WorldWideScience

Sample records for laser desorption ionization

  1. The laser desorption/laser ionization mass spectra of some methylated xanthines and the laser desorption of caffeine and theophylline from thin layer chromatography plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Kevin; Milnes, John; Gormally, John

    1993-02-01

    Laser desorption/laser ionization time-of-flight mass spectra of caffeine, theophylline, theobromine and xanthine are reported. These mass spectra are compared with published spectra obtained using electron impact ionization. Mass spectra of caffeine and theophylline obtained by IR laser desorption from thin layer chromatography plates are also described. The laser desorption of materials from thin layer chromatography plates is discussed.

  2. Electrospray ionization and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry: powerful analytical tools in recombinant protein chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens S.; Svensson, B; Roepstorff, P

    1996-01-01

    Electrospray ionization and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization are effective ionization methods for mass spectrometry of biomolecules. Here we describe the capabilities of these methods for peptide and protein characterization in biotechnology. An integrated analytical strategy is presen......Electrospray ionization and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization are effective ionization methods for mass spectrometry of biomolecules. Here we describe the capabilities of these methods for peptide and protein characterization in biotechnology. An integrated analytical strategy...... is presented encompassing protein characterization prior to and after cloning of the corresponding gene....

  3. Surface-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry techniques for application in forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinan, Taryn; Kirkbride, Paul; Pigou, Paul E; Ronci, Maurizio; Kobus, Hilton; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2015-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) is an excellent analytical technique for the rapid and sensitive analysis of macromolecules (>700 Da), such as peptides, proteins, nucleic acids, and synthetic polymers. However, the detection of smaller organic molecules with masses below 700 Da using MALDI-MS is challenging due to the appearance of matrix adducts and matrix fragment peaks in the same spectral range. Recently, nanostructured substrates have been developed that facilitate matrix-free laser desorption ionization (LDI), contributing to an emerging analytical paradigm referred to as surface-assisted laser desorption ionization (SALDI) MS. Since SALDI enables the detection of small organic molecules, it is rapidly growing in popularity, including in the field of forensics. At the same time, SALDI also holds significant potential as a high throughput analytical tool in roadside, work place and athlete drug testing. In this review, we discuss recent advances in SALDI techniques such as desorption ionization on porous silicon (DIOS), nano-initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS) and nano assisted laser desorption ionization (NALDI™) and compare their strengths and weaknesses with particular focus on forensic applications. These include the detection of illicit drug molecules and their metabolites in biological matrices and small molecule detection from forensic samples including banknotes and fingerprints. Finally, the review highlights recent advances in mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) using SALDI techniques. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Coffee-ring effects in laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jie-Bi; Chen, Yu-Chie; Urban, Pawel L

    2013-03-05

    This report focuses on the heterogeneous distribution of small molecules (e.g. metabolites) within dry deposits of suspensions and solutions of inorganic and organic compounds with implications for chemical analysis of small molecules by laser desorption/ionization (LDI) mass spectrometry (MS). Taking advantage of the imaging capabilities of a modern mass spectrometer, we have investigated the occurrence of "coffee rings" in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization (SALDI) sample spots. It is seen that the "coffee-ring effect" in MALDI/SALDI samples can be both beneficial and disadvantageous. For example, formation of the coffee rings gives rise to heterogeneous distribution of analytes and matrices, thus compromising analytical performance and reproducibility of the mass spectrometric analysis. On the other hand, the coffee-ring effect can also be advantageous because it enables partial separation of analytes from some of the interfering molecules present in the sample. We report a "hidden coffee-ring effect" where under certain conditions the sample/matrix deposit appears relatively homogeneous when inspected by optical microscopy. Even in such cases, hidden coffee rings can still be found by implementing the MALDI-MS imaging technique. We have also found that to some extent, the coffee-ring effect can be suppressed during SALDI sample preparation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Silver nanostructures in laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry and mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekuła, Justyna; Nizioł, Joanna; Rode, Wojciech; Ruman, Tomasz

    2015-09-21

    Silver nanoparticles have been successfully applied as a matrix replacement for the laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LDI-ToF-MS). Nanoparticles, producing spectra with highly reduced chemical background in the low m/z region, are perfectly suited for low-molecular weight compound analysis and imaging. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) can efficiently absorb ultraviolet laser radiation, transfer energy to the analyte and promote analyte desorption, but also constitute a source of silver ions suitable for analyte cationisation. This review provides an overview of the literature on silver nanomaterials as non-conventional desorption and ionization promoters in LDI-MS and mass spectrometry imaging.

  6. Laser desorption/ionization from nanostructured surfaces: nanowires, nanoparticle films and silicon microcolumn arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yong; Luo Guanghong; Diao Jiajie; Chornoguz, Olesya; Reeves, Mark; Vertes, Akos

    2007-01-01

    Due to their optical properties and morphology, thin films formed of nanoparticles are potentially new platforms for soft laser desorption/ionization (SLDI) mass spectrometry. Thin films of gold nanoparticles (with 12±1 nm particle size) were prepared by evaporation-driven vertical colloidal deposition and used to analyze a series of directly deposited polypeptide samples. In this new SLDI method, the required laser fluence for ion detection was equal or less than what was needed for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) but the resulting spectra were free of matrix interferences. A silicon microcolumn array-based substrate (a.k.a. black silicon) was developed as a new matrix-free laser desorption ionization surface. When low-resistivity silicon wafers were processed with a 22 ps pulse length 3xω Nd:YAG laser in air, SF 6 or water environment, regularly arranged conical spikes emerged. The radii of the spike tips varied with the processing environment, ranging from approximately 500 nm in water, to ∼2 μm in SF 6 gas and to ∼5 μm in air. Peptide mass spectra directly induced by a nitrogen laser showed the formation of protonated ions of angiotensin I and II, substance P, bradykinin fragment 1-7, synthetic peptide, pro14-arg, and insulin from the processed silicon surfaces but not from the unprocessed areas. Threshold fluences for desorption/ionization were similar to those used in MALDI. Although compared to silicon nanowires the threshold laser pulse energy for ionization is significantly (∼10x) higher, the ease of production and robustness of microcolumn arrays offer complementary benefits

  7. Desorption and ionization processes in laser mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyl, G.J.Q. van der.

    1984-01-01

    In this thesis results are reported from a study on the desorption- and ionization process initiated by infra-red laser irradiation (LDMS) or ion bombardment (SIMS) of thin organic sample layers. The study is especially focused on the formation of quasimolecular ions under these conditions. Results of these investigations can be used for a better optimization of the LDMS and SIMS techniques in organic mass spectrometry. First, an overview is given of laser desorption mass spectrometry. Next, the coupling of the laser energy into the organic sample layer is investigated. It is concluded that the laser energy is primarily absorbed by the substrate material and not by the organic overlayer. The formation of quasi-molecular ions, either in the gas phase or in the substrate surface is investigated. The final section reports kinetic energy distributions for ions sputtered from organic solids and liquids. (Auth.)

  8. Study of the mechanisms of matrix assisted laser desorption / ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manuelli, Pascal

    1995-01-01

    This research thesis aims at a better knowledge of some aspects of a complex mechanism: the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI). The author first proposes a comparative analysis of results obtained by time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry and by Fourier transform mass spectrometry. He reports the study of the matrix role (notably a polymeric matrix) as a matter submitted to laser desorption. In this respect, the influence of the incident wavelength has been studied. The author also reports a comparative of ions produced by matrix laser desorption (study performed by Fourier transform mass spectrometry) and of neutral molecules (study performed by flash pyrolysis coupled with gas chromatography and with mass spectrometry). Finally, results obtained on derivatives and complexes based on beta-cyclodextrins highlight benefits as well as limitations of this technique [fr

  9. Laser desorption ionization and peptide sequencing on laser induced silicon microcolumn arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertes, Akos [Reston, VA; Chen, Yong [San Diego, CA

    2011-12-27

    The present invention provides a method of producing a laser-patterned silicon surface, especially silicon wafers for use in laser desorption ionization (LDI-MS) (including MALDI-MS and SELDI-MS), devices containing the same, and methods of testing samples employing the same. The surface is prepared by subjecting a silicon substrate to multiple laser shots from a high-power picosecond or femtosecond laser while in a processing environment, e.g., underwater, and generates a remarkable homogenous microcolumn array capable of providing an improved substrate for LDI-MS.

  10. Matrix-assisted laser-desorption-ionization mass spectrometry of proteins using a free-electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, R.; Hillenkamp, F.; Haglund, R.

    1995-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) is one of the most promising techniques for spectral fingerprinting large molecules, such as proteins, oligonucleotides and carbohydrates. In the usual implementation of this technique, the analyte molecule is dissolved in an aromatic liquid matrix material which resonantly absorbs ultraviolet laser light. Resonant absorption by π-π* transitions volatilizes the matrix and initiates subsequent charge transfer to the analyte molecules, which are detected by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Recent MALDI-MS studies with Er:YAG (2.94 μm) and CO 2 4 (9.4-10.6 μm) lasers suggest that them is significant unexplored potential for mass spectrometry of macromolecules, including oligonucleotide, in the mid-infrared. Preliminary experiments show that it is possible to capitalize on the rich rovibronic absorption spectrum of virtually all organics to initiate resonant desorption in matrix material over the entire range of pH values. However, the mechanism of charge transfer is particularly problematic for infrared MALDI because of the low photon energy. In this paper, we report the results of MALI-MS studies on small proteins using the Vanderbilt FEL and several matrix materials. Proteins with masses up to roughly 6,000 amu were detected with high resolution in a linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer. By varying the pulse duration using a broadband Pockels cell, we have been able to compare the results of relatively long (5 μs) and short (0.1 μs) irradiation on the desorption and ionization processes. Compared to uv-MALDI spectra of identical analytes obtained with a nitrogen laser (337 nm) in the same time-of-flight spectrometer, the infrared results appear to show that the desorption and ionization process goes on over a somewhat longer time scale

  11. Nanoparticle assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for small molecule analytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhamid, Hani Nasser

    2018-03-01

    Nanoparticle assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (NPs-ALDI-MS) shows remarkable characteristics and has a promising future in terms of real sample analysis. The incorporation of NPs can advance several methods including surface assisted LDI-MS, and surface enhanced LDI-MS. These methods have advanced the detection of many thermally labile and nonvolatile biomolecules. Nanoparticles circumvent the drawbacks of conventional organic matrices for the analysis of small molecules. In most cases, NPs offer a clear background without interfering peaks, absence of fragmentation of thermally labile molecules, and allow the ionization of species with weak noncovalent interactions. Furthermore, an enhancement in sensitivity and selectivity can be achieved. NPs enable straightforward analysis of target species in a complex sample. This review (with 239 refs.) covers the progress made in laser-based mass spectrometry in combination with the use of metallic NPs (such as AuNPs, AgNPs, PtNPs, and PdNPs), NPs consisting of oxides and chalcogenides, silicon-based NPs, carbon-based nanomaterials, quantum dots, and metal-organic frameworks. Graphical abstract An overview is given on nanomaterials for use in surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of small molecules.

  12. Internal energy deposition with silicon nanoparticle-assisted laser desorption/ionization (SPALDI) mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagan, Shai; Hua, Yimin; Boday, Dylan J.; Somogyi, Arpad; Wysocki, Ronald J.; Wysocki, Vicki H.

    2009-06-01

    The use of silicon nanoparticles for laser desorption/ionization (LDI) is a new appealing matrix-less approach for the selective and sensitive mass spectrometry of small molecules in MALDI instruments. Chemically modified silicon nanoparticles (30 nm) were previously found to require very low laser fluence in order to induce efficient LDI, which raised the question of internal energy deposition processes in that system. Here we report a comparative study of internal energy deposition from silicon nanoparticles to previously explored benzylpyridinium (BP) model compounds during LDI experiments. The internal energy deposition in silicon nanoparticle-assisted laser desorption/ionization (SPALDI) with different fluorinated linear chain modifiers (decyl, hexyl and propyl) was compared to LDI from untreated silicon nanoparticles and from the organic matrix, [alpha]-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA). The energy deposition to internal vibrational modes was evaluated by molecular ion survival curves and indicated that the ions produced by SPALDI have an internal energy threshold of 2.8-3.7 eV. This is slightly lower than the internal energy induced using the organic CHCA matrix, with similar molecular survival curves as previously reported for LDI off silicon nanowires. However, the internal energy associated with desorption/ionization from the silicon nanoparticles is significantly lower than that reported for desorption/ionization on silicon (DIOS). The measured survival yields in SPALDI gradually decrease with increasing laser fluence, contrary to reported results for silicon nanowires. The effect of modification of the silicon particle surface with semifluorinated linear chain silanes, including fluorinated decyl (C10), fluorinated hexyl (C6) and fluorinated propyl (C3) was explored too. The internal energy deposited increased with a decrease in the length of the modifier alkyl chain. Unmodified silicon particles exhibited the highest analyte internal energy

  13. Silver nanoparticles as matrix for laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Lin; Chen Jianrong; Ge Liya; Tan, Swee Ngin

    2007-01-01

    Silver nanoparticle synthesized from chemical reduction has been successfully utilized as a matrix in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) of peptides. Acting as a substrate to adsorb analytes, as well as a transmission medium for UV laser, silver nanoparticle was found to assist in the desorption/ionization of peptides with little or no induced fragmentation. The size of the nanoparticle was typically in the range of 160 ± 20 nm. One of the key advantages of silver nanoparticle for peptides analysis is its simple step for on-probe sample preparation. In addition, it also minimizes the interferences of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant background signal, resulting in cleaner mass spectra and more sensitive signal, when compared to α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CCA) matrix

  14. Drawing a different picture with pencil lead as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization matrix for fullerene derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Leanne C; Hungerbühler, Hartmut; Drewello, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    Inspired by reports on the use of pencil lead as a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization matrix, paving the way towards matrix-free matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization, the present investigation evaluates its usage with organic fullerene derivatives. Currently, this class of compounds is best analysed using the electron transfer matrix trans-2-[3-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-2-methyl-2-propenylidene] malononitrile (DCTB), which was employed as the standard here. The suitability of pencil lead was additionally compared to direct (i.e. no matrix) laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry. The use of (DCTB) was identified as the by far gentler method, producing spectra with abundant molecular ion signals and much reduced fragmentation. Analytically, pencil lead was found to be ineffective as a matrix, however, appears to be an extremely easy and inexpensive method for producing sodium and potassium adducts.

  15. Target Plate Material Influence on Fullerene-C60 Laser Desorption/Ionization Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeegers, Guido P.; Günthardt, Barbara F.; Zenobi, Renato

    2016-04-01

    Systematic laser desorption/ionization (LDI) experiments of fullerene-C60 on a wide range of target plate materials were conducted to gain insight into the initial ion formation in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. The positive and negative ion signal intensities of precursor, fragment, and cluster ions were monitored, varying both the laser fluence (0-3.53 Jcm-2) and the ion extraction delay time (0-950 ns). The resulting species-specific ion signal intensities are an indication for the ionization mechanisms that contribute to LDI and the time frames in which they operate, providing insight in the (MA)LDI primary ionization. An increasing electrical resistivity of the target plate material increases the fullerene-C60 precursor and fragment anion signal intensity. Inconel 625 and Ti90/Al6/V4, both highly electrically resistive, provide the highest anion signal intensities, exceeding the cation signal intensity by a factor ~1.4 for the latter. We present a mechanism based on transient electrical field strength reduction to explain this trend. Fullerene-C60 cluster anion formation is negligible, which could be due to the high extraction potential. Cluster cations, however, are readily formed, although for high laser fluences, the preferred channel is formation of precursor and fragment cations. Ion signal intensity depends greatly on the choice of substrate material, and careful substrate selection could, therefore, allow for more sensitive (MA)LDI measurements.

  16. Peak quantification in surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization by using mixture models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Martijn; Roelofsen, Han; Vonk, Roel J.; Jansen, Ritsert C.

    2006-01-01

    Surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization (SELDI) time of flight (TOF) is a mass spectrometry technology for measuring the composition of a sampled protein mixture. A mass spectrum contains peaks corresponding to proteins in the sample. The peak areas are proportional to the measured

  17. Laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of lipids using etched silver substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnapp, Andreas; Niehoff, Ann-Christin; Koch, Annika; Dreisewerd, Klaus

    2016-07-15

    Silver-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry can be used for the analysis of small molecules. For example, adduct formation with silver cations enables the molecular analysis of long-chain hydrocarbons, which are difficult to ionize via conventional matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI). Here we used highly porous silver foils, produced by etching with nitric acid, as sample substrates for LDI mass spectrometry. As model system for the analysis of complex lipid mixtures, cuticular extracts of fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) and worker bees (Apis mellifera) were investigated. The mass spectra obtained by spotting extract onto the etched silver substrates demonstrate the sensitive detection of numerous lipid classes such as long-chain saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons, fatty acyl alcohols, wax esters, and triacylglycerols. MS imaging of cuticular surfaces with a lateral resolution of a few tens of micrometers became possible after blotting, i.e., after transferring lipids by physical contact with the substrate. The examples of pheromone-producing male hindwings of the squinting bush brown butterfly (Bicyclus anynana) and a fingermark are shown. Because the substrates are also easy to produce, they provide a viable alternative to colloidal silver nanoparticles and other so far described silver substrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Depth profiling of inks in authentic and counterfeit banknotes by electrospray laser desorption ionization/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yi-Ying; Cheng, Sy-Chyi; Cheng, Chu-Nian; Shiea, Jentaie

    2016-01-01

    Electrospray laser desorption ionization is an ambient ionization technique that generates neutrals via laser desorption and ionizes those neutrals in an electrospray plume and was utilized to characterize inks in different layers of copy paper and banknotes of various currencies. Depth profiling of inks was performed on overlapping color bands on copy paper by repeatedly scanning the line with a pulsed laser beam operated at a fixed energy. The molecules in the ink on a banknote were desorbed by irradiating the banknote surface with a laser beam operated at different energies, with results indicating that different ions were detected at different depths. The analysis of authentic $US100, $100 RMB and $1000 NTD banknotes indicated that ions detected in 'color-shifting' and 'typography' regions were significantly different. Additionally, the abundances of some ions dramatically changed with the depth of the aforementioned regions. This approach was used to distinguish authentic $1000 NTD banknotes from counterfeits. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Calibration of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight peptide mass fingerprinting spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjernø, Karin; Højrup, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This chapter describes a number of aspects important for calibration of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight spectra prior to peptide mass fingerprinting searches. Both multipoint internal calibration and mass defect-based calibration is illustrated. The chapter describes ho...

  20. Identification of Fatty Acids, Phospholipids, and Their Oxidation Products Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry and Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Christopher W.; Mang, Stephen A.; Greaves, John; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) have found increasing application in the analysis of biological samples. Using these techniques to solve problems in analytical chemistry should be an essential component of the training of undergraduate chemists. We…

  1. Ionization in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization: singly charged molecular ions are the lucky survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karas, M; Glückmann, M; Schäfer, J

    2000-01-01

    A new model for the ionization processes in UV matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) which accounts for the major phenomena observed is presented and discussed. The model retains elements of earlier approaches, such as photoionization and photochemical reactions, but it redefines these in the light of new working questions, most importantly why only singly charged ions are detected. Based on experimental evidence, the formation of singly and multiply charged clusters by a deficiency/excess of ions and also by photoionization and subsequent photochemical processes is pointed out to be the major ionization processes, which typically occur in parallel. The generation of electrons and their partial loss into the surrounding vacuum and solid, on the one hand, results in a positively charged ion-neutral plume facilitating a high overall ionization yield. On the other hand, these electrons, and also the large excess of protonated matrix ions in the negative ion mode, induce effective ion reneutralization in the plume. These neutralization processes are most effective for the highly charged cluster ions initially formed. Their fragmentation behaviour is evidenced in fast metastable fragmentation characteristics and agrees well with an electron capture dissociation mechanism and the enthalpy transfer upon neutralization forms the rationale for the prominent fragmentation and intense chemical noise accompanying successful MALDI. Within the course of the paper, cross-correlations with other desorption/ionization techniques and with earlier discussions on their mechanisms are drawn. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Quantitation of peptides and proteins by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry using (18)O-labeled internal standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirgorodskaya, O A; Kozmin, Y P; Titov, M I

    2000-01-01

    A method for quantitating proteins and peptides in the low picomole and sub-picomole range has been developed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) with internal (18)O-labeled standards. A simple procedure is proposed to produce such internal standards for...... inhibitor, were quantified by MALDI-time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry.......A method for quantitating proteins and peptides in the low picomole and sub-picomole range has been developed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) with internal (18)O-labeled standards. A simple procedure is proposed to produce such internal standards...

  3. Approaches for the analysis of low molecular weight compounds with laser desorption/ionization techniques and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Nina; Shevchenko, Denys; Bergquist, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes various approaches for the analysis of low molecular weight (LMW) compounds by different laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry techniques (LDI-MS). It is common to use an agent to assist the ionization, and small molecules are normally difficult to analyze by, e.g., matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) using the common matrices available today, because the latter are generally small organic compounds themselves. This often results in severe suppression of analyte peaks, or interference of the matrix and analyte signals in the low mass region. However, intrinsic properties of several LDI techniques such as high sensitivity, low sample consumption, high tolerance towards salts and solid particles, and rapid analysis have stimulated scientists to develop methods to circumvent matrix-related issues in the analysis of LMW molecules. Recent developments within this field as well as historical considerations and future prospects are presented in this review.

  4. Study of ionization process of matrix molecules in matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Kazumasa; Sato, Asami; Hashimoto, Kenro; Fujino, Tatsuya, E-mail: fujino@tmu.ac.jp

    2013-06-20

    Highlights: ► Proton transfer and adduction reaction of matrix in MALDI were studied. ► Hydroxyl group forming intramolecular hydrogen bond was related to the ionization. ► Intramolecular proton transfer in the electronic excited state was the initial step. ► Non-volatile analytes stabilized protonated matrix in the ground state. ► A possible mechanism, “analyte support mechanism”, has been proposed. - Abstract: Proton transfer and adduction reaction of matrix molecules in matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization were studied. By using 2,4,6-trihydroxyacetophenone (THAP), 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA), and their related compounds in which the position of a hydroxyl group is different, it was clarified that a hydroxyl group forming an intramolecular hydrogen bond is related to the ionization of matrix molecules. Intramolecular proton transfer in the electronic excited state of the matrix and subsequent proton adduction from a surrounding solvent to the charge-separated matrix are the initial steps for the ionization of matrix molecules. Nanosecond pump–probe NIR–UV mass spectrometry confirmed that the existence of analyte molecules having large dipole moment in their structures is necessary for the stabilization of [matrix + H]{sup +} in the electronic ground state.

  5. Direct analysis of triterpenes from high-salt fermented cucumbers using infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption electrospray ionization (IR-MALDESI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-salt samples present a challenge to mass spectrometry (MS) analysis, particularly when electrospray ionization (ESI) is used, requiring extensive sample preparation steps such as desalting, extraction, and purification. In this study, infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption electrospray ioniz...

  6. Mesoporous tungsten titanate as matrix for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis of biomolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan Zhe; Han Lu; Yuan Minjia; Deng Chunhui; Zhao Dongyuan; Tu Bo; Yang Pengyuan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, mesoporous tungsten titanate (WTiO) with different nano-pore structures was utilized as matrix for the analysis of short peptides by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS). Effect of characteristic features of mesoporous matrices on laser desorption/ionization process was investigated. Experiments showed that the ordered two-dimensional and three-dimensional mesoporous matrices were superior in performance to the non-ordered WTiO matrix. The dramatic enhancement of signal sensitivity by the ordered mesoporous matrices can be reasonably attributed to the ordered structure, which facilitated the understanding on structure-function relationship in mesoporous cavity for laser desorption process of adsorbed biomolecules. With the ordered mesoporous matrix, the short peptides are successfully detected. The presence of trace alkali metal salt effectively increased the analyte ion yields and the MALDI-TOFMS using the inorganic mesoporous matrices displayed a high salt tolerance. The developed technique also showed a satisfactory performance in peptide-mapping and amino-acid sequencing analysis

  7. Iron oxide nanomatrix facilitating metal ionization in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obena, Rofeamor P; Lin, Po-Chiao; Lu, Ying-Wei; Li, I-Che; del Mundo, Florian; Arco, Susan dR; Nuesca, Guillermo M; Lin, Chung-Chen; Chen, Yu-Ju

    2011-12-15

    The significance and epidemiological effects of metals to life necessitate the development of direct, efficient, and rapid method of analysis. Taking advantage of its simple, fast, and high-throughput features, we present a novel approach to metal ion detection by matrix-functionalized magnetic nanoparticle (matrix@MNP)-assisted MALDI-MS. Utilizing 21 biologically and environmentally relevant metal ion solutions, the performance of core and matrix@MNP against conventional matrixes in MALDI-MS and laser desorption ionization (LDI) MS were systemically tested to evaluate the versatility of matrix@MNP as ionization element. The matrix@MNPs provided 20- to >100-fold enhancement on detection sensitivity of metal ions and unambiguous identification through characteristic isotope patterns and accurate mass (<5 ppm), which may be attributed to its multifunctional role as metal chelator, preconcentrator, absorber, and reservoir of energy. Together with the comparison on the ionization behaviors of various metals having different ionization potentials (IP), we formulated a metal ionization mechanism model, alluding to the role of exciton pooling in matrix@MNP-assisted MALDI-MS. Moreover, the detection of Cu in spiked tap water demonstrated the practicability of this new approach as an efficient and direct alternative tool for fast, sensitive, and accurate determination of trace metal ions in real samples.

  8. Phenotypic identification of Porphyromonas gingivalis validated with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rams, Thomas E; Sautter, Jacqueline D; Getreu, Adam; van Winkelhoff, Arie J

    OBJECTIVE: Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major bacterial pathogen in human periodontitis. This study used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry to assess the accuracy of a rapid phenotypic identification scheme for detection of cultivable P.

  9. [Special application of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry in clinical microbiological diagnostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Erzsébet; Abrók, Marianna; Bartha, Noémi; Bereczki, László; Juhász, Emese; Kardos, Gábor; Kristóf, Katalin; Miszti, Cecilia; Urbán, Edit

    2014-09-21

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry as a new possibility for rapid identification of bacteria and fungi revolutionized the clinical microbiological diagnostics. It has an extreme importance in the routine microbiological laboratories, as identification of the pathogenic species rapidly will influence antibiotic selection before the final determination of antibiotic resistance of the isolate. The classical methods for identification of bacteria or fungi, based on biochemical tests, are influenced by many environmental factors. The matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry is a rapid method which is able to identify a great variety of the isolated bacteria and fungi based on the composition of conserved ribosomal proteins. Recently several other applications of the method have also been investigated such as direct identification of pathogens from the positive blood cultures. There are possibilities to identify bacteria from the urine samples in urinary tract infection or from other sterile body fluids. Using selective enrichment broth Salmonella sp from the stool samples can be identified more rapidly, too. The extended spectrum beta-lactamase or carbapenemase production of the isolated bacteria can be also detected by this method helping the antibiotic selection in some cases. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry based methods are suitable to investigate changes in deoxyribonucleic acid or ribonucleic acid, to carry out rapid antibiotic resistance determination or other proteomic analysis. The aim of this paper is to give an overview about present possibilities of using this technique in the clinical microbiological routine procedures.

  10. Investigation of thin ZnO layers in view of laser desorption-ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grechnikov, A A; Borodkov, A S [Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, 19 Kosygin Str., 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Georgieva, V B [Georgi Nadjakov Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Alimpiev, S S; Nikiforov, S M; Simanovsky, Ya O [General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 38 Vavilov Str., 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Dimova-Malinovska, D; Angelov, O I, E-mail: lazarova@issp.bas.b [Laboratory for Solar Energy and New Energy Sources, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2010-04-01

    Thin zinc oxide films (ZnO) were developed as a matrix-free platform for surface assisted laser desorption-ionization (SALDI) time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The ZnO films were deposited by RF magnetron sputtering of ZnO ceramic targets in Ar atmospheres on monocrystalline silicon. The generation under UV (355 nm) laser irradiation of positive ions of atenolol, reserpine and gramicidin S from the ZnO layers deposited was studied. All analytes tested were detected as protonated molecules with no or very structure-specific fragmentation. The mass spectra obtained showed low levels of chemical background noise. All ZnO films studied exhibited high stability and good reproducibility. The detection limits for test analytes are in the 10 femtomol range.

  11. Detection of Bacteriocins by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Natisha L.; Sporns, Peter; McMullen, Lynn M.

    1999-01-01

    The use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the detection of bacteriocins was investigated. A 30-s water wash of the sample on the MALDI-TOF MS probe was effective in removing contaminants of the analyte. This method was used for rapid detection of nisin, pediocin, brochocin A and B, and enterocin A and B from culture supernatants and for detection of enterocin B throughout its purification.

  12. Development of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) for plant metabolite analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korte, Andrew R [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This thesis presents efforts to improve the methodology of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) as a method for analysis of metabolites from plant tissue samples. The first chapter consists of a general introduction to the technique of MALDI-MSI, and the sixth and final chapter provides a brief summary and an outlook on future work.

  13. Generation of CsI cluster ions for mass calibration in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lou, X.; Dongen, van J.L.J.; Meijer, E.W.

    2010-01-01

    A simple method was developed for the generation of cesium iodide (CsI) cluster ions up to m/z over 20,000 in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS). Calibration ions in both positive and negative ion modes can readily be generated from a single MALDI spot of CsI(3)

  14. Corona discharge secondary ionization of laser desorbed neutral molecules from a liquid matrix at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turney, Kevin [Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Harrison, W.W. [Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)]. E-mail: harrison@chem.ufl.edu

    2006-06-15

    Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is studied at atmospheric pressure using liquid sampling methods. A time-of-flight mass spectrometer couples to an open sample stage accessed by a UV laser for desorption and ionization. Also coupled to the sampling state is a corona discharge for auxiliary ionization of desorbed neutral molecules. The interaction of the laser desorption and corona ionization is studied for a range of desorption conditions, showing enhanced analyte ionization, but the effect is analytically advantageous only at low desorption rates. The effect of corona discharge voltage was also explored. The decoupling of neutral molecule formation and subsequent ionization provides an opportunity to study each process separately.

  15. Corona discharge secondary ionization of laser desorbed neutral molecules from a liquid matrix at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turney, Kevin; Harrison, W.W.

    2006-01-01

    Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is studied at atmospheric pressure using liquid sampling methods. A time-of-flight mass spectrometer couples to an open sample stage accessed by a UV laser for desorption and ionization. Also coupled to the sampling state is a corona discharge for auxiliary ionization of desorbed neutral molecules. The interaction of the laser desorption and corona ionization is studied for a range of desorption conditions, showing enhanced analyte ionization, but the effect is analytically advantageous only at low desorption rates. The effect of corona discharge voltage was also explored. The decoupling of neutral molecule formation and subsequent ionization provides an opportunity to study each process separately

  16. Benefits of 2.94 μm infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization for analysis of labile molecules by Fourier transform mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budnik, Bogdan A.; Jensen, Kenneth Bendix; Jørgensen, Thomas J. D.

    2000-01-01

    A 2.94 microm Er:YAG laser was used together with a commercial Fourier transform mass spectrometer to study labile biomolecules. The combination has shown superior performance over conventional 337 nm ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (UV-MALDI) Fourier transform mass...

  17. A new instrument of VUV laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging with micrometer spatial resolution and low level of molecular fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Liu, Feng; Mo, Yuxiang; Wang, Zhaoying; Zhang, Sichun; Zhang, Xinrong

    2017-11-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has important applications in material research, biology, and medicine. The MSI method based on UV laser desorption/ionization (UVLDI) can obtain images of intact samples, but has a high level of molecular fragmentation. In this work, we report a new MSI instrument that uses a VUV laser (125.3 nm) as a desorption/ionization source to exploit its advantages of high single photon energy and small focus size. The new instrument was tested by the mass spectra of Nile red and FGB (Fibrinogen beta chain) samples and mass spectrometric images of a fly brain section. For the tested samples, the VUVDI method offers lower levels of molecular fragmentations and higher sensitivities than those of the UVLDI method and second ion mass spectrometry imaging method using a Bi 3 + beam. The ablation crater produced by the focused VUV laser on a quartz plate has an area of 10 μm 2 . The VUV laser is prepared based on the four-wave mixing method using three collimated laser beams and a heated Hg cell.

  18. A new instrument of VUV laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging with micrometer spatial resolution and low level of molecular fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Liu, Feng; Mo, Yuxiang; Wang, Zhaoying; Zhang, Sichun; Zhang, Xinrong

    2017-11-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has important applications in material research, biology, and medicine. The MSI method based on UV laser desorption/ionization (UVLDI) can obtain images of intact samples, but has a high level of molecular fragmentation. In this work, we report a new MSI instrument that uses a VUV laser (125.3 nm) as a desorption/ionization source to exploit its advantages of high single photon energy and small focus size. The new instrument was tested by the mass spectra of Nile red and FGB (Fibrinogen beta chain) samples and mass spectrometric images of a fly brain section. For the tested samples, the VUVDI method offers lower levels of molecular fragmentations and higher sensitivities than those of the UVLDI method and second ion mass spectrometry imaging method using a Bi3+ beam. The ablation crater produced by the focused VUV laser on a quartz plate has an area of 10 μm2. The VUV laser is prepared based on the four-wave mixing method using three collimated laser beams and a heated Hg cell.

  19. Detection of Biosignatures by Geomatrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (GALDI) Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jill R. Scott; Beizhan Yan; Daphne L. Stoner; J. Michelle Kotler; Nancy W. Hinman

    2007-04-01

    Identification of mineral-associated biosignatures is of significance for retrieving biochemical information from geological records here on Earth and detecting signs of life on other planets, such as Mars. The importance of the geomatrix for identifying amino acids (e.g., histidine, threonine, and cysteine) and small proteins (e.g., gramicidin S) was investigated by laser desorption Fourier transform mass spectrometry. The investigated geomatrices include analogues of Fe-bearing minerals such as hematite and Na-bearing evaporites (e.g., halite). Samples were prepared by two methods: 1) application of analyte to the geomatrix surface and 2) production of homogenous analyte:geomatrix mixtures. Comparison of the two sample preparation methods revealed that the mixing method produces a better signal/noise ratio than surface application for the analyses of amino acids. The composition of the geomatrix has a profound influence on the detection of biomolecules. Peaks corresponding to the cation-attached biomolecular ions were observed for the Na-bearing evaporite analogue. No detectable peaks for the biomolecular ion species were observed when the biomolecules were associated with Fe-bearing minerals. Instead, only minor peaks were observed that may correspond to ions from fragments of the biomolecules. Depending on the underlying mineral composition, geomatrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization shows promise for directly identifying biosignatures associated with minerals.

  20. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry: protocol standardization and database expansion for rapid identification of clinically important molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Saikat; Singh, Pankaj; Rudramurthy, Shivaprakash M; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Ghosh, Anup K

    2017-12-01

    To standardize the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry protocols and expansion of existing Bruker Biotyper database for mold identification. Four different sample preparation methods (protocol A, B, C and D) were evaluated. On analyzing each protein extraction method, reliable identification and best log scores were achieved through protocol D. The same protocol was used to identify 153 clinical isolates. Of these 153, 123 (80.3%) were accurately identified by using existing database and remaining 30 (19.7%) were not identified due to unavailability in database. On inclusion of missing main spectrum profile in existing database, all 153 isolates were identified. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry can be used for routine identification of clinically important molds.

  1. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging for Peptide and Protein Analyses: A Critical Review of On-Tissue Digestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cillero-Pastor, B.; Heeren, R.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) has established itself among the plethora of mass spectrometry applications. In the biomedical field, MALDI-MSI is being more frequently recognized as a new method for the discovery of biomarkers and targets of

  2. Is energy pooling necessary in ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hou-Yu; Song, Botao; Lu, I-Chung; Hsu, Kuo-Tung; Liao, Chih-Yu; Lee, Yin-Yu; Tseng, Chien-Ming; Lee, Yuan-Tseh; Ni, Chi-Kung

    2014-01-15

    Energy pooling has been suggested as the key process for generating the primary ions during ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (UV-MALDI). In previous studies, decreases in fluorescence quantum yields as laser fluence increased for 2-aminobenzoic acid, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHB), and 3-hydroxypicolinic acid were used as evidence of energy pooling. This work extends the research to other matrices and addresses whether energy pooling is a universal property in UV-MALDI. Energy pooling was investigated in a time-resolved fluorescence experiment by using a short laser pulse (355 nm, 20 ps pulse width) for excitation and a streak camera (1 ps time resolution) for fluorescence detection. The excited-state lifetime of 2,5-DHB decreased with increases in laser fluence. This suggests that a reaction occurs between two excited molecules, and that energy pooling may be one of the possible reactions. However, the excited-state lifetime of 2,4,6-trihydroxyacetophenone (THAP) did not change with increases in laser fluence. The upper limit of the energy pooling rate constant for THAP is estimated to be approximately 100-500 times smaller than that of 2,5-DHB. The small energy pooling rate constant for THAP indicates that the potential contribution of the energy pooling mechanism to the generation of THAP matrix primary ions should be reconsidered. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. A novel magnet focusing plate for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization analysis of magnetic bead-bound analytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gode, David; Volmer, Dietrich A

    2013-05-15

    Magnetic beads are often used for serum profiling of peptide and protein biomarkers. In these assays, the bead-bound analytes are eluted from the beads prior to mass spectrometric analysis. This study describes a novel matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) technique for direct application and focusing of magnetic beads to MALDI plates by means of dedicated micro-magnets as sample spots. Custom-made MALDI plates with magnetic focusing spots were made using small nickel-coated neodymium micro-magnets integrated into a stainless steel plate in a 16 × 24 (384) pattern. For demonstrating the proof-of-concept, commercial C-18 magnetic beads were used for the extraction of a test compound (reserpine) from aqueous solution. Experiments were conducted to study focusing abilities, the required laser energies, the influence of a matrix compound, dispensing techniques, solvent choice and the amount of magnetic beads. Dispensing the magnetic beads onto the micro-magnet sample spots resulted in immediate and strong binding to the magnetic surface. Light microscope images illustrated the homogeneous distribution of beads across the surfaces of the magnets, when the entire sample volume containing the beads was pipetted onto the surface. Subsequent MALDI analysis of the bead-bound analyte demonstrated excellent and reproducible ionization yields. The surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization (SALDI) properties of the strongly light-absorbing γ-Fe2O3-based beads resulted in similar ionization efficiencies to those obtained from experiments with an additional MALDI matrix compound. This feasibility study successfully demonstrated the magnetic focusing abilities for magnetic bead-bound analytes on a novel MALDI plate containing small micro-magnets as sample spots. One of the key advantages of this integrated approach is that no elution steps from magnetic beads were required during analyses compared with conventional bead experiments. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley

  4. Investigations into ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heise, Theodore W. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1993-07-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption (MALD) is a technique for converting large biomolecules into gas phase ions. Some characteristics of the commonly used uv matrices are determined. Solubilities in methanol range from 0.1 to 0.5 M. Solid phase absorption spectra are found to be similar to solution, but slightly red-shifted. Acoustic and quartz crystal microbalance signals are investigated as possible means of uv-MALD quantitation. Evidence for the existence of desorption thresholds is presented. Threshold values are determined to be in the range of 2 to 3 MW/cm2. A transient imaging technique based on laser-excited fluorescence for monitoring MALD plumes is described. Sensitivity is well within the levels required for studying matrix-assisted laser desorption, where analyte concentrations are significantly lower than those in conventional laser desorption. Results showing the effect of film morphology, particularly film thickness, on plume dynamics are presented. In particular, MALD plumes from thicker films tend to exhibit higher axial velocities. Fluorescent labeling of protein and of DNA is used to allow imaging of their uv-MALD generated plumes. Integrated concentrations are available with respect to time, making it possible to assess the rate of fragmentation. The spatial and temporal distributions are important for the design of secondary ionization schemes to enhance ion yields and for the optimization of ion collection in time-of-flight MS instruments to maximize resolution. Such information could also provide insight into whether ionization is closely associated with the desorption step or whether it is a result of subsequent collisions with the matrix gas (e.g., proton transfer). Although the present study involves plumes in a normal atmosphere, adaptation to measurements in vacuum (e.g., inside a mass spectrometer) should be straightforward.

  5. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry of Compounds Containing Carboxyl Groups Using CdTe and CuO Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Megumi Sakurai; Taro Sato; Jiawei Xu; Soichi Sato; Tatsuya Fujino

    2018-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry of compounds containing carboxyl groups was carried out by using semiconductor nanoparticles (CdTe and CuO) as the matrix. Salicylic acid (Sal), glucuronic acid (Glu), ibuprofen (Ibu), and tyrosine (Tyr) were ionized as deprotonated species (carboxylate anions) by using electrons ejected from CdTe after the photoexcitation. When CuO was used as the matrix, the peak intensity of Tyr became high compared with that obtained with CdTe....

  6. Nanoparticle-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry: Novel sample preparation methods and nanoparticle screening for plant metabolite imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagnik, Gargey B. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2016-02-19

    The main goal of the presented research is development of nanoparticle based matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). This dissertation includes the application of previously developed data acquisition methods, development of novel sample preparation methods, application and comparison of novel nanoparticle matrices, and comparison of two nanoparticle matrix application methods for MALDI-MS and MALDI-MS imaging.

  7. Laser desorption mass spectrometry for biomolecule detection and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston Chen, C. H.; Sammartano, L. J.; Isola, N. R.; Allman, S. L.

    2001-08-01

    During the past few years, we developed and used laser desorption mass spectrometry for biomolecule detections. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) was successfully used to detect DNA fragments with the size larger than 3000 base pairs. It was also successfully used to sequence DNA with both enzymatic and chemical degradation methods to produce DNA ladders. We also developed MALDI with fragmentation for direct DNA sequencing for short DNA probes. Since laser desorption mass spectrometry for DNA detection has the advantages of fast speed and no need of labeling, it has a great potential for molecular diagnosis for disease and person identification by DNA fingerprinting. We applied laser desorption mass spectrometry to succeed in the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis and several other nerve degenerative diseases such as Huntington's disease. We also succeeded in demonstrating DNA typing for forensic applications.

  8. Laser desorption mass spectrometry for biomolecule detection and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winston Chen, C.H.; Allman, S.L.; Sammartano, L.J.; Isola, N.R.

    2001-01-01

    During the past few years, we developed and used laser desorption mass spectrometry for biomolecule detections. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) was successfully used to detect DNA fragments with the size larger than 3000 base pairs. It was also successfully used to sequence DNA with both enzymatic and chemical degradation methods to produce DNA ladders. We also developed MALDI with fragmentation for direct DNA sequencing for short DNA probes. Since laser desorption mass spectrometry for DNA detection has the advantages of fast speed and no need of labeling, it has a great potential for molecular diagnosis for disease and person identification by DNA fingerprinting. We applied laser desorption mass spectrometry to succeed in the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis and several other nerve degenerative diseases such as Huntington's disease. We also succeeded in demonstrating DNA typing for forensic applications

  9. Measurement of laser activated electron tunneling from semiconductor zinc oxide to adsorbed organic molecules by a matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Hongying; Fu Jieying; Wang Xiaoli; Zheng Shi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Irradiation of photons with energies more than the band gap generates electron–hole pairs. ► Electron tunneling probability is dependent on the electron mobility. ► Tunneling electrons are captured by charge deficient atoms. ► Unpaired electrons induce cleavages of chemical bonds. - Abstract: Measurement of light induced heterogeneous electron transfer is important for understanding of fundamental processes involved in chemistry, physics and biology, which is still challenging by current techniques. Laser activated electron tunneling (LAET) from semiconductor metal oxides was observed and characterized by a MALDI (matrix assisted laser desorption ionization) mass spectrometer in this work. Nanoparticles of ZnO were placed on a MALDI sample plate. Free fatty acids and derivatives were used as models of organic compounds and directly deposited on the surface of ZnO nanoparticles. Irradiation of UV laser (λ = 355 nm) with energy more than the band gap of ZnO produces ions that can be detected in negative mode. When TiO 2 nanoparticles with similar band gap but much lower electron mobility were used, these ions were not observed unless the voltage on the sample plate was increased. The experimental results indicate that laser induced electron tunneling is dependent on the electron mobility and the strength of the electric field. Capture of low energy electrons by charge-deficient atoms of adsorbed organic molecules causes unpaired electron-directed cleavages of chemical bonds in a nonergodic pathway. In positive detection mode, electron tunneling cannot be observed due to the reverse moving direction of electrons. It should be able to expect that laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry is a new technique capable of probing the dynamics of electron tunneling. LAET offers advantages as a new ionization dissociation method for mass spectrometry.

  10. Tissue imaging with a stigmatic mass microscope using laser desorption/ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awazu, Kunio; Hazama, Hisanao; Hamanaka, Tomonori; Aoki, Jun; Toyoda, Michisato; Naito, Yasuhide

    2012-03-01

    A novel stigmatic mass microscope using laser desorption/ionization and a multi-turn time-of-flight mass spectrometer, MULTUM-IMG, has been developed. Stigmatic ion images of crystal violet masked by a fine square mesh grid with a 12.7 μm pitch were clearly observed, and the estimated spatial resolution was about 3 μm in the linear mode with a 20-fold ion optical magnification. Tissue sections of a brain and eyes of a mouse stained with crystal violet and methylene blue were observed in the linear mode, and the stigmatic total ion images of crystal violet and methylene blue agreed well with the optical photomicrograph of the same sections. Especially, the fine structure in the cornea tissue was clearly observed with a spatial resolution in the range of micrometers. Although the total measurement time of the stigmatic ion image for the whole-eye section was about 59 minutes using a laser with a 10 Hz repetition rate, the measurement time could be reduced to about 35 s using a laser with a 1 kHz repetition rate and automation of measurements. The stigmatic mass microscope developed in this research should be suitable for high-spatial resolution and high-throughput imaging mass spectrometry for pathology, pharmacokinetics, and so on.

  11. Ghost peaks observed after atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization experiments may disclose new ionization mechanism of matrix-assisted hypersonic velocity impact ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskovets, Eugene

    2015-08-30

    Understanding the mechanisms of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) promises improvements in the sensitivity and specificity of many established applications in the field of mass spectrometry. This paper reports a serendipitous observation of a significant ion yield in a post-ionization experiment conducted after the sample had been removed from a standard atmospheric pressure (AP)-MALDI source. This post-ionization is interpreted in terms of collisions of microparticles moving with a hypersonic velocity into a solid surface. Calculations show that the thermal energy released during such collisions is close to that absorbed by the top matrix layer in traditional MALDI. The microparticles, containing both the matrix and analytes, could be detached from a film produced inside the inlet capillary during the sample ablation and accelerated by the flow rushing through the capillary. These observations contribute some new perspective to ion formation in both laser and laser-less matrix-assisted ionization. An AP-MALDI ion source hyphenated with a three-stage high-pressure ion funnel system was utilized for peptide mass analysis. After the laser had been turned off and the MALDI sample removed, ions were detected during a gradual reduction of the background pressure in the first funnel. The constant-rate pressure reduction led to the reproducible appearance of different singly and doubly charged peptide peaks in mass spectra taken a few seconds after the end of the MALDI analysis of a dried-droplet spot. The ion yield as well as the mass range of ions observed with a significant delay after a completion of the primary MALDI analysis depended primarily on the background pressure inside the first funnel. The production of ions in this post-ionization step was exclusively observed during the pressure drop. A lower matrix background and significant increase in relative yield of double-protonated ions are reported. The observations were partially consistent

  12. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry: a new possibility for the identification and typing of anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria predominate in the normal flora of humans and are important, often life-threatening pathogens in mixed infections originating from the indigenous microbiota. The isolation and identification of anaerobes by phenotypic and DNA-based molecular methods at a species level is time-consuming and laborious. Following the successful adaptation of the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the routine laboratory identification of bacteria, the extensive development of a database has been initiated to use this method for the identification of anaerobic bacteria. Not only frequently isolated anaerobic species, but also newly recognized and taxonomically rearranged genera and species can be identified using direct smear samples or whole-cell protein extraction, and even phylogenetically closely related species can be identified correctly by means of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Typing of anaerobic bacteria on a subspecies level, determination of antibiotic resistance and direct identification of blood culture isolates will revolutionize anaerobe bacteriology in the near future.

  13. A Simple Sonication Improves Protein Signal in Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-En; Su, Pin-Rui; Wu, Hsin-Yi; Hsu, Cheng-Chih

    2018-02-01

    Proper matrix application is crucial in obtaining high quality matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). Solvent-free sublimation was essentially introduced as an approach of homogeneous coating that gives small crystal size of the organic matrix. However, sublimation has lower extraction efficiency of analytes. Here, we present that a simple sonication step after the hydration in standard sublimation protocol significantly enhances the sensitivity of MALDI MSI. This modified procedure uses a common laboratory ultrasonicator to immobilize the analytes from tissue sections without noticeable delocalization. Improved imaging quality with additional peaks above 10 kDa in the spectra was thus obtained upon sonication treatment. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. Matrix-assisted laser desorption fourier transform mass spectrometry for biological compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hettich, R.; Buchanan, M.

    1990-01-01

    The recent development of matrix-assisted UV laser desorption (LD) mass spectrometry has made possible the ionization and detection of extremely large molecules (with molecular weights exceeding 100,000 Daltons). This technique has generated enormous interest in the biological community for the direct examination of large peptides and oligonucleotides. Although this matrix-assisted ionization method has been developed and used almost exclusively with time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometers, research is currently in progress to demonstrate this technique with trapped ion mass spectrometers, such as Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTMS). The potential capabilities of FTMS for wide mass range, high resolution measurement, and ion trapping experiments suggest that this instrumental technique should be useful for the detailed structural characterization of large ions generated by the matrix-assisted technique. We have recently demonstrated that matrix-assisted ultraviolet laser desorption can be successfully used with FTMS for the ionization of small peptides. The objective of this report is to summarize the application and current limitations of matrix-assisted laser desorption FTMS for the characterization of peptides and oligonucleotides at the isomeric level. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. The Characterization of Laser Ablation Patterns and a New Definition of Resolution in Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-IMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Matthew B; Raymond, Benjamin B A; Padula, Matthew P

    2017-05-01

    Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) is a technique that has seen a sharp rise in both use and development. Despite this rapid adoption, there have been few thorough investigations into the actual physical mechanisms that underlie the acquisition of IMS images. We therefore set out to characterize the effect of IMS laser ablation patterns on the surface of a sample. We also concluded that the governing factors that control spatial resolution have not been correctly defined and therefore propose a new definition of resolution. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  16. Molecular dynamics simulations of matrix assisted laser desorption ionization: Matrix-analyte interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nangia, Shivangi; Garrison, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    There is synergy between matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) experiments and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. To understand analyte ejection from the matrix, MD simulations have been employed. Prior calculations show that the ejected analyte molecules remain solvated by the matrix molecules in the ablated plume. In contrast, the experimental data show free analyte ions. The main idea of this work is that analyte molecule ejection may depend on the microscopic details of analyte interaction with the matrix. Intermolecular matrix-analyte interactions have been studied by focusing on 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB; matrix) and amino acids (AA; analyte) using Chemistry at HARvard Molecular Mechanics (CHARMM) force field. A series of AA molecules have been studied to analyze the DHB-AA interaction. A relative scale of AA molecule affinity towards DHB has been developed.

  17. Detection of trace organics in Mars analog samples containing perchlorate by laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Danell, Ryan M; Brinckerhoff, William B; Pinnick, Veronica T; van Amerom, Friso; Arevalo, Ricardo D; Getty, Stephanie A; Mahaffy, Paul R; Steininger, Harald; Goesmann, Fred

    2015-02-01

    Evidence from recent Mars missions indicates the presence of perchlorate salts up to 1 wt % level in the near-surface materials. Mixed perchlorates and other oxychlorine species may complicate the detection of organic molecules in bulk martian samples when using pyrolysis techniques. To address this analytical challenge, we report here results of laboratory measurements with laser desorption mass spectrometry, including analyses performed on both commercial and Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) breadboard instruments. We demonstrate that the detection of nonvolatile organics in selected spiked mineral-matrix materials by laser desorption/ionization (LDI) mass spectrometry is not inhibited by the presence of up to 1 wt % perchlorate salt. The organics in the sample are not significantly degraded or combusted in the LDI process, and the parent molecular ion is retained in the mass spectrum. The LDI technique provides distinct potential benefits for the detection of organics in situ on the martian surface and has the potential to aid in the search for signs of life on Mars.

  18. Composite glycerol/graphite/aromatic acid matrices for thin-layer chromatography/matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of heterocyclic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esparza, Cesar; Borisov, R S; Varlamov, A V; Zaikin, V G

    2016-10-28

    New composite matrices have been suggested for the analysis of mixtures of different synthetic organic compounds (N-containing heterocycles and erectile dysfunction drugs) by thin layer chromatography/matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TLC/MALDI-TOF). Different mixtures of classical MALDI matrices and graphite particles dispersed in glycerol were used for the registration of MALDI mass spectra directly from TLC plates after analytes separation. In most of cases, the mass spectra possessed [M+H] + ions; however, for some analytes only [M+Na] + and [M+K] + ions were observed. These ions have been used to generate visualized TLC chromatograms. The described approach increases the desorption/ionization efficiencies of analytes separated by TLC, prevent spot blurring, simplifies and decrease time for sample preparation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Alkaloid profiling of the Chinese herbal medicine Fuzi by combination of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Heijden, R. van der; Spijksma, G.; Reijmers, T.; Wang, M.; Xu, G.; Hankemeier, T.; Greef, J. van der

    2009-01-01

    A matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) method was developed for the high throughput and robust qualitative profiling of alkaloids in Fuzi-the processed lateral roots of the Chinese herbal medicine Aconitum carmichaeli Debx (A. carmichaeli). After optimization,

  20. Laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for direct profiling and imaging of small molecules from raw biological materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Sangwon [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization(MALDI) mass spectrometry(MS) has been widely used for analysis of biological molecules, especially macromolecules such as proteins. However, MALDI MS has a problem in small molecule (less than 1 kDa) analysis because of the signal saturation by organic matrixes in the low mass region. In imaging MS (IMS), inhomogeneous surface formation due to the co-crystallization process by organic MALDI matrixes limits the spatial resolution of the mass spectral image. Therefore, to make laser desorption/ionization (LDI) MS more suitable for mass spectral profiling and imaging of small molecules directly from raw biological tissues, LDI MS protocols with various alternative assisting materials were developed and applied to many biological systems of interest. Colloidal graphite was used as a matrix for IMS of small molecules for the first time and methodologies for analyses of small metabolites in rat brain tissues, fruits, and plant tissues were developed. With rat brain tissues, the signal enhancement for cerebroside species by colloidal graphite was observed and images of cerebrosides were successfully generated by IMS. In addition, separation of isobaric lipid ions was performed by imaging tandem MS. Directly from Arabidopsis flowers, flavonoids were successfully profiled and heterogeneous distribution of flavonoids in petals was observed for the first time by graphite-assisted LDI(GALDI) IMS.

  1. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for the structural characterization of modified oligonucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, G.B.; Hettich, R.L.; Buchanan, M.V.; Stemmler, E.A.

    1993-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTMS) and MALDI time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) are being used to characterize conditions for the efficient desorption and ionization of normal and modified nucleic acid components. Basic and acidic matrix materials have been evaluated on the components. Basic and acidic matrix materials have been evaluated on the FTMS and TOFMS. Using MALDI-FTMS at 355 nm, less fragmentation has been observed using 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, while more extensive fragmentation is observed for basic matrices, such as 1,5-diaminonaphthalene and 9-aminophenanthrene. Elevation of the cell pressure by the addition of Ar or CO 2 provides collisional cooling of desorbed ions, resulting in an enhancement of [M--H] - and structurally significant high-mass fragment ions. Using MALDI-TOFMS at 337 nm, fragmentation is significantly reduced relative to that observed on the FTMS, perhaps as a consequence of the longer times required for FTMS detection. On the FTMS and TOFMS, cluster ions have been observed in the negative ion mode when metal ions are present in the 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid matrix. Metal ion additions and clusters with matrix salts have also been observed for dinucleotides. Applications of MALDI-FTMS and MALDI-TOF to the detection of hydroxylated PAH nucleoside adducts are presented

  2. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry for direct bacterial identification from positive blood culture pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prod'hom, Guy; Bizzini, Alain; Durussel, Christian; Bille, Jacques; Greub, Gilbert

    2010-04-01

    An ammonium chloride erythrocyte-lysing procedure was used to prepare a bacterial pellet from positive blood cultures for direct matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry analysis. Identification was obtained for 78.7% of the pellets tested. Moreover, 99% of the MALDI-TOF identifications were congruent at the species level when considering valid scores. This fast and accurate method is promising.

  3. Detection and quantification of neurotensin in human brain tissue by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gobom, J; Kraeuter, K O; Persson, R

    2000-01-01

    A method was developed for mass spectrometric detection of neurotensin (NT)-like immunoreactivity and quantification of NT in human brain tissue. The method is based on immunoprecipitation followed by analysis using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF......-MS). The identity of the major component of the immunoprecipitates as neurotensin was confirmed by fragment ion analysis on an electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight instrument. MALDI-TOF-MS quantification of NT was achieved using stable-isotope-labeled NT as the internal standard, yielding an error...

  4. IN-SITU PROBING OF RADIATION-INDUCED PROCESSING OF ORGANICS IN ASTROPHYSICAL ICE ANALOGS—NOVEL LASER DESORPTION LASER IONIZATION TIME-OF-FLIGHT MASS SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudipati, Murthy S.; Yang Rui

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of organic molecules in ice grains in the interstellar medium (ISM) under cosmic rays, stellar radiation, and local electrons and ions is critical to our understanding of the connection between ISM and solar systems. Our study is aimed at reaching this goal of looking directly into radiation-induced processing in these ice grains. We developed a two-color laser-desorption laser-ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopic method (2C-MALDI-TOF), similar to matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectroscopy. Results presented here with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) probe molecules embedded in water-ice at 5 K show for the first time that hydrogenation and oxygenation are the primary chemical reactions that occur in astrophysical ice analogs when subjected to Lyα radiation. We found that hydrogenation can occur over several unsaturated bonds and the product distribution corresponds to their stabilities. Multiple hydrogenation efficiency is found to be higher at higher temperatures (100 K) compared to 5 K—close to the interstellar ice temperatures. Hydroxylation is shown to have similar efficiencies at 5 K or 100 K, indicating that addition of O atoms or OH radicals to pre-ionized PAHs is a barrierless process. These studies—the first glimpses into interstellar ice chemistry through analog studies—show that once accreted onto ice grains PAHs lose their PAH spectroscopic signatures through radiation chemistry, which could be one of the reason for the lack of PAH detection in interstellar ice grains, particularly the outer regions of cold, dense clouds or the upper molecular layers of protoplanetary disks.

  5. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry for Direct Bacterial Identification from Positive Blood Culture Pellets ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Prod'hom, Guy; Bizzini, Alain; Durussel, Christian; Bille, Jacques; Greub, Gilbert

    2010-01-01

    An ammonium chloride erythrocyte-lysing procedure was used to prepare a bacterial pellet from positive blood cultures for direct matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry analysis. Identification was obtained for 78.7% of the pellets tested. Moreover, 99% of the MALDI-TOF identifications were congruent at the species level when considering valid scores. This fast and accurate method is promising.

  6. Differentiation of Clinically Relevant mucorales Rhizopus microsporus and R. arrhizus by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolatabadi, S.; Kolecka, A.; Versteeg, Matthijs; de Hoog, Sybren G; Boekhout, Teun

    This study addresses the usefulness of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for reliable identification of the two most frequently occuring clinical species of Rhizopus, namely R. arrhizus with its two varieties arrhizus and delemar and R.

  7. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry identification of large colony beta-hemolytic streptococci containing Lancefield groups A, C, and G

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salgård Jensen, Christian; Dam-Nielsen, Casper; Arpi, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate whether large colony beta-hemolytic streptococci containing Lancefield groups A, C, and G can be adequately identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF). Previous studies show varying...

  8. The Effect of Collimating Lens Focusing on Laser Beam Shape in Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Matthew B; Raymond, Benjamin B A; Djordjevic, Steven P; Padula, Matthew P

    2018-03-01

    Tissue imaging using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) is a well-established technique that, in recent years, has seen wider adoption and novel application. Applications such imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) and biotyping are beginning to gain greater exposure and use; however, with limitations in optimization methods, producing the best result often relies on the ability to customize the physical characteristics of the instrumentation, a task that is challenging for most mass spectrometry laboratories. With this in mind, we have described the effect of making simple adjustments to the laser optics at the final collimating lens area, to adjust the laser beam size and shape in order to allow greater customization of the instrument for improving techniques such as IMS. We have therefore been able to demonstrate that improvements can be made without requiring the help of an electrical engineer or external funding in a way that only costs a small amount of time. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  9. Quantum dots assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric detection of carbohydrates: qualitative and quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Aisha; Ju, Huangxian

    2016-04-01

    A quantum dots (QDs) assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric (QDA-LDI-MS) strategy was proposed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of a series of carbohydrates. The adsorption of carbohydrates on the modified surface of different QDs as the matrices depended mainly on the formation of hydrogen bonding, which led to higher MS intensity than those with conventional organic matrix. The effects of QDs concentration and sample preparation method were explored for improving the selective ionization process and the detection sensitivity. The proposed approach offered a new dimension to the application of QDs as matrices for MALDI-MS research of carbohydrates. It could be used for quantitative measurement of glucose concentration in human serum with good performance. The QDs served as a matrix showed the advantages of low background, higher sensitivity, convenient sample preparation and excellent stability under vacuum. The QDs assisted LDI-MS approach has promising application to the analysis of carbohydrates in complex biological samples. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Short communication: Identification of subclinical cow mastitis pathogens in milk by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiro, J R; Ferreira, C R; Sanvido, G B; Kostrzewa, M; Maier, T; Wegemann, B; Böttcher, V; Eberlin, M N; dos Santos, M V

    2010-12-01

    Subclinical mastitis is a common and easily disseminated disease in dairy herds. Its routine diagnosis via bacterial culture and biochemical identification is a difficult and time-consuming process. In this work, we show that matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) allows bacterial identification with high confidence and speed (1 d for bacterial growth and analysis). With the use of MALDI-TOF MS, 33 bacterial culture isolates from milk of different dairy cows from several farms were analyzed, and the results were compared with those obtained by classical biochemical methods. This proof-of-concept case demonstrates the reliability of MALDI-TOF MS bacterial identification, and its increased selectivity as illustrated by the additional identification of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species and mixed bacterial cultures. Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometry considerably accelerates the diagnosis of mastitis pathogens, especially in cases of subclinical mastitis. More immediate and efficient animal management strategies for mastitis and milk quality control in the dairy industry can therefore be applied. Copyright © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Independent assessment of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) sample preparation quality : Effect of sample preparation on MALDI-MS of synthetic polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, Pieter C.; Kok, Sander; Honing, Maarten

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) provides detailed and in-depth information about the molecular characteristics of synthetic polymers. To obtain the most accurate results the sample preparation parameters should be chosen to suit the sample and the

  12. Characterization of foot- and mouth disease virus antigen by surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry in aqueous and oil-emulsion formulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, M.M.; Jansen, J.; Westra, D.F.; Coco-Martin, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    We have used a novel method, surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS), to characterize foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) vaccine antigens. Using specific capture with FMDV binding recombinant antibody fragments and tryptic digestion of FMDV

  13. Combination of electrospray ionization, atmospheric pressure photoionization and laser desorption ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotronic resonance mass spectrometry for the investigation of complex mixtures – Application to the petroleomic analysis of bio-oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzog, Jasmine [LCP-A2MC, FR 2843 Institut Jean Barriol de Chimie et Physique Moléculaires et Biomoléculaires, FR 3624 Réseau National de Spectrométrie de Masse FT-ICR à très haut champ, Université de Lorraine, ICPM, 1 boulevard Arago, 57078 Metz Cedex 03 (France); Carré, Vincent, E-mail: vincent.carre@univ-lorraine.fr [LCP-A2MC, FR 2843 Institut Jean Barriol de Chimie et Physique Moléculaires et Biomoléculaires, FR 3624 Réseau National de Spectrométrie de Masse FT-ICR à très haut champ, Université de Lorraine, ICPM, 1 boulevard Arago, 57078 Metz Cedex 03 (France); Le Brech, Yann [LRGP, CNRS, Université de Lorraine, ENSIC, 1, Rue Grandville, 54000 Nancy (France); Mackay, Colin Logan [SIRCAMS, School of Chemistry, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3FJ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Dufour, Anthony [LRGP, CNRS, Université de Lorraine, ENSIC, 1, Rue Grandville, 54000 Nancy (France); Mašek, Ondřej [UK Biochar Research Center, School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, Kings Buildings, Edinburgh, EH9 3JN (United Kingdom); and others

    2017-05-29

    The comprehensive description of complex mixtures such as bio-oils is required to understand and improve the different processes involved during biological, environmental or industrial operation. In this context, we have to consider how different ionization sources can improve a non-targeted approach. Thus, the Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) has been coupled to electrospray ionization (ESI), laser desorption ionization (LDI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) to characterize an oak pyrolysis bio-oil. Close to 90% of the all 4500 compound formulae has been attributed to C{sub x}H{sub y}O{sub z} with similar oxygen class compound distribution. Nevertheless, their relative abundance in respect with their double bound equivalent (DBE) value has evidenced significant differences depending on the ion source used. ESI has allowed compounds with low DBE but more oxygen atoms to be ionized. APPI has demonstrated the efficient ionization of less polar compounds (high DBE values and less oxygen atoms). The LDI behavior of bio-oils has been considered intermediate in terms of DBE and oxygen amounts but it has also been demonstrated that a significant part of the features are specifically detected by this ionization method. Thus, the complementarity of three different ionization sources has been successfully demonstrated for the exhaustive characterization by petroleomic approach of a complex mixture. - Highlights: • Non-targeted mass spectrometry by combining electrospray ionization, atmospheric pressure photoionization and laser/desorption ionization. • Exhaustive description of pyrolytic bio-oil components. • Distinction of sugaric derivatives, lignin derivatives and lipids contained in a woody-based pyrolytic bio-oil.

  14. Influence of Culture Media on Detection of Carbapenem Hydrolysis by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Ana Carolina; Carvalhaes, Cecília Godoy; Cordeiro-Moura, Jhonatha Rodrigo; Rockstroh, Anna Carolina; Machado, Antonia Maria Oliveira; Gales, Ana Cristina

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated the influence of distinct bacterial growth media on detection of carbapenemase hydrolysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. False-negative results were observed for OXA-25-, OXA-26-, and OXA-72-producing Acinetobacter baumannii isolates grown on MacConkey agar medium. The other culture media showed 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity for detecting carbapenemase. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Emerging and Future Applications of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight (MALDI-TOF) Mass Spectrometry in the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory: A Report of the Association for Molecular Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doern, Christopher D; Butler-Wu, Susan M

    2016-11-01

    The performance of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS) for routine bacterial and yeast identification as well as direct-from-blood culture bottle identification has been thoroughly evaluated in the peer-reviewed literature. Microbiologists are now moving beyond these methods to apply MS to other areas of the diagnostic process. This review discusses the emergence of advanced matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight MS applications, including the identification of filamentous fungi and mycobacteria and the current and future state of antimicrobial resistance testing. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Laser desorption and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Fundamentals .Applications; Desorption laser et spectrometrie de masse par temps de vol. Aspects fondamentaux. Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaurand, P

    1994-11-01

    Time-of-flight mass spectrometry is a very powerful technique for the analysis of heavy molecular ions (100 000 u and more). The ejection in the gas phase and the ionization of these molecules is now possible through the MALDI technique (Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization). This technique consists in mixing the heavy molecules to be analysed with a organic matrix which absorbs at the wavelength of the laser. The necessary irradiance are of the order of 10{sup 6} W/cm{sup 2}. In these conditions we have shown that the mass resolutions are optimum and that the relative mass accuracies are of the order of 10{sup -4}. We have also demonstrated that the emission angle of the molecular ions in MALDI depends on the incident angle of the laser light. During the desorption process, the molecular ions are emitted in the opposite direction of the incident laser light. This effect is particularly important for the design of the accelerating stage of the time-of-flight spectrometers. Problems relative to the detection of these heavy molecular ions have been studied in details between 0.5 10{sup 4} m/s and 10{sup 5} m/s. The velocity threshold of the electronic emission is lower than the value of 0.5 10{sup 4} m/s. The relation between the electronic emission and the projectile velocity is complex. Finally, examples on mass identification of C{sub 60} molecules and derivated C{sub 60} are presented. Desorption methods are compared. (author). 32 refs., 34 figs.

  17. Direct Surface Analysis of Fungal Species by Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentine, Nancy B.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Wahl, Jon H.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Kingsley, Mark T.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Wahl, Karen L.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2001-12-01

    Intact spores and/or hyphae of Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus oryzae, Trichoderma reesei and Phanerochaete chrysosporium are analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). This study investigates various methods of sample preparation and matrices to determine optimum collection and analysis criteria for fungal analysis by MALDI-MS. Fungi are applied to the MALDI sample target as untreated, sonicated, acid/heat treated, or blotted directly from the fungal culture with double-stick tape. Ferulic acid or sinapinic acid matrix solution is layered over the dried samples and analyzed by MALDI-MS. Statistical analysis of the data show that simply using double stick tape to collect and transfer to a MALDI sample plate typically worked as well as the other preparation methods, but requires the least sample handling.

  18. Use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry for caspofungin susceptibility testing of Candida and Aspergillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carolis, Elena; Vella, Antonietta; Florio, Ada R; Posteraro, Patrizia; Perlin, David S; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Posteraro, Brunella

    2012-07-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was evaluated for testing susceptibility to caspofungin of wild-type and fks mutant isolates of Candida and Aspergillus. Complete essential agreement was observed with the CLSI reference method, with categorical agreement for 94.1% of the Candida isolates tested. Thus, MALDI-TOF MS is a reliable and accurate method to detect fungal isolates with reduced caspofungin susceptibility.

  19. MALDI-MS analysis and theoretical evaluation of olanzapine as a UV laser desorption ionization (LDI) matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musharraf, Syed Ghulam; Ameer, Mariam; Ali, Arslan

    2017-01-05

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) being soft ionization technique, has become a method of choice for high-throughput analysis of proteins and peptides. In this study, we have explored the potential of atypical anti-psychotic drug olanzapine (OLZ) as a matrix for MALDI-MS analysis of peptides aided with the theoretical studies. Seven small peptides were employed as target analytes to check performance of olanzapine and compared with conventional MALDI matrix α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (HCCA). All peptides were successfully detected when olanzapine was used as a matrix. Moreover, peptides angiotensin Ι and angiotensin ΙΙ were detected with better S/N ratio and resolution with this method as compared to their analysis by HCCA. Computational studies were performed to determine the thermochemical properties of olanzapine in order to further evaluate its similarity to MALDI matrices which were found in good agreement with the data of existing MALDI matrices. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Analysis of Phospholipid Mixtures from Biological Tissues by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption and Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS): A Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibisch, Mandy; Fuchs, Beate; Schiller, Jurgen; Sub, Rosmarie; Teuber, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is increasingly used to investigate the phospholipid (PL) compositions of tissues and body fluids, often without previous separation of the total mixture into the individual PL classes. Therefore, the questions of whether all PL classes are detectable…

  1. Rapid detection of undesired cosmetic ingredients by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Jie; An, Dongli; Chen, Tengteng; Lin, Zhiwei

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, cosmetic industry profits soared due to the widespread use of cosmetics, which resulted in illicit manufacturers and products of poor quality. Therefore, the rapid and accurate detection of the composition of cosmetics has become crucial. At present, numerous methods, such as gas chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, were available for the analysis of cosmetic ingredients. However, these methods present several limitations, such as failure to perform comprehensive and rapid analysis of the samples. Compared with other techniques, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry offered the advantages of wide detection range, fast speed and high accuracy. In this article, we briefly summarized how to select a suitable matrix and adjust the appropriate laser energy. We also discussed the rapid identification of undesired ingredients, focusing on antibiotics and hormones in cosmetics.

  2. Laser desorption and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Fundamentals .Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaurand, P.

    1994-11-01

    Time-of-flight mass spectrometry is a very powerful technique for the analysis of heavy molecular ions (100 000 u and more). The ejection in the gas phase and the ionization of these molecules is now possible through the MALDI technique (Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization). This technique consists in mixing the heavy molecules to be analysed with a organic matrix which absorbs at the wavelength of the laser. The necessary irradiance are of the order of 10 6 W/cm 2 . In these conditions we have shown that the mass resolutions are optimum and that the relative mass accuracies are of the order of 10 -4 . We have also demonstrated that the emission angle of the molecular ions in MALDI depends on the incident angle of the laser light. During the desorption process, the molecular ions are emitted in the opposite direction of the incident laser light. This effect is particularly important for the design of the accelerating stage of the time-of-flight spectrometers. Problems relative to the detection of these heavy molecular ions have been studied in details between 0.5 10 4 m/s and 10 5 m/s. The velocity threshold of the electronic emission is lower than the value of 0.5 10 4 m/s. The relation between the electronic emission and the projectile velocity is complex. Finally, examples on mass identification of C 60 molecules and derivated C 60 are presented. Desorption methods are compared. (author). 32 refs., 34 figs

  3. Preanalytical and analytical variation of surface-enhanced laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of human serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrethsen, Jakob; Bøgebo, Rikke; Olsen, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Surface-enhanced laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight (SELDI-TOF) mass spectrometry of human serum is a potential diagnostic tool in human diseases. In the present study, the preanalytical and analytical variation of SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry of serum was assessed in healthy...... was 18% (6%-34%, n=4) for 16 peaks, and inter-individual CV was 38% (16%-56%, n=16) for 20 peaks. CONCLUSIONS: The pre-analytical and analytical conditions of SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry of serum have a significant impact on the protein peaks, with the number of peaks low and the assay variation high...

  4. Semiconductor Nanomaterials-Based Fluorescence Spectroscopic and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI Mass Spectrometric Approaches to Proteome Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar Kailasa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs or nanoparticles (NPs exhibit very unusual physico-chemcial and optical properties. This review article introduces the applications of semiconductor nanomaterials (NMs in fluorescence spectroscopy and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS for biomolecule analysis. Due to their unique physico-chemical and optical properties, semiconductors NMs have created many new platforms for investigating biomolecular structures and information in modern biology. These semiconductor NMs served as effective fluorescent probes for sensing proteins and cells and acted as affinity or concentrating probes for enriching peptides, proteins and bacteria proteins prior to MALDI-MS analysis.

  5. Detecting Biosignatures Associated with Minerals by Geomatrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Fourier Transorm Mass Spectromety (GALDI-FTMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Doc Richardson; J. Michelle Kotler; Nancy W. Hinman; Timothy R. McJunkin; Jill R. Scott

    2008-07-01

    The ability to detect carbon signatures that can be linked to complex, possibly biogenic, organic molecules is imperative in research into the origin and distribution of life in our solar system particularly when used in conjunction with inorganic, mineralogical, and isotopic signatures that provide strong evidence for geochemical influences of living organisms on their environment. Ideally, the method used to detect these signatures must (i) accurately and automatically translate the organic and other information into usable forms, (ii) precisely distinguish such information from alternative compositions, (iii) operate with high spatial resolution coupled with precise location abilities, and (iv) require little to no sample preparation because of the potential for contamination. Geomatrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (GALDI) in conjunction with a Fourier transform mass spectrometer (FTMS) has been used to determine the presence of bio/organic molecules (BOM) associated with different minerals and mineraloids including oxide, sulfate, carbonate, chloride, and silicate minerals. BOM is defined as an organic structure that can be produced by living organisms or derived from another organic compound made by living organisms (i.e., degradation product). GALDI requires no sample preparation because the mineral matrix assists desorption. Ultimately, however, the detectability of BOM is controlled by the desorption efficiency, ionization efficiency, and the specific experimental conditions. Results from experiments with combinations of known BOM and mineral standards indicated that the detectability of BOM increased with decreasing concentration, contrary to most analytical procedures. Results suggest that BOM when combined with certain minerals is more easily detected than when combined with other minerals. Such conclusions can guide selection of appropriate samples for sample return missions.

  6. Direct analysis of samples by mass spectrometry: From elements to bio-molecules using laser ablation inductively couple plasma mass spectrometry and laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdian, David C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Mass spectrometric methods that are able to analyze solid samples or biological materials with little or no sample preparation are invaluable to science as well as society. Fundamental research that has discovered experimental and instrumental parameters that inhibit fractionation effects that occur during the quantification of elemental species in solid samples by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is described. Research that determines the effectiveness of novel laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric methods for the molecular analysis of biological tissues at atmospheric pressure and at high spatial resolution is also described. A spatial resolution is achieved that is able to analyze samples at the single cell level.

  7. Mass spectrometry imaging of illicit drugs in latent fingerprints by matrix-free and matrix-assisted desorption/ionization techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skriba, Anton; Havlicek, Vladimir

    2018-02-01

    Compared with classical matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI), the matrix free-based strategies generate a cleaner background, without significant noise or interference coming from an applied matrix, which is beneficial for the analysis of small molecules, such as drugs of abuse. In this work, we probed the detection efficiency of methamphetamine, heroin and cocaine in nanostructure-assisted laser desorption-ionization (NALDI) and desorption electrospray ionization and compared the sensitivity of these two matrix-free tools with a standard MALDI mass spectrometry experiment. In a typical mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) setup, papillary line latent fingerprints were recorded as a mixture a common skin fatty acid or interfering cosmetics with a drug. In a separate experiment, all drugs (1 µL of 1 μM standard solution) were detected by all three ionization techniques on a target. In the case of cocaine and heroin, NALDI mass spectrometry was the most sensitive and revealed signals even from 0.1 μM solution. The drug/drug contaminant (fatty acid or cosmetics) MSI approach could be used by law enforcement personnel to confirm drug abusers of having come into contact with the suspected drug by use of fingerprint scans at time of apprehension which can aid in reducing the work of lab officials.

  8. Matrix Assisted and/or Laser Desorption Ionization Quadrupole Ion Trap Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry of WO3 Clusters Formation in Gas Phase. Nanodiamonds, Fullerene, and Graphene Oxide Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausekar, Mayuri Vilas; Mawale, Ravi Madhukar; Pazdera, Pavel; Havel, Josef

    2018-03-01

    The formation of W x O y +●/-● clusters in the gas phase was studied by laser desorption ionization (LDI) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) of solid WO3. LDI produced (WO3) n + ●/- ● ( n = 1-7) clusters. In MALDI, when using nano-diamonds (NDs), graphene oxide (GO), or fullerene (C60) matrices, higher mass clusters were generated. In addition to (WO3) n -● clusters, oxygen-rich or -deficient species were found in both LDI and MALDI (with the total number of clusters exceeding one hundred ≈ 137). This is the first time that such matrices have been used for the generation of(WO3) n + ●/-● clusters in the gas phase, while new high mass clusters (WO3) n -● ( n = 12-19) were also detected. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. Exploring Biosignatures Associated with Thenardite by Geomatrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (GALDI-FTICR-MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Doc Richardson; Nancy W. Hinman; Timothy R. McJunkin; J. Michelle Kotler; Jill R. Scott

    2008-10-01

    Geomatrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (GALDI) in conjunction with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FTICR-MS) has been employed to determine how effectively bio/organic molecules associated with the mineral thenardite (Na2SO4) can be detected. GALDI is based on the ability of the mineral host to assist desorption and ionization of bio/organic molecules without additional sample preparation. When glycine was mixed with thenardite, glycine was deprotonated to produce C2H4NO-2 at m/z 74.025. The combination of stearic acid with thenardite produced a complex cluster ion at m/z 390.258 in the negative mode, which was assigned a composition ofC18H39O7Na-. Anatural sample of thenardite from Searles Lake in California also produced a peak at m/z 390.260. The bio/organic signatures in both the laboratory-based and natural samples were heterogeneously dispersed as revealed by chemical imaging. The detection limits for the stearic acid and thenardite combination were estimated to be 3 parts per trillion or~7 zeptomoles (10-21) per laser spot. Attempts to improve the signal-to-noise ratio by co-adding FTICR-MS data predetermined to contain the biosignatures of interest revealed problems due to a lack of phase coherence between data sets.

  10. Molecular-weight distributions of coal and petroleum asphaltenes from laser desorption/ionization experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ana R. Hortal; Paola Hurtado; Bruno Martinez-Haya; Oliver C. Mullins [Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Seville (Spain). Departamento de Sistemas Fisicos, Quimicos y Naturales

    2007-09-15

    Molecular-weight distributions (MWDs) of asphaltenes extracted from coal and petroleum have been measured in laser desorption/ionization (LDI) mass spectrometric experiments. The dried-droplet and solvent-free sample preparation methods are compared. The coal asphaltenes have a relatively narrow MWD (full width 150 amu) with an average molecular weight of 340 amu. The petroleum asphaltenes display a broader MWD (full width 300 amu) and are heavier on average (680 amu). The LDI spectra also provide evidence for the formation of noncovalent clusters of the two types of asphaltenes during the desorption process. Petroleum and coal asphaltenes exhibit aggregation as do large model polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with five or more fused rings also included in the study. Smaller PAHs (pyrene) exhibit less aggregation, especially when alkane-chain substituents are incorporated to the molecular structure. This indicates that asphaltenes possess large PAHs and, according to the relatively small molecular weights observed, that there is a preponderance of asphaltene molecules with only a single fused ring system. The coal asphaltenes present a significantly smaller propensity toward aggregation than their crude oil counterparts. This finding, coupled with the fact that (1) alkanes inhibit aggregation in LDI and (2) petroleum asphaltenes possess much more alkane carbon, indicates that coal asphaltenes have smaller PAHs on average than petroleum asphaltenes. This is further corroborated by the stronger ultraviolet absorbance of the coal asphaltenes at wavelengths shorter than 400 nm. 32 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Focused Electrospray Deposition for Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Kyung Hwan; Seo, Jong Cheol; Yoon, Hye Joo; Shin, Seung Koo

    2010-01-01

    Focused electrospray (FES) deposition method is presented for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. FES ion optics consists of two cylindrical focusing electrodes capped with a truncated conical electrode through which an electrospray emitter passes along the cylindrical axis. A spray of charged droplets is focused onto a sample well on a MALDI target plate under atmospheric pressure. The shape and size distributions of matrix crystals are visualized by scanning electron microscope and the mass spectra are obtained by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Angiotensin II, bradykinin, and substance P are used as test samples, while α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid and dihydroxybenzoic acid are employed as matrices. FES of a sample/matrix mixture produces fine crystal grains on a 1.3 mm spot and reproducibly yields the mass spectra with little shot-to-shot and spot-to-spot variations. Although FES greatly stabilizes the signals, the space charge due to matrix ions limits the detection sensitivity of peptides. To avoid the space charge problem, we adopted a dual FES/FES mode, which separately deposits matrix and sample by FES in sequence. The dual FES/FES mode reaches the detection sensitivity of 0.88 amol, enabling ultrasensitive detection of peptides by homogeneously depositing matrix and sample under atmospheric pressure

  12. Brominated Tyrosine and Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Analysis by Laser Desorption VUV Postionization and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of Illinois at Chicago; Blaze, Melvin M. T.; Takahashi, Lynelle; Zhou, Jia; Ahmed, Musahid; Gasper, Gerald; Pleticha, F. Douglas; Hanley, Luke

    2011-03-14

    The small molecular analyte 3,5-dibromotyrosine (Br2Y) and chitosan-alginate polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEM) with and without adsorbed Br2Y were analyzed by laser desorption postionization mass spectrometry (LDPI-MS). LDPI-MS using 7.87 eV laser and tunable 8 ? 12.5 eV synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation found that desorption of clusters from Br2Y films allowed detection by≤8 eV single photon ionization. Thermal desorption and electronic structure calculations determined the ionization energy of Br2Y to be ~;;8.3?0.1 eV and further indicated that the lower ionization energies of clusters permitted their detection at≤8 eV photon energies. However, single photon ionization could only detect Br2Y adsorbed within PEMs when using either higher photon energies or matrix addition to the sample. All samples were also analyzed by 25 keV Bi3 + secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), with the negative ion spectra showing strong parent ion signal which complemented that observed by LDPI-MS. The negative ion SIMS depended strongly on the high electron affinity of this specific analyte and the analyte?s condensed phase environment.

  13. A novel type of matrix for surface-assisted laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometric detection of biomolecules using metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chien-Ping; Lirio, Stephen; Liu, Wan-Ling; Lin, Chia-Her; Huang, Hsi-Ya

    2015-08-12

    A 3D metal-organic framework (MOF) nanomaterial as matrix for surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was developed for the analysis of complex biomolecules. Unlike other nanoparticle matrices, this MOF nanomaterial does not need chemical modification prior to use. An exceptional signal reproducibility as well as very low background interferences in analyzing mono-/di-saccharides, peptides and complex starch digests demonstrate its high potential for biomolecule assays, especially for small molecules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Carbon nanotubes as adsorbent of solid-phase extraction and matrix for laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chensong; Xu, Songyun; Zou, Hanfa; Guo, Zhong; Zhang, Yu; Guo, Baochuan

    2005-02-01

    A method with carbon nanotubes functioning both as the adsorbent of solid-phase extraction (SPE) and the matrix for matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) to analyze small molecules in solution has been developed. In this method, 10 microL suspensions of carbon nanotubes in 50% (vol/vol) methanol were added to the sample solution to extract analytes onto surface of carbon nanotubes because of their dramatic hydrophobicity. Carbon nanotubes in solution are deposited onto the bottom of tube with centrifugation. After removing the supernatant fluid, carbon nanotubes are suspended again with dispersant and pipetted directly onto the sample target of the MALDI-MS to perform a mass spectrometric analysis. It was demonstrated by analysis of a variety of small molecules that the resolution of peaks and the efficiency of desorption/ionization on the carbon nanotubes are better than those on the activated carbon. It is found that with the addition of glycerol and sucrose to the dispersant, the intensity, the ratio of signal to noise (S/N), and the resolution of peaks for analytes by mass spectrometry increased greatly. Compared with the previously reported method by depositing sample solution onto thin layer of carbon nanotubes, it is observed that the detection limit for analytes can be enhanced about 10 to 100 times due to solid-phase extraction of analytes in solution by carbon nanotubes. An acceptable result of simultaneously quantitative analysis of three analytes in solution has been achieved. The application in determining drugs spiked into urine has also been realized.

  15. Desorption electro-spray ionization - orbitrap mass spectrometry of synthetic polymers and copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friia, Manel; Legros, Veronique; Tortajada, Jeanine; Buchmann, William

    2012-01-01

    Desorption Electro-Spray Ionization (DESI) - Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry (MS) was evaluated as a new tool for the characterization of various industrial synthetic polymers (poly(ethylene glycol), poly(propylene glycol), poly(methylmethacrylate), poly(dimethylsiloxane)) and copolymers, with masses ranging from 500 g.mol -1 up to more than 20000 g.mol -1 . Satisfying results in terms of signal stability and sensitivity were obtained from hydrophobic surfaces (HTC Prosolia) with a mixture water/methanol (10/90) as spray solvent in the presence of sodium salt. Taking into account the formation of multiplied charged species by DESI-MS, a strategy based on the use of a deconvolution software followed by the automatic assignment of the ions was described allowing the rapid determination of Mn, Mw and PDI values. DESI-Orbitrap MS results were compared to those obtained from matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization- time-of-flight MS and gel permeation chromatography. An application of DESI-Orbitrap MS for the detection and identification of polymers directly from cosmetics was described. (authors)

  16. Laser-induced desorption of organic molecules from front- and back-irradiated metal foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinovev, Alexander V.; Veryovkin, Igor V.; Pellin, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Laser-Induced Acoustic Desorption (LIAD) from thin metal foils is a promising technique for gentle and efficient volatilization of intact organic molecules from surfaces of solid substrates. Using the Single Photon Ionization (SPI) method combined with time-of-flight mass-spectrometry (TOF MS), desorbed flux in LIAD was examined and compared to that from direct laser desorption (LD). Molecules of various organic dyes were used in experiments. Translational velocities of the desorbed intact molecules did not depend on the desorbing laser intensity, which implies the presence of more sophisticated mechanism of energy transfer than the direct mechanical or thermal coupling between the laser pulse and the adsorbed molecules. The results of our experiments indicate that the LIAD phenomenon cannot be described in terms of a simple mechanical shake-off nor the direct laser desorption. Rather, they suggest that multi-step energy transfer processes are involved. Possible qualitative mechanism of LIAD that are based on formation of non-equilibrium energy states in the adsorbate-substrate system are proposed and discussed.

  17. Structural characterization of phospholipids by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marto, J A; White, F M; Seldomridge, S; Marshall, A G

    1995-11-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry provides for structural analysis of the principal biological phospholipids: glycerophosphatidylcholine, -ethanolamine, -serine, and -inositol. Both positive and negative molecular or quasimolecular ions are generated in high abundance. Isolated molecular ions may be collisionally activated in the source side of a dual trap mass analyzer, yielding fragments serving to identify the polar head group (positive ion mode) and fatty acid side chains (negative ion mode). Azimuthal quadrupolar excitation following collisionally activated dissociation refocuses productions close to the solenoid axis; subsequent transfer of product ions to the analyzer ion trap allows for high-resolution mass analysis. Cyro-cooling of the sample probe with liquid nitrogen greatly reduces matrix adduction encountered in the negative ion mode.

  18. Examination of Laser Microprobe Vacuum Ultraviolet Ionization Mass Spectrometry with Application to Mapping Mars Returned Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, A. S.; Berger, E. L.; Locke, D. R.; Lewis, E. K.; Moore, J. F.

    2018-04-01

    Laser microprobe of surfaces utilizing a two laser setup whereby the desorption laser threshold is lowered below ionization, and the resulting neutral plume is examined using 157nm Vacuum Ultraviolet laser light for mass spec surface mapping.

  19. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Gram-Positive, Catalase-Negative Cocci Not Belonging to the Streptococcus or Enterococcus Genus and Benefits of Database Extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jens Jørgen; Dargis, Rimtas; Hammer, Monja

    2012-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry with a Bruker Daltonics microflex LT system was applied to 90 well-characterized catalase-negative, Gram-positive cocci not belonging to the streptococci or enterococci. Biotyper version 2.0.43.1 software...

  20. MALDI (matrix assisted laser desorption ionization) Imaging Mass Spectrometry (IMS) of skin: Aspects of sample preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macedo, Cristiana Santos; Anderson, David M; Schey, Kevin L

    2017-11-01

    MALDI (matrix assisted laser desorption ionization) Imaging Mass Spectrometry (IMS) allows molecular analysis of biological materials making possible the identification and localization of molecules in tissues, and has been applied to address many questions on skin pathophysiology, as well as on studies about drug absorption and metabolism. Sample preparation for MALDI IMS is the most important part of the workflow, comprising specimen collection and preservation, tissue embedding, cryosectioning, washing, and matrix application. These steps must be carefully optimized for specific analytes of interest (lipids, proteins, drugs, etc.), representing a challenge for skin analysis. In this review, critical parameters for MALDI IMS sample preparation of skin samples will be described. In addition, specific applications of MALDI IMS of skin samples will be presented including wound healing, neoplasia, and infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Pigments and proteins in green bacterial chlorosomes studied by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, S; Sönksen, C P; Frigaard, N U

    2000-01-01

    We have used matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) for mass determination of pigments and proteins in chlorosomes, the light-harvesting organelles from the photosynthetic green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum. By applying a small volume (1...... microL) of a concentrated suspension of isolated chlorosomes directly to the target of the mass spectrometer we have been able to detect bacteriochlorophyll a and all the major homologs of bacteriochlorophyll c. The peak heights of the different bacteriochlorophyll c homologs in the MALDI spectra were...... proportional to peak areas obtained from HPLC analysis of the same sample. The same result was also obtained when whole cells of Chl. tepidum were applied to the target, indicating that MALDI-MS can provide a rapid method for obtaining a semiquantitative determination or finger-print of the bacteriochlorophyll...

  2. Analysis of Microbial Mixtures by Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, Karen L.; Wunschel, Sharon C.; Jarman, Kristin H.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Petersen, Catherine E.; Kingsley, Mark T.; Zartolas, Kimberly A.; Saenz, Adam J.

    2002-12-15

    Many different laboratories are currently developing mass-spectrometric techniques to analyze and identify microorganisms. However, minimal work has been done with mixtures of bacteria. To demonstrate that microbial mixtures could be analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS), mixed bacterial cultures were analyzed in a double-blind fashion. Nine different bacterial species currently in our MALDI-MS fingerprint library were used to generate 50 different simulated mixed bacterial cultures similar to that done for an initial blind study previously reported.(1) The samples were analyzed by MALDI-MS with automated data extraction and analysis algorithms developed in our laboratory. The components present in the sample were identified correctly to the species level in all but one of the samples. However, correctly eliminating closely related organisms was challenging for the current algorithms, especially in differentiating Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli, and Yersinia enterocolitica, which have some similarities in their MALDI-MS fingerprints. Efforts to improve the specificity of the algorithms are in progress.

  3. Newborn screening by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry based on parylene-matrix chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jo-Il; Noh, Joo-Yoon; Kim, Mira; Park, Jong-Min; Song, Hyun-Woo; Kang, Min-Jung; Pyun, Jae-Chul

    2017-08-01

    Newborn screening for diagnosis of phenylketonuria, homocystinuria, and maple syrup urine disease have been conducted by analyzing the concentration of target amino acids using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF MS) based on parylene-matrix chip. Parylene-matrix chip was applied to MALDI-ToF MS analysis reducing the matrix peaks significantly at low mass-to-charge ratio range (m/z  0.98) and the LODs were ranging from 9.0 to 22.9 μg/mL. Effect of proteins in serum was estimated by comparing MALDI-ToF mass spectra of amino acids-spiked serum before and after the methanol extraction. Interference of other amino acids on analysis of target analyte was determined to be insignificant. From these results, MALDI-ToF MS based on parylene-matrix chip could be applicable to medical diagnosis of neonatal metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry for the Investigation of Proteins and Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnum, Kristin E.; Frappier, Sara L.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2008-07-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is an excellent technology for molecular imaging because of its high data dimensionality. MS can monitor thousands of individual molecular data channels measured as mass-to-charge (m/z). We describe the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) MS for the image analysis of proteins, peptides, lipids, drugs, and metabolites in tissues. We discuss the basic instrumentation and sample preparation methods needed to produce high-resolution images and high image reproducibility. Matrix-addition protocols are briefly discussed along with normal operating procedures, and selected biological and medical applications of MALDI imaging MS are described. We give examples of both two- and three-dimensional imaging, including normal mouse embryo implantation, sperm maturation in mouse epididymis, protein distributions in brain sections, protein alterations as a result of drug administration, and protein changes in brain due to neurodegeneration and tumor formation. Advantages of this technology and future challenges for its improvement are discussed.

  5. A novel experimental system of high stability and lifetime for the laser-desorption of biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherkhani, Mehran; Riese, Mikko; BenYezzar, Mohammed; Müller-Dethlefs, Klaus

    2010-06-01

    A novel laser desorption system, with improved signal stability and extraordinary long lifetime, is presented for the study of jet-cooled biomolecules in the gas phase using vibrationally resolved photoionization spectroscopy. As a test substance tryptophane is used to characterize this desorption source. A usable lifetime of above 1 month (for a laser desorption repetition rate of 20 Hz) has been observed by optimizing the pellets (graphite/tryptophane, 3 mm diameter and 6 mm length) from which the substance is laser-desorbed. Additionally, the stability and signal-to-noise ratio has been improved by averaging the signal over the entire sample pellet by synchronizing the data acquisition with the rotation of the sample rod. The results demonstrate how a combination of the above helps to produce stable and conclusive spectra of tryptophane using one-color and two-color resonant two-photon ionization studies.

  6. Hippocampal lipid differences in Alzheimer's disease: a human brain study using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendis, Lakshini H S; Grey, Angus C; Faull, Richard L M; Curtis, Maurice A

    2016-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the leading cause of dementia, is pathologically characterized by β-amyloid plaques and tau tangles. However, there is also evidence of lipid dyshomeostasis-mediated AD pathology. Given the structural diversity of lipids, mass spectrometry is a useful tool for studying lipid changes in AD. Although there have been a few studies investigating lipid changes in the human hippocampus in particular, there are few reports on how lipids change in each hippocampal subfield (e.g., Cornu Ammonis [CA] 1-4, dentate gyrus [DG] etc.). Since each subfield has its own function, we postulated that there could be lipid changes that are unique to each. We used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-imaging mass spectrometry to investigate specific lipid changes in each subfield in AD. Data from the hippocampus region of six age- and gender-matched normal and AD pairs were analyzed with SCiLS lab 2015b software (SCiLS GmbH, Germany; RRID:SCR_014426), using an analysis workflow developed in-house. Hematoxylin, eosin, and luxol fast blue staining were used to precisely delineate each anatomical hippocampal subfield. Putative lipid identities, which were consistent with published data, were assigned using MS/MS. Both positively and negatively charged lipid ion species were abundantly detected in normal and AD tissue. While the distribution pattern of lipids did not change in AD, the abundance of some lipids changed, consistent with trends that have been previously reported. However, our results indicated that the majority of these lipid changes specifically occur in the CA1 region. Additionally, there were many lipid changes that were specific to the DG. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-imaging mass spectrometry and our analysis workflow provide a novel method to investigate specific lipid changes in hippocampal subfields. Future work will focus on elucidating the role that specific lipid differences in each subfield play in AD pathogenesis.

  7. Capillary isoelectric focusing of probiotic bacteria from cow's milk in tapered fused silica capillary with off-line matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry identification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horká, Marie; Karásek, Pavel; Šalplachta, Jiří; Růžička, F.; Vykydalová, Marie; Kubesová, Anna; Dráb, V.; Roth, Michal; Šlais, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 788, JUL (2013), s. 193-199 ISSN 0003-2670 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/0522; GA MV VG20102015023 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : capillary isoelectric focusing * matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry * lactic acid bacteria Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.517, year: 2013

  8. Natural products in Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) rhizome imaged at the cellular level by atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectrometry imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bin; Bhandari, Dhaka Ram; Janfelt, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The rhizome of Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) was analyzed by high-resolution mass spectrometry imaging and tandem mass spectrometry imaging. An atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging ion source was combined with an orbital trapping mass spectrometer in order to o...... and saponins in legume species, combing the spatially resolved chemical information with morphological details at the microscopic level. Furthermore, the technique offers a scheme capable of high-throughput profiling of metabolites in plant tissues....

  9. Evaluation of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry for identification of clinically important yeast species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Lindsay G; Drake, Steven K; Shea, Yvonne R; Zelazny, Adrian M; Murray, Patrick R

    2010-10-01

    We evaluated the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the rapid identification of yeast species. Using Bruker Daltonics MALDI BioTyper software, we created a spectral database library with m/z ratios of 2,000 to 20,000 Da for 109 type and reference strains of yeast (44 species in 8 genera). The database was tested for accuracy by use of 194 clinical isolates (23 species in 6 genera). A total of 192 (99.0%) of the clinical isolates were identified accurately by MALDI-TOF MS. The MALDI-TOF MS-based method was found to be reproducible and accurate, with low consumable costs and minimal preparation time.

  10. Inkjet-printed gold nanoparticle surfaces for the detection of low molecular weight biomolecules by laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsico, Alyssa L M; Creran, Brian; Duncan, Bradley; Elci, S Gokhan; Jiang, Ying; Onasch, Timothy B; Wormhoudt, Joda; Rotello, Vincent M; Vachet, Richard W

    2015-11-01

    Effective detection of low molecular weight compounds in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) is often hindered by matrix interferences in the low m/z region of the mass spectrum. Here, we show that monolayer-protected gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) can serve as alternate matrices for the very sensitive detection of low molecular weight compounds such as amino acids. Amino acids can be detected at low fmol levels with minimal interferences by properly choosing the AuNP deposition method, density, size, and monolayer surface chemistry. By inkjet-printing AuNPs at various densities, we find that AuNP clusters are essential for obtaining the greatest sensitivity. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  11. Laser Desorption Postionization Mass Spectrometry of Antibiotic-Treated Bacterial Biofilms using Tunable Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasper, Gerald L; Takahashi, Lynelle K; Zhou, Jia; Ahmed, Musahid; Moore, Jerry F; Hanley, Luke

    2010-08-04

    Laser desorption postionization mass spectrometry (LDPI-MS) with 8.0 ? 12.5 eV vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation is used to single photon ionize antibiotics andextracellular neutrals that are laser desorbed both neat and from intact bacterial biofilms. Neat antibiotics are optimally detected using 10.5 eV LDPI-MS, but can be ionized using 8.0 eV radiation, in agreement with prior work using 7.87 eV LDPI-MS. Tunable vacuum ultraviolet radiation also postionizes laser desorbed neutrals of antibiotics and extracellular material from within intact bacterial biofilms. Different extracellular material is observed by LDPI-MS in response to rifampicin or trimethoprim antibiotic treatment. Once again, 10.5 eV LDPI-MS displays the optimum trade-off between improved sensitivity and minimum fragmentation. Higher energy photons at 12.5 eV produce significant parent ion signal, but fragment intensity and other low mass ions are also enhanced. No matrix is added to enhance desorption, which is performed at peak power densities insufficient to directly produce ions, thus allowing observation of true VUV postionization mass spectra of antibiotic treated biofilms.

  12. Novel, Improved Sample Preparation for Rapid, Direct Identification from Positive Blood Cultures Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight (MALDI-TOF) Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Schubert, Sören; Weinert, Kirsten; Wagner, Chris; Gunzl, Beatrix; Wieser, Andreas; Maier, Thomas; Kostrzewa, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is widely used for rapid and reliable identification of bacteria and yeast grown on agar plates. Moreover, MALDI-TOF MS also holds promise for bacterial identification from blood culture (BC) broths in hospital laboratories. The most important technical step for the identification of bacteria from positive BCs by MALDI-TOF MS is sample preparation to remove blood cells and host proteins. We present a m...

  13. Species identification of clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria: a comparison of two matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Ulrik Stenz; Holm, Anette; Knudsen, Elisa

    2011-01-01

    We compared two matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) systems (Shimadzu/SARAMIS and Bruker) on a collection of consecutive clinically important anaerobic bacteria (n = 290). The Bruker system had more correct identifications to the species level...... (67.2% versus 49.0%), but also more incorrect identifications (7.9% versus 1.4%). The system databases need to be optimized to increase identification levels. However, MALDI-TOF MS in its present version seems to be a fast and inexpensive method for identification of most clinically important...

  14. Capsule Typing of Haemophilus influenzae by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Månsson, Viktor; Gilsdorf, Janet R; Kahlmeter, Gunnar; Kilian, Mogens; Kroll, J Simon; Riesbeck, Kristian; Resman, Fredrik

    2018-03-01

    Encapsulated Haemophilus influenzae strains belong to type-specific genetic lineages. Reliable capsule typing requires PCR, but a more efficient method would be useful. We evaluated capsule typing by using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. Isolates of all capsule types (a-f and nontypeable; n = 258) and isogenic capsule transformants (types a-d) were investigated. Principal component and biomarker analyses of mass spectra showed clustering, and mass peaks correlated with capsule type-specific genetic lineages. We used 31 selected isolates to construct a capsule typing database. Validation with the remaining isolates (n = 227) showed 100% sensitivity and 92.2% specificity for encapsulated strains (a-f; n = 61). Blinded validation of a supplemented database (n = 50) using clinical isolates (n = 126) showed 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity for encapsulated strains (b, e, and f; n = 28). MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry is an accurate method for capsule typing of H. influenzae.

  15. Laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of triacylglycerols and other components in fingermark samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Beth; Gidden, Jennifer; Lay, Jackson O; Durham, Bill

    2011-03-01

    The chemical composition of fingermarks could potentially be important for determining investigative leads, placing individuals at the time of a crime, and has applications as biomarkers of disease. Fingermark samples containing triacylglycerols (TAGs) and other components were analyzed using laser desorption/ionization (LDI) time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF MS). Only LDI appeared to be useful for this application while conventional matrix-assisted LDI-TOF MS was not. Tandem MS was used to identify/confirm selected TAGs. A limited gender comparison, based on a simple t-distribution and peaks intensities, indicated that two TAGs showed gender specificity at the 95% confidence level and two others at 97.5% confidence. Because gender-related TAGs differences were most often close to the standard deviation of the measurements, the majority of the TAGs showed no gender specificity. Thus, LDI-TOF MS is not a reliable indicator of gender based on fingermark analysis. Cosmetic ingredients present in some samples were identified. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Hydrocarbon analysis using desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization

    KAUST Repository

    Jjunju, Fred Paul Mark; Badu-Tawiah, Abraham K.; Li, Anyin; Soparawalla, Santosh; Roqan, Iman S.; Cooks, Robert Graham

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of the various petroleum constituents (hydronaphthalenes, thiophenes, alkyl substituted benzenes, pyridines, fluorenes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) was achieved under ambient conditions without sample preparation by desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DAPCI). Conditions were chosen for the DAPCI experiments to control whether ionization was by proton or electron transfer. The protonated molecule [M+H]+ and the hydride abstracted [MH]+ form were observed when using an inert gas, typically nitrogen, to direct a lightly ionized plasma generated by corona discharge onto the sample surface in air. The abundant water cluster ions generated in this experiment react with condensed-phase functionalized hydrocarbon model compounds and their mixtures at or near the sample surface. On the other hand, when naphthalene was doped into the DAPCI gas stream, its radical cation served as a charge exchange reagent, yielding molecular radical cations (M+) of the hydrocarbons. This mode of sample ionization provided mass spectra with better signal/noise ratios and without unwanted side-products. It also extended the applicability of DAPCI to petroleum constituents which could not be analyzed through proton transfer (e.g., higher molecular PAHs such as chrysene). The thermochemistry governing the individual ionization processes is discussed and a desorption/ionization mechanism is inferred. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Hydrocarbon analysis using desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization

    KAUST Repository

    Jjunju, Fred Paul Mark

    2013-07-01

    Characterization of the various petroleum constituents (hydronaphthalenes, thiophenes, alkyl substituted benzenes, pyridines, fluorenes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) was achieved under ambient conditions without sample preparation by desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DAPCI). Conditions were chosen for the DAPCI experiments to control whether ionization was by proton or electron transfer. The protonated molecule [M+H]+ and the hydride abstracted [MH]+ form were observed when using an inert gas, typically nitrogen, to direct a lightly ionized plasma generated by corona discharge onto the sample surface in air. The abundant water cluster ions generated in this experiment react with condensed-phase functionalized hydrocarbon model compounds and their mixtures at or near the sample surface. On the other hand, when naphthalene was doped into the DAPCI gas stream, its radical cation served as a charge exchange reagent, yielding molecular radical cations (M+) of the hydrocarbons. This mode of sample ionization provided mass spectra with better signal/noise ratios and without unwanted side-products. It also extended the applicability of DAPCI to petroleum constituents which could not be analyzed through proton transfer (e.g., higher molecular PAHs such as chrysene). The thermochemistry governing the individual ionization processes is discussed and a desorption/ionization mechanism is inferred. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Metabolomic Analysis of Oxidative and Glycolytic Skeletal Muscles by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/IonizationMass Spectrometric Imaging (MALDI MSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yu-Hsuan; Garrett, Timothy J.; Carter, Christy S.; Yost, Richard A.

    2015-06-01

    Skeletal muscles are composed of heterogeneous muscle fibers that have different physiological, morphological, biochemical, and histological characteristics. In this work, skeletal muscles extensor digitorum longus, soleus, and whole gastrocnemius were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry to characterize small molecule metabolites of oxidative and glycolytic muscle fiber types as well as to visualize biomarker localization. Multivariate data analysis such as principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were performed to extract significant features. Different metabolic fingerprints were observed from oxidative and glycolytic fibers. Higher abundances of biomolecules such as antioxidant anserine as well as acylcarnitines were observed in the glycolytic fibers, whereas taurine and some nucleotides were found to be localized in the oxidative fibers.

  19. Classification of wheat varieties: Use of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis for varieties that can not be classified by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry and an artificial neural network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Susanne; Nesic, Ljiljana; Petersen, Marianne Kjerstine

    2001-01-01

    Analyzing a gliadin extract by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI- TOF-MS) combined with an artificial neural network (ANN) is a suitable method for identification of wheat varieties. However, the ANN can not distinguish between all different wheat...

  20. Correlation between phosphorylation ratios by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis and radioactivities by radioactive assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Akira; Asai, Daisuke; Kang, Jeong-Hun; Mori, Takeshi; Niidome, Takuro; Katayama, Yoshiki

    2012-02-15

    To investigate the correlation between the counts per minute (CPM) by radioactivity assay and the phosphorylation ratio by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis, we prepared 136 peptide substrates. The correlation coefficient of phosphorylation ratios to CPM was 0.77 for all samples. However, the more the numbers of positively charged amino acids increased, the more the correlation coefficient increased. Although positively charged amino acids can have an effect on the correlation results, MALDI-TOF MS analysis is a useful means for monitoring phosphorylated peptide and protein kinase activity instead of radioactivity assays. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Localization of an O-glycosylated site in the recombinant barley alpha-amylase 1 produced in yeast and correction of the amino acid sequence using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of peptide mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens S.; Søgaard, M; Svensson, B

    1994-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) of peptide mixtures was used to characterize recombinant barley alpha-amylase 1, produced in yeast. Three peptide mixtures were generated by cleavage with CNBr, digestion with endoproteinase Lys-C and Asp-N, respectively...

  2. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight and nano-electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometric characterization of 1-cyano-2-substituted-benz[f]isoindole derivatives of peptides for fluorescence detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnemayr, K; Brückner, A; Körner, R

    1999-01-01

    A series of hexa- to decapeptides (molecular mass range 800-1200) were labeled with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde, which preferentially reacts with the primary amino groups of a peptide. A highly stable peptide conjugate is formed, which allows selective analysis by fluorescence at excitation...... and emission wavelengths of 420 and 490 nm, respectively. After removal of unreacted compounds, the peptide conjugates were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight and nano-electrospray ionization (ESI) ion trap mass spectrometry. They readily form both [M + H]+ ions...... by MALDI and both [M + H]+ and [M + 2H]2+ ions by ESI. Furthermore, the fragmentation behavior of the N-terminally tagged peptides, exhibiting an uncharged N-terminus, was investigated applying post-source decay fragmentation with a curved field reflector and collision-induced dissociation...

  3. Comparing Laser Desorption Ionization and Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization Coupled to Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry To Characterize Shale Oils at the Molecular Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yunjo; Jin, Jang Mi; Witt, Matthias; Birdwell, Justin E.; Na, Jeong-Geol; Roh, Nam-Sun; Kim, Sunghwan

    2013-01-01

    Laser desorption ionization (LDI) coupled to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) was used to analyze shale oils. Previous work showed that LDI is a sensitive ionization technique for assessing aromatic nitrogen compounds, and oils generated from Green River Formation oil shales are well-documented as being rich in nitrogen. The data presented here demonstrate that LDI is effective in ionizing high-double-bond-equivalent (DBE) compounds and, therefore, is a suitable method for characterizing compounds with condensed structures. Additionally, LDI generates radical cations and protonated ions concurrently, the distribution of which depends upon the molecular structures and elemental compositions, and the basicity of compounds is closely related to the generation of protonated ions. This study demonstrates that LDI FT-ICR MS is an effective ionization technique for use in the study of shale oils at the molecular level. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that LDI FT-ICR MS has been applied to shale oils.

  4. Performance of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry for Identification of Aspergillus, Scedosporium, and Fusarium spp. in the Australian Clinical Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleiman, Sue; Halliday, Catriona L; Chapman, Belinda; Brown, Mitchell; Nitschke, Joanne; Lau, Anna F; Chen, Sharon C-A

    2016-08-01

    We developed an Australian database for the identification of Aspergillus, Scedosporium, and Fusarium species (n = 28) by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). In a challenge against 117 isolates, species identification significantly improved when the in-house-built database was combined with the Bruker Filamentous Fungi Library compared with that for the Bruker library alone (Aspergillus, 93% versus 69%; Fusarium, 84% versus 42%; and Scedosporium, 94% versus 18%, respectively). Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Fundamental study of hydrogen-attachment-induced peptide fragmentation occurring in the gas phase and during the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Daiki; Takahashi, Hidenori; Iwamoto, Shinichi; Tanaka, Koichi

    2018-05-09

    Mass spectrometry with hydrogen-radical-mediated fragmentation techniques has been used for the sequencing of proteins/peptides. The two methods, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization in-source decay (MALDI-ISD) and hydrogen attachment/abstraction dissociation (HAD) are known as hydrogen-radical-mediated fragmentation techniques. MALDI-ISD occurs during laser induced desorption processes, whereas HAD utilizes the association of hydrogen with peptide ions in the gas phase. In this study, the general mechanisms of MALDI-ISD and HAD of peptides were investigated. We demonstrated the fragmentation of four model peptides and investigated the fragment formation pathways using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The current experimental and computational joint study indicated that MALDI-ISD and HAD produce aminoketyl radical intermediates, which immediately undergo radical-induced cleavage at the N-Cα bond located on the C-terminal side of the radical site, leading to the c'/z˙ fragment pair. In the case of MALDI-ISD, the z˙ fragments undergo a subsequent reaction with the matrix to give z' and matrix adducts of the z fragments. In contrast, the c' and z˙ fragments react with hydrogen atoms during the HAD processes, and various fragment species, such as c˙, c', z˙ and z', were observed in the HAD-MS/MS mass spectra.

  6. Spatially resolved thermal desorption/ionization coupled with mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesse, Stephen; Van Berkel, Gary J; Ovchinnikova, Olga S

    2013-02-26

    A system and method for sub-micron analysis of a chemical composition of a specimen are described. The method includes providing a specimen for evaluation and a thermal desorption probe, thermally desorbing an analyte from a target site of said specimen using the thermally active tip to form a gaseous analyte, ionizing the gaseous analyte to form an ionized analyte, and analyzing a chemical composition of the ionized analyte. The thermally desorbing step can include heating said thermally active tip to above 200.degree. C., and positioning the target site and the thermally active tip such that the heating step forms the gaseous analyte. The thermal desorption probe can include a thermally active tip extending from a cantilever body and an apex of the thermally active tip can have a radius of 250 nm or less.

  7. Molecular imaging of banknote and questioned document using solvent-free gold nanoparticle-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ho-Wai; Wong, Melody Yee-Man; Chan, Sharon Lai-Fung; Che, Chi-Ming; Ng, Kwan-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Direct chemical analysis and molecular imaging of questioned documents in a non/minimal-destructive manner is important in forensic science. Here, we demonstrate that solvent-free gold-nanoparticle-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry is a sensitive and minimal destructive method for direct detection and imaging of ink and visible and/or fluorescent dyes printed on banknotes or written on questioned documents. Argon ion sputtering of a gold foil allows homogeneous coating of a thin layer of gold nanoparticles on banknotes and checks in a dry state without delocalizing spatial distributions of the analytes. Upon N(2) laser irradiation of the gold nanoparticle-coated banknotes or checks, abundant ions are desorbed and detected. Recording the spatial distributions of the ions can reveal the molecular images of visible and fluorescent ink printed on banknotes and determine the printing order of different ink which may be useful in differentiating real banknotes from fakes. The method can also be applied to identify forged parts in questioned documents, such as number/writing alteration on a check, by tracing different writing patterns that come from different pens.

  8. Interpretation of laser desorption mass spectra of unexpected inorganic species found in a cosmetic sample of forensic interest: fingernail polish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Emily; Harrington, Danielle; Allison, John

    2009-08-01

    When analytes containing color are irradiated with a pulsed UV laser in the ion source of a mass spectrometer, molecules such as dyes or pigments absorb energy, resulting in their desorption and ionization. This method, laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS), has been used successfully to analyze colorants of forensic interest in a wide variety of materials. Here, we present and interpret the most complex of such spectra obtained to date from a sample of fingernail polish. Interpretation of the spectrum provides a unique opportunity to characterize the laser desorption mass spectra of some unexpected inorganic materials found in cosmetics, such as "broken glass", cyanide compounds, and heavy metals. Also, the possibility of a useful forensic database of LDMS spectra of fingernail polishes is considered.

  9. Enzyme-coupled nanoparticles-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry for searching for low-mass inhibitors of enzymes in complex mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salwiński, Aleksander; Da Silva, David; Delépée, Raphaël; Maunit, Benoît

    2014-04-01

    In this report, enzyme-coupled magnetic nanoparticles (EMPs) were shown to be an effective affinity-based tool for finding specific interactions between enzymatic targets and the low-mass molecules in complex mixtures using classic MALDI-TOF apparatus. EMPs used in this work act as nonorganic matrix enabling ionization of small molecules without any interference in the low-mass range (enzyme-coupled nanoparticles-assisted laser desorption ionization MS, ENALDI MS) and simultaneously carry the superficial specific binding sites to capture inhibitors present in a studied mixture. We evaluated ENALDI approach in two complementary variations: 'ion fading' (IF-ENALDI), based on superficial adsorption of inhibitors and 'ion hunting' (IH-ENALDI), based on selective pre-concentration of inhibitors. IF-ENALDI was applied for two sets of enzyme-inhibitor pairs: tyrosinase-glabridin and trypsin-leupeptin and for the real plant sample: Sparrmannia discolor leaf and stem methanol extract. The efficacy of IH-ENALDI was shown for the pair of trypsin-leupeptin. Both ENALDI approaches pose an alternative for bioassay-guided fractionation, the common method for finding inhibitors in the complex mixtures.

  10. In Situ Analysis of Bacterial Lipopeptide Antibiotics by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debois, Delphine; Ongena, Marc; Cawoy, Hélène; De Pauw, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI) is a technique developed in the late 1990s enabling the two-dimensional mapping of a broad variety of biomolecules present at the surface of a sample. In many applications including pharmaceutical studies or biomarker discovery, the distribution of proteins, lipids or drugs, and metabolites may be visualized within tissue sections. More recently, MALDI MSI has become increasingly applied in microbiology where the versatility of the technique is perfectly suited to monitor the metabolic dynamics of bacterial colonies. The work described here is focused on the application of MALDI MSI to map secondary metabolites produced by Bacilli, especially lipopeptides, produced by bacterial cells during their interaction with their environment (bacteria, fungi, plant roots, etc.). This chapter addresses the advantages and challenges that the implementation of MALDI MSI to microbiological samples entails, including detailed protocols on sample preparation (from both microbiologist and mass spectrometrist points of view), matrix deposition, and data acquisition and interpretation. Lipopeptide images recorded from confrontation plates are also presented.

  11. Characterization of polyesters by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization and Fourier transform mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mize, Todd H; Simonsick, William J; Amster, I Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Two homopolyesters, poly(neopentyl glycol-alt-isophthalic acid) and poly(hexanediol-alt-azelaic acid), and two copolyesters, poly(dipropoxylated bisphenol-A-alt-(isophthalic acid-co-adipic acid)) and poly(neopentyl glycol-alt-(adipic acid-co-isophthalic acid)) were analyzed by internal source matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry (MALDI-FTMS). The high resolution and high mass accuracy provided by FTMS greatly facilitate the characterization of the polyester and copolyester samples. Isobaric resolution allows the ion abundances of overlapping isotopic envelopes to be assessed. Repeat units were confirmed and end functionality assigned. Single shot mass spectra of the entire polymeric distribution demonstrate that the dynamic range of this internal MALDI source instrument and the analyzer cell exceeds performance of those previously reported for higher field instruments. Corrections of space charge mass shift effects are demonstrated for the analytes using an external calibrant and (subsequent to confirmation of structure) via internal calibration which removes ambiguity due to space charge differences in calibrant and analyte spectra. Capillary gel permeation chromatography was used to prepare low polydispersity samples from a high polydispersity polyester, improving the measurement of molecular weight distribution two-fold while retaining the benefits of high resolution mass spectrometry for elucidation of oligomer identity.

  12. Atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of friction modifier additives analyzed directly from base oil solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widder, Lukas; Brennerb, Josef; Huttera, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    To develop new products and to apply measures of quality control quick and simple accessibility of additive composition in automo- tive lubrication is important. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of analyzing organic friction modifier additives by means of atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry [AP-MALDI-MS] from lubricant solu- tions without the use of additional separation techniques. Analyses of selected friction modifier ethoxylated tallow amines and oleic acid amide were compared using two ionization methods, positive-ion electrospray ionization (ESI) and AP-MALDI, using a LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Pure additives were characterized from solvent solutions, as well as from synthetic and mineral base oil mixtures. Detected ions of pure additive samples consisted mainly of [M + H]+, but also alkaLi metal adducts [M + Na]+ and [M + K]+ could be seen. Characterizations of blends of both friction modifiers from the base oil mixtures were carried out as well and showed significant inten- sities for several additive peaks. Thus, this work shows a method to directly analyze friction modifier additives used in the automotive industry from an oil blend via the use of AP-MALDI without any further separation steps. The method presented will further simplify the acquisition of data on lubricant composition and additives. Furthermore, it allows the perspective of analyzing additive reaction products directly from formulated oil blends.

  13. Analysis of chemical degradation mechanism of phosphorescent organic light emitting devices by laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabelo de Moraes, Ines; Scholz, Sebastian; Luessem, Bjoern; Leo, Karl [Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) have attracted much interest for their potential application in full color flat-panel displays and as an alternative lighting source. However, low efficiency, and the short operation lifetime, in particular in the case of blue emitting devices, are the major limitations for the current OLEDs commercialization. In order to overcome these limitations, a deep knowledge about the aging and the degradation mechanism is required. Our work focuses on the chemical degradation mechanism of different iridium based emitter materials like FIrpic (light blue) and Ir(ppy)3 (green), commonly used in OLEDs. For this purpose, the devices were aged by electrical driving until the luminance reached 6% of the initial luminance. The laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to determine specific degradation pathways.

  14. Reproducibility of serum protein profiling by systematic assessment using solid-phase extraction and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Anne K; Christensen, René Depont; Madsen, Jonna S

    2008-01-01

    for serum protein profiling we investigated a range of sample preparation techniques and developed a statistical method based on repeated analyses for evaluation of protein-profiling performance of MALDI MS. Two different solid-phase extraction (SPE) methods were investigated, namely custom......Protein profiling of human serum by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) is potentially a new diagnostic tool for early detection of human diseases, including cancer. Sample preparation is a key issue in MALDI MS and the analysis of complex samples such as serum......-made microcolumns and commercially available magnetic beads. Using these two methods, nineteen different sample preparation methods for serum profiling by MALDI MS were systematically tested with regard to matrix selection, stationary phase, selectivity, and reproducibility. Microcolumns were tested with regard...

  15. In situ probing of cholesterol in astrocytes at the single-cell level using laser desorption ionization mass spectrometric imaging with colloidal silver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdian, D C; Cha, Sangwon; Oh, Jisun; Sakaguchi, Donald S; Yeung, Edward S; Lee, Young Jin

    2010-04-30

    Mass spectrometric imaging has been utilized to localize individual astrocytes and to obtain cholesterol populations at the single-cell level in laser desorption ionization (LDI) with colloidal silver. The silver ion adduct of membrane-bound cholesterol was monitored to detect individual cells. Good correlation between mass spectrometric and optical images at different cell densities indicates the ability to perform single-cell studies of cholesterol abundance. The feasibility of quantification is confirmed by the agreement between the LDI-MS ion signals and the results from a traditional enzymatic fluorometric assay. We propose that this approach could be an effective tool to study chemical populations at the cellular level. Published in 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. In situ liquid-liquid extraction as a sample preparation method for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization MS analysis of polypeptide mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellström, Sven; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2003-01-01

    A novel liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) procedure was investigated for preparation of peptide and protein samples for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS). LLE using ethyl acetate as the water-immiscible organic solvent enabled segregation of hydrophobic...... matrix to the organic solvent enhanced the efficiency of the LLE-MALDI MS method for analysis of hydrophobic peptides and proteins. LLE-MALDI MS enabled the detection of the hydrophobic membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin as a component in a simple protein mixture. Peptide mixtures containing...... phosphorylated, glycosylated, or acylated peptides were successfully separated and analyzed by the in situ LLE-MALDI MS technique and demonstrate the potential of this method for enhanced separation and structural analysis of posttranslationally modified peptides in proteomics research....

  17. An in-house assay is superior to Sepsityper for direct matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry identification of yeast species in blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidart, Marie; Bonnet, Isabelle; Hennebique, Aurélie; Kherraf, Zine Eddine; Pelloux, Hervé; Berger, François; Cornet, Muriel; Bailly, Sébastien; Maubon, Danièle

    2015-05-01

    We developed an in-house assay for the direct identification, by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry, of yeasts in blood culture. Sixty-one representative strains from 12 species were analyzed in spiked blood cultures. Our assay accurately identified 95 of 107 (88.8%) positive blood cultures and outperformed the commercial Sepsityper kit (81.7% identification). Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Combination of electrospray ionization, atmospheric pressure photoionization and laser desorption ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotronic resonance mass spectrometry for the investigation of complex mixtures - Application to the petroleomic analysis of bio-oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzog, Jasmine; Carré, Vincent; Le Brech, Yann; Mackay, Colin Logan; Dufour, Anthony; Mašek, Ondřej; Aubriet, Frédéric

    2017-05-29

    The comprehensive description of complex mixtures such as bio-oils is required to understand and improve the different processes involved during biological, environmental or industrial operation. In this context, we have to consider how different ionization sources can improve a non-targeted approach. Thus, the Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) has been coupled to electrospray ionization (ESI), laser desorption ionization (LDI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) to characterize an oak pyrolysis bio-oil. Close to 90% of the all 4500 compound formulae has been attributed to C x H y O z with similar oxygen class compound distribution. Nevertheless, their relative abundance in respect with their double bound equivalent (DBE) value has evidenced significant differences depending on the ion source used. ESI has allowed compounds with low DBE but more oxygen atoms to be ionized. APPI has demonstrated the efficient ionization of less polar compounds (high DBE values and less oxygen atoms). The LDI behavior of bio-oils has been considered intermediate in terms of DBE and oxygen amounts but it has also been demonstrated that a significant part of the features are specifically detected by this ionization method. Thus, the complementarity of three different ionization sources has been successfully demonstrated for the exhaustive characterization by petroleomic approach of a complex mixture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Direct Visualization of Neurotransmitters in Rat Brain Slices by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging (DESI - MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Anna Maria A. P.; Vendramini, Pedro H.; Galaverna, Renan; Schwab, Nicolas V.; Alberici, Luciane C.; Augusti, Rodinei; Castilho, Roger F.; Eberlin, Marcos N.

    2016-12-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) of neurotransmitters has so far been mainly performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) where derivatization reagents, deuterated matrix and/or high resolution, or tandem MS have been applied to circumvent problems with interfering ion peaks from matrix and from isobaric species. We herein describe the application of desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI)-MSI in rat brain coronal and sagittal slices for direct spatial monitoring of neurotransmitters and choline with no need of derivatization reagents and/or deuterated materials. The amino acids γ-aminobutyric (GABA), glutamate, aspartate, serine, as well as acetylcholine, dopamine, and choline were successfully imaged using a commercial DESI source coupled to a hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. The spatial distribution of the analyzed compounds in different brain regions was determined. We conclude that the ambient matrix-free DESI-MSI is suitable for neurotransmitter imaging and could be applied in studies that involve evaluation of imbalances in neurotransmitters levels.

  20. MoS_2/Ag nanohybrid: A novel matrix with synergistic effect for small molecule drugs analysis by negative-ion matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yaju; Deng, Guoqing; Liu, Xiaohui; Sun, Liang; Li, Hui; Cheng, Quan; Xi, Kai; Xu, Danke

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a facile synthesis of molybdenum disulfide nanosheets/silver nanoparticles (MoS_2/Ag) hybrid and its use as an effective matrix in negative ion matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The nanohybrid exerts a strong synergistic effect, leading to high performance detection of small molecule analytes including amino acids, peptides, fatty acids and drugs. The enhancement of laser desorption/ionization (LDI) efficiency is largely attributed to the high surface roughness and large surface area for analyte adsorption, better dispersibility, increased thermal conductivity and enhanced UV energy absorption as compared to pure MoS_2. Moreover, both Ag nanoparticles and the edge of the MoS_2 layers function as deprotonation sites for proton capture, facilitating the charging process in negative ion mode and promoting formation of negative ions. As a result, the MoS_2/Ag nanohybrid proves to be a highly attractive matrix in MALDI-TOF MS, with desired features such as high desorption/ionization efficiency, low fragmentation interference, high salt tolerance, and no sweet-spots for mass signal. These characteristic properties allowed for simultaneous analysis of eight different drugs and quantification of acetylsalicylic acid in the spiked human serum. This work demonstrates for the first time the fabrication and application of a novel MoS_2/Ag hybrid, and provides a new platform for use in the rapid and high throughput analysis of small molecules by mass spectrometry. - Highlights: • MoS_2/Ag nanohybrid was applied as a novel matrix in negative-ion MALDI-TOF MS. • The MoS_2/Ag nanohybrid exerted synergistic effect on the detection of small molecules. • The MoS_2/Ag nanohybrid showed good signal reproducibility and low background interferences comparing to organic matrices. • MoS_2/Ag allows simultaneous analysis of multiple drugs and quantification of acetylsalicylic acid in spiked serum samples.

  1. The Cooperativity of Fe3O4 and Metal-Organic Framework as Multifunctional Nanocomposites for Laser Desorption Ionization Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chung-Wei; Lirio, Stephen; Shih, Yung-Han; Liu, Wan-Ling; Lin, Chia-Her; Huang, Hsi-Ya

    2018-05-10

    We report a novel and facile strategy for developing a water stable magnetic metal organic framework nanocomposite (Fe3O4@MOF), in which a Keggin polyoxometalate, phosphotungstic acid (HPW), was encapsulated within the MOF framework via one-pot synthesis method. The combination of HPW-embedded MOF and Fe3O4 endowed the composite with high surface area, strong UV absorption, good hydrophilicity, and enhanced water stability. With these unique properties, the Fe3O4@MOF embedded HPW were served as adsorbent as well as matrix for (surface-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry) SALDI-MS analysis of polar and non-polar compounds. The synergistic effect of Fe3O4 and MOF showed an interference-free background at low mass region than the pristine MOF or Fe3O4 counterpart. This simple approach can be used as new platform in developing magnetic MOF composites without the time consuming and labor-intensive preparation. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. On plate graphite supported sample processing for simultaneous lipid and protein identification by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvano, Cosima Damiana; van der Werf, Inez Dorothé; Sabbatini, Luigia; Palmisano, Francesco

    2015-05-01

    The simultaneous identification of lipids and proteins by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) after direct on-plate processing of micro-samples supported on colloidal graphite is demonstrated. Taking advantages of large surface area and thermal conductivity, graphite provided an ideal substrate for on-plate proteolysis and lipid extraction. Indeed proteins could be efficiently digested on-plate within 15 min, providing sequence coverages comparable to those obtained by conventional in-solution overnight digestion. Interestingly, detection of hydrophilic phosphorylated peptides could be easily achieved without any further enrichment step. Furthermore, lipids could be simultaneously extracted/identified without any additional treatment/processing step as demonstrated for model complex samples such as milk and egg. The present approach is simple, efficient, of large applicability and offers great promise for protein and lipid identification in very small samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of trace quaternary ammonium surfactants in water by combining solid-phase extraction with surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y C; Sun, M C

    2001-01-01

    This study demonstrates the feasibility of combining solid-phase extraction (SPE) with surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization (SALDI) mass spectrometry to determine trace quaternary ammonium surfactants in water. The trace surfactants in water were directly concentrated on the surface of activated carbon sorbent in SPE. The activated carbon sorbent was then mixed with the SALDI liquid for SALDI analysis. No SPE elution procedure was necessary. Experimental results indicate that the surfactants with longer chain alkyl groups exhibit higher sensitivities than those with shorter chain alkyl groups in SPE-SALDI analysis. The detection limit for hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide is around 10 ppt in SPE-SALDI analysis by sampling 100 mL of aqueous solution, while that of tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide is about 100 ppt. The detection limit for decyltrimethylammonium bromide and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide is in the low-ppb range. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Protein profiling of single epidermal cell types from Arabidopsis thaliana using surface-enhanced laser desorption and ionization technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Berit; Melle, Christian; Lieckfeldt, Elke; Zöller, Daniela; von Eggeling, Ferdinand; Fisahn, Joachim

    2008-08-25

    Here, we describe a novel approach for investigating differential protein expression within three epidermal cell types. In particular, 3000 single pavement, basal, and trichome cells from leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana were harvested by glass micro-capillaries. Subsequently, these single cell samples were joined to form pools of 100 individual cells and analyzed using the ProteinChip technology; SELDI: surface-enhanced laser desorption and ionization. As a result, numerous protein signals that were differentially expressed in the three epidermal cell types could be detected. One of these proteins was characterized by tryptical digestion and subsequent identification via tandem quadrupole-time of flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometry. Down regulation of this sequenced small subunit precursor of ribulose-1,5 bisphosphate carboxylase(C) oxygenase(O) (RuBisCo) in trichome and basal cells indicates the sink status of these cell types that are located on the surface of A. thaliana source leaves. Based on the obtained protein profiles, we suggest a close functional relationship between basal and trichome cells at the protein level.

  5. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry in Clinical Microbiology: What Are the Current Issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Belkum, Alex; Welker, Martin; Pincus, David; Charrier, Jean Philippe; Girard, Victoria

    2017-11-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has revolutionized the identification of microbial species in clinical microbiology laboratories. MALDI-TOF-MS has swiftly become the new gold-standard method owing to its key advantages of simplicity and robustness. However, as with all new methods, adoption of the MALDI-TOF MS approach is still not widespread. Optimal sample preparation has not yet been achieved for several applications, and there are continuing discussions on the need for improved database quality and the inclusion of additional microbial species. New applications such as in the field of antimicrobial susceptibility testing have been proposed but not yet translated to the level of ease and reproducibility that one should expect in routine diagnostic systems. Finally, during routine identification testing, unexpected results are regularly obtained, and the best methods for transmitting these results into clinical care are still evolving. We here discuss the success of MALDI-TOF MS in clinical microbiology and highlight fields of application that are still amenable to improvement. © The Korean Society for Laboratory Medicine.

  6. MoS{sub 2}/Ag nanohybrid: A novel matrix with synergistic effect for small molecule drugs analysis by negative-ion matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yaju, E-mail: daisy19900911@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210023 (China); Deng, Guoqing, E-mail: denggqq@sina.com [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210023 (China); Liu, Xiaohui, E-mail: lcswyh@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210023 (China); Sun, Liang, E-mail: sunliang@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210023 (China); Li, Hui, E-mail: lihui@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210023 (China); Cheng, Quan, E-mail: quan.cheng@ucr.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA, 92521 (United States); Xi, Kai, E-mail: xikai@nju.edu.cn [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210023 (China); Xu, Danke, E-mail: xudanke@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210023 (China)

    2016-09-21

    This paper reports a facile synthesis of molybdenum disulfide nanosheets/silver nanoparticles (MoS{sub 2}/Ag) hybrid and its use as an effective matrix in negative ion matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The nanohybrid exerts a strong synergistic effect, leading to high performance detection of small molecule analytes including amino acids, peptides, fatty acids and drugs. The enhancement of laser desorption/ionization (LDI) efficiency is largely attributed to the high surface roughness and large surface area for analyte adsorption, better dispersibility, increased thermal conductivity and enhanced UV energy absorption as compared to pure MoS{sub 2}. Moreover, both Ag nanoparticles and the edge of the MoS{sub 2} layers function as deprotonation sites for proton capture, facilitating the charging process in negative ion mode and promoting formation of negative ions. As a result, the MoS{sub 2}/Ag nanohybrid proves to be a highly attractive matrix in MALDI-TOF MS, with desired features such as high desorption/ionization efficiency, low fragmentation interference, high salt tolerance, and no sweet-spots for mass signal. These characteristic properties allowed for simultaneous analysis of eight different drugs and quantification of acetylsalicylic acid in the spiked human serum. This work demonstrates for the first time the fabrication and application of a novel MoS{sub 2}/Ag hybrid, and provides a new platform for use in the rapid and high throughput analysis of small molecules by mass spectrometry. - Highlights: • MoS{sub 2}/Ag nanohybrid was applied as a novel matrix in negative-ion MALDI-TOF MS. • The MoS{sub 2}/Ag nanohybrid exerted synergistic effect on the detection of small molecules. • The MoS{sub 2}/Ag nanohybrid showed good signal reproducibility and low background interferences comparing to organic matrices. • MoS{sub 2}/Ag allows simultaneous analysis of multiple drugs and quantification of

  7. Matrix-assisted ultraviolet laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of beta-(1 --> 3), beta-(1 --> 4)-xylans from Nothogenia fastigiata using nor-harmane as matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuyama, Yuko; Kolender, Adriana A; Nishioka, Masae; Nonami, Hiroshi; Matulewicz, María C; Erra-Balsells, Rosa; Cerezo, Alberto S

    2005-01-01

    Three xylan fractions isolated from the red seaweed Nothogenia fastigiata (Nemaliales) were analyzed by ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UV-MALDI-TOFMS). UV-MALDI-TOFMS was carried out in the linear and reflectron modes, and as routine in the positive and negative ion modes. Of the several matrices tested, nor-harmane was the only effective one giving good spectra in the positive ion mode. The number-average molar masses of two of the fractions, calculated from the distribution profiles, were lower than those determined previously by (1)H NMR analysis, suggesting a decrease in the ionization efficiency with increasing molecular weight; weight-average molar mass and polydispersity index were also determined. As the xylans retained small but significant quantities of calcium salts, the influence of added Ca(2+) as CaCl(2) on UV-MALDI-MS was investigated. The simultaneous addition of sodium chloride and calcium chloride was also analyzed. Addition of sodium chloride did not change the distribution profile of the native sample showing that the inhibitory effect is due to Ca(2+) and not to Cl(-). Addition of calcium chloride with 1:1 analyte/salt molar ratio gave spectra with less efficient desorption/ionization of oligomers; the signals of these oligomers were completely suppressed when the addition of the salt became massive (1:100 analyte/salt molar ratio). Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Detection of lung cancer using plasma protein profiling by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Valeriy E; Arnotskaya, Natalia E; Zaridze, David G

    2010-01-01

    There are no satisfactory plasma biomarkers which are available for the early detection and monitoring of lung cancer, one of the most frequent cancers worldwide. The aim of this study is to explore the application of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF MS) to plasma proteomic patterns to distinguish lung cancer patients from healthy individuals. The EDTA plasma samples have been pre-fractionated using magnetic bead kits functionalized with weak cation exchange coatings. We compiled MS protein profiles for 90 patients with squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and compared them with profiles from 187 healthy controls. The MALDI-ToF spectra were analyzed statistically using ClinProTools bioinformatics software. Depending on the sample used, up to 441 peaks/spectrum could be detected in a mass range of 1000-20,000 Da; 33 of these proteins had statistically differential expression levels between SCC and control plasma (P 90%) in external validation test. These results suggest that plasma MALDI-ToF MS protein profiling can distinguish patients with SCC and also from healthy individuals with relatively high sensitivity and specificity and that MALDI- ToF MS is a potential tool for the screening of lung cancer.

  9. Fast screening of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in indoor dust samples by graphene-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiu; Liu, Qian; Gao, Wei; Wang, Yawei; Nie, Zhou; Yao, Shouzhuo; Jiang, Guibin

    2018-03-01

    As an important class of emerging chemical contaminants, short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are considered as one of the most challenging groups of compounds to analyze. In this paper, we report a new method for fast screening of SCCPs based on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) with graphene as a matrix and 2,5,6,9-tetrachlorodecane as an internal standard. We found that the use of graphene as MALDI matrix generated high peak intensities for SCCPs while producing few background noises. The ion fragmentation mechanisms of SCCPs in MALDI are discussed in detail. Under the optimized conditions, much lower detection limits of SCCP congeners (0.1-5ng/mL) than those reported previously were obtained. Other distinct advantages such as short analysis time and simplified sample preparation procedures are also demonstrated. The method was successfully applied in fast screening of SCCPs in indoor dust samples and monitoring of human exposure levels to SCCPs, and the results were verified by gas chromatography coupled to negative chemical ionization quadrupole time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometry. This work not only offers a new promising tool for SCCP studies, but also further demonstrates the promise of graphene as a new generation of MALDI matrix. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric analysis of aliphatic biodegradable photoluminescent polymers using new ionic liquid matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Carlos A; Zhang, Yi; Yang, Jian; Schug, Kevin A

    2011-05-15

    In this study, two novel ionic liquid matrices (ILMs), N,N-diisopropylethylammonium 3-oxocoumarate and N,N-diisopropylethylammonium dihydroxymonooxoacetophenoate, were tested for the structural elucidation of recently developed aliphatic biodegradable polymers by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). The polymers, formed by a condensation reaction of three components, citric acid, octane diol, and an amino acid, are fluorescent, but the exact mechanism behind their luminescent properties has not been fully elucidated. In the original studies, which introduced the polymer class (J. Yang et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2009, 106, 10086-10091), a hyper-conjugated cyclic structure was proposed as the source for the photoluminescent behavior. With the use of the two new ILMs, we present evidence that supports the presence of the proposed cyclization product. In addition, the new ILMs, when compared with a previously established ILM, N,N-diisopropylethylammonium α-cyano-3-hydroxycinnimate, provided similar signal intensities and maintained similar spectral profiles. This research also established that the new ILMs provided good spot-to-spot reproducibility and high ionization efficiency compared with corresponding crystalline matrix preparations. Many polymer features revealed through the use of the ILMs could not be observed with crystalline matrices. Ultimately, the new ILMs highlighted the composition of the synthetic polymers, as well as the loss of water that was expected for the formation of the proposed cyclic structure on the polymer backbone. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Rapid identification of pathogens directly from blood culture bottles by Bruker matrix-assisted laser desorption laser ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry versus routine methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Wafaa; Saleem, Rola; Rotimi, Vincent O

    2013-08-01

    The use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for identification of microorganisms directly from blood culture is an exciting dimension to the microbiologists. We evaluated the performance of Bruker SepsiTyper kit™ (STK) for direct identification of bacteria from positive blood culture. This was done in parallel with conventional methods. Nonrepetitive positive blood cultures from 160 consecutive patients were prospectively evaluated by both methods. Of 160 positive blood cultures, the STK identified 114 (75.6%) isolates and routine conventional method 150 (93%). Thirty-six isolates were misidentified or not identified by the kit. Of these, 5 had score of >2.000 and 31 had an unreliable low score of <1.7. Four of 8 yeasts were identified correctly. The average turnaround time using the STK was 35 min, including extraction steps and 30:12 to 36:12 h with routine method. The STK holds promise for timely management of bacteremic patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Fast and reliable diagnosis of XDR Acinetobacter baumannii meningitis by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Grazia; Ceccarelli, Giancarlo; Giordano, Alessandra; Navazio, Anna Sara; Vittozzi, Pietro; Venditti, Mario; Raponi, Giammarco

    2018-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency needing quick and timely diagnosis. Even though meningitis caused by Acinetobacter baumannii is relatively rare, it is associated with high mortality rates especially in neurosurgery patients and represents a serious therapeutic problem due to the limited penetration of effective antibiotics into the cerebrospinal fluid. Recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) has been effectively used as a rapid method for microbial identification. In this case report we identified A. baumanni by MALDI-TOF technique directly from the CSF drawn from the external ventricular drainage of a patient with severe confusional state and signs of meningism. Simultaneously the antibiotic susceptibility test was performed by automated method from the pellet of the broth-enriched sample. The MALDI-TOF technique allowed microbial identification in less than 30 minutes, and the susceptibility test result was available in eight hours, thus allowing a fast diagnosis ready for prompt and targeted antimicrobial therapy.

  13. Identification of pathogenic microorganisms directly from positive blood vials by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nonnemann, Bettina; Tvede, Michael; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a promising and fast method for identifying fungi and bacteria directly from positive blood cultures. Various pre-treatment methods for MALDI-TOF MS identification have been reported for this purpose. In......-house results for identification of bacterial colonies by MALDI-TOF MS using a cut-off score of 1.5 did not reduce the diagnostic accuracy compared with the recommended cut-off score of 1.8. A 3-month consecutive study of positive blood cultures was carried out in our laboratory to evaluate whether...... the Sepsityper™ Kit (Bruker Daltonics) with Biotyper 2.0 software could be used as a fast diagnostic tool for bacteria and fungi and whether a 1.5 cut-off score could improve species identification compared with the recommended score of 1.8. Two hundred and fifty-six positive blood vials from 210 patients and 19...

  14. High-throughput trace analysis of explosives in water by laser diode thermal desorption/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badjagbo, Koffi; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2012-07-03

    Harmful explosives can accumulate in natural waters in the long term during their testing, usage, storage, and dumping and can pose a health risk to humans and the environment. For the first time, attachment of small anions to neutral molecules in laser diode thermal desorption/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization was systematically investigated for the direct determination of trace nitroaromatics, nitrate esters, and nitramine explosives in water. Using ammonium chloride as an additive improved the instrument response for all the explosives tested and promoted the formation of several characteristic adduct ions. The method performs well achieving good linearity over at least 2 orders of magnitude, with coefficients of determination greater than 0.995. The resulting limits of detection are in the range of 0.009-0.092 μg/L. River water samples were successfully analyzed by the proposed method with accuracy in the range of 96-98% and a response time of 15 s, without any further pretreatment or chromatographic separation.

  15. Rapid identification of bacteria in positive blood culture broths by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Lindsay G; Drake, Steven K; Murray, Patrick R

    2010-02-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry is a rapid, accurate method for identifying bacteria and fungi recovered on agar culture media. We report herein a method for the direct identification of bacteria in positive blood culture broths by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. A total of 212 positive cultures were examined, representing 32 genera and 60 species or groups. The identification of bacterial isolates by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry was compared with biochemical testing, and discrepancies were resolved by gene sequencing. No identification (spectral score of blood culture broth. Of the bacteria with a spectral score of > or = 1.7, 162 (95.3%) of 170 isolates were correctly identified. All 8 isolates of Streptococcus mitis were misidentified as being Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates. This method provides a rapid, accurate, definitive identification of bacteria within 1 h of detection in positive blood cultures with the caveat that the identification of S. pneumoniae would have to be confirmed by an alternative test.

  16. Deuterium desorption from tungsten using laser heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Yu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Retention and desorption of hydrogenic species need to be accurately modeled to predict the tritium inventory of next generation fusion devices, which is needed both for tritium fuel recovery and for tritium safety concerns. In this paper, experiments on thermal desorption of deuterium from intrinsic polycrystalline tungsten defects using laser heating are compared to TMAP-7 modeling. The samples during deuterium plasma exposure were at a temperature of 373K for this benchmark study with ion fluence of 0.7–1.0 ×1024Dm−2. Following plasma exposure, a fiber laser (λ= 1100nm heated the samples to peak surface temperatures ranging from ∼500 to 1400K with pulse widths from 10ms to 1s, and 1 to 10 pulses applied to each sample. The remaining deuterium retention was measured using temperature programmed desorption (TPD. Results show that > 95% of deuterium is desorbed when the peak surface temperature reached ∼950K for > 1s. TMAP-7 is used to predict deuterium desorption from tungsten for a range of surface temperatures and heating durations, and is compared to previous work on desorption from beryllium codeposits.

  17. A method to detect metal–drug complexes and their interactions with pathogenic bacteria via graphene nanosheet assist laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry and biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelhamid, Hani Nasser; Wu, Hui-Fen

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Probe transition metals-complexes based on noncovalent functionalized graphene for MALDI-MS. ► Study interaction of transition metals complexes with pathogenic bacteria. ► Propose a new biosensor for two pathogenic bacteria. - Abstract: A new method was proposed to probe the interactions between transition metals of Fe(II), Fe(III), Cu(II) with a non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), flufenamic acid (FF) using graphene as a matrix for Graphene assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (GALDI-MS). Metal–drug complexation was confirmed via UV absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, pH meter, and change in solution conductivity. The optimal molar ratios for these complexation interactions are stoichiometry 1:2 in both Cu(II) and Fe(II) complexes, and 1:3 in Fe(III) complexes at physiological pH (7.4). Metal complexation of the drug could enhance fluorescence for 20 fold which is due to the charge transfer reaction or increase rigidity of the drug. The main interaction between graphene and flufenamic acid is the Π–Π interaction which allows us to probe the metal–drug complexation. The GALDI-MS could sensitively detect the drug at m/z 281.0 Da (protonated molecule) with detection limit 2.5 pmol (1.0 μM) and complexation at m/z 661.0, 654.0 and 933.0 Da corresponding to [Cu(II)(FF) 2 (H 2 O) 2 + H] + , [Fe(II)(FF) 2 (H 2 O) 2 + H] + and [Fe(III) (FF) 3 (H 2 O) 2 + H] + , respectively (with limit of detection (LOD) 2.0 pmol (10.0 μM). Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) spectra show change in the protein profile of intact pathogenic bacteria (Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Staphylococcus aureus). The change in the ionization ability (mainly proton affinity) of pathogenic bacteria may be due to the interactions between the bacteria with the drug (or its complexes). Shielding carboxylic group by metals and increase the hydrophilicity could enhance the biocompatibility of complexes

  18. Identification of protein biomarkers in Dupuytren's contracture using surface enhanced laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, David; Howard, Jeffrey C; Varallo, Vincenzo M; Cadieux, Peter; Bowley, Erin; McLean, Kris; Pak, Brian J; Gan, Bing Siang

    2006-06-01

    To study the protein expression profiles associated with Dupuytren's contracture (DC) to identify potential disease protein biomarkers (PBM) using a proteomic technology--Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS). Normal and disease palmar fascia from DC patients were analyzed using Ciphergen's SELDI-TOF-MS Protein Biological System II (PBSII) ProteinChip reader. Analysis of the resulting SELDI-TOF spectra was carried out using the peak cluster analysis program (BioMarker Wizard, Ciphergen). Common peak clusters were then filtered using a bootstrap algorithm called SAM (Significant Analysis of Microarrays) for increased fidelity in our analysis. Several differentially expressed low molecular weight (mass standard deviation for both methods of biomarker-rich low molecular weight region of the human proteome. Application of such novel technology may help clinicians to focus on specific molecular abnormalities in diseases with no known molecular pathogenesis, and uncover therapeutic and/or diagnostic targets.

  19. Rapid determination of trace nitrophenolic organics in water by combining solid-phase extraction with surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y C; Shiea, J; Sunner, J

    2000-01-01

    A rapid technique for the screening of trace compounds in water by combining solid-phase extraction (SPE) with activated carbon surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization (SALDI) time-of-flight mass spectrometry is demonstrated. Activated carbon is used both as the sorbent in SPE and as the solid in the SALDI matrix system. This eliminates the need for an SPE elution process. After the analytes have been adsorbed on the surfaces of the activated carbon during SPE extraction, the activated carbon is directly mixed with the SALDI liquid and mass spectrometric analysis is performed. Trace phenolic compounds in water were used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. The detection limit for these compounds is in the ppb to ppt range. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Applicability of a two-step laser desorption-ionization aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer for determination of chemical composition of ultrafine aerosol particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laitinen, T.

    2013-11-01

    This thesis is based on the construction of a two-step laser desorption-ionization aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (laser AMS), which is capable of measuring 10 to 50 nm aerosol particles collected from urban and rural air at-site and in near real time. The operation and applicability of the instrument was tested with various laboratory measurements, including parallel measurements with filter collection/chromatographic analysis, and then in field experiments in urban environment and boreal forest. Ambient ultrafine aerosol particles are collected on a metal surface by electrostatic precipitation and introduced to the time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) with a sampling valve. Before MS analysis particles are desorbed from the sampling surface with an infrared laser and ionized with a UV laser. The formed ions are guided to the TOF-MS by ion transfer optics, separated according to their m/z ratios, and detected with a micro channel plate detector. The laser AMS was used in urban air studies to quantify the carbon cluster content in 50 nm aerosol particles. Standards for the study were produced from 50 nm graphite particles, suspended in toluene, with 72 hours of high power sonication. The results showed the average amount of carbon clusters (winter 2012, Helsinki, Finland) in 50 nm particles to be 7.2% per sample. Several fullerenes/fullerene fragments were detected during the measurements. In boreal forest measurements, the laser AMS was capable of detecting several different organic species in 10 to 50 nm particles. These included nitrogen-containing compounds, carbon clusters, aromatics, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and oxygenated hydrocarbons. A most interesting event occurred during the boreal forest measurements in spring 2011 when the chemistry of the atmosphere clearly changed during snow melt. On that time concentrations of laser AMS ions m/z 143 and 185 (10 nm particles) increased dramatically. Exactly at the same time, quinoline concentrations

  1. Influence of secondary structure on in-source decay of protein in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Mitsuo; Osaka, Issey; Sakakura, Motoshi

    2012-01-01

    The susceptibility of the N-Cα bond of the peptide backbone to specific cleavage by in-source decay (ISD) in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) was studied from the standpoint of the secondary structure of three proteins. A naphthalene derivative, 5-amino-1-naphtol (5,1-ANL), was used as the matrix. The resulting c'-ions, which originate from the cleavage at N-Cα bonds in flexible secondary structures such as turn and bend, and are free from intra-molecular hydrogen-bonded α-helix structure, gave relatively intense peaks. Furthermore, ISD spectra of the proteins showed that the N-Cα bonds of specific amino acid residues, namely Gly-Xxx, Xxx-Asp, and Xxx-Asn, were more susceptible to MALDI-ISD than other amino acid residues. This is in agreement with the observation that Gly, Asp and Asn residues usually located in turns, rather than α-helix. The results obtained indicate that protein molecules embedded into the matrix crystal in the MALDI experiments maintain their secondary structures as determined by X-ray crystallography, and that MALDI-ISD has the capability for providing information concerning the secondary structure of protein.

  2. Identification of Candida species isolated from vulvovaginitis using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Majid; Kolecka, Anna; Boekhout, Teun; Zarrinfar, Hossein; Ghanbari Nahzag, Mohamad A; Badiee, Parisa; Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Ali; Fata, Abdolmajid; Dolatabadi, Somayeh; Najafzadeh, Mohammad J

    2017-12-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a common problem in women. The purpose of this study was to identify Candida isolates by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) from women with vulvovaginitis that were referred to Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. This study was conducted on 65 clinical samples isolated from women that were referred to Ghaem Hospital. All specimens were identified using phenotyping techniques, such as microscopy and culture on Sabouraud dextrose agar and corn meal agar. In addition, all isolates were processed for MALDI-TOF MS identification. Out of the 65 analyzed isolates, 61 (94%) samples were recognized by MALDI-TOF MS. However, the remaining four isolates (6%) had no reliable identification. According to the results, C. albicans (58.5%) was the most frequently isolated species, followed by C. tropicalis (16.9%), C. glabrata (7.7%), C. parapsilosis (7.7%), and guilliermondii (3.1%). As the findings indicated, MALDI TOF MS was successful in the identification of clinical Candida species. C. albicans was identified as the most common Candida species isolated from the women with VVC. Moreover, C. tropicalis was the most common species among the non- albicans Candida species.

  3. A Versatile Integrated Ambient Ionization Source Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Wanpeng; Nie, Honggang; Song, Shiyao; Liu, Xiaoyun; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2018-04-01

    The pursuit of high-throughput sample analysis from complex matrix demands development of multiple ionization techniques with complementary specialties. A versatile integrated ambient ionization source (iAmIS) platform is proposed in this work, based on the idea of integrating multiple functions, enhancing the efficiency of current ionization techniques, extending the applications, and decreasing the cost of the instrument. The design of the iAmIS platform combines flowing atmospheric pressure afterglow (FAPA) source/direct analysis in real time (DART), dielectric barrier discharge ionization (DBDI)/low-temperature plasma (LTP), desorption electrospray ionization (DESI), and laser desorption (LD) technique. All individual and combined ionization modes can be easily attained by modulating parameters. In particular, the FAPA/DART&DESI mode can realize the detection of polar and nonpolar compounds at the same time with two different ionization mechanisms: proton transfer and charge transfer. The introduction of LD contributes to the mass spectrometry imaging and the surface-assisted laser desorption (SALDI) under ambient condition. Compared with other individual or multi-mode ion source, the iAmIS platform provides the flexibility of choosing different ionization modes, broadens the scope of the analyte detection, and facilitates the analysis of complex samples. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. Laser-enhanced ionization spectroscopy around the ionization limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axner, O.; Berglind, T.; Sjoestroem, S.

    1986-01-01

    Laser-induced photoionization and Laser-Enhanced collision Ionization (LEI) of Na, Tl, and Li in flames are detected by measuring the production of charges following a laser excitation. The ionization signal is investigated for excitations of the atoms from lower lying states both to Rydberg states close to the ionization limit, as well as to continuum states, i.e. the process of collision ionization is compared with that of photoionization. The qualitative behaviour of the ionization signal when scanning across the ionization limit is studied. It is shown that the ionization signal has a smooth behaviour when passing from bound states into continuum states. The laser-induced photoionization signal strength of atoms in flames is both calculated and measured and a good agreement is obtained. A calculation of wavelength dependent photoionization signal strengths for a number of elements is also presented. Photoionization is used to determine flame- and geometry-dependent parameters. An implication of photoionization in connection with LEI spectrometry for trace element analysis is that there will be a significant increase in background noise if the sample contains high concentrations of easily photoionizing elements and short wavelength light is used. (orig.)

  5. Sensitivity enhancement for nitrophenols using cationic surfactant-modified activated carbon for solid-phase extraction surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y C; Tsai, M F

    2000-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that a combination of solid-phase extraction with surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization (SPE-SALDI) mass spectrometry can be applied to the determination of trace nitrophenols in water. An improved method to lower the detection limit of this hyphenated technique is described in this present study. Activated carbon powder is used as both the SPE adsorbent and the SALDI solid in the analysis by SPE-SALDI. The surface of the activated carbon is modified by passing an aqueous solution of a cationic surfactant through the SPE cartridge. The results demonstrate that the sensitivity for nitrophenols in the analysis by SPE-SALDI can be improved by using cationic surfactants to modify the surface of the activated carbon. The detection limit for nitrophenols is about 25 ppt based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 by sampling from 100 mL of solution. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Discrimination of Bacillus anthracis Spores by Direct in-situ Analysis of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Youngsu; Lee, Jonghee; Kim, Seongsoo

    2013-01-01

    The rapid and accurate identification of biological agents is a critical step in the case of bio-terror and biological warfare attacks. Recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry has been widely used for the identification of microorganisms. In this study, we describe a method for the rapid and accurate discrimination of Bacillus anthracis spores using MALDI-TOF MS. Our direct in-situ analysis of MALDI-TOF MS does not involve subsequent high-resolution mass analyses and sample preparation steps. This method allowed the detection of species-specific biomarkers from each Bacillus spores. Especially, B. anthracis spores had specific biomarker peaks at 2503, 3089, 3376, 6684, 6698, 6753, and 6840 m/z. Cluster and PCA analyses of the mass spectra of Bacillus spores revealed distinctively separated clusters and within-groups similarity. Therefore, we believe that this method is effective in the real-time identification of biological warfare agents such as B. anthracis as well as other microorganisms in the field

  7. Discrimination of Bacillus anthracis Spores by Direct in-situ Analysis of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Youngsu; Lee, Jonghee; Kim, Seongsoo [Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    The rapid and accurate identification of biological agents is a critical step in the case of bio-terror and biological warfare attacks. Recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry has been widely used for the identification of microorganisms. In this study, we describe a method for the rapid and accurate discrimination of Bacillus anthracis spores using MALDI-TOF MS. Our direct in-situ analysis of MALDI-TOF MS does not involve subsequent high-resolution mass analyses and sample preparation steps. This method allowed the detection of species-specific biomarkers from each Bacillus spores. Especially, B. anthracis spores had specific biomarker peaks at 2503, 3089, 3376, 6684, 6698, 6753, and 6840 m/z. Cluster and PCA analyses of the mass spectra of Bacillus spores revealed distinctively separated clusters and within-groups similarity. Therefore, we believe that this method is effective in the real-time identification of biological warfare agents such as B. anthracis as well as other microorganisms in the field.

  8. Proteome-based bacterial identification using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS): A revolutionary shift in clinical diagnostic microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Fumio

    2015-06-01

    Rapid and accurate identification of microorganisms, a prerequisite for appropriate patient care and infection control, is a critical function of any clinical microbiology laboratory. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a quick and reliable method for identification of microorganisms, including bacteria, yeast, molds, and mycobacteria. Indeed, there has been a revolutionary shift in clinical diagnostic microbiology. In the present review, the state of the art and advantages of MALDI-TOF MS-based bacterial identification are described. The potential of this innovative technology for use in strain typing and detection of antibiotic resistance is also discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Medical Proteomics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Separation and identification of bovine lactoferricin by high performance liquid chromatography-matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight/ time of flight mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Meichen; Liu, Ning

    2010-02-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography-matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) method was developed for the separation and identification of bovine lactoferricin (LfcinB). Bovine lactoferrin was hydrolyzed by pepsin and then separated by ion exchange chromatography and reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC). The antibacterial activities of the fractions from RP-LC separation were determined and the protein concentration of the fraction with the highest activity was measured, whose sequence was indentified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. The relative molecular mass of LfcinB was 3 124.89 and the protein concentration was 18.20 microg/mL. The method of producing LfcinB proposed in this study has fast speed, high accuracy and high resolution.

  10. Quantification of captopril in urine through surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry using 4-mercaptobenzoic acid-capped gold nanoparticles as an internal standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Tsen; Chiang, Cheng-Kang; Lin, Yang-Wei; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2010-05-01

    We have developed a new internal standard method for the determination of the concentration of captopril (CAP) through surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) using gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). This approach provided linearity for CAP over the concentration range 2.5-25 microM (R(2) = 0.987), with a limit of detection (signal-to-noise ratio = 3) of 1.0 microM. The spot-to-spot variations in the concentration of CAP through SALDI-MS analyses performed in the absence and presence of the internal standard were 26% and 9%, respectively (15 measurements). This approach provides simplicity, accuracy, precision, and great reproducibility to the determination of the levels of CAP in human urine samples. Copyright 2010 American Society for Mass Spectrometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Critical assessment of ionization patterns and applications of ambient desorption/ionization mass spectrometry using FAPA-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, Martin; Karu, Einar; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2016-02-01

    Ambient desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MS) has gained growing interest during the last decade due to its high analytical performance and yet simplicity. Here, one of the recently developed ambient desorption/ionization MS sources, the flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow (FAPA) source, was investigated in detail regarding background ions and typical ionization patterns in the positive as well as the negative ion mode for a variety of compound classes, comprising alkanes, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, organic peroxides and alkaloids. A broad range of signals for adducts and losses was found, besides the usually emphasized detection of quasimolecular ions, i.e. [M + H](+) and [M - H](-) in the positive and the negative mode, respectively. It was found that FAPA-MS is best suited for polar analytes containing nitrogen and/or oxygen functionalities, e.g. carboxylic acids, with low molecular weights and relatively high vapor pressures. In addition, the source was used in proof-of-principle studies, illustrating the capabilities and limitations of the technique: Firstly, traces of cocaine were detected and unambiguously identified on euro banknotes using FAPA ionization in combination with tandem MS, suggesting a correlation between cocaine abundance and age of the banknote. Secondly, FAPA-MS was used for the identification of acidic marker compounds in organic aerosol samples, indicating yet-undiscovered matrix and sample surface effects of ionization pathways in the afterglow region. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. An investigation of liquid secondary ion and laser desorption mass spectroscopy for the analysis of planar chromatograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunphy, J.C.

    1990-11-01

    In the work described in this dissertation, interfaces between two mass spectrometric methods, liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry (LSIMS) and laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry (LD/FTMS), and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and slab gel electrophoresis were developed for bioanalytical applications. In an investigation of direct LSIMS for TLC analysis (TLC/LSIMS), mass spectra of bile acids and bile salts were characterized directly from high-performance TLC plates. The scanning ability of the LSIMS instrument was used to generate spatial profiles of the characteristic bile acid ions in the mass spectra. A procedure for the analysis of bile salts in dog bile was developed involving an extraction step, followed by TLC separation and direct TLC/LSIMS detection and semi-quantitation. For peptides, an experiment called selected-sequence monitoring'' was developed to locate target peptides related in structure in complex mixtures developed on TLC plates. Ions characteristic of the bradykinin and enkephalin peptides were used to generate spatial profiles of members of those peptide families on TLC plates. Using a Fourier transform mass spectrometer (FTMS), a fundamental investigation was conducted into the factors affecting the quality of analytical data obtained using direct laser desorption/ionization to produce mass spectra from TLC plates.

  13. A method to detect metal-drug complexes and their interactions with pathogenic bacteria via graphene nanosheet assist laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry and biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelhamid, Hani Nasser [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, 804, Taiwan (China); Wu, Hui-Fen, E-mail: hwu@faculty.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, 804, Taiwan (China); School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, 800, Taiwan (China); Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, 804, Taiwan (China); Doctoral Degree Program in Marine Biotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, 804, Taiwan (China)

    2012-11-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Probe transition metals-complexes based on noncovalent functionalized graphene for MALDI-MS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Study interaction of transition metals complexes with pathogenic bacteria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Propose a new biosensor for two pathogenic bacteria. - Abstract: A new method was proposed to probe the interactions between transition metals of Fe(II), Fe(III), Cu(II) with a non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), flufenamic acid (FF) using graphene as a matrix for Graphene assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (GALDI-MS). Metal-drug complexation was confirmed via UV absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, pH meter, and change in solution conductivity. The optimal molar ratios for these complexation interactions are stoichiometry 1:2 in both Cu(II) and Fe(II) complexes, and 1:3 in Fe(III) complexes at physiological pH (7.4). Metal complexation of the drug could enhance fluorescence for 20 fold which is due to the charge transfer reaction or increase rigidity of the drug. The main interaction between graphene and flufenamic acid is the {Pi}-{Pi} interaction which allows us to probe the metal-drug complexation. The GALDI-MS could sensitively detect the drug at m/z 281.0 Da (protonated molecule) with detection limit 2.5 pmol (1.0 {mu}M) and complexation at m/z 661.0, 654.0 and 933.0 Da corresponding to [Cu(II)(FF){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} + H]{sup +}, [Fe(II)(FF){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} + H]{sup +} and [Fe(III) (FF){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} + H]{sup +}, respectively (with limit of detection (LOD) 2.0 pmol (10.0 {mu}M). Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) spectra show change in the protein profile of intact pathogenic bacteria (Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Staphylococcus aureus). The change in the ionization ability (mainly proton affinity) of pathogenic bacteria may be due to the interactions between the bacteria with the drug (or its

  14. Biomarker research for moyamoya disease in cerebrospinal fluid using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruwaka, Mikio; Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Sho; Araki, Yoshio; Sumitomo, Masaki; Kawamura, Akino; Yokoyama, Kinya; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a rare cerebrovascular disease characterized by steno-occlusive change in bilateral internal carotid arteries with unknown etiology. To discover biomarker candidates in cerebrospinal fluid from MMD patients, proteome analysis was performed by the surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Three peptides, 4473Da, 4475Da, and 6253Da, were significantly elevated in MMD group. A positive correlation between 4473Da peptide and postoperative angiogenesis was determined. Twenty MMD patients were enrolled in this pilot study, including 11 pediatric cases less than 18 years of age (mean age, 8.67 years) and 9 adult MMD patients (mean age, 38.1 years). This study also includes 17 control cases with the mean age of 27.9 years old. In conclusion, 4473Da peptide is supposed to be a reliable biomarker of MMD. 4473Da peptide showed higher intensity peaks especially in younger MMD patients, and it was proved to be highly related to postoperative angiogenesis. Further study is needed to show how 4473Da peptide is involved with the etiology and the onset of MMD. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Direct identification of bacteria in blood culture by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry: a new methodological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroumova, Vesselina; Gobbato, Elisa; Basso, Elisa; Mucedola, Luca; Giani, Tommaso; Fortina, Giacomo

    2011-08-15

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been demonstrated to be a powerful tool for the rapid identification of bacteria from growing colonies. In order to speed up the identification of bacteria, several authors have evaluated the usefulness of this MALDI-TOF MS technology for the direct and quick identification bacteria from positive blood cultures. The results obtained so far have been encouraging but have also shown some limitations, mainly related to the bacterial growth and to the presence of interference substances belonging to the blood cultures. In this paper, we present a new methodological approach that we have developed to overcome these limitations, based mainly on an enrichment of the sample into a growing medium before the extraction process, prior to mass spectrometric analysis. The proposed method shows important advantages for the identification of bacterial strains, yielding an increased identification score, which gives higher confidence in the results. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. DIFFERENTIATION OF AEROMONAS ISOLATES OBTAINED FROM DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM USING MATRIX-ASSISTED LASER DESCRIPTION/IONIZATION-MASS SPECTROMETRY (MALDI-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Aeromonas is one of several medically significant genera that have gained prominence due to their evolving taxonomy and controversial role in human diseases. In this study, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) was used to analyze the...

  17. Identification and localization of trauma-related biomarkers using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kirstin; Reilly, Matthew A.; Glickman, Randolph D.

    2017-02-01

    Current treatments for ocular and optic nerve trauma are largely ineffective and may have adverse side effects; therefore, new approaches are needed to understand trauma mechanisms. Identification of trauma-related biomarkers may yield insights into the molecular aspects of tissue trauma that can contribute to the development of better diagnostics and treatments. The conventional approach for protein biomarker measurement largely relies on immunoaffinity methods that typically can only be applied to analytes for which antibodies or other targeting means are available. Matrix assisted laser-assisted desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) is a specialized application of mass spectrometry that not only is well suited to the discovery of novel or unanticipated biomarkers, but also provides information about the spatial localization of biomarkers in tissue. We have been using MALDI-IMS to find traumarelated protein biomarkers in retina and optic nerve tissue from animal models subjected to ocular injury produced by either blast overpressure or mechanical torsion. Work to date by our group, using MALDI-IMS, found that the pattern of protein expression is modified in the injured ocular tissue as soon as 24 hr post-injury, compared to controls. Specific proteins may be up- or down-regulated by trauma, suggesting different tissue responses to a given injury. Ongoing work is directed at identifying the proteins affected and mapping their expression in the ocular tissue, anticipating that systematic analysis can be used to identify targets for prospective therapies for ocular trauma.

  18. Rapid Quantification of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 in Human Serum by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yulin; Müller, Miriam; Stokes, Caroline S.; Volmer, Dietrich A.

    2018-04-01

    LC-MS/MS is widely utilized today for quantification of vitamin D in biological fluids. Mass spectrometric assays for vitamin D require very careful method optimization for precise and interference-free, accurate analyses however. Here, we explore chemical derivatization and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) as a rapid alternative for quantitative measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in human serum, and compare it to results from LC-MS/MS. The method implemented an automated imaging step of each MALDI spot, to locate areas of high intensity, avoid sweet spot phenomena, and thus improve precision. There was no statistically significant difference in vitamin D quantification between the MALDI-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS: mean ± standard deviation for MALDI-MS—29.4 ± 10.3 ng/mL—versus LC-MS/MS—30.3 ± 11.2 ng/mL (P = 0.128)—for the sum of the 25-hydroxyvitamin D epimers. The MALDI-based assay avoided time-consuming chromatographic separation steps and was thus much faster than the LC-MS/MS assay. It also consumed less sample, required no organic solvents, and was readily automated. In this proof-of-concept study, MALDI-MS readily demonstrated its potential for mass spectrometric quantification of vitamin D compounds in biological fluids.

  19. Direct matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry improves appropriateness of antibiotic treatment of bacteremia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne L M Vlek

    Full Text Available Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS allows the identification of microorganisms directly from positive blood culture broths. Use of the MALDI-TOF MS for rapid identification of microorganisms from blood culture broths can reduce the turnaround time to identification and may lead to earlier appropriate treatment of bacteremia. During February and April 2010, direct MALDI-TOF MS was routinely performed on all positive blood cultures. During December 2009 and March 2010 no direct MALDI-TOF MS was used. Information on antibiotic therapy was collected from the hospital and intensive care units' information systems from all positive blood cultures during the study period. In total, 253 episodes of bacteremia were included of which 89 during the intervention period and 164 during the control period. Direct performance of MALDI-TOF MS on positive blood culture broths reduced the time till species identification by 28.8-h and was associated with an 11.3% increase in the proportion of patients receiving appropriate antibiotic treatment 24 hours after blood culture positivity (64.0% in the control period versus 75.3% in the intervention period (p0.01. Routine implementation of this technique increased the proportion of patients on adequate antimicrobial treatment within 24 hours.

  20. Direct matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry improves appropriateness of antibiotic treatment of bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlek, Anne L M; Bonten, Marc J M; Boel, C H Edwin

    2012-01-01

    Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) allows the identification of microorganisms directly from positive blood culture broths. Use of the MALDI-TOF MS for rapid identification of microorganisms from blood culture broths can reduce the turnaround time to identification and may lead to earlier appropriate treatment of bacteremia. During February and April 2010, direct MALDI-TOF MS was routinely performed on all positive blood cultures. During December 2009 and March 2010 no direct MALDI-TOF MS was used. Information on antibiotic therapy was collected from the hospital and intensive care units' information systems from all positive blood cultures during the study period. In total, 253 episodes of bacteremia were included of which 89 during the intervention period and 164 during the control period. Direct performance of MALDI-TOF MS on positive blood culture broths reduced the time till species identification by 28.8-h and was associated with an 11.3% increase in the proportion of patients receiving appropriate antibiotic treatment 24 hours after blood culture positivity (64.0% in the control period versus 75.3% in the intervention period (p0.01)). Routine implementation of this technique increased the proportion of patients on adequate antimicrobial treatment within 24 hours.

  1. Rapid Identification of Intact Staphylococcal Bacteriophages Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Štveráková

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a major causative agent of infections associated with hospital environments, where antibiotic-resistant strains have emerged as a significant threat. Phage therapy could offer a safe and effective alternative to antibiotics. Phage preparations should comply with quality and safety requirements; therefore, it is important to develop efficient production control technologies. This study was conducted to develop and evaluate a rapid and reliable method for identifying staphylococcal bacteriophages, based on detecting their specific proteins using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS profiling that is among the suggested methods for meeting the regulations of pharmaceutical authorities. Five different phage purification techniques were tested in combination with two MALDI-TOF MS matrices. Phages, either purified by CsCl density gradient centrifugation or as resuspended phage pellets, yielded mass spectra with the highest information value if ferulic acid was used as the MALDI matrix. Phage tail and capsid proteins yielded the strongest signals whereas the culture conditions had no effect on mass spectral quality. Thirty-seven phages from Myoviridae, Siphoviridae or Podoviridae families were analysed, including 23 siphophages belonging to the International Typing Set for human strains of S. aureus, as well as phages in preparations produced by Microgen, Bohemia Pharmaceuticals and MB Pharma. The data obtained demonstrate that MALDI-TOF MS can be used to effectively distinguish between Staphylococcus-specific bacteriophages.

  2. Recognition of Streptococcus pseudoporcinus Colonization in Women as a Consequence of Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry for Group B Streptococcus Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwantarat, Nuntra; Grundy, Maureen; Rubin, Mayer; Harris, Renee; Miller, Jo-Anne; Romagnoli, Mark; Hanlon, Ann; Tekle, Tsigereda; Ellis, Brandon C; Witter, Frank R; Carroll, Karen C

    2015-12-01

    During a 14-month period of using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for group B streptococcus (GBS) identification, we recovered 32 (1%) Streptococcus pseudoporcinus isolates from 3,276 GBS screening cultures from female genital sources (25 isolates from pregnant women and 7 from nonpregnant women). An additional two S. pseudoporcinus isolates were identified from a urine culture and a posthysterectomy wound culture. These isolates were found to cross-react with three different GBS antigen agglutination kits, PathoDx (Remel) (93%), Prolex (Pro-Lab Diagnostics) (38%), and Streptex (Remel) (53%). New approaches to bacterial identification in routine clinical microbiology laboratories may affect the prevalence of S. pseudoporcinus. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Marsh, B

    2013-01-01

    The application of the technique of laser resonance ionization to the production of singly charged ions at radioactive ion beam facilities is discussed. The ability to combine high efficiency and element selectivity makes a resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) an important component of many radioactive ion beam facilities. At CERN, for example, the RILIS is the most commonly used ion source of the ISOLDE facility, with a yearly operating time of up to 3000 hours. For some isotopes the RILIS can also be used as a fast and sensitive laser spectroscopy tool, provided that the spectral resolution is sufficiently high to reveal the influence of nuclear structure on the atomic spectra. This enables the study of nuclear properties of isotopes with production rates even lower than one ion per second and, in some cases, enables isomer selective ionization. The solutions available for the implementation of resonance laser ionization at radioactive ion beam facilities are summarized. Aspects such as the laser r...

  4. Direct identification of bacteria from positive BacT/ALERT blood culture bottles using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestas, Javier; Felsenstein, Susanna; Bard, Jennifer Dien

    2014-11-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry is a fast and robust method for the identification of bacteria. In this study, we evaluate the performance of a laboratory-developed lysis method (LDT) for the rapid identification of bacteria from positive BacT/ALERT blood culture bottles. Of the 168 positive bottles tested, 159 were monomicrobial, the majority of which were Gram-positive organisms (61.0% versus 39.0%). Using a cut-off score of ≥1.7, 80.4% of the organisms were correctly identified to the species level, and the identification rate of Gram-negative organisms (90.3%) was found to be significantly greater than that of Gram-positive organisms (78.4%). The simplicity and cost-effectiveness of the LDT enable it to be fully integrated into the routine workflow of the clinical microbiology laboratory, allowing for rapid identification of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria within an hour of blood culture positivity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Optimising the Use of TRIzol-extracted Proteins in Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/ Ionization (SELDI Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perlaky Laszlo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research with clinical specimens is always hampered by the limited availability of relevant samples, necessitating the use of a single sample for multiple assays. TRIzol is a common reagent for RNA extraction, but DNA and protein fractions can also be used for other studies. However, little is known about using TRIzol-extracted proteins in proteomic research, partly because proteins extracted from TRIzol are very resistant to solubilization. Results To facilitate the use of TRIzol-extracted proteins, we first compared the ability of four different common solubilizing reagents to solubilize the TRIzol-extracted proteins from an osteosarcoma cell line, U2-OS. Then we analyzed the solubilized proteins by Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/ Ionization technique (SELDI. The results showed that solubilization of TRIzol-extracted proteins with 9.5 M Urea and 2% CHAPS ([3-[(3-cholamidopropyl-dimethylammonio]propanesulfonate] (UREA-CHAPS was significantly better than the standard 1% SDS in terms of solubilization efficiency and the number of detectable ion peaks. Using three different types of SELDI arrays (CM10, H50, and IMAC-Cu, we demonstrated that peak detection with proteins solubilized by UREA-CHAPS was reproducible (r > 0.9. Further SELDI analysis indicated that the number of ion peaks detected in TRIzol-extracted proteins was comparable to a direct extraction method, suggesting many proteins still remain in the TRIzol protein fraction. Conclusion Our results suggest that UREA-CHAPS performed very well in solubilizing TRIzol-extracted proteins for SELDI applications. Protein fractions left over after TRIzol RNA extraction could be a valuable but neglected source for proteomic or biochemical analysis when additional samples are not available.

  6. Detection and Quantification of 4-Methylimidazole in Cola by Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry with Fe2O3 Nanoparticles on Zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yosuke; Ding, Yuqi; Umezawa, Taichi; Akimoto, Takafumi; Xu, Jiawei; Uchida, Takashi; Fujino, Tatsuya

    2018-01-01

    Food additives generally used in carbonated drinks, such as 4-methylimidazole (4MI), caffeine (Caf?), citric acid (CA), and aspartame (Apm), were measured by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) using nanometer-sized particles of iron oxide (Fe 2 O 3 NPs). The quantification of 4MI in Coca Cola (C-cola) was carried out. In order to improve the reproducibility of the peak intensities, Fe 2 O 3 NPs loaded on ZSM5 zeolite were used as the matrix for quantification. By using 2-ethylimidazole (2EI) as the internal standard, the amount of 4MI in C-cola was determined to range from 88 to 65 μg/355 mL. The results agree with the published value (approx. 72 μg/355 mL). It was found that MALDI using Fe 2 O 3 was applicable to the quantification of 4MI in C-cola.

  7. Matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization mass spectrometric imaging of olanzapine in a single hair using esculetin as a matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hang; Wang, Ying; Wang, Ge; Hong, Lizhi

    2017-07-15

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometric imaging (MALDI-MSI) for the analysis of intact hair is a powerful tool for monitoring changes in drug consumption. The embedding of a low drug concentration in the hydrophobic hair matrix makes it difficult to extract and detect, and requires an improved method to increase detection sensitivity. In this study, an MSI method using MALDI-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance was developed for direct identification and imaging of olanzapine in hair samples using the positive ion mode. Following decontamination, scalp hair samples from an olanzapine user were scraped from the proximal to the distal end three times, and 5mm hair sections were fixed onto an Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO)-coated microscopic glass slide. Esculetin (6,7-dihydroxy-2H-chromen-2-one) was used as a new hydrophobic matrix to increase the affinity, extraction and ionization efficiency of olanzapine in the hair samples. The spatial distribution of olanzapine was observed using five single hairs from the same drug user. This matrix improves the affinity of olanzapine in hair for molecular imaging with mass spectrometry. This method may provide a detection power for olanzapine to the nanogram level per 5mm hair. Time course changes in the MSI results were also compared with quantitative HPLC-MS/MS for each 5mm segment of single hair shafts selected from the MALDI target. MALDI imaging intensities in single hairs showed good semi-quantitative correlation with the results from conventional HPLC-MS/MS. MALDI-MSI is suitable for monitoring drug intake with a high time resolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Rapid Detection and Identification of Candidemia by Direct Blood Culturing on Solid Medium by Use of Lysis-Centrifugation Method Combined with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idelevich, Evgeny A; Grünastel, Barbara; Becker, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Candida sepsis is a life-threatening condition with increasing prevalence. In this study, direct blood culturing on solid medium using a lysis-centrifugation procedure enabled successful Candida species identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time of flight mass spectrometry on average 3.8 h (Sabouraud agar) or 7.4 h (chocolate agar) before the positivity signal for control samples in Bactec mycosis-IC/F or Bactec Plus aerobic/F bottles, respectively. Direct culturing on solid medium accelerated candidemia diagnostics compared to that with automated broth-based systems. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. Microfluidic Isoelectric Focusing of Amyloid Beta Peptides Followed by Micropillar-Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkonen, Saara; Jacksén, Johan; Roeraade, Johan; Thormann, Wolfgang; Emmer, Åsa

    2016-10-18

    A novel method for preconcentration and purification of the Alzheimer's disease related amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides by isoelectric focusing (IEF) in 75 nL microchannels combined with their analysis by micropillar-matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) is presented. A semiopen chip-based setup, consisting of open microchannels covered by a lid of a liquid fluorocarbon, was used. IEF was performed in a mixture of four small and chemically well-defined amphoteric carriers, glutamic acid, aspartyl-histidine (Asp-His), cycloserine (cSer), and arginine, which provided a stepwise pH gradient tailored for focusing of the C-terminal Aβ peptides with a pI of 5.3 in the boundary between cSer and Asp-His. Information about the focusing dynamics and location of the foci of Aβ peptides and other compounds was obtained using computer simulation and by performing MALDI-MS analysis directly from the open microchannel. With the established configuration, detection was performed by direct sampling of a nanoliter volume containing the focused Aβ peptides from the microchannel, followed by deposition of this volume onto a chip with micropillar MALDI targets. In addition to purification, IEF preconcentration provides at least a 10-fold increase of the MALDI-MS-signal. After immunoprecipitation and concentration of the eluate in the microchannel, IEF-micropillar-MALDI-MS is demonstrated to be a suitable platform for detection of Aβ peptides in human cerebrospinal fluid as well as in blood plasma.

  10. Ceria nanocubic-ultrasonication assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for pathogenic bacteria analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhamid, Hani Nasser; Bhaisare, Mukesh L; Wu, Hui-Fen

    2014-03-01

    A new ceria (CeO2) nanocubic modified surfactant is used as the basis of a novel nano-based microextraction technique for highly sensitive detection of pathogenic bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus). The technique uses ultrasound enhanced surfactant-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UESA-DLLME) with and without ceria (CeO2) followed by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). In order to achieve high separation efficiency, we investigated the influential parameters, including extraction time of ultrasonication, type and volume of the extraction solvent and surfactant. Among various surfactants, the cationic surfactants can selectively offer better extraction efficiency on bacteria analysis than that of the anionic surfactants due to the negative charges of bacteria cell membranes. Extractions of the bacteria lysate from aqueous samples via UESA-DLLME-MALDI-MS were successfully achieved by using cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB, 10.0 µL, 1.0×10(-3) M) as surfactants in chlorobenzene (10.0 µL) and chloroform (10.0 µL) as the optimal extracting solvent for P. aeruginosa and S. aureus, respectively. Ceria nanocubic was synthesized, and functionalized with CTAB (CeO2@CTAB) and then characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and optical spectroscopy (UV and FTIR). CeO2@CTAB demonstrates high extraction efficiency, improve peaks ionization, and enhance resolution. The prime reasons for these improvements are due to the large surface area of nanoparticles, and its absorption that coincides with the wavelength of MALDI laser (337 nm, N2 laser). CeO2@CTAB-based microextraction offers lowest detectable concentrations tenfold lower than that of without nanoceria. The present approach has been successfully applied to detect pathogenic bacteria at low concentrations of 10(4)-10(5) cfu/mL (without ceria) and at 10(3)-10(4) cfu/mL (with ceria) from bacteria suspensions. Finally, the

  11. Coumarins as new matrices for matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometric analysis of hydrophobic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hang, E-mail: hangwang@sjtu.edu.cn [Instrumental Analysis Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Dongchuan Road 800, Shanghai 200240 (China); Dai, Bona [Instrumental Analysis Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Dongchuan Road 800, Shanghai 200240 (China); Liu, Bin [Key Laboratory of Kidney Disease Pathogenesis and Intervention of Hubei Province, College of Medicine, Hubei Polytechnic University, Huangshi, Hubei 435003 (China); Lu, Han [Department of Anesthesiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (SJTU-SM), 197, Rui Jin Er Road, Shanghai 200025 (China)

    2015-07-02

    Highlights: • Coumarins were used as new MALDI matrices. • Coumarins were used for MALDI-FT ICR MS detection of hydrophobic compounds. • DCA had improvement in detection sensitivity, stability, selectivity and reproducibility. • DCA was applied to sterols detection in yeast cells. - Abstract: Hydrophobic compounds with hydroxyl, aldehyde or ketone groups are generally difficult to detect using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS), because these compounds have low proton affinity and are poorly ionized by MALDI. Herein, coumarins have been used as new matrices for MALDI-MS analysis of a variety of hydrophobic compounds with low ionization efficiency, including steroids, coenzyme Q10, a cyclic lipopeptide and cholesterol oleate. Five coumarins, including coumarin, umbelliferone, esculetin, 7-hydroxycoumarin-3-carboxylic acid (HCA) and 6,7-dihydroxycoumarin-3-carboxylic acid (DCA), were compared with the conventional matrices of 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) and α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA). Coumarins with hydroxyl or carboxylic acid groups enabled detection. Taking DCA as an example, this matrix proved to be superior to DHB or CHCA in detection sensitivity, stability, spot-to-spot and sample-to-sample reproducibility, and accuracy. DCA increased the stability of the target compounds and decreased the loss of water. The [M + Na]{sup +} peaks were observed for all target compounds by adding NaCl as an additive, and the [M − H{sub 2}O + H]{sup +} and [M + H]{sup +} peaks decreased. DCA was selected for the identification of sterols in yeast cells, and thirteen sterols were detected by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT ICR) mass spectrometry. This work demonstrates the potential of DCA as a new matrix for detection of hydrophobic molecules by MALDI-MS and provides an alternative tool for screening sterols in antifungal research.

  12. Two-step laser ionization schemes for in-gas laser ionization and spectroscopy of radioactive isotopesa

    OpenAIRE

    Kudryavtsev, Yuri; Ferrer, Rafael; Huyse, Mark; Van den Bergh, Paul; Van Duppen, Piet; Vermeeren, L.

    2014-01-01

    The in-gas laser ionization and spectroscopy technique has been developed at the Leuven isotope separator on-line facility for the production and in-source laser spectroscopy studies of short-lived radioactive isotopes. In this article, results from a study to identify efficient optical schemes for the two-step resonance laser ionization of 18 elements are presented. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

  13. A novel cluster of Mycobacterium abscessus complex revealed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hiromichi; Yoshida, Shiomi; Yoshida, Atsushi; Okuzumi, Katsuko; Fukusima, Atsuhito; Hishinuma, Akira

    2015-12-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus complex is a rapidly growing mycobacterium consisting of 3 subspecies, M. abscessus, Mycobacterium massiliense, and Mycobacterium bolletii. However, rapid and accurate species identification is difficult. We first evaluated a suitable protocol of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for distinguishing these subspecies. Then, we studied spectral signals by MALDI-TOF MS in 59 M. abscessus, 42 M. massiliense, and 2 M. bolletii. Among several specific spectral signals, 4 signals clearly differentiate M. massiliense from the other 2 subspecies, M. abscessus and M. bolletii. Moreover, 6 of the 42 M. massiliense isolates showed a spectral pattern similar to M. abscessus. These isolates correspond to the distinctive class of M. massiliense (cluster D) which is closer to M. abscessus by the previous variable number tandem repeat analysis. These results indicate that MALDI-TOF MS is not only useful for the identification of 3 subspecies of M. abscessus complex but also capable of distinguishing clusters of M. massiliense. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of synthase and hemisynthase activities of glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucher-Wieczorek, Florence; Guérineau, Vincent; Touboul, David; Thétiot-Laurent, Sophie; Pelissier, Franck; Badet-Denisot, Marie-Ange; Badet, Bernard; Durand, Philippe

    2014-08-01

    Glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase (GlmS, EC 2.6.1.16) catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step in the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, leading to the synthesis of uridine-5'-diphospho-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, the major building block for the edification of peptidoglycan in bacteria, chitin in fungi, and glycoproteins in mammals. This bisubstrate enzyme converts D-fructose-6-phosphate (Fru-6P) and L-glutamine (Gln) into D-glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN-6P) and L-glutamate (Glu), respectively. We previously demonstrated that matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) allows determination of the kinetic parameters of the synthase activity. We propose here to refine the experimental protocol to quantify Glu and GlcN-6P, allowing determination of both hemisynthase and synthase parameters from a single assay kinetic experiment, while avoiding interferences encountered in other assays. It is the first time that MALDI-MS is used to survey the activity of a bisubstrate enzyme. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ammonium Sulfate Improves Detection of Hydrophilic Quaternary Ammonium Compounds through Decreased Ion Suppression in Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Eiji; Masaki, Noritaka; Matsushita, Shoko; Setou, Mitsutoshi

    2015-11-17

    Hydrophilic quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) include derivatives of carnitine (Car) or choline, which are known to have essential bioactivities. Here we developed a technique for improving the detection of hydrophilic QACs using ammonium sulfate (AS) in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS). In MALDI mass spectrometry for brain homogenates, the addition of AS greatly increased the signal intensities of Car, acetylcarnitine (AcCar), and glycerophosphocholine (GPC) by approximately 300-, 700-, and 2500-fold. The marked improvement required a higher AS concentration than that needed for suppressing the potassium adduction on phosphatidylcholine and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid. Adding AS also increased the signal intensities of Car, AcCar, and GPC by approximately 10-, 20-, and 40-fold in MALDI-IMS. Consequently, the distributions of five hydrophilic QACs (Car, AcCar, GPC, choline, and phosphocholine) were simultaneously visualized by this technique. The distinct mechanism from other techniques such as improved matrix application, derivatization, or postionization suggests the great potential of AS addition to achieve higher sensitivity of MALDI-IMS for various analytes.

  16. High Surface Area of Porous Silicon Drives Desorption of Intact Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northen, Trent R.; Woo, Hin-Koon; Northen, Michael T.; Nordström, Anders; Uritboonthail, Winnie; Turner, Kimberly L.; Siuzdak, Gary

    2007-01-01

    The surface structure of porous silicon used in desorption/ionization on porous silicon (DIOS) mass analysis is known to play a primary role in the desorption/ionization (D/I) process. In this study, mass spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to examine the correlation between intact ion generation with surface ablation, and surface morphology. The DIOS process is found to be highly laser energy dependent and correlates directly with the appearance of surface ions (Sin+ and OSiH+). A threshold laser energy for DIOS is observed (10 mJ/cm2), which supports that DIOS is driven by surface restructuring and is not a strictly thermal process. In addition, three DIOS regimes are observed which correspond to surface restructuring and melting. These results suggest that higher surface area silicon substrates may enhance DIOS performance. A recent example which fits into this mechanism is silicon nanowires surface which have a high surface energy and concomitantly requires lower laser energy for analyte desorpton. PMID:17881245

  17. A SIMPLE AND RAPID MATRIX-ASSISTED LASER DESORPTION/IONIZATION TIME OF FLIGHT MASS SPECTROMETRY METHOD TO SCREEN FISH PLASMA SAMPLES FOR ESTROGEN-RESPONSIVE BIOMARKERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we describe and evaluate the performance of a simple and rapid mass spectral method for screening fish plasma for estrogen-responsive biomarkers using matrix assisted laster desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) couopled with a short...

  18. The sensitivity of direct identification from positive BacT/ALERT™ (bioMérieux) blood culture bottles by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry is low.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabados, F; Michels, M; Kaase, M; Gatermann, S

    2011-02-01

    Recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been presented as a novel method for the direct identification of bacteria from positive blood culture bottles. The rate of the MALDI TOF MS-based identification in the present study from positive BacT/ALERT (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France) blood culture bottles was 30%, which is far below the previously reported sensitivities using the BACTEC (Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA) system. We also found evidence that the Biotyper algorithm did not identify a second pathogen in cases of positive BacT/ALERT blood culture bottles containing two different species. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  19. Negative Ion In-Source Decay Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Sequencing Acidic Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillen, Chelsea L.; Wright, Patience M.; Cassady, Carolyn J.

    2016-05-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) in-source decay was studied in the negative ion mode on deprotonated peptides to determine its usefulness for obtaining extensive sequence information for acidic peptides. Eight biological acidic peptides, ranging in size from 11 to 33 residues, were studied by negative ion mode ISD (nISD). The matrices 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2-aminobenzoic acid, 2-aminobenzamide, 1,5-diaminonaphthalene, 5-amino-1-naphthol, 3-aminoquinoline, and 9-aminoacridine were used with each peptide. Optimal fragmentation was produced with 1,5-diaminonphthalene (DAN), and extensive sequence informative fragmentation was observed for every peptide except hirudin(54-65). Cleavage at the N-Cα bond of the peptide backbone, producing c' and z' ions, was dominant for all peptides. Cleavage of the N-Cα bond N-terminal to proline residues was not observed. The formation of c and z ions is also found in electron transfer dissociation (ETD), electron capture dissociation (ECD), and positive ion mode ISD, which are considered to be radical-driven techniques. Oxidized insulin chain A, which has four highly acidic oxidized cysteine residues, had less extensive fragmentation. This peptide also exhibited the only charged localized fragmentation, with more pronounced product ion formation adjacent to the highly acidic residues. In addition, spectra were obtained by positive ion mode ISD for each protonated peptide; more sequence informative fragmentation was observed via nISD for all peptides. Three of the peptides studied had no product ion formation in ISD, but extensive sequence informative fragmentation was found in their nISD spectra. The results of this study indicate that nISD can be used to readily obtain sequence information for acidic peptides.

  20. Desorption of large organic molecules by laser-induced plasmon excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, I.; Callcott, T.A.

    1991-01-01

    Ejection of large organic molecules from surfaces by laser-induced electronic-excited desorption has attracted considerable interest in recent years. In addition to the importance of this effect for fundamental investigations of the ejection process, this desorption technique has been applied to the study of large, fragile molecules by mass spectrometry. In this paper, we present a new method to induce electronic excitation on the metal surface for the desorption of large organic molecules. 3 refs., 3 figs

  1. Laser desorption mass spectrometry for fast DNA analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.H.; Ch`ang, L.Y.; Taranenko, N.I.; Allman, S.L.; Tang, K.; Matteson, K.J.

    1995-09-01

    During the past few years, major effort has been directed toward developing mass spectrometry to measure biopolymers because of the great potential benefit to biomedical research. Hellenkamp and his co-workers were the first to report that large polypeptide molecules can be ionized and detected without significant fragmentation when a greater number of nicotinic acid molecules are used as a matrix. This method is now well known as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI). Since then, various groups have reported measurements of very large proteins by MALDI. Reliable protein analysis by MALDI is more or less well established. However, the application of MALDI to nucleic acids analysis has been found to be much more difficult. Most research on the measurement of nucleic acid by MALDI were stimulated by the Human Genome Project. Up to now, the only method for reliable routine analysis of nucleic acid is gel electrophoresis. Different sizes of nucleic acids can be separated in gel medium when a high electric field is applied to the gel. However, the time needed to separate different sizes of DNA segments usually takes from several minutes to several hours. If MALDI can be successfully used for nucleic acids analysis, the analysis time can be reduced to less than I millisecond. In addition, no tagging with radioactive materials or chemical dyes is needed. In this work, we will review recent progress related to MALDI for DNA analysis.

  2. Detection of Staphylococcus aureus by functional gold nanoparticle-based affinity surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hong-Zheng; Wang, Sin-Ge; Wu, Ching-Yi; Chen, Yu-Chie

    2015-02-17

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the common pathogenic bacteria responsible for bacterial infectious diseases and food poisoning. This study presents an analytical method based on the affinity nanoprobe-based mass spectrometry that enables detection of S. aureus in aqueous samples. A peptide aptamer DVFLGDVFLGDEC (DD) that can recognize S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was used as the reducing agent and protective group to generate DD-immobilized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs@DD) from one-pot reactions. The thiol group from cysteine in the peptide aptamer, i.e., DD, can interact with gold ions to generate DD-immobilized AuNPs in an alkaline solution. The generated AuNPs@DD has an absorption maximum at ∼518 nm. The average particle size is 7.6 ± 1.2 nm. Furthermore, the generated AuNPs@DD can selectively bind with S. aureus and MRSA. The conjugates of the target bacteria with AuNPs were directly analyzed by surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS). The gold ions generated from the AuNPs@DD anchored on the target bacteria were monitored. Gold ions (m/z 197 and 394) were only generated from the conjugates of the target bacterium-AuNP@DD in the SALDI process. Thus, the gold ions could be used as the indicators for the presence of the target bacteria. The detection limit of S. aureus using this method is in the order of a few tens of cells. The low detection limit is due to the ease of generation of gold cluster ion derived from AuNPs under irradiation with a 355 nm laser beam. Apple juice mixed with S. aureus was used as the sample to demonstrate the suitability of the method for real-world application. Because of its low detection limit, this approach can potentially be used to screen the presence of S. aureus in complex samples.

  3. Peptidylation for the determination of low-molecular-weight compounds by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Feng; Cen, Si-Ying; He, Huan; Liu, Yi; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2016-05-23

    Determination of low-molecular-weight compounds by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) has been a great challenge in the analytical research field. Here we developed a universal peptide-based derivatization (peptidylation) strategy for the sensitive analysis of low-molecular-weight compounds by MALDI-TOF-MS. Upon peptidylation, the molecular weights of target analytes increase, thus avoiding serious matrix ion interference in the low-molecular-weight region in MALDI-TOF-MS. Since peptides typically exhibit good signal response during MALDI-TOF-MS analysis, peptidylation endows high detection sensitivities of low-molecular-weight analytes. As a proof-of-concept, we analyzed low-molecular-weight compounds of aldehydes and thiols by the developed peptidylation strategy. Our results showed that aldehydes and thiols can be readily determined upon peptidylation, thus realizing the sensitive and efficient determination of low-molecular-weight compounds by MALDI-TOF-MS. Moreover, target analytes also can be unambiguously detected in biological samples using the peptidylation strategy. The established peptidylation strategy is a universal strategy and can be extended to the sensitive analysis of various low-molecular-weight compounds by MALDI-TOF-MS, which may be potentially used in areas such as metabolomics.

  4. Evaluation of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry for the identification of ceratopogonid and culicid larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, I C; Pflüger, V; Schaffner, F; Mathis, A; Kaufmann, C

    2013-03-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was evaluated for the rapid identification of ceratopogonid larvae. Optimal sample preparation as evaluated with laboratory-reared biting midges Culicoides nubeculosus was the homogenization of gut-less larvae in 10% formic acid, and analysis of 0.2 mg/ml crude protein homogenate mixed with SA matrix at a ratio of 1:1.5. Using 5 larvae each of 4 ceratopogonid species (C. nubeculosus, C. obsoletus, C. decor, and Dasyhelea sp.) and of 2 culicid species (Aedes aegypti, Ae. japonicus), biomarker mass sets between 27 and 33 masses were determined. In a validation study, 67 larvae belonging to the target species were correctly identified by automated database-based identification (91%) or manual full comparison (9%). Four specimens of non-target species did not yield identification. As anticipated for holometabolous insects, the biomarker mass sets of adults cannot be used for the identification of larvae, and vice versa, because they share only very few similar masses as shown for C. nubeculosus, C. obsoletus, and Ae. japonicus. Thus, protein profiling by MALDI-TOF as a quick, inexpensive and accurate alternative tool is applicable to identify insect larvae of vector species collected in the field.

  5. Multisample matrix-assisted laser desorption source for molecular beams of neutral peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupulescu, C.; Abd El Rahim, M.; Antoine, R.; Barbaire, M.; Broyer, M.; Dagany, X.; Maurelli, J.; Rayane, D.; Dugourd, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    We developed and tested a multisample laser desorption source for producing stable molecular beams of neutral peptides. Our apparatus is based on matrix-assisted laser desorption technique. The source consists of 96 different targets which may be scanned by a software control procedure. Examples of molecular beams of neutral peptides are presented, as well as the influence of the different source parameters on the jet

  6. Rapid screening of mixed edible oils and gutter oils by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Tsz-Tsun; So, Pui-Kin; Zheng, Bo [Food Safety and Technology Research Centre, State Key Laboratory of Chirosciences and Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China); Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Food Biological Safety Control and State Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine and Molecular Pharmacology (Incubation), Shenzhen Research Institute of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Shenzhen (China); Yao, Zhong-Ping, E-mail: zhongping.yao@polyu.edu.hk [Food Safety and Technology Research Centre, State Key Laboratory of Chirosciences and Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China); Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Food Biological Safety Control and State Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine and Molecular Pharmacology (Incubation), Shenzhen Research Institute of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Shenzhen (China)

    2015-07-16

    Highlights: • Simplified sample preparation method for direct analysis of edible oils by MALDI-MS. • Establishment of a preliminary MALDI-MS spectral database of edible oils. • Rapid screening of mixed edible oils and gutter oils. - Abstract: Authentication of edible oils is a long-term issue in food safety, and becomes particularly important with the emergence and wide spread of gutter oils in recent years. Due to the very high analytical demand and diversity of gutter oils, a high throughput analytical method and a versatile strategy for authentication of mixed edible oils and gutter oils are highly desirable. In this study, an improved matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) method has been developed for direct analysis of edible oils. This method involved on-target sample loading, automatic data acquisition and simple data processing. MALDI-MS spectra with high quality and high reproducibility have been obtained using this method, and a preliminary spectral database of edible oils has been set up. The authenticity of an edible oil sample can be determined by comparing its MALDI-MS spectrum and principal component analysis (PCA) results with those of its labeled oil in the database. This method is simple and the whole process only takes several minutes for analysis of one oil sample. We demonstrated that the method was sensitive to change in oil compositions and can be used for measuring compositions of mixed oils. The capability of the method for determining mislabeling enables it for rapid screening of gutter oils since fraudulent mislabeling is a common feature of gutter oils.

  7. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for rapid identification of fungal rhinosinusitis pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanfei; Wang, Jinglin; Zhang, Mingxin; Zhu, Min; Wang, Mei; Sun, Yufeng; Gu, Haitong; Cao, Jingjing; Li, Xue; Zhang, Shaoya; Lu, Xinxin

    2017-03-01

    Filamentous fungi are among the most important pathogens, causing fungal rhinosinusitis (FRS). Current laboratory diagnosis of FRS pathogens mainly relies on phenotypic identification by culture and microscopic examination, which is time consuming and expertise dependent. Although matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS has been employed to identify various fungi, its efficacy in the identification of FRS fungi is less clear. A total of 153 FRS isolates obtained from patients were analysed at the Clinical Laboratory at the Beijing Tongren Hospital affiliated to the Capital Medical University, between January 2014 and December 2015. They were identified by traditional phenotypic methods and Bruker MALDI-TOF MS (Bruker, Biotyper version 3.1), respectively. Discrepancies between the two methods were further validated by sequencing. Among the 153 isolates, 151 had correct species identification using MALDI-TOF MS (Bruker, Biot 3.1, score ≥2.0 or 2.3). MALDI-TOF MS enabled identification of some very closely related species that were indistinguishable by conventional phenotypic methods, including 1/10 Aspergillus versicolor, 3/20 Aspergillus flavus, 2/30 Aspergillus fumigatus and 1/20 Aspergillus terreus, which were misidentified by conventional phenotypic methods as Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus japonicus and Aspergillus nidulans, respectively. In addition, 2/2 Rhizopus oryzae and 1/1 Rhizopus stolonifer that were identified only to the genus level by the phenotypic method were correctly identified by MALDI-TOF MS. MALDI-TOF MS is a rapid and accurate technique, and could replace the conventional phenotypic method for routine identification of FRS fungi in clinical microbiology laboratories.

  8. Rapid screening of mixed edible oils and gutter oils by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Tsz-Tsun; So, Pui-Kin; Zheng, Bo; Yao, Zhong-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Simplified sample preparation method for direct analysis of edible oils by MALDI-MS. • Establishment of a preliminary MALDI-MS spectral database of edible oils. • Rapid screening of mixed edible oils and gutter oils. - Abstract: Authentication of edible oils is a long-term issue in food safety, and becomes particularly important with the emergence and wide spread of gutter oils in recent years. Due to the very high analytical demand and diversity of gutter oils, a high throughput analytical method and a versatile strategy for authentication of mixed edible oils and gutter oils are highly desirable. In this study, an improved matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) method has been developed for direct analysis of edible oils. This method involved on-target sample loading, automatic data acquisition and simple data processing. MALDI-MS spectra with high quality and high reproducibility have been obtained using this method, and a preliminary spectral database of edible oils has been set up. The authenticity of an edible oil sample can be determined by comparing its MALDI-MS spectrum and principal component analysis (PCA) results with those of its labeled oil in the database. This method is simple and the whole process only takes several minutes for analysis of one oil sample. We demonstrated that the method was sensitive to change in oil compositions and can be used for measuring compositions of mixed oils. The capability of the method for determining mislabeling enables it for rapid screening of gutter oils since fraudulent mislabeling is a common feature of gutter oils

  9. Rapid identification of bacteria in positive blood culture by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, V; Jarosch, A; März, P; Sander, C; Vacata, V; Kalka-Moll, W

    2012-03-01

    Blood culture is probably the most significant specimen used for the diagnosis of bacterial infections, especially for bloodstream infections. In the present study, we compared the resin-containing BD BACTEC™ Plus-Aerobic (Becton Dickinson), non-charcoal-containing BacT/Alert(®) SA (bioMérieux), and charcoal-containing BacT/Alert(®) FA (bioMérieux) blood culture bottles with direct identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). A total of 103 bacterial isolates, from clinical blood cultures, representing the most frequent 13 genera and 24 species were examined. Bacteria were extracted from positive blood culture broth by density centrifugation and then subjected to identification by MALDI-TOF MS using two different volumes and chemical treatments. Overall, correct identification by MALDI-TOF MS was obtained for the BD BACTEC™ Plus-Aerobic, BacT/Alert(®) SA, and BacT/Alert(®) FA blood culture bottles in 72%, 45.6%, and 23%, respectively, for gram-negative bacteria in 86.6%, 69.2%, and 47.1%, respectively, and for gram-positive bacteria in 60.0%, 28.8%, and 5.4%, respectively. The lack of identification was observed mainly with viridans streptococci. Depending on the blood culture bottles used in routine diagnostic procedures and the protocol for bacterial preparation, the applied MALDI-TOF MS represents an efficient and rapid method for direct bacterial identification.

  10. Dansyl-peptides matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric (MALDI-MS) and tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) features improve the liquid chromatography/MALDI-MS/MS analysis of the proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappetta, Giovanni; Ndiaye, Sega; Demey, Emmanuelle; Haddad, Iman; Marino, Gennaro; Amoresano, Angela; Vinh, Joëlle

    2010-10-30

    Peptide tagging is a useful tool to improve matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectrometric (MALDI-MS/MS) analysis. We present a new application of the use of the dansyl chloride (DNS-Cl). DNS-Cl is a specific primary amine reagent widely used in protein biochemistry. It adds a fluorescent dimethylaminonaphthalene moiety to the molecule. The evaluation of MALDI-MS and MS/MS analyses of dansylated peptides shows that dansylation raises the ionization efficiency of the most hydrophilic species compared with the most hydrophobic ones. Consequently, higher Mascot scores and protein sequence coverage are obtained by combining MS and MS/MS data of native and tagged samples. The N-terminal DNS-Cl sulfonation improves the peptide fragmentation and promotes the generation of b-fragments allowing better peptide sequencing. In addition, we set up a labeling protocol based on the microwave chemistry. Peptide dansylation proved to be a rapid and cheap method to improve the performance of liquid chromatography (LC)/MALDI-MS/MS analysis at the proteomic scale in terms of peptide detection and sequence coverage. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Conformational reduction of DOPA in the gas phase studied by laser desorption supersonic jet laser spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiuchi, Shun-ichi; Mitsuda, Haruhiko; Asakawa, Toshiro; Miyazaki, Mitsuhiko; Fujii, Masaaki

    2011-05-07

    The conformational reduction in catecholamine neurotransmitters was studied by resonance enhanced multi photon ionization (REMPI), ultraviolet-ultraviolet (UV-UV) hole burning and infrared (IR) dip spectroscopy with applying a laser desorption supersonic jet technique to DOPA, which is one of the catecholamine neurotransmitters and has one more phenolic OH group than tyrosine. It is concluded that DOPA has a single observable conformer in the gas phase at low temperature. Quantum chemical calculations at several levels with or without the dispersion correction were also carried out to study stable conformations. From the comparison between the computational IR spectra and the experimental ones, the most stable structure was determined. It is strongly suggested that the conformational reduction is caused by electrostatic interactions, such as a dipole-dipole interaction, between the chain and OH groups. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  12. Possible ionization ''ignition'' in laser-driven clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose-Petruck, C.; Schafer, K.J.; Barty, C.P.J.

    1995-01-01

    The authors use Classical Trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) simulations to study the ionization of small rare gas clusters in short pulse, high intensity laser fields. They calculate, for a cluster of 25 neon atoms, the ionization stage reached and the average kinetic energy of the ionized electrons as functions of time and peak laser intensity. The CTMC calculations mimic the results of the much simpler barrier suppression model in the limit of isolated atoms. At solid density the results give much more ionization in the cluster than that predicted by the barrier suppression model. They find that when the laser intensity reaches a threshold value such that on average one electron is ionized from each atom, the cluster atoms rapidly move to higher ionization stages, approaching Ne +8 in a few femtoseconds. This ignition process creates an ultrafast pulse of energetic electrons in the cluster at quite modest laser intensities

  13. Desorption by Femtosecond Laser Pulses : An Electron-Hole Effect?

    OpenAIRE

    D. M., NEWNS; T. F., HEINZ; J. A., MISEWICH; IBM Research Division, T. J. Watson Research Center; IBM Research Division, T. J. Watson Research Center; IBM Research Division, T. J. Watson Research Center

    1992-01-01

    Desorption of molecules from metal surfaces induced by femtosecond visible laser pulses has been reported. Since the lattice temperature rise is insufficient to explain desorption, an electronic mechanism is clearly responsible. It is shown that a theory based on direct coupling between the center-of-mass degree of freedom of the adsorbate and the electron-hole excitations of the substrate provides a satisfactory explanation of the various experimental findings.

  14. Application of silicon nanowires and indium tin oxide surfaces in desorption electrospray ionization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pól, Jaroslav; Novák, Petr; Volný, Michael; Kruppa, G. H.; Kostiainen, R.; Lemr, Karel; Havlíček, Vladimír

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 6 (2008), s. 391-399 ISSN 1469-0667 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC07017 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : mass spectrometry * desorption electrospray ionization * nanowires Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.167, year: 2008

  15. Extremely-high vacuum pressure measurement by laser ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokubun, Kiyohide

    1991-01-01

    Laser ionization method has the very high sensitivity for detecting atoms and molecules. Hurst et al. successfully detected a single Cs atom by means of resonance ionization spectroscopy developed by them. Noting this high sensitivity, the authors have attempted to apply the laser ionization method to measure gas pressure, particularly in the range down to extremely high vacuum. At present, hot cathode ionization gauges are used for measuring gas pressure down to ultrahigh vacuum, however, those have a number of disadvantages. The pressure measurement using lasers does not have such disadvantages. The pressure measurement utilizing the laser ionization method is based on the principle that when laser beam is focused through a lens, the amount of atom or molecule ions generated in the focused space region is proportional to gas pressure. In this paper, the experimental results are presented on the nonresonant multiphoton ionization characteristics of various kinds of gases, the ion detection system with high sensitivity and an extremely high vacuum system prepared for the laser ionization experiment. (K.I.)

  16. Gas ionization by focused laser beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, A.L. de.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that the effect of line broadening by focusing may considerably contribute to the observed laser-induced ionization of gases when the ionization energy of the gas molecules is well above the mean photon energy of the laser radiation. (Author) [pt

  17. State of the Art of Hard and Soft Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helal, A.I.

    2008-01-01

    The principles of hard and soft ionization sources, providing some details on the practical aspects of their uses as well as ionization mechanisms are discussed. The conditions and uses of hard ionization methods such as electron impact, thermal ionization and inductively coupled plasma techniques are discussed. Moreover, new generation of soft ionization methods such as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization, electro spray ionization and direct analysis in real time are illustrated

  18. Desorption/ablation of lithium fluoride induced by extreme ultraviolet laser radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blejchař Tomáš

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The availability of reliable modeling tools and input data required for the prediction of surface removal rate from the lithium fluoride targets irradiated by the intense photon beams is essential for many practical aspects. This study is motivated by the practical implementation of soft X-ray (SXR or extreme ultraviolet (XUV lasers for the pulsed ablation and thin film deposition. Specifically, it is focused on quantitative description of XUV laser-induced desorption/ablation from lithium fluoride, which is a reference large band-gap dielectric material with ionic crystalline structure. Computational framework was proposed and employed here for the reconstruction of plume expansion dynamics induced by the irradiation of lithium fluoride targets. The morphology of experimentally observed desorption/ablation craters were reproduced using idealized representation (two-zone approximation of the laser fluence profile. The calculation of desorption/ablation rate was performed using one-dimensional thermomechanic model (XUV-ABLATOR code taking into account laser heating and surface evaporation of the lithium fluoride target occurring on a nanosecond timescale. This step was followed by the application of two-dimensional hydrodynamic solver for description of laser-produced plasma plume expansion dynamics. The calculated plume lengths determined by numerical simulations were compared with a simple adiabatic expansion (blast-wave model.

  19. Discrimination of Aspergillus isolates at the species and strain level by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettick, Justin M; Green, Brett J; Buskirk, Amanda D; Kashon, Michael L; Slaven, James E; Janotka, Erika; Blachere, Francoise M; Schmechel, Detlef; Beezhold, Donald H

    2008-09-15

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was used to generate highly reproducible mass spectral fingerprints for 12 species of fungi of the genus Aspergillus and 5 different strains of Aspergillus flavus. Prior to MALDI-TOF MS analysis, the fungi were subjected to three 1-min bead beating cycles in an acetonitrile/trifluoroacetic acid solvent. The mass spectra contain abundant peaks in the range of 5 to 20kDa and may be used to discriminate between species unambiguously. A discriminant analysis using all peaks from the MALDI-TOF MS data yielded error rates for classification of 0 and 18.75% for resubstitution and cross-validation methods, respectively. If a subset of 28 significant peaks is chosen, resubstitution and cross-validation error rates are 0%. Discriminant analysis of the MALDI-TOF MS data for 5 strains of A. flavus using all peaks yielded error rates for classification of 0 and 5% for resubstitution and cross-validation methods, respectively. These data indicate that MALDI-TOF MS data may be used for unambiguous identification of members of the genus Aspergillus at both the species and strain levels.

  20. Multi-imaging of Cytokinin and Abscisic Acid on the Roots of Rice (Oryza sativa) Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiono, Katsuhiro; Hashizaki, Riho; Nakanishi, Toyofumi; Sakai, Tatsuko; Yamamoto, Takushi; Ogata, Koretsugu; Harada, Ken-Ichi; Ohtani, Hajime; Katano, Hajime; Taira, Shu

    2017-09-06

    Plant hormones act as important signaling molecules that regulate responses to abiotic stress as well as plant growth and development. Because their concentrations of hormones control the physiological responses in the target tissue, it is important to know the distributions and concentrations in the tissues. However, it is difficult to determine the hormone concentration on the plant tissue as a result of the limitations of conventional methods. Here, we report the first multi-imaging of two plant hormones, one of cytokinin [i.e., trans-zeatin (tZ)] and abscisic acid (ABA) using a new technology, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) imaging. Protonated signals of tZ (m/z 220.1) and ABA (m/z 265.3) were chosen on longitudinal sections of rice roots for MS imaging. tZ was broadly distributed about 40 mm behind the root apex but was barely detectable at the apex, whereas ABA was mainly detected at the root apex. Multi-imaging using MALDI-TOF-MS enabled the visualization of the localization and quantification of plant hormones. Thus, this tool is applicable to a wide range of plant species growing under various environmental conditions.

  1. Analysis of small biomolecules and xenobiotic metabolism using converted graphene-like monolayer plates and laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyunook; Yun, Hoyeol; Lee, Sang Wook; Yeo, Woon-Seok

    2017-06-01

    We report a method of small molecule analysis using a converted graphene-like monolayer (CGM) plate and laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LDI-TOF MS) without organic matrices. The CGM plate was prepared from self-assembled monolayers of biphenyl-4-thiol on gold using electron beam irradiation followed by an annealing step. The above plate was utilized for the LDI-TOF MS analyses of various small molecules and their mixtures, e.g., amino acids, sugars, fatty acids, oligoethylene glycols, and flavonoids. The CGM plate afforded high signal-to-noise ratios, good limits of detection (1pmol to 10fmol), and reusability for up to 30 cycles. As a practical application, the enzymatic activity of the cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) enzyme in human liver microsomes was assessed in the 7-hydroxylation of coumarin using the CGM plate without other purification steps. We believe that the prepared CGM plate can be practically used with the advantages of simplicity, sensitivity, and reusability for the matrix-free analysis of small biomolecules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Visualization of dynamic change in contraction-induced lipid composition in mouse skeletal muscle by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto-Inoue, Naoko; Manabe, Yasuko; Miyatake, Shouta; Ogino, Shinya; Morishita, Ai; Hayasaka, Takahiro; Masaki, Noritaka; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Fujii, Nobuharu L

    2012-06-01

    Lipids in skeletal muscle play a fundamental role both in normal muscle metabolism and in disease states. Skeletal muscle lipid accumulation is associated with several chronic metabolic disorders, including obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. However, it is poorly understood whether the lipid composition of skeletal muscle changes by contraction, due to the complexity of lipid molecular species. In this study, we used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) to investigate changes in skeletal muscle lipid composition induced by contraction. We successfully observed the reduction of diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol, which are generally associated with muscle contraction. Interestingly, we found the accumulation of some saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids and poly-unsaturated fatty acids containing phosphatidylcholine in contracted muscles. Moreover, the distributions of several types of lipid were changed by contraction. Our results show that changes in the lipid amount, lipid composition, and energy metabolic activity can be evaluated in each local spot of cells and tissues at the same time using MALDI-IMS. In conclusion, MALDI-IMS is a powerful tool for studying lipid changes associated with contractions.

  3. Direct detection of the plant pathogens Burkholderia glumae, Burkholderia gladioli pv. gladioli, and Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. zeae in infected rice seedlings using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiwara, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    The plant pathogens Burkholderia glumae, Burkholderia gladioli pv. gladioli, and Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. zeae were directly detected in extracts from infected rice seedlings by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). This method did not require culturing of the pathogens on artificial medium. In the MALDI-TOF MS analysis, peaks originating from bacteria were found in extracts from infected rice seedlings. The spectral peaks showed significantly high scores, in spite of minor differences in spectra. The spectral peaks originating from host plant tissues did not affect this direct MALDI-TOF MS analysis for the rapid identification of plant pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Reliable and reproducible method for rapid identification of Nocardia species by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyokawa, Masahiro; Kimura, Keigo; Nishi, Isao; Sunada, Atsuko; Ueda, Akiko; Sakata, Tomomi; Asari, Seishi

    2013-01-01

    Recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been challenged for the identification of Nocardia species. However, the standard ethanol-formic acid extraction alone is insufficient in allowing the membrane proteins of Nocardia species to be ionized by the matrix. We therefore aimed to establish our new extraction method for the MALDI-TOF MS-based identification of Nocardia species isolates. Our modified extraction procedure is through dissociation in 0.5% Tween-20 followed by bacterial heat-inactivation, mechanical breaking of the cell wall by acid-washed glass beads and protein extraction with formic acid and acetonitrile. As reference methods for species identification, full-length 16S rRNA gene sequencing and some phenotypical tests were used. In a first step, we made our own Nocardia database by analyzing 13 strains (13 different species including N. elegans, N. otitidiscaviarum, N. asiatica, N. abscessus, N. brasiliensis, N. thailandica, N. farcinica, N. nova, N. mikamii, N. cyriacigeorgica, N. asteroids, Nocardiopsis alba, and Micromonospora sp.) and registered to the MALDI BioTyper database. Then we established our database. The analysis of 12 challenge strains using the our database gave a 100% correct identification, including 8 strains identified to the species level and 4 strains to the genus level (N. elegans, N. nova, N. farcinica, Micromonospora sp.) according to the manufacture's log score specifications. In the estimation of reproducibility of our method intended for 4 strains, both within-run and between-run reproducibility were excellent. These data indicates that our method for rapid identification of Nocardia species is with reliability, reproducibility and cost effective.

  5. Rapid Identification of the Foodborne Pathogen Trichinella spp. by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mayer-Scholl

    Full Text Available Human trichinellosis occurs through consumption of raw or inadequately processed meat or meat products containing larvae of the parasitic nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Currently, nine species and three genotypes are recognized, of which T. spiralis, T. britovi and T. pseudospiralis have the highest public health relevance. To date, the differentiation of the larvae to the species and genotype level is based primarily on molecular methods, which can be relatively time consuming and labor intensive. Due to its rapidness and ease of use a matrix assisted laser desorption / ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS reference spectra database using Trichinella strains of all known species and genotypes was created. A formicacid/acetonitrile protein extraction was carried out after pooling 10 larvae of each Trichinella species and genotype. Each sample was spotted 9 times using α-cyano 4-hydoxy cinnamic acid matrix and a MicroFlex LT mass spectrometer was used to acquire 3 spectra (m/z 2000 to 20000 Da from each spot resulting in 27 spectra/species or genotype. Following the spectra quality assessment, Biotyper software was used to create a main spectra library (MSP representing nine species and three genotypes of Trichinella. The evaluation of the spectra generated by MALDI-TOF MS revealed a classification which was comparable to the results obtained by molecular methods. Also, each Trichinella species utilized in this study was distinct and distinguishable with a high confidence level. Further, different conservation methods such as freezing and conservation in alcohol and the host species origin of the isolated larvae did not have a significant influence on the generated spectra. Therefore, the described MALDI-TOF MS can successfully be implemented for both genus and species level identification and represents a major step forward in the use of this technique in foodborne parasitology.

  6. The importance of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry for correct identification of Clostridium difficile isolated from chromID C. difficile chromogenic agar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan H.K. Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The clinical workflow of using chromogenic agar and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-fight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS for Clostridium difficile identification was evaluated. The addition of MALDI-TOF MS identification after the chromID C. difficile chromogenic agar culture could significantly improve the diagnostic accuracy of C. difficile.

  7. Multivariate analysis of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric data related to glycoxidation products of human globins in nephropathic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapolla, Annunziata; Ragazzi, Eugenio; Andretta, Barbara; Fedele, Domenico; Tubaro, Michela; Seraglia, Roberta; Molin, Laura; Traldi, Pietro

    2007-06-01

    To clarify the possible pathogenetic role of oxidation products originated from the glycation of proteins, human globins from nephropathic patients have been studied by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI), revealing not only unglycated and monoglycated globins, but also a series of different species. For the last ones, structural assignments were tentatively done on the basis of observed masses and expectations for the Maillard reaction pattern. Consequently, they must be considered only propositive, and the discussion which will follow must be considered in this view. In our opinion this approach does not seem to compromise the intended diagnostic use of the data because distinctions are valid even if the assignments are uncertain. We studied nine healthy subjects and 19 nephropathic patients and processed the data obtained from the MALDI spectra using a multivariate analysis. Our results showed that multivariate analytical techniques enable differential aspects of the profile of molecular species to be identified in the blood of end stage nephropathic patients. A correct grouping can be achieved by principal component analysis (PCA) and the results suggest that several products involved in carbonyl stress exist in nephropathic patients. These compounds may have a relevant role as specific markers of the pathological state.

  8. Laser-induced ionization of Na vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, R.C.Y.; Judge, D.L.; Roussel, F.; Carre, B.; Breger, P.; Spiess, G.

    1982-01-01

    The production of Na 2 + ions by off-resonant laser excitation in the 5800-6200A region mainly results from two-photon absorption by the Na 2 molecule to highly excited gerade states followed by (a) direct ionization by absorbing a third photon or (b) coupling to the molecular Na 2 D 1 PIμ Rydberg state which is subsequently ionized by absorbing a third photon. This mechanism, i.e., a two-photon resonance three photon ionization process, explains a recent experimental observation of Roussel et al. It is suggested that the very same mechanism is also responsible for a similar observation reported by Polak-Dingels et al in their work using two crossed Na beams. In the latter two studies the laser-induced associative ionization processes were reported to be responsible for producing the Na 2 + ion. From the ratio of molecular to atomic concentration in the crossed beam experiment of Polak-Dingels et al we estimate that the cross section for producing Na 2 + through laser-induced associative ionization is at least four orders of magnitude smaller than ionization through the two-photon resonance three photon ionization process in Na 2 molecules

  9. Laser ablation/ionization studies in a glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, K.R.; Harrison, W.W.

    1985-01-01

    The pin cathode glow discharge is used in the laboratory as an atomization/ionization source for a variety of applications, including solids mass spectrometry. Coupled with a tunable dye laser, the glow discharge may also serve as an atom reservoir for resonance ionization mass spectrometry in which the laser ionizes the discharge sputtered atoms. By tightly focusing the laser onto solid samples, various ablation effects may also be investigated. The laser may be used to generate an ionized plasma which may be directly analyzed by mass spectrometry. Alternatively, the ablated neutral atoms may be used in post-ablation excitation/ionization processes, in this case the glow discharge. The results of these investigations are the basis of this paper

  10. Laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry: Recent progress in matrix-free and label-assisted techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Arundhoti; Singha, Monisha; Addy, Partha Sarathi; Basak, Amit

    2017-10-13

    The MALDI-based mass spectrometry, over the last three decades, has become an important analytical tool. It is a gentle ionization technique, usually applicable to detect and characterize analytes with high molecular weights like proteins and other macromolecules. The earlier difficulty of detection of analytes with low molecular weights like small organic molecules and metal ion complexes with this technique arose due to the cluster of peaks in the low molecular weight region generated from the matrix. To detect such molecules and metal ion complexes, a four-prong strategy has been developed. These include use of alternate matrix materials, employment of new surface materials that require no matrix, use of metabolites that directly absorb the laser light, and the laser-absorbing label-assisted LDI-MS (popularly known as LALDI-MS). This review will highlight the developments with all these strategies with a special emphasis on LALDI-MS. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Inorganic trace analysis by laser ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, S.; Dietze, H.J.

    1991-01-01

    Among the different spectrometric techniques for trace analysis Laser Ionization Mass Spectrometry (LIMS) is well established as a trace analytic method with a wide coverage. In the LIMS the sample material is evaporated and ionized by means of a focused pulsed laser beam in a laser microplasma, which is formed in the spot area of the irradiated sample. All chemical elements in the sample materials are evaporated and ionized in the laser plasma. The formed ions are separated according to mass and energy by a time-of-flight, quadrupole or double focusing mass spectrometer. In this review the characteristics and analytical features, some recent developments, and applications of laser ionization mass spectrometry in inorganic trace analysis are described. (orig.)

  12. Laser ionization mass spectrometry in inorganic trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, J.S.; Dietze, H.J.

    1992-01-01

    Among the different spectrometric techniques for trace analysis Laser Ionization Mass Spectrometry (LIMS) is well established as a trace analytical method. With the LIMS technique the sample material is evaporated and ionized by means of a focused pulsed laser in a laser microplasma, which is formed in the spot area of the irradiated sample. All chemical elements in the sample materials are evaporated and ionized in the laser plasma. The ions formed are separated according to their mass and energy by a time-of-flight, quadrupole or double focusing mass spectrometer. In this review the characteristics and analytical features, some recent developments and applications of laser ionization mass spectrometry in inorganic trace analysis are described. (orig.)

  13. In situ analysis of plant tissue underivatized carbohydrates and on-probe enzymatic degraded starch by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry by using carbon nanotubes as matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholipour, Yousef; Nonami, Hiroshi; Erra-Balsells, Rosa

    2008-12-15

    Underivatized carbohydrates of tulip bulb and leaf tissues were characterized in situ by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) by using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as matrix. Two sample preparation methods--(i) depositing CNTs on the fresh tissue slices placed on the probe and (ii) locating semitransparent tissues on a dried layer of CNTs on the probe--were examined. Furthermore, practicability of in situ starch analysis by MALDI-TOF MS was examined by detection of glucose originated from on-probe amyloglucosidase-catalyzed degradation of starch on the tissue surface. Besides, CNTs could efficiently desorb/ionize natural mono-, di-, and oligosaccharides extracted from tulip bulb tissues as well as glucose resulting from starch enzymatic degradation in vitro. These results were compared with those obtained by in situ MALDI-TOF MS analysis of similar tissues. Positive ion mode showed superior signal reproducibility. CNTs deposited under semitransparent tissue could also desorb/ionize neutral carbohydrates, leading to nearly complete elimination of matrix cluster signals but with an increase in tissue-originated signals. Furthermore, several experiments were carried out to compare the efficiency of 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, nor-harmane, alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, and CNTs as matrices for MALDI of neutral carbohydrates from the intact plant tissue surface and for enzymatic tissue starch degradation; these results are discussed in brief. Among matrices studied, the lowest laser power was needed to acquire carbohydrate signals with high signal-to-noise ratio and resolution when CNTs were used.

  14. Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in the analysis of chemical food contaminants in food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, M.W.F.; Hooijerink, H.; Zomer, P.; Mol, J.G.J.

    2011-01-01

    Since its introduction, desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry (MS) has been mainly applied in pharmaceutical and forensic analysis. We expect that DESI will find its way in many different fields, including food analysis. In this review, we summarize DESI developments aimed at

  15. Identification by Molecular Methods and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry and Antifungal Susceptibility Profiles of Clinically Significant Rare Aspergillus Species in a Referral Chest Hospital in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masih, Aradhana; Singh, Pradeep K; Kathuria, Shallu; Agarwal, Kshitij; Meis, Jacques F; Chowdhary, Anuradha

    2016-09-01

    Aspergillus species cause a wide spectrum of clinical infections. Although Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus remain the most commonly isolated species in aspergillosis, in the last decade, rare and cryptic Aspergillus species have emerged in diverse clinical settings. The present study analyzed the distribution and in vitro antifungal susceptibility profiles of rare Aspergillus species in clinical samples from patients with suspected aspergillosis in 8 medical centers in India. Further, a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry in-house database was developed to identify these clinically relevant Aspergillus species. β-Tubulin and calmodulin gene sequencing identified 45 rare Aspergillus isolates to the species level, except for a solitary isolate. They included 23 less common Aspergillus species belonging to 12 sections, mainly in Circumdati, Nidulantes, Flavi, Terrei, Versicolores, Aspergillus, and Nigri Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) identified only 8 (38%) of the 23 rare Aspergillus isolates to the species level. Following the creation of an in-house database with the remaining 14 species not available in the Bruker database, the MALDI-TOF MS identification rate increased to 95%. Overall, high MICs of ≥2 μg/ml were noted for amphotericin B in 29% of the rare Aspergillus species, followed by voriconazole in 20% and isavuconazole in 7%, whereas MICs of >0.5 μg/ml for posaconazole were observed in 15% of the isolates. Regarding the clinical diagnoses in 45 patients with positive rare Aspergillus species cultures, 19 (42%) were regarded to represent colonization. In the remaining 26 patients, rare Aspergillus species were the etiologic agent of invasive, chronic, and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, allergic fungal rhinosinusitis, keratitis, and mycetoma. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Identification of Cronobacter species by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry with an optimized analysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Zhao, Xiao-Juan; Wang, Zi-Wei; Liu, Li; Wei, Yong-Xin; Han, Xiao; Zeng, Jing; Liao, Wan-Jin

    2017-08-01

    Rapid and precise identification of Cronobacter species is important for foodborne pathogen detection, however, commercial biochemical methods can only identify Cronobacter strains to genus level in most cases. To evaluate the power of mass spectrometry based on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF MS) for Cronobacter species identification, 51 Cronobacter strains (eight reference and 43 wild strains) were identified by both MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Biotyper RTC provided by Bruker identified all eight reference and 43 wild strains as Cronobacter species, which demonstrated the power of MALDI-TOF MS to identify Cronobacter strains to genus level. However, using the Bruker's database (6903 main spectra products) and Biotyper software, the MALDI-TOF MS analysis could not identify the investigated strains to species level. When MALDI-TOF MS analysis was performed using the combined in-house Cronobacter database and Bruker's database, bin setting, and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) clustering, all the 51 strains were clearly identified into six Cronobacter species and the identification accuracy increased from 60% to 100%. We demonstrated that MALDI-TOF MS was reliable and easy-to-use for Cronobacter species identification and highlighted the importance of establishing a reliable database and improving the current data analysis methods by integrating the bin setting and UPGMA clustering. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry: a fundamental shift in the routine practice of clinical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andrew E; Kaleta, Erin J; Arora, Amit; Wolk, Donna M

    2013-07-01

    Within the past decade, clinical microbiology laboratories experienced revolutionary changes in the way in which microorganisms are identified, moving away from slow, traditional microbial identification algorithms toward rapid molecular methods and mass spectrometry (MS). Historically, MS was clinically utilized as a high-complexity method adapted for protein-centered analysis of samples in chemistry and hematology laboratories. Today, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) MS is adapted for use in microbiology laboratories, where it serves as a paradigm-shifting, rapid, and robust method for accurate microbial identification. Multiple instrument platforms, marketed by well-established manufacturers, are beginning to displace automated phenotypic identification instruments and in some cases genetic sequence-based identification practices. This review summarizes the current position of MALDI-TOF MS in clinical research and in diagnostic clinical microbiology laboratories and serves as a primer to examine the "nuts and bolts" of MALDI-TOF MS, highlighting research associated with sample preparation, spectral analysis, and accuracy. Currently available MALDI-TOF MS hardware and software platforms that support the use of MALDI-TOF with direct and precultured specimens and integration of the technology into the laboratory workflow are also discussed. Finally, this review closes with a prospective view of the future of MALDI-TOF MS in the clinical microbiology laboratory to accelerate diagnosis and microbial identification to improve patient care.

  18. Proteogenomic biomarkers for identification of Francisella species and subspecies by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durighello, Emie; Bellanger, Laurent; Ezan, Eric; Armengaud, Jean

    2014-10-07

    Francisella tularensis is the causative agent of tularemia. Because some Francisella strains are very virulent, this species is considered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to be a potential category A bioweapon. A mass spectrometry method to quickly and robustly distinguish between virulent and nonvirulent Francisella strains is desirable. A combination of shotgun proteomics and whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry on the Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica LVS defined three protein biomarkers that allow such discrimination: the histone-like protein HU form B, the 10 kDa chaperonin Cpn10, and the 50S ribosomal protein L24. We established that their combined detection by whole-cell MALDI-TOF spectrum could enable (i) the identification of Francisella species, and (ii) the prediction of their virulence level, i.e., gain of a taxonomical level with the identification of Francisella tularensis subspecies. The detection of these biomarkers by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry is straightforward because of their abundance and the absence of other abundant protein species closely related in terms of m/z. The predicted molecular weights for the three biomarkers and their presence as intense peaks were confirmed with MALDI-TOF/MS spectra acquired on Francisella philomiragia ATCC 25015 and on Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis CCUG 2112, the most virulent Francisella subspecies.

  19. Optimization and evaluation of surface-enhanced laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for protein profiling of cerebrospinal fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomez-Mancilla Baltazar

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF potentially carries an archive of peptides and small proteins relevant to pathological processes in the central nervous system (CNS and surrounding brain tissue. Proteomics is especially well suited for the discovery of biomarkers of diagnostic potential in CSF for early diagnosis and discrimination of several neurodegenerative diseases. ProteinChip surface-enhanced laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS is one such approach which offers a unique platform for high throughput profiling of peptides and small proteins in CSF. In this study, we evaluated methodologies for the retention of CSF proteins m/z we found a high degree of overlap between the tested array surfaces. The combination of CM10 and IMAC30 arrays was sufficient to represent between 80–90% of all assigned peaks when using either sinapinic acid or α-Cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid as the energy absorbing matrices. Moreover, arrays processed with SPA consistently showed better peak resolution and higher peak number across all surfaces within the measured mass range. We intend to use CM10 and IMAC30 arrays prepared in sinapinic acid as a fast and cost-effective approach to drive decisions on sample selection prior to more in-depth discovery of diagnostic biomarkers in CSF using alternative but complementary proteomic strategies.

  20. Distribution of erlotinib in rash and normal skin in cancer patients receiving erlotinib visualized by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Meiko; Hayashi, Mitsuhiro; Mizutani, Yu; Takenaka, Kei; Imamura, Yoshinori; Chayahara, Naoko; Toyoda, Masanori; Kiyota, Naomi; Mukohara, Toru; Aikawa, Hiroaki; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Hamada, Akinobu; Minami, Hironobu

    2018-04-06

    The development of skin rashes is the most common adverse event observed in cancer patients treated with epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as erlotinib. However, the pharmacological evidence has not been fully revealed. Erlotinib distribution in the rashes was more heterogeneous than that in the normal skin, and the rashes contained statistically higher concentrations of erlotinib than adjacent normal skin in the superficial skin layer (229 ± 192 vs. 120 ± 103 ions/mm 2 ; P = 0.009 in paired t -test). LC-MS/MS confirmed that the concentration of erlotinib in the skin rashes was higher than that in normal skin in the superficial skin layer (1946 ± 1258 vs. 1174 ± 662 ng/cm 3 ; P = 0.028 in paired t -test). The results of MALDI-MSI and LC-MS/MS were well correlated (coefficient of correlation 0.879, P distribution of erlotinib in the skin tissue was visualized using non-labeled MALDI-MSI. Erlotinib concentration in the superficial layer of the skin rashes was higher than that in the adjacent normal skin. We examined patients with advanced pancreatic cancer who developed skin rashes after treatment with erlotinib and gemcitabine. We biopsied both the rash and adjacent normal skin tissues, and visualized and compared the distribution of erlotinib within the skin using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI). The tissue concentration of erlotinib was also measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with laser microdissection.

  1. Resonance ionization mass spectrometry using tunable diode lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, R.W.; Young, J.P.; Smith, D.H.

    1990-01-01

    Tunable semiconductor diode lasers will find many important applications in atomic spectroscopy. They exhibit the desirable attributes of lasers: narrow bandwidth, tunability, and spatial coherence. At the same time, they possess few of the disadvantages of other tunable lasers. They require no alignment, are simple to operate, and are inexpensive. Practical laser spectroscopic instruments can be envisioned. The authors have applied diode lasers to resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS) of some of the lanthanide elements. Sub-Doppler resolution spectra have been recorded and have been used for atomic hyperfine structure analysis. Isotopically-selective ionization has been accomplished, even in cases where photons from a broadband dye laser are part of the overall ionization process and where the isotopic spectral shift is very small. A convenient RIMS instrument for isotope ratio measurements that employs only diode lasers, along with electric field ionization, should be possible

  2. 1,8-Bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene/9-aminoacridine: A new binary matrix for lipid fingerprinting of intact bacteria by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvano, C.D., E-mail: cosimadamiana.calvano@uniba.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro, Via Orabona, 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Monopoli, A.; Ditaranto, N. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro, Via Orabona, 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Palmisano, F. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro, Via Orabona, 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca S.M.A.R.T., Università degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro, Via Orabona, 4, 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2013-10-10

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •New binary matrix for less ionizable lipid analysis with no interfering peaks. •Combined MALDI and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. •Fast lipid fingerprint on Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria by MALDI MS. •Mapping of phospholipids by XPS imaging. •Very fast membrane lipid extraction procedure. -- Abstract: The effectiveness of a novel binary matrix composed of 1,8-bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene (DMAN; proton sponge) and 9-aminoacridine (9AA) for the direct lipid analysis of whole bacterial cells by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) is demonstrated. Deprotonated analyte signals nearly free of matrix-related ions were observed in negative ion mode. The effect of the most important factors (laser energy, pulse voltage, DMAN/9AA ratio, analyte/matrix ratio) was investigated using a Box–Behnken response surface design followed by multi-response optimization in order to simultaneously maximize signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and resolution. The chemical surface composition of single or mixed matrices was explored by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Moreover, XPS imaging was used to map the spatial distribution of a model phospholipid in single or binary matrices. The DMAN/9AA binary matrix was then successfully applied to the analysis of intact Gram positive (Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis) or Gram negative (Escherichia coli) microorganisms. About fifty major membrane components (free fatty acids, mono-, di- and tri-glycerides, phospholipids, glycolipids and cardiolipins) were quickly and easily detected over a mass range spanning from ca. 200 to ca. 1600 m/z. Moreover, mass spectra with improved S/N ratio (compared to single matrices), reduced chemical noise and no formation of matrix-clusters were invariably obtained demonstrating the potential of this binary matrix to improve sensitivity.

  3. 1,8-Bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene/9-aminoacridine: A new binary matrix for lipid fingerprinting of intact bacteria by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvano, C.D.; Monopoli, A.; Ditaranto, N.; Palmisano, F.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •New binary matrix for less ionizable lipid analysis with no interfering peaks. •Combined MALDI and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. •Fast lipid fingerprint on Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria by MALDI MS. •Mapping of phospholipids by XPS imaging. •Very fast membrane lipid extraction procedure. -- Abstract: The effectiveness of a novel binary matrix composed of 1,8-bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene (DMAN; proton sponge) and 9-aminoacridine (9AA) for the direct lipid analysis of whole bacterial cells by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) is demonstrated. Deprotonated analyte signals nearly free of matrix-related ions were observed in negative ion mode. The effect of the most important factors (laser energy, pulse voltage, DMAN/9AA ratio, analyte/matrix ratio) was investigated using a Box–Behnken response surface design followed by multi-response optimization in order to simultaneously maximize signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and resolution. The chemical surface composition of single or mixed matrices was explored by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Moreover, XPS imaging was used to map the spatial distribution of a model phospholipid in single or binary matrices. The DMAN/9AA binary matrix was then successfully applied to the analysis of intact Gram positive (Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis) or Gram negative (Escherichia coli) microorganisms. About fifty major membrane components (free fatty acids, mono-, di- and tri-glycerides, phospholipids, glycolipids and cardiolipins) were quickly and easily detected over a mass range spanning from ca. 200 to ca. 1600 m/z. Moreover, mass spectra with improved S/N ratio (compared to single matrices), reduced chemical noise and no formation of matrix-clusters were invariably obtained demonstrating the potential of this binary matrix to improve sensitivity

  4. Analysis of trimethoprim, lincomycin, sulfadoxin and tylosin in swine manure using laser diode thermal desorption-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solliec, Morgan; Massé, Daniel; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2014-10-01

    A new extraction method coupled to a high throughput sample analysis technique was developed for the determination of four veterinary antibiotics. The analytes belong to different groups of antibiotics such as chemotherapeutics, sulfonamides, lincosamides and macrolides. Trimethoprim (TMP), sulfadoxin (SFX), lincomycin (LCM) and tylosin (TYL) were extracted from lyophilized manure using a sonication extraction. McIlvaine buffer and methanol (MeOH) were used as extraction buffers, followed by cation-exchange solid phase extraction (SPE) for clean-up. Analysis was performed by laser diode thermal desorption-atmospheric pressure chemical-ionization (LDTD-APCI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) with selected reaction monitoring (SRM) detection. The LDTD is a high throughput sample introduction method that reduces total analysis time to less than 15s per sample, compared to minutes when using traditional liquid chromatography (LC). Various SPE parameters were optimized after sample extraction: the stationary phase, the extraction solvent composition, the quantity of sample extracted and sample pH. LDTD parameters were also optimized: solvent deposition, carrier gas, laser power and corona discharge. The method limit of detection (MLD) ranged from 2.5 to 8.3 µg kg(-1) while the method limit of quantification (MLQ) ranged from 8.3 to 28µgkg(-1). Calibration curves in the manure matrix showed good linearity (R(2)≥ 0.996) for all analytes and the interday and intraday coefficients of variation were below 14%. Recoveries of analytes from manure ranged from 53% to 69%. The method was successfully applied to real manure samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Multiphoton ionization processes in strong laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krstic, P.

    1982-01-01

    Multiphoton ionization of hydrogen in ultrastrong laser fields is studied. The previous calculations of this process yield differing result for the transition rate. We show the relations between them and difficulties with each of them. One difficulty is that the finite spatial and time extent of the laser field has been omitted. It is also found that a laser field, which is sufficiently intense to be labeled ultrastrong, makes the electron move relativistically so that it becomes necessary to use Volkov states to describe the electron in the laser field. The transition rate is obtained, using a CO laser as an example, and it is found that the transition rate rises as the laser intensity rises. This is a consequence of the use of relativistic kinematics and is not true nonrelativistically. We also discuss the multiple peaks observed in the energy spectrum of electrons resulting from multiphoton ionization of atoms by lasers. When the laser intensity is large enough for the ponderomotive force to result in appreciable broading of the peaks we show the shape of the broadened peaks contains useful information. We show that the multiphoton ionization probability as a function of laser intensity can be obtained but that the free-free cross sections, which are in principle also obtainable, are probably not obtainable in practice. Finally, we describe the theory of the absorption of more than minimum numbers of photons needed to ionize an atom by an intense laser. The basic approximation used is that the atom is adiabatically deformed by the laser and an impulsive interaction then results in multiphoton absorption. In our first calculation we allow only one resonant excited state to be included in the adiabatic deformation. In our second we also allow the lowest energy continuum to be included. The two results are then compared

  6. Molecular Ionization-Desorption Analysis Source (MIDAS) for Mass Spectrometry: Thin-Layer Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Gregory T.; Wilhide, Joshua A.; LaCourse, William R.

    2016-02-01

    Molecular ionization-desorption analysis source (MIDAS), which is a desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DAPCI) type source, for mass spectrometry has been developed as a multi-functional platform for the direct sampling of surfaces. In this article, its utility for the analysis of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates is highlighted. Amino acids, which are difficult to visualize without staining reagents or charring, were detected and identified directly from a TLC plate. To demonstrate the full potential of MIDAS, all active ingredients from an analgesic tablet, separated on a TLC plate, were successfully detected using both positive and negative ion modes. The identity of each of the compounds was confirmed from their mass spectra and compared against standards. Post separation, the chemical signal (blue permanent marker) as reference marks placed at the origin and solvent front were used to calculate retention factor (Rf) values from the resulting ion chromatogram. The quantitative capabilities of the device were exhibited by scanning caffeine spots on a TLC plate of increasing sample amount. A linear curve based on peak are, R2 = 0.994, was generated for seven spots ranging from 50 to 1000 ng of caffeine per spot.

  7. Evaluation of a simple protein extraction method for species identification of clinically relevant staphylococci by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Naoto; Matsuda, Mari; Notake, Shigeyuki; Yokokawa, Hirohide; Kawamura, Yoshiaki; Hiramatsu, Keiichi; Kikuchi, Ken

    2012-12-01

    In clinical microbiology, bacterial identification is labor-intensive and time-consuming. A solution for this problem is the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). In this study, we evaluated a modified protein extraction method of identification performed on target plates (on-plate extraction method) with MALDI-TOF (Bruker Microflex LT with Biotyper version 3.0) and compared it to 2 previously described methods: the direct colony method and a standard protein extraction method (standard extraction method). We evaluated the species of 273 clinical strains and 14 reference strains of staphylococci. All isolates were characterized using the superoxide dismutase A sequence as a reference. For the species identification, the on-plate, standard extraction, and direct colony methods identified 257 isolates (89.5%), 232 isolates (80.8%), and 173 isolates (60.2%), respectively, with statistically significant differences among the three methods (P extraction method is at least as good as standard extraction in identification rate and has the advantage of a shorter processing time.

  8. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography coupled matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for molecular analysis of organic compounds in medicines, tea, and coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ren-Qi; Bao, Kai; Croué, Jean-Philippe; Ng, Siu Choon

    2013-11-21

    Natural occurring organic compounds from food, natural organic matter, as well as metabolic products have received intense attention in current chemical and biological studies. Examination of unknown compounds in complex sample matrices is hampered by the limited choices for data readout and molecular elucidation. Herein, we report a generic method of hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) coupled with matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) for the rapid characterization of ingredients in pharmaceutical compounds, tea, and coffee. The analytes were first fractionated using a cationic HILIC column prior to MALDI-MS analyses. It was found that the retention times of a compound arising from different samples were consistent under the same conditions. Accordingly, molecules can be readily characterized by both the mass and chromatographic retention time. The retention behaviors of acidic and basic compounds on the cationic HILIC column were found to be significantly influenced by the pH of mobile phases, whereas neutral compounds depicted a constant retention time at different pH. The general HILIC-MALDI-MS method is feasible for fast screening of naturally occurring organic compounds. A series of homologs can be determined if they have the same retention behavior. Their structural features can be elucidated by considering their mass differences and hydrophilic properties as determined by HILIC chromatogram.

  9. Evaluation of VITEK mass spectrometry (MS), a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight MS system for identification of anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonmok; Kim, Myungsook; Yong, Dongeun; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Lee, Kyungwon; Chong, Yunsop

    2015-01-01

    By conventional methods, the identification of anaerobic bacteria is more time consuming and requires more expertise than the identification of aerobic bacteria. Although the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) systems are relatively less studied, they have been reported to be a promising method for the identification of anaerobes. We evaluated the performance of the VITEK MS in vitro diagnostic (IVD; 1.1 database; bioMérieux, France) in the identification of anaerobes. We used 274 anaerobic bacteria isolated from various clinical specimens. The results for the identification of the bacteria by VITEK MS were compared to those obtained by phenotypic methods and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Among the 249 isolates included in the IVD database, the VITEK MS correctly identified 209 (83.9%) isolates to the species level and an additional 18 (7.2%) at the genus level. In particular, the VITEK MS correctly identified clinically relevant and frequently isolated anaerobic bacteria to the species level. The remaining 22 isolates (8.8%) were either not identified or misidentified. The VITEK MS could not identify the 25 isolates absent from the IVD database to the species level. The VITEK MS showed reliable identifications for clinically relevant anaerobic bacteria.

  10. Probe-Substrate Distance Control in Desorption Electrospray Ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarger, Tyler J.; Yuill, Elizabeth M.; Baker, Lane A.

    2018-03-01

    We introduce probe-substrate distance (Dps)-control to desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) and report a systematic investigation of key experimental parameters. Examination of voltage, flow rate, and nebulizing gas pressure suggests as Dps decreases, the distance-dependent spray current increases, until a critical point. At the critical point the relationship inverts, and the spray current decreases as the probe moves closer to the surface due to constriction of solution flow by the nebulizing gas. Dps control was used to explore the use of spray current as a signal for feedback positioning, while mass spectrometry imaging was performed simultaneously. Further development of this technique is expected to find application in study of structure-function relationships for clinical diagnostics, biological investigation, and materials characterization. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  11. Microorganisms direct identification from blood culture by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, L; Sánchez-Juanes, F; Porras-Guerra, I; García-García, M I; García-Sánchez, J E; González-Buitrago, J M; Muñoz-Bellido, J L

    2011-04-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) allows a fast and reliable bacterial identification from culture plates. Direct analysis of clinical samples may increase its usefulness in samples in which a fast identification of microorganisms can guide empirical treatment, such as blood cultures (BC). Three hundred and thirty BC, reported as positive by the automated BC incubation device, were processed by conventional methods for BC processing, and by a fast method based on direct MALDI-TOF MS. Three hundred and eighteen of them yield growth on culture plates, and 12 were false positive. The MALDI-TOF MS-based method reported that no peaks were found, or the absence of a reliable identification profile, in all these false positive BC. No mixed cultures were found. Among these 318 BC, we isolated 61 Gram-negatives (GN), 239 Gram-positives (GP) and 18 fungi. Microorganism identifications in GN were coincident with conventional identification, at the species level, in 83.3% of BC and, at the genus level, in 96.6%. In GP, identifications were coincident with conventional identification in 31.8% of BC at the species level, and in 64.8% at the genus level. Fungaemia was not reliably detected by MALDI-TOF. In 18 BC positive for Candida species (eight C. albicans, nine C. parapsilosis and one C. tropicalis), no microorganisms were identified at the species level, and only one (5.6%) was detected at the genus level. The results of the present study show that this fast, MALDI-TOF MS-based method allows bacterial identification directly from presumptively positive BC in a short time (<30 min), with a high accuracy, especially when GN bacteria are involved. © 2010 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2010 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  12. Ionization of a multilevel atom by ultrashort laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, A. V.; Stremoukhov, S. Yu.; Shutova, O. A.

    2010-01-01

    Specific features of ionization of single atoms by laser fields of a near-atomic strength are investigated. Calculations are performed for silver atoms interacting with femtosecond laser pulses with wavelengths λ = 800 nm (Ti:Sapphire) and λ = 1.064 μm (Nd:YAG). The dependences of the probability of ionization and of the form of the photoelectron energy spectra on the field of laser pulses for various values of their duration are considered. It is shown that the behavior of the probability of ionization in the range of subatomic laser pulse fields is in good agreement with the Keldysh formula. However, when the field strength attains values close to the atomic field strength, the discrepancies in these dependences manifested in a decrease in the ionization rate (ionization stabilization effect) or in its increase (accelerated ionization) are observed. These discrepancies are associated with the dependence of the population dynamics of excited discrete energy levels of the atom on the laser pulse field amplitude.

  13. Mass spectrometry of solid samples in open air using combined laser ionization and ambient metastable ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, X.N.; Xie, Z.Q.; Gao, Y.; Hu, W.; Guo, L.B.; Jiang, L.; Lu, Y.F.

    2012-01-01

    Mass spectrometry of solid samples in open air was carried out using combined laser ionization and metastable ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LI-MI-TOFMS) in ambient environment for qualitative and semiquantitative (relative analyte information, not absolute information) analysis. Ambient metastable ionization using a direct analysis in realtime (DART) ion source was combined with laser ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LI-TOFMS) to study the effects of combining metastable and laser ionization. A series of metallic samples from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST 494, 495, 498, 499, and 500) and a pure carbon target were characterized using LI-TOFMS in open air. LI-MI-TOFMS was found to be superior to laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Laser pulse energies between 10 and 200 mJ at the second harmonic (532 nm) of an Nd:YAG laser were applied in the experiment to obtain a high degree of ionization in plasmas. Higher laser pulse energy improves signal intensities of trace elements (such as Fe, Cr, Mn, Ni, Ca, Al, and Ag). Data were analyzed by numerically calculating relative sensitivity coefficients (RSCs) and limit of detections (LODs) from mass spectrometry (MS) and LIBS spectra. Different parameters, such as boiling point, ionization potential, RSC, LOD, and atomic weight, were shown to analyze the ionization and MS detection processes in open air.

  14. A microwave-mediated saponification of galactosylceramide and galactosylceramide I3-sulfate and identification of their lyso-compounds by delayed extraction matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taketomi, T; Hara, A; Uemura, K; Kurahashi, H; Sugiyama, E

    1996-07-16

    Small amounts of galactosylceramide (cerebroside) and galactosylceramide I3-sulfate (sulfatide) obtained from porcine spinal cord and equine kidney were deacylated by a rapid method of microwave-mediated saponification to prepare their lyso-compounds. Mass spectra of their protonated or deprotonated molecular ion peaks were detected by recently developed new technology of a delayed extraction matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer with reflector detector in positive or negative ion mode. Long chain bases of lysocerebroside and lysosulfatide were different between porcine spinal cord and equine kidney, but similar to each other in the same organ, suggesting their common synthetic pathway. It is noted that the new rapid method can be similarly applied to the deacylation of both cerebroside and sulfatide in contrast to our classical method which was able to be applied to cerebroside, but not to sulfatide.

  15. Combined analysis of 1,3-benzodioxoles by crystalline sponge X-ray crystallography and laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yukako; Ohara, Kazuaki; Taki, Rika; Saeki, Tomomi; Yamaguchi, Kentaro

    2018-03-12

    The crystalline sponge (CS) method, which employs single-crystal X-ray diffraction to determine the structure of an analyte present as a liquid or an oil and having a low melting point, was used in combination with laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS). 1,3-Benzodioxole derivatives were encapsulated in CS and their structures were determined by combining X-ray crystallography and MS. After the X-ray analysis, the CS was subjected to imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) with an LDI spiral-time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). The ion detection area matched the microscopic image of the encapsulated CS. In addition, the accumulated 1D mass spectra showed that fragmentation of the guest molecule (hereafter, guest) can be easily visualized without any interference from the fragment ions of CS except for two strong ion peaks derived from the tridentate ligand TPT (2,4,6-tris(4-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine) of the CS and its fragment. X-ray analysis clearly showed the presence of the guest as well as the π-π, CH-halogen, and CH-O interactions between the guest and the CS framework. However, some guests remained randomly diffused in the nanopores of CS. In addition, the detection limit was less than sub-pmol order based on the weight and density of CS determined by X-ray analysis. Spectroscopic data, such as UV-vis and NMR, also supported the encapsulation of the guest through the interaction between the guest and CS components. The results denote that the CS-LDI-MS method, which combines CS, X-ray analysis and LDI-MS, is effective for structure determination.

  16. Increased ionization rate in laser enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janes, G.S.; Pike, G.T.

    1977-01-01

    A system employing multiple, upper excitation levels in a technique for isotopically selective ionization to improve the ionization efficiency is described. Laser radiation is employed to excite particles with isotopic selectivity. Excitation is produced to a plurality of excited states below the ionization level with the result of increasing the number of available excited particles for ionization and thereby increasing the ionization cross section for improved system efficiency

  17. Comparison of Vitek Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Versus Conventional Methods in Candida Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keçeli, Sema Aşkın; Dündar, Devrim; Tamer, Gülden Sönmez

    2016-02-01

    Candida species are generally identified by conventional methods such as germ tube or morphological appearance on corn meal agar, biochemical methods using API kits and molecular biological methods. Alternative to these methods, rapid and accurate identification methods of microorganisms called matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDİ-TOF MS) has recently been described. In this study, Candida identification results by API Candida kit, API 20C AUX kit and identifications on corn meal agar (CMA) are compared with the results obtained on Vitek-MS. All results were confirmed by sequencing internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of rDNA. Totally, 97 Candida strains were identified by germ tube test, CMA, API and Vitek-MS. Vitek-MS results were compatible with 74.2 % of API 20C AUX and 81.4 % of CMA results. The difference between the results of API Candida and API 20C AUX was detected. The ratio of discrepancy between Vitek-MS and API 20C AUX was 25.8 %. Candida species mostly identified as C. famata or C. tropicalis by and not compatible with API kits were identified as C. albicans by Vitek-MS. Sixteen Candida species having discrepant results with Vitek-MS, API or CMA were randomly chosen, and ITS sequence analysis was performed. The results of sequencing were compatible 56.2 % with API 20C AUX, 50 % with CMA and 93.7 % with Vitek-MS. When compared with conventional identification methods, MS results are more reliable and rapid for Candida identification. MS system may be used as routine identification method in clinical microbiology laboratories.

  18. Direct identification of pathogens from positive blood cultures using matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, B; Sánchez-Carrillo, C; Ruiz, A; Marín, M; Cercenado, E; Rodríguez-Créixems, M; Bouza, E

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) has proved a rapid and reliable method for the identification of bacteria and yeasts that have already been isolated. The objective of this study was to evaluate this technology as a routine method for the identification of microorganisms directly from blood culture bottles (BCBs), before isolation, in a large collection of samples. For this purpose, 1000 positive BCBs containing 1085 microorganisms have been analysed by conventional phenotypic methods and by MALDI-TOF MS. Discrepancies have been resolved using molecular methods: the amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene or the Superoxide Dismutase gene (sodA) for streptococcal isolates. MALDI-TOF predicted a species- or genus-level identification of 81.4% of the analysed microorganisms. The analysis by episode yielded a complete identification of 814 out of 1000 analysed episodes (81.4%). MALDI-TOF identification is available for clinicians within hours of a working shift, as oppose to 18 h later when conventional identification methods are performed. Moreover, although further improvement of sample preparation for polymicrobial BCBs is required, the identification of more than one pathogen in the same BCB provides a valuable indication of unexpected pathogens when their presence may remain undetected in Gram staining. Implementation of MALDI-TOF identification directly from the BCB provides a rapid and reliable identification of the causal pathogen within hours. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  19. An intense polarized beam by a laser ionization injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmori, Chihiro; Hiramatsu, Shigenori; Nakamura, Takeshi.

    1990-12-01

    Accumulation of protons and polarized protons by photo-ionization injection are described. This method consists of (1)producing the neutral hydrogen beam by Lorentz stripping, (2)excitation of the neutral hydrogen beam with a laser, and (3)ionization of the hydrogen beam in the 2P excited state with another laser. When the laser for the excitation is circularly polarized, we can get a polarized proton beam. An ionization efficiency of 98% and a polarization of 80% can be expected by an intense laser beam from a FEL(Free Electron Laser). (author)

  20. Flexible xxx-asp/asn and gly-xxx residues of equine cytochrome C in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization in-source decay mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Mitsuo

    2012-01-01

    The backbone flexibility of a protein has been studied from the standpoint of the susceptibility of amino acid residues to in-source decay (ISD) in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS). Residues more susceptible to MALDI-ISD, namely Xxx-Asp/Asn and Gly-Xxx, were identified from the discontinuous intense peak of c'-ions originating from specific cleavage at N-Cα bonds of the backbone of equine cytochrome c. The identity of the residues susceptible to ISD was consistent with the known flexible backbone amides as estimated by hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) experiments. The identity of these flexible amino acid residues (Asp, Asn, and Gly) is consistent with the fact that these residues are preferred in flexible secondary structure free from intramolecular hydrogen-bonded structures such as α-helix and β-sheet. The MALDI-ISD spectrum of equine cytochrome c gave not only intense N-terminal side c'-ions originating from N-Cα bond cleavage at Xxx-Asp/Asn and Gly-Xxx residues, but also C-terminal side complement z'-ions originating from the same cleavage sites. The present study implies that MALDI-ISD can give information about backbone flexibility of proteins, comparable with the protection factors estimated by HDX.

  1. Flexible Xxx–Asp/Asn and Gly–Xxx Residues of Equine Cytochrome c in Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization In-Source Decay Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Mitsuo

    2012-01-01

    The backbone flexibility of a protein has been studied from the standpoint of the susceptibility of amino acid residues to in-source decay (ISD) in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS). Residues more susceptible to MALDI-ISD, namely Xxx–Asp/Asn and Gly–Xxx, were identified from the discontinuous intense peak of c′-ions originating from specific cleavage at N–Cα bonds of the backbone of equine cytochrome c. The identity of the residues susceptible to ISD was consistent with the known flexible backbone amides as estimated by hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) experiments. The identity of these flexible amino acid residues (Asp, Asn, and Gly) is consistent with the fact that these residues are preferred in flexible secondary structure free from intramolecular hydrogen-bonded structures such as α-helix and β-sheet. The MALDI-ISD spectrum of equine cytochrome c gave not only intense N-terminal side c′-ions originating from N–Cα bond cleavage at Xxx–Asp/Asn and Gly–Xxx residues, but also C-terminal side complement z′-ions originating from the same cleavage sites. The present study implies that MALDI-ISD can give information about backbone flexibility of proteins, comparable with the protection factors estimated by HDX. PMID:24349908

  2. Applications of copolymer for rapid identification of bacteria in blood culture broths using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashizawa, Kazuho; Murata, Syota; Terada, Takashi; Ito, Daisuke; Bunya, Masaru; Watanabe, Koji; Teruuchi, Yoko; Tsuchida, Sachio; Satoh, Mamoru; Nishimura, Motoi; Matsushita, Kazuyuki; Sugama, Yuji; Nomura, Fumio

    2017-08-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) can be used to identify pathogens in blood culture samples. However, sample pretreatment is needed for direct identification of microbes in blood culture bottles. Conventional protocols are complex and time-consuming. Therefore, in this study, we developed a method for collecting bacteria using polyallylamine-polystyrene copolymer for application in wastewater treatment technology. Using representative bacterial species Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus capitis, we found that polyallylamine-polystyrene can form visible aggregates with bacteria, which can be identified using MALDI-TOF MS. The processing time of our protocol was as short as 15min. Hemoglobin interference in MALDI spectra analysis was significantly decreased in our method compared with the conventional method. In a preliminary experiment, we evaluated the use of our protocol to identify clinical isolates from blood culture bottles. MALDI-TOF MS-based identification of 17 strains from five bacterial species (E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, S. aureus, and S. capitis) collected by our protocol was satisfactory. Prospective large-scale studies are needed to further evaluate the clinical application of this novel and simple method of collecting bacteria in blood culture bottles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Study of surface ionization and LASER ionization processes using the SOMEIL ion source: application to the Spiral 2 laser ion source development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajeat, O., E-mail: bajeat@ganil.fr; Lecesne, N.; Leroy, R.; Maunoury, L.; Osmond, B.; Sjodin, M. [GANIL (France); Maitre, A.; Pradeilles, N. [Laboratoire Science des Procedes Ceramiques et de Traitements de Surface (SPCTS) 12 (France)

    2013-04-15

    SPIRAL2 is the new project under construction at GANIL to provide radioactive ion beams to the Nuclear Physics Community and in particular neutron rich ion beams. For the production of condensable radioactive elements, a resonant ionization laser ion source is under development at GANIL. In order to generate the ions of interest with a good selectivity and purity, our group is studying the way to minimize surface ionization process by using refractory materials with low work function as ionizer tube. To do those investigations a dedicated ion source, called SOMEIL (Source Optimisee pour les Mesures d'Efficacite d'Ionisation Laser) is used. Numerous types of ionizer tubes made in various materials and geometry are tested. Surface ionization and laser ionization efficiencies can be measured for each of them.

  4. Site Specificity in Femtosecond Laser Desorption of Neutral H Atoms from Graphite(0001)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigge, R.; Hoger, T.; Siemer, B.

    2010-01-01

    Femtosecond laser excitation and density functional theory reveal site and vibrational state specificity in neutral atomic hydrogen desorption from graphite induced by multiple electronic transitions. Multimodal velocity distributions witness the participation of ortho and para pair states...... of chemisorbed hydrogen in the desorption process. Very slow velocities of 700 and 400  ms-1 for H and D atoms are associated with the desorption out of the highest vibrational state of a barrierless potential....

  5. In-Source Laser Resonance Ionization at ISOL Facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Marsh, Bruce; Feddosseev, Valentin

    Resonance ionization laser ion source development has been carried out at two radioactive ion beam facilities: ISOLDE (CERN, Switzerland) and the IGISOL facility (Jyvaskyla, Finland). The scope of the Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source has been extended to 27 elements with the development of new three-step ionization schemes for Sb, Sc, Dy, Y and Au. The efficiencies were determined to be in the range of 2 - 20 %. Additionally, a new two-step ionization scheme has been developed for bismuth in an off-line atomic beam unit. The scheme relies on ionization via a strong and broad auto-ionizing resonance at an energy of 63196.79 cm$^{−1}$. This scheme may offer an improvement over the existing RILIS efficiency and will be more convenient for use during resonance ionization spectroscopy of Bi isotopes. The RILIS can be used as a spectroscopic tool to probe features such as the hyperfine structures and the isotope-shifts of radioisotopes with low production rates. By coupling a laser scanning process that dire...

  6. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography coupled matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for molecular analysis of organic compounds in medicines, tea, and coffee

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Renqi

    2013-01-01

    Natural occurring organic compounds from food, natural organic matter, as well as metabolic products have received intense attention in current chemical and biological studies. Examination of unknown compounds in complex sample matrices is hampered by the limited choices for data readout and molecular elucidation. Herein, we report a generic method of hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) coupled with matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) for the rapid characterization of ingredients in pharmaceutical compounds, tea, and coffee. The analytes were first fractionated using a cationic HILIC column prior to MALDI-MS analyses. It was found that the retention times of a compound arising from different samples were consistent under the same conditions. Accordingly, molecules can be readily characterized by both the mass and chromatographic retention time. The retention behaviors of acidic and basic compounds on the cationic HILIC column were found to be significantly influenced by the pH of mobile phases, whereas neutral compounds depicted a constant retention time at different pH. The general HILIC-MALDI-MS method is feasible for fast screening of naturally occurring organic compounds. A series of homologs can be determined if they have the same retention behavior. Their structural features can be elucidated by considering their mass differences and hydrophilic properties as determined by HILIC chromatogram. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  7. Species Identification and Delineation of Pathogenic Mucorales by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jin; Wan, Zhe; Li, Ruoyu; Yu, Jin

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to validate the effectiveness of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based identification of filamentous fungi of the order Mucorales. A total of 111 isolates covering six genera preserved at the Research Center for Medical Mycology of Peking University were selected for MALDI-TOF MS analysis. We emphasized the study of 23 strains of Mucor irregularis predominantly isolated from patients in China. We first used the Bruker Filamentous Fungi library (v1.0) to identify all 111 isolates. To increase the identification rate, we created a compensatory in-house database, the Beijing Medical University (BMU) database, using 13 reference strains covering 6 species, including M. irregularis , Mucor hiemalis , Mucor racemosus , Cunninghamella bertholletiae , Cunninghamella phaeospora , and Cunninghamella echinulata All 111 isolates were then identified by MALDI-TOF MS using a combination of the Bruker library and BMU database. MALDI-TOF MS identified 55 (49.5%) and 74 (66.7%) isolates at the species and genus levels, respectively, using the Bruker Filamentous Fungi library v1.0 alone. A combination of the Bruker library and BMU database allowed MALDI-TOF MS to identify 90 (81.1%) and 111 (100%) isolates at the species and genus levels, respectively, with a significantly increased accuracy rate. MALDI-TOF MS poorly identified Mucorales when the Bruker library was used alone due to its lack of some fungal species. In contrast, this technique perfectly identified M. irregularis after main spectrum profiles (MSPs) of relevant reference strains were added to the Bruker library. With an expanded Bruker library, MALDI-TOF MS is an effective tool for the identification of pathogenic Mucorales. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Rapid method for direct identification of bacteria in urine and blood culture samples by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry: intact cell vs. extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, L; Sánchez-Juanes, F; Muñoz-Bellido, J L; González-Buitrago, J M

    2011-07-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) is a fast and reliable technology for the identification of microorganisms with proteomics approaches. Here, we compare an intact cell method and a protein extraction method before application on the MALDI plate for the direct identification of microorganisms in both urine and blood culture samples from clinical microbiology laboratories. The results show that the intact cell method provides excellent results for urine and is a good initial method for blood cultures. The extraction method complements the intact cell method, improving microorganism identification from blood culture. Thus, we consider that MALDI-TOF MS performed directly on urine and blood culture samples, with the protocols that we propose, is a suitable technique for microorganism identification, as compared with the routine methods used in the clinical microbiology laboratory. © 2010 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2010 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  9. Developments and Applications of Electrophoresis and Small Molecule Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hui [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Ultra-sensitive native fluorescence detection of proteins with miniaturized one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was achieved with laser side-entry excitation, which provides both high excitation power and low background level. The detection limit for R-phycoerythrin protein spots in 1-D SDS-PAGE was as low as 15 fg, which corresponds to 40 thousand molecules only. The average detection limit of six standard native proteins was 5 pg per band and the dynamic range spanned more than 3 orders of magnitude. Approximately 150 protein spots from 30 ng of total Escherichia coli extraction were detected on a 0.8 cm x 1 cm gel in two-dimensional separation. Estrogen-DNA adducts as 4-OHE1(E2)-1-N3Ade and 4-OHEI(E2)-2-NacCys were hypothesized as early risk assessment of prostate and breast cancers. Capillary electrophoresis, luminescence/absorption spectroscopy and LC-MS were used to characterize and detect these adducts. Monoclonal antibodies against each individual adduct were developed and used to enrich such compounds from urine samples of prostate and breast cancer patients as well as healthy people. Adduct 4-OHE1-1-N3Ade was detected at much higher level in urine from subjects with prostate cancer patients compared to healthy males. The same adduct and 4-OHEI-2-NacCys were also detected at a much higher level in urine from a woman with breast carcinoma than samples from healthy controls. These two DNA adducts may serve as novel biomarkers for early diagnostic of cancers. The adsorption properties of R-phycoerythrin (RPE), on the fused-silica surface were studied using capillary electrophoresis (CE) and single molecule spectroscopy. The band shapes and migration times were measured in CE. Adsorption and desorption events were recorded at the single-molecule level by imaging of the evanescent-field layer using total internal reflection. The adsorbed RPE molecules on the fused-silica prism surface were

  10. Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometry peptide mass fingerprinting for proteome analysis: identification efficiency after on-blot or in-gel digestion with and without desalting procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamer, S; Jungblut, P R

    2001-03-10

    In theory, peptide mass fingerprinting by matrix assisted laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) has the potential to identify all of the proteins detected by silver staining on gels. In practice, if the genome of the organism investigated is completely sequenced, using current techniques, all proteins stained by Coomassie Brilliant Blue can be identified. This loss of identification sensitivity of ten to hundred-fold is caused by loss of peptides by surface contacts. Therefore, we performed digestion and transfer of peptides in the lower microl range and reduced the number of steps. The peptide mix obtained from in-gel or on-blot digestion was analyzed directly after digestion or after concentration on POROS R2 beads. Eight protein spots of a 2-DE gel from Mycobacterium bovis BCG were identified using these four preparation procedures for MALDI-MS. Overall, on-blot digestion was as effective as in-gel digestion. Whereas higher signal intensities resulted after concentration, hydrophilic peptides are better detected by direct measurement of the peptide mix without POROS R2 concentration.

  11. Method for simultaneous imaging of endogenous low molecular weight metabolites in mouse brain using TiO2 nanoparticles in nanoparticle-assisted laser desorption/ionization-imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivas, Kamlesh; Hayasaka, Takahiro; Sugiura, Yuki; Setou, Mitsutoshi

    2011-10-01

    We report the detection of a group of endogenous low molecular weight metabolites (LMWM) in mouse brain (80-500 Da) using TiO(2) nanoparticles (NPs) in nanoparticle-assisted laser desorption/ionization-imaging mass spectrometry (Nano-PALDI-IMS) without any washing and separation step prior to MS analysis. The identification of metabolites using TiO(2) NPs was compared with a conventional organic matrix 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) where signals of 179 molecules were specific to TiO(2) NPs, 4 were specific to DHB, and 21 were common to both TiO(2) NPs and DHB. The use of TiO(2) NPs enabled the detection of a higher number of LMWM as compared to DHB and gold NPs as a matrix. This approach is a simple, inexpensive, washing, and separation free for imaging and identification of LMWM in mouse brain. We believe that the biochemical information from distinct regions of the brain using a Nano-PALDI-IMS will be helpful in elucidating the imbalances linked with diseases in biomedical samples.

  12. Evaluation of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry in comparison to rpoB gene sequencing for species identification of bloodstream infection staphylococcal isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanu, T; De Carolis, E; Fiori, B; Sanguinetti, M; D'Inzeo, T; Fadda, G; Posteraro, B

    2011-01-01

    As a result of variable expression of biochemical characters, misidentification by conventional phenotypic means often occurs with clinical isolates belonging to Staphylococcus species. Therefore, we evaluated the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the identification of 450 blood isolates of the most relevant staphylococcal species, using sequence analysis of the rpoB gene as the reference method. A correct species identification by MALDI-TOF was obtained in 99.3% (447/450), with only three isolates being misidentified. In addition, MALDI-TOF correctly identified all the staphylococcal subspecies studied, including Staphylococcus capitis subsp. capitis and subsp. urealyticus, Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. urealyticus, Staphylococcus hominis subsp. novobiosepticus and subsp. hominis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus, Staphylococcus schleiferi subsp. schleiferi and Staphylococcus sciuri subsp. sciuri. Thus, MALDI-TOF MS-based species identification of staphylococci can be routinely achieved without any substantial costs for consumables or the time needed for labour-intensive DNA sequence analysis. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  13. Laser ablation principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    1994-01-01

    Laser Ablation provides a broad picture of the current understanding of laser ablation and its many applications, from the views of key contributors to the field. Discussed are in detail the electronic processes in laser ablation of semiconductors and insulators, the post-ionization of laser-desorbed biomolecules, Fourier-transform mass spectroscopy, the interaction of laser radiation with organic polymers, laser ablation and optical surface damage, laser desorption/ablation with laser detection, and laser ablation of superconducting thin films.

  14. Identification of Enterobacteriaceae by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry using the VITEK MS system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, S S; Sercia, L; Branda, J A; Burnham, C-A D; Bythrow, M; Ferraro, M J; Garner, O B; Ginocchio, C C; Jennemann, R; Lewinski, M A; Manji, R; Mochon, A B; Rychert, J A; Westblade, L F; Procop, G W

    2013-12-01

    This multicenter study evaluated the accuracy of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry identifications from the VITEK MS system (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France) for Enterobacteriaceae typically encountered in the clinical laboratory. Enterobacteriaceae isolates (n = 965) representing 17 genera and 40 species were analyzed on the VITEK MS system (database v2.0), in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Colony growth (≤72 h) was applied directly to the target slide. Matrix solution (α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid) was added and allowed to dry before mass spectrometry analysis. On the basis of the confidence level, the VITEK MS system provided a species, genus only, or no identification for each isolate. The accuracy of the mass spectrometric identification was compared to 16S rRNA gene sequencing performed at MIDI Labs (Newark, DE). Supplemental phenotypic testing was performed at bioMérieux when necessary. The VITEK MS result agreed with the reference method identification for 96.7% of the 965 isolates tested, with 83.8% correct to the species level and 12.8% limited to a genus-level identification. There was no identification for 1.7% of the isolates. The VITEK MS system misidentified 7 isolates (0.7 %) as different genera. Three Pantoea agglomerans isolates were misidentified as Enterobacter spp. and single isolates of Enterobacter cancerogenus, Escherichia hermannii, Hafnia alvei, and Raoultella ornithinolytica were misidentified as Klebsiella oxytoca, Citrobacter koseri, Obesumbacterium proteus, and Enterobacter aerogenes, respectively. Eight isolates (0.8 %) were misidentified as a different species in the correct genus. The VITEK MS system provides reliable mass spectrometric identifications for Enterobacteriaceae.

  15. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for fast and accurate identification of clinically relevant Aspergillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanio, A; Beretti, J-L; Dauphin, B; Mellado, E; Quesne, G; Lacroix, C; Amara, A; Berche, P; Nassif, X; Bougnoux, M-E

    2011-05-01

    New Aspergillus species have recently been described with the use of multilocus sequencing in refractory cases of invasive aspergillosis. The classical phenotypic identification methods routinely used in clinical laboratories failed to identify them adequately. Some of these Aspergillus species have specific patterns of susceptibility to antifungal agents, and misidentification may lead to inappropriate therapy. We developed a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS)-based strategy to adequately identify Aspergillus species to the species level. A database including the reference spectra of 28 clinically relevant species from seven Aspergillus sections (five common and 23 unusual species) was engineered. The profiles of young and mature colonies were analysed for each reference strain, and species-specific spectral fingerprints were identified. The performance of the database was then tested on 124 clinical and 16 environmental isolates previously characterized by partial sequencing of the β-tubulin and calmodulin genes. One hundred and thirty-eight isolates of 140 (98.6%) were correctly identified. Two atypical isolates could not be identified, but no isolate was misidentified (specificity: 100%). The database, including species-specific spectral fingerprints of young and mature colonies of the reference strains, allowed identification regardless of the maturity of the clinical isolate. These results indicate that MALDI-TOF MS is a powerful tool for rapid and accurate identification of both common and unusual species of Aspergillus. It can give better results than morphological identification in clinical laboratories. © 2010 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2010 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  16. Protein secondary structure and stability determined by combining exoproteolysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Josep; Villegas, Virtudes; Querol, Enrique; Avilés, Francesc X; Serrano, Luis

    2002-09-01

    In the post-genomic era, several projects focused on the massive experimental resolution of the three-dimensional structures of all the proteins of different organisms have been initiated. Simultaneously, significant progress has been made in the ab initio prediction of protein three-dimensional structure. One of the keys to the success of such a prediction is the use of local information (i.e. secondary structure). Here we describe a new limited proteolysis methodology, based on the use of unspecific exoproteases coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), to map quickly secondary structure elements of a protein from both ends, the N- and C-termini. We show that the proteolytic patterns (mass spectra series) obtained can be interpreted in the light of the conformation and local stability of the analyzed proteins, a direct correlation being observed between the predicted and the experimentally derived protein secondary structure. Further, this methodology can be easily applied to check rapidly the folding state of a protein and characterize mutational effects on protein conformation and stability. Moreover, given global stability information, this methodology allows one to locate the protein regions of increased or decreased conformational stability. All of this can be done with a small fraction of the amount of protein required by most of the other methods for conformational analysis. Thus limited exoproteolysis, together with MALDI-TOF MS, can be a useful tool to achieve quickly the elucidation of protein structure and stability. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Identification of bacteria in blood culture broths using matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization Sepsityper™ and time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Jen; Thomas, Lee C; Olma, Thomas; Chen, Sharon C A; Iredell, Jonathan R

    2011-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a novel method for the direct identification of bacteria from blood culture broths. We evaluate for the first time, the performance of the MALDI Sepsityper™ Kit and MS for the identification of bacteria compared to standard phenotypic methods using the manufacturer's specified bacterial identification criteria (spectral scores ≥1.700-1.999 and ≥2.000 indicated identification to genus and species level, respectively). Five hundred and seven positive blood culture broths were prospectively examined, of which 379 (74.8%; 358 monomicrobial, 21 polymicrobial) were identified by MALDI-TOF MS; 195 (100%) and 132 (67.7%) of 195 gram-positive; and 163 (100%) and 149 (91.4%) of 163 gram-negative organisms from monomicrobial blood cultures were correctly identified to genus and species level, respectively. Spectral scores blood culture broths, including 31.6% and 32.3% of gram-positive and polymicrobial blood cultures, respectively. Significantly more gram-negative organisms were identified compared to gram-positive organisms at species level (pblood cultures were misidentified, but at species level only; including four monomicrobial blood cultures with Streptococcus oralis/mitis that were misidentified as Streptococcus pneumoniae. Positive predictive values for the direct identification of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria from monomicrobial blood culture broths to genus level were 100%. A diagnostic algorithm for positive blood culture broths that incorporates gram staining and MALDI-TOF MS should identify the majority of pathogens, particularly to genus level.

  18. Analysis of chirality by femtosecond laser ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsch, Philipp; Urbasch, Gunter; Weitzel, Karl-Michael

    2012-09-01

    Recent progress in the field of chirality analysis employing laser ionization mass spectrometry is reviewed. Emphasis is given to femtosecond (fs) laser ionization work from the author's group. We begin by reviewing fundamental aspects of determining circular dichroism (CD) in fs-laser ionization mass spectrometry (fs-LIMS) discussing an example from the literature (resonant fs-LIMS of 3-methylcyclopentanone). Second, we present new data indicating CD in non-resonant fs-LIMS of propylene oxide. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  19. A simple method for rapid microbial identification from positive monomicrobial blood culture bottles through matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jung-Fu; Ge, Mao-Cheng; Liu, Tsui-Ping; Chang, Shih-Cheng; Lu, Jang-Jih

    2017-06-30

    Rapid identification of microbes in the bloodstream is crucial in managing septicemia because of its high disease severity, and direct identification from positive blood culture bottles through matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) can shorten the turnaround time. Therefore, we developed a simple method for rapid microbiological identification from positive blood cultures by using MALDI-TOF MS. We modified previously developed methods to propose a faster, simpler and more economical method, which includes centrifugation and hemolysis. Specifically, our method comprises two-stage centrifugation with gravitational acceleration (g) at 600g and 3000g, followed by the addition of a lysis buffer and another 3000g centrifugation. In total, 324 monomicrobial bacterial cultures were identified. The success rate of species identification was 81.8%, which is comparable with other complex methods. The identification success rate was the highest for Gram-negative aerobes (85%), followed by Gram-positive aerobes (78.2%) and anaerobes (67%). The proposed method requires less than 10 min, costs less than US$0.2 per usage, and facilitates batch processing. We conclude that this method is feasible for clinical use in microbiology laboratories, and can serve as a reference for treatments or further complementary diagnostic testing. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Exploration of polyamide structure-property relationships by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrère, Caroline; Rejaibi, Majed; Curat, Aurélien; Hubert-Roux, Marie; Lavanant, Hélène; Afonso, Carlos; Kebir, Nasreddine; Desilles, Nicolas; Lecamp, Laurence; Burel, Fabrice; Loutelier-Bourhis, Corinne

    2014-08-15

    Polyamides (PA) are among the most used classes of polymers because of their attractive properties. Depending on the nature and proportion of the co-monomers used for their synthesis, they can exhibit a very large range of melting temperatures (Tm ). This study aims at the correlation of data from mass spectrometry (MS) with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction analyses to relate molecular structure to physical properties such as melting temperature, enthalpy change and crystallinity rate. Six different PA copolymers with molecular weights around 3500 g mol(-1) were synthesized with varying proportions of different co-monomers (amino-acid AB/di-amine AA/di-acid BB). Their melting temperature, enthalpy change and crystallinity rate were measured by DSC and X-ray diffraction. Their structural characterization was carried out by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Because of the poor solubility of PA, a solvent-free sample preparation strategy was used with 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHB) as the matrix and sodium iodide as the cationizing agent. The different proportions of the repeating unit types led to the formation of PA with melting temperatures ranging from 115°C to 185°C. The structural characterization of these samples by MALDI-TOF-MS revealed a collection of different ion distributions with different sequences of repeating units (AA, BB; AB/AA, BB and AB) in different proportions according to the mixture of monomers used in the synthesis. The relative intensities of these ion distributions were related to sample complexity and structure. They were correlated to DSC and X-ray results, to explain the observed physical properties. The structural information obtained by MALDI-TOF-MS provided a better understanding of the variation of the PA melting temperature and established a structure-properties relationship. This work will allow future PA designs to be monitored. Copyright

  1. Current developments with TRIUMF’s titanium-sapphire laser based resonance ionization laser ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassen, J., E-mail: LASSEN@triumf.ca; Li, R. [TRIUMF (Canada); Raeder, S. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany); Zhao, X.; Dekker, T. [TRIUMF (Canada); Heggen, H. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany); Kunz, P.; Levy, C. D. P.; Mostanmand, M.; Teigelhöfer, A.; Ames, F. [TRIUMF (Canada)

    2017-11-15

    Developments at TRIUMF’s isotope separator and accelerator (ISAC) resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) in the past years have concentrated on increased reliability for on-line beam delivery of radioactive isotopes to experiments, as well as increasing the number of elements available through resonance ionization and searching for ionization schemes with improved efficiency. The current status of these developments is given with a list of two step laser ionization schemes implemented recently.

  2. Genetic, phenotypic and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based identification of anaerobic bacteria and determination of their antimicrobial susceptibility at a University Hospital in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunoki, Tomoyuki; Matsumura, Yasufumi; Nakano, Satoshi; Kato, Karin; Hotta, Go; Noguchi, Taro; Yamamoto, Masaki; Nagao, Miki; Takakura, Shunji; Ichiyama, Satoshi

    2016-05-01

    The accuracies of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and the phenotypic method using VITEK 2 were compared to the accuracy of 16S rRNA sequence analysis for the identification of 170 clinically isolated anaerobes. The antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was also evaluated. Genetic analysis identified 21 Gram-positive species in 14 genera and 29 Gram-negative species in 11 genera. The most frequently isolated genera were Prevotella spp. (n = 46), Bacteroides spp. (n = 25) and Clostridium spp. (n = 25). MALDI-TOF MS correctly identified more isolates compared with VITEK 2 at the species (80 vs. 58%, respectively; p anaerobic agents indicated that the isolates of the three most frequently identified anaerobic genera exhibited good antimicrobial susceptibility. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fingerprinting of egg and oil binders in painted artworks by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis of lipid oxidation by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvano, C D; van der Werf, I D; Palmisano, F; Sabbatini, L

    2011-06-01

    A matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based approach was applied for the detection of various lipid classes, such as triacylglycerols (TAGs) and phospholipids (PLs), and their oxidation by-products in extracts of small (50-100 μg) samples obtained from painted artworks. Ageing of test specimens under various conditions, including the presence of different pigments, was preliminarily investigated. During ageing, the TAGs and PLs content decreased, whereas the amount of diglycerides, short-chain oxidative products arising from TAGs and PLs, and oxidized TAGs and PLs components increased. The examination of a series of model paint samples gave a clear indication that specific ions produced by oxidative cleavage of PLs and/or TAGs may be used as markers for egg and drying oil-based binders. Their elemental composition and hypothetical structure are also tentatively proposed. Moreover, the simultaneous presence of egg and oil binders can be easily and unambiguously ascertained through the simultaneous occurrence of the relevant specific markers. The potential of the proposed approach was demonstrated for the first time by the analysis of real samples from a polyptych of Bartolomeo Vivarini (fifteenth century) and a "French school" canvas painting (seventeenth century).

  4. Quantitative analysis of polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG) oligomers via matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry with an ionic-liquid matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Donhee; Lee, Dongkun; Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Cha, Sangwon; Oh, Han Bin

    2015-01-30

    Quantifying polymers by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) with a conventional crystalline matrix generally suffers from poor sample-to-sample or shot-to-shot reproducibility. An ionic-liquid matrix has been demonstrated to mitigate these reproducibility issues by providing a homogeneous sample surface, which is useful for quantifying polymers. In the present study, we evaluated the use of an ionic liquid matrix, i.e., 1-methylimidazolium α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate (1-MeIm-CHCA), to quantify polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG) samples that impose a critical health hazard when inhaled in the form of droplets. MALDI-TOF mass spectra were acquired for PHMG oligomers using a variety of ionic-liquid matrices including 1-MeIm-CHCA. Calibration curves were constructed by plotting the sum of the PHMG oligomer peak areas versus PHMG sample concentration with a variety of peptide internal standards. Compared with the conventional crystalline matrix, the 1-MeIm-CHCA ionic-liquid matrix had much better reproducibility (lower standard deviations). Furthermore, by using an internal peptide standard, good linear calibration plots could be obtained over a range of PMHG concentrations of at least 4 orders of magnitude. This study successfully demonstrated that PHMG samples can be quantitatively characterized by MALDI-TOFMS with an ionic-liquid matrix and an internal standard. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Gold nanoparticles bridging infra-red spectroscopy and laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for direct analysis of over-the-counter drug and botanical medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Siu-Leung; Tang, Ho-Wai; Ng, Kwan-Ming

    2016-05-05

    With a coating of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), over-the-counter (OTC) drugs and Chinese herbal medicine granules in KBr pellets could be analyzed by Fourier Transform Infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Surface-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS). FT-IR spectroscopy allows fast detection of major active ingredient (e.g., acetaminophen) in OTC drugs in KBr pellets. Upon coating a thin layer of AuNPs on the KBr pellet, minor active ingredients (e.g., noscapine and loratadine) in OTC drugs, which were not revealed by FT-IR, could be detected unambiguously using AuNPs-assisted LDI-MS. Moreover, phytochemical markers of Coptidis Rhizoma (i.e. berberine, palmatine and coptisine) could be quantified in the concentrated Chinese medicine (CCM) granules by the SALDI-MS using standard addition method. The quantitative results matched with those determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Being strongly absorbing in UV yet transparent to IR, AuNPs successfully bridged FT-IR and SALDI-MS for direct analysis of active ingredients in the same solid sample. FT-IR allowed the fast analysis of major active ingredient in drugs, while SALDI-MS allowed the detection of minor active ingredient in the presence of excipient, and also quantitation of phytochemicals in herbal granules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Differentiation of Lactobacillus brevis strains using Matrix-Assisted-Laser-Desorption-Ionization-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry with respect to their beer spoilage potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Carola C; Vogel, Rudi F; Behr, Jürgen

    2014-06-01

    Lactobacillus (L.) brevis is one of the most frequently encountered bacteria in beer-spoilage incidents. As the species Lactobacillus brevis comprises strains showing varying ability to grow in beer, ranging from growth in low hopped wheat to highly hopped pilsner beer, differentiation and classification of L. brevis with regard to their beer-spoiling ability is of vital interest for the brewing industry. Matrix-Assisted-Laser-Desorption-Ionization-Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been shown as a powerful tool for species and sub-species differentiation of bacterial isolates and is increasingly used for strain-level differentiation. Seventeen L. brevis strains, representative of different spoilage types, were characterized according to their tolerance to iso-alpha-acids and their growth in wheat-, lager- and pilsner beer. MALDI-TOF MS spectra were acquired to perform strain-level identification, cluster analysis and biomarker detection. Strain-level identification was achieved in 90% out of 204 spectra. Misidentification occurred nearly exclusively among strains belonging to the same spoilage type. Though spectra of strongly beer-spoiling strains showed remarkable similarity, no decisive single markers were detected to be present in all strains of one group. However, MALDI-TOF MS spectra can be reliably assigned to the corresponding strain and thus allow to track single strains and connect them to their physiological properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Rapid identification of bacteria from positive blood culture bottles by use of matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time of flight mass spectrometry fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christner, Martin; Rohde, Holger; Wolters, Manuel; Sobottka, Ingo; Wegscheider, Karl; Aepfelbacher, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Early and adequate antimicrobial therapy has been shown to improve the clinical outcome in bloodstream infections (BSI). To provide rapid pathogen identification for targeted treatment, we applied matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry fingerprinting to bacteria directly recovered from blood culture bottles. A total of 304 aerobic and anaerobic blood cultures, reported positive by a Bactec 9240 system, were subjected in parallel to differential centrifugation with subsequent mass spectrometry fingerprinting and reference identification using established microbiological methods. A representative spectrum of bloodstream pathogens was recovered from 277 samples that grew a single bacterial isolate. Species identification by direct mass spectrometry fingerprinting matched reference identification in 95% of these samples and worked equally well for aerobic and anaerobic culture bottles. Application of commonly used score cutoffs to classify the fingerprinting results led to an identification rate of 87%. Mismatching mostly resulted from insufficient bacterial numbers and preferentially occurred with Gram-positive samples. The respective spectra showed low concordance to database references and were effectively rejected by score thresholds. Spiking experiments and examination of the respective study samples even suggested applicability of the method to mixed cultures. With turnaround times around 100 min, the approach allowed for reliable pathogen identification at the day of blood culture positivity, providing treatment-relevant information within the critical phase of septic illness.

  8. Influence of Desorption Conditions on Analyte Sensitivity and Internal Energy in Discrete Tissue or Whole Body Imaging by IR-MALDESI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Elias P.; Bokhart, Mark T.; Ghashghaei, H. Troy; Muddiman, David C.

    2015-06-01

    Analyte signal in a laser desorption/postionization scheme such as infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption electrospray ionization (IR-MALDESI) is strongly coupled to the degree of overlap between the desorbed plume of neutral material from a sample and an orthogonal electrospray. In this work, we systematically examine the effect of desorption conditions on IR-MALDESI response to pharmaceutical drugs and endogenous lipids in biological tissue using a design of experiments approach. Optimized desorption conditions have then been used to conduct an untargeted lipidomic analysis of whole body sagittal sections of neonate mouse. IR-MALDESI response to a wide range of lipid classes has been demonstrated, with enhanced lipid coverage received by varying the laser wavelength used for mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). Targeted MS2 imaging (MS2I) of an analyte, cocaine, deposited beneath whole body sections allowed determination of tissue-specific ion response factors, and CID fragments of cocaine were monitored to comment on wavelength-dependent internal energy deposition based on the "survival yield" method.

  9. Compact Two-step Laser Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer for in Situ Analyses of Aromatic Organics on Planetary Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getty, Stephanie; Brickerhoff, William; Cornish, Timothy; Ecelberger, Scott; Floyd, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    RATIONALE A miniature time-of-flight mass spectrometer has been adapted to demonstrate two-step laser desorption-ionization (LOI) in a compact instrument package for enhanced organics detection. Two-step LDI decouples the desorption and ionization processes, relative to traditional laser ionization-desorption, in order to produce low-fragmentation conditions for complex organic analytes. Tuning UV ionization laser energy allowed control ofthe degree of fragmentation, which may enable better identification of constituent species. METHODS A reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer prototype measuring 20 cm in length was adapted to a two-laser configuration, with IR (1064 nm) desorption followed by UV (266 nm) postionization. A relatively low ion extraction voltage of 5 kV was applied at the sample inlet. Instrument capabilities and performance were demonstrated with analysis of a model polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, representing a class of compounds important to the fields of Earth and planetary science. RESULTS L2MS analysis of a model PAH standard, pyrene, has been demonstrated, including parent mass identification and the onset o(tunable fragmentation as a function of ionizing laser energy. Mass resolution m/llm = 380 at full width at half-maximum was achieved which is notable for gas-phase ionization of desorbed neutrals in a highly-compact mass analyzer. CONCLUSIONS Achieving two-step laser mass spectrometry (L2MS) in a highly-miniature instrument enables a powerful approach to the detection and characterization of aromatic organics in remote terrestrial and planetary applications. Tunable detection of parent and fragment ions with high mass resolution, diagnostic of molecular structure, is possible on such a compact L2MS instrument. Selectivity of L2MS against low-mass inorganic salt interferences is a key advantage when working with unprocessed, natural samples, and a mechanism for the observed selectivity is presented.

  10. A laser-based FAIMS detector for detection of ultra-low concentrations of explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmalov, Artem E.; Chistyakov, Alexander A.; Kotkovskii, Gennadii E.; Sychev, Alexey V.; Tugaenko, Anton V.; Bogdanov, Artem S.; Perederiy, Anatoly N.; Spitsyn, Eugene M.

    2014-06-01

    A non-contact method for analyzing of explosives traces from surfaces was developed. The method is based on the laser desorption of analyzed molecules from the surveyed surfaces followed by the laser ionization of air sample combined with the field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS). The pulsed radiation of the fourth harmonic of a portable GSGG: Cr3+ :Nd3+ laser (λ = 266 nm) is used. The laser desorption FAIMS analyzer have been developed. The detection limit of the analyzer equals 40 pg for TNT. The results of detection of trinitrotoluene (TNT), cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) and cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine (HMX) are presented. It is shown that laser desorption of nitro-compounds from metals is accompanied by their surface decomposition. A method for detecting and analyzing of small concentrations of explosives in air based on the laser ionization and the FAIMS was developed. The method includes a highly efficient multipass optical scheme of the intracavity fourthharmonic generation of pulsed laser radiation (λ = 266 nm) and the field asymmetric ion mobility (FAIM) spectrometer disposed within a resonator. The ions formation and detection proceed inside a resonant cavity. The laser ion source based on the multi-passage of radiation at λ = 266 nm through the ionization region was elaborated. On the basis of the method the laser FAIMS analyzer has been created. The analyzer provides efficient detection of low concentrations of nitro-compounds in air and shows a detection limit of 10-14 - 10-15 g/cm3 both for RDX and TNT.

  11. Ionization processes in combined high-voltage nanosecond - laser discharges in inert gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starikovskiy, Andrey; Shneider, Mikhail; PU Team

    2016-09-01

    Remote control of plasmas induced by laser radiation in the atmosphere is one of the challenging issues of free space communication, long-distance energy transmission, remote sensing of the atmosphere, and standoff detection of trace gases and bio-threat species. Sequences of laser pulses, as demonstrated by an extensive earlier work, offer an advantageous tool providing access to the control of air-plasma dynamics and optical interactions. The avalanche ionization induced in a pre-ionized region by infrared laser pulses where investigated. Pre-ionization was created by an ionization wave, initiated by high-voltage nanosecond pulse. Then, behind the front of ionization wave extra avalanche ionization was initiated by the focused infrared laser pulse. The experiment was carried out in argon. It is shown that the gas pre-ionization inhibits the laser spark generation under low pressure conditions.

  12. Coupling laser desorption with gas chromatography and ion mobility spectrometry for improved olive oil characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedtke, Sascha; Seifert, Luzia; Ahlmann, Norman; Hariharan, Chandrasekhara; Franzke, Joachim; Vautz, Wolfgang

    2018-07-30

    The investigation of volatile compounds in the headspace of liquid samples can often be used for detailed and non-destructive characterisation of the sample. This has great potential for process control or the characterisation of food samples, such as olive oil. We investigated, for the first time, the plume of substances released from olive oil droplets by laser desorption in a feasibility study and applied ion mobility spectrometry coupled to rapid GC pre-separation to enhance selectivity. Our investigation demonstrated that significantly more substances can be detected and quantified via laser desorption than in the usual headspace, enabling a rapid (5-10 min), sensitive (low ng/g range) and comprehensive analysis of the sample, with the potential for quality control and fraud identification. Therefore, laser desorption provides a useful sampling tool for characterising liquids in many applications, requiring only a few µL of sample. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Laser Desorption of Tryptophan from Tryptophan-HCl Salt on a Graphite Substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hae Jun; Kim, Jeong Jin; Kang, Hyuk [Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Laser spectroscopy of biological molecules in the gas phase has been pioneered by Levy and coworkers when they first produced a supersonic molecular beam of tryptophan (Trp) and obtained its electronic spectrum. They were able to obtain enough vapor pressure needed for spectroscopy by heating a powder sample of Trp, although a special thermal spray was used to minimize fragmentation during heating. Many amine compounds, including biomolecules like amino acids and peptides, are usually available only as HCl salt form in order to prevent oxidation in air. Chemical processing is required to recover a neutral amine compound from its salt, thus limiting the applicability of laser-desorption spectroscopy of biomolecules. The experimental setup is a standard molecular beam machine composed of a pulsed valve with a laser-desorption module in a vacuum chamber, a second buffer chamber, a skimmer that separates the first and the second chambers, and a third vacuum chamber that is a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF MS)

  14. Identification of bacteria in blood culture broths using matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization Sepsityper™ and time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen Kok

    Full Text Available Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS is a novel method for the direct identification of bacteria from blood culture broths. We evaluate for the first time, the performance of the MALDI Sepsityper™ Kit and MS for the identification of bacteria compared to standard phenotypic methods using the manufacturer's specified bacterial identification criteria (spectral scores ≥1.700-1.999 and ≥2.000 indicated identification to genus and species level, respectively. Five hundred and seven positive blood culture broths were prospectively examined, of which 379 (74.8%; 358 monomicrobial, 21 polymicrobial were identified by MALDI-TOF MS; 195 (100% and 132 (67.7% of 195 gram-positive; and 163 (100% and 149 (91.4% of 163 gram-negative organisms from monomicrobial blood cultures were correctly identified to genus and species level, respectively. Spectral scores <1.700 (no identification were obtained in 128/507 (25.2% positive blood culture broths, including 31.6% and 32.3% of gram-positive and polymicrobial blood cultures, respectively. Significantly more gram-negative organisms were identified compared to gram-positive organisms at species level (p<0.0001. Five blood cultures were misidentified, but at species level only; including four monomicrobial blood cultures with Streptococcus oralis/mitis that were misidentified as Streptococcus pneumoniae. Positive predictive values for the direct identification of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria from monomicrobial blood culture broths to genus level were 100%. A diagnostic algorithm for positive blood culture broths that incorporates gram staining and MALDI-TOF MS should identify the majority of pathogens, particularly to genus level.

  15. Organic salt NEDC (N-naphthylethylenediamine dihydrochloride) assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry for identification of metal ions in real samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jian; Chen, Suming; Zhang, Ning; Liu, Huihui; Wang, Jianing; He, Qing; Wang, Jiyun; Xiong, Shaoxiang; Nie, Zongxiu

    2014-07-07

    The significance of metals in life and their epidemiological effects necessitate the development of a direct, efficient, and rapid method of analysis. The matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization technique is on the horns of a dilemma of metal analysis as the conventional matrixes have high background in the low mass range. An organic salt, NEDC (N-naphthylethylenediamine dihydrochloride), is applied as a matrix for identification of metal ions in the negative ion mode in the present work. Sixteen metal ions, Ba(2+), Ca(2+), Cd(2+), Ce(3+), Co(2+), Cu(2+), Fe(3+), Hg(2+), K(+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Na(+), Ni(2+), Pb(2+), Sn(2+) and Zn(2+), in the form of their chloride-adducted clusters were systematically tested. Mass spectra can provide unambiguous identification through accurate mass-to-charge ratios and characteristic isotope patterns. Compared to ruthenium ICP standard solution, tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)dichlororuthenium(ii) (C30H24N6Cl2Ru) can form organometallic chloride adducts to discriminate from the inorganic ruthenium by this method. After evaluating the sensitivity for Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn, Pb and Zn and plotting their quantitation curves of signal intensity versus concentration, we determined magnesium concentration in lake water quantitatively to be 5.42 mg L(-1) using the standard addition method. There is no significant difference from the result obtained with ICP-OES, 5.8 mg L(-1). Human urine and blood were also detected to ascertain the multi-metal analysis ability of this strategy in complex samples. At last, we explored its applicability to tissue slice and visualized sodium and potassium distribution by mass spectrometry imaging in the normal Kunming mouse brain.

  16. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric imaging for the rapid segmental analysis of methamphetamine in a single hair using umbelliferone as a matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hang; Wang, Ying

    2017-07-04

    Segmental hair analysis offers a longer period for retrospective drug detection than blood or urine. Hair is a keratinous fiber and is strongly hydrophobic. The embedding of drugs in hydrophobic hair at low concentrations makes it difficult for extraction and detection with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) coupled with mass spectrometric imaging (MSI). In this study, a single scalp hair was longitudinally cut with a cryostat section to a length of 4 mm and fixed onto a stainless steel MALDI plate. Umbelliferone was used as a new hydrophobic matrix to enrich and assist the ionization efficiency of methamphetamine in the hair sample. MALDI-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR)-MS profiling and imaging were performed for direct detection and mapping of methamphetamine on the longitudinal sections of the single hair sample in positive ion mode. Using MALDI-MSI, the distribution of methamphetamine was observed throughout five longitudinally sectioned hair samples from a drug abuser. The changes of methamphetamine were also semi-quantified by comparing the ratios of methamphetamine/internal standard (I.S). This method improves the detection sensitivity of target drugs embedded in a hair matrix for imaging with mass spectrometry. The method could provide a detection level of methamphetamine down to a nanogram per milligram incorporated into hair. The results were also compared with the conventional high performance liquid chromatography -tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method. Changes in the imaging results over time by the MSI method showed good semi-quantitative correlation to the results from the HPLC-MS/MS method. This study provides a powerful tool for drug abuse control and forensic medicine analysis in a narrow time frame, and a reduction in the sample amount required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Screening of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Populations with Single-Cell Resolution by Using a High-Throughput Microscale Sample Preparation for Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krismer, Jasmin; Sobek, Jens; Steinhoff, Robert F; Fagerer, Stephan R; Pabst, Martin; Zenobi, Renato

    2015-08-15

    The consequences of cellular heterogeneity, such as biocide persistence, can only be tackled by studying each individual in a cell population. Fluorescent tags provide tools for the high-throughput analysis of genomes, RNA transcripts, or proteins on the single-cell level. However, the analysis of lower-molecular-weight compounds that elude tagging is still a great challenge. Here, we describe a novel high-throughput microscale sample preparation technique for single cells that allows a mass spectrum to be obtained for each individual cell within a microbial population. The approach presented includes spotting Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells, using a noncontact microarrayer, onto a specialized slide and controlled lysis of cells separated on the slide. Throughout the sample preparation, analytes were traced and individual steps optimized using autofluorescence detection of chlorophyll. The lysates of isolated cells are subjected to a direct, label-free analysis using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. Thus, we were able to differentiate individual cells of two Chlamydomonas reinhardtii strains based on single-cell mass spectra. Furthermore, we showed that only population profiles with real single-cell resolution render a nondistorted picture of the phenotypes contained in a population. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Atmospheric Pressure-Thermal Desorption (AP-TD)/Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry for the Rapid Analysis of Bacillus Spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    A technique is described where an atmospheric pressure-thermal desorption (AP-TD) device and electrospray ionization (ESI)-mass spectrometry are coupled and used for the rapid analysis of Bacillus spores in complex matrices. The resulting AP-TD/ESI-MS technique combines the generation of volatile co...

  19. Identification and Quantification of N-Acyl Homoserine Lactones Involved in Bacterial Communication by Small-Scale Synthesis of Internal Standards and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipert, Jan; Treitz, Christian; Leippe, Matthias; Tholey, Andreas

    2017-12-01

    N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHL) are small signal molecules involved in the quorum sensing of many gram-negative bacteria, and play an important role in biofilm formation and pathogenesis. Present analytical methods for identification and quantification of AHL require time-consuming sample preparation steps and are hampered by the lack of appropriate standards. By aiming at a fast and straightforward method for AHL analytics, we investigated the applicability of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Suitable MALDI matrices, including crystalline and ionic liquid matrices, were tested and the fragmentation of different AHL in collision-induced dissociation MS/MS was studied, providing information about characteristic marker fragments ions. Employing small-scale synthesis protocols, we established a versatile and cost-efficient procedure for fast generation of isotope-labeled AHL standards, which can be used without extensive purification and yielded accurate standard curves. Quantitative analysis was possible in the low pico-molar range, with lower limits of quantification reaching from 1 to 5 pmol for different AHL. The developed methodology was successfully applied in a quantitative MALDI MS analysis of low-volume culture supernatants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  20. Resonance ionization laser ion sources for on-line isotope separators (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, B. A.

    2014-01-01

    A Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) is today considered an essential component of the majority of Isotope Separator On Line (ISOL) facilities; there are seven laser ion sources currently operational at ISOL facilities worldwide and several more are under development. The ionization mechanism is a highly element selective multi-step resonance photo-absorption process that requires a specifically tailored laser configuration for each chemical element. For some isotopes, isomer selective ionization may even be achieved by exploiting the differences in hyperfine structures of an atomic transition for different nuclear spin states. For many radioactive ion beam experiments, laser resonance ionization is the only means of achieving an acceptable level of beam purity without compromising isotope yield. Furthermore, by performing element selection at the location of the ion source, the propagation of unwanted radioactivity downstream of the target assembly is reduced. Whilst advances in laser technology have improved the performance and reliability of laser ion sources and broadened the range of suitable commercially available laser systems, many recent developments have focused rather on the laser/atom interaction region in the quest for increased selectivity and/or improved spectral resolution. Much of the progress in this area has been achieved by decoupling the laser ionization from competing ionization processes through the use of a laser/atom interaction region that is physically separated from the target chamber. A new application of gas catcher laser ion source technology promises to expand the capabilities of projectile fragmentation facilities through the conversion of otherwise discarded reaction fragments into high-purity low-energy ion beams. A summary of recent RILIS developments and the current status of laser ion sources worldwide is presented

  1. Interpreting tunneling time in circularly polarized strong-laser ionization

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, MingHu; Xin, PeiPei; Chu, TianShu; Liu, HongPing

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method to study the tunneling process by analyzing the time-dependent ionization yield in circularly polarized laser. A numerical calculation shows that for an atom exposed to a long laser pulse, if its initial electronic state wave function is non-spherical symmetric, the delayed phase shift of the ionization rate vs. the laser cycle period in real time in the region close to the peak intensity of the laser pulse can be used to probe the tunneling time. In this region, an obviou...

  2. Rapid identification and typing of Yersinia pestis and other Yersinia species by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyadurai, Saravanan; Flaudrops, Christophe; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2010-11-12

    Accurate identification is necessary to discriminate harmless environmental Yersinia species from the food-borne pathogens Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and from the group A bioterrorism plague agent Yersinia pestis. In order to circumvent the limitations of current phenotypic and PCR-based identification methods, we aimed to assess the usefulness of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) protein profiling for accurate and rapid identification of Yersinia species. As a first step, we built a database of 39 different Yersinia strains representing 12 different Yersinia species, including 13 Y. pestis isolates representative of the Antiqua, Medievalis and Orientalis biotypes. The organisms were deposited on the MALDI-TOF plate after appropriate ethanol-based inactivation, and a protein profile was obtained within 6 minutes for each of the Yersinia species. When compared with a 3,025-profile database, every Yersinia species yielded a unique protein profile and was unambiguously identified. In the second step of analysis, environmental and clinical isolates of Y. pestis (n = 2) and Y. enterocolitica (n = 11) were compared to the database and correctly identified. In particular, Y. pestis was unambiguously identified at the species level, and MALDI-TOF was able to successfully differentiate the three biotypes. These data indicate that MALDI-TOF can be used as a rapid and accurate first-line method for the identification of Yersinia isolates.

  3. Differentiation of clinically relevant Mucorales Rhizopus microsporus and R. arrhizus by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolatabadi, Somayeh; Kolecka, Anna; Versteeg, Matthijs; de Hoog, Sybren G; Boekhout, Teun

    2015-07-01

    This study addresses the usefulness of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS for reliable identification of the two most frequently occurring clinical species of Rhizopus, namely Rhizopus arrhizus with its two varieties, arrhizus and delemar, and Rhizopus microsporus. The test-set comprised 38 isolates of clinical and environmental origin previously identified by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing of rDNA. Multi-locus sequence data targeting three gene markers (ITS, ACT, TEF ) showed two monophylic clades for Rhizopus arrhizus and Rhizopus microsporus (bootstrap values of 99 %). Cluster analysis confirmed the presence of two distinct clades within Rhizopus arrhizus representing its varieties arrhizus and delemar. The MALDI Biotyper 3.0 Microflex LT platform (Bruker Daltonics) was used to confirm the distinction between Rhizopus arrhizus and Rhizopus microsporus and the presence of two varieties within the species Rhizopus arrhizus. An in-house database of 30 reference main spectra (MSPs) was initially tested for correctness using commercially available databases of Bruker Daltonics. By challenging the database with the same strains of which an in-house database was created, automatic identification runs confirmed that MALDI-TOF MS is able to recognize the strains at the variety level. Based on principal component analysis, two MSP dendrograms were created and showed concordance with the multi-locus tree; thus, MALDI-TOF MS is a useful tool for diagnostics of mucoralean species.

  4. Identifying the source of a strong fullerene envelope arising from laser desorption mass spectrometric analysis of meteoritic insoluble organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Matthew R.; Zare, Richard N.

    2008-11-01

    Insoluble organic matter (IOM) has been obtained from two carbonaceous chondrite meteorites and subjected to analysis by laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) using standard operating conditions that were optimized for fullerene detection (3-6 μJ pulses at 337 nm focused to a spot size of approximately 100 μm in diameter). The preparation process yields no free C 60 in the IOM, and other experiments suggest that this material does not contain appreciable amounts of fullerenes. Nevertheless, a pronounced high-mass envelope is observed in LDMS, extending from 720 amu to about 4000 amu, with peaks spaced apart every 24 amu (corresponding to the gain or loss of C 2 units). We attribute this high-mass envelope to the existence of various fullerene molecules. The present work demonstrates that these fullerene molecules are created by the laser desorption laser ionization process under typical laser conditions used for studying free fullerenes in organic solvent extracts of natural samples (toluene and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene). The implications of this false positive detection of fullerene molecules on the reports of fullerenes in other meteoritic samples have been investigated by introducing IOM into typical fullerene extraction procedures and examining the LDMS results. We found that IOM is capable of producing false positive signals in these experiments. The effect of ambient laboratory contamination producing fullerene signals is also described. It is found that extensive centrifugation of the meteoritic extracts is able to reduce the observed fullerene envelope, which points to an association of this envelope with IOM particulates that have passed through the filtering steps. We suggest the exercise of extreme caution in interpreting fullerene data from LDMS experiments.

  5. Features of single and double ionization processes induced by few cycle laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starace, A.F.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The advent of laser pulses with attosecond pulse lengths ushers in the regime of few cycle laser pulse interactions with atoms and ions, including the interesting cases of single and half cycle laser pulses. In this talk I will present results of recent studies of single electron ionization/detachment and double electron ionization/detachment produced by a few cycle laser pulse. For the former case, we shall demonstrate that the ionized/detached electron momentum distribution reflects the interference of electron probability wave packets produced by each half cycle of a single cycle pulse. Also, that the ionized/detached electron momentum distribution uniquely characterizes the phase of the single cycle laser pulse within the laser pulse envelope. Regarding double ionization/detachment, our numerical experiments have shown that single cycle and double half cycle pulses produce different electron angular distributions. Some double ionization features that are present only in the single cycle case can only have been produced by electron impact ionization during rescattering of an initially ionized electron and thus represent a sensitive measure of the rescattering process. Refs. 2 (author)

  6. The Exploration of Peptide Biomarkers in Malignant Pleural Effusion of Lung Cancer Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Diagnoses of malignant pleural effusion (MPE are a crucial problem in clinics. In our study, we compared the peptide profiles of MPE and tuberculosis pleural effusion (TPE to investigate the value of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS in diagnosis of MPE. Material and Methods. The 46 MPE and 32 TPE were randomly assigned to training set and validation set. Peptides were isolated by weak cation exchange magnetic beads and peaks in the m/z range of 800–10000 Da were analyzed. Comparing the peptide profile between 30 MPE and 22 TPE samples in training set by ClinProTools software, we screened the specific biomarkers and established a MALDI-TOF-MS classification of MPE. Finally, the other 16 MPE and 10 TPE were included to verify the model. We additionally determined carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA in MPE and TPE samples using electrochemiluminescent immunoassay method. Results. Five peptide peaks (917.37 Da, 4469.39 Da, 1466.5 Da, 4585.21 Da, and 3216.87 Da were selected to separate MPE and TPE by MALDI-TOF-MS. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the classification were 93.75%, 100%, and 96.15%, respectively, after blinded test. The sensitivity of CEA was significantly lower than MALDI-TOF-MS classification (P=0.035. Conclusions. The results indicate MALDI-TOF-MS is a potential method for diagnosing MPE.

  7. Independent assessment of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) sample preparation quality: Effect of sample preparation on MALDI-MS of synthetic polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijman, Pieter C; Kok, Sander; Honing, Maarten

    2017-02-28

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) provides detailed and in-depth information about the molecular characteristics of synthetic polymers. To obtain the most accurate results the sample preparation parameters should be chosen to suit the sample and the aim of the experiment. Because the underlying principles of MALDI are still not fully known, a priori determination of optimal sample preparation protocols is often not possible. Employing an automated sample preparation quality assessment method recently presented by us we quantified the sample preparation quality obtained using various sample preparation protocols. Six conventional matrices with and without added potassium as a cationization agent and six ionic liquid matrices (ILMs) were assessed using poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), polytetrahydrofuran (PTHF) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as samples. All sample preparation protocols were scored and ranked based on predefined quality parameters and spot-to-spot repeatability. Clearly distinctive preferences were observed in matrix identity and cationization agent for PEG, PTHF and PMMA, as the addition of an excess of potassium cationization agent results in an increased score for PMMA and a contrasting matrix-dependent effect for PTHF and PEG. The addition of excess cationization agent to sample mixtures dissipates any overrepresentation of high molecular weight polymer species. Our results show reduced ionization efficiency and similar sample deposit homogeneity for all tested ILMs, compared with well-performing conventional MALDI matrices. The results published here represent a start in the unsupervised quantification of sample preparation quality for MALDI samples. This method can select the best sample preparation parameters for any synthetic polymer sample and the results can be used to formulate hypotheses on MALDI principles. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Heterotrophic monitoring at a drinking water treatment plant by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry after different drinking water treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala-Comorera, Laura; Blanch, Anicet R; Vilaró, Carles; Galofré, Belén; García-Aljaro, Cristina

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the suitability of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for routine heterotrophic monitoring in a drinking water treatment plant. Water samples were collected from raw surface water and after different treatments during two campaigns over a 1-year period. Heterotrophic bacteria were studied and isolates were identified by MALDI-TOF MS. Moreover, the diversity index and the coefficient of population similarity were also calculated using biochemical fingerprinting of the populations studied. MALDI-TOF MS enabled us to characterize and detect changes in the bacterial community composition throughout the water treatment plant. Raw water showed a large and diverse population which was slightly modified after initial treatment steps (sand filtration and ultrafiltration). Reverse osmosis had a significant impact on the microbial diversity, while the final chlorination step produced a shift in the composition of the bacterial community. Although MALDI-TOF MS could not identify all the isolates since the available MALDI-TOF MS database does not cover all the bacterial diversity in water, this technique could be used to monitor bacterial changes in drinking water treatment plants by creating a specific protein profile database for tracking purposes.

  9. Independent assessment of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) sample preparation quality: A novel statistical approach for quality scoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijman, Pieter C; Kok, Sander J; Weusten, Jos J A M; Honing, Maarten

    2016-05-05

    Preparation of samples according to an optimized method is crucial for accurate determination of polymer sample characteristics by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization (MALDI) analysis. Sample preparation conditions such as matrix choice, cationization agent, deposition technique or even the deposition volume should be chosen to suit the sample of interest. Many sample preparation protocols have been developed and employed, yet finding the optimal sample preparation protocol remains a challenge. Because an objective comparison between the results of diverse protocols is not possible, "gut-feeling" or "good enough" is often decisive in the search for an optimum. This implies that sub-optimal protocols are used, leading to a loss of mass spectral information quality. To address this problem a novel analytical strategy based on MALDI imaging and statistical data processing was developed in which eight parameters were formulated to objectively quantify the quality of sample deposition and optimal MALDI matrix composition and finally sum up to an overall quality score of the sample deposition. These parameters can be established in a fully automated way using commercially available mass spectrometry imaging instruments without any hardware adjustments. With the newly developed analytical strategy the highest quality MALDI spots were selected, resulting in more reproducible and more valuable spectra for PEG in a variety of matrices. Moreover, our method enables an objective comparison of sample preparation protocols for any analyte and opens up new fields of investigation by presenting MALDI performance data in a clear and concise way. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Analyte-Size-Dependent Ionization and Quantification of Monosaccharides in Human Plasma Using Cation-Exchanged Smectite Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yuqi; Kawakita, Kento; Xu, Jiawei; Akiyama, Kazuhiko; Fujino, Tatsuya

    2015-08-04

    Smectite, a synthetic inorganic polymer with a saponite structure, was subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS). Typical organic matrix molecules 2,4,6-trihydroxyacetophenone (THAP) and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) were intercalated into the layer spacing of cation-exchanged smectite, and the complex was used as a new matrix for laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. Because of layer spacing limitations, only a small analyte that could enter the layer and bind to THAP or DHBA could be ionized. This was confirmed by examining different analyte/matrix preparation methods and by measuring saccharides with different molecular sizes. Because of the homogeneous distribution of THAP molecules in the smectite layer spacing, high reproducibility of the analyte peak intensity was achieved. By using isotope-labeled (13)C6-d-glucose as the internal standard, quantitative analysis of monosaccharides in pretreated human plasma sample was performed, and the value of 8.6 ± 0.3 μg/mg was estimated.

  11. Use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry for identification of molds of the Fusarium genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triest, David; Stubbe, Dirk; De Cremer, Koen; Piérard, Denis; Normand, Anne-Cécile; Piarroux, Renaud; Detandt, Monique; Hendrickx, Marijke

    2015-02-01

    The rates of infection with Fusarium molds are increasing, and a diverse number of Fusarium spp. belonging to different species complexes can cause infection. Conventional species identification in the clinical laboratory is time-consuming and prone to errors. We therefore evaluated whether matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a useful alternative. The 289 Fusarium strains from the Belgian Coordinated Collections of Microorganisms (BCCM)/Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology Mycology (IHEM) culture collection with validated sequence-based identities and comprising 40 species were used in this study. An identification strategy was developed, applying a standardized MALDI-TOF MS assay and an in-house reference spectrum database. In vitro antifungal testing was performed to assess important differences in susceptibility between clinically relevant species/species complexes. We observed that no incorrect species complex identifications were made by MALDI-TOF MS, and 82.8% of the identifications were correct to the species level. This success rate was increased to 91% by lowering the cutoff for identification. Although the identification of the correct species complex member was not always guaranteed, antifungal susceptibility testing showed that discriminating between Fusarium species complexes can be important for treatment but is not necessarily required between members of a species complex. With this perspective, some Fusarium species complexes with closely related members can be considered as a whole, increasing the success rate of correct identifications to 97%. The application of our user-friendly MALDI-TOF MS identification approach resulted in a dramatic improvement in both time and accuracy compared to identification with the conventional method. A proof of principle of our MALDI-TOF MS approach in the clinical setting using recently isolated Fusarium strains demonstrated its validity. Copyright © 2015

  12. Cost Savings Realized by Implementation of Routine Microbiological Identification by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Anthony; Alby, Kevin; Kerr, Alan; Jones, Melissa; Gilligan, Peter H

    2015-08-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) is an emerging technology for rapid identification of bacterial and fungal isolates. In comparison to conventional methods, this technology is much less labor intensive and can provide accurate and reliable results in minutes from a single isolated colony. We compared the cost of performing the bioMérieux Vitek MALDI-TOF MS with conventional microbiological methods to determine the amount saved by the laboratory by converting to the new technology. Identification costs for 21,930 isolates collected between April 1, 2013, and March 31, 2014, were directly compared for MALDI-TOF MS and conventional methodologies. These isolates were composed of commonly isolated organisms, including commonly encountered aerobic and facultative bacteria and yeast but excluding anaerobes and filamentous fungi. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and rapidly growing mycobacteria were also evaluated for a 5-month period during the study. Reagent costs and a total cost analysis that included technologist time in addition to reagent expenses and maintenance service agreement costs were analyzed as part of this study. The use of MALDI-TOF MS equated to a net savings of $69,108.61, or 87.8%, in reagent costs annually compared to traditional methods. When total costs are calculated to include technologist time and maintenance costs, traditional identification would have cost $142,532.69, versus $68,886.51 with the MALDI-TOF MS method, resulting in a laboratory savings of $73,646.18, or 51.7%, annually by adopting the new technology. The initial cost of the instrument at our usage level would be offset in about 3 years. MALDI-TOF MS not only represents an innovative technology for the rapid and accurate identification of bacterial and fungal isolates, it also provides a significant cost savings for the laboratory. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Laser induced desorption as hydrogen retention diagnostic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zlobinski, Miroslaw

    2016-07-15

    Laser Induced Desorption Spectroscopy (LIDS) is a diagnostic method to measure the hydrogen content in the surface of a material exposed to a hydrogen isotope (H,D,T) plasma. It is developed mainly to monitor hydrogen retention in the walls of magnetic fusion devices that have to limit the amount of their fuel tritium mainly due to safety reasons. The development of fusion increasingly focusses on plasma-wall interactions for which in situ diagnostics like LIDS are required that work during plasma operation and without tile removal. The method has first been developed for thin amorphous hydrocarbon (a-C:H < 500 nm) layers successfully and is studied in the present work on thick (15 μm) layers, carbon fibre composites (CFCs), bulk tungsten (W), W fuzz and mixed C/W materials. In LID a 3 ms Nd:YAG (1064 nm) laser pulse heats a spot of diameter 3 mm with 500 {sup MW}/{sub m{sup 2}} on W to 1800 K at the surface and thus above 1300 K within ca. 0.2 mm depth. On C materials (graphite, CFC, a-C:H) this temperature guarantees a nearly complete (>95%) desorption already within 1.5 ms pulse duration. The retained hydrogen atoms are desorbed locally, recombine to molecules and migrate promptly to the surface via internal channels like pores and grain boundaries. Whereas, in W the retained hydrogen atoms have to diffuse through the bulk material, which is a relatively slow process also directed into the depth. The desorbed hydrogen fraction can thus be strongly reduced to 18-91% as observed here. This fraction is measured by melting the central part of a previously heated spot ca. 40 μm deep with a diameter 2 mm, 3 ms laser pulse, releasing the remaining hydrogen. W samples exposed to different plasmas in TEXTOR, Pilot-PSI, PSI-2, PADOS and PlaQ show that the desorption fraction of LID mainly decreases due to higher sample temperature during plasma exposure. The heat causes deeper hydrogen diffusion and/or stronger hydrogen trapping due to creation of traps with higher

  14. Laser induced desorption as hydrogen retention diagnostic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlobinski, Miroslaw

    2016-01-01

    Laser Induced Desorption Spectroscopy (LIDS) is a diagnostic method to measure the hydrogen content in the surface of a material exposed to a hydrogen isotope (H,D,T) plasma. It is developed mainly to monitor hydrogen retention in the walls of magnetic fusion devices that have to limit the amount of their fuel tritium mainly due to safety reasons. The development of fusion increasingly focusses on plasma-wall interactions for which in situ diagnostics like LIDS are required that work during plasma operation and without tile removal. The method has first been developed for thin amorphous hydrocarbon (a-C:H < 500 nm) layers successfully and is studied in the present work on thick (15 μm) layers, carbon fibre composites (CFCs), bulk tungsten (W), W fuzz and mixed C/W materials. In LID a 3 ms Nd:YAG (1064 nm) laser pulse heats a spot of diameter 3 mm with 500 MW / m 2 on W to 1800 K at the surface and thus above 1300 K within ca. 0.2 mm depth. On C materials (graphite, CFC, a-C:H) this temperature guarantees a nearly complete (>95%) desorption already within 1.5 ms pulse duration. The retained hydrogen atoms are desorbed locally, recombine to molecules and migrate promptly to the surface via internal channels like pores and grain boundaries. Whereas, in W the retained hydrogen atoms have to diffuse through the bulk material, which is a relatively slow process also directed into the depth. The desorbed hydrogen fraction can thus be strongly reduced to 18-91% as observed here. This fraction is measured by melting the central part of a previously heated spot ca. 40 μm deep with a diameter 2 mm, 3 ms laser pulse, releasing the remaining hydrogen. W samples exposed to different plasmas in TEXTOR, Pilot-PSI, PSI-2, PADOS and PlaQ show that the desorption fraction of LID mainly decreases due to higher sample temperature during plasma exposure. The heat causes deeper hydrogen diffusion and/or stronger hydrogen trapping due to creation of traps with higher binding energy

  15. Imipenem-avibactam: a novel combination for the rapid detection of carbapenemase activity in Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter baumannii by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviaño, Marina; Bou, Germán

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, we propose a novel matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based method for detecting carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter baumannii. For this, we analyzed a series of 131 isolates. Among them, a total of 115 Enterobacteriaceae: 79 of them carrying a carbapenemase enzyme (15bla KPC , 7bla NDM , 11bla IMP , 12bla VIM , and 34bla OXA-48 ) and 16 A. baumannii isolates: 15 of them carrying carbapenemases (10bla OXA-23, 2bla OXA-58, 2bla OXA-24 , and 1bla OXA-237 ). The rest of the isolates were noncarbapenemase producers and used as negative controls. The isolates were submitted to susceptibility testing using a combination of imipenem-avibactam and analysis by the MALDI-TOF Biotyper Compass software (Bruker Daltonik, Germany). The assay showed an overall sensitivity and specificity for carbapenemase detection of 98% and 100%, respectively. The combination of imipenem and avibactam displayed activity against KPC and OXA-48-producing Enterobacteriaceae and thus represents a new strategy for identifying and confirming these carbapenemases. However, the combination did not provide any benefit over A. baumannii. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Microorganisms in cryopreserved semen and culture media used in the in vitro production (IVP) of bovine embryos identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampieri, Dávila; Santos, Vanessa G; Braga, Patrícia A C; Ferreira, Christina R; Ballottin, Daniela; Tasic, Ljubica; Basso, Andréa C; Sanches, Bruno V; Pontes, José H F; da Silva, Bárbara Pereira; Garboggini, Fabiana Fantinatti; Eberlin, Marcos N; Tata, Alessandra

    2013-09-01

    Commercial cattle breeders produce their own herd offspring for the dairy and beef market using artificial insemination. The procedure involves sanitary risks associated with the collection and commercialization of the germplasm, and the in vitro production and transfer of the bovine embryos must be monitored by strict health surveillance. To avoid the spreading of infectious diseases, one must rely on using controlled and monitored germplasm, media, and reagents that are guaranteed free of pathogens. In this article, we investigated the use of a new mass spectrometric approach for fast and accurate identification of bacteria and fungi in bovine semen and in culture media employed in the embryo in vitro production process. The microorganisms isolated from samples obtained in a commercial bovine embryo IVP setting were identified in a few minutes by their conserved peptide/protein profile, obtained applying matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS), matched against a commercial database. The successful microorganisms MS identification has been confirmed by DNA amplification and sequencing. Therefore, the MS technique seems to offer a powerful tool for rapid and accurate microorganism identification in semen and culture media samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Graphene/TiO2 nanocomposite based solid-phase extraction and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for lipidomic profiling of avocado (Persea americana Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qing; Yang, Mei; Li, Linqiu; Cheung, Hon-Yeung

    2014-12-10

    Phospholipids possess important physiological, structural and nutritional functions in biological systems. This study described a solid-phase extraction (SPE) method, employing graphene and titanium dioxide (G/TiO2) nanocomposite as sorbent, for the selective isolation and enrichment of phospholipids from avocado (Persea americana Mill.). Based on the principal that the phosphoryl group in the phospholipid can interact with TiO2 via a bridging bidentate mode, an optimum condition was established for SPE, and was successfully applied to prepare avocado samples. The extracts were monitored by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight/tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) in both positive-ion and negative-ion modes. Results showed that phospholipids could be efficiently extracted in a clean manner by G/TiO2 based SPE. In addition, the signals of phospholipids were enhanced while the noise was reduced. Some minor peaks became more obvious. In conclusion, the nanocomposite material of G/TiO2 was proved to be a promising sorbent for selective separation of phospholipids from crude lipid extract. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of Rhodamine Self-Assembled Films Using Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ruixia; Na, Na; Jiang, Fubin; Ouyang, Jin

    2013-06-01

    Growth process information and molecular structure identification are very important for characterization of self-assembled films. Here, we explore the possible application of desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) that provides the assembled information of rhodamine B (Rh B) and rhodamine 123 (Rh 123) films. With the help of lab-made DESI source, two characteristic ions [Rh B]+ and [Rh 123]+ are observed directly in the open environment. To evaluate the reliability of this technique, a comparative study of ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and our method is carried out, and the result shows good correlation. According to the signal intensity of characteristic ions, the layer-by-layer adsorption process of dyes can be monitored, and the thicknesses of multilayer films can also be comparatively determined. Combining the high sensitivity, selectivity, and speed of mass spectrometry, the selective adsorption of similar structure molecules under different pH is recognized easily from extracted ion chronograms. The variation trend of dyes signalling intensity with concentration of polyelectrolyte is studied as well, which reflects the effect of surface charge on dyes deposition. Additionally, the desorption area, surface morphology, and thicknesses of multilayer films are investigated using fluorescence microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. Because the desorption area was approximately as small as 2 mm2, the distribution situation of organic dyes in an arbitrary position could be gained rapidly, which means DESI-MS has advantages on in situ analysis.

  19. Controlling branching in streamer discharge by laser background ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, E; Kato, S; Furutani, H; Sasaki, A; Kishimoto, Y

    2011-01-01

    Irradiation with a KrF laser controlled the positive streamer branching in atmospheric argon gas. This laser irradiation changed the amount of background ionization before the streamer discharge. Measuring the ionization current allowed us to evaluate the initial electron density formed by the KrF laser. We observed characteristic feather-like branching structure and found that it was only suppressed in the irradiated region. The threshold of ionization density which can influence the branching was evaluated to be 5 x 10 5 cm -3 . The relationship between the size of avalanche head and mean distance between initial electrons explained this suppression behaviour. These experimental results support that the feather-like structure originates from the branching model of Loeb-Meek, a probabilistic merging of individual avalanches.

  20. Laser-supported ionization wave in under-dense gases and foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gus'kov, S. Yu.; Limpouch, J.; Nicolaie, Ph.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.

    2011-01-01

    Propagation of laser-supported ionization wave in homogeneous and porous materials with a mean density less than the critical plasma density is studied theoretically in the one-dimensional geometry. It is shown that the velocity of the ionization wave in a foam is significantly decreased in comparison with the similar wave in a homogeneous fully ionized plasma of the same density. That difference is attributed to the ionization and hydro-homogenization processes forming an under-critical density environment in the front of ionization wave. The rate of energy transfer from laser to plasma is found to be in a good agreement with available experimental data.

  1. Evaluation of repetitive-PCR and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for rapid strain typing of Bacillus coagulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Jun; Nakayama, Motokazu; Tomita, Ayumi; Sonoda, Takumi; Hasumi, Motomitsu; Miyamoto, Takahisa

    2017-01-01

    In order to establish rapid and accurate typing method for Bacillus coagulans strains which is important for controlling in some canned foods and tea-based beverages manufacturing because of the high-heat resistance of the spores and high tolerance of the vegetative cells to catechins and chemicals, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and repetitive-PCR (rep-PCR) were evaluated. For this purpose, 28 strains of B. coagulans obtained from various culture collections were tested. DNA sequence analyses of the genes encoding 16S rRNA and DNA gyrase classified the test strains into two and three groups, respectively, regardless of their phenotypes. Both MALDI-TOF MS and rep-PCR methods classified the test strains in great detail. Strains classified in each group showed similar phenotypes, such as carbohydrate utilization determined using API 50CH. In particular, the respective two pairs of strains which showed the same metabolic characteristic were classified into the same group by both MALDI-TOF MS and rep-PCR methods separating from the other strains. On the other hand, the other strains which have the different profiles of carbohydrate utilization were separated into different groups by these methods. These results suggested that the combination of MALDI-TOF MS and rep-PCR analyses was advantageous for the rapid and detailed typing of bacterial strains in respect to both phenotype and genotype.

  2. Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) Can Precisely Discriminate the Lineages of Listeria monocytogenes and Species of Listeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima-Kato, Teruyo; Yamamoto, Naomi; Takahashi, Hajime; Tamura, Hiroto

    2016-01-01

    The genetic lineages of Listeria monocytogenes and other species of the genus Listeria are correlated with pathogenesis in humans. Although matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has become a prevailing tool for rapid and reliable microbial identification, the precise discrimination of Listeria species and lineages remains a crucial issue in clinical settings and for food safety. In this study, we constructed an accurate and reliable MS database to discriminate the lineages of L. monocytogenes and the species of Listeria (L. monocytogenes, L. innocua, L. welshimeri, L. seeligeri, L. ivanovii, L. grayi, and L. rocourtiae) based on the S10-spc-alpha operon gene encoded ribosomal protein mass spectrum (S10-GERMS) proteotyping method, which relies on both genetic information (genomics) and observed MS peaks in MALDI-TOF MS (proteomics). The specific set of eight biomarkers (ribosomal proteins L24, L6, L18, L15, S11, S9, L31 type B, and S16) yielded characteristic MS patterns for the lineages of L. monocytogenes and the different species of Listeria, and led to the construction of a MS database that was successful in discriminating between these organisms in MALDI-TOF MS fingerprinting analysis followed by advanced proteotyping software Strain Solution analysis. We also confirmed the constructed database on the proteotyping software Strain Solution by using 23 Listeria strains collected from natural sources.

  3. Novel, improved sample preparation for rapid, direct identification from positive blood cultures using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Sören; Weinert, Kirsten; Wagner, Chris; Gunzl, Beatrix; Wieser, Andreas; Maier, Thomas; Kostrzewa, Markus

    2011-11-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is widely used for rapid and reliable identification of bacteria and yeast grown on agar plates. Moreover, MALDI-TOF MS also holds promise for bacterial identification from blood culture (BC) broths in hospital laboratories. The most important technical step for the identification of bacteria from positive BCs by MALDI-TOF MS is sample preparation to remove blood cells and host proteins. We present a method for novel, rapid sample preparation using differential lysis of blood cells. We demonstrate the efficacy and ease of use of this sample preparation and subsequent MALDI-TOF MS identification, applying it to a total of 500 aerobic and anaerobic BCs reported to be positive by a Bactec 9240 system. In 86.5% of all BCs, the microorganism species were correctly identified. Moreover, in 18/27 mixed cultures at least one isolate was correctly identified. A novel method that adjusts the score value for MALDI-TOF MS results is proposed, further improving the proportion of correctly identified samples. The results of the present study show that the MALDI-TOF MS-based method allows rapid (directly from positive BCs and with high accuracy. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Laser ionization installation for measurement of atomic beam parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Tukhlibaev, O; Khalilov, E E; Alimov, U Z

    2002-01-01

    The design of the laser ionization installation for determination of the atomic beam intensity, density and spatial structure is described. The method of the atoms laser resonance staged photoionization is applied in the installation. The above installation consists of two lasers on the dyestuffs, the atomizer, the ionization system and the ion signals registration system. The results of studies on the spatial structure of the In atoms beam are presented. The proposed method provides for the spatial resolution at the level of 10-100 mu m

  5. Direct identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) from positive blood culture bottles: An opportunity to customize growth conditions for fastidious organisms causing bloodstream infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Megha; Gautam, Vikas; Mahajan, Monika; Rana, Sudesh; Majumdar, Manasi; Ray, Pallab

    2017-10-01

    Culture-negative bacteraemia has been an enigmatic entity with respect to its aetiological agents. In an attempt to actively identify those positive blood cultures that escape isolation and detection on routine workflow, an additional step of MALDI-TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry) based detection was carried out directly from the flagged blood culture bottles. Blood samples from 200 blood culture bottles that beeped positive with automated (BACTEC) system and showed no growth of organism on routine culture media, were subjected to analysis by MALDI-TOF MS. Forty seven of the 200 (23.5%) bacterial aetiology could be established by bottle-based method. Based on these results, growth on culture medium could be achieved for the isolates by providing special growth conditions to the fastidious organisms. Direct identification by MALDI-TOF MS from BACTEC-positive bottles provided an opportunity to isolate those fastidious organisms that failed to grow on routine culture medium by providing them with necessary alterations in growth environment.

  6. Novel Laser Ignition Technique Using Dual-Pulse Pre-Ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrache, Ciprian

    Recent advances in the development of compact high power laser sources and fiber optic delivery of giant pulses have generated a renewed interest in laser ignition. The non-intrusive nature of laser ignition gives it a set of unique characteristics over the well-established capacitive discharge devices (or spark plugs) that are currently used as ignition sources in engines. Overall, the use of laser ignition has been shown to have a positive impact on engine operation leading to a reduction in NOx emission, fuel saving and an increased operational envelope of current engines. Conventionally, laser ignition is achieved by tightly focusing a high-power q-switched laser pulse until the optical intensity at the focus is high enough to breakdown the gas molecules. This leads to the formation of a spark that serves as the ignition source in engines. However, there are certain disadvantages associated with this ignition method. This ionization approach is energetically inefficient as the medium is transparent to the laser radiation until the laser intensity is high enough to cause gas breakdown. As a consequence, very high energies are required for ignition (about an order of magnitude higher energy than capacitive plugs at stoichiometric conditions). Additionally, the fluid flow induced during the plasma recombination generates high vorticity leading to high rates of flame stretching. In this work, we are addressing some of the aforementioned disadvantages of laser ignition by developing a novel approach based on a dual-pulse pre-ionization scheme. The new technique works by decoupling the effect of the two ionization mechanisms governing plasma formation: multiphoton ionization (MPI) and electron avalanche ionization (EAI). An UV nanosecond pulse (lambda = 266 nm) is used to generate initial ionization through MPI. This is followed by an overlapped NIR nanosecond pulse (lambda = 1064 nm) that adds energy into the pre-ionized mixture into a controlled manner until the

  7. In situ measurements of fuel retention by laser induced desorption spectroscopy in TEXTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlobinski, M.; Philipps, V.; Schweer, B.; Huber, A.; Stoschus, H.; Brezinsek, S.; Samm, U.; TEXTOR Team

    2011-12-01

    In future fusion devices such as ITER tritium retention due to tritium co-deposition in mixed material layers can be a serious safety problem. Laser induced desorption spectroscopy (LIDS) can measure the hydrogen content of hydrogenic carbon layers locally on plasma-facing components, while hydrogen is used as a tritium substitute. For several years, this method has been applied in the TEXTOR tokamak in situ during plasma operation to monitor the hydrogen content in space and time. This work shows the LIDS signal reproducibility and studies the effects of different plasma conditions, desorption distances from the plasma and different laser energies using a dedicated sample with constant hydrogen amount. Also the LIDS signal evaluation procedure is described in detail and the detection limits for different conditions in the TEXTOR tokamak are estimated.

  8. Secondary ionization processes in laser induced breakdown of electronegative gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamal Yosr, E.E.D.; Shafik, M.S.; Abdel-Moneim, H.M.

    1990-08-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the stepwise ionization processes which occur during the interaction of laser radiation with electronegative gases. Calculations are carried out adopting a modified version of the electron cascade model previously developed by Evans and Gamal. The modifications of the model are performed for the case of molecular oxygen to account for electron attachment losses. Particular attention is devoted to molecular oxygen at a pressure of 2.8 x 10 4 Torr irradiated by 10 ns pulse of Nd:YAG laser (λ=1.064 μm) at a peak intensity of 1.7x10 11 Wcm -2 . The calculations consider the effect of the secondary ionization processes on the electron energy distribution function and its parameters (evolution of the density of the excited molecules, electrons density as well as the electron mean energy during the laser flash). This analysis shows how the removal of slow electrons by attachment to oxygen molecules creates a strong competition between the stepwise ionization processes. These processes namely photoionization and collisional ionization deplete the electronic excited states and contribute eventually to the ionization growth rate in laser induced breakdown of electronegative gases. (author). 7 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  9. Gas-phase spectroscopy of synephrine by laser desorption supersonic jet technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiuchi, Shun-ichi; Asakawa, Toshiro; Mitsuda, Haruhiko; Miyazaki, Mitsuhiko; Chakraborty, Shamik; Fujii, Masaaki

    2011-09-22

    In our previous work, we found that synephrine has six conformers in the gas phase, while adrenaline, which is a catecholamine and has the same side chain as synephrine, has been reported to have only two conformers. To determine the conformational geometries of synephrine, we measured resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization, ultraviolet-ultraviolet hole burning, and infrared dip spectra by utilizing the laser desorption supersonic jet technique. By comparing the observed infrared spectra with theoretical ones, we assigned geometries except for the orientations of the phenolic OH group. Comparison between the determined structures of synephrine and those of 2-methylaminno-1-phenylethanol, which has the same side chain as synephrine but no phenol OH group, leads to the conclusion that the phenolic OH group in synephrine does not affect the conformational flexibility of the side chain. In the case of adrenaline, which is expected to have 12 conformers if there are no interactions between the catecholic OH groups and the side chain, some interactions possibly exist between them because only two conformations are observed. By estimation of the dipole-dipole interaction energy between partial dipole moments of the catecholic OH groups and the side chain, it was concluded that the dipole-dipole interaction stabilizes specific conformers which are actually observed. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  10. A resonant ionization laser ion source at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y.; Stracener, D.W.

    2016-06-01

    Multi-step resonance laser ionization has become an essential tool for the production of isobarically pure radioactive ion beams at the isotope separator on-line (ISOL) facilities around the world. A resonant ionization laser ion source (RILIS) has been developed for the former Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The RILIS employs a hot-cavity ion source and a laser system featuring three grating-tuned and individually pumped Ti:Sapphire lasers, especially designed for stable and simple operation. The RILIS has been installed at the second ISOL production platform of former HRIBF and has successfully provided beams of exotic neutron-rich Ga isotopes for beta decay studies. This paper reports the features, advantages, limitations, and on-line and off-line performance of the RILIS.

  11. Ro-vibrational laser spectroscopy of ESD neutrals from chemisorbed species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, A.R.; Stechel, E.B.; Jennison, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    Ever since the introduction of intense tunable laser radiation, the fields of molecular spectroscopy and dynamics have expanded tremendously. Indeed, with each technical improvement in laser resolution and output power, new applications have emerged with correspondingly increased levels of sophistication and information. In the field of electron-stimulated desorption (ESD), not only has the utilization of lasers resulted in the detection of neutral species, which were previously difficult to observe without specially-designed analyzers, but also the quantum-specific nature of the resonant laser interaction with the neutrals has yielded valuable information concerning internal energies. In this article, we will discuss some of the experimental methods in the application of laser resonance-ionization spectroscopy (RIS) to the study of the ESD of neutrals, in particular, chemisorbed NO and CO desorption from Pt(111). We will also show how the detailed information obtained in these experiments has identified a new desorption mechanism

  12. Examination of the skin barrier repair/wound healing process using a living skin equivalent model and matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization-mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, E E L; Barrett, M R T; Freeman-Parry, L; Bojar, R A; Clench, M R

    2018-04-01

    Examination of the skin barrier repair/wound healing process using a living skin equivalent (LSE) model and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) to identify lipids directly involved as potential biomarkers. These biomarkers may be used to determine whether an in vivo wound is going to heal for example if infected. An in vitro LSE model was wounded with a scalpel blade and assessed at day 4 post-wounding by histology and MALDI-MSI. Samples were sectioned at wound site and were either formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) for histology or snapped frozen (FF) for MSI analysis. The combination of using an in vitro wounded skin model with MSI allowed the identification of lipids involved in the skin barrier repair/wound healing process. The technique was able to highlight lipids directly in the wound site and distinguish differences in lipid distribution between the epidermis and wound site. This novel method of coupling an in vitro LSE with MSI allowed in-depth molecular analysis of the skin barrier repair/wound healing process. The technique allowed the identification of lipids directly involved in the skin barrier repair/wound healing process, indicating these biomarkers may be potentially be used within the clinic. These biomarkers will help to determine, which stage of the skin barrier repair/wound healing process the wound is in to provide the best treatment. © 2018 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  13. Effects of solid-medium type on routine identification of bacterial isolates by use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Neil W; Buchan, Blake W; Riebe, Katherine M; Parsons, Lauren N; Gnacinski, Stacy; Ledeboer, Nathan A

    2012-03-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a rapid method for the identification of bacteria. Factors that may alter protein profiles, including growth conditions and presence of exogenous substances, could hinder identification. Bacterial isolates identified by conventional methods were grown on various media and identified using the MALDI Biotyper (Bruker Daltonics, Billerica, MA) using a direct smear method and an acid extraction method. Specimens included 23 Pseudomonas isolates grown on blood agar, Pseudocel (CET), and MacConkey agar (MAC); 20 Staphylococcus isolates grown on blood agar, colistin-nalidixic acid agar (CNA), and mannitol salt agar (MSA); and 25 enteric isolates grown on blood agar, xylose lysine deoxycholate agar (XLD), Hektoen enteric agar (HE), salmonella-shigella agar (SS), and MAC. For Pseudomonas spp., the identification rate to genus using the direct method was 83% from blood, 78% from MAC, and 94% from CET. For Staphylococcus isolates, the identification rate to genus using the direct method was 95% from blood, 75% from CNA, and 95% from MSA. For enteric isolates, the identification rate to genus using the direct method was 100% from blood, 100% from MAC, 100% from XLD, 92% from HE, and 87% from SS. Extraction enhanced identification rates. The direct method of MALDI-TOF analysis of bacteria from selective and differential media yields identifications of varied confidence. Notably, Staphylococci spp. from CNA exhibit low identification rates. Extraction enhances identification rates and is recommended for colonies from this medium.

  14. Resonance ionization in a gas cell: a feasibility study for a laser ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qamhieh, Z.N.; Vandeweert, E.; Silverans, R.E.; Duppen, P. van; Huyse, M.; Vermeeren, L.

    1992-01-01

    A laser ion source based on resonance photo-ionization in a gas cell is proposed. The gas cell, filled with helium, consists of a target chamber in which the recoil products are stopped and neutralized, and an ionization chamber where the atoms of interest are selectively ionized by the laser light. The extraction of the ions from the ionization chamber through the exit hole-skimmer setup is similar to the ion-guide system. The conditions to obtain an optimal system are given. The results of a two-step one-laser resonance photo-ionization of nickel and the first results of laser ionization in a helium buffer gas cell are presented. (orig.)

  15. Performance of a high repetition pulse rate laser system for in-gas-jet laser ionization studies with the Leuven laser ion source LISOL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer, R.; Sonnenschein, V.T.; Bastin, B.; Franchoo, S.; Huyse, M.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Kron, T.; Lecesne, N.; Moore, I.D.; Osmond, B.; Pauwels, D.; Radulov, D.; Raeder, S.; Rens, L.

    2012-01-01

    The laser ionization efficiency of the Leuven gas cell-based laser ion source was investigated under on- and off-line conditions using two distinctly different laser setups: a low-repetition rate dye laser system and a high-repetition rate Ti:sapphire laser system. A systematic study of the ion signal dependence on repetition rate and laser pulse energy was performed in off-line tests using stable cobalt and copper isotopes. These studies also included in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy measurements on the hyperfine structure of 63 Cu. A final run under on-line conditions in which the radioactive isotope 59 Cu (T 1/2 = 81.5 s) was produced, showed a comparable yield of the two laser systems for in-gas-cell ionization. However, a significantly improved time overlap by using the high-repetition rate laser system for in-gas-jet ionization was demonstrated by an increase of the overall duty cycle, and at the same time, pointed to the need for a better shaped atomic jet to reach higher ionization efficiencies.

  16. Quantifying Uranium Isotope Ratios Using Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry: The Influence of Laser Parameters on Relative Ionization Probability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isselhardt, Brett H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry (RIMS) has been developed as a method to measure relative uranium isotope abundances. In this approach, RIMS is used as an element-selective ionization process to provide a distinction between uranium atoms and potential isobars without the aid of chemical purification and separation. We explore the laser parameters critical to the ionization process and their effects on the measured isotope ratio. Specifically, the use of broad bandwidth lasers with automated feedback control of wavelength was applied to the measurement of 235U/238U ratios to decrease laser-induced isotopic fractionation. By broadening the bandwidth of the first laser in a 3-color, 3-photon ionization process from a bandwidth of 1.8 GHz to about 10 GHz, the variation in sequential relative isotope abundance measurements decreased from >10% to less than 0.5%. This procedure was demonstrated for the direct interrogation of uranium oxide targets with essentially no sample preparation. A rate equation model for predicting the relative ionization probability has been developed to study the effect of variation in laser parameters on the measured isotope ratio. This work demonstrates that RIMS can be used for the robust measurement of uranium isotope ratios.

  17. Identification of proteins in a human pleural exudate using two-dimensional preparative liquid-phase electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, C L; Puchades, M; Westman, A; Blennow, K; Davidsson, P

    1999-01-01

    Pleural effusion may occur in patients suffering from physical trauma or systemic disorders such as infection, inflammation, or cancer. In order to investigate proteins in a pleural exudate from a patient with severe pneumonia, we used a strategy that combined preparative two-dimensional liquid-phase electrophoresis (2-D LPE), matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and Western blotting. Preparative 2-D LPE is based on the same principles as analytical 2-D gel electrophoresis, except that the proteins remain in liquid phase during the entire procedure. In the first dimension, liquid-phase isoelectric focusing allows for the enrichment of proteins in liquid fractions. In the Rotofor cell, large volumes (up to 55 mL) and protein amounts (up to 1-2 g) can be loaded. Several low abundance proteins, cystatin C, haptoglobin, transthyretin, beta2-microglobulin, and transferrin, were detected after liquid-phase isoelectric focusing, through Western blotting analysis, in a pleural exudate (by definition, >25 g/L total protein). Direct MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of proteins in a Rotofor fraction is demonstrated as well. MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of a tryptic digest of a continuous elution sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) fraction confirmed the presence of cystatin C. By applying 2-D LPE, MALDI-TOF-MS, and Western blotting to the analysis of this pleural exudate, we were able to confirm the identity of proteins of potential diagnostic value. Our findings serve to illustrate the usefulness of this combination of methods in the analysis of pathological fluids.

  18. Direct bacterial identification in positive blood cultures by use of two commercial matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jonathan H K; Ho, Pak-Leung; Kwan, Grace S W; She, Kevin K K; Siu, Gilman K H; Cheng, Vincent C C; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Yam, Wing-Cheong

    2013-06-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the identification of bacteria and fungi was recently introduced in microbiology laboratories. This technology could greatly improve the clinical management of patients and guidance for chemotherapy. In this study, we used a commercial MALDI Sepsityper extraction method to evaluate the performance of two commercial MALDI-TOF MS systems, the Vitek MS IVD (bioMérieux) and the Microflex LT Biotyper (Bruker Daltonics) for direct bacterial identification in positive blood cultures. In 181 monomicrobial cultures, both systems generated genus to species level identifications for >90% of the specimens (Biotyper, 177/181 [97.8%]; Vitek MS IVD, 167/181 [92.3%]). Overall, the Biotyper system generated significantly more accurate identifications than the Vitek MS IVD system (P = 0.016; 177 versus 167 out of 181 specimens). The Biotyper system identified the minority species among polymicrobial blood cultures. We also compared the performance of an in-house extraction method with that of the Sepsityper on both MALDI-TOF MS systems. The in-house method generated more correct identifications at the genus level than the Sepsityper (96.7% versus 93.5%) on the Biotyper system, whereas the two methods exhibited the same performance level (88.0% versus 88.0%) on the Vitek MS IVD system. Our study confirmed the practical advantages of MALDI-TOF MS, and our in-house extraction method reduced the reagent cost to $1 per specimen, with a shorter turnaround time of 3 h, which is highly cost-effective for a diagnostic microbiology service.

  19. Simultaneous imaging of multiple neurotransmitters and neuroactive substances in the brain by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Shariatgorji, Mohammadreza; Strittmatter, Nicole; Nilsson, Anna; Kallbäck, Patrik; Alvarsson, Alexandra; Zhang, Xiaoqun; Vallianatou, Theodosia; Svenningsson, Per; Goodwin, Richard J. A.; Andrén, Per E.

    2016-01-01

    With neurological processes involving multiple neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, it is important to have the ability to directly map and quantify multiple signaling molecules simultaneously in a single analysis. By utilizing a molecular-specific approach, namely desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI), we demonstrated that the technique can be used to image multiple neurotransmitters and their metabolites (dopamine, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-methoxytyr...

  20. Quantification of the PR-39 cathelicidin compound in porcine blood by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolira, Anna; Hałas, Stanisław; Wessely-Szponder, Joanna

    2015-10-15

    The PR-39 porcine cathelicidin occurs naturally in animal neutrophils. Its main function is antimicrobial activity, which potentially can be used in antibiotic treatments in veterinary medicine. Investigations concerning such a use require the detection and quantification of PR-39 in a given sample. The aim of this work is to determine the concentration of PR-39 contained in porcine blood. Prior to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) analysis, the porcine blood sample was subjected to crude extraction in order to release the active form of PR-39 from the neutrophil granules. Next, gel filtration chromatography was performed to separate PR-39 from other cathelicidins present in porcine blood. Positive ion MALDI time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectra of the resulting portion of lyophilisate with unknown PR-39 content were acquired in linear mode. To quantify PR-39 in the lyophilisate sample, the standard addition method was applied. The PR-39 concentration obtained in the lyophilisate sample was then converted into the peptide concentration in porcine blood. The linear fit function of the constructed calibration curve indicates an excellent correlation between the PR-39 peak intensity and the added quantity of synthetic PR-39 (R(2) = 0.994) and a low relative standard deviation of the slope = 1.98%. From the x-intercept of the straight line, we estimated the PR-39 concentration in porcine blood to be 20.5 ± 4.6 ng/mL. The MALDI method was successfully applied for the quantitative analysis of PR-39 found in porcine blood. Compared with other available methods, it is relatively easy, inexpensive and not time-consuming. Despite the method having lower accuracy than the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the results obtained here, by a much simpler method, are in good agreement with the literature data. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Ionization mechanism of cesium plasma produced by irradiation of dye laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Jun; Shibata, Kohji; Uchida, Yoshiyuki; Hioki, Yoshiaki; Sahashi, Toshio.

    1992-01-01

    When a cesium vapor was irradiated by a dye laser which was tuned to the cesium atomic transition line, the number of charged particles produced by the laser radiation was observed. Several sharp peaks in the number of charged particles were observed, which corresponded to the atomic transition where the lower level was the 6P excited atom. The ionization mechanism of the laser-produced cesium plasma has been discussed. An initial electron is produced by laser absorptions of the cesium dimer. When the cesium density is high, many 6P excited atoms are excited by electron collisions. The 6P excited atom further absorbs the laser photon and is ionized through the higher-energy state. As the cesium vapor pressure increases, the resonance effect becomes observable. The 6P excited atom plays dominant role in the ionization mechanism of the laser-produced cesium plasma. (author)

  2. Velocity distribution of laser photoionized neutrals ejected from methanol-dosed aluminium(111) by electron-stimulated desorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, C.E.; Whitten, J.E.; Pellin, M.J.; Gruen, D.M.; Jones, P.L.; Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH

    1989-01-01

    Nonresonant multiphoton ionization at 193 nm wavelength was employed for efficient detection of electron-stimulated neutral desorption from Al(111) dosed with methanol to produce monolayer methoxide coverage. Velocity spectra were measured by the flight time from the crystal surface to the focal region of the laser beam with a pulsed primary electron beam of 3 keV and the sample at 300 K. Either the C + or HCO + photofragment indicated the same non-Boltzmann velocity spectrum for the neutral parent precursor with a peak kinetic energy of ∼0.1 eV. Identical distributions were obtained when the cleaned crystal was pre-oxidized with O 2 prior to methanol dosing. As the crystal temperature was raised, photoion signal from the HCO + fragment declined steadily, while C + increased until ∼550 K. The total cross section for loss of parent signal with dose of 3 keV electrons was measured to be 2±1 x 10 -17 cm -2 . 19 refs., 4 figs

  3. Characterisation of bacteria by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation and electrospray mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baar, B.L.M. van

    2000-01-01

    Chemical analysis for the characterisation of micro-organisms is rapidly evolving, after the recent advent of new ionisation methods in mass spectrometry (MS): electrospray (ES) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation (MALDI). These methods allow quick characterisation of micro-organisms,

  4. Laser ablation synthesis of arsenic-phosphide Asm Pn clusters from As-P mixtures. Laser desorption ionisation with quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry: The mass spectrometer as a synthesizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubáček, Pavel; Prokeš, Lubomír; Pamreddy, Annapurna; Peña-Méndez, Eladia María; Conde, José Elias; Alberti, Milan; Havel, Josef

    2018-05-30

    Only a few arsenic phosphides are known. A high potential for the generation of new compounds is offered by Laser Ablation Synthesis (LAS) and when Laser Desorption Ionization (LDI) is coupled with simultaneous Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (TOFMS), immediate identification of the clusters can be achieved. LAS was used for the generation of arsenic phosphides via laser ablation of phosphorus-arsenic mixtures while quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QIT-TOFMS) was used to acquire the mass spectra. Many new As m P n ± clusters (479 binary and 369 mono-elemental) not yet described in the literature were generated in the gas phase and their stoichiometry determined. The likely structures for some of the observed clusters arbitrary selected (20) were computed by density functional theory (DFT) optimization. LAS is an advantageous approach for the generation of new As m P n clusters, while mass spectrometry was found to be an efficient technique for the determination of cluster stoichiometry. The results achieved might inspire the synthesis of new materials. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Mass Spectrometric Fingerprinting of Tank Waste Using Tunable, Ultrafast Infrared Lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard Haglund Jr.

    2002-01-01

    The principal scientific thrust of this project was to demonstrate a novel method for precision matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) of model tank-waste materials using, using the sodium nitrate component of the tank waste both as the matrix and as an internal calibration standard. Conventional nanosecond and femtosecond single-frequency lasers and a tunable, mid-infrared free-electron laser were used in the development of the MS protocols and in measurements of the MALDI dynamics. In addition to developing a model of the processes which lead to efficient desorption and ionization of organic molecules (e.g., toluene, benzene, chelators, various organic acids, crown ethers) from sodium nitrate, we developed protocols for quantitative analysis based on the use of the sodium nitrate in tank waste as an internal standard. Comparisons of MALDI-MS using nanosecond and picosecond lasers, and of infrared and ultraviolet lasers, have been especially instructive, and demonstrate the superior potential of IR-MALDI for this purpose, as well as for a number of related analytical and thin-film applications

  6. Rapid screening of pharmaceutical drugs using thermal desorption – SALDI mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grechnikov, A A; Kubasov, A E; Borodkov, A S; Georgieva, V B; Nikiforov, S M; Simanovsky, Ya O; Alimpiev, S S

    2012-01-01

    A novel approach to the rapid screening of pharmaceutical drugs by surface assisted laser desorption-ionization (SALDI) mass spectrometry with the rotating ball interface coupled with temperature programmed thermal desorption has been developed. Analytes were thermally desorbed and deposited onto the surface of amorphous silicon substrate attached to the rotating ball. The ball was rotated and the deposited analytes were analyzed using SALDI. The effectiveness of coupling SALDI mass spectrometry with thermal desorption was evaluated by the direct and rapid analysis of tablets containing lidocaine, diphenhydramine and propranolol without any sample pretreatment. The overall duration of the screening procedure was 30÷40 sec. Real urine samples were studied for drug analysis. It is shown that with simple preparation steps, urine samples can be quantitatively analyzed using the proposed technique with the detection limits in the range of 0.2÷0.5 ng/ml.

  7. Direct identification of microorganisms from positive blood cultures using the lysis-filtration technique and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS): a multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Claudio; Arena, Fabio; Casprini, Patrizia; Cichero, Paola; Clementi, Massimo; Cosentino, Marina; Degl'Innocenti, Roberto; Giani, Tommaso; Luzzaro, Francesco; Mattei, Romano; Mauri, Carola; Nardone, Maria; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Serna Ortega, Paula Andrea; Vailati, Francesca

    2015-04-01

    Microbial identification from blood cultures is essential to institute optimal antibiotic therapy and improve survival possibilities. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been successfully applied to identify bacteria and yeasts from positive blood cultures broths. The aim of this multicentre study was to evaluate the reliability of the lysis-filtration technique associated with MALDI-TOF MS to directly identify microorganisms from 765 positive blood cultures collected in six Italian hospitals. Overall, 675/765 (78.1%) blood isolates were correctly identified at the species level, with significant differences between Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria (92.6%, and 69.8%, respectively). Some difficulties arise in identifying Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, yeasts and anaerobes. The lysis-filtration protocol is a suitable procedure in terms of performance in identifying microorganisms, but it is quite expensive and technically time-consuming since the time of filtration is not regular for all the samples. The application of the MALDI-TOF MS technique to the direct microbial identification from positive blood cultures is a very promising approach, even if more experience must be gained to minimize errors and costs.

  8. Ionization of molecular hydrogen in ultrashort intense laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanne, Yulian V.

    2010-03-18

    A novel ab initio numerical approach is developed and applied that solves the time-dependent Schroedinger equation describing two-electron diatomic molecules (e.g. molecular hydrogen) exposed to an intense ultrashort laser pulse. The method is based on the fixed-nuclei and the non-relativistic dipole approximations and aims to accurately describe both correlated electrons in full dimensionality. The method is applicable for a wide range of the laser pulse parameters and is able to describe both few-photon and many-photon single ionization processes, also in a non-perturbative regime. A key advantage of the method is its ability to treat the strong-field response of the molecules with arbitrary orientation of the molecular axis with respect to the linear-polarized laser field. Thus, this work reports on the first successful orientation-dependent analysis of the multiphoton ionization of H{sub 2} performed by means of a full-dimensional numerical treatment. Besides the investigation of few-photon regime, an extensive numerical study of the ionization by ultrashort frequency-doubled Ti:sapphire laser pulses (400 nm) is presented. Performing a series of calculations for different internuclear separations, the total ionization yields of H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} in their ground vibrational states are obtained for both parallel and perpendicular orientations. A series of calculations for 800 nm laser pulses are used to test a popular simple interference model. Besides the discussion of the ab initio numerical method, this work considers different aspects related to the application of the strong-field approximation (SFA) for investigation of a strong-field response of an atomic and molecular system. Thus, a deep analysis of the gauge problem of SFA is performed and the quasistatic limit of the velocity-gauge SFA ionization rates is derived. The applications of the length-gauge SFA are examined and a recently proposed generalized Keldysh theory is criticized. (orig.)

  9. Ionization of molecular hydrogen in ultrashort intense laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanne, Yulian V.

    2010-01-01

    A novel ab initio numerical approach is developed and applied that solves the time-dependent Schroedinger equation describing two-electron diatomic molecules (e.g. molecular hydrogen) exposed to an intense ultrashort laser pulse. The method is based on the fixed-nuclei and the non-relativistic dipole approximations and aims to accurately describe both correlated electrons in full dimensionality. The method is applicable for a wide range of the laser pulse parameters and is able to describe both few-photon and many-photon single ionization processes, also in a non-perturbative regime. A key advantage of the method is its ability to treat the strong-field response of the molecules with arbitrary orientation of the molecular axis with respect to the linear-polarized laser field. Thus, this work reports on the first successful orientation-dependent analysis of the multiphoton ionization of H 2 performed by means of a full-dimensional numerical treatment. Besides the investigation of few-photon regime, an extensive numerical study of the ionization by ultrashort frequency-doubled Ti:sapphire laser pulses (400 nm) is presented. Performing a series of calculations for different internuclear separations, the total ionization yields of H 2 and D 2 in their ground vibrational states are obtained for both parallel and perpendicular orientations. A series of calculations for 800 nm laser pulses are used to test a popular simple interference model. Besides the discussion of the ab initio numerical method, this work considers different aspects related to the application of the strong-field approximation (SFA) for investigation of a strong-field response of an atomic and molecular system. Thus, a deep analysis of the gauge problem of SFA is performed and the quasistatic limit of the velocity-gauge SFA ionization rates is derived. The applications of the length-gauge SFA are examined and a recently proposed generalized Keldysh theory is criticized. (orig.)

  10. Direct detection of illicit drugs from biological fluids by desorption/ionization mass spectrometry with nanoporous silicon microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinan, T M; Kirkbride, P; Della Vedova, C B; Kershaw, S G; Kobus, H; Voelcker, N H

    2015-12-07

    Surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) is a high throughput analytical technique capable of detecting low molecular weight analytes, including illicit drugs, and with potential applications in forensic toxicology as well as athlete and workplace testing, particularly for biological fluids (oral fluids, urine and blood). However, successful detection of illicit drugs using SALDI-MS often requires extraction steps to reduce the inherent complexity of biological fluids. Here, we demonstrate an all-in-one extraction and analytical system consisting of hydrophobically functionalized porous silicon microparticles (pSi-MPs) for affinity SALDI-MS of prescription and illicit drugs. This novel approach allows for the analysis of drugs from multiple biological fluids without sample preparation protocols. The effect of pSi-MP size, pore diameter, pore depth and functionalization on analytical performance is investigated. pSi-MPs were optimized for the rapid and high sensitivity detection of methadone, cocaine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). This optimized system allowed extraction and detection of methadone from spiked saliva and clinical urine samples. Furthermore, by detecting oxycodone in additional clinical saliva and plasma samples, we were able to demonstrate the versatility of the pSi-MP SALDI-MS technique.

  11. Decision peptide-driven: a free software tool for accurate protein quantification using gel electrophoresis and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Hugo M; Reboiro-Jato, Miguel; Glez-Peña, Daniel; Nunes-Miranda, J D; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; Carvallo, R; Capelo, J L

    2010-09-15

    The decision peptide-driven tool implements a software application for assisting the user in a protocol for accurate protein quantification based on the following steps: (1) protein separation through gel electrophoresis; (2) in-gel protein digestion; (3) direct and inverse (18)O-labeling and (4) matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry, MALDI analysis. The DPD software compares the MALDI results of the direct and inverse (18)O-labeling experiments and quickly identifies those peptides with paralleled loses in different sets of a typical proteomic workflow. Those peptides are used for subsequent accurate protein quantification. The interpretation of the MALDI data from direct and inverse labeling experiments is time-consuming requiring a significant amount of time to do all comparisons manually. The DPD software shortens and simplifies the searching of the peptides that must be used for quantification from a week to just some minutes. To do so, it takes as input several MALDI spectra and aids the researcher in an automatic mode (i) to compare data from direct and inverse (18)O-labeling experiments, calculating the corresponding ratios to determine those peptides with paralleled losses throughout different sets of experiments; and (ii) allow to use those peptides as internal standards for subsequent accurate protein quantification using (18)O-labeling. In this work the DPD software is presented and explained with the quantification of protein carbonic anhydrase. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of repetitive-PCR and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS for rapid strain typing of Bacillus coagulans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Sato

    Full Text Available In order to establish rapid and accurate typing method for Bacillus coagulans strains which is important for controlling in some canned foods and tea-based beverages manufacturing because of the high-heat resistance of the spores and high tolerance of the vegetative cells to catechins and chemicals, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS and repetitive-PCR (rep-PCR were evaluated. For this purpose, 28 strains of B. coagulans obtained from various culture collections were tested. DNA sequence analyses of the genes encoding 16S rRNA and DNA gyrase classified the test strains into two and three groups, respectively, regardless of their phenotypes. Both MALDI-TOF MS and rep-PCR methods classified the test strains in great detail. Strains classified in each group showed similar phenotypes, such as carbohydrate utilization determined using API 50CH. In particular, the respective two pairs of strains which showed the same metabolic characteristic were classified into the same group by both MALDI-TOF MS and rep-PCR methods separating from the other strains. On the other hand, the other strains which have the different profiles of carbohydrate utilization were separated into different groups by these methods. These results suggested that the combination of MALDI-TOF MS and rep-PCR analyses was advantageous for the rapid and detailed typing of bacterial strains in respect to both phenotype and genotype.

  13. A survey of useful salt additives in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry of lipids: introducing nitrates for improved analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Rian L; Bunch, Josephine

    2012-07-15

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is a powerful technique for the direct analysis of lipids in complex mixtures and thin tissue sections, making it an extremely attractive method for profiling lipids in health and disease. Lipids are readily detected as [M+H](+), [M+Na](+) and [M+K](+) ions in positive ion MALDI mass spectrometry (MS) experiments. This not only decreases sensitivity, but can also lead to overlapping m/z values of the various adducts of different lipids. Additives can be used to promote formation of a particular adduct, improving sensitivity, reducing spectral complexity and enhancing structural characterization in collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments. Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Cs(+) and NH(4)(+) cations were considered as a range of salt types (acetates, chlorides and nitrates) incorporated into DHB matrix solutions at concentrations between 5 and 80 mM. The study was extended to evaluate the effect of these additives on CID experiments of a lipid standard, after optimization of collision energy parameters. Experiments were performed on a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight (QqTOF) instrument. The systematic evaluation of new and existing additives in MALDI-MS and MS/MS of lipids demonstrated the importance of additive cation and anion choice and concentration for tailoring spectral results. The recommended choice of additive depends on the desired outcomes of the experiment to be performed (MS or MS/MS). Nitrates are found to be particularly useful additives for lipid analysis. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Instant screening and verification of carbapenemase activity in Bacteroides fragilis in positive blood culture, using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization--time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Åsa; Nagy, Elisabeth; Sóki, József

    2014-08-01

    Rapid identification of isolates in positive blood cultures are of great importance to secure correct treatment of septicaemic patients. As antimicrobial resistance is increasing, rapid detection of resistance is crucial. Carbapenem resistance in Bacteroides fragilis associated with cfiA-encoded class B metallo-beta-lactamase is emerging. In our study we spiked blood culture bottles with 26 B. fragilis strains with various cfiA-status and ertapenem MICs. By using main spectra specific for cfiA-positive and cfiA-negative B. fragilis strains, isolates could be screened for resistance. To verify strains that were positive in the screening, a carbapenemase assay was performed where the specific peaks of intact and hydrolysed ertapenem were analysed with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). We show here that it is possible to correctly identify B. fragilis and to screen for enzymic carbapenem resistance directly from the pellet of positive blood cultures. The carbapenemase assay to verify the presence of the enzyme was successfully performed on the pellet from the direct identification despite the presence of blood components. The result of the procedure was achieved in 3 h. Also the Bruker mass spectrometric β-lactamase assay (MSBL assay) prototype software was proven not only to be based on an algorithm that correlated with the manual inspection of the spectra, but also to improve the interpretation by showing the variation in the dataset. © 2014 The Authors.

  15. Minimizing matrix effect by femtosecond laser ablation and ionization in elemental determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bochao; He, Miaohong; Hang, Wei; Huang, Benli

    2013-05-07

    Matrix effect is unavoidable in direct solid analysis, which usually is a leading cause of the nonstoichiometric effect in quantitative analysis. In this research, experiments were carried out to study the overall characteristics of atomization and ionization in laser-solid interaction. Both nanosecond (ns) and femtosecond (fs) lasers were applied in a buffer-gas-assisted ionization source coupled with an orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Twenty-nine solid standards of ten different matrices, including six metals and four dielectrics, were analyzed. The results indicate that the fs-laser mode offers more stable relative sensitivity coefficients (RSCs) with irradiance higher than 7 × 10(13) W·cm(-2), which could be more reliable in the determination of element composition of solids. The matrix effect is reduced by half when the fs-laser is employed, owing to the fact that the fs-laser ablation and ionization (fs-LAI) incurs an almost heat-free ablation process and creates a dense plasma for the stable ionization.

  16. Direct analysis of anabolic steroids in urine using Leidenfrost phenomenon assisted thermal desorption-dielectric barrier discharge ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Subhrakanti; Mandal, Mridul Kanti; Nonami, Hiroshi; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2014-08-11

    Rapid detection of trace level anabolic steroids in urine is highly desirable to monitor the consumption of performance enhancing anabolic steroids by athletes. The present article describes a novel strategy for identifying the trace anabolic steroids in urine using Leidenfrost phenomenon assisted thermal desorption (LPTD) coupled to dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) ionization mass spectrometry. Using this method the steroid molecules are enriched within a liquid droplet during the thermal desorption process and desorbed all-together at the last moment of droplet evaporation in a short time domain. The desorbed molecules were ionized using a dielectric barrier discharge ion-source in front of the mass spectrometer inlet at open atmosphere. This process facilitates the sensitivity enhancement with several orders of magnitude compared to the thermal desorption at a lower temperature. The limits of detection (LODs) of various steroid molecules were found to be in the range of 0.05-0.1 ng mL(-1) for standard solutions and around two orders of magnitude higher for synthetic urine samples. The detection limits of urinary anabolic steroids could be lowered by using a simple and rapid dichloromethane extraction technique. The analytical figures of merit of this technique were evaluated at open atmosphere using suitable internal standards. The technique is simple and rapid for high sensitivity and high throughput screening of anabolic steroids in urine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Alkali suppression within laser ion-source cavities and time structure of the laser ionized ion-bunches

    CERN Document Server

    Lettry, Jacques; Köster, U; Georg, U; Jonsson, O; Marzari, S; Fedosseev, V

    2003-01-01

    The chemical selectivity of the target and ion-source production system is an asset for Radioactive Ion-Beam (RIB) facilities equipped with mass separators. Ionization via laser induced multiple resonant steps Ionization has such selectivity. However, the selectivity of the ISOLDE Resonant Ionization Laser Ion-Source (RILIS), where ionization takes place within high temperature refractory metal cavities, suffers from unwanted surface ionization of low ionization potential alkalis. In order to reduce this type of isobaric contaminant, surface ionization within the target vessel was used. On-line measurements of the efficiency of this method is reported, suppression factors of alkalis up to an order of magnitude were measured as a function of their ionization potential. The time distribution of the ion bunches produced with the RILIS was measured for a variety of elements and high temperature cavity materials. While all ions are produced within a few nanoseconds, the ion bunch sometimes spreads over more than 1...

  18. Time-resolved spectroscopy of nonequilibrium ionization in laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marjoribanks, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    The highly transient ionization characteristic of laser-produced plasmas at high energy densities has been investigated experimentally, using x-ray spectroscopy with time resolution of less than 20 ps. Spectroscopic diagnostics of plasma density and temperature were used, including line ratios, line profile broadening and continuum emission, to characterize the plasma conditions without relying immediately on ionization modeling. The experimentally measured plasma parameters were used as independent variables, driving an ionization code, as a test of ionization modeling, divorced from hydrodynamic calculations. Several state-of-the-art streak spectrographs, each recording a fiducial of the laser peak along with the time-resolved spectrum, characterized the laser heating of thin signature layers of different atomic numbers imbedded in plastic targets. A novel design of crystal spectrograph, with a conically curved crystal, was developed. Coupled with a streak camera, it provided high resolution (λ/ΔΛ > 1000) and a collection efficiency roughly 20-50 times that of planar crystal spectrographs, affording improved spectra for quantitative reduction and greater sensitivity for the diagnosis of weak emitters. Experimental results were compared to hydrocode and ionization code simulations, with poor agreement. The conclusions question the appropriateness of describing electron velocity distributions by a temperature parameter during the time of laser illumination and emphasis the importance of characterizing the distribution more generally

  19. Multicenter evaluation of the Vitek MS matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry system for identification of Gram-positive aerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychert, Jenna; Burnham, Carey-Ann D; Bythrow, Maureen; Garner, Omai B; Ginocchio, Christine C; Jennemann, Rebecca; Lewinski, Michael A; Manji, Ryhana; Mochon, A Brian; Procop, Gary W; Richter, Sandra S; Sercia, Linda; Westblade, Lars F; Ferraro, Mary Jane; Branda, John A

    2013-07-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) is gaining momentum as a tool for bacterial identification in the clinical microbiology laboratory. Compared with conventional methods, this technology can more readily and conveniently identify a wide range of organisms. Here, we report the findings from a multicenter study to evaluate the Vitek MS v2.0 system (bioMérieux, Inc.) for the identification of aerobic Gram-positive bacteria. A total of 1,146 unique isolates, representing 13 genera and 42 species, were analyzed, and results were compared to those obtained by nucleic acid sequence-based identification as the reference method. For 1,063 of 1,146 isolates (92.8%), the Vitek MS provided a single identification that was accurate to the species level. For an additional 31 isolates (2.7%), multiple possible identifications were provided, all correct at the genus level. Mixed-genus or single-choice incorrect identifications were provided for 18 isolates (1.6%). Although no identification was obtained for 33 isolates (2.9%), there was no specific bacterial species for which the Vitek MS consistently failed to provide identification. In a subset of 463 isolates representing commonly encountered important pathogens, 95% were accurately identified to the species level and there were no misidentifications. Also, in all but one instance, the Vitek MS correctly differentiated Streptococcus pneumoniae from other viridans group streptococci. The findings demonstrate that the Vitek MS system is highly accurate for the identification of Gram-positive aerobic bacteria in the clinical laboratory setting.

  20. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry identification of large colony beta-hemolytic streptococci containing Lancefield groups A, C, and G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Christian Salgård; Dam-Nielsen, Casper; Arpi, Magnus

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether large colony beta-hemolytic streptococci containing Lancefield groups A, C, and G can be adequately identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF). Previous studies show varying results, with an identification rate from below 50% to 100%. Large colony beta-hemolytic streptococci containing Lancefield groups A, C, and G isolated from blood cultures between January 1, 2007 and May 1, 2012 were included in the study. Isolates were identified to the species level using a combination of phenotypic characteristics and 16s rRNA sequencing. The isolates were subjected to MALDI-ToF analysis. We used a two-stage approach starting with the direct method. If no valid result was obtained we proceeded to an extraction protocol. Scores above 2 were considered valid identification at the species level. A total of 97 Streptococcus pyogenes, 133 Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and 2 Streptococcus canis isolates were tested; 94%, 66%, and 100% of S. pyogenes, S. dysgalactiae, and S. canis, respectively, were correctly identified by MALDI-ToF. In most instances when the isolates were not identified by MALDI-ToF this was because MALDI-ToF was unable to differentiate between S. pyogenes and S. dysgalactiae. By removing two S. pyogenes reference spectra from the MALDI-ToF database the proportion of correctly identified isolates increased to 96% overall. MALDI-ToF is a promising method for discriminating between S. dysgalactiae, S. canis, and S. equi, although more strains need to be tested to clarify this.

  1. Collective ion acceleration via laser controlled ionization channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destler, W.W.; O'Shea, P.G.; Rodgers, J.; Segalov, Z.

    1987-01-01

    Initial results from a successful laser-controlled collective ion acceleration experiment at the University of Maryland are presented. In the experiment, positive ions are trapped in the potential well at the head of an intense relativistic electron beam injected at current levels above the space charge limit. Seed ions for acceleration are provided by puff valve injection of a neutral gas cloud localized to within 3 cm of the injection point. Control over the acceleration of the well and the ions is then achieved by means of a laser-generated ionization channel produced by passing the light from a Q-switched ruby laser through a series of partially and fully reflecting mirrors in such a way as to provide time-sequenced laser ionization of a target located on the drift tube wall. Using this system, controlled acceleration of protons at a rate of approximately 40 MV/m has been demonstrated over a distance of about 50 cm

  2. High-throughput identification of bacteria and yeast by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry in conventional medical microbiology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veen, S Q; Claas, E C J; Kuijper, Ed J

    2010-03-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is suitable for high-throughput and rapid diagnostics at low costs and can be considered an alternative for conventional biochemical and molecular identification systems in a conventional microbiological laboratory. First, we evaluated MALDI-TOF MS using 327 clinical isolates previously cultured from patient materials and identified by conventional techniques (Vitek-II, API, and biochemical tests). Discrepancies were analyzed by molecular analysis of the 16S genes. Of 327 isolates, 95.1% were identified correctly to genus level, and 85.6% were identified to species level by MALDI-TOF MS. Second, we performed a prospective validation study, including 980 clinical isolates of bacteria and yeasts. Overall performance of MALDI-TOF MS was significantly better than conventional biochemical systems for correct species identification (92.2% and 83.1%, respectively) and produced fewer incorrect genus identifications (0.1% and 1.6%, respectively). Correct species identification by MALDI-TOF MS was observed in 97.7% of Enterobacteriaceae, 92% of nonfermentative Gram-negative bacteria, 94.3% of staphylococci, 84.8% of streptococci, 84% of a miscellaneous group (mainly Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, and Kingella [HACEK]), and 85.2% of yeasts. MALDI-TOF MS had significantly better performance than conventional methods for species identification of staphylococci and genus identification of bacteria belonging to HACEK group. Misidentifications by MALDI-TOF MS were clearly associated with an absence of sufficient spectra from suitable reference strains in the MALDI-TOF MS database. We conclude that MALDI-TOF MS can be implemented easily for routine identification of bacteria (except for pneumococci and viridans streptococci) and yeasts in a medical microbiological laboratory.

  3. High throughput reaction screening using desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wleklinski, Michael; Loren, Bradley P; Ferreira, Christina R; Jaman, Zinia; Avramova, Larisa; Sobreira, Tiago J P; Thompson, David H; Cooks, R Graham

    2018-02-14

    We report the high throughput analysis of reaction mixture arrays using methods and data handling routines that were originally developed for biological tissue imaging. Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry (MS) is applied in a continuous on-line process at rates that approach 10 4 reactions per h at area densities of up to 1 spot per mm 2 (6144 spots per standard microtiter plate) with the sprayer moving at ca. 10 4 microns per s. Data are analyzed automatically by MS using in-house software to create ion images of selected reagents and products as intensity plots in standard array format. Amine alkylation reactions were used to optimize the system performance on PTFE membrane substrates using methanol as the DESI spray/analysis solvent. Reaction times can be screening of processes like N -alkylation and Suzuki coupling reactions as reported herein. Products and by-products were confirmed by on-line MS/MS upon rescanning of the array.

  4. Direct identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS from positive blood culture bottles: An opportunity to customize growth conditions for fastidious organisms causing bloodstream infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Culture-negative bacteraemia has been an enigmatic entity with respect to its aetiological agents. In an attempt to actively identify those positive blood cultures that escape isolation and detection on routine workflow, an additional step of MALDI-TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry based detection was carried out directly from the flagged blood culture bottles. Blood samples from 200 blood culture bottles that beeped positive with automated (BACTEC system and showed no growth of organism on routine culture media, were subjected to analysis by MALDI-TOF MS. Forty seven of the 200 (23.5% bacterial aetiology could be established by bottle-based method. Based on these results, growth on culture medium could be achieved for the isolates by providing special growth conditions to the fastidious organisms. Direct identification by MALDI-TOF MS from BACTEC-positive bottles provided an opportunity to isolate those fastidious organisms that failed to grow on routine culture medium by providing them with necessary alterations in growth environment.

  5. Identification of rare pathogenic bacteria in a clinical microbiology laboratory: impact of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Piseth; Abat, Cedric; Rolain, Jean Marc; Colson, Philippe; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Gouriet, Frédérique; Fournier, Pierre Edouard; Drancourt, Michel; La Scola, Bernard; Raoult, Didier

    2013-07-01

    During the past 5 years, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful tool for routine identification in many clinical laboratories. We analyzed our 11-year experience in routine identification of clinical isolates (40 months using MALDI-TOF MS and 91 months using conventional phenotypic identification [CPI]). Among the 286,842 clonal isolates, 284,899 isolates of 459 species were identified. The remaining 1,951 isolates were misidentified and required confirmation using a second phenotypic identification for 670 isolates and using a molecular technique for 1,273 isolates of 339 species. MALDI-TOF MS annually identified 112 species, i.e., 36 species/10,000 isolates, compared to 44 species, i.e., 19 species/10,000 isolates, for CPI. Only 50 isolates required second phenotypic identifications during the MALDI-TOF MS period (i.e., 4.5 reidentifications/10,000 isolates) compared with 620 isolates during the CPI period (i.e., 35.2/10,000 isolates). We identified 128 bacterial species rarely reported as human pathogens, including 48 using phenotypic techniques (22 using CPI and 37 using MALDI-TOF MS). Another 75 rare species were identified using molecular methods. MALDI-TOF MS reduced the time required for identification by 55-fold and 169-fold and the cost by 5-fold and 96-fold compared with CPI and gene sequencing, respectively. MALDI-TOF MS was a powerful tool not only for routine bacterial identification but also for identification of rare bacterial species implicated in human infectious diseases. The ability to rapidly identify bacterial species rarely described as pathogens in specific clinical specimens will help us to study the clinical burden resulting from the emergence of these species as human pathogens, and MALDI-TOF MS may be considered an alternative to molecular methods in clinical laboratories.

  6. Species identification of Aspergillus, Fusarium and Mucorales with direct surface analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carolis, E; Posteraro, B; Lass-Flörl, C; Vella, A; Florio, A R; Torelli, R; Girmenia, C; Colozza, C; Tortorano, A M; Sanguinetti, M; Fadda, G

    2012-05-01

    Accurate species discrimination of filamentous fungi is essential, because some species have specific antifungal susceptibility patterns, and misidentification may result in inappropriate therapy. We evaluated matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for species identification through direct surface analysis of the fungal culture. By use of culture collection strains representing 55 species of Aspergillus, Fusarium and Mucorales, a reference database was established for MALDI-TOF MS-based species identification according to the manufacturer's recommendations for microflex measurements and MALDI BioTyper 2.0 software. The profiles of young and mature colonies were analysed for each of the reference strains, and species-specific spectral fingerprints were obtained. To evaluate the database, 103 blind-coded fungal isolates collected in the routine clinical microbiology laboratory were tested. As a reference method for species designation, multilocus sequencing was used. Eighty-five isolates were unequivocally identified to the species level (≥99% sequence similarity); 18 isolates producing ambiguous results at this threshold were initially rated as identified to the genus level only. Further molecular analysis definitively assigned these isolates to the species Aspergillus oryzae (17 isolates) and Aspergillus flavus (one isolate), concordant with the MALDI-TOF MS results. Excluding nine isolates that belong to the fungal species not included in our reference database, 91 (96.8%) of 94 isolates were identified by MALDI-TOF MS to the species level, in agreement with the results of the reference method; three isolates were identified to the genus level. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS is suitable for the routine identification of filamentous fungi in a medical microbiology laboratory. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2011 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  7. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry and diagnostic testing for prosthetic joint infection in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Trisha N; Cole, Nicolynn C; Dylla, Brenda L; Patel, Robin

    2015-03-01

    Identification of pathogen(s) associated with prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is critical for patient management. Historically, many laboratories have not routinely identified organisms such as coagulase-negative staphylococci to the species level. The advent of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has enhanced clinical laboratory capacity for accurate species-level identification. The aim of this study was to describe the species-level identification of microorganisms isolated from periprosthetic tissue and fluid specimens using MALDI-TOF MS alongside other rapid identification tests in a clinical microbiology laboratory. Results of rapid identification of bacteria isolated from periprosthetic joint fluid and/or tissue specimens were correlated with clinical findings at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, between May 2012 and May 2013. There were 178 PJI and 82 aseptic failure (AF) cases analyzed, yielding 770 organisms (median, 3/subject; range, 1-19/subject). MALDI-TOF MS was employed for the identification of 455 organisms (59%) in 197 subjects (123 PJIs and 74 AFs), with 89% identified to the species level using this technique. Gram-positive bacteria accounted for 68% and 93% of isolates in PJI and AF, respectively. However, the profile of species associated with infection compared to specimen contamination differed. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus caprae were always associated with infection, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus lugdunensis were equally likely to be a pathogen or a contaminant, whereas the other coagulase-negative staphylococci were more frequently contaminants. Most streptococcal and Corynebacterium isolates were pathogens. The likelihood that an organism was a pathogen or contaminant differed with the prosthetic joint location, particularly in the case of Propionibacterium acnes. MALDI-TOF MS is a valuable tool for the identification of bacteria isolated from patients

  8. Imaging of plant materials using indirect desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janfelt, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Indirect desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) imaging is a method for imaging distributions of metabolites in plant materials, in particular leaves and petals. The challenge in direct imaging of such plant materials with DESI-MS is particularly the protective layer of cu...... of interest from parts of their matrix while preserving the spatial information in the two dimensions. The imprint can then easily be imaged by DESI-MS. The method delivers simple and robust mass spectrometry imaging of plant material with very high success ratios....... of cuticular wax present in leaves and petals. The cuticle protects the plant from drying out, but also makes it difficult for the DESI sprayer to reach the analytes of interest inside the plant material. A solution to this problem is to imprint the plant material onto a surface, thus releasing the analytes...

  9. Laser desorption mass spectrometry for high-throughput DNA analysis and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. H. Winston; Golovlev, Valeri V.; Taranenko, N. I.; Allman, S. L.; Isola, Narayana R.; Potter, N. T.; Matteson, K. J.; Chang, Linus Y.

    1999-05-01

    Laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) has been developed for DNA sequencing, disease diagnosis, and DNA fingerprinting for forensic applications. With LDMS, the speed of DNA analysis can be much faster than conventional gel electrophoresis. No dye or radioactive tagging to DNA segments for detection is needed. LDMS is emerging as a new alternative technology for DNA analysis.

  10. Laser post-ionization secondary neutral mass spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruen, D.M.; Pellin, M.J.; Calaway, W.F.; Young, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    Three different instruments using laser ionization techniques will be described. Results from the SARISA instrument with a demonstrated figure of merit of .05 (atoms detected/atoms sputtered) for resonance ionization; detection of Fe at the sub-part-per-billion level in ultrapure Si; and features of the instrument such as energy and angle refocusing time-of-flight (EARTOF) mass spectrometer and multiplexing for simultaneous detection of secondary ions and neutrals. 12 refs., 3 figs

  11. Classical trajectory perspective of atomic ionization in strong laser fields. Semiclassical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Dealing with timely and interesting issues in strong laser physics. Illustrates complex strong field atomic ionization with the simple semiclassical model of classical trajectory perspective for the first time. Provides a theoretical model that can be used to account for recent experiments. The ionization of atoms and molecules in strong laser fields is an active field in modern physics and has versatile applications in such as attosecond physics, X-ray generation, inertial confined fusion (ICF), medical science and so on. Classical Trajectory Perspective of Atomic Ionization in Strong Laser Fields covers the basic concepts in this field and discusses many interesting topics using the semiclassical model of classical trajectory ensemble simulation, which is one of the most successful ionization models and has the advantages of a clear picture, feasible computing and accounting for many exquisite experiments quantitatively. The book also presents many applications of the model in such topics as the single ionization, double ionization, neutral atom acceleration and other timely issues in strong field physics, and delivers useful messages to readers with presenting the classical trajectory perspective on the strong field atomic ionization. The book is intended for graduate students and researchers in the field of laser physics, atom molecule physics and theoretical physics. Dr. Jie Liu is a professor of Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, China and Peking University.

  12. Laser ionization and dissociation of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments undertaken to further characterize the spectroscopic and photophysical properties of some important excited singlet states of molecular hydrogen and its deuterium isotopes are described. Attention was centered on high vibrational levels of the B, C, and B' states within about 1000 cm -1 of the second dissociation limit. A double-resonance excitation scheme was needed to access levels with a large average bond distance from the ground state. Two-photon absorption of tunable uv-laser radiation-pumped ground-state hydrogen molecules into selected rovibronic levels of the metastable EF double-minimum electronic state. A second tunable near-IR probe laser was scanned to generate ions by resonant multiphoton ionization, where the resonant levels were provided by B, C, B', and other levels near the dissociation limit. New information was obtained regarding line shapes and intensities. Time-of-flight ion mass selection permitted observation of additional excitation channels with dissociation superimposed on the ionization process to produce protons

  13. The use of Gram stain and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry on positive blood culture: synergy between new and old technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuglsang-Damgaard, David; Nielsen, Camilla Houlberg; Mandrup, Elisabeth; Fuursted, Kurt

    2011-10-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) is promising as an alternative to more costly and cumbersome methods for direct identifications in blood cultures. We wanted to evaluate a simplified pre-treatment method for using MALDI-TOF-MS directly on positive blood cultures using BacT/Alert blood culture system, and to test an algorithm combining the result of the initial microscopy with the result suggested by MALDI-TOF-MS. Using the recommended cut-off score of 1.7 the best results were obtained among Gram-negative rods with correct identifications in 91% of Enterobacteriaceae, 83% in aerobic/non-fermentative Gram-negative rods, whereas results were more modest among Gram-positive cocci with correct identifications in 52% of Staphylococci, 54% in Enterococci and only 20% in Streptococci. Combining the results of Gram stain with the top reports by MALDI-TOF-MS, increased the sensitivity from 91% to 93% in the score range from 1.5 to 1.7 and from 48% to 85% in the score range from 1.3 to 1.5. Thus, using this strategy and accepting a cut-off at 1.3 instead of the suggested 1.7, overall sensitivity could be increased from 88.1% to 96.3%. MALDI-TOF-MS is an efficient method for direct routine identification of bacterial isolates in blood culture, especially when combined with the result of the Gram stain. © 2011 The Authors. APMIS © 2011 APMIS.

  14. Rapid and easy detection of low-level resistance to vancomycin in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Kota; Azechi, Takuya; Sasano, Hiroshi; Matsui, Hidehito; Hanaki, Hideaki; Miyazaki, Motoyasu; Takata, Tohru; Sekine, Miwa; Takaku, Tomoiku; Ochiai, Tomonori; Komatsu, Norio; Shibayama, Keigo; Katayama, Yuki; Yahara, Koji

    2018-01-01

    Vancomycin-intermediately resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) and heterogeneous VISA (hVISA) are associated with treatment failure. hVISA contains only a subpopulation of cells with increased minimal inhibitory concentrations, and its detection is problematic because it is classified as vancomycin-susceptible by standard susceptibility testing and the gold-standard method for its detection is impractical in clinical microbiology laboratories. Recently, a research group developed a machine-learning classifier to distinguish VISA and hVISA from vancomycin-susceptible S. aureus (VSSA) according to matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) data. Nonetheless, the sensitivity of hVISA classification was found to be 76%, and the program was not completely automated with a graphical user interface. Here, we developed a more accurate machine-learning classifier for discrimination of hVISA from VSSA and VISA among MRSA isolates in Japanese hospitals by means of MALDI-TOF MS data. The classifier showed 99% sensitivity of hVISA classification. Furthermore, we clarified the procedures for preparing samples and obtaining MALDI-TOF MS data and developed all-in-one software, hVISA Classifier, with a graphical user interface that automates the classification and is easy for medical workers to use; it is publicly available at https://github.com/bioprojects/hVISAclassifier. This system is useful and practical for screening MRSA isolates for the hVISA phenotype in clinical microbiology laboratories and thus should improve treatment of MRSA infections.

  15. Two-Step Resonance-Enhanced Desorption Laser Mass Spectrometry for In Situ Analysis of Organic-Rich Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getty, S. A.; Grubisic, A.; Uckert, K.; Li, X.; Cornish, T.; Cook, J. E.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.

    2016-01-01

    A wide diversity of planetary surfaces in the solar system represent high priority targets for in situ compositional and contextual analysis as part of future missions. The planned mission portfolio will inform our knowledge of the chemistry at play on Mars, icy moons, comets, and primitive asteroids, which can lead to advances in our understanding of the interplay between inorganic and organic building blocks that led to the evolution of habitable environments on Earth and beyond. In many of these environments, the presence of water or aqueously altered mineralogy is an important indicator of habitable environments that are present or may have been present in the past. As a result, the search for complex organic chemistry that may imply the presence of a feedstock, if not an inventory of biosignatures, is naturally aligned with targeted analyses of water-rich surface materials. Here we describe the two-step laser mass spectrometry (L2MS) analytical technique that has seen broad application in the study of organics in meteoritic samples, now demonstrated to be compatible with an in situ investigation with technique improvements to target high priority planetary environments as part of a future scientific payload. An ultraviolet (UV) pulsed laser is used in previous and current embodiments of laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDMS) to produce ionized species traceable to the mineral and organic composition of a planetary surface sample. L2MS, an advanced technique in laser mass spectrometry, is selective to the aromatic organic fraction of a complex sample, which can provide additional sensitivity and confidence in the detection of specific compound structures. Use of a compact two-step laser mass spectrometer prototype has been previously reported to provide specificity to key aromatic species, such as PAHs, nucleobases, and certain amino acids. Recent improvements in this technique have focused on the interaction between the mineral matrix and the

  16. Explosives vapour identification in ion mobility spectrometry using a tunable laser ionization source: a comparison with conventional 63Ni ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, A.; Deas, R.M.; Kosmidis, C.; Ledingham, K.W.D.; Marshall, A.; Singhal, R.P.

    1995-01-01

    Laser multiphoton ionization (MPI) is used to produce ions from explosive vapours at atmospheric pressure in air for analysis by ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). In the positive ion mode of detection, NO + ions, generated directly by multiphoton dissociation/ionization of the explosive compounds, show strong variation with laser wavelength. This provides a means of identifying the presence of nitro-containing compounds. Moreover, electrons formed in the MPI of gaseous components in the air carrier stream, primarily O 2 , are transferred via neutral molecular oxygen (O 2 ) to trace explosive vapour, forming negative ions which give rise to characteristic and identifiable ion mobility spectra. Further, negative ion mobility spectra of several explosive vapours are presented using conventional 63 Ni ionization and are compared qualitatively with the laser ionization approach. (author)

  17. Matrix effect in the analysis of drugs of abuse from urine with desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry (DAPPI-MS) and desorption electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (DESI-MS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suni, Niina M.; Lindfors, Pia; Laine, Olli; Ostman, Pekka; Ojanperae, Ilkka; Kotiaho, Tapio; Kauppila, Tiina J.; Kostiainen, Risto

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → DAPPI-MS and DESI-MSI in the analysis of drugs of abuse from urine. → DAPPI-MS has better urine matrix tolerance over DESI-MS. → Urine matrix can affect the ionization mechanism in DAPPI. → DAPPI-MS/MS can be used for screening of drugs from urine after sample pretreatment. - Abstract: We have studied the matrix effect within direct analysis of benzodiazepines and opioids from urine with desorption electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) and desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry (DAPPI-MS). The urine matrix was found to affect the ionization mechanism of the opioids in DAPPI-MS favoring proton transfer over charge exchange reaction. The sensitivity for the drugs in solvent matrix was at the same level with DESI-MS and DAPPI-MS (LODs 0.05-6 μg mL -1 ) but the decrease in sensitivity due to the urine matrix was higher with DESI (typically 20-160-fold) than with DAPPI (typically 2-15-fold) indicating better matrix tolerance of DAPPI over DESI. Also in MS/MS mode, DAPPI provided better sensitivity than DESI for the drugs in urine. The feasibility of DAPPI-MS/MS was then studied in screening the same drugs from five authentic, forensic post mortem urine samples. A reference measurement with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) (including pretreatment) revealed 16 findings from the samples, whereas with DAPPI-MS/MS after sample pretreatment, 15 findings were made. Sample pretreatment was found necessary, since only eight findings were made from the same samples untreated.

  18. Matrix effect in the analysis of drugs of abuse from urine with desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry (DAPPI-MS) and desorption electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (DESI-MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suni, Niina M.; Lindfors, Pia; Laine, Olli [Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, Helsinki FI-00014 (Finland); Ostman, Pekka; Ojanperae, Ilkka [Hjelt Institute, Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 40, Helsinki FI-00014 (Finland); Kotiaho, Tapio [Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, Helsinki FI-00014 (Finland); Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, Helsinki FI-00014 (Finland); Kauppila, Tiina J. [Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, Helsinki FI-00014 (Finland); Kostiainen, Risto, E-mail: risto.kostiainen@helsinki.fi [Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, Helsinki FI-00014 (Finland)

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} DAPPI-MS and DESI-MSI in the analysis of drugs of abuse from urine. {yields} DAPPI-MS has better urine matrix tolerance over DESI-MS. {yields} Urine matrix can affect the ionization mechanism in DAPPI. {yields} DAPPI-MS/MS can be used for screening of drugs from urine after sample pretreatment. - Abstract: We have studied the matrix effect within direct analysis of benzodiazepines and opioids from urine with desorption electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) and desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry (DAPPI-MS). The urine matrix was found to affect the ionization mechanism of the opioids in DAPPI-MS favoring proton transfer over charge exchange reaction. The sensitivity for the drugs in solvent matrix was at the same level with DESI-MS and DAPPI-MS (LODs 0.05-6 {mu}g mL{sup -1}) but the decrease in sensitivity due to the urine matrix was higher with DESI (typically 20-160-fold) than with DAPPI (typically 2-15-fold) indicating better matrix tolerance of DAPPI over DESI. Also in MS/MS mode, DAPPI provided better sensitivity than DESI for the drugs in urine. The feasibility of DAPPI-MS/MS was then studied in screening the same drugs from five authentic, forensic post mortem urine samples. A reference measurement with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) (including pretreatment) revealed 16 findings from the samples, whereas with DAPPI-MS/MS after sample pretreatment, 15 findings were made. Sample pretreatment was found necessary, since only eight findings were made from the same samples untreated.

  19. Hot-cavity studies for the Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henares, J.L.; Lecesne, N.; Hijazi, L.; Bastin, B.; Kron, T.; Lassen, J.; Le Blanc, F.; Leroy, R.; Osmond, B.; Raeder, S.; Schneider, F.; Wendt, K.

    2016-01-01

    The Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) has emerged as an important technique in many Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facilities for its reliability, and ability to ionize target elements efficiently and element selectively. GISELE is an off-line RILIS test bench to study the implementation of an on-line laser ion source at the GANIL separator facility. The aim of this project is to determine the best technical solution which combines high selectivity and ionization efficiency with small ion beam emittance and stable long term operation. The ion source geometry was tested in several configurations in order to find a solution with optimal ionization efficiency and beam emittance. Furthermore, a low work function material was tested to reduce the contaminants and molecular sidebands generated inside the ion source. First results with ZrC ionizer tubes will be presented. Furthermore, a method to measure the energy distribution of the ion beam as a function of the time of flight will be discussed.

  20. Expression of Raf kinase inhibitor protein in human hepatoma tissues by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, D A; Shiau, Y F; Tseng, C S; Chang, H R

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common malignant liver tumor. To reduce the mortality and improve the effectiveness of therapy, it is important to search for changes in tumor-specific biomarkers whose function may involve in disease progression and which may be useful as potential therapeutic targets. Materials and Mehtods: In this study, we use two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry to observe proteome alterations of 12 tissue pairs isolated from HCC patients: Normal and tumorous tissue. Comparing the tissue types with each other, 40 protein spots corresponding to fifteen differentially expressed between normal and cancer part of HCC patients. Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP), an inhibitor of Raf-mediated activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase, may play an important role in cancer metastasis and cell proliferation and migration of human hepatoma cells. RKIP may be considered as a marker for HCC, because its expression level changes considerably in HCC compared with normal tissue. In addition, we used the methods of Western blotting and real time-polymerase chain reaction to analysis the protein expression and gene expression of RKIP. The result showed RKIP protein and gene expression in tumor part liver tissues of HCC patient is lower than peritumorous non-neoplastic liver tissue of the corresponding HCC samples. These results strongly suggest that RKIP may be considered to be a marker for HCC and RKIP are down-regulated in liver cancer cell.

  1. In-gas-cell laser ionization studies of plutonium isotopes at IGISOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjalainen, I.; Moore, I. D.; Kron, T.; Raeder, S.; Sonnenschein, V.; Tomita, H.; Trautmann, N.; Voss, A.; Wendt, K.

    2016-06-01

    In-gas-cell resonance laser ionization has been performed on long-lived isotopes of Pu at the IGISOL facility, Jyväskylä. This initiates a new programme of research towards high-resolution optical spectroscopy of heavy actinide elements which can be produced in sufficient quantities at research reactors and transported to facilities elsewhere. In this work a new gas cell has been constructed for fast extraction of laser-ionized elements. Samples of 238-240,242Pu and 244Pu have been evaporated from Ta filaments, laser ionized, mass separated and delivered to the collinear laser spectroscopy station. Here we report on the performance of the gas cell through studies of the mass spectra obtained in helium and argon, before and after the radiofrequency quadrupole cooler-buncher. This provides valuable insight into the gas phase chemistry exhibited by Pu, which has been additionally supported by measurements of ion time profiles. The resulting monoatomic yields are sufficient for collinear laser spectroscopy. A gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis of the Pu samples shows a good agreement with the assay provided by the Mainz Nuclear Chemistry department.

  2. Optically-ionized plasma recombination x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendt, P.; Eder, D.C.; Wilks, S.C.; Dunning, M.J.; Keane, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    Design studies for recombination x-ray lasers based on plasmas ionized by high intensity, short pulse optical lasers are presented. Transient lasing on n = 3 to n = 2 transitions in Lithium-like Neon allows for moderately short wavelengths (≤ 100 angstrom) without requiring ionizing intensities associated with relativistic electron quiver energies. The electron energy distribution following the ionizing pulse affects directly the predicted gains for this resonance transition. Efficiencies of 10 -6 or greater are found for plasma temperatures in the vicinity of 40 eV. Simulation studies of parametric heating phenomena relating to stimulated Raman and Compton scattering are presented. For electron densities less than about 2.5 x 10 20 cm -3 and peak driver intensity of 2 x 10 17 W/cm 2 at 0.25 μm with pulse length of 100 fsec, the amount of electron heating is found to be marginally significant. For Lithium-like Aluminum, the required relativistic ionizing intensity gives excessive electron heating and reduced efficiency, thereby rendering this scheme impractical for generating shorter wavelength lasing (≤ 50 angstrom) in the transient case. Following the transient lasing phase, a slow hydrodynamic expansion into the surrounding cool plasma is accompanied by quasi-static gain on the n = 4 to n = 3 transition in Lithium-like Neon. Parametric heating effects on gain optimization in this regime are also discussed. 18 refs., 6 figs

  3. Evaluation of the Bruker Biotyper Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry System for Identification of Aspergillus Species Directly from Growth on Solid Agar Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the accuracy of the Bruker Biotyper matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS system at identifying clinical isolates of Aspergillus species that were grown on agar media. A total of 381 non-duplicate Aspergillus isolates representing 21 different Aspergillus species identified by molecular analysis were included in this study. The Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS system was able to identify 30.2% (115/381 of the isolates to the species level (score values of ≥2.000 and 49.3% to the genus level (score values of 1.700–1.999. When the identification cutoff value was lowered from ≥2.000 to ≥1.700, the species-level identification rate increased to 79.5% with a slight rise of false identification from 2.6 to 5.0%. From another aspect, a correct species-level identification rate of 89% could be reached by the Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS system regardless of the score values obtained. The Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS system had a moderate performance in identification of Aspergillus directly inoculated on solid agar media. Continued expansion of the Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS database and adoption of alternative cutoff values for interpretation are required to improve the performance of the system for identifying highly diverse species of clinically encountered Aspergillus isolates.

  4. Evaluation of the Bruker Biotyper Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry System for Identification of Aspergillus Species Directly from Growth on Solid Agar Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Wang, He; Zhao, Yu-Pei; Xu, Ying-Chun; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the accuracy of the Bruker Biotyper matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) system at identifying clinical isolates of Aspergillus species that were grown on agar media. A total of 381 non-duplicate Aspergillus isolates representing 21 different Aspergillus species identified by molecular analysis were included in this study. The Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS system was able to identify 30.2% (115/381) of the isolates to the species level (score values of ≥2.000) and 49.3% to the genus level (score values of 1.700-1.999). When the identification cutoff value was lowered from ≥2.000 to ≥1.700, the species-level identification rate increased to 79.5% with a slight rise of false identification from 2.6 to 5.0%. From another aspect, a correct species-level identification rate of 89% could be reached by the Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS system regardless of the score values obtained. The Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS system had a moderate performance in identification of Aspergillus directly inoculated on solid agar media. Continued expansion of the Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS database and adoption of alternative cutoff values for interpretation are required to improve the performance of the system for identifying highly diverse species of clinically encountered Aspergillus isolates.

  5. Methylobacterium Species Promoting Rice and Barley Growth and Interaction Specificity Revealed with Whole-Cell Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio Tani

    Full Text Available Methylobacterium species frequently inhabit plant surfaces and are able to utilize the methanol emitted from plants as carbon and energy sources. As some of the Methylobacterium species are known to promote plant growth, significant attention has been paid to the mechanism of growth promotion and the specificity of plant-microbe interactions. By screening our Methylobacterium isolate collection for the high growth promotion effect in vitro, we selected some candidates for field and pot growth tests for rice and barley, respectively. We found that inoculation resulted in better ripening of rice seeds, and increased the size of barley grains but not the total yield. In addition, using whole-cell matrix-assister laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS analysis, we identified and classified Methylobacterium isolates from Methylobacterium-inoculated rice plants. The inoculated species could not be recovered from the rice plants, and in some cases, the Methylobacterium community structure was affected by the inoculation, but not with predomination of the inoculated species. The isolates from non-inoculated barley of various cultivars grown in the same field fell into just two species. These results suggest that there is a strong selection pressure at the species level of Methylobacterium residing on a given plant species, and that selection of appropriate species that can persist on the plant is important to achieve growth promotion.

  6. Integration of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry in blood culture diagnostics: a fast and effective approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Sabrina; Zimmermann, Stefan; Köhler, Christine; Mischnik, Alexander; Alle, Werner; Bode, Konrad A

    2012-03-01

    Sepsis is a major cause of mortality in hospitalized patients worldwide, with lethality rates ranging from 30 to 70 %. Sepsis is caused by a variety of different pathogens, and rapid diagnosis is of outstanding importance, as early and adequate antimicrobial therapy correlates with positive clinical outcome. In recent years, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) fingerprinting has become a powerful tool in microbiological diagnostics. The direct identification of micro-organisms in a positive blood culture by MALDI-TOF MS can shorten the diagnostic procedure significantly. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate whether identification rates could be improved by using the new Sepsityper kit from Bruker Daltonics for direct isolation and identification of bacteria from positive blood cultures by MALDI-TOF MS compared with the use of conventional separator gel columns, and to integrate the MALDI-TOF MS-based identification method into the routine course of blood culture diagnostics in the setting of a microbiological laboratory at a university hospital in Germany. The identification of Gram-negative bacteria by MALDI-TOF MS was significantly better using the Sepsityper kit compared with a separator gel tube-based method (99 and 68 % correct identification, respectively). For Gram-positive bacteria, only 73 % were correctly identified by MALDI-TOF with the Sepsityper kit and 59 % with the separator gel tube assay. A major problem of both methods was the poor identification of Gram-positive grape-like clustered cocci. As differentiation of Staphylococcus aureus from coagulase-negative staphylococci is of clinical importance, a PCR was additionally established that was capable of identifying S. aureus directly from positive blood cultures, thus closing this diagnostic gap. Another benefit of the PCR approach is the possibility of directly detecting the genes responsible for meticillin

  7. Quantum interference in laser-induced nonsequential double ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Wei; Hao, XiaoLei; Wang, YanLan; Chen, YongJu; Yu, ShaoGang; Xu, SongPo; Xiao, ZhiLei; Sun, RenPing; Lai, XuanYang; Hu, ShiLin; Liu, MingQing; Shu, Zheng; Wang, XiaoDong; Li, WeiDong; Becker, Wilhelm; Liu, XiaoJun; Chen, Jing

    2017-09-01

    Quantum interference plays an important role in various intense-laser-driven atomic phenomena, e.g., above-threshold ionization and high-order-harmonic generation, and provides a useful tool in ultrafast imaging of atomic and molecular structure and dynamics. However, it has eluded observation in nonsequential double ionization (NSDI), which serves as an ideal prototype to study electron-electron correlation. Thus far, NSDI usually could be well understood from a semiclassical perspective, where all quantum aspects have been ignored after the first electron has tunneled. Here we perform coincidence measurements for NSDI of xenon subject to laser pulses at 2400 nm. It is found that the intensity dependence of the asymmetry parameter between the yields in the second and fourth quadrants and those in the first and third quadrants of the electron-momentum-correlation distributions exhibits a peculiar fast oscillatory structure, which is beyond the scope of the semiclassical picture. Our theoretical analysis indicates that this oscillation can be attributed to interference between the contributions of different excited states in the recollision-excitation-with-subsequent-ionization channel. Our work demonstrates the significant role of quantum interference in NSDI and may create an additional pathway towards manipulation and imaging of the ultrafast atomic and molecular dynamics in intense laser fields.

  8. Particle-in-cell Simulations of Raman Laser Amplification in Ionizing Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Daniel S.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2003-01-01

    By using the amplifying laser pulse in a plasma-based backward Raman laser amplifier to generate the plasma by photo-ionization of a gas simultaneous with the amplification process, possible instabilities of the pumping laser pulse can be avoided. Particle-in-cell simulations are used to study this amplification mechanism, and earlier results using more elementary models of the Raman interaction are verified [D.S. Clark and N.J. Fisch, Phys. Plasmas, 9 (6): 2772-2780, 2002]. The effects (unique to amplification in ionizing plasmas and not included in previous simulations) of blue-shifting of the pump and seed laser pulses and the generation of a wake are observed not significantly to impact the amplification process. As expected theoretically, the peak output intensity is found to be limited to I ∼ 10 17 W/cm 2 by forward Raman scattering of the amplifying seed. The integrity of the ionization front of the seed pulse against the development of a possible transverse modulation instability is also demonstrated

  9. Relativistic electron acceleration in focused laser fields after above-threshold ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodin, I.Y.; Fisch, N.J.

    2003-01-01

    Electrons produced as a result of above-threshold ionization of high-Z atoms can be accelerated by currently producible laser pulses up to GeV energies, as shown recently by Hu and Starace [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 245003 (2002)]. To describe electron acceleration by general focused laser fields, we employ an analytical model based on a Hamiltonian, fully relativistic, ponderomotive approach. Though the above-threshold ionization represents an abrupt process compared to laser oscillations, the ponderomotive approach can still adequately predict the resulting energy gain if the proper initial conditions are introduced for the particle drift following the ionization event. Analytical expressions for electron energy gain are derived and the applicability conditions of the ponderomotive formulation are studied both analytically and numerically. The theoretical predictions are supported by numerical computations

  10. Cost Analysis of Implementing Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Plus Real-Time Antimicrobial Stewardship Intervention for Bloodstream Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Twisha S; Kaakeh, Rola; Nagel, Jerod L; Newton, Duane W; Stevenson, James G

    2017-01-01

    Studies evaluating rapid diagnostic testing plus stewardship intervention have consistently demonstrated improved clinical outcomes for patients with bloodstream infections. However, the cost of implementing new rapid diagnostic testing can be significant, and such testing usually does not generate additional revenue. There are minimal data evaluating the impact of adding matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for rapid organism identification and dedicating pharmacy stewardship personnel time on the total hospital costs. A cost analysis was performed utilizing patient data generated from the hospital cost accounting system and included additional costs of MALDI-TOF equipment, supplies and personnel, and dedicated pharmacist time for blood culture review and of making interventions to antimicrobial therapy. The cost analysis was performed from a hospital perspective for 3-month blocks before and after implementation of MALDI-TOF plus stewardship intervention. A total of 480 patients with bloodstream infections were included in the analysis: 247 in the preintervention group and 233 in the intervention group. Thirty-day mortality was significantly improved in the intervention group (12% versus 21%, P cost per bloodstream infection was lower in the intervention group ($42,580 versus $45,019). Intensive care unit cost per bloodstream infection accounted for the largest share of the total costs in each group and was also lower in the intervention group ($10,833 versus $13,727). Implementing MALDI-TOF plus stewardship review and intervention decreased mortality for patients with bloodstream infections. Despite the additional costs of implementing MALDI-TOF and of dedicating pharmacy stewardship personnel time to interventions, the total hospital costs decreased by $2,439 per bloodstream infection, for an approximate annual cost savings of $2.34 million. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. Studies of photoionization in liquids using a laser two-photon ionization conductivity technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siomos, K.; Christophorou, L.G.

    1981-01-01

    One-photon ionization studies of solute molecules in a liquid medium are limited by the absorption of the host medium. A laser two-photon ionization (TPI) technique using a frequency tunable dye laser has been developed, whereby the photoionization threshold of a solute molecule was determined from the induced conductivity in the liquid medium under study due to electron-ion pair formation via two-photon ionization of the solute. The two-photon induced electron-ion current is measured as a function of the laser wavelength, lambda/sub laser/. In this paper, results are reported and discussed on the photoionization of N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD), pyrene and fluoranthene in liquid n-pentane

  12. Inelastic surface collisions and the desorption of massive molecular ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macfarlane, R D [Texas A and M Univ., College Station (USA). Dept. of Chemistry

    1983-01-01

    The interaction of high energy ions in the region of electronic stopping (1 MeV u/sup -1/) stimulates the desorption of massive molecular ions of biomolecules such as insulin. The experimental details of the measurements are given with some examples of application for analytical mass spectrometry. Studies on the role of the incident ion (accelerator beam experiments) are reviewed as well as the contribution of the matrix to the desorption-ionization process. How the electronic relaxation process couples to desorption-ionization is a central question in understanding the overall mechanism of the process.

  13. Rapid screening of basic colorants in processed vegetables through mass spectrometry using an interchangeable thermal desorption electrospray ionization source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yu-Ying; Chen, Yen-Ling; Lin, Hong-Yi; Huang, Yeou-Lih

    2018-06-20

    Thermal desorption electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (TD-ESI-MS) employing a quickly interchangeable ionization source is a relatively new ambient ionization mass spectrometric technique that has had, to date, only a limited number of applications related to food safety control. With reallocation of resources, this direct-analysis technique has had wider use in food analysis when operated in dual-working mode (pretreatment-free qualitative screening and conventional quantitative confirmation) after switching to an ambient ionization source from a traditional atmospheric pressure ionization source. Herein, we describe the benefits and challenges associated with the use of a TD-ESI source to detect adulterants in processed vegetables (PVs), as a proof-of-concept for the detection of basic colorants. While TD-ESI can offer direct qualitative screening analyses for PVs with detection capabilities lower than those provided with liquid chromatography/UV detection within 30 s, the use of TD-ESI for semi-quantification is applicable only for homogeneous food matrices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Laser research and applications. Semiannual report, October 1980-March 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    Research progress during this period is given for each of the following topics: (1) rare-gas halogen laser program; (2) laser-triggered switches; (3) laser-controlled ionization front accelerator; (4) lasers for combustion research; (5) 10-μm interferometer for electron density measurements; (6) Q-switched and free-running stable pulse 1.06 μm laser; (7) Raman spectroscopy; (8) multiphoton ionization; (9) chemical vapor deposition and plasma etching; (10) laser-desorption mass spectrometry; (11) collision broadening and shift of the K 4p-ns and 4p-nd lines by Ar, (12) chemically pumped iodine laser; (13) laser-induced chemical reactions; (14) photolytic pumping of a laser by a moving, hot plasma; (15) laser-based surface spectroscopy; (16) laser-generated low-density channels; (17) radiation-driven density waves in optically pumped gas lasers; (18) propagation of an annular laser beam; (19) theoretical modeling of the chemical vapor deposition process; (20) charge exchange cross sections for C 6+ -H collisions; (21) the stopping power of gold ions for protons; (22) electron ionization cross sections of low-Z ions; (23) electron shielding effects on fusion cross sections and (24) radiation efficiencies from imploding liners

  15. Measurement of the first ionization potential of astatine by laser ionization spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothe, S.; Andreyev, A. N.; Antalic, S.; Borschevsky, A.; Capponi, L.; Cocolios, T. E.; De Witte, H.; Eliav, E.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Fink, D. A.; Fritzsche, S.; Ghys, L.; Huyse, M.; Imai, N.; Kaldor, U.; Kudryavtsev, Yuri; Köster, U.; Lane, J. F. W.; Lassen, J.; Liberati, V.; Lynch, K. M.; Marsh, B. A.; Nishio, K.; Pauwels, D.; Pershina, V.; Popescu, L.; Procter, T. J.; Radulov, D.; Raeder, S.; Rajabali, M. M.; Rapisarda, E.; Rossel, R. E.; Sandhu, K.; Seliverstov, M. D.; Sjödin, A. M.; Van den Bergh, P.; Van Duppen, P.; Venhart, M.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Wendt, K. D. A.

    2013-01-01

    The radioactive element astatine exists only in trace amounts in nature. Its properties can therefore only be explored by study of the minute quantities of artificially produced isotopes or by performing theoretical calculations. One of the most important properties influencing the chemical behaviour is the energy required to remove one electron from the valence shell, referred to as the ionization potential. Here we use laser spectroscopy to probe the optical spectrum of astatine near the ionization threshold. The observed series of Rydberg states enabled the first determination of the ionization potential of the astatine atom, 9.31751(8) eV. New ab initio calculations are performed to support the experimental result. The measured value serves as a benchmark for quantum chemistry calculations of the properties of astatine as well as for the theoretical prediction of the ionization potential of superheavy element 117, the heaviest homologue of astatine. PMID:23673620

  16. Ammonium Bicarbonate Addition Improves the Detection of Proteins by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honarvar, Elahe; Venter, Andre R.

    2017-06-01

    The analysis of protein by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) is considered impractical due to a mass-dependent loss in sensitivity with increase in protein molecular weights. With the addition of ammonium bicarbonate to the DESI-MS analysis the sensitivity towards proteins by DESI was improved. The signal to noise ratio (S/N) improvement for a variety of proteins increased between 2- to 3-fold relative to solvent systems containing formic acid and more than seven times relative to aqueous methanol spray solvents. Three methods for ammonium bicarbonate addition during DESI-MS were investigated. The additive delivered improvements in S/N whether it was mixed with the analyte prior to sample deposition, applied over pre-prepared samples, or simply added to the desorption spray solvent. The improvement correlated well with protein pI but not with protein size. Other ammonium or bicarbonate salts did not produce similar improvements in S/N, nor was this improvement in S/N observed for ESI of the same samples. As was previously described for ESI, DESI also caused extensive protein unfolding upon the addition of ammonium bicarbonate. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. The ionization mechanisms in direct and dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization and atmospheric pressure laser ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppila, Tiina J; Kersten, Hendrik; Benter, Thorsten

    2014-11-01

    A novel, gas-tight API interface for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to study the ionization mechanism in direct and dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) and atmospheric pressure laser ionization (APLI). Eight analytes (ethylbenzene, bromobenzene, naphthalene, anthracene, benzaldehyde, pyridine, quinolone, and acridine) with varying ionization energies (IEs) and proton affinities (PAs), and four common APPI dopants (toluene, acetone, anisole, and chlorobenzene) were chosen. All the studied compounds were ionized by direct APPI, forming mainly molecular ions. Addition of dopants suppressed the signal of the analytes with IEs above the IE of the dopant. For compounds with suitable IEs or Pas, the dopants increased the ionization efficiency as the analytes could be ionized through dopant-mediated gas-phase reactions, such as charge exchange, proton transfer, and other rather unexpected reactions, such as formation of [M + 77](+) in the presence of chlorobenzene. Experiments with deuterated toluene as the dopant verified that in case of proton transfer, the proton originated from the dopant instead of proton-bound solvent clusters, as in conventional open or non-tight APPI sources. In direct APLI using a 266 nm laser, a narrower range of compounds was ionized than in direct APPI, because of exceedingly high IEs or unfavorable two-photon absorption cross-sections. Introduction of dopants in the APLI system changed the ionization mechanism to similar dopant-mediated gas-phase reactions with the dopant as in APPI, which produced mainly ions of the same form as in APPI, and ionized a wider range of analytes than direct APLI.

  18. Phospholipid Topography of Whole-Body Sections of the Anopheles stephensi Mosquito, Characterized by High-Resolution Atmospheric-Pressure Scanning Microprobe Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Saleh M; Römpp, Andreas; Pretzel, Jette; Becker, Katja; Spengler, Bernhard

    2015-11-17

    High-resolution atmospheric-pressure scanning microprobe matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (AP-SMALDI MSI) has been employed to study the molecular anatomical structure of rodent malaria vector Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. A dedicated sample preparation method was developed which suits both, the special tissue properties of the sample and the requirements of high-resolution MALDI imaging. Embedding in 5% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) was used to maintain the tissue integrity of the whole mosquitoes, being very soft, fragile, and difficult to handle. Individual lipid compounds, specifically representing certain cell types, tissue areas, or organs, were detected and imaged in 20 μm-thick whole-body tissue sections at a spatial resolution of 12 μm per image pixel. Mass spectrometric data and information quality were based on a mass resolution of 70,000 (at m/z 200) and a mass accuracy of better than 2 ppm in positive-ion mode on an orbital trapping mass spectrometer. A total of 67 imaged lipids were assigned by database search and, in a number of cases, identified via additional MS/MS fragmentation studies directly from tissue. This is the first MSI study at 12 μm spatial resolution of the malaria vector Anopheles. The study provides insights into the molecular anatomy of Anopheles stephensi and the distribution and localization of major classes of glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids. These data can be a basis for future experiments, investigating, e.g., the metabolism of Plasmodium-infected and -uninfected Anopheles mosquitoes.

  19. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry peptide mass fingerprints and post source decay: a tool for the identification and analysis of phloem proteins from Cucurbita maxima Duch. separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haebel, S; Kehr, J

    2001-08-01

    A combination of gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry was used to analyze the soluble proteins from phloem sap of Cucurbita maxima Duch. Phloem proteins were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Coomassie-stained spots were cut out and subjected to tryptic digestion. To identify proteins, peptide mass fingerprints were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. In addition, MALDI-TOF post source decay measurements were used to obtain partial sequence information for the proteins. Results from both approaches were used for database searches. In this study, 17 proteins in the mass range 5-50 kDa were analyzed. Of these proteins six could be clearly identified, seven showed significant homologies to known plant proteins, and four were not significantly homologous to database entries. The present study suggests that the applied method is feasible for a large-scale analysis and identification of phloem proteins derived from different organs or from plants kept under various physiological conditions.

  20. Excitation mechanisms in singly ionized krypton laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sherbini, Th.M.

    1982-01-01

    Lifetimes for the low lying 4p 4 4d and 4p 4 5s levels of singly ionized krypton laser are calculated, taking into account configuration interaction effects. The results show that some of these levels are metastable. They also suggest a two step excitation from the ground state of the ion (or the atom) to the upper 4p 4 5p laser levels involving some intermediate metastable states as a possible excitation mechanism. (author)

  1. Desorption/ablation of lithium fluoride induced by extreme ultraviolet laser radiation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blejchař, T.; Nevrlý, V.; Vašinek, M.; Dostál, M.; Kozubková, M.; Dlabka, J.; Stachoň, M.; Juha, Libor; Bitala, P.; Zelinger, Zdeněk; Pira, Peter; Wild, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 2 (2016), s. 131-138 ISSN 0029-5922. [PLASMA 2015 : International Conference on Research and Applications of Plasmas. Warsaw, 07.09.2015-11.09.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/1312 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : desorption * fluid dynamics * lithium fluoride * numerical simulation * plume expansion * pulsed laser ablation Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UFCH-W) Impact factor: 0.760, year: 2016

  2. In-gas-cell laser ionization studies of plutonium isotopes at IGISOL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohjalainen, I.; Moore, I.D.; Kron, T.; Raeder, S.; Sonnenschein, V.; Tomita, H.; Trautmann, N.; Voss, A.; Wendt, K.

    2016-01-01

    In-gas-cell resonance laser ionization has been performed on long-lived isotopes of Pu at the IGISOL facility, Jyväskylä. This initiates a new programme of research towards high-resolution optical spectroscopy of heavy actinide elements which can be produced in sufficient quantities at research reactors and transported to facilities elsewhere. In this work a new gas cell has been constructed for fast extraction of laser-ionized elements. Samples of "2"3"8"–"2"4"0","2"4"2Pu and "2"4"4Pu have been evaporated from Ta filaments, laser ionized, mass separated and delivered to the collinear laser spectroscopy station. Here we report on the performance of the gas cell through studies of the mass spectra obtained in helium and argon, before and after the radiofrequency quadrupole cooler-buncher. This provides valuable insight into the gas phase chemistry exhibited by Pu, which has been additionally supported by measurements of ion time profiles. The resulting monoatomic yields are sufficient for collinear laser spectroscopy. A gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis of the Pu samples shows a good agreement with the assay provided by the Mainz Nuclear Chemistry department.

  3. A Compact, Solid-State UV (266 nm) Laser System Capable of Burst-Mode Operation for Laser Ablation Desorption Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo, Ricardo, Jr.; Coyle, Barry; Paulios, Demetrios; Stysley, Paul; Feng, Steve; Getty, Stephanie; Binkerhoff, William

    2015-01-01

    Compared to wet chemistry and pyrolysis techniques, in situ laser-based methods of chemical analysis provide an ideal way to characterize precious planetary materials without requiring extensive sample processing. In particular, laser desorption and ablation techniques allow for rapid, reproducible and robust data acquisition over a wide mass range, plus: Quantitative, spatially-resolved measurements of elemental and molecular (organic and inorganic) abundances; Low analytical blanks and limits-of-detection ( ng g-1); and, the destruction of minimal quantities of sample ( g) compared to traditional solution and/or pyrolysis analyses (mg).

  4. Multivariate correction in laser-enhanced ionization with laser sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, A.M.; Labutin, T.A.; Sychev, D.N.; Gorbatenko, A.A.; Zorov, N.B.

    2007-01-01

    The opportunity of normalizing laser-enhanced ionization (LEI) signals by several reference signals (RS) measured simultaneously has been examined in view of correcting variations of laser parameters and matrix interferences. Opto-acoustic, atomic emission and non-selective ionization signals and their paired combination were used as RS for Li determination in aluminum alloys (0-6% Mg, 0-5% Cu, 0-1% Sc, 0-1% Ag). The specific normalization procedure in case of RS essential multicollinearity has been proposed. LEI and RS for each definite ablation pulse energy were plotted in Cartesian co-ordinates (x and y axes - the RS values, z axis - LEI signal). It was found that in the three-dimensional space the slope of the correlation line to the plane of RS depends on the analyte content in the solid sample. The use of this slope has therefore been proposed as a multivariate corrected analytical signal. Multivariate correlative normalization provides analytical signal free of matrix interferences for Al-Mg-Cu-Li alloys. The application of this novel approach to the determination of Li allows plotting unified calibration curves for Al-alloys of different matrix composition

  5. Multivariate correction in laser-enhanced ionization with laser sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, A.M. [Department of Chemistry, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119992 Russia Moscow GSP-2, Leninskie Gory 1 build.3 (Russian Federation); Labutin, T.A. [Department of Chemistry, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119992 Russia Moscow GSP-2, Leninskie Gory 1 build.3 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: timurla@laser.chem.msu.ru; Sychev, D.N.; Gorbatenko, A.A.; Zorov, N.B. [Department of Chemistry, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119992 Russia Moscow GSP-2, Leninskie Gory 1 build.3 (Russian Federation)

    2007-03-15

    The opportunity of normalizing laser-enhanced ionization (LEI) signals by several reference signals (RS) measured simultaneously has been examined in view of correcting variations of laser parameters and matrix interferences. Opto-acoustic, atomic emission and non-selective ionization signals and their paired combination were used as RS for Li determination in aluminum alloys (0-6% Mg, 0-5% Cu, 0-1% Sc, 0-1% Ag). The specific normalization procedure in case of RS essential multicollinearity has been proposed. LEI and RS for each definite ablation pulse energy were plotted in Cartesian co-ordinates (x and y axes - the RS values, z axis - LEI signal). It was found that in the three-dimensional space the slope of the correlation line to the plane of RS depends on the analyte content in the solid sample. The use of this slope has therefore been proposed as a multivariate corrected analytical signal. Multivariate correlative normalization provides analytical signal free of matrix interferences for Al-Mg-Cu-Li alloys. The application of this novel approach to the determination of Li allows plotting unified calibration curves for Al-alloys of different matrix composition.

  6. Theoretical investigation of dielectric corona pre-ionization TEA nitrogen laser based on transmission line method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrampour, Alireza; Fallah, Robabeh; Ganjovi, Alireza A.; Bahrampour, Abolfazl

    2007-07-01

    This paper models the dielectric corona pre-ionization, capacitor transfer type of flat-plane transmission line traveling wave transverse excited atmospheric pressure nitrogen laser by a non-linear lumped RLC electric circuit. The flat-plane transmission line and the pre-ionizer dielectric are modeled by a lumped linear RLC and time-dependent non-linear RC circuit, respectively. The main discharge region is considered as a time-dependent non-linear RLC circuit where its resistance value is also depends on the radiated pre-ionization ultra violet (UV) intensity. The UV radiation is radiated by the resistance due to the surface plasma on the pre-ionizer dielectric. The theoretical predictions are in a very good agreement with the experimental observations. The electric circuit equations (including the ionization rate equations), the equations of laser levels population densities and propagation equation of laser intensities, are solved numerically. As a result, the effects of pre-ionizer dielectric parameters on the electrical behavior and output laser intensity are obtained.

  7. Self-focusing and guiding of short laser pulses in ionizing gases and plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esarey, E.; Sprangle, P.; Krall, J.; Ting, A.

    1997-01-01

    The propagation of intense laser pulses in gases and plasmas is relevant to a wide range of applications, including laser-driven accelerators, laser-plasma channeling, harmonic generation, supercontinuum generation, X-ray lasers, and laser-fusion schemes. Here, several features of intense, short-pulse (≤1 ps) laser propagation in gases undergoing ionization and in plasmas are reviewed, discussed, and analyzed. The wave equations for laser pulse propagation in a gas undergoing ionization and in a plasma are derived. The source-dependent expansion method is discussed, which is a general method for solving the paraxial wave equation with nonlinear source terms. In gases, the propagation of high-power (near the critical power) laser pulses is considered including the effects of diffraction, nonlinear self-focusing, ionization, and plasma generation. Self-guided solutions and the stability of these solutions are discussed. In plasmas, optical guiding by relativistic effects, ponderomotive effects, and preformed density channels is considered. The self-consistent plasma response is discussed, including plasma wave effects and instabilities such as self-modulation. Recent experiments on the guiding of laser pulses in gases and in plasmas are briefly summarized

  8. Development of laser excited atomic fluorescence and ionization methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winefordner, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    Progress report: May 1, 1988 to December 31, 1991. The research supported by DE-FG05-88ER13881 during the past (nearly) 3 years can be divided into the following four categories: (1) theoretical considerations of the ultimate detection powers of laser fluorescence and laser ionization methods; (2) experimental evaluation of laser excited atomic fluorescence; (3) fundamental studies of atomic and molecular parameters in flames and plasmas; (4) other studies

  9. Speciation of Campylobacter coli, C. jejuni, C. helveticus, C. lari, C. sputorum, and C. upsaliensis by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrell, Robert E.; Harden, Leslie A.; Bates, Anna; Miller, William G.; Haddon, William F.; Fagerquist, Clifton K.

    2005-01-01

    Multiple strains of Campylobacter coli, C. jejuni, C. helveticus, C. lari, C. sputorum, and C. upsaliensis isolated from animal, clinical, or food samples have been analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Whole bacterial cells were harvested from colonies or confluent growth on agar and transferred directly into solvent and then to a spot of dried 3-methoxy-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (matrix). Multiple ions in the 5,000- to 15,000-Da mass range were evident in spectra for each strain; one or two ions in the 9,500- to 11,000-Da range were consistently high intensity. “Species-identifying” biomarker ions (SIBIs) were evident from analyses of multiple reference strains for each of the six species, including the genome strains C. jejuni NCTC 11168 and C. jejuni RM1221. Strains grown on nine different combinations of media and atmospheres yielded SIBI masses within ±5 Da with external instrument calibration. The highest-intensity C. jejuni SIBIs were cytosolic proteins, including GroES, HU/HCj, and RplL. Multiple intraspecies SIBIs, corresponding probably to nonsynonymous nucleotide polymorphisms, also provided some intraspecies strain differentiation. MALDI-TOF MS analysis of 75 additional Campylobacter strains isolated from humans, poultry, swine, dogs, and cats revealed (i) associations of SIBI type with source, (ii) strains previously speciated incorrectly, and (iii) “strains” composed of more than one species. MALDI-TOF MS provides an accurate, sensitive, and rapid method for identification of multiple Campylobacter species relevant to public health and food safety. PMID:16204551

  10. Speciation of Campylobacter coli, C. jejuni, C. helveticus, C. lari, C. sputorum, and C. upsaliensis by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrell, Robert E; Harden, Leslie A; Bates, Anna; Miller, William G; Haddon, William F; Fagerquist, Clifton K

    2005-10-01

    Multiple strains of Campylobacter coli, C. jejuni, C. helveticus, C. lari, C. sputorum, and C. upsaliensis isolated from animal, clinical, or food samples have been analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Whole bacterial cells were harvested from colonies or confluent growth on agar and transferred directly into solvent and then to a spot of dried 3-methoxy-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (matrix). Multiple ions in the 5,000- to 15,000-Da mass range were evident in spectra for each strain; one or two ions in the 9,500- to 11,000-Da range were consistently high intensity. "Species-identifying" biomarker ions (SIBIs) were evident from analyses of multiple reference strains for each of the six species, including the genome strains C. jejuni NCTC 11168 and C. jejuni RM1221. Strains grown on nine different combinations of media and atmospheres yielded SIBI masses within +/-5 Da with external instrument calibration. The highest-intensity C. jejuni SIBIs were cytosolic proteins, including GroES, HU/HCj, and RplL. Multiple intraspecies SIBIs, corresponding probably to nonsynonymous nucleotide polymorphisms, also provided some intraspecies strain differentiation. MALDI-TOF MS analysis of 75 additional Campylobacter strains isolated from humans, poultry, swine, dogs, and cats revealed (i) associations of SIBI type with source, (ii) strains previously speciated incorrectly, and (iii) "strains" composed of more than one species. MALDI-TOF MS provides an accurate, sensitive, and rapid method for identification of multiple Campylobacter species relevant to public health and food safety.

  11. Source-identifying biomarker ions between environmental and clinical Burkholderia pseudomallei using whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyompanich, Suthamat; Jaresitthikunchai, Janthima; Srisanga, Kitima; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Tungpradabkul, Sumalee

    2014-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, which is an endemic disease in Northeast Thailand and Northern Australia. Environmental reservoirs, including wet soils and muddy water, serve as the major sources for contributing bacterial infection to both humans and animals. The whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (whole-cell MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been applied as a rapid, accurate, and high-throughput tool for clinical diagnosis and microbiological research. In this present study, we employed a whole-cell MALDI-TOF MS approach for assessing its potency in clustering a total of 11 different B. pseudomallei isolates (consisting of 5 environmental and 6 clinical isolates) with respect to their origins and to further investigate the source-identifying biomarker ions belonging to each bacterial group. The cluster analysis demonstrated that six out of eleven isolates were grouped correctly to their sources. Our results revealed a total of ten source-identifying biomarker ions, which exhibited statistically significant differences in peak intensity between average environmental and clinical mass spectra using ClinProTools software. Six out of ten mass ions were assigned as environmental-identifying biomarker ions (EIBIs), including, m/z 4,056, 4,214, 5,814, 7,545, 7,895, and 8,112, whereas the remaining four mass ions were defined as clinical-identifying biomarker ions (CIBIs) consisting of m/z 3,658, 6,322, 7,035, and 7,984. Hence, our findings represented, for the first time, the source-specific biomarkers of environmental and clinical B. pseudomallei.

  12. Direct bacterial identification from positive blood cultures using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Aragón, Jesús; Ballestero-Téllez, Mónica; Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Belén; de Cueto, Marina; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús; Pascual, Álvaro

    2017-10-27

    The rapid identification of bacteraemia-causing pathogens could assist clinicians in the timely prescription of targeted therapy, thereby reducing the morbidity and mortality of this infection. In recent years, numerous techniques that rapidly and directly identify positive blood cultures have been marketed, with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) being one of the most commonly used. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the accuracy of MALDI-TOF (Bruker ® ) for the direct identification of positive blood culture bottles. A meta-analysis was performed to summarize the results of the 32 studies evaluated. The overall quality of the studies was moderate. For Gram-positive bacteria, overall rates of correct identification of the species ranged from 0.17 to 0.98, with a cumulative rate (random-effects model) of 0.72 (95% CI: 0.64-0.80). For Gram-negative bacteria, correct identification rates ranged from 0.66 to 1.00, with a cumulative effect of 0.92 (95% CI: 0.88-0.95). For Enterobacteriaceae, the rate was 0.96 (95% CI: 0.94-0.97). MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry shows high accuracy for the correct identification of Gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae, directly from positive blood culture bottles, and moderate accuracy for the identification of Gram-positive bacteria (low for some species). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  13. Bioaerosol detection by aerosol TOF-mass spectrometry: Application of matrix assisted laser desorption/ionisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wuijckhuijse, A.L. van; Stowers, M.A.; Kientz, Ch.E.; Marijnissen, J.C.M.; Scarlett, B.

    2000-01-01

    In previous publications the use of an aerosol time of flight mass spectrometer was reported for the on-line measurements of aerosols (Weiss 1997, Kievit 1995). The apparatus is capable of measuring the size as well as the chemical composition, by the use of Laser Desorption/Ionisation (LDI), of an

  14. Thin films deposited by laser ablation for the measurement of the ionizing and non-ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villarreal B, J.E.; Escobar A, L.; Camps, E.; Romero, S.; Gonzalez, P.; Salinas, B.

    2001-01-01

    In this work the obtained results to synthesize thin films of amorphous carbon with incorporated nitrogen and hydrogen are presented, as well as thin films of aluminium oxide using the laser ablation technique. The thin films were exposed to ionizing radiation (gamma rays of a 60 Co source, beta radiation of a 90 Sr source) and a non-ionizing radiation (UV radiation). The obtained results show that it is possible to obtain materials in thin film form with thickness of hundreds of nanometers, which present thermoluminescent response when being irradiated with ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation. (Author)

  15. A rapid matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry-based method for single-plasmid tracking in an outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Anna F; Wang, Honghui; Weingarten, Rebecca A; Drake, Steven K; Suffredini, Anthony F; Garfield, Mark K; Chen, Yong; Gucek, Marjan; Youn, Jung-Ho; Stock, Frida; Tso, Hanna; DeLeo, Jim; Cimino, James J; Frank, Karen M; Dekker, John P

    2014-08-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) have spread globally and represent a serious and growing threat to public health. Rapid methods for tracking plasmids carrying carbapenemase genes could greatly benefit infection control efforts. Here, we demonstrate that real-time, direct tracking of a single plasmid in a bacterial strain responsible for an outbreak is possible using a commercial matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) system. In this case, we retrospectively tracked the bla(KPC) carbapenemase gene-bearing pKpQIL plasmid responsible for a CRE outbreak that occurred at the NIH Clinical Center in 2011. An ∼ 11,109-Da MS peak corresponding to a gene product of the bla(KPC) pKpQIL plasmid was identified and characterized using a combination of proteomics and molecular techniques. This plasmid peak was present in spectra from retrospectively analyzed K. pneumoniae outbreak isolates, concordant with results from whole-genome sequencing, and absent from a diverse control set of bla(KPC)-negative clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates. Notably, the gene characterized here is located adjacent to the bla(KPC) Tn4401 transposon on the pKpQIL plasmid. Sequence analysis demonstrates the presence of this gene in other bla(KPC) Tn4401-containing plasmids and suggests that this signature MS peak may be useful in tracking other plasmids conferring carbapenem resistance. Plasmid identification using this MALDI-TOF MS method was accomplished in as little as 10 min from isolated colonies and 30 min from positive (spiked) blood cultures, demonstrating the potential clinical utility for real-time plasmid tracking in an outbreak. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. A Compact Tandem Two-Step Laser Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer for In Situ Analysis of Non-Volatile Organics on Planetary Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getty, Stephanie A.; Brinckerhoff, William B.; Li, Xiang; Elsila, Jamie; Cornish, Timothy; Ecelberger, Scott; Wu, Qinghao; Zare, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Two-step laser desorption mass spectrometry is a well suited technique to the analysis of high priority classes of organics, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, present in complex samples. The use of decoupled desorption and ionization laser pulses allows for sensitive and selective detection of structurally intact organic species. We have recently demonstrated the implementation of this advancement in laser mass spectrometry in a compact, flight-compatible instrument that could feasibly be the centerpiece of an analytical science payload as part of a future spaceflight mission to a small body or icy moon.

  17. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging of cell cultures for the lipidomic analysis of potential lipid markers in human breast cancer invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shujuan; Chen, Xiaowu; Luan, Hemi; Gao, Dan; Lin, Shuhai; Cai, Zongwei; Liu, Jianjun; Liu, Hongxia; Jiang, Yuyang

    2016-02-28

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. Identification of lipid targets that play a role in breast cancer invasion may advance our understanding of the rapid progression of cancer and may lead to the development of new biomarkers for the disease. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI) was applied for the lipidomic profiling of two poorly invasive and two highly invasive breast cancer cell lines to identify the differentially accumulated lipids related to the invasive phenotype. The four cell lines were individually grown on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass slides, analyzed as cell cultures. The raster width and matrix for detection were optimized to improve detection sensitivity. Optimized MSI measurements were performed directly on the cell culture with 9-aminoacridine as matrix, resulting in 215 endogenous compounds detected in positive ion mode and 267 endogenous compounds in negative ion mode in all the four cell lines, representing the largest group of analytes that have been analyzed from cells by a single MSI study. In highly invasive cell lines, 31 lipids including phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidic acids were found upregulated and eight lipids including sphingomyelin (SM) downregulated in negative ion mode. The products of de novo fatty acid synthesis incorporated into membrane phospholipids, like oleic-acid-containing PG, may be involved in mitochondrial dysfunction and thus affect the invasion of breast cancer cells. The deficiency of SM may be related to the disruption of apoptosis in highly invasive cancer cells. This work uncovered more analytes in cells by MSI than previous reports, providing a better visualization and novel insights to advance our understanding of the relationship between rapid progression of breast cancer and lipid metabolism. The most altered lipids may aid the discovery of diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets of breast cancer. Copyright

  18. Rapid, simple, and highly sensitive analysis of drugs in biological samples using thin-layer chromatography coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwayama, Kenji; Tsujikawa, Kenji; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Iwata, Yuko T; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Rapid and precise identification of toxic substances is necessary for urgent diagnosis and treatment of poisoning cases and for establishing the cause of death in postmortem examinations. However, identification of compounds in biological samples using gas chromatography and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry entails time-consuming and labor-intensive sample preparations. In this study, we examined a simple preparation and highly sensitive analysis of drugs in biological samples such as urine, plasma, and organs using thin-layer chromatography coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (TLC/MALDI/MS). When the urine containing 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) without sample dilution was spotted on a thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plate and was analyzed by TLC/MALDI/MS, the detection limit of the MDMA spot was 0.05 ng/spot. The value was the same as that in aqueous solution spotted on a stainless steel plate. All the 11 psychotropic compounds tested (MDMA, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, methamphetamine, p-hydroxymethamphetamine, amphetamine, ketamine, caffeine, chlorpromazine, triazolam, and morphine) on a TLC plate were detected at levels of 0.05-5 ng, and the type (layer thickness and fluorescence) of TLC plate did not affect detection sensitivity. In addition, when rat liver homogenate obtained after MDMA administration (10 mg/kg) was spotted on a TLC plate, MDMA and its main metabolites were identified using TLC/MALDI/MS, and the spots on a TLC plate were visualized by MALDI/imaging MS. The total analytical time from spotting of intact biological samples to the output of analytical results was within 30 min. TLC/MALDI/MS enabled rapid, simple, and highly sensitive analysis of drugs from intact biological samples and crude extracts. Accordingly, this method could be applied to rapid drug screening and precise identification of toxic substances in poisoning cases and

  19. Novel two-step laser ablation and ionization mass spectrometry (2S-LAIMS) of actor-spectator ice layers: Probing chemical composition of D2O ice beneath a H2O ice layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Rui; Gudipati, Murthy S.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we report for the first time successful analysis of organic aromatic analytes imbedded in D 2 O ices by novel infrared (IR) laser ablation of a layered non-absorbing D 2 O ice (spectator) containing the analytes and an ablation-active IR-absorbing H 2 O ice layer (actor) without the analyte. With these studies we have opened up a new method for the in situ analysis of solids containing analytes when covered with an IR laser-absorbing layer that can be resonantly ablated. This soft ejection method takes advantage of the tenability of two-step infrared laser ablation and ultraviolet laser ionization mass spectrometry, previously demonstrated in this lab to study chemical reactions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in cryogenic ices. The IR laser pulse tuned to resonantly excite only the upper H 2 O ice layer (actor) generates a shockwave upon impact. This shockwave penetrates the lower analyte-containing D 2 O ice layer (spectator, a non-absorbing ice that cannot be ablated directly with the wavelength of the IR laser employed) and is reflected back, ejecting the contents of the D 2 O layer into the vacuum where they are intersected by a UV laser for ionization and detection by a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Thus, energy is transmitted from the laser-absorbing actor layer into the non-absorbing spectator layer resulting its ablation. We found that isotope cross-contamination between layers was negligible. We also did not see any evidence for thermal or collisional chemistry of PAH molecules with H 2 O molecules in the shockwave. We call this “shockwave mediated surface resonance enhanced subsurface ablation” technique as “two-step laser ablation and ionization mass spectrometry of actor-spectator ice layers.” This method has its roots in the well-established MALDI (matrix assisted laser desorption and ionization) method. Our method offers more flexibility to optimize both the processes—ablation and ionization. This new technique

  20. Rapid Differentiation of Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus by Use of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry with ClinProTools Mass Spectrum Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jonathan H K; Cheng, Vincent C C; Wong, Chun-Pong; Wong, Sally C Y; Yam, Wing-Cheong; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2017-09-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is associated with severe invasive disease, while Haemophilus haemolyticus is considered part of the commensal flora in the human respiratory tract. Although the addition of a custom mass spectrum library into the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) system could improve identification of these two species, the establishment of such a custom database is technically complicated and requires a large amount of resources, which most clinical laboratories cannot afford. In this study, we developed a mass spectrum analysis model with 7 mass peak biomarkers for the identification of H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus using the ClinProTools software. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of this model using 408 H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus isolates from clinical respiratory specimens from 363 hospitalized patients and compared the identification results with those obtained with the Bruker IVD MALDI Biotyper. The IVD MALDI Biotyper identified only 86.9% of H. influenzae (311/358) and 98.0% of H. haemolyticus (49/50) clinical isolates to the species level. In comparison, the ClinProTools mass spectrum model could identify 100% of H. influenzae (358/358) and H. haemolyticus (50/50) clinical strains to the species level and significantly improved the species identification rate (McNemar's test, P mass spectrometry to handle closely related bacterial species when the proprietary spectrum library failed. This approach should be useful for the differentiation of other closely related bacterial species. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  1. Assisted inhibition effect of acetylcholinesterase with n-octylphosphonic acid and application in high sensitive detection of organophosphorous pesticides by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Tingting; Zhang, Li; Wang, Haoyang; Zhang, Jing; Guo, Yinlong

    2011-11-14

    A simple and practical approach to improve the sensitivity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-inhibited method has been developed for monitoring organophosphorous (OP) pesticide residues. In this work, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry (MALDI-FTMS) was used to detect AChE activity. Due to its good salt-tolerance and low sample consumption, MALDI-FTMS facilitates rapid and high-throughput screening of OP pesticides. Here we describe a new method to obtain low detection limits via employing external reagents. Among candidate compounds, n-octylphosphonic acid (n-Octyl-PA) displays assistant effect to enhance AChE inhibition by OP pesticides. In presence of n-Octyl-PA, the percentages of AChE inhibition still kept correlation with OP pesticide concentrations. The detection limits were improved significantly even by 10(2)-10(3) folds in comparison with conventional enzyme-inhibited methods. Different detection limits of OP pesticides with different toxicities were as low as 0.005 μg L(-1) for high toxic pesticides and 0.05 μg L(-1) for low toxic pesticides. Besides, the reliability of results from this method to analyze cowpea samples had been demonstrated by liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The application of this commercial available assistant agent shows great promise to detect OP compounds in complicated biological matrix and broadens the mind for high sensitivity detection of OP pesticide residues in agricultural products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Improving the Selectivity of the ISOLDE Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source and In-Source Laser Spectroscopy of Polonium

    CERN Document Server

    Fink, Daniel Andreas; Jochim, Selim

    Exotic atomic nuclei far away from stability are fascinating objects to be studied in many scientic elds such as atomic-, nuclear-, and astrophysics. Since these are often short-lived isotopes, it is necessary to couple their production with immediate extraction and delivery to an experiment. This is the purpose of the on-line isotope separator facility, ISOLDE, at CERN. An essential aspect of this laboratory is the Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) because it provides a fast and highly selective means of ionizing the reaction products. This technique is also a sensitive laser-spectroscopy tool for the development and improvement of electron excitation schemes for the resonant laser photoionization and the study of the nuclear structure or fundamental atomic physics. Each of these aspects of the RILIS applications are subjects of this thesis work: a new device for the suppression of unwanted surface ionized contaminants in RILIS ion beams, known as the Laser Ion Source and Trap (LIST), was impleme...

  3. Time delay between singly and doubly ionizing wavepackets in laser-driven helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J S; Doherty, B J S; Meharg, K J; Taylor, K T

    2003-01-01

    We present calculations of the time delay between single and double ionization of helium, obtained from full-dimensionality numerical integrations of the helium-laser Schroedinger equation. The notion of a quantum mechanical time delay is defined in terms of the interval between correlated bursts of single and double ionization. Calculations are performed at 390 and 780 nm in laser intensities that range from 2 x 10 14 to 14 x 10 14 Wcm -2 . We find results consistent with the rescattering model of double ionization but supporting its classical interpretation only at 780 nm. (letter to the editor)

  4. Direct detection of neutral metal atoms in electron-stimulated desorption: Al from CH3O/Al(111) - velocity distribution and absolute yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitten, J.E.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.; Gruen, D.M.; Jones, P.L.

    1994-01-01

    Electron-stimulated desorption of neutral aluminum from the system CH 3 O/Al(111) has been directly monitored via quasiresonant photoionization with 193 nm excimer laser light and confirmed by two-step resonant ionization, utilizing the Al 3d 2 D manifold. Velocity distribution measurements for the neutral Al peak at ∼ 800 m/s for 1 keV incident electron energy. An absolute yield of 3.2 x 10 -6 Al atoms/electron was determined by comparison with sputtering measurements in the same apparatus. This is the first observation of electron-stimulated metal desorption from adsorbate-covered metallic surfaces

  5. Metabolite localization by atmospheric pressure high-resolution scanning microprobe matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging in whole-body sections and individual organs of the rove beetle Paederus riparius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Dhaka Ram; Schott, Matthias; Römpp, Andreas; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Spengler, Bernhard

    2015-03-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging provides for non-targeted, label-free chemical imaging. In this study, atmospheric pressure high-resolution scanning microprobe matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (AP-SMALDI MSI) was used for the first time to describe the chemical distribution of the defensive compounds pederin, pseudopederin, and pederon in tissue sections (16 μm thick) of the rove beetle Paederus riparius. The whole-insect tissue section was scanned with a 20-μm step size. Mass resolution of the orbital trapping mass spectrometer was set to 100,000 at m/z 200. Additionally, organ-specific compounds were identified for brain, nerve cord, eggs, gut, ovaries, and malpighian tubules. To confirm the distribution of the specific compounds, individual organs from the insect were dissected, and MSI experiments were performed on the dissected organs. Three ganglia of the nerve cord, with a dimension of 250-500 μm, were measured with 10-μm spatial resolution. High-quality m/z images, based on high spatial resolution and high mass accuracy were generated. These features helped to assign mass spectral peaks with high confidence. Mass accuracy of the imaging experiments was section. Without any labeling, we assigned key lipids for specific organs to describe their location in the body and to identify morphological structures with a specificity higher than with staining or immunohistology methods.

  6. Development of an improved rapid BACpro® protocol and a method for direct identification from blood-culture-positive bottles using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, Takatoshi; Watari, Tomohisa; Ashizawa, Kazuho; Hanada, Daisuke; Yanagiya, Takako; Watanabe, Naoki; Terada, Takashi; Tomoda, Yutaka; Fujii, Satoshi

    2018-05-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been incorporated into pathogenic bacterial identification methods and has improved their rapidity. Various methods have been reported to directly identify bacteria with MALDI-TOF MS by pretreating culture medium in blood culture bottles. Rapid BACpro® (Nittobo Medical Co., Ltd.) is a pretreatment kit for effective collection of bacteria with cationic copolymers. However, the Rapid BACpro® pretreatment kit is adapted only for MALDI Biotyper (Bruker Daltonics K.K.), and there has been a desire to expand its use to VITEK MS (VMS; bioMerieux SA). We improved the protocol and made it possible to analyze with VMS. The culture medium bacteria collection method was changed to a method with centrifugation after hemolysis using saponin; the cationic copolymer concentration was changed to 30% of the original concentration; the sequence with which reagents were added was changed; and a change was made to an ethanol/formic acid extraction method. The improved protocol enhanced the identification performance. When VMS was used, the identification rate was 100% with control samples. With clinical samples, the identification agreement rate with the cell smear method was 96.3%. The improved protocol is effective in blood culture rapid identification, being both simpler and having an improved identification performance compared with the original. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative study of the dissociative ionization of 1,1,1-trichloroethane using nanosecond and femtosecond laser pulses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available , but different fragmentation patterns. A general trend is that when using femtosecond laser pulses for ionization, the parent molecular ion is observed but not for nanosecond laser ionization. There is also a fundamental interest in laser...-molecule interactions at the high intensities available from femtosecond lasers [12,13]. These papers describe the multiphoton ionization mechanisms termed ladder climbing and ladder switching, which explain the presence of parent molecular ion in ultrashort pulse...

  8. Capitalizing Resolving Power of Density Gradient Ultracentrifugation by Freezing and Precisely Slicing Centrifuged Solution: Enabling Identification of Complex Proteins from Mitochondria by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiqing Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Density gradient centrifugation is widely utilized for various high purity sample preparations, and density gradient ultracentrifugation (DGU is often used for more resolution-demanding purification of organelles and protein complexes. Accurately locating different isopycnic layers and precisely extracting solutions from these layers play a critical role in achieving high-resolution DGU separations. In this technique note, we develop a DGU procedure by freezing the solution rapidly (but gently after centrifugation to fix the resolved layers and by slicing the frozen solution to fractionate the sample. Because the thickness of each slice can be controlled to be as thin as 10 micrometers, we retain virtually all the resolution produced by DGU. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this method, we fractionate complex V from HeLa mitochondria using a conventional technique and this freezing-slicing (F-S method. The comparison indicates that our F-S method can reduce complex V layer thicknesses by ~40%. After fractionation, we analyze complex V proteins directly on a matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization, time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Twelve out of fifteen subunits of complex V are positively identified. Our method provides a practical protocol to identify proteins from complexes, which is useful to investigate biomolecular complexes and pathways in various conditions and cell types.

  9. Typing of Ochrobactrum anthropi clinical isolates using automated repetitive extragenic palindromic-polymerase chain reaction DNA fingerprinting and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirino, Angela; Pulcrano, Giovanna; Rametti, Linda; Puccio, Rossana; Marascio, Nadia; Catania, Maria Rosaria; Matera, Giovanni; Liberto, Maria Carla; Focà, Alfredo

    2014-03-22

    Ochrobactrum anthropi (O. anthropi), is a non-fermenting gram-negative bacillus usually found in the environment. Nevertheless, during the past decade it has been identified as pathogenic to immunocompromised patients. In this study, we assessed the usefulness of the automated repetitive extragenic palindromic-polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR-based DiversiLab™ system, bioMèrieux, France) and of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF MS) for typing of twentythree O. anthropi clinical isolates that we found over a four-months period (from April 2011 to August 2011) in bacteriemic patients admitted in the same operative unit of our hospital. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), commonly accepted as the gold standard technique for typing, was also used. Analysis was carried out using the Pearson correlation coefficient to determine the distance matrice and the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) to generate dendogram. Rep-PCR analysis identified four different patterns: three that clustered together with 97% or more pattern similarity, and one whose members showed < 95% pattern similarity. Interestingly, strains isolated later (from 11/06/2011 to 24/08/2011) displayed a pattern with 99% similarity. MALDI-TOF MS evaluation clustered the twentythree strains of O. anthropi into a single group containing four distinct subgroups, each comprising the majority of strains clustering below 5 distance levels, indicating a high similarity between the isolates. Our results indicate that these isolates are clonally-related and the methods used afforded a valuable contribution to the epidemiology, prevention and control of the infections caused by this pathogen.

  10. Bacterial rapid identification with matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry: development of an 'in-house method' and comparison with Bruker Sepsityper(®) kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frédéric Ric, S; Antoine, M; Bodson, A; Lissoir, B

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare an in-house matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization with time of flight (MALDI-TOF) method and a commercial MALDI-TOF kit (Sepsityper(®) kit) for direct bacterial identification in positive blood cultures. We also evaluated the time saved and the cost associated with the rapid identification techniques. We used the BACTEC(®) automated system for detecting positive blood cultures. Direct identification using Sepsityper kit and the in-house method were compared with conventional identification by MALDI-TOF using pure bacterial culture on the solid phase. We also evaluated different cut-off scores for rapid bacterial identification. In total, 127 positive blood vials were selected. The rate of rapid identification with the MALDI Sepsityper kit was 25.2% with the standard cut-off and 33.9% with the enlarged cut-off, while the results for the in-house method were 44.1 and 61.4%, respectively. Error rates with the enlarged cut-off were 6.98 (n = 3) and 2.56% (n = 2) for Sepsityper and the in-house method, respectively. Identification rates were higher for gram-negative bacteria. Direct bacterial identification succeeded in supplying rapid identification of the causative organism in cases of sepsis. The time taken to obtain a result was nearly 24  hours shorter for the direct bacterial identification methods than for conventional MALDI-TOF on solid phase culture. Compared with the Sepsityper kit, the in-house method offered better results and fewer errors, was more cost-effective and easier to use.

  11. Electron ionization and spin polarization control of Fe atom adsorbed graphene irradiated by a femtosecond laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Dong; Jiang, Lan; Wang, Feng; Li, Xin; Qu, Liangti; Lu, Yongfeng

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the structural properties and ionized spin electrons of an Fe–graphene system, in which the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) within the generalized gradient approximation is used. The electron dynamics, including electron ionization and ionized electron spin polarization, is described for Fe atom adsorbed graphene under femtosecond laser irradiation. The theoretical results show that the electron ionization and ionized electron spin polarization are sensitive to the laser parameters, such as the incident angle and the peak intensity. The spin polarization presents the maximum value under certain laser parameters, which may be used as a source of spin-polarized electrons. - Highlights: • The structural properties of Fe–graphene system are investigated. • The electron dynamics of Fe–graphene system under laser irradiation are described. • The Fe–graphene system may be used as a source of spin-polarized electrons

  12. Ultra-low emittance beam generation using two-color ionization injection in a CO2 laser-driven plasma accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, Carl; Benedetti, Carlo; Bulanov, Stepan; Chen, Min; Esarey, Eric; Geddes, Cameron; Vay, J.; Yu, Lule; Leemans, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-low emittance (tens of nm) beams can be generated in a plasma accelerator using ionization injection of electrons into a wakefield. An all-optical method of beam generation uses two laser pulses of different colors. A long-wavelength drive laser pulse (with a large ponderomotive force and small peak electric field) is used to excite a large wakefield without fully ionizing a gas, and a short-wavelength injection laser pulse (with a small ponderomotive force and large peak electric field), co-propagating and delayed with respect to the pump laser, to ionize a fraction of the remaining bound electrons at a trapped wake phase, generating an electron beam that is accelerated in the wake. The trapping condition, the ionized electron distribution, and the trapped bunch dynamics are discussed. Expressions for the beam transverse emittance, parallel and orthogonal to the ionization laser polarization, are presented. An example is shown using a 10-micron CO 2 laser to drive the wake and a frequency-doubled Ti:Al 2 O 3 laser for ionization injection.

  13. Two-step Laser Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry to Elucidate Organic Diversity in Planetary Surface Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getty, Stephanie A.; Brinckerhoff, William B.; Cornish, Timothy; Li, Xiang; Floyd, Melissa; Arevalo, Ricardo Jr.; Cook, Jamie Elsila; Callahan, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LD-TOF-MS) holds promise to be a low-mass, compact in situ analytical capability for future landed missions to planetary surfaces. The ability to analyze a solid sample for both mineralogical and preserved organic content with laser ionization could be compelling as part of a scientific mission pay-load that must be prepared for unanticipated discoveries. Targeted missions for this instrument capability include Mars, Europa, Enceladus, and small icy bodies, such as asteroids and comets.

  14. Laser spectroscopy on organic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imasaka, T

    1996-06-01

    Various laser spectrometric methods have been developed until now. Especially, laser fluorometry is most sensitive and is frequently combined with a separation technique such as capillary electrophoresis. For non-fluorescent compounds, photothermal spectrometry may be used instead. A diode laser is potentially useful for practical trace analysis, because of its low cost and long-term trouble-free operation. On the other hand, monochromaticity of the laser is essential in high-resolution spectrometry, e.g. in low temperature spectrometry providing a very sharp spectral feature. Closely-related compounds such as isomers can easily be differentiated, and information for assignment is obtained from the spectrum. Multiphoton ionization mass spectrometry is useful for soft ionization, providing additional information concerned with molecular weight and chemical structure. A short laser pulse with a sufficient energy is suitable for rapid heating of the solid surface. A matrix-assisted laser desorption/ion-ization technique is recently employed for introduction of a large biological molecule into a vacuum for mass analysis. In the future, laser spectrometry will be developed by a combination with state-of-the-art laser technology. In the 21st century, new laser spectrometry will be developed, which may be based on revolutionary ideas or unexpected discoveries. Such studies will open new frontiers in analytical laser spectroscopy.

  15. Intensity dependence of nonsequential double ionization of helium in IR+XUV two-color laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Facheng; Wang, Bingbing; Chen, Jing; Yang, Yujun; Yan, Zong-Chao

    2016-01-01

    By applying the frequency-domain theory, we investigate the dependence of momentum spectra on laser intensity in a nonsequential double ionization (NSDI) process of helium in infrared (IR) and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) two-color laser fields. We find that the two-color laser fields play distinct roles in an NSDI process, where the IR laser field mainly determines the width of each band, and the XUV laser field mainly plays a role on the NSDI probability. Furthermore, an NSDI process can be decoupled into a two-step process: an above-threshold ionization (ATI), followed by a laser-assisted collision (LAC). It is found that, the IR laser field is responsible for broadening the peak in the ATI process and providing additional momenta to the two ionized electrons in the LAC process; while the XUV laser field plays a crucial role on the strength of the spectrum in the ATI process, and influences the radii of orbits in momentum space in the LAC process. (paper)

  16. Microplasma-based flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow (FAPA) source for ambient desorption-ionization mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiri, Offer M.; Storey, Andrew P.; Ray, Steven J., E-mail: sjray2@buffalo.edu; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2017-02-01

    A new direct-current microplasma-based flowing atmospheric pressure afterglow (FAPA) source was developed for use in ambient desorption-ionization mass spectrometry. The annular-shaped microplasma is formed in helium between two concentric stainless-steel capillaries that are separated by an alumina tube. Current-voltage characterization of the source shows that this version of the FAPA operates in the normal glow-discharge regime. A glass surface placed in the path of the helium afterglow reaches temperatures of up to approximately 400 °C; the temperature varies with distance from the source and helium flow rate through the source. Solid, liquid, and vapor samples were examined by means of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Results suggest that ionization occurs mainly through protonation, with only a small amount of fragmentation and adduct formation. The mass range of the source was shown to extend up to at least m/z 2722 for singly charged species. Limits of detection for several small organic molecules were in the sub-picomole range. Examination of competitive ionization revealed that signal suppression occurs only at high (mM) concentrations of competing substances. - Highlights: • The first microplasma version of the FAPA source. • Current-voltage behavior reflects the behavior of a normal glow discharge. • Detection limits below 1 pmol for the classes of organic compounds studied over a wide mass range. • Mass spectra show limited fragmentation.

  17. Direct analysis and identification of pathogenic Lichtheimia species by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight analyzer-mediated mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrödl, Wieland; Heydel, Tilo; Schwartze, Volker U; Hoffmann, Kerstin; Grosse-Herrenthey, Anke; Walther, Grit; Alastruey-Izquierdo, Ana; Rodriguez-Tudela, Juan Luis; Olias, Philipp; Jacobsen, Ilse D; de Hoog, G Sybren; Voigt, Kerstin

    2012-02-01

    Zygomycetes of the order Mucorales can cause life-threatening infections in humans. These mucormycoses are emerging and associated with a rapid tissue destruction and high mortality. The resistance of Mucorales to antimycotic substances varies between and within clinically important genera such as Mucor, Rhizopus, and Lichtheimia. Thus, an accurate diagnosis before onset of antimycotic therapy is recommended. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI)-time of flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) is a potentially powerful tool to rapidly identify infectious agents on the species level. We investigated the potential of MALDI-TOF MS to differentiate Lichtheimia species, one of the most important agents of mucormycoses. Using the Bruker Daltonics FlexAnalysis (version 3.0) software package, a spectral database library with m/z ratios of 2,000 to 20,000 Da was created for 19 type and reference strains of clinically relevant Zygomycetes of the order Mucorales (12 species in 7 genera). The database was tested for accuracy by use of 34 clinical and environmental isolates of Lichtheimia comprising a total of five species. Our data demonstrate that MALDI-TOF MS can be used to clearly discriminate Lichtheimia species from other pathogenic species of the Mucorales. Furthermore, the method is suitable to discriminate species within the genus. The reliability and robustness of the MALDI-TOF-based identification are evidenced by high score values (above 2.3) for the designation to a certain species and by moderate score values (below 2.0) for the discrimination between clinically relevant (Lichtheimia corymbifera, L. ramosa, and L. ornata) and irrelevant (L. hyalospora and L. sphaerocystis) species. In total, all 34 strains were unequivocally identified by MALDI-TOF MS with score values of >1.8 down to the generic level, 32 out of 34 of the Lichtheimia isolates (except CNM-CM 5399 and FSU 10566) were identified accurately with score values of >2 (probable species

  18. Investigation on a TEA-CO II laser with surface corona pre-ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behjat, A.; Aram, M.; Soltanmoradi, F.; Shabanzadeh, M.

    2006-05-01

    The construction of a surface corona UV pre-ionized TEA CO II laser is described and dependence of its average output energy of the laser to gas mixture, discharge voltage and repetition rate is investigated. The electric circuit diagram and geometry of the pre-ionization system are presented. Configuration of circuit has been designed to produce only impulsive voltage difference between the laser electrodes. Also, the triggering configuration of trigatron is prepared for fast operation to minimize the arc occurrence as much as possible. Some data of current, voltage, laser pulses and average output energy versus gas mixture and applied voltages are given. IR spectrometer is used for measurements of central output wavelength of the laser. Operation of the laser on two adjacent vibrational-rotational transitions of CO II molecule has been observed that shows the ability of this laser for working on multi-line in a same time for special applications.

  19. Double ionization of molecule H2 in intense ultrashort laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Thu-Thuy; Nguyen, Ngoc-Ty

    2015-01-01

    By solving numerically the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE), we have calculated the double ionization probability when a vibrating hydrogen molecule interacts with intense ultrashort laser pulses. The results show that in the case of vibrating nuclei the double ionization probability is higher than that of the fixed nuclei. Additionally, the double ionization probability is larger if the molecule is vibrating in a higher level. This is due to the decreasing of ionization potential when the inter-nuclei separation increases. (paper)

  20. Analysis and differentiation of mineral dust by single particle laser mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallavardin, S. J.; Lohmann, U.; Cziczo, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluates the potential of single particle laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for the analysis of atmospherically relevant mineral dusts. Samples of hematite, goethite, calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate, silica, quartz, montmorrillonite, kaolinite, illite, hectorite, wollastonite and nephelinsyenit were investigated in positive and negative ion mode with a monopolar time-of-flight mass spectrometer where the desorption/ionization step was performed with a 193 nm excimer laser (∼10 9 W/cm 2 ). Particle size ranged from 500 nm to 3 (micro)m. Positive mass spectra mainly provide elemental composition whereas negative ion spectra provide information on element speciation and of a structural nature. The iron oxide, calcium-rich and aluminosilicate nature of particles is established in positive ion mode. The differentiation of calcium materials strongly relies on the calcium counter-ions in negative mass spectra. Aluminosilicates can be differentiated in both positive and negative ion mode using the relative abundance of various aluminum and silicon ions

  1. X-ray laser studies using plasmas created by optical field ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krushelnick, K.M.; Tighe, W.; Suckewer, S.

    1995-01-01

    X-ray laser experiments involving the creation of fast recombining plasmas by optical field ionization of preformed targets were conducted. A nonlinear increase in the intensity of the 13.5nm Lyman-α line in Li III with the length of the target plasma was observed but only for distances less than the laser confocal parameter and for low plasma electron temperatures. Multiphoton pumping of resonant atomic transitions was also examined and the process of multiphoton ionization of FIII was found to be more probable than multiphoton excitation

  2. Direct Laser Ablation and Ionization of Solids for Chemical Analysis by Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, J K; Nelson, E J; Klunder, G L [Forensic Science Center, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2007-04-15

    A laser ablation/ionization mass spectrometer system is described for the direct chemical analysis of solids. An Nd:YAG laser is used for ablation and ionization of the sample in a quadrupole ion trap operated in an ion-storage (IS) mode that is coupled with a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). Single pulse experiments have demonstrated simultaneous detection of up to 14 elements present in glasses in the ppm range. However, detection of the components has produced non-stoichiometric results due to difference in ionization potentials and fractionation effects. Time-of-flight secondary ionization mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) was used to spatially map elemental species on the surface and provide further evidence of fractionation effects. Resolution (m/{delta}m) of 1500 and detection limits of approximately 10 pg have been achieved with a single laser pulse. The system configuration and related operating principles for accurately measuring low concentrations of isotopes are described.

  3. Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Aspergillus spp. by Using a Composite Correlation Index (CCI)-Based Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Method Appears To Not Offer Benefit over Traditional Broth Microdilution Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitman, Melissa R; McTaggart, Lisa; Spinato, Joanna; Poopalarajah, Rahgavi; Lister, Erin; Husain, Shahid; Kus, Julianne V

    2017-07-01

    Aspergillus spp. cause serious invasive lung infections, and Aspergillus fumigatus is the most commonly encountered clinically significant species. Voriconazole is considered to be the drug of choice for treating A. fumigatus infections; however, rising resistance rates have been reported. We evaluated a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based method for the differentiation between wild-type and non-wild-type isolates of 20 Aspergillus spp. (including 2 isolates of Aspergillus ustus and 1 of Aspergillus calidoustus that were used as controls due their intrinsic low azole susceptibility with respect to the in vitro response to voriconazole). At 30 and 48 h of incubation, there was complete agreement between Cyp51A sequence analysis, broth microdilution, and MALDI-TOF MS classification of isolates as wild type or non-wild type. In this proof-of-concept study, we demonstrated that MALDI-TOF MS can be used to accurately detect A. fumigatus strains with reduced voriconazole susceptibility. However, rather than proving to be a rapid and simple method for antifungal susceptibility testing, this particular MS-based method showed no benefit over conventional testing methods. © Crown copyright 2017.

  4. Determination of Nerve Agent Metabolites by Ultraviolet Femtosecond Laser Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamachi, Akifumi; Imasaka, Tomoko; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Li, Adan; Imasaka, Totaro

    2017-05-02

    Nerve agent metabolites, i.e., isopropyl methylphosphonic acid (IMPA) and pinacolyl methylphosphonic acid (PMPA), were derivatized by reacting them with 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl bromide (PFBBr) and were determined by mass spectrometry using an ultraviolet femtosecond laser emitting at 267 and 200 nm as the ionization source. The analytes of the derivatized compounds, i.e., IMPA-PFB and PMPA-PFB, contain a large side-chain, and molecular ions are very weak or absent in electron ionization mass spectrometry. The use of ultraviolet femtosecond laser ionization mass spectrometry, however, resulted in the formation of a molecular ion, even for compounds such as these that contain a highly bulky functional group. The signal intensity was larger at 200 nm due to resonance-enhanced two-photon ionization. In contrast, fragmentation was suppressed at 267 nm (nonresonant two-photon ionization) especially for PMPA-PFB, thus resulting in a lower background signal. This favorable result can be explained by the small excess energy in ionization at 267 nm and by the low-frequency vibrational mode of a bulky trimethylpropyl group in PMPA.

  5. Identification of clinical isolates of Aspergillus, including cryptic species, by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Acuña, M Reyes; Ruiz-Pérez de Pipaón, Maite; Torres-Sánchez, María José; Aznar, Javier

    2017-12-08

    An expanded library of matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been constructed using the spectra generated from 42 clinical isolates and 11 reference strains, including 23 different species from 8 sections (16 cryptic plus 7 noncryptic species). Out of a total of 379 strains of Aspergillus isolated from clinical samples, 179 strains were selected to be identified by sequencing of beta-tubulin or calmodulin genes. Protein spectra of 53 strains, cultured in liquid medium, were used to construct an in-house reference database in the MALDI-TOF MS. One hundred ninety strains (179 clinical isolates previously identified by sequencing and the 11 reference strains), cultured on solid medium, were blindy analyzed by the MALDI-TOF MS technology to validate the generated in-house reference database. A 100% correlation was obtained with both identification methods, gene sequencing and MALDI-TOF MS, and no discordant identification was obtained. The HUVR database provided species level (score of ≥2.0) identification in 165 isolates (86.84%) and for the remaining 25 (13.16%) a genus level identification (score between 1.7 and 2.0) was obtained. The routine MALDI-TOF MS analysis with the new database, was then challenged with 200 Aspergillus clinical isolates grown on solid medium in a prospective evaluation. A species identification was obtained in 191 strains (95.5%), and only nine strains (4.5%) could not be identified at the species level. Among the 200 strains, A. tubingensis was the only cryptic species identified. We demonstrated the feasibility and usefulness of the new HUVR database in MALDI-TOF MS by the use of a standardized procedure for the identification of Aspergillus clinical isolates, including cryptic species, grown either on solid or liquid media. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For

  6. Analysis of laser ablation: Contribution of ionization energy to the plasma and shock wave properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, S.-B.; Mao Xianglei; Greif, Ralph; Russo, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    By fitting simulation results with experimentally measured trajectories of the shock wave and the vapor/background gas contact surface, we found that inclusion of ionization energy in the analysis leads to a change in the evolution of the pressure, mass density, electron number density, and temperature of the vapor plume. The contribution of ionization energy to both the plasma and shock wave has been neglected in most studies of laser ablation. Compared to previous simulations, the densities, pressures, and temperatures are lower shortly after the laser pulse ( 50 ns). The predicted laser energy conversion ratio also showed about a 20% increase (from 35% to 45%) when the ionization energy is considered. The changes in the evolution of the physical quantities result from the retention of the ionization energy in the vapor plume, which is then gradually transformed to kinetic and thermal energies. When ionization energy is included in the simulation, the vapor plume attains higher expansion speeds and temperatures for a longer time after the laser pulse. The better determination of the temperature history of the vapor plume not only improves the understanding of the expansion process of the laser induced vapor plume but also is important for chemical analysis. The accurate temperature history provides supplementary information which enhances the accuracy of chemical analysis based on spectral emission measurements (e.g., laser induced breakdown spectroscopy)

  7. Laser ionization of molecular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, S.; Feigerle, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Multiphoton ionization coupled with mass spectrometry was used to investigate molecular cluster distributions. Three examples will be discussed in this presentation. First, in studies of neat nitric oxide clusters, (NO) m , an interesting odd-even intensity alternation was observed and will be discussed in terms of electron-pairing considerations. In a separate study, the binary clusters comprising nitric oxide and methane preferentially form a stoichiometric cluster made up of repeating units of (NO) 2 CH 4 . These presumably represent a particularly strongly bound open-quotes van der Waalsclose quotes subunit. Finally, in similar studies of neat carbon disulfide clusters, (CS 2 ) m , additional photon absorption after the two-photon ionization step stimulates a series of intracluster ion-molecular reactions leading to formation of S m + and (CS) m + polymers, as well as intermediate species such as S m + (CS 2 ). This molecular cluster analogue of open-quotes laser snowclose quotes will be described in detail

  8. Study of the ionization of H+2 ions in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odenweller, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of this thesis it has been succeeded to develop a worldwide unique measurement apparatur, by which hydrogen-molecule ions can be ionized by means of short laser pulses and the reaction product kinematically completely measured. For this a detection method following the Coltrims technique, in which both protons and electrons can be detected over the complete spatial angle. The H + 2 ions origin from a high-frequency ion source and are accelerated to 400 keV. This ion beam is overlapped with a 780-nm laser pulse othe pulse length 40 fs. After the reaction the molecule ions fragments either via the dissociation channel H + 2 +nhν→H+H + or via an ionization followed by a Coulomb explosion: H + 2 +nhν→H + +H + +e - . The projectiles are detected after a drift path of about 3 m on an ion detector. For the detection of the electrons a special spectrometer was concipated. In the reaction it comes by the comparatively long pulse length already at low intensities to dissociation processes. The dissociating molecule reaches still during the increasing side of the laser pulse in this way distances, in which the charge-resonance-enhanced-ionization (CREI) can take place. Also the angular distribution of the measured protons lying in a very small angular range around the polarization direction of the laser suggests that CREI is the dominant ionization process. At circular polarization however a netto-acceleration of the electrons perpendicularly to the direction of the electric field at the ionization time takes place, so that the measurement of the electron momenta represents a suited measurement quantity for the study of the ionization process. By this way angular distributions of the electrons relatively to the internuclear axis within the polarization plane could be measured.

  9. Ionization of oriented carbonyl sulfide molecules by intense circularly polarized laser pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrovski, Darko; Abu-Samha, Mahmoud; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2011-01-01

    We present combined experimental and theoretical results on strong-field ionization of oriented carbonyl sulfide molecules by circularly polarized laser pulses. The obtained molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions show pronounced asymmetries perpendicular to the direction of the molec......We present combined experimental and theoretical results on strong-field ionization of oriented carbonyl sulfide molecules by circularly polarized laser pulses. The obtained molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions show pronounced asymmetries perpendicular to the direction......-dimensionally-oriented polar molecules, in particular asymmetries in the emission direction of the photoelectrons. In the following article [Phys. Rev. A 83, 023406 (2011)] the focus is to understand strong-field ionization from three-dimensionally-oriented asymmetric top molecules, in particular the suppression of electron...

  10. Species level identification of coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. from buffalo using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and cydB real-time quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizauro, Lucas J L; de Almeida, Camila C; Soltes, Glenn A; Slavic, Durda; Rossi-Junior, Oswaldo D; de Ávila, Fernando A; Zafalon, Luiz F; MacInnes, Janet I

    2017-05-01

    Incorrect identification of Staphylococcus spp. can have serious clinical and zoonotic repercussions. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to determine if matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and/or cydB real- time quantitative PCR (qPCR) could be used to accurately identify coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. (CoNS) obtained from buffalo milk and milking environment samples. Seventy-five of 84 CoNS isolates could be identified to the species level (score value >1.99) using MALDI-TOF MS. However, as determined by cytochrome d ubiquinol oxidase subunit II (cydB) qPCR and by 16S RNA and cydB gene sequencing, 10S. agnetis strains were wrongly identified as S. hyicus by MALDI-TOF MS. In addition, 9 isolates identified by MALDI-TOF only to the genus level (score values between 1.70 and 1.99) could be identified to species by cydB qPCR. Our findings suggest that MALDI-TOF MS is a reliable method for rapid identification of S. chromogenes and S. epidermidis (species of interest both in human and veterinary medicine) and may be able to correctly identify other Staphylococcus spp. However, at present not all Staphylococcus spp. found in buffalo milk can be accurately identified by MALDI-TOF MS and for these organisms, the cydB qPCR developed in the current study may provide a reliable alternative method for rapid identification of CoNS species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of collisionally pumped optical-field-ionization soft X-ray lasers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mocek, Tomáš; Sebban, S.; Bettaibi, I.; Upcraft, L. M.; Balcou, P.; Breger, P.; Zeitoun, P.; Le Pape, S.; Ros, D.; Klisnick, A.; Carillon, A.; Jamelot, G.; Rus, Bedřich; Wyart, J. F.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 78, - (2004), s. 939-944 ISSN 0946-2171 Grant - others:HPRI(XE) 199900086 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : X-ray lasers * optical-field-ionization * collisional excitation Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.215, year: 2004

  12. Ionization techniques in capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry: principles, design, and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommerson, Paul; Khan, Amjad M; de Jong, Gerhardus J; Somsen, Govert W

    2011-01-01

    A major step forward in the development and application of capillary electrophoresis (CE) was its coupling to ESI-MS, first reported in 1987. More than two decades later, ESI has remained the principal ionization technique in CE-MS, but a number of other ionization techniques have also been implemented. In this review the state-of-the-art in the employment of soft ionization techniques for CE-MS is presented. First the fundamentals and general challenges of hyphenating conventional CE and microchip electrophoresis with MS are outlined. After elaborating on the characteristics and role of ESI, emphasis is put on alternative ionization techniques including sonic spray ionization (SSI), thermospray ionization (TSI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) and continuous-flow fast atom bombardment (CF-FAB). The principle of each ionization technique is outlined and the experimental set-ups of the CE-MS couplings are described. The strengths and limitations of each ionization technique with respect to CE-MS are discussed and the applicability of the various systems is illustrated by a number of typical examples. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Associative ionization of two laser excited Na atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meijer, H.A.J.

    1988-01-01

    An investigation into the associative ionization of two sodium atoms excited by polarized laser beams is described. It was possible to excite the Na atoms in a velocity-selective way by exploiting the Doppler effect. The excitation of Na to the 3 2 P 3/2 , F=3 level is discussed on the basis of so-called saturation curves. Experiments with seven different combinations of polarization of the two exciting laser beams are described and the results discussed. 86 refs.; 53 figs.; 6 tabs

  14. Control of Strobilurin Fungicides in Wheat Using Direct Analysis in Real Time Accurate Time-of-Flight and Desorption Electrospray Ionization Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurek, J.; Vaclavik, L.; Hooijerink, H.; Lacina, O.; Poustka, J.; Sharman, M.; Caldow, M.; Nielen, M.W.F.; Hajslova, J.

    2008-01-01

    Ambient mass spectrometry has been used for the analysis of strobilurin residues in wheat. The use of this novel, challenging technique, employing a direct analysis in a real time (DART) ion-source coupled with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF MS) and a desorption electrospray ionization

  15. Hole dynamics and spin currents after ionization in strong circularly polarized laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, Ingo; Smirnova, Olga

    2014-01-01

    We apply the time-dependent analytical R-matrix theory to develop a movie of hole motion in a Kr atom upon ionization by strong circularly polarized field. We find rich hole dynamics, ranging from rotation to swinging motion. The motion of the hole depends on the final energy and the spin of the photoelectron and can be controlled by the laser frequency and intensity. Crucially, hole rotation is a purely non-adiabatic effect, completely missing in the framework of quasistatic (adiabatic) tunneling theories. We explore the possibility to use hole rotation as a clock for measuring ionization time. Analyzing the relationship between the relative phases in different ionization channels we show that in the case of short-range electron-core interaction the hole is always initially aligned along the instantaneous direction of the laser field, signifying zero delays in ionization. Finally, we show that strong-field ionization in circular fields creates spin currents (i.e. different flow of spin-up and spin-down density in space) in the ions. This phenomenon is intimately related to the production of spin-polarized electrons in strong laser fields Barth and Smirnova (2013 Phys. Rev. A 88 013401). We demonstrate that rich spin dynamics of electrons and holes produced during strong field ionization can occur in typical experimental conditions and does not require relativistic intensities or strong magnetic fields. (paper)

  16. Ambient Pressure Laser Desorption—Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Fast and Reliable Detection of Explosives, Drugs, and Their Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Reiss

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Fast and reliable information is crucial for first responders to draw correct conclusions at crime scenes. An ambient pressure laser desorption (APLD mass spectrometer is introduced for this scenario, which enables detecting substances on surfaces without sample pretreatment. It is especially useful for substances with low vapor pressure and thermolabile ones. The APLD allows for the separation of desorption and ionization into two steps and, therefore, both can be optimized separately. Within this work, an improved version of the developed system is shown that achieves limits of detection (LOD down to 500 pg while remaining fast and flexible. Furthermore, realistic scenarios are applied to prove the usability of this system in real-world issues. For this purpose, post-blast residues of a bomb from the Second World War were analyzed, and the presence of PETN was proven without sample pretreatment. In addition, the analyzable substance range could be expanded by various drugs and drug precursors. Thus, the presented instrumentation can be utilized for an increased number of forensically important compound classes without changing the setup. Drug precursors revealed a LOD ranging from 6 to 100 ng. Drugs such as cocaine hydrochloride, heroin, (3,4-methylendioxy-methamphetamine hydrochloride (MDMA hydrochloride, and others exhibit a LOD between 10 to 200 ng.

  17. Simultaneous atomization and ionization of large organic molecules using femtosecond laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata-Nishimura, Mizuki; Tokanai, Fuyuki; Matsuo, Yukari; Kobayashi, Tohru; Kawai, Jun; Kumagai, Hiroshi; Midorikawa, Katsumi; Tanihata, Isao; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide

    2002-01-01

    We have experimentally demonstrated femtosecond laser ablation for simultaneous atomization and ionization (fs-SAI) of organic molecules on solid substrates. We find most of the constituent atoms of organic molecules are atomized and ionized non-resonantly by femtosecond laser ablation. This observation is in contrast with that for the photoionization of cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by femtosecond laser in the gas phase where little fragmentation has been observed. Crucial contribution of ablation plasma of solid sample to fs-SAI process is suggested. The ratio of natural abundance of stable isotopes contained in sample molecules is well reproduced, which confirms fs-SAI can be applied to the quantitative chemical analysis of isotope-labeled large organic molecules

  18. Development of a rapid and simplified protocol for direct bacterial identification from positive blood cultures by using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of- flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljev, Aleksandra; Bergh, Kåre

    2015-11-06

    Bloodstream infections represent serious conditions carrying a high mortality and morbidity rate. Rapid identification of microorganisms and prompt institution of adequate antimicrobial therapy is of utmost importance for a successful outcome. Aiming at the development of a rapid, simplified and efficient protocol, we developed and compared two in-house preparatory methods for the direct identification of bacteria from positive blood culture flasks (BD BACTEC FX system) by using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS). Both methods employed saponin and distilled water for erythrocyte lysis. In method A the cellular pellet was overlaid with formic acid on the MALDI TOF target plate for protein extraction, whereas in method B the pellet was exposed to formic acid followed by acetonitrile prior to placing on the target plate. Best results were obtained by method A. Direct identification was achieved for 81.9 % and 65.8 % (50.3 % and 26.2 % with scores >2.0) of organisms by method A and method B, respectively. Overall concordance with final identification was 100 % to genus and 97.9 % to species level. By applying a lower cut-off score value, the levels of identification obtained by method A and method B increased to 89.3 % and 77.8 % of organisms (81.9 % and 65.8 % identified with scores >1.7), respectively. Using the lowered score criteria, concordance with final results was obtained for 99.3 % of genus and 96.6 % of species identifications. The reliability of results, rapid performance (approximately 25 min) and applicability of in-house method A have contributed to implementation of this robust and cost-effective method in our laboratory.

  19. Analysis of the differentially expressed low molecular weight peptides in human serum via an N-terminal isotope labeling technique combining nano-liquid chromatography/matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Jiapeng; Zhu, Dong; Wu, Duojiao; Zhu, Tongyu; Zhao, Ningwei; Guo, Yinlong

    2012-11-15

    Peptidomics analysis of human serum is challenging due to the low abundance of serum peptides and interference from the complex matrix. This study analyzed the differentially expressed (DE) low molecular weight peptides in human serum integrating a DMPITC-based N-terminal isotope labeling technique with nano-liquid chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (nano-LC/MALDI-MS). The workflow introduced a [d(6)]-4,6-dimethoxypyrimidine-2-isothiocyanate (DMPITC)-labeled mixture of aliquots from test samples as the internal standard. The spiked [d(0)]-DMPITC-labeled samples were separated by nano-LC then spotted on the MALDI target. Both quantitative and qualitative studies for serum peptides were achieved based on the isotope-labeled peaks. The DMPITC labeling technique combined with nano-LC/MALDI-MS not only minimized the errors in peptide quantitation, but also allowed convenient recognition of the labeled peptides due to the 6 Da mass difference. The data showed that the entire research procedure as well as the subsequent data analysis method were effective, reproducible, and sensitive for the analysis of DE serum peptides. This study successfully established a research model for DE serum peptides using DMPITC-based N-terminal isotope labeling and nano-LC/MALDI-MS. Application of the DMPITC-based N-terminal labeling technique is expected to provide a promising tool for the investigation of peptides in vivo, especially for the analysis of DE peptides under different biological conditions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. A new scheme for strain typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus on the basis of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry by using machine learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsin-Yao; Lee, Tzong-Yi; Tseng, Yi-Ju; Liu, Tsui-Ping; Huang, Kai-Yao; Chang, Yung-Ta; Chen, Chun-Hsien; Lu, Jang-Jih

    2018-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), one of the most important clinical pathogens, conducts an increasing number of morbidity and mortality in the world. Rapid and accurate strain typing of bacteria would facilitate epidemiological investigation and infection control in near real time. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry is a rapid and cost-effective tool for presumptive strain typing. To develop robust method for strain typing based on MALDI-TOF spectrum, machine learning (ML) is a promising algorithm for the construction of predictive model. In this study, a strategy of building templates of specific types was used to facilitate generating predictive models of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain typing through various ML methods. The strain types of the isolates were determined through multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and the predictive accuracy of the models were compared. ST5, ST59, and ST239 were the major MLST types, and ST45 was the minor type. For binary classification, the AUC values of various ML methods ranged from 0.76 to 0.99 for ST5, ST59, and ST239 types. In multiclass classification, the predictive accuracy of all generated models was more than 0.83. This study has demonstrated that ML methods can serve as a cost-effective and promising tool that provides preliminary strain typing information about major MRSA lineages on the basis of MALDI-TOF spectra.

  1. Few-Photon Multiple Ionization of Ne and Ar by Strong Free-Electron-Laser Pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshammer, R.; Jiang, Y. H.; Rudenko, A.; Ergler, Th.; Schroeter, C. D.; Luedemann, S.; Zrost, K.; Dorn, A.; Ferger, T.; Kuehnel, K. U.; Ullrich, J.; Foucar, L.; Titze, J.; Jahnke, T.; Schoeffler, M.; Doerner, R.; Fischer, D.; Weber, T.; Zouros, T. J. M.; Duesterer, S.

    2007-01-01

    Few-photon multiple ionization of Ne and Ar atoms by strong vacuum ultraviolet laser pulses from the free-electron laser at Hamburg was investigated differentially with the Heidelberg reaction microscope. The light-intensity dependence of Ne 2+ production reveals the dominance of nonsequential two-photon double ionization at intensities of I 12 W/cm 2 and significant contributions of three-photon ionization as I increases. Ne 2+ recoil-ion-momentum distributions suggest that two electrons absorbing ''instantaneously'' two photons are ejected most likely into opposite hemispheres with similar energies

  2. Using solvent-free sample preparation to promote protonation of poly(ethylene oxide)s with labile end-groups in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarin, Michael; Phan, Trang N T; Charles, Laurence

    2008-12-01

    Protonation is usually required to observe intact ions during matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) of polymers containing fragile end-groups while cation adduction induces chain-end degradation. These polymers, generally obtained via living free radical polymerization techniques, are terminated with a functionality in which a bond is prone to homolytic cleavage, as required by the polymerization process. A solvent-free sample preparation method was used here to avoid salt contaminant from the solvent traditionally used in the dried-droplet MALDI procedure. Solvent-based and solvent-free sample preparations were compared for a series of three poly(ethylene oxide) polymers functionalized with a labile end-group in a nitroxide-mediated polymerization reaction, using 2,4,6-trihydroxyacetophenone (THAP) as the matrix without any added salt. Intact oligomer ions could only be produced as protonated molecules in solvent-free MALDI while sodium adducts of degraded polymers were formed from the dried-droplet samples. Although MALDI analysis was performed at the laser threshold, fragmentation of protonated macromolecules was still observed to occur. However, in contrast to sodiated molecules, dissociation of protonated oligomers does not involve the labile C--ON bond of the end-group. As the macromolecule size increased, protonation appeared to be less efficient and sodium adduction became the dominant ionization process, although no sodium salt was added in the preparation. Formation of sodiated degraded macromolecules would be dictated by increasing cation affinity as the size of the oligomers increases and would reveal the presence of salts at trace levels in the MALDI samples.

  3. Infrared laser ablation atmospheric pressure photoionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaikkinen, Anu; Shrestha, Bindesh; Kauppila, Tiina J; Vertes, Akos; Kostiainen, Risto

    2012-02-07

    In this paper we introduce laser ablation atmospheric pressure photoionization (LAAPPI), a novel atmospheric pressure ion source for mass spectrometry. In LAAPPI the analytes are ablated from water-rich solid samples or from aqueous solutions with an infrared (IR) laser running at 2.94 μm wavelength. Approximately 12 mm above the sample surface, the ablation plume is intercepted with an orthogonal hot solvent (e.g., toluene or anisole) jet, which is generated by a heated nebulizer microchip and directed toward the mass spectrometer inlet. The ablated analytes are desolvated and ionized in the gas-phase by atmospheric pressure photoionization using a 10 eV vacuum ultraviolet krypton discharge lamp. The effect of operational parameters and spray solvent on the performance of LAAPPI is studied. LAAPPI offers ~300 μm lateral resolution comparable to, e.g., matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization. In addition to polar compounds, LAAPPI efficiently ionizes neutral and nonpolar compounds. The bioanalytical application of the method is demonstrated by the direct LAAPPI analysis of rat brain tissue sections and sour orange (Citrus aurantium) leaves. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  4. Pulsed-laser ablation of co-deposits on JT-60 graphite tile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakawa, Youichi; Watanabe, Daisuke; Shibahara, Takahiro; Sugiyama, Kazuyoshi; Tanabe, Tetsuo

    2007-01-01

    Pulsed laser ablation of the co-deposits on a JT-60 open-divertor tile using the fourth harmonic of a 20 ps-Nd: YAG laser has been investigated. With increasing the laser intensity, three regions, non-ablation region (NAR), weak-ablation region (WAR), and strong-ablation region (SAR) were distinguished. Transition from NAR to WAR and WAR to SAR occurred at the threshold laser intensity for laser ablation and that for strong ionization of carbon atoms, respectively. The ablation accompanied desorption of H 2 and C 2 H 2 , with minor contribution of other hydrocarbons, while production of H 2 O was small. In NAR and WAR the number of the hydrogen desorbed by the laser irradiation was less than that of hydrogen retained in the ablated volume, while in SAR it was much larger, owing to thermal desorption of hydrogen gas from the region surrounding the ablated volume. For the ablative removal of hydrogen isotopes, SAR is more desirable because of higher removal efficiency and less production of hydrocarbons

  5. Pulsed-laser ablation of co-deposits on JT-60 graphite tile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakawa, Youichi [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)]. E-mail: sakawa-y@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp; Watanabe, Daisuke [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Shibahara, Takahiro [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Sugiyama, Kazuyoshi [Interdisciplinary School of Engineering Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Tanabe, Tetsuo [Interdisciplinary School of Engineering Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2007-08-01

    Pulsed laser ablation of the co-deposits on a JT-60 open-divertor tile using the fourth harmonic of a 20 ps-Nd: YAG laser has been investigated. With increasing the laser intensity, three regions, non-ablation region (NAR), weak-ablation region (WAR), and strong-ablation region (SAR) were distinguished. Transition from NAR to WAR and WAR to SAR occurred at the threshold laser intensity for laser ablation and that for strong ionization of carbon atoms, respectively. The ablation accompanied desorption of H{sub 2} and C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, with minor contribution of other hydrocarbons, while production of H{sub 2}O was small. In NAR and WAR the number of the hydrogen desorbed by the laser irradiation was less than that of hydrogen retained in the ablated volume, while in SAR it was much larger, owing to thermal desorption of hydrogen gas from the region surrounding the ablated volume. For the ablative removal of hydrogen isotopes, SAR is more desirable because of higher removal efficiency and less production of hydrocarbons.

  6. Ribosomal subunit protein typing using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the identification and discrimination of Aspergillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Sayaka; Sato, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Reiko; Kusuya, Yoko; Takahashi, Hiroki; Yaguchi, Takashi

    2017-04-26

    Accurate identification of Aspergillus species is a very important subject. Mass spectral fingerprinting using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is generally employed for the rapid identification of fungal isolates. However, the results are based on simple mass spectral pattern-matching, with no peak assignment and no taxonomic input. We propose here a ribosomal subunit protein (RSP) typing technique using MALDI-TOF MS for the identification and discrimination of Aspergillus species. The results are concluded to be phylogenetic in that they reflect the molecular evolution of housekeeping RSPs. The amino acid sequences of RSPs of genome-sequenced strains of Aspergillus species were first verified and compared to compile a reliable biomarker list for the identification of Aspergillus species. In this process, we revealed that many amino acid sequences of RSPs (about 10-60%, depending on strain) registered in the public protein databases needed to be corrected or newly added. The verified RSPs were allocated to RSP types based on their mass. Peak assignments of RSPs of each sample strain as observed by MALDI-TOF MS were then performed to set RSP type profiles, which were then further processed by means of cluster analysis. The resulting dendrogram based on RSP types showed a relatively good concordance with the tree based on β-tubulin gene sequences. RSP typing was able to further discriminate the strains belonging to Aspergillus section Fumigati. The RSP typing method could be applied to identify Aspergillus species, even for species within section Fumigati. The discrimination power of RSP typing appears to be comparable to conventional β-tubulin gene analysis. This method would therefore be suitable for species identification and discrimination at the strain to species level. Because RSP typing can characterize the strains within section Fumigati, this method has potential as a powerful and reliable tool in

  7. Numerical study of laser-induced blast wave coupled with unsteady ionization processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogino, Y; Ohnishi, N; Sawada, K

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of the numerical simulation of laser-induced blast wave coupled with rate equations to clarify the unsteady property of ionization processes during pulse heating. From comparison with quasi-steady computations, the plasma region expands more widely, which is sustained by the inverse-bremsstrahlung since an ionization equilibrium does not establish at the front of the plasma region. The delayed relaxation leads to the rapid expansion of the driving plasma and enhances the energy conversion efficiency from a pulse heating laser to the blast wave

  8. Multiple-ion-beam time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrbacher, Andreas; Continetti, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    An innovative approach to increase the throughput of mass spectrometric analyses using a multiple-ion-beam mass spectrometer is described. Two sample spots were applied onto a laser desorption/ionization target and each spot was simultaneously irradiated by a beam of quadrupled Nd:YLF laser radiation (261.75 nm) to produce ions by laser-desorption ionization. Acceleration of the ions in an electric field created parallel ion beams that were focused by two parallel einzel lens systems. After a flight path of 2.34 m, the ions were detected with a microchannel plate-phosphor screen assembly coupled with a charge coupled device camera that showed two resolved ion beams. Time-of-flight mass spectra were also obtained with this detector. Experiments were performed using both metal atom cations (Ti + and Cr + ) produced by laser desorption/ionization and the molecular ions of two different proteins (myoglobin and lysozyme), created by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization using an excess of nicotinic acid as matrix

  9. Quantum mechanical theory of collisional ionization in the presence of intense laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellum, J. C.; George, T. F.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents a quantum mechanical formalism for treating ionizing collisions occurring in the presence of an intense laser field. Both the intense laser radiation and the internal electronic continuum states associated with the emitted electrons are rigorously taken into account by combining discretization techniques with expansions in terms of electronic-field representations for the quasi-molecule-plus-photon system. The procedure leads to a coupled-channel description of the heavy-particle dynamics which involves effective electronic-field potential surfaces and continua. It is suggested that laser-influenced ionizing collisions can be studied to verify the effects of intense laser radiation on inelastic collisional processes. Calculation procedures for electronic transition dipole matrix elements between discrete and continuum electronic states are outlined.

  10. Laser resonance ionization scheme development for tellurium and germanium at the dual Ti:Sa–Dye ISOLDE RILIS

    CERN Document Server

    Day Goodacre, T.; Fedosseev, V.N.; Forster, L.; Marsh, B.A.; Rossel, R.E.; Rothe, S.; Veinhard, M.

    2016-01-01

    The resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) is the principal ion source of the ISOLDE radioactive beam facility based at CERN. Using the method of in-source laser resonance ionization spectroscopy, a transition to a new autoionizing state of tellurium was discovered and applied as part of a three-step, three-resonance, photo-ionization scheme. In a second study, a three-step, two-resonance, photo-ionization scheme for germanium was developed and the ionization efficiency was measured at ISOLDE. This work increases the range of ISOLDE RILIS ionized beams to 31 elements. Details of the spectroscopy studies are described and the new ionization schemes are summarized.

  11. Laser resonance ionization scheme development for tellurium and germanium at the dual Ti:Sa–Dye ISOLDE RILIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day Goodacre, T., E-mail: thomas.day.goodacre@cern.ch [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Fedorov, D. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, 188350 Gatchina (Russian Federation); Fedosseev, V.N.; Forster, L.; Marsh, B.A. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Rossel, R.E. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg Universität, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Faculty of Design, Computer Science and Media, Hochschule RheinMain, Wiesbaden (Germany); Rothe, S.; Veinhard, M. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2016-09-11

    The resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) is the principal ion source of the ISOLDE radioactive beam facility based at CERN. Using the method of in-source laser resonance ionization spectroscopy, a transition to a new autoionizing state of tellurium was discovered and applied as part of a three-step, three-resonance, photo-ionization scheme. In a second study, a three-step, two-resonance, photo-ionization scheme for germanium was developed and the ionization efficiency was measured at ISOLDE. This work increases the range of ISOLDE RILIS ionized beams to 31 elements. Details of the spectroscopy studies are described and the new ionization schemes are summarized.

  12. Utility of imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) on an ion trap mass spectrometer in the analysis of drugs and metabolites in biological tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Dieter M; Garrett, Timothy J; Cantone, Joseph L; Diters, Richard W; Mitroka, James G; Prieto Conaway, Maria C; Adams, Stephen P; Yost, Richard A; Sanders, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The properties and potential liabilities of drug candidate are investigated in detailed ADME assays and in toxicity studies, where findings are placed in context of exposure to dosed drug and metabolites. The complex nature of biological samples may necessitate work-up procedures prior to high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric (HPLC-MS) analysis of endogenous or xenobiotic compounds. This concept can readily be applied to biological fluids such as blood or urine, but in localized samples such as organs and tissues potentially important spatial, thus anatomical, information is lost during sample preparation as the result of homogenization and extraction procedures. However, the localization of test article or spatial identification of metabolites may be critical to the understanding of the mechanism of target-organ toxicity and its relevance to clinical safety. Tissue imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) and ion trap mass spectrometry (MS) with higher order mass spectrometric scanning functions was utilized for localization of dosed drug or metabolite in tissue. Laser capture microscopy (LCM) was used to obtain related samples from tissue for analyses by standard MALDI-MS and HPLC-MS. In a toxicology study, rats were administered with a high dosage of a prodrug for 2 weeks. Birefringent microcrystalline material (10-25 microm) was observed in histopathologic formalin-fixed tissue samples. Direct analysis by IMS provided the identity of material in the microcrystals as circulating active drug while maintaining spatial orientation. Complementary data from visual cross-polarized light microscopy as well as standard MALDI-MS and HPLC-MS experiments on LCM samples validated the qualitative results obtained by IMS. Furthermore, the HPLC-MS analysis on the LCM samples afforded a semi-quantitative assessment of the crystalline material in the tissue samples. IMS by MALDI ion trap MS proved sensitive

  13. Laser vaporization/ionization interface for coupling microscale separation techniques with mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, E.S.; Chang, Y.C.

    1999-06-29

    The present invention provides a laser-induced vaporization and ionization interface for directly coupling microscale separation processes to a mass spectrometer. Vaporization and ionization of the separated analytes are facilitated by the addition of a light-absorbing component to the separation buffer or solvent. 8 figs.

  14. Prediction of Streptococcus uberis clinical mastitis risk using Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Simon C; Bradley, Andrew J; Cooper, Selin; Davies, Peers L; Green, Martin J

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the risk of Streptococcus uberis clinical mastitis at cow level could be predicted from the historical presence of specific strains of S. uberis on dairy farms. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry was used to identify S. uberis isolates potentially capable of contagious transmission. Data were available from 10,652 cows from 52 English and Welsh dairy farms over a 14 month period, and 521 isolates of S. uberis from clinical mastitis cases were available for analysis. As well as the temporal herd history of clinical mastitis associated with particular S. uberis strains, other exposure variables included cow parity, stage of lactation, milk yield, and somatic cell count. Observations were structured longitudinally as repeated weekly measures through the study period for each cow. Data were analyzed in a Bayesian framework using multilevel logistic regression models. Similarity of mass spectral profiles between isolates of S. uberis from consecutive clinical cases of mastitis in herds was used to indicate potential for contagious phenotypic characteristics. Cross validation showed that new isolates with these characteristics could be identified with an accuracy of 90% based on bacterial protein mass spectral characteristics alone. The cow-level risk in any week of these S. uberis clinical mastitis cases increased with the presence of the same specific strains of S. uberis in other cows in the herd during the previous 2 weeks. The final statistical model indicated there would be a 2-3 fold increase in the risk of S. uberis clinical mastitis associated with particular strains if these occurred in the herd 1 and 2 weeks previously. The results suggest that specific strains of S. uberis may be involved with contagious transmission, and predictions based on their occurrence could be used as an early warning surveillance system to enhance the control of S. uberis mastitis. Copyright

  15. Calculation of laser induced impulse based on the laser supported detonation wave model with dissociation, ionization and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, Li; Mousen, Cheng; Xiaokang, Li

    2014-01-01

    In the laser intensity range that the laser supported detonation (LSD) wave can be maintained, dissociation, ionization and radiation take a substantial part of the incidence laser energy. There is little treatment on the phenomenon in the existing models, which brings obvious discrepancies between their predictions and the experiment results. Taking into account the impact of dissociation, ionization and radiation in the conservations of mass, momentum and energy, a modified LSD wave model is developed which fits the experimental data more effectively rather than the existing models. Taking into consideration the pressure decay of the normal and the radial rarefaction, the laser induced impulse that is delivered to the target surface is calculated in the air; and the dependencies of impulse performance on laser intensity, pulse width, ambient pressure and spot size are indicated. The results confirm that the dissociation is the pivotal factor of the appearance of the momentum coupling coefficient extremum. This study focuses on a more thorough understanding of LSD and the interaction between laser and matter

  16. Calculation of laser induced impulse based on the laser supported detonation wave model with dissociation, ionization and radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Li, E-mail: ligan0001@gmail.com; Mousen, Cheng; Xiaokang, Li [College of Aerospace Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha (China)

    2014-03-15

    In the laser intensity range that the laser supported detonation (LSD) wave can be maintained, dissociation, ionization and radiation take a substantial part of the incidence laser energy. There is little treatment on the phenomenon in the existing models, which brings obvious discrepancies between their predictions and the experiment results. Taking into account the impact of dissociation, ionization and radiation in the conservations of mass, momentum and energy, a modified LSD wave model is developed which fits the experimental data more effectively rather than the existing models. Taking into consideration the pressure decay of the normal and the radial rarefaction, the laser induced impulse that is delivered to the target surface is calculated in the air; and the dependencies of impulse performance on laser intensity, pulse width, ambient pressure and spot size are indicated. The results confirm that the dissociation is the pivotal factor of the appearance of the momentum coupling coefficient extremum. This study focuses on a more thorough understanding of LSD and the interaction between laser and matter.

  17. Nonsequential multiphoton double ionization of He in intense laser - a QED approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, S.; Mazumder, Mina; Chakrabarti, J.; Faisal, F.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    The non-sequential muItiphoton double ionization (NSDI) of He in intense laser field is not yet completely understood, more so for spin resolved currents. We are tempted to use QED and Feynman diagram to obtain spin polarized currents. Hartree-Fock (HF) ground-state correlated wave function of He atom is considered in circularly polarized laser. In QED approach one of the electrons is directly ionized by photon absorption while the second electron is shaken off due to the change in the internal potential of the atom. In He-atom the two ionized electrons can only be in the singlet spin state. Spin-symmetric and spin-flip transitions are eventually possible for the direct and the shake-off electrons. In an ensemble of (HF type) He-atoms the ionized Volkov electrons may acquire 4 pairs of momenta indicating e-e correlation in the final state. Coulomb correction is taken care off through the Sommerfeld factor

  18. Differentiation of Microbial Species and Strains in Coculture Biofilms by Multivariate Analysis of Laser Desorption Postionization Mass Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of Illinois at Chicago; Montana State University; Bhardwaj, Chhavi; Cui, Yang; Hofstetter, Theresa; Liu, Suet Yi; Bernstein, Hans C.; Carlson, Ross P.; Ahmed, Musahid; Hanley, Luke

    2013-04-01

    7.87 to 10.5 eV vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photon energies were used in laser desorption postionization mass spectrometry (LDPI-MS) to analyze biofilms comprised of binary cultures of interacting microorganisms. The effect of photon energy was examined using both tunable synchrotron and laser sources of VUV radiation. Principal components analysis (PCA) was applied to the MS data to differentiate species in Escherichia coli-Saccharomyces cerevisiae coculture biofilms. PCA of LDPI-MS also differentiated individual E. coli strains in a biofilm comprised of two interacting gene deletion strains, even though these strains differed from the wild type K-12 strain by no more than four gene deletions each out of approximately 2000 genes. PCA treatment of 7.87 eV LDPI-MS data separated the E. coli strains into three distinct groups two ?pure? groups and a mixed region. Furthermore, the ?pure? regions of the E. coli cocultures showed greater variance by PCA when analyzed by 7.87 eV photon energies than by 10.5 eV radiation. Comparison of the 7.87 and 10.5 eV data is consistent with the expectation that the lower photon energy selects a subset of low ionization energy analytes while 10.5 eV is more inclusive, detecting a wider range of analytes. These two VUV photon energies therefore give different spreads via PCA and their respective use in LDPI-MS constitute an additional experimental parameter to differentiate strains and species.

  19. Resonant-enhanced above-threshold ionization of atoms by XUV short laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, V.D. [Departamento de Fisica, FCEyN, Universidad de Buenos Aires, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: vladimir@df.uba.ar; Macri, P.A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR), Departamento de Fisica, FCEyN, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, CONICET, Funes 3350, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina); Arbo, D.G. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, UBA-CONICET, CC