change are causing many water-related problems and making over cities unsafe and insecure. Under these circumstances, there is a need to introduce new stormwater management practices into developed cities to reduce the adverse impacts of urbanization. For this purpose, retrofitting low impact development practices demands more attention to reduce these water-related problems and trying to make our cities sustainable. In developed areas, there is a little space is available for the retrofitting of LID practices for the stormwater management. Therefore, the selection of an appropriate place to retrofitting LID practices needs more concern. This paper describes the successfully applied retrofitting LID practices around the globe. It also includes the process of applying retrofitting LID practices at the suitable place with the suitable combination. Optimal places for the retrofitting of different LID practices are also mentioned. This paper also highlights the barriers and potential solutions of retrofitting LID practices in urban areas.

  8. Development of laser diode pumped Nd:glass slab laser driver for the inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Masanobu; Kanabe, Tadashi; Yasuhara, Ryo

    2002-01-01

    A diode-pumped solid state laser (DPSSL) is promising candidate of reactor driver for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE). As a first step of a driver development for the IFE, we are developing a laser diode pumped zig-zag Nd:glass slab laser amplifier system HALNA 10 (High Average-power Laser for Nuclear-fusion Application) which can generated an output of 10 J per pulse at 1053 nm in 10 Hz operation. The water-cooled zig zag Nd:glass slab is pumped from both sides by 803 nm AIGaAs laser diode (LD) module, each LD module has an emitting area of 420 mm x 10 mm and two LD modules generate in total 218 (max.) kW peak power with 2.6 kW/cm 2 peak intensity at 10 Hz repetition rate. We have obtained in first-stage experiment 8.5 J output energy at 0.5 Hz with a beam quality of 2 times diffraction limited far-field pattern, which nearly confirmed our conceptual design. Since the key issue for the IFE DPSSL drive module were almost satisfactory, we have a confidence that a next 100 J x 10 Hz DPSSL module (HALNA 100) can be constructed. Thermal effects in laser slab, Faraday rotator, Faraday isolator and Pockets cell and their managements are discussed.

  9. HF laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kazuya; Iwasaki, Matae

    1977-01-01

    A review is made of the research and development of HF chemical laser and its related work. Many gaseous compounds are used as laser media successfully; reaction kinetics and technological problems are described. The hybrid chemical laser of HF-CO 2 system and the topics related to the isotope separation are also included. (auth.)

  10. Development of laser application technologies for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Rhee, Y.; Cha, B. H.

    2004-03-01

    The stable laser isotope facility will supply raw stable isotope material to produce radioisotope elements for medical and industrial applications. The medical stable isotope, Tl-203 was separated by the isotope selective optical pumping (ISOP) method native to the laboratory for quantum optics, KAERI. The extraction rate of 10 mg/hr was achieved from the separation chamber of 80cm x 80cm x 100cm dimension. The Yb-168 separation facility was improved in stability, durability, and efficiency. The old copper vapor pumping laser system was replaced with two 40W green DPSSL's. The tunable dye laser system was also improved in stability. The extraction rate was measured as 1.5 mg/hr in the improved system. The 200W infrared DPSSL system was also developed and used for photoionization of thallium isotopes. The adaptive optics and beam path control system was applied to the isotope separation facilities. Also the beam quality of the lasers was monitored and improved. To maintain constant isotope composition during reaction process, the wavelengths of tunable lasers are locked by being the mass composition information fed back into the oscillator control unit of the lasers. To optimize isotope separation process timely, the extractor surface is directly analyzed by laser irradiation and TOF mass spectrometer. And the final products in high purity is recovered in maximum by solution chemistry

  11. A SESAM passively mode-locked fiber laser with a long cavity including a band pass filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Rui; Chen, Hong-Wei; Chen, Sheng-Ping; Hou, Jing; Lu, Qi-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    A semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) passively mode-locked fiber laser with a long cavity length over 700 m is demonstrated. A band pass filter is inserted into the laser cavity to stabilize the lasing wavelength. Some interesting phenomena are observed and discussed. The central wavelength, repetition rate, average power and single pulse energy of the laser are 1064 nm, 281.5 kHz, 11 mW and 39 nJ, respectively. The laser operates stably without Q-switching instabilities, which greatly reduces the damage opportunities of the SESAM

  12. Recent developments in understanding the physics of laser produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezzerides, B.; DuBois, D.F.; Forslund, D.W.; Kindel, J.M.; Lee, K.; Lindman, E.L.

    1976-01-01

    The absorption of intense laser light by a plasma is known to produce a high energy component of electrons. Even though the hot electron pressure may be larger than the cold background pressure, the background temperature can control the self-consistent profile modification. Since temperatures in high intensity experiments seem to be similar for CO 2 and Nd glass lasers, the profile modification may be so severe for CO 2 and Nd glass lasers, the profile modification may be so severe for CO 2 that orders of magnitude change in density can occur over microns, leading to a softened electron spectrum. However, the resulting equilibrium of laser pressure balancing plasma pressure is unstable even when flow is properly taken into account. We also briefly discuss recent results for self-generated magnetic fields including important kinetic effects

  13. DF--CO2 transfer laser development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tregay, G.W.; Drexhage, M.G.; Wood, L.M.; Andrysiak, S.J.

    1975-01-01

    Power extraction and chemiluminescence experiments have been conducted in the large-scale DF-CO 2 transfer chemical laser (TCL) (IRIS-I and IRIS-II) facility at Bell Aerospace Company (BAC). The modular design of the device allowed testing to be conducted with both a supersonic nozzle bank and also in subsonic flow with sonic injection for the deuterium. Power levels of 15 kW at 10.6 μ were obtained in IRIS-I (subsonic) employing an unstable resonator with a 50 percent output coupling ratio and cavity pressure of 35 torr. For IRIS-II (supersonic) somewhat lower power was obtained. In both systems the fluorine dissociation (α = F/F + 2F 2 ) was less than 0.01. Chemiluminescent emission from HF and DF was monitored under zero-power conditions along an axis parallel to the laser-mirror axis. From the measured DF-concentration profiles it can be inferred that vibrationally excited DF is being produced throughout the cavity and, accordingly, the production of DF must be attributed largely to the chain reaction

  14. Development of a compact vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser end-pumped actively Q-switched laser for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shuo; Chen, Rongzhang; Nelsen, Bryan; Chen, Kevin, E-mail: pec9@pitt.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States); Liu, Lei; Huang, Xi; Lu, Yongfeng [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    This paper reports the development of a compact and portable actively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and its applications in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The laser was end-pumped by a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). The cavity lases at a wavelength of 1064 nm and produced pulses of 16 ns with a maximum pulse energy of 12.9 mJ. The laser exhibits a reliable performance in terms of pulse-to-pulse stability and timing jitter. The LIBS experiments were carried out using this laser on NIST standard alloy samples. Shot-to-shot LIBS signal stability, crater profile, time evolution of emission spectra, plasma electron density and temperature, and limits of detection were studied and reported in this paper. The test results demonstrate that the VCSEL-pumped solid-state laser is an effective and compact laser tool for laser remote sensing applications.

  15. Development of frequency tunable Ti:sapphire laser and dye laser pumped by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Jong Hoon; Horn, Roland; Wendt, K.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated lasing characteristics of two kinds of tunable laser, liquid dye laser and solid Ti:sapphire crystal laser, pumped by high pulse repetition rate Nd:YAG laser. Dye laser showed drastically reduced pulsewidth compared with that of pump laser and it also contained large amount of amplified spontaneous emission. Ti:sapphire laser showed also reduced pulsewidth. But, the laser conversion pump laser and Ti:sapphire laser pulse, we used a Brewster-cut Pockel's cell for Q-switching. The laser was frequency doubled by a type I BBO crystal outside of the cavity.

  16. Development of an integrated automated retinal surgical laser system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, S F; Wright, C H; Oberg, E D; Rockwell, B A; Cain, C; Rylander, H G; Welch, A J

    1996-01-01

    Researchers at the University of Texas and the USAF Academy have worked toward the development of a retinal robotic laser system. The overall goal of this ongoing project is to precisely place and control the depth of laser lesions for the treatment of various retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy and retinal tears. Separate low speed prototype subsystems have been developed to control lesion depth using lesion reflectance feedback parameters and lesion placement using retinal vessels as tracking landmarks. Both subsystems have been successfully demonstrated in vivo on pigmented rabbits using an argon continuous wave laser. Preliminary testing on rhesus primate subjects have been accomplished with the CW argon laser and also the ultrashort pulse laser. Recent efforts have concentrated on combining the two subsystems into a single prototype capable of simultaneously controlling both lesion depth and placement. We have designated this combined system CALOSOS for Computer Aided Laser Optics System for Ophthalmic Surgery. Several interesting areas of study have developed in integrating the two subsystems: 1) "doughnut" shaped lesions that occur under certain combinations of laser power, spot size, and irradiation time complicating measurements of central lesion reflectance, 2) the optimal retinal field of view (FOV) to achieve both tracking and lesion parameter control, and 3) development of a hybrid analog/digital tracker using confocal reflectometry to achieve retinal tracking speeds of up to 100 dgs. This presentation will discuss these design issues of this clinically significant prototype system. Details of the hybrid prototype system are provided in "Hybrid Eye Tracking for Computer-Aided Retinal Surgery" at this conference. The paper will close with remaining technical hurdles to clear prior to testing the full-up clinical prototype system.

  17. Solar-pumped gas laser development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    The direct conversion of solar radiation into an inverted population for extraction in an optical cavity holds promise as a relatively simple system design. Broad-band photoabsorption in the visible or near-UV range is required to excite large volumes of gas and to ensure good solar absorption efficiency. The state excited must be a metastable state which is not quenched by the parent gas. The emission bandwidth must be less than approximately 10 A. The system should show chemical reversibility and an insensitivity to increasing temperature. Other properties such as good quantum efficiency and kinetic efficiency are also implied. A search of electronic-vibrational transitions in diatomic molecules satisfying these conditions is now in progress. A photodissociation-pumped atomic iodine laser is now being tested under solar pumping conditions. Photodissociation studies for thallium spin-flip metastable formation will begin in the near future.

  18. Laser cleaner development for decontamination of the primary water cooling system at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, Eisuke

    2010-01-01

    We recently have performed the feasibility studies to develop laser cleaners utilizing several laser oscillator and amplifier systems like femto-second free-electron lasers, water-jet guided lasers, Q-switched YAG lasers, fiber lasers. Whenever we used to clean the RI-contaminated surface using the lasers, we should focus enough laser power in the surface to evaporate instantly without melting. Therefore, as the contaminated being deeply located into the surface could be removed using any one set of the lasers, we found that every trial of laser cleaning could remove very well the RI contamination being located deeply. Our cold decontamination test using a model sample being Cobalt plated successfully has been performed to show a very high decontamination factor. In order to develop an usable laser cleaner, we plan to develop the prototype laser cleaner next year. (author)

  19. Laser ignition - Spark plug development and application in reciprocating engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, Nicolaie; Bärwinkel, Mark; Heinz, Peter; Brüggemann, Dieter; Dearden, Geoff; Croitoru, Gabriela; Grigore, Oana Valeria

    2018-03-01

    Combustion is one of the most dominant energy conversion processes used in all areas of human life, but global concerns over exhaust gas pollution and greenhouse gas emission have stimulated further development of the process. Lean combustion and exhaust gas recirculation are approaches to improve the efficiency and to reduce pollutant emissions; however, such measures impede reliable ignition when applied to conventional ignition systems. Therefore, alternative ignition systems are a focus of scientific research. Amongst others, laser induced ignition seems an attractive method to improve the combustion process. In comparison with conventional ignition by electric spark plugs, laser ignition offers a number of potential benefits. Those most often discussed are: no quenching of the combustion flame kernel; the ability to deliver (laser) energy to any location of interest in the combustion chamber; the possibility of delivering the beam simultaneously to different positions, and the temporal control of ignition. If these advantages can be exploited in practice, the engine efficiency may be improved and reliable operation at lean air-fuel mixtures can be achieved, making feasible savings in fuel consumption and reduction in emission of exhaust gasses. Therefore, laser ignition can enable important new approaches to address global concerns about the environmental impact of continued use of reciprocating engines in vehicles and power plants, with the aim of diminishing pollutant levels in the atmosphere. The technology can also support increased use of electrification in powered transport, through its application to ignition of hybrid (electric-gas) engines, and the efficient combustion of advanced fuels. In this work, we review the progress made over the last years in laser ignition research, in particular that aimed towards realizing laser sources (or laser spark plugs) with dimensions and properties suitable for operating directly on an engine. The main envisaged

  20. Research and development of laser radar for environmental measurements. Pt. 3; Kankyo keisokuyo laser radar no kenkyu kaihatsu. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Described herein are the results of the joint project between Japan and Indonesia to construct a new laser radar network system, which can three-dimensionally measure air pollution conditions in urban areas, in Djakarta. This joint project is implemented to elucidate the mechanisms involved in air pollution in the city, and thereby to contribute to environmental administration of Indonesia. This project is expected to give the basic approach to solution of environmental problems in urban areas, and eventually on a global scale, and hence to contribute to construction of the global network systems for environment-related information, which should be necessary in the near future. The (ODA Laser Radar Development Committee) is the deliberative body for the project, responsible for evaluating the project results. The project will be implemented on a 4-year plan from FY1993 to 1996. The activities in this year, the third year for the project, include on-the-spot survey, selection of the laser radar site, and development/improvement of the laser radar system. These results are described herein. (NEDO)

  1. Integrated code development for studying laser driven plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takabe, Hideaki; Nagatomo, Hideo; Sunahara, Atsusi; Ohnishi, Naofumi; Naruo, Syuji; Mima, Kunioki [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Inst. of Laser Engineering

    1998-03-01

    Present status and plan for developing an integrated implosion code are briefly explained by focusing on motivation, numerical scheme and issues to be developed more. Highly nonlinear stage of Rayleigh-Taylor instability of ablation front by laser irradiation has been simulated so as to be compared with model experiments. Improvement in transport and rezoning/remapping algorithms in ILESTA code is described. (author)

  2. Mechanism of neoangiogenesis development after transmyocardial laser revascularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Gennady K.; Golovneva, Elena S.

    2000-05-01

    Pathophysiological mechanisms of transmyocardial laser revascularization (TLMR) remain insufficiently clear. Since the laser transmyocardial channels soon after their formation are closed and then substituted by the connective tissue, the laser effect is caused by neoangiogenesis in the place of injury. We have carried out TLMR in 250 Vistar rats with the help of Nd:YAG laser. In the point of lesion the development of inflammatory process with feebly marked, exudation reaction was registered. A connective tissue scar have been forming in the place of the lasers channel. The substantial growth of small vessels number is shown morphometrically in this place. The number of mast cells in have been increasing since the first hours after operation. The most part of the mast cells were degranulated, that indicates the release of bioactive substances into the extracellular space. The signs of activation of fibroblasts in the place of myocardium damage (abrupt hyperplasia of granular endoplasm reticulum on the electron microphotographs) were evident by the 5 - 6 day. At the first hours and days the platelets in the laser damaged vessels aggregated and the number of (alpha) granules decreased. It also points at the presence of bioactive substances, secreted by platelets. Zymography showed, that the activity of collagenase have been sharply increasing, with its peak on the 10 day after operation. Thus, the activation of noncontracting elements of myocardium during TMR may be the source of growth factors and proteases necessary for neoangiogenesis.

  3. Development of laser heated high current DC electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Srutarshi; Bhattacharjee, Dhruva; Kandaswamy, E.; Ghodke, S.R.; Tiwari, Rajnish; Bakhtsingh, R.I.

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with the development of a Laser heated cathode for Electron Accelerator. The electron gun is meant for Megawatt-class DC Accelerator for Electron Beam Flue Gas Treatment applications. Conventionally, LaB 6 cathode is indirectly heated by tungsten filaments whereas in the newly proposed gun, Laser is utilized for heating. A Nd:YAG Laser is used to heat the LaB 6 cathode to emission temperatures. The characterization of cathode heating at various Laser powers has been carried out. In initial trials, it has been observed that with 125 W of Laser power, the LaB 6 pellet was heated to 1315 ° C. Based on these experimental results, an electron gun rated for 30 kV, 350 mA CW has been designed. The optimization of gun electrode geometry has been done using CST Particle Studio in order to tune the various electron gun parameters. The beam diameter obtained in simulation is 8 mm at 100 mm from the LaB 6 cathode. The perveance obtained is 7.1 x 10 -8 A/V 3/2 . The Laser heated cathode has the advantages of eliminating the magnetic field effects of filament on the electron beam, electrical isolation needed for gun filament power supplies and better electron beam emittances. (author)

  4. Review on Recent Developments in Laser Driven Inertial Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghoranneviss

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Discovery of the laser in 1960 hopes were based on using its very high energy concentration within very short pulses of time and very small volumes for energy generation from nuclear fusion as “Inertial Fusion Energy” (IFE, parallel to the efforts to produce energy from “Magnetic Confinement Fusion” (MCF, by burning deuterium-tritium (DT in high temperature plasmas to helium. Over the years the fusion gain was increased by a number of magnitudes and has reached nearly break-even after numerous difficulties in physics and technology had been solved. After briefly summarizing laser driven IFE, we report how the recently developed lasers with pulses of petawatt power and picosecond duration may open new alternatives for IFE with the goal to possibly ignite solid or low compressed DT fuel thereby creating a simplified reactor scheme. Ultrahigh acceleration of plasma blocks after irradiation of picosecond (PS laser pulses of around terawatt (TW power in the range of 1020 cm/s2 was discovered by Sauerbrey (1996 as measured by Doppler effect where the laser intensity was up to about 1018 W/cm2. This is several orders of magnitude higher than acceleration by irradiation based on thermal interaction of lasers has produced.

  5. Development of pulsed dye lasers for kidney stone fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsia, J.

    1990-01-01

    The idea of using lasers to break stones inside the body was first proposed soon after the appearance of the pulsed ruby laser in 1960. Early work of pioneers in the field such as Mulvaney Pensel, and Tanahashi did not lead to a useful clinical protocol. In 1982, Dr. Graham Watson started a systematic search for the right laser. He soon came to the conclusion that CW lasers that relied on thermal effects were not clinically effective. Q-switched lasers such as ruby and Nd:YAG were eliminated because available optical fibers could not handle the high peak powers they emitted. Animal tests were completed and the first human was successfully treated at MGH by Dr. Stephen Dretler in October, 1985. This was soon followed by treatments at the Institute of Urology in London by Dr. Watson and Dr. Wickham. Today, lasertripsy is the treatment of choice for lower ureteral stones. In this paper the work leading to the development of the first clinically effective laser lithotripsy system is reviewed

  6. Development of electrical excited CO2-laser with transversal gas flow as well an axial flowed CO2-laser for material treatment, in particular for cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollermann-Windgasse, R.; Ackermann, F.

    1987-04-01

    The project describes the development of a new generation of CO 2 -lasers using high frequency discharge (13.56 MHz) for laser excitation by capacitive dielectrical input. HF-excitation has a lot of advantages compared with direct current technology, these are higher electrical input power into the plasma, better homogeneity and stability of discharges. In addition to this, HF-excitation shows excellent possibilities for pulsing and modulation. As a result of this, there are compact powerful laser systems with the possibility of scaling up to the multi-kW-range. The examination included fast transversal flowed as well as fast axial flowed systems. In the end of this project development prototypes with laser output power of 1000 W, 1500 W and 3000 W were available. Detailed attempts of application show that these lasers on grounds of excellent laser output quality and controlability of laser power specifically to each process make possible new ways for material treatment by laser. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Advanced in Nonlinear Optics and Laser Research and Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackel, S.; Kotler, Z; Lavi, R.; Sternklar, S.

    1996-01-01

    The Nonlinear Optics Group (NLOG) at Soreq NRC is engaged in the development of fundamental and applied technology in the related fields of nonlinear optics and laser development. Our work in nonlinear optics started with the goal of improving laser performance. These efforts were successful and opened the way for R and D in nonlinear optics for other applications. Today we use nonlinear optics to enable continuous tunability of lasers, control the path of light beams, modulate a light signal rapidly, provide optical data storage, and supply new means of microscopically probing biological and inorganic samples. Technology maturation and interaction with users will show which aspects of nonlinear optics will make the most impact

  8. Development of high power lasers and their applications for nuclear engineering in IHI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, H.; Uehara, M.; Mori, M.; Taniu, Y.; Yamaguchi, S.; Harashina, H.

    1995-01-01

    High power laser technologies developed in IHI are summarized. A discharge-excited CO laser of 3 kW and an arc lamp pumped cw YAG laser of 3 kW with a flexible optical fiber delivery have been developed for material processing use. An ablation processing using a high intensity pulse laser has also been investigated. (author)

  9. Development of a Curriculum in Laser Technology. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, William J.

    A Seattle Central Community College project visited existing programs, surveyed need, and developed a curriculum for a future program in Laser-Electro-Optics (LEO) Technology. To establish contacts and view successful programs, project staff made visits to LEO technology programs at San Jose City College and Texas State Technical Institute, Center…

  10. Development of the medical apparatus for Doppler-controlled treatment of hemorrhoids using laser coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay A. Gryaznov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article authors present the concept of the surgical manipulator delivering laser radiation to the target area. For the implementation of Doppler-controlled treatment of hemorrhoids by laser coagulation, an important circumstance is the necessity to realize by means of the dopplerograph the possibility of controlling the efficiency of coagulation of the pathological vessel immediately after the impact, which will create the prerequisites for the formation of a program cycle with the inclusion of control elements by feedback. In this regard, the structure of the laser medical apparatus is developed, which allows determining the location, size and flow of arterial and venous vessels, performing laser coagulation of pathologically damaged sites under constant Doppler control. The developed adaptive power management system includes several functional units for the processing of the data from ultrasound scanner and the Doppler. Medical apparatus for minimally invasive treatment of hemorrhoids based on the laser coagulator and ultrasound Doppler will allow performing surgeries in automated and half-automated modes. The suggested medical apparatus helps to determine pathological vessels, choose the required radiation mode and provides vessel obliteration. Successful realization of constructive combination of real-time diagnostics and surgical manipulation with a laser can result in a unique minimally invasive solution to treat hemorrhoids that currently doesn’t have analogues.

  11. Development of construction specifications to attain clean rooms for the NOVA laser facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedix, C.P.

    1980-02-01

    This paper describes the process of defining technical requirements for a major Department of Energy Research and Development Facility and subsequent development of construction specifications for the clean spaces in that facility. The organizational interactions between technical client, Engineering and Construction elements are described. The importance of an interdisciplinary team approach is stressed. A brief description of the SHIVA Laser and NOVA Laser Clean Spaces is included to indicate the scope of the facility undertaking. A number of potential pitfalls are discussed that may be helpful to designers of new facilities

  12. Development of laser beam welding for the lip seal configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Ashish; Joshi, Jaydeep; Singh, Dhananjay Kumar; Natu, Harshad; Rotti, Chandramouli; Bandyopadhyay, Mainak; Chakraborty, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Laser welding parameter optimization for required weld penetration. • Parametric study of actual scenarios like air gap, plate & beam misalignment. • Destructive and non-destructive examination of the welds and He-leak testing. - Abstract: A vacuum seal using the lip sealing technique is emerging as the most likely choice for fusion devices, to comply with the requirement of maintainability. The welding technology considered for lip sealing is laser welding, due to the attributes of small spot diameter, low concentrated heat input, high precision and penetration. To establish the process, an experiment has been conducted on a sample size of 150 mm × 50 mm having thickness of 2 mm, material AISI304L to assess the dependence of beam parameters like, laser power, speed and focusing distance on penetration and quality of weld joint. Further, the assessment of the effect of welding set-up variables like air-gap between plates, plate misalignment, and laser beam misalignment on the weld quality is also required. This paper presents the results of this experimental study and also the plan for developing a large (∼10 m) size laser welded seal, that simulates, appropriately, the configuration required in large dimension fusion devices.

  13. Development of laser beam welding for the lip seal configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Ashish, E-mail: ashish.yadav@iter-india.org [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Sector 25, Gandhinagar 382016, Gujarat (India); Joshi, Jaydeep; Singh, Dhananjay Kumar [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Sector 25, Gandhinagar 382016, Gujarat (India); Natu, Harshad [Magod Laser Machining Pvt. Ltd., KIADB Ind. Area, Jigani, Anekal Taluk, Bengaluru 560105 (India); Rotti, Chandramouli; Bandyopadhyay, Mainak; Chakraborty, Arun [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Sector 25, Gandhinagar 382016, Gujarat (India)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Laser welding parameter optimization for required weld penetration. • Parametric study of actual scenarios like air gap, plate & beam misalignment. • Destructive and non-destructive examination of the welds and He-leak testing. - Abstract: A vacuum seal using the lip sealing technique is emerging as the most likely choice for fusion devices, to comply with the requirement of maintainability. The welding technology considered for lip sealing is laser welding, due to the attributes of small spot diameter, low concentrated heat input, high precision and penetration. To establish the process, an experiment has been conducted on a sample size of 150 mm × 50 mm having thickness of 2 mm, material AISI304L to assess the dependence of beam parameters like, laser power, speed and focusing distance on penetration and quality of weld joint. Further, the assessment of the effect of welding set-up variables like air-gap between plates, plate misalignment, and laser beam misalignment on the weld quality is also required. This paper presents the results of this experimental study and also the plan for developing a large (∼10 m) size laser welded seal, that simulates, appropriately, the configuration required in large dimension fusion devices.

  14. Development of Blue Laser Direct-Write Lithography System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Wen Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The optical lithography system researched in this study adopted the laser direct-write lithography technology with nano-positioning stage by using retailing blue ray optical pickup head contained 405nm wavelength and 0.85 numerical aperture of focus lens as the system lighting source. The system employed a photodiode received the focusing error signal reflected by the glass substrate to identify specimen position and automatic focused control with voice coil motor. The pattern substrate was loaded on a nano-positioning stage; input pattern path automatically and collocate with inner program at the same time. This research has successfully developed a blue laser lithography process system. The single spot size can be narrowed down to 3.07 μm and the linewidth is 3.3μm, time of laser control can reach to 450 ns and the exposure pattern can be controlled by program as well.

  15. Laser distance measurement using a newly developed composite-type optical fiberscope for fetoscopic laser surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Takeshi; Oka, Kiyoshi; Naganawa, Akihiro; Yamashita, Hiromasa; Kim, Keri; Chiba, Toshio

    2010-10-01

    Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a condition of twins disproportionately sharing blood by the communicating vessels in the shared placenta and resulting in the significantly high fetal and perinatal mortality rate. Fetoscopic laser surgery is performed to block these communicating vessels. It is difficult, however, to perceive the distance from the tip of the fetoscope to the placental surface with only a two-dimensional fetoscopic view. When the distance is too short it causes excessive irradiation and even the risk of inadvertent damage to the placenta. On the other hand, not only target vessels but also adjacent tissues can be irradiated when it is too long. We have developed a composite-type optical fiberscope (COF) that was able to observe the target area and also to perform laser irradiation at the same time. In this paper, we studied a method to estimate the distance from the tip of the COF to the target area. We combined the COF with a laser blood-flow meter. Using laser light from the meter, we measured the total amount of light received ("REFLEX") and estimated the relation between the "REFLEX" value and the laser irradiation distance. Further in vivo experiments were subsequently carried out using porcine mesenteric blood vessels. The results showed that the distance and the "REFLEX" value were inversely proportional, irrespective of the experimental environment (e.g. in air, water and amniotic fluid-like solution) and the target object. In the in vivo experiments, we quantitatively measured the distance within an accuracy of ±1 mm (approximately 10%). In conclusion, our new system was able to measure the distance in vivo enabling a surgeon to safely and effectively perform laser irradiation at a suitable distance. The system can be used not only for fetoscopic surgery but also for general endoscopic surgery.

  16. Application of Various Lasers to Laser Trimming Resistance System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Ji-feng

    2007-01-01

    Though the laser trimming resistance has been an old laser machining industry for over 30 years, the development of technology brings new alternative lasers which can be used for the traditional machining. The paper describes application of various lasers to laser trimming resistance system including early traditional krypton arc lamp pumped Nd:YAG to laser, modern popular diode pumped solid state laser and the present advanced harmonic diode pumped solid state laser. Using the new alternative lasers in the laser trimming resistance system can dramatically improve the yields and equipment performance.

  17. Development of a Laser Driven Photocathode Injector and Femtosecond Scale Laser Electron Synchronization for Next Generation Light Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Le Sage, G P; Ditmire, T R; Rosenzweig, J

    2000-01-01

    A high brightness photoinjector has been developed at LLNL. This injector combined with the 100 TW FALCON laser and the LLNL 100 MeV S-Band RF linac will enable development of a high brightness, femtosecond-scale, tunable, hard x-ray probe for time-resolved material measurements, based on Thomson scattering. Short pulse x-rays enable time-resolved characterization of shock dynamics, and examination of materials under extremes of pressure and temperature. Examples include Equation of State characterization on high-density materials, Crystal disorganization and re-growth in shocked and heated materials, and measurement of short time scale phase transition phenomena. Single shot evaluation, requiring high peak flux, is important for complex experiments such as probing of laser shocked actinides. A low emittance electron beam synchronized with femtosecond accuracy to an intense laser will revolutionize x-ray dynamics studies of materials. This project will lead development of ultrafast x-ray dynamics research on ...

  18. Laser fluorosensors : a survey of applications and developments of a versatile sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.E.; Fingas, M.F.; An, J.

    2001-01-01

    Recent advances in the development of laser fluorosensors were reviewed. Laser fluorosensors are used for several purposes including airborne monitoring of oil spills, the exploration of marine petroleum resources, and the monitoring of environmentally important substances such as chlorophyll. Since laser fluorosensors provide their own source of excitation, they can be used during daylight or darkness. Certain compounds such as chlorophyll found in plant material, plankton and in aromatic hydrocarbons from petroleum oils can absorb ultraviolet laser light and become electronically excited. This excitation is quickly removed by the process of fluorescence emission, mostly in the visible region of the spectrum. Natural substances such as chlorophyll can be differentiated from materials such as petroleum oils by careful choice of the excitation laser wavelength and range-gated detection at specific emission wavelengths. This paper described the different system components of laser fluorosensors such as excitation laser source, and detection schemes that make it possible for these sensors to be used for the detection and classification of a wide range of fluorescent compounds. Many fluorosensors have been used as research and development tools on both ship and aircraft to help determine the direction of oil spills. This real-time operating system provides information that can be rapidly transferred to personnel on the ground or at sea to mitigate the effects of an oil spill on marine and coastal environments. Environment Canada's Scanning Laser Environmental Airborne Fluorosensor (SLEAF) was designed to detect, characterize and map oil contamination in marine and coastal shoreline environments. Principle component analysis is used to classify the oil class as light refined, crude or heavy refined and the extent of oil coverage as clean, light, moderate or heavy. 18 refs

  19. Laser fluorosensors : a survey of applications and developments of a versatile sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, C.E.; Fingas, M.F.; An, J. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science Div

    2001-07-01

    Recent advances in the development of laser fluorosensors were reviewed. Laser fluorosensors are used for several purposes including airborne monitoring of oil spills, the exploration of marine petroleum resources, and the monitoring of environmentally important substances such as chlorophyll. Since laser fluorosensors provide their own source of excitation, they can be used during daylight or darkness. Certain compounds such as chlorophyll found in plant material, plankton and in aromatic hydrocarbons from petroleum oils can absorb ultraviolet laser light and become electronically excited. This excitation is quickly removed by the process of fluorescence emission, mostly in the visible region of the spectrum. Natural substances such as chlorophyll can be differentiated from materials such as petroleum oils by careful choice of the excitation laser wavelength and range-gated detection at specific emission wavelengths. This paper described the different system components of laser fluorosensors such as excitation laser source, and detection schemes that make it possible for these sensors to be used for the detection and classification of a wide range of fluorescent compounds. Many fluorosensors have been used as research and development tools on both ship and aircraft to help determine the direction of oil spills. This real-time operating system provides information that can be rapidly transferred to personnel on the ground or at sea to mitigate the effects of an oil spill on marine and coastal environments. Environment Canada's Scanning Laser Environmental Airborne Fluorosensor (SLEAF) was designed to detect, characterize and map oil contamination in marine and coastal shoreline environments. Principle component analysis is used to classify the oil class as light refined, crude or heavy refined and the extent of oil coverage as clean, light, moderate or heavy. 18 refs.

  20. Development of small scale soft x-ray lasers: Aspects of data interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Kim, D.; Voorhees, D.; Suckewer, S.

    1990-02-01

    The widespread application of soft x-ray laser technology is contingent on the development of small scale soft x-ray lasers that do not require large laser facilities. Progress in the development of soft x-ray lasers pumped by a Nd laser of energy 6-12J is reported below. Some aspects of data interpretation and gain measurements in such systems are discussed. 11 refs., 11 figs

  1. Development of x-ray laser architectural components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, A.S.; Da Silva, L.B.; Moreno, J.C.

    1994-06-01

    This paper describes the recent experimental and computational development of short-pulse, enhanced-coherence, and high-brilliance x-ray lasers (XRLs). The authors will describe the development of an XRL cavity by injecting laser photons back into an amplifying XRL plasma. Using a combination of LASNEX/GLF/SPECTRE-BEAM3 codes, they obtained good agreement with experimental results. They will describe the adaptive spatial filtering technique used to design small-aperture shaped XRLs with near diffraction-limited output. Finally they will discuss issues concerning the development of high-brilliance XRL architecture, with emphasis on scaling the XRL aperture. Combining these advances in XRL architectural components allows them to develop a short-pulse, high-brilliance, coherent XRL suitable for applications in areas such as biological holography, plasma interferometry, and nonlinear optics

  2. Laser drive development for the APS Dynamic Compression Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagrange, Thomas; Swift, Damian; Reed, Bryan; Bernier, Joel; Kumar, Mukul; Hawreliak, James; Eggert, Jon; Dixit, Sham; Collins, Gilbert

    2013-06-01

    The Dynamic Compression Sector (DCS) at the APS synchrotron offers unprecedented possibilities for x-ray diffraction and scattering measurements in-situ during dynamic loading, including single-shot data collection with x-ray energies high enough (tens of kV) to study high-Z samples in transmission as well as reflection. Dynamic loading induced by laser ablation is an important component of load generation, as the duration, strain rate, and pressure can be controlled via the energy, spot size, and pulse shape. Using radiation hydrodynamics simulations, validated by experiments at several laser facilities, we have investigated the relationship between irradiance history and pressure for ablative loads designed to induce shock and ramp loading in the nanosecond to microsecond range, and including free ablation and also ablation confined by a transparent substrate. We have investigated the effects of lateral release, which constrains the minimum diameter of the focal spot for a given drive duration. In this way, we are able to relate the desired drive conditions to the total laser energy needed, which dictates the laser technologies suitable for a given type of experiment. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  3. Development of the Laser Retroreflector Array (LRA) for SARAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costes, Vincent; Gasc, Karine; Sengenes, Pierre; Salcedo, Corinne; Imperiali, Stéphan; du Jeu, Christian

    2017-11-01

    CNES (French spatial agency) will provide the AltiKa high resolution altimeter, Doris instrument and the LRA (Laser Retroreflector Array) for SARAL (Satellite with Argos and AltiKa) in cooperation with ISRO (Indian space agency). The LRA is a passive equipment reflecting the laser beams coming from the Earth ground stations. Computing the send-return time travel of the laser beams allows the determination of the satellite altitude within an accuracy of a few millimeters. The reflective function is done by a set of 9 corner cube reflectors, with a conical arrangement providing a 150 degrees wide field of view over the full 360 degrees azimuth angle. According to CNES optomechanical specifications, the LRA has been developed by SESO (French optical firm). SESO has succeeded in providing the corner cube reflectors with a very stringent dihedral angle error of 1.6 arcsec and an accuracy within +/-0.5 arcsec. During this development, SESO has performed mechanical, thermal and thermo-optical analyses. The optical gradient of each corner cube, as well as angular deviations and PSF (Point Spread Function) in each laser range finding direction, have been computed. Mechanical and thermal tests have been successfully performed. A thermo-optical test has successfully confirmed the optical effect of the predicted in-flight thermal gradients. Each reflector is characterized in order to find its best location in the LRA housing and give the maximum optimization to the space telemetering mission.

  4. Optically-Based Diagnostics for Gas-Phase Laser Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Laser (COIL), Electric Oxygen Iodine Laser (EOIL), Diode-Pumped Alkali Laser (DPAL), and Exciplex Alkali Laser (XPAL). The papers at this Symposium... exciplex -assisted absorption and laser-induced fluorescence, and multi-photon excitation of infrared atomic alkali transitions.11,12 In this paper... EXCIPLEX LASER SYSTEMS Proper review and discussion of the DPAL and XPAL laser systems can be found elsewhere,11,12 and in the paper by Carroll and

  5. Development of underwater laser cladding and underwater laser seal welding techniques for reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Takehisa; Tamura, Masataka; Tanaka, Yoshimi; Kouno, Wataru; Makino, Yoshinobu; Kawano, Shohei; Matsunaga, Keiji

    2009-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) has been reported at the aged components in many nuclear power plants. Toshiba has been developing the underwater laser welding. This welding technique can be conducted without draining the water in the reactor vessel. It is beneficial for workers not to exposure the radiation. The welding speed can be attaining twice as fast as that of Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW). The susceptibility of SCC can also be lower than the Alloy 600 base metal. (author)

  6. Development of laser material processing and laser metrology techniques. Development of the power supply of high power CO{sub 2} laser for material processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Heon Ju; Lee, Yong Hak; Jang, Do Hyun; Kim, Su Hun [Cheju National University, Cheju (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-08-01

    The 2 Kw solid state RF power supply has been designed and fabricated The power supply was composed of oscillator, driver amplifier and power amplifier. Each part of the power supply was developed and tested. The impedance matching circuit to apply this RF power supply for laser discharge excitation was fabricated also. The RF discharge experiment for the excitation of CO{sub 2} laser was performed. The radiofrequency power supply which has the output power of 2 Kw has been developed. The subsystems of the power supply have been fabricated and their performances were reliable. The RF discharge experiment to generate the laser plasma has been performed and input power density of 6 W/cm{sub 3} has been achieved. (author). 5 refs., 28 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Effect of different provisional cement remnant cleaning procedures including Er:YAG laser on shear bond strength of ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    Zortuk, Mustafa; Gumus, Hasan Onder; Kilinc, Halil Ibrahim; Tuncdemir, Ali Riza

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of provisional cement removal by different dentin cleaning protocols (dental explorer, pumice, cleaning bur, Er:YAG laser) on the shear bond strength between ceramic and dentin. MATERIALS AND METHODS In total, 36 caries-free unrestored human third molars were selected as tooth specimens. Provisional restorations were fabricated and cemented with eugenol-free provisional cement. Then, disc-shaped ceramic specimens were fabricated and...

  8. Applied Questions of Onboard Laser Radar Equipment Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Starovoitov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During development of the spacecraft laser radar systems (LRS it is a problem to make a choice of laser sources and photo-detectors both because of their using specifics in onboard equipment and because of the limited number of domestic and foreign manufacturers.Previous publications did not consider in detail the accuracy versus laser pulse repetition frequency, the impact of photo-detector sensitivity and dynamic range on the LRS characteristics, and the power signal-protected photo-detector against overload.The objective of this work is to analyze how the range, accuracy, and reliability of onboard LRS depend on different types of laser sources and photo-detectors, and on availability of electromechanical optical attenuator.The paper describes design solutions that are used to compensate for a decreased sensitivity of photo-detector and an impact of these changes on the LRS characteristics.It is shown that due to the high pulse repetition frequency a fiber laser is the preferred type of a laser source in onboard LRS, which can be used at ranges less than 500 m for two purposes: determining the orientation of the passive spacecraft with the accuracy of 0.3 and measuring the range rate during the rendezvous of spacecrafts with an accuracy of 0.003... 0.006 m/s.The work identifies the attenuation level of the optical attenuator versus measured range. In close proximity to a diffusely reflecting passive spacecraft and a corner reflector this attenuator protects photo-detector. It is found that the optical attenuator is advisable to apply when using the photo-detector based on an avalanche photodiode. There is no need in optical attenuator (if a geometric factor is available in the case of sounding corner reflector when a photo-detector based on pin-photodiode is used. Exclusion of electromechanical optical attenuator can increase the reliability function of LRS from Р (t = 0.9991 to Р (t = 0.9993.The results obtained in this work can be used

  9. Effect of different provisional cement remnant cleaning procedures including Er:YAG laser on shear bond strength of ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zortuk, Mustafa; Gumus, Hasan Onder; Kilinc, Halil Ibrahim; Tuncdemir, Ali Riza

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of provisional cement removal by different dentin cleaning protocols (dental explorer, pumice, cleaning bur, Er:YAG laser) on the shear bond strength between ceramic and dentin. In total, 36 caries-free unrestored human third molars were selected as tooth specimens. Provisional restorations were fabricated and cemented with eugenol-free provisional cement. Then, disc-shaped ceramic specimens were fabricated and randomly assigned to four groups of dentin cleaning protocols (n = 9). Group 1 (control): Provisional cements were mechanically removed with a dental explorer. Group 2: The dentin surfaces were treated with a cleaning brush with pumice Group 3: The dentin surfaces were treated with a cleaning bur. Group 4: The provisional cements were removed by an Er:YAG laser. Self-adhesive luting cement was used to bond ceramic discs to dentin surfaces. Shear bond strength (SBS) was measured using a universal testing machine at a 0.05 mm/min crosshead speed. The data were analyzed using a Kolmogorov Smirnov, One-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests to perform multiple comparisons (α=0.05). THE DENTIN CLEANING METHODS DID NOT SIGNIFICANTLY AFFECT THE SBS OF CERAMIC DISCS TO DENTIN AS FOLLOWS: dental explorer, pumice, cleaning bur, and Er:YAG laser. The use of different cleaning protocols did not affect the SBS between dentin and ceramic surfaces.

  10. Recent developments in laser-driven polarized sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, L.; Coulter, K.P.; Holt, R.J.; Kinney, E.R.; Kowalczyk, R.S.; Potterveld, D.H.; Zghiche, A.

    1990-01-01

    Recent progress in the performance of laser-driven sources of polarized hydrogen and deuterium is described. The current status of the prototype source, I = 2.5 x 10 17 s -1 , polarization = 0.29 (including atomic fraction), is comparable to classical Stern-Gerlach sources. A scheme to improve source performance by approximately an order of magnitude, using a combination of optical-pumping spin-exchange and RF transitions, is outlined. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  11. Development of high power KrF laser for fundamental research of ICF driver and laser plasma interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Naiyan; Shan Yusheng; Ma Weiyi; Yao Gang; Zhou Chuangzhi; Tang Xiuzhang; Tang Zhihong; Gao Junsi; Wang Ganchang.

    1994-01-01

    A high power KrF laser system is under development in China Institute of Atomic Energy. The system consists of a front end, two-stage KrF amplifiers and two-stage Raman amplifiers, providing 100J, 1ns KrF laser with maximum average power density about 10 14 W/cm 2 on target for laser plasma interaction research. Some important technologies, such as front-end system, Angular Multiplexer, and injection locked oscillator are discussed. (author)

  12. Investigation of optimized experimental parameters including laser wavelength for boron measurement in photovoltaic grade silicon using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwiche, S.; Benmansour, M.; Eliezer, N.; Morvan, D.

    2010-01-01

    The quantification of boron and other impurities in photovoltaic grade silicon was investigated using the LIBS technique with attention to the laser wavelength employed, temporal parameters, and the nature of the ambient gas. The laser wavelength was found to have a moderate effect on the performance of the process, while the type of purge gas and temporal parameters had a strong effect on the signal-to-background ratio (SBR) of the boron spectral emission, which was used to determine the boron concentration in silicon. The three parameters are not independent, meaning that for each different purge gas, different optimal temporal parameters are observed. Electron density was also calculated from Stark broadening of the 390.5 nm silicon emission line in order to better understand the different performances observed when using different gases and gating parameters. Calibration curves were made for boron measurement in silicon using certified standards with different purge gases while using the temporal parameters which had been optimized for that gas. By comparing the calibration curves, it was determined that argon is superior to helium or air for use as the analysis chamber purge gas with an UV laser.

  13. Design and Development of High-Repetition-Rate Satellite Laser Ranging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Jung; Bang, Seong-Cheol; Sung, Ki-Pyoung; Lim, Hyung-Chul; Jung, Chan-Gyu; Kim, In-Yeung; Choi, Jae-Seung

    2015-09-01

    The Accurate Ranging System for Geodetic Observation ? Mobile (ARGO-M) was successfully developed as the first Korean mobile Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) system in 2012, and has joined in the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) tracking network, DAEdeoK (DAEK) station. The DAEK SLR station was approved as a validated station in April 2014, through the ILRS station ¡°data validation¡± process. The ARGO-M system is designed to enable 2 kHz laser ranging with millimeter-level precision for geodetic, remote sensing, navigation, and experimental satellites equipped with Laser Retroreflector Arrays (LRAs). In this paper, we present the design and development of a next generation high-repetition-rate SLR system for ARGO-M. The laser ranging rate up to 10 kHz is becoming an important issue in the SLR community to improve ranging precision. To implement high-repetition-rate SLR system, the High-repetition-rate SLR operation system (HSLR-10) was designed and developed using ARGO-M Range Gate Generator (A-RGG), so as to enable laser ranging from 50 Hz to 10 kHz. HSLR-10 includes both hardware controlling software and data post-processing software. This paper shows the design and development of key technologies of high-repetition-rate SLR system. The developed system was tested successfully at DAEK station and then moved to Sejong station, a new Korean SLR station, on July 1, 2015. HSLR-10 will begin normal operations at Sejong station in the near future.

  14. Developing fiber lasers with Bragg reflectors as deep sea hydrophones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sorrentino

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper will discuss the work in progress at the Department of Physics of the University of Pisa in collaboration with the IFAC laboratory of CNR in Florence to develop pressure sensors with outstanding sensitivity in the acoustic and ultrasonic ranges. These devices are based on optically-pumped fiber lasers, where the mirrors are Bragg gratings written into the fiber core.

  15. Development of a Virtual Museum Including a 4d Presentation of Building History in Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, T. P.; Tschirschwitz, F.; Deggim, S.

    2017-02-01

    In the last two decades the definition of the term "virtual museum" changed due to rapid technological developments. Using today's available 3D technologies a virtual museum is no longer just a presentation of collections on the Internet or a virtual tour of an exhibition using panoramic photography. On one hand, a virtual museum should enhance a museum visitor's experience by providing access to additional materials for review and knowledge deepening either before or after the real visit. On the other hand, a virtual museum should also be used as teaching material in the context of museum education. The laboratory for Photogrammetry & Laser Scanning of the HafenCity University Hamburg has developed a virtual museum (VM) of the museum "Alt-Segeberger Bürgerhaus", a historic town house. The VM offers two options for visitors wishing to explore the museum without travelling to the city of Bad Segeberg, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. Option a, an interactive computer-based, tour for visitors to explore the exhibition and to collect information of interest or option b, to immerse into virtual reality in 3D with the HTC Vive Virtual Reality System.

  16. Development laser light facility for uranium isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, G.J.

    1992-01-01

    A laser light facility has been built and successfully commissioned as part of a programme to explore the economic potential of Laser Isotope Separation of Uranium. The laser systems are comprised of tunable dye lasers pumped by copper vapour lasers. The requirements for optical beam stability, alignment of lasers in chains, and protection of optical coatings have made challenging demands on the engineering design and operation of the facility. (Author)

  17. Continued Development of the AF/SGR Tricorder Program - Laser Eye Protection, Biomarkers of Laser Injury and Sensor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    The less abundant serum proteins including our retinal proteins could have been removed along with albumin, hemoglobin and other depleted proteins... Nutrition , 1990. 51(2): p. 225-227. 3. Khan, D.A., et al., Evaluation of lead body burden in occupational workers by lead mobilization test. JPMA. The...operation. Instead, SSI needed to work with various AF organizations to educate them about the laser illumination problem and explain what kind of

  18. Developing a laser shockwave model for characterizing diffusion bonded interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacy, Jeffrey M.; Smith, James A.; Rabin, Barry H.

    2015-01-01

    The US National Nuclear Security Agency has a Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) with the goal of reducing the worldwide use of high-enriched uranium (HEU). A salient component of that initiative is the conversion of research reactors from HEU to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuels. An innovative fuel is being developed to replace HEU in high-power research reactors. The new LEU fuel is a monolithic fuel made from a U-Mo alloy foil encapsulated in Al-6061 cladding. In order to support the fuel qualification process, the Laser Shockwave Technique (LST) is being developed to characterize the clad-clad and fuel-clad interface strengths in fresh and irradiated fuel plates. LST is a non-contact method that uses lasers for the generation and detection of large amplitude acoustic waves to characterize interfaces in nuclear fuel plates. However, because the deposition of laser energy into the containment layer on a specimen's surface is intractably complex, the shock wave energy is inferred from the surface velocity measured on the backside of the fuel plate and the depth of the impression left on the surface by the high pressure plasma pulse created by the shock laser. To help quantify the stresses generated at the interfaces, a finite element method (FEM) model is being utilized. This paper will report on initial efforts to develop and validate the model by comparing numerical and experimental results for back surface velocities and front surface depressions in a single aluminum plate representative of the fuel cladding

  19. Developing a laser shockwave model for characterizing diffusion bonded interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacy, Jeffrey M., E-mail: Jeffrey.Lacy@inl.gov; Smith, James A., E-mail: Jeffrey.Lacy@inl.gov; Rabin, Barry H., E-mail: Jeffrey.Lacy@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-31

    The US National Nuclear Security Agency has a Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) with the goal of reducing the worldwide use of high-enriched uranium (HEU). A salient component of that initiative is the conversion of research reactors from HEU to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuels. An innovative fuel is being developed to replace HEU in high-power research reactors. The new LEU fuel is a monolithic fuel made from a U-Mo alloy foil encapsulated in Al-6061 cladding. In order to support the fuel qualification process, the Laser Shockwave Technique (LST) is being developed to characterize the clad-clad and fuel-clad interface strengths in fresh and irradiated fuel plates. LST is a non-contact method that uses lasers for the generation and detection of large amplitude acoustic waves to characterize interfaces in nuclear fuel plates. However, because the deposition of laser energy into the containment layer on a specimen's surface is intractably complex, the shock wave energy is inferred from the surface velocity measured on the backside of the fuel plate and the depth of the impression left on the surface by the high pressure plasma pulse created by the shock laser. To help quantify the stresses generated at the interfaces, a finite element method (FEM) model is being utilized. This paper will report on initial efforts to develop and validate the model by comparing numerical and experimental results for back surface velocities and front surface depressions in a single aluminum plate representative of the fuel cladding.

  20. Quantum-mechanical theory including angular momenta analysis of atom-atom collisions in a laser field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, P. L.; George, T. F.

    1978-01-01

    The problem of two atoms colliding in the presence of an intense radiation field, such as that of a laser, is investigated. The radiation field, which couples states of different electronic symmetry, is described by the number state representation while the electronic degrees of freedom (plus spin-orbit interaction) are discussed in terms of a diabatic representation. The total angular momentum of the field-free system and the angular momentum transferred by absorption (or emission) of a photon are explicitly considered in the derivation of the coupled scattering equations. A model calculation is discussed for the Xe + F collision system.

  1. Design and development of laser eye protection filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, K; Khan, A N; Rauf, A; Gul, A; Aslam, M

    2013-01-01

    Laser based devices, have been operational for measurement of distances horizontally and vertically in avionics and surveillance industries. These equipments are functional on pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 1064nm, this wavelength elevate the risk of eye exposure to personnel at unexpected levels. In this paper the eye protection filters, for the wavelength 1064nm were developed with soft (ZnS) and hard (TiO 2 ) coating materials by using thin film vacuum coating technique. The damage threshold of the filter is 0.2 J/cm 2 . Transmission characteristics are measured and discussed. Optical damage threshold (for eye 5 × 10 −6 J/cm2) at various distances is also simulated.

  2. Development of two color laser diagnostics for the ITER poloidal polarimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahata, K; Akiyama, T; Tanaka, K; Nakayama, K; Okajima, S

    2010-10-01

    Two color laser diagnostics using terahertz laser sources are under development for a high performance operation of the Large Helical Device and for future fusion devices such as ITER. So far, we have achieved high power laser oscillation lines simultaneously oscillating at 57.2 and 47.7 μm by using a twin optically pumped CH(3)OD laser, and confirmed the original function, compensation of mechanical vibration, of the two color laser interferometer. In this article, application of the two color laser diagnostics to the ITER poloidal polarimeter and recent hardware developments will be described.

  3. Development of two color laser diagnostics for the ITER poloidal polarimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahata, K.; Akiyama, T.; Tanaka, K.; Nakayama, K.; Okajima, S.

    2010-01-01

    Two color laser diagnostics using terahertz laser sources are under development for a high performance operation of the Large Helical Device and for future fusion devices such as ITER. So far, we have achieved high power laser oscillation lines simultaneously oscillating at 57.2 and 47.7 μm by using a twin optically pumped CH 3 OD laser, and confirmed the original function, compensation of mechanical vibration, of the two color laser interferometer. In this article, application of the two color laser diagnostics to the ITER poloidal polarimeter and recent hardware developments will be described.

  4. Laser development for laser fusion applications. Research progress report, October 1979-September 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    Research conducted during this period is reported on the following: (1) rare-gas-halogen lasers, (2) XeCl laser at excitation rates of 1.7 to 4.7 MW/cm 3 , (3) rare gas halogen laser modeling, (4) three-body ion recombination coefficients, (5) electron beam accelerators, (6) power conditioning studies for accelerators, (7) chemically pumped iodine lasers, (8) hydrogen fluoride lasers, and (9) supporting research

  5. [Glass Development Laser (GDL) Facility upgrade.] LLE Review. Quarterly report, October-December 1984. Volume 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.

    1984-01-01

    This volume of the LLE Review contains articles on the upgrade of the GDL (Glass Development) system, theoretical advances in the laser fusion effort, improved target fabrication capabilities, x-ray laser research, developments in the picosecond optics research of the LLE advanced technology program, and on the National Laser Users Facility activities for October-December 1984. 56 refs., 31 figs., 3 tabs

  6. The Newest Laser Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Baek Yeon

    2007-01-01

    This book mentions laser processing with laser principle, laser history, laser beam property, laser kinds, foundation of laser processing such as laser oscillation, characteristic of laser processing, laser for processing and its characteristic, processing of laser hole including conception of processing of laser hole and each material, and hole processing of metal material, cut of laser, reality of cut, laser welding, laser surface hardening, application case of special processing and safety measurement of laser.

  7. Development of a large-screen high-definition laser video projection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clynick, Tony J.

    1991-08-01

    A prototype laser video projector which uses electronic, optical, and mechanical means to project a television picture is described. With the primary goal of commercial viability, the price/performance ratio of the chosen means is critical. The fundamental requirement has been to achieve high brightness, high definition images of at least movie-theater size, at a cost comparable with other existing large-screen video projection technologies, while having the opportunity of developing and exploiting the unique properties of the laser projected image, such as its infinite depth-of-field. Two argon lasers are used in combination with a dye laser to achieve a range of colors which, despite not being identical to those of a CRT, prove to be subjectively acceptable. Acousto-optic modulation in combination with a rotary polygon scanner, digital video line stores, novel specialized electro-optics, and a galvanometric frame scanner form the basis of the projection technique achieving a 30 MHz video bandwidth, high- definition scan rates (1125/60 and 1250/50), high contrast ratio, and good optical efficiency. Auditorium projection of HDTV pictures wider than 20 meters are possible. Applications including 360 degree(s) projection and 3-D video provide further scope for exploitation of the HD laser video projector.

  8. Development and characterization of a laser-based hard x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillman, C.

    1996-11-01

    A laser-produced plasma was generated by focusing 100 fs laser pulses, with an energy of 150 mJ, onto metal targets. The laser intensity was expected to reach 10 17 W/cm -2 . Radiation was emitted from the created plasma, with photon energies up to the MeV region. The laser-based X-ray source was optimized, with the purpose of making it a realistic source of hard X-rays (>10 keV). Dedicated equipment was developed for efficient generation and utilization of the hard X-rays. The X-ray source was characterized with respect to its spatial extent and the X-ray yield. Measurements were made of the spectral distribution, by the use of single-photon-counting detectors in different geometries, crystal spectrometers and dose measurements in combination with absorption filters. Ablation of the target material in the laser produced plasma was investigated. Imaging applications have been demonstrated, including ultrafast (picosecond) X-ray imaging, magnification imaging of up to x80, differential imaging in the spectral domain, and imaging of various biological and technical objects. The biological response of ultra-intense X-ray pulses was assessed in cell-culture exposures. The results indicate that the biological response from ultra-intense X-ray exposures is similar to the response with conventional X-ray tubes. 82 refs., 14 figs

  9. Development and characterization of a laser-based hard x-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tillman, C.

    1996-11-01

    A laser-produced plasma was generated by focusing 100 fs laser pulses, with an energy of 150 mJ, onto metal targets. The laser intensity was expected to reach 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup -2}. Radiation was emitted from the created plasma, with photon energies up to the MeV region. The laser-based X-ray source was optimized, with the purpose of making it a realistic source of hard X-rays (>10 keV). Dedicated equipment was developed for efficient generation and utilization of the hard X-rays. The X-ray source was characterized with respect to its spatial extent and the X-ray yield. Measurements were made of the spectral distribution, by the use of single-photon-counting detectors in different geometries, crystal spectrometers and dose measurements in combination with absorption filters. Ablation of the target material in the laser produced plasma was investigated. Imaging applications have been demonstrated, including ultrafast (picosecond) X-ray imaging, magnification imaging of up to x80, differential imaging in the spectral domain, and imaging of various biological and technical objects. The biological response of ultra-intense X-ray pulses was assessed in cell-culture exposures. The results indicate that the biological response from ultra-intense X-ray exposures is similar to the response with conventional X-ray tubes. 82 refs., 14 figs.

  10. Bibliography of Soviet Laser Developments, No. 18, October - December 1974

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-25

    370. Golubeva, N. S . , V. 1. Kozintsev, V. N. Rozhdestvin, and V. P. Lebedenko (0). Synchronization of two solid scate lasers...Language Services Office 2 5 April 1975 DISTRIBUTED BY: D^ National Technical Information Service U. S . DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...Laser Components, Nonlinear Opt ic s , Spectroscopy of Laser Materials, Ultrashort Pulse Generation, Crystal Growing, Gamma Lasers

  11. New developments on ChemCam laser transmitter and potential applications for other planetology programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Benoît; Durand, Eric; Maurice, Sylvestre; Bruneau, Didier; Montmessin, Franck

    2017-11-01

    ChemCam is a LIBS Instrument mounted on the MSL 2011 NASA mission. The laser transmitter of this Instrument has been developed by the French society Thales Optronique (former Thales Laser) with a strong technical support from CNES. The paper will first rapidly present the performance of this laser and will then describe the postChemCam developments realized on and around this laser for new planetology programs.

  12. Developing maintenance technologies for FBR's heat exchanger units by advanced laser processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Akihiko; Shimada, Yukihiro

    2011-01-01

    Laser processing technologies were developed for the purpose of maintenance of FBR's heat exchanger units. Ultrashort laser processing fabricated fiber Bragg grating sensor for seismic monitoring. Fiber laser welding with a newly developed robot system repair cracks on inner wall of heat exchanger tubes. Safety operation of the heat exchanger units will be improved by the advanced laser processing technologies. These technologies are expected to be applied to the maintenance for the next generation FBRs. (author)

  13. High-brightness fiber-coupled pump laser development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kirk; Karlsen, Scott; Leisher, Paul; Martinsen, Robert

    2010-02-01

    We report on the continued development of high brightness laser diode modules at nLIGHT Photonics. These modules, based on nLIGHT's PearlTM product platform, demonstrate excellence in output power, brightness, wavelength stabilization, and long wavelength performance. This system, based on 14 single emitters, is designed to couple diode laser light into a 105 μm fiber at an excitation NA of under 0.14. We demonstrate over 100W of optical power at 9xx nm with a diode brightness exceeding 20 MW/cm2-str with an operating efficiency of approximately 50%. Additional results show over 70W of optical coupled at 8xx nm. Record brilliance at wavelengths 14xx nm and longer will also be demonstrated, with over 15 W of optical power with a beam quality of 7.5 mm-mrad. These results of high brightness, high efficiency, and wavelength stabilization demonstrate the pump technology required for next generation solid state and fiber lasers.

  14. Development of underwater YAG laser repair welding robots for tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miwa, Yasuhiro; Satoh, Syuichi; Ito, Kosuke; Kochi, Tsutomu; Kojima, Toshio; Ohwaki, Katsura; Morita, Ichiro

    1999-01-01

    A remote-controlled repair welding robot which uses YAG laser welding technology in underwater environment was developed. This is an underwater robot technology combined with a laser welding technology. This report will describe the structure and performance of this robot, and the welding test results. The repair welding robot consists of two parts. The one is driving equipment, and the other is welding unit. It can swim in the tank, move around the tank wall, and stay on the welding area. After that it starts YAG laser repair welding. The target of this technology is inner surface repair of some tanks made of austenitic stainless steel, for example RW (Radioactive Waste) tanks. A degradation by General Corrosion and so on might be occurred at inner surface of these tanks in BWR type nuclear power plants. If the damaged area is wide, repair welding works are done. Some workers go into the tank and set up scaffolding after full drainage. In many cases it spends too much time for draining water and repair welding preparation. If the repair welding works can be done in underwater environment, the outage period will be reduced. This is a great advantage. (author)

  15. Ignition parameters and early flame kernel development of laser-ignited combustible gas mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopecek, H.; Wintner, E.; Ruedisser, D.; Iskra, K.; Neger, T.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Laser induced breakdown of focused pulsed laser radiation, the subsequent plasma formation and thermalization offers a possibility of ignition of combustible gas mixtures free from electrode interferences, an arbitrary choice of the location within the medium and exact timing regardless of the degree of turbulence. The development and the decreasing costs of solid state laser technologies approach the pay-off for the higher complexity of such an ignition system due to several features unique to laser ignition. The feasability of laser ignition was demonstrated in an 1.5 MW(?) natural gas engine, and several investigations were performed to determine optimal ignition energies, focus shapes and laser wavelengths. The early flame kernel development was investigated by time resolved planar laser induced fluorescence of the OH-radical which occurs predominantly in the flame front. The flame front propagation showed typical features like toroidal initial flame development, flame front return and highly increased flame speed along the laser focus axis. (author)

  16. Development of calculation method for one-dimensional kinetic analysis in fission reactors, including feedback effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paixao, S.B.; Marzo, M.A.S.; Alvim, A.C.M.

    1986-01-01

    The calculation method used in WIGLE code is studied. Because of the non availability of such a praiseworthy solution, expounding the method minutely has been tried. This developed method has been applied for the solution of the one-dimensional, two-group, diffusion equations in slab, axial analysis, including non-boiling heat transfer, accountig for feedback. A steady-state program (CITER-1D), written in FORTRAN 4, has been implemented, providing excellent results, ratifying the developed work quality. (Author) [pt

  17. Development of laser weld monitoring system for PWR space grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Chin Man; Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Min Suk

    1998-06-01

    The laser welding monitoring system was developed to inspect PWR space grid welding for KNFC. The demands for this optical monitoring system were applied to Q.C. and process control in space grid welding. The thermal radiation signal from weld pool can be get the variation of weld pool size. The weld pool size and depth are verified by analyzed wavelength signals from weld pool. Applied this monitoring system in space grid weld, improved the weld productivity. (author). 4 refs., 5 tabs., 31 figs

  18. Development of Broadband Telecommunication System for Railways using Laser Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kazuki; Nakagawa, Shingo; Matsubara, Hiroshi; Tatsui, Daisuke; Seki, Kiyotaka; Haruyama, Shinichiro; Teraoka, Fumio

    We developed a high-speed telecommunication system applicable to railways, to improve customer service and efficiency of operator's telecommunication between the ground facilities and trains under operations. We manufactured a mobile telecommunication system, capable of recording the transfer rate of 1Gbps in theory by applying the laser beam communication technology. We carried out a field test using trains in active service, and obtained the result of the transfer rate of approximately 700Mbps on the TCP layer between the ground and the train running at a speed of approximately 130km/h.

  19. Latest development of high-power fiber lasers in SPI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Stephen; Zervas, Mikhail N.; Appleyard, Andrew; Durkin, Michael K.; Horley, Ray; Varnham, Malcolm P.; Nilsson, Johan; Jeong, Yoonchan

    2004-06-01

    High Power Fiber Lasers (HPFLs) and High Power Fiber Amplifiers (HPFAs) promise a number of benefits in terms of their high optical efficiency, degree of integration, beam quality, reliability, spatial compactness and thermal management. These benefits are driving the rapid adoption of HPFLs in an increasingly wide range of applications and power levels ranging from a few Watts, in for example analytical applications, to high-power >1kW materials processing (machining and welding) applications. This paper describes SPI"s innovative technologies, HPFL products and their performance capabilities. The paper highlights key aspects of the design basis and provides an overview of the applications space in both the industrial and aerospace domains. Single-fiber CW lasers delivering 1kW output power at 1080nm have been demonstrated and are being commercialized for aerospace and industrial applications with wall-plug efficiencies in the range 20 to 25%, and with beam parameter products in the range 0.5 to 100 mm.mrad (corresponding to M2 = 1.5 to 300) tailored to application requirements. At power levels in the 1 - 200 W range, SPI"s proprietary cladding-pumping technology, GTWaveTM, has been employed to produce completely fiber-integrated systems using single-emitter broad-stripe multimode pump diodes. This modular construction enables an agile and flexible approach to the configuration of a range of fiber laser / amplifier systems for operation in the 1080nm and 1550nm wavelength ranges. Reliability modeling is applied to determine Systems martins such that performance specifications are robustly met throughout the designed product lifetime. An extensive Qualification and Reliability-proving programme is underway to qualify the technology building blocks that are utilized for the fiber laser cavity, pump modules, pump-driver systems and thermo-mechanical management. In addition to the CW products, pulsed fiber lasers with pulse energies exceeding 1mJ with peak pulse

  20. Broadband laser ranging development at the DOE Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Corey V.; La Lone, Brandon M.; Younk, Patrick W.; Daykin, Ed P.; Rhodes, Michelle A.

    2017-02-01

    Broadband Laser Ranging (BLR) is a new diagnostic being developed in collaboration across multiple USA Dept. of Energy (DOE) facilities. Its purpose is to measure the precise position of surfaces and particle clouds moving at speeds of a few kilometers per second. The diagnostic uses spectral interferometry to encode distance into a modulation in the spectrum of pulses from a mode-locked fiber laser and uses a dispersive Fourier transformation to map the spectral modulation into time. This combination enables recording of range information in the time domain on a fast oscilloscope every 25-80 ns. Discussed here are some of the hardware design issues, system tradeoffs, calibration issues, and experimental results. BLR is being developed as an add-on to conventional Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) systems because PDV often yields incomplete information when lateral velocity components are present, or when there are drop-outs in the signal amplitude. In these cases, integration of the velocity from PDV can give incorrect displacement results. Experiments are now regularly fielded with over 100 channels of PDV, and BLR is being developed in a modular way to enable high channel counts of BLR and PDV recorded from the same probes pointed at the same target location. In this way instruments, will independently record surface velocity and distance information along the exact same path.

  1. Development of semiconductor laser based Doppler lidars for wind-sensing applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigo, Peter John; Hu, Qi; Pedersen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    We summarize the progress we have made in the development of semiconductor laser (SL) based Doppler lidar systems for remote wind speed and direction measurements. The SL emitter used in our wind-sensing lidar is an integrated diode laser with a tapered (semiconductor) amplifier. The laser source...

  2. Laser Drilling Development Trial Final Report CRADA No. TSB-1538-98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, M. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hebbar, R. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-11-01

    This project performed various laser drilling tests to demonstrate femtosecond laser drilling of fuel injector nozzles with minimal recast, minimal heat affected zone and no collateral damage. LLNL had extensive experience in ultra short-pulse laser systems and developed specialized hardware for these applications.

  3. Development of an observation and control system for industrial laser cladding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, Johannes Tjaard

    2009-01-01

    Laser cladding has become an important surface modification technique in today’s industry. It is not only applied for coating new products but also for repair and refurbishment as well as in rapid prototyping. A laser clad workstation has been developed. It uses a 4 kW Nd:YAG fibre coupled laser as

  4. The OSIRIS-REx laser altimeter (OLA): Development progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, M.; Barnouin, O.; Johnson, C.; Bierhaus, E.; Seabrook, J.; Dickinson, C.; Haltigin, T.; Gaudreau, D.; Brunet, C.; Cunningham, G.; Lauretta, D.; Boynton, W.; Beshore, E.

    2014-07-01

    Introduction: The NASA New Frontiers Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission will be the first to sample the B-type asteroid (101955) Bennu [1]. This asteroid is thought to be primitive and carbonaceous, and is probably closely related to CI and/or CM meteorites [2]. The OSIRIS-REx mission hopes to better understand both the physical and geochemical origin and evolution of carbonaceous asteroids through its investigation of Bennu. The OSIRIS-REx spacecraft will launch in September 2016, and arrive at Bennu two years later. The Canadian Space Agency is contributing a scanning lidar system known as the OSIRIS-REx Laser Altimeter (OLA), to the OSIRIS-REx Mission. The OLA instrument is part of suite of onboard instruments [3] including cameras (OCAMS) [4], a visible and near- infrared spectrometer (OVIRS) [5], a thermal emission spectrometer (OTES), and an X-ray imaging spectrometer (REXIS) [6]. OLA Objectives: The OLA instrument has a suite of scientific and mission operations purposes. At a global scale, it will update the shape and mass of Bennu to provide insights on the geological origin and evolution of Bennu, by, for example, further refining constraints on its bulk density. With a carefully undertaken geodesy campaign, OLA-based precision ranges, constraints from radio science (2-way tracking) data and stereo OCAMS images, it will yield broad-scale, quantitative constraints on any internal heterogeneity of Bennu and hence provide further clues to Bennu's origin and subsequent collisional evolution. OLA-derived global asteroid maps of slopes, elevation relative to the asteroid geoid, and vertical roughness will provide quantitative insights on how local-regional surfaces on Bennu evolved subsequent to the formation of the asteroid. In addition, OLA data and derived products support the assessment of the safety and sampleability of potential sample sites. At the sample-site scale, the OLA instrument

  5. Potassium titanyl phosphate laser tissue ablation: development and experimental validation of a new numerical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhalil, Hossam; Akkin, Taner; Pearce, John; Bischof, John

    2012-10-01

    The photoselective vaporization of prostate (PVP) green light (532 nm) laser is increasingly being used as an alternative to the transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in older patients and those who are poor surgical candidates. In order to achieve the goals of increased tissue removal volume (i.e., "ablation" in the engineering sense) and reduced collateral thermal damage during the PVP green light treatment, a two dimensional computational model for laser tissue ablation based on available parameters in the literature has been developed and compared to experiments. The model is based on the control volume finite difference and the enthalpy method with a mechanistically defined energy necessary to ablate (i.e., physically remove) a volume of tissue (i.e., energy of ablation E(ab)). The model was able to capture the general trends experimentally observed in terms of ablation and coagulation areas, their ratio (therapeutic index (TI)), and the ablation rate (AR) (mm(3)/s). The model and experiment were in good agreement at a smaller working distance (WD) (distance from the tissue in mm) and a larger scanning speed (SS) (laser scan speed in mm/s). However, the model and experiment deviated somewhat with a larger WD and a smaller SS; this is most likely due to optical shielding and heat diffusion in the laser scanning direction, which are neglected in the model. This model is a useful first step in the mechanistic prediction of PVP based BPH laser tissue ablation. Future modeling efforts should focus on optical shielding, heat diffusion in the laser scanning direction (i.e., including 3D effects), convective heat losses at the tissue boundary, and the dynamic optical, thermal, and coagulation properties of BPH tissue.

  6. Development of Advanced Wear and Corrosion Resistant Systems Through Laser Surface Alloying and Materials Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. P. Martukanitz and S. Babu

    2007-05-03

    precipitation of titanium carbonitrides during laser surface alloying provided there was sufficient amount of dissolved titanium, carbon, and nitrogen in the liquid steel. This was confirmed experimentally by using a powder mixture of 431-martensitic steel, titanium carbide powder, and nitrogen shielding, during laser deposition to produce deposits exhibiting relatively high hardness (average surface hardness of 724 HV). The same approach was extended to direct diode laser processing and similar microstructures were attained. The above analysis was extended to develop an in-situ precipitation of Ti(CN) during laser deposition. The Ti addition was achieving by mixing the 431 martensitic steel powders with ferro-titanium. The dissolution of nitrogen was achieved by using 100% nitrogen shielding gas, which was indicated by thermodynamic analysis. Demonstrations were also conducted utilizing the tools developed during the program and resulted in several viable composite coating systems being identified. This included the use of TiC and ferro-titanium in martensitic-grade stainless steel matrix material with and without the use of active N2 shielding gas, WC hard particles in a martensitic-grade stainless steel matrix material, WC and BN in a nickel-based matrix material, and WC in highly alloyed iron-based matrix. Although these demonstrations indicated the potential of forming composite coatings, in certain instances, the intended industrial applications involved unique requirements, such as coating of internal surfaces, which hindered the full development of the improved coating technology. However, it is believed that the addition of common hard particles, such as WC or TiC, to matrix material representing martensitic grades of stainless steel offer opportunities for improved performance at relatively low material cost.

  7. Development of superconducting acceleration cavity technology for free electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Min; Lee, Byung Cheol; Kim, Sun Kook; Jeong, Young Uk; Cho, Sung Oh

    2000-10-01

    As a result of the cooperative research between the KAERI and Peking University, the key technologies of superconducting acceleration cavity and photoelectron gun have been developed for the application to high power free electron lasers. A 1.5-GHz, 1-cell superconducting RF cavity has been designed and fabricated by using pure Nb sheets. The unloaded Q values of the fabricated superconducting cavity has been measured to be 2x10 9 at 2.5K, and 8x10 9 at 1.8K. The maximum acceleration gradient achieved was 12 MeV/m at 2.5K, and 20MV/m at 1.8 K. A cryostat for the 1-cell superconducting cavity has been designed. As a source of electron beam, a DC photocathode electron gun has been designed and fabricated, which is composed of a photocathode evaporation chamber and a 100-keV acceleration chamber. The efficiency of the Cs2Te photocathode is 3% nominally at room temperature, 10% at 290 deg C. The superconducting photoelectron gun system developed has been estimated to be a good source of high-brightness electron beam for high-power free electron lasers

  8. Development of superconducting acceleration cavity technology for free electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Min; Lee, Byung Cheol; Kim, Sun Kook; Jeong, Young Uk; Cho, Sung Oh

    2000-10-01

    As a result of the cooperative research between the KAERI and Peking University, the key technologies of superconducting acceleration cavity and photoelectron gun have been developed for the application to high power free electron lasers. A 1.5-GHz, 1-cell superconducting RF cavity has been designed and fabricated by using pure Nb sheets. The unloaded Q values of the fabricated superconducting cavity has been measured to be 2x10{sup 9} at 2.5K, and 8x10{sup 9} at 1.8K. The maximum acceleration gradient achieved was 12 MeV/m at 2.5K, and 20MV/m at 1.8 K. A cryostat for the 1-cell superconducting cavity has been designed. As a source of electron beam, a DC photocathode electron gun has been designed and fabricated, which is composed of a photocathode evaporation chamber and a 100-keV acceleration chamber. The efficiency of the Cs2Te photocathode is 3% nominally at room temperature, 10% at 290 deg C. The superconducting photoelectron gun system developed has been estimated to be a good source of high-brightness electron beam for high-power free electron lasers.

  9. Development of in-situ laser cutting technique for removal of single selected coolant channel from pressurized heavy water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishwakarma, S.C.; Upadhyaya, B.N.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the development of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser based cutting technique for removal of single coolant channel from pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR). It includes development of special tools/manipulators and optimization of laser cutting process parameters for cutting of liner tube, end fitting, bellow lip weld joint, and pressure tube stubs. For each cutting operation, a special tool with precision motion control is utilized. These manipulators/tools hold and move the laser cutting nozzle in the required manner and are fixed on the same coolant channel, which has to be removed. This laser cutting technique has been successfully deployed for removal of selected coolant channels Q-16, Q-15 and N-6 of KAPS-2 reactor with minimum radiation dose consumption and in short time. (author)

  10. Development of Ultra-sensitive Laser Spectroscopic Analysis Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, H. K.; Kim, D. H.; Song, K. S. (and others)

    2007-04-15

    Laser spectroscopic analysis technology has three distinct merits in detecting various nuclides found in nuclear fields. High selectivity originated from small bandwidth of tunable lasers makes it possible to distinguish various kinds of isotopes and isomers. High intensity of focused laser beam makes it possible to analyze ultratrace amount. Remote delivery of laser beam improves safety of workers who are exposed in dangerous environment. Also it can be applied to remote sensing of environment pollution.

  11. Development of Ultra-sensitive Laser Spectroscopic Analysis Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, H. K.; Kim, D. H.; Song, K. S.

    2007-04-01

    Laser spectroscopic analysis technology has three distinct merits in detecting various nuclides found in nuclear fields. High selectivity originated from small bandwidth of tunable lasers makes it possible to distinguish various kinds of isotopes and isomers. High intensity of focused laser beam makes it possible to analyze ultratrace amount. Remote delivery of laser beam improves safety of workers who are exposed in dangerous environment. Also it can be applied to remote sensing of environment pollution

  12. Barium Nitrate Raman Laser Development for Remote Sensing of Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCray, Christopher L.; Chyba, Thomas H.

    1997-01-01

    In order to understand the impact of anthropogenic emissions upon the earth's environment, scientists require remote sensing techniques which are capable of providing range-resolved measurements of clouds, aerosols, and the concentrations of several chemical constituents of the atmosphere. The differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique is a very promising method to measure concentration profiles of chemical species such as ozone and water vapor as well as detect the presence of aerosols and clouds. If a suitable DIAL system could be deployed in space, it would provide a global data set of tremendous value. Such systems, however, need to be compact, reliable, and very efficient. In order to measure atmospheric gases with the DIAL technique, the laser transmitter must generate suitable on-line and off-line wavelength pulse pairs. The on-line pulse is resonant with an absorption feature of the species of interest. The off-line pulse is tuned so that it encounters significantly less absorption. The relative backscattered power for the two pulses enables the range-resolved concentration to be computed. Preliminary experiments at NASA LaRC suggested that the solid state Raman shifting material, Ba(NO3)2, could be utilized to produce these pulse pairs. A Raman oscillator pumped at 532 nm by a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser can create first Stokes laser output at 563 nm and second Stokes output at 599 nm. With frequency doublers, UV output at 281 nm and 299 nm can be subsequently obtained. This all-solid state system has the potential to be very efficient, compact, and reliable. Raman shifting in Ba(NO3)2, has previously been performed in both the visible and the infrared. The first Raman oscillator in the visible region was investigated in 1986 with the configurations of plane-plane and unstable telescopic resonators. However, most of the recent research has focused on the development of infrared sources for eye-safe lidar applications.

  13. Sensor development and integration for robotized laser welding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iakovou, D.

    2009-01-01

    Laser welding requires fast and accurate positioning of the laser beam over the seam trajectory. The task of accurate positioning of the laser tools is performed by robotic systems. It is therefore necessary to teach the robot the path it has to follow. Seam teaching is implemented in several ways:

  14. The Watts-Strogatz network model developed by including degree distribution: theory and computer simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y W [Surface Physics Laboratory and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhang, L F [Surface Physics Laboratory and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Huang, J P [Surface Physics Laboratory and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2007-07-20

    By using theoretical analysis and computer simulations, we develop the Watts-Strogatz network model by including degree distribution, in an attempt to improve the comparison between characteristic path lengths and clustering coefficients predicted by the original Watts-Strogatz network model and those of the real networks with the small-world property. Good agreement between the predictions of the theoretical analysis and those of the computer simulations has been shown. It is found that the developed Watts-Strogatz network model can fit the real small-world networks more satisfactorily. Some other interesting results are also reported by adjusting the parameters in a model degree-distribution function. The developed Watts-Strogatz network model is expected to help in the future analysis of various social problems as well as financial markets with the small-world property.

  15. The Watts-Strogatz network model developed by including degree distribution: theory and computer simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y W; Zhang, L F; Huang, J P

    2007-01-01

    By using theoretical analysis and computer simulations, we develop the Watts-Strogatz network model by including degree distribution, in an attempt to improve the comparison between characteristic path lengths and clustering coefficients predicted by the original Watts-Strogatz network model and those of the real networks with the small-world property. Good agreement between the predictions of the theoretical analysis and those of the computer simulations has been shown. It is found that the developed Watts-Strogatz network model can fit the real small-world networks more satisfactorily. Some other interesting results are also reported by adjusting the parameters in a model degree-distribution function. The developed Watts-Strogatz network model is expected to help in the future analysis of various social problems as well as financial markets with the small-world property

  16. Development of Faraday rotators for high power glass laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kunio; Kato, Yoshiaki; Yamanaka, Chiyoe.

    1980-01-01

    As a new approach to nuclear fusion, laser-induced fusion has been recently highlighted. It is no exaggeration to say that the future success of this technique depends on the development of high power laser as the energy driver. Faraday rotators are used as photo-diodes to prevent amplifiers and oscillator assemblies from the possibility to be broken by reversely transmitting light. The authors were able to increase the isolation ratio by about 10 times as compared with conventional one by employing the large performance index, disc type Faraday glass, FR-5. In this paper, first, Faraday glasses which are the composing element of Faraday rotators and the optical characteristics of dielectric thin-film polarizers are described, and next, the design of a magnetic coil and its resulting coil characteristics are reported. Then the dominant causes limiting the isolation ratio of Faraday rotators are investigated, and it is clarified that the residual strain in Faraday glasses and the non-uniformity of magnetic field affect predominantly. The measured results are as follows: The magnetic flux densities required to rotate by 45 deg the polarizing plane of the light transmitted through the Faraday rotators A and B are both 27 kG; and the isolation ratios over the whole effective plane are 36 and 32 dB, respectively. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  17. Parametric study of development of Inconel-steel functionally graded materials by laser direct metal deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Kamran; Haq, Izhar ul; Khan, Ashfaq; Shah, Shaukat Ali; Khan, Mushtaq; Pinkerton, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Functionally graded steel and nickel super-alloy structures have been developed. • Mechanical properties of FGMs can be controlled by process input parameters. • SDAS is strongly dependent on the laser power and powder mass flow rate. • Carbides provide a mechanism to control the hardness and wear resistance of FGM. • Tensile strength of FGM is dependent on the laser power and powder mass flow rate. - Abstract: Laser direct metal deposition (LDMD) has developed from a prototyping to a single and multiple metals manufacturing technique. It offers an opportunity to produce graded components, with differing elemental composition, phase and microstructure at different locations. In this work, continuously graded Stainless Steel 316L and Inconel 718 thin wall structures made by direct laser metal deposition process have been explored. The paper considers the effects of process parameters including laser power levels and powder mass flow rates of SS316L and Inconel 718 during the deposition of the Steel–Ni graded structures. Microstructure characterisation and phase identification are performed by optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. Mechanical testing, using methods such as hardness, wear resistance and tensile testing have been carried out on the structures. XRD results show the presence of the NbC and Fe 2 Nb phases formed during the deposition. The effect of experimental parameters on the microstructure and physical properties are determined and discussed. Work shows that mechanical properties can be controlled by input parameters and generation of carbides provides an opportunity to selectively control the hardness and wear resistance of the functionally graded material

  18. Optical design and development of a fiber coupled high-power diode laser system for laser transmission welding of plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Vidal, Eva; Quintana, Iban; Etxarri, Jon; Azkorbebeitia, Urko; Otaduy, Deitze; González, Francisco; Moreno, Fernando

    2012-12-01

    Laser transmission welding (LTW) of thermoplastics is a direct bonding technique already used in different industrial applications sectors such as automobiles, microfluidics, electronics, and biomedicine. LTW evolves localized heating at the interface of two pieces of plastic to be joined. One of the plastic pieces needs to be optically transparent to the laser radiation whereas the other part has to be absorbent, being that the radiation produced by high power diode lasers is a good alternative for this process. As consequence, a tailored laser system has been designed and developed to obtain high quality weld seams with weld widths between 0.7 and 1.4 mm. The developed laser system consists of two diode laser bars (50 W per bar) coupled into an optical fiber using a nonimaging solution: equalization of the beam parameter product (BPP) in the slow and fast axes by a pair of step-mirrors. The power scaling was carried out by means of a multiplexing polarization technique. The analysis of energy balance and beam quality was performed considering ray tracing simulation (ZEMAX) and experimental validation. The welding experiments were conducted on acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene (ABS), a thermoplastic frequently used in automotive, electronics and aircraft applications, doped with two different concentrations of carbon nanotubes (0.01% and 0.05% CNTs). Quality of the weld seams on ABS was analyzed in terms of the process parameters (welding speed, laser power and clamping pressure) by visual and optical microscope inspections. Mechanical properties of weld seams were analyzed by mechanical shear tests. High quality weld seams were produced in ABS, revealing the potential of the laser developed in this work for a wide range of plastic welding applications.

  19. Developing laser ablation in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source for actinide detection with AMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauder, W. [Argonne National Laboratory, Physics Division, 9600 S. Cass Ave, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); University of Notre Dame, Nuclear Science Laboratory, 124 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Pardo, R.C.; Kondev, F.G.; Kondrashev, S.; Nair, C.; Nusair, O. [Argonne National Laboratory, Physics Division, 9600 S. Cass Ave, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Palchan, T. [Hebrew University, Racah Institute of Physics, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Scott, R.; Seweryniak, D.; Vondrasek, R. [Argonne National Laboratory, Physics Division, 9600 S. Cass Ave, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Collon, P. [University of Notre Dame, Nuclear Science Laboratory, 124 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Paul, M. [Hebrew University, Racah Institute of Physics, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2015-10-15

    A laser ablation material injection system has been developed at the ATLAS electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source for use in accelerator mass spectrometry experiments. Beam production with laser ablation initially suffered from instabilities due to fluctuations in laser energy and cratering on the sample surface by the laser. However, these instabilities were rectified by applying feedback correction for the laser energy and rastering the laser across the sample surface. An initial experiment successfully produced and accelerated low intensity actinide beams with up to 1000 counts per second. With continued development, laser ablation shows promise as an alternative material injection scheme for ECR ion sources and may help substantially reduce cross talk in the source.

  20. Heparanase-1 activities in the development of laser induced choroidal neovascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Ke Hou

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the role of heparanase-1 in laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV.METHODS:Experimental CNV was induced by krypton laser photocoagulation in 15 male Brown Norway rats. Fundus fluorescein angiography and histopathological examination were performed in observing the CNV development. The expression and distribution of heparanase-1 protein in the laser lesions were determined by immunohistochemistry and western blotting analysis.RESULTS:The success rate of laser induced CNV was approximately 75% on 3-4 weeks after laser photocoagulation. The protein levels of heparanase-1 increased significantly in the retina-choroidal complex of CNV models when compared to normal rat eyes (P<0.01. Immunostaining confirmed strong heparanase-1 expressions in all laser lesions, and it displayed to be highest at the newly formed blood vessels within the fibrovascular complex in the subretinal space.CONCLUSION:Heparanase-1 is closely involved in the development of laser induced CNV.

  1. Ceramic Laser Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Villalobos

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic laser materials have come a long way since the first demonstration of lasing in 1964. Improvements in powder synthesis and ceramic sintering as well as novel ideas have led to notable achievements. These include the first Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG ceramic laser in 1995, breaking the 1 KW mark in 2002 and then the remarkable demonstration of more than 100 KW output power from a YAG ceramic laser system in 2009. Additional developments have included highly doped microchip lasers, ultrashort pulse lasers, novel materials such as sesquioxides, fluoride ceramic lasers, selenide ceramic lasers in the 2 to 3 μm region, composite ceramic lasers for better thermal management, and single crystal lasers derived from polycrystalline ceramics. This paper highlights some of these notable achievements.

  2. Ceramic Laser Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghera, Jasbinder; Kim, Woohong; Villalobos, Guillermo; Shaw, Brandon; Baker, Colin; Frantz, Jesse; Sadowski, Bryan; Aggarwal, Ishwar

    2012-01-01

    Ceramic laser materials have come a long way since the first demonstration of lasing in 1964. Improvements in powder synthesis and ceramic sintering as well as novel ideas have led to notable achievements. These include the first Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) ceramic laser in 1995, breaking the 1 KW mark in 2002 and then the remarkable demonstration of more than 100 KW output power from a YAG ceramic laser system in 2009. Additional developments have included highly doped microchip lasers, ultrashort pulse lasers, novel materials such as sesquioxides, fluoride ceramic lasers, selenide ceramic lasers in the 2 to 3 μm region, composite ceramic lasers for better thermal management, and single crystal lasers derived from polycrystalline ceramics. This paper highlights some of these notable achievements. PMID:28817044

  3. The effect of prepulse on x-ray laser development using a powerful subpicosecond KrF* laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, C.H.; Tighe, W.; Valeo, E.; Suckewer, S.

    1990-03-01

    A high power uv laser has been developed as a pump source for short wavelength (down to 1 nm) x-ray lasers. Various schemes are considered and theoretical analysis is discussed. Spectroscopic studies of laser-target interaction have been performed and, in particular, the effect of a prepulse on plasma generation has been investigated. Analysis of the observed spectra indicates that reduction of the prepulse energy results in a higher temperature plasma. Investigation of the interaction using thin layered targets is also presented. These data provide evidence for initially hot plasma conditions generated from target layers ≤150 angstrom. Discussions of proposed laser schemes at 1-5 nm are presented. 45 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  4. Development of a versatile laser light scattering instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, William V.; Ansari, Rafat R.

    1990-10-01

    A versatile laser light scattering (LLS) instrument is developed for use in microgravity to measure microscopic particles of 30 A to above 3 microns. Since it is an optical technique, LLS does not affect the sample being studied. A LLS instrument built from modules allows several configurations, each optimized for a particular experiment. The multiangle LLS instrument can be mounted in the rack in the Space Shuttle and on Space Station Freedom. It is possible that a Space Shuttle glove-box and a lap-top computer containing a correlator card can be used to perform a number of experiments and to demonstrate the technology needed for more elaborate investigations. This offers simple means of flying a great number of experiments without the additional requirements of full-scale flight hardware experiments.

  5. Solid State Laser Technology Development for Atmospheric Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, James C.

    1998-01-01

    NASA atmospheric scientists are currently planning active remote sensing missions that will enable global monitoring of atmospheric ozone, water vapor, aerosols and clouds as well as global wind velocity. The measurements of these elements and parameters are important because of the effects they have on climate change, atmospheric chemistry and dynamics, atmospheric transport and, in general, the health of the planet. NASA will make use of Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) and backscatter lidar techniques for active remote sensing of molecular constituents and atmospheric phenomena from advanced high-altitude aircraft and space platforms. This paper provides an overview of NASA Langley Research Center's (LaRC's) development of advanced solid state lasers, harmonic generators, and wave mixing techniques aimed at providing the broad range of wavelengths necessary to meet measurement goals of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise.

  6. Development of Smart Precision Forest in Conifer Plantation in Japan Using Laser Scanning Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, M.; Deng, S.; Takenaka, Y.; Cheung, K.; Oono, K.; Horisawa, M.; Hyyppä, J.; Yu, X.; Liang, X.; Wang, Y.

    2017-10-01

    Currently, the authors are planning to launch a consortium effort toward Japan's first smart precision forestry project using laser data and to develop this technology throughout the country. Smart precision forestry information gathered using the Nagano model (laser scanning from aircraft, drone, and backpack) is being developed to improve the sophistication of forest information, reduce labor-intensive work, maintain sustainable timber productivity, and facilitate supply chain management by laser sensing information in collaboration with industry, academia, and government. In this paper, we outline the research project and the technical development situation of unmanned aerial vehicle laser scanning.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF SMART PRECISION FOREST IN CONIFER PLANTATION IN JAPAN USING LASER SCANNING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Katoh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the authors are planning to launch a consortium effort toward Japan’s first smart precision forestry project using laser data and to develop this technology throughout the country. Smart precision forestry information gathered using the Nagano model (laser scanning from aircraft, drone, and backpack is being developed to improve the sophistication of forest information, reduce labor-intensive work, maintain sustainable timber productivity, and facilitate supply chain management by laser sensing information in collaboration with industry, academia, and government. In this paper, we outline the research project and the technical development situation of unmanned aerial vehicle laser scanning.

  8. Development of laser excited atomic fluorescence and ionization methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winefordner, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    Progress report: May 1, 1988 to December 31, 1991. The research supported by DE-FG05-88ER13881 during the past (nearly) 3 years can be divided into the following four categories: (1) theoretical considerations of the ultimate detection powers of laser fluorescence and laser ionization methods; (2) experimental evaluation of laser excited atomic fluorescence; (3) fundamental studies of atomic and molecular parameters in flames and plasmas; (4) other studies

  9. International collaboration including patients is essential to develop new therapies for patients with myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Ingrid E; Vencovsky, Jiri

    2017-05-01

    To discuss the needs for international collaborations between investigators in different disciplines working with myositis and with patients with myositis. Recent advances in detection of several myositis-specific autoantibodies that are associated with distinct clinical phenotypes, will enable studies in new well defined clinically homogenous subgroups of myositis This is likely to lead to development of new information on molecular pathogenesis that might be different in different myositis subgroups. Subgrouping patients according to autoantibody profile may also be important to assess outcome, to identify prognostic biomarkers and in clinical trials. As these are rare disorders international collaboration is essential to enrol large enough cohorts of the subgroups. To facilitate such collaboration we have developed a web-based international myositis register, www.euromyositis.eu, which includes validated outcome measures and patient reported outcome measures. This register is to support research but also to support decision-making in the clinic. We welcome investigators to join the Euromyositis register. Myositis is a heterogeneous disorder with varying treatment response and outcome. There is a high unmet need for new therapies which can only be achieved by increased knowledge on molecular disease mechanisms. Subgrouping patients according to autoantibody profile may be a new way forward to get a better understanding on disease mechanisms and to develop novel therapies.

  10. Unsaturated Seepage Analysis of Cracked Soil including Development Process of Cracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cracks in soil provide preferential pathways for water flow and their morphological parameters significantly affect the hydraulic conductivity of the soil. To study the hydraulic properties of cracks, the dynamic development of cracks in the expansive soil during drying and wetting has been measured in the laboratory. The test results enable the development of the relationships between the cracks morphological parameters and the water content. In this study, the fractal model has been used to predict the soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC of the cracked soil, including the developmental process of the cracks. The cracked expansive soil has been considered as a crack-pore medium. A dual media flow model has been developed to simulate the seepage characteristics of the cracked expansive soil. The variations in pore water pressure at different part of the model are quite different due to the impact of the cracks. This study proves that seepage characteristics can be better predicted if the impact of cracks is taken into account.

  11. Supermarket revolution in Asia and emerging development strategies to include small farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Thomas; Timmer, C Peter; Minten, Bart

    2012-07-31

    A "supermarket revolution" has occurred in developing countries in the past 2 decades. We focus on three specific issues that reflect the impact of this revolution, particularly in Asia: continuity in transformation, innovation in transformation, and unique development strategies. First, the record shows that the rapid growth observed in the early 2000s in China, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand has continued, and the "newcomers"--India and Vietnam--have grown even faster. Although foreign direct investment has been important, the roles of domestic conglomerates and even state investment have been significant and unique. Second, Asia's supermarket revolution has exhibited unique pathways of retail diffusion and procurement system change. There has been "precocious" penetration of rural towns by rural supermarkets and rural business hubs, emergence of penetration of fresh produce retail that took much longer to initiate in other regions, and emergence of Asian retail developing-country multinational chains. In procurement, a symbiosis between modern retail and the emerging and consolidating modern food processing and logistics sectors has arisen. Third, several approaches are being tried to link small farmers to supermarkets. Some are unique to Asia, for example assembling into a "hub" or "platform" or "park" the various companies and services that link farmers to modern markets. Other approaches relatively new to Asia are found elsewhere, especially in Latin America, including "bringing modern markets to farmers" by establishing collection centers and multipronged collection cum service provision arrangements, and forming market cooperatives and farmer companies to help small farmers access supermarkets.

  12. Development of a nomogram for femtosecond laser astigmatic keratotomy for astigmatism after keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Clair, Ryan M; Sharma, Anushree; Huang, David; Yu, Fei; Goldich, Yakov; Rootman, David; Yoo, Sonia; Cabot, Florence; Jun, Jason; Zhang, Lijun; Aldave, Anthony J

    2016-04-01

    To develop a nomogram for femtosecond laser astigmatic keratotomy (AK) to treat post-keratoplasty astigmatism. Three academic medical centers. Retrospective interventional case series. A review of post-keratoplasty femtosecond laser AK was performed. Uncorrected (UDVA) and corrected (CDVA) distance visual acuities, manifest refraction, and keratometry were recorded preoperatively and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. The location, length, depth, and diameter of the AK incisions were recorded, and the surgically induced astigmatic correction was related to these variables using regression analysis. One hundred forty femtosecond laser AK procedures were performed after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) (n = 129) or deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) (n =11), with 89 procedures (80 PKP, 9 DALK) included in the analysis. The mean CDVA improved from 20/59 (0.47 logMAR ± 0.38 [SD]) preoperatively to 20/45 (0.35 ± 0.31 logMAR) postoperatively (P = .013) (n = 46). The mean keratometric astigmatism decreased from 8.26 ± 2.90 diopters (D) preoperatively to 3.62 ± 2.59 D postoperatively (P AK to treat post-keratoplasty astigmatism was generated using regression analysis. Femtosecond laser AK significantly improved UDVA and CDVA and significantly reduced keratometric astigmatism and refractive cylinder after keratoplasty. The nomogram generated should improve the accuracy of post-keratoplasty femtosecond laser AK. None of the authors has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of small scale soft x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D.; Suckewer, S.; Princeton Univ., NJ; Skinner, C.H.; Voorhees, D.

    1991-05-01

    At present rapid progress is being made in the application of soft x-ray lasers to fields such as microscopy and microlithography. A critical factor in the range of suitable applications is the scale and hence cost of the soft x-ray lasers. At Princeton, gain at 183 angstrom has been obtained with relatively low pump laser energies (as low as 6J) in a ''portable'' small-scale soft x-ray laser system. We will also discuss aspects of data interpretation and pitfalls to be avoided in measurements of gain in such systems. 14 refs., 7 figs

  14. Design and development of equipment for laser wire stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, W. F.

    1977-01-01

    Three laser wire strippers have been built for the stripping of Kapton-insulated wire, the baseline wire of the space shuttle orbiter. The strippers are: (1) a bench-model stripper powered with a cw CO2 10.6-micron laser, (2) a hand-held stripper powered with a cw 1.06-micron Nd-YAG laser with an output of 5-7 watts, and (3) a hand-held stripper with a five-inch-long CO2 laser inside the stripping head.

  15. Development of laser cladding system to repair wall thinning of 1-inch heat exchanger tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Takaya

    2013-01-01

    We developed a laser cladding system to repair the inner wall wastage of heat exchanger tubes. Our system, which is designed to repair thinning tube walls within 100 mm from the edge of a heat exchanger tube, consists of a fiber laser, a composite-type optical fiberscope, a coupling device, a laser processing head, and a wire-feeding device. All of these components were reconfigured from the technologies of FBR maintenance. The laser processing head, which has a 15-mm outer diameter, was designed to be inserted into a 1-inch heat exchanger tube. We mounted a heatproof broadband mirror for laser cladding and fiberscope observation with visible light inside the laser processing head. The wire-feeding device continuously supplied 0.4-mm wire to the laser irradiation spot with variable feeding speeds from 0.5 to 20 mm/s. We are planning to apply our proposed system to the maintenance of aging industrial plants. (author)

  16. Development of laser cladding technology for maintenance of pipe wall thinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Takaya; Nishimura, Akihiko; Oka, Kiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    We are developing the laser welding and cladding device for the maintenance of heat exchanger pipes. In the case of flow accelerated corrosion where pipe wall thinning occurred after a long time operation, laser cladding is mostly expected. A laser processing head was proposed in order to access the pipe wall. A composite-type optical fiber scope was used for real time observation and laser processing. An air-cooled compact fiber laser was used for spot heating. We present the concept of the laser cladding device which have the following features: 1) Wire feeding modules, 2) Module capable of laser irradiation in the vertical heat exchanger pipe, 3) Assist gas injection module. (author)

  17. Physics of laser fusion. Volume IV. The future development of high-power solid-state laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmett, J.L.; Krupke, W.F.; Trenholme, J.B.

    1982-11-01

    Solid state lasers, particularly neodymium glass systems, have undergone intensive development during the last decade. In this paper, we review solid state laser technology in the context of high-peak-power systems for inertial confinement fusion. Specifically addressed are five major factors: efficiency, wavelength flexibility, average power, system complexity, and cost; these factors today limit broader application of the technology. We conclude that each of these factors can be greatly improved within current fundamental physical limits. We further conclude that the systematic development of new solid state laser madia, both vitreous and crystalline, should ultimately permit the development of wavelength-flexible, very high average power systems with overall efficiencies in the range of 10 to 20%

  18. Development of Reference Equations of State for Refrigerant Mixtures Including Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Koichi

    In recent years, most accurate equations of state for alternative refrigerants and their mixtures can easily be used via convenient software package, e.g., REFPROP. In the present paper, we described the current state-of-the-art equations of state for refrigerant mixtures including hydrocarbons as components. Throughout our discussion, the limitation of the available experimental data and the necessity of the improvement against the arbitrary fitting of recent modeling were confirmed. The enough number of reliable experimental data, especially for properties in the higher pressures and temperatures and for derived properties, should be accumulated in the near future for the development of the physically-sound theoretical background. The present review argued about the possibility of the progress for the future thermodynamic property modeling throughout the detailed discussion regarding the several types of the equations of state as well as the recent innovative measurement technique.

  19. International linking of research and development on the model of Laser Centre Hanover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowitzki, Klaus-Dieter; Boedecker, Olaf

    2005-10-01

    Asia is becoming one of the most important regions in the world from the political, economic and scientific point of view. Germany believes that it is becoming increasingly necessary to cooperate with certain Asian countries especially for scientific and technological reasons. Above and beyond exchanges of scientists, the scientific and technological cooperation will be organized to cover projects with specific targets and to find solutions to important problems. International economic development is characterized by a mixture of competition and cooperation within the context of growing globalization. Germany, being one of the world's largest exporting nation, must therefore combine its active role in cooperation with these countries in the fields of education, research and innovation with economic cooperation. The Laser Centre Hanover pursues the goal of establishing and operating a Chinese German center for training and further education in laser technology and setting up a joint platform for long-term German Chinese cooperation in laser technology. An optimized training infrastructure combined with modern production processes support consequently long-term German businesses in China and secures their market-shares. LZH establishes Laser academies for skilled workers and technical decision makers in Shanghai and Changchun together with local universities and German partners. Due to the economic growth, Russia records since more than two years, the economic conditions are improving the cooperation between Germany and Russia step-by-step. The main goal of Russian science-politics is to stabilize an efficient scientific-technical potential with better chances in the global competition. The German-Russian scientific and technological cooperation plays an important role in this context. It has considerably increased in the last years in terms of width and depth and virtually includes all areas of science and technology at present. The region around Moscow is regarded

  20. Economic assessment of S-prism including development and generating costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boardman, Ch.E. [GE Nuclear Energy San Jose (United States)

    2001-07-01

    S-PRISM is an advanced Fast Reactor plant design that utilizes compact modular pool-type reactors sized to enable factory fabrication and an affordable prototype test of a single Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) for design certification at minimum cost and risk. S-PRISM retains all of the key ALMR (advanced liquid metal reactor) design features including passive reactor shutdown, passive shutdown heat removal, and passive reactor cavity cooling that were developed under an earlier DOE program. Key factors that make S-PRISM competitive include: 1) The use of passive safety systems that eliminate the need for diesel generators and hardened active heat sinks to assure that sufficient heat is removed from the core, reactor, and containment systems following design and beyond design basis events. 2) A seven point advantage in the plant capacity factor (93 versus 86%) over a single large plant. 3) A much shorter construction schedule (45%) made possible by a modular design that allows near parallel (sequenced) construction of three relatively small, simple factory fabricated NSSSs instead of one large complex NSSS. This paper describes the approach, methods, and results of an in-depth economic assessment of S-PRISM. The assessment found that the generation cost from an NOAK plant would be less than 3 cents/kW-hr and that a design certification could be obtained in less than 15 years at a cost of 2.1 billion dollars. (authors)

  1. Development process of muzzle flows including a gun-launched missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Changfei

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerical investigations on the launch process of a gun-launched missile from the muzzle of a cannon to the free-flight stage have been performed in this paper. The dynamic overlapped grids approach are applied to dealing with the problems of a moving gun-launched missile. The high-resolution upwind scheme (AUSMPW+ and the detailed reaction kinetics model are adopted to solve the chemical non-equilibrium Euler equations for dynamic grids. The development process and flow field structure of muzzle flows including a gun-launched missile are discussed in detail. This present numerical study confirms that complicated transient phenomena exist in the shortly launching stages when the gun-launched missile moves from the muzzle of a cannon to the free-flight stage. The propellant gas flows, the initial environmental ambient air flows and the moving missile mutually couple and interact. A complete structure of flow field is formed at the launching stages, including the blast wave, base shock, reflected shock, incident shock, shear layer, primary vortex ring and triple point.

  2. Economic assessment of S-prism including development and generating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, Ch.E.

    2001-01-01

    S-PRISM is an advanced Fast Reactor plant design that utilizes compact modular pool-type reactors sized to enable factory fabrication and an affordable prototype test of a single Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) for design certification at minimum cost and risk. S-PRISM retains all of the key ALMR (advanced liquid metal reactor) design features including passive reactor shutdown, passive shutdown heat removal, and passive reactor cavity cooling that were developed under an earlier DOE program. Key factors that make S-PRISM competitive include: 1) The use of passive safety systems that eliminate the need for diesel generators and hardened active heat sinks to assure that sufficient heat is removed from the core, reactor, and containment systems following design and beyond design basis events. 2) A seven point advantage in the plant capacity factor (93 versus 86%) over a single large plant. 3) A much shorter construction schedule (45%) made possible by a modular design that allows near parallel (sequenced) construction of three relatively small, simple factory fabricated NSSSs instead of one large complex NSSS. This paper describes the approach, methods, and results of an in-depth economic assessment of S-PRISM. The assessment found that the generation cost from an NOAK plant would be less than 3 cents/kW-hr and that a design certification could be obtained in less than 15 years at a cost of 2.1 billion dollars. (authors)

  3. Development of a high power free-electron laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Min; Lee, Byung Chul; Kim, Sun Kook; Jung, Yung Wook; Cho, Sung Oh [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-01-01

    A millimeter-wave free electron laser (FEL) driven by a recirculating electrostatic accelerator has been developed. The wavelength of the FEL is tunable in the range of 3 - 12 mm by tuning the energy of the electron beam. The output power is estimated to be 1 kW. The electrostatic accelerator is composed of high-current electron gun, acceleration tube, high-voltage generator, high-voltage terminal, deceleration tube, electron collator, and vacuum pumps. Two types of LaB{sub 6}-based thermionic electron guns (triode gun and diode gun) and their power supplies have been developed. The voltage of the guns is 30 kV and the output current is - 2 A. A beam-focusing planar undulator and a permanent-magnet helical undulator have been developed and 3D trajectories of electron beam in the undulators have been calculated to find optimal input condition of electron beam. 135 figs, 15 pix, 17 tabs, 98 refs. (Author).

  4. Development of a high power free-electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Min; Lee, Byung Chul; Kim, Sun Kook; Jung, Yung Wook; Cho, Sung Oh

    1995-01-01

    A millimeter-wave free electron laser (FEL) driven by a recirculating electrostatic accelerator has been developed. The wavelength of the FEL is tunable in the range of 3 - 12 mm by tuning the energy of the electron beam. The output power is estimated to be 1 kW. The electrostatic accelerator is composed of high-current electron gun, acceleration tube, high-voltage generator, high-voltage terminal, deceleration tube, electron collator, and vacuum pumps. Two types of LaB 6 -based thermionic electron guns (triode gun and diode gun) and their power supplies have been developed. The voltage of the guns is 30 kV and the output current is - 2 A. A beam-focusing planar undulator and a permanent-magnet helical undulator have been developed and 3D trajectories of electron beam in the undulators have been calculated to find optimal input condition of electron beam. 135 figs, 15 pix, 17 tabs, 98 refs. (Author)

  5. Development method of Hybrid Energy Storage System, including PEM fuel cell and a battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ustinov, A; Khayrullina, A; Khmelik, M; Sveshnikova, A; Borzenko, V

    2016-01-01

    Development of fuel cell (FC) and hydrogen metal-hydride storage (MH) technologies continuously demonstrate higher efficiency rates and higher safety, as hydrogen is stored at low pressures of about 2 bar in a bounded state. A combination of a FC/MH system with an electrolyser, powered with a renewable source, allows creation of an almost fully autonomous power system, which could potentially replace a diesel-generator as a back-up power supply. However, the system must be extended with an electro-chemical battery to start-up the FC and compensate the electric load when FC fails to deliver the necessary power. Present paper delivers the results of experimental and theoretical investigation of a hybrid energy system, including a proton exchange membrane (PEM) FC, MH- accumulator and an electro-chemical battery, development methodology for such systems and the modelling of different battery types, using hardware-in-the-loop approach. The economic efficiency of the proposed solution is discussed using an example of power supply of a real town of Batamai in Russia. (paper)

  6. Development method of Hybrid Energy Storage System, including PEM fuel cell and a battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinov, A.; Khayrullina, A.; Borzenko, V.; Khmelik, M.; Sveshnikova, A.

    2016-09-01

    Development of fuel cell (FC) and hydrogen metal-hydride storage (MH) technologies continuously demonstrate higher efficiency rates and higher safety, as hydrogen is stored at low pressures of about 2 bar in a bounded state. A combination of a FC/MH system with an electrolyser, powered with a renewable source, allows creation of an almost fully autonomous power system, which could potentially replace a diesel-generator as a back-up power supply. However, the system must be extended with an electro-chemical battery to start-up the FC and compensate the electric load when FC fails to deliver the necessary power. Present paper delivers the results of experimental and theoretical investigation of a hybrid energy system, including a proton exchange membrane (PEM) FC, MH- accumulator and an electro-chemical battery, development methodology for such systems and the modelling of different battery types, using hardware-in-the-loop approach. The economic efficiency of the proposed solution is discussed using an example of power supply of a real town of Batamai in Russia.

  7. Development of a 100 W, single frequency, CW Nd:YAG Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veitch, P.J.; Mudge, D.; Munch, J.; Hamilton, M.W.; Ostermeyer, M.; Hosken, D.; Brooks, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: High power, diode-laser-pumped, continuous wave (cw) solid-state lasers with excellent beam quality, efficiency and reliability are required for demanding applications, including gravitational wave interferometry, where current additional requirements include single frequency, low noise and Nd:YAG. Our approach is a chain of injection locked laser oscillators, theoretically capable of achieving the lowest noise possible. We use a single-frequency (100 mW) master laser to injection lock a medium-power (10 W) laser that in turn injection locks a 100 W laser. Injection locking requires an optimized, single mode, power slave laser at each stage. We shall describe the nearly completed 10 W brass-board laser, which will also be deployed at the ACIGA Test Facility at Gingin. We shall also describe our 100 W laser using a scalable diode pumping scheme, an active control of thermal lensing and a stable-unstable resonator. Initial tests showed mode control to be limited by thermal focusing and thermally induced birefringence in the Nd:YAG medium at 70 W output. Recent efforts have identified the source of the thermal lens and significantly reduced its magnitude, leading to a modified design. We shall present our latest results from the experiments to demonstrate single mode, single frequency laser at 100 W

  8. New developments in laser sintering of diamond cutting disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovalenko, V.; Golovko, L.; Meijer, J.; Anyakin, M.

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of techniques and problems in the fabrication of cutting tools based on super hard composites results in a solution by the application of lasers. The results of systematic study of diamond composites sintering with laser radiation are discussed. A mathematical modeling of the heat

  9. Development of pulsed UV lasers and their application in laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De la Rosa, M I; Perez, C; Gruetzmacher, K; GarcIa, D; Bustillo, A

    2011-01-01

    The application of two-photon laser spectroscopy to plasma diagnostics requires tuneable UV-laser spectrometers providing: some mJ pulse energy at ns time scale with spectral quality close to Fourier Transform Limit, good pulse to pulse reproducibility and tuning linearity. We report about two different systems, a first laser specially optimized for the radiation at 243 nm, which is required for the 1S-2S two photon transition of atomic hydrogen, and a second one generating 205 nm suited for the transition 1S - 3S/3D.

  10. Recent developments in x-ray laser research at LLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehly, T.; Yaakobi, B.; Craxton, R.S.; Epstein, R.; Richardson, M.C.; Russotto, M.; Soures, J.M.; Wang, J.

    1989-01-01

    The authors present results and analysis of recent experiments using multiple-foil target designs for a collisional excitation x-ray laser in Ne-like nickel and germanium. These targets, which are designed to yield higher gains than single-exploding-foil targets, are irradiated by 600 ps pulses of 351 nm light in a single 18-mm line from GDL. The lasing lines at --230 A are observed with a 1-m grazing incidence grating spectrometer. They discuss the relative merit of different pump-laser wavelengths and present experimental results for three wavelengths: 1.06 μm, 527 nm, and 351 nm. They present plans for the conversion of the GDL laser to a --100 J - 10 ps laser (10 TW) which will be used for producing a recombinationally pumped laser in Al which is predicted to lase at 39 A. Results of computer simulation of these proposed experiments are presented

  11. Theory for passive mode-locking in semiconductor laser structures including the effects of self-phase modulation, dispersion and pulse collisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koumans, R.G.M.P.; Roijen, van R.

    1996-01-01

    We present a theory for passive mode-locking in semiconductor laser structures using a semiconductor laser amplifier and absorber. The mode-locking system is described in terms of the different elements in the semiconductor laser structure. We derive mode-locking conditions and show how other

  12. Raman fiber lasers

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book serves as a comprehensive, up-to-date reference about this cutting-edge laser technology and its many new and interesting developments. Various aspects and trends of Raman fiber lasers are described in detail by experts in their fields. Raman fiber lasers have progressed quickly in the past decade, and have emerged as a versatile laser technology for generating high power light sources covering a spectral range from visible to mid-infrared. The technology is already being applied in the fields of telecommunication, astronomy, cold atom physics, laser spectroscopy, environmental sensing, and laser medicine. This book covers various topics relating to Raman fiber laser research, including power scaling, cladding and diode pumping, cascade Raman shifting, single frequency operation and power amplification, mid-infrared laser generation, specialty optical fibers, and random distributed feedback Raman fiber lasers. The book will appeal to scientists, students, and technicians seeking to understand the re...

  13. New power lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Masanobu; Daido, Hiroyuki; Imasaki, Kazuo.

    1989-01-01

    As the new power lasers which are expected to exert large extending effect to the fields of advanced science and technology including precision engineering as well as laser nuclear fusion, LD-excited solid laser, X-ray laser and free electron laser are taken up and outlined. Recently, the solid laser using high power output, high efficiency semiconductor laser as the exciting beam source has been developed. This is called laser diode (LD)-excited solid laser, and the heightening of power output and efficiency and the extension of life are planned. Its present status and application to medical use, laser machining, laser soldering and so on are described. In 1960, the laser in visible region appeared, however in 1985, the result of observing induced emission beam by electron collision exciting method was reported in USA. In the wavelength range of 200 A, holography and contact X-ray microscope applications were verified. The various types of soft X-ray laser and the perspective hereafter are shown. The principle of free electron laser is explained. In the free electron laser, wavelength can be changed by varying electron beam energy, the period of wiggler magnetic field and the intensity of magnetic field. Further, high efficiency and large power output are possible. Its present status, application and the perspective hereafter are reported. (K.I.)

  14. Professional Development for Researchers in Solid Earth Science Evolved to Include Scientific and Educational Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, S. C.; Arrowsmith, R.; Olds, S. E.

    2011-12-01

    Integrated measures of crustal deformation provide valuable insight about tectonic and human-induced processes for scientists and educators alike. UNAVCO in conjunction with EarthScope initiated a series of short courses for researchers to learn the processing and interpretation of data from new technologies such as high precision GPS, Strainmeter, InSar and LiDAR that provide deformation information relevant to many geoscience sub-disciplines. Intensive short courses of a few days and the widespread availability of processed data through large projects such as EarthScope and GEON enable more geoscientists to incorporate these data into diverse projects. Characteristics of the UNAVCO Short Course Series, reaching over 400 participants since 2005, include having short course faculty who have pioneered development of each technology; open web-access to course materials; processing software installed on class-ready computers; no course fees; scholarships for students, post-doctoral fellows, and emerging faculty when needed; formative evaluation of the courses; community-based decisions on topics; and recruitment of participants across relevant geoscience disciplines. In 2009, when EarthScope airborne LiDAR data became available to the public through OpenTopographhy, teaching materials were provided to these researchers to incorporate the latest technologies into teaching. Multiple data sets across technologies have been developed with instructions on how to access the various data sets and incorporate them into geological problem sets. Courses in GPS, airborne LiDAR, strainmeter, and InSAR concentrate on data processing with examples of various geoscience applications. Ground-based LiDAR courses also include data acquisition. Google Earth is used to integrate various forms of data in educational applications. Various types of EarthScope data can now be used by a variety of geoscientists, and the number of scientists who have the skills and tools to use these various

  15. Applicability of bioanalysis of multiple analytes in drug discovery and development: review of select case studies including assay development considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2006-05-01

    The development of sound bioanalytical method(s) is of paramount importance during the process of drug discovery and development culminating in a marketing approval. Although the bioanalytical procedure(s) originally developed during the discovery stage may not necessarily be fit to support the drug development scenario, they may be suitably modified and validated, as deemed necessary. Several reviews have appeared over the years describing analytical approaches including various techniques, detection systems, automation tools that are available for an effective separation, enhanced selectivity and sensitivity for quantitation of many analytes. The intention of this review is to cover various key areas where analytical method development becomes necessary during different stages of drug discovery research and development process. The key areas covered in this article with relevant case studies include: (a) simultaneous assay for parent compound and metabolites that are purported to display pharmacological activity; (b) bioanalytical procedures for determination of multiple drugs in combating a disease; (c) analytical measurement of chirality aspects in the pharmacokinetics, metabolism and biotransformation investigations; (d) drug monitoring for therapeutic benefits and/or occupational hazard; (e) analysis of drugs from complex and/or less frequently used matrices; (f) analytical determination during in vitro experiments (metabolism and permeability related) and in situ intestinal perfusion experiments; (g) determination of a major metabolite as a surrogate for the parent molecule; (h) analytical approaches for universal determination of CYP450 probe substrates and metabolites; (i) analytical applicability to prodrug evaluations-simultaneous determination of prodrug, parent and metabolites; (j) quantitative determination of parent compound and/or phase II metabolite(s) via direct or indirect approaches; (k) applicability in analysis of multiple compounds in select

  16. Development and applications of laser spectroscopic techniques related to combustion diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alden, Marcus

    2006-01-01

    Thanks to features as non-intrusiveness combined with high spatial and temporal resolution, various laser diagnostic techniques have during the last decades become of utmost importance for characterization of combustion related phenomena. In the following presentation some further development of the techniques will be highlighted aiming at a) surface temperatures using Thermographic Phosphors, TP, b) species specific, spatially and temporally resolved detection of species absorbing in the IR spectral region using polarization spectroscopy and Laser-induced fluorescence, and finally c) high speed visualization using a special designed laser system in combination with a framing camera. In terms of surface thermometry, Thermographic Phosphors have been used for many years for temperature measurements on solid surfaces. We have during the last years further developed and applied this technique for temperature measurements on burning surfaces and on materials going through phase shifts, e.g. pyrolysis and droplets. The basic principle behind this technique is to apply micron size particles to the surface of interest. By exciting the TP with a short pulse UV laser (ns), the phosphorescence will exhibit a behaviour where the spectral emission as well as the temporal decay are dependent on the temperature. It is thus possible to measure the temperature both in one and two dimensions. The presentation will include basic description of the technique as well as various applications, e.g in fire science, IC engines and gasturbines. Several of the species of interest for combustion/flow diagnostics exhibit a molecular structure which inhibits the use of conventional laser-induced fluorescence for spatially and spectrally resolved measurements. We have during the last years investigated the use of excitation and detection in the infrared region of the spectrum. Here, it is possible to detect both carbonmono/dioxide, water as well as species specific hydrocarbons. The techniques

  17. Laser Processing and Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bäuerle, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    This book gives an overview of the fundamentals and applications of laser-matter interactions, in particular with regard to laser material processing. Special attention is given to laser-induced physical and chemical processes at gas-solid, liquid-solid, and solid-solid interfaces. Starting with the background physics, the book proceeds to examine applications of lasers in “standard” laser machining and laser chemical processing (LCP), including the patterning, coating, and modification of material surfaces. This fourth edition has been enlarged to cover the rapid advances in the understanding of the dynamics of materials under the action of ultrashort laser pulses, and to include a number of new topics, in particular the increasing importance of lasers in various different fields of surface functionalizations and nanotechnology. In two additional chapters, recent developments in biotechnology, medicine, art conservation and restoration are summarized. Graduate students, physicists, chemists, engineers, a...

  18. Development of a Prototype 2 mm Fiber-Coupled Seed Laser for Integration in Lidar Transmitter

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Optimize the performance of Gallium Antimonide (GaSb)-based 2.05 mm lasers (previously developed under JPL’s Research and Technology Development (R&TD) Program)...

  19. Update on Development of the Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment (KArLE) Instrument for In Situ Geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara A.; Li, Z.-H.; Miller, J. S.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Clegg, S. M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Swindle, T. D.; Wiens, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    Absolute dating of planetary samples is an essential tool to establish the chronology of geological events, including crystallization history, magmatic evolution, and alteration. We are addressing this challenge by developing the Potassium (K) -- Argon Laser Experiment (KArLE), building on previous work to develop a K-Ar in situ instrument. KArLE ablates a rock sample, determines the K in the plasma state using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), measures the liberated Ar using quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS), and relates the two by the volume of the ablated pit using laser confocal microscopy (LCM). Our goal is for the KArLE instrument to be capable of determining the age of several kinds of planetary samples to address a wide range of geochronolgy problems in planetary science.

  20. Development of a Selectable Output Ultraviolet Laser System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Laser ablation methods of chemical analysis, such as those employed by the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA, on the ExoMars 2018 rover) and the time-of-flight...

  1. Development of a Selectable Output Ultraviolet Laser System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Laser ablation methods of chemical analysis, such as those employed by the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA, on the ExoMars 2018 rover) and the time-of-flight...

  2. Diagnostics developments and applications for laser fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, L.W.

    1977-01-01

    Some diagnostics techniques applied to current laser fusion target experiments are reviewed. Specifically, holographic interferometry of target plasmas, coded aperture imaging of thermonuclear alpha-particles and neutron energy spectrum measurements are discussed

  3. Development of underwater laser cutting technique for steel and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    post-irradiation examination, maintenance, decommissioning and to reduce storage space of irradiated materials like used zircaloy pressure tubes etc., of nuclear power plants. ... laser; material processing; heat affected zone; microstructure.

  4. Recent developments in retinal lasers and delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Kumar Yadav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Photocoagulation is the standard of care for several ocular disorders and in particular retinal conditions. Technology has offered us newer lasing mediums, wavelengths and delivery systems. Pattern scan laser in proliferative diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema allows laser treatment that is less time consuming and less painful. Now, it is possible to deliver a subthreshold micropulse laser that is above the threshold of biochemical effect but below the threshold of a visible, destructive lesion thereby preventing collateral damage. The advent of solid-state diode yellow laser allows us to treat closer to the fovea, is more effective for vascular structures and offers a more uniform effect in patients with light or irregular fundus pigmentation. Newer retinal photocoagulation options along with their advantages is discussed in this review.

  5. Development of procedures for the identification of human papilloma virus DNA fragments in laser plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woellmer, Wolfgang; Meder, Tom; Jappe, Uta; Gross, Gerd; Riethdorf, Sabine; Riethdorf, Lutz; Kuhler-Obbarius, Christina; Loening, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    For the investigation of laser plume for the existence of HPV DNA fragments, which possibly occur during laser treatment of virus infected tissue, human papillomas and condylomas were treated in vitro with the CO2-laser. For the sampling of the laser plume a new method for the trapping of the material was developed by use of water-soluble gelatine filters. These samples were analyzed with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, which was optimized in regard of the gelatine filters and the specific primers. Positive PCR results for HPV DNA fragments up to the size of a complete oncogene were obtained and are discussed regarding infectiousity.

  6. Development and application of preventive maintenance technique for pipes using laser cladding method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatakenaka, Hiroaki; Yamadera, Masao; Shiraiwa, Takanori.

    1995-01-01

    A laser cladding method which produces a highly corrosion-resisting coating (cladding) on the surface of the material was developed for the purpose of preventing stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in the austenitic stainless steel (Type 304). In this method, metallic powder paste is applied on the inner surface of pipes, and then a YAG laser beam is irradiated to the paste, which melts and forms a clad with excellent corrosion resistance. Recently, the laser cladding method was practically and successfully applied to the actual nuclear power plant in Japan. This report describes this laser cladding technique, the equipment, and actual works in the field. (author)

  7. Development work for laser-induced breakdown detection of colloids (LIBD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauser, W.; Bundschuh, T.; Knopp, R.; Goetz, R.; Donath, P.; Hanke, H.D.; Yun, J.I.

    1997-01-01

    Due to recent developments in the field of pulsed Nd:YAG lasers, small-sized and compact laser sources are now available. Their pulse energies meet the requirements for laser beam profile and divergence and thus make them a useful tool for LIBD. For mobile applications of the technique a compact system has been designed which uses a small, pulsed Nd:YAG laser. It is suitable for online, in-situ measurement, e.g. for column experiments, or quality controls in the preparation of high-purity solutions. The system was presented at the Achema '97 under the name of ''nano-size particle counter''. (orig./CB) [de

  8. Development of halide copper vapor laser (the characteristics of using Cul)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oouti, Kazumi; Wada, Yukio; Sasao, Nobuyuki

    1990-01-01

    We are developing halide copper vapor laser that is high efficiency and high reputation rate visible laser. Halide copper vapor laser uses halide copper of copper vapor source. It melts low temperature in comporison with metal copper, because laser tube structure is very simple and it can operate easy. This time, we experiment to use Cul for copper vapor source. We resulted maximum output energy 17.8 (W) and maximum efficiency 0.78 (%) when operate condition was reputation rate 30 (kHz), gas pressure 90 (Torr), charging voltage 13 (kV). (author)

  9. Development of surgical CW Nd:YAG laser with optical fiber delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Jeong Mook; Jung, Chin Mann; Kim, Kwang Suk; Kim, Min Suk; Cho, Jae Wan; Kim, Duk Hyun

    1992-06-01

    We developed a surgical CW Nd:YAG laser with optical fiber delivery system. Several commercial models have been investigated in design and performance. We improved its quality to the level of commercial Nd:YAG laser by an endurance test for each parts of laser system. The maximum power of our surgical laser was 150 W and the laser pulse width could be controlled to 99 sec continuously by 0.1 sec. Many optical parts were localized and lowered much in cost. Only few parts were imported and almost 90% in cost were localized. Also, to find out the maintenance problem of this surgical laser, it was applicated to the production line of our joint company. (Author)

  10. Iron-Doped Zinc Selenide: Spectroscopy and Laser Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    pulsed and CW platforms have been continuously tuned across the whole gain bandwidth of Cr:ZnSe using dispersive tuning elements [9, 13, 14]. Lasers...induced fluorescence studies of the upper state manifold of Fe:ZnSe. 3.2 Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscoscopy of Fe:ZnSe A Cryo Industries of...that temperature was recorded to provide a basis for calculation of the spectral distribution of gain. The recorded spectrum was black- body

  11. Bibliography of Soviet Laser Developments, No. 17, July - September 1974

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-29

    dye lasers. Academia Scientiarum Hungaricae. Acta Physica . no. 1-4, 1974, 63-71. 55. Stepanov. B. I.. A. N. Rubinov. and V...FGLV FiKhOM FTP FTT GiK IAN Arm IAN B IAN Fiz IAN TK IAN Uz IT rvuz Fiz IV UZ Geod A( ta physica polonica Bulletin de l’Academie...Kozma (0). Calculating the generation frequency of dye lasers in a quasistationary regime. Acta phys. et chem. Szeged. v. 19. no

  12. Laser Resurfacing

    OpenAIRE

    Janik, Joseph P.; Markus, Jodi L.; Al-Dujaili, Zeena; Markus, Ramsey F.

    2007-01-01

    In a society desiring images of beauty and youthfulness, the world of cutaneous surgery offers the gifts of facial rejuvenation for those determined to combat the signs of aging. With the development of novel laser and plasma technology, pigmentary changes, scarring, and wrinkles can be conquered providing smoother, healthier, younger-looking skin. This review highlights five of the most popular resurfacing technologies in practice today including the carbon dioxide (CO2) laser, the erbium:yt...

  13. Development of a Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) System with a Tunable Diode Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Hyun Jong; Do, Jeong Jun; You, Hyun Jong; Choi, Geun Sik; Lee, Myoung Jae; Chung, Kyu Sun

    2005-01-01

    The Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) is known as one of the most powerful techniques for measurements of ion velocity distribution function (IVDF) and ion temperature by means of Doppler broadening and Doppler shift. The dye lasers are generally used for LIF system with 611.66 nm (in vac.) for Ar ion, the low power diode laser was also proposed by Severn et al with the wavelength of 664.55 nm and 668.61 nm (in vac.) for Ar ion. Although the diode laser has the disadvantages of low power and small tuning range, it can be used for LIF system at the low temperature plasmas. A tunable diode laser with 668.614 nm of center wavelength and 10 GHz mode hop free tuning region has been used for our LIF system and it can be measured the ion temperature is up to 1 eV. The ion temperature and velocity distribution function have been measured with LaB6 plasma source, which is about 0.23 eV with Ar gas and 2.2 mTorr working pressure

  14. The development of laser ignited deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) detonators and pyrotechnic actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merson, J.A.; Salas, F.J.; Harlan, J.G.

    1993-11-01

    The use of laser ignited explosive components has been recognized as a safety enhancement over existing electrical explosive devices (EEDs). Sandia has been pursuing the development of optical ordnance for many years with recent emphasis on developing optical deflagration-to-detonation (DDT) detonators and pyrotechnic actuators. These low energy optical ordnance devices can be ignited with either a semiconductor diode laser, laser diode arrays or a solid state rod laser. By using a semiconductor laser diode, the safety improvement can be made without sacrificing performance since the input energy required for the laser diode and the explosive output are similar to existing electrical systems. The use of higher powered laser diode arrays or rod lasers may have advantages in fast DDT applications or lossy optical environments such as long fiber applications and applications with numerous optical connectors. Recent results from our continued study of optical ignition of explosive and pyrotechnic materials are presented. These areas of investigation can be separated into three different margin categories: (1) the margin relative to intended inputs (i.e. powder performance as a function of laser input variation), (2) the margin relative to anticipated environments (i.e. powder performance as a function of thermal environment variation), and (3) the margin relative to unintended environments (i.e. responses to abnormal environments or safety).

  15. Development of a high power HCN waveguide laser for plasma diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Zhongchao; Zhou Yan; Tang Yiwu; Yi Jiang; Gao Bingyi; Tian Chongli

    2007-06-01

    Both design and development of a high power cw HCN waveguide laser is described for multichannel FIR laser interferometer on the HL-2A divertor tokamak. The geometry parameters of stracture of the HCN laser are calculated according to scaling laws for cw 337 μm HCN waveguide laser offered by P. Belland et al. The designed value of output power of the laser that is more than 400 mW with discharge length of 5.6 m and 6.3 cm inner diameter of tube have been chosen in case of external loss of the cavity of 2%. At the same time, in order to get a laser system of stable output both of configuration and operating condition is discussed. In developed laser a hot LaB 6 cathode is employed to en- sure a stable discharge, the cavity mirrors are spaced using four invar rod of φ25 mm in diameter and an structure of adjusting machine for axially movable flat mirror in cavity has been also designed, and that it can be taken down many times without badly destroying alignment of the cavity etc.. A suit of pipes sys- tem of cw HCN laser is schemed out so that some experiments of operating parameter optimization can be done. The results of primary test of operating waveguide HCN laser are briefly showed. (authors)

  16. Laser ablation of tumors: current concepts and recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroszczynski, C.; Gaffke, G.; Gnauck, M.; Ricke, J.; Felix, R.; Puls, R.; Speck, U.; Hosten, N.; Oettle, H.; Hohenberger, P.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this paper is to present technical innovations and clinical results of percutaneous interventional laser ablation of tumors using new techniques. Methods. Laser ablation was performed in 182 patients (liver tumors: 131, non hepatic tumors - bone, lung, others: 51) after interdisciplinary consensus was obtained. The procedure was done using a combination of imaging modalities (CT/MRI, CT/US) or only closed high field MRI (1.5 T). All patients received an MRI-scan immediately after laser ablation. Results. In 90.9% of the patients with liver tumors, a complete ablation was achieved. Major events occurred in 5.4%. The technical success rate of laser ablation in non-hepatic tumors was high, clinical results differed depending on the treated organ. Conclusions. The treatment of tumors of the liver and other organs up to 5 cm by laser ablation was a safe procedure with a low rate of complications and side effects. Image guidance by MRI is advantageous for precise tumor visualization in all dimensions, therapy monitoring, and control of laser ablation results. (orig.) [de

  17. Development of a Fibre-Phased Array Laser-EMAT Ultrasonic System for Defect Inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, C; Demachi, K; Koyama, K; Uesaka, M; Fukuchi, T; Chen, Z

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a phased array laser ultrasound system with using fibre optic delivery and a custom-designed focusing objective lens has been developed for enhancing the ultrasound generation. The fibre-phased array method is applied to improve the sensitivity and detecting ability of the laser-EMAT system for defect inspection

  18. Development of high-power optically-pumped far-infrared lasers for plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Masanobu; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiko; Mitsuishi, Akiyoshi; Fujita, Shigeru; Tsunawaki, Yoshiaki.

    1982-01-01

    The activities for developing an over 0.1-MW optically-pumped 385-μm D 2 O laser and a CW optically-pumped 382.9-μm CH 2 F 2 laser as local oscillator for measurement of ion temperature in Tokamaks are described. (author)

  19. Prenatal parental separation and body weight, including development of overweight and obesity later in childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Hohwü

    Full Text Available Early parental separation may be a stress factor causing a long-term alteration in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis activity possibly impacting on the susceptibility to develop overweight and obesity in offspring. We aimed to examine the body mass index (BMI and the risk of overweight and obesity in children whose parents lived separately before the child was born.A follow-up study was conducted using data from the Aarhus Birth Cohort in Denmark and included 2876 children with measurements of height and weight at 9-11-years-of-age, and self-reported information on parental cohabitation status at child birth and at 9-11-years-of-age. Quantile regression was used to estimate the difference in median BMI between children whose parents lived separately (n = 124 or together (n = 2752 before the birth. We used multiple logistic regression to calculate odds ratio (OR for overweight and obesity, adjusted for gender, parity, breast feeding status, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, weight gain during pregnancy, age and educational level at child birth; with and without possible intermediate factors birth weight and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Due to a limited number of obese children, OR for obesity was adjusted for the a priori confounder maternal pre-pregnancy BMI only.The difference in median BMI was 0.54 kg/m2 (95% confidence intervals (CI: 0.10; 0.98 between children whose parents lived separately before birth and children whose parents lived together. The risk of overweight and obesity was statistically significantly increased in children whose parents lived separately before the birth of the child; OR 2.29 (95% CI: 1.18; 4.45 and OR 2.81 (95% CI: 1.05; 7.51, respectively. Additional, adjustment for possible intermediate factors did not substantially change the estimates.Parental separation before child birth was associated with higher BMI, and increased risk of overweight and obesity in 9-11-year-old children; this may suggest a fetal

  20. Preliminary design of experiment high power density laser beam interaction with plasmas and development of a cold cathode electron beam laser amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosavi, R.K.; Kohanzadeh, Y.; Taherzadeh, M.; Vaziri, A.

    1976-01-01

    This experiment is designed to produce plasma by carbon dioxide pulsed laser, to measure plasma parameters and to study the interaction of the produced plasma with intense laser beams. The objectives of this experiment are the following: 1. To set up a TEA CO 2 laser oscillator and a cold cathode electron beam laser amplifier together as a system, to produce high energy optical pulses of short duration. 2. To achieve laser intensities of 10 11 watt/cm 2 or more at solid targets of polyethylene (C 2 H 4 )n, lithium hydride (LiH), and lithium deuteride in order to produce high temperature plasmas. 3. To design and develop diagnostic methods for studies of laser-induced plasmas. 4. To develop a high power CO 2 laser amplifier for the purpose of upgrading the optical energy delivered to the targets

  1. Recent Developments in Fabrication of Direct Drive Cylinder Targets for Hydrodynamics Experiments at the OMEGA Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobile, A.; Balkey, M.M.; Bartos, J.J.; Batha, S.H.; Day, R.D.; Elliott, J.E.; Elliott, N.E.; Gomez, V.M.; Hatch, D.J.; Lanier, N.E.; Fincke, J.R.; Manzanares, R.; Pierce, T.H.; Sandoval, D.L.; Schmidt, D.W.; Steckle, W.P.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental campaigns are being conducted at the 60 beam OMEGA laser at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics to acquire data to validate hydrodynamic models in the high energy-density regime. This paper describes targets that have been developed and constructed for these experimental campaigns. Targets are 860 μm inner diameter by 2.2 mm length cylinders with 70 μm thick polymer ablator. On the ablator inner surface and located halfway along the axis of the cylinder is a 500 μm wide Al marker band. Band thicknesses in the range 8-16 microns are used. CH foam with densities in the range 30-90 mg/cc fills the inside of the cylinder. While these targets have been fabricated for years, several new improvements and features have recently been developed. Improvements include the use of epoxy instead of polystyrene for the ablator, and the use of electrodeposited Al for the marker band. A critical feature of the target is the surface feature that is placed on the marker band. Experiments are aimed at understanding the hydrodynamic behavior of imploding cylinders as a function of this surface feature. Recent development work has focused on production of engineered surface features on the target marker band. Using a fast tool servo on a diamond turning lathe, a wide range of specified surface features have been produced. This paper will address improvements to the cylinder targets as well as current development efforts

  2. Development Algorithm of the Technological Process of Manufacturing Gas Turbine Parts by Selective Laser Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotov, A. V.; Agapovichev, A. V.; Smelov, V. G.; Kyarimov, R. R.

    2018-01-01

    The technology of the selective laser melting (SLM) allows making products from powders of aluminum, titanium, heat-resistant alloys and stainless steels. Today the use of SLM technology develops at manufacture of the functional parts. This in turn requires development of a methodology projection of technological processes (TP) for manufacturing parts including databases of standard TP. Use of a technique will allow to exclude influence of technologist’s qualification on made products quality, and also to reduce labor input and energy consumption by development of TP due to use of the databases of standard TP integrated into a methodology. As approbation of the developed methodology the research of influence of the modes of a laser emission on a roughness of a surface of synthesized material was presented. It is established that the best values of a roughness of exemplars in the longitudinal and transversal directions make 1.98 μm and 3.59 μm respectively. These values of a roughness were received at specific density of energy 6.25 J/mm2 that corresponds to power and the speed of scanning of 200 W and 400 mm/s, respectively, and a hatch distance of 0.08 mm.

  3. Further development of a method to calculate frequencies of loss of control including their uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ale, B.J.M.; Van Gulijk, C.; Hanea, D.M.; Hudson, P.; Lin, P.H.; Sillem, S.; Steenhoek, M.; Ababei, D.

    2013-01-01

    An integrated model for risk in a real-time environment for the hydrocarbon industry based on the CATS model for commercial aviation safety has been further developed. The approach described in earlier papers required Bayesian Belief Nets (BBN) to be developed for each process unit separately. A

  4. Development of optical thin film technology for lasers and synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparao, K.V.S.R.; Bagchi, T.C.; Sahoo, N.K.

    1985-01-01

    Dielectric multilayer optical thin film devices play an important role not only in the working of lasers but also in different front line research activities using high power lasers and high intensity synchrotron radiation sources. Facilities are set up recently in the Spectroscopy Division to develop the optical thin film design and fabrication technologies indigeneously. Using the facilities thin film devices for different laser applications working in the wavelength range from 300 nm to 1064 nm were developed. Different technical aspects involved in the technology development are briefly described. (author)

  5. Semiconductor lasers stability, instability and chaos

    CERN Document Server

    Ohtsubo, Junji

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the fascinating recent advances made concerning the chaos, stability and instability of semiconductor lasers, and discusses their applications and future prospects in detail. It emphasizes the dynamics in semiconductor lasers by optical and electronic feedback, optical injection, and injection current modulation. Applications of semiconductor laser chaos, control and noise, and semiconductor lasers are also demonstrated. Semiconductor lasers with new structures, such as vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and broad-area semiconductor lasers, are intriguing and promising devices. Current topics include fast physical number generation using chaotic semiconductor lasers for secure communication, development of chaos, quantum-dot semiconductor lasers and quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers, and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers. This fourth edition has been significantly expanded to reflect the latest developments. The fundamental theory of laser chaos and the chaotic dynamics in se...

  6. Application of terrestrial laser scanning to the development and updating of the base map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klapa Przemysław

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The base map provides basic information about land to individuals, companies, developers, design engineers, organizations, and government agencies. Its contents include spatial location data for control network points, buildings, land lots, infrastructure facilities, and topographic features. As the primary map of the country, it must be developed in accordance with specific laws and regulations and be continuously updated. The base map is a data source used for the development and updating of derivative maps and other large scale cartographic materials such as thematic or topographic maps. Thanks to the advancement of science and technology, the quality of land surveys carried out by means of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS matches that of traditional surveying methods in many respects.

  7. The development of fluorides for high power laser optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ready, J. F.; Vora, H.

    1980-07-01

    The laser assisted thermonuclear fusion program has need for improved optical materials with high transmission in the ultraviolet, and with low values of nonlinear index of refraction. Lithium fluoride possesses a combination of optical properties which are of use. Single crystalline LiF is limited by low mechanical strength. The technique of press forging to increase the mechanical strength is investigated. LiF single crystals were press forged over the temperature range 300 - 600 deg C to produce fine grained polycrystalline material. Optical homogenity at 633, stress birefringence, scattering at 633, residual absorption over the spectral range 339 - 3800 nm, and laser damage thresholds for 1 ns, 1064 nm and 700 ps, 266 nm laser pulses are evaluated. Single crystals can be press forged without seriously degrading their optical properties. Yield strength in compression, proportional limit and fracture strength in 3 and 4 point bending, fracture energy, and threshold for microyield are discussed.

  8. Study and Development of a Laser Based Alignment System

    CERN Multimedia

    Stern, G

    2014-01-01

    CLIC (Compact Linear Collider) has tight requirements regarding pre-alignment of beam related components: 10 µm accuracy over a sliding window of 200 m along the 20 km of linac. To perform such an alignment, a new system is proposed combining laser beam as straight line reference and camera/shutter assemblies as sensors. The poster describes the alignment system and shows results regarding laser pointing stability with respect to time, shutter type, distance and environment. These results give a frame for future building and calibrating of sensors.

  9. Development of x-ray laser and its application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawachi, Tetsuya; Kado, Masataka; Hasegawa, Noboru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kizu, Kyoto (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment] [and others

    2001-10-01

    Nickel-like silver and tin X-ray lasers (XRL) at wavelengths of 13.9 nm and 11.9 nm, respectively, in the transient collisional-excitation scheme. The gain-length product is 10 for the former case and 8.4 for the latter. The size of the gain region and the beam divergence of the silver laser are measured to be 75 {mu}m x 25 {mu}m and about 6 mrad, respectively. Our plans in the near future, which are applications of XRL, generation of XRL with high spatial coherence and short-wavelength XRL, are also shown. (author)

  10. Development of x-ray laser and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawachi, Tetsuya; Kado, Masataka; Hasegawa, Noboru

    2001-01-01

    Nickel-like silver and tin X-ray lasers (XRL) at wavelengths of 13.9 nm and 11.9 nm, respectively, in the transient collisional-excitation scheme. The gain-length product is 10 for the former case and 8.4 for the latter. The size of the gain region and the beam divergence of the silver laser are measured to be 75 μm x 25 μm and about 6 mrad, respectively. Our plans in the near future, which are applications of XRL, generation of XRL with high spatial coherence and short-wavelength XRL, are also shown. (author)

  11. Bibliography of Soviet Laser Developments, Number 41, May - June 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-10

    complex molecule in the anisotropic theory of dye amplifiers and lasers. Acta physica polonica , v. A54, no. 6, 1978, 879-888. (RZhF, 6/79, 6D1338) 35...depolarization. Acta physica polonica , v. A54, no. 6, 1978, 823-831. (RZhF, 6/79, 6D1051) 448. Sevchenko, A.N., G.F. Stel’makh, and M.P. Tsvirko (0...of polarization of laser radiation in organic dye solutions. Acta physica et chemica. Szeged, no. 3, 1978, 381-385. (RZhF, 6/79, 6D1340) b

  12. Development of a Skin Burn Predictive Model adapted to Laser Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneck-Museux, N.; Scheer, E.; Perez, L.; Agay, D.; Autrique, L.

    2016-12-01

    Laser technology is increasingly used, and it is crucial for both safety and medical reasons that the impact of laser irradiation on human skin can be accurately predicted. This study is mainly focused on laser-skin interactions and potential lesions (burns). A mathematical model dedicated to heat transfers in skin exposed to infrared laser radiations has been developed. The model is validated by studying heat transfers in human skin and simultaneously performing experimentations an animal model (pig). For all experimental tests, pig's skin surface temperature is recorded. Three laser wavelengths have been tested: 808 nm, 1940 nm and 10 600 nm. The first is a diode laser producing radiation absorbed deep within the skin. The second wavelength has a more superficial effect. For the third wavelength, skin is an opaque material. The validity of the developed models is verified by comparison with experimental results (in vivo tests) and the results of previous studies reported in the literature. The comparison shows that the models accurately predict the burn degree caused by laser radiation over a wide range of conditions. The results show that the important parameter for burn prediction is the extinction coefficient. For the 1940 nm wavelength especially, significant differences between modeling results and literature have been observed, mainly due to this coefficient's value. This new model can be used as a predictive tool in order to estimate the amount of injury induced by several types (couple power-time) of laser aggressions on the arm, the face and on the palm of the hand.

  13. Use of Student Experiments for Teaching Embedded Software Development Including HW/SW Co-Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, H.; Kambe, H.; Koizumi, H.

    2009-01-01

    Embedded systems have been applied widely, not only to consumer products and industrial machines, but also to new applications such as ubiquitous or sensor networking. The increasing role of software (SW) in embedded system development has caused a great demand for embedded SW engineers, and university education for embedded SW engineering has…

  14. Development of numerical dispersion model for radioactive nuclei including resuspension processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Masaru; Kurita, Susumu; Sasaki, Hidetaka

    2003-01-01

    Global-scale and local-scale dispersion model are developed combining to global and local scale meteorological forecasting model. By applying this system to another miner constituent such as mineral dust blowing by strong wind in arid region, this system shows very good performance to watch and predict the distribution of it. (author)

  15. Laser Ranging in Solar System: Technology Developments and New Science Measurement Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.; Mcgarry, J.; Neumann, G. A.; Mazarico, E.

    2015-12-01

    Laser Ranging has played a major role in geodetic studies of the Earth over the past 40 years. The technique can potentially be used in between planets and spacecrafts within the solar system to advance planetary science. For example, a direct measurement of distances between planets, such as Mars and Venus would make significant improvements in understanding the dynamics of the whole solar system, including the masses of the planets and moons, asteroids and their perturbing interactions, and the gravity field of the Sun. Compared to the conventional radio frequency (RF) tracking systems, laser ranging is potentially more accurate because it is much less sensitive to the transmission media. It is also more efficient because the laser beams are much better focused onto the targets than RF beams. However, existing laser ranging systems are all Earth centric, that is, from ground stations on Earth to orbiting satellites in near Earth orbits or lunar orbit, and to the lunar retro-reflector arrays deployed by the astronauts in the early days of lunar explorations. Several long distance laser ranging experiments have been conducted with the lidar in space, including a two-way laser ranging demonstration between Earth and the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) on the MESSENGER spacecraft over 24 million km, and a one way laser transmission and detection experiment over 80 million km between Earth and the Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter (MOLA) on the MGS spacecraft in Mars orbit. A one-way laser ranging operation has been carried out continuously from 2009 to 2014 between multiple ground stations to LRO spacecraft in lunar orbit. The Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration (LLCD) on the LADEE mission has demonstrated that a two way laser ranging measurements, including both the Doppler frequency and the phase shift, can be obtained from the subcarrier or the data clocks of a high speed duplex laser communication system. Plans and concepts presently being studied suggest we may be

  16. Optimization of the weekly operation of a multipurpose hydroelectric development, including a pumped storage plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, R; Popa, B; Popa, F; Zachia-Zlatea, D

    2010-01-01

    It is presented an optimization model based on genetic algorithms for the operation of a multipurpose hydroelectric power development consisting in a pumped storage plant (PSP) with weekly operation cycle. The lower reservoir of the PSP is supplied upstream from a peak hydropower plant (HPP) with a large reservoir and supplies the own HPP which provides the required discharges towards downstream. Under these conditions, the optimum operation of the assembly consisting in 3 reservoirs and hydropower plants becomes a difficult problem if there are considered the restrictions as regards: the gradients allowed for the reservoirs filling/emptying, compliance with of a long-term policy of the upper reservoir from the hydroelectric development and of the weekly cycle for the PSP upper reservoir, correspondence between the power output/consumption in the weekly load schedule, turning to account of the water resource at maximum overall efficiencies, etc. Maximization of the net energy value (generated minus consumed) was selected as performance function of the model, considering the differentiated price of the electric energy over the week (working or weekend days, peak, half-peak or base hours). The analysis time step was required to be of 3 hours, resulting a weekly horizon of 56 steps and 168 decision variables, respectively, for the 3 HPPs of the system. These were allowed to be the flows turbined at the HPP and the number of working hydrounits at PSP, on each time step. The numerical application has considered the guiding data of Fantanele-Tarnita-Lapustesti hydroelectric development. Results of various simulations carried out proved the qualities of the proposed optimization model, which will allow its use within a decisional support program for such a development.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF A VIRTUAL MUSEUM INCLUDING A 4D PRESENTATION OF BUILDING HISTORY IN VIRTUAL REALITY

    OpenAIRE

    T. P. Kersten; F. Tschirschwitz; S. Deggim

    2017-01-01

    In the last two decades the definition of the term “virtual museum” changed due to rapid technological developments. Using today’s available 3D technologies a virtual museum is no longer just a presentation of collections on the Internet or a virtual tour of an exhibition using panoramic photography. On one hand, a virtual museum should enhance a museum visitor's experience by providing access to additional materials for review and knowledge deepening either before or after the real ...

  18. Optimization of the weekly operation of a multipurpose hydroelectric development, including a pumped storage plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popa, R; Popa, B [Faculty of Power Engineering, University Politehnica of Bucharest, 313 Spl. Independentei, sect. 6, Bucharest, 060042 (Romania); Popa, F [Institute for Hydropower Studies and Design, 5-7 Vasile Lascar, sect. 2, Bucharest, 020491 (Romania); Zachia-Zlatea, D, E-mail: bogdan.popa@rosha.r [Hidroelectrica S.A., 3 Constantin Nacu, sect. 2, Bucharest, 020995 (Romania)

    2010-08-15

    It is presented an optimization model based on genetic algorithms for the operation of a multipurpose hydroelectric power development consisting in a pumped storage plant (PSP) with weekly operation cycle. The lower reservoir of the PSP is supplied upstream from a peak hydropower plant (HPP) with a large reservoir and supplies the own HPP which provides the required discharges towards downstream. Under these conditions, the optimum operation of the assembly consisting in 3 reservoirs and hydropower plants becomes a difficult problem if there are considered the restrictions as regards: the gradients allowed for the reservoirs filling/emptying, compliance with of a long-term policy of the upper reservoir from the hydroelectric development and of the weekly cycle for the PSP upper reservoir, correspondence between the power output/consumption in the weekly load schedule, turning to account of the water resource at maximum overall efficiencies, etc. Maximization of the net energy value (generated minus consumed) was selected as performance function of the model, considering the differentiated price of the electric energy over the week (working or weekend days, peak, half-peak or base hours). The analysis time step was required to be of 3 hours, resulting a weekly horizon of 56 steps and 168 decision variables, respectively, for the 3 HPPs of the system. These were allowed to be the flows turbined at the HPP and the number of working hydrounits at PSP, on each time step. The numerical application has considered the guiding data of Fantanele-Tarnita-Lapustesti hydroelectric development. Results of various simulations carried out proved the qualities of the proposed optimization model, which will allow its use within a decisional support program for such a development.

  19. Recent developments in laser-fusion target coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, R.J.; Catlett, D.S.; Fossey, D.; Mayer, A.; McCreary, W.J.; Powell, B.W.; Simonsic, G.A.

    1976-01-01

    Techniques to fabricate hollow, spherical, multilayered laser-fusion targets are described. The first is a glow discharge polymerization process for plastic coating. A chemical vapor deposition process for depositing Mo/Re alloys is also discussed along with some new techniques for electrodeless plating and for electroplating a wide variety of metals

  20. Development of Raman-shifted probe laser beam for plasma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    laser chain that works on master oscillator-power amplifier configuration. It is .... beam is the same as that of the green beam and hence is matched to the input ... and Ramesh Chandra for the electronics support and wiring the power supply of.

  1. Conceptual development of the Laser Beam Manifold (LBM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, W.; Owen, R. B.

    1979-01-01

    The laser beam manifold, a device for transforming a single, narrow, collimated beam of light into several beams of desired intensity ratios is described. The device consists of a single optical substrate with a metallic coating on both optical surfaces. By changing the entry point, the number of outgoing beams can be varied.

  2. Development of laser welding techniques for vanadium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strain, R.V.; Leong, K.H.; Smith, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    Laser welding is potentially advantageous because of its flexibility and the reduced amount of material affected by the weld. Bead-on-plate and butt welds were previously performed to depths of about 4 mm with a 6-kW CO 2 laser on V-4%Cr-4%Ti and V-5%Cr-5%Ti alloys. These welds were made at a speed of 0.042 m/s using argon purging at a flow rate of 2.8 m 3 /s. The purge was distributed with a diffuser nozzle aimed just behind the laser beam during the welding operation. The fusion zones of welds made under these conditions consisted of very fine, needle-shaped grains and were also harder than the bulk metal (230-270 dph, compared to ∼180 dph for the bulk metal). A limited number of impact tests showed that the as-welded ductile-brittle transition temperatures (DBTT) was above room temperature, but heat treatment at 1000 degrees C for 1 h in vacuum reduced the DBTT to <-25 degrees C. Activities during this reporting period focused on improvements in the purging system and determination of the effect of welding speed on welds. A 2-kW continuous YAG laser at Lumonics Corp. in Livonia, MI, was used to make 34 test welds for this study

  3. Developing a more useful surface quality metric for laser optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchette, Quentin; Turner, Trey

    2011-02-01

    Light scatter due to surface defects on laser resonator optics produces losses which lower system efficiency and output power. The traditional methodology for surface quality inspection involves visual comparison of a component to scratch and dig (SAD) standards under controlled lighting and viewing conditions. Unfortunately, this process is subjective and operator dependent. Also, there is no clear correlation between inspection results and the actual performance impact of the optic in a laser resonator. As a result, laser manufacturers often overspecify surface quality in order to ensure that optics will not degrade laser performance due to scatter. This can drive up component costs and lengthen lead times. Alternatively, an objective test system for measuring optical scatter from defects can be constructed with a microscope, calibrated lighting, a CCD detector and image processing software. This approach is quantitative, highly repeatable and totally operator independent. Furthermore, it is flexible, allowing the user to set threshold levels as to what will or will not constitute a defect. This paper details how this automated, quantitative type of surface quality measurement can be constructed, and shows how its results correlate against conventional loss measurement techniques such as cavity ringdown times.

  4. CSIR National Laser Centre develops a high speed OCT system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sharma, Ameeth

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available . The system, which is not limited to this application, can image a large volume (25mm x 25mm x 11mm) and resultant 3-D images (512 x 512 x 2048 pixels) are acquired in less than three seconds. The heart of the system is a swept laser source and a two...

  5. Bibliography of Soviet Laser Developments, Number 52, March - April 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-17

    RZhF, 3/81, 3D1234) 14. Batenin, V.M., A.L. Golger, and I.1. Klimovskiy (74). Feasibility of producing a solar pumnped laser based on crystals with color...in air in front of a solid target. Institutul de fizica atomica. Comitetul de stat pentru energia nucleara. Publicatie, no. LOP-8, 1979, 11 p. (RZhF

  6. Bibliography of Soviet Laser Developments, No. 16, April - June 1974

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-11-01

    Radiofiz Acta physica polonica Bulletin de I’Academic Polonaise del Sciences. Serie des Sciences Terhniqurs Akademiya nauk Armyanskoy SSR. DokUdy...V. Kryukov (0). Spectral kinetics of radiation from complex organic dye solution lasers. Acta phys. et ehem. Szeged, v. 19, no

  7. Development of transient collisional excitation x-ray laser with ultra short-pulse laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kado, Masataka; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Hasegawa, Noboru; Tanaka, Momoko; Sukegawa, Kouta; Nagashima, Keisuke; Kato, Yoshiaki

    2001-01-01

    We have observed lasing on Ne-like 3s-3p line from titanium (32.4 nm), Ni-like 4p-4d line from silver (13.9 nm) and tin (11.9 nm) with the transient collisional excitation (TCE) scheme that uses combination of a long pre-pulse (∼ns) and a short main pulse (∼ps). A gain coefficient of 23 cm -1 was measured for plasma length up to 4 mm with silver slab targets. We have also observed lasing on Ne-like and Ni-like lines with new TCE scheme that used pico-seconds laser pulse to generate plasma and observed strong improvement of x-ray laser gain coefficient. A gain coefficient of 14 cm -1 was measured for plasma length up to 6 mm with tin targets. (author)

  8. Development process of muzzle flows including a gun-launched missile

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuo Changfei; Feng Feng; Wu Xiaosong

    2015-01-01

    Numerical investigations on the launch process of a gun-launched missile from the muzzle of a cannon to the free-flight stage have been performed in this paper. The dynamic overlapped grids approach are applied to dealing with the problems of a moving gun-launched missile. The high-resolution upwind scheme (AUSMPW+) and the detailed reaction kinetics model are adopted to solve the chemical non-equilibrium Euler equations for dynamic grids. The development process and flow field structure of m...

  9. Development of a quantitative safety assessment method for nuclear I and C systems including human operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Man Cheol

    2004-02-01

    Conventional PSA (probabilistic safety analysis) is performed in the framework of event tree analysis and fault tree analysis. In conventional PSA, I and C systems and human operators are assumed to be independent for simplicity. But, the dependency of human operators on I and C systems and the dependency of I and C systems on human operators are gradually recognized to be significant. I believe that it is time to consider the interdependency between I and C systems and human operators in the framework of PSA. But, unfortunately it seems that we do not have appropriate methods for incorporating the interdependency between I and C systems and human operators in the framework of Pasa. Conventional human reliability analysis (HRA) methods are not developed to consider the interdependecy, and the modeling of the interdependency using conventional event tree analysis and fault tree analysis seem to be, event though is does not seem to be impossible, quite complex. To incorporate the interdependency between I and C systems and human operators, we need a new method for HRA and a new method for modeling the I and C systems, man-machine interface (MMI), and human operators for quantitative safety assessment. As a new method for modeling the I and C systems, MMI and human operators, I develop a new system reliability analysis method, reliability graph with general gates (RGGG), which can substitute conventional fault tree analysis. RGGG is an intuitive and easy-to-use method for system reliability analysis, while as powerful as conventional fault tree analysis. To demonstrate the usefulness of the RGGG method, it is applied to the reliability analysis of Digital Plant Protection System (DPPS), which is the actual plant protection system of Ulchin 5 and 6 nuclear power plants located in Republic of Korea. The latest version of the fault tree for DPPS, which is developed by the Integrated Safety Assessment team in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), consists of 64

  10. Projects of SR sources including research and development for insertion devices in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulipanov, G.

    1990-01-01

    Some technical information on the electron and positron storage rings - SR sources that are being constructed, used or developed at the Novosibirsk Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP), is given. The parameters and construction of wigglers and undulators (electromagnetic, superconducting, and based on permanent magnets) that are intended to be used at such storage rings are described. Various schemes of installation of wigglers, undulators and FEL at storage rings is considered. The ways of minimizing the influence of their magnetic fields on particle motion in storage rings are treated. (author)

  11. Development of high quality large laser crystals for a CPA laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Akira; Fukuyama, Hiroyasu; Nagai, Shiro; Katsurayama, Masamichi; Anzai, Yutaka

    2000-01-01

    Uniform doped concentration along growth direction of Nd 3+ :YAG crystal with 110 mm length was successfully grown by the Czochralski furnace with a double crucible. The fluctuation of doped concentration was less than 4%, nearly 1/4 of the Nd 3+ :YAG crystal grown by a conventional method. We also demonstrated direct bonding without the use of adhesive materials on Ti:sapphire laser crystals with a bonding surface dimension of 12 mm x 6 mm. The bonding surfaces were treated with chemical processes to clean up and to create a hydrophilic layer for hydrogen bonding in an atmospheric furnace. Successive heat treatment in a vacuum furnace transformed the hydrogen bonding into the direct bonding. From the observation by a transmission electron microscope (Hitachi: HF-2000), atomic level bonding was succeeded in the bonding surface. The performance of the bonded crystal was also tested by laser oscillation with a second harmonics of Q-switched Nd 3+ :YAG at a 20 Hz repetition rate. In comparison with a normal laser crystal, there were no difference in output power or spatial profile in an input condition of 30 mJ. The optical damaged threshold on the bonding surface was estimated over 660 MW/cm 2 . (author)

  12. Tell me your life: including life stories in an adult development and aging course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Feliciano; Celdran, Montserrat; Fabà, Josep

    2014-01-01

    The goals of this study were to determine the learning impact of an assignment that consisted of interviewing and analyzing older people's life stories, and to explore how the assignment was evaluated by students. Participants in the study were 122 first-year social education students enrolled in an adult development and aging course. They evaluated the assignment using an eight-adjective questionnaire and were asked about the benefits of the task. Their answers to the questionnaire were then reviewed using content analysis. The results indicated that marks on the life story assignment predicted marks on an exam about basic course concepts. Students considered that the assignment was interesting, useful, and integrated into the course, although most of them also thought that it was very time-consuming. They identified benefits related to the explicit goals of the course (improvement in the learning of developmental concepts, the acquisition of research-related skills, and the deactivation of aging stereotypes) and personal, growth-related benefits. The authors discuss the difficulties posed by the assignment and its usefulness as a complement to more traditional, lecture-based teaching methods in adult development and aging courses.

  13. States and compacts: Issues and events affecting facility development efforts, including the Barnwell opening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, G.S.

    1995-12-31

    Ten years have passed since the first regional low-level radioactive waste compacts received Congressional consent and initiated their efforts to develop new disposal capacity. During these 10 years, both significant achievements and serious setbacks have marked our efforts and affect our current outlook. Recent events in the waste marketplace, particularly in the operating status of the Barnwell disposal facility, have now raised legitimate questions about the continued rationale for the regional framework that grew out of the original legislation enacted by Congress in 1980. At the same time, licensing activities for new regional disposal facilities are under way in three states, and a fourth awaits the final go-ahead to begin construction. Uncertainty over the meaning and reliability of the marketplace events makes it difficult to gauge long-term implications. In addition, differences in the status of individual state and compact facility development efforts lead to varying assessments of the influence these events will, or should, have on such efforts.

  14. States and compacts: Issues and events affecting facility development efforts, including the Barnwell opening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, G.S.

    1995-01-01

    Ten years have passed since the first regional low-level radioactive waste compacts received Congressional consent and initiated their efforts to develop new disposal capacity. During these 10 years, both significant achievements and serious setbacks have marked our efforts and affect our current outlook. Recent events in the waste marketplace, particularly in the operating status of the Barnwell disposal facility, have now raised legitimate questions about the continued rationale for the regional framework that grew out of the original legislation enacted by Congress in 1980. At the same time, licensing activities for new regional disposal facilities are under way in three states, and a fourth awaits the final go-ahead to begin construction. Uncertainty over the meaning and reliability of the marketplace events makes it difficult to gauge long-term implications. In addition, differences in the status of individual state and compact facility development efforts lead to varying assessments of the influence these events will, or should, have on such efforts

  15. Development of a hexavalent chromium ISFET sensor with a polymeric membrane including tributylphosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zazoua, A. [Universite de Annaba, BP 12, El-Hadjar, Annaba (Algeria); Zougar, S. [Universite de Annaba, BP 12, El-Hadjar, Annaba (Algeria); Kherrat, R. [Universite de Annaba, BP 12, El-Hadjar, Annaba (Algeria); Samar, M.H. [Universite de Annaba, BP 12, El-Hadjar, Annaba (Algeria); Jaffrezic-Renault, N. [CEGELY-UMR 5005 CNRS, Ecole centrale de Lyon, 69134 Ecully cedex (France)]. E-mail: Nicole.Jaffrezic@ec-lyon.fr; Errachid, A. [Center of Reference for Bioengineering in Catalonia (CREBEC), Laboratory of Nanobioengineering, Parc Cientific de Barcelona, Universidad de Barcelona C/ Josep Samitier 1-5, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Abbaci, A. [Universite de Annaba, BP 12, El-Hadjar, Annaba (Algeria)

    2006-03-15

    This paper presents a first report on chromium ISFET (ion-sensitive field effect transistor) based on a polymeric membrane (siloprene) including an ionophore (tributylphosphate) sensitive for hexavalent chromium. The sensor sensitivity as a function of the pH was studied; its value is minimum in a pH interval from 5.5 to 7.5. The sensitivity for hexavalent chromium was found to be 15 mV/loga {sub Cr{sup 6+}} in the range of 10{sup -4} to 10{sup -2} M. The detection limit was found to be 10{sup -5} M. The studied interfering ions are Pb(II) and Cd(II) that do not represent a great perturbation upon the response for hexavalent chromium.

  16. Development of a hexavalent chromium ISFET sensor with a polymeric membrane including tributylphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zazoua, A.; Zougar, S.; Kherrat, R.; Samar, M.H.; Jaffrezic-Renault, N.; Errachid, A.; Abbaci, A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a first report on chromium ISFET (ion-sensitive field effect transistor) based on a polymeric membrane (siloprene) including an ionophore (tributylphosphate) sensitive for hexavalent chromium. The sensor sensitivity as a function of the pH was studied; its value is minimum in a pH interval from 5.5 to 7.5. The sensitivity for hexavalent chromium was found to be 15 mV/loga Cr 6+ in the range of 10 -4 to 10 -2 M. The detection limit was found to be 10 -5 M. The studied interfering ions are Pb(II) and Cd(II) that do not represent a great perturbation upon the response for hexavalent chromium

  17. Development of a Laser-based Emittance Monitor for Negative Hydrogen Beams

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2078368; Schmauss, Bernhard; Gibson, Stephen; Boorman, Gary; Bosco, Alessio

    High energy particle accelerators are designed to collide charged particle beams and thus study the collision products. Maximising the collision rate, to generate sufficient statistics for precise measurements of rare processes, is one of the key parameters for optimising the overall collider performance. The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Injectors Upgrade (LIU) includes the construction of LINAC4, a completely new machine working as a first linear acceleration stage for the LHC beam. By accelerating a negative hydrogen beam (H-) instead of protons, it aims to double the beam brightness via a more efficient transfer to the first circular accelerator and subsequently boost the LHC collision rate. To achieve this, a precise knowledge of the transverse beam characteristics in terms of beam emittance is essential. This thesis work covers the development of a laser-based monitor meant to measure non-destructively the LINAC4 beam transverse profile and emittance. This included the implementation of dif...

  18. Scope and status of the USA Engineering Test Facility including relevant TFTR research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becraft, W.R.; Reardon, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    The vehicle by which the fusion program would move into the engineering testing phase of fusion power development is designated the Engineering Test Facility (ETF). The progress toward the design and construction of the ETF will reflect the significant achievements of past, present, and future experimental tokamak devices. Some of the features of this foundation of experimental results and relevant engineering designs and operation will derive from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Project, now nearing the completion of its construction phase. The ETF would provide a test-bed for reactor components in the fusion environment. In order to initiate preliminary planning for the ETF decision, the Office of Fusion Energy (OFE) established the ETF Design Center activity to prepare the design of the ETF. This paper describes the design status of the ETF and discusses some highlights of the TFTR R and D work

  19. Scope and status of the USA Engineering Test Facility including relevant TFTR research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becraft, W.R.; Reardon, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    The vehicle by which the fusion programme would move into the engineering testing phase of fusion power development is designated the Engineering Test Facility (ETF). The progress toward the design and construction of the ETF will reflect the significant achievements of past, present, and future experimental tokamak devices. Some of the features of this foundation of experimental results and relevant engineering designs and operation will derive from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Project, now nearing the completion of its construction phase. The ETF would provide a test-bed for reactor components in the fusion environment. To initiate preliminary planning for the ETF decision, the Office of Fusion Energy (OFE) established the ETF Design Center activity to prepare the design of the ETF. This paper describes the design status of the ETF and discusses some highlights of the TFTR R and D work. (author)

  20. Recent developments of the MARC/PN transport theory code including a treatment of anisotropic scatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.K.

    1987-12-01

    The computer code MARC/PN provides a solution of the multigroup transport equation by expanding the flux in spherical harmonics. The coefficients of the series so obtained satisfy linked first order differential equations, and on eliminating terms associated with odd parity harmonics a second order system results which can be solved by established finite difference or finite element techniques. This report describes modifications incorporated in MARC/PN to allow for anisotropic scattering, and the modelling of irregular exterior boundaries in the finite element option. The latter development leads to substantial reductions in problem size, particularly for three dimensions. Also, links to an interactive graphics mesh generator (SUPERTAB) have been added. The final section of the report contains results from problems showing the effects of anisotropic scatter and the ability of the code to model irregular geometries. (author)

  1. Development of the nervus terminalis in mammals including toothed whales and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelschläger, H A; Buhl, E H; Dann, J F

    1987-01-01

    The early ontogenesis and topography of the mammalian terminalis system was investigated in 43 microslide series of toothed whale and human embryos and fetuses. In early embryonal stages the development of the nasal pit, the olfacto-terminalis placode, and the olfactory bulb anlage is rather similar in toothed whales and humans. However, toothed whales do not show any trace of the vomeronasalis complex. In early fetal stages the olfactory bulb anlage in toothed whales is reduced and leaves the isolated future terminalis ganglion (ganglia) which contains the greatest number of cells within Mammalia. The ganglion is connected with the nasal mucosa via peripheral fiber bundles and with the telencephalon via central terminalis rootlets. The functional implications of the terminalis system in mammals and its evolution in toothed whales are discussed. Obviously, the autonomic component has been enlarged in the course of perfect adaptation to an aquatic environment.

  2. Coastal erosion's influencing factors include development, dams, wells, and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubrey, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    The demographic flight to the coast, begun in early civilization, continues unabated worldwide according to latest studies. The percentage of population living on the coast is expected to remain relatively constant over the next few decades, but the total numbers will increase as the population increases. Recent coastal battering by hurricanes and extratropical storms poses questions about coastal habitability and the real economics of coastal development. Repair costs are borne by private individuals as well as the public in various direct and indirect ways. As these costs escalate, it is fitting to ask what the future portends for storm and coastal-flood damage. It is known that development pressures will continue to increase along the coast, but what will happen concurrently to natural-hazard threats to this infrastructure? Though much emphasis has been placed on sea-level rise, the broader issue is climate change in general. Here, the author considers climate change in both its natural and anthropogenic perspectives. Without becoming mired in the debate about the greenhouse effect and human influence on climatic shifts, some of the broad classes of natural hazards that might accompany climate change are examined. There are several categories of possible global-change effects on coastal erosion. In the early 1980's, an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) report postulated increases in global sea level up to 4 meters during the next 100 years. Though balanced somewhat by other, lower estimates of sea-level rise, this higher extreme grabbed public attention. During the next decade, scientists attempted to concur on a more reasonable estimate of global sea-level rise due to climate change. Recent credible estimates suggest that approximately 10 to 20 percent of EPA's earlier maximum estimate is most reasonable

  3. A review of the development of portable laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakovský, J., E-mail: jozef.rakovsky@jh-inst.cas.cz [J. Heyrovský Institute of Physical Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Dolejškova 3, 18223 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Čermák, P. [Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, Mlynská dolina F2, 842 48 Bratislava (Slovakia); Musset, O. [Laboratoire interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR CNRS 6303, Université de Bourgogne, BP 47 870, F-21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Veis, P. [Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, Mlynská dolina F2, 842 48 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2014-11-01

    In this review, we present person-transportable laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) devices that have previously been developed and reported in the literature as well as their applications. They are compared with X-ray fluorescent (XRF) devices, which represent their strongest competition. Although LIBS devices have advantages over XRF devices, such as sensitivity to the light elements, high spatial resolution and the possibility to distinguish between different layers of the sample, there are also disadvantages and both are discussed here. Furthermore, the essential portable LIBS instrumentation (laser, spectrograph and detector) is presented, and published results related to new laser sources (diode-pumped solid-state, microchip and fiber lasers) used in LIBS are overviewed. Compared to conventional compact flashlamp pumped solid-state lasers, the new laser sources provide higher repetition rates, higher efficiency (less power consumption) and higher beam quality, resulting in higher fluences, even for lower energies, and could potentially increase the figure of merit of portable LIBS instruments. Compact spectrometers used in portable LIBS devices and their parts (spectrograph, detector) are also discussed. - Highlights: • Overview of portable LIBS devices transportable by a person • Discussion and new trends about portable LIBS instrumentation: laser, spectrograph and detector • Overview of applications of DPSS, microchip and fiber lasers in LIBS.

  4. Development, production, and application of sealed-off copper and gold vapour lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyabin, Nikolai A; Chursin, A D; Ugol'nikov, S A; Koroleva, M E; Kazaryan, M A

    2001-01-01

    An analysis is made of the current state of the art of scientific and engineering advances in the field of repetitively pulsed self-heating metal vapour (copper and gold) lasers based on industrial, sealed-off, high-temperature, metalceramic and metal-glass active elements. The major applications of these lasers are discussed. The energy, spatial, and time characteristics of the lasers and their dependence on the parameters and construction of the laser active elements (tubes) and optical resonators are considered. The ways for the development of new high-power industrial laser active elements with a high efficiency (1 - 2%) and a service life of 500 - 1000 h are analysed. An average output power of 80 W was realised with a laser tube 150 cm in length and 32 mm in diameter. When the pumping efficiency is improved by raising the voltage to 30 - 35 kV, this system in a copper vapour laser will allow an output power of 100 W to be obtained with one active element. The characteristics of industrial versions of metal vapour lasers manufactured in different countries are compared and discussed. (invited paper)

  5. Research and development of laser radar for environmental measurement. 2; Kankyo keisokuyo laser radar no kenkyu kaihatsu. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This project was received by Optoelectronic Industry and Technology Development Association from NEDO, and aims to contribute to the improvement of Indonesia's environmental administration through the development of an air pollution observing laser radar (LR) and of an environmental information network system fit for use in the country in cooperation with Indonesian engineers. LRs will be installed at several sites in an urban area where environmental problems are increasingly serious, and a observation network system will be constructed to link the laser radar sites. The observed data will be collected, analyzed, and processed by an observation data processing center for the investigation of the three-dimensional spatial distribution of air pollution to determine the actual state of air pollution over an urban area. The laser radars and the network will be placed in the city of Djakarta. The Indonesian authority responsible for the project is Indonesian Institute of Sciences. In fiscal 1994, part of the equipment (difference absorbing LR) was designed and manufactured, the design of the environmental information network system was developed, and various researches required in this connection were conducted. (NEDO)

  6. Bibliography of Soviet Laser Developments: January - February 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-21

    light in LiNbO(sub3), CsH(sub2)AsO(sub4) and Ba(sub2)NaNb(sub5)O(sub 15) crystals under synchronous pumping by a picosecond La (sub2)Be(sub2)O(sub5):Nd...Weber,T. 0 Determining the metrological characteristics of an He-Ne laser at 633 nm as a secondary standard of length (in Romanian). Metrologia

  7. Development of fiber lasers and devices for coherent Raman scattering microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Erin Stranford

    As ultrafast laser technology has found expanding application in machining, spectroscopy, microscopy, surgery, and numerous other areas, the desire for inexpensive and robust laser sources has grown. Until recently, nonlinear effects in fiber systems due to the tight confinement of the light in the core have limited their performance. However, with advances in managing nonlinearity through pulse propagation physics and the use of large core fibers, the performance of fiber lasers can compete with that of their solid-state counterparts. As specific applications, such as coherent Raman scattering microscopy, emerge that stand to benefit from fiber technology, new performance challenges in areas such as laser noise are anticipated. This thesis studies nonlinear pulse propagation in fiber lasers and fiber parametric devices. Applications of dissipative solitons and self-similar pulse propagation to low-repetition rate oscillators that have the potential to simplify short-pulse amplification schemes will be examined. The rest of this thesis focuses on topics relevant to fiber laser development for coherent Raman scattering microscopy sources. Coherent pulse division and recombination inside the laser cavity will be introduced as an energy-scaling mechanism and demonstrated for a fiber soliton laser. The relative intensity noise properties of mode-locked fiber lasers, with a particular emphasis on normal dispersion lasers, will be explored in simulation and experiment. A fiber optical parametric oscillator will be studied in detail for low noise frequency conversion of picosecond pulses, and its utility for coherent Raman imaging will be demonstrated. Spectral compression of femtosecond pulses is used to generate picosecond pulses to pump this device, and this technique provides a route to future noise reduction in the system. Furthermore, this device forms a multimodal source capable of providing the picosecond pulses for coherent Raman scattering microscopy and the

  8. Development of Laser Based Plasma Diagnostics for Fusion Research on NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchfeld, Robert Adam

    plasma diagnostics. Plasma diagnostics collect data from fusion reactors in a number of different ways. Among these are far infrared (FIR) laser based systems. By probing a fusion plasma with FIR lasers, many properties can be measured, such as density and density fluctuations. This dissertation discusses the theory and design of two laser based diagnostic instruments: 1) the Far Infrared Tangential Interferometer and Polarimeter (FIReTIP) systems, and 2) the High-ktheta Scattering System. Both of these systems have been designed and fabricated at UC Davis for use on the National Spherical Torus Experiment - Upgrade (NSTX-U), located at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). These systems will aid PPPL scientists in fusion research. The FIReTIP system uses 119 ?m methanol lasers to pass through the plasma core to measure a chord averaged plasma density through interferometry. It can also measure the toroidal magnetic field strength by the way of polarimetery. The High-ktheta Scattering System uses a 693 GHz formic acid laser to measure electron scale turbulence. Through collective Thomson scattering, as the probe beam passes through the plasma, collective electron motion will scatter power to a receiver with the angle determined by the turbulence wavenumber. This diagnostic will measure ktheta from 7 to 40 cm-1 with a 4-channel receiver array. The High-ktheta Scattering system was designed to facilitate research on electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes, which are believed to be a major contributor to anomalous transport on NSTX-U. The design and testing of these plasma diagnostics are described in detail. There are a broad range of components detailed including: optically pumped gas FIR lasers, overmoded low loss waveguide, launching and receiving optical designs, quasi-optical mixers, electronics, and monitoring and control systems. Additionally, details are provided for laser maintenance, alignment techniques, and the fundamentals of nano-CNC-machining.

  9. Development of laser marking system with electro-optic Q-switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Jeong Moog; Kim, Kwang Suk; Park, Seung Kyu; Baik, Sung Hoon.

    1995-11-01

    We developed a high repetition electro-optic Q switch Nd:YAG laser and scan system for laser marking. We localized the scan mirrors and their mounts. We made the database for the optical properties of commercial flat-field lenses with our optics design software. We fabricated the detailed network between the galvanometer based beam scanning system and the laser generator. To accelerate the commercialization by the joint company, the training and transfer of technology were pursued in the joint participation by company researchers from the early stage. (author). 8 refs., 6 tabs., 27 figs

  10. Development of laser marking system with electro-optic Q-switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Jeong Moog; Kim, Kwang Suk; Park, Seung Kyu; Baik, Sung Hoon

    1995-11-01

    We developed a high repetition electro-optic Q switch Nd:YAG laser and scan system for laser marking. We localized the scan mirrors and their mounts. We made the database for the optical properties of commercial flat-field lenses with our optics design software. We fabricated the detailed network between the galvanometer based beam scanning system and the laser generator. To accelerate the commercialization by the joint company, the training and transfer of technology were pursued in the joint participation by company researchers from the early stage. (author). 8 refs., 6 tabs., 27 figs.

  11. Proposed development of novel diagnostics for intense, ultrafast laser-plasma experiments at JAEA-KPSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolton, Paul R.; Tatchyn, Roman; Fukuda, Yuji; Kando, Masaki; Daito, Izuru; Ma, Jinglong; Chen, Liming; Pirozhkov, Alexander; Tajima, Toshiki

    2007-01-01

    Development of new diagnostics is critical for future laser-plasma accelerators, laser-driven light sources and for x-ray FELs. Recent laser wakefield electron acceleration developments and novel beam-based light source schemes (such as free electron lasers) obviate the need for next generation ultrafast diagnostics, capable of temporal resolution of a few femtoseconds (and in some cases attoseconds) for laser pulses (high order harmonics), x-ray pulses and electron bunches. Single shot detection capability in noninvasive and parasitic modes is also important. Alterations of laser pulse spectra and the associated dynamics can be informative diagnostics. The portion of a high intensity laser pulse that is transmitted through a self-induced underdense plasma (such as in laser wakefield acceleration LWFA schemes) carries the effects of plasma processes it has experienced. A distinction between the self-modulated laser wakefield (SMLWF) acceleration regime and the forced laser wakefield (FLWF) acceleration regime is in the spectral signature of the transmitted ir laser pulse. The former regime generates sidebands from stimulated Raman forward scattering (SRS-F) and the latter exhibits general spectral broadening that evidences ir laser pulse compression. Transmitted spectral effects can diagnose these acceleration regimes. Existing noninvasive electro-optic (EO) schemes for detection of ultrashort electron bunches are limited by material properties to temporal resolution at the 50-100 femtosecond level. While timing jitter at conventional accelerators is of this order (or greater), single bunch longitudinal profile measurements can require improvement of at least an order of magnitude. A new FO technique is described here which monitors enhancement and associated dynamics of spectral components in a probe pulse. Three correlation schemes for detecting ultrashort x-ray pulses are described. Two-photon absorption in tailored ion targets is proposed for scanning auto

  12. Development of multi-axis laser micromachining system suitable for machining non-linear contoured surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Kerimoğlu, Serhat

    2016-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. Thesis (M.S.): Bilkent University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, 2016. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 82-84). In recent years, studies on manufacturing systems have proved the importance of cooperation of positioning systems with laser cutting technology. The performance of the manufacturing system can be improved by utilizing both laser and positioning systems together. In thi...

  13. Laser materials development by means of a solid-state bonding method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Akira

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews laser materials development via a bonding method without adhesives. Instead of conventional chemical etching, a dry etching technique using an argon beam has been newly developed for the bonding method. This method meets the requirement for the use of optical materials. We succeeded in the fabrication of a composite laser crystal with good heat conductivity by bonding two kinds of crystals; one is neodymium-doped YVO 4 crystal (Nd:YVO 4 ) and the other is its host crystal YVO 4 . In the comparison of the laser performance between the normal and composite crystal, the composite one shows the good lasing capability of increasing laser output without fracture of the crystal due to thermal stress which appeared in the normal one. (author)

  14. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... creation and economic development activities? (a) A Tribe may conduct job market assessments within its NEW Program. These might include the following: (1) Consultation with the Tribe's economic development staff...

  15. Development of laser diode-pumped high average power solid-state laser for the pumping of Ti:sapphire CPA system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Yoichiro; Tei, Kazuyoku; Kato, Masaaki; Niwa, Yoshito; Harayama, Sayaka; Oba, Masaki; Matoba, Tohru; Arisawa, Takashi; Takuma, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Laser diode pumped all solid state, high repetition frequency (PRF) and high energy Nd:YAG laser using zigzag slab crystals has been developed for the pumping source of Ti:sapphire CPA system. The pumping laser installs two main amplifiers which compose ring type amplifier configuration. The maximum amplification gain of the amplifier system is 140 and the condition of saturated amplification is achieved with this high gain. The average power of fundamental laser radiation is 250 W at the PRF of 200 Hz and the pulse duration is around 20 ns. The average power of second harmonic is 105 W at the PRF of 170 Hz and the pulse duration is about 16 ns. The beam profile of the second harmonic is near top hat and will be suitable for the pumping of Ti:sapphire laser crystal. The wall plug efficiency of the laser is 2.0 %. (author)

  16. Developments towards in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy studies of actinium isotopes at LISOL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raeder, S.; Bastin, B.; Block, M.; Creemers, P.; Delahaye, P.; Ferrer, R.; Fléchard, X.; Franchoo, S.; Ghys, L.; Gaffney, L.P.; Granados, C.; Heinke, R.; Hijazi, L.

    2016-01-01

    To study exotic nuclides at the borders of stability with laser ionization and spectroscopy techniques, highest efficiencies in combination with a high spectral resolution are required. These usually opposing requirements are reconciled by applying the in-gas-laser ionization and spectroscopy (IGLIS) technique in the supersonic gas jet produced by a de Laval nozzle installed at the exit of the stopping gas cell. Carrying out laser ionization in the low-temperature and low density supersonic gas jet eliminates pressure broadening, which will significantly improve the spectral resolution. This article presents the required modifications at the Leuven Isotope Separator On-Line (LISOL) facility that are needed for the first on-line studies of in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy. Different geometries for the gas outlet and extraction ion guides have been tested for their performance regarding the acceptance of laser ionized species as well as for their differential pumping capacities. The specifications and performance of the temporarily installed high repetition rate laser system, including a narrow bandwidth injection-locked Ti:sapphire laser, are discussed and first preliminary results on neutron-deficient actinium isotopes are presented indicating the high capability of this novel technique.

  17. Developments towards in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy studies of actinium isotopes at LISOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeder, S., E-mail: s.raeder@gsi.de [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, 55128 Mainz (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Bastin, B. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, B.P. 55027, 14076 Caen (France); Block, M. [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, 55128 Mainz (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Institut für Kernchemie, Johannes Gutenberg Universität, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Creemers, P. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Delahaye, P. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, B.P. 55027, 14076 Caen (France); Ferrer, R. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Fléchard, X. [LPC Caen, ENSICAEN, Université de Caen, CNRS/IN2P3, Caen (France); Franchoo, S. [Institute de Physique Nucléaire (IPN) d’Orsay, 91406 Orsay, Cedex (France); Ghys, L. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Center, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Gaffney, L.P.; Granados, C. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Heinke, R. [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg Universität, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Hijazi, L. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, B.P. 55027, 14076 Caen (France); and others

    2016-06-01

    To study exotic nuclides at the borders of stability with laser ionization and spectroscopy techniques, highest efficiencies in combination with a high spectral resolution are required. These usually opposing requirements are reconciled by applying the in-gas-laser ionization and spectroscopy (IGLIS) technique in the supersonic gas jet produced by a de Laval nozzle installed at the exit of the stopping gas cell. Carrying out laser ionization in the low-temperature and low density supersonic gas jet eliminates pressure broadening, which will significantly improve the spectral resolution. This article presents the required modifications at the Leuven Isotope Separator On-Line (LISOL) facility that are needed for the first on-line studies of in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy. Different geometries for the gas outlet and extraction ion guides have been tested for their performance regarding the acceptance of laser ionized species as well as for their differential pumping capacities. The specifications and performance of the temporarily installed high repetition rate laser system, including a narrow bandwidth injection-locked Ti:sapphire laser, are discussed and first preliminary results on neutron-deficient actinium isotopes are presented indicating the high capability of this novel technique.

  18. Study and development of 22 kW peak power fiber coupled short pulse Nd:YAG laser for cleaning applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubey, Ambar; Vishwakarma, S. C.; Vachhani, D. M.; Singh, Ravindra; Misra, Pushkar; Jain, R. K.; Arya, R.; Upadhyaya, B. N.; Oak, S. M.

    2014-11-01

    Free running short pulse Nd:YAG laser of microsecond pulse duration and high peak power has a unique capability to ablate material from the surface without heat propagation into the bulk. Applications of short pulse Nd:YAG lasers include cleaning and restoration of marble, stones, and a variety of metals for conservation. A study on the development of high peak power short pulses from Nd:YAG laser along with its cleaning and conservation applications has been performed. A pulse energy of 1.25 J with 55 μs pulse duration and a maximum peak power of 22 kW has been achieved. Laser beam has an M2 value of ~28 and a pulse-to-pulse stability of ±2.5%. A lower value of M2 means a better beam quality of the laser in multimode operation. A top hat spatial profile of the laser beam was achieved at the exit end of 200 μm core diameter optical fiber, which is desirable for uniform cleaning. This laser system has been evaluated for efficient cleaning of surface contaminations on marble, zircaloy, and inconel materials for conservation with cleaning efficiency as high as 98%. Laser's cleaning quality and efficiency have been analysed by using a microscope, a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS) measurements.

  19. Development of hybrid organic-inorganic optical coatings to prevent laser damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compoint, Francois

    2015-01-01

    The optical devices (lents, mirrors, portholes...) that are set on the chains of the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) may be damaged by the high energy laser beam especially around the UV wavelength of 351 nm. The damages are micronic craters on the rear of the optics that grows exponentially after each laser shots. The study aims at developing some optical thin coatings on the rear of the optical substrates to prevent the growth of the damage by amortizing the laser shock wave, self-healing the craters that has appeared, or repairing the laser hole after the damage occurs. The thin coatings have been prepared by a sol-gel method by using silica precursor and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer. The two species reacted together to get a hybrid organic-inorganic Ormosil (organically modified silica) material, by creating a silica network linked to the PDMS species with covalent and hydrogen bounds. The thin layers are obtained from the sol-gel solution by using a dip and spin coating method. The coatings have an excellent optical transmission around the UV (351 nm) wavelength. They also have some self-healing properties by using mechanical (viscoelastic) mechanism and chemical reversible hydrogen bounds action in the materials. The silica-PDMS coatings prove to be resistant to the laser beam at 351 nm, despite some optimizations that still need to be done to reach the sought laser damage threshold. (author) [fr

  20. Bibliography of Soviet Laser Developments, Number 85, September - October 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    Deposit, no. 4205-V86, 10 June 1986. (IVUFA, no. 10, 1986, 128). 60. Gordiyets, B.F.; Panchenko, V.Ya. (FIAN; NITsTLAN). Gas lasers with solar excitation...rupture site of a lightguide in an optical communication line. Sistema i sredstva peredachi informatsii po kanalam svyazi. Leningrad, 1985, 40-44. (RZRAB...dielektricheskikh materialov. MIREA. Moskva, 1985, 215 p. (RZFZA, 86/9N779). 864. Saidov, M.S. 0. Photosensitive structures and solar elements based on gallium

  1. Development of laser ablation plasma by anisotropic self-radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohnishi Naofumi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We have proposed a method for reproducing an accurate solution of low-density ablation plasma by properly treating anisotropic radiation. Monte-Carlo method is employed for estimating Eddington tensor with limited number of photon samples in each fluid time step. Radiation field from ablation plasma is significantly affected by the anisotropic Eddington tensor. Electron temperature around the ablation surface changes with the radiation field and is responsible for the observed emission. An accurate prediction of the light emission from the laser ablation plasma requires a careful estimation of the anisotropic radiation field.

  2. Development of fluorides for high power laser optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ready, J.F.; Vora, H.

    1980-07-01

    The laser-assisted thermonuclear fusion program has significant needs for improved optical materials with high transmission in the ultraviolet, and with low values of nonlinear index of refraction. Lithium fluoride (LiF) possesses a combination of optical properties which are of potential use. Single-crystalline LiF is limited by low mechanical strength. In this program, we investigated the technique of press-forging to increase the mechanical strength. LiF single crystals were press-forged over the temperature range 300 to 600 0 C to produce fine-grained polycrystalline material

  3. Development of photonic crystals using sol-gel process for high power laser applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoit, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional photonic crystals (PCs) are periodic materials with a modulated refractive index on a length scale close to the light wavelength. This optical property allows the preparation of specific optical components like highly reflective mirrors. Moreover, these structured materials might have a high laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) in the sub-nanosecond range compared to multilayered dielectric mirrors. This property is obtained because only one high LIDT material (silica) is used. In this work, we present the development of 3D PCs with narrow-sized colloidal silica particles, prepared by sol-gel process and deposited with Langmuir-Blodgett technique. Different syntheses routes have been investigated and compared regarding the optical properties of the PCs. A numerical model based on an ideal opal network including defect influence is used to explain these experimental results. (author) [fr

  4. Particle size distribution in soils and marine sediments by laser diffraction using Malvern Mastersizer 2000—method uncertainty including the effect of hydrogen peroxide pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Ingeborg; Keck, Hannes; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest

    2018-01-01

    with less than 1% C and some marine sediments. Materials and methods: The method uncertainty for particle size analysis by the laser diffraction method using or not using H2O2 pretreatment followed by 2 min ultrasound and 1-mm sieving was determined for two soil samples and two aquatic sediments......Purpose: Methods for particle size distribution (PSD) determination by laser diffraction are not standardized and differ between disciplines and sectors. The effect of H2O2 pretreatment before a sonication treatment in laser diffraction analysis of soils and marine sediments was examined on soils...... pretreatment on the PSD was small and not significant. The standard deviation (std) in particle size fractions increased with particle size. PSDs and std for some samples were presented for future reference. Similar to other studies, the content of clay and silt (by sieving/hydrometer, SHM) was lower...

  5. Micromachining with copper lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Martyn R. H.; Bell, Andy; Foster-Turner, Gideon; Rutterford, Graham; Chudzicki, J.; Kearsley, Andrew J.

    1997-04-01

    In recent years the copper laser has undergone extensive development and has emerged as a leading and unique laser for micromachining. The copper laser is a high average power (10 - 250 W), high pulse repetition rate (2 - 32 kHz), visible laser (511 nm and 578 nm) that produces high peak power (typically 200 kW), short pulses (30 ns) and very good beam quality (diffraction limited). This unique set of laser parameters results in exceptional micro-machining in a wide variety of materials. Typical examples of the capabilities of the copper laser include the drilling of small holes (10 - 200 micrometer diameter) in materials as diverse as steel, ceramic, diamond and polyimide with micron precision and low taper (less than 1 degree) cutting and profiling of diamond. Application of the copper laser covers the electronic, aerospace, automotive, nuclear, medical and precision engineering industries.

  6. Injection seeded, diode pumped regenerative ring Nd:YAG amplifier for spaceborne laser ranging technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, D. Barry; Kay, Richard B.; Degnan, John J.; Krebs, Danny J.; Seery, Bernard D.

    1992-01-01

    A small, all solid state, regenerative ring amplifier designed as a prototype for space application is discussed. Novel features include dual side pumping of the Nd:YAG crystal and a triangular ring cavity design which minimizes the number of optical components and losses. The amplifier is relatively small (3 ns round trip time) even though standard optical elements are employed. The ring regeneratively amplifies a 100 ps single pulse by approximately 10(exp 5) at a repetition rate of 10 to 100 Hz. The amplifier is designed to be injection seeded with a pulsed, 100 ps laser diode at 1.06 microns, but another Nd:YAG laser system supplying higher pulse energies was employed for laboratory experiment. This system is a prototype laser oscillator for the Geoscience Laser Ranging System (GLRS) platform. Results on measurements of beam quality, astigmatism, and gain are given.

  7. Identification of clinical isolates of Aspergillus, including cryptic species, by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Acuña, M Reyes; Ruiz-Pérez de Pipaón, Maite; Torres-Sánchez, María José; Aznar, Javier

    2017-12-08

    An expanded library of matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been constructed using the spectra generated from 42 clinical isolates and 11 reference strains, including 23 different species from 8 sections (16 cryptic plus 7 noncryptic species). Out of a total of 379 strains of Aspergillus isolated from clinical samples, 179 strains were selected to be identified by sequencing of beta-tubulin or calmodulin genes. Protein spectra of 53 strains, cultured in liquid medium, were used to construct an in-house reference database in the MALDI-TOF MS. One hundred ninety strains (179 clinical isolates previously identified by sequencing and the 11 reference strains), cultured on solid medium, were blindy analyzed by the MALDI-TOF MS technology to validate the generated in-house reference database. A 100% correlation was obtained with both identification methods, gene sequencing and MALDI-TOF MS, and no discordant identification was obtained. The HUVR database provided species level (score of ≥2.0) identification in 165 isolates (86.84%) and for the remaining 25 (13.16%) a genus level identification (score between 1.7 and 2.0) was obtained. The routine MALDI-TOF MS analysis with the new database, was then challenged with 200 Aspergillus clinical isolates grown on solid medium in a prospective evaluation. A species identification was obtained in 191 strains (95.5%), and only nine strains (4.5%) could not be identified at the species level. Among the 200 strains, A. tubingensis was the only cryptic species identified. We demonstrated the feasibility and usefulness of the new HUVR database in MALDI-TOF MS by the use of a standardized procedure for the identification of Aspergillus clinical isolates, including cryptic species, grown either on solid or liquid media. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For

  8. Scanning Color Laser Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awamura, D.; Ode, T.; Yonezawa, M.

    1988-01-01

    A confocal color laser microscope which utilizes a three color laser light source (Red: He-Ne, Green: Ar, Blue: Ar) has been developed and is finding useful applications in the semiconductor field. The color laser microscope, when compared to a conventional microscope, offers superior color separation, higher resolution, and sharper contrast. Recently some new functions including a Focus Scan Memory, a Surface Profile Measurement System, a Critical Dimension Measurement system (CD) and an Optical Beam Induced Current Function (OBIC) have been developed for the color laser microscope. This paper will discuss these new features.

  9. Development of long life pulse power supply for copper vapor laser. Do joki laser yo chojumyo reiki dengen no kaihatsu. ; Saidai shutsuryoku unten oyobi laser hasshin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, T.; Goto, N.; Nemoto, K. (Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-04-01

    Long life pulse power supply for Cu vapor laser was developed. This is composed of the pulse generation circuit and the pulse compression circuit. Current pulse of 10 mu second pulse width is generated in the pulse generating circuit by switching electric charge on the condensor charged through GTO (gate turn off) thyristors. The pulse compression circuit makes the current pulse fast to 300ms utilizing the difference of inductance at the saturation and the unsaturation on the circuit which uses a reactor having saturable property using a ferromagnetic substance for the core as the magnetic switch. The operation was carried out at the GTO generasting full power. Co base amorphous alloy of low loss was used for the core of saturable inductor and the circuit efficiency of 77% could be obtained by suppressing the heat generation in core even at 4,000Hz operation. The full output power of 8.2kW was possible which corresponds to 100W class laser oscillation. Repeated Cu vapor laser oscillation of 30W succeeded at the condition of 4,000Hz and power supply output of 5.9kW. 7 refs., 21 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. The process development of laser surface modification of commercially pure titanium (Grade 2) with rhenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobiela, K.; Smolina, I.; Dziedzic, R.; Szymczyk, P.; Kurzynowski, T.; Chlebus, E.

    2016-12-01

    The paper presents the results of the process development of laser surface modification of commercially pure titanium with rhenium. The criterion of the successful/optimal process is the repetitive geometry of the surface, characterized by predictable and repetitive chemical composition over its entire surface as well as special mechanical properties (hardness and wear resistance). The analysis of surface geometry concluded measurements of laser penetration depth and heat affected zone (HAZ), the width of a single track as well as width of a clad. The diode laser installed on the industrial robot carried out the laser treatment. This solution made possible the continuous supply of powder to the substrate during the process. The aim of an investigation is find out the possibility of improving the tribological characteristics of the surface due to the rhenium alloying. The verification of the surface properties (tribological) concluded geometry measurements, microstructure observation, hardness tests and evaluation of wear resistance.

  11. Development of Laser-Induced Fluorescence Diagnostic for the Paul Trap Simulator Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Moses; Efthimion, Philip; Gilson, Erik P; Majeski, Richard; Startsev, Edward

    2005-01-01

    The Paul Trap Simulator Experiment (PTSX) is a cylindrical Paul trap whose purpose is to simulate the nonlinear dynamics of intense charged particle beam propagation in alternating-gradient magnetic transport systems. For the in-situ measurement of the transverse ion density profile in the PTSX device, which is essential for the study of beam mismatch and halo particle production, a laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic system is being developed. Instead of cesium, which has been used in the initial phase of the PTSX experiment, barium has been selected as the preferred ion for the laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic. The installation of the barium ion source and the characterization of the tunable dye laser system are discussed. The design of the collection optics with an intensified CCD camera system is also discussed. Finally, initial test results using the laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic will be presented.

  12. Development of Z-pinch optical guiding for laser-plasma accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokai, Tomonao; Kando, Masaki; Dewa, Hideki; Kotaki, Hideyuki; Kondo, Shuji; Kanazawa, Shuhei; Nakajima, Kazuhisa; Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2000-01-01

    We have proposed optical guiding of intense laser pulse by fast Z-pinch for channel guided laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA). It has been developed based on capillary discharge-pumped X-ray laser technique. The discharge driven by current of 4.8 kA with a rise time of 15 ns through preionized helium gas could produce an uniform guiding channel with good reproducibility. With this new guiding method an intense Ti-Sapphire laser pulse (λ=790 nm, 2.2 TW, 90 fs, 1 x 10 17 W/cm 2 ) was transported through the channel over a distance of 2 cm corresponding to 12.5 times the Rayleigh length. (author)

  13. Development of fiber-delivered laser peening system to prevent stress corrosion cracking of reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Y.; Kimura, M.; Yoda, M.; Mukai, N.; Sato, K.; Uehara, T.; Ito, T.; Shimamura, M.; Sudo, A.; Suezono, N.

    2001-01-01

    The authors have developed a system to deliver water-penetrable intense laser pulses of frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser through optical fiber. The system is capable of improving a residual stress on water immersed metal material remotely, which is effective to prevent the initiation of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of reactor components. Experimental results showed that a compressive residual stress with enough amplitude and depth was built in the surface layer of type 304 stainless steel (SUS304) by irradiating laser pulses through optical fiber with diameter of 1 mm. A prototype peening head with miniaturized dimensions of 88 mm x 46 mm x 25 mm was assembled to con-firm the accessibility to the heat affected zone (HAZ) along weld lines of a reactor core shroud. The accessibility was significantly improved owing to the flexible optical fiber and the miniaturized peening head. The fiber delivered system opens up the possibility of new applications of laser peening. (author)

  14. Development of an optical displacement transducer for CO2 laser auto-focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.P.D.

    1986-01-01

    The PCMWP has partially funded the development of an optical displacement transducer by UKAEA Culham Laboratory (Laser Applications Group). This report covers all work which was done up to the end of the 1984/5 financial year. The purpose of the transducer is to sense automatically the standoff gap between the workpiece and a laser cutting head and subsequently to control an auto-focusing head for the CO 2 laser cutting process. Development of the transducer has reached a stage where it can be mounted on an industrial robot and incorporated into a closed loop servo control system so that standoff gap can be closely controlled whilst traversing variable geometry workpieces. The transducer has been shown to be insensitive to angular displacement of the workpiece (within limits) and to workpiece type or surface finish with the exception of transparent materials. Separate trials have shown it to be unaffected by CO 2 laser light and it has been used, with a motorised laser head, to control standoff whilst the laser cuts a range of contoured materials. The scientific principle of the transducer has thus been proved and a laboratory system has been successfully tested. Its performance has matched the specification with the exception of its ability to sense transparent materials. (author)

  15. Development of the Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment (KArLE) Instrument for In Situ Geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara A.; Li, Z.-H.; Miller, J. S.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Clegg, S. M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Swindle, T. D.; Wiens, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    Absolute dating of planetary samples is an essential tool to establish the chronology of geological events, including crystallization history, magmatic evolution, and alteration. Traditionally, geochronology has only been accomplishable on samples from dedicated sample return missions or meteorites. The capability for in situ geochronology is highly desired, because it will allow one-way planetary missions to perform dating of large numbers of samples. The success of an in situ geochronology package will not only yield data on absolute ages, but can also complement sample return missions by identifying the most interesting rocks to cache and/or return to Earth. In situ dating instruments have been proposed, but none have yet reached TRL 6 because the required high-resolution isotopic measurements are very challenging. Our team is now addressing this challenge by developing the Potassium (K) - Argon Laser Experiment (KArLE) under the NASA Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program (PIDDP), building on previous work to develop a K-Ar in situ instrument [1]. KArLE uses a combination of several flight-proven components that enable accurate K-Ar isochron dating of planetary rocks. KArLE will ablate a rock sample, determine the K in the plasma state using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), measure the liberated Ar using quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS), and relate the two by the volume of the ablated pit using an optical method such as a vertical scanning interferometer (VSI). Our preliminary work indicates that the KArLE instrument will be capable of determining the age of several kinds of planetary samples to +/-100 Myr, sufficient to address a wide range of geochronology problems in planetary science.

  16. Lasers in endodontics: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frentzen, Matthias; Braun, Andreas; Koort, Hans J.

    2002-06-01

    The interest in endodontic use of dental laser systems is increasing. Developing laser technology and a better understanding of laser effects widened the spectrum of possible endodontic indications. Various laser systems including excimer-, argon+-, diode-, Nd:YAG-, Er:YAG- and CO2-lasers are used in pulp diagnosis, treatment of hypersensitivity, pulp capping, sterilization of root canals, root canal shaping and obturation or apicoectomy. With the development of new delivery systems - thin and flexible fibers - for many different wavelengths laser applications in endodontics may increase. Since laser devices are still relatively costly, access to them is limited. Most of the clinical applications are laser assisted procedures such as the removing of pulp remnants and debris or disinfection of infected root canals. The essential question is whether a laser can provide improved treatment over conventional care. To perform laser therapy in endodontics today different laser types with adopted wavelengths and pulse widths are needed, each specific to a particular application. Looking into the future we will need endodontic laser equipment providing optimal laser parameters for different treatment modalities. Nevertheless, the quantity of research reports from the last decade promises a genuine future for lasers in endodontics.

  17. An analysis of options available for developing a common laser ray tracing package for Ares and Kull code frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeratunga, S K

    2008-11-06

    Ares and Kull are mature code frameworks that support ALE hydrodynamics for a variety of HEDP applications at LLNL, using two widely different meshing approaches. While Ares is based on a 2-D/3-D block-structured mesh data base, Kull is designed to support unstructured, arbitrary polygonal/polyhedral meshes. In addition, both frameworks are capable of running applications on large, distributed-memory parallel machines. Currently, both these frameworks separately support assorted collections of physics packages related to HEDP, including one for the energy deposition by laser/ion-beam ray tracing. This study analyzes the options available for developing a common laser/ion-beam ray tracing package that can be easily shared between these two code frameworks and concludes with a set of recommendations for its development.

  18. IDA Gamma-Ray Laser Annual Summary Report (1990): Investigation of the Feasibility of Developing A Laser Using Nuclear Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    Broadening in the Theory of Superradiant Emission," Acta Physica Polonica , Vol. A39, 1971, pp. 633-638. 8. B. Balko, I.W. Kay, and J. Neuberger, IDA...Cuopy 1 3 of 60 copies AD-A259 475 IDA PAPER P-2533 IDA GAMMA-RAY LASER ANNUAL SUMMARY REPORT (1990) Investigation of the Feasibility of Developing a ...embody results of major projects which ( a ) have a direct bearing on decisions affecting major programs, (b) address issues of significant concern to

  19. MULTISPECTRAL AIRBORNE LASER SCANNING - A NEW TREND IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF LIDAR TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakuła Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Airborne laser scanning (ALS is the one of the most accurate remote sensing techniques for data acquisition where the terrain and its coverage is concerned. Modern scanners have been able to scan in two or more channels (frequencies of the laser recently. This gives the rise to the possibility of obtaining diverse information about an area with the different spectral properties of objects. The paper presents an example of a multispectral ALS system - Titan by Optech - with the possibility of data including the analysis of digital elevation models accuracy and data density. As a result of the study, the high relative accuracy of LiDAR acquisition in three spectral bands was proven. The mean differences between digital terrain models (DTMs were less than 0.03 m. The data density analysis showed the influence of the laser wavelength. The points clouds that were tested had average densities of 25, 23 and 20 points per square metre respectively for green (G, near-infrared (NIR and shortwave-infrared (SWIR lasers. In this paper, the possibility of the generation of colour composites using orthoimages of laser intensity reflectance and its classification capabilities using data from airborne multispectral laser scanning for land cover mapping are also discussed and compared with conventional photogrammetric techniques.

  20. Tunable Laser Development for In-flight Fiber Optic Based Structural Health Monitoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Lance; Parker, Allen; Chan, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this task is to investigate, develop, and demonstrate a low-cost swept lasing light source for NASA DFRC's fiber optics sensing system (FOSS) to perform structural health monitoring on current and future aerospace vehicles. This is the regular update of the Tunable Laser Development for In-flight Fiber Optic Based Structural Health Monitoring Systems website.

  1. Development of CO2 and KrF gas lasers as drivers for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwood, S.D.

    1983-01-01

    Several different driver systems are currently under development in the national ICF program. Los Alamos has traditionally emphasized gas laser systems because of their intrinsic high average power capability and ease of operation. This paper will review the status of activities in both carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and krypton fluoride (KrF) development at the Laboratory

  2. Development of Articulated Competency-Based Curriculum in Laser/Electro-Optics Technology. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzerne County Community Coll., Nanticoke, PA.

    A project was conducted at the Community College of Luzerne County (Pennsylvania) to develop, in cooperation with area vocational-technical schools, the first year of a competency-based curriculum in laser/electro-optics technology. Existing programs were reviewed and private sector input was sought in developing the curriculum and identifying…

  3. Single frequency semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Zujie; Chen, Gaoting; Qu, Ronghui

    2017-01-01

    This book systematically introduces the single frequency semiconductor laser, which is widely used in many vital advanced technologies, such as the laser cooling of atoms and atomic clock, high-precision measurements and spectroscopy, coherent optical communications, and advanced optical sensors. It presents both the fundamentals and characteristics of semiconductor lasers, including basic F-P structure and monolithic integrated structures; interprets laser noises and their measurements; and explains mechanisms and technologies relating to the main aspects of single frequency lasers, including external cavity lasers, frequency stabilization technologies, frequency sweeping, optical phase locked loops, and so on. It paints a clear, physical picture of related technologies and reviews new developments in the field as well. It will be a useful reference to graduate students, researchers, and engineers in the field.

  4. The development and progress of XeCl Excimer laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongsheng; Ma, Lianying; Wang, Dahui; Zhao, Xueqing; Zhu, Yongxiang; Hu, Yun; Qian, Hang; Shao, Bibo; Yi, Aiping; Liu, Jingru

    2015-05-01

    A large angularly multiplexed XeCl Excimer laser system is under development at the Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology (NINT). It is designed to explore the technical issues of uniform and controllable target illumination. Short wavelength, uniform and controllable target illumination is the fundamental requirement of high energy density physics research using large laser facility. With broadband, extended light source and multi-beam overlapping techniques, rare gas halide Excimer laser facility will provide uniform target illumination theoretically. Angular multiplexing and image relay techniques are briefly reviewed and some of the limitations are examined to put it more practical. The system consists of a commercial oscillator front end, three gas discharge amplifiers, two electron beam pumped amplifiers and the optics required to relay, encode and decode the laser beam. An 18 lens array targeting optics direct and focus the laser in the vacuum target chamber. The system is operational and currently undergoing tests. The total 18 beams output energy is more than 100J and the pulse width is 7ns (FWHM), the intensities on the target will exceed 1013W/cm2. The aberration of off-axis imaging optics at main amplifier should be minimized to improve the final image quality at the target. Automatic computer controlled alignment of the whole system is vital to efficiency and stability of the laser system, an array of automatic alignment model is under test and will be incorporated in the system soon.

  5. Research and development prospects for the atomic uranium laser isotope separation process. Research report 442

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janes, G.S.; Forsen, H.K.; Levy, R.H.

    1977-06-01

    Research and development activities are being conducted on many aspects of the atomic uranium laser isotope separation process. Extensive laser spectroscopy studies have been made in order to identify attractive multi-step selective ionization schemes. Using low density (10 10 atoms/cm 3 ) apparatus, the excited state spectra of atomic uranium have been investigated via multiple step laser excitation and photoionization studies using two, three and four pulsed lasers. Observation of the spectra was accomplished by observing the yield of 235 U and 238 U ions as a function of the wavelength, intensities and delays of the various lasers. These data yielded information on the photoexcitation and photoionizatin cross sections, and on the location, J values, lifetimes, isotope shifts and hyperfine structure of the various atomic levels of uranium. Experiments on selective ionization of uranium vapor by multiple step laser excitation followed by ion extraction at 10 13 atoms/cm 3 density have produced 6% enriched 235 U. These indicate that this process is well adapted to produce light water reactor fuel but less suitable for highly enriched material. Application has been made for license for a 1979 experimental facility to provide data for a mid-1980 commercial plant

  6. High power CO2 laser development with AOM integration for ultra high-speed pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrer, Markus; Vaupel, Matthias; Nirnberger, Robert; Weinberger, Bernhard; Jamalieh, Murad

    2017-01-01

    There is a 500 billion USD world market for packaging expected to grow to a trillion in 2030. Austria plays an important role world wide for high speed laser engraving applications — especially when it comes to high end solutions. Such high end solutions are fundamental for the production of print forms for the packaging and decorating industry (e. g. cans). They are additionally used for security applications (e. g. for printing banknotes), for the textile printing industry and for creating embossing forms (e. g. for the production of dashboards in the automotive industry). High speed, high precision laser engraving needs laser resonators with very stable laser beams (400 - 800W) especially in combination with AOMs. Based upon a unique carbon fiber structure - stable within the sub-micrometer range - a new resonator has been developed, accompanied by most recent thermo-mechanical FEM calculations. The resulting beam is evaluated on an automated optical bench using hexapods, allowing to optimize the complete beam path with collimators and AOM. The major steps related to laser engraving of dry offset printing plates during the full workflow from the artists design to the printed result on an aluminum can is presented in this paper as well as laser characteristics, AOM integration and correlative CLSM and SEM investigation of the results.

  7. Study and development of a laser based alignment system for the compact linear collider

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2083149

    The first objective of the PhD thesis is to develop a new type of positioning sensor to align components at micrometre level over 200 m with respect to a laser beam as straight line reference. The second objective is to estimate the measurement accuracy of the total alignment system over 200 m. The context of the PhD thesis is the Compact Linear Collider project, which is a study for a future particle accelerator. The proposed positioning sensor is made of a camera and an open/close shutter. The sensor can measure the position of the laser beam with respect to its own coordinate system. To do a measurement, the shutter closes, a laser spot appears on it, the camera captures a picture of the laser spot and the coordinates of the laser spot centre are reconstructed in the sensor coordinate system with image processing. Such a measurement requires reference targets on the positioning sensor. To reach the rst objective of the PhD thesis, we used laser theory...

  8. Development of megahertz laser-induced fluorescence for visualization of turbulence. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinton, F.M.

    2003-01-01

    Turbulence is a key factor limiting the performance of fusion devices central to the development of fusion as an economically viable energy source. Laser techniques to visualize the temporal and spatial evolution of turbulence can be a valuable tool to aid in guiding or validating existing theoretical models. The objective of the Phase I and II effort was to determine the feasibility and develop a MegaHertz Alexandrite planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) system for turbulence imaging. The requirements of the laser energy, pulse duration, and repetition rate, as well as the required signal-to-noise for evolution of turbulent structures in the plasma, need to be considered in the context of spatial and temporal scales. These quantities were evaluated for several experimental conditions. The ion species was selected on the basis of maximizing signal-to-noise, matching to the laser's tuning range, and compatibility with the plasma. The design of the laser system incorporates several state-of-the-art features that in combination produce a laser system having very novel characteristics. The basic requirement of this project is for a repetitively pulsed, 5 Hz laser system that produces a burst of 378 nm UV laser pulses, each of ∼50 mJ energy and ∼100 ns pulsewidth, where the number and the separation of the individual pulses can be varied between 10-20, and 1-5 μsec, respectively. A further consideration was matching the CCD camera characteristics, such as the frame rate and number of frames, to the burst of laser pulses which requires a rather unique CCD camera. Such a camera has been developed by Princeton Scientific Instruments, Inc. (PSI). The camera has a unique frame storage capability on chip that can transfer a frame in one clock cycle and store, depending on the version, from 12-312 frames on the CCD chip before being read out. It also has sub-frame gating to capture and synchronize fast events such as a short laser pulse. The results of the Phase I

  9. Development of a non-contact diagnostic tool for high power lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Jed A.; Guttman, Jeffrey L.; McCauley, John

    2016-03-01

    High power lasers in excess of 1 kW generate enough Rayleigh scatter, even in the NIR, to be detected by silicon based sensor arrays. A lens and camera system in an off-axis position can therefore be used as a non-contact diagnostic tool for high power lasers. Despite the simplicity of the concept, technical challenges have been encountered in the development of an instrument referred to as BeamWatch. These technical challenges include reducing background radiation, achieving high signal to noise ratio, reducing saturation events caused by particulates crossing the beam, correcting images to achieve accurate beam width measurements, creating algorithms for the removal of non-uniformities, and creating two simultaneous views of the beam from orthogonal directions. Background radiation in the image was reduced by the proper positioning of the back plane and the placement of absorbing materials on the internal surfaces of BeamWatch. Maximizing signal to noise ratio, important to the real-time monitoring of focus position, was aided by increasing lens throughput. The number of particulates crossing the beam path was reduced by creating a positive pressure inside BeamWatch. Algorithms in the software removed non-uniformities in the data prior to generating waist width, divergence, BPP, and M2 results. A dual axis version of BeamWatch was developed by the use of mirrors. By its nature BeamWatch produced results similar to scanning slit measurements. Scanning slit data was therefore taken and compared favorably with BeamWatch results.

  10. Optimizing Staining Protocols for Laser Microdissection of Specific Cell Types from the Testis Including Carcinoma In Situ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Si Brask; Dalgaard, Marlene D; Nielsen, John Erik

    2009-01-01

    Microarray and RT-PCR based methods are important tools for analysis of gene expression; however, in tissues containing many different cells types, such as the testis, characterization of gene expression in specific cell types can be severely hampered by noise from other cells. The laser microdis......Microarray and RT-PCR based methods are important tools for analysis of gene expression; however, in tissues containing many different cells types, such as the testis, characterization of gene expression in specific cell types can be severely hampered by noise from other cells. The laser...... protocols, and present two staining protocols for frozen sections, one for fast and specific staining of fetal germ cells, testicular carcinoma in situ cells, and other cells with embryonic stem cell-like properties that express the alkaline phosphatase, and one for specific staining of lipid droplet...

  11. Correlative microscopy including CLSM and SEM to improve high-speed, high-resolution laser-engraved print and embossing forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrer, Markus; Schweitzer, Michael; Nirnberger, Robert; Weinberger, Bernhard

    2015-10-01

    The industrial market for processing large-scale films has seen dramatic changes since the 1980s and has almost completely been replaced by lasers and digital processes. A commonly used technology for engraving screens, print and embossing forms in the printing industry, well known since then, is the use of RF-excited CO2 lasers with a beam power up to about 1 kW, modulated in accordance to the pattern to be engraved. Future needs for high-security printing (banknotes, security papers, passports, etc.) will require laser engraving of at least half a million or even more structured elements with a depth from some μm up to 500 μm. Industry now wants photorealistic pictures in packaging design, which requires a similar performance. To ensure 'trusted pulses' from the digital process to the print result the use of correlative microscopy (CLSM and SEM) is demonstrated as a complete chain for a correlative print process in this paper.

  12. Development of a free-electron laser user facility for the extreme ultraviolet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newnam, B.E.

    1987-01-01

    A free-electron laser user facility for scientific experimentation in the extreme ultraviolet is being developed at Los Alamos. A series of laser oscillators and amplifiers, driven by a single, rf linear accelerator, will generate broadly tunable, picosecond-pulse, coherent radiation from 1 nm to 400 nm. The design and output parameters of this facility are described, comparison with synchrotron radiation sources is made, and recent progress in developing the three primary components (electron beam, undulator, and resonator mirrors) is reviewed, and various categories of scientific applications are indicated

  13. Development of functional materials by using ultrafast laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimotsuma, Y.; Sakakura, M.; Miura, K.

    2018-01-01

    The polarization-dependent periodic nanostructures inside various materials are successfully induced by ultrafast laser pulses. The periodic nanostructures in various materials can be empirically classified into the following three types: (1) structural deficiency, (2) expanded structure, (3) partial phase separation. Such periodic nanostructures exhibited not only optical anisotropy but also intriguing electric, thermal, and magnetic properties. The formation mechanisms of the periodic nanostructure was interpreted in terms of the interaction between incident light field and the generated electron plasma. Furthermore, the fact that the periodic nanostructures in semiconductors could be formed empirically only if it is indirect bandgap semiconductor materials indicates the stress-dependence of bandgap structure and/or the recombination of the excited electrons are also involved to the nanostructure formation. More recently we have also confirmed that the periodic nanostructures in glass are related to whether a large amount of non-bridged oxygen is present. In the presentation, we demonstrate new possibilities for functionalization of common materials ranging from an eternal 5D optical storage, a polarization imaging, to a thermoelectric conversion, based on the indicated phenomena.

  14. Helical-type device and laser fusion. Rivals for tokamak-type device at n-fusion development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Under the current policy on the research and development of nuclear fusion in Japan, as enunciated by the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan, the type of a prototype fusion reactor will be chosen after 2020 from tokamak, helical or some other type including the inertial confinement fusion using lasers. A prototype fusion reactor is the next step following the tokamak type International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). With the prototype reactor, the feasibility as a power plant will be examined. At present the main research and development of nuclear fusion in Japan are on tokamak type, which have been promoted by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). As for the other types of nuclear fusion, researches have been carried out on the helical type in Kyoto University and National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS), the mirror type in Tsukuba University, the tokamak type using superconductive coils in Kyushu University, and the laser fusion in Osaka University. The features and the present state of research and development of the Large Helical Device and the laser fusion which is one step away from the break-even condition are reported. (K.I.)

  15. Development of laser plasma x-ray microscope for living hydrated biological specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kado, Masataka; Daido, Hiroyuki

    2005-01-01

    Investigating the structure and the function of life object performing advanced life activity becomes important. In order to investigate the life object, it is necessary to observe living specimens with high spatial resolution and high temporal resolution. Since laser plasma x-ray source has high brightness and short pulse duration, x-ray microscope with the laser plasma x-ray source makes possible to observe living specimens. Such as chromosomes, macrophages, bacterium, and so on have been observed by contact x-ray microscopy. The x-ray images obtained by indirect measurements such as the contact x-ray microscopy have difficulty to avoid artificial effect such as irregular due to developing process. Development of an x-ray microscope with laser plasma x-ray source is necessary to avoid such defects. (author)

  16. Practical laser safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winburn, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    This book includes discussions of the following topics: characteristics of lasers; eye components; skin damage thresholds; classification of lasers by ANSI Z136.1; selecting laser-protective eyewear; hazards associated with lasers; and, an index

  17. Laser transmitter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dye, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    A laser transmitter system is disclosed which utilizes mechanical energy for generating an output pulse. The laser system includes a current developing device such as a piezoelectric crystal which charges a storage device such as a capacitor in response to a mechanical input signal. The capacitor is coupled to a switching device, such as a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR). The switching device is coupled to a laser transmitter such as a GaAs laser diode, which provides an output signal in response to the capacitor being discharged

  18. Development of an energy selector system for laser-driven proton beam applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scuderi, V., E-mail: scuderiv@lns.infn.it [Department of Experimental Program at ELI-Beamlines, Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague (Czech Republic); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); Bijan Jia, S. [Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Azadi Square, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Carpinelli, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); Cirrone, G.A.P. [Department of Experimental Program at ELI-Beamlines, Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague (Czech Republic); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); Cuttone, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); Korn, G. [Department of Experimental Program at ELI-Beamlines, Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague (Czech Republic); Licciardello, T. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); Maggiore, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell' Universit 2, Legnaro (Pd) (Italy); Margarone, D. [Department of Experimental Program at ELI-Beamlines, Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague (Czech Republic); Pisciotta, P.; Romano, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); Schillaci, F. [Department of Experimental Program at ELI-Beamlines, Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague (Czech Republic); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); Stancampiano, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); and others

    2014-03-11

    Nowadays, laser-driven proton beams generated by the interaction of high power lasers with solid targets represent a fascinating attraction in the field of the new acceleration techniques. These beams can be potentially accelerated up to hundreds of MeV and, therefore, they can represent a promising opportunity for medical applications. Laser-accelerated proton beams typically show high flux (up to 10{sup 11} particles per bunch), very short temporal profile (ps), broad energy spectra and poor reproducibility. In order to overcome these limitations, these beams have be controlled and transported by means of a proper beam handling system. Furthermore, suitable dosimetric diagnostic systems must be developed and tested. In the framework of the ELIMED project, we started to design a dedicated beam transport line and we have developed a first prototype of a beam line key-element: an Energy Selector System (ESS). It is based on permanent dipoles, capable to control and select in energy laser-accelerated proton beams. Monte Carlo simulations and some preliminary experimental tests have been already performed to characterize the device. A calibration of the ESS system with a conventional proton beam will be performed in September at the LNS in Catania. Moreover, an experimental campaign with laser-driven proton beam at the Centre for Plasma Physics, Queens University in Belfast is already scheduled and will be completed within 2014.

  19. Assessment of laser ablation techniques in a-si technologies for position-sensor development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molpeceres, C.; Lauzurica, S.; Ocana, J. L.; Gandia, J. J.; Urbina, L.; Carabe, J.

    2005-07-01

    Laser micromachining of semiconductor and Transparent Conductive Oxides (TCO) materials is very important for the practical applications in photovoltaic industry. In particular, a problem of controlled ablation of those materials with minimum of debris and small heat affected zone is one of the most vital for the successful implementation of laser micromachining. In particular, selective ablation of thin films for the development of new photovoltaic panels and sensoring devices based on amorphous silicon (a-Si) is an emerging field, in which laser micromachining systems appear as appropriate tools for process development and device fabrication. In particular, a promising application is the development of purely photovoltaic position sensors. Standard p-i-n or Schottky configurations using Transparent Conductive Oxides (TCO), a-Si and metals are especially well suited for these applications, appearing selective laser ablation as an ideal process for controlled material patterning and isolation. In this work a detailed study of laser ablation of a widely used TCO, Indium-tin-oxide (ITO), and a-Si thin films of different thicknesses is presented, with special emphasis on the morphological analysis of the generated grooves. The profiles of ablated grooves have been studied in order to determine the best processing conditions, i.e. laser pulse energy and wavelength, and to asses this technology as potentially competitive to standard photolithographic processes. The encouraging results obtained, with well defined ablation grooves having thicknesses in the order of 10 μm both in ITO and a-Si, open up the possibility of developing a high-performance double Schottky photovoltaic matrix position sensor.

  20. Laser spectroscopy and laser isotope separation of atomic gadolinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y. W.; Yamanaka, C.; Nomaru, K.; Kou, K.; Niki, H.; Izawa, Y.; Nakai, S.

    1994-01-01

    Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) is a process which uses intense pulsed lasers to selectively photoionize one isotopic species of a chemical element, after which these ions are extracted electromagnetically. The AVLIS has several advantages over the traditional methods based on the mass difference, such as high selectivity, low energy consumption, short starting time and versatility to any atoms. The efforts for atomic vapor laser isotope separation at ILT and ILE, Osaka University have been concentrated into the following items: 1) studies on laser spectroscopy and laser isotope separation of atomic gadolinium, 2) studies on interaction processes including coherent dynamics, propagation effects and atom-ion collision in AVLIS system, 3) development of laser systems for AVLIS. In this paper, we present experimental results on the laser spectroscopy and laser isotope separation of atomic gadolinium.

  1. A final report to the Laboratory Directed Research and Development committee on Project 93-ERP-075: ''X-ray laser propagation and coherence: Diagnosing fast-evolving, high-density laser plasmas using X-ray lasers''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, A.S.; Cauble, R.; Da Silva, L.B.; Libby, S.B.; Moreno, J.C.

    1996-02-01

    This report summarizes the major accomplishments of this three-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Exploratory Research Project (ERP) entitled ''X-ray Laser Propagation and Coherence: Diagnosing Fast-evolving, High-density Laser Plasmas Using X-ray Lasers,'' tracking code 93-ERP-075. The most significant accomplishment of this project is the demonstration of a new laser plasma diagnostic: a soft x-ray Mach-Zehnder interferometer using a neonlike yttrium x-ray laser at 155 angstrom as the probe source. Detailed comparisons of absolute two-dimensional electron density profiles obtained from soft x-ray laser interferograms and profiles obtained from radiation hydrodynamics codes, such as LASNEX, will allow us to validate and benchmark complex numerical models used to study the physics of laser-plasma interactions. Thus the development of soft x-ray interferometry technique provides a mechanism to probe the deficiencies of the numerical models and is an important tool for, the high-energy density physics and science-based stockpile stewardship programs. The authors have used the soft x-ray interferometer to study a number of high-density, fast evolving, laser-produced plasmas, such as the dynamics of exploding foils and colliding plasmas. They are pursuing the application of the soft x-ray interferometer to study ICF-relevant plasmas, such as capsules and hohlraums, on the Nova 10-beam facility. They have also studied the development of enhanced-coherence, shorter-pulse-duration, and high-brightness x-ray lasers. The utilization of improved x-ray laser sources can ultimately enable them to obtain three-dimensional holographic images of laser-produced plasmas

  2. 25 CFR 170.807 - What must BIA include when it develops an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management System? 170.807 Section 170.807 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.807 What must BIA include when it develops an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management System...

  3. Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume 4. Impact of geothermal resource development in Hawaii (including air and water quality)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, S.M.; Siegel, B.Z.

    1980-06-01

    The environmental consequences of natural processes in a volcanic-fumerolic region and of geothermal resource development are presented. These include acute ecological effects, toxic gas emissions during non-eruptive periods, the HGP-A geothermal well as a site-specific model, and the geothermal resources potential of Hawaii. (MHR)

  4. Evaluation report on research and development of an ultra high performance laser applied composite production system. Achievement report; Chokoseino laser oyo fukugo seisan system no kenkyu kaihatsu ni kansuru hyoka hokokusho. Seika hokokuhen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-08-01

    Research, development, and evaluation were made on a composite production system applicable to manufacture products of a large number of types in small quantities. In the research and development of a total system, verification works were carried out by studying basic designs, operation of the composite production system, and experiment plant operation. Research and development on cutting and processing technologies included studies on composite cutting mechanisms, general purpose fitting technologies, control systems, and drive systems. In the research and development of laser applied technologies, studies were performed on large output laser oscillators, the control thereof, and laser processing technologies. In the research and development of automatic diagnosis technologies, studies were executed on failure diagnosis, accuracy compensation, automatic inspection, and accuracy diagnostic technologies. In the research and development of design and control technologies, studies were carried out on automatic designing, process designing, and process controlling technologies. In the study of operation of the Tsukuba experiment plant, discussions were given on configuration of the experiment plant, laser processing mechanism, composite assembly mechanism, production inspection mechanism, and system operation. Furthermore, design studies were also carried out on practically usable systems. (NEDO)

  5. Report on evaluation of research and development of combined production systems aided by superhighly functional laser. Evaluation; Chokoseino laser oyo fukugo seisan system no kenkyu kaihatsu ni kansuru hyoka hokokusho. Hyokahen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-08-01

    Described herein are combined production systems, capable of flexibly, quickly producing diversified types of machine members in small quantities in an integrated manner from raw stock processing to assembling/inspection. Development of the related techniques, including those for development of lasers of high output, has been implemented in an integrated manner for development of optical members, processing techniques and so on. The techniques developed by this project are expected to be applicable to various industrial purposes, because of their high synergistic effects. There was no oscillator of high output, when the project was started. This project has reduced device size and cost and improved their reliability, greatly contributing to expanded use of lasers. The solid-state lasers have been developed, not only for growing large-size crystals but also for transmission of light. The automation guidelines for assembling and inspection steps, which heavily depended on manual works, have been drawn. The machining functions have been improved by incorporating the processing techniques aided by lasers of high or medium output. One of the major problems involved in the conventional system is very time-consuming works required for establishing the software for the computer by which it is aided for operation. This problem has been solved by providing the modular structure machines developed by this project with flexibility of machining machine. (NEDO)

  6. Developing the Physics Basis of Fast Ignition Experiments at Future Large Fusion-class lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackinnon, A J; Key, M H; Hatchett, S; MacPhee, A G; Foord, M; Tabak, M; Town, R J; Patel, P K

    2008-01-01

    The Fast Ignition (FI) concept for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) has the potential to provide a significant advance in the technical attractiveness of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) reactors. FI differs from conventional 'central hot spot' (CHS) target ignition by using one driver (laser, heavy ion beam or Z-pinch) to create a dense fuel and a separate ultra-short, ultra-intense laser beam to ignite the dense core. FI targets can burn with ∼ 3X lower density fuel than CHS targets, resulting in (all other things being equal) lower required compression energy, relaxed drive symmetry, relaxed target smoothness tolerances, and, importantly, higher gain. The short, intense ignition pulse that drives this process interacts with extremely high energy density plasmas; the physics that controls this interaction is only now becoming accessible in the lab, and is still not well understood. The attraction of obtaining higher gains in smaller facilities has led to a worldwide explosion of effort in the studies of FI. In particular, two new US facilities to be completed in 2009/2010, OMEGA/OMEGA EP and NIF-ARC (as well as others overseas) will include FI investigations as part of their program. These new facilities will be able to approach FI conditions much more closely than heretofore using direct drive (dd) for OMEGA/OMEGA EP and indirect drive (id) for NIF-ARC. This LDRD has provided the physics basis for the development of the detailed design for integrated Fast ignition experiments on these facilities on the 2010/2011 timescale. A strategic initiative LDRD has now been formed to carry out integrated experiments using NIF ARC beams to heat a full scale FI assembled core by the end of 2010

  7. Application of terrestrial laser scanning to the development and updating of the base map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapa, Przemysław; Mitka, Bartosz

    2017-06-01

    The base map provides basic information about land to individuals, companies, developers, design engineers, organizations, and government agencies. Its contents include spatial location data for control network points, buildings, land lots, infrastructure facilities, and topographic features. As the primary map of the country, it must be developed in accordance with specific laws and regulations and be continuously updated. The base map is a data source used for the development and updating of derivative maps and other large scale cartographic materials such as thematic or topographic maps. Thanks to the advancement of science and technology, the quality of land surveys carried out by means of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) matches that of traditional surveying methods in many respects. This paper discusses the potential application of output data from laser scanners (point clouds) to the development and updating of cartographic materials, taking Poland's base map as an example. A few research sites were chosen to present the method and the process of conducting a TLS land survey: a fragment of a residential area, a street, the surroundings of buildings, and an undeveloped area. The entire map that was drawn as a result of the survey was checked by comparing it to a map obtained from PODGiK (pol. Powiatowy Ośrodek Dokumentacji Geodezyjnej i Kartograficznej - Regional Centre for Geodetic and Cartographic Records) and by conducting a field inspection. An accuracy and quality analysis of the conducted fieldwork and deskwork yielded very good results, which provide solid grounds for predicating that cartographic materials based on a TLS point cloud are a reliable source of information about land. The contents of the map that had been created with the use of the obtained point cloud were very accurately located in space (x, y, z). The conducted accuracy analysis and the inspection of the performed works showed that high quality is characteristic of TLS surveys. The

  8. Beam Development/Implementation and Futher Development of the ISOLDE Laser Ion Source

    CERN Multimedia

    Kugler, E; Van duppen, P L E; Lettry, J

    2002-01-01

    % IS335 \\\\ \\\\ Already before the move to the PS-Booster (PSB) the proton-beam time-structure of 7 pulses of 2.4~$\\mu$s duration every 1.2~s was identified as the major challenge to the target and ion-source technique. It was also recognized that an intensive target development programme should be undertaken in order to exploit efficiently the properties of the Booster beam. This beam structure can have both beneficial effects and deleterious effects on the performance of the targets. On the one side the power deposition, the shock wave and the cascade of nuclear reactions may enhance the release and make the targets faster. \\\\ \\\\The selectivity with which ISOLDE can separate the products according to the chemical element is another important parameter for the experiments. Online test experiments at the SC ISOLDE-3 successfully demonstrated that resonant multi-photon excitation and final ionization by pulsed lasers is an efficient tool for the production of isobarically pure ion beams. The installation of a pe...

  9. Pulse position modulation for compact all-fiber vehicle laser rangefinder development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xuesong; Cheng, Yongzhi; Xiong, Ying; Inoue, Daisuke; Kagami, Manabu

    2017-10-01

    We propose a method for developing small all-fiber vehicle laser rangefinders that is based on pulse position modulation (PPM) and data integration and present a theoretical study on its performance. Compared with spatial coupling, which is employed by most of the current commercial vehicle laser rangefinders, fiber coupling has the advantage that it can guide laser echoes into the interior of a car, so the electronic components following the photodiode can operate in a moderate-temperature environment. However, optical fibers have numerical apertures (NAs), which means that a laser beam from a receiving lens cannot be coupled into an optical fiber if its incident angle exceeds the critical value. Therefore, the effective size of the receiving lens is typically small since it is limited by its focal length and the NA of the fiber, causing the power of the laser echoes gathered by the receiving lens to be insufficient for performing target identification. Instead of increasing the peak transmitting laser power unrestrictedly, PPM and data integration effectively compensate for the low signal-to-noise ratio that results from the effective receiving lens size reduction. We validated the proposed method by conducting numerical simulations and performance analysis. Finally, we compared the proposed method with pseudorandom noise (PN) code modulation and found that, although the two methods perform equally well in single-target measurement scenarios, PPM is more effective than PN code modulation for multitarget measurement. In addition, PPM enables the transmission of laser beams with higher peak powers and requires less computation than PN code modulation does.

  10. Lasers technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Laser Technology Program of IPEN is developed by the Center for Lasers and Applications (CLA) and is committed to the development of new lasers based on the research of new optical materials and new resonator technologies. Laser applications and research occur within several areas such as Nuclear, Medicine, Dentistry, Industry, Environment and Advanced Research. Additional goals of the Program are human resource development and innovation, in association with Brazilian Universities and commercial partners

  11. High power all solid state VUV lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shen-jin; Cui, Da-fu; Zhang, Feng-feng; Xu, Zhi; Wang, Zhi-min; Yang, Feng; Zong, Nan; Tu, Wei; Chen, Ying; Xu, Hong-yan; Xu, Feng-liang; Peng, Qin-jun; Wang, Xiao-yang; Chen, Chuang-tian; Xu, Zu-yan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Polarization and pulse repetition rate adjustable ps 177.3 nm laser was developed. • Wavelength tunable ns, ps and fs VUV lasers were developed. • High power ns 177.3 nm laser with narrow linewidth was investigated. - Abstract: We report the investigation on the high power all solid state vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) lasers by means of nonlinear frequency conversion with KBe 2 BO 3 F 2 (KBBF) nonlinear crystal. Several all solid state VUV lasers have developed in our group, including polarization and pulse repetition rate adjustable picosecond 177.3 nm VUV laser, wavelength tunable nanosecond, picosecond and femtosecond VUV lasers, high power ns 177.3 nm laser with narrow linewidth. The VUV lasers have impact, accurate and precise advantage

  12. Microstructural development during laser cladding of low-C martensitic stainless steel.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Rooyen, C

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Heat input plays an important role in the microstructural development of 12%Cr martensitic stainless steel. The microstructure of low-C 12%Cr martensitic stainless steel resulting from laser cladding was investigated. For 410L a ferritic...

  13. Yb{sup 3+}:Sr{sub 5}(VO{sub 4}){sub 3}F: Crystal growth, spectroscopic characterization and laser development; Yb{sup 3+}:Sr{sub 5}(VO{sub 4}){sub 3}F: Crescimento, caracterizacao espectroscopica e desenvolvimento do laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustamante, Andrea Nora Pino

    1999-07-01

    Crystal growth, spectroscopic characterization and laser development of Yb{sup 3+}:SVAP [Sr{sub 5}(VO{sub 4}){sub 3}F] was performed to demonstrate for the first time, operation of tunable laser emission centered at 1120 nm. Initially, SVAP crystals were grown with high dopant concentrations, up to 6.0 mol % of Yb{sub 2} O{sub 3} in the melt, in order to investigate the material for potential laser operation at a new laser wavelength. Additional research was performed to alleviate highly doped SVAP crystals of defects previously observed. Basic spectroscopic characterization including absorption and luminescent properties were measured to better understand the behavior of Yb{sup 3+} ions in SVAP. Based upon these studies, discussion of the 1120 nm laser transition is presented as it arises from a ground state vibrational level. Investigations of the charge compensation process and the optical parameters as a function of dopant concentration are also presented. The laser development of Yb{sup 3+}:SVAP included continuous and pulsed modes of operation of the 1044 nm and 1120 nm transitions. Initial laser action of the 1044 nm transition was achieved using a Yi: Saphire laser pump source in order to compare with previously results. Further development of a diode-pumped Yb{sup 3+}:SVAP laser system demonstrated continuously tunable laser operation from 1103 nm for the first time. The laser investigations also proved that this high gain media does provide continuous wave laser action at 1044 nm and 1120 simultaneously without significant gain depletion. (author)

  14. Development of near-field laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for sub-micrometric analysis of solid samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabbour, Chirelle

    2016-01-01

    A near field laser ablation method was developed for chemical analysis of solid samples at sub-micrometric scale. This analytical technique combines a nanosecond laser Nd:YAG, an atomic Force Microscope (AFM), and an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICPMS). In order to improve the spatial resolution of the laser ablation process, the near-field enhancement effect was applied by illuminating, by the laser beam, the apex of the AFM conductive sharp tip maintained at a few nanometers (5 to 30 nm) above the sample surface. The interaction between the illuminated tip and the sample surface enhances locally the incident laser energy and leads to the ablation process. By applying this technique to conducting gold and tantalum samples, and semiconducting silicon sample, a lateral resolution of 100 nm and depths of a few nanometers were demonstrated. Two home-made numerical codes have enabled the study of two phenomena occurring around the tip: the enhancement of the laser electrical field by tip effect, and the induced laser heating at the sample surface. The influence of the main operating parameters on these two phenomena, amplification and heating, was studied. an experimental multi-parametric study was carried out in order to understand the effect of different experimental parameters (laser fluence, laser wavelength, number of laser pulses, tip-to-sample distance, sample and tip nature) on the near-field laser ablation efficiency, crater dimensions and amount of ablated material. (author) [fr

  15. Scaling and development of KrF laser for fusion driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owadano, Y.; Okuda, I.; Matsumoto, Y.; Matsushima, I.; Tomie, T.; Miura, E.; Yashiro, E.

    1994-01-01

    A conceptual design of a 1 MJ KrF laser ICF driver is presented. The design is based on a heavily saturated high gain amplifier which gives high efficiency, high stage gain and enough ASE suppression at the same time. The system consists of 16 modules of 1.5m square aperture final amplifier (260ns gain duration), 2 pre-amplifiers and 32 time angular multiplexing optical system for pulse compression. Development of a 10kJ-class KrF laser at Electrotechnical Laboratory (ETL) is also described. (author)

  16. Development of high-average-power-laser medium based on silica glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Yasushi; Nakatsuka, Masahiro

    2000-01-01

    We have developed a high-average-power laser material based on silica glass. A new method using Zeolite X is effective for homogeneously dispersing rare earth ions in silica glass to get a high quantum yield. High quality medium, which is bubbleless and quite low refractive index distortion, must be required for realization of laser action, and therefore, we have carefully to treat the gelation and sintering processes, such as, selection of colloidal silica, pH value of for hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate, and sintering history. The quality of the sintered sample and the applications are discussed. (author)

  17. Evaluation of elemental profiling methods, including laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), for the differentiation of Cannabis plant material grown in different nutrient solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Deftar, Moteaa M; Robertson, James; Foster, Simon; Lennard, Chris

    2015-06-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an emerging atomic emission based solid sampling technique that has many potential forensic applications. In this study, the analytical performance of LIBS, as well as that of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and X-ray microfluorescence (μXRF), was evaluated for the ability to conduct elemental analyses on Cannabis plant material, with a specific investigation of the possible links between hydroponic nutrients and elemental profiles from associated plant material. No such study has been previously published in the literature. Good correlation among the four techniques was observed when the concentrations or peak areas of the elements of interest were monitored. For Cannabis samples collected at the same growth time, the elemental profiles could be related to the use of particular commercial nutrients. In addition, the study demonstrated that ICP-MS, LA-ICP-MS and LIBS are suitable techniques for the comparison of Cannabis samples from different sources, with high discriminating powers being achieved. On the other hand, μXRF method was not suitable for the discrimination of Cannabis samples originating from different growth nutrients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The use of abrasive polishing and laser processing for developing polyurethane surfaces for controlling fibroblast cell behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irving, Michael; Murphy, Mark F; Lilley, Francis; French, Paul W; Burton, David R; Dixon, Simon; Sharp, Martin C

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that surfaces having micro and nano-scale features can be used to control cell behaviours including; cell proliferation, migration and adhesion. The aim of this work was to compare the use of laser processing and abrasive polishing to develop micro/nano-patterned polyurethane substrates for controlling fibroblast cell adhesion, migration and proliferation. Laser processing in a directional manner resulted in polyurethane surfaces having a ploughed field effect with micron-scale features. In contrast, abrasive polishing in a directional and random manner resulted in polyurethane surfaces having sub-micron scale features orientated in a linear or random manner. Results show that when compared with flat (non-patterned) polymer, both the laser processed and abrasive polished surface having randomly organised features, promoted significantly greater cell adhesion, while also enhancing cell proliferation after 72 h. In contrast, the abrasive polished surface having linear features did not enhance cell adhesion or proliferation when compared to the flat surface. For cell migration, the cells growing on the laser processed and abrasively polished random surface showed decreased levels of migration when compared to the flat surface. This study shows that both abrasive polishing and laser processing can be used to produce surfaces having features on the nano-scale and micron-scale, respectively. Surfaces produced using both techniques can be used to promote fibroblast cell adhesion and proliferation. Thus both methods offer a viable alternative to using lithographic techniques for developing patterned surfaces. In particular, abrasive polishing is an attractive method due to it being a simple, rapid and inexpensive method that can be used to produce surfaces having features on a comparable scale to more expensive, multi-step methods. - Highlights: • Abrasive polishing can generate nano-scratches on stainless steel to cast polymer films for cell

  19. The use of abrasive polishing and laser processing for developing polyurethane surfaces for controlling fibroblast cell behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irving, Michael; Murphy, Mark F; Lilley, Francis; French, Paul W; Burton, David R [General Engineering Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Dixon, Simon [Biomer Technology LTD, 10 Seymour Court, Tudor Road, Manor Park, Runcorn, Cheshire, WA7 1SY (United Kingdom); Sharp, Martin C [General Engineering Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, L3 3AF (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-01

    Studies have shown that surfaces having micro and nano-scale features can be used to control cell behaviours including; cell proliferation, migration and adhesion. The aim of this work was to compare the use of laser processing and abrasive polishing to develop micro/nano-patterned polyurethane substrates for controlling fibroblast cell adhesion, migration and proliferation. Laser processing in a directional manner resulted in polyurethane surfaces having a ploughed field effect with micron-scale features. In contrast, abrasive polishing in a directional and random manner resulted in polyurethane surfaces having sub-micron scale features orientated in a linear or random manner. Results show that when compared with flat (non-patterned) polymer, both the laser processed and abrasive polished surface having randomly organised features, promoted significantly greater cell adhesion, while also enhancing cell proliferation after 72 h. In contrast, the abrasive polished surface having linear features did not enhance cell adhesion or proliferation when compared to the flat surface. For cell migration, the cells growing on the laser processed and abrasively polished random surface showed decreased levels of migration when compared to the flat surface. This study shows that both abrasive polishing and laser processing can be used to produce surfaces having features on the nano-scale and micron-scale, respectively. Surfaces produced using both techniques can be used to promote fibroblast cell adhesion and proliferation. Thus both methods offer a viable alternative to using lithographic techniques for developing patterned surfaces. In particular, abrasive polishing is an attractive method due to it being a simple, rapid and inexpensive method that can be used to produce surfaces having features on a comparable scale to more expensive, multi-step methods. - Highlights: • Abrasive polishing can generate nano-scratches on stainless steel to cast polymer films for cell

  20. Development of solar concentrators for high-power solar-pumped lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, T H; Ohkubo, T; Yabe, T

    2014-04-20

    We have developed unique solar concentrators for solar-pumped solid-state lasers to improve both efficiency and laser output power. Natural sunlight is collected by a primary concentrator which is a 2  m×2  m Fresnel lens, and confined by a cone-shaped hybrid concentrator. Such solar power is coupled to a laser rod by a cylinder with coolant surrounding it that is called a liquid light-guide lens (LLGL). Performance of the cylindrical LLGL has been characterized analytically and experimentally. Since a 14 mm diameter LLGL generates efficient and uniform pumping along a Nd:YAG rod that is 6 mm in diameter and 100 mm in length, 120 W cw laser output is achieved with beam quality factor M2 of 137 and overall slope efficiency of 4.3%. The collection efficiency is 30.0  W/m2, which is 1.5 times larger than the previous record. The overall conversion efficiency is more than 3.2%, which can be comparable to a commercial lamp-pumped solid-state laser. The concept of the light-guide lens can be applied for concentrator photovoltaics or other solar energy optics.

  1. Growth and development of Arabidopsis thaliana under single-wavelength red and blue laser light

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Amanda Siok Lee

    2016-09-23

    Indoor horticulture offers a sensible solution for sustainable food production and is becoming increasingly widespread. However, it incurs high energy and cost due to the use of artificial lighting such as high-pressure sodium lamps, fluorescent light or increasingly, the light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The energy efficiency and light quality of currently available horticultural lighting is suboptimal, and therefore less than ideal for sustainable and cost-effective large-scale plant production. Here, we demonstrate the use of high-powered single-wavelength lasers for indoor horticulture. They are highly energy-efficient and can be remotely guided to the site of plant growth, thus reducing on-site heat accumulation. Furthermore, laser beams can be tailored to match the absorption profiles of different plant species. We have developed a prototype laser growth chamber and demonstrate that plants grown under laser illumination can complete a full growth cycle from seed to seed with phenotypes resembling those of plants grown under LEDs reported previously. Importantly, the plants have lower expression of proteins diagnostic for light and radiation stress. The phenotypical, biochemical and proteome data show that the single-wavelength laser light is suitable for plant growth and therefore, potentially able to unlock the advantages of this next generation lighting technology for highly energy-efficient horticulture.

  2. Development of novel solvent extraction system by utilizing the metal ions excitation with ultraviolet pulse laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeki, Morihisa; Sasaki, Yuji; Yokoyama, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    Novel liquid-liquid extraction technique was developed using ultraviolet pulse laser. The liquid-liquid system was composed of pure water and the 1-octanol solution of EuCl 3 and TODGA (TODGA = N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyl-diglycolamide). The Eu 3+ ion, which was formed to be the Eu 3+ (TODGA) n complex in 1-octanol, was reduced to Eu 2+ by irradiation of fourth harmonic of Nd:YAG laser (266 nm). The Eu 2+ ion was stabilized by addition of 15-Crown-5 (15C5). The observation by in-situ emission spectroscopy showed that the Eu 2+ ion reduced by the 266 nm-laser irradiation resulted in back-extraction of Eu from the 1-octanol solution to the water. The emission spectrum observed in 1-octanol suggested the change from the Eu 3+ (TODGA) n to the Eu 2+ (15C5) m complex after the reduction by the 266 nm laser. Time dependence of the concentration of Eu 2+ (15C5) m was investigated at the aqueous phase, the organic one and their interface. The results suggest that (1) rapid formation of Eu 2+ (15C5) m in 1-octanol after the irradiation of the 266 nm laser, (2) slow diffusion of Eu 2+ (15C5) m in 1-octanol, and (3) existence of time-lag between the formation of Eu 2+ (15C5) m in 1-octanol and its back-extraction to the water. (author)

  3. Development of high power solid-state laser for inertial fusion energy driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, K.; Yamanaka, M.; Nakatsuka, M.; Sasaki, T.; Nakai, S.

    1997-01-01

    The design study of the laser fusion power plant KOYO has been conducted as a joint program of universities, national laboratories, and industries in Japan and also with international collaborations. In the design of KOYO, the gain scaling of direct drive implosion with 0.35 μ m wavelength laser light is used. A driver of diode pumped solid state laser (DPSSL) generates 4 MJ/pulse with 12 Hz and the output pulses are switched to deliver the laser energy successively to four chambers, which operate with 3 Hz. The chamber wall is protected with thick liquid metal which flows down in a SiC woven tube. Following to the conceptual design study, the critical key issues which may affect the technical and economical feasibility of the commercial power plant KOYO have been examined. Research and development of some key technologies have been performed. As the results of the studies on KOYO, it is concluded that the technical and economical feasibility of laser fusion reactor is well in our scope to reach

  4. Power Laser Ablation Symposia

    CERN Document Server

    Phipps, Claude

    2007-01-01

    Laser ablation describes the interaction of intense optical fields with matter, in which atoms are selectively driven off by thermal or nonthermal mechanisms. The field of laser ablation physics is advancing so rapidly that its principal results are seen only in specialized journals and conferences. This is the first book that combines the most recent results in this rapidly advancing field with authoritative treatment of laser ablation and its applications, including the physics of high-power laser-matter interaction. Many practical applications exist, ranging from inertial confinement fusion to propulsion of aerostats for pollution monitoring to laser ignition of hypersonic engines to laser cleaning nanoscale contaminants in high-volume computer hard drive manufacture to direct observation of the electronic or dissociative states in atoms and molecules, to studying the properties of materials during 200kbar shocks developed in 200fs. Selecting topics which are representative of such a broad field is difficu...

  5. Strong field laser physics

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    Since the invention of the laser in the 1960s, people have strived to reach higher intensities and shorter pulse durations. High intensities and ultrashort pulse durations are intimately related. Recent developments have shown that high intensity lasers also open the way to realize pulses with the shortest durations to date, giving birth to the field of attosecond science (1 asec = 10-18s). This book is about high-intensity lasers and their applications. The goal is to give an up to date introduction to the technology behind these laser systems and to the broad range of intense laser applications. These applications include AMO (atomic molecular and optical) physics, x-ray science, attosecond science, plasma physics and particle acceleration, condensed matter science and laser micromachining, and finally even high-energy physics.

  6. Survey indicated that core outcome set development is increasingly including patients, being conducted internationally and using Delphi surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggane, Alice M; Brading, Lucy; Ravaud, Philippe; Young, Bridget; Williamson, Paula R

    2018-02-17

    There are numerous challenges in including patients in a core outcome set (COS) study, these can vary depending on the patient group. This study describes current efforts to include patients in the development of COS, with the aim of identifying areas for further improvement and study. Using the COMET database, corresponding authors of COS projects registered or published from 1 January 2013 to 2 February 2017 were invited via a personalised email to participate in a short online survey. The survey and emails were constructed to maximise the response rate by following the academic literature on enhancing survey responses. Personalised reminder emails were sent to non-responders. This survey explored the frequency of patient input in COS studies, who was involved, what methods were used and whether or not the COS development was international. One hundred and ninety-two COS developers were sent the survey. Responses were collected from 21 February 2017 until 7 May 2017. One hundred and forty-six unique developers responded, yielding a 76% response rate and data in relation to 195 unique COSs (as some developers had worked on multiple COSs). Of focus here are their responses regarding 162 COSs at the published, completed or ongoing stages of development. Inclusion of patient participants was indicated in 87% (141/162) of COSs in the published completed or ongoing stages and over 94% (65/69) of ongoing COS projects. Nearly half (65/135) of COSs included patient participants from two or more countries and 22% (30/135) included patient participants from five or more countries. The Delphi survey was reported as being used singularly or in combination with other methods in 85% (119/140) of projects. Almost a quarter (16/65) of ongoing studies reported using a combination of qualitative interviews, Delphi survey and consensus meeting. These findings indicated that the Delphi survey is the most popular method of facilitating patient participation, while the combination of

  7. Development of a heterodyne laser interferometer for very small high frequency displacements detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baarmann, P.

    1992-10-01

    A heterodyne laser interferometer with detection electronics has been developed for measuring very small amplitude high frequency vibrations. A laser beam from HeNe-laser is focused and reflected in the vibrating surface and the generated phase shifts are after interference with a reference beam detected with a photo detector and evaluated in a demodulation system. The set-up is a prototype and techniques to improve the accuracy and sensitivity of the system are presented. The present system can detect vibration amplitude from around 1 Angstrom and is linear up to 250 Angstrom (±4%). Frequencies from a few tens of kHz up to tens of MHz are covered. The low frequency region can be greatly improved. The minimum detectable displacement may be improved by narrowing the bandwidth of the detection system to the region of interest

  8. Intracavity Laser Refractometry In Reflection: Development And Implementation In Biomedical Investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonchukov, S. A.

    2010-01-01

    The Intracavity Laser Refractometry in Reflection (ILRR) method is developed for precise investigation of the processes on an interface of different media in real time. This method is very attractive for the study of biological liquids. It is based on the control of two-mode phase-anisotropic laser spectrum. In the aggregate the values of the sensitivity, time of measuring, potential parameters of investigated media of ILRR method correspond to the best results in optical refractometry. The absolute value of refractive index correlates with the course of different diseases. It can serve the objective parameter for an estimation of a level of illness processes in organism and drug efficiency. In result of the investigation of the photoresponse of the blood to low-level laser irradiation both the slow thermal effect and fast biophysical effect were discovered. The refractive index behaviour in real time allows the photoacceptors and maximum therapeutic doses on organism, cellular, and molecular levels to be determined.

  9. The development of a low-cost laser communication system for the classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Robert T.; Pompea, Stephen M.; Walker, Constance E.

    2007-06-01

    Hands-On Optics (HOO) is a National Science Foundation funded program to bring optics education to underserved middle school students. We have developed the culminating module (Module 6) on laser communication. Students learn how lasers can be modulated to carry information. The main activity of this module is the construction of a low-cost laser communication system. The system can be built using parts readily available at a local electronics store for approximately US $60. The system can be used to transmit a person's voice or music from sources such as an mp3 player or radio over a distance of 350 feet. We will provide detailed plans on how to build the system in this paper.

  10. Laser program development at CEL-V: overview of recent experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buresi, E.; Coutant, J.; Dautray, R.

    1985-11-01

    A significant effort has been made recently at CEL-V to improve laser facilities. OCTAL, the eight beam, 2 kJ laser, has been equipped with phosphate glass and KDP frequency tripling systems. PHEBUS, a two beam 20 kJ neodymium glass laser based on NOVA technology was defined, built and will be tested in early 1986 in close collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National laboratory. In the field of diagnostics, the development of soft X-ray emission analysis has been emphasized. Most of recent experimental results have been obtained at short wave-length (0.35 μm). They deal with: effect of non-uniform illumination, 2D hydrodynamics with either plane or spherical targets, and study of thermal transport inhibition

  11. Development of control and data processing system for CO{sub 2} laser interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, Shinichi; Kawano, Yasunori; Tsuchiya, Katsuhiko; Inoue, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2001-11-01

    CO{sub 2} laser interferometer diagnostic has been operating to measure the central electron density in JT-60U plasmas. We have developed a control and data processing system for the CO{sub 2} laser interferometer with flexible functions of data acquisition, data processing and data transfer in accordance with the sequence of JT-60U discharges. This system is mainly composed of two UNIX workstations and CAMAC clusters, in which the high reliability was obtained by sharing the data process functions to the each workstations. Consequently, the control and data processing system becomes to be able to provide electron density data immediately after a JT-60U discharge, routinely. The realtime feedback control of electron density in JT-60U also becomes to be available by using a reference density signal from the CO{sub 2} laser interferometer. (author)

  12. Development of control and data processing system for CO2 laser interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Shinichi; Kawano, Yasunori; Tsuchiya, Katsuhiko; Inoue, Akira

    2001-11-01

    CO 2 laser interferometer diagnostic has been operating to measure the central electron density in JT-60U plasmas. We have developed a control and data processing system for the CO 2 laser interferometer with flexible functions of data acquisition, data processing and data transfer in accordance with the sequence of JT-60U discharges. This system is mainly composed of two UNIX workstations and CAMAC clusters, in which the high reliability was obtained by sharing the data process functions to the each workstations. Consequently, the control and data processing system becomes to be able to provide electron density data immediately after a JT-60U discharge, routinely. The realtime feedback control of electron density in JT-60U also becomes to be available by using a reference density signal from the CO 2 laser interferometer. (author)

  13. Development of C{sup 6+} laser ion source and RFQ linac for carbon ion radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sako, T., E-mail: takayuki1.sako@toshiba.co.jp; Yamaguchi, A.; Sato, K. [Toshiba Corporation, Yokohama 235-8522 (Japan); Goto, A.; Iwai, T.; Nayuki, T.; Nemoto, K.; Kayama, T. [Cancer Research Center, Yamagata University Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan); Takeuchi, T. [Accelerator Engineering Corporation, Chiba 263-0043 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    A prototype C{sup 6+} injector using a laser ion source has been developed for a compact synchrotron dedicated to carbon ion radiotherapy. The injector consists of a laser ion source and a 4-vane radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac. Ion beams are extracted from plasma and directly injected into the RFQ. A solenoid guides the low-energy beams into the RFQ. The RFQ is designed to accelerate high-intensity pulsed beams. A structure of monolithic vanes and cavities is adopted to reduce its power consumption. In beam acceleration tests, a solenoidal magnetic field set between the laser ion source and the RFQ helped increase both the peak currents before and after the RFQ by a factor of 4.

  14. Development of C6+ laser ion source and RFQ linac for carbon ion radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sako, T.; Yamaguchi, A.; Sato, K.; Goto, A.; Iwai, T.; Nayuki, T.; Nemoto, K.; Kayama, T.; Takeuchi, T.

    2016-02-01

    A prototype C6+ injector using a laser ion source has been developed for a compact synchrotron dedicated to carbon ion radiotherapy. The injector consists of a laser ion source and a 4-vane radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac. Ion beams are extracted from plasma and directly injected into the RFQ. A solenoid guides the low-energy beams into the RFQ. The RFQ is designed to accelerate high-intensity pulsed beams. A structure of monolithic vanes and cavities is adopted to reduce its power consumption. In beam acceleration tests, a solenoidal magnetic field set between the laser ion source and the RFQ helped increase both the peak currents before and after the RFQ by a factor of 4.

  15. Development of C⁶⁺ laser ion source and RFQ linac for carbon ion radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sako, T; Yamaguchi, A; Sato, K; Goto, A; Iwai, T; Nayuki, T; Nemoto, K; Kayama, T; Takeuchi, T

    2016-02-01

    A prototype C(6+) injector using a laser ion source has been developed for a compact synchrotron dedicated to carbon ion radiotherapy. The injector consists of a laser ion source and a 4-vane radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac. Ion beams are extracted from plasma and directly injected into the RFQ. A solenoid guides the low-energy beams into the RFQ. The RFQ is designed to accelerate high-intensity pulsed beams. A structure of monolithic vanes and cavities is adopted to reduce its power consumption. In beam acceleration tests, a solenoidal magnetic field set between the laser ion source and the RFQ helped increase both the peak currents before and after the RFQ by a factor of 4.

  16. Development of C6+ laser ion source and RFQ linac for carbon ion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sako, T.; Yamaguchi, A.; Sato, K.; Goto, A.; Iwai, T.; Nayuki, T.; Nemoto, K.; Kayama, T.; Takeuchi, T.

    2016-01-01

    A prototype C 6+ injector using a laser ion source has been developed for a compact synchrotron dedicated to carbon ion radiotherapy. The injector consists of a laser ion source and a 4-vane radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac. Ion beams are extracted from plasma and directly injected into the RFQ. A solenoid guides the low-energy beams into the RFQ. The RFQ is designed to accelerate high-intensity pulsed beams. A structure of monolithic vanes and cavities is adopted to reduce its power consumption. In beam acceleration tests, a solenoidal magnetic field set between the laser ion source and the RFQ helped increase both the peak currents before and after the RFQ by a factor of 4

  17. Sodium source development for pulsed power driven, photopumped NA/NE x-ray laser experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhalter, P.G.; Cooperstein, G.; Mosher, D.; Ottinger, P.F.; Scherrer, V.E.; Stephanakis, S.J.; Young, F.C.; Hinshelwood, D.D.; Mehlman, G.; Welch, B.L.; Jones, W.D.

    1988-01-01

    A sodium plasma source is being developed for a resonant photopumping x-ray laser scheme in which the 11A 1s 2 - 1s2rho 1 P 1 line in heliumlike Na X is used to pump the Ne IX n=4 singlet level. In their experiment the NRL Gamble II generator is used to produce two z-pinch plasmas in a side-by-side geometry. The sodium plasma is produced on axis and conducts the full 1 MA machine current. A fraction of this current returns through a neon gas puff located 5 cm from the sodium. This separation is determined by the need to prevent the plasmas from mixing and the need to have each plasma's azimuthal magnetic field as symmetric as possible. A minimum separation is desirable to increase coupling efficiency. To improve the pump source, a more confined source of pure sodium involving a coaxial plasma gun is being developed. They are currently studying both the operation of this source on a test stand and implosions of the resulting plasma on Gamble II. In initial experiments aluminum is substituted for sodium. Test stand diagnostics include photodiodes, witness plates, and current monitors designed to investigate the early motion of the annular plasma. Results from test stand and Gamble II experiments with both aluminum and sodium, as well as sodium handling techniques, are presented

  18. Development of Mechanical Sealing and Laser Welding Technology to Instrument Thermocouple for Nuclear Fuel Test Rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joung, Chang-Young; Ahn, Sung-Ho; Hong, Jin-Tae; Kim, Ka-Hye; Huh, Sung-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Zircaloy-4 of the nuclear fuel test rod, AISI 316L of the mechanical sealing parts, and the MI (mineral insulated) cable at a thermocouple instrumentation are hetero-metals, and are difficult to weld to dissimilar materials. Therefore, a mechanical sealing method to instrument the thermocouple should be conducted using two kinds of sealing process as follows: One is a mechanical sealing process using Swagelok, which is composed of sealing components that consists of an end-cap, a seal tube, a compression ring and a Swagelok nut. The other is a laser welding process used to join a seal tube, and an MI cable, which are made of the same material. The mechanical sealing process should be sealed up with the mechanical contact compressed by the strength forced between a seal tube and an end-cap, and the laser welding process should be conducted to have no defects on the sealing area between a seal tube and an MI cable. Therefore, the mechanical sealing and laser welding techniques need to be developed to accurately measure the centerline temperature of the nuclear fuel test rod in an experimental reactor. The mechanical sealing and laser welding tests were conducted to develop the thermocouple instrumentation techniques for the nuclear fuel test rod. The optimum torque value of a Swagelok nut to seal the mechanical sealing part between the end-cap and seal tube was established through various torque tests using a torque wrench. The optimum laser welding conditions to seal the welding part between a seal tube and an MI cable were obtained through various welding tests using a laser welding system

  19. Development of Mechanical Sealing and Laser Welding Technology to Instrument Thermocouple for Nuclear Fuel Test Rod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joung, Chang-Young; Ahn, Sung-Ho; Hong, Jin-Tae; Kim, Ka-Hye; Huh, Sung-Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Zircaloy-4 of the nuclear fuel test rod, AISI 316L of the mechanical sealing parts, and the MI (mineral insulated) cable at a thermocouple instrumentation are hetero-metals, and are difficult to weld to dissimilar materials. Therefore, a mechanical sealing method to instrument the thermocouple should be conducted using two kinds of sealing process as follows: One is a mechanical sealing process using Swagelok, which is composed of sealing components that consists of an end-cap, a seal tube, a compression ring and a Swagelok nut. The other is a laser welding process used to join a seal tube, and an MI cable, which are made of the same material. The mechanical sealing process should be sealed up with the mechanical contact compressed by the strength forced between a seal tube and an end-cap, and the laser welding process should be conducted to have no defects on the sealing area between a seal tube and an MI cable. Therefore, the mechanical sealing and laser welding techniques need to be developed to accurately measure the centerline temperature of the nuclear fuel test rod in an experimental reactor. The mechanical sealing and laser welding tests were conducted to develop the thermocouple instrumentation techniques for the nuclear fuel test rod. The optimum torque value of a Swagelok nut to seal the mechanical sealing part between the end-cap and seal tube was established through various torque tests using a torque wrench. The optimum laser welding conditions to seal the welding part between a seal tube and an MI cable were obtained through various welding tests using a laser welding system.

  20. Development of several data bases related to reactor safety research including probabilistic safety assessment and incident analysis at JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Kensuke; Oikawa, Tetsukuni; Watanabe, Norio; Izumi, Fumio; Higuchi, Suminori

    1986-01-01

    Presented are several databases developed at JAERI for reactor safety research including probabilistic safety assessment and incident analysis. First described are the recent developments of the databases such as 1) the component failure rate database, 2) the OECD/NEA/IRS information retrieval system, 3) the nuclear power plant database and so on. Then several issues are discussed referring mostly to the operation of the database (data input and transcoding) and to the retrieval and utilization of the information. Finally, emphasis is given to the increasing role which artifitial intelligence techniques such as natural language treatment and expert systems may play in improving the future capabilities of the databases. (author)

  1. Laser remote sensing of water vapor: Raman lidar development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, J.E.M.; Lapp, M.; Bisson, S.E.; Melfi, S.H.; Whiteman, D.N.; Ferrare, R.A.; Evans, K.D.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this research is the development of a critical design for a Raman lidar system optimized to match ARM Program needs for profiling atmospheric water vapor at CART sites. This work has emphasized the development of enhanced daytime capabilities using Raman lidar techniques. This abstract touches briefly on the main components of the research program, summarizing results of the efforts. A detailed Raman lidar instrument model has been developed to predict the daytime and nighttime performance capabilities of Raman lidar systems. The model simulates key characteristics of the lidar system, using realistic atmospheric profiles, modeled background sky radiance, and lidar system parameters based on current instrument capabilities. The model is used to guide development of lidar systems based on both the solar-blind concept and the narrowband, narrow field-of-view concept for daytime optimization

  2. Development of advanced coatings for laser modifications through process and materials simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martukanitz, R.P.; Babu, S.S.

    2004-01-01

    A simulation-based system is currently being constructed to aid in the development of advanced coating systems for laser cladding and surface alloying. The system employs loosely coupled material and process models that allow rapid determination of material compatibility over a wide range of processing conditions. The primary emphasis is on the development and identification of composite coatings for improved wear and corrosion resistance. The material model utilizes computational thermodynamics and kinetic analysis to establish phase stability and extent of diffusional reactions that may result from the thermal response of the material during virtual processing. The process model is used to develop accurate thermal histories associated with the laser surface modification process and provides critical input for the non-isothermal materials simulations. These techniques were utilized to design a laser surface modification experiment that utilized the addition of stainless steel alloy 431 and TiC produced using argon and argon and nitrogen shielding. The deposits representing alloy 431 and TiC powder produced in argon resulted in microstructures retaining some TiC particles and an increase in hardness when compared to deposits produced using only the 431 powder. Laser deposits representing alloy 431 and TiC powder produced with a mixture of argon and nitrogen shielding gas resulted in microstructures retaining some TiC particles, as well as fine precipitates of Ti(CN) formed during cooling and a further increase in hardness of the deposit

  3. Development of a Fiber Laser Welding Equipment for the LVDT Manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. S.; Lee, C. Y.; Park, S. J.; Shin, Y. T.; Cho, M. S.; Choo, K. N.; Kim, B. G.; Kang, Y. H.

    2010-12-01

    The instrumented fuel irradiation test at a research reactor is needed to evaluate the performance of the developed nuclear fuel. A LVDT(Linear Variable Differential Transformer) can be designed to measure the pressure level and elongation during the irradiation test by using various metals and MI cables. LVDT's parts were composed of MI cables and Inconel 600 materials. Laser welding technology is widely used to fabricate some products of nuclear fuel in the nuclear industry. Especially, micro-welding using Fiber laser is one of the key technologies to be developed to fabricate precise products of fuel irradiation test. We also have to secure micro-welding technology to perform various instrumentations for fuel irradiation test. Micro-welding technology was adopted to seal between seal tubes and MI cables with thickness of 0.15 mm. The soundness of welding area has to be confirmed to prevent fission gas of the fuel from leaking out of the fuel rods during the fuel irradiation test. In this report, fundamental data for welding technology using Fiber laser was proposed to seal Inconel 600 sheaths of LVDT instrumented capsules for the irradiation test. Moreover, It is expected that the use of fuel irradiation tests will be revitalized by the self-development of LVDT's parts using the Fiber laser welding technology

  4. Solid state laser technology - A NASA perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allario, F.

    1985-01-01

    NASA's program for developing solid-state laser technology and applying it to the Space Shuttle and Space Platform is discussed. Solid-state lasers are required to fulfill the Earth Observation System's requirements. The role of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology in developing a NASA tunable solid-state laser program is described. The major goals of the program involve developing a solid-state pump laser in the green, using AlGaAs array technology, pumping a Nd:YAG/SLAB crystal or glass, and fabricating a lidar system, with either a CO2 laser at 10.6 microns or a Nd:YAG laser at 1.06 microns, to measure tropospheric winds to an accuracy of + or - 1 m/s and a vertical resolution of 1 km. The procedures to be followed in order to visualize this technology plan include: (1) material development and characterization, (2) laser development, and (3) implementation of the lasers.

  5. Studies and analyses of the management of scientific research and development, including implementation and application at NASA centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, A. H.

    1975-01-01

    Summary results obtained through the Program of Research on the Management of Research and Development (POMRAD) were presented. The nature of the overall program and the specific projects undertaken were described. Statistical data is also given concerning the papers, publications, people, and major program areas associated with the program. The actual list of papers, names of doctoral and masters theses, and other details of the program are included as appendices.

  6. Theory of Self-pulsing in Photonic Crystal Fano Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thorsten Svend; Yu, Yi; Mørk, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    -dispersive Fano mirror, the laser frequency and the threshold gain. The model is based upon a combination of conventional laser rate equations and coupled-mode theory. The dynamical model is used to demonstrate how the laser has two regimes of operation, continuous-wave output and self-pulsing, and these regimes......Laser self-pulsing was a phenomenon exclusive to macroscopic lasers until recently, where self-starting laser pulsation in a microscopic photonic crystal Fano laser was reported. In this paper a theoretical model is developed to describe the Fano laser, including descriptions of the highly...

  7. Laser technologies for laser accelerators. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The primary result of the work reported is the determination of laser system architectures that satsify the requirements of high luminosity, high energy (about 1 TeV), electron accelerators. It has been found that high laser efficiency is a very hard driver for these accelerators as the total average laser output optical power is likely to fall above 10 MW. The luminosity requires rep rates in the kHz range, and individual pulse lengths in the 1-10 psec range are required to satisfy acceleration gradient goals. CO 2 and KrF lasers were chosen for study because of their potential to simultaneously satisfy the given requirements. Accelerator luminosity is reviewed, and requirements on laser system average power and rep rate are determined as a function of electron beam bunch parameters. Laser technologies are reviewed, including CO 2 , excimers, solid state, and free electron lasers. The proposed accelerator mechanisms are summarized briefly. Work on optical transport geometries for near and far field accelerators are presented. Possible exploitation of the CO 2 and DrF laser technology to generate the required pulse lengths, rep rates, and projected efficiencies is illustrated and needed development work is suggested. Initial efforts at developing a 50 GeV benchmark conceptual design and a 100 MeV demonstration experiment conceptual design are presented

  8. Development of laser spectroscopic technology in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Min; Cha, Byung Heon; Kim, Seong Ho; Cha, Hyung Ki; Lim, Chang Hwan; Song, Kye Seok; Kim, Jung Bok; Rho, Si Pyo; Han, Jae Min; Jeong, Do Yung; Lee, Jong Hoon; Choi, Hwa Lim; Yoo, Byung Duk; Choi, An Sung; Lee, Byung Chul; Kim, Chul Jung

    1992-05-01

    The goal of this project is to carry out the fundamental researches for the selective photoionization process of heavy atoms as well as the development of experimentally related instruments. Main research results carried out in this year are (1) multi-step photoionization spectroscopy of Hg atom by 3-color 3-step ionization scheme, (2) selective photoionization using polarization spectroscopy, (3) design and construction of ion separator chamber, and (4) theoretical study for spectroscopic parameters of mercury. This technology can be applied to several area of nuclear industry such as the utilization of radioactive waste, the development of new materials, high sensitive analysis of heavy atomic elements. (Author)

  9. Creation of a confined plasma column and diagnostic arrangement for X-ray laser development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorhees, D.; Keane, C.; Milchberg, H.; Semet, A.; Skinner, C.; Suckewer, S.

    1983-01-01

    We present the experimental arrangement for our soft X-ray laser development program. We describe the various components of the apparatus. These consist of a CO 2 laser, focusing components, solenoidal magnet, targets, pulsed gas mechanisms, diagnostics and data acquisition systems. The experiment utilizes a CO 2 laser with an output energy up to 1 KJ to create a plasma column confined in a solenoidal magnetic field (B less than or equal to 100 KG). Two alternative methods are used to focus the laser energy into the vacuum chamber of the experiment. The first uses a system of two flat mirrors to reflect the 25 cm annular beam to a NaCl lens. The beam then passes through a NaCl window forming the entrance to the vacuum system. A second method consists of a two chamber vacuum system enclosing two flat mirrors and a third spherical mirror. The incident beam passes into the vacuum through one NaCl window eliminating the losses encountered at the NaCl lens of the previously described system. In each case the focused beam interacts with either a solid target, a gas target, or a combination of the two. With gas targets we have used orifices to create a pressure gradient near the point of laser interaction. For some experiments gas is introduced into the system via a fast solenoid valve or piezoactuated puff valve. A calibrated piezoelectronic transducer is utilized to characterize the gas pressure as a function of time and position along the magnetvacuum chamber axis. The resultant pressure profiles enable us to synchronize the firing of the gas valve, magnet and laser to achieve optimum densities in the plasma

  10. Fiber-Based, Trace-Gas, Laser Transmitter Technology Development for Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Mark; Yu, Anthony; Chen, Jeffrey; Nicholson, Jeffrey; Engin, Doruk; Mathason, Brian; Wu, Stewart; Allan, Graham; Hasselbrack, William; Gonzalez, Brayler; hide

    2015-01-01

    NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is working on maturing the technology readiness of a laser transmitter designed for use in atmospheric CO2 remote-sensing. GSFC has been developing an airplane-based CO2 lidar instrument over several years to demonstrate the efficacy of the instrumentation and measurement technique and to link the science models to the instrument performance. The ultimate goal is to make space-based satellite measurements with global coverage. In order to accomplish this, we must demonstrate the technology readiness and performance of the components as well as demonstrate the required power-scaling to make the link with the required signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR). To date, all the instrument components have been shown to have the required performance with the exception of the laser transmitter.In this program we are working on a fiber-based master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) laser transmitter architecture where we will develop a ruggedized package and perform the relevant environmental tests to demonstrate TRL-6. In this paper we will review our transmitter architecture and progress on the performance and packaging of the laser transmitter.

  11. Recent developments in laser plasma theory and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruer, W.L.

    1975-01-01

    The principal recent developments are that (1) nonlinear steepening of the density profile strongly modifies absorption processes near the critical density, (2) a sizeable stimulated reflection of light can occur; and (3) energy transport by hot electrons is impeded either by the need to draw a return current, by ion fluctuations generated by this return current, or by self-generated magnetic fields. A brief overview of these results is presented

  12. Development of nuclear fuel. Development of laser spectroscopic technology in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Min; Cha, Hyung Ki; Kim, Chul Jung

    1991-04-01

    The goal of the project is to establish database of the spectroscopic parameters of heavy atomic elements by using RIS technology. To achieve the maximum efficiency of photoionization processes, several lasers were used and some equipment which need be according to the experimental purposes were self-constructed: that is, a real time TOF mass spectrometer and a frequency stabilizer for a pulsed dye laser were devised. Multistep photoionization experiments of Hg atoms were carried out with these equipments. Also computer code, MCDF, was executed for the calculation of transition probabilities of Hg atoms. (Author)

  13. Including capabilities of local actors in regional economic development: Empirical results of local seaweed industries in Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark T.J. Vredegoor

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Stimson, et al. (2009 developed one of the most relevant and well known model for Regional Economic Development. This model covers the most important factors related to economic development question. However, this model excludes the social components of development. Local community should be included in terms of the development of a region. This paper introduced to the Stimson model “Skills” and “Knowledge” at the individual level for local actors indicating the capabilities at the individual level and introduced “Human Coordination” for the capabilities at the collective level. In our empirical research we looked at the Indonesian seaweed market with a specific focus on the region of Baubau. This region was chosen because there are hardly any economic developments. Furthermore this study focuses on the poorer community who are trying to improve their situation by the cultivation of Seaweed. Eighteen local informants was interviewed besides additional interviews of informants from educational and governmental institutions in the cities of Jakarta, Bandung and Yogyakarta. The informants selected had a direct or indirect relationship with the region of Baubau. With the support of the empirical data from this region we can confirm that it is worthwhile to include the local community in the model for regional economic development.  The newly added variables: at the individual level; Skills and Knowledge and at the level of the collective: Human Coordination was supported by the empirical material. It is an indication that including the new variables can give regional economic an extra dimension.  In this way we think that it becomes more explicit that “endogenous” means that the people, or variables closely related to them, should be more explicitly included in models trying to capture Regional Economic Development or rephrased as Local Economic Development Keywords:Regional and endogenous development; Fisheries and seaweed

  14. Femtosecond Laser Ablation Reveals Antagonistic Sensory and Neuroendocrine Signaling that Underlie C. elegans Behavior and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel H. Chung

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The specific roles of neuronal subcellular components in behavior and development remain largely unknown, even though advances in molecular biology and conventional whole-cell laser ablation have greatly accelerated the identification of contributors at the molecular and cellular levels. We systematically applied femtosecond laser ablation, which has submicrometer resolution in vivo, to dissect the cell bodies, dendrites, or axons of a sensory neuron (ASJ in Caenorhabditis elegans to determine their roles in modulating locomotion and the developmental decisions for dauer, a facultative, stress-resistant life stage. Our results indicate that the cell body sends out axonally mediated and hormonal signals in order to mediate these functions. Furthermore, our results suggest that antagonistic sensory dendritic signals primarily drive and switch polarity between the decisions to enter and exit dauer. Thus, the improved resolution of femtosecond laser ablation reveals a rich complexity of neuronal signaling at the subcellular level, including multiple neurite and hormonally mediated pathways dependent on life stage.

  15. Bibliography of Soviet Laser Developments. Number 70, March - April 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-12

    Propagation in Liquids 472. Abramyan, T.O. (). Use of high-speed cinematography and holographic interferometry for studying the formation of the fine structure...84/3Ye539). 785. Belyanin, V.B.; Korovin, Yu.I.; Nedler, V.V.; Rusanov, A.K. (). State of the art and prospective developments in spectral analysis in...1984, 490-493. 791. Bol’shakov, A.A.; Nemets, V.M.; Oshemkov, S.V.; Petrov, A.A.; Solov’yev, A.A. (). Gas emission spectral analysis: state of the art

  16. Development of a dual joystick-controlled laser trapping and cutting system for optical micromanipulation of chromosomes inside living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsono, Marcellinus S; Zhu, Qingyuan; Shi, Linda Z; Duquette, Michelle; Berns, Michael W

    2013-02-01

    A multi-joystick robotic laser microscope system used to control two optical traps (tweezers) and one laser scissors has been developed for subcellular organelle manipulation. The use of joysticks has provided a "user-friendly" method for both trapping and cutting of organelles such as chromosomes in live cells. This innovative design has enabled the clean severing of chromosome arms using the laser scissors as well as the ability to easily hold and pull the severed arm using the laser tweezers. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Technology Development of a Fiber Optic-Coupled Laser Ignition System for Multi-Combustor Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Huu P.; Early, Jim; Osborne, Robin; Thomas, Matthew E.; Bossard, John A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses the progress of technology development of a laser ignition system at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The first two years of the project focus on comprehensive assessments and evaluations of a novel dual-pulse laser concept, flight- qualified laser system, and the technology required to integrate the laser ignition system to a rocket chamber. With collaborations of the Department of Energy/Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and CFD Research Corporation (CFDRC), MSFC has conducted 26 hot fire ignition tests with lab-scale laser systems. These tests demonstrate the concept feasibility of dual-pulse laser ignition to initiate gaseous oxygen (GOX)/liquid kerosene (RP-1) combustion in a rocket chamber. Presently, a fiber optic- coupled miniaturized laser ignition prototype is being implemented at the rocket chamber test rig for future testing. Future work is guided by a technology road map that outlines the work required for maturing a laser ignition system. This road map defines activities for the next six years, with the goal of developing a flight-ready laser ignition system.

  18. Applications of lasers and electro-optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, B.C.; Low, K.S.; Chen, Y.H.; Harith bin Ahmad; Tou, T.Y.

    1994-01-01

    Supported by the IRPA Programme on Laser Technology and Applications, many types of lasers have been designed, constructed and applied in various areas of science, medicine and industries. Amongst these lasers constructed were high power carbon dioxide lasers, rare gas halide excimer lasers, solid state Neodymium-YAG lasers, nitrogen lasers, flashlamp pumped dye lasers and nitrogen and excimer laser pumped dye lasers. These lasers and the associated electro-optics system, some with computer controlled, are designed and developed for the following areas of applications: 1. Industrial applications of high power carbon dioxide lasers for making of i.c. components and other materials processing purposes. Prototype operational systems have been developed. 2. Medical applications of lasers for cancer treatment using the technique of photodynamic therapy. A new and more effective treatment protocol has been proposed. 3. Agricultural applications of lasers in palm oil and palm fruit-fluorescence diagnostic studies. Fruit ripeness signature has been developed and palm oil oxidation level were investigated. 4. Development of atmospheric pollution monitoring systems using laser lidar techniques. Laboratory scale systems were developed. 5. Other applications of lasers including laser holographic and interferometric methods for the non destructive testing of materials. The activities of the group (from 1988-1990) have resulted in the submission of a patent for a laser device, publication of many research paper sin local and overseas journals and conference proceedings, completion of 1 Ph.D. dissertation and 6 M. Phil theses. Currently (1991), a total of 3 Ph.D., 6 M. Phil research programmes are involved in this research and development programme

  19. Experimental development of a millimeter wave free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radack, D.J.; Bidwell, S.W.; Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Carmel, Y.; Destler, W.W.; Granatstein, V.L.; Latham, P.E.; Levush, B.; Mayergoyz, I.D.; Rodgers, J.; Zhang, Z.X.

    1990-01-01

    A 1 MW (cw), millimeter wave FEL (λ 3 ∼ 0.5 mm)is currently under development with an application for heating fusion plasmas. Two salient features of the FEL are the use of a short-period wiggler ell w ≤ 10 mm electromagnet and a mildly relativistic (E beam ≤ 1 MeV) sheet electron beam. The FEL has been designed to operate in the high-gain regime and uses a tapered wiggler. The wiggler provides beam focusing as well as the magnetostatic pump wave. The effectiveness of wiggler focusing is being investigated. Planned experiments will address the critical issues of beam interception and stable single-mode operation. 12 refs., 1 tab

  20. Laser Beam Focus Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Carøe; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2007-01-01

    the obtainable features in direct laser machining as well as heat affected zones in welding processes. This paper describes the development of a measuring unit capable of analysing beam shape and diameter of lasers to be used in manufacturing processes. The analyser is based on the principle of a rotating......The quantitative and qualitative description of laser beam characteristics is important for process implementation and optimisation. In particular, a need for quantitative characterisation of beam diameter was identified when using fibre lasers for micro manufacturing. Here the beam diameter limits...... mechanical wire being swept through the laser beam at varying Z-heights. The reflected signal is analysed and the resulting beam profile determined. The development comprised the design of a flexible fixture capable of providing both rotation and Z-axis movement, control software including data capture...

  1. Development of longer Nd:LGGG crystal for high power laser application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yanru; Tian, Hanlin; Zhang, Jian; Mu, Wenxiang; Zhang, Baitao; Jia, Zhitai; He, Jingliang; Tao, Xutang

    2017-11-01

    In order to further improve the Nd3+:(LuxGd1-x)3Ga5O12 (Nd:LGGG) crystal performance in high power laser field, a long Nd:LGGG crystal with dimensions of Φ 23 × 112 mm3 has been grown successfully by the Czochralski (Cz) method for laser rod fabrication. Compared with the normal size LGGG crystals (like 30-50 mm in length), we overcame several difficulties in the growth of longer ones, including crystal cracking by a large longitudinal temperature gradient, spiral growth by a small radial temperature gradient, and growth instability and even constitutional super cooling by Ga2O3 volatilizing continuously. The doping concentrations of Nd3+ and Lu3+ in the as-grown crystal and the crystal optical quality have been measured. The performance of diode-side-pumped Nd:LGGG rod laser has been preliminarily tested for the first time, simply by replacing the Nd:YAG crystal rod inside a commercial laser module. Under an incident pump power of 160 W, the maximum continuous wave output power of 38 W has been obtained, corresponding to an optical-optical conversion efficiency of 23.8% and a slope efficiency of 40.8%, respectively.

  2. Laser sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbatenko, A A; Revina, E I

    2015-01-01

    The review is devoted to the major advances in laser sampling. The advantages and drawbacks of the technique are considered. Specific features of combinations of laser sampling with various instrumental analytical methods, primarily inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, are discussed. Examples of practical implementation of hybrid methods involving laser sampling as well as corresponding analytical characteristics are presented. The bibliography includes 78 references

  3. From laser-plasma accelerators to femtosecond X-ray sources: study, development and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corde, S.

    2012-01-01

    During the relativistic interaction between a short and intense laser pulse and an underdense plasma, electrons can be injected and accelerated up to hundreds of MeV in an accelerating structure formed in the wake of the pulse: this is the so-called laser-plasma accelerator. One of the major perspectives for laser-plasma accelerators resides in the realization of compact sources of femtosecond x-ray beams. In this thesis, two x-ray sources was studied and developed. The betatron radiation, intrinsic to laser-plasma accelerators, comes from the transverse oscillations of electrons during their acceleration. Its characterization by photon counting revealed an x-ray beam containing 10"9 photons, with energies extending above 10 keV. We also developed an all-optical Compton source producing photons with energies up to hundreds of keV, based on the collision between a photon beam and an electron beam. The potential of these x-ray sources was highlighted by the realization of single shot phase contrast imaging of a biological sample. Then, we showed that the betatron x-ray radiation can be a powerful tool to study the physics of laser-plasma acceleration. We demonstrated the possibility to map the x-ray emission region, which gives a unique insight into the interaction, permitting us for example to locate the region where electrons are injected. The x-ray angular and spectral properties allow us to gain information on the transverse dynamics of electrons during their acceleration. (author)

  4. Development of SMM wave laser scattering apparatus for the measurements of waves and turbulences in the tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, T.; Hamada, Y.; Yamashita, T.; Ikeda, M.; Nakamura, M.

    1980-01-01

    The SMM wave laser scattering apparatus has been developed for the measurement of the waves and turbulences in the plasma. This apparatus will help greatly to clarify the physics of RF heating of the tokamak plasma. The present status of main parts of the apparatus, the SMM wave laser and the Schottky barrier diode mixer for the heterodyne receiver, are described. (author)

  5. Into the development of a model to assess beam shaping and polarization control effects on laser cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Gonçalo C.; Duflou, Joost R.

    2018-02-01

    This paper offers an in-depth look into beam shaping and polarization control as two of the most promising techniques for improving industrial laser cutting of metal sheets. An assessment model is developed for the study of such effects. It is built upon several modifications to models as available in literature in order to evaluate the potential of a wide range of considered concepts. This includes different kinds of beam shaping (achieved by extra-cavity optical elements or asymmetric diode staking) and polarization control techniques (linear, cross, radial, azimuthal). A fully mathematical description and solution procedure are provided. Three case studies for direct diode lasers follow, containing both experimental data and parametric studies. In the first case study, linear polarization is analyzed for any given angle between the cutting direction and the electrical field. In the second case several polarization strategies are compared for similar cut conditions, evaluating, for example, the minimum number of spatial divisions of a segmented polarized laser beam to achieve a target performance. A novel strategy, based on a 12-division linear-to-radial polarization converter with an axis misalignment and capable of improving cutting efficiency with more than 60%, is proposed. The last case study reveals different insights in beam shaping techniques, with an example of a beam shape optimization path for a 30% improvement in cutting efficiency. The proposed techniques are not limited to this type of laser source, neither is the model dedicated to these specific case studies. Limitations of the model and opportunities are further discussed.

  6. Development of magnets for infra-red-free electron laser project at RRCAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruwali, Kailash; Thakur, Vanshree; Das, S.; Biswas, Bhaskar; Singh, Kushraj; Amalraj, William; Sreeramulu, K.; Mishra, Anil Kumar; Shinde, R.S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the design and development of the magnets for the beam transport line of Infra- red- Free Electron Laser (IR-FEL) project at RRCAT. All the magnets have been developed and fiducialized after magnetic characterization for installation in the tunnel. These magnets include three dipole magnets, twelve quadrupole magnets and twenty two steering magnets for bending, focussing and steering of 15 to 35 MeV electron beam through a dog-leg type beam line. The dipole magnet is designed as H type for a maximum magnetic field of 0.25 tesla with pole gap and bending angle of 42 mm and 22.5° respectively. The dipole magnet is quite thin (effective length ∼200 mm) therefore entry-exit ends were chamfered to achieve the integrated field uniformity of < 1 x 10 -3 within the good field zone. The quadrupole magnet is designed for maximum integrated strength of 2.5 T/m. The poles are wider than the coil to enhance the good field region and made detachable type. The pole profile is chosen as pure hyperbola with extension. Quadrupole magnets with two different sizes of apertures (aperture diameters of 60 mm and 40 mm) were developed. The steering magnet is designed for kick strength of 12 mrad at 25 MeV. Out of 22 steering magnets, 8 are vertical steering, 6 are horizontal steering and 8 combined function steering magnets. Magnetic measurements of dipole magnets were carried out in 3 axes Hall probe bench. Quadrupole and steering magnets were characterized in a rotating coil based harmonic measurement bench. The details of the design and magnetic measurements of these magnets with results will be discussed in this paper. (author)

  7. Development of a compact x-ray source via laser compton scattering at KEK-LUCX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaue, Kazuyuki; Washio, Masakazu; Aryshev, Alexander; Araki, Sakae; Urakawa, Junji; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Fukuda, Masafumi; Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Takeda, Ayaki

    2013-01-01

    The compact X-ray source based on Laser-Compton scattering (LCS) has been developed at LUCX (Laser Undulator Compact X-ray source) facility in KEK. The multi-bunch high quality electron beam produced by a standing wave 3.6 cell RF Gun and accelerated by the followed S-band normal conducting 12 cells standing wave 'Booster' linear accelerator is scattered off the laser beam stored in the optical cavity. The 4-mirror planar optical cavity with finesse 335 is used. The MCP (Micro-Channer Plate) detector as well as SOI (Silicon-On-Insulator) pixel sensor was used for scattered X-ray detection. The SOI pixel sensor has been used for LCS X-ray detection for the first time and has demonstrated high spatial resolution and high SN ratio X-ray detection that in turn lead to clearest X-ray images achieved by LCS X-ray. We have also achieved generation of 6.38x10 6 ph./sec., which is more than 30 times larger LCS X-ray flux in comparison with our previous results. The complete details of LUCX LCS X-ray source, specifications of both electron and laser beams, and the results of LCS X-ray generation experiments are reported in this paper. (author)

  8. Development of highly qualified UV-laser light source for rf gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomizawa, H.; Dewa, H.; Taniuchi, T.

    2004-01-01

    We have been developing stable and highly qualified UV-laser pulse as a light source of the rf gun for an injector candidate of future light sources. Our gun cavity is a single-cell pillbox, and the copper inner wall is used as a photo cathode. In present status, the short pulse energy stability of laser has been improved down to 1.3∼1.5% (rms; 10pps; 10000 shots) at the third harmonic generation. The long stability depends on the stability of modelocking at oscillator. In this improvement we just passively stabilized the system. We considered environmental controls in clean room to reduce optical damage accidents and constructed a new humidity-controlled clean room in 2003. And we re-installed the total laser system in this room in 2004. The relative humidity of this new clean room at room temperature is in a region of 50∼60 % with a stability of less than 2% (p-p). On the other hand, the ideal spatial and temporal profiles of a shot-by-shot single laser pulse are essential to suppress the emittance growth of the electron beam from a photo-cathode rf gun. This laser-shaping project has been started in two steps since 2002. As the first successful test run in 2002, with a microlens array as a simple spatial shaper, we obtained a minimum emittance value of 2π mm·mrad with a beam energy of 3.1 MeV, holding its charge to 0.1 nC/bunch. In the next test run in 2004, we prepared a deformable mirror for spatial shaping, and a spatial light modulator based on fused-silica plates for temporal shaping. We are applying the both adaptive optics to automatically shape the both spatial and temporal UV-laser profiles with a feedback routine at the same time. We report herein the principle and developing process of our laser beam quality control system. (author)

  9. Development of Laser-Polarized Noble Gas Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    2004-01-01

    We are developing technology for laser-polarized noble gas nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), with the aim of enabling it as a novel biomedical imaging tool for ground-based and eventually space-based application. This emerging multidisciplinary technology enables high-resolution gas-space magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-e.g., of lung ventilation, perfusion, and gas-exchange. In addition, laser-polarized noble gases (3He and 1BXe) do not require a large magnetic field for sensitive NMR detection, opening the door to practical MRI with novel, open-access magnet designs at very low magnetic fields (and hence in confined spaces). We are pursuing two specific aims in this technology development program. The first aim is to develop an open-access, low-field (less than 0.01 T) instrument for MRI studies of human gas inhalation as a function of subject orientation, and the second aim is to develop functional imaging of the lung using laser-polarized He-3 and Xe-129.

  10. Development of Constraint Force Equation Methodology for Application to Multi-Body Dynamics Including Launch Vehicle Stage Seperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamadi, Bandu N.; Toniolo, Matthew D.; Tartabini, Paul V.; Roithmayr, Carlos M.; Albertson, Cindy W.; Karlgaard, Christopher D.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this report is to develop and implement a physics based method for analysis and simulation of multi-body dynamics including launch vehicle stage separation. The constraint force equation (CFE) methodology discussed in this report provides such a framework for modeling constraint forces and moments acting at joints when the vehicles are still connected. Several stand-alone test cases involving various types of joints were developed to validate the CFE methodology. The results were compared with ADAMS(Registered Trademark) and Autolev, two different industry standard benchmark codes for multi-body dynamic analysis and simulations. However, these two codes are not designed for aerospace flight trajectory simulations. After this validation exercise, the CFE algorithm was implemented in Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) to provide a capability to simulate end-to-end trajectories of launch vehicles including stage separation. The POST2/CFE methodology was applied to the STS-1 Space Shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB) separation and Hyper-X Research Vehicle (HXRV) separation from the Pegasus booster as a further test and validation for its application to launch vehicle stage separation problems. Finally, to demonstrate end-to-end simulation capability, POST2/CFE was applied to the ascent, orbit insertion, and booster return of a reusable two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicle concept. With these validation exercises, POST2/CFE software can be used for performing conceptual level end-to-end simulations, including launch vehicle stage separation, for problems similar to those discussed in this report.

  11. Development of a thermal fatigue test method for thermal barrier coatings by laser excitation using a laser thermal shock facility; Entwicklung eines Pruefverfahrens zur laserinduzierten thermischen Ermuedung thermischer Schutzschichten mittels einer Laser-Thermoschockpruefeinrichtung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nies, Daniel

    2012-07-13

    The finite nature of fossil fuel supply and the growing environmental awareness become increasingly stronger motivations for the development of efficient gas turbines and jet engines for power generation or as engines for land-, sea- and water-based vehicles. One concept developed for this purpose are thermal barrier coatings, where the thermal load of components is reduced by applying a ceramic coating onto the components. In this work the possibility to use a laser thermal shock facility for thermo-cyclic testing of thermal barrier coatings is examined. A focused laser beam is used for heating the sample and a homogeneous temperature distribution on the sample surface is achieved by the used trajectory and radial adjusted laser power. The required improvements of the existing testing facility are explained, including the development of a new sample holder and of the testing and evaluation routines for the experiments. For the assessment of the initiation and evolution of damages, acoustic emission and thermographic methods are used. The possibilities and limits of these methods are assessed during the experiments. The work also includes an extensive temperature dependent characterisation of the ceramic material used for the thermal barrier coating. In this part, the measurement of the Young's modulus by a dynamic method is to be highlighted, as this is a rarely used technique. The characterisations show the expected values, except for a lower porosity as expected by the manufacturer and no significant phase changes during isothermal heat treatments. To reach sample surface temperatures above 1000 C, it is necessary to increase the absorption by an additional coating of magnetite. The temperature distribution on the surface is measured by an infrared camera, which is calibrated for this purpose. With the incorporated active air cooling of the sample backside, the temperature gradient can be controlled, but still leaves room for improvements. Already without

  12. Development of Laser Based Remote Sensing System for Inner-Concrete Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Yoshinori; Kotyaev, Oleg

    Laser-based remote sensing using a vibration detection system has been developed using a photorefractive crystal to reduce the effect of concrete surface-roughness. An electric field was applied to the crystal and the reference beam was phase shifted to increase the detection efficiency (DE). The DE increased by factor of 8.5 times compared to that when no voltage and no phase shifting were applied. Vibration from concrete defects can be detected at a distance of 5 m from the system. A vibration-canceling system has also developed that appears to be promising for canceling vibrations between the laser system and the concrete. Finally, we have constructed a prototype system that can be transported in a small truck.

  13. Development of remote bore tools for pipe welding/cutting by YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Kiyoshi; Nakahira, Masataka; Kakudate, Satoshi; Tada, Eisuke; Obara, Kenjiro; Taguchi, Kou; Nakamori, Naokazu

    1996-07-01

    In D-T burning reactors such as International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), an internal access welding/cutting of blanket cooling pipe with bend sections is inevitably required because of spatial constraint due to nuclear shield and available port opening space. For this purpose, an internal access pipe welding/cutting using YAG laser beam is being developed according to the agreement of the ITER R and D task (T44). A design concept of welding/cutting processing head with a flexible optical fiber has been developed and the basic feasibility studies on welding, cutting and rewelding are performed using stainless steel plate (SS316L). In this report, the details of a welding/cutting head with a flexible optical fiber for YAG laser are described, together with the basic experiment results relating to the welding/cutting and rewelding. (author)

  14. Development of LD pumped 10 J x 10 Hz Nd: Glass slab laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Masanobu; Kanabe, Tadashi; Matsui, Hideki

    2000-01-01

    As a first step of a driver development for the inertial fusion energy, we are developing a diode-pumped zig-zag Nd: glass slab laser amplifier system which can generate an output of 10 J per pulse at 1053 nm in 10 Hz operation. The water-cooled zig-zag Nd: glass slab is pumped from both sides by 803-nm AlGaAs laser-diode (LD) module; each LD module has an emitting area of 420 mm x 10 mm and two LD modules generated in total 200 kW peak power with 2.5 kW/cm 2 peak intensity at 10 Hz repetition rate. We have obtained in a preliminary experiment a 8.5 J output energy at 0.5 Hz with beam quality of 2 times diffraction limited far-field pattern. (author)

  15. The post-millennium development goals agenda: include 'end to all wars' as a public health goal!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, Saroj

    2014-09-01

    The process of identifying global post-millennium development goals (post-MDGs) has begun in earnest. Consensus is emerging in certain areas (e.g. eliminating poverty) and conflicts and violence are recognized as key factors that retard human development. However, current discussions focus on tackling intra-state conflicts and individual-based violence and hardly mention eliminating wars as a goal. Wars create public health catastrophes. They kill, maim, displace and affect millions. Inter-state wars fuel intra-state conflicts and violence. The peace agenda should not be the monopoly of the UN Security Council, and the current consensus-building process setting the post-MDG agenda is a rallying point for the global community. The human rights approach will not suffice to eliminate wars, because few are fought to protect human rights. The development agenda should therefore commit to eliminating all wars by 2030. Targets to reduce tensions and discourage wars should be included. We should act now. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Fibre Laser Welding of HY-80 Steel: Procedure Development and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    2 Welding The material used in this study was quenched and tempered martensitic HY80 steel which conforms to MIL-S-1621 [2]. The testing...Journal, 1977. [4] AWS, D1.6 in Structural Welding Code Stainless Steel . 2007, American Welding Society: Miami Florida. [5] DefStan, 02-770 Part 2...Canada Fibre Laser Welding of HY-80 Steel Proceedure Development and Testing Christopher Bayley DLP Neil Aucoin DLP Xinjin Cao NRC IAR AMTC Technical

  17. Development of Experimental Setup of Metal Rapid Prototyping Machine using Selective Laser Sintering Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, S. N.; Mulay, A. V.; Ahuja, B. B.

    2018-04-01

    Unlike in the traditional manufacturing processes, additive manufacturing as rapid prototyping, allows designers to produce parts that were previously considered too complex to make economically. The shift is taking place from plastic prototype to fully functional metallic parts by direct deposition of metallic powders as produced parts can be directly used for desired purpose. This work is directed towards the development of experimental setup of metal rapid prototyping machine using selective laser sintering and studies the various parameters, which plays important role in the metal rapid prototyping using SLS technique. The machine structure in mainly divided into three main categories namely, (1) Z-movement of bed and table, (2) X-Y movement arrangement for LASER movements and (3) feeder mechanism. Z-movement of bed is controlled by using lead screw, bevel gear pair and stepper motor, which will maintain the accuracy of layer thickness. X-Y movements are controlled using timing belt and stepper motors for precise movements of LASER source. Feeder mechanism is then developed to control uniformity of layer thickness metal powder. Simultaneously, the study is carried out for selection of material. Various types of metal powders can be used for metal RP as Single metal powder, mixture of two metals powder, and combination of metal and polymer powder. Conclusion leads to use of mixture of two metals powder to minimize the problems such as, balling effect and porosity. Developed System can be validated by conducting various experiments on manufactured part to check mechanical and metallurgical properties. After studying the results of these experiments, various process parameters as LASER properties (as power, speed etc.), and material properties (as grain size and structure etc.) will be optimized. This work is mainly focused on the design and development of cost effective experimental setup of metal rapid prototyping using SLS technique which will gives the feel of

  18. Silicon switch development for optical pulse generation in fusion lasers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    We have been developing a silicon photoconductive switch for use as a Pockels cell driver in the pulse generation systems of the fusion lasers Nova and Novette. The objective has been to make 10 kV switches repeatably and which are reliable on an operating system. We found that nonlinear phenomena in nearly intrinsic silicon caused excessive conduction at high voltage resulting in breakdown. Our experiments with doped material show that this problem can be eliminated, resulting in useful devices

  19. Development of a Laser for Landmine Destruction Final Report CRADA No. TC02126.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sheppard, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-08-31

    This was one of two CRADAs between Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC as manager and operator of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and First Alliance Technologies, LLC (First Alliance), to conduct research and development activity toward an integrated system for the detecting, locating, and destroying of landmines and unexploded ordinance using a laser to destroy landmines and unexploded ordinance and First Alliance’s Land Mine Locator (LML) system.

  20. The development of kilohertz planar laser diagnostics for applications in high power turbulent flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slabaugh, Carson Daniel

    In modern gas-turbine combustors, flame stabilization is achieved by inducing exhaust gas circulation within the flame zone through swirl-induced vortex breakdown. Swirling flows exhibit strong shear regions resulting in high turbulence and effective mixing. In combustion, these flows are characterized by complex unsteady interactions between turbulent flow structures and chemical reactions. Developments in high-resolution, quantitative, experimental measurement techniques must continue to improve fundamental understanding and support modeling efforts. This work describes the development of a gas turbine combustion experiment to support the application of advanced optical measurement techniques in flames operating at realistic engine conditions. Facility requirements are addressed, including instrumentation and control needs for remote operation when working with high energy flows. The methodology employed in the design of the optically-accessible combustion chamber is elucidated, including window considerations and thermal management of the experimental hardware under extremely high heat loads. Experimental uncertainties are also quantified. The stable operation of the experiment is validated using multiple techniques and the boundary conditions are verified. The successful prediction of operating conditions by the design analysis is documented and preliminary data is shown to demonstrate the capability of the experiment to produce high-fidelity datasets for advanced combustion research. Building on this experimental infrastructure, simultaneous measurements of velocity and scalar fields were performed in turbulent nonpremixed flames at gas turbine engine operating conditions using 5 kHz Particle-Image Velocimetry (PIV) and OH Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (OH-PLIF). The experimental systems and the challenges associated with acquiring useful data at high pressures and high thermal powers are discussed. The quality of the particle scattering images used in the

  1. Development and validation of an algorithm for laser application in wound treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diequison Rite da Cunha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To develop and validate an algorithm for laser wound therapy. Method: Methodological study and literature review. For the development of the algorithm, a review was performed in the Health Sciences databases of the past ten years. The algorithm evaluation was performed by 24 participants, nurses, physiotherapists, and physicians. For data analysis, the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and the chi-square test for independence was used. The level of significance of the statistical test was established at 5% (p<0.05. Results: The professionals’ responses regarding the facility to read the algorithm indicated: 41.70%, great; 41.70%, good; 16.70%, regular. With regard the algorithm being sufficient for supporting decisions related to wound evaluation and wound cleaning, 87.5% said yes to both questions. Regarding the participants’ opinion that the algorithm contained enough information to support their decision regarding the choice of laser parameters, 91.7% said yes. The questionnaire presented reliability using the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient test (α = 0.962. Conclusion: The developed and validated algorithm showed reliability for evaluation, wound cleaning, and use of laser therapy in wounds.

  2. Ultrafast Laser Diagnostics for Energetic-Material Ignition Mechanisms: Tools for Physics-Based Model Development.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearney, Sean Patrick; Jilek, Brook Anton; Kohl, Ian Thomas; Farrow, Darcie; Urayama, Junji

    2014-11-01

    We present the results of an LDRD project to develop diagnostics to perform fundamental measurements of material properties during shock compression of condensed phase materials at micron spatial scales and picosecond time scales. The report is structured into three main chapters, which each focus on a different diagnostic devel opment effort. Direct picosecond laser drive is used to introduce shock waves into thin films of energetic and inert materials. The resulting laser - driven shock properties are probed via Ultrafast Time Domain Interferometry (UTDI), which can additionally be used to generate shock Hugoniot data in tabletop experiments. Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) is developed as a temperature diagnostic. A transient absorption spectroscopy setup has been developed to probe shock - induced changes during shock compressio n. UTDI results are presented under dynamic, direct - laser - drive conditions and shock Hugoniots are estimated for inert polystyrene samples and for the explosive hexanitroazobenzene, with results from both Sandia and Lawrence Livermore presented here. SRS a nd transient absorption diagnostics are demonstrated on static thin - film samples, and paths forward to dynamic experiments are presented.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF AN INNOVATIVE LASER SCANNER FOR GEOMETRICAL VERIFICATION OF METALLIC AND PLASTIC PARTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmignato, Simone; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Fisker, Rune

    2008-01-01

    and plastic parts. A first prototype of the novel measuring system has been developed, using laser triangulation. The system, besides ensuring the automatic reconstruction of complete surface models, has been designed to guarantee user-friendliness, versatility, reliability and speed. The paper focuses mainly...... on the metrological aspects of the system development. Details are given on procedures and artefacts developed for metrological performance verification and traceability establishment. Experimental results from measurements on metallic and plastic parts show that the system prototype is capable of performing...

  4. An overview of the development of the first wall and other principal components of a laser fusion power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethian, John D.; Raffray, A. Rene; Latkowski, Jeffery; Blanchard, James P.; Snead, Lance; Renk, Timothy J.; Sharafat, Shahram

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces the JNM Special Issue on the development of a first wall for the reaction chamber in a laser fusion power plant. In this approach to fusion energy a spherical target is injected into a large chamber and heated to fusion burn by an array of lasers. The target emissions are absorbed by the wall and encapsulating blanket, and the resulting heat converted into electricity. The bulk of the energy deposited in the first wall is in the form of X-rays (1.0-100 keV) and ions (0.1-4 MeV). In order to have a practical power plant, the first wall must be resistant to these emissions and suffer virtually no erosion on each shot. A wall candidate based on tungsten armor bonded to a low activation ferritic steel substrate has been chosen as the initial system to be studied. The choice was based on the vast experience with these materials in a nuclear environment and the ability to address most of the key remaining issues with existing facilities. This overview paper is divided into three parts. The first part summarizes the current state of the development of laser fusion energy. The second part introduces the tungsten armored ferritic steel concept, the three critical development issues (thermo-mechanical fatigue, helium retention, and bonding) and the research to address them. Based on progress to date the latter two appear to be resolvable, but the former remains a challenge. Complete details are presented in the companion papers in this JNM Special Issue. The third part discusses other factors that must be considered in the design of the first wall, including compatibility with blanket concepts, radiological concerns, and structural considerations

  5. An overview of the development of the first wall and other principal components of a laser fusion power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethian, John D.; Raffray, A. Rene; Latkowski, Jeffery; Blanchard, James P.; Snead, Lance; Renk, Timothy J.; Sharafat, Shahram

    2005-12-01

    This paper introduces the JNM Special Issue on the development of a first wall for the reaction chamber in a laser fusion power plant. In this approach to fusion energy a spherical target is injected into a large chamber and heated to fusion burn by an array of lasers. The target emissions are absorbed by the wall and encapsulating blanket, and the resulting heat converted into electricity. The bulk of the energy deposited in the first wall is in the form of X-rays (1.0-100 keV) and ions (0.1-4 MeV). In order to have a practical power plant, the first wall must be resistant to these emissions and suffer virtually no erosion on each shot. A wall candidate based on tungsten armor bonded to a low activation ferritic steel substrate has been chosen as the initial system to be studied. The choice was based on the vast experience with these materials in a nuclear environment and the ability to address most of the key remaining issues with existing facilities. This overview paper is divided into three parts. The first part summarizes the current state of the development of laser fusion energy. The second part introduces the tungsten armored ferritic steel concept, the three critical development issues (thermo-mechanical fatigue, helium retention, and bonding) and the research to address them. Based on progress to date the latter two appear to be resolvable, but the former remains a challenge. Complete details are presented in the companion papers in this JNM Special Issue. The third part discusses other factors that must be considered in the design of the first wall, including compatibility with blanket concepts, radiological concerns, and structural considerations.

  6. An overview of the development of the first wall and other principal components of a laser fusion power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethian, John D. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Av. SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)]. E-mail: sethian@this.nrl.navy.mil; Raffray, A. Rene [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Latkowski, Jeffery [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Blanchard, James P. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Snead, Lance [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Renk, Timothy J. [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Sharafat, Shahram [University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2005-12-15

    This paper introduces the JNM Special Issue on the development of a first wall for the reaction chamber in a laser fusion power plant. In this approach to fusion energy a spherical target is injected into a large chamber and heated to fusion burn by an array of lasers. The target emissions are absorbed by the wall and encapsulating blanket, and the resulting heat converted into electricity. The bulk of the energy deposited in the first wall is in the form of X-rays (1.0-100 keV) and ions (0.1-4 MeV). In order to have a practical power plant, the first wall must be resistant to these emissions and suffer virtually no erosion on each shot. A wall candidate based on tungsten armor bonded to a low activation ferritic steel substrate has been chosen as the initial system to be studied. The choice was based on the vast experience with these materials in a nuclear environment and the ability to address most of the key remaining issues with existing facilities. This overview paper is divided into three parts. The first part summarizes the current state of the development of laser fusion energy. The second part introduces the tungsten armored ferritic steel concept, the three critical development issues (thermo-mechanical fatigue, helium retention, and bonding) and the research to address them. Based on progress to date the latter two appear to be resolvable, but the former remains a challenge. Complete details are presented in the companion papers in this JNM Special Issue. The third part discusses other factors that must be considered in the design of the first wall, including compatibility with blanket concepts, radiological concerns, and structural considerations.

  7. Low Level Laser Therapy Reduces the Development of Lung Inflammation Induced by Formaldehyde Exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Miranda da Silva

    Full Text Available Lung diseases constitute an important public health problem and its growing level of concern has led to efforts for the development of new therapies, particularly for the control of lung inflammation. Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT has been highlighted as a non-invasive therapy with few side effects, but its mechanisms need to be better understood and explored. Considering that pollution causes several harmful effects on human health, including lung inflammation, in this study, we have used formaldehyde (FA, an environmental and occupational pollutant, for the induction of neutrophilic lung inflammation. Our objective was to investigate the local and systemic effects of LLLT after FA exposure. Male Wistar rats were exposed to FA (1% or vehicle (distillated water during 3 consecutive days and treated or not with LLLT (1 and 5 hours after each FA exposure. Non-manipulated rats were used as control. 24 h after the last FA exposure, we analyzed the local and systemic effects of LLLT. The treatment with LLLT reduced the development of neutrophilic lung inflammation induced by FA, as observed by the reduced number of leukocytes, mast cells degranulated, and a decreased myeloperoxidase activity in the lung. Moreover, LLLT also reduced the microvascular lung permeability in the parenchyma and the intrapulmonary bronchi. Alterations on the profile of inflammatory cytokines were evidenced by the reduced levels of IL-6 and TNF-α and the elevated levels of IL-10 in the lung. Together, our results showed that LLLT abolishes FA-induced neutrophilic lung inflammation by a reduction of the inflammatory cytokines and mast cell degranulation. This study may provide important information about the mechanisms of LLLT in lung inflammation induced by a pollutant.

  8. YCOB lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Martin; Hammons, Dennis; Eichenholz, Jason; Chai, Bruce; Ye, Qing; Jang, Won; Shah, Lawrence

    1999-01-01

    We review new developments with a new laser host material, YCa 4 O(BO 3 ) 3 or YCOB. Lasers based on this host material will open new opportunities for the development of compact, high-power, frequency-agile visible and near IR laser sources, as well as sources for ultrashort pulses. Efficient diode-pumped laser action with both Nd-doped and Yb-doped YCOB has already been demonstrated. Moreover, since these materials are biaxial, and have high nonlinear optical coefficients, they have become the first laser materials available as efficient self-frequency-doubled lasers, capable of providing tunable laser emission in several regions of the visible spectrum. Self-frequency doubling eliminates the need for inclusion of a nonlinear optical element within or external to the laser resonator. These laser materials possess excellent thermal and optical properties, have high laser-damage thresholds, and can be grown to large sizes. In addition they are non-hygroscopic. They therefore possess all the characteristics necessary for laser materials required in rugged, compact systems. Here we summarize the rapid progress made in the development of this new class of lasers, and review their potential for a number of applications. (author)

  9. Development of blue lasers, from second harmonic generation using a Nd:YAG laser emitting at 946 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Gustavo Bernardes

    2010-01-01

    Blue lasers have attracted much attention for applications such as blue-ray, displays and as pumped source for the Ti:sapphire laser. A Nd:YAG crystal with diffusion bonded end-caps was used together with a pump wavelength of 802,3 nm, detuned from the absorption peak at 808 nm in order to minimize the thermal lens effect by providing for a better temperature distribution inside the crystal. Using different input mirror radii, the best relation between pump waist and laser was achieved in a linear cavity and resulted in 6.75W cw (continuous wave) laser power at 946 nm and slope efficiency of 48%. In a second step, a second harmonic generation crystal for blue emission at 473 nm was inserted into different types of resonators, and the blue output power at 473 nm was measured as a function of absorbed pump power. (author)

  10. Developing an explicit strategy towards social responsibility in the NHS: a case for including NHS managers in this strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merali, Faruk

    2006-01-01

    To explore the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) within the UK National Health Service (NHS) and to examine how it may be developed to positively influence the psyche, behaviour and performance of NHS managers. Primary research based upon semi-structured individual face to face interviews with 20 NHS managers. Theoretical frameworks and concepts relating to organisational culture and CSR are drawn upon to discuss the findings. The NHS managers see themselves as being driven by altruistic core values. However, they feel that the public does not believe that they share the altruistic NHS value system. The study is based on a relatively small sample of NHS managers working exclusively in London and may not necessarily represent the views of managers either London-wide or nation-wide. It is suggested that an explicit recognition by the NHS of the socially responsible commitment of its managers within its CSR strategy would help challenge the existing negative public image of NHS managers and in turn improve the managers' self esteem and morale. This paper addresses the relative lacunae in research relating to public sector organisations (such as the NHS) explicitly including the role and commitment of its staff within the way it publicises its CSR strategy. This paper would be of interest to a wide readership including public sector and NHS policy formulators, NHS practitioners, academics and students.

  11. Research and development cooperation project on environmental measurement using laser radar in fiscal 1995; Kankyo keisokuyo laser radar no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    For the purpose of contributing to the environmental management in Indonesia, Japan made R and D of a laser radar to measure the urban air pollution and an environmental network jointly with Indonesia in compliance with the actual situation of the country. At present, in developing countries, air pollution is becoming a big problem because of increases in population and in energy consumption in urban areas according to the industrial/economic growth. As for the laser radar, it is an active sensor with laser as light source and can observe in high resolution the three-dimensional space distribution such as density and composition of air pollutants. Japan is a leader in the development of laser technology which is a core technology for the laser radar and the preceding research. The equipment is installed at several points of urban areas in Indonesia, and at the same time, the observation network is constructed to collect, analyze and process data at the central processing center. This is a 4-year plan from fiscal 1993 to 1996. In fiscal 1995, negotiations with Indonesia and field surveys were conducted to determine sites for installation. A plan for system improvement was also decided on. 38 refs., 24 figs., 14 tabs.

  12. Pulsed power magnet technology for laser particle acceleration and laser plasma physics - a survey of developments at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroll, Florian; Joost, Martin [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); TU Dresden (Germany); Burris-Mog, Trevor; Herrmannsdoerfer, Thomas; Kraft, Stephan; Masood, Umar; Schlenvoigt, Hans-Peter; Sobiella, Manfred; Wustmann, Bernd; Zherlitsyn, Sergei; Cowan, Thomas; Schramm, Ulrich [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Since the mid-1950s, pulsed high-field magnets have become a common, versatile research tool with application mostly in solid state physics and material research. Recently developed pulsed power magnet technology, specifically designed to meet the demands of laser acceleration and laser plasma experiments, open up new research opportunities: We present a pulsed air core solenoid (up to 20 T) for effective collection and focusing of laser accelerated particles. It could function as a crucial part of a compact, laser-based ion source (pursued by the LIGHT collaboration) or of beam guidance systems. Furthermore, the poster shows a split pair coil, utterly compact and with optical access in between the coil pairs and on axis, to study laser-driven plasma expansion under high magnetic fields (30 T). To power such devices, portable capacitor-based pulse generators have been developed at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. We present first results of the functional testing of our third-generation pulse generator. Looking forward, we outline a concept for a medical gantry based on pulsed high field beam optics.

  13. ECH system developments including the design of an intelligent fault processor on the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce, D.; Lohr, J.; Tooker, J.F.; O'Neill, R.C.; Moeller, C.P.; Doane, J.L.; Noraky, S.; Dubovenko, K.; Gorelov, Y.A.; Cengher, M.; Penaflor, B.G.; Ellis, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    A new generation fault processor is in development which is intended to increase fault handling flexibility and reduce the number of incomplete DIII-D shots due to gyrotron faults. The processor, which is based upon a field programmable gate array device, will analyze signals for aberrant operation and ramp down high voltage to try to avoid hard faults. The processor will then attempt to ramp back up to an attainable operating point. The new generation fault processor will be developed during an expansion of the electron cyclotron heating (ECH) areas that will include the installation of a depressed collector gyrotron and associated equipment. Existing systems will also be upgraded. Testing of real-time control of the ECH launcher poloidal drives by the DIII-D plasma control system will be completed. The ECH control system software will be upgraded for increased scalability and to increase operator productivity. Resources permitting, all systems will receive an extra layer of interlocks for the filament and magnet power supplies, added shielding for the tank electronics, programmable filament boost shape for long pulses, and electronics upgrades for the installation of the advanced fault processor.

  14. Development of a multi-beam laser ultrasonic inspection system and its application on flaw sizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chivavibul, Pornthep; Lin, Shan; Fukutomi, Hiroyuki; Higuchi, Sadao; Ogata, Takashi; Fukuchi, Tetsuo

    2006-01-01

    Laser ultrasonic technique is a powerful tool for non-contact, nondestructive testing of materials. It is expected to apply to where the conventional ultrasonic technique is not applicable. However, this technique suffers from low sensitivity. In order to overcome this shortcoming, a multi-beam laser ultrasonic system was developed to increase signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and steer beam direction. The system consisted of eight pulsed Nd:YAG lasers used for ultrasonic generation, and a two-wave mixing interferometer with a long-pulsed Nd:YAG used for ultrasonic detection. Spatial and temporal control of the firing of the individual lasers permitted the generation of both phased array single pulse and narrow-band ultrasonic signals. The performance of developed system was verified using aluminum specimens with the wave generation in a slight ablation mode. A significant increase in sensitivity was obtained, with an increase in signal amplitude with no change in noise level. In the narrow band case, tone bursts were successfully generated in both surface and bulk waves. Beam steering of bulk waves was also performed, and the directivity was confirmed by visualization using a conventional transducer. The developed system was applied to flaw sizing using two techniques: shadow and short-path of diffraction (SPOD), using aluminum specimens with 2-mm, 5-mm, 8-mm slit depths. The shadow technique accurately measured the 5- and 8-mm slits, but not the 2-mm slit. The SPOD technique, carried out using a 5-MHz normal longitudinal transducer as a detector instead of TWN interferometer, accurately measured slits in all specimens with an error less than 0.5 mm. (author)

  15. Laser Safety Inspection Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barat, K

    2005-01-01

    A responsibility of the Laser Safety Officer (LSO) is to perform laser safety audits. The American National Standard Z136.1 Safe use of Lasers references this requirement in several sections: (1) Section 1.3.2 LSO Specific Responsibilities states under Hazard Evaluation, ''The LSO shall be responsible for hazards evaluation of laser work areas''; (2) Section 1.3.2.8, Safety Features Audits, ''The LSO shall ensure that the safety features of the laser installation facilities and laser equipment are audited periodically to assure proper operation''; and (3) Appendix D, under Survey and Inspections, it states, ''the LSO will survey by inspection, as considered necessary, all areas where laser equipment is used''. Therefore, for facilities using Class 3B and or Class 4 lasers, audits for laser safety compliance are expected to be conducted. The composition, frequency and rigueur of that inspection/audit rests in the hands of the LSO. A common practice for institutions is to develop laser audit checklists or survey forms. In many institutions, a sole Laser Safety Officer (LSO) or a number of Deputy LSO's perform these audits. For that matter, there are institutions that request users to perform a self-assessment audit. Many items on the common audit list and the associated findings are subjective because they are based on the experience and interest of the LSO or auditor in particular items on the checklist. Beam block usage is an example; to one set of eyes a particular arrangement might be completely adequate, while to another the installation may be inadequate. In order to provide more consistency, the National Ignition Facility Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (NIF-LLNL) has established criteria for a number of items found on the typical laser safety audit form. These criteria are distributed to laser users, and they serve two broad purposes: first, it gives the user an expectation of what will be reviewed by an auditor, and second, it is an

  16. Development and Implementation of a Battery-Electric Light-Duty Class 2a Truck including Hybrid Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmeyer, Phillip J.

    This dissertation addresses two major related research topics: 1) the design, fabrication, modeling, and experimental testing of a battery-electric light-duty Class 2a truck; and 2) the design and evaluation of a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) for this and other vehicles. The work begins with the determination of the truck's peak power and wheel torque requirements (135kW/4900Nm). An electric traction system is then designed that consists of an interior permanent magnet synchronous machine, two-speed gearbox, three-phase motor drive, and LiFePO4 battery pack. The battery pack capacity is selected to achieve a driving range similar to the 2011 Nissan Leaf electric vehicle (73 miles). Next, the demonstrator electric traction system is built and installed in the vehicle, a Ford F150 pickup truck, and an extensive set of sensors and data acquisition equipment is installed. Detailed loss models of the battery pack, electric traction machine, and motor drive are developed and experimentally verified using the driving data. Many aspects of the truck's performance are investigated, including efficiency differences between the two-gear configuration and the optimal gear selection. The remainder focuses on the application of battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage systems (HESS) to electric vehicles. First, the electric truck is modeled with the addition of an ultracapacitor pack and a dc/dc converter. Rule-based and optimal battery/ultracapacitor power-split control algorithms are then developed, and the performance improvements achieved for both algorithms are evaluated for operation at 25°C. The HESS modeling is then extended to low temperatures, where battery resistance increases substantially. To verify the accuracy of the model-predicted results, a scaled hybrid energy storage system is built and the system is tested for several drive cycles and for two temperatures. The HESS performance is then modeled for three variants of the vehicle design, including the

  17. Design, development, optimization of 40GW/300-800 ps Nd: glass laser system and study of matter at extreme temperature and pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaurasia, S.; Munda, D.S.; Murali, C.G.; Gupta, N.K.; Dhareshwar, L.J.; Vijayan, Rajasree; Narayan, B.S.

    2008-02-01

    Laser Plasma interaction studies and experiments related to laser driven shocks as well as inertial confinement fusion (ICF) has resulted in an ever increasing demand of development of high power nanosecond and sub-nanosecond laser. A 12J/300-800 ps (40 GW) laser chain has been developed at our laboratory and it is planned to upgrade it to 30 Joules. In this report we describe design and development of 12J/300-800 ps (40 GW) laser system built for laser-plasma related and laser driven shock related work. The laser is having focusable intensity of the order of 1014 W/cm 2 which is used to carry out various experiments in the frontier area of laser produced plasma. The development work described in this report discusses the design and developments of various subsystem such as Laser amplifiers, spatial filters and Faraday isolator, experimental chamber. The necessary electronics also has been described in brief. Theoretical simulation models developed over a period of time to analyze the laser plasma experiments are also summarized. A number of experiments have been carried out in the existing laser chain. Some of these experiments are also presented in the report. Enhancement of x-ray emission (better conversion efficiency) is prime task for the indirect drive inertial confinement fusion. We have done experiments to see the enhancement using various target geometry and the laser focusing geometry and a summary of these experiments is presented. (author)

  18. Development of composite polymer-glass edge claddings for Nova Laser Disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.H.; Edwards, G.; Frick, F.A.; Gemmell, D.S.; Gim, B.M.; Jancaitis, K.S.; Jessop, E.S.; Kong, M.K.; Lyon, R.E.; Murray, J.E.; Patton, H.G.; Pitts, J.H.; Powell, H.T.; Riley, M.O.; Wallerstein, E.P.; Wolfe, C.R.; Woods, B.W.

    1988-01-01

    Large Nd:glass laser disks for disk amplifiers require an edge cladding which absorbs at 1 μ m. This cladding prevents edge reflections from causing parasitic oscillations that would otherwise deplete the gain. The authors have developed a composite polymer-glass edge cladding that consists of absorbing glass strips bonded to the edges of laser glass disks using an epoxy adhesive. The edge cladding must survive a fluence of approximately 20 J/cm 2 in a 0.5-ms pulse. Failure can occur either by decomposition of the polymer or by mechanical failure from thermal stresses which leads to bond delamination. An epoxy has been developed that gives the required damage resistance, refractive index match and processing characteristics. A slight tilt of the disk edges greatly reduces the threat from parasitic oscillations and a glass surface treatment is used to promote bond adhesion. Laser disks fabricated with this new cladding show identical gain performance to disks using conventional fused-glass cladding and have been tested for over 2000 shots (equivalent to about a 4-year lifetime on Nova) with out degradation

  19. The development of fieldable laser-induced breakdown spectrometer: No limits on the horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortes, F.J.; Laserna, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    In this review, new trends in the development of fieldable instrumentation based on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and its recent applications is presented. Depending on the LIBS configuration we will distinguish between portable, remote and stand-off instruments. Moreover, the development of portable systems gives greater flexibility and also increases the range of LIBS applications. In general, portable instruments are employed in close-contact applications like immovable artworks, contaminated soils and environmental diagnostic, while remote and stand-off instruments are normally used in analytical applications at distances where access to the sample is difficult or hazardous. Although remote and stand-off instruments are both used for chemical analysis at distances, the instrumental configurations are completely different. In remote analysis, an optical fiber is employed to deliver the laser energy a certain distance. This approach has been usually restricted to industrial applications, bulk analysis in water, geological measurements and chemical analysis on nuclear stations. In the case of stand-off applications, the laser beam and the returning plasma light are transmitted in an open-path configuration. In this article we also discuss the instrumental requirements in the design of remote and stand-off instruments.

  20. Treatment of transparent conductive oxides by laser processes for the development of Silicon photovoltaic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canteli Perez-Caballero, D.

    2015-01-01

    Transparent conductive oxides (TCOs) are heavily doped oxides with high transparency in the visible range of the spectrum and a very low sheet resistance, making them very attractive for applications in optoelectronic devices. TCOs are widely found in many different areas such as low emissivity windows, electric contacts in computers, televisions or portable devices, and, specially, in the photovoltaic (PV) industry. PV industry is mainly based on mono- and multicrystalline silicon, where TCOs are used as anti-reflective coatings, but the search for cheaper, alternative technologies has led to the development of thin film PV technologies, where TCOs are used as transparent contacts. With the maturation of the thin film PV industry, laser sources have become an essential tool, allowing the improvement of some industrial processes and the development of new ones. Because of the interest on a deeper understanding of the interaction processes between laser light and TCOs, the laser ablation of three of the most important TCOs has been studied in depth in the present work. (Author)

  1. NASA Space Laser Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainak, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Over the next two decades, the number of space based laser missions for mapping, spectroscopy, remote sensing and other scientific investigations will increase several fold. The demand for high wall-plug efficiency, low noise, narrow linewidth laser systems to meet different systems requirements that can reliably operate over the life of a mission will be high. The general trends will be for spatial quality very close to the diffraction limit, improved spectral performance, increased wall-plug efficiency and multi-beam processing. Improved spectral performance will include narrower spectral width (very near the transform limit), increased wavelength stability and or tuning (depending on application) and lasers reaching a wider range of wavelengths stretching into the mid-infrared and the near ultraviolet. We are actively developing high efficiency laser transmitter and high-sensitivity laser receiver systems that are suitable for spaceborne applications.

  2. Oscillator and system development on the VULCAN glass laser system for the plasma beat-wave program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danson, C.N.

    1990-03-01

    This thesis describes the oscillator and system development on the VULCAN glass laser undertaken in support of the RAL Plasma Beat-wave experiments. This program seeks to evaluate advanced particle acceleration schemes for a new generation of machines for fundamental research in high energy physics. The experiments required two synchronised high power laser pulses of slightly different wavelength. These pulses were generated using two different laser media; Nd:YAG and Nd:YLF operating at 1.064 and 1.053 microns respectively. The first oscillator system developed operated with both lasing media housed in the same laser cavity. Problems with the stability of the optical output required the development of a second system which housed the two lasing media in separate cavities. The second aspect of the development work, described in this thesis, was the reconfiguration of the VULCAN glass laser system to amplify the two laser pulses to power levels of 0.5 TW per pulse. The first scheduled experiment required the two pulses to be propagated co-linearly. To amplify the pulses to the high output powers required two amplifying media to be used which preferentially amplify the two lasing wavelengths. For the later experiments the two laser pulses were amplified in separate amplifier chains which required the design of an efficient beam combiner. (author)

  3. Development of confocal laser microscope system for examination of microscopic characteristics of radiophotoluminescence glass dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, D.; Ishii, T.; Sato, F.; Kato, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Iida, T.

    2011-01-01

    A confocal laser microscope system was developed for the measurement of radiophotoluminescence (RPL) photons emitted from a minute alpha-ray-irradiated area in an RPL glass dosemeter. The system was composed mainly of an inverted-type microscope, an ultraviolet laser, an XY movable stage and photon-counting circuits. The photon-counting circuits were effective in the reduction of the background noise level in the measurement of RPL photons. The performance of this microscope system was examined by the observation of standard RPL glass samples irradiated using 241 Am alpha rays. The spatial resolution of this system was ∼3 μm, and with regard to the sensitivity of this system, a hit of more than four to five alpha rays in unit area produced enough amount of RPL photons to construct the image. (authors)

  4. Development of confocal laser microscope system for examination of microscopic characteristics of radiophotoluminescence glass dosemeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Daisuke; Ishii, Tetsuya; Sato, Fuminobu; Kato, Yushi; Yamamoto, Takayoshi; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2011-03-01

    A confocal laser microscope system was developed for the measurement of radiophotoluminescence (RPL) photons emitted from a minute alpha-ray-irradiated area in an RPL glass dosemeter. The system was composed mainly of an inverted-type microscope, an ultraviolet laser, an XY movable stage and photon-counting circuits. The photon-counting circuits were effective in the reduction of the background noise level in the measurement of RPL photons. The performance of this microscope system was examined by the observation of standard RPL glass samples irradiated using (241)Am alpha rays. The spatial resolution of this system was ∼ 3 μm, and with regard to the sensitivity of this system, a hit of more than four to five alpha rays in unit area produced enough amount of RPL photons to construct the image.

  5. Development of Large Concrete Object Geometrical Model Based on Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaczek-Peplinska Janina

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents control periodic measurements of movements and survey of concrete dam on Dunajec River in Rożnów, Poland. Topographical survey was conducted using laser scanning technique. The goal of survey was data collection and creation of a geometrical model. Acquired cross- and horizontal sections were utilised to create a numerical model of object behaviour at various load depending of changing level of water in reservoir. Modelling was accomplished using finite elements technique. During the project an assessment was conducted to terrestrial laser scanning techniques for such type of research of large hydrotechnical objects such as gravitational water dams. Developed model can be used to define deformations and displacement prognosis.

  6. Development of high power pumping system for capillary discharge EUV laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Yusuke; Komatsu, Takanori; Watanabe, Masato; Okino, Akitoshi; Hotta, Eiki

    2008-01-01

    Development of high power pumping system for capillary discharge soft X-ray laser is reported. The pulsed power system consists of a 2.2 μF LC generator, a 2:54 step-up transformer and a 3 nF water capacitor. Taking advantage of high efficiency configuration, step-up ratio of water capacitor voltage to LC generator initial voltage is about 40 times. Consequently, obtained water capacitor voltage reaches about 450 kV when LC generator was charged to 12.5 kV. As a consequent, possibility of charging a water capacitor to 1 MV is demonstrated. With this extremely compact system, discharge current could be increased to nearly 100 kA through moderately long capillary, which leads to generation of high-density and high-temperature plasma column in order to realize EUV laser. (author)

  7. The Argonne laser-driven D target: Recent developments and progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedchak, J.A.; Bailey, K.; Cummings, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    The first direct measurements of nuclear tensor polarization p zz in a laser-driven polarized D target have been performed at Argonne. We present p zz and electron polarization P e data taken at a magnetic field of 600 G in the optical pumping cell. These results are highly indicative that spin-temperature equilibrium is achieved in the system. To prevent spin relaxation of D and K atoms as well as the molecular recombination of D atoms, the walls of the laser-driven D target are coated with organosilane compounds. We discuss a new coating technique, the open-quotes afterwashclose quotes, developed at Argonne which has yielded stable atomic fraction results when the coating is exposed to K. We also present new coating techniques for glass and Cu substrates

  8. Development of a commercial Automated Laser Gas Interface (ALGI) for AMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, R. [National Electrostatics Corporation, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States); Mores, M., E-mail: nec@pelletron.com [National Electrostatics Corporation, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States); Kitchen, R.; Sundquist, M.; Hauser, T.; Stodola, M. [National Electrostatics Corporation, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States); Tannenbaum, S.; Skipper, P.; Liberman, R. [Dept. of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Young, G.; Corless, S. [Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, GlaxoSmithKline Research and Development Ltd., Ware (United Kingdom); Tucker, M. [MGT Systems, Chapel Lane, Eastbridge, Suffolk (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-15

    National Electrostatics Corporation (NEC), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) collectively have been developing an interface to introduce CO{sub 2} produced by the laser combustion of liquid chromatograph eluate deposited on a CuO substrate directly into the ion source of an AMS system, thereby bypassing the customary graphitization process. The Automated Laser Gas Interface (ALGI) converts dried liquid samples to CO{sub 2} gas quickly and efficiently, allowing 96 samples to be measured in as little as 16 h. {sup 14}C:{sup 12}C ratios stabilize typically within 2 min of analysis time per sample. Presented is the recent progress of NEC's ALGI, a stand-alone accessory to an NEC gas-enabled multi-cathode source of negative ions by Cs sputtering (MC-SNICS) ion source.

  9. Development of Weld Metal Microstructures in Pulsed Laser Welding of Duplex Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirakhorli, F.; Malek Ghaini, F.; Torkamany, M. J.

    2012-10-01

    The microstructure of the weld metal of a duplex stainless steel made with Nd:YAG pulsed laser is investigated at different travel speeds and pulse frequencies. In terms of the solidification pattern, the weld microstructure is shown to be composed of two distinct zones. The presence of two competing heat transfer channels to the relatively cooler base metal and the relatively hotter previous weld spot is proposed to develop two zones. At high overlapping factors, an array of continuous axial grains at the weld centerline is formed. At low overlapping factors, in the zone of higher cooling rate, a higher percentage of ferrite is transformed to austenite. This is shown to be because with extreme cooling rates involved in pulsed laser welding with low overlapping, the ferrite-to-austenite transformation can be limited only to the grain boundaries.

  10. Laser/fluorescent dye flow visualization technique developed for system component thermal hydraulic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oras, J.J.; Kasza, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    A novel laser flow visualization technique is presented together with examples of its use in visualizing complex flow patterns and plans for its further development. This technique has been successfully used to study (1) the flow in a horizontal pipe subject to temperature transients, to view the formation and breakup of thermally stratified flow and to determine instantaneous velocity distributions in the same flow at various axial locations; (2) the discharge of a stratified pipe flow into a plenum exhibiting a periodic vortex pattern; and (3) the thermal-buoyancy-induced flow channeling on the shell side of a heat exchanger with glass tubes and shell. This application of the technique to heat exchangers is unique. The flow patterns deep within a large tube bundle can be studied under steady or transient conditions. This laser flow visualization technique constitutes a very powerful tool for studying single or multiphase flows in complex thermal system components

  11. Model development of laser fiber optic endoablative treatment for primary breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David S.; Parel, Jean-Marie A.; Denham, David B.; Manns, Fabrice; Gonzalez, Xochitl; Schachner, Robert D.; Herron, Alan J.; Burdette, Everette C.

    1996-05-01

    A mammographic stereotactic core biopsy instrument can be adapted for laser hyperthermic ablation of breast cancer. The object of this study is to characterize laser endohyperthermia ex-vivo and in-vivo to develop a reliable approach leading to human trials. Light of a Nd:YAG laser passed through a fiberoptic cable to a diffusing quartz tip upon entering surrounding tissues can bring about very high temperatures. This approach concentrating on the heat distribution to fat and fibrofatty tissue, first analyzed a physical model into which both the quartz tip and thermocouple needles were placed. Temperature recordings in volume through a time course demonstrated a progressive thermal increase around the tip. Additional light distribution studies in several media demonstrated the tip's output. The technique transferred to ex-vivo human breast and porcine fibrofatty tissue showed similar findings leading to an in-vivo analysis of subcutaneous porcine fibrofatty tissue. A step-down energy program beginning at 20 watts and decreasing to 15 watts, 10 watts, and to 7 watts, at 30 second intervals was held at the latter power for the remainder of 6 minutes. Three such cycles appear to be the optimal treatment program to develop temperatures between 60 degrees Celsius and 80 degrees Celsius (approximately equals 9700 joules). In-vivo experiments conducted on 5 occasions revealed no skin change. At necropsy the treated tissues demonstrated a circular sharply defined 3 cm volume of necrosis with no change in adjacent tissue. Time-temperature correlations between ex-vivo and in-vivo tissues showed great similarity. Nd:YAG laser energy distributed to a quartz tip through a fiberoptic cable is capable of uniform, complete tissue destruction to a 1 1/2 cm radius with no change beyond that field. This technique with further refinement will be appropriate to the treatment of small breast cancers that have been stereotactically biopsied.

  12. Infrared and far-infrared laser development for plasma diagnostics at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casson, W.H.; Bennett, C.A.; Fletcher, L.K.; Hunter, H.T.; Hutchinson, D.P.; Lee, J.; Ma, C.DH.; Richards, R.K.; Vander Sluis, K.L.

    1987-01-01

    Three IR and FIR based diagnostics will be developed ann installed on the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) at ORNL. An interferometer operating at 119 mu m will measure plasma density along 14 vertical chords across the plasma cross-section. A small-angle Thomson scattering experiment using a 10.6-mu m pulsed laser will determine the feasibility of measuring alpha particle distribution in a burning plasma. Plans are being developed for installing an FIR-based scattering experiment on ATF to measure density fluctuations. 4 refs., 4 figs

  13. Development of a high power millimeter wave free-electron laser amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidwell, S.W.; Zhang, Z.X.; Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Destler, W.W.; Granatstein, V.L.; Levush, B.; Rodgers, J.; Freund, H.P.

    1992-01-01

    Progress on the development of a high-average-power millimeter wave free-electron laser amplifier is reported. Successful sheet electron beam propagation has been observed through a 54 cm long wiggler magnet. One hundred percent transport efficiency is reported with a 15 A, 0.1 cm x 2.0 cm, sheet electron beam through B w = 5.1 kG, λ w = 0.96 cm, planar electromagnet wiggler. Preliminary success with a novel, yet simple, method of side focusing using offset poles is reported. Status of development on a 94 GHz, 180 kW, pulsed amplifier is discussed with results from numerical simulation

  14. Study of surface ionization and LASER ionization processes using the SOMEIL ion source: application to the Spiral 2 laser ion source development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajeat, O., E-mail: bajeat@ganil.fr; Lecesne, N.; Leroy, R.; Maunoury, L.; Osmond, B.; Sjodin, M. [GANIL (France); Maitre, A.; Pradeilles, N. [Laboratoire Science des Procedes Ceramiques et de Traitements de Surface (SPCTS) 12 (France)

    2013-04-15

    SPIRAL2 is the new project under construction at GANIL to provide radioactive ion beams to the Nuclear Physics Community and in particular neutron rich ion beams. For the production of condensable radioactive elements, a resonant ionization laser ion source is under development at GANIL. In order to generate the ions of interest with a good selectivity and purity, our group is studying the way to minimize surface ionization process by using refractory materials with low work function as ionizer tube. To do those investigations a dedicated ion source, called SOMEIL (Source Optimisee pour les Mesures d'Efficacite d'Ionisation Laser) is used. Numerous types of ionizer tubes made in various materials and geometry are tested. Surface ionization and laser ionization efficiencies can be measured for each of them.

  15. Development of seedless fruits mutants in citrus including tangerine (C. reticulata) and pummelo (C. grandis) through induced mutations and biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somsri, S. [Horticulture Research Institute, Department of Agriculture (DOA), Chatuchak, Bangkok (Thailand); Jompook, P. [Department of Applied Radiation and Isotopes, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Chatuchak, Bangkok (Thailand); Kanhom, P. [Phare Horticultural Research Center, Muang, Phare (Thailand); Thayamanont, P.; Meecharoen, S. [Pichit Horticultural Research Center, Muang, Pichit (Thailand); Kumcha, U. [Srisaket Horticultural Research Center, Muang, Srisaket (Thailand)

    2009-05-15

    The development of seedless fruit mutants in citrus, including Tangerine (C. reticulata) and Pummelo (C. grandis), through induced mutation and biotechnology was studied at the Gamma Irradiation Service and Nuclear Technology Center, Pichit and Phare Horticultural Research Center for 4 years (August 2000 to September 2004). The results showed successful induction of mutants with gamma irradiation using both chronic and acute procedures for pot plants, scions and in vitro plantlets of tangerine (Citrus reticulata var. Shogun and Sai Nam Puaeng) and pummelo (Citrus grandis viz. Kao Thong Dee). MS medium with 2 mgL{sup -1} of BA was found to be the most suitable medium for shoot proliferation. The seedlings were sub-cultured at least 4 times, and then they were treated with acute and chronic irradiation. Shoot induction from M{sub 1}V{sub 0} to M{sub 1}V{sub 4} generation was performed in basic MS medium with 2 mgL{sup -1} added BA. Rooting was induced in the M{sub 1}V{sub 4} in halfstrength MS enriched with BA 2 mgL{sup -1}. Later, the shoots were excised and grafted on mature plants or the plantlets directly transferred in the field and later the fruits from mature trees were evaluated for seedlessness in M{sub 1}V{sub 4} at Pichit and Phare Horticultural Research Center. (author)

  16. Laboratory Studies of the Reactive Chemistry and Changing CCN Properties of Secondary Organic Aerosol, Including Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scot Martin

    2013-01-31

    The chemical evolution of secondary-organic-aerosol (SOA) particles and how this evolution alters their cloud-nucleating properties were studied. Simplified forms of full Koehler theory were targeted, specifically forms that contain only those aspects essential to describing the laboratory observations, because of the requirement to minimize computational burden for use in integrated climate and chemistry models. The associated data analysis and interpretation have therefore focused on model development in the framework of modified kappa-Koehler theory. Kappa is a single parameter describing effective hygroscopicity, grouping together several separate physicochemical parameters (e.g., molar volume, surface tension, and van't Hoff factor) that otherwise must be tracked and evaluated in an iterative full-Koehler equation in a large-scale model. A major finding of the project was that secondary organic materials produced by the oxidation of a range of biogenic volatile organic compounds for diverse conditions have kappa values bracketed in the range of 0.10 +/- 0.05. In these same experiments, somewhat incongruently there was significant chemical variation in the secondary organic material, especially oxidation state, as was indicated by changes in the particle mass spectra. Taken together, these findings then support the use of kappa as a simplified yet accurate general parameter to represent the CCN activation of secondary organic material in large-scale atmospheric and climate models, thereby greatly reducing the computational burden while simultaneously including the most recent mechanistic findings of laboratory studies.

  17. Development of a two-dimensional simulation code (koad) including atomic processes for beam direct energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Yoshikawa, K.; Hattori, Y.

    1987-01-01

    A two-dimensional simulation code for the beam direct energy conversion called KVAD (Kyoto University Advanced DART) including various loss mechanisms has been developed, and shown excellent agreement with the authors' experiments using the He + beams. The beam direct energy converter (BDC) is the device to recover the kinetic energy of unneutralized ions in the neutral beam injection (NBI) system directly into electricity. The BDC is very important and essential not only to the improvements of NBI system efficiency, but also to the relaxation of high heat flux problems on the beam dump with increase of injection energies. So far no simulation code could have successfully predicted BDC experimental results. The KUAD code applies, an optimized algorithm for vector processing, the finite element method (FEM) for potential calculation, and a semi-automatic method for spatial segmentations. Since particle trajectories in the KVAD code are analytically solved, very high speed tracings of the particle could be achieved by introducing an adjacent element matrix to identify the neighboring triangle elements and electrodes. Ion space charges are also analytically calculated by the Cloud in Cell (CIC) method, as well as electron space charges. Power losses due to atomic processes can be also evaluated in the KUAD code

  18. Codification of scan path parameters and development of perimeter scan strategies for 3D bowl-shaped laser forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, A.; Naeini, H. Moslemi; Roohi, Amir H.; Gollo, M. Hoseinpour; Shahabad, Sh. Imani

    2018-01-01

    In the 3D laser forming process, developing an appropriate laser scan pattern for producing specimens with high quality and uniformity is critical. This study presents certain principles for developing scan paths. Seven scan path parameters are considered, including: (1) combined linear or curved path; (2) type of combined linear path; (3) order of scan sequences; (4) the position of the start point in each scan; (5) continuous or discontinuous scan path; (6) direction of scan path; and (7) angular arrangement of combined linear scan paths. Regarding these path parameters, ten combined linear scan patterns are presented. Numerical simulations show continuous hexagonal, scan pattern, scanning from outer to inner path, is the optimized. In addition, it is observed the position of the start point and the angular arrangement of scan paths is the most effective path parameters. Also, further experimentations show four sequences due to creat symmetric condition enhance the height of the bowl-shaped products and uniformity. Finally, the optimized hexagonal pattern was compared with the similar circular one. In the hexagonal scan path, distortion value and standard deviation rather to edge height of formed specimen is very low, and the edge height despite of decreasing length of scan path increases significantly compared to the circular scan path. As a result, four-sequence hexagonal scan pattern is proposed as the optimized perimeter scan path to produce bowl-shaped product.

  19. Fast for sure: new developments in laser beam cutting of thin sheet metal; Mit Sicherheit schnell: neue Entwicklungen zum Laserstrahlschneiden von Fein- und Feinstblechen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petring, D.; Schneider, F.; Thelen, C.; Poprawe, R.l [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Lasertechnik (ILT), Aachen (Germany)

    1999-04-01

    Presently laser beam cutting is a rapidly developing technology. New laser sources with higher power and improved beam quality as well as the modern drive and control equipment together with advanced process developments allow a significant increase in cutting speed at excellent quality features. Recent results in laser beam slitting of sheet metal coils and in fast cutting of car body sheets illustrate this trend. It will be continued be even higher powers and new types of lasers. (orig.)

  20. Toward the development of a low-cost laser Doppler module for ophthalmic microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattini, Stefano; Rovati, Luigi

    2012-03-01

    A laser Doppler module easily integrated into a commercial ophthalmic microscope is proposed. Such setup adds flow measurement capability to standard visual inspection of the fundus. The proposed instrument may provide important clinical information such as the detection of vessel occlusion provided by surgical treatments (i.e. photocoagulation). The measuring system is based on a self-mixing laser diode Doppler flowmeter (SM-DF). Reduced costs, easy implementation and small size represent the main features of SM-DF. Moreover, this technique offers the advantage to have the excitation and measurement beams spatially overlapped, thus both overcoming the alignment difficulty of traditional laser Doppler flowmeter and, well fitting with to limited optical aperture of the pupil. Thanks to an on-board DSP-microcontroller, the optoelectronic module directly estimates the blood flow; USB connection and an ad-hoc developed user-friendly software interface allow displaying the result on a personal computer. Preliminary test demonstrates the applicability of the proposed measuring system.