WorldWideScience

Sample records for laser damage density

  1. Comparison of laser-induced surface damage density measurements with small and large beams: toward representativeness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamaignere, Laurent; Dupuy, Gabriel; Donval, Thierry; Grua, Pierre; Bercegol, Herve

    2011-01-01

    Pulsed laser damage density measurements obtained with diverse facilities are difficult to compare, due to the interplay of numerous parameters, such as beam area and pulse geometry, which, in operational large beam conditions, are very different from laboratory measurements. This discrepancy could have a significant impact; if so, one could not even pretend that laser damage density control is a real measurement process. In this paper, this concern is addressed. Tests with large beams of centimeter size on a high-power laser facility have beam performed according to a parametric study and are compared to small beam laboratory tests. It is shown that laser damage densities obtained with large and small beams are equal, within calculated error bars.

  2. Reduction of damage initiation density in fused silica optics via UV laser conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, John E.; Maricle, Stephen M.; Brusasco, Raymond M.; Penetrante, Bernardino M.

    2004-03-16

    The present invention provides a method for reducing the density of sites on the surface of fused silica optics that are prone to the initiation of laser-induced damage, resulting in optics which have far fewer catastrophic defects and are better capable of resisting optical deterioration upon exposure for a long period of time to a high-power laser beam having a wavelength of about 360 nm or less. The initiation of laser-induced damage is reduced by conditioning the optic at low fluences below levels that normally lead to catastrophic growth of damage. When the optic is then irradiated at its high fluence design limit, the concentration of catastrophic damage sites that form on the surface of the optic is greatly reduced.

  3. Laser-induced damage in optical materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ristau, Detlev

    2014-01-01

    Dedicated to users and developers of high-powered systems, Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials focuses on the research field of laser-induced damage and explores the significant and steady growth of applications for high-power lasers in the academic, industrial, and military arenas. Written by renowned experts in the field, this book concentrates on the major topics of laser-induced damage in optical materials and most specifically addresses research in laser damage that occurs in the bulk and on the surface or the coating of optical components. It considers key issues in the field of hi

  4. NIF small optics laser damage test specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheehan, L

    1999-01-01

    The Laser Damage Group is currently conducting tests on small optics samples supplied for initial evaluation of potential NIF suppliers. This document is meant to define the specification of laser-induced damage for small optics and the test methods used to collect the data. A rating system which will be applied for vendor selection is presented

  5. Laser induced damage threshold on metallic surfaces during laser cleaning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Labuschagne, K

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available laser paint removal. Laser induced damage on 316L stainless steel was studied, with the target subjected to single and multiple pulse irradiations using a Q-switched Nd:YAG, with fluences between 0.15 and 11.8 J/cm2. Several different damage morphologies...

  6. Small Optics Laser Damage Test Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Justin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-10-19

    This specification defines the requirements and procedure for laser damage testing of coatings and bare surfaces designated for small optics in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL).

  7. Pulsed laser damage to optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, S.W.; Gillies, G.T.; Magnuson, D.W.; Pagano, T.S.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes some observations of pulsed laser damage to optical fibers with emphasis on a damage mode characterized as a linear fracture along the outer core of a fiber. Damage threshold data are presented which illustrate the effects of the focusing lens, end-surface preparation, and type of fiber. An explanation based on fiber-beam misalignment is given and is illustrated by a simple experiment and ray trace

  8. Ultraviolet damage resistance of laser coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newnam, B.E.; Gill, D.H.

    1978-01-01

    The damage resistance of several thin-film materials used in ultraviolet laser optics was measured at 266 and 355 nm. The coatings included single, quarterwave (QW) layers of NaF, LaF 3 , MgF 2 , ThO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , HfO 2 , ZrO 2 , Y 2 O 3 and SiO 2 , plus multilayer reflectors composed of some of these materials. The substrates were uv-grade fused silica. Single-shot thresholds were obtained with 22 ns and 27 ns (FWHM) pulses at 266 and 355 nm, respectively. One of the samples had previously been tested using 20-ps pulses, providing a pulsewidth comparison. At 266 nm the coating with the highest damage threshold was a QW layer of NaF at 10.8 J/cm 2 (450 MW/cm 2 ), whereas for a maximum reflector of Al 2 O 3 /NaF the value was 3.6 J/cm 2 (154 MW/cm 2 ), and the threshold of the maximum reflector was 12.2 J/cm 2 (470 MW/cm 2 ). The results were analyzed to determine correlations with standing-wave electric fields and linear and two-photon absorption. Scaling relationships for wavelength, refractive index and atomic density, and pulsewidth were found

  9. Thin film femtosecond laser damage competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Christopher J.; Ristau, Detlev; Turowski, Marcus; Blaschke, Holger

    2009-10-01

    In order to determine the current status of thin film laser resistance within the private, academic, and government sectors, a damage competition was started at the 2008 Boulder Damage Symposium. This damage competition allows a direct comparison of the current state of the art of high laser resistance coatings since they are tested using the same damage test setup and the same protocol. In 2009 a high reflector coating was selected at a wavelength of 786 nm at normal incidence at a pulse length of 180 femtoseconds. A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity so only a summary of the results are presented here. In addition to the laser resistance results, details of deposition processes, coating materials and layer count, and spectral results will also be shared.

  10. Detection of laser damage by Raman microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauchet, P.M.; Campbell, I.H.; Adar, F.

    1988-01-01

    The authors demonstrate that Raman miroscopy is a sensitive and quantitative tool to detect and characterize laser-induced damage in solids. After damage is induced with single or multiple high power laser pulses, a Raman microprobe maps the surface of the sample with one micron spatial resolution. By performing accurate measurements of the Stokes line, the authors have been able to measure stress, strain and crystallinity in various samples which had been exposed to high intensity pulses. These results are compared to those obtained using conventional tools such as Nomarski microscopy. Major advantages of Raman microscopy include sensitivity to subtle structural modifications and the fact that it gives quantitative measurements

  11. Laser-Induced Damage with Femtosecond Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafka, Kyle R. P.

    The strong electric fields of focused femtosecond laser pulses lead to non-equilibrium dynamics in materials, which, beyond a threshold intensity, causes laser-induced damage (LID). Such a strongly non-linear and non-perturbative process renders important LID observables like fluence and intensity thresholds and damage morphology (crater) extremely difficult to predict quantitatively. However, femtosecond LID carries a high degree of precision, which has been exploited in various micro/nano-machining and surface engineering applications, such as human eye surgery and super-hydrophobic surfaces. This dissertation presents an array of experimental studies which have measured the damage behavior of various materials under femtosecond irradiation. Precision experiments were performed to produce extreme spatio-temporal confinement of the femtosecond laser-solid damage interaction on monocrystalline Cu, which made possible the first successful direct-benchmarking of LID simulation with realistic damage craters. A technique was developed to produce laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) in a single pulse (typically a multi-pulse phenomenon), and was used to perform a pump-probe study which revealed asynchronous LIPSS formation on copper. Combined with 1-D calculations, this new experimental result suggests more drastic electron heating than expected. Few-cycle pulses were used to study the LID performance and morphology of commercial ultra-broadband optics, which had not been systematically studied before. With extensive surface analysis, various morphologies were observed, including LIPSS, swelling (blisters), simple craters, and even ring-shaped structures, which varied depending on the coating design, number of pulses, and air/vacuum test environment. Mechanisms leading to these morphologies are discussed, many of which are ultrafast in nature. The applied damage behavior of multi-layer dielectric mirrors was measured and compared between long pulse (150 ps

  12. Regrowth zones in laser annealed radiation damaged diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamieson, D.N.; Prawer, S.; Dooley, S.P.; Kalish, R.; Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa

    1993-01-01

    Focused laser annealing of ion implanted diamond with a 15 μm diameter laser spot produces as variety of effects that depend on the power density of the laser. Channeling Contrast Microscopy (CCM) provides a relatively straight forward, rapid, method to analyse the annealed regions of the diamond to characterize the effects. In order of increasing laser power density, effects that are observed include: regrowth of the end of range damage of the ion implantation, formation of a buried graphitic layer and complete graphitization of the surface of the diamond down to the bottom of the original damage layer. Information provided by CCM leads to an understanding the causes of these effects and provides insight into the carbon phase diagram in the neighbourhood of the graphite to diamond phase transition. Analysis of the effects of laser annealing by CCM are complicated by the swelling of the diamond lattice caused by the original ion implantation, compaction following regrowth and the effect of the analysis beam irradiation itself. 12 refs., 5 figs

  13. Laser fusion and high energy density science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Ryosuke

    2005-01-01

    High-power laser technology is now opening a variety of new fields of science and technology using laser-produced plasmas. The laser plasma is now recognized as one of the important tools for the investigation and application of matter under extreme conditions, which is called high energy density science. This chapter shows a variety of applications of laser-produced plasmas as high energy density science. One of the more attractive industrial and science applications is the generation of intense pulse-radiation sources, such as the generation of electro-magnetic waves in the ranges of EUV (Extreme Ultra Violet) to gamma rays and laser acceleration of charged particles. The laser plasma is used as an energy converter in this regime. The fundamental science applications of high energy density physics are shown by introducing laboratory astrophysics, the equation of state of high pressure matter, including warm dense matter and nuclear science. Other applications are also presented, such as femto-second laser propulsion and light guiding. Finally, a new systematization is proposed to explore the possibility of the high energy density plasma application, which is called high energy plasma photonics''. This is also exploration of the boundary regions between laser technology and beam optics based on plasma physics. (author)

  14. Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    conference organization. As many of you have experienced, the printed proceedings of these Laser Damage Symposia in our personal libraries are...responsible person or agency. I look forward to our continued relationship. Finally, let me thank the organizers of this Symposium. They have done a...the professional operation of the Symposium and Ms. Susie Rivera and Ms. Sheila Aaker for their part in the preparation and publication of the

  15. Modeling laser damage to the retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Clifton D.

    This dissertation presents recent progress in several areas related to modeling laser damage to the retina. In Chapter 3, we consider the consequences of using the Arrhenius damage model to predict the damage thresholds of multiple pulse, or repetitive pulse, exposures. We have identified a few fundamental trends associated with the multiple pulse damage predictions made by the Arrhenius model. These trends differ from what would be expected by non-thermal mechanisms, and could prove useful in differentiating thermal and non-thermal damage. Chapter 4 presents a new rate equation damage model hypothesized to describe photochemical damage. The model adds a temperature dependent term to the simple rate equation implied by the principle of reciprocity that is characteristic of photochemical damage thresholds. A recent damage threshold study, conducted in-vitro, has revealed a very sharp transition between thermal and photochemical damage threshold trends. For the wavelength used in the experiment (413 nm), thermal damage thresholds were observed at exposure levels that were twice the expected photochemical damage threshold, based on the traditional understanding of photochemical damage. Our model accounts for this observed trend by introducing a temperature dependent quenching, or repair, rate to the photochemical damage rate. For long exposures that give a very small temperature rise, the model reduces to the principle of reciprocity. Near the transition region between thermal and photochemical damage, the model allows the damage threshold to be set by thermal mechanisms, even at exposure above the reciprocity exposure. In Chapter 5, we describe a retina damage model that includes thermal lensing in the eye by coupling beam propagation and heat transfer models together. Thermal lensing has recently been suggested as a contributing factor to the large increase in measured retinal damage thresholds in the near infrared. The transmission of the vitreous decreases

  16. DNA damages induced by Ar F laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapel, C.; Rose, S.; Chevrier, L.; Cordier, E.; Courant, D. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Radiobiologie et de Radiopathologie

    2006-07-01

    The photo ablation process used in corneal refractive surgery by the Argon Fluoride (Ar F) laser emitting in ultraviolet C at 193 nm, exposes viable cells round the irradiated zone to sub ablative doses (< 400 joules.m -2). Despite that DNA absorption is higher at 193 nm than 254 nm, cytotoxicity of 193 nm laser radiation is lower than radiation emitted by 254 nm UV-C lamps. In situ, DNA could be protected of laser radiation by cellular components. Consequently, some authors consider that this radiation does not induce genotoxic effect whereas others suspect it to be mutagenic. These lasers are used for fifteen years but many questions remain concerning the long term effects on adjacent cells to irradiated area. The purpose of this study is to describe the effect of 193 nm laser radiation on DNA of stromal keratocytes which are responsible of the corneal structure. The 193 nm laser irradiation induces directly DNA breakage in keratocytes as it has been shown by the comet assay under alkaline conditions. Two hours post irradiation, damages caused by the highest exposure (150 J.m-2) are not repaired as it has been measured with the Olive Tail Moment (product of tail length and tail DNA content). They give partly evidence of induction of an apoptotic process in cells where DNA could be too damaged. In order to characterize specifically double strand breaks, a comparative analysis by immunofluorescence of the H2 Ax histone phosphorylation (H2 Ax) has been performed on irradiated keratocytes and unirradiated keratocytes. Results show a dose dependent increase of the number of H2 Ax positive cells. Consequences of unrepaired DNA lesions could be observed by the generation of micronuclei in cells. Results show again an increase of micronuclei in laser irradiated cells. Chromosomal aberrations have been pointed out by cytogenetic methods 30 mn after irradiation. These aberrations are dose dependent (from 10 to 150 J.m-2). The number of breakage decreases in the long run

  17. Analysis of Boling's laser-damage morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparks, M.S.

    1980-01-01

    Boling observed that his total-internal-reflection laser-damage sites in glass closely resembled the scattering cross section for small (ka << 1), perfectly conducting sphere and suggested that a very small plasma formed and grew to a larger size, still with ka << 1 satisfied. Even with ka = 1, for which the cross section is different from that observed, the scattered field still is too small to explain the damage in terms of constructive interference between the incident- and scattered fields. Furthermore, the characteristic shape of the scattering cross section that matches the damage patterns is for circular polarization or unpolarized light, in contrast to the experimental plane polarizations. Extending the ideas to include effects of the scattered field outside the glass, such as plasma formation, and to include the correct field (with interesting polarization, including longitudinal circuler polarization at certain distances from the surface) incident on the sphere may explain the experiments. Additional experiments and analysis would be useful to determine if the extended model is valid and to investigate related materials improvement, nondestructive testing, and the relation between laser damage, plasma initiation, and failure under stress, all initiated at small isolated spots

  18. Theoretical research of multi-pulses laser induced damage in dielectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Jin; Liu Zhichao; Chen Songlin; Ma Ping

    2013-01-01

    The pulse width is different, the mechanism of the laser-matter interaction is different. Damage results from plasma formation and ablation forτ≤10 ps and from heat depositing and conventional melting for τ>100 ps. Two theoretical models of transparent dielectrics irradiated by multi-pulses laser are respectively developed based on the above-mentioned different mechanism. One is the dielectric breakdown model based on electron density evolution equation for femtosecond multi-pluses laser, the other is the dielectric heat-damage model based on Fourier's heat exchange equation for nanosecond multi-pluses laser. Using these models, the effects of laser parameters and material parameters on the laser-induced damage threshold of dielectrics are analyzed. The analysis results show that different parameters have different influence on the damage threshold. The effect of parameters on the multi -pulses damage threshold is not entirely the same to the single-pulse damage threshold. The multi-pulses damage mechanism of dielectrics is discussed in detail, considering the effect of different parameters. The discussion provides more information for understanding its damage process and more knowledge to improve its damage thresholds. And the relationship between damage threshold and pulse number is illustrated, it is in good agreement with experimental results. The illustration can help us to predict the multi-pulses damage threshold and the lifetime of optical components. (authors)

  19. Combined advanced finishing and UV laser conditioning process for producing damage resistant optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menapace, Joseph A.; Peterson, John E.; Penetrante, Bernardino M.; Miller, Philip E.; Parham, Thomas G.; Nichols, Michael A.

    2005-07-26

    A method for reducing the density of sites on the surface of fused silica optics that are prone to the initiation of laser-induced damage, resulting in optics which have far fewer catastrophic defects, and are better capable of resisting optical deterioration upon exposure to a high-power laser beam.

  20. Laser damage studies on MgF2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protopapa, Maria Lucia; De Tomasi, Ferdinando; Perrone, Maria Rita; Piegari, Angela; Masetti, Enrico; Ristau, Detlev; Quesnel, Etienne; Duparre, Angela

    2001-01-01

    The results of laser damage studies performed at 248 nm (KrF excimer laser) on MgF 2 thin films deposited by different techniques (electron-beam evaporation, thermal boat evaporation, and ion-beam sputtering) on fused silica and CaF 2 substrates are presented. We find that the films deposited on CaF 2 substrates by the electron-beam evaporation technique present the highest damage threshold fluence (9 J/cm2). The photoacoustic (PA) beam deflection technique was employed, in addition to microscopical inspection, to determine laser damage fluences. We confirm, by scanning electron microscopy analysis of the damaged spots, the capability of the PA technique to provide information on the mechanisms leading to damage. The dependence of both laser damage fluence and damage morphology on the film deposition technique, as well as on the film substrate, is discussed

  1. Density of oxidation-induced stacking faults in damaged silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, F.G.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De; Verwey, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    A model for the relation between density and length of oxidation-induced stacking faults on damaged silicon surfaces is proposed, based on interactions of stacking faults with dislocations and neighboring stacking faults. The model agrees with experiments.

  2. Laser-induced damage to thin film dielectric coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, T.W.

    1980-01-01

    The laser-induced damage thresholds of dielectric thin film coatings have been found to be more than an order of magnitude lower than the bulk material damage thresholds. Prior damage studies have been inconclusive in determining the damage mechanism which is operative in thin films. A program was conducted in which thin film damage thresholds were measured as a function of laser wavelength (1.06 μm, 0.53 μm, 0.35 μm and 0.26 μm), laser pulse length (5 and 15 nanoseconds), film materials and film thickness. The large matrix of data was compared to predictions given by avalanche ionization, multiphoton ionization and impurity theories of laser damage. When Mie absorption cross-sections and the exact thermal equations were included into the impurity theory excellent agreement with the data was found. The avalanche and multiphoton damage theories could not account for most parametric variations in the data. For example, the damage thresholds for most films increased as the film thickness decreased and only the impurity theory could account for this behavior. Other observed changes in damage threshold with changes in laser wavelength, pulse length and film material could only be adequately explained by the impurity theory. The conclusion which results from this study is that laser damage in thin film coatings results from absorbing impurities included during the deposition process

  3. Laser damage testing at LLL: an overview and an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milam, D.; Lowdermilk, W.H.; Wirtenson, G.R.

    1978-01-01

    Damage thresholds for single layers of common coating materials such as MgF 2 , SiO 2 , ThF 4 , Al 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 , and TiO 2 are given. Laser-induced damage of coated and uncoated optically polished surfaces has been studied at LLL for laser pulsewidths between 0.17 ns and 3 ns. Two 1064 nm Nd lasers generated this range of pulsewidths. This report contains a review of the results

  4. Non-destructive evaluation of UV pulse laser-induced damage performance of fused silica optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Wang, Fengrui; Liu, Hongjie; Geng, Feng; Jiang, Xiaodong; Sun, Laixi; Ye, Xin; Li, Qingzhi; Wu, Weidong; Zheng, Wanguo; Sun, Dunlu

    2017-11-24

    The surface laser damage performance of fused silica optics is related to the distribution of surface defects. In this study, we used chemical etching assisted by ultrasound and magnetorheological finishing to modify defect distribution in a fused silica surface, resulting in fused silica samples with different laser damage performance. Non-destructive test methods such as UV laser-induced fluorescence imaging and photo-thermal deflection were used to characterize the surface defects that contribute to the absorption of UV laser radiation. Our results indicate that the two methods can quantitatively distinguish differences in the distribution of absorptive defects in fused silica samples subjected to different post-processing steps. The percentage of fluorescence defects and the weak absorption coefficient were strongly related to the damage threshold and damage density of fused silica optics, as confirmed by the correlation curves built from statistical analysis of experimental data. The results show that non-destructive evaluation methods such as laser-induced fluorescence and photo-thermal absorption can be effectively applied to estimate the damage performance of fused silica optics at 351 nm pulse laser radiation. This indirect evaluation method is effective for laser damage performance assessment of fused silica optics prior to utilization.

  5. Laser-induced damage of materials in bulk, thin-film, and liquid forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natoli, Jean-Yves; Gallais, Laurent; Akhouayri, Hassan; Amra, Claude

    2002-01-01

    Accurate threshold curves of laser-induced damage (7-ns single shot at 1.064 μm) are measured in bulk and at the surfaces of optical components such as substrates, thin films, multilayers, and liquids. The shapes and the slopes of the curves are related to the spot size and to the densities of the nanodefects that are responsible for damage. First, these densities are reported for bulk substrates. In surfaces and films the recorded extrinsic and intrinsic threshold curves permit the discrimination of the effects of microdefects and nanodefects. In all cases the density of nanocenters is extracted by means of a phenomenological approach. Then we test liquids and mixtures of liquids with controlled defect densities. The results emphasize the agreement between measurement and prediction and demonstrate the validity of the presence of different kinds of nanocenter as the precursors of laser damage

  6. Numerical analysis of laser ablation and damage in glass with multiple picosecond laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingying; Eppelt, Urs; Russ, Simone; Hartmann, Claudia; Siebert, Christof; Zhu, Jianqiang; Schulz, Wolfgang

    2013-04-08

    This study presents a novel numerical model for laser ablation and laser damage in glass including beam propagation and nonlinear absorption of multiple incident ultrashort laser pulses. The laser ablation and damage in the glass cutting process with a picosecond pulsed laser was studied. The numerical results were in good agreement with our experimental observations, thereby revealing the damage mechanism induced by laser ablation. Beam propagation effects such as interference, diffraction and refraction, play a major role in the evolution of the crater structure and the damage region. There are three different damage regions, a thin layer and two different kinds of spikes. Moreover, the electronic damage mechanism was verified and distinguished from heat modification using the experimental results with different pulse spatial overlaps.

  7. Influence of intensity fluctuations on laser damage in optical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koldunov, M.F.; Manenkov, A.A.; Pocotilo, I.L.

    1995-01-01

    A study is reported of the influence of temporal fluctuations of laser radiation on the development of thermal explosion of absorbing inclusions and on the statistical properties of the laser induced damage in transparent dielectrics. A fluctuation time scale in which the fluctuations affect the thermal explosion of inclusions is established. An analysis is made of the conditions ensuring control of temporal fluctuations of laser radiation so as to eliminate their influence on the experimental statistical relationships governing laser damage associated with the distribution of absorbing inclusions in the bulk and on the surface of a sample

  8. The role of defects in laser damage of multilayer coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, M.R.; Chow, R.

    1993-01-01

    Laser induced damage to optical coatings is generally a localized phenomenon associated with coating defects. The most common of the defect types are the well-known nodule defect. This paper reviews the use of experiments and modeling to understand the formation of these defects and their interaction with laser light. Of particular interest are efforts to identify which defects are most susceptible to laser damage. Also discussed are possible methods for stabilizing these defects (laser conditioning) or preventing their initiation (source stabilization, spatter particle trapping)

  9. Simulating the Effects of Laser Damage to the Retina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    This Phase II SBIR brought vision and signal processing researchers from the Air Force, academia and the public sector together to develop a visualization tool for modeling laser damage to the retina...

  10. Validity of reciprocity rule on mouse skin thermal damage due to CO2 laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvin, P.; Dehghanpour, H. R.; Moghadam, M. S.; Daneshafrooz, V.

    2013-07-01

    CO2 laser (10.6 μm) is a well-known infrared coherent light source as a tool in surgery. At this wavelength there is a high absorbance coefficient (860 cm-1), because of vibration mode resonance of H2O molecules. Therefore, the majority of the irradiation energy is absorbed in the tissue and the temperature of the tissue rises as a function of power density and laser exposure duration. In this work, the tissue damage caused by CO2 laser (1-10 W, ˜40-400 W cm-2, 0.1-6 s) was measured using 30 mouse skin samples. Skin damage assessment was based on measurements of the depth of cut, mean diameter of the crater and the carbonized layer. The results show that tissue damage as assessed above parameters increased with laser fluence and saturated at 1000 J cm-2. Moreover, the damage effect due to high power density at short duration was not equivalent to that with low power density at longer irradiation time even though the energy delivered was identical. These results indicate the lack of validity of reciprocity (Bunsen-Roscoe) rule for the thermal damage.

  11. Picosecond laser damage of fused silica at 355 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Xiangjie; Liu Hongjie; Wang Fang; Zhang Zhen; An Xinyou; Huang Jin; Jiang Xiaodong; Wu Weidong; Ren Weiyi

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the initiated damage threshold, the damage morphology and the subsequent damage growth on fused silica's input-surface and exit-surface under picosecond laser irradiation at 355 nm. Defects induced fluorescence on surface of the optical component is observed. The results demonstrate a significant dependence of the initiated damage on pulse duration and surface defects, and that of the damage growth on self-focusing, sub-surface defects. The damage-threshold is 3.98 J/cm 2 of input surface and 2.91 J/cm 2 of exit surface. The damage morphologies are quite different between input surface and exit surface. Slow growth behavior appears for the diameter of exit-surface and linear growth one for the depth of exit-surface in the lateral side of damage site with the increase of shot number. Defects have changed obviously compared with nanosecond laser damage in the damage area. Several main reasons such as electric intensification and self-focusing for the observed initiated damage and damage growth behavior are discussed. (authors)

  12. Techniques for preventing damage to high power laser components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stowers, I.F.; Patton, H.G.; Jones, W.A.; Wentworth, D.E.

    1977-09-01

    Techniques for preventing damage to components of the LASL Shiva high power laser system were briefly presented. Optical element damage in the disk amplifier from the combined fluence of the primary laser beam and the Xenon flash lamps that pump the cavity was discussed. Assembly and cleaning techniques were described which have improved optical element life by minimizing particulate and optically absorbing film contamination on assembled amplifier structures. A Class-100 vertical flaw clean room used for assembly and inspection of laser components was also described. The life of a disk amplifier was extended from less than 50 shots to 500 shots through application of these assembly and cleaning techniques

  13. Improving the bulk laser-damage resistance of KDP by baking and pulsed-laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, J.E.; Stokowski, S.E.; Milam, D.; Rainer, F.

    1981-01-01

    Isolated bulk damage centers are produced when KDP crystals are irradiated by 1-ns 1064-nm pulses. We have tested about 100 samples and find the median threshold to be 7 J/cm 2 when the samples are irradiated only once at each test volume (1-on-1 tests). The median threshold increased to 11 J/cm 2 when the test volumes were first subjected to subthreshold laser irradiation (n-on-1 tests). We baked several crystals at temperatures from 110 to 165 0 C and remeasured their thresholds. Baking increased thresholds in some crystals, but did not change thresholds of others. The median threshold of baked crystals ranged from 8 to 10 J/cm 2 depending on the baking temperature. In crystals that had been baked, subthreshold irradiation produced a large change in the bulk damage threshold, and reduced the volume density of damage centers relative to the density observed in unbaked crystals. The data are summarized in the table

  14. Laser produced plasma density measurement by Mach-Zehnder interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaziri, A.; Kohanzadeh, Y.; Mosavi, R.K.

    1976-06-01

    This report describes an optical interferometric method of measuring the refractive index of the laser-produced plasma, giving estimates of its electron density. The plasma is produced by the interaction of a high power pulsed CO 2 laser beam with a solid target in the vacuum. The time varying plasma has a transient electron density. This transient electron density gives rise to a changing plasma refractive index. A Mach-Zehnder ruby laser interferometer is used to measure this refractive index change

  15. Modeling of laser damage initiated by surface contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feit, M.D.; Rubenchik, A.M.; Faux, D.R.; Riddle, R.A.; Shapiro, A.; Eder, D.C.; Penetrante, B.M.; Milam, D.; Genin, F.Y.; Kozlowski, M.R.

    1996-11-01

    The authors are engaged in a comprehensive effort to understand and model the initiation and growth of laser damage initiated by surface contaminants. This includes, for example, the initial absorption by the contaminant, heating and plasma generation, pressure and thermal loading of the transparent substrate, and subsequent shockwave propagation, 'splashing' of molten material and possible spallation, optical propagation and scattering, and treatment of material fracture. The integration use of large radiation hydrodynamics codes, optical propagation codes and material strength codes enables a comprehensive view of the damage process The following picture of surface contaminant initiated laser damage is emerging from our simulations

  16. Four-harmonic database of laser-damage testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainer, F.; Atherton, L.J.; Campbell, J.H.; DeMarco, F.P.; Kozlowski, M.R.; Morgan, A.J.; Staggs, M.C.

    1991-01-01

    In the past two years we have made a sixfold expansion of our laser-damage database. Our primary emphasis has been with the fundamental 1064-nm irradiation generated by Nd:YAG. Because of the increasing need for high-threshold optics designed to operate in the UV, we include data covering the harmonics at 532, 355 and 266 nm. This is further supplemented with results of excimer-laser damage testing at 351 and 248 nm. The presented summaries cover over either years of complete data plus selected results spanning over a fourteen-year history of damage testing at LLNL using thirteen different laser systems. Besides the range of wavelengths, our parameter space covers pulse durations from < 1 ns to 84 ns, repetition rates from single shots to 6000 Hz, and irradiation modes from single shots to a variety of multiple-shot laser-conditioning techniques

  17. Robust optimization of the laser induced damage threshold of dielectric mirrors for high power lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorel, Marine; Lanternier, Thomas; Lavastre, Éric; Bonod, Nicolas; Bousquet, Bruno; Néauport, Jérôme

    2018-04-30

    We report on a numerical optimization of the laser induced damage threshold of multi-dielectric high reflection mirrors in the sub-picosecond regime. We highlight the interplay between the electric field distribution, refractive index and intrinsic laser induced damage threshold of the materials on the overall laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) of the multilayer. We describe an optimization method of the multilayer that minimizes the field enhancement in high refractive index materials while preserving a near perfect reflectivity. This method yields a significant improvement of the damage resistance since a maximum increase of 40% can be achieved on the overall LIDT of the multilayer.

  18. Influence of microstructure on laser damage threshold of IBS coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolz, C.J.; Genin, F.Y.; Kozlowski, M.R.; Long, D.; Lalazari, R.; Wu, Z.L.; Kuo, P.K.

    1996-01-01

    Ion-beam sputtering (IBS) coatings were developed for the laser gyro industry to meet significantly different requirements than those of fusion lasers. Laser gyro mirrors are small ( 26 J/cm 2 at 1,064 nm with 3-ns pulses). As part of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) coating development effort, IBS coatings are being studied to explore the possible benefits of this technology to NIF optics. As an initial step to achieving the NIF size and damage threshold requirements, the coating process is being scaled to uniformly coat a 20 x 40 cm 2 area with reduced spectral, reflected wavefront, and laser damage threshold requirements. Here, multilayer coatings deposited by ion-beam sputtering with amorphous layers were found to have lower damage thresholds at 1,064 nm than similar coatings with crystalline layers. Interestingly, at higher fluences the damage was less severe for the amorphous coatings. The magnitude of the difference in damage thresholds between the two different microstructures was strongly influenced by the size of the tested area. To better understand the microstructure effects, single layers of HfO 2 with different microstructures were studied using transmission electron microscopy, ellipsometry, and a photothermal deflection technique. Since the laser damage initiated at defects, the influence of thermal diffusivity on thermal gradients in nodular defects is also presented

  19. Damage analysis of fiber reinforced resin matrix composites irradiated by CW laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Hong; Hu Kaiwei; Mu Jingyang; Bai Shuxin

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the damage modes of the carbon fiber and the glass fiber reinforced epoxy or bakelite resin matrix composites irradiated by CW laser under different power densities were analyzed, and the changes of the microstructure and the tensile strength of the composites were also researched. When the resin matrix composites were radiated at a power density more than 0.1 kW/cm 2 , the matrix would be decomposed and the tensile properties of the radiated samples were lost over 30% while the carbon fiber hardly damaged and the glass fiber melted. When the power density of the laser was raised to 1 kW/cm 2 , the matrix burned violently and the carbon fiber cloth began to split with some carbon fiber being fractured, therefore, the fracture strength of the radiated sample lost over 80%. The higher the power density of radiation was, the more serious the damage of the sample was. It was also found that the difference of the matrixes had little effect on the damage extent of the composites. The influence of the radiation density on the temperature of the radiated surface of the carbon/resin composite was numerically calculated by ANSYS finite element software and the calculation results coincided with the damage mode of the radiated composites. (authors)

  20. Study of the laser-induced damage of reflective components in the sub-picosecond regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sozet, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, laser-induced damage phenomenon of reflective components is investigated in the sub-picosecond regime. These components, made of stacks of dielectric materials, are widely used in powerful laser facilities such as PETAL laser. PETAL laser has been built at the CEA-CESTA in France to deliver multi-kJ/500 fs pulses at 1053 nm and reach a power higher than 6 PW. For this kind of laser systems, reflective components are commonly used instead of optics operating in transmission to limit the accumulation of non-linear phase along the beam propagation due to the high intensities. Optical components irradiated by the highest power densities are the pulse compression gratings, transport mirrors and the focusing parabola, located at the end of the laser chain. Nowadays, laser-induced damage is the main factor that limits the overall performances of powerful laser systems. This manuscript presents three study axes to better understand and control damage phenomenon. The first one concerns the conception of reflective optics for the peta-watt applications. The design of new structures has been investigated to reach high diffraction efficiencies in the case of pulse compression gratings and a high reflectivity in the case of mirrors, while reducing the Electric-field enhancement which is one of the causes of the laser-induced damage. The second axis deals with the development of a precise damage metrology with new testing tools which brings new perspectives and a new viewpoint for the assessment of the laser resistance of optical components. Finally, the third axis concerns the study the damage growth after several irradiations in the sub-picosecond regime. The evolution of the damage area during growth sequences is observed and compared to numerical simulations. It enables to improve the understanding in the growth phenomenon. In the end, these studies will allow to develop predictive models of the laser-induced damage and new tools for the conception of

  1. Impact of environmental contamination on laser induced damage of silica optics in Laser MegaJoule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bien-Aime, K.

    2009-11-01

    Laser induced damage impact of molecular contamination on fused polished silica samples in a context of high power laser fusion facility, such as Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) has been studied. One of the possible causes of laser induced degradation of optical component is the adsorption of molecular or particular contamination on optical surfaces. In the peculiar case of LMJ, laser irradiation conditions are a fluence of 10 J/cm 2 , a wavelength of 351 nm, a pulse duration of 3 ns for a single shot/days frequency. Critical compounds have been identified thanks to environmental measurements, analysis of material outgassing, and identification of surface contamination in the critical environments. Experiments of controlled contamination involving these compounds have been conducted in order to understand and model mechanisms of laser damage. Various hypotheses are proposed to explain the damage mechanism. (author)

  2. Laser-induced damage study of polymer PMMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, N.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents the results of bulk laser-induced damage measurements in polymer PMMA at 532 nm and 1064 nm for nanosecond laser pulses. The damage thresholds were measured for focused spot sizes ranging over two orders of magnitude. In this work, self-focusing effects were verified to be absent by measurements of breakdown thresholds using both linearly and circularly polarized light. At both 1064 nm and 532 nm, the dependence of the breakdown field, E B , on the spot size, ω, was empirically determined to be E B = C/√ω, where C depends on the wavelength. The extracted value for C(λ) at 1064 nm is larger by a factor of 5 than at 532 nm. Possible reasons for this strong dispersion and mechanism for laser-induced damage in polymer materials will be discussed

  3. Atmospheric effects on laser eye safety and damage to instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberman, Arkadi; Kopeika, Natan S.

    2017-10-01

    Electro-optical sensors as well as unprotected human eyes are extremely sensitive to laser radiation and can be permanently damaged from direct or reflected beams. Laser detector/eye hazard depends on the interaction between the laser beam and the media in which it traverses. The environmental conditions including terrain features, atmospheric particulate and water content, and turbulence, may alter the laser's effect on the detector/eye. It is possible to estimate the performance of an electro-optical system as long as the atmospheric propagation of the laser beam can be adequately modeled. More recent experiments and modeling of atmospheric optics phenomena such as inner scale effect, aperture averaging, atmospheric attenuation in NIR-SWIR, and Cn2 modeling justify an update of previous eye/detector safety modeling. In the present work, the influence of the atmospheric channel on laser safety for personnel and instrumentation is shown on the basis of theoretical and experimental data of laser irradiance statistics for different atmospheric conditions. A method for evaluating the probability of damage and hazard distances associated with the use of laser systems in a turbulent atmosphere operating in the visible and NIR-SWIR portions of the electromagnetic spectrum is presented. It can be used as a performance prediction model for directed energy engagement of ground-based or air-based systems.

  4. Damage Detection by Laser Vibration Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Daniela Birdeanu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The technique based on the vibration analysis by scanning laser Doppler vibrometer is one of the most promising, allowing to extract also small defect and to directly correlate it to local dynamic stiffness and structural integrity. In fact, the measurement capabilities of vibrometers, such as sensitivity, accuracy and reduced intrusively, allow having a very powerful instrument in diagnostic.

  5. Low-power-laser therapy used in tendon damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strupinska, Ewa

    1996-03-01

    The following paper covers evaluation of low-power laser therapy results in chronic Achilles tendon damage and external Epicondylalia (tennis elbow). Fifty patients with Achilles damage (18 women and 32 men, age average 30, 24 plus or minus 10, 39 years) and fifty patients having external Epicondyalgiae (31 women and 19 men, age average 44, 36 plus or minus 10, 88 years) have been examined. The patients were irradiated by semiconductor infrared laser wavelength 904 nm separately or together with helium-neon laser wavelength 632.8 nm. The results of therapy have been based on the patient's interviews and examinations of patients as well as on the Laitinen pain questionnaire. The results prove analgesic effects in usage of low- power laser radiation therapy can be obtained.

  6. Theory of high density laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, G.B.; Nuckolls, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    A basic laser fusion scheme is presented. Some of its subtleties are described and the theoretical difficulties which now appear to be the major obstacles are considered. Interpretations of some recent laser compression experiments are given. (U.S.)

  7. Temporal scaling law and intrinsic characteristic of laser induced damage on the dielectric coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Jiang, Youen; Wang, Chao; Wei, Hui; Zhang, Peng; Fan, Wei; Li, Xuechun

    2018-01-01

    High power laser is essential for optical manipulation and fabrication. When the laser travels through optics and to the target finally, irreversible damage on the dielectric coating is always accompanied without knowing the law and principle of laser induced damage. Here, an experimental study of laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) Fth of the dielectric coating under different pulse duration t is implemented. We observe that the temporal scaling law of square pulse for high-reflectivity (HR) coating and anti-reflectivity (AR) coating are Fth = 9.53t0.47 and Fth = 6.43t0.28 at 1064 nm, respectively. Moreover, the intrinsic LIDT of HR coating is 62.7 J/cm2 where the coating is just 100% damaged by gradually increasing the fluence densities of a 5ns-duration pulse, which is much higher than the actual LIDT of 18.6 J/cm2. Thus, a more robust and reliable high power laser system will be a reality, even working at very high fluence, if measures are taken to improve the actual LIDT to a considerable level near the intrinsic value.

  8. Laser damage in optical components: metrology, statistical and photo-induced analysis of precursor centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallais, L.

    2002-11-01

    This thesis deals with laser damage phenomena for nanosecond pulses, in optical components such as glasses, dielectric and metallic thin films. Firstly, a work is done on the laser damage metrology, in order to obtain accurate and reliable measurement of laser-induced damage probabilities, with a rigorous control of test parameters. Then, with the use of a specific model, we find densities of laser damage precursors in the case of bulk glasses (few tens by (100μm) 3 ) and in the case of glass surfaces (one precursor by μm 3 ). Our analysis is associated to morphology studies by Atomic Force Microscope to discuss about precursor nature and damage process. Influence of wavelength (from 355 to 1064 nm) and cumulated shots is also studied. Simulations are performed to study initiation mechanisms on these inclusions. This work gives an estimation of complex index and size of the precursor, which permits to discuss about possible detection by non-destructive tools. (author)

  9. The neuroprotective effect of hyperbaric oxygen treatment on laser-induced retinal damage in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevskia-Dai, Victoria; Belokopytov, Mark; Dubinsky, Galina; Nachum, Gal; Avni, Isaac; Belkin, Michael; Rosner, Mordechai

    2005-04-01

    Retinal damage induced by mechanical trauma, ischemia or laser photocoagulation increases considerably by secondary degeneration processes. The spread of damage may be ameliorated by neuroprotection that is aimed at reducing the extent of the secondary degeneration and promote healing processes. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment consists of inspiration of oxygen at higher than one absolute atmospheric pressure. Improved neural function was observed in patients with acute brain trauma or ischemia treated with HBO. This study was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) on laser induced retinal damage in a rat model. Standard argon laser lesions were created in 25 pigmented rats divided into three groups: Ten rats were treated immediately after the irradiation with HBO three times during the first 24 hr followed by 12 consecutive daily treatments. Five rats received a shorter treatment regimen of 10 consecutive HBO treatments. The control group (10 rats) underwent the laser damage with no additional treatment. The retinal lesions were evaluated 20 days after the injury. All outcome measures were improved by the longer HBO treatment (Ptreatment was less effective, showing an increase only in nuclei density at the central area of lesion (Pretinal damage in a rat model. In the range of HBO exposures studied, longer exposure provides more neuroprotection. These results encourage further evaluation of the potential therapeutic use of hyperbaric oxygen in diseases and injuries of the retina.

  10. Interface characteristics of peeling-off damages of laser coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Yun, E-mail: coating@siom.ac.cn; Yi, Kui; Guohang, Hu; Shao, Jianda

    2014-01-30

    Coating stacks of HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} and Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} were separately prepared by electron beam evaporation and dual ion beam sputtering. Damage characteristics at the interlayer interfaces were analyzed after irradiation of the coatings by a 1064 nm laser. The cross-sectional morphologies of damage spots indicated that peeling-off damages always occurred at the interface where the low refractive index material (SiO{sub 2}) was deposited on the high refractive index material (HfO{sub 2} or Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}). The effects of interface microstructure and components on peeling-off damages were also discussed. The microstructure of the interface was not a major factor that influenced peeling-off damages. Incomplete oxides (SiO{sub x}) and Na, K, Li ions accumulated near the interface and caused the formation of micro-defects layers with nano-sized thicknesses. Micro-defects layers maybe reduced adhesion of different interfaces and formed plasmas by absorbing laser energy. Finally stripping damages happened from micro-defects layers during irradiation by a 1064 nm laser.

  11. Laser Induced Damage of Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate (KDP Optical Crystal Machined by Water Dissolution Ultra-Precision Polishing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchuan Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Laser induced damage threshold (LIDT is an important optical indicator for nonlinear Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate (KDP crystal used in high power laser systems. In this study, KDP optical crystals are initially machined with single point diamond turning (SPDT, followed by water dissolution ultra-precision polishing (WDUP and then tested with 355 nm nanosecond pulsed-lasers. Power spectral density (PSD analysis shows that WDUP process eliminates the laser-detrimental spatial frequencies band of micro-waviness on SPDT machined surface and consequently decreases its modulation effect on the laser beams. The laser test results show that LIDT of WDUP machined crystal improves and its stability has a significant increase by 72.1% compared with that of SPDT. Moreover, a subsequent ultrasonic assisted solvent cleaning process is suggested to have a positive effect on the laser performance of machined KDP crystal. Damage crater investigation indicates that the damage morphologies exhibit highly thermal explosion features of melted cores and brittle fractures of periphery material, which can be described with the classic thermal explosion model. The comparison result demonstrates that damage mechanisms for SPDT and WDUP machined crystal are the same and WDUP process reveals the real bulk laser resistance of KDP optical crystal by removing the micro-waviness and subsurface damage on SPDT machined surface. This improvement of WDUP method makes the LIDT more accurate and will be beneficial to the laser performance of KDP crystal.

  12. Laser-based structural sensing and surface damage detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldur, Burcu

    Damage due to age or accumulated damage from hazards on existing structures poses a worldwide problem. In order to evaluate the current status of aging, deteriorating and damaged structures, it is vital to accurately assess the present conditions. It is possible to capture the in situ condition of structures by using laser scanners that create dense three-dimensional point clouds. This research investigates the use of high resolution three-dimensional terrestrial laser scanners with image capturing abilities as tools to capture geometric range data of complex scenes for structural engineering applications. Laser scanning technology is continuously improving, with commonly available scanners now capturing over 1,000,000 texture-mapped points per second with an accuracy of ~2 mm. However, automatically extracting meaningful information from point clouds remains a challenge, and the current state-of-the-art requires significant user interaction. The first objective of this research is to use widely accepted point cloud processing steps such as registration, feature extraction, segmentation, surface fitting and object detection to divide laser scanner data into meaningful object clusters and then apply several damage detection methods to these clusters. This required establishing a process for extracting important information from raw laser-scanned data sets such as the location, orientation and size of objects in a scanned region, and location of damaged regions on a structure. For this purpose, first a methodology for processing range data to identify objects in a scene is presented and then, once the objects from model library are correctly detected and fitted into the captured point cloud, these fitted objects are compared with the as-is point cloud of the investigated object to locate defects on the structure. The algorithms are demonstrated on synthetic scenes and validated on range data collected from test specimens and test-bed bridges. The second objective of

  13. Capabilities of laser technology for manufacturing diagnostic peptide matrices with maximal density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, O I; Shcherbakov, E M; Sobol' , E N [Institute on Laser and Information Technologies of the Russian Academy of Sciencies, Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation); Nesterov-Müller, A [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Microstructure Technology (Germany)

    2016-02-28

    The process of manufacturing a matrix-gel biochip is modelled by means of laser fused deposition of a layer of polymer microparticles, containing a sensitive peptide element, onto a glass substrate. The limits of acceptable ranges and the optimal values of laser parameters, at which the melting of the polymer coating occurs without damaging the sensitive elements of the biochip, are theoretically determined. The results of the experiments on laser fused deposition of a layer of microparticles having the size 3 – 4 μm confirm the conservation of the functions of the biological complexes at optimal irradiation regimes. The parameters of the laser impact affecting the possible minimal separation between the zones of laser fused deposition are investigated. The essential role of heat conductivity and thermoplasticity of the polymer in increasing the size of the melted droplet is demonstrated. Using the laser radiation with the wavelength 532 nm focused into a spot with the diameter 6 μm (the laser pulse duration being 10 ms) the laser fused deposition density of 110000 spots per 1 cm{sup 2} is achieved. The maximal estimated density of laser fused deposition for the studied system amounts to 250000 spots per 1 cm{sup 2}. (biophotonics)

  14. Collision density approach of radiation damage in a multispecies medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lux, I.; Pazsit, I.

    1981-01-01

    Space-energy dependent forward type equations for the collision densities of energetic atoms in a multispecies semi-infinite homogeneous medium are formulated. Introduction of the one-dimensional isotropic forward-backward model of Fermi for the scattering and application of the Laplace transform with respect to the lethargy variable will lead to a linear differential equation system with constant coefficients. This equation system is solved for an arbitrary number of species and relations between the collision densities and defect distributions of the different species are given in the Kinchin-Pease model of radiation damage. The case of an alien particle incident on a two-component target is examined in some detail and the sputtering spectra for the three species are given numerically. (author)

  15. Collision density approach of radiation damage in a multispecies medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lux, I; Pazsit, I [Koezponti Elelmiszeripari Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary)

    1981-01-01

    Space-energy dependent forward type equations for the collision densities of energetic atoms in a multispecies semi-infinite homogeneous medium are formulated. Introduction of the one-dimensional isotropic forward-backward model of Fermi for the scattering and application of the Laplace transform with respect to the lethargy variable will lead to a linear differential equation system with constant coefficients. This equation system is solved for an arbitrary number of species and relations between the collision densities and defect distributions of the different species are given in the Kinchin-Pease model of radiation damage. The case of an alien particle incident on a two-component target is examined in some detail and the sputtering spectra for the three species are given numerically.

  16. Stabilizing laser energy density on a target during pulsed laser deposition of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowden, Paul C.; Jia, Quanxi

    2016-05-31

    A process for stabilizing laser energy density on a target surface during pulsed laser deposition of thin films controls the focused laser spot on the target. The process involves imaging an image-aperture positioned in the beamline. This eliminates changes in the beam dimensions of the laser. A continuously variable attenuator located in between the output of the laser and the imaged image-aperture adjusts the energy to a desired level by running the laser in a "constant voltage" mode. The process provides reproducibility and controllability for deposition of electronic thin films by pulsed laser deposition.

  17. Infrared laser damage thresholds in corneal tissue phantoms using femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boretsky, Adam R.; Clary, Joseph E.; Noojin, Gary D.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.

    2018-02-01

    Ultrafast lasers have become a fixture in many biomedical, industrial, telecommunications, and defense applications in recent years. These sources are capable of generating extremely high peak power that can cause laser-induced tissue breakdown through the formation of a plasma upon exposure. Despite the increasing prevalence of such lasers, current safety standards (ANSI Z136.1-2014) do not include maximum permissible exposure (MPE) values for the cornea with pulse durations less than one nanosecond. This study was designed to measure damage thresholds in corneal tissue phantoms in the near-infrared and mid-infrared to identify the wavelength dependence of laser damage thresholds from 1200-2500 nm. A high-energy regenerative amplifier and optical parametric amplifier outputting 100 femtosecond pulses with pulse energies up to 2 mJ were used to perform exposures and determine damage thresholds in transparent collagen gel tissue phantoms. Three-dimensional imaging, primarily optical coherence tomography, was used to evaluate tissue phantoms following exposure to determine ablation characteristics at the surface and within the bulk material. The determination of laser damage thresholds in the near-IR and mid-IR for ultrafast lasers will help to guide safety standards and establish the appropriate MPE levels for exposure sensitive ocular tissue such as the cornea. These data will help promote the safe use of ultrafast lasers for a wide range of applications.

  18. Laser annealing heals radiation damage in avalanche photodiodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jin Gyu [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Anisimova, Elena; Higgins, Brendon L.; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Jennewein, Thomas [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Quantum Information Science Program, Toronto, ON (Canada); Makarov, Vadim [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2017-12-15

    Avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are a practical option for space-based quantum communications requiring single-photon detection. However, radiation damage to APDs significantly increases their dark count rates and thus reduces their useful lifetimes in orbit. We show that high-power laser annealing of irradiated APDs of three different models (Excelitas C30902SH, Excelitas SLiK, and Laser Components SAP500S2) heals the radiation damage and several APDs are restored to typical pre-radiation dark count rates. Of nine samples we test, six APDs were thermally annealed in a previous experiment as another solution to mitigate the radiation damage. Laser annealing reduces the dark count rates further in all samples with the maximum dark count rate reduction factor varying between 5.3 and 758 when operating at -80 C. This indicates that laser annealing is a more effective method than thermal annealing. The illumination power to reach these reduction factors ranges from 0.8 to 1.6 W. Other photon detection characteristics, such as photon detection efficiency, timing jitter, and afterpulsing probability, fluctuate but the overall performance of quantum communications should be largely unaffected by these variations. These results herald a promising method to extend the lifetime of a quantum satellite equipped with APDs. (orig.)

  19. Statistical analysis of absorptive laser damage in dielectric thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budgor, A.B.; Luria-Budgor, K.F.

    1978-01-01

    The Weibull distribution arises as an example of the theory of extreme events. It is commonly used to fit statistical data arising in the failure analysis of electrical components and in DC breakdown of materials. This distribution is employed to analyze time-to-damage and intensity-to-damage statistics obtained when irradiating thin film coated samples of SiO 2 , ZrO 2 , and Al 2 O 3 with tightly focused laser beams. The data used is furnished by Milam. The fit to the data is excellent; and least squared correlation coefficients greater than 0.9 are often obtained

  20. Multiple pulse nanosecond laser induced damage threshold on hybrid mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanda, Jan; Muresan, Mihai-George; Bilek, Vojtech; Sebek, Matej; Hanus, Martin; Lucianetti, Antonio; Rostohar, Danijela; Mocek, Tomas; Škoda, Václav

    2017-11-01

    So-called hybrid mirrors, consisting of broadband metallic surface coated with dielectric reflector designed for specific wavelength, becoming more important with progressing development of broadband mid-IR sources realized using parametric down conversion system. Multiple pulse nanosecond laser induced damage on such mirrors was tested by method s-on-1, where s stands for various numbers of pulses. We show difference in damage threshold between common protected silver mirrors and hybrid silver mirrors prepared by PVD technique and their variants prepared by IAD. Keywords: LIDT,

  1. Laser damage helps the eavesdropper in quantum cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugge, Audun Nystad; Sauge, Sebastien; Ghazali, Aina Mardhiyah M; Skaar, Johannes; Lydersen, Lars; Makarov, Vadim

    2014-02-21

    We propose a class of attacks on quantum key distribution (QKD) systems where an eavesdropper actively engineers new loopholes by using damaging laser illumination to permanently change properties of system components. This can turn a perfect QKD system into a completely insecure system. A proof-of-principle experiment performed on an avalanche photodiode-based detector shows that laser damage can be used to create loopholes. After ∼1  W illumination, the detectors' dark count rate reduces 2-5 times, permanently improving single-photon counting performance. After ∼1.5  W, the detectors switch permanently into the linear photodetection mode and become completely insecure for QKD applications.

  2. Acoustic damage detection in laser-cut CFRP composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Michiteru; Harada, Yoshihisa; Suzuki, Takayuki; Niino, Hiroyuki

    2012-03-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) composite material, which is expected to reduce the weight of automotive, airplane and etc., was cut by laser irradiation with a pulsed-CO2 laser (TRUMPF TFL5000; P=800W, 20kHz, τ=8μs, λ=10.6μm, V=1m/min) and single-mode fiber lasers (IPG YLR-300-SM; P=300W, λ=1.07μm, V=1m/min)(IPG YLR- 2000-SM; P=2kW, λ=1.07μm, V=7m/min). To detect thermal damage at the laser cutting of CFRP materials consisting of thermoset resin matrix and PAN or PITCH-based carbon fiber, the cut quality was observed by X-ray CT. The effect of laser cutting process on the mechanical strength for CFRP tested at the tensile test. Acoustic emission (AE) monitoring, high-speed camera and scanning electron microscopy were used for the failure process analysis. AE signals and fractographic features characteristic of each laser-cut CFRP were identified.

  3. Laser damage to production- and research-grade KDP crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainer, F.; Atherton, L.J.; DeYoreo, J.J.

    1992-10-01

    We present the results of laser damage measurements conducted on potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) and deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KD*P) crystals that were grown recently for both production and research applications by several sources. We have measured extrinsic damage thresholds that cover wavelengths from 1064 nm to 266 nm at pulse durations in the 3- to 10-ns regime. Many of the samples were extracted from boules grown specifically to yield large-area crystals, up to 32-cm square, for laser fusion applications. These crystals were the result of efforts, both by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and commercial crystal-growth companies, to yield high-threshold KDP. In particular we have established that such crystals can reliably survive fluences exceeding 15 j/cm 2 at 355 nm and 20 j/cm 2 at 1064 nm when irradiated with 3-ns pulses. We present details of how bulk and surface damage to these crystals scale with pulse duration and wavelength as well as of morphological effects due to laser conditioning

  4. Growth behavior of laser-induced damage on fused silica optics under UV, ns laser irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negres, Raluca A; Norton, Mary A; Cross, David A; Carr, Christopher W

    2010-09-13

    The growth behavior of laser-induced damage sites is affected by a large number of laser parameters as well as site morphology. Here we investigate the effects of pulse duration on the growth rate of damage sites located on the exit surface of fused silica optics. Results demonstrate a significant dependence of the growth parameters on laser pulse duration at 351 nm from 1 ns to 15 ns, including the observation of a dominant exponential versus linear, multiple-shot growth behavior for long and short pulses, respectively. These salient behaviors are tied to the damage morphology and suggest a shift in the fundamental growth mechanisms for pulses in the 1-5 ns range.

  5. Effect of interstitial low level laser stimulation in skin density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Seulki; Ha, Myungjin; Lee, Sangyeob; Yu, Sungkon; Park, Jihoon; Radfar, Edalat; Hwang, Dong Hyun; Lee, Han A.; Kim, Hansung; Jung, Byungjo

    2016-03-01

    As the interest in skin was increased, number of studies on skin care also have been increased. The reduction of skin density is one of the symptoms of skin aging. It reduces elasticity of skin and becomes the reason of wrinkle formation. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been suggested as one of the effective therapeutic methods for skin aging as in hasten to change skin density. This study presents the effect of a minimally invasive laser needle system (MILNS) (wavelength: 660nm, power: 20mW) in skin density. Rabbits were divided into three groups. Group 1 didn't receive any laser stimulation as a control group. Group 2 and 3 as test groups were exposed to MILNS with energy of 8J and 6J on rabbits' dorsal side once a week, respectively. Skin density of rabbits was measured every 12 hours by using an ultrasound skin scanner.

  6. Thermal coupling and damage mechanisms of laser radiation on selected materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwirzke, F.; Jenkins, W.F.; Schmidt, W.R.

    1983-01-01

    High power laser beams interact with targets by a variety of thermal, impulse, and electrical effects. Energy coupling is considerably enhanced once surface electrical breakdown occurs. The laser heated plasma then causes surface damage via thermal evaporation, ion sputtering, and unipolar arcing. While the first two are purely thermal and mechanical effects, the last one, unipolar arcing, is an electrical plasma-surface interaction process which leads to crater formation, usually called laser-pitting, a process which was often observed but not well understood. Unipolar arcing occurs when a plasma of sufficiently high electron temperature interacts with a surface. Without an external voltage applied, many electrical micro-arcs burn between the surface and the plasma, driven by local variations of the sheath potential with the surface acting as both the cathode and anode. Laser induced unipolar arcing represents the most damaging and non-uniform plasma-surface interaction process since the energy available in the plasma concentrates towards the cathode spots. This causes cratering of the materials surface. The ejection of material in the form of small jets from the craters leads to ripples in the critical plasma density contour. This in turn contributes to the onset of plasma instabilities, small scale magnetic field generation and laser beam filamentation. The ejection of a plasma jet from the unipolar arc crater also causes highly localized shock waves to propagate into the target, softening it in the process. Thus, local surface erosion by unipolar arcing is much more severe than for uniform energy deposition

  7. Precision atomic beam density characterization by diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxley, Paul; Wihbey, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We provide experimental and theoretical details of a simple technique to determine absolute line-of-sight integrated atomic beam densities based on resonant laser absorption. In our experiments, a thermal lithium beam is chopped on and off while the frequency of a laser crossing the beam at right angles is scanned slowly across the resonance transition. A lock-in amplifier detects the laser absorption signal at the chop frequency from which the atomic density is determined. The accuracy of our experimental method is confirmed using the related technique of wavelength modulation spectroscopy. For beams which absorb of order 1% of the incident laser light, our measurements allow the beam density to be determined to an accuracy better than 5% and with a precision of 3% on a time scale of order 1 s. Fractional absorptions of order 10 −5 are detectable on a one-minute time scale when we employ a double laser beam technique which limits laser intensity noise. For a lithium beam with a thickness of 9 mm, we have measured atomic densities as low as 5 × 10 4 atoms cm −3 . The simplicity of our technique and the details we provide should allow our method to be easily implemented in most atomic or molecular beam apparatuses.

  8. Precision atomic beam density characterization by diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxley, Paul; Wihbey, Joseph [Physics Department, The College of the Holy Cross, Worcester, Massachusetts 01610 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    We provide experimental and theoretical details of a simple technique to determine absolute line-of-sight integrated atomic beam densities based on resonant laser absorption. In our experiments, a thermal lithium beam is chopped on and off while the frequency of a laser crossing the beam at right angles is scanned slowly across the resonance transition. A lock-in amplifier detects the laser absorption signal at the chop frequency from which the atomic density is determined. The accuracy of our experimental method is confirmed using the related technique of wavelength modulation spectroscopy. For beams which absorb of order 1% of the incident laser light, our measurements allow the beam density to be determined to an accuracy better than 5% and with a precision of 3% on a time scale of order 1 s. Fractional absorptions of order 10{sup −5} are detectable on a one-minute time scale when we employ a double laser beam technique which limits laser intensity noise. For a lithium beam with a thickness of 9 mm, we have measured atomic densities as low as 5 × 10{sup 4} atoms cm{sup −3}. The simplicity of our technique and the details we provide should allow our method to be easily implemented in most atomic or molecular beam apparatuses.

  9. Precision atomic beam density characterization by diode laser absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, Paul; Wihbey, Joseph

    2016-09-01

    We provide experimental and theoretical details of a simple technique to determine absolute line-of-sight integrated atomic beam densities based on resonant laser absorption. In our experiments, a thermal lithium beam is chopped on and off while the frequency of a laser crossing the beam at right angles is scanned slowly across the resonance transition. A lock-in amplifier detects the laser absorption signal at the chop frequency from which the atomic density is determined. The accuracy of our experimental method is confirmed using the related technique of wavelength modulation spectroscopy. For beams which absorb of order 1% of the incident laser light, our measurements allow the beam density to be determined to an accuracy better than 5% and with a precision of 3% on a time scale of order 1 s. Fractional absorptions of order 10 -5 are detectable on a one-minute time scale when we employ a double laser beam technique which limits laser intensity noise. For a lithium beam with a thickness of 9 mm, we have measured atomic densities as low as 5 × 10 4 atoms cm -3 . The simplicity of our technique and the details we provide should allow our method to be easily implemented in most atomic or molecular beam apparatuses.

  10. Improved density measurement by FIR laser interferometer on EAST tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Jie; Jie, Yinxian; Liu, Haiqing; Wei, Xuechao; Wang, Zhengxing; Gao, Xiang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • In 2012, the water-cooling Mo wall was installed in EAST. • A schottky barrier diode detector is designed and used on EAST for the first time. • The three-channel far-infrared laser interferometer can measure the electron density. • The improved measurement and latest experiment results are reported. • The signal we get in this experiment campaign is much better than we got in 2010. -- Abstract: A three-channel far-infrared (FIR) hydrogen cyanide (HCN) laser interferometer is in operation since 2010 to measure the line averaged electron density on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST). The HCN laser signal is improved by means of a new schottky barrier diode (SBD) detector. The improved measurement and latest experiment results of the three-channel FIR laser interferometer on EAST tokamak are reported

  11. Tunable Laser Plasma Accelerator based on Longitudinal Density Tailoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; Lin, Chen; Panasenko, Dmitriy; Shiraishi, Satomi; Sokollik, Thomas; Benedetti, Carlo; Schroeder, Carl; Geddes, Cameron; Tilborg, Jeroen van; Osterhoff, Jens; Esarey, Eric; Toth, Csaba; Leemans, Wim

    2011-07-15

    Laser plasma accelerators have produced high-quality electron beams with GeV energies from cm-scale devices and are being investigated as hyperspectral fs light sources producing THz to {gamma}-ray radiation and as drivers for future high-energy colliders. These applications require a high degree of stability, beam quality and tunability. Here we report on a technique to inject electrons into the accelerating field of a laser-driven plasma wave and coupling of this injector to a lower-density, separately tunable plasma for further acceleration. The technique relies on a single laser pulse powering a plasma structure with a tailored longitudinal density profile, to produce beams that can be tuned in the range of 100-400 MeV with percent-level stability, using laser pulses of less than 40 TW. The resulting device is a simple stand-alone accelerator or the front end for a multistage higher-energy accelerator.

  12. Improved density measurement by FIR laser interferometer on EAST tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Jie, E-mail: shenjie1988@ipp.ac.cn; Jie, Yinxian; Liu, Haiqing; Wei, Xuechao; Wang, Zhengxing; Gao, Xiang

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • In 2012, the water-cooling Mo wall was installed in EAST. • A schottky barrier diode detector is designed and used on EAST for the first time. • The three-channel far-infrared laser interferometer can measure the electron density. • The improved measurement and latest experiment results are reported. • The signal we get in this experiment campaign is much better than we got in 2010. -- Abstract: A three-channel far-infrared (FIR) hydrogen cyanide (HCN) laser interferometer is in operation since 2010 to measure the line averaged electron density on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST). The HCN laser signal is improved by means of a new schottky barrier diode (SBD) detector. The improved measurement and latest experiment results of the three-channel FIR laser interferometer on EAST tokamak are reported.

  13. Laser induced damage and fracture in fused silica vacuum windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.H.; Hurst, P.A.; Heggins, D.D.; Steele, W.A.; Bumpas, S.E.

    1996-11-01

    Laser-induced damage, that initiates catastrophic fracture, has been observed in large (≤61 cm dia) fused silica lenses that also serve as vacuum barriers in Nova and Beamlet lasers. If the elastic stored energy in the lens is high enough, the lens will fracture into many pieces (implosion). Three parameters control the degree of fracture in the vacuum barrier window: elastic stored energy (tensile stress), ratio of window thickness to flaw depth, and secondary crack propagation. Fracture experiments were conducted on 15-cm dia fused silica windows that contain surface flaws caused by laser damage. Results, combined with window failure data on Beamlet and Nova, were used to develop design criteria for a ''fail-safe'' lens (that may catastrophically fracture but not implode). Specifically, the window must be made thick enough so that the peak tensile stress is less than 500 psi (3.4 MPa) and the thickness/critical flaw size is less than 6. The air leak through the window fracture and into the vacuum must be rapid enough to reduce the load on the window before secondary crack growth occurs. Finite element stress calculations of a window before and immediately following fracture into two pieces show that the elastic stored energy is redistributed if the fragments ''lock'' in place and thereby bridge the opening. In such cases, the peak stresses at the flaw site can increase, leading to further (i.e. secondary) crack growth

  14. Laser wakefield acceleration using wire produced double density ramps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Burza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach to implement and control electron injection into the accelerating phase of a laser wakefield accelerator is presented. It utilizes a wire, which is introduced into the flow of a supersonic gas jet creating shock waves and three regions of differing plasma electron density. If tailored appropriately, the laser plasma interaction takes place in three stages: Laser self-compression, electron injection, and acceleration in the second plasma wave period. Compared to self-injection by wave breaking of a nonlinear plasma wave in a constant density plasma, this scheme increases beam charge by up to 1 order of magnitude in the quasimonoenergetic regime. Electron acceleration in the second plasma wave period reduces electron beam divergence by ≈25%, and the localized injection at the density downramps results in spectra with less than a few percent relative spread.

  15. Laser line shape and spectral density of frequency noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, G.M.; Blin, S.; Besnard, P.; Tam, T.T.; Tetu, M.

    2005-01-01

    Published experimental results show that single-mode laser light is characterized in the microwave range by a frequency noise which essentially includes a white part and a 1/f (flicker) part. We theoretically show that the spectral density (the line shape) which is compatible with these results is a Voigt profile whose Lorentzian part or homogeneous component is linked to the white noise and the Gaussian part to the 1/f noise. We measure semiconductor laser line profiles and verify that they can be fit with Voigt functions. It is also verified that the width of the Lorentzian part varies like 1/P where P is the laser power while the width of the Gaussian part is more of a constant. Finally, we theoretically show from first principles that laser line shapes are also described by Voigt functions where the Lorentzian part is the laser Airy function and the Gaussian part originates from population noise

  16. Chromatin damage induced by fast neutrons or UV laser radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radu, L.; Constantinescu, B.; Gazdaru, D.; Mihailescu, I

    2002-07-01

    Chromatin samples from livers of Wistar rats were subjected to fast neutron irradiation in doses of 10-100 Gy or to a 248 nm excimer laser radiation, in doses of 0.5-3 MJ.m{sup -2}. The action of the radiation on chromatin was monitored by chromatin intrinsic fluorescence and fluorescence lifetimes (of bound ethidium bromide to chromatin) and by analysing fluorescence resonance energy transfer between dansyl chloride and acridine orange coupled to chromatin. For the mentioned doses of UV excimer laser radiation, the action on chromatin was more intense than in the case of fast neutrons. The same types of damage are produced by the two radiations: acidic and basic destruction of chromatin protein structure, DNA strand breaking and the increase of the distance between DNA and proteins in chromatin. (author)

  17. Chromatin damage induced by fast neutrons or UV laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radu, L.; Constantinescu, B.; Gazdaru, D.; Mihailescu, I.

    2002-01-01

    Chromatin samples from livers of Wistar rats were subjected to fast neutron irradiation in doses of 10-100 Gy or to a 248 nm excimer laser radiation, in doses of 0.5-3 MJ.m -2 . The action of the radiation on chromatin was monitored by chromatin intrinsic fluorescence and fluorescence lifetimes (of bound ethidium bromide to chromatin) and by analysing fluorescence resonance energy transfer between dansyl chloride and acridine orange coupled to chromatin. For the mentioned doses of UV excimer laser radiation, the action on chromatin was more intense than in the case of fast neutrons. The same types of damage are produced by the two radiations: acidic and basic destruction of chromatin protein structure, DNA strand breaking and the increase of the distance between DNA and proteins in chromatin. (author)

  18. Laser-induced thermal damage of skin. Final report, September 1976--April 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takata, A.N.; Zaneveld, L.; Richter, W.

    1977-12-01

    A computerized model was developed for predicting thermal damage of skin by laser exposures. Thermal, optical, and physiological data are presented for the model. Model predictions of extent of irreversible damage were compared with histologic determinations of the extent of damage produced in pig skin by carbon dioxide and ruby lasers. (Author)

  19. Multiscale analysis: a way to investigate laser damage precursors in materials for high power applications at nanosecond pulse duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natoli, J. Y.; Wagner, F.; Ciapponi, A.; Capoulade, J.; Gallais, L.; Commandré, M.

    2010-11-01

    The mechanism of laser induced damage in optical materials under high power nanosecond laser irradiation is commonly attributed to the presence of precursor centers. Depending on material and laser source, the precursors could have different origins. Some of them are clearly extrinsic, such as impurities or structural defects linked to the fabrication conditions. In most cases the center size ranging from sub-micrometer to nanometer scale does not permit an easy detection by optical techniques before irradiation. Most often, only a post mortem observation of optics permits to proof the local origin of breakdown. Multi-scale analyzes by changing irradiation beam size have been performed to investigate the density, size and nature of laser damage precursors. Destructive methods such as raster scan, laser damage probability plot and morphology studies permit to deduce the precursor densities. Another experimental way to get information on nature of precursors is to use non destructive methods such as photoluminescence and absorption measurements. The destructive and non destructive multiscale studies are also motivated for practical reasons. Indeed LIDT studies of large optics as those used in LMJ or NIF projects are commonly performed on small samples and with table top lasers whose characteristics change from one to another. In these conditions, it is necessary to know exactly the influence of the different experimental parameters and overall the spot size effect on the final data. In this paper, we present recent developments in multiscale characterization and results obtained on optical coatings (surface case) and KDP crystal (bulk case).

  20. Laser-Induced Damage Growth on Larger-Aperture Fused Silica Optical Components at 351 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan-Qing, Huang; Wei, Han; Fang, Wang; Yong, Xiang; Fu-Quan, Li; Bin, Feng; Feng, Jing; Xiao-Feng, Wei; Wan-Guo, Zheng; Xiao-Min, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Laser-induced damage is a key lifetime limiter for optics in high-power laser facility. Damage initiation and growth under 351 nm high-fluence laser irradiation are observed on larger-aperture fused silica optics. The input surface of one fused silica component is damaged most severely and an explanation is presented. Obscurations and the area of a scratch on it are found to grow exponentially with the shot number. The area of damage site grows linearly. Micrographs of damage sites support the micro-explosion damage model which could be used to qualitatively explain the phenomena

  1. High Energy Density Sciences with High Power Lasers at SACLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Ryosuke

    2013-10-01

    One of the interesting topics on high energy density sciences with high power lasers is creation of extremely high pressures in material. The pressures of more than 0.1 TPa are the energy density corresponding to the chemical bonding energy, resulting in expectation of dramatic changes in the chemical reactions. At pressures of more than TPa, most of material would be melted on the shock Hugoniot curve. However, if the temperature is less than 1eV or lower than a melting point at pressures of more than TPa, novel solid states of matter must be created through a pressured phase transition. One of the interesting materials must be carbon. At pressures of more than TPa, the diamond structure changes to BC and cubic at more than 3TPa. To create such novel states of matter, several kinds of isentropic-like compression techniques are being developed with high power lasers. To explore the ``Tera-Pascal Science,'' now we have a new tool which is an x-ray free electron laser as well as high power lasers. The XFEL will clear the details of the HED states and also efficiently create hot dense matter. We have started a new project on high energy density sciences using an XFEL (SACLA) in Japan, which is a HERMES (High Energy density Revolution of Matter in Extreme States) project.

  2. Power Spectral Density Evaluation of Laser Milled Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoul-Amadeus Lorbeer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ablating surfaces with a pulsed laser system in milling processes often leads to surface changes depending on the milling depth. Especially if a constant surface roughness and evenness is essential to the process, structural degradation may advance until the process fails. The process investigated is the generation of precise thrust by laser ablation. Here, it is essential to predict or rather control the evolution of the surfaces roughness. Laser ablative milling with a short pulse laser system in vacuum (≈1 Pa were performed over depths of several 10 µm documenting the evolution of surface roughness and unevenness with a white light interference microscope. Power spectral density analysis of the generated surface data reveals a strong influence of the crystalline structure of the solid. Furthermore, it was possible to demonstrate that this effect could be suppressed for gold.

  3. Vendor-based laser damage metrology equipment supporting the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J. H; Jennings, R. T.; Kimmons, J. F.; Kozlowski, M. R.; Mouser, R. P.; Schwatz, S.; Stolz, C. J.; Weinzapfel, C. L.

    1998-01-01

    A sizable laser damage metrology effort is required as part of optics production and installation for the 192 beam National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser. The large quantities, high damage thresholds, and large apertures of polished and coated optics necessitates vendor-based metrology equipment to assure component quality during production. This equipment must be optimized to provide the required information as rapidly as possible with limited operator experience. The damage metrology tools include: (1) platinum inclusion damage test systems for laser amplifier slabs, (2) laser conditioning stations for mirrors and polarizers, and (3) mapping and damage testing stations for UV transmissive optics. Each system includes a commercial Nd:YAG laser, a translation stage for the optics, and diagnostics to evaluate damage. The scanning parameters, optical layout, and diagnostics vary with the test fluences required and the damage morphologies expected. This paper describes the technical objectives and milestones involved in fulfilling these metrology requirements

  4. Structural damage detection using higher-order finite elements and a scanning laser vibrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Si

    In contrast to conventional non-destructive evaluation methods, dynamics-based damage detection methods are capable of rapid integrity evaluation of large structures and have received considerable attention from aerospace, mechanical, and civil engineering communities in recent years. However, the identifiable damage size using dynamics-based methods is determined by the number of sensors used, level of measurement noise, accuracy of structural models, and signal processing techniques. In this thesis we study dynamics of structures with damage and then derive and experimentally verify new model-independent structural damage detection methods that can locate small damage to structures. To find sensitive damage detection parameters we develop a higher-order beam element that enforces the continuity of displacements, slopes, bending moments, and shear forces at all nodes, and a higher-order rectangular plate element that enforces the continuity of displacements, slopes, and bending and twisting moments at all nodes. These two elements are used to study the dynamics of beams and plates. Results show that high-order spatial derivatives of high-frequency modes are important sensitive parameters that can locate small structural damage. Unfortunately the most powerful and popular structural modeling technique, the finite element method, is not accurate in predicting high-frequency responses. Hence, a model-independent method using dynamic responses obtained from high density measurements is concluded to be the best approach. To increase measurement density and reduce noise a Polytec PI PSV-200 scanning laser vibrometer is used to provide non-contact, dense, and accurate measurements of structural vibration velocities. To avoid the use of structural models and to extract sensitive detection parameters from experimental data, a brand-new structural damage detection method named BED (Boundary-Effect Detection) is developed for pinpointing damage locations using Operational

  5. Cleaning Process Versus Laser-Damage Threshold of Coated Optical Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigatti, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    The cleaning of optical surfaces is important in the manufacture of high-laser-damage-threshold coatings, which are a key component on peak-power laser systems such as OMEGA located at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). Since cleaning adds time, labor, and ultimately cost to the final coated component, this experiment was designed to determine the impact of different cleaning protocols on the measured laser-damage performance

  6. Physical analysis on laser-induced cerebral damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaosen; Liu, Jiangang; Tao, Chunkan; Lan, Xiufeng; Cao, Lingyan; Pan, Weimin; Shen, Zhonghua; Lu, Jian; Ni, Xiaowu

    2005-01-01

    Experimental investigation on cerebral damage of adult SD rats induced by 532nm CW laser was performed. Tissue heat conductive equation was set up based on two-layered structure model. Finite difference algorithm was utilized to numerically simulate the temperature distribution in the brain tissue. Allowing for tissue response to temperature variation, free boundary model was used to discuss tissue thermal coagulation formation in brain. Experimental observations show that thermal coagulation and necrosis can be caused due to laser light absorption. The result of the calculation shows that the process of the thermal coagulation of the given mode comprises two stages: fast and slow. At the first stage, necrosis domain grows fast. Then necrosis domain growth becomes slower because of the competition between the heat diffusion into the surrounding undamaged tissue and the heat dissipation caused by blood perfusion. At the center of coagulation area no neuron was observed and at the transitional zone few nervous cells were seen by microscope. The research can provide reference data for developing clinical therapy of some kind of encephalic diseases by using 532nm laser, and for making cerebral infarction models in animal experiment.

  7. Structural damage identification based on laser ultrasonic propagation imaging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Chen-Ciang; Jang, Si-Gwang; Lee, Jung-Ryul; Yoon, Dong-Jin

    2009-06-01

    An ultrasonic propagation imaging (UPI) system consisted of a Q-switched Nd-YAG pulsed laser and a galvanometer laser mirror scanner was developed. The system which requires neither reference data nor fixed focal length could be used for health monitoring of curved structures. If combined with a fiber acoustic wave PZT (FAWPZT) sensor, it could be used to inspect hot target structures that present formidable challenges to the usage of contact piezoelectric transducers mainly due to the operating temperature limitation of transducers and debonding problem due to the mismatch of coefficient of thermal expansion between the target, transducer and bonding material. The inspection of a stainless steel plate with a curvature radius of about 4 m, having 2mm×1mm open-crack was demonstrated at 150°C using a FAWPZT sensor welded on the plate. Highly-curved surfaces scanning capability and adaptivity of the system for large laser incident angle up to 70° was demonstrated on a stainless steel cylinder with 2mm×1mm open-crack. The imaging results were presented in ultrasonic propagation movie which was a moving wavefield emerged from an installed ultrasonic sensor. Damages were localized by the scattering wavefields. The result images enabled easy detection and interpretation of structural defects as anomalies during ultrasonic wave propagation.

  8. Electron density interferometry measurement in laser-matter interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovics-Chenais, C.

    1981-05-01

    This work is concerned with the laser-interferometry measurement of the electronic density in the corona and the conduction zone external part. Particularly, it is aimed at showing up density gradients and at their space-time localization. The first chapter recalls the density profile influence on the absorption principal mechanisms and the laser energy transport. In chapter two, the numerical and analytical hydrodynamic models describing the density profile are analysed. The influence on the density profile of the ponderomotive force associated to high oscillating electric fields is studied, together with the limited thermal conduction and suprathermal electron population. The mechanism action, in our measurement conditions, is numerically simulated. Calculations are made with experimental parameters. The measurement interaction conditions, together with the diagnostic method by high resolution laser interferometry are detailed. The results are analysed with the help of numerical simulation which is the experiment modeling. An overview of the mechanisms shown up by interferometric measurements and their correlation with other diagnostics is the conclusion of this work [fr

  9. Enhancement of laser induced damage threshold of fused silica by acid etching combined with UV laser conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Meng; Xiang Xia; Jiang Yong; Zu Xiaotao; Yuan Xiaodong; Zheng Wanguo; Wang Haijun; Li Xibin; Lu Haibing; Jiang Xiaodong; Wang Chengcheng

    2010-01-01

    Acid etching combined with UV laser conditioning is developed to enhance the laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) of fused silica. Firstly, the fused silica is etched for 1 ∼ 100 min with a buffered 1% HF solution. After acid etching, its transmittance, surface roughness and LIDT are measured. The results reveal that the fused silica has the highest LIDT and transmittance after etching for 10 min. Then UV laser (355 nm) conditioning is adopted to process the 10-min-etched fused silica. When the laser fluence is below 60% of fused silica's zero probability damage threshold, the LIDT increases gradually with the increase of laser conditioning fluence. However, the LIDT rapidly decreases to be lower than the threshold of the 10-min-etched fused silica when the conditioning fluence is up to 80% of the threshold. Proper acid etching and laser conditioning parameters will effectively enhance the laser damage resistance of fused silica. (authors)

  10. Role of marble microstructure in near-infrared laser-induced damage during laser cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Navarro, Carlos; Rodriguez-Navarro, Alejandro; Elert, Kerstin; Sebastian, Eduardo

    2004-01-01

    When marble is cleaned by nanosecond neodymium yttrium-aluminum-garnet lasers (1064 nm), strongly absorbing surface contaminants are removed at fluences substantially below the damage threshold for the much less absorptive marble substrate. Recent studies have shown, however, that unacceptable roughening of the marble surface also may occur at low fluences due to removal of individual grains. In order to elucidate this effect, we have compared the low-fluence response of marbles with two different grain sizes and single-crystal calcite, in the fluence range 0.12-1.25 J cm-2. Damage was greater in fine-grained than coarse-grained marble, and did not occur in the single-crystal calcite at these fluences. The temperature rise following defect-mediated absorption triggers thermal plasma emission and generates shock waves; the concomitant surface damage depends on the size and crystallographic orientation of the crystals. Laser irradiation anneals the defects and increases ''crystallite size.'' The implications for the laser-assisted cleaning of marble artworks are outlined

  11. Heat damage-free laser-microjet cutting achieves highest die fracture strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrottet, Delphine; Housh, Roy; Richerzhagen, Bernold; Manley, John

    2005-04-01

    Unlike conventional laser-based technologies, the water jet guided laser does not generate heat damage and contamination is also very low. The negligible heat-affected zone is one reason why die fracture strength is higher than with sawing. This paper first presents the water jet guided laser technology and then explains how it differs from conventional dry laser cutting. Finally, it presents the results obtained by three recent studies conducted to determine die fracture strength after Laser-Microjet cutting.

  12. Monitoring of Progressive Damage in Buildings Using Laser Scan Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, I.; Lindenbergh, R.; Van Natijne, A.; Esposito, R.; Schipper, R.

    2018-05-01

    Vulnerability of buildings to natural and man-induced hazards has become a main concern for our society. Ensuring their serviceability, safety and sustainability is of vital importance and the main reason for setting up monitoring systems to detect damages at an early stage. In this work, a method is presented for detecting changes from laser scan data, where no registration between different epochs is needed. To show the potential of the method, a case study of a laboratory test carried out at the Stevin laboratory of Delft University of Technology was selected. The case study was a quasi-static cyclic pushover test on a two-story high unreinforced masonry structure designed to simulate damage evolution caused by cyclic loading. During the various phases, we analysed the behaviour of the masonry walls by monitoring the deformation of each masonry unit. First a plane is fitted to the selected wall point cloud, consisting of one single terrestrial laser scan, using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Second, the segmentation of individual elements is performed. Then deformations with respect to this plane model, for each epoch and specific element, are determined by computing their corresponding rotation and cloud-to-plane distances. The validation of the changes detected within this approach is done by comparison with traditional deformation analysis based on co-registered TLS point clouds between two or more epochs of building measurements. Initial results show that the sketched methodology is indeed able to detect changes at the mm level while avoiding 3D point cloud registration, which is a main issue in computer vision and remote sensing.

  13. Comparison of laser-based mitigation of fused silica surface damage using mid- versus far-infrared lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, S T; Matthews, M J; Elhadj, S; Cooke, D; Guss, G M; Draggoo, V G; Wegner, P J

    2009-12-16

    Laser induced growth of optical damage can limit component lifetime and therefore operating costs of large-aperture fusion-class laser systems. While far-infrared (IR) lasers have been used previously to treat laser damage on fused silica optics and render it benign, little is known about the effectiveness of less-absorbing mid-IR lasers for this purpose. In this study, they quantitatively compare the effectiveness and efficiency of mid-IR (4.6 {micro}m) versus far-IR (10.6 {micro}m) lasers in mitigating damage growth on fused silica surfaces. The non-linear volumetric heating due to mid-IR laser absorption is analyzed by solving the heat equation numerically, taking into account the temperature-dependent absorption coefficient {alpha}(T) at {lambda} = 4.6 {micro}m, while far-IR laser heating is well-described by a linear analytic approximation to the laser-driven temperature rise. In both cases, the predicted results agree well with surface temperature measurements based on infrared radiometry, as well as sub-surface fictive temperature measurements based on confocal Raman microscopy. Damage mitigation efficiency is assessed using a figure of merit (FOM) relating the crack healing depth to laser power required, under minimally-ablative conditions. Based on their FOM, they show that for cracks up to at least 500 {micro}m in depth, mitigation with a 4.6 {micro}m mid-IR laser is more efficient than mitigation with a 10.6 {micro}m far-IR laser. This conclusion is corroborated by direct application of each laser system to the mitigation of pulsed laser-induced damage possessing fractures up to 225 {micro}m in depth.

  14. Growth of Laser Initiated Damage in Fused Silica at 527 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, M A; Donohue, E E; Hollingsworth, W G; McElroy, J N; Hackel, R P

    2003-01-01

    The effective lifetime of optics is limited by both laser-induced damage and the subsequent growth of laser initiated damage sites. We have measured the growth rate of laser-induced damage in fused silica in both air and vacuum at 527 nm. For damage on the exit surface, the data shows exponential growth in the lateral size of the damage site with shot number. The exponential growth coefficient depends linearly on the laser fluence. The behavior at the fluence threshold for growth is contrasted to that observed at 351 nm. The growth rate was not significantly affected by either the wavelength of the initiating fluence or the presence of 10 torr of air as compared to vacuum. When the damage is located on the input surface, it has both a higher threshold for growth and does not grow exponentially

  15. Spot-shadowing optimization to mitigate damage growth in a high-energy-laser amplifier chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahk, Seung-Whan; Zuegel, Jonathan D; Fienup, James R; Widmayer, C Clay; Heebner, John

    2008-12-10

    A spot-shadowing technique to mitigate damage growth in a high-energy laser is studied. Its goal is to minimize the energy loss and undesirable hot spots in intermediate planes of the laser. A nonlinear optimization algorithm solves for the complex fields required to mitigate damage growth in the National Ignition Facility amplifier chain. The method is generally applicable to any large fusion laser.

  16. Agglomeration of amorphous silicon film with high energy density excimer laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Ming; Ishihara, Ryoichi; Metselaar, Wim; Beenakker, Kees

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, agglomeration phenomena of amorphous Si (α-Si) films due to high energy density excimer laser irradiation are systematically investigated. The agglomeration, which creates holes or breaks the continuous Si film up into spherical beads, is a type of serious damage. Therefore, it determines an upper energy limit for excimer laser crystallization. It is speculated that the agglomeration is caused by the boiling of molten Si. During this process, outbursts of heterogeneously nucleated vapor bubbles are promoted by the poor wetting property of molten silicon on the SiO 2 layer underneath. The onset of the agglomeration is defined by extrapolating the hole density as a function of the energy density of the laser pulse. A SiO 2 capping layer (CL) is introduced on top of the α-Si film to investigate its influence on the agglomeration. It is found that effects of the CL depend on its thickness. The CL with a thickness less than 300 nm can be used to suppress the agglomeration. A thin CL acts as a confining layer and puts a constraint on bubble burst, and hence suppresses the agglomeration

  17. Bulk damage and absorption in fused silica due to high-power laser applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nürnberg, F.; Kühn, B.; Langner, A.; Altwein, M.; Schötz, G.; Takke, R.; Thomas, S.; Vydra, J.

    2015-11-01

    Laser fusion projects are heading for IR optics with high broadband transmission, high shock and temperature resistance, long laser durability, and best purity. For this application, fused silica is an excellent choice. The energy density threshold on IR laser optics is mainly influenced by the purity and homogeneity of the fused silica. The absorption behavior regarding the hydroxyl content was studied for various synthetic fused silica grades. The main absorption influenced by OH vibrational excitation leads to different IR attenuations for OH-rich and low-OH fused silica. Industrial laser systems aim for the maximum energy extraction possible. Heraeus Quarzglas developed an Yb-doped fused silica fiber to support this growing market. But the performance of laser welding and cutting systems is fundamentally limited by beam quality and stability of focus. Since absorption in the optical components of optical systems has a detrimental effect on the laser focus shift, the beam energy loss and the resulting heating has to be minimized both in the bulk materials and at the coated surfaces. In collaboration with a laser research institute, an optical finisher and end users, photo thermal absorption measurements on coated samples of different fused silica grades were performed to investigate the influence of basic material properties on the absorption level. High purity, synthetic fused silica is as well the material of choice for optical components designed for DUV applications (wavelength range 160 nm - 260 nm). For higher light intensities, e.g. provided by Excimer lasers, UV photons may generate defect centers that effect the optical properties during usage, resulting in an aging of the optical components (UV radiation damage). Powerful Excimer lasers require optical materials that can withstand photon energy close to the band gap and the high intensity of the short pulse length. The UV transmission loss is restricted to the DUV wavelength range below 300 nm and

  18. Time-resolved photoluminescence for evaluating laser-induced damage during dielectric stack ablation in silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parola, Stéphanie [Université de Lyon, Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon INL-UMR5270, CNRS, INSA Lyon, Villeurbanne, F-69621 (France); Blanc-Pélissier, Danièle, E-mail: daniele.blanc@insa-lyon.fr [Université de Lyon, Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon INL-UMR5270, CNRS, INSA Lyon, Villeurbanne, F-69621 (France); Barbos, Corina; Le Coz, Marine [Université de Lyon, Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon INL-UMR5270, CNRS, INSA Lyon, Villeurbanne, F-69621 (France); Poulain, Gilles [TOTAL MS—New Energies, R& D Division, La Défense (France); Lemiti, Mustapha [Université de Lyon, Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon INL-UMR5270, CNRS, INSA Lyon, Villeurbanne, F-69621 (France)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • Ablation of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiN{sub x} on Si substrates was performed with a nanosecond UV laser. • Ablation thresholds were found in good agreement with COMSOL simulation, around 0.85 and 0.95 J cm{sup −2} for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiN{sub X}, respectively. • Laser-induced damage was evaluated at room temperature by time-resolved photoluminescence decay with a single photon counting detector. • Minority carrier lifetime in silicon as a function of the ablation fluence was derived from the photoluminescence decay and related to the thickness of the heat affected zone. • Quantitative measurements of laser-induced damage can be used to evaluate laser ablation of dielectrics in photovoltaics. - Abstract: Selective laser ablation of dielectric layers on crystalline silicon wafers was investigated for solar cell fabrication. Laser processing was performed on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and bi-layers Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiN{sub X}:H with a nanosecond UV laser at various energy densities ranging from 0.4 to 2 J cm{sup −2}. Ablation threshold was correlated to the simulated temperature at the interface between the dielectric coatings and the silicon substrate. Laser-induced damage to the silicon substrate was evaluated by time-resolved photoluminescence. The minority carrier lifetime deduced from time-resolved photoluminescence was related to the depth of the heat affected zone in the substrate.

  19. Particle damage sources for fused silica optics and their mitigation on high energy laser systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bude, J; Carr, C W; Miller, P E; Parham, T; Whitman, P; Monticelli, M; Raman, R; Cross, D; Welday, B; Ravizza, F; Suratwala, T; Davis, J; Fischer, M; Hawley, R; Lee, H; Matthews, M; Norton, M; Nostrand, M; VanBlarcom, D; Sommer, S

    2017-05-15

    High energy laser systems are ultimately limited by laser-induced damage to their critical components. This is especially true of damage to critical fused silica optics, which grows rapidly upon exposure to additional laser pulses. Much progress has been made in eliminating damage precursors in as-processed fused silica optics (the advanced mitigation process, AMP3), and very high damage resistance has been demonstrated in laboratory studies. However, the full potential of these improvements has not yet been realized in actual laser systems. In this work, we explore the importance of additional damage sources-in particular, particle contamination-for fused silica optics fielded in a high-performance laser environment, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser system. We demonstrate that the most dangerous sources of particle contamination in a system-level environment are laser-driven particle sources. In the specific case of the NIF laser, we have identified the two important particle sources which account for nearly all the damage observed on AMP3 optics during full laser operation and present mitigations for these particle sources. Finally, with the elimination of these laser-driven particle sources, we demonstrate essentially damage free operation of AMP3 fused silica for ten large optics (a total of 12,000 cm 2 of beam area) for shots from 8.6 J/cm 2 to 9.5 J/cm 2 of 351 nm light (3 ns Gaussian pulse shapes). Potentially many other pulsed high energy laser systems have similar particle sources, and given the insight provided by this study, their identification and elimination should be possible. The mitigations demonstrated here are currently being employed for all large UV silica optics on the National Ignition Facility.

  20. Analysis of high resolution scatter images from laser damage experiments performed on KDP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runkel, M.; Woods, B.; Yan, M.

    1996-01-01

    Interest in producing high damage threshold KH 2 PO 4 (KDP) and (D x H 1-x ) 2 PO 4 (KD*P, DKDP) for optical switching and frequency conversion applications is being driven by the system requirements for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL). Historically, the path to achieving higher damage thresholds has been to improve the purity of crystal growth solutions. Application of advanced filtration technology has increased the damage threshold, but gives little insight into the actual mechanisms of laser damage. We have developed a laser scatter diagnostic to better study bulk defects and laser damage mechanisms in KDP and KD*P crystals. This diagnostic consists of a cavity doubled, kilohertz class, Nd:YLF laser (527 nm) and high dynamic range CCD camera which allows imaging of bulk scatter signals. With it, we have performed damage tests at 355 nm on four different open-quotes vintagesclose quotes of KDP crystals, concentrating on crystals produced via fast growth methods. We compare the diagnostic's resolution to LLNL's standard damage detection method of 100X darkfield microscopy and discuss its impact on damage threshold determination. We have observed the disappearance of scatter sites upon exposure to subthreshold irradiation. In contrast, we have seen scatterers appear where none previously existed. This includes isolated, large (high signal) sites as well as multiple small scatter sites which appear at fluences above 7 J/cm 2 (fine tracking). However, we have not observed a strong correlation of preexisting scatter sites and laser damage sites. We speculate on the connection between the laser-induced disappearance of scatter sites and the observed increase in damage threshold with laser conditioning

  1. Laser Speckle Imaging of Rat Pial Microvasculature during Hypoperfusion-Reperfusion Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Mastantuono

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to in vivo assess the blood flow oscillatory patterns in rat pial microvessels during 30 min bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO and 60 min reperfusion by laser speckle imaging (LSI. Pial microcirculation was visualized by fluorescence microscopy. The blood flow oscillations of single microvessels were recorded by LSI; spectral analysis was performed by Wavelet transform. Under baseline conditions, arterioles and venules were characterized by blood flow oscillations in the frequency ranges 0.005–0.0095 Hz, 0.0095–0.021 Hz, 0.021–0.052 Hz, 0.052–0.150 Hz and 0.150–0.500 Hz. Arterioles showed oscillations with the highest spectral density when compared with venules. Moreover, the frequency components in the ranges 0.052–0.150 Hz and 0.150–0.500 were predominant in the arteriolar total power spectrum; while, the frequency component in the range 0.150–0.500 Hz showed the highest spectral density in venules. After 30 min BCCAO, the arteriolar spectral density decreased compared to baseline; moreover, the arteriolar frequency component in the range 0.052–0.150 Hz significantly decreased in percent spectral density, while the frequency component in the range 0.150–0.500 Hz significantly increased in percent spectral density. However, an increase in arteriolar spectral density was detected at 60 min reperfusion compared to BCCAO values; consequently, an increase in percent spectral density of the frequency component in the range 0.052–0.150 Hz was observed, while the percent spectral density of the frequency component in the range 0.150–0.500 Hz significantly decreased. The remaining frequency components did not significantly change during hypoperfusion and reperfusion. The changes in blood flow during hypoperfusion/reperfusion caused tissue damage in the cortex and striatum of all animals. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that the frequency component in the range 0.052–0.150 Hz

  2. Application of Laser Pulse Heating to Simulate Thermomechanical Damage at Gun Bore Surfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cote, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Laser pulse heating experiments were performed to provide insights into the thermomechanical damage effects that occur at the surface of coated and uncoated gun steel under cyclic rapid heating and cooling...

  3. An Alternative Method of Evaluating 1540NM Exposure Laser Damage using an Optical Tissue Phantom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jindra, Nichole M; Figueroa, Manuel A; Rockwell, Benjamin A; Chavey, Lucas J; Zohner, Justin J

    2006-01-01

    An optical phantom was designed to physically and optically resemble human tissue, in an effort to provide an alternative for detecting visual damage resulting from inadvertent exposure to infrared lasers...

  4. Impact of mechanical stress induced in silica vacuum windows on laser-induced damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingreau, Clémence; Lanternier, Thomas; Lamaignère, Laurent; Donval, Thierry; Courchinoux, Roger; Leymarie, Christophe; Néauport, Jérôme

    2018-04-15

    At the interface between vacuum and air, optical windows must keep their optical properties, despite being subjected to mechanical stress. In this Letter, we investigate the impact of such stress on the laser-induced damage of fused silica windows at the wavelength of 351 nm in the nanosecond regime. Different stress values, from 1 to 30 MPa, both tensile and compressive, were applied. No effect of the stress on the laser-induced damage was evidenced.

  5. Development of hybrid organic-inorganic optical coatings to prevent laser damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compoint, Francois

    2015-01-01

    The optical devices (lents, mirrors, portholes...) that are set on the chains of the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) may be damaged by the high energy laser beam especially around the UV wavelength of 351 nm. The damages are micronic craters on the rear of the optics that grows exponentially after each laser shots. The study aims at developing some optical thin coatings on the rear of the optical substrates to prevent the growth of the damage by amortizing the laser shock wave, self-healing the craters that has appeared, or repairing the laser hole after the damage occurs. The thin coatings have been prepared by a sol-gel method by using silica precursor and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer. The two species reacted together to get a hybrid organic-inorganic Ormosil (organically modified silica) material, by creating a silica network linked to the PDMS species with covalent and hydrogen bounds. The thin layers are obtained from the sol-gel solution by using a dip and spin coating method. The coatings have an excellent optical transmission around the UV (351 nm) wavelength. They also have some self-healing properties by using mechanical (viscoelastic) mechanism and chemical reversible hydrogen bounds action in the materials. The silica-PDMS coatings prove to be resistant to the laser beam at 351 nm, despite some optimizations that still need to be done to reach the sought laser damage threshold. (author) [fr

  6. Incident laser modulation of a repaired damage site with a rim in fused silica rear subsurface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Li; Xiang Xia; Zu Xiao-Tao; Yuan Xiao-Dong; He Shao-Bo; Jiang Xiao-Dong; Zheng Wan-Guo

    2012-01-01

    Local CO2 laser treatment has proved to be an effective method to prevent the 351-nm laser-induced damage sitesin a fused silica surface from exponentially growing,which is responsible for limiting the lifetime of optics in high fluence laser systems.However,the CO2 laser induced ablation crater is often surrounded by a raised rim at the edge,which can also result in the intensification of transmitted ultraviolet light that may damage the downstream optics.In this work,the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method is developed to simulate the distribution of electrical field intensity in the vicinity of the CO2 laser mitigated damage site located in the exit subsurface of fused silica.The simulated results show that the repaired damage sites with raised rims cause more notable modulation to the incident laser than those without rims.Specifically,we present a theoretical model of using dimpled patterning to control the rim structure around the edge of repaired damage sites to avoid damage to downstream optics.The calculated results accord well with previous experimental results and the underlying physical mechanism is analysed in detail.

  7. Nd : YAG surgical laser effects in canine prostate tissue: temperature and damage distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nimwegen, S. A.; L'Eplattenier, H. F.; Rem, A. I.; van der Lugt, J. J.; Kirpensteijn, J.

    2009-01-01

    An in vitro model was used to predict short-term, laser-induced, thermal damage in canine prostate tissue. Canine prostate tissue samples were equipped with thermocouple probes to measure tissue temperature at 3, 6, 9 and 12 mm depths. The tissue surface was irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser in contact

  8. Studies of multi-wavelength laser-induced damage on KDP crystals in the nanosecond regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyne, Stephane

    2011-01-01

    This thesis interests in the laser-induced damage mechanisms of KDP and DKDP crystals in the nanosecond regime. KDP is a non-linear material particularly used in the frequency converters of the Laser MegaJoule, which is under construction at the CEA-Cesta in France. For this facility, the KDP laser damage resistance is one of the keystones and is still under investigations to fix this problem. This is why this manuscript presents different studies which highlight the two main aspects of the nanosecond laser-induced damage of KDP frequency converters: the precursor defects and the mechanisms to initiate damage. First, we propose a study based on the analysis of several photos obtained by DIC microscopy of damage initiated by different wavelengths. A comparison with a code coupling the energy deposition and hydrodynamic is also done. Then, we interest in the influence of the defects geometry through a study based on the laser polarization effect on the laser damage resistance. By the comparison with a CEA home-made code, this study particularly underlines the possibility to define a new geometry for the precursor defects. This geometry proposed has the shape of an ellipsoid and is supposed to keep the crystal structure properties. Finally, we enlarge on the physical mechanisms initiating laser damage with pump-pump experiments. These tests consist in combining two radiations of different wavelengths which impacting the crystal simultaneously or are delayed one by the other. We then observe the influence of this wavelengths mixing on the KDP laser damage resistance. In particular, a coupling effect between the wavelengths of the mixture may occur as a function of the fluences combination. Finally, the goal of these specific studies is to accumulate new data in order to improve the understanding in the initiation of the laser damage in KDP and DKDP crystals in the nanosecond regime. In the end, these data will allow us to develop predictive models to simulate the laser

  9. Surface Contaminant Control Technologies to Improve Laser Damage Resistance of Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The large high-power solid lasers, such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF of America and the Shenguang-III (SG-III laser facility of China, can output over 2.1 MJ laser pulse for the inertial confinement fusion (ICF experiments. Because of the enhancement of operating flux and the expansion of laser driver scale, the problem of contamination seriously influences their construction period and operation life. During irradiation by intense laser beams, the contaminants on the metallic surface of beam tubes can be transmitted to the optical surfaces and lead to damage of optical components. For the high-power solid-state laser facilities, contamination control focuses on the slab amplifiers, spatial filters, and final-optical assemblies. In this paper, an effective solution to control contaminations including the whole process of the laser driver is put forward to provide the safe operation of laser facilities, and the detailed technical methods of contamination control such as washing, cleanliness metrology, and cleanliness protecting are also introduced to reduce the probability of laser-induced damage of optics. The experimental results show that the cleanliness level of SG-III laser facility is much better to ensure that the laser facility can safely operate at high energy flux.

  10. Dependency of irradiation damage density on tritium migration behaviors in Li2TiO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Makoto; Toda, Kensuke; Oya, Yasuhisa; Okuno, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Tritium migration behaviors in Li 2 TiO 3 with the increase of irradiation damage density were investigated by means of electron spin resonance and thermal desorption spectroscopy. The irradiation damages of F + -centers and O − -centers were formed by neutron irradiation, and their damage densities were increased with increasing neutron fluence. Tritium release temperature was clearly shifted toward higher temperature side with increasing neutron fluence, i.e. increasing damage density. The rate determining process for tritium release was also clearly changed depending on the damage density. Tritium release was mainly controlled by tritium diffusion process in crystalline grain of Li 2 TiO 3 at lower neutron fluence. The apparent tritium diffusivity was reduced as the damage density in Li 2 TiO 3 increased due to the introduction of tritium trapping/detrapping sites for diffusing tritium. Then, tritium trapping/detrapping processes began to control the overall tritium release with further damage introductions as the amount of tritium trapping sites increased enough to trap most of tritium in Li 2 TiO 3 . The effects of water vapor in purge gas on tritium release behaviors were also investigated. It was considered that hydrogen isotopes in purge gas would be dissociated and adsorbed on the surface of Li 2 TiO 3 . Then, hydrogen isotopes diffused inward Li 2 TiO 3 would occupy the tritium trapping sites before diffusing tritium reaches to these sites, promoting apparent tritium diffusion consequently. Kinetics analysis of tritium release for highly damaged Li 2 TiO 3 showed that the rate determining process of tritium release was the detrapping process of tritium formed as hydroxyl groups. The rate of tritium detrapping as hydroxyl groups was determined by the kinetic analysis, and was comparable to tritium release kinetics for Li 2 O, LiOH and Li 4 TiO 4 . The dangling oxygen atoms (O − -centers) formed by neutron irradiation would contribute strongly on the

  11. Laser damage study of material of the first wall of target chamber of the future laser Megajoule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubern, Christelle

    1999-01-01

    Study on damage of carbon-like, boron carbide, and stainless steel materials by ultraviolet laser light, has been carried out at CEA/CESTA in France. This work was performed to help designing and dimensioning the target chamber of the future Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) facility to be used for Inertial Confinement Fusion research. The study revealed that depending the laser fluence, the considered materials were ablated in different manners. lt was demonstrated that at low fluence, damage of carbon-like and boron carbide occurs through a thermal-mechanical mechanism resulting in sputtering of material. At higher fluence, damage was driven by a thermal mechanism, dissipating heat inside material until phase change developed. For stainless steel material, failures were the result of heat absorption associated to physical changes only. To explain and validate the proposed mechanisms, theoretical and experimental works were performed and satisfactory results came out. (author) [fr

  12. Particle-in-cell modeling of laser Thomson scattering in low-density plasmas at elevated laser intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powis, Andrew T.; Shneider, Mikhail N.

    2018-05-01

    Incoherent Thomson scattering is a non-intrusive technique commonly used for measuring local plasma density. Within low-density, low-temperature plasmas and for sufficient laser intensity, the laser may perturb the local electron density via the ponderomotive force, causing the diagnostic to become intrusive and leading to erroneous results. A theoretical model for this effect is validated numerically via kinetic simulations of a quasi-neutral plasma using the particle-in-cell technique.

  13. Impact of laser power density on tribological properties of Pulsed Laser Deposited DLC films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayathri, S.; Kumar, N.; Krishnan, R.; AmirthaPandian, S.; Ravindran, T. R.; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A. K.; Sridharan, M.

    2013-12-01

    Fabrication of wear resistant and low friction carbon films on the engineered substrates is considered as a challenging task for expanding the applications of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films. In this paper, pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique is used to deposit DLC films on two different types of technologically important class of substrates such as silicon and AISI 304 stainless steel. Laser power density is one of the important parameter used to tailor the fraction of sp2 bonded amorphous carbon (a-C) and tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) made by sp3 domain in the DLC film. The I(D)/I(G) ratio decreases with the increasing laser power density which is associated with decrease in fraction of a-C/ta-C ratio. The fraction of these chemical components is quantitatively analyzed by EELS which is well supported to the data obtained from the Raman spectroscopy. Tribological properties of the DLC are associated with chemical structure of the film. However, the super low value of friction coefficient 0.003 is obtained when the film is predominantly constituted by a-C and sp2 fraction which is embedded within the clusters of ta-C. Such a particular film with super low friction coefficient is measured while it was deposited on steel at low laser power density of 2 GW/cm2. The super low friction mechanism is explained by low sliding resistance of a-C/sp2 and ta-C clusters. Combination of excellent physical and mechanical properties of wear resistance and super low friction coefficient of DLC films is desirable for engineering applications. Moreover, the high friction coefficient of DLC films deposited at 9GW/cm2 is related to widening of the intergrain distance caused by transformation from sp2 to sp3 hybridized structure.

  14. Thermal damage produced by high-irradiance continuous wave CO2 laser cutting of tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomacker, K T; Walsh, J T; Flotte, T J; Deutsch, T F

    1990-01-01

    Thermal damage produced by continuous wave (cw) CO2 laser ablation of tissue in vitro was measured for irradiances ranging from 360 W/cm2 to 740 kW/cm2 in order to investigate the extent to which ablative cooling can limit tissue damage. Damage zones thinner than 100 microns were readily produced using single pulses to cut guinea pig skin as well as bovine cornea, aorta, and myocardium. Multiple pulses can lead to increased damage. However, a systematic decrease in damage with irradiance, predicted theoretically by an evaporation model of ablation, was not observed. The damage-zone thickness was approximately constant around the periphery of the cut, consistent with the existence of a liquid layer which stores heat and leads to tissue damage, and with a model of damage and ablation recently proposed by Zweig et al.

  15. Cell damage evaluation of mammalian cells in cell manipulation by amplified femtosecond ytterbium laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Z.-Y.; Iino, T.; Hagihara, H.; Maeno, T.; Okano, K.; Yasukuni, R.; Hosokawa, Y.

    2018-03-01

    A micrometer-scale explosion with cavitation bubble generation is induced by focusing a femtosecond laser in an aqueous solution. We have proposed to apply the explosion as an impulsive force to manipulate mammalian cells especially in microfluidic chip. Herein, we employed an amplified femtosecond ytterbium laser as an excitation source for the explosion and evaluated cell damage in the manipulation process to clarify the application potential. The damage of C2C12 myoblast cell prepared as a representative mammalian cell was investigated as a function of distance between cell and laser focal point. Although the cell received strong damage on the direct laser irradiation condition, the damage sharply decreased with increasing distance. Since the threshold distance, above which the cell had no damage, was consistent with radius of the cavitation bubble, impact of the cavitation bubble would be a critical factor for the cell damage. The damage had strong nonlinearity in the pulse energy dependence. On the other hand, cell position shift by the impact of the cavitation bubble was almost proportional to the pulse energy. In balance between the cell viability and the cell position shift, we elucidated controllability of the cell manipulation in microfluidic chip.

  16. Effects of ionizing radiation on laser-induced damage in SiO/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soileau, M J; Mansour, N; Canto, E; Griscom, D L

    1988-05-01

    The effects of radiation damage on bulk laser-induced damage in SiO/sub 2/ were investigated. Samples studied included Spectrasil A, B, and WF (water free). Measurements of laser-induced breakdown were conducted with 532 and 1064 nm laser pulses of approximately 20 ns duration. Reductions of up to 40% in the laser-induced breakdown threshold were observed at 532 nm for samples exposed to 10/sup 8/ rad of ..gamma..-radiation. The decrease in breakdown threshold for irradiated SiO/sub 2/ samples at 532 nm was found to be proportional to the linear absorption of the specimen at 266 nm. These results are in good agreement with a proposed model which suggests that two-photon absorption initiated avalanche process is responsible for laser-induced breakdown for these materials.

  17. Soft x-ray free-electron laser induced damage to inorganic scintillators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burian, Tomáš; Hájková, Věra; Chalupský, Jaromír; Vyšín, Luděk; Boháček, Pavel; Přeček, Martin; Wild, J.; Özkan, C.; Coppola, N.; Farahani, S.D.; Schulz, J.; Sinn, H.; Tschentscher, T.; Gaudin, J.; Bajt, S.; Tiedtke, K.; Toleikis, S.; Chapman, H.N.; Loch, R.A.; Jurek, M.; Sobierajski, R.; Krzywinski, J.; Moeller, S.; Harmand, M.; Galasso, G.; Nagasono, M.; Saskl, K.; Sovák, P.; Juha, Libor

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2015), 254-264 ISSN 2159-3930 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/1312; GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0057 Grant - others:OP VK 4 POSTDOK(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/30.0057 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : fluorescent and luminescent materials * laser damage * free-electron lasers * soft x-rays * laser materials processing Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.657, year: 2015

  18. Interaction of laser radiation with a low-density structured absorber

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rozanov, V. B.; Barishpol’tsev, D.V.; Vergunova, G.A.; Demchenko, N. N.; Ivanov, E.M.; Aristova, E.N.; Zmitrenko, N.V.; Limpouch, I.; Ullschmied, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 2 (2016), s. 256-276 ISSN 1063-7761 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : laser radiation interaction * laser with low-density Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.196, year: 2016

  19. Damage Detection on Thin-walled Structures Utilizing Laser Scanning and Standing Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Se Hyeok; Jeon, Jun Young; Kim, Du Hwan; Park, Gyuhae [Chonnam Nat’l Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kang, To; Han, Soon Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    This paper describes wavenumber filtering for damage detection using single-frequency standing wave excitation and laser scanning sensing. An embedded piezoelectric sensor generates ultrasonic standing waves, and the responses are measured using a laser Doppler vibrometer and mirror tilting device. After scanning, newly developed damage detection techniques based on wavenumber filtering are applied to the full standing wave field. To demonstrate the performance of the proposed techniques, several experiments were performed on composite plates with delamination and aluminum plates with corrosion damage. The results demonstrated that the developed techniques could be applied to various structures to localize the damage, with the potential to improve the damage detection capability at a high interrogation speed.

  20. Development of terahertz laser diagnostics for electron density measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahata, K; Akiyama, T; Tanaka, K; Nakayama, K; Okajima, S

    2008-10-01

    A two color laser interferometer using terahertz laser sources is under development for high performance operation on the large helical device and for future burning plasma experiments such as ITER. Through investigation of terahertz laser sources, we have achieved high power simultaneous oscillations at 57.2 and 47.6 microm of a CH(3)OD laser pumped by a cw 9R(8) CO(2) laser line. The laser wavelength around 50 microm is the optimum value for future fusion devices from the consideration of the beam refraction effect and signal-to-noise ratio for an expected phase shift due to plasma. In this article, recent progress of the terahertz laser diagnostics, especially in mechanical vibration compensation by using a two color laser operation and terahertz laser beam transmission through a dielectric waveguide, will be presented.

  1. Very low temperature rise laser annealing of radiation-damaged solar cells in orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulek, V.

    1988-01-01

    Solar cells of all space objects are damaged by radiation in orbit. This damage, however, can be removed by laser annealing. A new in-orbit laser regeneration system for both body- and spin-stabilized space objects is proposed. For successful annealing of solar cells damaged by 10 years' radiation dose in orbit it is necessary for the temperature rise in the incidence point of the laser beam to reach about 400 0 C. By continuous regeneration, however, between two annealing cycles the solar cells are hit by about two orders of magnitude lower radiation dose. This makes it possible to carry out the regeneration at a temperature rise well under 1 0 C! If an optimal laser regeneration system is used, such low temperature rise laser annealing of radiation-damaged solar cells is possible. A semiconductor GaAlAs diode laser with output power up to 10 mW CW was used for annealing. Some results of the very low temperature rise annealing experiment are given in this paper. (author)

  2. Effect of stitch density on fatigue characteristics and damage mechanisms of stitched carbon/epoxy composites

    KAUST Repository

    Yudhanto, Arief; Watanabe, Naoyuki; Iwahori, Yutaka; Hoshi, Hikaru

    2014-01-01

    The effect of stitch density (SD) on fatigue life, stiffness degradation and fatigue damage mechanisms in carbon/epoxy (T800SC/XNRH6813) stitched using Vectran thread is presented in this paper. Moderately stitched composite (SD = 0.028/mm2

  3. Dosimetric Properties of Plasma Density Effects on Laser-Accelerated VHEE Beams Using a Sharp Density-Transition Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Seung Hoon; Cho, Sungho; Kim, Eun Ho; Park, Jeong Hoon; Jung, Won-Gyun; Kim, Geun Beom; Kim, Kum Bae [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Min, Byung Jun [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jaehoon [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hojin [Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kitae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Deajeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung Yong [Karmanos Cancer Institute, Michigan (United States)

    2017-01-15

    In this paper, the effects of the plasma density on laser-accelerated electron beams for radiation therapy with a sharp density transition are investigated. In the sharp density-transition scheme for electron injection, the crucial issue is finding the optimum density conditions under which electrons injected only during the first period of the laser wake wave are accelerated further. In this paper, we report particle-in-cell simulation results for the effects of both the scale length and the density transition ratio on the generation of a quasi-mono-energetic electron bunch. The effects of both the transverse parabolic channel and the plasma length on the electron-beam's quality are investigated. Also, we show the experimental results for the feasibility of a sharp density-transition structure. The dosimetric properties of these very high-energy electron beams are calculated using Monte Carlo simulations.

  4. Femtosecond laser damage threshold and nonlinear characterization in bulk transparent SiC materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DesAutels, G. Logan; Finet, Marc; Ristich, Scott; Whitaker, Matt; Brewer, Chris; Juhl, Shane; Walker, Mark; Powers, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Semi-insulating and conducting SiC crystalline transparent substrates were studied after being processed by femtosecond (fs) laser radiation (780 nm at 160 fs). Z-scan and damage threshold experiments were performed on both SiC bulk materials to determine each sample's nonlinear and threshold parameters. 'Damage' in this text refers to an index of refraction modification as observed visually under an optical microscope. In addition, a study was performed to understand the damage threshold as a function of numerical aperture. Presented here for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, are the damage threshold, nonlinear index of refraction, and nonlinear absorption measured values

  5. Refurbishment of damaged tools using the combination of GTAW and laser beam welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tušek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of two welding processes for the refurbishment of damaged industrial tools. In the first part the problem is presented followed by the comparison of GTAW and laser welding in terms of repair welding of damaged tools. The macrosections of the welds show the difference between both welding processes in repairing of damaged tools. At the conclusion the main findings are presented. In many cases it is useful to use both welding processes in order to achieve better weld quality and to make welding more economical. The order of the technology used depends on the tool material, the use of the tool and the tool damage.

  6. Tools for Predicting Optical Damage on Inertial Confinement Fusion-Class Laser Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nostrand, M.C.; Carr, C.W.; Liao, Z.M.; Honig, J.; Spaeth, M.L.; Manes, K.R.; Johnson, M.A.; Adams, J.J.; Cross, D.A.; Negres, R.A.; Widmayer, C.C.; Williams, W.H.; Matthews, M.J.; Jancaitis, K.S.; Kegelmeyer, L.M.

    2010-01-01

    Operating a fusion-class laser to its full potential requires a balance of operating constraints. On the one hand, the total laser energy delivered must be high enough to give an acceptable probability for ignition success. On the other hand, the laser-induced optical damage levels must be low enough to be acceptably handled with the available infrastructure and budget for optics recycle. Our research goal was to develop the models, database structures, and algorithmic tools (which we collectively refer to as ''Loop Tools'') needed to successfully maintain this balance. Predictive models are needed to plan for and manage the impact of shot campaigns from proposal, to shot, and beyond, covering a time span of years. The cost of a proposed shot campaign must be determined from these models, and governance boards must decide, based on predictions, whether to incorporate a given campaign into the facility shot plan based upon available resources. Predictive models are often built on damage ''rules'' derived from small beam damage tests on small optics. These off-line studies vary the energy, pulse-shape and wavelength in order to understand how these variables influence the initiation of damage sites and how initiated damage sites can grow upon further exposure to UV light. It is essential to test these damage ''rules'' on full-scale optics exposed to the complex conditions of an integrated ICF-class laser system. Furthermore, monitoring damage of optics on an ICF-class laser system can help refine damage rules and aid in the development of new rules. Finally, we need to develop the algorithms and data base management tools for implementing these rules in the Loop Tools. The following highlights progress in the development of the loop tools and their implementation.

  7. Tools for Predicting Optical Damage on Inertial Confinement Fusion-Class Laser Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nostrand, M C; Carr, C W; Liao, Z M; Honig, J; Spaeth, M L; Manes, K R; Johnson, M A; Adams, J J; Cross, D A; Negres, R A; Widmayer, C C; Williams, W H; Matthews, M J; Jancaitis, K S; Kegelmeyer, L M

    2010-12-20

    Operating a fusion-class laser to its full potential requires a balance of operating constraints. On the one hand, the total laser energy delivered must be high enough to give an acceptable probability for ignition success. On the other hand, the laser-induced optical damage levels must be low enough to be acceptably handled with the available infrastructure and budget for optics recycle. Our research goal was to develop the models, database structures, and algorithmic tools (which we collectively refer to as ''Loop Tools'') needed to successfully maintain this balance. Predictive models are needed to plan for and manage the impact of shot campaigns from proposal, to shot, and beyond, covering a time span of years. The cost of a proposed shot campaign must be determined from these models, and governance boards must decide, based on predictions, whether to incorporate a given campaign into the facility shot plan based upon available resources. Predictive models are often built on damage ''rules'' derived from small beam damage tests on small optics. These off-line studies vary the energy, pulse-shape and wavelength in order to understand how these variables influence the initiation of damage sites and how initiated damage sites can grow upon further exposure to UV light. It is essential to test these damage ''rules'' on full-scale optics exposed to the complex conditions of an integrated ICF-class laser system. Furthermore, monitoring damage of optics on an ICF-class laser system can help refine damage rules and aid in the development of new rules. Finally, we need to develop the algorithms and data base management tools for implementing these rules in the Loop Tools. The following highlights progress in the development of the loop tools and their implementation.

  8. Putative photoacoustic damage in skin induced by pulsed ArF excimer laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, S.; Flotte, T.J.; McAuliffe, D.J.; Jacques, S.L.

    1988-05-01

    Argon-fluoride excimer laser ablation of guinea pig stratum corneum causes deeper tissue damage than expected for thermal or photochemical mechanisms, suggesting that photoacoustic waves have a role in tissue damage. Laser irradiation (193 nm, 14-ns pulse) at two different radiant exposures, 62 and 156 mJ/cm2 per pulse, was used to ablate the 15-microns-thick stratum corneum of the skin. Light and electron microscopy of immediate biopsies demonstrated damage to fibroblasts as deep as 88 and 220 microns, respectively, below the ablation site. These depths are far in excess of the optical penetration depth of 193-nm light (1/e depth = 1.5 micron). The damage is unlikely to be due to a photochemical mechanism because (a) the photons will not penetrate to these depths, (b) it is a long distance for toxic photoproducts to diffuse, and (c) damage is proportional to laser pulse intensity and not the total dose that accumulates in the residual tissue; therefore, reciprocity does not hold. Damage due to a thermal mechanism is not expected because there is not sufficient energy deposited in the tissue to cause significant heating at such depths. The damage is most likely due to a photoacoustic mechanism because (a) photoacoustic waves can propagate deep into tissue, (b) the depth of damage increases with increasing laser pulse intensity rather than with increasing total residual energy, and (c) the effects are immediate. These effects should be considered in the evaluation of short pulse, high peak power laser-tissue interactions.

  9. Measurements of plasma temperature and electron density in laser ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of 6 ns focussed onto a copper solid sample in air at atmospheric pressure is studied spectroscopically. ... Pulsed laser-induced plasmas (LIPs) of metals and alloys formed at laser pulse ir- radiances near the .... fibre-based collection system.

  10. Automated laser-based barely visible impact damage detection in honeycomb sandwich composite structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girolamo, D.; Yuan, F. G.; Girolamo, L.

    2015-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for detection and quantification of damage in composite materials is fundamental in the assessment of the overall structural integrity of modern aerospace systems. Conventional NDE systems have been extensively used to detect the location and size of damages by propagating ultrasonic waves normal to the surface. However they usually require physical contact with the structure and are time consuming and labor intensive. An automated, contactless laser ultrasonic imaging system for barely visible impact damage (BVID) detection in advanced composite structures has been developed to overcome these limitations. Lamb waves are generated by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, raster scanned by a set of galvano-mirrors over the damaged area. The out-of-plane vibrations are measured through a laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) that is stationary at a point on the corner of the grid. The ultrasonic wave field of the scanned area is reconstructed in polar coordinates and analyzed for high resolution characterization of impact damage in the composite honeycomb panel. Two methodologies are used for ultrasonic wave-field analysis: scattered wave field analysis (SWA) and standing wave energy analysis (SWEA) in the frequency domain. The SWA is employed for processing the wave field and estimate spatially dependent wavenumber values, related to discontinuities in the structural domain. The SWEA algorithm extracts standing waves trapped within damaged areas and, by studying the spectrum of the standing wave field, returns high fidelity damage imaging. While the SWA can be used to locate the impact damage in the honeycomb panel, the SWEA produces damage images in good agreement with X-ray computed tomographic (X-ray CT) scans. The results obtained prove that the laser-based nondestructive system is an effective alternative to overcome limitations of conventional NDI technologies

  11. Ultrashort-pulse laser excitation and damage of dielectric materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr-Lillevang, Lasse; Balling, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Ultrashort-pulse laser excitation of dielectrics is an intricate problem due to the strong coupling between the rapidly changing material properties and the light. In the present paper, details of a model based on a multiple-rate-equation description of the conduction band are provided. The model...

  12. Laser beam shaping for studying thermally induced damage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masina, BN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available into a flat-top beam profile by using a diffractive optical element as a phase element in conjunction with a Fourier transforming lens. In this paper, they have successfully demonstrated temperature profiles across the diamond tool surface using two laser...

  13. Detection of Fatigue Damage by Using Frequency Attenuation of a Laser Ultrasonic Longitudinal Wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung-Kyu; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Jung, Hyun-Kyu; Joo, Young-Sang; Cha, Hyung-Ki; Kang, Young-June

    2006-01-01

    The measurement of fatigue damage in nuclear power plant components is very important to prevent a catastrophic accident and the subsequent severe losses. Specifically, it is preferred to detect at an early stage of the fatigue damage. If the fatigue damage that is in danger of growing into a fracture is accurately detected, an appropriate treatment could be carried out to improve the condition. Although most engineers and designers take precautions against fatigue, some breakdowns of nuclear power plant components still occur due to fatigue damage. It is considered that ultrasound testing technique is the most promising method to detect the fatigue damage in many nondestructive testing methods. Ultrasound testing method has a variety of elastic waves, such as a longitudinal wave, a shear wave, a surface wave and a lamb wave. Also we can use various analysis methods, such as a velocity variation and a signal attenuation. Laser ultrasonic testing has attracted attention as a non-contact testing technique. This system consists of a pulse laser to remotely generate ultrasound and a laser interferometer to remotely measure the surface displacement due to the generated ultrasound. This noncontact testing technique has the following advantages over the conventional piezoelectric transducers. Firstly, the inspection system can be remotely operated for a structure in hostile environments, such as in high radioactivity, high temperatures and narrow spaces. Secondly, we can obtain lots of information from the received ultrasonic waveforms because the laser ultrasonic technique does not require fluid couplant which disturbs the ultrasonic waveforms. Thirdly, laser ultrasound has a wideband spectrum and a high spatial resolution. Therefore, the laser ultrasound provides more accurate information for a testing material and has potential for the detection of fatigue damage in various metals composing a nuclear power plant

  14. Effects of laser power density and initial grain size in laser shock punching of pure copper foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chao; Zhang, Xiu; Zhang, Yiliang; Ji, Zhong; Luan, Yiguo; Song, Libin

    2018-06-01

    The effects of laser power density and initial grain size on forming quality of holes in laser shock punching process were investigated in the present study. Three different initial grain sizes as well as three levels of laser power densities were provided, and then laser shock punching experiments of T2 copper foil were conducted. Based upon the experimental results, the characteristics of shape accuracy, fracture surface morphology and microstructures of punched holes were examined. It is revealed that the initial grain size has a noticeable effect on forming quality of holes punched by laser shock. The shape accuracy of punched holes degrades with the increase of grain size. As the laser power density is enhanced, the shape accuracy can be improved except for the case in which the ratio of foil thickness to initial grain size is approximately equal to 1. Compared with the fracture surface morphology in the quasistatic loading conditions, the fracture surface after laser shock can be divided into three zones including rollover, shearing and burr. The distribution of the above three zones strongly relates with the initial grain size. When the laser power density is enhanced, the shearing depth is not increased, but even diminishes in some cases. There is no obvious change of microstructures with the enhancement of laser power density. However, while the initial grain size is close to the foil thickness, single-crystal shear deformation may occur, suggesting that the ratio of foil thickness to initial grain size has an important impact on deformation behavior of metal foil in laser shock punching process.

  15. High-Damage-Threshold Pinhole for Glass Fusion Laser Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumit, N.A.; Letzring, S.A.; Johnson, R.P.

    1998-01-01

    We are investigating methods to fabricate high-damage-threshold spatial-filter pinholes that might not be susceptible to plasma closure for relatively high energies and long pulses. These are based on the observation that grazing-incidence reflection from glass can withstand in excess of 5 kJ/cm 2 (normal to the beam) without plasma formation. The high damage threshold results from both the cos q spreading of the energy across the surface and the reflection of a large fraction of the energy from the surface, thereby greatly reducing the field strength within the medium

  16. Thermal damage control of dye-assisted laser tissue welding: effect of dye concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hua; Buckley, Lisa A.; Prahl, Scott A.; Shaffer, Brian S.; Gregory, Kenton W.

    2001-05-01

    Successful laser-assisted tissue welding was implemented to provide proper weld strength with minimized tissue thermal injury. We investigated and compared the weld strengths and morphologic changes in porcine small intestinal submucose (SIS) and porcine ureteral tissues with various concentration of indocyanine green (ICG) and with a solid albumin sheet. The study showed that the tissues were welded at lower ICG concentration (0.05 mM) with minimized tissue thermal damage using an 800-nm wavelength diode laser.

  17. Laser-induced cartilage damage: an ex-vivo model using confocal microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenz, Martin; Zueger, Benno J.; Monin, D.; Weiler, C.; Mainil-Varlet, P. M.; Weber, Heinz P.; Schaffner, Thomas

    1999-06-01

    Although there is an increasing popularity of lasers in orthopedic surgery, there is a growing concern about negative side effects of this therapy e.g. prolonged restitution time, radiation damage to adjacent cartilage or depth effects like bone necrosis. Despite case reports and experimental investigations over the last few years little is known about the extent of acute cartilage damage induced by different lasers types and energies. Histological examination offers only limited insights in cell viability and metabolism. Ho:YAG and Er:YAG lasers emitting at 2.1 micrometer and 2.94 micrometer, respectively, are ideally suited for tissue treatment because these wavelengths are strongly absorbed in water. The Purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effect of laser type and energy on chondrocyte viability in an ex vivo model. Free running Er:YAG (E equals 100 and 150 mJ) and Ho:YAG (E equals 500 and 800 mJ) lasers were used at different energy levels using a fixed pulse length of 400 microseconds. The energy was delivered at 8 Hz through optical fibers. Fresh bovine hyaline cartilage samples were mounted in a water bath at room temperature and the fiber was positioned at 30 degree and 180 degree angles relative to the tissue surface. After laser irradiation the samples were assessed by a life-dead cell viability test using a confocal microscope and by standard histology. Thermal damage was much deeper with Ho:YAG (up to 1800 micrometer) than with the Er:YAG laser (up to 70 micrometer). The cell viability test revealed a damage zone about twice the one determined by standard histology. Confocal microscopy is a powerful tool for assessing changes in tissue structure after laser treatment. In addition this technique allows to quantify these alterations without necessitating time consuming and expensive animal experiments.

  18. Optoacoustic monitoring of cutting efficiency and thermal damage during laser ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Erwin; Douplik, Alexandre; Razansky, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Successful laser surgery is characterized by a precise cut and effective hemostasis with minimal collateral thermal damage to the adjacent tissues. Consequently, the surgeon needs to control several parameters, such as power, pulse repetition rate, and velocity of movements. In this study we propose utilizing optoacoustics for providing the necessary real-time feedback of cutting efficiency and collateral thermal damage. Laser ablation was performed on a bovine meat slab using a Q-switched Nd-YAG laser (532 nm, 4 kHz, 18 W). Due to the short pulse duration of 7.6 ns, the same laser has also been used for generation of optoacoustic signals. Both the shockwaves, generated due to tissue removal, as well as the normal optoacoustic responses from the surrounding tissue were detected using a single broadband piezoelectric transducer. It has been observed that the rapid reduction in the shockwave amplitude occurs as more material is being removed, indicating decrease in cutting efficiency, whereas gradual decrease in the optoacoustic signal likely corresponds to coagulation around the ablation crater. Further heating of the surrounding tissue leads to carbonization accompanied by a significant shift in the optoacoustic spectra. Our results hold promise for real-time monitoring of cutting efficiency and collateral thermal damage during laser surgery. In practice, this could eventually facilitate development of automatic cut-off mechanisms that will guarantee an optimal tradeoff between cutting and heating while avoiding severe thermal damage to the surrounding tissues.

  19. Time resolved Raman studies of laser induced damage in TiO2 optical coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exarhos, G.J.; Morse, P.L.

    1984-10-01

    Molecular information available from Raman scattering measurements of sputter deposited TiO 2 on silica substrates has been used to characterize crystalline phases, thickness, and surface homogeneity. A two laser technique is described for investigating transient molecular changes in both coating and substrate which result from pulsed 532 nm laser irradiation. Single layer and multilayer coatings of both anatase and rutile phases of TiO 2 have been probed by Raman spectroscopy immediately following the damage pulse (nanoseconds) and at longer times. Transient measurements are designed to follow surface transformation/relaxation phenomena; measurements at longer times characterize the equilibrium damage state

  20. Effect of temperature on surface error and laser damage threshold for self-healing BK7 glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chu; Wang, Hongxiang; Shen, Lu; Hou, Jing; Xu, Qiao; Wang, Jian; Chen, Xianhua; Liu, Zhichao

    2018-03-20

    Cracks caused during the lapping and polishing process can decrease the laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of the BK7 glass optical elements, which would shorten the lifetime and limit the output power of the high-energy laser system. When BK7 glass is heated under appropriate conditions, the surface cracks can exhibit a self-healing phenomenon. In this paper, based on thermodynamics and viscous fluid mechanics theory, the mechanisms of crack self-healing are explained. The heat-healing experiment was carried out, and the effect of water was analyzed. The multi-spatial-frequency analysis was used to investigate the effect of temperature on surface error for self-healing BK7 glass, and the lapped BK7 glass specimens before and after heat healing were detected by an interferometer and atomic force microscopy. The low-spatial-frequency error was analyzed by peak to valley and root mean square, the mid-spatial-frequency error was analyzed by power spectral density, and the high-spatial-frequency error was analyzed by surface roughness. The results showed that the optimal heating temperature for BK7 was 450°C, and when the heating temperature was higher than the glass transition temperature (555°C), the surface quality decreased a lot. The laser damage test was performed, and the specimen heated at 450°C showed an improvement in LIDT.

  1. Determination of ultra-short laser induced damage threshold of KH2PO4 crystal: Numerical calculation and experimental verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Cheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid growth and ultra-precision machining of large-size KDP (KH2PO4 crystals with high laser damage resistance are tough challenges in the development of large laser systems. It is of high interest and practical significance to have theoretical models for scientists and manufacturers to determine the laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT of actually prepared KDP optics. Here, we numerically and experimentally investigate the laser-induced damage on KDP crystals in ultra-short pulse laser regime. On basis of the rate equation for free electron generation, a model dedicated to predicting the LIDT is developed by considering the synergistic effect of photoionization, impact ionization and decay of electrons. Laser damage tests are performed to measure the single-pulse LIDT with several testing protocols. The testing results combined with previously reported experimental data agree well with those calculated by the model. By taking the light intensification into consideration, the model is successfully applied to quantitatively evaluate the effect of surface flaws inevitably introduced in the preparation processes on the laser damage resistance of KDP crystals. This work can not only contribute to further understanding of the laser damage mechanisms of optical materials, but also provide available models for evaluating the laser damage resistance of exquisitely prepared optical components used in high power laser systems.

  2. An Improved Method of Mitigating Laser Induced Surface Damage Growth in Fused Silica Using a Rastered, Pulsed CO2 Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, I L; Guss, G M; Nostrand, M J; Wegner, P L

    2010-10-21

    A new method of mitigating (arresting) the growth of large (>200 m diameter and depth) laser induced surface damage on fused silica has been developed that successfully addresses several issues encountered with our previously-reported large site mitigation technique. As in the previous work, a tightly-focused 10.6 {micro}m CO{sub 2} laser spot is scanned over the damage site by galvanometer steering mirrors. In contrast to the previous work, the laser is pulsed instead of CW, with the pulse length and repetition frequency chosen to allow substantial cooling between pulses. This cooling has the important effect of reducing the heat-affected zone capable of supporting thermo-capillary flow from scale lengths on the order of the overall scan pattern to scale lengths on the order of the focused laser spot, thus preventing the formation of a raised rim around the final mitigation site and its consequent down-stream intensification. Other advantages of the new method include lower residual stresses, and improved damage threshold associated with reduced amounts of redeposited material. The raster patterns can be designed to produce specific shapes of the mitigation pit including cones and pyramids. Details of the new technique and its comparison with the previous technique will be presented.

  3. High-Density Plasma-Induced Etch Damage of GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baca, A.G.; Han, J.; Lester, L.F.; Pearton, S.J.; Ren, F.; Shul, R.J.; Willison, C.G.; Zhang, L.; Zolper, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Anisotropic, smooth etching of the group-III nitrides has been reported at relatively high rates in high-density plasma etch systems. However, such etch results are often obtained under high de-bias and/or high plasma flux conditions where plasma induced damage can be significant. Despite the fact that the group-III nitrides have higher bonding energies than more conventional III-V compounds, plasma-induced etch damage is still a concern. Attempts to minimize such damage by reducing the ion energy or increasing the chemical activity in the plasma often result in a loss of etch rate or anisotropy which significantly limits critical dimensions and reduces the utility of the process for device applications requiring vertical etch profiles. It is therefore necessary to develop plasma etch processes which couple anisotropy for critical dimension and sidewall profile control and high etch rates with low-damage for optimum device performance. In this study we report changes in sheet resistance and contact resistance for n- and p-type GaN samples exposed to an Ar inductively coupled plasma (ICP). In general, plasma-induced damage was more sensitive to ion bombardment energies as compared to plasma flux. In addition, p-GaN was typically more sensitive to plasma-induced damage as compared to n-GaN

  4. Dentinal temperature transients caused by exposure to CO2 laser irradiation and possible pulpal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, I W; Lawrenson, B; Saunders, E M; Longbottom, C

    1990-02-01

    An investigation is described that attempts to establish, in vitro, the characteristics of heat transference following laser irradiation of bovine dentinal tissue and the relationship with the periodicity of radiation. The results of this study appear to indicate that at depths of overlying dentine of up to 3 mm, laser-induced thermal injury to the pulp is a definite possibility. Fail-safe facilities to prevent build up of heat must be incorporated into the design of dental lasers to allow their beneficial effects to be utilized without the risk of iatrogenic damage.

  5. Comparison of the external physical damages between laser-assisted and mechanical immobilized human sperm using scanning electronic microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Y L Chan

    Full Text Available We aim to visualize the external physical damages and distinct external phenotypic effects between mechanical and laser-assisted immobilized human spermatozoa using scanning electronic microscopy (SEM. Human spermatozoa were immobilized mechanically or with laser assistance for SEM examination and the membrane integrities were checked on both types of immobilized spermatozoa. We found evidence of external damages at SEM level on mechanically kinked sperm, but not on laser-assisted immobilized sperm. Although no external damage was found on laser-assist immobilized sperm, there were two distinct types of morphological changes when spermatozoa were stricken by infra-red laser. Coiled tails were immediately formed when Laser pulse was applied to the sperm end piece area, whereas laser applied to the sperm principal piece area resulted in a sharp bend of sperm tails. Sperm immobilized by laser did not exhibit any morphological change if the laser did not hit within the on-screen central target zone or if the laser hit the sperm mid piece or head. Our modified membrane integrity assay revealed that the external membrane of more than half of the laser-assisted immobilized sperm remained intact. In conclusion, mechanical immobilization produced membrane damages whilst laser-assisted immobilization did not result in any external membrane damages besides morphological changes at SEM level.

  6. CO{sub 2} laser diagnostics for measurements of the plasma density profile and plasma density fluctuations on LHD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyacheslavov, L.N. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Tanaka, K.; Kawahata, K. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2001-04-01

    A CO{sub 2} laser based diagnostics complimentary to the existing FIR interferometer is proposed. It combines interferometry for plasma density profile measurement under conditions of large density gradients, and both imaging and scattering techniques for observation of plasma fluctuations. Two-colour interferometer with a slablike probe beam and a single multichannel linear detector array provide observation of plasma density profile and density fluctuations at two locations along the probe beam. Basic characteristics of the diagnostics are considered as well as some effects that include dispersion and are critical for two colour imaging technique. The results of the bench-top experiments with the prototype of the interferometer are presented. (author)

  7. CO2 laser diagnostics for measurements of the plasma density profile and plasma density fluctuations on LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyacheslavov, L.N.; Tanaka, K.; Kawahata, K.

    2001-04-01

    A CO 2 laser based diagnostics complimentary to the existing FIR interferometer is proposed. It combines interferometry for plasma density profile measurement under conditions of large density gradients, and both imaging and scattering techniques for observation of plasma fluctuations. Two-colour interferometer with a slablike probe beam and a single multichannel linear detector array provide observation of plasma density profile and density fluctuations at two locations along the probe beam. Basic characteristics of the diagnostics are considered as well as some effects that include dispersion and are critical for two colour imaging technique. The results of the bench-top experiments with the prototype of the interferometer are presented. (author)

  8. A review of low density porous materials used in laser plasma experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Keiji; Musgrave, Christopher S. A.; Nazarov, Wigen

    2018-03-01

    This review describes and categorizes the synthesis and properties of low density porous materials, which are commonly referred to as foams and are utilized for laser plasma experiments. By focusing a high-power laser on a small target composed of these materials, high energy and density states can be produced. In the past decade or so, various new target fabrication techniques have been developed by many laboratories that use high energy lasers and consequently, many publications and reviews followed these developments. However, the emphasis so far has been on targets that did not utilize low density porous materials. This review therefore, attempts to redress this balance and endeavors to review low density materials used in laser plasma experiments in recent years. The emphasis of this review will be on aspects of low density materials that are of relevance to high energy laser plasma experiments. Aspects of low density materials such as densities, elemental compositions, macroscopic structures, nanostructures, and characterization of these materials will be covered. Also, there will be a brief mention of how these aspects affect the results in laser plasma experiments and the constrictions that these requirements put on the fabrication of low density materials relevant to this field. This review is written from the chemists' point of view to aid physicists and the new comers to this field.

  9. Ascorbic acid protects lipids in human plasma and low-density lipoprotein against oxidative damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frei, B. (Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (Unites States))

    1991-12-01

    The authors exposed human blood plasma and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to many different oxidative challenges and followed the temporal consumption of endogenous antioxidants in relation to the initiation of oxidative damage. Under all types of oxidizing conditions, ascorbic acid completely protects lipids in plasma and LDL against detectable peroxidative damage as assessed by a specific and highly sensitive assay for lipid peroxidation. Ascorbic acid proved to be superior to the other water-soluble plasma antioxidants bilirubin, uric acid, and protein thiols as well as to the lipoprotein-associated antioxidants alpha-tocopherol, ubiquinol-10, lycopene, and beta-carotene. Although these antioxidants can lower the rate of detectable lipid peroxidation, they are not able to prevent its initiation. Only ascorbic acid is reactive enough to effectively intercept oxidants in the aqueous phase before they can attack and cause detectable oxidative damage to lipids.

  10. Laser-induced damage in dielectrics with nanosecond to subpicosecond pulses. I. Experimental. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, B.C.; Herman, S.; Perry, M.D.

    1994-12-01

    The authors report extensive laser-induced damage threshold measurements on pure and multilayer dielectrics at 1053 and 526 mm for pulse durations, τ, ranging from 140 fs to 1 ns. Qualitative differences in the morphology of damage and a departure from the diffusion-dominated τ 1/2 scaling indicate that damage results from plasma formation and ablation for τ≤10 ps and from conventional melting and boiling for τ>50 ps. A theoretical model based on electron production via multiphoton ionization, Joule heating, and collisional (avalanche) ionization is in good agreement with both the pulsewidth and wavelength scaling of experimental results

  11. Reduction of damage threshold in dielectric materials induced by negatively chirped laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louzon, E.; Henis, Z.; Pecker, S.; Ehrlich, Y.; Fisher, D.; Fraenkel, M.; Zigler, A.

    2005-01-01

    The threshold fluence for laser induced damage in wide band gap dielectric materials, fused silica and MgF 2 , is observed to be lower by up to 20% for negatively (down) chirped pulses than for positively (up) chirped, at pulse durations ranging from 60 fs to 1 ps. This behavior of the threshold fluence for damage on the chirp direction was not observed in semiconductors (silicon and GaAs). Based on a model including electron generation in the conduction band and Joule heating, it is suggested that the decrease in the damage threshold for negatively chirped pulse is related to the dominant role of multiphoton ionization in wide gap materials

  12. Damage Mechanisms In Polymers Upon NIR Femtosecond Pulse Laser Irradiation: Sub-Threshold Processes And Their Implications For Laser Safety Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonse, Joern; Krueger, Joerg; Solis, Javier; Spielmann, Christian; Lippert, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This contribution investigates laser-induced damage of thin film and bulk polymer samples, with the focus on physical processes occurring close to the damage threshold. In-situ real-time reflectivity (RTR) measurements with picosecond (ps) and nanosecond (ns) temporal resolution were performed on thin polymer films on a timescale up to a few microseconds (μs). A model for polymer thin film damage is presented, indicating that irreversible chemical modification processes take place already below the fluence threshold for macroscopic damage. On dye-doped bulk polymer filters (as used for laser goggles), transmission studies using fs-and ps-laser pulses reveal the optical saturation behavior of the material and its relation to the threshold of permanent damage. Implications of the sub-threshold processes for laser safety applications will be discussed for thin film and bulk polymer damage.

  13. Non-damaging laser therapy of the macula: Titration algorithm and tissue response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanker, Daniel; Lavinsky, Daniel; Dalal, Roopa; Huie, Philip

    2014-02-01

    Retinal photocoagulation typically results in permanent scarring and scotomata, which limit its applicability to the macula, preclude treatments in the fovea, and restrict the retreatments. Non-damaging approaches to laser therapy have been tested in the past, but the lack of reliable titration and slow treatment paradigms limited their clinical use. We developed and tested a titration algorithm for sub-visible and non-damaging treatments of the retina with pulses sufficiently short to be used with pattern laser scanning. The algorithm based on Arrhenius model of tissue damage optimizes the power and duration for every energy level, relative to the threshold of lesion visibility established during titration (and defined as 100%). Experiments with pigmented rabbits established that lesions in the 50-75% energy range were invisible ophthalmoscopically, but detectable with Fluorescein Angiography and OCT, while at 30% energy there was only very minor damage to the RPE, which recovered within a few days. Patients with Diabetic Macular Edema (DME) and Central Serous Retinopathy (CSR) have been treated over the edematous areas at 30% energy, using 200μm spots with 0.25 diameter spacing. No signs of laser damage have been detected with any imaging modality. In CSR patients, subretinal fluid resolved within 45 days. In DME patients the edema decreased by approximately 150μm over 60 days. After 3-4 months some patients presented with recurrence of edema, and they responded well to retreatment with the same parameters, without any clinically visible damage. This pilot data indicates a possibility of effective and repeatable macular laser therapy below the tissue damage threshold.

  14. Generation of Ta ions at high laser-power densities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Láska, Leoš; Jungwirth, Karel; Králiková, Božena; Krása, Josef; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Rohlena, Karel; Skála, Jiří; Ullschmied, Jiří; Badziak, J.; Parys, P.; Wolowski, J.; Woryna, E.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 52, Suppl. D (2002), s. D283-D291 ISSN 0011-4626. [Plasma Physics and Technology. Prague, 10.06.2002-13.06.2002] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : laser produced plasma * multiple charged Ta ions Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.311, year: 2002

  15. Laser damage in optical components: metrology, statistical and photo-induced analysis of precursor centres; Endommagement laser dans les composants optiques: metrologie, analyse statistique et photo-induite des sites initiateurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallais, L

    2002-11-15

    This thesis deals with laser damage phenomena for nanosecond pulses, in optical components such as glasses, dielectric and metallic thin films. Firstly, a work is done on the laser damage metrology, in order to obtain accurate and reliable measurement of laser-induced damage probabilities, with a rigorous control of test parameters. Then, with the use of a specific model, we find densities of laser damage precursors in the case of bulk glasses (few tens by (100{mu}m){sup 3}) and in the case of glass surfaces (one precursor by {mu}m{sup 3}). Our analysis is associated to morphology studies by Atomic Force Microscope to discuss about precursor nature and damage process. Influence of wavelength (from 355 to 1064 nm) and cumulated shots is also studied. Simulations are performed to study initiation mechanisms on these inclusions. This work gives an estimation of complex index and size of the precursor, which permits to discuss about possible detection by non-destructive tools. (author)

  16. Low damage electrical modification of 4H-SiC via ultrafast laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Minhyung; Cahyadi, Rico; Wendorf, Joseph; Bowen, Willie; Torralva, Ben; Yalisove, Steven; Phillips, Jamie

    2018-04-01

    The electrical properties of 4H-SiC under ultrafast laser irradiation in the low fluence regime (engineering spatially localized structural and electronic modification of wide bandgap materials such as 4H-SiC with relatively low surface damage via low temperature processing.

  17. Infrared skin damage thresholds from 1319-nm continuous-wave laser exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Jeffrey W.; Vincelette, Rebecca; Noojin, Gary D.; Clark, Clifton D.; Harbert, Corey A.; Schuster, Kurt J.; Shingledecker, Aurora D.; Kumru, Semih S.; Maughan, Justin; Kitzis, Naomi; Buffington, Gavin D.; Stolarski, David J.; Thomas, Robert J.

    2013-12-01

    A series of experiments were conducted in vivo using Yucatan miniature pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) to determine thermal damage thresholds to the skin from 1319-nm continuous-wave Nd:YAG laser irradiation. Experiments employed exposure durations of 0.25, 1.0, 2.5, and 10 s and beam diameters of ˜0.6 and 1 cm. Thermal imagery data provided a time-dependent surface temperature response from the laser. A damage endpoint of fifty percent probability of a minimally visible effect was used to determine threshold for damage at 1 and 24 h postexposure. Predicted thermal response and damage thresholds are compared with a numerical model of optical-thermal interaction. Resultant trends with respect to exposure duration and beam diameter are compared with current standardized exposure limits for laser safety. Mathematical modeling agreed well with experimental data, predicting that though laser safety standards are sufficient for exposures <10 s, they may become less safe for very long exposures.

  18. Damage to the macula associated with LED-derived blue laser exposure: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lingling; Cui, Zhihua; Lu, Chengwei; Hao, Qian; Zheng, Yajuan

    2017-04-24

    Light emitting diodes laser is emerging as an important source of light replacing conventional lights. It is widely used for illumination in the bar where young people love to go. But not everyone knows about the light damage to the eye especially to the macula. In this article, we report the case of a macular damage induced by LED-derived blue laser in a bar, studied with optical coherence tomography (OCT) to evaluate the retinal lesion and multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) to evaluate functional damage. Four days after the photo injury to the right eye, the visual acuity was 0.5. Funduscopy revealed a round red lesion in the macula of the right eye. Fluorescein angiography (FA) revealed no leakage. OCT revealed a deficiency in the center of the fovea. MfERG revealed a reduction of the peak value in the right eye compared to the left eye. One month later, although the vision was 1.0 in the right eye, OCT revealed a hyporeflectivity of the ellipsoid zone. MfERG still showed a reduction of the peak value in the right eye compared to the left eye. We believe that general knowledge about laser injuries to the eye should be realized widely. We also think in cases of macular laser damage, the recovery of vision can not demonstrate the recovery of the function of photoreceptors.

  19. Effects of laser wavelength and density scale length on absorption of ultrashort intense lasers on solid-density targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susumu, Kato; Eiichi, Takahashi; Tatsuya, Aota; Yuji, Matsumoto; Isao, Okuda; Yoshiro, Owadano [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The interaction of intense laser pulses with overdense plasmas has attracted much interest for the fast igniter concept in inertial fusion energy. Hot electron temperatures and electron energy spectra in the course of interaction between intense laser pulse and overdense plasmas are reexamined from a viewpoint of the difference in laser wavelength. The hot electron temperature measured by a particle-in-cell simulation is scaled by I rather than I{lambda}{sup 2} at the interaction with overdense plasmas with fixed ions, where I and {lambda} are the laser intensity and wavelength, respectively. (authors)

  20. Plasma dynamics near critical density inferred from direct measurements of laser hole boring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chao; Tochitsky, Sergei Ya.; Fiuza, Frederico; Pigeon, Jeremy J.; Joshi, Chan

    2016-06-01

    We have used multiframe picosecond optical interferometry to make direct measurements of the hole boring velocity, vHB, of the density cavity pushed forward by a train of C O2 laser pulses in a near critical density helium plasma. As the pulse train intensity rises, the increasing radiation pressure of each pulse pushes the density cavity forward and the plasma electrons are strongly heated. After the peak laser intensity, the plasma pressure exerted by the heated electrons strongly impedes the hole boring process and the vHB falls rapidly as the laser pulse intensity falls at the back of the laser pulse train. A heuristic theory is presented that allows the estimation of the plasma electron temperature from the measurements of the hole boring velocity. The measured values of vHB, and the estimated values of the heated electron temperature as a function of laser intensity are in reasonable agreement with those obtained from two-dimensional numerical simulations.

  1. Single-pulse and multi-pulse femtosecond laser damage of optical single films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Lei; Zhao Yuan'an; He Hongbo; Shao Jianda; Fan Zhengxiu

    2006-01-01

    Laser-induced damage of a single 500 nm HfO 2 film and a single 500 nm ZrO 2 film were studied with single- and multi-pulse femtosecond laser. The laser-induced damage thresholds (LIDT) of both samples by the 1-on-1 method and the 1000-on-1 method were reported. It was discovered that the LIDT of the HfO 2 single film was higher than that of the ZrO 2 single film by both test methods, which was explained by simple Keldysh's multiphoton ionization theory. The LIDT of multi-pulse was lower than that of single-pulse for both samples as a result of accumulative effect. (authors)

  2. Laser damage metrology in biaxial nonlinear crystals using different test beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenbrand, Anne; Wagner, Frank R.; Akhouayri, Hassan; Natoli, Jean-Yves; Commandre, Mireille

    2008-01-01

    Laser damage measurements in nonlinear optical crystals, in particular in biaxial crystals, may be influenced by several effects proper to these materials or greatly enhanced in these materials. Before discussion of these effects, we address the topic of error bar determination for probability measurements. Error bars for the damage probabilities are important because nonlinear crystals are often small and expensive, thus only few sites are used for a single damage probability measurement. We present the mathematical basics and a flow diagram for the numerical calculation of error bars for probability measurements that correspond to a chosen confidence level. Effects that possibly modify the maximum intensity in a biaxial nonlinear crystal are: focusing aberration, walk-off and self-focusing. Depending on focusing conditions, propagation direction, polarization of the light and the position of the focus point in the crystal, strong aberrations may change the beam profile and drastically decrease the maximum intensity in the crystal. A correction factor for this effect is proposed, but quantitative corrections are not possible without taking into account the experimental beam profile after the focusing lens. The characteristics of walk-off and self-focusing have quickly been reviewed for the sake of completeness of this article. Finally, parasitic second harmonic generation may influence the laser damage behavior of crystals. The important point for laser damage measurements is that the amount of externally observed SHG after the crystal does not correspond to the maximum amount of second harmonic light inside the crystal.

  3. Diagnosing high density, fast-evolving plasmas using x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauble, R.; Da Silva, L.B.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.

    1994-09-01

    As x-ray laser (XRL) research has matured, it has become possible to reliably utilize XRLs for applications in the laboratory. Laser coherence, high brightness and short pulse duration all make the XRL a unique tool for the diagnosis of laboratory plasmas. The high brightness of XRLs makes them well-suited for imaging and for interferometry when used in conjunction with multilayer mirrors and beamsplitters. We have utilized a soft x-ray laser in such an imaging system to examine laser-produced plasmas using radiography, moire deflectometry, and interferometry. Radiography experiments yield 100-200 ps snapshots of laser driven foils at a resolution of 1-2 μm. Moire deflectometry with an XRL has been used to probe plasmas at higher density than by optical means. Interferograms, which allow direct measurement of electron density in laser plasmas, have been obtained with this system

  4. Impact of environmental contamination on laser induced damage of silica optics in Laser MegaJoule; Impact de l'environnement sur l'endommagement laser des optiques de silice du Laser MegaJoule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bien-Aime, K.

    2009-11-15

    Laser induced damage impact of molecular contamination on fused polished silica samples in a context of high power laser fusion facility, such as Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) has been studied. One of the possible causes of laser induced degradation of optical component is the adsorption of molecular or particular contamination on optical surfaces. In the peculiar case of LMJ, laser irradiation conditions are a fluence of 10 J/cm{sup 2}, a wavelength of 351 nm, a pulse duration of 3 ns for a single shot/days frequency. Critical compounds have been identified thanks to environmental measurements, analysis of material outgassing, and identification of surface contamination in the critical environments. Experiments of controlled contamination involving these compounds have been conducted in order to understand and model mechanisms of laser damage. Various hypotheses are proposed to explain the damage mechanism. (author)

  5. Progressive damage analysis of carbon/epoxy laminates under couple laser and mechanical loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanlei Liu

    Full Text Available A multiscale model based bridge theory is proposed for the progressive damage analysis of carbon/epoxy laminates under couple laser and mechanical loading. The ablation model is adopted to calculate ablation temperature changing and ablation surface degradation. The polynomial strengthening model of matrix is used to improve bridging model for reducing parameter input. Stiffness degradation methods of bridging model are also improved in order to analyze the stress redistribution more accurately when the damage occurs. Thermal-mechanical analyses of the composite plate are performed using the ABAQUS/Explicit program with the developed model implemented in the VUMAT. The simulation results show that this model can be used to proclaim the mesoscale damage mechanism of composite laminates under coupled loading. Keywords: Laser irradiation, Multiscale analysis, Bridge model, Thermal-mechanical

  6. Short-pulse CO2-laser damage studies of NaCl and KCl windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newnam, B.E.; Nowak, A.V.; Gill, D.H.

    1979-01-01

    The damage resistance of bare surfaces and the bulk interior of NaCl and KCl windows was measured with a short-pulse CO 2 laser at 10.6 μm. Parametric studies with 1.7-ns pulses indicated that adsorbed water was probably the limiting agent on surface thresholds in agreement with previous studies at long pulsewidths. Rear-surface thresholds up to 7 J/cm 2 were measured for polished NaCl windows, whereas KCl surfaces damaged at approximately 60% of this level. The breakdown electric-field thresholds of exit surfaces were only 50% of the value of the bulk materials. The pulsewidth dependence of surface damage from 1 to 65 ns, in terms of incident laser fluence, increased as t/sup 1/3/

  7. [Modification of radiation damage to biological objects by lasers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskanian, K Sh; Vorozhzova, S V; Abrosimova, A N; Mitsyn, G V; Gaevskiĭ, V N

    2012-01-01

    A series of experiments had the purpose to study effects of gamma-rays 60Co (5 Gy) and the combined effects of laser 650 nm (1 mJ/cm2) and gamma-rays 60Co (5 Gy) on survivability, body mass, integument and mitotic index of marrow cells (MC) of young mice C57BL/6. Laser was applied to the mouse hairy back only. Ten months of gamma-irradiation brought death to 50% of mice; the combined irradiation killed only 30%. Starting on month six after gamma-irradiation, body mass was less in comparison with mice exposed to the combined irradiation. In addition, all mice lost body mass sharply before death. All gamma-irradiated mice were touched with grey over the period of 30 days; in 40 days, 10 of 20 mice had incipient local radiation alopecia on the back that passed fully within next month. However, all mice developed radiation ulcers on the fourth month since irradiation. Two mice formed also neck tumors. In 5 months tails fell off in 2 mice. Some grey streaks appeared on mice exposed to the combined irradiation 3 months later only; three mice remained black throughout the follow-up. Alopecia was found in three survivors in 5 months after irradiation. Mitotic activity of marrow cells obtained from mice on day 15 since exposure to lasing and combined irradiation was higher in comparison with cells from intact mice. In a year, the MC mitotic index was higher in mice exposed to the combined irradiation as compared with the gamma-irradiated mice.

  8. Short-pulse-laser-induced optical damage and fracto-emission of amorphous, diamond-like carbon films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski-Tinten, Klaus; Ziegler, Wolfgang; von der Linde, Dietrich; Siegal, Michael P.; Overmyer, D. L.

    2005-03-01

    Short-pulse-laser-induced damage and ablation of thin films of amorphous, diamond-like carbon have been investigated. Material removal and damage are caused by fracture of the film and ejection of large fragments. The fragments exhibit a delayed, intense and broadband emission of microsecond duration. Both fracture and emission are attributed to the laser-initiated relaxation of the high internal stresses of the pulse laser deposition-grown films.

  9. Comparison of tissue damage caused by various laser systems with tissue tolerable plasma by light and laser scan microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandersee, Staffan; Lademann, Jürgen; Richter, Heike; Patzelt, Alexa; Lange-Asschenfeldt, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Tissue tolerable plasma (TTP) represents a novel therapeutic method with promising capabilities in the field of dermatological interventions, in particular disinfection but also wound antisepsis and regeneration. The energy transfer by plasma into living tissue is not easily educible, as a variety of features such as the medium’s actual molecule-stream, the ions, electrons and free radicals involved, as well as the emission of ultraviolet, visible and infrared light contribute to its increasingly well characterized effects. Thus, relating possible adversary effects, especially of prolonged exposure to a single component of the plasma’s mode of action, is difficult. Until now, severe adverse events connected to plasma exposure have not been reported when conducted according to existing therapeutic protocols. In this study, we have compared the tissue damage-potential of CO 2 and dye lasers with TTP in a porcine model. After exposure of pig ear skin to the three treatment modalities, all specimens were examined histologically and by means of laser scan microscopy (LSM). Light microscopical tissue damage could only be shown in the case of the CO 2 laser, whereas dye laser and plasma treatment resulted in no detectable impairment of the specimens. In the case of TTP, LSM examination revealed only an impairment of the uppermost corneal layers of the skin, thus stressing its safety when used in vivo. (letter)

  10. Laser-induced damage thresholds of gold, silver and their alloys in air and water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starinskiy, Sergey V.; Shukhov, Yuri G.; Bulgakov, Alexander V., E-mail: bulgakov@itp.nsc.ru

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Laser damage thresholds of Ag, Au and Ag-Au alloys in air and water are measured. • Alloy thresholds are lower than those of Ag and Au due to low thermal conductivity. • Laser damage thresholds in water are ∼1.5 times higher than those in air. • Light scattering mechanisms responsible for high thresholds in water are suggested. • Light scattering mechanisms are supported by optical reflectance measurements. - Abstract: The nanosecond-laser-induced damage thresholds of gold, silver and gold-silver alloys of various compositions in air and water have been measured for single-shot irradiation conditions. The experimental results are analyzed theoretically by solving the heat flow equation for the samples irradiated in air and in water taking into account vapor nucleation at the solid-water interface. The damage thresholds of Au-Ag alloys are systematically lower than those for pure metals, both in air and water that is explained by lower thermal conductivities of the alloys. The thresholds measured in air agree well with the calculated melting thresholds for all samples. The damage thresholds in water are found to be considerably higher, by a factor of ∼1.5, than the corresponding thresholds in air. This cannot be explained, in the framework of the used model, neither by the conductive heat transfer to water nor by the vapor pressure effect. Possible reasons for the high damage thresholds in water such as scattering of the incident laser light by the vapor-liquid interface and the critical opalescence in the superheated water are suggested. Optical pump-probe measurements have been performed to study the reflectance dynamics of the surface irradiated in air and water. Comparison of the transient reflectance signal with the calculated nucleation dynamics provides evidence that the both suggested scattering mechanisms are likely to occur during metal ablation in water.

  11. Supersonic shear flows in laser driven high-energy-density plasmas created by the Nike laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, E. C.; Drake, R. P.; Gillespie, R. S.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Ditmar, J. R.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Weaver, J. L.; Velikovich, A. L.; Plewa, T.

    2008-11-01

    In high-energy-density (HED) plasmas the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability plays an important role in the evolution of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) and Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) unstable interfaces, as well as material interfaces that experience the passage one or multiple oblique shocks. Despite the potentially important role of the KH instability few experiments have been carried out to explore its behavior in the high-energy-density regime. We report on the evolution of a supersonic shear flow that is generated by the release of a high velocity (>100 km/s) aluminum plasma onto a CRF foam (ρ = 0.1 g/cc) surface. In order to seed the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability various two-dimensional sinusoidal perturbations (λ = 100, 200, and 300 μm with peak-to-valley amplitudes of 10, 20, and 30 μm respectively) have been machined into the foam surface. This experiment was performed using the Nike laser at the Naval Research Laboratory.

  12. Density and temperature diagnostics of a Ne-like germanium plasma created by laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthier, E.; Bourgade, J.L.; Combis, P.; Jacquemot, S.; Le Breton, J.P.; Louis-Jacquet, M.; Naccache, D.; Nail, M.; Peyrusse, O.

    1987-01-01

    In the framework of X-ray laser studies, experiments on Ne-like Ge plasma have been performed by laser irradiation at λ = 1.053 μm. Amplification in lasing transitions has been observed by varying the plasma length. Theoretical calculations of excited level population allow us to determine density and temperature from line intensity ratios

  13. Characterization of optical and microstructure properties of ultraviolet Sc2O3 thin films and their damage mechanism at high laser power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guanghui; Xue Chunrong; Jin Yunxia; Zhang Weili; Fang Ming; He Hongbo; Fan Zhengxiu

    2010-01-01

    The electron beam evaporation deposition method was employed to prepare scandium oxide (Sc 2 O 3 ) films with substrate temperatures varying from 50 to 350 degree C. A spectrophotometer, a glancing incidence X-ray diffraction spectrometer and a WYKO optical profilograph were employed to investigate the optical, microstructure properties and surface roughness of the Sc 2 O 3 films. The refractive index and the extinction coefficient were calculated from the transmittance and reflectance spectra with the help of the Essential Macleod. The laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) of the Sc 2 O 3 films was characterized by a pulsed Nd: YAG laser system at 355 nm with a pulse duration of 8 ns. A maximum value of 2.6 J/cm 2 was derived, and the LIDT results were found to vary in the opposite direction to the extinction coefficient, surface root mean square roughness and optical loss of the Sc 2 O 3 films. An optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope were used to characterize the damage morphology of the samples, and the development of damage with increasing laser energy density was recorded and discussed. The relationship between the LIDT and the deposition parameters of the Sc 2 O 3 thin films was analyzed, and the damage mechanism of the films under 355 nm laser irradiation was discussed. (authors)

  14. Damage threshold of lithium niobate crystal under single and multiple femtosecond laser pulses: theoretical and experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Qinglong; Zhang, Bin; Zhong, Sencheng; Zhu, Liguo

    2016-01-01

    The damage threshold of lithium niobate crystal under single and multiple femtosecond laser pulses has been studied theoretically and experimentally. Firstly, the model for the damage threshold prediction of crystal materials based on the improved rate equation has been proposed. Then, the experimental measure method of the damage threshold of crystal materials has been given in detail. On the basis, the variation of the damage threshold of lithium niobate crystal with the pulse duration has also been analyzed quantitatively. Finally, the damage threshold of lithium niobate crystal under multiple laser pulses has been measured and compared to the theoretical results. The results show that the transmittance of lithium niobate crystal is almost a constant when the laser pulse fluence is relative low, whereas it decreases linearly with the increase in the laser pulse fluence below the damage threshold. The damage threshold of lithium niobate crystal increases with the increase in the duration of the femtosecond laser pulse. And the damage threshold of lithium niobate crystal under multiple laser pulses is obviously lower than that irradiated by a single laser pulse. The theoretical data fall in good agreement with the experimental results. (orig.)

  15. Model for visualizing high energy laser (HEL) damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erten, Gail

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes and presents results from a model created in MATLAB® to calculate and display the time dependent temperature profile on a target aimpoint as it is being engaged by a high energy laser (HEL) beam. The model uses public domain information namely physics equations of heat conduction and phase changes and material properties such as thermal conductivity/diffusivity, latent heat, specific heat, melting and evaporation points as well as user input material type and thickness. The user also provides time varying characteristics of the HEL beam on the aimpoint, including beam size and intensity distribution (in Watts per centimeter square). The model calculates the temperature distribution at and around the aimpoint and also shows the phase changes of the aimpoint with the material first melting and then evaporating. User programmable features (selecting materials and thickness, erosion rates for melting) make the model highly versatile. The objective is to bridge the divide between remaining faithful to theoretical formulations such as the partial differential equations of heat conduction and at the same time serving practical concerns of the model user who needs to rapidly evaluate HEL thermal effects. One possible use of the tool is to assess lethality values of different aimpoints without costly (as well as often dangerous and destructive) experiments.

  16. Effects of power densities, continuous and pulse frequencies, and number of sessions of low-level laser therapy on intact rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilic, Sanja; Leichliter, Sandra; Streeter, Jackson; Oron, Amir; DeTaboada, Luis; Oron, Uri

    2006-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible short- and long-term adverse neurological effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) given at different power densities, frequencies, and modalities on the intact rat brain. LLLT has been shown to modulate biological processes depending on power density, wavelength, and frequency. To date, few well-controlled safety studies on LLLT are available. One hundred and eighteen rats were used in the study. Diode laser (808 nm, wavelength) was used to deliver power densities of 7.5, 75, and 750 mW/cm2 transcranially to the brain cortex of mature rats, in either continuous wave (CW) or pulse (Pu) modes. Multiple doses of 7.5 mW/cm2 were also applied. Standard neurological examination of the rats was performed during the follow-up periods after laser irradiation. Histology was performed at light and electron microscopy levels. Both the scores from standard neurological tests and the histopathological examination indicated that there was no long-term difference between laser-treated and control groups up to 70 days post-treatment. The only rats showing an adverse neurological effect were those in the 750 mW/cm2 (about 100-fold optimal dose), CW mode group. In Pu mode, there was much less heating, and no tissue damage was noted. Long-term safety tests lasting 30 and 70 days at optimal 10x and 100x doses, as well as at multiple doses at the same power densities, indicate that the tested laser energy doses are safe under this treatment regime. Neurological deficits and histopathological damage to 750 mW/cm2 CW laser irradiation are attributed to thermal damage and not due to tissue-photon interactions.

  17. Higher-Density Culture in Human Embryonic Stem Cells Results in DNA Damage and Genome Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Jacobs

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells (hESC show great promise for clinical and research applications, but their well-known proneness to genomic instability hampers the development to their full potential. Here, we demonstrate that medium acidification linked to culture density is the main cause of DNA damage and genomic alterations in hESC grown on feeder layers, and this even in the short time span of a single passage. In line with this, we show that increasing the frequency of the medium refreshments minimizes the levels of DNA damage and genetic instability. Also, we show that cells cultured on laminin-521 do not present this increase in DNA damage when grown at high density, although the (long-term impact on their genomic stability remains to be elucidated. Our results explain the high levels of genome instability observed over the years by many laboratories worldwide, and show that the development of optimal culture conditions is key to solving this problem.

  18. The influence of plasma density decreasement by pre-pulse on the laser wakefield acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Gong Dong

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the laser wakefield acceleration, the generation of electron beam is very sensitive to the plasma density. Not only the laser-wakefield interaction, but also the electron trapping and acceleration would be effected by the plasma density. However, the plasma density could be changed in the experiment by different reasons, which will result in the mismatch of parameters arranged initially. Forward Raman scattering spectrum demonstrated that the interaction density was decreased obviously in the experiment, which was verified by the pre-pulse conditions and two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. It was demonstrated that the plasma density was very important on the self-evolutions and energy coupling of laser pulse and wakefield, and eventually the energy spectrum of electron beam.

  19. Measurements of the parametric decay of CO2 laser radiation into plasma waves at quarter critical density using ruby laser Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuss, J.J.; Chu, T.K.; Johnson, L.C.

    1977-11-01

    We report the results of small-angle ruby laser Thomson scattering measurements of the parametric excitation of plasma waves by CO 2 laser radiation at quarter-critical density in a laser-heated gas target plasma. From supplementary data obtained from interferometry and large-angle ruby laser scattering we infer that the threshold conditions for a convective decay are satisfied

  20. Damage resistant optics for a mega-joule solid-state laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.H.; Rainer, F.; Kozlowski, M.; Wolfe, C.R.; Thomas, I.; Milanovich, F.

    1990-01-01

    Research on Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) has progressed rapidly in the past several years. As a consequence, LLNL is developing plans to upgrade the current 120 kJ solid state (Nd +3 -phosphate glass) Nova laser to a 1.5 to 2 megajoule system with the goal of achieving fusion ignition. The design of the planned Nova Upgrade is briefly discussed. Because of recent improvements in the damage resistance of optical materials it is now technically and economically feasible to build a megajoule-class solid state laser. Specifically, the damage threshold of Nd +3 -doped phosphate laser glass, multilayer dielectric coatings, and non-linear optical crystals (e.g., KDP) have been dramatically improved. These materials now meet the fluence requirements for a 1.5--2 MJ Nd 3+ -glass laser operating at 1054 and 351 nm and at a pulse length of 3 ns. The recent improvements in damage thresholds are reviewed; threshold data at both 1064 and 355 nm and the measured pulse length scaling are presented. 20 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Highlighting the DNA damage response with ultrashort laser pulses in the near infrared and kinetic modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa eFerrando-May

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the mechanisms governing the response to DNA damage in higher eucaryotes crucially depends on our ability to dissect the temporal and spatial organization of the cellular machinery responsible for maintaining genomic integrity. To achieve this goal, we need experimental tools to inflict DNA lesions with high spatial precision at pre-defined locations, and to visualize the ensuing reactions with adequate temporal resolution. Near-infrared femtosecond laser pulses focused through high-aperture objective lenses of advanced scanning microscopes offer the advantage of inducing DNA damage in a 3D-confined volume of subnuclear dimensions. This high spatial resolution results from the highly nonlinear nature of the excitation process. Here we review recent progress based on the increasing availability of widely tunable and user-friendly technology of ultrafast lasers in the near infrared. We present a critical evaluation of this approach for DNA microdamage as compared to the currently prevalent use of UV or VIS laser irradiation, the latter in combination with photosensitizers. Current and future applications in the field of DNA repair and DNA-damage dependent chromatin dynamics are outlined. Finally, we discuss the requirement for proper simulation and quantitative modeling. We focus in particular on approaches to measure the effect of DNA damage on the mobility of nuclear proteins and consider the pros and cons of frequently used analysis models for FRAP and photoactivation and their applicability to nonlinear photoperturbation experiments.

  2. Comparative study of acute lateral skin damage during radio wave and laser exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubensky V.V.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to study the depth and nature of the zones of thermal damage to the skin under radio wave and laser skin dissection during experiment. Material and Methods. The model of acute thermal damage was full-liner skin wounds of 20 nonlinear rats that were divided into 2 groups and operated by different methods. In the 1st group, the incisions were made by the apparatus of radio wave surgery (Surgitron DF S5, in the 2nd group the animals were operated with a laser surgical apparatus. The magnitude and structure of the lateral thermal damage was evaluated when analyzing the biopsy material. Results. During the study of experimental wounds, the extent of carbonation in the first group (operated with Surgitron DF S5 was 11.56±3.056 urn, coagulation necrosis 116.5±26.78 urn, and the hyper-thermiazone 148.42±60.171 urn. In the group of animals operated with a laser apparatus, the carbonization zone was 22.58±6.62 urn, the coagulation necrosis zone was 331.1±79.08 urn, and the hyperthermia extent was 376.2±53.27 urn. Conclusion. A comparative study of lateral skin damage in radio wave and laser skin dissection revealed a deeper thermal change in the skin and an increase in the extent of thermally altered structures under laser action: the carbonization zone was larger than for radio waves by 11.02 urn, coagulation necrosis by 214.6 urn, and the hyperthermia zone by 227.78 urn.

  3. Detection of Fatigue Damage by Using High Frequency Nonlinear Laser Ultrasonic Signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung Kyu; Park, Nak Kyu; Baik, Sung Hoon; Cheong, Yong Moo; Cha, Byung Heon

    2012-01-01

    The detection of fatigue damage for the components of a nuclear power plant is one of key techniques to prevent a catastrophic accident and the subsequent severe losses. Specifically, it is preferred to detect at an early stage of the fatigue damage. If the fatigue damage that is in danger of growing into a fracture is accurately detected, an appropriate treatment could be carried out to improve the condition. Although most engineers and designers take precautions against fatigue, some breakdowns of nuclear power plant components still occur due to fatigue damage. It is considered that ultrasound testing technique is the most promising method to detect the fatigue damage in many nondestructive testing methods. Laser ultrasound has attracted attention as a noncontact testing technique. Especially, laser ultrasonic signal has wide band frequency spectrum which can provide more accurate information for a testing material. The conventional linear ultrasonic technique is sensitive to gross defects or opened cracks whereas it is less sensitive to evenly distributed micro-cracks or degradation. An alternative technique to overcome this limitation is nonlinear ultrasound. The principal difference between linear and nonlinear technique is that in the latter the existence and characteristics of defects are often related to an acoustic signal whose frequency differs from that of the input signal. This is related to the radiation and propagation of finite amplitude, especially high power, ultrasound and its interaction with discontinuities, such as cracks, interfaces and voids. Since material failure or degradation is usually preceded by some kind of nonlinear mechanical behavior before significant plastic deformation or material damage occurs. The presence of nonlinear terms in the wave equation causes intense acoustic waves to generate new waves at frequencies which are multiples of the initial sound wave frequency. The nonlinear effect can exert a strong effect on the

  4. Wavelength dependence of femtosecond laser-induced damage threshold of optical materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallais, L., E-mail: laurent.gallais@fresnel.fr; Douti, D.-B.; Commandré, M. [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, Centrale Marseille, Institut Fresnel UMR 7249, 13013 Marseille (France); Batavičiūtė, G.; Pupka, E.; Ščiuka, M.; Smalakys, L.; Sirutkaitis, V.; Melninkaitis, A. [Laser Research Center, Vilnius University, Saulétekio aléja 10, LT-10223 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2015-06-14

    An experimental and numerical study of the laser-induced damage of the surface of optical material in the femtosecond regime is presented. The objective of this work is to investigate the different processes involved as a function of the ratio of photon to bandgap energies and compare the results to models based on nonlinear ionization processes. Experimentally, the laser-induced damage threshold of optical materials has been studied in a range of wavelengths from 1030 nm (1.2 eV) to 310 nm (4 eV) with pulse durations of 100 fs with the use of an optical parametric amplifier system. Semi-conductors and dielectrics materials, in bulk or thin film forms, in a range of bandgap from 1 to 10 eV have been tested in order to investigate the scaling of the femtosecond laser damage threshold with the bandgap and photon energy. A model based on the Keldysh photo-ionization theory and the description of impact ionization by a multiple-rate-equation system is used to explain the dependence of laser-breakdown with the photon energy. The calculated damage fluence threshold is found to be consistent with experimental results. From these results, the relative importance of the ionization processes can be derived depending on material properties and irradiation conditions. Moreover, the observed damage morphologies can be described within the framework of the model by taking into account the dynamics of energy deposition with one dimensional propagation simulations in the excited material and thermodynamical considerations.

  5. Development of high damage threshold optics for petawatt-class short-pulse lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, B.C.; Perry, M.D.; Boyd, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The authors report laser-induced damage threshold measurements on pure and multilayer dielectrics and gold-coated optics at 1053 and 526 nm for pulse durations, τ, ranging from 140 fs to 1 ns. Damage thresholds of gold coatings are limited to 500 mJ/cm 2 in the subpicosecond range for 1053-nm pulses. In dielectrics, qualitative differences in the morphology of damage and a departure from the diffusion-dominated τ1/2 scaling indicate that damage results from plasma formation and ablation for τ≤10 ps and from conventional melting and boiling for τ>50 ps. A theoretical model based on electron production via multiphoton ionization, Joule heating, and collisional (avalanche) ionization is in quantitative agreement with both the pulsewidth and wavelength scaling of experimental results

  6. Effect of mechanical tissue properties on thermal damage in skin after IR-laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenz, M.; Romano, V.; Forrer, M.; Weber, H.P. (Inst. of Applied Physics, Bern Univ. (Switzerland)); Mischler, C.; Mueller, O.M. (Anatomical Inst., Bern Univ. (Switzerland))

    1991-04-01

    The damage created instantaneously in dorsal skin and in the subjacent skeletal muscle layer after CO{sub 2} and Er{sup 3+} laser incisions is histologically and ultrastructurally investigated. Light microscopical examinations show an up to three times larger damage zone in the subcutaneous layer of skeletal muscle than in the connective tissue above. The extent of thermally altered muscle tissue is classified by different zones and characterized by comparison to long time heating injuries. The unexpectedly large damage is a result of the change of elastic properties occurring abruptly at the transition between different materials. This leads to a discontinuity of the cutting dynamics that reduces the ejection of tissue material. We show that the degree of thermal damage originates from the amount of hot material that is not ejected out of the crater acting as a secondary heat source. (orig.).

  7. The impact of treatment density and molecular weight for fractional laser-assisted drug delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haak, Christina S; Bhayana, Brijesh; Farinelli, William A

    2012-01-01

    Ablative fractional lasers (AFXL) facilitate uptake of topically applied drugs by creating narrow open micro-channels into the skin, but there is limited information on optimal laser settings for delivery of specific molecules. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of laser...... treatment density (% of skin occupied by channels) and molecular weight (MW) for fractional CO(2) laser-assisted drug delivery. AFXL substantially increased intra- and transcutaneous delivery of polyethylene glycols (PEGs) in a MW range from 240 to 4300 Da (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, p...

  8. Non-linear behaviour of power density and exposure time of argon laser on ocular tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed, E M; Talaat, M S; Salem, E F [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    In ophthalmology, the thermal effect of argon laser is the most widely used category of laser- tissue interaction. The rise in tissue temperature has to exceed a threshold value for photo coagulation of retinal blood vessels. This value mainly depends on the laser. The most suitable argon laser power P and exposure time (t) which would be more effective for thermal and electrical behaviour of chicken eye was studied. This was achieved by measuring the variations in ocular temperature in electroretinogram (ERG) records under the effect of argon experiment, while power density (P) and exposure time (t) were varied in four different ways for each dose (pt). Results indicated that for the same laser dose, the temperature distribution of the eye, using low power density and high exposure time was higher than that high power density and low exposure time, indicating non-linearity of the laser dose. This finding was confirmed by ERG records which showed similar variations in b-wave latency, amplitude and duration, for the laser exposure conditions. This indicates variations in retinal function due to laser-dependent temperature variations. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Effect of low-power density laser radiation on heatling of open skin wounds in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kana, J.S.; Hutschenreiter, G.; Haina, D.; Waidelich, W.

    1981-03-01

    Researchers performed a study to determine whether laser radation of low-power density would affect the healing of open skin wounds in rats. The wounds were irradiated daily with a helium-neon laser and an argon laser at a constant power density of 45 mW/sq cm. The rate of wound closure was followed by photographing the wounds in a standardized way. The collagen hydroxyproline concentration in the scar tissue was determined on the 18th postoperative day. Helium-neon laser radiation had a statistically significant stimulating effect on collagen synthesis in the wound, with a maximum effect at an energy density of 4 joules/sq cm. The rate of wound closure was enhanced significantly between the third and 12th postoperative days. The argon laser exposure produced a significant increase in collagen concentration both in irradiated and nonirradiated contralateral wounds. However, an acceleration of the healing rate was not registered in this case. The wound contraction up to the fourth day of the experiment was inhibited under helium-neon and argon laser exposure to 20 joules/sq cm. The described effects were not specific for the laser light. There may be a wavelength-selective influence of coherent light on the metabolic and proliferation processes in wound healing, with the associated problem of the possible carcinogenic effects of laser radiation.

  10. Simultaneous streak and frame interferometry for electron density measurements of laser produced plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quevedo, H. J., E-mail: hjquevedo@utexas.edu; McCormick, M.; Wisher, M.; Bengtson, Roger D.; Ditmire, T. [Center for High Energy Density Science, Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    A system of two collinear probe beams with different wavelengths and pulse durations was used to capture simultaneously snapshot interferograms and streaked interferograms of laser produced plasmas. The snapshots measured the two dimensional, path-integrated, electron density on a charge-coupled device while the radial temporal evolution of a one dimensional plasma slice was recorded by a streak camera. This dual-probe combination allowed us to select plasmas that were uniform and axisymmetric along the laser direction suitable for retrieving the continuous evolution of the radial electron density of homogeneous plasmas. Demonstration of this double probe system was done by measuring rapidly evolving plasmas on time scales less than 1 ns produced by the interaction of femtosecond, high intensity, laser pulses with argon gas clusters. Experiments aimed at studying homogeneous plasmas from high intensity laser-gas or laser-cluster interaction could benefit from the use of this probing scheme.

  11. Investigation of damage threshold to TiO2 coatings at different laser wavelength and pulse duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Jianke; Fan Zhengxiu; Jin Yunxia; Zhao Yuanan; He Hongbo; Shao Jianda

    2008-01-01

    Laser-induced damages to TiO 2 single layers and TiO 2 /SiO 2 high reflectors at laser wavelength of 1064 nm, 800 nm, 532 nm, and pulse width of 12 ns, 220 ps, 50 fs, 8 ns are investigated. All films are prepared by electron beam evaporation. The relations among microstructure, chemical composition, optical properties and laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT), have been researched. The dependence of damage mechanism on laser wavelength and pulse width is discussed. It is found that from 1064 nm to 532 nm, LIDT is mainly absorption related, which is determined by film's extinction coefficient and stoichiometric defects. The rapid decrease of LIDT at 800 nm is due to the pulse width factor. TiO 2 coatings are mainly thermally by damaged at long pulse (τ ≥ 220 ps). The damage shows ablation feature at 50 fs

  12. Laser induced photoreceptor damage and recovery in the high numerical aperture eye of the garter snake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, H; Edsall, P; Stuck, B E; Wood, E; Elliott, R; Cheramie, R; Hacker, H

    2008-02-01

    The garter snake provides a unique model for in-vivo imaging of photoreceptor damage induced by laser retinal exposure. Laser thermal/mechanical retinal injury induced alterations in photoreceptor structure and leukocyte cellular behavior. Photoreceptors turned white, lost mode structure, and swelled; leukocyte activity was observed in the vicinity of photoreceptor cells. Non-thermal alterations were identified with a bio-tag for oxidative stress. Mechanisms of photoreceptor recovery and replacement were observed and evaluated for active cytoskeletal systems by using an anti-actin tag that could detect the presence of active cytoskeletal systems resident in photoreceptors as well as other retinal systems.

  13. Modeling of filamentation damage induced in silica by 351-nm laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milam, D.; Manes, K.R.; Williams, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    A major risk factor that must be considered in design of the National Ignition Facility is the possibility for catastrophic self-focusing of the 351-nm beam in the silica optical components that are in the final section of the laser. Proposed designs for the laser are analyzed by the beam-propagation code PROP92. A 351-nm self-focusing experiment, induction of tracking damage, was done to provide data for validation of this code. The measured self-focusing lengths were correctly predicted by the code

  14. Interaction of a high-power laser pulse with supercritical-density porous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gus'kov, Sergei Yu; Rozanov, Vladislav B; Caruso, A; Strangio, C

    2000-01-01

    The properties of a nonequilibrium plasma produced by high-power laser pulses with intensities I L ∼ 10 14 -10 15 W cm -2 irradiating plane targets made of a porous material are investigated. The mean density of matter in targets was substantially higher than the critical plasma density corresponding to a plasma resonance. The density of porous material was ρ a ∼ 1 - 20 mg cm -3 , whereas the critical density at the wavelength of incident radiation was ρ cr ∼ 3 mg cm -3 . An anomalously high absorption (no less than 80%) of laser radiation inside a target was observed. Within the first 3 - 4 ns of interaction, the plasma flow through the irradiated target surface in the direction opposite of the direction of the laser beam was noticeably suppressed. Only about 5% of absorbed laser energy was transformed into the energy of particles in this flow during the laser pulse. Absorbed energy was stored as the internal plasma energy at this stage (the greenhouse effect). Then, this energy was transformed, similar to a strong explosion, into the energy of a powerful hydrodynamic flow of matter surrounding the absorption region. The specific features of the formation and evolution of a nonequilibrium laser-produced plasma in porous media are theoretically analysed. This study allows the results of experiments to be explained. In particular, we investigated absorption of laser radiation in the bulk of a target, volume evaporation of porous material, the expansion of a laser-produced plasma inside the pores, stochastic collisions of plasma flows, and hydrothermal energy dissipation. These processes give rise to long-lived oscillations of plasma density and lead to the formation of an internal region where laser radiation is absorbed. (invited paper)

  15. 2D electron density profile measurement in tokamak by laser-accelerated ion-beam probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y H; Yang, X Y; Lin, C; Wang, L; Xu, M; Wang, X G; Xiao, C J

    2014-11-01

    A new concept of Heavy Ion Beam Probe (HIBP) diagnostic has been proposed, of which the key is to replace the electrostatic accelerator of traditional HIBP by a laser-driven ion accelerator. Due to the large energy spread of ions, the laser-accelerated HIBP can measure the two-dimensional (2D) electron density profile of tokamak plasma. In a preliminary simulation, a 2D density profile was reconstructed with a spatial resolution of about 2 cm, and with the error below 15% in the core region. Diagnostics of 2D density fluctuation is also discussed.

  16. Characterization of laser beam transmission through a High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genna, S.; Leone, C.; Tagliaferri, V.

    2017-02-01

    Infrared (IR) light propagation in semicrystalline polymers involves mechanisms such as reflection, transmission, absorption and internal scattering. These different rates determine either the interaction mechanism, either the temperatures reached in the IR heating processes. Consequently, the knowledge of these rates is fundamental in the development of IR heating processes in order to avoid the polymer's damage and to increase the process energy efficiency. Aim of this work is to assess a simple procedure to determine the rates of absorbed, reflected, transmitted and scattered energy in the case of an unfilled High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) plate. Experimental tests were performed by exposing a HDPE plate, 3 mm in thickness, to a diode laser source, working at the fundamental wavelength of 975 nm. The transmitted power was measured by power meter, the reflected one by applying the Beer-Lambert law to sample of different thickness. IR thermal images were adopted to measure the absorbed ratio. The scattered ratio was measured by energetic balance, as difference between the incoming power and the other ratios. Finally, IR thermal images were adopted to measure the scattered ratio and to validate the procedure.

  17. The Laser Damage Threshold for Materials and the Relation Between Solid-Melt and Melt-Vapor Interface Velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, Osama Mostafa

    2010-01-01

    Numerous experiments have demonstrated and analytic theories have predicted that there is a threshold for pulsed laser ablation of a wide range of materials. Optical surface damage threshold is a very complex and important application of high-power lasers. Optical damage may also be considered to be the initial phase of laser ablation. In this work it was determined the time required and the threshold energy of a layer of thickness to heat up. We used the Finite Difference method to simulate the process of laser-target interaction in three cases. Namely, the case before melting begins using a continuous wave (c.w) laser source and a pulsed laser source, the case after the first change of state (from solid to melt), and the case after the second change of state (from melt to vapor). And also study the relation between the solid-melt and melt-vapor interface velocities to have a commonsense of the laser ablation process.

  18. Design of a high pulse repitition frequency carbon dioxide laser for processing high damage threshold materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatwin, Christopher R.; McDonald, Donald W.; Scott, Brian F.

    1989-07-01

    The absence of an applications led design philosophy has compromised both the development of laser source technology and its effective implementation into manufacturing technology in particular. For example, CO2 lasers are still incapable of processing classes of refractory and non-ferrous metals. Whilst the scope of this paper is restricted to high power CO2 lasers; the design methodology reported herein is applicable to source technology in general, which when exploited, will effect an expansion of applications. The CO2 laser operational envelope should not only be expanded to incorporate high damage threshold materials but also offer a greater degree of controllability. By a combination of modelling and experimentation the requisite beam characteristics, at the workpiece, were determined then utilised to design the Laser Manufacturing System. The design of sub-system elements was achieved by a combination of experimentation and simulation which benefited from a comprehensive set of software tools. By linking these tools the physical processes in the laser - electron processes in the plasma, the history of photons in the resonator, etc. - can be related, in a detailed model, to the heating mechanisms in the workpiece.

  19. Electron acceleration by a radially polarized laser pulse during ionization of low density gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunwar Pal Singh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The acceleration of electrons by a radially polarized intense laser pulse has been studied. The axial electric field of the laser is responsible for electron acceleration. The axial electric field increases with decreasing laser spot size; however, the laser pulse gets defocused sooner for smaller values and the electrons do not experience high electric field for long, reducing the energy they can reach. The electron remains confined in the electric field of the laser for longer and the electron energy peaks for the normalized laser spot size nearly equal to the normalized laser intensity parameter. Electron energy peaks for initial laser phase ϕ_{0}=π due to accelerating laser phase and decreases with transverse initial position of the electrons. The energy and angle of the emittance spectrum of the electrons generated during ionization of krypton and argon at low densities have been obtained and a right choice of laser parameters has been suggested to obtain high energy quasimonoenergetic collimated electron beams. It has been found that argon is more suitable than krypton to obtain high energy electron beams due to higher ionization potential of inner shells for the former.

  20. Effect of stitch density on fatigue characteristics and damage mechanisms of stitched carbon/epoxy composites

    KAUST Repository

    Yudhanto, Arief

    2014-05-01

    The effect of stitch density (SD) on fatigue life, stiffness degradation and fatigue damage mechanisms in carbon/epoxy (T800SC/XNRH6813) stitched using Vectran thread is presented in this paper. Moderately stitched composite (SD = 0.028/mm2; \\'stitched 6 × 6\\') and densely stitched composite (SD = 0.111/mm2; \\'stitched 3 × 3\\') are tested and compared with composite without stitch thread (SD = 0.0; \\'unstitched\\'). The experiments show that the fatigue life of stitched 3 × 3 is moderately better than that of unstitched and stitched 6 × 6. Stitched 3 × 3 pattern is also able to postpone the stiffness degradation onset. The improvement of fatigue properties and postponement of stiffness degradation onset in stitched 3 × 3 is primarily due to an effective impediment of edge-delamination. Quantification of damage at various cycles and stress levels shows that stitch density primarily affects the growth rate of delamination. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Density oscillations in laser produced plasma decelerated by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    during deceleration under the effect of external magnetic field. This has been verified with the help of figure 3, which shows the variation of x-ray intensity emitted from the plasma with laser intensity at 0.01 and 0.6 T magnetic field. Enhancement in the x-ray emission by 2–3 times in the presence of magnetic field has already ...

  2. Laser shocks: A tool for experimental simulation of damage into materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boustie, M.; Cuq Lelandais, J. P.; Berthe, L.; Ecault, R. [Institut PPRIME, Departement Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux, CNRS-ENSMA-Universite de Poitiers, 1 av Clement Ader, 86961 FUTUROSCOPE Cedex (France); CEA-DAM Valduc, 21120 Is-sur-Tille (France); Laboratoire Procedes et Ingenierie en Mecanique et Materiaux (CNRS), Arts et Metiers ParisTech, 151 bd de l' Hopital, 75013 PARIS (France); Institut PPRIME, Departement Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux, CNRS-ENSMA-Universite de Poitiers, 1 av Clement Ader, 86961 FUTUROSCOPE Cedex (France)

    2012-07-30

    High power laser irradiation of solids results in a strong shock wave propagation, driving very high amplitude pressure loadings with very short durations. These particular characteristics offer the possibility to study the behaviour of matter under extreme dynamic conditions in continuity with what is possible with the conventional generators of shock (launchers of projectiles, explosives). An advantage of laser shocks is a possible recovery of the shocked samples presenting the metallurgical effects of the shock in most cases. We introduce the principle of the laser shock generation, the characterization of these shocks, the principal mechanisms and effects associated with their propagation in the solids. We show how laser shocks can be a laboratory tool for simulating shock effects at ultra high strain rate, providing a high in information experimental layout for validation of damage modelling on an extended strain rate range compared to conventional shock generators. New data have been obtained with ultra short femtosecond range irradiation. Experimental data gathered through post mortem observation, time resolved velocity measurement are shown along with numerical associated simulations, showing the possibility to predict the damage behaviour of metallic targets under extreme strain rate up to 10{sup 8} s{sup -1}.

  3. Reliability aspects and facet damage in high-power emission from (AlGa)As cw laser diodes at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kressel, H.; Ladany, I.

    1975-01-01

    Factors are described that limit the optical power output from (AlGa)As laser diodes (lambda = 8100 to 8300 A) operating cw at room temperature with uncoated facets. Rapid laser ''catastrophic'' degradation due to facet damage (in contrast to ''bulk'' phenomena previously considered) has been found to occur as a result of excessive optical flux density at the facets. The diodes studied are capable of initial cw power emission values of 25 to 100 mW from one facet depending on their dimensions. Data are presented showing long-term constant-current operation at power levels below these maximum values. Preliminary data are also presented on devices utilizing dielectric facet coatings to minimize facet damage. (U.S.)

  4. Morphologies of laser-induced damage in hafnia-silica multilayer mirror and polarizer coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genin, F.Y.; Stolz, C.J.

    1996-08-01

    Hafnium-silica multilayer mirrors and polarizers were deposited by e-beam evaporation onto BK7 glass substrates. The mirrors and polarizers were coated for operation at 1053 nm at 45 degree and at Brewster's angle (56 degree), respectively. They were tested with a single 3-ns laser pulse. Morphology of the laser-induced damage was characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Four distinct damage morphologies were found: pits, flatbottom pits, scalds, and delaminates. The pits and flat bottom pits ( 2 ). The pits seemed to result from ejection of nodular defects by causing local enhancement of the electric field. Scalds and delaminates could be observed at higher fluences (above 13 J/cm 2 ) and seemed to result from the formation of plasmas on the surface. These damage types often originated at pits and were less than 300 μm diameter; their size increased almost linearly with fluence. Finally, effects of the damage on the beam (reflectivity degradation and phase modulations) were measured

  5. Wireless ultrasonic wavefield imaging via laser for hidden damage detection inside a steel box girder bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Yun-Kyu; Song, Homin; Sohn, Hoon

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a wireless ultrasonic wavefield imaging (WUWI) technique for detecting hidden damage inside a steel box girder bridge. The proposed technique allows (1) complete wireless excitation of piezoelectric transducers and noncontact sensing of the corresponding responses using laser beams, (2) autonomous damage visualization without comparing against baseline data previously accumulated from the pristine condition of a target structure and (3) robust damage diagnosis even for real structures with complex structural geometries. First, a new WUWI hardware system was developed by integrating optoelectronic-based signal transmitting and receiving devices and a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer. Next, a damage visualization algorithm, self-referencing f-k filter (SRF), was introduced to isolate and visualize only crack-induced ultrasonic modes from measured ultrasonic wavefield images. Finally, the performance of the proposed technique was validated through hidden crack visualization at a decommissioned Ramp-G Bridge in South Korea. The experimental results reveal that the proposed technique instantaneously detects and successfully visualizes hidden cracks even in the complex structure of a real bridge. (paper)

  6. Lifetime laser damage performance of β-Ga2O3 for high power applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hyuck Yoo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Gallium oxide (Ga2O3 is an emerging wide bandgap semiconductor with potential applications in power electronics and high power optical systems where gallium nitride and silicon carbide have already demonstrated unique advantages compared to gallium arsenide and silicon-based devices. Establishing the stability and breakdown conditions of these next-generation materials is critical to assessing their potential performance in devices subjected to large electric fields. Here, using systematic laser damage performance tests, we establish that β-Ga2O3 has the highest lifetime optical damage performance of any conductive material measured to date, above 10 J/cm2 (1.4 GW/cm2. This has direct implications for its use as an active component in high power laser systems and may give insight into its utility for high-power switching applications. Both heteroepitaxial and bulk β-Ga2O3 samples were benchmarked against a heteroepitaxial gallium nitride sample, revealing an order of magnitude higher optical lifetime damage threshold for β-Ga2O3. Photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy results suggest that the exceptional damage performance of β-Ga2O3 is due to lower absorptive defect concentrations and reduced epitaxial stress.

  7. Lifetime laser damage performance of β -Ga2O3 for high power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jae-Hyuck; Rafique, Subrina; Lange, Andrew; Zhao, Hongping; Elhadj, Selim

    2018-03-01

    Gallium oxide (Ga2O3) is an emerging wide bandgap semiconductor with potential applications in power electronics and high power optical systems where gallium nitride and silicon carbide have already demonstrated unique advantages compared to gallium arsenide and silicon-based devices. Establishing the stability and breakdown conditions of these next-generation materials is critical to assessing their potential performance in devices subjected to large electric fields. Here, using systematic laser damage performance tests, we establish that β-Ga2O3 has the highest lifetime optical damage performance of any conductive material measured to date, above 10 J/cm2 (1.4 GW/cm2). This has direct implications for its use as an active component in high power laser systems and may give insight into its utility for high-power switching applications. Both heteroepitaxial and bulk β-Ga2O3 samples were benchmarked against a heteroepitaxial gallium nitride sample, revealing an order of magnitude higher optical lifetime damage threshold for β-Ga2O3. Photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy results suggest that the exceptional damage performance of β-Ga2O3 is due to lower absorptive defect concentrations and reduced epitaxial stress.

  8. Laser-induced damage thresholds of gold, silver and their alloys in air and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starinskiy, Sergey V.; Shukhov, Yuri G.; Bulgakov, Alexander V.

    2017-02-01

    The nanosecond-laser-induced damage thresholds of gold, silver and gold-silver alloys of various compositions in air and water have been measured for single-shot irradiation conditions. The experimental results are analyzed theoretically by solving the heat flow equation for the samples irradiated in air and in water taking into account vapor nucleation at the solid-water interface. The damage thresholds of Au-Ag alloys are systematically lower than those for pure metals, both in air and water that is explained by lower thermal conductivities of the alloys. The thresholds measured in air agree well with the calculated melting thresholds for all samples. The damage thresholds in water are found to be considerably higher, by a factor of ∼1.5, than the corresponding thresholds in air. This cannot be explained, in the framework of the used model, neither by the conductive heat transfer to water nor by the vapor pressure effect. Possible reasons for the high damage thresholds in water such as scattering of the incident laser light by the vapor-liquid interface and the critical opalescence in the superheated water are suggested. Optical pump-probe measurements have been performed to study the reflectance dynamics of the surface irradiated in air and water. Comparison of the transient reflectance signal with the calculated nucleation dynamics provides evidence that the both suggested scattering mechanisms are likely to occur during metal ablation in water.

  9. Laser-damage thresholds of thin-film optical coatings at 248 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milam, D.; Rainer, F.; Lowdermilk, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    We have measured the laser-induced damage thresholds for 248 nm wavelength light of over 100 optical coatings from commercial vendors and research institutions. All samples were irradiated once per damage site with temporally multi-lobed, 20-ns pulses generated by a KrF laser. The survey included high, partial, and dichroic reflectors, anti-reflective coatings, and single layer films. The samples were supplied by ten vendors. The majority of samples tested were high reflectors and antireflective coatings. The highest damage thresholds were 8.5 to 9.4 J/cm 2 , respectively. Although these represent extremes of what has been tested so far, several vendors have produced coatings of both types with thresholds which consistently exceed 6 J/cm 2 . Repeated irradiations of some sites were made on a few samples. These yielded no degradation in threshold, but in fact some improvement in damage resistance. These same samples also exhibited no change in threshold after being retested seven months later

  10. Short pulse laser-induced optical damage and fracto-emission of amorphous, diamond-like carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SOKOLOWSKI-TINTEN,K.; VON DER LINDE,D.; SIEGAL,MICHAEL P.; OVERMYER,DONALD L.

    2000-02-07

    Short pulse laser damage and ablation of amorphous, diamond-like carbon films is investigated. Material removal is due to fracture of the film and ejection of large fragments, which exhibit a broadband emission of microsecond duration.

  11. Reactive ion beam etching for microcavity surface emitting laser fabrication: technology and damage characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsutani, A.; Tadokoro, T.; Koyama, F.; Iga, K.

    1993-01-01

    Reactive ion beam etching (RIBE) is an effective dry etching technique for the fabrication of micro-sized surface emitting (SE) lasers and optoelectronic devices. In this chapter, some etching characteristics for GaAs, InP and GaInAsP with a Cl 2 gas using an RIBE system are discussed. Micro-sized circular mesas including GaInAsP/InP multilayers with vertical sidewalls were fabricated. RIBE-induced damage in InP substrates was estimated by C-V and PL measurement. In addition, the removal of the induced damage by the second RIBE with different conditions for the InP wafer was proposed. The sidewall damage is characterized by photoluminescence emitted from the etched sidewall of a GaInAsP/InP DH wafer. (orig.)

  12. Structural influences on the laser damage resistance of optical oxide coatings for use at 1064 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacker, E; Lauth, H; Meyer, J; Weissbrodt, P [Zeiss Jena GmbH, Jena (Germany, F.R.); Wolf, R; Zscherpe, G [Ingenieurhochschule Mittweida (Germany, F.R.); Heyer, H [Sektion Physik, Friedrich-Schiller-Univ. Jena (Germany, F.R.)

    1990-11-01

    Optical coatings of titania (TiO{sub 2}) and tantala (Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}) prepared by reactive r.f. diode and d.c. plasmatron sputtering were investigated for the influence of structural properties on the 1064 nm laser damage resistance. Using various methods of characterizing the compositional, crystallographic, microstructural and optical properties, it was found that the damage thresholds are directly related to the content of oxygen in the films in excess of the stoichiometric values, whereas grain sizes and refractive indices show no systematic influences valid for both oxide materials. The highest oxygen-to-metal atomic ratios and thus the highest damage threshold were achieved by the use of r.f diode sputtering. X-ray photospectroscopy investigations of tantala coatings with different oxygen-to-tantalum atomic ratios up to 2.75 revealed for both constituents of the oxide only binding energies representative for tantalum pentoxide. (orig.).

  13. Method and means for a spatial and temporal probe for laser-generated plumes based on density gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, E.S.; Chen, G.

    1990-05-01

    A method and means are disclosed for a spatial and temporal probe for laser generated plumes based on density gradients includes generation of a plume of vaporized material from a surface by an energy source. The probe laser beam is positioned so that the plume passes through the probe laser beam. Movement of the probe laser beam caused by refraction from the density gradient of the plume is monitored. Spatial and temporal information, correlated to one another, is then derived. 15 figs.

  14. Stress relaxation damage in K9 glass plate irradiated by 1.06μm CW laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Fu; Sun Chengwei

    2001-01-01

    Based on the stress relaxation model in 1D planar geometry and the visco-elastic constitutive equation, the temperature and stress histories in the K9 glass samples irradiated by CW laser beams (λ = 1.06 μm) have been calculated. The results indicate that the residual tensile stress due to the stress relaxation effect during cooling after the laser radiation may be greater than the tensile fracture strength of samples, while the maximum compression stress during the laser heating is less than the requirement for compression damage. For a K9 glass window of 3 mm thickness, its damage due to the stress relaxation may be induced by a laser radiation of 0.946 MW/cm 2 for 0.2s . Therefore, the stress relaxation should be regarded as the main mechanism of damage in K9 glass windows while a CW laser beam (λ = 1.06 μm) irradiates it with large spot

  15. Relativistic self-focusing of intense laser beam in thermal collisionless quantum plasma with ramped density profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zare

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Propagation of a Gaussian x-ray laser beam has been analyzed in collisionless thermal quantum plasma with considering a ramped density profile. In this density profile due to the increase in the plasma density, an earlier and stronger self-focusing effect is noticed where the beam width oscillates with higher frequency and less amplitude. Moreover, the effect of the density profile slope and the initial plasma density on the laser propagation has been studied. It is found that, by increasing the initial density and the ramp slope, the laser beam focuses faster with less oscillation amplitude, smaller laser spot size and more oscillations. Furthermore, a comparison is made among the laser self-focusing in thermal quantum plasma, cold quantum plasma and classical plasma. It is realized that the laser self-focusing in the quantum plasma becomes stronger in comparison with the classical regime.

  16. Direct Laser Writing of Low-Density Interdigitated Foams for Plasma Drive Shaping [Direct Laser Writing of Low Density Nanostitched Foams for Plasma Drive Shaping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakdale, James S.; Smith, Raymond F.; Forien, Jean-Baptiste; Smith, William L.; Ali, Suzanne J.

    2017-01-01

    Monolithic porous bulk materials have many promising applications ranging from energy storage and catalysis to high energy density physics. High resolution additive manufacturing techniques, such as direct laser writing via two photon polymerization (DLW-TPP), now enable the fabrication of highly porous microlattices with deterministic morphology control. In this work, DLW-TPP is used to print millimeter-sized foam reservoirs (down to 0.06 g cm –3 ) with tailored density-gradient profiles, where density is varied by over an order of magnitude (for instance from 0.6 to 0.06 g cm –3 ) along a length of <100 µm. Taking full advantage of this technology, however, is a multiscale materials design problem that requires detailed understanding of how the different length scales, from the molecular level to the macroscopic dimensions, affect each other. The design of these 3D-printed foams is based on the brickwork arrangement of 100 × 100 × 16 µm 3 log-pile blocks constructed from sub-micrometer scale features. A block-to-block interdigitated stitching strategy is introduced for obtaining high density uniformity at all length scales. Lastly, these materials are used to shape plasma-piston drives during ramp-compression of targets under high energy density conditions created at the OMEGA Laser Facility.

  17. The effects of low-level laser on muscle damage caused by Bothrops neuwiedi venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DM Dourado

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess the effects of low-level laser (660 nm on myonecrosis caused by the insertion of Bothrops neuwiedi venom in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n = 24 each: Group S (0.9% saline solution; Group V (venom and Group VLLL (venom plus low-level laser. These categories were subdivided into four additional groups (n = 6 based on the euthanasia timing (3 hours, 24 hours, 3 days and 7 days. The groups V and VLLL were inoculated with 100 µL of concentrated venom (40 µg/mL in the gastrocnemius muscle. The muscle was irradiated using a gallium-aluminum-arsenide laser (GaAlAs at 35 mW power and 4 J/cm² energy density for 3 hours, 24 hours, 3 days or 7 days after venom inoculation. To evaluate the myotoxic activity of the venom, CK activity was measured and the muscle was histologically analyzed. The low-level laser reduced venom-induced CK activity in the groups euthanized at 3 hours, 24 hours and 3 days (p < 0.0001. Histological analysis revealed that low-level laser reduced neutrophilic inflammation as well as myofibrillar edema, hemorrhage and myonecrosis following B. neuwiedi envenomation. These results suggest that low-level laser can be useful as an adjunct therapy following B. neuwiedi envenomation.

  18. The effects of low-level laser on muscle damage caused by Bothrops neuwiedi venom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dourado, D.M.; Matias, R.; Almeida, M.F.; Paula, K.R. de; Carvalho, P.T.C. [University for the Development of the State and of the Region of Pantanal (UNIDERP), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Lab. of Experimental Histopathology]. E-mail: ccfi@uniderp.br; Vieira, R.P. [University of Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). School of Medicine. Dept. of Pathology and Physical Therapy; Oliveira, L.V.F. [Nove de Julho University (UNINOVE), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Masters Program in Rehabilitation Sciences

    2008-07-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effects of low-level laser (660 nm) on myonecrosis caused by the insertion of Bothrops neuwiedi venom in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n = 24 each): Group S (0.9% saline solution); Group V (venom) and Group VLLL (venom plus low-level laser). These categories were subdivided into four additional groups (n = 6) based on the euthanasia timing (3 hours, 24 hours, 3 days and 7 days). The groups V and VLLL were inoculated with 100 {mu}L of concentrated venom (40 {mu}g/mL) in the gastrocnemius muscle. The muscle was irradiated using a gallium-aluminum-arsenide laser (GaAlAs) at 35 mW power and 4 J/cm{sup 2} energy density for 3 hours, 24 hours, 3 days or 7 days after venom inoculation. To evaluate the myotoxic activity of the venom, CK activity was measured and the muscle was histologically analyzed. The low-level laser reduced venom-induced CK activity in the groups euthanized at 3 hours, 24 hours and 3 days (p < 0.0001). Histological analysis revealed that low-level laser reduced neutrophilic inflammation as well as myofibrillar edema, hemorrhage and myonecrosis following B. neuwiedi envenomation. These results suggest that low-level laser can be useful as an adjunct therapy following B. neuwiedi envenomation. (author)

  19. The effects of low-level laser on muscle damage caused by Bothrops neuwiedi venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dourado, D.M.; Matias, R.; Almeida, M.F.; Paula, K.R. de; Carvalho, P.T.C.; Vieira, R.P.; Oliveira, L.V.F.

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effects of low-level laser (660 nm) on myonecrosis caused by the insertion of Bothrops neuwiedi venom in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n = 24 each): Group S (0.9% saline solution); Group V (venom) and Group VLLL (venom plus low-level laser). These categories were subdivided into four additional groups (n = 6) based on the euthanasia timing (3 hours, 24 hours, 3 days and 7 days). The groups V and VLLL were inoculated with 100 μL of concentrated venom (40 μg/mL) in the gastrocnemius muscle. The muscle was irradiated using a gallium-aluminum-arsenide laser (GaAlAs) at 35 mW power and 4 J/cm 2 energy density for 3 hours, 24 hours, 3 days or 7 days after venom inoculation. To evaluate the myotoxic activity of the venom, CK activity was measured and the muscle was histologically analyzed. The low-level laser reduced venom-induced CK activity in the groups euthanized at 3 hours, 24 hours and 3 days (p < 0.0001). Histological analysis revealed that low-level laser reduced neutrophilic inflammation as well as myofibrillar edema, hemorrhage and myonecrosis following B. neuwiedi envenomation. These results suggest that low-level laser can be useful as an adjunct therapy following B. neuwiedi envenomation. (author)

  20. Measurements of plasma temperature and electron density in laser

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The temperature and electron density characterizing the plasma are measured by time-resolved spectroscopy of neutral atom and ion line emissions in the time window of 300–2000 ns. An echelle spectrograph coupled with a gated intensified charge coupled detector is used to record the plasma emissions.

  1. Production of ultrahigh ion current densities at skin-layer subrelativistic laser-plasma interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badziak, J [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Glowacz, S [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Jablonski, S [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Parys, P [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Wolowski, J [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Hora, H [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia); Krasa, J [Institute of Physics, ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic); Laska, L [Institute of Physics, ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic); Rohlena, K [Institute of Physics, ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2004-12-01

    Some applications of fast ions driven by a short ({<=}1 ps) laser pulse (e.g. fast ignition of ICF targets, x-ray laser pumping, laboratory astrophysics research or some nuclear physics experiments) require ion beams of picosecond (or shorter) time durations and of very high ion current densities ({approx}10{sup 10} A cm{sup -2} or higher). A possible way of producing ion beams with such extreme parameters is ballistic focusing of fast ions generated by a target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) mechanism at relativistic laser intensities. In this paper we discuss another method, where the production of short-pulse ion beams of ultrahigh current densities is possible in a planar geometry at subrelativistic laser intensities and at a low energy ({<=}1 J) of the laser pulse. This method-referred to as skin-layer ponderomotive acceleration (S-LPA)-uses strong ponderomotive forces induced at the skin-layer interaction of a short laser pulse with a proper preplasma layer in front of a solid target. The basic features of the high-current ion generation by S-LPA were investigated using a simplified theory, numerical hydrodynamic simulations and measurements. The experiments were performed with subjoule 1 ps laser pulses interacting with massive or thin foil targets at intensities of up to 2 x 10{sup 17} W cm{sup -2}. It was found that both in the backward and forward directions highly collimated high-density ion beams (plasma blocks) with current densities at the ion source (close to the target) approaching 10{sup 10} A cm{sup -2} are produced, in accordance with the theory and numerical calculations. These ion current densities were found to be comparable to (or even higher than) those estimated from recent short-pulse TNSA experiments with relativistic laser intensities. Apart from the simpler physics of the laser-plasma interaction, the advantage of the considered method is the low energy of the driving laser pulses allowing the production of ultrahigh-current-density

  2. Spectroscopic analysis of the density and temperature gradients in the laser-heated gas jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, D.L.; Lee, R.W.; Auerbach, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    We have performed an analysis of the x-ray spectra produced by a 1.0TW, lambda/sub L/-0.53μm laser-irradiated gas jet. Plasmas produced by ionization of neon, argon and N 2 + SF 6 gases were included in those measurements. Plasma electron density and temperature gradients were obtained by comparison of measured spectra with those produced by computer modeling. Density gradients were also obtained using laser interferometry. The limitations of this technique for plasma diagnosis will be discussed

  3. Direct measurements of neutral density depletion by two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aanesland, A.; Liard, L.; Leray, G.; Jolly, J.; Chabert, P.

    2007-01-01

    The ground state density of xenon atoms has been measured by spatially resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy with two-photon excitation in the diffusion chamber of a magnetized Helicon plasma. This technique allows the authors to directly measure the relative variations of the xenon atom density without any assumptions. A significant neutral gas density depletion was measured in the core of the magnetized plasma, in agreement with previous theoretical and experimental works. It was also found that the neutral gas density was depleted near the radial walls

  4. Comparing the use of 4.6 um lasers versus 10.6 um lasers for mitigating damage site growth on fused silica surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, S T; Matthews, M J; Elhadj, S; Cooke, D; Guss, G M; Draggoo, V G; Wegner, P J

    2010-10-21

    The advantage of using mid-infrared (IR) 4.6 {micro}m lasers, versus far-infrared 10.6 {micro}m lasers, for mitigating damage growth on fused silica is investigated. In contrast to fused silica's high absorption at 10.6 {micro}m, silica absorption at 4.6 {micro}m is two orders of magnitude less. The much reduced absorption at 4.6 {micro}m enables deep heat penetration into fused silica when it is heated using the mid-IR laser, which in turn leads to more effective mitigation of damage sites with deep cracks. The advantage of using mid-IR versus far-IR laser for damage growth mitigation under non-evaporative condition is quantified by defining a figure of merit (FOM) that relates the crack healing depth to laser power required. Based on our FOM, we show that for damage cracks up to at least 500 {micro}m in depth, mitigation using a 4.6 {micro}m mid-IR laser is more efficient than mitigation using a 10.6 {micro}m far-IR laser.

  5. Laser-induced damage threshold tests of ultrafast multilayer dielectric coatings in various environmental conditions relevant for operation of ELI beamlines laser systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ďurák, Michal; Velpula, Praveen Kumar; Kramer, Daniel; Cupal, Josef; Medřík, Tomáš; Hřebíček, Jan; Golasowski, Jiří; Peceli, Davorin; Kozlová, Michaela; Rus, Bedřich

    2017-01-01

    Increasing the laser-induced damage resistance of optical components is one of the major challenges in the development of Peta-watt (PW) class laser systems. The extreme light infrastructure (ELI) beamlines project will provide ultrafast laser systems with peak powers up to 10 PW available every minute and PW class beams at 10 Hz complemented by a 5-TW, 1-kHz beamline. Sustainable performance of PW class laser systems relies on the durability of the employed optical components. As part of an effort to evaluate the damage resistance of components utilized in ELI beamlines systems, damage thresholds of several optical multilayer dielectric coatings were measured with different laser parameters and in different environments. Three coatings were tested with 10 Hz and 1 kHz pulse repetition rates, and the effect of a cleaning treatment on their damage resistance was examined. To explore the damage threshold behavior at different vacuum levels, one coating was subject to tests at various residual gas pressures. No change of damage threshold in a high vacuum with respect to ambient pressure was recorded. The effect of the cleaning treatment was found to be inconsistent, suggesting that development of the optimal cleaning treatment for a given coating requires consideration of its specific properties.

  6. High-density plasma etching of III-nitrides: Process development, device applications and damage remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajwinder

    Plasma-assisted etching is a key technology for III-nitride device fabrication. The inevitable etch damage resulting from energetic pattern transfer is a challenge that needs to be addressed in order to optimize device performance and reliability. This dissertation focuses on the development of a high-density inductively-coupled plasma (ICP) etch process for III-nitrides, the demonstration of its applicability to practical device fabrication using a custom built ICP reactor, and development of techniques for remediation of etch damage. A chlorine-based standard dry etch process has been developed and utilized in fabrication of a number of electronic and optoelectronic III-nitride devices. Annealing studies carried out at 700°C have yielded the important insight that the annealing time necessary for making good-quality metal contacts to etch processed n-GaN is very short (water, prior to metallization, removes some of the etch damage and is helpful in recovering contact quality. In-situ treatment consisting of a slow ramp-down of rf bias at the end of the etch is found to achieve the same effect as the ex-situ treatment. This insitu technique is significantly advantageous in a large-scale production environment because it eliminates a process step, particularly one involving treatment in hydrochloric acid. ICP equipment customization for scaling up the process to full 2-inch wafer size is described. Results on etching of state of the art 256 x 256 AlGaN focal plane arrays of ultraviolet photodetectors are reported, with excellent etch uniformity over the wafer area.

  7. Plasma Density Tapering for Laser Wakefield Acceleration of Electrons and Protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, A.; Gordon, D.; Kaganovich, D.; Sprangle, P.; Helle, M.; Hafizi, B.

    2010-01-01

    Extended acceleration in a Laser Wakefield Accelerator can be achieved by tailoring the phase velocity of the accelerating plasma wave, either through profiling of the density of the plasma or direct manipulation of the phase velocity. Laser wakefield acceleration has also reached a maturity that proton acceleration by wakefield could be entertained provided we begin with protons that are substantially relativistic, ∼1 GeV. Several plasma density tapering schemes are discussed. The first scheme is called ''bucket jumping'' where the plasma density is abruptly returned to the original density after a conventional tapering to move the accelerating particles to a neighboring wakefield period (bucket). The second scheme is designed to specifically accelerate low energy protons by generating a nonlinear wakefield in a plasma region with close to critical density. The third scheme creates a periodic variation in the phase velocity by beating two intense laser beams with laser frequency difference equal to the plasma frequency. Discussions and case examples with simulations are presented where substantial acceleration of electrons or protons could be obtained.

  8. Comparison of retina damage thresholds simulating the femtosecond-laser in situ keratomileusis (fs-LASIK) process with two laser systems in the CW- and fs-regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, M.; Minet, O.; Zabarylo, U.; Müller, M.; Tetz, M. R.

    2012-04-01

    The femtosecond-laser in situ keratomileusis procedure affords the opportunity to correct ametropia by cutting transparent corneal tissue with ultra-short laser pulses. Thereby the tissue cut is generated by a laser-induced optical breakdown in the cornea with ultra-short laser pulses in the near-infrared range. Compared to standard procedures such as photorefractive keratectomy and laser in-situ keratomileusis with the excimer laser, where the risk potential for the eye is low due to the complete absorption of ultraviolet irradiation from corneal tissue, only a certain amount of the pulse energy is deposited in the cornea during the fs-LASIK process. The remaining energy propagates through the eye and interacts with the retina and the strong absorbing tissue layers behind. The objective of the presented study was to determine and compare the retina damage thresholds during the fs-LASIK process simulated with two various laser systems in the CW- and fs-regime.

  9. Calculation of femtosecond pulse laser induced damage threshold for broadband antireflective microstructure arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xufeng; Shao, Jianda; Zhang, Junchao; Jin, Yunxia; He, Hongbo; Fan, Zhengxiu

    2009-12-21

    In order to more exactly predict femtosecond pulse laser induced damage threshold, an accurate theoretical model taking into account photoionization, avalanche ionization and decay of electrons is proposed by comparing respectively several combined ionization models with the published experimental measurements. In addition, the transmittance property and the near-field distribution of the 'moth eye' broadband antireflective microstructure directly patterned into the substrate material as a function of the surface structure period and groove depth are performed by a rigorous Fourier model method. It is found that the near-field distribution is strongly dependent on the periodicity of surface structure for TE polarization, but for TM wave it is insensitive to the period. What's more, the femtosecond pulse laser damage threshold of the surface microstructure on the pulse duration taking into account the local maximum electric field enhancement was calculated using the proposed relatively accurate theoretical ionization model. For the longer incident wavelength of 1064 nm, the weak linear damage threshold on the pulse duration is shown, but there is a surprising oscillation peak of breakdown threshold as a function of the pulse duration for the shorter incident wavelength of 532 nm.

  10. High-damage-resistant tungsten disulfide saturable absorber mirror for passively Q-switched fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Chen, YuShan; Yin, Jinde; Zhang, Xuejun; Guo, Tuan; Yan, Peiguang

    2016-07-25

    In this paper, we demonstrate a high-damage-resistant tungsten disulfide saturable absorber mirror (WS2-SAM) fabricated by magnetron sputtering technique. The WS2-SAM has an all-fiber-integrated configuration and high-damage-resistant merit because the WS2 layer is protected by gold film so as to avoid being oxidized and destroyed at high pump power. Employing the WS2-SAM in an Erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) with linear cavity, the stable Q-switching operation is achieved at central wavelength of 1560 nm, with the repetition rates ranging from 29.5 kHz to 367.8 kHz and the pulse duration ranging from 1.269 μs to 154.9 ns. For the condition of the maximum pump power of 600 mW, the WS2-SAM still works stably with an output power of 25.2 mW, pulse energy of 68.5 nJ, and signal-noise-ratio of 42 dB. The proposed WS2-SAM configuration provides a promising solution for advanced pulsed fiber lasers with the characteristics of high damage resistance, high output energy, and wide tunable frequency.

  11. A method of atmospheric density measurements during Shuttle entry using UV laser Rayleigh scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckenzie, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    A detailed study is described of the performance capabilities and the hardware requirements for a method in which ambient density is measured along the Space Shuttle flight path using on-board optical instrumentation. The technique relies on Rayleigh scattering of light from a pulsed, ultraviolet, ArF excimer laser operating at a wavelength of 193 nm. The method is shown to be capable of providing direct measurements of ambient density with an uncertainty of less than 1 percent and with a spatial resolution of 1 km, over an altitude range from 50 to 90 km. In addition, extensions of this concept are discussed that allow measurements of the shock wave location and the density profile within the shock layer. Two approaches are identified that appear to be feasible, in which the same laser system is used for the extended measurements as that required for the ambient density measurements.

  12. Soliton formation at critical density in laser-irradiated plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.; Bondeson, A.; Lisak, M.

    1979-01-01

    The generation of Langmuir solitons at the resonance layer in a plasma irradiated by a strong high-frequency pump is investigated. The process is modelled by the nonlinear Schrodinger equation including an external pump, a density gradient and linear damping. The evolution equation is reformulated as an exact variational principle and the one-soliton generation process is studied by substituting various trial solutions. The applicability conditions for the nonlinear Schrodinger equation are re-examined and found to be more restrictive than previously stated. (author)

  13. Using a cover layer to improve the damage resistance of gold-coated gratings induced by a picosecond pulsed laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhilin; Wu, Yihan; Kong, Fanyu; Jin, Yunxia

    2018-04-01

    The chirped pulse amplification (CPA) technology is the main approach to achieve high-intensity short-pulse laser. Diffraction gratings are good candidates for stretching and compressing laser pulses in CPA. In this paper, a kind of gold-coated grating has been prepared and its laser damage experiment has been performed. The results reflect that the gratings laser damage was dominated by thermal ablation due to gold films or inclusions absorption and involved the deformation or eruption of the gold film. Based on these damage phenomena, a method of using a cover layer to prevent gold films from deforming and erupting has been adopted to improve the gold-coated gratings laser damage threshold. Since the addition of a cover layer changes the gratings diffraction efficiency, the gratings structure has been re-optimized. Furthermore, according to the calculated thermal stress distributions in gratings with optimized structures, the cover layer was demonstrated to be helpful for improving the gratings laser damage resistance if it is thick enough.

  14. Semi-analytical model of laser resonance absorption in plasmas with a parabolic density profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestehe, S J; Mohammadnejad, M

    2010-01-01

    Analytical expressions for mode conversion and resonance absorption of electromagnetic waves in inhomogeneous, unmagnetized plasmas are required for laboratory and simulation studies. Although most of the analyses of this problem have concentrated on the linear plasma density profile, there are a few research works that deal with different plasma density profiles including the parabolic profile. Almost none of them could give clear analytical formulae for the electric and magnetic components of the electromagnetic field propagating through inhomogeneous plasmas. In this paper, we have considered the resonant absorption of laser light near the critical density of plasmas with parabolic electron density profiles followed by a uniform over-dense region and have obtained expressions for the electric and magnetic vectors of laser light propagating through the plasma. An estimation of the fractional absorption of laser energy has also been carried out. It has been shown that, in contrast to the linear density profile, the energy absorption depends explicitly on the value of collision frequency as well as on a new parameter, N, called the over-dense density order.

  15. Reflective Polyethylene Mulch Reduces Mexican Bean Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Densities and Damage in Snap Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottingham, L B; Kuhar, T P

    2016-08-01

    Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, is a serious pest of snap beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in the eastern United States. These beetles are intolerant to direct sunlight, explaining why individuals are typically found on the undersides of leaves and in the lower portion of the plant canopy. We hypothesized that snap beans grown on reflective, agricultural polyethylene (plastic mulch) would have fewer Mexican bean beetles and less injury than those grown on black plastic or bare soil. In 2014 and 2015, beans were seeded into beds of metallized, white, and black plastic, and bare soil, in field plots near Blacksburg, VA. Mexican bean beetle density, feeding injury, predatory arthropods, and snap bean yield were sampled. Reflected light intensity, temperature, and humidity were monitored using data loggers. Pyranometer readings showed that reflected light intensity was highest over metallized plastic and second highest over white plastic; black plastic and bare soil were similarly low. Temperature and humidity were unaffected by treatments. Significant reductions in Mexican bean beetle densities and feeding injury were observed in both metallized and white plastic plots compared to black plastic and bare soil, with metallized plastic having the fewest Mexican bean beetle life stages and injury. Predatory arthropod densities were not reduced by reflective plastic. Metallized plots produced the highest yields, followed by white. The results of this study suggest that growing snap beans on reflective plastic mulch can suppress the incidence and damage of Mexican bean beetle, and increase yield in snap beans. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Porcine skin damage thresholds for pulsed nanosecond-scale laser exposure at 1064-nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLisi, Michael P.; Peterson, Amanda M.; Noojin, Gary D.; Shingledecker, Aurora D.; Tijerina, Amanda J.; Boretsky, Adam R.; Schmidt, Morgan S.; Kumru, Semih S.; Thomas, Robert J.

    2018-02-01

    Pulsed high-energy lasers operating in the near-infrared (NIR) band are increasingly being used in medical, industrial, and military applications, but there are little available experimental data to characterize their hazardous effects on skin tissue. The current American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers (ANSI Z136.1-2014) defines the maximum permissible exposure (MPE) on the skin as either a single-pulse or total exposure time limit. This study determined the minimum visible lesion (MVL) damage thresholds in Yucatan miniature pig skin for the single-pulse case and several multiple-pulse cases over a wide range of pulse repetition frequencies (PRFs) (10, 125, 2,000, and 10,000 Hz) utilizing nanosecond-scale pulses (10 or 60 ns). The thresholds are expressed in terms of the median effective dose (ED50) based on varying individual pulse energy with other laser parameters held constant. The results confirm a decrease in MVL threshold as PRF increases for exposures with a constant number of pulses, while also noting a PRF-dependent change in the threshold as a function of the number of pulses. Furthermore, this study highlights a change in damage mechanism to the skin from melanin-mediated photomechanical events at high irradiance levels and few numbers of pulses to bulk tissue photothermal additivity at lower irradiance levels and greater numbers of pulses. The observed trends exceeded the existing exposure limits by an average factor of 9.1 in the photothermally-damaged cases and 3.6 in the photomechanicallydamaged cases.

  17. Laser treatment of female stress urinary incontinence: optical, thermal, and tissue damage simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Luke A.; Chang, Chun-Hung; Myers, Erinn M.; Kennelly, Michael J.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2016-02-01

    Treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) by laser thermal remodeling of subsurface tissues is studied. Light transport, heat transfer, and thermal damage simulations were performed for transvaginal and transurethral methods. Monte Carlo (MC) provided absorbed photon distributions in tissue layers (vaginal wall, endopelvic fascia, urethral wall). Optical properties (n,μa,μs,g) were assigned to each tissue at λ=1064 nm. A 5-mm-diameter laser beam and power of 5 W for 15 s was used, based on previous experiments. MC output was converted into absorbed energy, serving as input for ANSYS finite element heat transfer simulations of tissue temperatures over time. Convective heat transfer was simulated with contact cooling probe set at 0 °C. Thermal properties (κ,c,ρ) were assigned to each tissue layer. MATLAB code was used for Arrhenius integral thermal damage calculations. A temperature matrix was constructed from ANSYS output, and finite sum was incorporated to approximate Arrhenius integral calculations. Tissue damage properties (Ea,A) were used to compute Arrhenius sums. For the transvaginal approach, 37% of energy was absorbed in endopelvic fascia layer with 0.8% deposited beyond it. Peak temperature was 71°C, treatment zone was 0.8-mm-diameter, and almost all of 2.7-mm-thick vaginal wall was preserved. For transurethral approach, 18% energy was absorbed in endopelvic fascia with 0.3% deposited beyond it. Peak temperature was 80°C, treatment zone was 2.0-mm-diameter, and only 0.6 mm of 2.4-mm-thick urethral wall was preserved. A transvaginal approach is more feasible than transurethral approach for laser treatment of SUI.

  18. Grazing damage to plants and gastropod and grasshopper densities in a CO 2-enrichment experiment on calcareous grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledergerber, Stephan; Thommen, G. Heinrich; Baur, Bruno

    Plant-herbivore interactions may change as atmospheric CO 2 concentrations continue to rise. We examined the effects of elevated atmospheric CO 2 and CO 2-exposure chambers on the grazing damage to plants, and on the abundances of potential herbivores (terrestrial gastropods and grasshoppers) in a calcareous grassland in the Jura mountains of Switzerland (village of Nenzlingen). Individuals of most plant species examined showed slight grazing damage. However, plots with CO 2 enrichment and plots with ambient atmosphere did not differ in the extent of grazing damage. Similarly, plots with CO 2 enrichment and plots with ambient atmosphere did not differ in either gastropod or grasshopper density. Experimental plots with and without chambers did not differ in the number of gastropods. However, the densities of gastropods and grasshoppers and extent of grazing damage to plants were generally lower in the experimental area than in the grassland outside the experimental field.

  19. Experimental investigation of ultraviolet laser induced plasma density and temperature evolution in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiyagarajan, Magesh; Scharer, John

    2008-01-01

    We present measurements and analysis of laser induced plasma neutral densities and temperatures in dry air by focusing 200 mJ, 10 MW high power, 193 nm ultraviolet ArF (argon fluoride) laser radiation to a 30 μm radius spot size. We examine these properties that result from multiphoton and collisional cascade processes for pressures ranging from 40 Torr to 5 atm. A laser shadowgraphy diagnostic technique is used to obtain the plasma electron temperature just after the shock front and this is compared with optical emission spectroscopic measurements of nitrogen rotational and vibrational temperatures. Two-color laser interferometry is employed to measure time resolved spatial electron and neutral density decay in initial local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and non-LTE conditions. The radiating species and thermodynamic characteristics of the plasma are analyzed by means of optical emission spectroscopy (OES) supported by SPECAIR, a special OES program for air constituent plasmas. Core plasma rotational and vibrational temperatures are obtained from the emission spectra from the N 2 C-B(2+) transitions by matching the experimental spectrum results with the SPECAIR simulation results and the results are compared with the electron temperature just behind the shock wave. The plasma density decay measurements are compared with a simplified electron density decay model that illustrates the dominant three-and two-body recombination terms with good correlation

  20. High-damage-threshold static laser beam shaping using optically patterned liquid-crystal devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrer, C; Wei, S K-H; Leung, P; Vargas, M; Wegman, K; Boulé, J; Zhao, Z; Marshall, K L; Chen, S H

    2011-10-15

    Beam shaping of coherent laser beams is demonstrated using liquid crystal (LC) cells with optically patterned pixels. The twist angle of a nematic LC is locally set to either 0 or 90° by an alignment layer prepared via exposure to polarized UV light. The two distinct pixel types induce either no polarization rotation or a 90° polarization rotation, respectively, on a linearly polarized optical field. An LC device placed between polarizers functions as a binary transmission beam shaper with a highly improved damage threshold compared to metal beam shapers. Using a coumarin-based photoalignment layer, various devices have been fabricated and tested, with a measured single-shot nanosecond damage threshold higher than 30 J/cm2.

  1. Ultraviolet Laser Damage Dependence on Contamination Concentration in Fused Silica Optics during Reactive Ion Etching Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laixi Sun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The reactive ion etching (RIE process of fused silica is often accompanied by surface contamination, which seriously degrades the ultraviolet laser damage performance of the optics. In this study, we find that the contamination behavior on the fused silica surface is very sensitive to the RIE process which can be significantly optimized by changing the plasma generating conditions such as discharge mode, etchant gas and electrode material. Additionally, an optimized RIE process is proposed to thoroughly remove polishing-introduced contamination and efficiently prevent the introduction of other contamination during the etching process. The research demonstrates the feasibility of improving the damage performance of fused silica optics by using the RIE technique.

  2. Influence of dielectric protective layer on laser damage resistance of gold coated gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kepeng; Ma, Ping; Pu, Yunti; Xia, Zhilin

    2016-03-01

    Aiming at the problem that the damage threshold of gold coated grating is relatively low, a dielectric film is considered on the gold coated gratings as a protective layer. The thickness range of the protective layer is determined under the prerequisite that the diffraction efficiency of the gold coated grating is reduced to an acceptable degree. In this paper, the electromagnetic field, the temperature field and the stress field distribution in the grating are calculated when the silica and hafnium oxide are used as protective layers, under the preconditions of the electromagnetic field distribution of the gratings known. The results show that the addition of the protective layer changes the distribution of the electromagnetic field, temperature field and stress field in the grating, and the protective layer with an appropriate thickness can improve the laser damage resistance of the grating.

  3. Novel high-density packaging of solid state diode pumped eye-safe laser for LIBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bares, Kim; Torgerson, Justin; McNeil, Laine; Maine, Patrick; Patterson, Steve

    2018-02-01

    Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) has proven to be a useful research tool for material analysis for decades. However, because of the amount of energy required in a few nanosecond pulse to generate a stable and reliable LIBS signal, the lasers are often large and inefficient, relegating their implementation to research facilities, factory floors, and assembly lines. Small portable LIBS systems are now possible without having to compromise on energy needs by leveraging off of advances in high-density packaging of electronics, opto-mechanics, and highly efficient laser resonator architecture. This paper explores the integration of these techniques to achieve a mJ class eye-safe LIBS laser source, while retaining a small, light-weight package suitable for handheld systems.

  4. U.S. National Committee proposed revision to the ISO Laser Damage Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenberg, Jonathan W.; Howland, Donna; Thomas, Michael; Turner, Trey; Bellum, John; Field, Ella; Carr, C. Wren; Shaffer, Gary; Brophy, Matthew; Krisiloff, Allen

    2017-11-01

    This paper reports on the fundamental idea behind a US National Committee, The Optics and Electro-Optics Standards Council (OEOSC) Task Force (TF) 7, proposal for a so-called Type 1 laser damage test procedure. A Type 1 test is designed to give a simple binary, pass or fail, result. Such tests are intended for the transactional type of damage testing typical of acceptance and quality control testing. As such is it intended for bulk of certification of optics for the ability to survive a given fluence, useful for manufacturers of optics and their customers, the system builders. At the root of the proposed method is the probability that an optic of area A will have R or less damage occurrences with a user specified probability P at test fluence Φ. This assessment is made by a survey of area and the observation of n events. The paper presents the derivation of probability of N or less damage sites on A given n events observed in area a. The paper concludes with the remaining steps to development of a useful test procedure based on the idea presented.

  5. Early corneal nerve damage and recovery following small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) and laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed-Noriega, Karim; Riau, Andri K; Lwin, Nyein C; Chaurasia, Shyam S; Tan, Donald T; Mehta, Jodhbir S

    2014-03-25

    We compared early corneal nerve changes after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) and laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). A total of 12 rabbits underwent LASIK in one eye and SMILE in the fellow eye. Baseline and follow-up evaluations at 1, 2, and 4 weeks postoperatively were performed with in vivo confocal microscopy to evaluate 5 different areas within the treated zone: center, superior, inferior, nasal, and temporal. Cryosections of the corneas and whole mount of the extracted SMILE lenticules were analyzed with immunostaining of βIII-tubulin. One week after SMILE and LASIK, a decrease in nerve length and density was observed in all evaluated areas. A trend toward greater subbasal nerve length and density (SLD), more eyes with subbasal nerves (ESN), more eyes with subbasal nerves longer than 200 μm (SNL), and higher mean number of subbasal nerves by frame (NSN) in SMILE than in LASIK groups was observed at subsequent follow-up time points. Only the SMILE group showed a recovery of SLD, ESN, and NSN by week 4 (P > 0.05). A trend toward more eyes with sprouting subbasal nerves and greater mean number of sprouting nerves was observed in LASIK than in SMILE, indicating that more subbasal nerves were disrupted and undergoing regeneration after LASIK. Immunostaining at postoperative week 4 revealed a faster stromal nerve recovery in post-SMILE eyes compared to post-LASIK eyes. Our findings suggest that SMILE results in less nerve damage and faster nerve recovery than LASIK.

  6. Harmonic scalpel versus flexible CO2 laser for tongue resection: A histopathological analysis of thermal damage in human cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Tamir

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monopolar cautery is the most commonly used surgical cutting and hemostatic tool for head and neck surgery. There are newer technologies that are being utilized with the goal of precise cutting, decreasing blood loss, reducing thermal damage, and allowing faster wound healing. Our study compares thermal damage caused by Harmonic scalpel and CO2 laser to cadaveric tongue. Methods Two fresh human cadaver heads were enrolled for the study. Oral tongue was exposed and incisions were made in the tongue akin to a tongue tumor resection using the harmonic scalpel and flexible C02 laser fiber at various settings recommended for surgery. The margins of resection were sampled, labeled, and sent for pathological analysis to assess depth of thermal damage calculated in millimeters. The pathologist was blinded to the surgical tool used. Control tongue tissue was also sent for comparison as a baseline for comparison. Results Three tongue samples were studied to assess depth of thermal damage by harmonic scalpel. The mean depth of thermal damage was 0.69 (range, 0.51 - 0.82. Five tongue samples were studied to assess depth of thermal damage by CO2 laser. The mean depth of thermal damage was 0.3 (range, 0.22 to 0.43. As expected, control samples showed 0 mm of thermal damage. There was a statistically significant difference between the depth of thermal injury to tongue resection margins by harmonic scalpel as compared to CO2 laser, (p = 0.003. Conclusion In a cadaveric model, flexible CO2 laser fiber causes less depth of thermal damage when compared with harmonic scalpel at settings utilized in our study. However, the relevance of this information in terms of wound healing, hemostasis, safety, cost-effectiveness, and surgical outcomes needs to be further studied in clinical settings.

  7. Modelling of the energy density deposition profiles of ultrashort laser pulses focused in optical media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal, F; Lavertu, P-L; Bigaouette, N; Moore, F; Brunette, I; Giguere, D; Kieffer, J-C; Olivie, G; Ozaki, T

    2007-01-01

    The propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in dense optical media is investigated theoretically by solving numerically the nonlinear Schroedinger equation. It is shown that the maximum energy density deposition as a function of the pulse energy presents a well-defined threshold that increases with the pulse duration. As a consequence of plasma defocusing, the maximum energy density deposition is generally smaller and the size of the energy deposition zone is generally larger for shorter pulses. Nevertheless, significant values of the energy density deposition can be obtained near threshold, i.e., at lower energy than for longer pulses

  8. Scattered light evidence for short density scale heights near critical density in laser-irradiated plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillion, D.W.; Lerche, R.A.; Rupert, V.C.; Haas, R.A.; Boyle, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental evidence is presented of a steepened electron density profile near critical density obtained from studying the time-integrated scattered light from targets illuminated by linearly polarized, 1.06 μ light. Both 10 μ thick disks and DT-filled glass microshells were irradiated by light focused by f/1 or f/2.5 lenses in one and two-beam experiments, respectively. From the dependence of the asymmetry of the scattered light about the beam axis upon the scattering angle, we infer scale lengths on the order of one micron. Scale lengths have also been deduced from measurements on the polarization state of the reflected light. Both analytic and numerical results are presented to show how the polarization state varies with the incidence angle and the scale length

  9. Scattered light evidence for short density heights near critical density in laser-irradiated plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillion, D.W.; Lerche, R.A.; Rupert, V.C.; Haas, R.A.; Boyle, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental evidence is presented of a steepened electron density profile near critical density obtained from studying the time-integrated scattered light from targets illuminated by linearly polarized, 1.06 μ light. Both 10 μ thick disks and DT-filled glass microshells were irradiated by light focused by f/1 or f/2.5 lenses in one and two-beam experiments, respectively. From the dependence of the asymmetry of the scattered light about the beam axis upon the scattering angle, scale lengths on the order of one micron are inferred. Scale lengths have also been deduced from measurements on the polarization state of the reflected light. Both analytic and numerical results are presented to show how the polarization state varies with the incidence angle and the scale length

  10. Enhanced thermomechanical stability on laser-induced damage by functionally graded layers in quasi-rugate filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Yunti; Ma, Ping; Lv, Liang; Zhang, Mingxiao; Lu, Zhongwen; Qiao, Zhao; Qiu, Fuming

    2018-05-01

    Ta2O5-SiO2 quasi-rugate filters with a reasonable optimization of rugate notch filter design were prepared by ion-beam sputtering. The optical properties and laser-induced damage threshold are studied. Compared with the spectrum of HL-stacks, the spectrum of quasi-rugate filters have weaker second harmonic peaks and narrower stopbands. According to the effect of functionally graded layers (FGLs), 1-on-1 and S-on-1 Laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) of quasi-rugate filters are about 22% and 50% higher than those of HL stacks, respectively. Through the analysis of the damage morphologies, laser-induced damage of films under nanosecond multi-pulse are dominated by a combination of thermal shock stress and thermomechanical instability due to nodules. Compared with catastrophic damages, the damage sits of quasi-rugate filters are developed in a moderate way. The damage growth behavior of defect-induced damage sites have been effectively restrained by the structure of FGLs. Generally, FGLs are used to reduce thermal stress by the similar thermal-expansion coefficients of neighboring layers and solve the problems such as instability and cracking raised by the interface discontinuity of nodular boundaries, respectively.

  11. Damage performance of TiO2/SiO2 thin film components induced by a long-pulsed laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bin; Dai Gang; Zhang Hongchao; Ni Xiaowu; Shen Zhonghua; Lu Jian

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the long-pulsed laser induced damage performance of optical thin films, damage experiments of TiO 2 /SiO 2 films irradiated by a laser with 1 ms pulse duration and 1064 nm wavelength are performed. In the experiments, the damage threshold of the thin films is measured. The damages are observed to occur in isolated spots, which enlighten the inducement of the defects and impurities originated in the films. The threshold goes down when the laser spot size decreases. But there exists a minimum threshold, which cannot be further reduced by decreasing the laser spot size. Optical microscopy reveals a cone-shaped cavity in the film substrate. Changes of the damaged sizes in film components with laser fluence are also investigated. The results show that the damage efficiency increases with the laser fluence before the shielding effects start to act.

  12. Effect of self-focusing on resonant third harmonic generation of laser in a rippled density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Sukhdeep; Sharma, A. K.; Yadav, Sushila

    2010-01-01

    Resonant third harmonic generation by a Gaussian laser beam in a rippled density plasma is studied. The laser ponderomotive force induces second harmonic longitudinal velocity on electrons that couples with the static density ripple to produce a density perturbation at 2ω,2k+q, where ω and k are the frequency and wave number of the laser and q is the ripple wave number of the laser. This density perturbation beats with electron oscillatory velocity at ω,k-vector to produce a nonlinear current driving the third harmonic generation. In the regime of quadratic nonlinearity, the self-focusing of the laser enhances the third harmonic power. However, at higher intensity, plasma density is significantly reduced on the axis, detuning the third harmonic resonance and weakening the harmonic yield. Self-focusing causes enhancement in the efficiency of harmonic generation.

  13. Neodymium: YAG laser damage threshold. A comparison of injection-molded and lathe-cut polymethylmethacrylate intraocular lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S E; Brubaker, R F

    1987-01-01

    The possibility that injection-molded intraocular lenses (IOLs) with imperfections called iridescent clefts could have a decreased threshold to neodymium: YAG (Nd:YAG) laser-induced damage was investigated. Thresholds for Nd:YAG laser-induced damage were determined for injection-molded and lathe-cut polymethylmethacrylate lenses. When aimed at a membrane in contact with a posterior convex surface, the average thresholds were 0.96 +/- 0.18 mJ (Standard deviation [SD]) and 1.80 +/- 0.55 mJ, respectively. The difference was significant at P = 0.001. When injection-molding polymethylmethacrylate was used to make lathe-cut IOLs, very few iridescent clefts were present, and the threshold to Nd:YAG laser-induced damage was 0.94 +/- 0.25 mJ. Iridescent clefts are therefore produced during the injection-molding process but they do not lower the threshold to Nd:YAG laser-induced damage. Rather, the reduced threshold in injection-molded lenses is most probably a result of the polymethylmethacrylate used in their manufacture. Clinically, iridescent clefts in a lens suggest that it has been manufactured by an injection-molding process and that Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy must be performed at the lowest possible energy level to avoid damage.

  14. Systematic analysis of DNA damage induction and DNA repair pathway activation by continuous wave visible light laser micro-irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Muster

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Laser micro-irradiation can be used to induce DNA damage with high spatial and temporal resolution, representing a powerful tool to analyze DNA repair in vivo in the context of chromatin. However, most lasers induce a mixture of DNA damage leading to the activation of multiple DNA repair pathways and making it impossible to study individual repair processes. Hence, we aimed to establish and validate micro-irradiation conditions together with inhibition of several key proteins to discriminate different types of DNA damage and repair pathways using lasers commonly available in confocal microscopes. Using time-lapse analysis of cells expressing fluorescently tagged repair proteins and also validation of the DNA damage generated by micro-irradiation using several key damage markers, we show that irradiation with a 405 nm continuous wave laser lead to the activation of all repair pathways even in the absence of exogenous sensitization. In contrast, we found that irradiation with 488 nm laser lead to the selective activation of non-processive short-patch base excision and single strand break repair, which were further validated by PARP inhibition and metoxyamine treatment. We conclude that these low energy conditions discriminated against processive long-patch base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair as well as double strand break repair pathways.

  15. Laser damage resistance of RbTiOPO(4): evidence of polarization dependent anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, F R; Hildenbrand, A; Natoli, J Y; Commandré, M; Théodore, F; Albrecht, H

    2007-10-17

    Nanosecond-laser induced damage of RbTiOPO(4) crystals (RTP) has been studied at 1064 nm as a function of propagation direction and polarization orientation. A significant difference in the Laser Induced Damage Threshold (LIDT) was observed for x-cut and y-cut crystals in Pockels cell configuration, where the light propagation direction is along the x and y axes of the crystal respectively. In Pockels cell configuration the polarization is oriented at 45? with respect to the z-axis of the crystal. Experiments with the polarization oriented parallel to the principal axes of the crystal pointed out the importance of the polarization direction for the LIDT whereas the propagation direction did not significantly influence the LIDT. Comparison of the experimental data with a simple model reveals the influence of frequency doubling on the LIDT in Pockels cell configuration. In the case of the y-cut Pockels cell, the generation of frequency doubled light causes an LIDT below the LIDT of x and z-polarized light at the fundamental wavelength.

  16. Emission spectra from super-critical rippled plasma density profiles illuminated by intense laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondarza R, R.; Boyd, T.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    High-order harmonic emission from the interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses with super-critical plasmas characterized by a rippled density profile at the vacuum-plasma interface has been observed from particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. A plasma simulation box several laser wavelengths in extent was prepared with a rippled density of a fraction of a laser wavelength. Emission spectra at the very initial stage of the interaction were recorded with spectral characteristics dissimilar to those previously reported in the literature. The reflected light spectra were characterized by a strong emission at the plasma line and by a series of harmonics at multiples of the ripple frequency. Harmonic spectra were obtained for different values of the plasma ripple frequency. In all cases the harmonics were emitted at the precise multiple harmonic number of the ripple frequency. Another important feature apparent from the simulations was that the emission peaks appeared to havea complex structure as compared with those for unrippled plasmas. For the cases when the plasma was rippled the peaks that corresponded to the multiples of the rippled density typically showed a double peak for the first few harmonics. The reflected emission plots for the main laser pulse showed strong emission at the plasma frequency and at multiples of that frequency as reported by the authors in the literature. (Author)

  17. Post-processing of fused silica and its effects on damage resistance to nanosecond pulsed UV lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hui; Li, Yaguo; Zhang, Qinghua; Wang, Wei; Yuan, Zhigang; Wang, Jian; Xu, Qiao

    2016-04-10

    HF-based (hydrofluoric acid) chemical etching has been a widely accepted technique to improve the laser damage performance of fused silica optics and ensure high-power UV laser systems at designed fluence. Etching processes such as acid concentration, composition, material removal amount, and etching state (etching with additional acoustic power or not) may have a great impact on the laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of treated sample surfaces. In order to find out the effects of these factors, we utilized the Taguchi method to determine the etching conditions that are helpful in raising the LIDT. Our results show that the most influential factors are concentration of etchants and the material etched away from the viewpoint of damage performance of fused silica optics. In addition, the additional acoustic power (∼0.6  W·cm-2) may not benefit the etching rate and damage performance of fused silica. Moreover, the post-cleaning procedure of etched samples is also important in damage performances of fused silica optics. Different post-cleaning procedures were, thus, experiments on samples treated under the same etching conditions. It is found that the "spraying + rinsing + spraying" cleaning process is favorable to the removal of etching-induced deposits. Residuals on the etched surface are harmful to surface roughness and optical transmission as well as laser damage performance.

  18. Numerical analysis of breakdown dynamics dependence on pulse width in laser-induced damage in fused silica: Role of optical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamam, Kholoud A.; Gamal, Yosr E. E.-D.

    2018-06-01

    We report a numerical investigation of the breakdown and damage in fused silica caused by ultra-short laser pulses. The study based on a modified model (Gaabour et al., 2012) that solves the rate equation numerically for the electron density evolution during the laser pulse, under the combined effect of both multiphoton and electron impact ionization processes. Besides, electron loss processes due to diffusion out of the focal volume and recombination are also considered in this analysis. The model is applied to investigate the threshold intensity dependence on laser pulse width in the experimental measurements that are given by Liu et al. (2005). In this experiment, a Ti-sapphire laser source operating at 800 nm with pulse duration varies between 240 fs and 2.5 ps is used to irradiate a bulk of fused silica with dimensions 10 × 5 × 3 mm. The laser beam was focused into the bulk using two optical systems with effective numerical apertures (NA) 0.126 and 0.255 to give beam spot radius at the focus of the order 2.0 μm and 0.95 μm respectively. Reasonable agreement between the calculated thresholds and the measured ones is attained. Moreover, a study is performed to examine the respective role of the physical processes of the breakdown of fused silica in relation to the pulse width and focusing optical system. The analysis revealed a real picture of the location and size of the generated plasma.

  19. Accelerated aging tests of radiation damaged lasers and photodiodes for the CMS tracker optical links

    CERN Document Server

    Gill, K; Batten, J; Cervelli, G; Grabit, R; Jensen, F; Troska, Jan K; Vasey, F

    1999-01-01

    The combined effects of radiation damage and accelerated ageing in COTS lasers and p-i-n photodiodes are presented. Large numbers of these devices are employed in future High Energy Physics experiments and it is vital that these devices are confirmed to be sufficiently robust in terms of both radiation resistance and reliability. Forty 1310 nm InGaAsP edge-emitting lasers (20 irradiated) and 30 InGaAs p- i-n photodiodes (19 irradiated) were aged for 4000 hours at 80 degrees C with periodic measurements made of laser threshold and efficiency, in addition to p-i-n leakage current and photocurrent. There were no sudden failures and there was very little wearout- related degradation in either unirradiated or irradiated sample groups. The results suggest that the tested devices have a sufficiently long lifetime to operate for at least 10 years inside the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment despite being exposed to a harsh radiation environment. (13 refs).

  20. Focal Laser Ablation of Prostate Cancer: Numerical Simulation of Temperature and Damage Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevoux Pierre

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of minimally invasive ablative techniques in the management of patients with low grade and localized prostate tumours could represent a treatment option between active surveillance and radical therapy. Focal laser ablation (FLA could be one of these treatment modalities. Dosimetry planning and conformation of the treated area to the tumor remain major issues, especially when, several fibers are required. An effective method to perform pre-treatment planning of this therapy is computer simulation. In this study we present an in vivo validation of a mathematical model. Methods The simulation model is based on finite elements method (FEM to solve the bio-heat and the thermal damage equations. Laser irradiation was performed with a 980 nm laser diode system (5 W, 75 s. Light was transmitted using a cylindrical diffusing fiber inserted inside a preclinical animal prostate cancer model induced in Copenhagen rats. Non-enhanced T2-weighted and dynamic gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted MR imaging examinations were performed at baseline and 48 hours after the procedure. The model was validated by comparing the simulated necrosis volume to the results obtained in vivo on (MRI and by histological analysis. 3 iso-damage temperatures were considered 43° C, 45° C and 50° C. Results The mean volume of the tissue necrosis, estimated from the histological analyses was 0.974 ± 0.059 cc and 0.98 ± 0.052 cc on the 48 h MR images. For the simulation model, volumes were: 1.38 cc when T = 43° C, 1.1 cc for T = 45°C and 0.99 cc when T = 50 C°. Conclusions In this study, a clear correlation was established between simulation and in vivo experiments of FLA for prostate cancer. Simulation is a promising planning technique for this therapy. It needs further more evaluation to allow to FLA to become a widely applied surgical method.

  1. Analysis of corneal endothelial cell density and morphology after laser in situ keratomileusis using two types of femtosecond lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomita M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Minoru Tomita,1,2,* George O Waring IV,3,4 Miyuki Watabe,1,* 1Shinagawa LASIK Center, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, China; 3Medical University of South Carolina, Storm Eye Institute, Charleston, SC, USA; 4Magill Laser Center, Charleston, SC, USA*These authors contributed equally to this studyPurpose: To compare two different femtosecond lasers used for flap creation during laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK surgery in terms of their effects on the corneal endothelium.Methods: We performed LASIK surgery on 254 eyes of 131 patients using IntraLase FS60 (Abbott Medical Optics, Inc, Irvine, CA; IntraLase group and 254 eyes of 136 patients using Femto LDV (Ziemer Group AG, Port, Switzerland; LDV group for corneal flap creation. The mean cell density, coefficient of variation, and hexagonality of the corneal endothelial cells were determined and the results were statistically compared.Results: There were no statistically significant differences in the corneal morphology between pre and post LASIK results in each group, nor were there significant differences between the results of both groups at 3 months post LASIK.Conclusions: Both IntraLase FS60 and Ziemer Femto LDV are able to create flaps without significant adverse effects on the corneal endothelial morphology through 3 months after LASIK surgery.Keywords: LASIK, corneal endothelium, femtosecond laser, IntraLase FS60, Ziemer LDV

  2. Selective Laser Sintering of PA2200: Effects of print parameters on density, accuracy, and surface roughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajric, Sendin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-12

    Additive manufacturing needs a broader selection of materials for part production. In order for the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to investigate new materials for selective laser sintering (SLS), this paper reviews research on the effect of print parameters on part density, accuracy, and surface roughness of polyamide 12 (PA12, PA2200). The literature review serves to enhance the understanding of how changing the laser powder, scan speed, etc. will affect the mechanical properties of a commercial powder. By doing so, this understanding will help the investigation of new materials for SLS.

  3. Numerical analysis of breakdown dynamics dependence on pulse width in laser-induced damage in fused silica: Role of optical system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholoud A. Hamam

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We report a numerical investigation of the breakdown and damage in fused silica caused by ultra-short laser pulses. The study based on a modified model (Gaabour et al., 2012 that solves the rate equation numerically for the electron density evolution during the laser pulse, under the combined effect of both multiphoton and electron impact ionization processes. Besides, electron loss processes due to diffusion out of the focal volume and recombination are also considered in this analysis. The model is applied to investigate the threshold intensity dependence on laser pulse width in the experimental measurements that are given by Liu et al. (2005. In this experiment, a Ti-sapphire laser source operating at 800 nm with pulse duration varies between 240 fs and 2.5 ps is used to irradiate a bulk of fused silica with dimensions 10 × 5 × 3 mm. The laser beam was focused into the bulk using two optical systems with effective numerical apertures (NA 0.126 and 0.255 to give beam spot radius at the focus of the order 2.0 μm and 0.95 μm respectively. Reasonable agreement between the calculated thresholds and the measured ones is attained. Moreover, a study is performed to examine the respective role of the physical processes of the breakdown of fused silica in relation to the pulse width and focusing optical system. The analysis revealed a real picture of the location and size of the generated plasma. Keywords: Ultra-short laser pulses, Ablation mechanisms, Electron density, Electron loss processes, Avalanche ionization, Breakdown threshold

  4. Laser ultrasonics for bulk-density distribution measurement on green ceramic tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revel, G. M.; Cavuto, A.; Pandarese, G.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper a Laser Ultrasonics (LUT) system is developed and applied to measure bulk density distribution of green ceramic tiles, which are porous materials with low heat conductivity. Bulk density of green ceramic bodies is a fundamental parameter to be kept under control in the industrial production of ceramic tiles. The LUT system proposed is based on a Nd:YAG pulsed laser for excitation and an air-coupled electro-capacitive transducer for detection. The paper reports experimental apparent bulk-density measurements on white ceramic bodies after a calibration procedures. The performances observed are better than those previously achieved by authors using air-coupled ultrasonic probes for both emission and detection, allowing to reduce average uncertainty down to about ±6 kg/m3 (±0.3%), thanks to the increase in excitation efficiency and lateral resolution, while maintaining potential flexibility for on-line application. The laser ultrasonic procedure proposed is available for both on-line and off-line application. In this last case it is possible to obtain bulk density maps with high spatial resolution by a 2D scan without interrupting the production process.

  5. Electron density measurement of a colliding plasma using soft x-ray laser interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, A.S.; Back, C.A.; Barbee, T.W.Jr.; Cauble, R.; Celliers, P.; DaSilva, L.B.; Glenzer, S.; Moreno, J.C.; Rambo, P.W.; Stone, G.F.; Trebes, J.E.; Weber, F.

    1996-05-01

    The understanding of the collision and subsequent interaction of counter-streaming high-density plasmas is important for the design of indirectly-driven inertial confinement fusion (ICF) hohlraums. We have employed a soft x-ray Mach-Zehnder interferometer, using a Ne- like Y x-ray laser at 155 angstrom as the probe source, to study interpenetration and stagnation of two colliding plasmas. We observed a peaked density profile at the symmetry axis with a wide stagnation region with width of order 100 μm. We compare the measured density profile with density profiles calculated by the radiation hydrodynamic code LASNEX and a multi-specie fluid code which allows for interpenetration. The measured density profile falls in between the calculated profiles using collisionless and fluid approximations. By using different target materials and irradiation configurations, we can vary the collisionality of the plasma. We hope to use the soft x-ray laser interferometry as a mechanism to validate and benchmark our numerical codes used for the design and analysis of high-energy- density physics experiments

  6. Application of a high-density gas laser target to the physics of x-ray lasers and coronal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pronko, J.G.; Kohler, D.

    1996-01-01

    An experiment has been proposed to investigate a photopumped x-ray laser approach using a novel, high-density, laser heated supersonic gas jet plasma to prepare the lasant plasma. The scheme uses the He- like sodium 1.10027 nm line to pump the He-like neon 1s-4p transition at 1.10003 nm with the lasing transitions between the n=4 to n=2,3 states and the n=3 to n=2 state at 5.8 nm, 23.0 nm, and 8.2 nm, respectively. The experiment had been proposed in 1990 and funding began Jan. 1991; however circumstances made it impossible to pursue the research over the past 5 years, and it was decided not to pursue the research any further

  7. Long-range pulselength scaling of 351nm laser damage thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltyn, S. R.; Jolin, L. J.

    1986-12-01

    In a series of experiments incorporating 351nm pulselength of 9, 26, 54, and 625ns, it was found that laser damage thresholds increased as (pulselength)/sup x/, and that the exponent averaged 0.36 and ranged, for different samples, from 0.23 to 0.48. Similar results were obtained when only catastrophic damage was considered. Samples included Al2O3/SiO2 in both AR and HR multilayers, HR's of Sc2O3/SiO2 and HfO2/SiO2, and Al-on-pyrex mirror; 9ns thresholds were between 0.2 to 5.6 J/sq cm. When these data were compared with a wide range of other results - for wavelengths from 0.25 to 10.6 microns and pulselengths down to 4ps - a remarkably consistent picture emerged. Damage thresholds, on average, increase approximately as the cube-root of pulselength from picoseconds to nearly a microsecond, and do so regardless of wavelength or material under test.

  8. Damage resistance of AR-coated germanium surfaces for nanosecond CO2 laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newnam, B.E.; Gill, D.H.

    1977-01-01

    An evaluation of the state-of-the-art of AR coatings on gallium-doped germanium, used as a saturable absorber at 10.6 μm, has been conducted. Both 1-on-1 and N-on-1 laser damage thresholds were measured with 1.2 ns pulses on bare and coated surfaces. Only front surface damage was observed. With few exceptions, the thresholds for coated surfaces were centered at 0.49 +- 0.3 J/cm 2 . Bare Ge had a threshold ranging from 0.65 to 0.70 J/cm 2 . No significant differences due to substrate polish, crystallinity or doping level were evident and multiple-shot conditioning resulted in the same threshold as for single shot tests. From an analysis of standing-wave electric fields, damage for AR-coated Ge appeared to be limited by the surface properties of Ge. Measurements at both 1.2 and 70 ns indicated that the threshold (J/cm 2 ) of both coated and uncoated Ge increases as the square root of the pulse-width

  9. Development of a laser multi-layer cladding technology for damage mitigation of fuel spacers in Hanaro reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. S.; Lee, D. H.; Hwang, S. S.; Suh, J. H.

    2002-01-01

    A laser multi-layer cladding technology was developed to mitigate the fretting wear damages occurred at fuel spacers in Hanaro reactor. The detailed experimental results are as follows. 1) Analyses of fretting wear damages and fabrication process of fuel spacers 2) Development and analysis of spherical Al 6061 T-6 alloy powders for the laser cladding 3) Analysis of parameter effects on laser cladding process for clad bids, and optimization of laser cladding process 4) Analysis on the changes of cladding layers due to overlapping factor change 5) Microstructural observation and phase analysis 6) Characterization of materials properties (hardness and wear tests) 7) Manufacture of prototype fuel spacers 8) Development of a vision system and revision of its related softwares

  10. Plasma membrane temperature gradients and multiple cell permeabilization induced by low peak power density femtosecond lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen L. Garner

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Calculations indicate that selectively heating the extracellular media induces membrane temperature gradients that combine with electric fields and a temperature-induced reduction in the electropermeabilization threshold to potentially facilitate exogenous molecular delivery. Experiments by a wide-field, pulsed femtosecond laser with peak power density far below typical single cell optical delivery systems confirmed this hypothesis. Operating this laser in continuous wave mode at the same average power permeabilized many fewer cells, suggesting that bulk heating alone is insufficient and temperature gradients are crucial for permeabilization. This work suggests promising opportunities for a high throughput, low cost, contactless method for laser mediated exogenous molecule delivery without the complex optics of typical single cell optoinjection, for potential integration into microscope imaging and microfluidic systems.

  11. Production of Transverse Controllable Laser Density Distribution in Fermilab/NICADD Photoinjector

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jianliang; Tikhoplav, Rodion

    2005-01-01

    The Fermilab/NICADD photoinjector laboratory consist of a photoemission electron source based on an L band rf-gun. The CsTe photocathode is illuminated by an ultrashort UV laser. The transport line from the laser to the photocathode was recently upgraded to allow imaging of an object plane located ~20 m from the photocathode. This upgrade allows the generation of transverse laser distributions with controlled nonuniformity, yielding the production of an electron beam with various transverse densities patterns. Measuring the evolution of the artificial pattern on the electron bunch provides information that can be used to benchmark numerical simulations and investigate the impact of space charge. Preliminary data on these investigations are presented in the present paper.

  12. Anisotropy of hardness and laser damage threshold of unidirectional organic NLO crystal in relation to the internal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, V.; Arivanandhan, M.; Sankaranarayanan, K.; Hayakawa, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: · Growth rate of the unidirectional organic crystals were measured and the variation in the growth rate was explained based on the attachment energy model. · Anisotropic behaviors of hardness and laser damage threshold of the unidirectional materials were analyzed. · The obtained results were explained based on the crystal structure of the material. - Abstract: Unidirectional benzophenone crystals were grown along , and directions by uniaxially solution crystallization method at ambient temperature. The growth rate of the grown crystals was varied with orientation. The optical absorption coefficients of benzophenone were measured as a function of wavelength. The optical absorption study reveals that the benzophenone crystal has very low absorption in the wavelength range of interest. Moreover, the laser damage threshold and micro hardness for , and oriented unidirectional benzophenone crystals were measured using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm radiation and Vicker's micro hardness tester, respectively. The laser damage threshold is larger for the and oriented crystals compared to oriented crystal at 1064 nm wavelength. The result is consistent with the hardness variation observed for the three different crystallographic directions of benzophenone crystal. The relation between the laser damage profile and mechanical hardness anisotropy is discussed based on the crystal structure of benzophenone.

  13. Adjacent habitat influence on stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) densities and the associated damage at field corn and soybean edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, P Dilip; Coffey, Peter L; Dively, Galen P; Lamp, William O

    2014-01-01

    The local dispersal of polyphagous, mobile insects within agricultural systems impacts pest management. In the mid-Atlantic region of the United States, stink bugs, especially the invasive Halyomorpha halys (Stål 1855), contribute to economic losses across a range of cropping systems. Here, we characterized the density of stink bugs along the field edges of field corn and soybean at different study sites. Specifically, we examined the influence of adjacent managed and natural habitats on the density of stink bugs in corn and soybean fields at different distances along transects from the field edge. We also quantified damage to corn grain, and to soybean pods and seeds, and measured yield in relation to the observed stink bug densities at different distances from field edge. Highest density of stink bugs was limited to the edge of both corn and soybean fields. Fields adjacent to wooded, crop and building habitats harbored higher densities of stink bugs than those adjacent to open habitats. Damage to corn kernels and to soybean pods and seeds increased with stink bug density in plots and was highest at the field edges. Stink bug density was also negatively associated with yield per plant in soybean. The spatial pattern of stink bugs in both corn and soybeans, with significant edge effects, suggests the use of pest management strategies for crop placement in the landscape, as well as spatially targeted pest suppression within fields.

  14. Adjacent habitat influence on stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae densities and the associated damage at field corn and soybean edges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Dilip Venugopal

    Full Text Available The local dispersal of polyphagous, mobile insects within agricultural systems impacts pest management. In the mid-Atlantic region of the United States, stink bugs, especially the invasive Halyomorpha halys (Stål 1855, contribute to economic losses across a range of cropping systems. Here, we characterized the density of stink bugs along the field edges of field corn and soybean at different study sites. Specifically, we examined the influence of adjacent managed and natural habitats on the density of stink bugs in corn and soybean fields at different distances along transects from the field edge. We also quantified damage to corn grain, and to soybean pods and seeds, and measured yield in relation to the observed stink bug densities at different distances from field edge. Highest density of stink bugs was limited to the edge of both corn and soybean fields. Fields adjacent to wooded, crop and building habitats harbored higher densities of stink bugs than those adjacent to open habitats. Damage to corn kernels and to soybean pods and seeds increased with stink bug density in plots and was highest at the field edges. Stink bug density was also negatively associated with yield per plant in soybean. The spatial pattern of stink bugs in both corn and soybeans, with significant edge effects, suggests the use of pest management strategies for crop placement in the landscape, as well as spatially targeted pest suppression within fields.

  15. Accumulated surface damage on ZnS crystals produced by closely spaced pairs of picosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, L.L.; Lee, H.W.H.

    1988-12-01

    Excitation of a transparent ZnS crystal by repetitive picosecond dye laser pulses causes an accumulated surface modification leading to optical damage. The onset of the damage is detected by an abrupt increase in the emission of neutral Zn (and possibly S 2 ) from the surface. Comparison of the neutral emission thresholds with pulse-pair and single-pulse excitation shows that linear absorption is the dominant laser-surface interaction. In general, this measurement technique shows considerable promise for investigating the possible influence of nonlinear absorption or excitation processes on damage mechanisms. The data suggest that heating of small absorbing regions produces the surface modification that leads to the observed surface ablation. The nature of the damage observed at fluences above the threshold suggests that it is caused by heating of a relatively large (/approximately/10 - 100 μm) surface region that has been modified by the accumulation pulses. 3 refs., 5 figs

  16. Extensive tissue damage of bovine ovaries after bipolar ovarian drilling compared to monopolar electrocoagulation or carbon dioxide laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Marja-Liisa; van der Valk, Paul; Lambalk, Cornelis B; Broeckaert, Mark A M; Homburg, Roy; Hompes, Peter G A

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate the size of ovarian damage caused by ovarian drilling in polycystic ovary syndrome, the amount of inflicted damage was assessed for the most frequently used ovarian drilling techniques. Experimental prospective design. University clinic. Six fresh bovine ovaries per technique. Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) laser, monopolar electrocoagulation, and bipolar electrocoagulation were used for in vitro ovarian drilling. Amount of inflicted ovarian damage per procedure. Bipolar electrocoagulation resulted in significantly more destruction per burn than the CO(2) laser and monopolar electrocoagulation (287.6 versus 24.0 and 70.0 mm(3), respectively). The damage found per lesion was multiplied by the regularly applied number of punctures per procedure in daily practice (based on the literature). Again, the bipolar electrocoagulation resulted in significantly more tissue damage than the CO(2) laser and monopolar coagulation (2,876 versus 599 and 700 mm(3), respectively). Ovarian drilling, especially bipolar electrocoagulation, causes extensive destruction of the ovary. Given the same clinical effectiveness of the various procedures, it is essential to use the lowest possible dose that works; thus, the first choice should be CO(2) laser or monopolar electrocoagulation. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Collective laser light scattering from electron density fluctuations in fusion research plasmas (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzhauer, E.; Dodel, G.

    1990-01-01

    In magnetically confined plasmas density fluctuations of apparently turbulent nature with broad spectra in wave number and frequency space are observed which are thought to be the cause for anomalous energy and particle transport across the confining magnetic field. Collective laser light scattering has been used to study the nature of these fluctuations. Specific problems of scattering from fusion plasmas are addressed and illustrated with experimental results from the 119 μm far infrared laser scattering experiment operated on the ASDEX tokamak. Using the system in the heterodyne mode the direction of propagation with respect to the laboratory frame can be determined. Spatial resolution has bean improved by making use of the change in pitch of the total magnetic field across the minor plasma radius. Special emphasis is placed on the ohmic phase where a number of parameter variations including electron density, electron temperature, toroidal magnetic field, and filling gas were performed

  18. Measurements of density, temperature, and their fluctuations in turbulent supersonic flow using UV laser spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Douglas G.; Mckenzie, R. L.

    1992-01-01

    Nonintrusive measurements of density, temperature, and their turbulent fluctuation levels were obtained in the boundary layer of an unseeded, Mach 2 wind tunnel flow. The spectroscopic technique that was used to make the measurements is based on the combination of laser-induced oxygen fluorescence and Raman scattering by oxygen and nitrogen from the same laser pulse. Results from this demonstration experiment are compared with previous measurements obtained in the same facility using conventional probes and an earlier spectroscopic technique. Densities and temperatures measured with the current technique agree with the previous surveys to within 3 percent and 2 percent, respectively. The fluctuation amplitudes for both variables agree with the measurements obtained using the earlier spectroscopic technique and show evidence of an unsteady, weak shock wave that perturbs the boundary layer.

  19. Symmetry and illumination uniformity requirements for high density laser-driven implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mead, W.C.; Lindl, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    As laser capabilities increase, implosions will be performed to achieve high densities. Criteria are discussed for formation of a low-density corona, preheated supersonically, which increases the tolerance of high convergence implosions to non-uniform illumination by utilizing thermal smoothing. We compare optimized double shell target designs without and with atmosphere production. Two significant penalties are incurred with atmosphere production using 1 μm laser light. First, a large initial shock at the ablation surface limits the pulse shaping flexibility, and degrades implosion performance. Second, the mass and heat capacity of the atmosphere reduce the energy delivered to the ablation surface and the driving pressures obtained for a given input energy. Improvement is possible using 2 μm light for the initial phase of the implosion. We present results of 2-D simulations which evaluate combined symmetry and stability requirements. At l = 8, the improvement produced in the example is a factor of 10, giving tolerance of 10 percent

  20. Determination of ultra-short laser induced damage threshold of KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} crystal: Numerical calculation and experimental verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jian [Center for Precision Engineering, School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, 191 W. Woodruff Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Chen, Mingjun, E-mail: chenmj@hit.edu.cn, E-mail: chowdhury.24@osu.edu; Wang, Jinghe; Xiao, Yong [Center for Precision Engineering, School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Kafka, Kyle; Austin, Drake; Chowdhury, Enam, E-mail: chenmj@hit.edu.cn, E-mail: chowdhury.24@osu.edu [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, 191 W. Woodruff Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Rapid growth and ultra-precision machining of large-size KDP (KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}) crystals with high laser damage resistance are tough challenges in the development of large laser systems. It is of high interest and practical significance to have theoretical models for scientists and manufacturers to determine the laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of actually prepared KDP optics. Here, we numerically and experimentally investigate the laser-induced damage on KDP crystals in ultra-short pulse laser regime. On basis of the rate equation for free electron generation, a model dedicated to predicting the LIDT is developed by considering the synergistic effect of photoionization, impact ionization and decay of electrons. Laser damage tests are performed to measure the single-pulse LIDT with several testing protocols. The testing results combined with previously reported experimental data agree well with those calculated by the model. By taking the light intensification into consideration, the model is successfully applied to quantitatively evaluate the effect of surface flaws inevitably introduced in the preparation processes on the laser damage resistance of KDP crystals. This work can not only contribute to further understanding of the laser damage mechanisms of optical materials, but also provide available models for evaluating the laser damage resistance of exquisitely prepared optical components used in high power laser systems.

  1. Simultaneous measurements of temperature and density in air flows using UV laser spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, D. G.; Mckenzie, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    The simultaneous measurement of temperature and density using laser-induced fluorescence of oxygen in combination with Q-branch Raman scattering of nitrogen and oxygen is demonstrated in a low-speed air flow. The lowest density and temperature measured in the experiment correspond to the freestream values at Mach 5 in the Ames 3.5-Foot Hypersonic Wind Tunnel for stagnation conditions of 100 atm and 1000 K. The experimental results demonstrate the viability of the optical technique for measurements that support the study of compressible turbulence and the validation of numerical codes in supersonic and hypersonic wind tunnel flows.

  2. Effects of bunch density gradient in high-gain free-electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.; Kim, K.-J.

    1999-01-01

    The authors investigate effects of the bunch density gradient in self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), including the role of coherent spontaneous emission (CSE) in the evolution of the free-electron laser (FEL) process. In the exponential gain regime, the authors solve the coupled Maxwell-Vlasov equations and extend the linear theory to a bunched beam with energy spread. A time-dependent, nonlinear simulation algorithm is used to study the CSE effect and the nonlinear evolution of the radiation pulse

  3. Effects of Laser Energy Density on Size and Morphology of NiO Nanoparticles Prepared by Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Rory; Reddy, M. Amaranatha; Kim, Tae Kyu [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Metaloxide nanoparticles are of great importance to a large variety of chemical and material applications ranging from catalysts to electronic devices. Among the metal-oxide nanoparticles, NiO is one of the technologically versatile and important semiconducting materials. It has been extensively investigated because of its myriad applications in catalysts, gas sensors, Li-ion battery materials, electrochromic coatings, active optical fibers, fuel cell electrodes, and so on. The effect of laser ablation at various laser energy densities was investigated. At low energy densities, the produced nanoparticles were of irregular morphology with an average size of 2.4 nm. At higher laser energy densities, the produced nanoparticles were spherical, with a polycrystalline structure and their average size was around 10 nm. More detailed investigations on effects of laser wavelength and energy density as well as the particle size effect on the catalytic activity of synthesized NiO nanoparticles will be investigated in future works.

  4. Influence of pulse width and target density on pulsed laser deposition of thin YBaCuO film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikram, S.

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the effects of temporal pulse width and target density on the deposition of thin films of YBaCuO. A 248nm excimer laser and an 825nm Ti-sapphire laser were used to conduct the experiments with pulse widths of 27 ns, 16 ns, and 150 fs, and target densities of 80% and 90%. Scanning electron microscope photomicrographs and profilometer traces show a striking difference between nanosecond and femtosecond laser irradiation. Shortening the pulse width reduced particulate formation, provided stoichiometry, and improved the film properties. Decreasing the target density raised the ablation rate, produced thicker but nonuniform films, and reduced particulate formation

  5. Influence of pulse width and target density on pulsed laser deposition of thin YBaCuO film.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikram, S.

    1999-01-20

    We have studied the effects of temporal pulse width and target density on the deposition of thin films of YBaCuO. A 248nm excimer laser and an 825nm Ti-sapphire laser were used to conduct the experiments with pulse widths of 27 ns, 16 ns, and 150 fs, and target densities of 80% and 90%. Scanning electron microscope photomicrographs and profilometer traces show a striking difference between nanosecond and femtosecond laser irradiation. Shortening the pulse width reduced particulate formation, provided stoichiometry, and improved the film properties. Decreasing the target density raised the ablation rate, produced thicker but nonuniform films, and reduced particulate formation.

  6. Damage threshold from large retinal spot size repetitive-pulse laser exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Brian J; Lund, David J; Edsall, Peter R

    2014-10-01

    The retinal damage thresholds for large spot size, multiple-pulse exposures to a Q-switched, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser (532 nm wavelength, 7 ns pulses) have been measured for 100 μm and 500 μm retinal irradiance diameters. The ED50, expressed as energy per pulse, varies only weakly with the number of pulses, n, for these extended spot sizes. The previously reported threshold for a multiple-pulse exposure for a 900 μm retinal spot size also shows the same weak dependence on the number of pulses. The multiple-pulse ED50 for an extended spot-size exposure does not follow the n dependence exhibited by small spot size exposures produced by a collimated beam. Curves derived by using probability-summation models provide a better fit to the data.

  7. A historical perspective on fifteen years of laser damage thresholds at LLNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainer, F.; De Marco, F.P.; Staggs, M.C.; Kozlowski, M.R.; Atherton, L.J.; Sheehan, L.M.

    1993-01-01

    We have completed a fifteen year, referenced and documented compilation of more than 15,000 measurements of laser-induced damage thresholds (LIDT) conducted at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). These measurements cover the spectrum from 248 to 1064 nm with pulse durations ranging from < 1 ns to 65 ns and at pulse-repetition frequencies (PRF) from single shots to 6.3 kHz. We emphasize the changes in LIDTs during the past two years since we last summarized our database. We relate these results to earlier data concentrating on improvements in processing methods, materials, and conditioning techniques. In particular, we highlight the current status of anti-reflective (AR) coatings, high reflectors (HR), polarizers, and frequency-conversion crystals used primarily at 355 nm and 1064 nm

  8. Development of laser-induced fluorescence detection to assay DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, M.; Freund, H.G.

    1991-01-01

    A precolumn derivation method has been developed for high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of DNA damage using fluorescence detection. The modified nucleotide, having excised enzymatically from the exposed DNA, is enriched from the normal nucleotides and labeled with a fluorescent reagent. The labeling procedure involves phosphoramidation of the nucleotide with ethylenediamine (EDA) followed by conjugation of the free amino end of the phosphoramidate with 5-dimethylaminonaphthalene 1-sulfonyl chloride, commonly known as Dansyl chloride. The dansylated nucleotide can be analyzed with a sub-picomole limit of detection (LOD) by conventional HPLC using a conventional fluorescence detector. By combining microbore HPLC with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection, the authors present the development of an analytical system that has sub-femtomole LOD for real-time analysis of the dansylated nucleotide. In this paper the application of the developed system in fluorescence postlabeling assay of a small alkyl-modified nucleotide (5-methyl CMP) in calf-thymus DNA is discussed

  9. Prediction of hot electron production by ultraintense KrF laser-plasma interactions on solid-density targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Susumu; Takahashi, Eiichi; Miura, Eisuke; Owadano, Yoshiro; Nakamura, Tatsufumi; Kato, Tomokazu

    2002-01-01

    The scaling of hot electron temperature and the spectrum of electron energy by intense laser plasma interactions are reexamined from a viewpoint of the difference in laser wavelength. Laser plasma interaction such as parametric instabilities is usually determined by the Iλ2 scaling, where I and λ is the laser intensity and wavelength, respectively. However, the hot electron temperature is proportional to (ncr/ne0)1/2 [(1 + a 0 2 ) 1/2 - 1] rather than [(1 + a 0 2 ) 1/2 - 1] at the interaction with overdense plasmas, where ne0 is a electron density of overdense plasmas and a0 is a normalized laser intensity

  10. Time-resolved spectroscopy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer in the study of excimer laser damage of chromatin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radu, L. [Department of Molecular Genetics and Radiobiology, Babes National Institute, Bucharest (Romania)], E-mail: lilianajradu@yahoo.fr; Mihailescu, I. [Department of Lasers, Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics Institute, Bucharest (Romania); Radu, S. [Department of Computer Science, Polytechnics University, Bucharest (Romania); Gazdaru, D. [Department of Biophysics, Bucharest University (Romania)

    2007-09-21

    The analysis of chromatin damage produced by a 248 nm excimer laser radiation, for doses of 0.3-3 MJ/m{sup 2} was carried out by time-resolved spectroscopy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The chromatin was extracted from a normal and a tumoral tissue of Wistar rats. The decrease with laser dose of the relative contribution of the excited state lifetimes of ethidium bromide (EtBr) bounded to chromatin constitutes an evidence of the reduction of chromatin deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) double-strand structure. FRET was performed from dansyl chloride to acridine orange, both coupled to chromatin. The increase of the average distance between these ligands, under the action of laser radiation, reflects a loosening of the chromatin structure. The radiosensitivity of tumor tissue chromatin is higher than that of a normal tissue. The determination of the chromatin structure modification in an excimer laser field can be of interest in laser therapy.

  11. Time-resolved spectroscopy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer in the study of excimer laser damage of chromatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radu, L.; Mihailescu, I.; Radu, S.; Gazdaru, D.

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of chromatin damage produced by a 248 nm excimer laser radiation, for doses of 0.3-3 MJ/m 2 was carried out by time-resolved spectroscopy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The chromatin was extracted from a normal and a tumoral tissue of Wistar rats. The decrease with laser dose of the relative contribution of the excited state lifetimes of ethidium bromide (EtBr) bounded to chromatin constitutes an evidence of the reduction of chromatin deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) double-strand structure. FRET was performed from dansyl chloride to acridine orange, both coupled to chromatin. The increase of the average distance between these ligands, under the action of laser radiation, reflects a loosening of the chromatin structure. The radiosensitivity of tumor tissue chromatin is higher than that of a normal tissue. The determination of the chromatin structure modification in an excimer laser field can be of interest in laser therapy

  12. Measurements of Electron Density Profiles of Plasmas Produced by Nike KrF Laser for Laser Plasma Instability (LPI) Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Obenschain, S. P.; Schmitt, A. J.; Kehne, D. M.; Karasik, M.; Chan, L.-Y.; Serlin, V.; Phillips, L.

    2013-10-01

    Knowing spatial profiles of electron density (ne) in the underdense coronal region (n Nike LPI experiment, a side-on grid imaging refractometer (GIR) was deployed for measuring the underdense plasma profiles. Plasmas were produced from flat CH targets illuminated by Nike KrF laser with total energies up to 1 kJ of 0.5 ~ 1 nsec FWHM pulses. The GIR resolved ne up to 3 ×1021 /cm3 in space taking 2D snapshot images of probe laser (λ = 263 nm, Δt = 10 ps) beamlets (50 μm spacing) refracted by the plasma at a selected time during the laser illumination. The individual beamlet transmittances were also measured for Te estimation. Time-resolved spectrometers with an absolute-intensity-calibrated photodiode array and a streak camera simultaneously detected light emission from the plasma in spectral ranges relevant to Raman (SRS) and two plasmon decay instabilities. The measured spatial profiles are compared with simulation results from the FAST3D radiation hydrocode and their effects on the LPI observations are investigated. Work supported by DoE/NNSA and performed at Naval Research Laboratory.

  13. Analysis of peripheral thermal damage after laser irradiation of dentin using polarized light microscopy and synchrotron radiation infrared spectromicroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Rosa, Alfredo; Sarma, Anupama V.; Le, Charles Q.; Jones, Robert S.; Fried, Daniel

    2004-05-01

    It is necessary to minimize peripheral thermal damage during laser irradiation, since thermal damage to collagen and mineral compromises the bond strength to restorative materials in dentin and inhibits healing and osteointegration in bone. The overall objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that lasers resonant to the specific absorption of water, collagen, and hydroxyapatite with pulse durations less than the thermal relaxation times at each respective laser wavelength will efficiently remove dentin with minimal peripheral thermal damage. Precise incisions were produced in 3 x 3 mm2 blocks of human dentin using CO2 (9.6 μm), Er:YSGG (2.79 μm), and Nd:YAG (355 nm) lasers with and without a computer controlled water spray. Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography was used to obtain optical cross-sections of each incision to determine the rate and efficiency of ablation. The peripheral thermal damage zone around each incision was analyzed using polarized light microscopy (PLM) and Synchrotron-Radiation Fourier Transform Infrared Spectro-microscopy (SR-FTIR). Thermally induced chemical changes to both mineral and the collagen matrix was observed with SR-FTIR with a 10-μm spatial resolution and those changes were correlated with optical changes observed with PLM. Minimal (alveolar bone.

  14. Effects of high repetition rate and beam size on hard tissue damage due to subpicosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Beop-Min; Feit, Michael D.; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Joslin, Elizabeth J.; Eichler, Juergen; Stoller, Patrick C.; Da Silva, Luiz B.

    2000-01-01

    We report the effects of the repetition rate and the beam size on the threshold for ultrashort laser pulse induced damage in dentin. The observed results are explained as cumulative thermal effects. Our model is consistent with the experimental results and explains the dependence of the threshold on repetition rate, beam size, and exposure time. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  15. A Visualization Method for Corrosion Damage on Aluminum Plates Using an Nd:YAG Pulsed Laser Scanning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Inbok; Zhang, Aoqi; Lee, Changgil; Park, Seunghee

    2016-12-16

    This paper proposes a non-contact nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technique that uses laser-induced ultrasonic waves to visualize corrosion damage in aluminum alloy plate structures. The non-contact, pulsed-laser ultrasonic measurement system generates ultrasonic waves using a galvanometer-based Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and measures the ultrasonic waves using a piezoelectric (PZT) sensor. During scanning, a wavefield can be acquired by changing the excitation location of the laser point and measuring waves using the PZT sensor. The corrosion damage can be detected in the wavefield snapshots using the scattering characteristics of the waves that encounter corrosion. The structural damage is visualized by calculating the logarithmic values of the root mean square (RMS), with a weighting parameter to compensate for the attenuation caused by geometrical spreading and dispersion of the waves. An intact specimen is used to conduct a comparison with corrosion at different depths and sizes in other specimens. Both sides of the plate are scanned with the same scanning area to observe the effect of the location where corrosion has formed. The results show that the damage can be successfully visualized for almost all cases using the RMS-based functions, whether it formed on the front or back side. Also, the system is confirmed to have distinguished corroded areas at different depths.

  16. Parametric study of the damage ring pattern in fused silica induced by multiple longitudinal modes laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambonneau, M., E-mail: maxime.chambonneau@hotmail.fr; Grua, P.; Rullier, J.-L.; Lamaignère, L. [CEA CESTA, 15 Avenue des Sablières, CS 60001, 33116 Le Barp Cedex (France); Natoli, J.-Y. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, Centrale Marseille, Institut Fresnel, UMR 7249, 13013 Marseille (France)

    2015-03-14

    With the use of multiple longitudinal modes nanosecond laser pulses at 1064 nm, laser damage sites at the exit surface of fused silica clearly and systematically exhibit ring patterns. It has been shown in our previous works that the apparent chronology of rings was closely related to the temporal shape of the laser pulses. This particular correspondence had suggested an explanation of the ring morphology formation based on the displacement of an ionization front in the surrounding air. To provide a former basis for this hypothesis and deeper understanding of ring pattern formation, additional experiments have been performed. First, the impact of fluence has been investigated, revealing that a wide variety of damage sites are produced within a very narrow fluence range; this fact involves the chronology of appearance of a surface plasma during the laser pulse. The sizes of the damage sites are proportional to the fluence of their expansion occurring between the beginning of the plasma and the end of the laser pulse. Second, specific experiments have been carried out at different angles of incidence, resulting in egg-shaped patterns rather than circular ones. This behavior can be explained by our previous hypothesis of creation of a plasma in air, its expansion being tightly conditioned by the illumination angle. This series of experiments, in which the angle of incidence is varied up to 80°, permits us to link quantitatively the working hypothesis of ionization front propagation with theoretical hydrodynamics modeling.

  17. Effect of exponential density transition on self-focusing of q-Gaussian laser beam in collisionless plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkunde, Amol T.; Vhanmore, Bandopant D.; Urunkar, Trupti U.; Gavade, Kusum M.; Patil, Sandip D.; Takale, Mansing V.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, nonlinear aspects of a high intensity q-Gaussian laser beam propagating in collisionless plasma having upward density ramp of exponential profiles is studied. We have employed the nonlinearity in dielectric function of plasma by considering ponderomotive nonlinearity. The differential equation governing the dimensionless beam width parameter is achieved by using Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) and paraxial approximations and solved it numerically by using Runge-Kutta fourth order method. Effect of exponential density ramp profile on self-focusing of q-Gaussian laser beam for various values of q is systematically carried out and compared with results Gaussian laser beam propagating in collisionless plasma having uniform density. It is found that exponential plasma density ramp causes the laser beam to become more focused and gives reasonably interesting results.

  18. Electron density profile determination by means of laser blow-off injected neutral beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocsis, G.; Bakos, J.S.; Ignacz, P.N.; Kardon, B.; Koltai, L.; Veres, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the experimental and theoretical studies of the determination of the electron density profiles by means of laser blow-off neutrals. For the determination of the density profile the time and spatial distributions of the spectral line radiation intensity of the injected neutrals are used. The method is compared to other previously proposed methods and the advantages and disadvantages of the different methods are discussed. The result of the comparison is that our method gives the most reliable result with the highest temporal resolution for the density profile of the edge plasma. The only disadvantage is the need of careful calibration of the sensitivity of the spatial channels. The advantage is the ability of the method as a standard diagnostic. (orig.)

  19. Characterization of laser-produced plasma density profiles using grid image refractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craxton, R.S.; Turner, F.S.; Hoefen, R.; Darrow, C.; Gabl, E.F.; Busch, G.E.

    1993-01-01

    Grid image refractometry (GIR) is proposed as a technique for determining the two-dimensional density profiles of long scale-length laser-produced plasmas. Its distinctive feature is that an optical probe beam is broken up into ''rays'' by being passed through a grid before traversing the plasma. The refraction angles of the rays are measured by imaging the plasma at two or more object planes and are integrated to yield the phase front. For cylindrically symmetric plasmas the density profile is then determined using Abel inversion. The feasibility of GIR is illustrated by an experiment in which a thick CH target was irradiated with ∼100 J of 527 nm radiation and diagnosed with a 20 ps, 263 nm probe. The resulting density profile is substantially larger than any that have previously been reported using interferometry and compares quite closely with hydrodynamic simulations

  20. Estimated refractive index and solid density of DT, with application to hollow-microsphere laser targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, C.K.; Tsugawa, R.T.; Hendricks, C.D.; Souers, P.C.

    1975-01-01

    The literature values for the 0.55-μm refractive index N of liquid and gaseous H 2 and D 2 are combined to yield the equation (N - 1) = [(3.15 +- 0.12) x 10 -6 ]rho, where rho is the density in moles per cubic meter. This equation can be extrapolated to 300 0 K for use on DT in solid, liquid, and gas phases. The equation is based on a review of solid-hydrogen densities measured in bulk and also by diffraction methods. By extrapolation, the estimated densities and 0.55-μm refractive indices for DT are given. Radiation-induced point defects could possibly cause optical absorption and a resulting increased refractive index in solid DT and T 2 . The effect of the DT refractive index in measuring glass and cryogenic DT laser targets is also described

  1. Comparison in electron density distribution of tokamak plasma between ruby-laser scattering and milli-meter wave interferometric measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matoba, Tohru; Funahashi, Akimasa; Itagaki, Tokiyoshi; Takahashi, Koki; Kumagai, Katsuaki

    1976-08-01

    The electron density in JFT-2 tokamak has been measured by two methods, i.e. Thomson scattering of ruby-laser light and interferometry of millimeter wave. Two-dimensional distribution of the scattered light intensities were obtained by scattering measurement; absolute calibration was made by normalizing the scattered intensities with the averaged density determined from interferometric measurement. The horizontal density distributions in laser scattering were compared with those in from the averaged densities measured with a 4-mm interferometer through inverse-transformation. Agreement is good between the two measurements, except where they give erroneous data because of irreproducibility of the discharge. (auth.)

  2. Shack-Hartmann Electron Densitometer (SHED): An Optical System for Diagnosing Free Electron Density in Laser-Produced Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Free Electron Density in Laser-Produced Plasmas by Anthony R Valenzuela Approved for public release; distribution is...AND SUBTITLE Shack-Hartmann Electron Densitometer (SHED): An Optical System for Diagnosing Free Electron Density in Laser-Produced Plasmas 5a...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The Shack-Hartmann Electron Densitometer is a novel method to diagnose ultrashort pulse laser–produced plasmas

  3. Dynamics of laser-driven proton beam focusing and transport into solid density matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; McGuffey, C.; Beg, F.; Wei, M.; Mariscal, D.; Chen, S.; Fuchs, J.

    2016-10-01

    Isochoric heating and local energy deposition capabilities make intense proton beams appealing for studying high energy density physics and the Fast Ignition of inertial confinement fusion. To study proton beam focusing that results in high beam density, experiments have been conducted using different target geometries irradiated by a kilojoule, 10 ps pulse of the OMEGA EP laser. The beam focus was measured by imaging beam-induced Cu K-alpha emission on a Cu foil that was positioned at a fixed distance. Compared to a free target, structured targets having shapes of wedge and cone show a brighter and narrower K-alpha radiation emission spot on a Cu foil indicating higher beam focusability. Experimentally observed images with proton radiography demonstrate the existence of transverse fields on the structures. Full-scale simulations including the contribution of a long pulse duration of the laser confirm that such fields can be caused by hot electrons moving through the structures. The simulated fields are strong enough to reflect the diverging main proton beam and pinch a transverse probe beam. Detailed simulation results including the beam focusing and transport of the focused intense proton beam in Cu foil will be presented. This work was supported by the National Laser User Facility Program through Award DE-NA0002034.

  4. Interaction of 1.319 μm laser with skin: an optical-thermal-damage model and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Luguang; Yang, Zaifu; Wang, Jiarui

    2014-09-01

    With the widespread use of high-power laser systems operating within the wavelength region of approximately 1.3 to 1.4 μm, it becomes very necessary to refine the laser safety guidelines setting the exposure limits for the eye and skin. In this paper, an optical-thermal-damage model was developed to simulate laser propagation, energy deposition, heat transfer and thermal damage in the skin for 1.319 μm laser irradiation. Meanwhile, an experiment was also conducted in vitro to measure the tempreture history of a porcine skin specimen irradiated by a 1.319 μm laser. Predictions from the model included light distribution in the skin, temperature response and thermal damge level of the tissue. It was shown that the light distribution region was much larger than that of the incident laser at the wavelength of 1.319 μm, and the maximum value of the fluence rate located on the interior region of the skin, not on the surface. By comparing the calculated temperature curve with the experimentally recorded temperautre data, good agreement was shown betweeen them, which validated the numerical model. The model also indicated that the damage integral changed little when the temperature of skin tissue was lower than about 55 °C, after that, the integral increased rapidly and denatunation of the tissue would occur. Based on this model, we can further explore the damage mechanisms and trends for the skin and eye within the wavelength region of 1.3 μm to 1.4 μm, incorporating with in vivo experimental investigations.

  5. MIMIC: An Innovative Methodology for Determining Mobile Laser Scanning System Point Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor Cahalane

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how various Mobile Mapping System (MMS laser hardware configurations and operating parameters exercise different influence on point density is important for assessing system performance, which in turn facilitates system design and MMS benchmarking. Point density also influences data processing, as objects that can be recognised using automated algorithms generally require a minimum point density. Although obtaining the necessary point density impacts on hardware costs, survey time and data storage requirements, a method for accurately and rapidly assessing MMS performance is lacking for generic MMSs. We have developed a method for quantifying point clouds collected by an MMS with respect to known objects at specified distances using 3D surface normals, 2D geometric formulae and line drawing algorithms. These algorithms were combined in a system called the Mobile Mapping Point Density Calculator (MIMIC and were validated using point clouds captured by both a single scanner and a dual scanner MMS. Results from MIMIC were promising: when considering the number of scan profiles striking the target, the average error equated to less than 1 point per scan profile. These tests highlight that MIMIC is capable of accurately calculating point density for both single and dual scanner MMSs.

  6. Mid-infrared pulsed laser ablation of the arterial wall. Mechanical origin of "acoustic" wall damage and its effect on wall healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Erven, L.; van Leeuwen, T. G.; Post, M. J.; van der Veen, M. J.; Velema, E.; Borst, C.

    1992-01-01

    Pulsed mid-infrared lasers are an alternative to excimer lasers for transluminal angioplasty. The mid-infrared lasers, however, were reported to produce "acoustic" wall damage that might impair the immediate and long-term results. To study the immediate and long-term effects on the arterial wall,

  7. Estimation of probability density functions of damage parameter for valve leakage detection in reciprocating pump used in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Kyeom; Kim, Tae Yun; Kim, Hyun Su; Chai, Jang Bom; Lee, Jin Woo [Div. of Mechanical Engineering, Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This paper presents an advanced estimation method for obtaining the probability density functions of a damage parameter for valve leakage detection in a reciprocating pump. The estimation method is based on a comparison of model data which are simulated by using a mathematical model, and experimental data which are measured on the inside and outside of the reciprocating pump in operation. The mathematical model, which is simplified and extended on the basis of previous models, describes not only the normal state of the pump, but also its abnormal state caused by valve leakage. The pressure in the cylinder is expressed as a function of the crankshaft angle, and an additional volume flow rate due to the valve leakage is quantified by a damage parameter in the mathematical model. The change in the cylinder pressure profiles due to the suction valve leakage is noticeable in the compression and expansion modes of the pump. The damage parameter value over 300 cycles is calculated in two ways, considering advance or delay in the opening and closing angles of the discharge valves. The probability density functions of the damage parameter are compared for diagnosis and prognosis on the basis of the probabilistic features of valve leakage.

  8. Estimation of probability density functions of damage parameter for valve leakage detection in reciprocating pump used in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Kyeom; Kim, Tae Yun; Kim, Hyun Su; Chai, Jang Bom; Lee, Jin Woo

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an advanced estimation method for obtaining the probability density functions of a damage parameter for valve leakage detection in a reciprocating pump. The estimation method is based on a comparison of model data which are simulated by using a mathematical model, and experimental data which are measured on the inside and outside of the reciprocating pump in operation. The mathematical model, which is simplified and extended on the basis of previous models, describes not only the normal state of the pump, but also its abnormal state caused by valve leakage. The pressure in the cylinder is expressed as a function of the crankshaft angle, and an additional volume flow rate due to the valve leakage is quantified by a damage parameter in the mathematical model. The change in the cylinder pressure profiles due to the suction valve leakage is noticeable in the compression and expansion modes of the pump. The damage parameter value over 300 cycles is calculated in two ways, considering advance or delay in the opening and closing angles of the discharge valves. The probability density functions of the damage parameter are compared for diagnosis and prognosis on the basis of the probabilistic features of valve leakage

  9. Estimation of Probability Density Functions of Damage Parameter for Valve Leakage Detection in Reciprocating Pump Used in Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Kyeom Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an advanced estimation method for obtaining the probability density functions of a damage parameter for valve leakage detection in a reciprocating pump. The estimation method is based on a comparison of model data which are simulated by using a mathematical model, and experimental data which are measured on the inside and outside of the reciprocating pump in operation. The mathematical model, which is simplified and extended on the basis of previous models, describes not only the normal state of the pump, but also its abnormal state caused by valve leakage. The pressure in the cylinder is expressed as a function of the crankshaft angle, and an additional volume flow rate due to the valve leakage is quantified by a damage parameter in the mathematical model. The change in the cylinder pressure profiles due to the suction valve leakage is noticeable in the compression and expansion modes of the pump. The damage parameter value over 300 cycles is calculated in two ways, considering advance or delay in the opening and closing angles of the discharge valves. The probability density functions of the damage parameter are compared for diagnosis and prognosis on the basis of the probabilistic features of valve leakage.

  10. A Study of Polycrystalline Silicon Damage Features Based on Nanosecond Pulse Laser Irradiation with Different Wavelength Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jiangmin; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Tengfei; Han, Zhenchun

    2017-01-01

    Based on PVDF (piezoelectric sensing techniques), this paper attempts to study the propagation law of shock waves in brittle materials during the process of three-wavelength laser irradiation of polysilicon, and discusses the formation mechanism of thermal shock failure. The experimental results show that the vapor pressure effect and the plasma pressure effect in the process of pulsed laser irradiation lead to the splashing of high temperature and high density melt. With the decrease of the ...

  11. Influence of wavelength and pulse duration on peripheral thermal and mechanical damage to dentin and alveolar bone during IR laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C.; Ragadio, Jerome N.; Fried, Daniel

    2000-03-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the peripheral thermal damage produced during the laser ablation of alveolar bone and dentin for clinically relevant IR laser systems. Previous studies have demonstrated that a char layer produced around the laser incision site can inhibit the wound healing process. Moreover, in the case of dentin, a char layer is unsightly and is difficult to bond to with restorative materials. Thermal damage was assessed using polarized light microscopy for laser pulse widths from 500 ns to 300 microseconds at 2.94 micrometer and 9.6 micrometer. Water- cooling was not employed to alleviate thermal damage during the laser irradiation. At 9.6 micrometer, minimal thermal damage was observed for pulse widths on the order of the thermal relaxation time of the deposited laser energy in the tissue, 3 - 4 microseconds, and peripheral thermal damage increased with increasing pulse duration. At 2.94 micrometer, thermal damage was minimal for the Q-switched (500 ns) laser system. This study shows that 9.6 micrometer CO2 laser pulses with pulse widths of 5 - 10 microseconds are well suited for the efficient ablation of dentin and bone with minimal peripheral damage. This work was supported by NIH/NIDCR R29DE12091.

  12. Effect of laser peripheral iridotomy using argon and neodymium-YAG lasers on corneal endothelial cell density: 7-year longitudinal evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Takashi; Iida, Masaharu; Sakisaka, Toshihiro; Minami, Keiichiro; Miyata, Kazunori

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the changes in corneal endothelial cell density (ECD) over a 7-year period after laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) using argon and neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) lasers. Retrospective case series. Eyes that underwent prophylactic LPI using argon and Nd:YAG lasers were followed up for 7 years. Central corneal endothelial cells were observed by use of noncontact specular microscopy preoperatively and at 1 and 7 years postoperatively. Changes in ECD and the associations between preoperative ECD and the total energy of the Nd:YAG laser were evaluated. Fifty-one eyes of 51 patients were followed up for 7 years. The ECD significantly decreased after LPI (P laser energy. Long-term evaluation indicated that the reduction in ECD after argon-Nd:YAG laser LPI was present but small during the initial year and was negligible after 1 year.

  13. Examinations for the determination of the flux density of sputtered iron using laser induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweer, H.B.

    1983-11-01

    In this work investigations are described to measure the flux density of sputtered iron atoms by means of laser induced fluorescence. In a laboratory experiment an iron target (stainless steel 316, Inconel 600), was bombarded with 10 keV Ar + and 2.5 keV H + and the population distribution of the energy levels of the ground state a 5 D and the metastable state a 5 F was measured. In the plasma wall region in the ISX-B tokamak at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (USA) neutral iron atoms were measured the first time by laser induced fluorescence. A detection limit of 10 6 atoms/cm 3 was found and sputtered iron atoms were observed in the first 15 ms of the discharge. (orig./BRB)

  14. Numerical study of overpopulation density for laser oscillation in recombining hydrogen plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, T.; Furukane, U.

    1983-06-01

    The dependence of overpopulation density (OD) on ground-level population density (n1) and electron temperature (Te) in a recombining hydrogen plasma is evaluated for line pairs with the principal quantum numbers (2,3), (3,4), and (4,5). The approach is based on the simultaneouss solution of the quasi-steady-state rate equation (including interatomic-collision terms) and the optical-escape-factor equation for the Lyman series with Doppler profile. Calculations are performed for optically thin and thick plasmas at a fixed atomic temperature of 0.15 eV, over a Te range from 0.1 to 1 eV and an electron-density (ne) range from 10 to the 11th to 10 to the 17th per cu cm. It is shown that peak OD occurs at an ne slightly below that at which population inversion is destroyed, that peak OD is inversely sensitive to Te, and that peak OD(2,3) is the highest of the three peak OD. Laser oscillation is determined to be possible for (2,3) at Te higher than for (3,4) and (4,5), if self-absorption is negligible. The OD remains constant as n1 increases, up to the point at which significant self-absorption occurs. No laser oscillation is expected at level (4,5), nor in optically thick plasma at any level, for the realistic cavity parameters and temperatures used in the calculations. 21 references.

  15. Modification of K-line emission profiles in laser-created solid-density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengebusch, A.; Reinholz, H.; Roepke, G.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. X-ray emissions in the keV energy range have shown to be suitable radiation to investigate the properties of laser-created solid-density plasmas. We use the modifications of inner shell transitions due to the environment to characterize these plasmas. A theoretical treatment of spectral line profiles based on a self-consistent ion sphere model is applied on moderately ionized mid-Z materials, such as titanium, silicon and chlorine. We observe large contributions of satellite transitions due to M-shell ionization and excitation. To determine the composition a mixture of various excited and ionized ionic states embedded in a plasma has to be considered. Plasma polarization effects that cause shifts of the emission and ionization energies are taken into account. K-line profiles are calculated for bulk temperatures up to 100 eV and free electron densities up to 10 24 cm -3 in order to analyze recent measurements with respect to the plasma parameters of electron heated target regions. Moreover, in high-intensity laser-matter interactions, inevitable prepulses are likely to create preplasma and shocks within the target before the main pulse arrives. We investigate the influence of density gradients due to prepulses on the spectral profiles. Further, radial bulk temperature distributions as well the composition of the created warm dense matter are inferred.

  16. Distribution of E/N and N/e/ in a cross-flow electric discharge laser. [electric field to neutral gas density and electron number density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, J. W., Jr.; Lancashire, R. B.; Manista, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    Measurements have been conducted of the effect of the convection of ions and electrons on the discharge characteristics in a large scale laser. The results are presented for one particular distribution of ballast resistance. Values of electric field, current density, input power density, ratio of electric field to neutral gas density (E/N), and electron number density were calculated on the basis of measurements of the discharge properties. In a number of graphs, the E/N ratio, current density, power density, and electron density are plotted as a function of row number (downstream position) with total discharge current and gas velocity as parameters. From the dependence of the current distribution on the total current, it appears that the electron production in the first two rows significantly affects the current flowing in the succeeding rows.

  17. 1.06 μm 150 psec laser damage study of diamond turned, diamond turned/polished and polished metal mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, T.T.; Milam, D.; Baker, P.; Murphy, G.

    1975-01-01

    Using a well characterized 1.06 μm 150 ps glass laser pulse the damage characteristics for diamond turned, diamond turned/ polished, and polished copper and silver mirrors less than 5 cm diameter were studied. Although most samples were tested with a normal angle of incidence, some were tested at 45 0 with different linear polarization showing an increase in damage threshold for S polarization. Different damage mechanisms observed will be discussed. Laser damage is related to residual surface influences of the fabrication process. First attempts to polish diamond turned surfaces resulted in a significant decrease in laser damage threshold. The importance of including the heat of fusion in the one dimensional heat analysis of the theoretical damage threshold and how close the samples came to the theoretical damage threshold is discussed. (auth)

  18. Study of self-focusing of Non Gaussian laser beam in a plasma with density variation using moment theory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Nidhi; Kaur, Sukhdeep; Singh, Sukhmander

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, self-focusing/defocusing effects have been studied by taking into account the combined effect of ponder-motive and relativistic non linearity during the laser plasma interaction with density variation. The formulation is based on the numerical analysis of second order nonlinear differential equation for appropriate set of laser and plasma parameters by employing moment theory approach. We found that self-focusing increases with increasing the laser intensity and density variation. The results obtained are valuable in high harmonic generation, inertial confinement fusion and charge particle acceleration.

  19. Laser-induced damage in biological tissue: Role of complex and dynamic optical properties of the medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Elharith M.

    Since its invention in the early 1960's, the laser has been used as a tool for surgical, therapeutic, and diagnostic purposes. To achieve maximum effectiveness with the greatest margin of safety it is important to understand the mechanisms of light propagation through tissue and how that light affects living cells. Lasers with novel output characteristics for medical and military applications are too often implemented prior to proper evaluation with respect to tissue optical properties and human safety. Therefore, advances in computational models that describe light propagation and the cellular responses to laser exposure, without the use of animal models, are of considerable interest. Here, a physics-based laser-tissue interaction model was developed to predict the spatial and temporal temperature and pressure rise during laser exposure to biological tissues. Our new model also takes into account the dynamic nature of tissue optical properties and their impact on the induced temperature and pressure profiles. The laser-induced retinal damage is attributed to the formation of microbubbles formed around melanosomes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the damage mechanism is assumed to be photo-thermal. Selective absorption by melanin creates these bubbles that expand and collapse around melanosomes, destroying cell membranes and killing cells. The Finite Element (FE) approach taken provides suitable ground for modeling localized pigment absorption which leads to a non-uniform temperature distribution within pigmented cells following laser pulse exposure. These hot-spots are sources for localized thermo-elastic stresses which lead to rapid localized expansions that manifest themselves as microbubbles and lead to microcavitations. Model predictions for the interaction of lasers at wavelengths of 193, 694, 532, 590, 1314, 1540, 2000, and 2940 nm with biological tissues were generated and comparisons were made with available experimental data for the retina

  20. Strong self-focusing of a cosh-Gaussian laser beam in collisionless magneto-plasma under plasma density ramp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanda, Vikas; Kant, Niti

    2014-01-01

    The effect of plasma density ramp on self-focusing of cosh-Gaussian laser beam considering ponderomotive nonlinearity is analyzed using WKB and paraxial approximation. It is noticed that cosh-Gaussian laser beam focused earlier than Gaussian beam. The focusing and de-focusing nature of the cosh-Gaussian laser beam with decentered parameter, intensity parameter, magnetic field, and relative density parameter has been studied and strong self-focusing is reported. It is investigated that decentered parameter “b” plays a significant role for the self-focusing of the laser beam as for b=2.12, strong self-focusing is seen. Further, it is observed that extraordinary mode is more prominent toward self-focusing rather than ordinary mode of propagation. For b=2.12, with the increase in the value of magnetic field self-focusing effect, in case of extraordinary mode, becomes very strong under plasma density ramp. Present study may be very useful in the applications like the generation of inertial fusion energy driven by lasers, laser driven accelerators, and x-ray lasers. Moreover, plasma density ramp plays a vital role to enhance the self-focusing effect

  1. Strong self-focusing of a cosh-Gaussian laser beam in collisionless magneto-plasma under plasma density ramp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanda, Vikas; Kant, Niti, E-mail: nitikant@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Lovely Professional University, G. T. Road, Phagwara, Punjab 144411 (India)

    2014-07-15

    The effect of plasma density ramp on self-focusing of cosh-Gaussian laser beam considering ponderomotive nonlinearity is analyzed using WKB and paraxial approximation. It is noticed that cosh-Gaussian laser beam focused earlier than Gaussian beam. The focusing and de-focusing nature of the cosh-Gaussian laser beam with decentered parameter, intensity parameter, magnetic field, and relative density parameter has been studied and strong self-focusing is reported. It is investigated that decentered parameter “b” plays a significant role for the self-focusing of the laser beam as for b=2.12, strong self-focusing is seen. Further, it is observed that extraordinary mode is more prominent toward self-focusing rather than ordinary mode of propagation. For b=2.12, with the increase in the value of magnetic field self-focusing effect, in case of extraordinary mode, becomes very strong under plasma density ramp. Present study may be very useful in the applications like the generation of inertial fusion energy driven by lasers, laser driven accelerators, and x-ray lasers. Moreover, plasma density ramp plays a vital role to enhance the self-focusing effect.

  2. Investigation of density fluctuations in the ASDEX tokamak via collective laser scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodel, G.; Holzhauer, E.

    1990-01-01

    A 119μm laser scattering experiment is used on ASDEX to investigate wavenumber and frequency spectra of the density fluctuations occurring in the different operational modes of the machine. The aim of the measurements is to get insight in the physical nature of the fluctuations and their possible role in connection with anomalous transport. Since no complete theory exists, the simple guidelines of gyroradius-scaling and mixinglength level are used in the choice of parameters to be varied. Particular emphasis has been placed on the investigation of the fluctuations in the ohmic phase. (author) 1 ref., 3 figs

  3. Investigation of density fluctuations in the ASDEX tokamak via collective laser scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodel, G.; Holzhauer, E.

    1990-01-01

    A 119 μm laser scattering experiment is used on ASDEX to investigate wavenumber and frequency spectra of the density fluctuations occurring in the different operational modes of the machine. The aim of the measurements is to get insight in the physical nature of the fluctuations and their possible role in connection with anomalous transport. Since no complete theory exists, the simple guidelines of gyroradius-scaling and mixinglength level are used in the choice of parameters to be varied. Particular emphasis has been placed on the investigation of the fluctuations in the ohmic phase. (orig./AH)

  4. Role of temperature and energy density in the pulsed laser deposition of zirconium oxide thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittra, Joy; Abraham, G.J.; Viswanadham, C.S.; Kulkarni, U.D.; Dey, G.K.

    2011-01-01

    Present work brings out the effects of energy density and substrate temperature on pulsed laser deposition of zirconium oxide thin film on Zr-base alloy substrates. The ablation of sintered zirconia has been carried out using a KrF excimer laser having 30 ns pulse width and 600 mJ energy at source at 10 Hz repetition rate. To comprehend effects of these parameters on the synthesized thin film, pure zirconia substrate has been ablated at two different energy densities, 2 J.cm -2 and 5 J.cm -2 , keeping the substrate at 300 K, 573 K and 873 K, respectively. After visual observation, deposited thin films have been examined using Raman Spectroscopy (RS) and X-ray Photo-electron Spectroscopy (XPS). It has been found that the oxide deposited at 300 K temperature does not show good adherence with the substrate and deteriorates further with the reduction in energy density of the incident laser. The oxide films, deposited at 573 K and 873 K, have been found to be adherent with the substrate and appear lustrous black. These indicate that the threshold for adherence of the zirconia film on the Zr-base alloy substrate lies in between 300 K and 573 K. Analysis of Raman spectra has indicated that thin films of zirconia, deposited using pulsed laser, on the Zr-base metallic substrate are initially in amorphous state. Experimental evidence has indicated a strong link among the degree of crystallinity of the deposited oxide film, the substrate temperature and the energy density. It also has shown that the crystallization of the oxide film is dependent on the substrate temperature and the duration of holding at high temperature. The O:Zr ratios of the films, analyzed from the XPS data, have been found to be close to but less than 2. This appears to explain the reason for the transformation of amorphous oxide into monoclinic and tetragonal phases, below 573 K, and not into cubic phase, which is reported to be more oxygen deficient. (author)

  5. Modeling of the thermal physical process and study on the reliability of linear energy density for selective laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Zhaowei; Yin, Ming; Dong, Guanhua; Mei, Xiaoqin; Yin, Guofu

    2018-06-01

    A finite element model considering volume shrinkage with powder-to-dense process of powder layer in selective laser melting (SLM) is established. Comparison between models that consider and do not consider volume shrinkage or powder-to-dense process is carried out. Further, parametric analysis of laser power and scan speed is conducted and the reliability of linear energy density as a design parameter is investigated. The results show that the established model is an effective method and has better accuracy allowing for the temperature distribution, and the length and depth of molten pool. The maximum temperature is more sensitive to laser power than scan speed. The maximum heating rate and cooling rate increase with increasing scan speed at constant laser power and increase with increasing laser power at constant scan speed as well. The simulation results and experimental result reveal that linear energy density is not always reliable using as a design parameter in the SLM.

  6. Nanosecond laser therapy reverses pathologic and molecular changes in age-related macular degeneration without retinal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobling, A I; Guymer, R H; Vessey, K A; Greferath, U; Mills, S A; Brassington, K H; Luu, C D; Aung, K Z; Trogrlic, L; Plunkett, M; Fletcher, E L

    2015-02-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of vision loss, characterized by drusen deposits and thickened Bruch's membrane (BM). This study details the capacity of nanosecond laser treatment to reduce drusen and thin BM while maintaining retinal structure. Fifty patients with AMD had a single nanosecond laser treatment session and after 2 yr, change in drusen area was compared with an untreated cohort of patients. The retinal effect of the laser was determined in human and mouse eyes using immunohistochemistry and compared with untreated eyes. In a mouse with thickened BM (ApoEnull), the effect of laser treatment was quantified using electron microscopy and quantitative PCR. In patients with AMD, nanosecond laser treatment reduced drusen load at 2 yr. Retinal structure was not compromised in human and mouse retina after laser treatment, with only a discrete retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) injury, and limited mononuclear cell response observed. BM was thinned in the ApoEnull mouse 3 mo after treatment (ApoEnull treated 683 ± 38 nm, ApoEnull untreated 890 ± 60 nm, C57Bl6J 606 ± 43 nm), with the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -3 increased (>260%). Nanosecond laser resolved drusen independent of retinal damage and improved BM structure, suggesting this treatment has the potential to reduce AMD progression. © FASEB.

  7. Laser-damage susceptibility of nodular defects in dielectric mirror coatings: AFM measurements and electric-field modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, M.R.; DeFord, J.F.; Staggs, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electromagnetic field modeling were used to study the influence of nodular coating defects on laser-induced damage of multilayer dielectric coatings. In studies of HfO 2 /SiO 2 mirrors with 1.06 μm illumination, AFM results showed that nodular defects with high dome heights (>0.6 μm) were most susceptible to laser damage. Crater defects, formed by nodules ejected from the coating prior to illumination, were not damaged when illuminated over the same range of fluences. A finite-difference time-domain electromagnetic modeling code was used to study the influence of 3-D nodule defects on the E-field distribution within the interference coating. The modeling results show that Enfield enhancements as large as a factor of 4 can be present at the defects. Crater defects, however, result in minimal enhancement of the E-fields within the coating. These modeling results are consistent with the AFM experimental data, indicating that E-field enhancement is a contributing mechanism in defect-dominated laser damage of optical coatings

  8. Effect of electric field distribution on the morphologies of laser-induced damage in hafnia-silica multilayer polarizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genin, F.Y.; Stolz, C.J.; Reitter, T.; Kozlowski, M.R.; Bevis, R.P.; vonGunten, M.K.

    1997-01-01

    Hafnia-silica multilayer polarizers were deposited by e-beam evaporation onto BK7 glass substrates. The polarizers were designed to operate at 1064 nm at Brewster's angle (56 degree). They were tested with a 3-ns laser pulse at 45, 56, and 65 degree incidence angle in order to vary the electric field distribution in the multilayer, study their effects on damage morphology, and investigate possible advantages of off-use angle laser conditioning. Morphology of the laser-induced damage was characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Four distinct damage morphologies (pit, flat bottom pit, scald, outer layer delamination) were observed; they depend strongly on incident angle of the laser beam. Massive delamination observed at 45 and 56 degree incidence, did not occur at 65 degree; instead, large and deep pits were found at 65 degree. Electric field distribution, temperature rise, and change in stress in the multilayer were calculated to attempt to better understand the relation between damage morphology, electric field peak locations, and maximum thermal stress gradients. The calculations showed a twofold increase in stress change in the hafnia top layers depending on incident angle. Stress gradient in the first hafnia-silica interface was found to be highest for 45, 56, and 65 degree, respectively. Finally, the maximum stress was deeper in the multilayer at 65 degree. Although the limitations of such simple thermal mechanical model are obvious, the results can explain that outer layer delamination is more likely at 45 and 56 degree than 65 degree and that damage sites are expected to be deeper at 65 degree

  9. Applications of high order harmonic radiation to UVX-solids interaction: high excitation density in electronic relaxation dynamics and surface damaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Grazia, M.

    2007-12-01

    The new sources of radiation in the extreme-UV (X-UV: 10-100 nm), which deliver spatially coherent, ultra-short and intense pulses, allow studying high flux processes and ultra-fast dynamics in various domains. The thesis work presents two applications of the high-order laser harmonics (HH) to solid state physics. In Part I, we describe the optimization of the harmonic for studies of X-UV/solids interaction. In Part II, we investigate effects of high excitation density in the dynamics of electron relaxation in dielectric scintillator crystals - tungstates and fluorides, using time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy. Quenching of luminescence at short time gives evidence of the competition between radiative and non-radiative recombination of self-trapped excitons (STE). The non-radiative channel is identified to mutual interaction of STE at high excitation density. In Part III, we study the X-UV induced damage mechanism in various materials, either conductor (amorphous carbon) or insulators (organic polymers, e.g., PMMA). In PMMA-Plexiglas, in the desorption regime (0.2 mJ/cm 2 , i.e., below damage threshold), the surface modifications reflect X-UV induced photochemical processes that are tentatively identified, as a function of dose: at low dose, polymer chain scission followed by the blow-up of the volatile, low-molecular fragments leads to crater formation; at high dose, cross-linking in the near-surface layer of remaining material leads to surface hardening. These promising results have great perspectives considering the performances already attained and planned in the next future in the development of the harmonic sources. (author)

  10. Influence of standing-wave electric field pattern on the laser damage resistance of HfO sub 2 thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Protopapa, M L; De Tomasi, F; Di Giulio, M; Perrone, M R; Scaglione, S

    2002-01-01

    The standing-wave electric field pattern that forms inside an optical coating as a consequence of laser irradiation is one of the factors influencing the coating laser-induced damage threshold. The influence of the standing-wave electric field profile on the damage resistance to ultraviolet radiation of hafnium dioxide (HfO sub 2) thin films was investigated in this work. To this end, HfO sub 2 thin films of different thicknesses deposited by the electron beam evaporation technique at the same deposition conditions were analyzed. Laser damage thresholds of the samples were measured at 308 nm (XeCl laser) by the photoacoustic beam deflection technique and microscopic inspections. The dependence of the laser damage threshold on the standing-wave electric field pattern was analyzed.

  11. Electron density profile reconstruction by maximum entropy method with multichannel HCN laser interferometer system on SPAC VII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, S.; Narihara, K.; Tomita, Y.; Hasegawa, M.; Tsuzuki, T.; Mohri, A.

    1988-01-01

    A multichannel HCN laser interferometer system has been developed to investigate the plasma electron confinement properties in SPAC VII device. Maximum entropy method is applied to reconstruct the electron density profile from measured line integrated data. Particle diffusion coefficient in the peripheral region of the REB ring core spherator was obtained from the evolution of the density profile. (author)

  12. Influence of additive laser manufacturing parameters on surface using density of partially melted particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Benoit; Brient, Antoine; Samper, Serge; Hascoët, Jean-Yves

    2016-12-01

    Mastering the additive laser manufacturing surface is a real challenge and would allow functional surfaces to be obtained without finishing. Direct Metal Deposition (DMD) surfaces are composed by directional and chaotic textures that are directly linked to the process principles. The aim of this work is to obtain surface topographies by mastering the operating process parameters. Based on experimental investigation, the influence of operating parameters on the surface finish has been modeled. Topography parameters and multi-scale analysis have been used in order to characterize the DMD obtained surfaces. This study also proposes a methodology to characterize DMD chaotic texture through topography filtering and 3D image treatment. In parallel, a new parameter is proposed: density of particles (D p). Finally, this study proposes a regression modeling between process parameters and density of particles parameter.

  13. Thomson scattering from near-solid density plasmas using soft x-ray free electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holl, A; Bornath, T; Cao, L; Doppner, T; Dusterer, S; Forster, E; Fortmann, C; Glenzer, S H; Gregori, G; Laarmann, T; Meiwes-Broer, K H; Przystawik, A; Radcliffe, P; Redmer, R; Reinholz, H; Ropke, G; Thiele, R; Tiggesbaumker, J; Toleikis, S; Truong, N X; Tschentscher, T; Uschmann, I; Zastrau, U

    2006-11-21

    We propose a collective Thomson scattering experiment at the VUV free electron laser facility at DESY (FLASH) which aims to diagnose warm dense matter at near-solid density. The plasma region of interest marks the transition from an ideal plasma to a correlated and degenerate many-particle system and is of current interest, e.g. in ICF experiments or laboratory astrophysics. Plasma diagnostic of such plasmas is a longstanding issue. The collective electron plasma mode (plasmon) is revealed in a pump-probe scattering experiment using the high-brilliant radiation to probe the plasma. The distinctive scattering features allow to infer basic plasma properties. For plasmas in thermal equilibrium the electron density and temperature is determined from scattering off the plasmon mode.

  14. Density determination in the TEXTOR boundary layer by laser-ablated fast lithium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospieszczyk, A.; Ross, G.G.

    1988-01-01

    A method is presented which allows a determination of electron density profiles in the plasma boundary of a fusion device up to some 10 13 cm -3 within about 100 μs. For this purpose, the complete attenuation of an injected lithium beam is determined by measuring its optical emission profile. The beam is generated by a ruby laser, which ablates small portions of a LiF coating with a thickness of about 1000 A from the rear side of a glass substrate. The produced lithium atoms have velocities of 1 x 10 6 cm/s and can penetrate into the plasma until n/sub e/ x l ≅1 x 10 13 cm -2 . For the measurement of the optical emission profile of the excited lithium atoms, a silicon photodiode array camera is used. The emission profile is then converted into an electron density profile with the help of the ionization rate for lithium atoms by electron impact

  15. Harvest operations for density management: planning requirements, production, costs, stand damage, and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loren D. Kellogg; Stephen J. Pilkerton

    2013-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, several studies have been undertaken to determine the planning requirements, productivity, costs, and residual stand damage of harvest operations in thinning treatments designed to promote development of complex forest structure in order to enhance ecological functioning and biological diversity. Th ese studies include the Oregon State...

  16. Experimental study of EUV mirror radiation damage resistance under long-term free-electron laser exposures below the single-shot damage threshold

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Makhotkin, I.; Sobierajski, R.; Chalupský, Jaromír; Tiedtke, K.; de Vries, G.; Stoermer, M.; Scholze, F.; Siewert, F.; van de Kruijs, R.W.E.; Milov, I.; Louis, E.; Jacyna, I.; Jurek, M.; Klinger, D.; Nittler, L.; Syryanyy, Y.; Juha, Libor; Hájková, Věra; Vozda, Vojtěch; Burian, Tomáš; Saksl, Karel; Faatz, B.; Keitel, B.; Ploenjes, E.; Schreiber, S.; Toleikis, S.; Loch, R.A.; Hermann, M.; Strobel, S.; Nienhuys, H.-K.; Gwalt, G.; Mey, T.; Enkisch, H.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2018), s. 77-84 ISSN 1600-5775. [Workshop on FEL Photon Diagnostics, Instrumentation and Beamline Design (PhotonDiag2017). Stanford, 01.05.2017-03.05.2017] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG15013; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-05167s; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-29772S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : free-electron laser induced damage * EUV optics * thin films * FELs Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 3.011, year: 2016

  17. Experimental study of EUV mirror radiation damage resistance under long-term free-electron laser exposures below the single-shot damage threshold

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Makhotkin, I.A.; Sobierajski, R.; Chalupský, J.; Tiedtke, K.; de Vries, G.; Stoermer, M.; Scholze, F.; Siewert, F.; van de Kruijs, R.W.E.; Louis, E.; Jacyna, I.; Jurek, M.; Klinger, D.; Nittler, L.; Syryanyy, Y.; Juha, Libor; Hájková, V.; Vozda, V.; Burian, Tomáš; Saksl, K.; Faatz, B.; Keitel, B.; Ploenjes, E.; Schreiber, S.; Toleikis, S.; Loch, R.; Hermann, M.; Strobel, S.; Nienhuys, H.-K.; Gwalt, G.; Mey, T.; Enkisch, H.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2018), s. 77-84 ISSN 0909-0495. [Workshop on FEL Photon Diagnostics, Instrumentation and Beamline Design (PhotonDiag2017). Stanford, 01.05.2017-03.05.2017] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-29772S; GA MŠk LG15013 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : free-electron laser induced damage * EUV optics * thin films * FELs Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics)

  18. Laser-induced damage investigation at 1064 nmin KTiOPO4 crystals and its analogy with RbTiOPO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildenbrand, A.; Wagner, F. R.; Akhouayri, H.; Natoli, J.-Y.; Commandre, M.; Theodore, F.; Albrecht, H.

    2009-01-01

    Bulk laser-induced damage at 1064 nm has been investigated in KTiOPO4 (KTP) and RbTiOPO4 (RTP) crystals with a nanosecond pulsed Nd:YAG laser. Both crystals belong to the same family. Throughout this study, their comparison shows a very similar laser-damage behavior. The evolution of the damage resistance under a high number of shots per site (10,000 shots) reveals a fatigue effect of KTP and RTP crystals. In addition, S-on-1 damage probability curves have been measured in both crystals for all combinations of polarization and propagation direction aligned with the principal axes of the crystals. The results show an influence of the polarization on the laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT), with a significantly higher threshold along the z axis, whereas no effect of the propagation direction has been observed. This LIDT anisotropy is discussed with regard to the crystallographic structure.

  19. 3D-Laser-Scanning Technique Applied to Bulk Density Measurements of Apollo Lunar Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macke, R. J.; Kent, J. J.; Kiefer, W. S.; Britt, D. T.

    2015-01-01

    In order to better interpret gravimetric data from orbiters such as GRAIL and LRO to understand the subsurface composition and structure of the lunar crust, it is import to have a reliable database of the density and porosity of lunar materials. To this end, we have been surveying these physical properties in both lunar meteorites and Apollo lunar samples. To measure porosity, both grain density and bulk density are required. For bulk density, our group has historically utilized sub-mm bead immersion techniques extensively, though several factors have made this technique problematic for our work with Apollo samples. Samples allocated for measurement are often smaller than optimal for the technique, leading to large error bars. Also, for some samples we were required to use pure alumina beads instead of our usual glass beads. The alumina beads were subject to undesirable static effects, producing unreliable results. Other investigators have tested the use of 3d laser scanners on meteorites for measuring bulk volumes. Early work, though promising, was plagued with difficulties including poor response on dark or reflective surfaces, difficulty reproducing sharp edges, and large processing time for producing shape models. Due to progress in technology, however, laser scanners have improved considerably in recent years. We tested this technique on 27 lunar samples in the Apollo collection using a scanner at NASA Johnson Space Center. We found it to be reliable and more precise than beads, with the added benefit that it involves no direct contact with the sample, enabling the study of particularly friable samples for which bead immersion is not possible

  20. Influence of standing-wave fields on the laser damage resistance of dielectric films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newnam, B.E.; Gill, D.H.; Faulkner, G.

    1973-01-01

    The influence of standing-wave electric fields on the damage resistance of dielectric thin films was evaluated for the case of 30-ps laser pulses at 1.06 μm. Single-layer films of TiO 2 , ZrO 2 , SiO 2 , and MgF 2 were deposited by state-of-the-art electron-gun evaporation on BK-7 glass substrates with uniform surface preparation. The film thicknesses ranged from one to five quarter-wave increments. The thresholds for TiO 2 films of odd quarter-wave thickness were greater than for even multiples which correlated well with the calculated internal maximum electric fields. Threshold variations for ZrO 2 films were apparent but not as distinctly periodic with film thickness. Negligible variations were obtained for SiO 2 films, again correlating with electric-field calculations. Results of additional tests allowed comparisons of thresholds for 1) back-and front-surface films for normal incidence; 2) S- and P-polarized radiation at an incidence angle of 60 0 ; and 3) circular and linear polarizations for normal incidence. The thresholds were compared with calculated standing-wave field patterns at various locations in the films. A correlation was generally found between the internal field maxima and the thresholds, but in a few coatings, defects apparently decreased or prevented any correlation. (auth)

  1. Dark-field study of rear-side density structure in laser-accelerated foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamper, J.A.; Gold, S.H.; Obenschain, S.P.; McLean, E.A.; Sica, L.

    1981-01-01

    A dark-field, laser-probing diagnostic has produced the first high-resolution photographs of density structure on the rear side of laser-accelerated foils. This diagnostic allows the preferential sampling of the steep-gradient region of an expanding plasma and permits two-dimensional, multiple-time recordings on a single photograph. The studies are aimed at understanding the early-time physics of target implosions for inertial-confinement fusion. Both long (500 psec) and short (150 psec) probe pulses were used to study the rear-side plasmas of thin foils accelerated by the rocket-like reaction to a hot plasma ablated from the front side by the laser radiation. The longer pulse results, both for angular scatter and the life-time of small, transverse structure, imply a relatively cold (1 eV) rear side plasma. The short pulses provide high resolution photographs of the complete structure. One of these was a vortex-like structure, suggestive of the remnants of a hydrodynamic instability. These observations are relevant to two of the basic requirements of inertial-confinement fusion: cold fuel isentrope and implosion symmetry

  2. Probing ultrafast dynamics of solid-density plasma generated by high-contrast intense laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Kamalesh; Blackman, David R.; Shaikh, Moniruzzaman; Lad, Amit D.; Sarkar, Deep; Dey, Indranuj; Robinson, Alex P. L.; Pasley, John; Ravindra Kumar, G.

    2018-01-01

    We present ultrafast dynamics of solid-density plasma created by high-contrast (picosecond contrast ˜10-9), high-intensity (˜4 × 1018 W/cm2) laser pulses using time-resolved pump-probe Doppler spectrometry. Experiments show a rapid rise in blue-shift at early time delay (2-4.3 ps) followed by a rapid fall (4.3-8.3 ps) and then a slow rise in blue-shift at later time delays (>8.3 ps). Simulations show that the early-time observations, specifically the absence of any red-shifting of the reflected probe, can only be reproduced if the front surface is unperturbed by the laser pre-pulse at the moment that the high intensity pulse arrives. A flexible diagnostic which is capable of diagnosing the presence of low-levels of pre-plasma formation would be useful for potential applications in laser-produced proton and ion production, such as cancer therapy and security imaging.

  3. Morphology of the primary damage caused by the argon-ion laser to the iris of the pigmented rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, G.K.; Zypen, E. van der; Frankhauser, F.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of the argon-ion laser upon the iris of the pigmented rabbit were analysed by ultrastructural methods. Apart from the physical parameters of the energy source, the damage strongly depends on the concentration, location, and distribution of the iris pigment. The irradiation of the iris results in the formation of a crater. Depending on the distance of the epicentre of the impact, various degrees of ultrastructural damage are observed. The region immediately adjacent to the crater lumen at a revealing distance of 25 μm consists of homogenous masses, revealing a vacuolar structure. As the only residuals of destroyed cells, melanin granules are observed within the homogenous masses. Destruction of the collagen fibrils and their disintegration into subfibrils with elimination of all cell compartments is found in an area ranging from 25 μm to 300 μm from the wall of the crater. Damage to the chromatin structure is visible up to a distance of 300 μm to 375 μm from the wall of the crater. Characterised by an invasion of macrophages into the damaged area, the cleaning phase starts 24 h after irradiation. The results of this experiment indicate that because of the great energy dose required for man with the inherent widespread tissue damage and low probability of a lasting iridectomy, the cw argon-ion laser appears to be an unsuitable energy source for clinical iridectomy. (orig./AJ) 891 AJ/orig.- 892 MKO [de

  4. Laser reflection method for determination of shear stress in low density transitional flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathian, Sarith P.; Kurian, Job

    2006-03-01

    The details of laser reflection method (LRM) for the determination of shear stress in low density transitional flows are presented. The method is employed to determine the shear stress due to impingement of a low density supersonic free jet issuing out from a convergent divergent nozzle on a flat plate. The plate is smeared with a thin oil film and kept parallel to the nozzle axis. For a thin oil film moving under the action of aerodynamic boundary layer, the shear stress at the air-oil interface is equal to the shear stress between the surface and air. A direct and dynamic measurement of the oil film slope generated by the shear force is done using a position sensing detector (PSD). The thinning rate of the oil film is directly measured which is the major advantage of the LRM. From the oil film slope history, calculation of the shear stress is done using a three-point formula. The range of Knudsen numbers investigated is from 0.028 to 0.516. Pressure ratio across the nozzle varied from 3,500 to 8,500 giving highly under expanded free jets. The measured values of shear, in the overlapping region of experimental parameters, show fair agreement with those obtained by force balance method and laser interferometric method.

  5. Atomic and ionic density measurement by laser absorption spectroscopy of magnetized or non-magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Gourrierec, P.

    1989-11-01

    Laser absorption spectroscopy is an appreciated diagnostic in plasma physics to measure atomic and ionic densities. We used it here more specifically on metallic plasmas. Firstly, a uranium plasma was created in a hollow cathode. 17 levels of U.I and U.II (12 for U.I and 5 for U.II) are measured by this method. The results are compared with the calculated levels of two models (collisional-radiative and LTE). Secondly, the theory of absorption in presence of a magnetic field is recalled and checked. Then, low-density magnetized plasma produced on our ERIC experiment (acronym for Experiment of Resonance Ionic Cyclotron), have been diagnosed successfully. The use of this technique on a low density plasma has not yet been published to our knowledge. The transverse temperature and the density of a metastable atomic level of a barium plasma has been derived. The evolution of a metastable ionic level of this element is studied in terms of two source parameters (furnace temperature and injected hyperfrequency power) [fr

  6. Influence of the flux density on the radiation damage of bipolar silicon transistors by protons and electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannikov, Y.; Gorin, B.; Kozhevnikov, V.; Mikhnovich, V.; Gusev, L.

    1981-01-01

    It was found experimentally that the radiation damage of bipolar n-p-n transistors increased by a factor of 8--12 when the proton flux density was reduced from 4.07 x 10 10 to 2.5 x 10 7 cm -2 sec -1 . In the case of p-n-p transistors the effect was opposite: there was a reduction in the radiation damage by a factor of 2--3 when the dose rate was lowered between the same limits. A similar effect was observed for electrons but at dose rates three orders of magnitude greater. The results were attributed to the dependences of the radiation defect-forming reactions on the charge state of defects which was influenced by the formation of disordered regions in the case of proton irradiation

  7. Generation of second-harmonic radiations of a self-focusing laser from a plasma with density-transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kant, Niti; Gupta, Devki Nandan; Suk, Hyyong

    2011-01-01

    A Gaussian laser-beam resonantly generates a second-harmonic wave in a plasma in the presence of a wiggler magnetic-field of suitable period. The self-focusing of the fundamental pulse enhances the intensity of the second-harmonic pulse. An introduction of an upward plasma-density ramp strongly enhances the self-focusing of the fundamental laser pulse. The laser pulse attains a minimum spot size and propagates up to several Rayleigh lengths without divergence. Due to the strong self-focusing of the fundamental laser pulse, the second-harmonic intensity enhances significantly. A considerable enhancement of the intensity of the second-harmonic is observed from the proposed mechanism. -- Highlights: → An upward plasma-density ramp is very important for laser propagation in plasmas. → As the plasma density increases, effect of self-focusing becomes stronger. → We utilize this self-focused laser to generate second-harmonic radiations. → The self-focusing laser enhances the intensity of the second-harmonic pulse.

  8. Generation of second-harmonic radiations of a self-focusing laser from a plasma with density-transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kant, Niti [Department of Physics, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara 144 402, Punjab (India); Gupta, Devki Nandan, E-mail: dngupta@physics.du.ac.in [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007 (India); Suk, Hyyong [Advanced Photonics Research Institute (APRI) and Graduate Program of Photonics and Applied Physics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500 712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    A Gaussian laser-beam resonantly generates a second-harmonic wave in a plasma in the presence of a wiggler magnetic-field of suitable period. The self-focusing of the fundamental pulse enhances the intensity of the second-harmonic pulse. An introduction of an upward plasma-density ramp strongly enhances the self-focusing of the fundamental laser pulse. The laser pulse attains a minimum spot size and propagates up to several Rayleigh lengths without divergence. Due to the strong self-focusing of the fundamental laser pulse, the second-harmonic intensity enhances significantly. A considerable enhancement of the intensity of the second-harmonic is observed from the proposed mechanism. -- Highlights: → An upward plasma-density ramp is very important for laser propagation in plasmas. → As the plasma density increases, effect of self-focusing becomes stronger. → We utilize this self-focused laser to generate second-harmonic radiations. → The self-focusing laser enhances the intensity of the second-harmonic pulse.

  9. Early density management of longleaf pine reduces susceptibility to ice storm damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy B. Harrington; Thaddeus A. Harrington

    2016-01-01

    The Pax winter storm of February 2014 caused widespread damage to forest stands throughout the southeastern U.S. In a long-term study of savanna plant community restoration at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC, precommercial thinning (PCT) of 8- to 11-year-old plantations of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) in 1994 reduced...

  10. Laser-induced damage of fused silica at 355 and 1065 nm initiated at aluminum contamination particles on the surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genin, F.Y.; Michlitsch, K.; Furr, J.; Kozlowski, M.R.; Krulevitch, P.

    1997-01-01

    1-μm thick circular dots, 10-250 μm dia, were deposited onto 1.14 cm thick fused silica windows by sputtering Al through a mask. Al shavings were also deposited on the windows to investigate effects of particle-substrate adhesion. The silica windows were then illuminated repetitively using a 3-ns, 355 nm and an 8.6-ns, 1064 nm laser. The tests were conducted at near normal incidence with particles on input and output surfaces of the windows. During the first shot, a plasma ignited at the metal particle and damage initiated on the fused silica surface. The morphology of the damage at the metal dots were reproducible but different for input and output surface contamination. For input surface contamination, minor damage occurred where the particle was located; such damage ceased to grow with the removal of contaminant material. More serious damage (pits and cracks) was initiated on the output surface (especially at 355 nm) and grew to catastrophic proportions after few shots. Output surface contaminants were usually ejected on the initial shot, leaving a wave pattern on the surface. No further damage occurred with subsequent shots unless a shot (usually the first shot) cracked the surface; such behavior was mostly observed at 355 nm and occasionally for large shavings at 1064 nm. The size of the damaged area scaled with the size of the particle (except when catastrophic damage occurred). Onset of catastrophic damage on output surface occurred only when particles exceeded a critical size. Damage behavior of the sputtered dots was found to be qualitatively similar to that of the shavings. The artificial contamination technique accelerated the study by allowing better control of the test conditions

  11. Effects of deposition rates on laser damage threshold of TiO2/SiO2 high reflectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Jianke; Xu Cheng; Ma Jianyong; Fang Ming; Fan Zhengxiu; Jin Yunxia; Zhao Yuanan; He Hongbo; Shao Jianda

    2009-01-01

    TiO 2 single layers and TiO 2 /SiO 2 high reflectors (HR) are prepared by electron beam evaporation at different TiO 2 deposition rates. It is found that the changes of properties of TiO 2 films with the increase of rate, such as the increase of refractive index and extinction coefficient and the decrease of physical thickness, lead to the spectrum shift and reflectivity bandwidth broadening of HR together with the increase of absorption and decrease of laser-induced damage threshold. The damages are found of different morphologies: a shallow pit to a seriously delaminated and deep crater, and the different amorphous-to-anatase-to-rutile phase transition processes detected by Raman study. The frequency shift of Raman vibration mode correlates with the strain in film. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis reveals that impurities and non-stoichiometric defects are two absorption initiations resulting to the laser-induced transformation.

  12. Influence of Different Substrates on Laser Induced Damage Thresholds at 1064 nm of Ta2O5 Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Xu; Jian-Yong, Ma; Yun-Xia, Jin; Hong-Bo, He; Jian-Da, Shao; Zheng-Xiu, Fan

    2008-01-01

    Ta 2 O 5 films are prepared on Si, BK7, fused silica, antireflection (AR) and high reflector (HR) substrates by electron beam evaporation method, respectively. Both the optical property and laser induced damage thresholds (LIDTs) at 1064 nm of Ta 2 O 5 films on different substrates are investigated before and after annealing at 673K for 12 h. It is shown that annealing increases the refractive index and decreases the extinction index, and improves the O/Ta ratio of the Ta 2 O 5 films from 2.42 to 2.50. Moreover, the results show that the LIDTs of the Ta 2 O 5 films are mainly correlated with three parameters: substrate property, substoichiometry defect in the films and impurity defect at the interface between the substrate and the films. Details of the laser induced damage models in different cases are discussed

  13. A Study of Polycrystalline Silicon Damage Features Based on Nanosecond Pulse Laser Irradiation with Different Wavelength Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiangmin; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Tengfei; Han, Zhenchun

    2017-03-03

    Based on PVDF (piezoelectric sensing techniques), this paper attempts to study the propagation law of shock waves in brittle materials during the process of three-wavelength laser irradiation of polysilicon, and discusses the formation mechanism of thermal shock failure. The experimental results show that the vapor pressure effect and the plasma pressure effect in the process of pulsed laser irradiation lead to the splashing of high temperature and high density melt. With the decrease of the laser wavelength, the laser breakdown threshold decreases and the shock wave is weakened. Because of the pressure effect of the laser shock, the brittle fracture zone is at the edge of the irradiated area. The surface tension gradient and surface shear wave caused by the surface wave are the result of coherent coupling between optical and thermodynamics. The average propagation velocity of laser shock wave in polysilicon is 8.47 × 103 m/s, and the experiment has reached the conclusion that the laser shock wave pressure peak exponentially distributes attenuation in the polysilicon.

  14. A Study of Polycrystalline Silicon Damage Features Based on Nanosecond Pulse Laser Irradiation with Different Wavelength Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangmin Xu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on PVDF (piezoelectric sensing techniques, this paper attempts to study the propagation law of shock waves in brittle materials during the process of three-wavelength laser irradiation of polysilicon, and discusses the formation mechanism of thermal shock failure. The experimental results show that the vapor pressure effect and the plasma pressure effect in the process of pulsed laser irradiation lead to the splashing of high temperature and high density melt. With the decrease of the laser wavelength, the laser breakdown threshold decreases and the shock wave is weakened. Because of the pressure effect of the laser shock, the brittle fracture zone is at the edge of the irradiated area. The surface tension gradient and surface shear wave caused by the surface wave are the result of coherent coupling between optical and thermodynamics. The average propagation velocity of laser shock wave in polysilicon is 8.47 × 103 m/s, and the experiment has reached the conclusion that the laser shock wave pressure peak exponentially distributes attenuation in the polysilicon.

  15. Observation of parametric instabilities in the quarter critical density region driven by the Nike KrF laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, J. L.; Kehne, D.; Brown, C. M.; Obenschain, S. P.; Serlin, V.; Schmitt, A. J. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington DC 20375 (United States); Oh, J.; Lehmberg, R. H.; Mclean, E.; Manka, C. [Research Support Instruments, Lanham, Maryland 20905 (United States); Phillips, L. [Alogus Research Corporation, McLean, Virginia 22101 (United States); Afeyan, B. [Polymath Research, Inc., Pleasanton, California 94566 (United States); Seely, J.; Feldman, U. [Berkeley Research Associates, Inc., Beltsville, Maryland 20705 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    The krypton-fluoride (KrF) laser is an attractive choice for inertial confinement fusion due to its combination of short wavelength ({lambda}=248 nm), large bandwidth (up to 3 THz), and superior beam smoothing by induced spatial incoherence. These qualities improve the overall hydrodynamics of directly driven pellet implosions and should allow use of increased laser intensity due to higher thresholds for laser plasma instabilities when compared to frequency tripled Nd:glass lasers ({lambda}=351 nm). Here, we report the first observations of the two-plasmon decay instability using a KrF laser. The experiments utilized the Nike laser facility to irradiate solid plastic planar targets over a range of pulse lengths (0.35 ns{<=}{tau}{<=}1.25 ns) and intensities (up to 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}). Variation of the laser pulse created different combinations of electron temperature and electron density scale length. The observed onset of instability growth was consistent with the expected scaling that KrF lasers have a higher intensity threshold for instabilities in the quarter critical density region.

  16. Observation of parametric instabilities in the quarter critical density region driven by the Nike KrF laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, J. L.; Kehne, D.; Brown, C. M.; Obenschain, S. P.; Serlin, V.; Schmitt, A. J.; Oh, J.; Lehmberg, R. H.; Mclean, E.; Manka, C.; Phillips, L.; Afeyan, B.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.

    2013-01-01

    The krypton-fluoride (KrF) laser is an attractive choice for inertial confinement fusion due to its combination of short wavelength (λ=248 nm), large bandwidth (up to 3 THz), and superior beam smoothing by induced spatial incoherence. These qualities improve the overall hydrodynamics of directly driven pellet implosions and should allow use of increased laser intensity due to higher thresholds for laser plasma instabilities when compared to frequency tripled Nd:glass lasers (λ=351 nm). Here, we report the first observations of the two-plasmon decay instability using a KrF laser. The experiments utilized the Nike laser facility to irradiate solid plastic planar targets over a range of pulse lengths (0.35 ns≤τ≤1.25 ns) and intensities (up to 2×10 15 W/cm 2 ). Variation of the laser pulse created different combinations of electron temperature and electron density scale length. The observed onset of instability growth was consistent with the expected scaling that KrF lasers have a higher intensity threshold for instabilities in the quarter critical density region.

  17. Observation of parametric instabilities in the quarter critical density region driven by the Nike KrF laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, J. L.; Oh, J.; Phillips, L.; Afeyan, B.; Seely, J.; Kehne, D.; Brown, C. M.; Obenschain, S. P.; Serlin, V.; Schmitt, A. J.; Feldman, U.; Lehmberg, R. H.; Mclean, E.; Manka, C.

    2013-02-01

    The krypton-fluoride (KrF) laser is an attractive choice for inertial confinement fusion due to its combination of short wavelength (λ =248 nm), large bandwidth (up to 3 THz), and superior beam smoothing by induced spatial incoherence. These qualities improve the overall hydrodynamics of directly driven pellet implosions and should allow use of increased laser intensity due to higher thresholds for laser plasma instabilities when compared to frequency tripled Nd:glass lasers (λ =351 nm). Here, we report the first observations of the two-plasmon decay instability using a KrF laser. The experiments utilized the Nike laser facility to irradiate solid plastic planar targets over a range of pulse lengths (0.35 ns≤τ≤1.25 ns) and intensities (up to 2×1015 W/cm2). Variation of the laser pulse created different combinations of electron temperature and electron density scale length. The observed onset of instability growth was consistent with the expected scaling that KrF lasers have a higher intensity threshold for instabilities in the quarter critical density region.

  18. Dependence of adhesion strength between GaN LEDs and sapphire substrate on power density of UV laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Junsu [Department of Nano-Manufacturing Technology, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 156 Gajeongbuk-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 34103 (Korea, Republic of); Sin, Young-Gwan [Department of Nano-Mechatronics, Korea University of Science and Technology (UST), 217 Gajeong-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 34113 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Hyun [Department of Nano-Mechanics, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 156 Gajeongbuk-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 34103 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jaegu, E-mail: gugu99@kimm.re.kr [Department of Nano-Manufacturing Technology, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 156 Gajeongbuk-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 34103 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-30

    Highlights: • Fundamental relationship between laser irradiation and adhesion strength, between gallium-nitride light emitted diode and sapphire substrate, is proposed during selective laser lift-off. • Two competing mechanisms affect adhesion at the irradiated interface between the GaN LED and sapphire substrate. • Ga precipitation caused by thermal decomposition and roughened interface caused by thermal damage lead to the considerable difference of adhesion strength at the interface. - Abstract: Selective laser lift-off (SLLO) is an innovative technology used to manufacture and repair micro-light-emitting diode (LED) displays. In SLLO, laser is irradiated to selectively separate micro-LED devices from a transparent sapphire substrate. The light source used is an ultraviolet (UV) laser with a wavelength of 266 nm, pulse duration of 20 ns, and repetition rate of 30 kHz. Controlled adhesion between a LED and the substrate is key for a SLLO process with high yield and reliability. This study examined the fundamental relationship between adhesion and laser irradiation. Two competing mechanisms affect adhesion at the irradiated interface between the GaN LED and sapphire substrate: Ga precipitation caused by the thermal decomposition of GaN and roughened interface caused by thermal damage on the sapphire. The competition between these two mechanisms leads to a non-trivial SLLO condition that needs optimization. This study helps understand the SLLO process, and accelerate the development of a process for manufacturing micro-LED displays via SLLO for future applications.

  19. Feasibility study of the plasma electron density measurement by electromagnetic radiation from the laser-driven plasma wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, D G; Kim, J J; Suk, H; Hur, M S

    2012-01-01

    When an intense laser beam is focused in a plasma, a plasma wake wave is generated and the oscillatary motion of the plasma electrons produces a strong electromagnetic wave by a Cherenkov-like process. Spectrum of the genetated electromagnetic wave has dependence on the plasma density. In this paper, we propose to use the emitted electromagnetic radiation for plasma diagnostic, which may provide an accurate information for local electron densities of the plasma and will be very useful for three-dimensional plasma density profiles by changing the focal point location of the laser beam. Two-dimensional (2-D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation is used to study the correlation between the spectrum of the emitted radiation and plasma density, and the results demonstrate that this method is promising for the electron density measurement in the plasma.

  20. Application of soft x-ray laser interferometry to study large-scale-length, high-density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, A.S.; Barbee, T.W., Jr.; Cauble, R.

    1996-01-01

    We have employed a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, using a Ne-like Y x- ray laser at 155 Angstrom as the probe source, to study large-scale- length, high-density colliding plasmas and exploding foils. The measured density profile of counter-streaming high-density colliding plasmas falls in between the calculated profiles using collisionless and fluid approximations with the radiation hydrodynamic code LASNEX. We have also performed simultaneous measured the local gain and electron density of Y x-ray laser amplifier. Measured gains in the amplifier were found to be between 10 and 20 cm -1 , similar to predictions and indicating that refraction is the major cause of signal loss in long line focus lasers. Images showed that high gain was produced in spots with dimensions of ∼ 10 μm, which we believe is caused by intensity variations in the optical drive laser. Measured density variations were smooth on the 10-μm scale so that temperature variations were likely the cause of the localized gain regions. We are now using the interferometry technique as a mechanism to validate and benchmark our numerical codes used for the design and analysis of high-energy-density physics experiments. 11 refs., 6 figs

  1. Laser damage properties of TiO2/Al2O3 thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Yaowei; Liu Hao; Sheng Ouyang; Liu Zhichao; Chen Songlin; Yang Liming

    2011-01-01

    Research on thin film deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) for laser damage resistance is rare. In this paper, it has been used to deposit TiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 films at 110 deg. C and 280 deg. C on fused silica and BK7 substrates. Microstructure of the thin films was investigated by x-ray diffraction. The laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of samples was measured by a damage test system. Damage morphology was studied under a Nomarski differential interference contrast microscope and further checked under an atomic force microscope. Multilayers deposited at different temperatures were compared. The results show that the films deposited by ALD had better uniformity and transmission; in this paper, the uniformity is better than 99% over 100 mm Φ samples, and the transmission is more than 99.8% at 1064 nm. Deposition temperature affects the deposition rate and the thin film microstructure and further influences the LIDT of the thin films. As to the TiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 films, the LIDTs were 6.73±0.47 J/cm 2 and 6.5±0.46 J/cm 2 at 110 deg. C on fused silica and BK7 substrates, respectively. The LIDTs at 110 deg. C are notably better than 280 deg. C.

  2. Damage detection in composite panels based on mode-converted Lamb waves sensed using 3D laser scanning vibrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieczonka, Łukasz; Ambroziński, Łukasz; Staszewski, Wiesław J.; Barnoncel, David; Pérès, Patrick

    2017-12-01

    This paper introduces damage identification approach based on guided ultrasonic waves and 3D laser Doppler vibrometry. The method is based on the fact that the symmetric and antisymmetric Lamb wave modes differ in amplitude of the in-plane and out-of-plane vibrations. Moreover, the modes differ also in group velocities and normally they are well separated in time. For a given time window both modes can occur simultaneously only close to the wave source or to a defect that leads to mode conversion. By making the comparison between the in-plane and out-of-plane wave vector components the detection of mode conversion is possible, allowing for superior and reliable damage detection. Experimental verification of the proposed damage identification procedure is performed on fuel tank elements of Reusable Launch Vehicles designed for space exploration. Lamb waves are excited using low-profile, surface-bonded piezoceramic transducers and 3D scanning laser Doppler vibrometer is used to characterize the Lamb wave propagation field. The paper presents theoretical background of the proposed damage identification technique as well as experimental arrangements and results.

  3. Increasing the laser-induced damage threshold of single-crystal ZnGeP{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zawilski, Kevin T; Setzler, Scott D; Schunemann, Peter G; Pollak, Thomas M [BAE Systems, Advanced Systems and Technology, P.O. Box 868, MER15-1813, Nashua, New Hampshire 03061-0868 (United States)

    2006-11-15

    The laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of single-crystal zinc germanium phosphide (ZGP), ZnGeP{sub 2}, was increased to 2 J/cm{sup 2} at 2.05 {mu}m and a 10 kHz pulse rate frequency (double the previously measured value of 1 J/cm{sup 2}). This increased LIDT was achieved by improving the polishing of ZGP optical parametric oscillator crystals. Two different polishing techniques were evaluated. Surfaces were characterized using scanning white-light interferometry to determine rms surface roughness and sample flatness. The photon backscatter technique was used to determine the degree of surface and subsurface damage in the sample induced through the fabrication process. The effect of subsurface damage in the samples was studied by removing different amounts of material during polishing for otherwise identical samples. Statistical LIDT was measured using a high-average-power, repetitively Q-switched Tm,Ho:YLF 2.05 {mu}m pump laser. On average, lower surface roughness and photon backscatter measurements were a good indicator of ZGP samples exhibiting higher LIDT. The removal of more material during polishing significantly improved the LIDT of otherwise identical samples, indicating the importance of subsurface damage defects in the LIDT of ZGP.

  4. Single-pulse measurement of density and temperature in a turbulent, supersonic flow using UV laser spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, D. G.; Mckenzie, R. L.

    1992-01-01

    Nonintrusive measurements of density and temperature and their turbulent fluctuation levels have been obtained in the boundary layer of an unseeded, Mach 2 wind tunnel flow. The spectroscopic technique that was used to make the measurements is based on the combination of laser-induced oxygen fluorescence and Raman scattering by oxygen and nitrogen from the same laser pulse. Results from this demonstration experiment compare favorably with previous measurements obtained in the same facility from conventional probes and an earlier spectroscopic technique.

  5. Theory and Modeling of Petawatt Laser Pulse Propagation in Low Density Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadwick, Bradley A.; Kalmykov, S. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Report describing accomplishments in all-optical control of self-injection in laser-plasma accelerators and in developing advanced numerical models of laser-plasma interactions. All-optical approaches to controlling electron self-injection and beam formation in laser-plasma accelerators (LPAs) were explored. It was demonstrated that control over the laser pulse evolution is the key ingredient in the generation of low-background, low-phase-space-volume electron beams. To this end, preserving a smooth laser pulse envelope throughout the acceleration process can be achieved through tuning the phase and amplitude of the incident pulse. A negative frequency chirp compensates the frequency red-shift accumulated due to wake excitation, preventing evolution of the pulse into a relativistic optical shock. This reduces the ponderomotive force exerted on quiescent plasma electrons, suppressing expansion of the bubble and continuous injection of background electrons, thereby reducing the charge in the low-energy tail by an order of magnitude. Slowly raising the density in the pulse propagation direction locks electrons in the accelerating phase, boosting their energy, keeping continuous injection at a low level, tripling the brightness of the quasi-monoenergetic component. Additionally, propagating the negatively chirped pulse in a plasma channel suppresses diffraction of the pulse leading edge, further reducing continuous injection. As a side effect, oscillations of the pulse tail may be enhanced, leading to production of low-background, polychromatic electron beams. Such beams, consisting of quasi-monoenergetic components with controllable energy and energy separation, may be useful as drivers of polychromatic x-rays based on Thomson backscattering. These all-optical methods of electron beam quality control are critically important for the development of future compact, high-repetition-rate, GeV-scale LPA using 10 TW-class, ultra-high bandwidth pulses and mm-scale, dense

  6. Theory and Modeling of Petawatt Laser Pulse Propagation in Low Density Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shadwick, Bradley A. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Kalmykov, S. Y. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2016-12-08

    Report describing accomplishments in all-optical control of self-injection in laser-plasma accelerators and in developing advanced numerical models of laser-plasma interactions. All-optical approaches to controlling electron self-injection and beam formation in laser-plasma accelerators (LPAs) were explored. It was demonstrated that control over the laser pulse evolution is the key ingredient in the generation of low-background, low-phase-space-volume electron beams. To this end, preserving a smooth laser pulse envelope throughout the acceleration process can be achieved through tuning the phase and amplitude of the incident pulse. A negative frequency chirp compensates the frequency red-shift accumulated due to wake excitation, preventing evolution of the pulse into a relativistic optical shock. This reduces the ponderomotive force exerted on quiescent plasma electrons, suppressing expansion of the bubble and continuous injection of background electrons, thereby reducing the charge in the low-energy tail by an order of magnitude. Slowly raising the density in the pulse propagation direction locks electrons in the accelerating phase, boosting their energy, keeping continuous injection at a low level, tripling the brightness of the quasi-monoenergetic component. Additionally, propagating the negatively chirped pulse in a plasma channel suppresses diffraction of the pulse leading edge, further reducing continuous injection. As a side effect, oscillations of the pulse tail may be enhanced, leading to production of low-background, polychromatic electron beams. Such beams, consisting of quasi-monoenergetic components with controllable energy and energy separation, may be useful as drivers of polychromatic x-rays based on Thomson backscattering. These all-optical methods of electron beam quality control are critically important for the development of future compact, high-repetition-rate, GeV-scale LPA using 10 TW-class, ultra-high bandwidth pulses and mm-scale, dense

  7. Collision density approach of radiation damage in a multi-species medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lux, I.; Pazsit, I.

    1981-05-01

    Space-energy dependent foward type equations for the collision densities of energetic atoms in multi-species semi-infinite homogeneous medium are formulated. The introduction of the one-dimensional isotropic forward-backward model of Fermi for the scattering and application of the Laplace transformation with respect to the lethargy variable leads to a linear differential equation system with constant coefficients. This equation system is solved for an arbitrary number of species and relations between the collision densities and defect distributions of the different species are given in the Kinchin Pease model. The case of an alien particle incident on a two-component target is examined in some detail and the sputtering spectra are given numerically. (author)

  8. Modeling of the thermal physical process and study on the reliability of linear energy density for selective laser melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaowei Xiang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A finite element model considering volume shrinkage with powder-to-dense process of powder layer in selective laser melting (SLM is established. Comparison between models that consider and do not consider volume shrinkage or powder-to-dense process is carried out. Further, parametric analysis of laser power and scan speed is conducted and the reliability of linear energy density as a design parameter is investigated. The results show that the established model is an effective method and has better accuracy allowing for the temperature distribution, and the length and depth of molten pool. The maximum temperature is more sensitive to laser power than scan speed. The maximum heating rate and cooling rate increase with increasing scan speed at constant laser power and increase with increasing laser power at constant scan speed as well. The simulation results and experimental result reveal that linear energy density is not always reliable using as a design parameter in the SLM. Keywords: Selective laser melting, Volume shrinkage, Powder-to-dense process, Numerical modeling, Thermal analysis, Linear energy density

  9. Damage of Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on wheat plants related to duration time and density of infestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roza-Gomes, Margarida F.; Salvadori, Jose R.; Schons, Jurema

    2008-01-01

    Aphids are considered relevant pests on wheat either by direct damage through sap sucking or by indirect damage vectoring BYDV (Barley yellow dwarf virus). Rhopalosiphum padi L. has been observed infesting wheat fields with an increasing frequency. The knowledge and the available technology, besides being more related to other aphids species already recognized as pests, they are insufficient to control the specific c problem of R. padi. Thus, this work evaluated the effects of feeding duration and infestation densities of R. padi on seedlings of wheat cv. EMBRAPA 16. rain yield, yield components and the extent of symptoms were recorded. The experiment was carried out in the fi eld under a completely randomized split-plot experimental design with four replications. The main plot was feeding duration (two and seven days) and the sub-plots were infestation densities (zero, two and 10 aphids per plant). Independent on feeding duration, 10 aphids per plant resulted in significant yield losses, reduction of number of heads and tillers per plant. Canopy dry matter was also reduced. Infestations of two and 10 aphids per plant resulted in continuous yellowing of wheat plants from tillering to the end of flowering stage. When aphids fed for seven days on wheat, more yellowing symptoms were observed at the flower stage in comparison with two days feeding. (author)

  10. A final report to the Laboratory Directed Research and Development committee on Project 93-ERP-075: ''X-ray laser propagation and coherence: Diagnosing fast-evolving, high-density laser plasmas using X-ray lasers''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, A.S.; Cauble, R.; Da Silva, L.B.; Libby, S.B.; Moreno, J.C.

    1996-02-01

    This report summarizes the major accomplishments of this three-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Exploratory Research Project (ERP) entitled ''X-ray Laser Propagation and Coherence: Diagnosing Fast-evolving, High-density Laser Plasmas Using X-ray Lasers,'' tracking code 93-ERP-075. The most significant accomplishment of this project is the demonstration of a new laser plasma diagnostic: a soft x-ray Mach-Zehnder interferometer using a neonlike yttrium x-ray laser at 155 angstrom as the probe source. Detailed comparisons of absolute two-dimensional electron density profiles obtained from soft x-ray laser interferograms and profiles obtained from radiation hydrodynamics codes, such as LASNEX, will allow us to validate and benchmark complex numerical models used to study the physics of laser-plasma interactions. Thus the development of soft x-ray interferometry technique provides a mechanism to probe the deficiencies of the numerical models and is an important tool for, the high-energy density physics and science-based stockpile stewardship programs. The authors have used the soft x-ray interferometer to study a number of high-density, fast evolving, laser-produced plasmas, such as the dynamics of exploding foils and colliding plasmas. They are pursuing the application of the soft x-ray interferometer to study ICF-relevant plasmas, such as capsules and hohlraums, on the Nova 10-beam facility. They have also studied the development of enhanced-coherence, shorter-pulse-duration, and high-brightness x-ray lasers. The utilization of improved x-ray laser sources can ultimately enable them to obtain three-dimensional holographic images of laser-produced plasmas

  11. Controlling the Laser Guide Star power density distribution at Sodium layer by combining Pre-correction and Beam-shaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Wei, Kai; Jin, Kai; Li, Min; Zhang, YuDong

    2018-06-01

    The Sodium laser guide star (LGS) plays a key role in modern astronomical Adaptive Optics Systems (AOSs). The spot size and photon return of the Sodium LGS depend strongly on the laser power density distribution at the Sodium layer and thus affect the performance of the AOS. The power density distribution is degraded by turbulence in the uplink path, launch system aberrations, the beam quality of the laser, and so forth. Even without any aberrations, the TE00 Gaussian type is still not the optimal power density distribution to obtain the best balance between the measurement error and temporal error. To optimize and control the LGS power density distribution at the Sodium layer to an expected distribution type, a method that combines pre-correction and beam-shaping is proposed. A typical result shows that under strong turbulence (Fried parameter (r0) of 5 cm) and for a quasi-continuous wave Sodium laser (power (P) of 15 W), in the best case, our method can effectively optimize the distribution from the Gaussian type to the "top-hat" type and enhance the photon return flux of the Sodium LGS; at the same time, the total error of the AOS is decreased by 36% with our technique for a high power laser and poor seeing.

  12. Evaluation of thermal damage in dental implants after irradiation with 980nm diode laser. An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Cafiero

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the thermal damage in dental implants after irradiations with a 980nm diode laser, normally used for the decontamination. Material and Methods: Five Titanium Plasma Sprayed dental implants were irradiated with a 980nm diode laser at different parameters. Temperature increase on implant surface was evaluated by a Mid-Wavelength Infrared thermal-camera (Merlin®, FLIR, USA. Temperature increase (ΔT was compared to environmental temperature (27°C and recorded in three points: “A” (laser spot, “B” (3mm apically to the laser spot and “C” (2mm horizontally to the laser spot. Finally, a morphological evaluation at optical stereomicroscopy was performed. Results: When 0.6W power was applied, a moderate increase of temperature in point A (5.5°C-15.0°C, a slight increase in point B (0.1°C-6.2°C and point C (0.1°C-5.7°C, were registered after 30” of irradiation. In the samples treated at 6W, in “point A” an impressive ΔT increase was immediately recorded (over 70°C. In “point B” was recorded a slight ΔT after 2 sec. irradiation (range 2.3°C-6.0°C, a moderate ΔT after 4 sec. irradiation (16.4°C and a consistent ΔT after 8-10 sec. irradiation (range 36.6°C-46.2°C. In “point C” ΔT values were very similar to those collected in “point B”. Optical stereomicroscopy examination at a magnification of 32x did not show any surface alteration or damage after whichever laser irradiation independently from irradiation time and power output . Conclusions: 980nm diode laser, used at controlled parameters, can be used in the decontamination of dental implants, without causing any thermal damage or increase.

  13. Laser-based air data system for aircraft control using Raman and elastic backscatter for the measurement of temperature, density, pressure, moisture, and particle backscatter coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraczek, Michael; Behrendt, Andreas; Schmitt, Nikolaus

    2012-01-10

    Flight safety in all weather conditions demands exact and reliable determination of flight-critical air parameters. Air speed, temperature, density, and pressure are essential for aircraft control. Conventional air data systems can be impacted by probe failure caused by mechanical damage from hail, volcanic ash, and icing. While optical air speed measurement methods have been discussed elsewhere, in this paper, a new concept for optically measuring the air temperature, density, pressure, moisture, and particle backscatter is presented, being independent on assumptions on the atmospheric state and eliminating the drawbacks of conventional aircraft probes by providing a different measurement principle. The concept is based on a laser emitting laser pulses into the atmosphere through a window and detecting the signals backscattered from a fixed region just outside the disturbed area of the fuselage flows. With four receiver channels, different spectral portions of the backscattered light are extracted. The measurement principle of air temperature and density is based on extracting two signals out of the rotational Raman (RR) backscatter signal of air molecules. For measuring the water vapor mixing ratio-and thus the density of the moist air-a water vapor Raman channel is included. The fourth channel serves to detect the elastic backscatter signal, which is essential for extending the measurements into clouds. This channel contributes to the detection of aerosols, which is interesting for developing a future volcanic ash warning system for aircraft. Detailed and realistic optimization and performance calculations have been performed based on the parameters of a first prototype of such a measurement system. The impact and correction of systematic error sources, such as solar background at daytime and elastic signal cross talk appearing in optically dense clouds, have been investigated. The results of the simulations show the high potential of the proposed system for

  14. Low-density carbonized composite foams for direct-drive laser ICF targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Fung-Ming.

    1989-03-01

    The design for a direct-drive, high-gain laser inertial confinement fusion target calls for the use of a low-density, low-atomic-number foam to confine and stabilize liquid deuterium-tritium (DT) in a spherical-shell configuration. Over the past two years, we have successfully developed polystyrene foams (PS) and carbonized resorcinol-formaldehyde foams (CRF) for that purpose. Both candidates are promising materials with unique characteristics. PS has superior mechanical strength and machinability, but its relatively large thermal contraction is a significant disadvantage. CRF has outstanding wettability and dimensional stability in liquid DT; yet it is much more fragile than PS. To combine the strengths of both materials, we have recently developed a polymer composite foam which exceeds PS in mechanical strength, but retains the wettability and dimension stability of CRF. This paper will discuss the preparation, structure, and properties of the polymer composite foams. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  15. Feedback-stabilized fractional fringe laser interferometer for plasma density measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, J.; Robertson, S.

    1979-01-01

    A feedback stabilization technique is described for a fractional fringe interferometer measuring plasma electron densities. Using this technique, a CO 2 laser Michelson interferometer with a pyroelectric detector exhibited a sensitivity of 3.4 x 10 -4 fringe on a 1-ms time scale and, due to acoustic pickup, 1.8 x 10 -2 fringe on a 10-ms time scale. The rise time is 45 μs. Stabilization against slow drifts in mirror distances is achieved by an electromechanically translated mirror driven by a servo system having a 0.2-s response time. A mechanical chopper in one of the two beam paths generates the signal which drives the servo system

  16. Application of laser fluorescence spectroscopy by two-photon excitation into atomic hydrogen density measurement in reactive plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajiwara, Toshinori; Takeda, Kazuyuki; Kim, Hee Je; Park, Won Zoo; Muraoka, Katsunori; Akazaki, Masanori; Okada, Tatsuo; Maeda, Mitsuo.

    1990-01-01

    Density profiles of hydrogen atoms in reactive plasmas of hydrogen and methane gases were measured, for the first time, using the laser fluorescence spectroscopy by two-photon excitation of Lyman beta transition and observation at the Balmer alpha radiation. Absolute density determinations showed atomic densities of around 3 x 10 17 m -3 , or the degree of dissociation to be 10 -4 . Densities along the axis perpendicular to the RF electrode showed peaked profiles, which were due to the balance of atomic hydrogen production by electron impact on molecules against diffusion loss to the walls. (author)

  17. Beam energy distribution influences on density modulation efficiency in seeded free-electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglei Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The beam energy spread at the entrance of an undulator system is of paramount importance for efficient density modulation in high-gain seeded free-electron lasers (FELs. In this paper, the dependences of high harmonic bunching efficiency in high-gain harmonic generation (HGHG, echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG and phase-merging enhanced harmonic generation (PEHG schemes on the electron beam energy spread distribution are studied. Theoretical investigations and multidimensional numerical simulations are applied to the cases of uniform and saddle beam energy distributions and compared to a traditional Gaussian distribution. It shows that the uniform and saddle electron energy distributions significantly enhance the bunching performance of HGHG FELs, while they almost have no influence on EEHG and PEHG schemes. A further start-to-end simulation example demonstrated that, with the saddle distribution of sliced beam energy spread controlled by a laser heater, the 30th harmonic can be directly generated by a single-stage HGHG scheme for a soft x-ray FEL facility.

  18. Identification of damage in plates using full-field measurement with a continuously scanning laser Doppler vibrometer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Da-Ming; Xu, Y. F.; Zhu, W. D.

    2018-05-01

    An effective and reliable damage identification method for plates with a continuously scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (CSLDV) system is proposed. A new constant-speed scan algorithm is proposed to create a two-dimensional (2D) scan trajectory and automatically scan a whole plate surface. Full-field measurement of the plate can be achieved by applying the algorithm to the CSLDV system. Based on the new scan algorithm, the demodulation method is extended from one dimension for beams to two dimensions for plates to obtain a full-field operating deflection shape (ODS) of the plate from velocity response measured by the CSLDV system. The full-field ODS of an associated undamaged plate is obtained by using polynomials with proper orders to fit the corresponding full-field ODS from the demodulation method. A curvature damage index (CDI) using differences between curvatures of ODSs (CODSs) associated with ODSs that are obtained by the demodulation method and the polynomial fit is proposed to identify damage. An auxiliary CDI obtained by averaging CDIs at different excitation frequencies is defined to further assist damage identification. An experiment of an aluminum plate with damage in the form of 10.5% thickness reduction in a damage area of 0.86% of the whole scan area is conducted to investigate the proposed method. Six frequencies close to natural frequencies of the plate and one randomly selected frequency are used as sinusoidal excitation frequencies. Two 2D scan trajectories, i.e., a horizontally moving 2D scan trajectory and a vertically moving 2D scan trajectory, are used to obtain ODSs, CODSs, and CDIs of the plate. The damage is successfully identified near areas with consistently high values of CDIs at different excitation frequencies along the two 2D scan trajectories; the damage area is also identified by auxiliary CDIs.

  19. FEM modeling and histological analyses on thermal damage induced in facial skin resurfacing procedure with different CO2 laser pulse duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Francesca; Zingoni, Tiziano; Di Cicco, Emiliano; Manetti, Leonardo; Pini, Roberto; Fortuna, Damiano

    2011-07-01

    Laser light is nowadays routinely used in the aesthetic treatments of facial skin, such as in laser rejuvenation, scar removal etc. The induced thermal damage may be varied by setting different laser parameters, in order to obtain a particular aesthetic result. In this work, it is proposed a theoretical study on the induced thermal damage in the deep tissue, by considering different laser pulse duration. The study is based on the Finite Element Method (FEM): a bidimensional model of the facial skin is depicted in axial symmetry, considering the different skin structures and their different optical and thermal parameters; the conversion of laser light into thermal energy is modeled by the bio-heat equation. The light source is a CO2 laser, with different pulse durations. The model enabled to study the thermal damage induced into the skin, by calculating the Arrhenius integral. The post-processing results enabled to study in space and time the temperature dynamics induced in the facial skin, to study the eventual cumulative effects of subsequent laser pulses and to optimize the procedure for applications in dermatological surgery. The calculated data where then validated in an experimental measurement session, performed in a sheep animal model. Histological analyses were performed on the treated tissues, evidencing the spatial distribution and the entity of the thermal damage in the collageneous tissue. Modeling and experimental results were in good agreement, and they were used to design a new optimized laser based skin resurfacing procedure.

  20. The significance of relative density for particle damage in loaded and sheared gravels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fityus Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For granular assemblages of strong particles, an increase in the relative density usually leads to a significant increase in shear strength, which is evident as a peak strength, accompanied by significant dilation as the peak strength is attained. This paper describes an experimental study of shearing in assemblages of weak particles, where particle breakage offsets dilation for all but the lowest of confining stresses. In such materials, prone to particle breakage, the shear strengths of loose and dense assemblages rapidly converge to similar values as confining stress increases, and any benefit of greater relative density is lost. This is attributed to the densification effect associated with the loading under a high stress prior to shearing, which is characterised by widespread particle breakage and the formation of smaller particles to occupy space between coarser ones. Interestingly, under both low and high stresses, there was a tendency for greater particle breakage in the loose samples, as a result of both shearing and compression. This result suggests that, despite the denser assemblage having its particles more rigidly constrained and less able to rearrange to avoid direct loading, the influence of greater load-spreading capacity afforded by an increased number of particle contacts in a denser sample, is more dominant in controlling breakage.

  1. Direct Emissivity Measurements of Painted Metals for Improved Temperature Estimation During Laser Damage Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    policy or position of the United States Air Force, the Department of Defense, or the United States Government . This material is declared a work of the...U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENP-14-M-43 DIRECT EMISSIVITY MEASUREMENTS OF PAINTED METALS FOR...Source The laser probe in use for this test is a Daylight Solutions Unicorn II quantum cascade laser operating at 3.77 µm. According to the laser

  2. First observation of density profile in directly laser-driven polystyrene targets for ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujioka, Shinsuke; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Nishikino, Masaharu; Shigemori, Keisuke; Sunahara, Atsushi; Nakai, Mitsuo; Azechi, Hiroshi; Nishihara, Katsunobu; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiko

    2003-01-01

    The temporal evolution of the density profile of a directly laser-driven polystyrene target was observed for the first time using an x-ray penumbral imaging technique coupled with side-on x-ray backlighting at the GEKKO XII [C. Yamanaka et al., IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1639 (1981)]-High Intensity Plasma Experimental Research laser facility (I L =0.7x10 14 W/cm 2 , λ L =0.35 μm). This density measurement makes it possible to experimentally confirm all physical parameters [γ(k),k,g,m,ρ a ,L m ] appearing in the modified Takabe formula for the growth rate of the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The measured density profiles were well reproduced by a one-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation code. The density measurement contributes toward fully understanding the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability

  3. Study of laser-induced damage on the exit surface of silica components in the nanosecond regime in a multiple wavelengths configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambonneau, Maxime

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, laser-induced damage phenomenon on the surface of fused silica components is investigated in the nanosecond regime. This phenomenon consists in an irreversible modification of the material. In the nanosecond regime, laser damage is tightly correlated to the presence of non-detectable precursor defects which are a consequence of the synthesis and the polishing of the components. In this thesis, we investigate laser damage in a multiple wavelengths configuration. In order to better understand this phenomenon in these conditions of irradiation, three studies are conducted. The first one focuses on damage initiation. The results obtained in the single wavelength configurations highlight a coupling in the multiple wavelengths one. A comparison between the experiments and a model developed during this thesis enables us to improve the knowledge of the fundamental processes involved during this damage phase. Then, we show that post mortem characterizations of damage morphology coupled to an accurate metrology allow us to understand both the nature and also the chronology of the physical mechanisms involved during damage formation. The proposed theoretical scenario is confirmed through various experiments. Finally, we study damage growth in both the single and the multiple wavelengths cases. Once again, this last configuration highlights a coupling between the wavelengths. We show the necessity to account for the spatial characteristics of the laser beams during a growth session. (author) [fr

  4. Damage identification of beam structures using free response shapes obtained by use of a continuously scanning laser Doppler vibrometer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y. F.; Chen, Da-Ming; Zhu, W. D.

    2017-08-01

    Spatially dense operating deflection shapes and mode shapes can be rapidly obtained by use of a continuously scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (CSLDV) system, which sweeps its laser spot over a vibrating structure surface. This paper introduces a new type of vibration shapes called a free response shape (FRS) that can be obtained by use of a CSLDV system, and a new damage identification methodology using FRSs is developed for beam structures. An analytical expression of FRSs of a damped beam structure is derived, and FRSs from the analytical expression compare well with those from a finite element model. In the damage identification methodology, a free-response damage index (FRDI) is proposed, and damage regions can be identified near neighborhoods with consistently high values of FRDIs associated with different modes; an auxiliary FRDI is defined to assist identification of the neighborhoods. A FRDI associated with a mode consists of differences between curvatures of FRSs associated with the mode in a number of half-scan periods of a CSLDV system and those from polynomials that fit the FRSs with properly determined orders. A convergence index is proposed to determine the proper order of a polynomial fit. One advantage of the methodology is that the FRDI does not require any baseline information of an undamaged beam structure, if it is geometrically smooth and made of materials that have no stiffness and mass discontinuities. Another advantage is that FRDIs associated with multiple modes can be obtained using free response of a beam structure measured by a CSLDV system in one scan. The number of half-scan periods for calculation of the FRDI associated with a mode can be determined by use of the short-time Fourier transform. The proposed methodology was numerically and experimentally applied to identify damage in beam structures; effects of the scan frequency of a CSLDV system on qualities of obtained FRSs were experimentally investigated.

  5. Profiles of plasma parameters and density of negative hydrogen ions by laser detachment measurements in RF-driven ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christ-Koch, Sina

    2007-01-01

    This work shows the application of the Laserdetachment method for spatially resolved measurements of negative Hydrogen/Deuterium ion density. It was applied on a high power low pressure RF-driven ion source. The Laser detachment method is based on the measurement of electron currents on a positively biased Langmuir probe before and during/after a laser pulse. The density ratio of negative ions to electrons can be derived from the ratio of currents to the probe. The absolute density of negative ions can be obtained when the electron density is measured with the standard Langmuir probe setup. Measurements with the Langmuir probe additionally yield information about the floating and plasma potential, the electron temperature and the density of positive ions. The Laser detachment setup had to be adapted to the special conditions of the RF-driven source. In particular the existence of RF fields (1 MHz), high source potential (-20 kV), magnetic fields (∝ 7 mT) and caesium inside the source had to be considered. The density of negative ions could be identified in the range of n(H - )=1.10 17 1/m 3 , which is in the same order of magnitude as the electron density. Only the application of the Laser detachment method with the Langmuir probe measurements will yield spatially resolved plasma parameters and H- density profiles. The influence of diverse external parameters, such as pressure, RF-power, magnetic fields on the plasma parameters and their profiles were studied and explained. Hence, the measurements lead to a detailed understanding of the processes inside the source. (orig.)

  6. Secretory IgA, albumin level, and bone density as markers of biostimulatory effects of laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucerova, Hana; Dostalova, Tatjana; Himmlova, Lucia; Bartova, Jirina; Mazanek, Jiri

    1998-12-01

    The aim of contribution is to evaluate the effects of low- level laser radiation on healing process after human molars extraction in lower jaw using frequency 5 Hz, 292 Hz and 9000 Hz. Changes in bone density and monitoring of secretory IgA and albumin levels in saliva were used as a marker of biostimulatory effect. Bone density after extraction and 6 month after surgical treatment was examined using the dental digital radiography. Bone healing was followed by osseointegration of bone structure in extraction wound. Changes of bone density, secretory IgA and albumin levels were compared in groups of patients with laser therapy and control group without laser therapy. Differences in levels of the saliva markers (sIgA and albumin) were found to be significant comparing irradiated and non-irradiated groups, as well as comparing groups irradiated by various modulatory frequencies. Density of alveolar bone (histogram) was examined on five slices acquired from every RVG image. Histograms were evaluated with computer program for microscopic image analysis. Differences of density were verified in area of the whole slice. There were no significant differences found between the bone density in irradiated and non irradiated groups perhaps due to our used therapeutical diagram.

  7. The influence of water/air cooling on collateral tissue damage using a diode laser with an innovative pulse design (micropulsed mode)-an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, F; Körpert, W; Buchmair, A G; Passow, H; Meinl, A; Heimel, P; Moritz, A

    2013-05-01

    Since the diode laser is a good compromise for the daily use in dental offices, finding usage in numerous dental indications (e.g., surgery, periodontics, and endodontics), the minimization of the collateral damage in laser surgery is important to improve the therapeutical outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of water/air cooling on the collateral thermal soft tissue damage of 980-nm diode laser incisions. A total of 36 mechanically executed laser cuts in pork liver were made with a 980-nm diode laser in micropulsed mode with three different settings of water/air cooling and examined by histological assessment to determine the area and size of carbonization, necrosis, and reversible tissue damage as well as incision depth and width. In our study, clearly the incision depth increased significantly under water/air cooling (270.9 versus 502.3 μm-test group 3) without significant changes of incision width. In test group 2, the total area of damage was significantly smaller than in the control group (in this group, the incision depth increases by 65 %). In test group 3, the total area of damage was significantly higher (incision depth increased by 85 %), but the bigger part of it represented a reversible tissue alteration leaving the amount of irreversible damage almost the same as in the control group. This first pilot study clearly shows that water/air cooling in vitro has an effect on collateral tissue damage. Further studies will have to verify, if the reduced collateral damage we have proved in this study can lead to accelerated wound healing. Reduction of collateral thermal damage after diode laser incisions is clinically relevant for promoted wound healing.

  8. Laser damage resistance of hafnia thin films deposited by electron beam deposition, reactive low voltage ion plating, and dual ion beam sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallais, Laurent; Capoulade, Jeremie; Natoli, Jean-Yves; Commandre, Mireille; Cathelinaud, Michel; Koc, Cian; Lequime, Michel

    2008-01-01

    A comparative study is made of the laser damage resistance of hafnia coatings deposited on fused silica substrates with different technologies: electron beam deposition (from Hf or HfO2 starting material), reactive low voltage ion plating, and dual ion beam sputtering.The laser damage thresholds of these coatings are determined at 1064 and 355 nm using a nanosecond pulsed YAG laser and a one-on-one test procedure. The results are associated with a complete characterization of the samples: refractive index n measured by spectrophotometry, extinction coefficient k measured by photothermal deflection, and roughness measured by atomic force microscopy

  9. Measurements of line-averaged electron density of pulsed plasmas using a He-Ne laser interferometer in a magnetized coaxial plasma gun device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, D.; Sakuma, I.; Kitagawa, Y.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2012-10-01

    In next step of fusion devices such as ITER, lifetime of plasma-facing materials (PFMs) is strongly affected by transient heat and particle loads during type I edge localized modes (ELMs) and disruption. To clarify damage characteristics of the PFMs, transient heat and particle loads have been simulated by using a plasma gun device. We have performed simulation experiments by using a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) device at University of Hyogo. The line-averaged electron density measured by a He-Ne interferometer is 2x10^21 m-3 in a drift tube. The plasma velocity measured by a time of flight technique and ion Doppler spectrometer was 70 km/s, corresponding to the ion energy of 100 eV for helium. Thus, the ion flux density is 1.4x10^26 m-2s-1. On the other hand, the MCPG is connected to a target chamber for material irradiation experiments. It is important to measure plasma parameters in front of target materials in the target chamber. In particular, a vapor cloud layer in front of the target material produced by the pulsed plasma irradiation has to be characterized in order to understand surface damage of PFMs under ELM-like plasma bombardment. In the conference, preliminary results of application of the He-Ne laser interferometer for the above experiment will be shown.

  10. Study of early laser-induced plasma dynamics: Transient electron density gradients via Thomson scattering and Stark Broadening, and the implications on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diwakar, P.K.; Hahn, D.W.

    2008-01-01

    To further develop laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as an analytical technique, it is necessary to better understand the fundamental processes and mechanisms taking place during the plasma evolution. This paper addresses the very early plasma dynamics (first 100 ns) using direct plasma imaging, light scattering, and transmission measurements from a synchronized 532-nm probe laser pulse. During the first 50 ns following breakdown, significant Thomson scattering was observed while the probe laser interacted with the laser-induced plasma. The Thomson scattering was observed to peak 15-25 ns following plasma initiation and then decay rapidly, thereby revealing the highly transient nature of the free electron density and plasma equilibrium immediately following breakdown. Such an intense free electron density gradient is suggestive of a non-equilibrium, free electron wave generated by the initial breakdown and growth processes. Additional probe beam transmission measurements and electron density measurements via Stark broadening of the 500.1-nm nitrogen ion line corroborate the Thomson scattering observations. In concert, the data support the finding of a highly transient plasma that deviates from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions during the first tens of nanoseconds of plasma lifetime. The implications of this early plasma transient behavior are discussed in the context of plasma-analyte interactions and the role on LIBS measurements

  11. The Influence of Selective Laser Melting Parameters on Density and Mechanical Properties of AlSi10Mg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raus A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Selective Laser Melting (SLM is one of the most effective powder bed technique in the additive Manufacturing (AM which able to fabricate functional metal parts directly from 3D Computer Aided Design (CAD file data. In this paper, the influence of SLM parameters, such as laser power, scanning speed and hatching distance on the density of AlSi10Mg samples are investigated using one factor at a time (OFAT. Furthermore, the optimum results are used to fabricate samples for hardness, tensile strength, and impact toughness test. It is revealed that AlSi10Mg parts fabricated by SLM achieving the best density of 99.13% at the value of 350 watts laser power, 1650 mm/s scanning speed and hatching distance 0.13mm, whereby resulted comparable and even better mechanical properties to those of conventionally HDPC A360F and HDPC A360T6 alloys although without any comprehensive post processing methods.

  12. Very high laser-damage threshold of polymer-derived Si(B)CN-carbon nanotube composite coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandavat, R; Feldman, A; Cromer, C; Lehman, J; Singh, G

    2013-04-10

    We study the laser irradiance behavior and resulting structural evolution of polymer-derived silicon-boron-carbonitride (Si(B)CN) functionalized multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composite spray coatings on copper substrate. We report a damage threshold value of 15 kWcm(-2) and an optical absorbance of 0.97 after irradiation. This is an order of magnitude improvement over MWCNT (1.4 kWcm(-2), 0.76), SWCNT (0.8 kWcm(-2), 0.65) and carbon paint (0.1 kWcm(-2), 0.87) coatings previously tested at 10.6 μm (2.5 kW CO2 laser) exposure. Electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggests partial oxidation of Si(B)CN forming a stable protective SiO2 phase upon irradiation.

  13. FreeDam - A webtool for free-electron laser-induced damage in femtosecond X-ray crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, H. Olof; Östlin, Christofer; Scott, Howard A.; Chapman, Henry N.; Aplin, Steve J.; Tîmneanu, Nicuşor; Caleman, Carl

    2018-03-01

    Over the last decade X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) sources have been made available to the scientific community. One of the most successful uses of these new machines has been protein crystallography. When samples are exposed to the intense short X-ray pulses provided by the XFELs, the sample quickly becomes highly ionized and the atomic structure is affected. Here we present a webtool dubbed FreeDam based on non-thermal plasma simulations, for estimation of radiation damage in free-electron laser experiments in terms of ionization, temperatures and atomic displacements. The aim is to make this tool easily accessible to scientists who are planning and performing experiments at XFELs.

  14. Large-strain time-temperature equivalence in high density polyethylene for prediction of extreme deformation and damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray G.T.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Time-temperature equivalence is a widely recognized property of many time-dependent material systems, where there is a clear predictive link relating the deformation response at a nominal temperature and a high strain-rate to an equivalent response at a depressed temperature and nominal strain-rate. It has been found that high-density polyethylene (HDPE obeys a linear empirical formulation relating test temperature and strain-rate. This observation was extended to continuous stress-strain curves, such that material response measured in a load frame at large strains and low strain-rates (at depressed temperatures could be translated into a temperature-dependent response at high strain-rates and validated against Taylor impact results. Time-temperature equivalence was used in conjuction with jump-rate compression tests to investigate isothermal response at high strain-rate while exluding adiabatic heating. The validated constitutive response was then applied to the analysis of Dynamic-Tensile-Extrusion of HDPE, a tensile analog to Taylor impact developed at LANL. The Dyn-Ten-Ext test results and FEA found that HDPE deformed smoothly after exiting the die, and after substantial drawing appeared to undergo a pressure-dependent shear damage mechanism at intermediate velocities, while it fragmented at high velocities. Dynamic-Tensile-Extrusion, properly coupled with a validated constitutive model, can successfully probe extreme tensile deformation and damage of polymers.

  15. Improved laser damage threshold performance of calcium fluoride optical surfaces via Accelerated Neutral Atom Beam (ANAB) processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, S.; Walsh, M.; Svrluga, R.; Thomas, M.

    2015-11-01

    Optics are not keeping up with the pace of laser advancements. The laser industry is rapidly increasing its power capabilities and reducing wavelengths which have exposed the optics as a weak link in lifetime failures for these advanced systems. Nanometer sized surface defects (scratches, pits, bumps and residual particles) on the surface of optics are a significant limiting factor to high end performance. Angstrom level smoothing of materials such as calcium fluoride, spinel, magnesium fluoride, zinc sulfide, LBO and others presents a unique challenge for traditional polishing techniques. Exogenesis Corporation, using its new and proprietary Accelerated Neutral Atom Beam (ANAB) technology, is able to remove nano-scale surface damage and particle contamination leaving many material surfaces with roughness typically around one Angstrom. This surface defect mitigation via ANAB processing can be shown to increase performance properties of high intensity optical materials. This paper describes the ANAB technology and summarizes smoothing results for calcium fluoride laser windows. It further correlates laser damage threshold improvements with the smoothing produced by ANAB surface treatment. All ANAB processing was performed at Exogenesis Corporation using an nAccel100TM Accelerated Particle Beam processing tool. All surface measurement data for the paper was produced via AFM analysis on a Park Model XE70 AFM, and all laser damage testing was performed at Spica Technologies, Inc. Exogenesis Corporation's ANAB processing technology is a new and unique surface modification technique that has demonstrated to be highly effective at correcting nano-scale surface defects. ANAB is a non-contact vacuum process comprised of an intense beam of accelerated, electrically neutral gas atoms with average energies of a few tens of electron volts. The ANAB process does not apply mechanical forces associated with traditional polishing techniques. ANAB efficiently removes surface

  16. Localization of ionization-induced trapping in a laser wakefield accelerator using a density down-ramp

    CERN Document Server

    Hansson, M.; Ekerfelt, H.; Aurand, B.; Gallardo Ganzalez, I.; Desforges, F. G.; Davoine, X.; Maitrallain, A.; Reymond, S.; Monot, P.; Persson, A.; Dobosz Dufrénoy S.; Wahlström C-G.; Cros, B.; Lundh, O.

    2016-01-01

    We report on a study on controlled trapping of electrons, by field ionization of nitrogen ions, in laser wakefield accelerators in variable length gas cells. In addition to ionization-induced trapping in the density plateau inside the cells, which results in wide, but stable, electron energy spectra, a regime of ionization-induced trapping localized in the density down-ramp at the exit of the gas cells, is found. The resulting electron energy spectra are peaked, with 10% shot-to-shot fluctuations in peak energy. Ionization-induced trapping of electrons in the density down-ramp is a way to trap and accelerate a large number of electrons, thus improving the efficiency of the laser-driven wakefield acceleration.

  17. Cell damage from radiation-induced bystander effects for different cell densities simulated by a mathematical model via cellular automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meireles, Sincler P. de; Santos, Adriano M.; Grynberg, Suely Epsztein, E-mail: spm@cdtn.b, E-mail: amsantos@cdtn.b, E-mail: seg@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Nunes, Maria Eugenia S., E-mail: mariaeugenia@iceb.ufop.b [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    During recent years, there has been a shift from an approach focused entirely on DNA as the main target of ionizing radiation to a vision that considers complex signaling pathways in cells and among cells within tissues. Several newly recognized responses were classified as the so-called non-target responses in which the biological effects are not directly related to the amount of energy deposited in the DNA of cells that were traversed by radiation. In 1992 the bystander effect was described referring to a series of responses such as death, chromosomal instability or other abnormalities that occur in non-irradiated cells that came into contact with irradiated cells or medium from irradiated cells. In this work, we have developed a mathematical model via cellular automata, to quantify cell death induced by the bystander effect. The model is based on experiments with irradiated cells conditioned medium which suggests that irradiated cells secrete molecules in the medium that are capable of damaging other cells. The computational model consists of two-dimensional cellular automata which is able to simulate the transmission of bystander signals via extrinsic route and via Gap junctions. The model has been validated by experimental results in the literature. The time evolution of the effect and the dose-response curves were obtained in good accordance to them. Simulations were conducted for different values of bystander and irradiated cell densities with constant dose. From this work, we have obtained a relationship between cell density and effect. (author)

  18. Cell damage from radiation-induced bystander effects for different cell densities simulated by a mathematical model via cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meireles, Sincler P. de; Santos, Adriano M.; Grynberg, Suely Epsztein; Nunes, Maria Eugenia S.

    2011-01-01

    During recent years, there has been a shift from an approach focused entirely on DNA as the main target of ionizing radiation to a vision that considers complex signaling pathways in cells and among cells within tissues. Several newly recognized responses were classified as the so-called non-target responses in which the biological effects are not directly related to the amount of energy deposited in the DNA of cells that were traversed by radiation. In 1992 the bystander effect was described referring to a series of responses such as death, chromosomal instability or other abnormalities that occur in non-irradiated cells that came into contact with irradiated cells or medium from irradiated cells. In this work, we have developed a mathematical model via cellular automata, to quantify cell death induced by the bystander effect. The model is based on experiments with irradiated cells conditioned medium which suggests that irradiated cells secrete molecules in the medium that are capable of damaging other cells. The computational model consists of two-dimensional cellular automata which is able to simulate the transmission of bystander signals via extrinsic route and via Gap junctions. The model has been validated by experimental results in the literature. The time evolution of the effect and the dose-response curves were obtained in good accordance to them. Simulations were conducted for different values of bystander and irradiated cell densities with constant dose. From this work, we have obtained a relationship between cell density and effect. (author)

  19. Argon laser-induced damage in the goldfish (C. auratus) retina following whole-body hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Michael A.; Lund, David J.; Schuschereba, Steven T.; Dahlberg, Ann M.; Cowan, Beth L.; Lester, Paul; Odom, Daniel G.

    1990-07-01

    The heat shock response is a phenomenon common to all cells and is characterized by an increase in the rate of synthesis of intracellular heat shock proteins (HSPs) . The response occurs following rapid transient increases in terrerature sufficient to cause stress but not cell death. HSPs appear to perform protective functions that raise the cell''s tolerance to diverse noxious stimuli. Thus we postulated that we could limit laser-induced retinal darriage through induction of the heat shock -response. Corrmon goldfish (C. auratus) made hyperthermic by immersion in 35C water for 15 minutes and radiolabeled with [355]methionine showed retinal liSPs with apparent molecular weights of 110 90 70 and 35 kilodaltons. To test the protective effects of HSPs against laser injury goldfish were made hyperthermic and 4 and 24 hr later their retinas were irradiated with argon laser light (51 4 . 5 nm spot size at the cornea 3. 0 mm irradiance 125 mW/cm2) . NonhyperLhermic animals served as controls. Following 24 hr of recovery fish were terminated and retinas fixed for histology. Fundus photographs were taken irrunediately after laser exposure . Lesion diameters were measured from fundus photographs and evaluated statistically. The mean retinal lesion diameters of fish not subjected to hyperthermJ. a laser exposed 4 hr post hyperLhermia and laser exposed 24 hr post hyperthermia were 10. 25 1. 4 SD 8. 82 2. 1 SD and 6. 78

  20. Measurement of the population densities in Gd atomic vapor using diode laser absorption spectroscopy in UV transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Duck Hee; Jung, E. C.; Ko, Kwang Hoon; Kim, Tack Soo

    2003-01-01

    We report on the ultraviolet laser absorption spectroscopy of atomic Gd at 394-554 nm where two transition lines are place very closely by using a frequency-doubled beam of external-cavity diode laser (ECDL). One is from 999.121 to 26337.071 cm -1 and the other from 0 to 25337.755 cm -1 . If two transition lines are placed closely within a continuous fine tuning range, the real-time measurement of the atomic excitation temperature is possible without any significant time consumption because at least two transition lines originating from different low-lying energy levels need to be investigated for the Boltzmann-plot. Since the spectral difference between the two transitions is only about 0.195 cm -1 (5.85 GHz), it is possible to record both the absorption spectra simultaneously as shown in Fig. 1. But the transition probabilities (or oscillator strengths) of these lines have not been measured accurately yet to the best of our knowledge. We report on the newly measured transition probabilities by analyzing their absorption spectra at known vapor density conditions. The simultaneous measurement of the atomic excitation temperature and the vapor density demonstrated. In addition we present another ultraviolet laser absorption spectroscopy of atomic Gd at 403.540 nm by means of a commercial blue diode laser and investigate the characteristics of the blue diode laser as well.

  1. Laser-driven strong magnetostatic fields with applications to charged beam transport and magnetized high energy-density physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Joao

    2017-10-01

    Powerful laser-plasma processes are explored to generate discharge currents of a few 100 kA in coil targets, yielding magnetostatic fields (B-fields) in the kTesla range. The B-fields are measured by proton-deflectometry and high-frequency bandwidth B-dot probes. According to our modeling, the quasi-static currents are provided from hot electron ejection from the laser-irradiated surface, accounting for the space charge neutralization and the plasma magnetization. The major control parameter is the laser irradiance Iλ2 . The B-fields ns-scale is long enough to magnetize secondary targets through resistive diffusion. We applied it in experiments of laser-generated relativistic electron transport into solid dielectric targets, yielding an unprecedented enhancement of a factor 5 on the energy-density flux at 60 µm depth, compared to unmagnetized transport conditions. These studies pave the ground for magnetized high-energy density physics investigations, related to laser-generated secondary sources of radiation and/or high-energy particles and their transport, to high-gain fusion energy schemes and to laboratory astrophysics. We acknowledge funding from French National Agency for Research (ANR), Grant TERRE ANR-2011-BS04-014, and from EUROfusion Consortium, European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme, Grant 633053.

  2. Laser-driven strong magnetostatic fields with applications to charged beam transport and magnetized high energy-density physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J. J.; Bailly-Grandvaux, M.; Ehret, M.; Arefiev, A. V.; Batani, D.; Beg, F. N.; Calisti, A.; Ferri, S.; Florido, R.; Forestier-Colleoni, P.; Fujioka, S.; Gigosos, M. A.; Giuffrida, L.; Gremillet, L.; Honrubia, J. J.; Kojima, S.; Korneev, Ph.; Law, K. F. F.; Marquès, J.-R.; Morace, A.; Mossé, C.; Peyrusse, O.; Rose, S.; Roth, M.; Sakata, S.; Schaumann, G.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.; Toncian, T.; Woolsey, N.; Zhang, Z.

    2018-05-01

    Powerful nanosecond laser-plasma processes are explored to generate discharge currents of a few 100 kA in coil targets, yielding magnetostatic fields (B-fields) in excess of 0.5 kT. The quasi-static currents are provided from hot electron ejection from the laser-irradiated surface. According to our model, which describes the evolution of the discharge current, the major control parameter is the laser irradiance Ilasλlas2 . The space-time evolution of the B-fields is experimentally characterized by high-frequency bandwidth B-dot probes and proton-deflectometry measurements. The magnetic pulses, of ns-scale, are long enough to magnetize secondary targets through resistive diffusion. We applied it in experiments of laser-generated relativistic electron transport through solid dielectric targets, yielding an unprecedented 5-fold enhancement of the energy-density flux at 60 μm depth, compared to unmagnetized transport conditions. These studies pave the ground for magnetized high-energy density physics investigations, related to laser-generated secondary sources of radiation and/or high-energy particles and their transport, to high-gain fusion energy schemes, and to laboratory astrophysics.

  3. Distribution of Fe atom density in a dc magnetron sputtering plasma source measured by laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibagaki, K.; Nafarizal, N.; Sasaki, K.; Toyoda, H.; Iwata, S.; Kato, T.; Tsunashima, S.; Sugai, H.

    2003-10-01

    Magnetron sputtering discharge is widely used as an efficient method for thin film fabrication. In order to achieve the optimized fabrication, understanding of the kinetics in plasmas is essential. In the present work, we measured the density distribution of sputtered Fe atoms using laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectroscopy. A dc magnetron plasma source with a Fe target was used. An area of 20 × 2 mm in front of the target was irradiated by a tunable laser beam having a planar shape. The picture of laser-induced fluorescence on the laser beam was taken using an ICCD camera. In this way, we obtained the two-dimensional image of the Fe atom density. As a result, it has been found that the Fe atom density observed at a distance of several centimeters from the target is higher than that adjacent to the target, when the Ar gas pressure was relatively high. It is suggested from this result that some gas-phase production processes of Fe atoms are available in the plasma. This work has been performed under the 21st Century COE Program by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan.

  4. Scanning laser densitometry and color perimetry demonstrate reduced photopigment density and sensitivity in two patients with retinal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornow, R P; Stilling, R; Zrenner, E

    1999-10-01

    To test the feasibility of scanning laser densitometry with a modified Rodenstock scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) to measure the rod and cone photopigment distribution in patients with retinal diseases. Scanning laser densitometry was performed using a modified Rodenstock scanning laser ophthalmoscope. The distribution of the photopigments was calculated from dark adapted and bleached images taken with the 514 nm laser of the SLO. This wavelength is absorbed by rod and cone photopigments. Discrimination is possible due to their different spatial distribution. Additionally, to measure retinal sensitivity profiles, dark adapted two color static perimetry with a Tübinger manual perimeter was performed along the horizontal meridian with 1 degree spacing. A patient with retinitis pigmentosa had slightly reduced photopigment density within the central +/- 5 degrees but no detectable photopigment for eccentricities beyond 5 degrees. A patient with cone dystrophy had nearly normal pigment density beyond +/- 5 degrees, but considerably reduced photopigment density within the central +/- 5 degrees. Within the central +/- 5 degrees, the patient with retinitis pigmentosa had normal sensitivity for the red stimulus and reduced sensitivity for the green stimulus. There was no measurable function beyond 7 degrees. The patient with cone dystrophy had normal sensitivity for the green stimulus outside the foveal center and reduced sensitivity for the red stimulus at the foveal center. The results of color perimetry for this patient with a central scotoma were probably influenced by eccentric fixation. Scanning laser densitometry with a modified Rodenstock SLO is a useful method to assess the human photopigment distribution. Densitometry results were confirmed by dark adapted two color static perimetry. Photopigment distribution and retinal sensitivity profiles can be measured with high spatial resolution. This may help to measure exactly the temporal development of retinal

  5. Influence of Laser Radiation Power Density on the Intensity of Spectral Lines for Main Components in a Clay Laser-Induced Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anufrik, S. S.; Kurian, N. N.; Znosko, K. F.; Belkov, M. V.

    2018-05-01

    We have studied the intensity of the spectral lines for the main components in clay: Al I 309.4 nm, Al II 358.7 nm, Mg II 279.6 nm, Ti II 323.6 nm vs. the position of the object relative to the focus of the optical system when the samples are exposed to single laser pulses from a YAG:Nd3+ laser. We have determined the permissible ranges for positioning the object relative to the focus of the optical system (positive and negative defocusing) for which there is practically no change in the reproducibility of the intensity for the spectral lines for red and white clay samples. We show that the position of the object relative to the focus of the optical system should be within the range ΔZ ±1.5 mm for optimal laser pulse energies for the analyte spectral lines. We have calculated the radiation flux density for different laser pulse energies and different distances from the focus to the object. We have shown experimentally that reducing the radiation flux density leads to a decrease in the intensity of the analyte spectral lines.

  6. Development of 2D laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) system in high-density helicon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshigahara, Naoto; Shinohara, Shunjiro; Kuwahara, Daisuke; Watanabe, Masaki; Yamagata, Yukihiko

    2014-01-01

    Lifetimes of most electric propulsion devices are limited owing to electrode erosion and contamination by plasmas. To overcome this problem, a Helicon Electrodeless Advanced Thruster (HEAT) was proposed by our research team. This scheme employs a high-density (∼10 13 cm -3 ) helicon plasma accelerated by the Lorentz force, which is produced by various acceleration methods. For feasibility of this method, a Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) system was developed. The LIF is a powerful tool for plasma diagnostics because it is a non-invasive method that allows high spatial resolution. Using the LIF, it is possible to deduce velocity distribution functions of different particles (ions, atoms, and molecules). In this paper, we report the details of our novel 2D LIF system as well as some preliminary experimental results. Argon ion velocity distributions at different axial and radial locations were obtained using the novel 2D system. Ion velocity was greatest (∼ 2.8 km/s) at z = -24 cm among all the points measured along the z-axis. Velocity values were approximately 2.7 and 3.2 km/s for radial positions of r = 0 and 3 cm, respectively. Ion temperature values were approximately 0.56 and 0.61 eV at r = 0 and 3 cm, respectively. (author)

  7. Sparse Density, Leaf-Off Airborne Laser Scanning Data in Aboveground Biomass Component Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ville Kankare

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The demand for cost-efficient forest aboveground biomass (AGB prediction methods is growing worldwide. The National Land Survey of Finland (NLS began collecting airborne laser scanning (ALS data throughout Finland in 2008 to provide a new high-detailed terrain elevation model. Similar data sets are being collected in an increasing number of countries worldwide. These data sets offer great potential in forest mapping related applications. The objectives of our study were (i to evaluate the AGB component prediction accuracy at a resolution of 300 m2 using sparse density, leaf-off ALS data (collected by NLS derived metrics as predictor variables; (ii to compare prediction accuracies with existing large-scale forest mapping techniques (Multi-source National Forest Inventory, MS-NFI based on Landsat TM satellite imagery; and (iii to evaluate the accuracy and effect of canopy height model (CHM derived metrics on AGB component prediction when ALS data were acquired with multiple sensors and varying scanning parameters. Results showed that ALS point metrics can be used to predict component AGBs with an accuracy of 29.7%–48.3%. AGB prediction accuracy was slightly improved using CHM-derived metrics but CHM metrics had a more clear effect on the estimated bias. Compared to the MS-NFI, the prediction accuracy was considerably higher, which was caused by differences in the remote sensing data utilized.

  8. DNA damage in cultured human skin fibroblasts exposed to excimer laser radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimoldi, D.; Miller, A.C.; Freeman, S.E.; Samid, D. (Department of Pathology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1991-06-01

    Ultraviolet excimer lasers are being considered for use in a variety of refractive and therapeutic procedures, the long-term biologic consequences of which are unknown. The effect of sublethal doses of 193-nm laser radiation on cellular DNA was examined in cultured human skin fibroblasts. In contrast to 248 nm, treatments with the 193-nm laser radiation below 70 J/m2 did not cause significant pyrimidine dimer formation in the skin cells. This was indicated by the lack of excision repair activities (unscheduled DNA synthesis assay), and further demonstrated by direct analysis of pyrimidine dimers in DNA from irradiated cells. However, a low level of unscheduled DNA synthesis could be detected following irradiation at 193 nm with 70 J/m2. Both the 193-nm and 248-nm radiation were able to induce chromosomal aberrations, as indicated by a micronucleus assay. A dose-dependent increase in micronuclei frequency was observed 48 and 72 h after laser irradiation. These results indicate that exposure of actively replicating human skin fibroblasts to sublethal doses of either 193- or 248-nm laser radiation can result in genotoxicity.

  9. Characterization of Electron Temperature and Density Profiles of Plasmas Produced by Nike KrF Laser for Laser Plasma Instability (LPI) Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Phillips, L.; Obenschain, S. P.; Schmitt, A. J.; Kehne, D. M.; Chan, L.-Y.; Serlin, V.

    2011-10-01

    Previous experiments with Nike KrF laser (λ = 248 nm , Δν ~ 1 THz) observed LPI signatures near quarter critical density (nc / 4) in CH plasmas, however, detailed measurement of the temperature (Te) and density (ne) profiles was missing. The current Nike LPI campaign will perform experimental determination of the plasma profiles. A side-on grid imaging refractometer (GIR) is the main diagnostic to resolve Te and ne in space taking 2D snapshots of probe laser (λ = 266 nm , Δt = 8 psec) beamlets (50 μm spacing) refracted by the plasma at laser peak time. Ray tracing of the beamlets through hydrodynamically simulated (FASTRAD3D) plasma profiles estimates the refractometer may access densities up to ~ 0 . 2nc . With the measured Te and ne profiles in the plasma corona, we will discuss analysis of light data radiated from the plasmas in spectral ranges relevant to two plasmon decay and convective Raman instabilities. Validity of the (Te ,ne) data will also be discussed for the thermal transport study. Work supported by DoE/NNSA and ONR and performed at NRL.

  10. EUV soft X-ray characterization of a FEL multilayer optics damaged by multiple shot laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giglia, A.; Mahne, N.; Bianco, A.; Svetina, C.; Nannarone, S.

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the damaging effects of a femtosecond pulsed laser beam with 400 nm wavelength on a Mo/Si EUV multilayer. The exposures have been done in vacuum with multiple pulses (5 pulses/mm 2 ) of 120 fs varying the laser fluence in the 38-195 mJ/cm 2 range. The analysis of the different irradiated regions has been performed ex-situ by means of different techniques, including specular and diffuse reflectivity, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and total electron yield (TEY) in the EUV and soft X-ray range. Surface images have been acquired by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results clearly indicate a progressive degradation of the EUV multilayer performances with the increase of the laser fluence. Spectroscopic analysis allowed to correlate the decrease of reflectivity with the degradation of the multilayer stacking, ascribed to Mo-Si intermixing at the Mo/Si interfaces of the first layers, close to the surface of the mirror.

  11. Ageing tests of radiation damaged lasers and photodiodes for the CMS experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Gill, K; Batten, J; Cervelli, G; Grabit, R; Jensen, F; Troska, Jan K; Vasey, F

    2000-01-01

    The effects of thermally accelerated ageing in irradiated and unirradiated 1310 nm InGaAsP edge-emitting lasers and InGaAs p-i-n photodiodes are presented. 40 lasers (20 irradiated) and 30 photodiodes (19 irradiated) were aged for 4000 hours at 80 degrees C. Periodic measurements were made of laser threshold and efficiency, and p-i-n leakage current and photocurrent. There were no sudden failures and there was very little wearout related degradation in either unirradiated or irradiated sample groups. The results suggest that the tested devices have a sufficiently long lifetime to operate for at least 10 years inside the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment despite being exposed to a harsh radiation environment. (19 refs).

  12. High Cycle Fatigue Performance in Laser Shock Peened TC4 Titanium Alloys Subjected to Foreign Object Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Sihai; Nie, Xiangfan; Zhou, Liucheng; Li, Yiming; He, Weifeng

    2018-03-01

    During their service, titanium alloys are likely to suffer from the foreign object damage (FOD), resulting in a decrease in their fatigue strength. Laser shock peening (LSP) has been proved to effectively increase the damage tolerance of military engine components by introducing a magnitude compressive residual stress in the near-surface layer of alloys. In this paper, smooth specimens of a TC4 titanium alloy were used and treated by LSP and subsequently exposed to FOD, which was simulated by firing a steel sphere with a nominal velocity of 300 m/s, at 90° with the leading edge of the LSP-treated region using a light gas gun. All impacted specimens were then subjected to fatigue loading. The results showed that LSP could effectively improve the fatigue strength of the damaged specimens. The effect of LSP on the fatigue strength was assessed through fracture observations, microhardness tests and residual stress analyses. The residual stresses due to the plastic deformation caused by LSP and the FOD impact, which were found to play a crucial role on the fatigue strength, were determined using the commercial software ABAQUS.

  13. Acceleration of a solid-density plasma projectile to ultrahigh velocities by a short-pulse ultraviolet laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badziak, J.; Jablonski, S. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Euratom Association, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-08-15

    It is shown by means of particle-in-cell simulations that a high-fluence ({>=}1 GJ/cm{sup 2}) solid-density plasma projectile can be accelerated up to sub-relativistic velocities by radiation pressure of an ultraviolet (UV) picosecond laser pulse of moderate values of dimensionless laser amplitude a{sub 0}{approx}10. The efficiency of acceleration by the UV laser is significantly higher than in the case of long-wavelength ({lambda} {approx} 1 {mu}m) driver of a comparable value of a{sub 0}, and the motion of the projectile is fairly well described by the ''Light Sail'' acceleration model.

  14. Damage-free laser patterning of silicon nitride on textured crystalline silicon using an amorphous silicon etch mask for Ni/Cu plated silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailly, Mark S., E-mail: mbailly@asu.edu; Karas, Joseph; Jain, Harsh; Dauksher, William J.; Bowden, Stuart

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the optimization of laser ablation with a femtosecond laser for direct and indirect removal of SiN{sub x} on alkaline textured c-Si. Our proposed resist-free indirect removal process uses an a-Si:H etch mask and is demonstrated to have a drastically improved surface quality of the laser processed areas when compared to our direct removal process. Scanning electron microscope images of ablated sites show the existence of substantial surface defects for the standard direct removal process, and the reduction of those defects with our proposed process. Opening of SiN{sub x} and SiO{sub x} passivating layers with laser ablation is a promising alternative to the standard screen print and fire process for making contact to Si solar cells. The potential for small contacts from laser openings of dielectrics coupled with the selective deposition of metal from light induced plating allows for high-aspect-ratio metal contacts for front grid metallization. The minimization of defects generated in this process would serve to enhance the performance of the device and provides the motivation for our work. - Highlights: • Direct laser removal of silicon nitride (SiN{sub x}) damages textured silicon. • Direct laser removal of amorphous silicon (a-Si) does not damage textured silicon. • a-Si can be used as a laser patterned etch mask for SiN{sub x}. • Chemically patterned SiN{sub x} sites allow for Ni/Cu plating.

  15. Setting-up of the Laser Induced Fluorescence diagnostic. Measurements of Cr density in a neon glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tafalla, D.; Cal, E. de la; Tabares, F. L.

    1994-01-01

    A plasma diagnostic based on the Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) technique has been set up in the Fusion Division at the CIEMAT. In a preliminary experiment, the density of sputtered chromium atoms produced in a neon glow discharge was measured. Firstly, the laser beam was characterized by calibration of its wavelength, bandwidth and energy profile and Rayleigh scattering in N2 was used for the optical system calibration. An absolute density of Cr atoms of n ∼ 5x10 cm was obtained in discharges at 100 mA and pressure of 15 mTorr and a linear dependence of the LIF signal us. current was found. These values are in agreement with those expected from the tabulated sputtering yields and the thermalization and diffusion of the sputtered atoms into the Ne plasma. (Author) 19 refs

  16. Setting-up of the Laser Induced Fluorescence diagnostic. Measurements of Cr density in a neon glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tafalla, D.; Cal, E. de la; Tabares, F.L.

    1994-01-01

    A plasma diagnostic based on the Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) technique has been set up in the Fusion Division at the CIEMAT. In a preliminary experiment, The density of sputtered chromium atoms produced in a neon glow discharge was measured. Firstly, the laser beam was characterized by calibration of its wavelength bandwidth and energy profile and Rayleigh scattering in N 2 was used for the optical system calibration. An absolute density of Cr atoms of n= 5x10''9 cm''-3 was obtained in discharges at 100 mA and pressure of 15 mTorr and a linear dependence of the LIF signal US. current was found. These values are in agreement with those expected from the tabulated sputtering yields and the thermalization and diffusion of the sputtered atoms into the Ne plasma

  17. Density Transition Based Self-Focusing of cosh-Gaussian Laser Beam in Plasma with Linear Absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kant, Niti; Wani, Manzoor Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Density transition based self-focusing of cosh-Gaussian laser beam in plasma with linear absorption has been studied. The field distribution in the plasma is expressed in terms of beam width parameter, decentered parameter, and linear absorption coefficient. The differential equation for the beam width parameter is solved by following Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin (WKB) and paraxial approximation through parabolic wave equation approach. The behaviour of beam width parameter with dimensionless distance of propagation is studied at optimum values of plasma density, decentered parameter and with different absorption levels in the medium. The results reveal that these parameters can affect the self-focusing significantly. (paper)

  18. Decrease in lower level density due to cooling of gas temperature by thermal dissociation of hydrogen in copper vapor laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Ikuo; Hayashi, Kazuo; Iseki, Yasushi; Suzuki, Setsuo; Noda, Etsuo; Morimiya, Osamu

    1995-01-01

    A gas temperature calculation is carried out in the copper vapor laser (CVL) with a beam diameter of 80 mm in the case of H 2 addition into the Ne buffer gas. The on-axis gas temperature decreases to 2800K with 1% concentration of H 2 , whereas the gas temperature is 3400K without H 2 . The on-axis lower level density decreases due to the cooling of the gas temperature. This decrease in the lower level density is thought to bring about a non annular beam profile in the case of H 2 addition. (author)

  19. Production of ultrahigh ion current densities at skin-layer subrelativistic laser-plasma interaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Badziak, J.; Glowacz, S.; Jablonski, S.; Parys, P.; Wolowski, J.; Hora, H.; Krása, Josef; Láska, Leoš; Rohlena, Karel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 46, Suppl. 12B (2005), B541-B555 ISSN 0741-3335 Grant - others:International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna(XE) 11535/RO; State Committee for Scientific Research (KBN)(PL) 1 PO3B 043 26 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : high-intensity laser * multiply-charged ions * thin foil targets * picosecond laser * iodine laser * proton acceleration * energetic protons * Ag ions * generation * pulses Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Laser s Impact factor: 2.902, year: 2005

  20. A tunable electron beam source using trapping of electrons in a density down-ramp in laser wakefield acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekerfelt, Henrik; Hansson, Martin; Gallardo González, Isabel; Davoine, Xavier; Lundh, Olle

    2017-09-25

    One challenge in the development of laser wakefield accelerators is to demonstrate sufficient control and reproducibility of the parameters of the generated bunches of accelerated electrons. Here we report on a numerical study, where we demonstrate that trapping using density down-ramps allows for tuning of several electron bunch parameters by varying the properties of the density down-ramp. We show that the electron bunch length is determined by the difference in density before and after the ramp. Furthermore, the transverse emittance of the bunch is controlled by the steepness of the ramp. Finally, the amount of trapped charge depends both on the density difference and on the steepness of the ramp. We emphasize that both parameters of the density ramp are feasible to vary experimentally. We therefore conclude that this tunable electron accelerator makes it suitable for a wide range of applications, from those requiring short pulse length and low emittance, such as the free-electron lasers, to those requiring high-charge, large-emittance bunches to maximize betatron X-ray generation.

  1. Measurement of OH radical density in DBD-enhanced premixed burner flame by laser-induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaima, Kazunori; Sasaki, Koichi

    2013-09-01

    We examined OH density in DBD-enhanced premixed burner flame by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). We ignited a premixed flame with CH4 /O2 / Ar mixture using a burner which worked as the ground electrode. The upper part of the flame was covered with a quartz tube, and we attached an aluminum electrode on the outside of the quartz tube. DBD inside the quartz tube was obtained between the aluminum electrode and the burner nozzle. The planar beam from a pulsed tunable laser excited OH in X2 Π (v'' = 0) to A2Σ+ (v' = 0) , and we captured two-dimensional distribution of the LIF intensity using an ICCD camera. We employed three pump lines of Q1(J=4, 8 and 10), and the rotational temperature of OH(X) was deduced from the ratio of the LIF intensities. The total density of OH was obtained from the LIF intensities and the rotational temperature. A principal experimental result was that no remarkable increase was observed in the OH density by the superposition of DBD. The correlation between the pulsed discharge current and the temporal variation of the OH density was not clear, suggesting that the oscillation of the OH density with a small amplitude is related to the transittion time constant between equilibrium and nonequilibrium combustion chemistries.

  2. MIRI: A multichannel far-infrared laser interferometer for electron density measurements on TFTR [Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansfield, D.K.; Park, H.K.; Johnson, L.C.; Anderson, H.M.; Chouinard, R.; Foote, V.S.; Ma, C.H.; Clifton, B.J.

    1987-07-01

    A ten-channel far-infrared laser interferometer which is routinely used to measure the spatial and temporal behavior of the electron density profile on the TFTR tokamak is described and representative results are presented. This system has been designed for remote operation in the very hostile environment of a fusion reactor. The possible expansion of the system to include polarimetric measurements is briefly outlined. 13 refs., 8 figs

  3. Stimulated scattering in laser driven fusion and high energy density physics experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, L., E-mail: lyin@lanl.gov; Albright, B. J.; Rose, H. A.; Montgomery, D. S.; Kline, J. L.; Finnegan, S. M.; Bergen, B.; Bowers, K. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Kirkwood, R. K.; Milovich, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    In laser driven fusion and high energy density physics experiments, one often encounters a kλ{sub D} range of 0.15 < kλ{sub D} < 0.5, where stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) is active (k is the initial electron plasma wave number and λ{sub D} is the Debye length). Using particle-in-cell simulations, the SRS reflectivity is found to scale as ∼ (kλ{sub D}){sup −4} for kλ{sub D} ≳ 0.3 where electron trapping effects dominate SRS saturation; the reflectivity scaling deviates from the above for kλ{sub D} < 0.3 when Langmuir decay instability (LDI) is present. The SRS risk is shown to be highest for kλ{sub D} between 0.2 and 0.3. SRS re-scattering processes are found to be unimportant under conditions relevant to ignition experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Large-scale simulations of the hohlraum plasma show that the SRS wavelength spectrum peaks below 600 nm, consistent with most measured NIF spectra, and that nonlinear trapping in the presence of plasma gradients determines the SRS spectral peak. Collisional effects on SRS, stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), LDI, and re-scatter, together with three dimensional effects, are examined. Effects of collisions are found to include de-trapping as well as cross-speckle electron temperature variation from collisional heating, the latter of which reduces gain, introduces a positive frequency shift that counters the trapping-induced negative frequency shift, and affects SRS and SBS saturation. Bowing and breakup of ion-acoustic wavefronts saturate SBS and cause a dramatic, sharp decrease in SBS reflectivity. Mitigation of SRS and SBS in the strongly nonlinear trapping regime is discussed.

  4. Which is the most preventive measure against tail damage in finisher pigs: tail docking, straw provision or lowered stocking density?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mona Lilian Vestbjerg; Andersen, Heidi Mai-Lis; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2018-01-01

    One challenge of intensive pig production is tail damage caused by tail biting, and farmers often decrease the prevalence of tail damage through tail docking. However, tail docking is not an optimal preventive measure against tail damage and thus, it would be preferable to replace it. The aim of ...

  5. Investigation of room temperature UV emission of ZnO films with different defect densities induced by laser irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Jiang, Yijian

    2010-08-01

    We studied the room temperature UV emission of ZnO films with different defect densities which is fabricated by KrF laser irradiation process. It is shown room temperature UV photoluminescence of ZnO film is composed of contribution from free-exciton (FX) recombination and its longitudinal-optical phonon replica (FX-LO) (1LO, 2LO). With increase of the defect density, the FX emission decreased and FX-LO emission increased dramatically; and the relative strengths of FX to FX-LO emission intensities determine the peak position and intensity of UV emission. What is more, laser irradiation with moderate energy density could induce the crystalline ZnO film with very flat and smooth surface. This investigation indicates that KrF laser irradiation could effectively modulate the exciton emission and surface morphology, which is important for the application of high performance of UV emitting optoelectronic devices. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Catastrophic optical mirror damage in diode lasers monitored during single-pulse operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zegler, M.; Tomm, J.W.; Reeber, D.

    2009-01-01

    is achieved. The thermal runaway process is unambiguously related to the occurrence of a “thermal flash.” A one-by-one correlation between nearfield, thermal flash, thermal runaway, and structural damage is observed. The single-pulse excitation technique allows for controlling the propagation...

  7. Self-focusing of a Hermite-cosh Gaussian laser beam in a magnetoplasma with ramp density profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanda, Vikas; Kant, Niti; Wani, Manzoor Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The early and strong self-focusing of a Hermite-cosh-Gaussian laser beam in magnetoplasma in the presence of density ramp has been observed. Focusing and de-focusing nature of the Hermite-cosh-Gaussian laser beam with decentered parameter and magnetic field has been studied, and strong self-focusing is reported. It is investigated that decentered parameter 'b' plays a significant role for the self-focusing of the laser beam and is very sensitive as in case of extraordinary mode. For mode indices, m = 0, 1, 2, and b = 4.00, 3.14, and 2.05, strong self-focusing is observed. Similarly in case of ordinary mode, for m = 0, 1, 2 and b = 4.00, 3.14, 2.049, respectively, strong self-focusing is reported. Further, it is seen that extraordinary mode is more prominent toward self-focusing rather than ordinary mode of propagation. For mode indices m = 0, 1, and 2, diffraction term becomes more dominant over nonlinear term for decentered parameter b=0. For selective higher values of decentered parameter in case of mode indices m=0, 1, and 2, self-focusing effect becomes strong for extraordinary mode. Also increase in the value of magnetic field enhances the self-focusing ability of the laser beam, which is very useful in the applications like the generation of inertial fusion energy driven by lasers, laser driven accelerators, and x-ray lasers

  8. Self-focusing of a Hermite-cosh Gaussian laser beam in a magnetoplasma with ramp density profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanda, Vikas; Kant, Niti; Wani, Manzoor Ahmad [Department of Physics, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara 144411, Punjab (India)

    2013-11-15

    The early and strong self-focusing of a Hermite-cosh-Gaussian laser beam in magnetoplasma in the presence of density ramp has been observed. Focusing and de-focusing nature of the Hermite-cosh-Gaussian laser beam with decentered parameter and magnetic field has been studied, and strong self-focusing is reported. It is investigated that decentered parameter 'b' plays a significant role for the self-focusing of the laser beam and is very sensitive as in case of extraordinary mode. For mode indices, m = 0, 1, 2, and b = 4.00, 3.14, and 2.05, strong self-focusing is observed. Similarly in case of ordinary mode, for m = 0, 1, 2 and b = 4.00, 3.14, 2.049, respectively, strong self-focusing is reported. Further, it is seen that extraordinary mode is more prominent toward self-focusing rather than ordinary mode of propagation. For mode indices m = 0, 1, and 2, diffraction term becomes more dominant over nonlinear term for decentered parameter b=0. For selective higher values of decentered parameter in case of mode indices m=0, 1, and 2, self-focusing effect becomes strong for extraordinary mode. Also increase in the value of magnetic field enhances the self-focusing ability of the laser beam, which is very useful in the applications like the generation of inertial fusion energy driven by lasers, laser driven accelerators, and x-ray lasers.

  9. Laser re-melting of tungsten damaged by transient heat loads

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Loewenhoff, Th.; Linke, J.; Matějíček, Jiří; Rasinski, M.; Vostřák, M.; Wirtz, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, December (2016), s. 165-170 ISSN 2352-1791. [International Conference of Fusion Reactor Material (ICFRM-17) /17./. Aachen, 11.10.2015-16.10.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12837S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Plasma facing material * Laser surface remelting * Transient heat load * Tungsten Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nme.2016.04.004

  10. Retinal Information Processing for Minimum Laser Lesion Detection and Cumulative Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-17

    macula and especially the fovea. This is the region where information processing is most important, as it must make up for the poor optical quality of the...the fovea and portions of the central macula leave the retina with only large receptive field ganglion cells. In these cases, the ordinary mechanical... degeneration or failure of neurons following laser exposure without subsequent therapy. As the research progressed, significant progress was made in cat

  11. Measurements of Electron Temperature and Density Profiles of Plasmas Produced by Nike KrF Laser for Laser Plasma Instability (LPI) Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Obenschain, S. P.; Schmitt, A. J.; Kehne, D. M.; Karasik, M.; Chan, L.-Y.; Serlin, V.; Phillips, L.

    2012-10-01

    ExperimentsfootnotetextJ. Oh, et al, GO5.4, APS DPP (2010).^,footnotetextJ. L. Weaver, et al, GO5.3, APS DPP (2010). using Nike KrF laser observed LPI signatures from CH plasmas at the laser intensities above ˜1x10^15 W/cm^2. Knowing spatial profiles of temperature (Te) and density (ne) in the underdense coronal region (0 Nike LPI experiment, a side-on grid imaging refractometer (GIR)footnotetextR. S. Craxton, et al, Phys. Fluids B 5, 4419 (1993). is being deployed for measuring the underdense plasma profiles. The GIR will resolve Te and ne in space taking a 2D snapshot of probe laser (λ= 263 nm, δt = 10 psec) beamlets (50μm spacing) refracted by the plasma at a selected time during the laser illumination. Time-resolved spectrometers with an absolute-intensity-calibrated photodiode array and a streak camera will simultaneously monitor light emission from the plasma in spectral ranges relevant to Raman (SRS) and two plasmon decay (TDP) instabilities. The experimental study of effects of the plasma profiles on the LPI initiation will be presented.

  12. High energy density physics with intense ion and laser beams. Annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weyrich, K.

    2004-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Laser plasma physics, plasma spectroscopy, beam interaction experiments, atomic and radiation physics, pulsed power applications, beam transport and accelerator research and development, properties of dense plasma, instabilities in beam-plasma interaction, beam transport in dense plasmas, short-pulse laser-matter interaction. (HSI)

  13. Identification of an early damage of the retina by laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walther, G.; Hochgesand, P.; Stockhausen, M.; Valeske, W.

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation has been to find out the retinal threshold energy for a Q-switched Ruby-Laser with an impulse duration of 50 ns. A commercial Laser-Type (Fa. Eltrughs, Heidelberg, West Germany, Type CE 602) was used. For the test rabbits were used general anesthesia: the threshold energy was first determined ophthalmoscopically-enzyme-histochemically. In the first series the coagulation energy accounted between 7 x 10 -4 J and 9 x 10 -7 J, in the second between 10 -6 J and 1.5 x 10 -5 J. Clinically the threshold energy was found at a level of 3 - 5 x 10 -6 J, clinical-enzyme-histochemically at 1 - 2 x 10 -6 J. A theoretical and physical calculation leaded to 0.3 - 3 x 10 -6 J. Since the energy measurement varies and due to the different resorption qualities of the human and the rabbit's retina the threshold energy accounts 10 -7 J. Labour safety protection should prescribe a threshold energy less than 10 -8 J for a Q-switched Ruby-Laser of an impulse duration of 50 ns. (orig.) [de

  14. Temporal and spatial effects of ablation plume on number density distribution of droplets in an aerosol measured by laser-induced breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashiro, H.; Kakehata, M.

    2013-01-01

    We proposed and experimentally demonstrated a novel method of evaluating the number density of droplets in an aerosol by laser-induced breakdown. The number density of droplets is evaluated from the volume in which the laser intensity exceeds the breakdown threshold intensity for droplets, and the number of droplets in this volume, which is evaluated by the experimentally observed breakdown probability. This measurement method requires a large number of laser shots for not only precise measurement but also highly temporally and spatially resolved density distribution in aerosol. Laser ablation plumes ejected from liquid droplets generated by breakdown disturb the density around the measurement points. Therefore, the recovery time of the density determines the maximum repetition rate of the probe laser irradiating a fixed point. The expansion range of the ablation plume determines the minimum distance at which the measurement points are unaffected by a neighboring breakdown when multiple laser beams are simultaneously irradiated. These laser irradiation procedures enable the measurement of the number density distribution of droplets in an aerosol at a large number of points within a short measurement time.

  15. Temporal and spatial effects of ablation plume on number density distribution of droplets in an aerosol measured by laser-induced breakdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yashiro, H.; Kakehata, M. [Electronics and Photonics Research Institute (ESPRIT), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2013-05-07

    We proposed and experimentally demonstrated a novel method of evaluating the number density of droplets in an aerosol by laser-induced breakdown. The number density of droplets is evaluated from the volume in which the laser intensity exceeds the breakdown threshold intensity for droplets, and the number of droplets in this volume, which is evaluated by the experimentally observed breakdown probability. This measurement method requires a large number of laser shots for not only precise measurement but also highly temporally and spatially resolved density distribution in aerosol. Laser ablation plumes ejected from liquid droplets generated by breakdown disturb the density around the measurement points. Therefore, the recovery time of the density determines the maximum repetition rate of the probe laser irradiating a fixed point. The expansion range of the ablation plume determines the minimum distance at which the measurement points are unaffected by a neighboring breakdown when multiple laser beams are simultaneously irradiated. These laser irradiation procedures enable the measurement of the number density distribution of droplets in an aerosol at a large number of points within a short measurement time.

  16. A study of fast electron energy transport in relativistically intense laser-plasma interactions with large density scalelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, R. H. H.; Norreys, P. A. [Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, Oxford OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Perez, F.; Baton, S. D. [LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, UMR 7605, CNRS/CEA/UPMC, Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Santos, J. J.; Nicolai, Ph.; Hulin, S. [Univ. Bordeaux/CNRS/CEA, CELIA, UMR 5107, 33405 Talence (France); Ridgers, C. P. [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Davies, J. R. [GoLP, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear - Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Lancaster, K. L.; Trines, R. M. G. M. [Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, Oxford OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Bell, A. R.; Tzoufras, M. [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, Oxford OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Rose, S. J. [Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    A systematic experimental and computational investigation of the effects of three well characterized density scalelengths on fast electron energy transport in ultra-intense laser-solid interactions has been performed. Experimental evidence is presented which shows that, when the density scalelength is sufficiently large, the fast electron beam entering the solid-density plasma is best described by two distinct populations: those accelerated within the coronal plasma (the fast electron pre-beam) and those accelerated near or at the critical density surface (the fast electron main-beam). The former has considerably lower divergence and higher temperature than that of the main-beam with a half-angle of {approx}20 Degree-Sign . It contains up to 30% of the total fast electron energy absorbed into the target. The number, kinetic energy, and total energy of the fast electrons in the pre-beam are increased by an increase in density scalelength. With larger density scalelengths, the fast electrons heat a smaller cross sectional area of the target, causing the thinnest targets to reach significantly higher rear surface temperatures. Modelling indicates that the enhanced fast electron pre-beam associated with the large density scalelength interaction generates a magnetic field within the target of sufficient magnitude to partially collimate the subsequent, more divergent, fast electron main-beam.

  17. Measurements of Laser Plasma Instability (LPI) and Electron Density/Temperature Profiles in Plasmas Produced by the Nike KrF Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Serlin, V.; Obenschain, S. P.

    2016-10-01

    We will present results of simultaneous measurements of LPI-driven light scattering and density/temperature profiles in CH plasmas produced by the Nike krypton fluoride laser (λ = 248 nm). The primary diagnostics for the LPI measurement are time-resolved spectrometers with absolute intensity calibration in spectral ranges relevant to the optical detection of stimulated Raman scattering or two plasmon decay. The spectrometers are capable of monitoring signal intensity relative to thermal background radiation from plasma providing a useful way to analyze LPI initiation. For further understanding of LPI processes, the recently implemented grid image refractometer (Nike-GIR)a is used to measure the coronal plasma profiles. In this experiment, Nike-GIR is equipped with a 5th harmonic probe laser (λ = 213 nm) in attempt to probe into a high density region over the previous peak density with λ = 263 nm probe light ( 4 ×1021 cm-3). The LPI behaviors will be discussed with the measured data sets. Work supported by DoE/NNSA.

  18. Measurements of electron density and temperature profiles in plasma produced by Nike KrF laser for laser plasma instability research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Karasik, M.; Chan, L. Y.

    2015-08-01

    A grid image refractometer (GIR) has been implemented at the Nike krypton fluoride laser facility of the Naval Research Laboratory. This instrument simultaneously measures propagation angles and transmissions of UV probe rays (λ = 263 nm, Δt = 10 ps) refracted through plasma. We report results of the first Nike-GIR measurement on a CH plasma produced by the Nike laser pulse (˜1 ns FWHM) with the intensity of 1.1 × 1015 W/cm2. The measured angles and transmissions were processed to construct spatial profiles of electron density (ne) and temperature (Te) in the underdense coronal region of the plasma. Using an inversion algorithm developed for the strongly refracted rays, the deployed GIR system probed electron densities up to 4 × 1021 cm-3 with the density scale length of 120 μm along the plasma symmetry axis. The resulting ne and Te profiles are verified to be self-consistent with the measured quantities of the refracted probe light.

  19. Experimental measurements of deep directional columnar heating by laser-generated relativistic electrons at near-solid density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.A.; Key, M.H.; Hatchett, S.P.; Lee, R.W.; Pennington, D.; Tabak, M.; Freeman, R.R.; Stephens, R.B.

    2002-01-01

    In our experiments, we irradiated solid CH targets with a 400 J, 5 ps, 3x10 19 W/cm 2 laser, and we used x-ray imaging and spectroscopic diagnostics to monitor the keV x-ray emission from thin Al or Au tracer layers buried within the targets. The experiments were designed to quantify the spatial distribution of the thermal electron temperature and density as a function of buried layer depth; these data provide insights into the behavior of relativistic electron currents which flow within the solid target and are directly and indirectly responsible for the heating. We measured ∼200-350 eV temperatures and near-solid densities at depths ranging from 5 to 100 μm beneath the target surface. Time-resolved x-ray spectra from Al tracers indicate that the tracers emit thermal x rays and cool slowly compared to the time scale of the laser pulse. Most intriguingly, we consistently observe annular x-ray images in all buried tracer-layer experiments, and these data show that the temperature distribution is columnar, with enhanced heating along the edges of the column. The ring diameters are much greater than the laser focal spot diameter and do not vary significantly with the depth of the tracer layer for depths greater than 30 μm. The local temperatures are 200-350 eV for all tracer depths. We discuss recent simulations of the evolution of electron currents deep within solid targets irradiated by ultra-high-intensity lasers, and we discuss how modeling and analytical results suggest that the annular patterns we observe may be related to locally strong growth of the Weibel instability. We also suggest avenues for future research in order to further illuminate the complex physics of relativistic electron transport and energy deposition inside ultra-high-intensity laser-irradiated solid targets

  20. Diagnosis of Weibel instability evolution in the rear surface density scale lengths of laser solid interactions via proton acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, G G; Brenner, C M; Clarke, R J; Green, J S; Heathcote, R I; Rusby, D R; McKenna, P; Neely, D; Bagnoud, V; Zielbauer, B; Gonzalez-Izquierdo, B; Powell, H W

    2017-01-01

    It is shown for the first time that the spatial and temporal distribution of laser accelerated protons can be used as a diagnostic of Weibel instability presence and evolution in the rear surface scale lengths of a solid density target. Numerical modelling shows that when a fast electron beam is injected into a decreasing density gradient on the target rear side, a magnetic instability is seeded with an evolution which is strongly dependent on the density scale length. This is manifested in the acceleration of a filamented proton beam, where the degree of filamentation is also found to be dependent on the target rear scale length. Furthermore, the energy dependent spatial distribution of the accelerated proton beam is shown to provide information on the instability evolution on the picosecond timescale over which the protons are accelerated. Experimentally, this is investigated by using a controlled prepulse to introduce a target rear scale length, which is varied by altering the time delay with respect to the main pulse, and similar trends are measured. This work is particularly pertinent to applications using laser pulse durations of tens of picoseconds, or where a micron level density scale length is present on the rear of a solid target, such as proton-driven fast ignition, as the resultant instability may affect the uniformity of fuel energy coupling. (paper)

  1. X-ray spectroscopic study of nonequilibrium laser produced plasma in porous targets of low average density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdonskiy, I.N.; Dimitrenko, V.V.; Fasakhov, I.K.; Gavrilov, V.V.; Goltsov, A.Y.; Kovalskii, N.G.; Mironov, B.N. [Science Research Center of Russian Federation Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research, Troitsk, Moscow Reg. (Russian Federation); Faenov, A.Y.; Magunov, A.I.; Pikuz, T.A.; Skobelev, I.Y. [Multicharged Ions Spectra Data Center, VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation)

    2006-06-15

    New experimental results on laser irradiation (I {<=} 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}, {lambda} = 1.053 {mu}m) of low-density fibrous agar are presented. X-ray spectrometers with spherically bent mica crystals were used for measuring with high spectral resolution the line spectra of multicharged ions. Detailed analysis of the measured spectra made it possible to determine the temperature of electrons and ions in hot plasma created in laser irradiated low-density samples in dependence on average material density and average intensity within a focal spot. Both the ion and electron temperatures are found to decrease by a factor 1.5 - 2 following a factor of about 3 as increase of the target average density (5 mg/cm{sup 3} and 15 mg/cm{sup 3}) for I 5*10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2}. In all cases the ion temperature exceeds the electron temperature by a factor of 2 - 3.

  2. Large area damage testing of optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheehan, L.; Kozlowski, M.; Stolz, C.

    1996-01-01

    The damage threshold specifications for the National Ignition Facility will include a mixture of standard small-area tests and new large-area tests. During our studies of laser damage and conditioning processes of various materials we have found that some damage morphologies are fairly small and this damage does not grow with further illumination. This type of damage might not be detrimental to the laser performance. We should therefore assume that some damage can be allowed on the optics, but decide on a maximum damage allowance of damage. A new specification of damage threshold termed open-quotes functional damage thresholdclose quotes was derived. Further correlation of damage size and type to system performance must be determined in order to use this measurement, but it is clear that it will be a large factor in the optics performance specifications. Large-area tests have verified that small-area testing is not always sufficient when the optic in question has defect-initiated damage. This was evident for example on sputtered polarizer and mirror coatings where the defect density was low enough that the features could be missed by standard small- area testing. For some materials, the scale-length at which damage non-uniformities occur will effect the comparison of small-area and large-area tests. An example of this was the sub-aperture tests on KD*P crystals on the Beamlet test station. The tests verified the large-area damage threshold to be similar to that found when testing a small-area. Implying that for this KD*P material, the dominate damage mechanism is of sufficiently small scale-length that small-area testing is capable of determining the threshold. The Beamlet test station experiments also demonstrated the use of on-line laser conditioning to increase the crystals damage threshold

  3. Synthesis, growth and characterization of o-phenylinediaminium benzilate: An SHG material with high laser damage threshold for NLO applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, M.; Chandramohan, A.

    2017-02-01

    An organic molecular charge transfer complex salt, o-phenylenediaminium benzilate was synthesized and single crystals grown by slow solvent evaporation solution growth technique in methanol at ambient temperature. The grown crystal was subjected to Single crystal XRD analysis to establish the molecular structure. The molecular structure was further confirmed by 1H and 13C NMR spectral studies. The formation of the charge transfer complex salt was confirmed by UV-VIS spectroscopic technique. To identify the optical transmittance window and lower wavelength cut-off, the crystal was subjected to UV-Vis-NIR transmission spectral studies. The presence of various functional groups in the salt crystal was confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopic technique. Photoluminescence study was carried out to explore its efficiency towards device fabrications. The TG and DTA thermal analyses were simultaneously carried out to establish the thermal stability of the crystal. The dielectric studies of the grown crystal were executed at different temperatures as a function of frequency to investigate its electrical properties. The SHG efficiency of the crystal was determined using the modified Kurtz and Perry powder technique and its value was found to be 1.98 times that of the KDP crystal. Laser damage threshold value was measured using Nd:YAG laser. The mechanical stability of the title crystal was established employing Vickers micro hardness tester.

  4. Primary damage in tungsten using the binary collision approximation, molecular dynamic simulations and the density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Backer, A; Sand, A; Ortiz, C J; Domain, C; Olsson, P; Berthod, E; Becquart, C S

    2016-01-01

    The damage produced by primary knock-on atoms (PKA) in W has been investigated from the threshold displacement energy (TDE) where it produces one self interstitial atom–vacancy pair to larger energies, up to 100 keV, where a large molten volume is formed. The TDE has been determined in different crystal directions using the Born–Oppenheimer density functional molecular dynamics (DFT-MD). A significant difference has been observed without and with the semi-core electrons. Classical MD has been used with two different empirical potentials characterized as ‘soft’ and ‘hard’ to obtain statistics on TDEs. Cascades of larger energy have been calculated, with these potentials, using a model that accounts for electronic losses (Sand et al 2013 Europhys. Lett. 103 46003). Two other sets of cascades have been produced using the binary collision approximation (BCA): a Monte Carlo BCA using SDTrimSP (Eckstein et al 2011 SDTrimSP: Version 5.00. Report IPP 12/8) (similar to SRIM www.srim.org) and MARLOWE (RSICC Home Page. (https://rsicc.ornl.gov/codes/psr/psr1/psr-137.html) (accessed May, 2014)). The comparison of these sets of cascades gave a recombination distance equal to 12 Å which is significantly larger from the one we reported in Hou et al (2010 J. Nucl. Mater. 403 89) because, here, we used bulk cascades rather than surface cascades which produce more defects (Stoller 2002 J. Nucl. Mater. 307 935, Nordlund et al 1999 Nature 398 49). Investigations on the defect clustering aspect showed that the difference between BCA and MD cascades is considerably reduced after the annealing of the cascade debris at 473 K using our Object Kinetic Monte Carlo model, LAKIMOCA (Domain et al 2004 J. Nucl. Mater. 335 121). (paper)

  5. Korea-China Joint R and D on High Energy Density Sciences using High Power Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Nam, S. M.; Park, S. K.; Rhee, Y. J.; Lim, C. H.

    2009-02-01

    As to the high energy pico-second Peta Watt laser technology for fast ignition, the design of front-end and pre/main amplifier were pursued and the OPCPA technology to increase the aspect ratio by reducing the pre-pulse were developed. Furthermore, the tiled-grating technology to replace a large grating were obtained. As to the fast electron generation and propagation, a solid target was used to generate MeV class electron with TW femto-second laser and a gas cluster was also used to generate MeV class electron with PW femto-second laser at SIOM

  6. Dynamic contrast enhanced CT measurement of blood flow during interstitial laser photocoagulation: comparison with an Arrhenius damage model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdie, T.J.; Lee, T.J.; Iizuka, M.; Sherar, M.D.

    2000-01-01

    One effect of heating during interstitial laser photocoagulation (ILP) is to directly destroy the tumour vasculature resulting in a loss of viable blood supply. Therefore, blood flow measured during and after treatment can be a useful indicator of tissue thermal damage. In this study, the effect of ILP treatment on rabbit thigh tumours was investigated by measuring blood flow changes using dynamic contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT). The CT measured changes in blood flow of treated tumour tissue were fitted to an Arrhenius model assuming first order rate kinetics. Our results show that changes in blood flow of tumour tissue distant from surrounding normal tissue are well described by an Arrhenius model. By contrast, the temperature profile of tumour tissue adjacent to normal tissue must be modified to account for heat dissipation by the latter. Finally, the Arrhenius parameters derived in the study are similar to those derived by heating tumour tissue to a lower temperature (<47 deg. C) than the current study. In conclusion, CT can be used to monitor blood flow changes during ILP and these measurements are related to the thermal damage predicted by the Arrhenius model. (author)

  7. Evaluation of a Low Energy, Low Density, Non-Ablative Fractional 1927 nm Wavelength Laser for Facial Skin Resurfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Jeremy A; Alabdulrazzaq, Hamad; Bae, Yoon-Soo Cindy; Geronemus, Roy G

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the safety, tolerability and efficacy of a low energy low density, non-ablative fractional 1,927-nm laser in the treatment of facial photodamage, melasma, and post inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Prospective non-randomized trial. Single center, private practice with a dedicated research department. Subjects with clinically diagnosed facial photodamage, melasma, or post inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Subjects received four to six treatments at 14-day intervals (+/- 3 days) with a low energy low density non-ablative fractional 1,927-nm laser (Solta Hayward, CA) with an energy level of 5 mJ, and density coverage of either 5%, 7.5%, or 10%, with a total of up to 8 passes. Blinded assessment of clinical photos for overall improvement at one and three months post final treatment. Investigator improvement scores, and subject pain and satisfaction scores for overall improvement were recorded as well. We enrolled 23 subjects, average age 45.0 years (range, 25-64 years), 22 with Fitzpatrick Skin Types I-IV and 1 with Type VI, with facial photodamage, melasma, or post inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Approximately 55% of subjects reported marked to very significant improvement at one and three months post final treatment. Blinded assessment of photography of 20 subjects revealed an average of moderate improvement at one-month follow up and mild to moderate improvement at three months. Average subject pain score was 3.4/10 during treatment. Favorable outcomes were demonstrated using the low energy low density, non-ablative fractional 1,927-nm laser in facial resurfacing for photodamage, melasma, and post inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Results were maintained at the 3-month follow up, as demonstrated by investigator and subject assessments, as well as blinded evaluations by three independent dermatologists utilizing photographs obtained from a standardized facial imaging device.

  8. Thermal model of laser-induced skin damage: computer program operator's manual. Final report, September 1976--April 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takata, A.N.

    1977-12-01

    A user-oriented description is given of a computer program for predicting temperature rises, irreversible damage, and degree of burns caused to skin by laser exposures. This report describes the parameters necessary to run the program and provides suggested values for the parameters. Input data are described in detail as well as the capabilities and limitations of the program. (Author)

  9. Histologic evaluation of skin damage after overlapping and nonoverlapping flashlamp pumped pulsed dye laser pulses: A study on normal human skin as a model for port wine stains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, P. H.; van der Horst, C. M.; van Gemert, M. J.; van der Wal, A. C.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In the treatment of port wine stains (PWS) with the flashlamp pumped pulsed dye laser (FPPDL), no consensus exists about overlapping of pulses. The advantage of overlapping pulses is homogeneous lightening of the PWS; the risk is redundant tissue damage. The aim of this

  10. Damage caused by a nanosecond UV laser on a heated copper surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henč-Bartolić, V., E-mail: visnja.henc@fer.hr [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, Unska 3, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Bončina, T. [University of Maribor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Jakovljević, S., E-mail: suzana.jakovljevic@fsb.hr [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Ivana Lučića 5, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Panjan, P. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Zupanič, F. [University of Maribor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • A Cu-plate was exposed to nanosecond UV laser with max. energy 1.1 J/cm{sup 2}. • Surface topography was studied on the cold and heated copper plate. • At room temperature, a crater formed, the melt was ejected from it. • Capillary waves formed in the vicinity of the crater at 360 °C. - Abstract: This work studied the effect of thin copper plate temperature on its surface morphology after irradiation using a pulsed nanosecond UV laser. The surface characteristics were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, focused ion beam and stylus profilometry. When a target was at room temperature, a crater and the radial flow of molten Cu from the crater was observed. When the thin target was warm (about 360 °C ± 20 °C), a crater was smaller, and quasi-semicircular waves with the periodicity of around 3 μm appeared in its vicinity. The origin of the waves is Marangoni effect, causing thermocapillary waves, which in same occasions had a structure of final states of chaos in Rayleigh–Bénard convection.

  11. Seeding magnetic fields for laser-driven flux compression in high-energy-density plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotchev, O V; Knauer, J P; Chang, P Y; Jang, N W; Shoup, M J; Meyerhofer, D D; Betti, R

    2009-04-01

    A compact, self-contained magnetic-seed-field generator (5 to 16 T) is the enabling technology for a novel laser-driven flux-compression scheme in laser-driven targets. A magnetized target is directly irradiated by a kilojoule or megajoule laser to compress the preseeded magnetic field to thousands of teslas. A fast (300 ns), 80 kA current pulse delivered by a portable pulsed-power system is discharged into a low-mass coil that surrounds the laser target. A >15 T target field has been demonstrated using a hot spot of a compressed target. This can lead to the ignition of massive shells imploded with low velocity-a way of reaching higher gains than is possible with conventional ICF.

  12. CO2 laser imaging heterodyne and phase contrast interferometer for density profile and fluctuation measurements in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.; Michael, C.; Akiyama, T.; Kawahata, K.; Ito, Y.; Vyacheslavov, L.N.; Sanin, A.L.; Okajima, S.

    2007-01-01

    A CO 2 laser heterodyne imaging interferometer (CO 2 HI) and a CO 2 laser phase contrast imaging interferometer (CO 2 PCI) were installed in LHD. The purpose of CO 2 HI is to measure electron density profile at high density (>1x10 20 m -3 ), where the existing far infrared laser (wavelength 118.9 μm) interferometer suffers from fringe jump due to the reduction of signal intensity caused by refraction. In the beginning of 10th LHD experimental campaign (2006-2007), sixty three three of CO 2 HI with 10 channels of YAG HI for vibration compensation, and in the later of 10th LHD experimental campaign. Eighty one channels CO 2 HI and 15 channels YAG HI became available. The purpose of CO 2 PCI is to measure turbulent fluctuation, which can contribute to the energy and particle transport. In order to get local fluctuation information, magnetic shear technique was applied with use of 48 (6 by 8) channel two dimensional detector. (author)

  13. Bulk and surface laser damage of silica by picosecond and nanosecond pulses at 1064 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Arlee V.; Do, Binh T.

    2008-01-01

    We measured bulk and surface dielectric breakdown thresholds of pure silica for 14 ps and 8 ns pulses of 1064 nm light. The thresholds are sharp and reproducible. For the 8 ns pulses the bulk threshold irradiance is 4.75 ± 0.25 kW/μm 2 . The threshold is approximately three times higher for 14 ps pulses. For 8 ns pulses the input surface damage threshold can be made equal to the bulk threshold by applying an alumina or silica surface polish

  14. TPX foams for inertial fusion laser experiments: foam preparation, machining, characterization, and discussion of density issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse, M.; Guillot, L.; Reneaume, B.; Fleury, E.; Hermerel, C.; Choux, A.; Jeannot, L.; Geoffray, I.; Faivre, A.; Breton, O.; Andre, J.; Collier, R.; Legaie, O.

    2011-01-01

    Low density foams (in this work, foam density refers to apparent density) are materials of interest for fusion experiments. Low density poly(4-methyl-1-pentene)(commercial name TPX) foams have been produced for 30 years. TPX foams have been shown to have densities as low as 3 mg.cm -3 , which is very close to air density (1.2 mg.cm -3 ). Around this density foams are very light and highly fragile. Their fabrication is thus a real technological challenge. However, shrinking always appears in ranges ranking from 25% to almost 200%. As a result, the apparent density of the final foam never matches the expected value given by the precursor solution concentration. Besides, even if the mold dimensions are precisely known, shrinkage is never linear, and foams have to be machined for precise density measurement. In our work we present a fabrication process for TPX foams and discuss machining and density measuring issues. Particularly, we have found that there are volume and weight limits for a determination of density within the range of 3% uncertainty. This raises the question whether density should rather be determined directly on millimeter-sized targets or should be performed on a bigger scale sample prepared from the same batch. (authors)

  15. Effect of Li and NH4 doping on the crystal perfection, second harmonic generation efficiency and laser damage threshold of potassium pentaborate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneshwaran, A. N.; Kalainathan, S.; Raja, C. Ramachandra

    2018-03-01

    Potassium pentaborate (KB5) is an excellent nonlinear optical material especially in the UV region. In this work, Li and NH4 doped KB5 crystals were grown using slow evaporation solution growth method. The incorporation of dopant has been confirmed and analysed by Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis and Raman spectroscopy. The crystalline perfection of pure and doped KB5 crystals was studied by High resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) analysis. Structural grain boundaries were observed in doped crystals. Second harmonic generation was confirmed for pure and doped crystals and output values revealed the enhancement of SHG efficiency in doped crystals. Resistance against laser damage was carried out using 1064 nm Nd-YAG laser of pulse width 10 ns. The laser damage threshold value is increased in Li doped crystal and decreased in NH4 doped crystal when compared to pure KB5 crystal.

  16. Crystal growth, structural, optical, thermal, mechanical, laser damage threshold and electrical properties of triphenylphosphine oxide 4-nitrophenol (TP4N) single crystals for nonlinear optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppasamy, P.; Senthil Pandian, Muthu; Ramasamy, P.; Verma, Sunil

    2018-05-01

    The optically good quality single crystals of triphenylphosphine oxide 4-nitrophenol (TP4N) with maximum dimension of 15 × 10 × 5 mm3 were grown by slow evaporation solution technique (SEST) at room temperature. The cell dimensions of the grown TP4N crystal were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction (SXRD) and the crystalline purity was confirmed and planes were indexed by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) analysis. Functional groups of TP4N crystal were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectral analysis. The optical transmittance of the grown crystal was determined by the UV-Vis NIR spectral analysis and it has good optical transparency in the entire visible region. The band tail (Urbach) energy of the grown crystal was analyzed and it appears to be minimum, which indicates that the TP4N has good crystallinity. The position of valence band (Ev) and conduction band (Ec) of the TP4N have been determined from the electron affinity energy (EA) and the ionization energy (EI) of its elements and using the optical band gap. The thermal behaviour of the grown crystal was investigated by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA). Vickers microhardness analysis was carried out to identify the mechanical stability of the grown crystal and their indentation size effect (ISE) was explained by the Meyer's law (ML), Hays-Kendall's (HK) approach, proportional specimen resistance (PSR) model, modified PSR model (MPSR), elastic/plastic deformation (EPD) model and indentation induced cracking (IIC) model. Chemical etching study was carried out to find the etch pit density (EPD) of the grown crystal. Laser damage threshold (LDT) value was measured by using Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). The dielectric permittivity (ε՛) and dielectric loss (tan δ) as a function of frequency was measured. The electronic polarizability (α) of the TP4N crystal was calculated. It is well matched to the value which was calculated from Clausius-Mossotti relation

  17. Early remote laser detection of vegetation damage caused by certain environmental stress factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelle, Emmett W.; Mcmurtrey, James E., III

    1989-01-01

    The fluorescence spectra of plants excited with a pulsed nitrogen laser beam emitting at 337 nm were found to be related to plant type, as well as with changes in the physiology of the plant as the result of various kinds of environmental stress. The plant types which were studied included herbaceous dicots, monocots, hardwoods, and conifers. These plant types could be identified on the basis of differences in either the number of fluorescent bands, or the relative intensity of the bands. The dicots and monocots had fluorescent maxima at 440, 685, and 740 nm. The monocots could be distinguished from the dicots by virtue of having a much higher 440 nm/685 nm ratio. Hardwoods and conifers had an additional fluorescence band at 525 nm, but healthy conifers did not have a band at 685 nm.

  18. Research on human skin laser damage thresholds. Final report, Nov 1971--Jun 1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockwell, R.J. Jr.; Goldman, L.

    1974-06-01

    The report gives the results of a two-year study to determine the lowest radiant exposure levels at which the first observable reactions occur on human skin exposed to electromagnetic radiations emitted by normal mode and Q-switched ruby, Q-switched neodymium-glass, carbon dioxide, argon and neodymium-YAG laser devices. The principal goal of the study was to establish the 50 percent probability dose for such minimal reactions observed one-hour post-exposure. Such minimal radiant exposure levels are defined, for the purpose of this report, as the fifty percent probability dose for minimal reactions, and are designated as MRD50 (Minimal Reaction Dose, 50% probability). (GRA)

  19. Control of quasi-monoenergetic electron beams from laser-plasma accelerators with adjustable shock density profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hai-En; Swanson, Kelly K.; Barber, Sam K.; Lehe, Remi; Mao, Hann-Shin; Mittelberger, Daniel E.; Steinke, Sven; Nakamura, Kei; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Schroeder, Carl; Esarey, Eric; Geddes, Cameron G. R.; Leemans, Wim

    2018-04-01

    The injection physics in a shock-induced density down-ramp injector was characterized, demonstrating precise control of a laser-plasma accelerator (LPA). Using a jet-blade assembly, experiments systematically varied the shock injector profile, including shock angle, shock position, up-ramp width, and acceleration length. Our work demonstrates that beam energy, energy spread, and pointing can be controlled by adjusting these parameters. As a result, an electron beam that was highly tunable from 25 to 300 MeV with 8% energy spread (ΔEFWHM/E), 1.5 mrad divergence, and 0.35 mrad pointing fluctuation was produced. Particle-in-cell simulation characterized how variation in the shock angle and up-ramp width impacted the injection process. This highly controllable LPA represents a suitable, compact electron beam source for LPA applications such as Thomson sources and free-electron lasers.

  20. The effect of fog on the probability density distribution of the ranging data of imaging laser radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenhua; Lai, JianCheng; Ghassemlooy, Zabih; Gu, Zhiyong; Yan, Wei; Wang, Chunyong; Li, Zhenhua

    2018-02-01

    This paper outlines theoretically investigations of the probability density distribution (PDD) of ranging data for the imaging laser radar (ILR) system operating at a wavelength of 905 nm under the fog condition. Based on the physical model of the reflected laser pulses from a standard Lambertian target, a theoretical approximate model of PDD of the ranging data is developed under different fog concentrations, which offer improved precision target ranging and imaging. An experimental test bed for the ILR system is developed and its performance is evaluated using a dedicated indoor atmospheric chamber under homogeneously controlled fog conditions. We show that the measured results are in good agreement with both the accurate and approximate models within a given margin of error of less than 1%.

  1. The effect of fog on the probability density distribution of the ranging data of imaging laser radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhua Song

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines theoretically investigations of the probability density distribution (PDD of ranging data for the imaging laser radar (ILR system operating at a wavelength of 905 nm under the fog condition. Based on the physical model of the reflected laser pulses from a standard Lambertian target, a theoretical approximate model of PDD of the ranging data is developed under different fog concentrations, which offer improved precision target ranging and imaging. An experimental test bed for the ILR system is developed and its performance is evaluated using a dedicated indoor atmospheric chamber under homogeneously controlled fog conditions. We show that the measured results are in good agreement with both the accurate and approximate models within a given margin of error of less than 1%.

  2. Pulsed x-ray imaging of high-density objects using a ten picosecond high-intensity laser driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusby, D. R.; Brenner, C. M.; Armstrong, C.; Wilson, L. A.; Clarke, R.; Alejo, A.; Ahmed, H.; Butler, N. M. H.; Haddock, D.; Higginson, A.; McClymont, A.; Mirfayzi, S. R.; Murphy, C.; Notley, M.; Oliver, P.; Allott, R.; Hernandez-Gomez, C.; Kar, S.; McKenna, P.; Neely, D.

    2016-10-01

    Point-like sources of X-rays that are pulsed (sub nanosecond), high energy (up to several MeV) and bright are very promising for industrial and security applications where imaging through large and dense objects is required. Highly penetrating X-rays can be produced by electrons that have been accelerated by a high intensity laser pulse incident onto a thin solid target. We have used a pulse length of 10ps to accelerate electrons to create a bright x-ray source. The bremsstrahlung temperature was measured for a laser intensity from 8.5-12×1018 W/cm2. These x-rays have sequentially been used to image high density materials using image plate and a pixelated scintillator system.

  3. Determination of plasma temperature and electron density in river sediment plasma using calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austria, Elmer S. Jr.; Lamorena-Lim, Rheo B.

    2015-01-01

    Calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (CF-LIBS) technique is an approach used to quantitatively measure elemental composition of samples without the use of standard reference materials (SRMs). Due to the unavailability of most SRMs for specific samples, the CF-LIBS approach is steadily becoming more prevalent. CF-LIBS also minimizes interferences from the sample matrix by accounting spectral line intensifies of different elements. The first part of the CF-LIBS algorithm is the calculation of plasma temperature and electron density of the sample while the second part deals with the self-absorption correction and quantitative elemental analysis. In this study, the precursor parameters for the algorithm - plasma temperature and electron density - were measured through the neutral atom and ion line emissions of Fe and Cu in the time window of 0.1 to 10 μs. Plasma from river sediment samples were produced by a 1064 nm nanosecond pulsed Nd:YAG laser at atmospheric pressure. The plasma temperature and electron density were calculated from the Boltzmann plot and Saha-Boltzmann equation methods, respectively. These precursor parameters can be used in calculating the time window wherein the plasma is optically thin at local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and for quantitative multi-elemental analysis. (author)

  4. Verification of surface contamination density standard using clearance automatic laser inspection system for objects from a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Michiya; Ogino, Haruyuki; Ichiji, Takeshi; Hattori, Takatoshi

    2008-01-01

    In the clearance level inspection in Japan, it is necessary to indicate that the activity level of the target object must be less than not only the clearance levels, but also the surface contamination density standards. The classification measurements for these two standards have been performed separately, and the GM survey meters based on beta-ray measurement have mainly been used for surface contamination density measurement so far. Recently the Clearance Automatic Laser Inspection System, named CLALIS, has been developed to estimate the low-level activity concentration. This system consists of 3-dimensional laser scanner for shape measurement and eight large NE102A plastic scintillation detectors for gamma-ray measurement, and it has been clarified that the CLALIS has adequate detection ability for clearance measurement of both metal scraps and concrete debris. In this study, we compared the surface contamination densities for a number of actual contaminated and non-contaminated objects generated inside from the radiation controlled area at the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power station by using the CLALIS and the GM survey meter. As a result, since CLALIS could detect the surface contamination as well as the GM survey meter for all measurement targets, it was revealed that CLALIS can rationally achieve clearance level inspection in a single radiation measurement. The practicality of CLALIS in view of the detection limit and processing time was discussed by comparison with the usual radiation monitors for surface contamination measurement. (author)

  5. Enhanced relativistic self-focusing of Hermite-cosh-Gaussian laser beam in plasma under density transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanda, Vikas; Kant, Niti

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced and early relativistic self-focusing of Hermite-cosh-Gaussian (HChG) beam in the plasmas under density transition has been investigated theoretically using Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin and paraxial ray approximation for mode indices m=0, 1, and 2. The variation of beam width parameter with normalized propagation distance for m=0, 1, and 2 is reported, and it is observed that strong self-focusing occurs as the HChG beam propagates deeper inside the nonlinear medium as spot size shrinks due to highly dense plasmas and the results are presented graphically. A comparative study between self-focusing of HChG beam in the presence and absence of plasmas density transition is reported. The dependency of beam width parameter on the normalized propagation distance for different values of decentered parameter “b” has also been presented graphically. For m=0 and 1, strong self-focusing is reported for b=1.8, and for m=2 and b=1.8, beam gets diffracted. The results obtained indicate the dependency of the self-focusing of the HChG beam on the selected values of decentered parameter. Moreover, proper selection of decentered parameter results strong self-focusing of HChG beam. Stronger self-focusing of laser beam is observed due to the presence of plasma density transition which might be very useful in the applications like the generation of inertial fusion energy driven by lasers, laser driven accelerators, etc

  6. Enhanced relativistic self-focusing of Hermite-cosh-Gaussian laser beam in plasma under density transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanda, Vikas; Kant, Niti, E-mail: nitikant@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara 144411, Punjab (India)

    2014-04-15

    Enhanced and early relativistic self-focusing of Hermite-cosh-Gaussian (HChG) beam in the plasmas under density transition has been investigated theoretically using Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin and paraxial ray approximation for mode indices m=0, 1, and 2. The variation of beam width parameter with normalized propagation distance for m=0, 1, and 2 is reported, and it is observed that strong self-focusing occurs as the HChG beam propagates deeper inside the nonlinear medium as spot size shrinks due to highly dense plasmas and the results are presented graphically. A comparative study between self-focusing of HChG beam in the presence and absence of plasmas density transition is reported. The dependency of beam width parameter on the normalized propagation distance for different values of decentered parameter “b” has also been presented graphically. For m=0 and 1, strong self-focusing is reported for b=1.8, and for m=2 and b=1.8, beam gets diffracted. The results obtained indicate the dependency of the self-focusing of the HChG beam on the selected values of decentered parameter. Moreover, proper selection of decentered parameter results strong self-focusing of HChG beam. Stronger self-focusing of laser beam is observed due to the presence of plasma density transition which might be very useful in the applications like the generation of inertial fusion energy driven by lasers, laser driven accelerators, etc.

  7. Measurements of water molecule density by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy in dielectric barrier discharges with gas-water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Kunihide; Nakamura, Toshihiro; Kawasaki, Mitsuo; Morita, Tatsuo; Umekawa, Toyofumi; Kawasaki, Masahiro

    2018-01-01

    We measured water molecule (H2O) density by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) for applications in dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) with a gas-water interface. First, the effects of water temperature and presence of gas flow were tested using a Petri dish filled with water and a gas injection nozzle. Second, the TDLAS system was applied to the measurements of H2O density in two types of DBDs; one was a normal (non-inverted) type with a dielectric-covered electrode above a water-filled counter electrode and the other was an inverted type with a water-suspending mesh electrode above a dielectric-covered counter electrode. The H2O density in the normal DBD was close to the density estimated from the saturated vapor pressure, whereas the density in the inverted DBD was about half of that in the former type. The difference is attributed to the upward gas flow in the latter type, that pushes the water molecules up towards the gas-water interface.

  8. X-ray spectral line shapes for the excimer-laser-produced high density plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magunov, A.; Faenov, A.; Skobelev, I.; Pikuz, T.; Batani, D.; Milani, M.; Conti, A.; Masini, A.; Costato, M.; Pozzi, A.; Turcu, E.; Allot, R.; Lisi, N.; Koenig, M.; Benuzzi, A.; Flora, F.; Letardi, T.; Palladino, L.; Reale, A.

    1997-01-01

    The time and space-integrated emission spectra measurements have been performed in plasma produced by 308 nm wavelength XeCl laser radiation (I L =(4-10)·10 12 W/cm 2 , τ=10 ns) and by 248 nm wavelength KrF laser pulse train radiation (I L =5·10 15 W/cm 2 , τ=7 ps, 16 pulses in train) on CF n plane target. The lines' shapes and intensities modeling of Lyman series and He-like ion resonance series of fluorine up to n=7 by fitting experimental data shows the considerable difference of plasma formation features for these two sets of the laser pulse parameters

  9. Developing Density of Laser-Cooled Neutral Atoms and Molecules in a Linear Magnetic Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez, Joe, III; Walstrom, Peter; di Rosa, Michael

    2013-05-01

    In this poster we show that neutral particle injection and accumulation using laser-induced spin flips may be used to form dense ensembles of ultracold magnetic particles, i.e., laser-cooled paramagnetic atoms and molecules. Particles are injected in a field-seeking state, are switched by optical pumping to a field-repelled state, and are stored in the minimum-B trap. The analogous process in high-energy charged-particle accumulator rings is charge-exchange injection using stripper foils. The trap is a linear array of sextupoles capped by solenoids. Particle-tracking calculations and design of our linear accumulator along with related experiments involving 7Li will be presented. We test these concepts first with atoms in preparation for later work with selected molecules. Finally, we present our preliminary results with CaH, our candidate molecule for laser cooling. This project is funded by the LDRD program of Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  10. Time-resolved x-ray spectra from laser-generated high-density plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andiel, U.; Eidmann, Klaus; Witte, Klaus-Juergen

    2001-04-01

    We focused frequency doubled ultra short laser pulses on solid C, F, Na and Al targets, K-shell emission was systematically investigated by time resolved spectroscopy using a sub-ps streak camera. A large number of laser shots can be accumulated when triggering the camera with an Auston switch system at very high temporal precision. The system provides an outstanding time resolution of 1.7ps accumulating thousands of laser shots. The time duration of the He-(alpha) K-shell resonance lines was observed in the range of (2-4)ps and shows a decrease with the atomic number. The experimental results are well reproduced by hydro code simulations post processed with an atomic kinetics code.

  11. Precise measurements of spatial density distributions of damages introduced into GaP by MeV-electron beam irradiations based on its optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, T.; Hashimoto, Y.; Nakanishi, Y.; Wada, T.

    1985-01-01

    GaP crystals were irradiated uniformly on their flat surfaces by 10 MeV-electrons. The 'below-gap' absorption coefficient Δαsub(b)(hν) and the normalized white-light optical density D/d in these samples increased linearly with a dose phi as Δαsub(b)(2.0) = 3.3 x 10 -16 phi and D/d = 1.42 x 10 -16 phi. The free electron density n in the conduction band estimated from the X 1 -> X 3 absorption band decreased with phi, and as the decrease in the free electron density Δn is equivalent to the density of introduced defects N, it could be expressed that N = Δn = Rsub(c)phi where the value of the carrier removal rate Rsub(c) was 5.8 cm -1 for the S-doped sample. These expressions lead to the basic relation that N is proportional to D/d as expressed in N = 4.1 x 10 16 D/d. Two-dimensional distributions of D/d were measured in the samples irradiated by collimated electron beams at 10 and 16 MeV by using a microdensitometer, and they were converted into the two-dimensional distributions of damage density according to the linear relation of N-D/d. Damages gradually spread laterally with increasing depth at first and then shrink. (author)

  12. Comparing the ISO-recommended and the cumulative data-reduction algorithms in S-on-1 laser damage test by a reverse approach method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorila, Alexandru; Stratan, Aurel; Nemes, George

    2018-01-01

    We compare the ISO-recommended (the standard) data-reduction algorithm used to determine the surface laser-induced damage threshold of optical materials by the S-on-1 test with two newly suggested algorithms, both named "cumulative" algorithms/methods, a regular one and a limit-case one, intended to perform in some respects better than the standard one. To avoid additional errors due to real experiments, a simulated test is performed, named the reverse approach. This approach simulates the real damage experiments, by generating artificial test-data of damaged and non-damaged sites, based on an assumed, known damage threshold fluence of the target and on a given probability distribution function to induce the damage. In this work, a database of 12 sets of test-data containing both damaged and non-damaged sites was generated by using four different reverse techniques and by assuming three specific damage probability distribution functions. The same value for the threshold fluence was assumed, and a Gaussian fluence distribution on each irradiated site was considered, as usual for the S-on-1 test. Each of the test-data was independently processed by the standard and by the two cumulative data-reduction algorithms, the resulting fitted probability distributions were compared with the initially assumed probability distribution functions, and the quantities used to compare these algorithms were determined. These quantities characterize the accuracy and the precision in determining the damage threshold and the goodness of fit of the damage probability curves. The results indicate that the accuracy in determining the absolute damage threshold is best for the ISO-recommended method, the precision is best for the limit-case of the cumulative method, and the goodness of fit estimator (adjusted R-squared) is almost the same for all three algorithms.

  13. Spatial distribution of ion energy related on electron density in a plasma channel generated in gas clusters by a femtosecond laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, S. M.; Han, J. M.; Cha, Y. H.; Lee, Y. W.; Rhee, Y. J.; Cha, H. K.

    2008-01-01

    Neutron generation through Coulomb explosion of deuterium contained gas clusters is known as one of the very effective methods to produce fusion neutrons using a table top terawatt laser. The energy of ions produced through Coulomb explosions is very important factor to generate neutrons efficiently. Until the ion energy reaches around∼MeV level, the D D fusion reaction probability increases exponentially. The understanding of laser beam propagation and laser energy deposition in clusters is very important to improve neutron yields. As the laser beam propagates through clusters medium, laser energy is absorbed in clusters by ionization of molecules consisting clusters. When the backing pressure of gas increases, the average size of clusters increases and which results in higher energy absorption and earlier termination of laser propagation. We first installed a Michelson interferometer to view laser beam traces in a cluster plume and to measure spatial electron density profiles of a plasma channel which was produced by a laser beam. And then we measured the energy of ions distributed along the plasma channel with a translating slit to select ions from narrow parts of a plasma channel. In our experiments, methane gas was used to produce gas clusters at a room temperature and the energy distribution of proton ions for different gas backing pressure were measured by the time of flight method using dual micro channel plates. By comparing the distribution of ion energies and electron densities, we could understand the condition for effective laser energy delivery to clusters

  14. Inducing Strong Density Modulation with Small Energy Dispersion in Particle Beams and the Harmonic Amplifier Free Electron Laser

    CERN Document Server

    McNeil, Brian W J; Robb, Gordon

    2005-01-01

    We present a possible method of inducing a periodic density modulation in a particle beam with little increase in the energy dispersion of the particles. The flow of particles in phase space does not obey Liouville's Theorem. The method relies upon the Kuramoto-like model of collective synchronism found in free electron generators of radiation, such as Cyclotron Resonance Masers and the Free Electron Laser. For the case of an FEL interaction, electrons initially begin to bunch and emit radiation energy with a correlated energy dispersion which is periodic with the FEL ponderomotive potential. The relative phase between potential and particles is then changed by approximately 180 degrees. The particles continue to bunch, however, there is now a correlated re-absorption of energy from the field. We show that, by repeating this relative phase change many times, a significant density modulation of the particles may be achieved with only relatively small energy dispersion. A similar method of repeated relative ele...

  15. Investigation of the Electron Acceleration by a High-Power Laser and a Density-Tapered Mixed-Gas Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinju; Phung, Vanessa L. J.; Kim, Minseok; Hur, Min-Sup; Suk, Hyyong

    2017-10-01

    Plasma-based accelerators can generate about 1000 times stronger acceleration field compared with RF-based conventional accelerators, which can be done by high power laser and plasma. There are many issues in this research and one of them is development of a good plasma source for higher electron beam energy. For this purpose, we are investigating a special type of plasma source, which is a density-tapered gas cell with a mixed-gas for easy injection. By this type of special gas cell, we expect higher electron beam energies with easy injection in the wakefield. In this poster, some experimental results for electron beam generation with the density-tapered mixed-gas cell are presented. In addition to the experimental results, CFD (Computational-Fluid-Dynamics) and PIC (Particle-In-Cell) simulation results are also presented for comparison studies.

  16. Light scattering from thermal density fluctuations using a CW-CO2-laser and heterodyne detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massig, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    The ion feature in the scattered light spectrum of an arc plasma was measured using heterodyne detection. A low-power CW-CO 2 -laser was employed. The weak signals were discriminated against noise by lock-in technique. (orig.) [de

  17. Airborne laser altimetry and multispectral imagery for modeling Golden-cheeked Warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia) density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven E. Sesnie; James M. Mueller; Sarah E. Lehnen; Scott M. Rowin; Jennifer L. Reidy; Frank R. Thompson

    2016-01-01

    Robust models of wildlife population size, spatial distribution, and habitat relationships are needed to more effectively monitor endangered species and prioritize habitat conservation efforts. Remotely sensed data such as airborne laser altimetry (LiDAR) and digital color infrared (CIR) aerial photography combined with well-designed field studies can help fill these...

  18. Non-Fourier thermal transport induced structural hierarchy and damage to collagen ultrastructure subjected to laser irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Nilamani; Narasimhan, Arunn; Dhar, Purbarun; Das, Sarit K

    2018-05-01

    Comprehending the mechanism of thermal transport through biological tissues is an important factor for optimal ablation of cancerous tissues and minimising collateral tissue damage. The present study reports detailed mapping of the rise in internal temperature within the tissue mimics due to NIR (1064 nm) laser irradiation, both for bare mimics and with gold nanostructures infused. Gold nanostructures such as mesoflowers and nanospheres have been synthesised and used as photothermal converters to enhance the temperature rise, resulting in achieving the desired degradation of malignant tissue in targeted region. Thermal history was observed experimentally and simulated considering non-Fourier dual phase lag (DPL) model incorporated Pennes bio-heat transfer equation using COMSOL Multiphysics software. The gross deviation in temperature i.e. rise from the classical Fourier model for bio-heat conduction suggests additional effects of temperature rise on the secondary structures and morphological and physico-chemical changes to the collagen ultrastructures building the tissue mass. The observed thermal denaturation in the collagen fibril morphologies have been explained based on the physico-chemical structure of collagen and its response to thermal radiation. The large shift in frequency of amides A and B is pronounced at a depth of maximum temperature rise compared with other positions in tissue phantom. Observations for change in band of amide I, amide II, and amide III are found to be responsible for damage to collagen ultra-structure. Variation in the concentration of gold nanostructures shows the potentiality of localised hyperthermia treatment subjected to NIR radiation through a proposed free radical mechanism.

  19. Time-dependent reduced density matrix functional theory applied to laser-driven, correlated two-electron dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brics, Martins; Kapoor, Varun; Bauer, Dieter [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Rostock, 18051 Rostock (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) with known and practicable exchange-correlation potentials does not capture highly correlated electron dynamics such as single-photon double ionization, autoionization, or nonsequential ionization. Time-dependent reduced density matrix functional theory (TDRDMFT) may remedy these problems. The key ingredients in TDRDMFT are the natural orbitals (NOs), i.e., the eigenfunctions of the one-body reduced density matrix (1-RDM), and the occupation numbers (OCs), i.e., the respective eigenvalues. The two-body reduced density matrix (2-RDM) is then expanded in NOs, and equations of motion for the NOs can be derived. If the expansion coefficients of the 2-RDM were known exactly, the problem at hand would be solved. In practice, approximations have to be made. We study the prospects of TDRDMFT following a top-down approach. We solve the exact two-electron time-dependent Schroedinger equation for a model Helium atom in intense laser fields in order to study highly correlated phenomena such as the population of autoionizing states or single-photon double ionization. From the exact wave function we calculate the exact NOs, OCs, the exact expansion coefficients of the 2-RDM, and the exact potentials in the equations of motion. In that way we can identify how many NOs and which level of approximations are necessary to capture such phenomena.

  20. CO2 laser interferometer for temporally and spatially resolved electron density measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannon, P. J.; Gerber, R. A.; Gerardo, J. B.

    1982-09-01

    A 10.6-μm Mach-Zehnder interferometer has been constructed to make temporally and spatially resolved measurements of electron densities in plasmas. The device uses a pyroelectric vidicon camera and video memory to record and display the two-dimensional fringe pattern and a Pockels cell to limit the pulse width of the 10.6-μm radiation. A temporal resolution of 14 ns has been demonstrated. The relative sensitivity of the device for electron density measurements is 2×1015 cm-2 (the line integral of the line-of-sight length and electron density), which corresponds to 0.1 fringe shift.

  1. CO2 laser interferometer for temporally and spatially resolved electron density measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brannon, P.J.; Gerber, R.A.; Gerardo, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    A 10.6-μm Mach--Zehnder interferometer has been constructed to make temporally and spatially resolved measurements of electron densities in plasmas. The device uses a pyroelectric vidicon camera and video memory to record and display the two-dimensional fringe pattern and a Pockels cell to limit the pulse width of the 10.6-μm radiation. A temporal resolution of 14 ns has been demonstrated. The relative sensitivity of the device for electron density measurements is 2 x 10 15 cm -2 (the line integral of the line-of-sight length and electron density), which corresponds to 0.1 fringe shift

  2. Preparation of high laser-induced damage threshold Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Cheng, E-mail: xucheng@cumt.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Yi, Peng; Fan, Heliang; Qi, Jianwei; Yang, Shuai; Qiang, Yinghuai; Liu, Jiongtian [School of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Li, Dawei [Key Laboratory of High Power Laser Materials, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2014-08-01

    High laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} films were prepared by the sol–gel method using TaCl{sub 5} as a new precursor. The optical properties, surface morphologies, chemical composition, absorption and LIDT of the films were investigated. The results showed that the transparent and homogenous Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} films had small surface roughness, low absorption and high LIDT even with large number of layers. The maximum LIDT at 1064 nm and 12 ns of the films was 24.8 J/cm{sup 2}. The ion chromatograph and Fourier transform infrared spectrum were used to reveal the functions of the addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the sol formation. It was shown that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} had two important functions, which were the decrease of Cl element content and the rapid generation of tantalum oxide. The high LIDT achieved was mainly due to the nearly free of defects in the films.

  3. Enhanced THz radiation generation by photo-mixing of tophat lasers in rippled density plasma with a planar magnetostatic wiggler and s-parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi-Varaki, M.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the effects of planar magnetostatic wiggler and s-parameter on the terahertz (THz) radiation generation through rippled plasma have been investigated. Efficient THz radiation generation by photo-mixing of tophat lasers for rippled density plasma in the presence of the wiggler field has been presented. Fundamental equations for the analysis of the non-linear current density and THz radiation generation by wiggler magnetostatic field have been derived. It is shown that for the higher order of the tophat lasers, the values of THz amplitude are greater. In fact, the higher order of the tophat lasers has a sharp gradient in the intensity of lasers, which leads to a stronger nonlinear ponderomotive force and, consequently, a stronger current density. In addition, it is seen that by increasing s-parameter, the normalized transverse profile becomes more focused near the axis of y. Furthermore, it is observed that the normalized laser efficiency has a decreasing trend with increasing normalized THz frequency for different values of the wiggler field. Also, it is shown that by employing a greater order of the tophat lasers and a stronger wiggler field, the efficiency of order of 30% can be achieved. Moreover, it is found that we can control focus and intensity of THz radiation emitted in rippled plasma by choosing the appropriate order of the tophat lasers and tuning of the wiggler field.

  4. Applications of low-density foams for x-ray source studies and laser beam smoothing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Limpouch, J.; Renner, Oldřich; Borisenko, N.G.; Klír, D.; Kmetík, Viliam; Krouský, Eduard; Liska, R.; Mašek, Karel; Nazarov, W.; Ullschmied, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 112, 042056 (2008), s. 1-4 ISSN 1742-6588. [The Fifth International Conference on Inertial Fusion Sciences and Applications (IFSA2007). Kobe, 09.09.2007-14.09.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528; GA ČR GA202/06/0801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : plasma * x-ray generation * energy transport in plasma * bremsstrahlung * laser-light transmission through inhomogeneous plasma * laser-propagation in undercritical plasma Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://www.iop.org/EJ/article/1742-6596/112/4/042056/jpconf8_112_042056.pdf

  5. Low-density hydrocarbon foams for laser fusion targets: Progress report, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haendler, B.L.; Buckley, S.R.; Chen, C.

    1988-06-01

    This report describes progress made in the development of direct-drive hydrocarbon foam targets for laser inertial confinement fusion during 1987. The foam materials are polystyrene, resorcinol-formaldehyde, carbonized resorcinol-formaldehyde, and cellulose acetate. The processes for making the foams, their properties, characterization techniques, and the relationship of their properties to target specifications are presented. Progress in the creation and testing of prototype targets is also described

  6. High density ultrashort relativistic positron beam generation by laser-plasma interaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gu, Yanjun; Klimo, Ondřej; Weber, Stefan A.; Korn, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 11 (2016), 1-7, č. článku 113023. ISSN 1367-2630 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : radation reaction effect * pair creation * laser-plasma interaction Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.786, year: 2016

  7. Low-density hydrocarbon foams for laser fusion targets: Progress report, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.; Cook, R.C.; Haendler, B.L.; Hair, L.M.; Kong, F.M.; Letts, S.A.

    1987-06-01

    We describe progress made during 1986 in the development of direct-drive hydrocarbon foam targets for laser fusion. The foam materials are polystyrene and resorcinolformaldehyde. The processes for making the foams, their properties, characterization techniques, and the relationships of their properties to target specifications are presented. In the final section, we discuss statistical experimental design techniques that are being used to optimize the foams. 12 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Laser radiation short pulse absorption in a high-density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brantov, A.V.; Bychenkov, V.Yu.; Tikhonchuk, V.T.

    1998-01-01

    Dependences of the absorption coefficients for s and p polarized electromagnetic waves (laser radiation) in a semi-bound plasma on the temperature and incidence angle are found for an arbitrary ratio of the skin-layer depth to the electron free path length t. The dependences obtained describe transition from the normal skin effect to abnormal one and permit quantitatively to determine the absorption coefficients in the intermediate range of the parameter t, characteristic for the majority of modern experiments

  9. Practical laser safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winburn, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    This book includes discussions of the following topics: characteristics of lasers; eye components; skin damage thresholds; classification of lasers by ANSI Z136.1; selecting laser-protective eyewear; hazards associated with lasers; and, an index

  10. Influence of resonator length on catastrophic optical damage in high-power AlGaInP broad-area lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou Sanayeh, Marwan

    2017-05-01

    The increasing importance of extracting high optical power out of semiconductor lasers motivated several studies in catastrophic optical damage (COD) level improvement. In this study, the influence of the resonator length in high-power broad-area (BA) AlGaInP lasers on COD is presented. For the analyses, several 638 nm AlGaInP 60 μm BA lasers from the same wafer were used. Resonator lengths of 900, 1200, 1500, and 1800 μm were compared. In order to independently examine the effect of the resonator length on the maximum power reached by the lasers before COD (PCOD), the lasers used are uncoated and unmounted, and PCOD under pulsed mode was determined. It was found that higher output powers and eventually higher PCOD can be achieved using longer resonators; however, it was also found that this is mainly useful when working at high output powers far away from the laser threshold, since the threshold current and slope efficiency worsen when the resonator length increases.

  11. Evaluation of Over-The-Row Harvester Damage in a Super-High-Density Olive Orchard Using On-Board Sensing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Pérez-Ruiz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available New super-high-density (SHD olive orchards designed for mechanical harvesting using over-the-row harvesters are becoming increasingly common around the world. Some studies regarding olive SHD harvesting have focused on the effective removal of the olive fruits; however, the energy applied to the canopy by the harvesting machine that can result in fruit damage, structural damage or extra stress on the trees has been little studied. Using conventional analyses, this study investigates the effects of different nominal speeds and beating frequencies on the removal efficiency and the potential for fruit damage, and it uses remote sensing to determine changes in the plant structures of two varieties of olive trees (‘Manzanilla Cacereña’ and ‘Manzanilla de Sevilla’ planted in SHD orchards harvested by an over-the-row harvester. ‘Manzanilla de Sevilla’ fruit was the least tolerant to damage, and for this variety, harvesting at the highest nominal speed led to the greatest percentage of fruits with cuts. Different vibration patterns were applied to the olive trees and were evaluated using triaxial accelerometers. The use of two light detection and ranging (LiDAR sensing devices allowed us to evaluate structural changes in the studied olive trees. Before- and after-harvest measurements revealed significant differences in the LiDAR data analysis, particularly at the highest nominal speed. The results of this work show that the operating conditions of the harvester are key to minimising fruit damage and that a rapid estimate of the damage produced by an over-the-row harvester with contactless sensing could provide useful information for automatically adjusting the machine parameters in individual olive groves in the future.

  12. In-vivo optical imaging of hsp70 expression to assess collateral tissue damage associated with infrared laser ablation of skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmink, Gerald J.; Opalenik, Susan R.; Beckham, Joshua T.; Mackanos, Mark A.; Nanney, Lillian B.; Contag, Christopher H.; Davidson, Jeffrey M.; Jansen, E. Duco

    2013-01-01

    Laser surgical ablation is achieved by selecting laser parameters that remove confined volumes of target tissue and cause minimal collateral damage. Previous studies have measured the effects of wavelength on ablation, but neglected to measure the cellular impact of ablation on cells outside the lethal zone. In this study, we use optical imaging in addition to conventional assessment techniques to evaluate lethal and sublethal collateral damage after ablative surgery with a free-electron laser (FEL). Heat shock protein (HSP) expression is used as a sensitive quantitative marker of sublethal damage in a transgenic mouse strain, with the hsp70 promoter driving luciferase and green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression (hsp70A1-L2G). To examine the wavelength dependence in the mid-IR, laser surgery is conducted on the hsp70A1-L2G mouse using wavelengths targeting water (OH stretch mode, 2.94 μm), protein (amide-II band, 6.45 μm), and both water and protein (amide-I band, 6.10 μm). For all wavelengths tested, the magnitude of hsp70 expression is dose-dependent and maximal 5 to 12 h after surgery. Tissues treated at 6.45 μm have approximately 4× higher hsp70 expression than 6.10 μm. Histology shows that under comparable fluences, tissue injury at the 2.94-μm wavelength was 2× and 3× deeper than 6.45 and 6.10 μm, respectively. The 6.10-μm wavelength generates the least amount of epidermal hyperplasia. Taken together, this data suggests that the 6.10-μm wavelength is a superior wavelength for laser ablation of skin. PMID:19021444

  13. Generation of high-energy-density ion bunches by ultraintense laser-cone-target interaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yang, X.H.; Yu, W.; Xu, H.; Zhuo, H.B.; Ma, Y.Y.; Zou, D.B.; Yu, T.P.; Ge, Z.Y.; Yin, Y.; Shao, F.Q.; Borghesi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 6 (2014), "0631053-1"-"0631053-7" ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0061; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0279 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0061; LaserZdroj (OP VK 3)(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0279 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : temporal contrast * proton-beams * driven * acceleration * enhancement Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.142, year: 2014

  14. Chemical Etching, AFM, Laser Damage Threshold, and Nonlinear Optical Studies of Potential Nonlinear Optical Crystal: Bis (L-Glutamine Potassium Nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redrothu Hanumantharao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel semiorganic nonlinear optical crystal bis (L-glutamine potassium nitrate (BGPN grown by slow evaporation technique at ambient temperature. The grown crystal surface has been analyzed by chemical etching and atomic force microscopy (AFM studies. Amplitude parameters like area roughness, roughness average, valley height, valley depth, peak height, and peak valley height were measured successfully from AFM studies. Etching studies were carried out by various solvents like water, methanol and ethanol. The etching study indicates the occurrence of different types of etch pit patterns like striations and steplike pattern. The laser damage threshold energy has been measured by irradiating laser beam using a Q-switched Nd: YAG laser (1064 nm. Second harmonic generation (SHG studies have been performed by famous Kurtz powder technique with reference to standard potassium dihydrogen phosphate single crystals (KDP. It is found from this technique that SHG efficiency of BGPN is in comparison to that of standard KDP crystals.

  15. Distribution Analysis of the Local Critical Temperature and Current Density in YBCO Coated Conductors using Low-temperature Scanning Laser and Hall Probe Microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. K.; Cho, B. R.; Park, H. Y.; Ri, H. C.

    2011-01-01

    Distribution of the local critical temperature and current density in YBCO coated conductors were analyzed using Low-temperature Scanning Laser and Hall Probe Microscopy (LTSLHPM). We prepared YBCO coated conductors of various bridge types to study the spatial distribution of the critical temperature and the current density in single and multi bridges. LTSLHPM system was modified for detailed linescan or two-dimensional scan both scanning laser and scanning Hall probe method simultaneously. We analyzed the local critical temperature of single and multi bridges from series of several linescans of scanning laser microscopy. We also investigated local current density and hysteresis curve of single bridge from experimental results of scanning Hall probe microscopy.

  16. High energy density plasma physics using high intensity lasers: past and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) research in the US is in a dynamic upswing based on the construction of the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The US Congress has appropriated more than two-thirds of the funds necessary to build NIF. The NIF laser building shell is complete, the concrete structure for the target area is rising above ground level, and contracts for producing the laser hardware are rapidly going into place. The entire facility will be complete by the end of 2003 with eight beams becoming operational at the end of 2001 to begin experiments. All external reviews have recommended that the DOE encourage international collaborations on NIF and the DOE has directed the Project Team to design the facility so that is possible. The DOE has begun expanding several bilateral agreements on fusion energy to include inertial fusion energy (IFE). The DOE has also proposed to the International Energy Agency that its fusion energy activities include IFE. This paper will describe how NIF and the ICF Program intend to implement these changes and outlines some of the proposed experiments

  17. a Comparison of Tree Segmentation Methods Using Very High Density Airborne Laser Scanner Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirotti, F.; Kobal, M.; Roussel, J. R.

    2017-09-01

    Developments of LiDAR technology are decreasing the unit cost per single point (e.g. single-photo counting). This brings to the possibility of future LiDAR datasets having very dense point clouds. In this work, we process a very dense point cloud ( 200 points per square meter), using three different methods for segmenting single trees and extracting tree positions and other metrics of interest in forestry, such as tree height distribution and canopy area distribution. The three algorithms are tested at decreasing densities, up to a lowest density of 5 point per square meter. Accuracy assessment is done using Kappa, recall, precision and F-Score metrics comparing results with tree positions from groundtruth measurements in six ground plots where tree positions and heights were surveyed manually. Results show that one method provides better Kappa and recall accuracy results for all cases, and that different point densities, in the range used in this study, do not affect accuracy significantly. Processing time is also considered; the method with better accuracy is several times slower than the other two methods and increases exponentially with point density. Best performer gave Kappa = 0.7. The implications of metrics for determining the accuracy of results of point positions' detection is reported. Motives for the different performances of the three methods is discussed and further research direction is proposed.

  18. Combined radiation damage, annealing, and ageing studies of InGaAsP /InP 1310 nm lasers for the CMS tracker optical links

    CERN Document Server

    Gill, K; Troska, Jan K; Vasey, F

    2002-01-01

    A summary is presented of the combined effects of radiation damage, accelerated annealing and accelerated ageing in 1310 nm InGaAsP/InP multi-quantum-well lasers, the type chosen for use in the CMS Tracker optical links. The radiation damage effects are compared for a variety of radiation sources: /sup 60/Co-gamma, 0.8 MeV (average energy) neutrons, 20 MeV (average energy) neutrons and 300 MeV/c pions that represent important parts of the spectrum of particles that will be encountered in the CMS Tracker. The relative damage factors of the various sources are calculated by comparing the laser threshold current increase due to radiation damage giving approximately=0 : 0.12 : 0.53 : 1 for /sup 60/Co-gamma, approximately =0.8 MeV neutrons, approximately=20 MeV neutrons with respect to 300 MeV/c pions. The effects of bias current and temperature on the annealing were measured and, in all cases, the annealing is proportional to log(annealing time). A bias current of 60 mA increases the annealing, in terms of the ti...

  19. Study of two examples of non linear interaction of a laser wave with matter: laser-induced damage of dielectrics and non linear optical properties of organometallic molecules in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudry, Jean-Baptiste

    2000-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of two mechanisms of non linear interaction of a laser wave with matter. More particularly, it reports the experimental investigation of non linear optical properties of organometallic molecules in solution, as well as the damage of perfect silica under laser irradiation by using simulation codes. As far as optical properties are concerned, the author highlights the influence of the electronic configuration of the metal present in the organometallic compound, and the influence of the ligand on the second-order non-linear response. As far as the simulation is concerned, some experimental results have been reproduced. This work can be useful for the investigation of the extrinsic damage of imperfect materials, and for the design of experiments of transient measurements of excited silica [fr

  20. Nailfold capillaroscopy and blood flow laser-doppler analysis of the microvascular damage in systemic sclerosis: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pizzorni

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Systemic sclerosis (SSc is characterized by altered microvascular structure and function. Nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC is the tool to evaluate capillary morphological structure and laser-Doppler Blood flowmetry (LDF can be used to estimate cutaneous blood flow of microvessels. The aim of this study was to investigate possible relationships between capillary morphology and blood flow in SSc. Methods: 27 SSc patients and 12 healthy subjects were enrolled. SSc microvascular involvement, as evaluated by NVC, was classified in three different patterns (“Early”, “Active”, “Late”. LDF analysis was performed at the II, III, IV, V hand fingers in both hands and both at cutaneous temperature and at 36°C. Statistical evaluation was carried out by non-parametric procedures. Results: Blood flow was found significantly lower in SSc patients when compared with healthy subjects (p<0.05. The heating of the probe to 36°C induced a significant increase in peripheral blood flow in all subjects compared to baseline (p <0.05, however, the amount of variation was significantly lower in patients with SSc, compared with healthy controls (p <0.05. The SSc patients with NVC “Late” pattern, showed lower values of peripheral blood flow than patients with NVC “Active” or “Early” patterns (p<0.05. Moreover, a negative correlation between the tissue perfusion score and the progression of the SSc microangiopathy was observed, as well as between the tissue perfusion and the duration of the Raynaud’s phenomenon (p <0.03. Conclusions: LDF can be employed to evaluate blood perfusion in the microvascular circulation in SSc patients. The blood flow changes observed with the LDF seem to correlate with the severity of microvascular damage in SSc as detected by NVC.