WorldWideScience

Sample records for laser cutting machine

  1. LASER CUTTING MACHINES FOR 3-D THIN SHEET PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav RADOVANOVIC

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Laser cutting machines are used for precise contour cutting thin sheet. In industrial application nowadays various types and construction of laser cutting machines can be met. For contour cutting 3-D thin sheet parts laser cutting machines with rotation movements and laser robots are used. Laser generates the light beam, that presents a tool in working process. Application of laser cutting machines made possible good quality of products, flexibility of production and enlargement of economy

  2. High speed laser cutting machine. Kosoku reza kakoki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinno, N. (Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. Ltd., Kadoma, Osaka (Japan))

    1993-11-01

    The carbon dioxide gas laser cutting machine is being used widely for from cutting soft steel and stainless steel, etc. to intermetallic welding and in the field of cutting in particular, concerning sheet cutting, it has been changing the existing monopoly of the turret punch press, and as for medium and thick plate cutting, that of the gas plasma fusing device. This article is the general description of high speed laser cutting machine. Concerning the laser cutting (sheet cutting in particular), as the essential items for securing severe cutting accuracy and, at the same time, improving the cutting speed, the following matters are picked up for respective explanation; improvement of stationary machine accuracy, improvement of dynamic machine accuracy, improvement of quality of laser beam as well as optimization of cutting conditions, and shortening of piercing time. Also explanation is given to the respective items, namely speeding-up of medium and thick plate cutting, and reduction of load onto the operator by improved operation. Finally, feeding and removing of a sheet only, and feeding and removing with a pallet are mentioned as the efforts for automation and energy saving. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Laser beam machining of polycrystalline diamond for cutting tool manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyszyński, Dominik; Ostrowski, Robert; Zwolak, Marek; Bryk, Witold

    2017-10-01

    The paper concerns application of DPSS Nd: YAG 532nm pulse laser source for machining of polycrystalline WC based diamond inserts (PCD). The goal of the research was to determine optimal laser cutting parameters for cutting tool shaping. Basic criteria to reach the goal was cutting edge quality (minimalization of finishing operations), material removal rate (time and cost efficiency), choice of laser beam characteristics (polarization, power, focused beam diameter). The research was planned and realised and analysed according to design of experiment rules (DOE). The analysis of the cutting edge was prepared with use of Alicona Infinite Focus measurement system.

  4. Cutting and machining energetic materials with a femtosecond laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeske, Frank; Benterou, Jerry; Lee, Ronald; Roos, Edward [Energetic Materials Center, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P. O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2003-04-01

    A femtosecond (fs) laser has been used as a tool for solving many problems involving access, machining, disassembly, inspection and avoidance of undesirable hazardous waste streams in systems containing energetic materials. Because of the unique properties of the interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with matter, the femtosecond laser can be used to safely cut these energetic materials in a precise manner without creating an unacceptable waste stream. Many types of secondary high explosives (HE) and propellants have been cut with the laser for a variety of applications ranging from disassembly of aging conventional weapons (demilitarization), inspection of energetic components of aging systems to creating unique shapes of HE for purposes of initiation and detonation physics studies. Hundreds of samples of energetic materials have been cut with the fs laser without ignition and, in most cases, without changing the surface morphology of the cut surfaces. The laser has also been useful in cutting nonenergetic components in close proximity to energetic materials. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Researches Regarding The Circular Interpolation Algorithms At CNC Laser Cutting Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tîrnovean, Mircea Sorin

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents an integrated simulation approach for studying the circular interpolation regime of CNC laser cutting machines. The circular interpolation algorithm is studied, taking into consideration the numerical character of the system. A simulation diagram, which is able to generate the kinematic inputs for the feed drives of the CNC laser cutting machine is also presented.

  6. Combustion-assisted laser cutting of a difficult-to-machine superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molian, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    In laser cutting, the largest single application of lasers in manufacturing, the assist gas plays an important role in affecting the cutting performance. The assist gas is usually oxygen or an inert gas. In this paper acetylene and oxygen was employed to create combustion reactions during CO 2 laser cutting that enabled an improvement in the cutting speed, and cut quality of a difficult-to-machine superalloy. A comparison with laser cutting of a plain carbon steel under identical conditions was also made to determine the usefulness of combustion energy. Results indicate that both cutting speed and quality are enhanced by the reduction in the viscosity of slag formed during cutting (which assisted in ejection of the slag through the bottom of the kerf) due to the heat released by the acetylene burning inside the kerf. Correlations of experimental data with a theoretical model provided the influence of combustion power and gas-flow power on the cutting phenomena

  7. Application of CO2 laser cutting machine to shipbuilding; Zosen no setsudan eno CO2 laser no tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Y. [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    Carbon dioxide laser has been applied to cutting works in shipbuilding. As NC cutter was obsolete, CO2 laser cutting machine with a rated output 3 kW was introduced. According to the specifications of the machinable plate, the maximum thickness is 19 mm, and effective width and length are 5.4 m and 29.1 m, respectively. As the cutting width is wide and the running distance of laser beam is long, the error of light axis is expanded only by a small error of irradiation angle, which results in the inconvenience. Stable operation was realized by improving the fixation of reflecting mirror. Right angle cutting section with a cutting curve below 0.5 mm was obtained, and cutting time was reduced by the one-line cutting by which both sections can be available with a single cutting line. For the cutting of thin plate with a thickness less than 10 mm, strain was not formed, and remedy was not required. Block strain was remarkably reduced during the assembly process. Maintenance-free operation without monitoring can be performed for a long time. This machine is operated at night and lunch time, resulting in the reduced processes. The working environment is appropriate without noise and dust. Facility cost and maintenance cost were also reduced. Lower cutting speed is a weak point, when compared with the plasma cutting machine. The present machine is not applied to aluminum plates with high surface reflectivity. 13 figs.

  8. Fast and intuitive programming of adaptive laser cutting of lace enabled by machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaamonde, Iago; Souto-López, Álvaro; García-Díaz, Antón

    2015-07-01

    A machine vision system has been developed, validated, and integrated in a commercial laser robot cell. It permits an offline graphical programming of laser cutting of lace. The user interface allows loading CAD designs and aligning them with images of lace pieces. Different thread widths are discriminated to generate proper cutting program templates. During online operation, the system aligns CAD models of pieces and lace images, pre-checks quality of lace cuts and adapts laser parameters to thread widths. For pieces detected with the required quality, the program template is adjusted by transforming the coordinates of every trajectory point. A low-cost lace feeding system was also developed for demonstration of full process automation.

  9. Prediction of laser cutting heat affected zone by extreme learning machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anicic, Obrad; Jović, Srđan; Skrijelj, Hivzo; Nedić, Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    Heat affected zone (HAZ) of the laser cutting process may be developed based on combination of different factors. In this investigation the HAZ forecasting, based on the different laser cutting parameters, was analyzed. The main goal was to predict the HAZ according to three inputs. The purpose of this research was to develop and apply the Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) to predict the HAZ. The ELM results were compared with genetic programming (GP) and artificial neural network (ANN). The reliability of the computational models were accessed based on simulation results and by using several statistical indicators. Based upon simulation results, it was demonstrated that ELM can be utilized effectively in applications of HAZ forecasting.

  10. Laser Cutting of Different Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir ÇAVDAR

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper; in general potential developments and trends of a particular machining field by extensively evaluating present studies of laser beam machining have been discussed. As it is indicated below, technical literatures have been subsumed under five major headlines: Experimental studies, reviews, optimization researches of the cutting parameters, theoretical modelling studies of laser beam cutting and academic studies relating to laser cutting

  11. Analysis of the Influence of the Use of Cutting Fluid in Hybrid Processes of Machining and Laser Metal Deposition (LMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Cortina

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid manufacturing processes that combine additive and machining operations are gaining relevance in modern industry thanks to the capability of building complex parts with minimal material and, many times, with process time reduction. Besides, as the additive and subtractive operations are carried out in the same machine, without moving the part, dead times are reduced and higher accuracies are achieved. However, it is not clear whether the direct material deposition after the machining operation is possible or intermediate cleaning stages are required because of the possible presence of residual cutting fluids. Therefore, different Laser Metal Deposition (LMD tests are performed on a part impregnated with cutting fluid, both directly and after the removal of the coolant by techniques such as laser vaporizing and air blasting. The present work studies the influence of the cutting fluid in the LMD process and the quality of the resulting part. Resulting porosity is evaluated and it is concluded that if the part surface is not properly clean after the machining operation, deficient clad quality can be obtained in the subsequent laser additive operation.

  12. Optimization and design of a laser-cutting machine using delta robot

    OpenAIRE

    Moharana, B.; Gupta, Rakesh; Kushwaha, Bashishth Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Industrial high speed laser operations the use of delta parallel robots potentially offers many benefits due to their structural stiffness and limited moving masses. This paper deals with a particular Delta, developed for high speed laser cutting. Parallel delta robot has numerous advantages in comparison with serial robots Higher stiffness and connected with that a lower mass of links the possibility of transporting heavier loads, and higher accuracy. The main drawback is however a smaller w...

  13. Multibeam Fibre Laser Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    The appearance of the high power high brilliance fibre laser has opened for new possibilities in laser materials processing. In laser cutting this laser has demonstrated high cutting performance compared to the dominating cutting laser, the CO2-laser. However, quality problems in fibre......-laser cutting have until now limited its application in metal cutting. In this paper the first results of proof-of-principle studies applying a new approach (patent pending) for laser cutting with high brightness short wavelength lasers will be presented. In the approach, multi beam patterns are applied...... to control the melt flow out of the cut kerf resulting in improved cut quality in metal cutting. The beam patterns in this study are created by splitting up beams from 2 single mode fibre lasers and combining these beams into a pattern in the cut kerf. The results are obtained with a total of 550 W of single...

  14. Multibeam fiber laser cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Hansen, Klaus Schütt; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    2009-01-01

    The appearance of the high power high brilliance fiber laser has opened for new possibilities in laser materials processing. In laser cutting this laser has demonstrated high cutting performance compared to the dominating Cutting laser, the CO2 laser. However, quality problems in fiber......-laser cutting have until now limited its application to metal cutting. In this paper the first results of proof-of-principle Studies applying a new approach (patent pending) for laser cutting with high brightness and short wavelength lasers will be presented. In the approach, multibeam patterns are applied...... to control the melt flow out of the cut kerf resulting in improved cut quality in metal cutting. The beam patterns in this study are created by splitting up beams from two single mode fiber lasers and combining these beams into a pattern in the cut kerf. The results are obtained with a total of 550 W...

  15. Some possibilities for determining cutting data when using laser cutting:

    OpenAIRE

    Radovanović, Miroslav

    2006-01-01

    The technological problems faced in the field of the application of laser-cutting machines lie in insufficient knowledge of the laser technique and the absence of both sufficiently reliable practical data and knowledge about the parameters affecting the work process itself. A significant parameter that is necessary to determine and to enter in an NC-program is the cutting speed. Various authors analyze the laser-cutting process and give mathematical models where laser cutting is modeled by us...

  16. Determination of cut front position in laser cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, M; Thombansen, U

    2016-01-01

    Laser cutting has a huge importance to manufacturing industry. Laser cutting machines operate with fixed technological parameters and this does not guarantee the best productivity. The adjustment of the cutting parameters during operation can improve the machine performance. Based on a coaxial measuring device it is possible to identify the cut front position during the cutting process. This paper describes the data analysis approach used to determine the cut front position for different feed rates. The cut front position was determined with good resolution, but improvements are needed to make the whole process more stable. (paper)

  17. Determination of cut front position in laser cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M.; Thombansen, U.

    2016-07-01

    Laser cutting has a huge importance to manufacturing industry. Laser cutting machines operate with fixed technological parameters and this does not guarantee the best productivity. The adjustment of the cutting parameters during operation can improve the machine performance. Based on a coaxial measuring device it is possible to identify the cut front position during the cutting process. This paper describes the data analysis approach used to determine the cut front position for different feed rates. The cut front position was determined with good resolution, but improvements are needed to make the whole process more stable.

  18. Laser cutting of Kevlar laminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanCleave, R.A.

    1977-09-01

    An investigation has been conducted of the use of laser energy for cutting contours, diameters, and holes in flat and shaped Kevlar 49 fiber-reinforced epoxy laminates as an alternate to conventional machining. The investigation has shown that flat laminates 6.35 mm thick may be cut without backup by using a high-powered (1000-watt) continuous wave CO/sub 2/ laser at high feedrates (33.87 mm per second). The cut produced was free of the burrs and delaminations resulting from conventional machining methods without intimate contact backup. In addition, the process cycle time was greatly reduced.

  19. Analysis and optimization of machining parameters of laser cutting for polypropylene composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepa, A.; Padmanabhan, K.; Kuppan, P.

    2017-11-01

    Present works explains about machining of self-reinforced Polypropylene composite fabricated using hot compaction method. The objective of the experiment is to find optimum machining parameters for Polypropylene (PP). Laser power and Machining speed were the parameters considered in response to tensile test and Flexure test. Taguchi method is used for experimentation. Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) is used for multiple process parameter optimization. ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) is used to find impact for process parameter. Polypropylene has got the great application in various fields like, it is used in the form of foam in model aircraft and other radio-controlled vehicles, thin sheets (∼2-20μm) used as a dielectric, PP is also used in piping system, it is also been used in hernia and pelvic organ repair or protect new herrnis in the same location.

  20. Flexible Laser Metal Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Sigurd; Jørgensen, Steffen Nordahl; Kristiansen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a new flexible and fast approach to laser cutting called ROBOCUT. Combined with CAD/CAM technology, laser cutting of metal provides the flexibility to perform one-of-a-kind cutting and hereby realises mass production of customised products. Today’s laser cutting techniques...... possess, despite their wide use in industry, limitations regarding speed and geometry. Research trends point towards remote laser cutting techniques which can improve speed and geometrical freedom and hereby the competitiveness of laser cutting compared to fixed-tool-based cutting technology...... such as punching. This paper presents the concepts and preliminary test results of the ROBOCUT laser cutting technology, a technology which potentially can revolutionise laser cutting....

  1. A Study on The Development of Local Exhaust Ventilation System (LEV’s) for Installation of Laser Cutting Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harun, S. I.; Idris, S. R. A.; Tamar Jaya, N.

    2017-09-01

    Local exhaust ventilation (LEV) is an engineering system frequently used in the workplace to protect operators from hazardous substances. The objective of this project is design and fabricate the ventilation system as installation for chamber room of laser cutting machine and to stimulate the air flow inside chamber room of laser cutting machine with the ventilation system that designed. LEV’s fabricated with rated voltage D.C 10.8V and 1.5 ampere. Its capacity 600 ml, continuously use limit approximately 12-15 minute, overall length LEV’s fabricated is 966 mm with net weight 0.88 kg and maximum airflow is 1.3 meter cubic per minute. Stimulate the air flow inside chamber room of laser cutting machine with the ventilation system that designed and fabricated overall result get 2 main gas vapor which air and carbon dioxide. For air gas which experimented by using anemometer, general duct velocity that produce is same with other gas produce, carbon dioxide which 5 m/s until 10 m/s. Overall result for 5 m/s and 10 m/s as minimum and maximum duct velocity produce for both air and carbon dioxide. The air gas flow velocity that captured by LEV’s fabricated, 3.998 m/s average velocity captured from 5 m/s duct velocity which it efficiency of 79.960% and 7.667 m/s average velocity captured from 10 m/s duct velocity with efficiency of 76.665%. For carbon dioxide gas flow velocity that captured by LEV’s fabricated, 3.674 m/s average velocity captured from 5 m/s duct velocity which it efficiency of 73.480% and 8.255 m/s average velocity captured from 10 m/s duct velocity with efficiency of 82.545%.

  2. Laser Cutting, Development Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1999-01-01

    In this paper a short review of the development trends in laser cutting will be given.The technology, which is the fastest expanding industrial production technology will develop in both its core market segment: Flat bed cutting of sheet metal, as it will expand in heavy industry and in cutting...... of 3-dimensional shapes.The CO2-laser will also in the near future be the dominating laser source in the market, although the new developments in ND-YAG-lasers opens for new possibilities for this laser type....

  3. Laser cutting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Thomas J

    2015-03-03

    A workpiece cutting apparatus includes a laser source, a first suction system, and a first finger configured to guide a workpiece as it moves past the laser source. The first finger includes a first end provided adjacent a point where a laser from the laser source cuts the workpiece, and the first end of the first finger includes an aperture in fluid communication with the first suction system.

  4. Laser Cutting of Carbon Fiber Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, A. N.; Schoeberl, M.; Tremmer, J.; Zaeh, M. F.

    Due to their high weight-specific mechanical stiffness and strength, parts made from carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) are increasingly used as structural components in the aircraft and automotive industry. However, the cutting of preforms, as with most automated manufacturing processes for CFRP components, has not yet been fully optimized. This paper discusses laser cutting, an alternative method to the mechanical cutting of preforms. Experiments with remote laser cutting and gas assisted laser cutting were carried out in order to identify achievable machining speeds. The advantages of the two different processes as well as their fitness for use in mass production are discussed.

  5. Automated Laser Cutting In Three Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Lisa T.; Yvanovich, Mark A.; Angell, Terry R.; Bishop, Patricia J.; Dai, Weimin; Dobbs, Robert D.; He, Mingli; Minardi, Antonio; Shelton, Bret A.

    1995-01-01

    Computer-controlled machine-tool system uses laser beam assisted by directed flow of air to cut refractory materials into complex three-dimensional shapes. Velocity, position, and angle of cut varied. In original application, materials in question were thermally insulating thick blankets and tiles used on space shuttle. System shapes tile to concave or convex contours and cuts beveled edges on blanket, without cutting through outer layer of quartz fabric part of blanket. For safety, system entirely enclosed to prevent escape of laser energy. No dust generated during cutting operation - all material vaporized; larger solid chips dislodged from workpiece easily removed later.

  6. Aqueous cutting fluid for machining fissionable materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerksen, Walter K.; Googin, John M.; Napier, Jr., Bradley

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a cutting fluid for machining fissionable material. The cutting fluid is formed of glycol, water and boron compound in an adequate concentration for effective neutron attenuation so as to inhibit criticality incidents during machining.

  7. Application tests of a remote controlled machine for laser sealing and cutting of pipelines in hazardous circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, G. (Ansaldo SpA, Genoa (Italy)); Cantello, M.; Accampo, G.

    1991-12-01

    This short communication deals with the experimental investigation on sealing and cutting tubes with the same laser beam after partial compression of the tube using presses of limited force easy to install on a robot for dismantling chemical or nuclear plants.

  8. CO2 laser cutting

    CERN Document Server

    Powell, John

    1998-01-01

    The laser has given manufacturing industry a new tool. When the laser beam is focused it can generate one of the world's most intense energy sources, more intense than flames and arcs, though similar to an electron beam. In fact the intensity is such that it can vaporise most known materials. The laser material processing industry has been growing swiftly as the quality, speed and new manufacturing possibilities become better understood. In the fore of these new technologies is the process of laser cutting. Laser cutting leads because it is a direct process substitu­ tion and the laser can usually do the job with greater flexibility, speed and quality than its competitors. However, to achieve these high speeds with high quality con­ siderable know how and experience is required. This information is usually carefully guarded by the businesses concerned and has to be gained by hard experience and technical understanding. Yet in this book John Powell explains in lucid and almost non­ technical language many o...

  9. Cutting temperature measurement and material machinability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedić Bogdan P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutting temperature is very important parameter of cutting process. Around 90% of heat generated during cutting process is then away by sawdust, and the rest is transferred to the tool and workpiece. In this research cutting temperature was measured with artificial thermocouples and question of investigation of metal machinability from aspect of cutting temperature was analyzed. For investigation of material machinability during turning artificial thermocouple was placed just below the cutting top of insert, and for drilling thermocouples were placed through screw holes on the face surface. In this way was obtained simple, reliable, economic and accurate method for investigation of cutting machinability.

  10. Development of YAG laser cutting system for decommissioning nuclear equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Takeshi; Nitta, Kazuhiko; Hosoda, Hiroshi.

    1995-01-01

    Technology of remote controlled cutting and reduction of generative secondary products have been required to the cutting system for decommissioning nuclear equipments. At a point of view that laser cutting technology by use of a Nd:YAG laser is effective, we have developed the laser cutting machine and carried out cutting tests for several stainless steel plates. As a result, the stainless steel plate with a thickness of 22mm could be cut by using an optical fiber which can flexibly propagate laser power, and possibility of application of this laser cutting system to decommissioning nuclear equipments was verified. (author)

  11. Development of YAG laser cutting system for decommissioning nuclear equipments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasai, Takeshi [Fuji Electric Co. Research and Development Ltd., Yokosuka, Kanagawa (Japan); Nitta, Kazuhiko; Hosoda, Hiroshi

    1995-07-01

    Technology of remote controlled cutting and reduction of generative secondary products have been required to the cutting system for decommissioning nuclear equipments. At a point of view that laser cutting technology by use of a Nd:YAG laser is effective, we have developed the laser cutting machine and carried out cutting tests for several stainless steel plates. As a result, the stainless steel plate with a thickness of 22mm could be cut by using an optical fiber which can flexibly propagate laser power, and possibility of application of this laser cutting system to decommissioning nuclear equipments was verified. (author).

  12. Latest development of laser cutting

    OpenAIRE

    Wetzig, Andreas; Herwig, Patrick; Hauptmann, Jan; Goppold, Cindy; Baumann, Robert; Fürst, Andreas; Rose, Michael; Pinder, Thomas; Mahrle, Achim; Beyer, Eckhard

    2016-01-01

    Laser cutting was one of the first applications of laser material processing. Today, laser cutting is the most widespread application among laser material processing besides laser marking. Meanwhile, nearly each material can be cut by means of a laser, in particular since ultra short pulse lasers are available in the power range of up to 100 W. The to be cut material can come with thicknesses from a few microns till tens of millimeters as flat stock or as free form shapes. The paper will conc...

  13. Free-piston cutting machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, Gaby; Subudhi, Manomohan; Hall, Robert E.

    2000-01-01

    A cutting machine includes a gun barrel for receiving a projectile. A compression tube is disposed in flow communication with the barrel and includes a piston therein. A reservoir is disposed in flow communication with the tube and receives a first gas under pressure. A second gas fills the compression tube on a front face of the piston. And, the pressurized first gas is discharged into the tube on a back face of the piston to accelerate the piston through the tube for compressing the second gas, and in turn launching the projectile through the barrel to impact a workpiece.

  14. Advanced cutting techniques: laser and fissuration cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migliorati, B.; Gay, P.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental tests have been performed using CO 2 laser with output power 1 to 15 kW to evaluate the effect of varying the following parameters: material (carbon steel Fe 42 C, stainless steel AISI 304, concrete), laser power, beam characteristics, work piece velocity, gas type and distribution on the laser interaction zone. In the case of concrete, drilling depths of 80 mm were obtained in a few seconds using a 10 kW laser beam. Moreover pieces of 160 mm were cut at 0.01 meters per minute. Results with carbon steel indicated maximum thicknesses of 110 mm, cut at 0.01 meters per minute with 10 kW, depths about 20% lower were obtained with the AISI 304 stainless steel. A parallel investigation was aimed at characterizing particulate emission during the laser cutting process. At the end of the research it was possible to elaborate a preliminary proposal concerning a laser based dismantling system for the application to a typical Nuclear Power Station. (author)

  15. Optical Cutting Interruption Sensor for Fiber Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Adelmann

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We report on an optical sensor system attached to a 4 kW fiber laser cutting machine to detect cutting interruptions. The sensor records the thermal radiation from the process zone with a modified ring mirror and optical filter arrangement, which is placed between the cutting head and the collimator. The process radiation is sensed by a Si and InGaAs diode combination with the detected signals being digitalized with 20 kHz. To demonstrate the function of the sensor, signals arising during fusion cutting of 1 mm stainless steel and mild steel with and without cutting interruptions are evaluated and typical signatures derived. In the recorded signals the piercing process, the laser switch on and switch off point and waiting period are clearly resolved. To identify the cutting interruption, the signals of both Si and InGaAs diodes are high pass filtered and the signal fluctuation ranges being subsequently calculated. Introducing a correction factor, we identify that only in case of a cutting interruption the fluctuation range of the Si diode exceeds the InGaAs diode. This characteristic signature was successfully used to detect 80 cutting interruptions of 83 incomplete cuts (alpha error 3.6% and system recorded no cutting interruption from 110 faultless cuts (beta error of 0. This particularly high detection rate in combination with the easy integration of the sensor, highlight its potential for cutting interruption detection in industrial applications.

  16. Gas flow parameters in laser cutting of wood- nozzle design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kali Mukherjee; Tom Grendzwell; Parwaiz A.A. Khan; Charles McMillin

    1990-01-01

    The Automated Lumber Processing System (ALPS) is an ongoing team research effort to optimize the yield of parts in a furniture rough mill. The process is designed to couple aspects of computer vision, computer optimization of yield, and laser cutting. This research is focused on optimizing laser wood cutting. Laser machining of lumber has the advantage over...

  17. Laser cutting: industrial relevance, process optimization, and laser safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haferkamp, Heinz; Goede, Martin; von Busse, Alexander; Thuerk, Oliver

    1998-09-01

    Compared to other technological relevant laser machining processes, up to now laser cutting is the application most frequently used. With respect to the large amount of possible fields of application and the variety of different materials that can be machined, this technology has reached a stable position within the world market of material processing. Reachable machining quality for laser beam cutting is influenced by various laser and process parameters. Process integrated quality techniques have to be applied to ensure high-quality products and a cost effective use of the laser manufacturing plant. Therefore, rugged and versatile online process monitoring techniques at an affordable price would be desirable. Methods for the characterization of single plant components (e.g. laser source and optical path) have to be substituted by an omnivalent control system, capable of process data acquisition and analysis as well as the automatic adaptation of machining and laser parameters to changes in process and ambient conditions. At the Laser Zentrum Hannover eV, locally highly resolved thermographic measurements of the temperature distribution within the processing zone using cost effective measuring devices are performed. Characteristic values for cutting quality and plunge control as well as for the optimization of the surface roughness at the cutting edges can be deducted from the spatial distribution of the temperature field and the measured temperature gradients. Main influencing parameters on the temperature characteristic within the cutting zone are the laser beam intensity and pulse duration in pulse operation mode. For continuous operation mode, the temperature distribution is mainly determined by the laser output power related to the cutting velocity. With higher cutting velocities temperatures at the cutting front increase, reaching their maximum at the optimum cutting velocity. Here absorption of the incident laser radiation is drastically increased due to

  18. Laser cutting system in bridge fabricating line; Kyoryo seisaku line ni okeru laser no setsudan system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitaguchi, Y.; Yokotani, K. [Hitachi Zosen Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1994-11-01

    This paper describes the laser cutting system established at a new advanced plant that was constructed by Hitachi Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., Ltd. in 1993. At the plant, the cutting line consists of four NC cutting lines: the plasma cutting machine, gas cutting machine, frame planer, and laser cutting machine. The laser cutting machine is used to cut complex shapes of relatively thin (6 - 16 mm) materials with high accuracy. The machine consists of a 3 kW CO2 laser oscillator mounted gantry type NC cutter and a slat conveyor of about 30 m long, with the maximum cutting width of 3.6 m. The NC cutting machine is provided with the automatic printing function using NC data, marking function, scheduled operation function, steel plate detector, and coordinate rotation function, etc. These functions enable unattended operation of the machine to cut multiple materials. This NC laser cutting line has the same performance data collection function for data during the operating time as other production lines. Therefore, the NC laser cutting line can be subjected to the realtime centralized control together with the other lines. All these technologies have provided high accuracy and efficiency for production as well as an environment in which many female operators can successfully work. 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. The Cutting Process, Chips and Cutting Forces in Machining CFRP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koplev, A.; Lystrup, Aage; Vorm, T.

    1983-01-01

    The cutting of unidirectional CFRP, perpendicular as well as parallel to the fibre orientation, is examined. Shaping experiments, ‘quick-stop’ experiments, and a new chip preparation technique are used for the investigation. The formation of the chips, and the quality of the machined surface...... is discussed. The cutting forces parallel and perpendicular to the cutting direction are measured for various parameters, and the results correlated to the formation of chips and the wear of the tool....

  20. The effect of cutting conditions on power inputs when machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrushin, S. I.; Gruby, S. V.; Nosirsoda, Sh C.

    2016-08-01

    Any technological process involving modification of material properties or product form necessitates consumption of a certain power amount. When developing new technologies one should take into account the benefits of their implementation vs. arising power inputs. It is revealed that procedures of edge cutting machining are the most energy-efficient amongst the present day forming procedures such as physical and technical methods including electrochemical, electroerosion, ultrasound, and laser processing, rapid prototyping technologies etc, such as physical and technical methods including electrochemical, electroerosion, ultrasound, and laser processing, rapid prototyping technologies etc. An expanded formula for calculation of power inputs is deduced, which takes into consideration the mode of cutting together with the tip radius, the form of the replaceable multifaceted insert and its wear. Having taken as an example cutting of graphite iron by the assembled cutting tools with replaceable multifaceted inserts the authors point at better power efficiency of high feeding cutting in comparison with high-speed cutting.

  1. CALCULATION OF LASER CUTTING COSTS

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Nedic; Milan Eric; Marijana Aleksijevic

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents description methods of metal cutting and calculation of treatment costs based on model that is developed on Faculty of mechanical engineering in Kragujevac. Based on systematization and analysis of large number of calculation models of cutting with unconventional methods, mathematical model is derived, which is used for creating a software for calculation costs of metal cutting. Software solution enables resolving the problem of calculating the cost of laser cutting, compar...

  2. Automatic turbot fish cutting using machine vision

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Rodríguez, Fernando; Barral Martínez, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    This paper is about the design of an automated machine to cut turbot fish specimens. Machine vision is a key part of this project as it is used to compute a cutting curve for specimen’s head. This task is impossible to be carried out by mechanical means. Machine vision is used to detect head boundary and a robot is used to cut the head. Afterwards mechanical systems are used to slice fish to get an easy presentation for end consumer (as fish fillets than can be easily marketed ...

  3. Effect of Moisture Content of Paper Material on Laser Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, Alexander; Saukkonen, Esa; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti

    Laser technology has been used in industrial processes for several decades. The most advanced development and implementation took place in laser welding and cutting of metals in automotive and ship building industries. However, there is high potential to apply laser processing to other materials in various industrial fields. One of these potential fields could be paper industry to fulfill the demand for high quality, fast and reliable cutting technology. Difficulties in industrial application of laser cutting for paper industry are associated to lack of basic information, awareness of technology and its application possibilities. Nowadays possibilities of using laser cutting for paper materials are widened and high automation level of equipment has made this technology more interesting for manufacturing processes. Promising area of laser cutting application at paper making machines is longitudinal cutting of paper web (edge trimming). There are few locations at a paper making machine where edge trimming is usually done: wet press section, calender or rewinder. Paper web is characterized with different moisture content at different points of the paper making machine. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of moisture content of paper material on laser cutting parameters. Effect of moisture content on cellulose fibers, laser absorption and energy needed for cutting is described as well. Laser cutting tests were carried out using CO2 laser.

  4. Laser cutting or water-jet cutting. Laser setsudan ka water-jet setsudan ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, T. (Shibuya Kogyo Co. Ltd., Ishikawa (Japan))

    1991-05-01

    The recent spread of carbon oxide laser cutter is so startlingly fast, but at the same time, water jet cutting using ultra high pressure water stream is drawing attention as it has identical characteristics, and opens the way to cutting materials that have been hitherto difficult to cut. The authors, who are fabricators of cutters of both types, gave the comparisons and explanations on several examples referring to materials that can be cut, cutting accuracy, speed, shape and thermal effects to cut face, and running cost in detail. However, simple comparison is difficult. For instance, cutting 6 mm thick SUS sheet costs a running cost of 65 yen per meter in laser cutting, and 535 yen per meter in water jet cutting, but this situation is often reversed when other material or sheet thickness is selected. The actual situation in the sheet metal processing industry at the present time is that it uses by far more laser processing machines, and uses water jet cutters to supplement for cutting materials more difficult to cut. 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Aerodynamic Interactions During Laser Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieret, J.; Terry, M. J.; Ward, B. A.

    1986-11-01

    Most laser cutting systems utilise a gas jet to remove molten or vaporised material from the kerf. The speed, economy and quality of the cut can be strongly dependent on the aerodynamic conditions created by the nozzle, workpiece proximity and kerf shape. Adverse conditions can be established that may lead to an unwelcome lack of reproducibility of cut quality. Relatively low gas nozzle pressures can result in supersonic flow in the jet with its associated shock fronts. When the nozzle is placed at conventional distances (1-2mm) above the workpiece, the force exerted by the gas on the workpiece and the cut products (the cutting pressure) can be significantly less than the nozzle pressure. Higher cutting pressures can be achieved by increasing the height of the nozzle above the workpiece, to a more damage resistant zone, provided that the shock structure of the jet is taken into account. Conventional conical nozzles with circular exits can be operated with conditions that will result in cutting pressures up to 3 Bar (g) in the more distant zone. At higher pressures in circular tipped nozzles the cutting pressure in this zone decays to inadequate levels. Investigations of a large number of non-circular nozzle tip shapes have resulted in the selection of a few specific shapes that can provide cutting pressures in excess of 6 Bar(g) at distances of 4 to 7mm from the nozzle tip. Since there is a strong correlation between cutting pressure and the speed and quality of laser cutting, the paper describes the aerodynamic requirements for achieving the above effects and reports the cutting results arising from the different nozzle designs and conditions. The results of the work of other investigators, who report anomalous laser cutting results, will be examined and reviewed in the light of the above work.

  6. Economic technology of laser cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedin, Alexander V.; Shilov, Igor V.; Vassiliev, Vladimir V.; Malov, Dmitri V.; Peskov, Vladimir N.

    2000-02-01

    The laser cutting of color metals and alloys by a thickness more than 2 mm has significant difficulties due to high reflective ability and large thermal conduction. We made it possible to raise energy efficiency and quality of laser cutting by using a laser processing system (LPS) consisting both of the YAG:Nd laser with passive Q-switching on base of LiF:F2- crystals and the CO2 laser. A distinctive feature of the LPS is that the radiation of different lasers incorporated in a coaxial beam has simultaneously high level of peak power (more than 400 kW in a TEM00 mode) and significant level of average power (up to 800 W in a TEM01 mode of the CO2 laser). The application of combined radiation for cutting of an aluminum alloy of D16 type made it possible to decrease the cutting energy threshold in 1.7 times, to increase depth of treatment from 2 up to 4 mm, and velocity from 0.015 up to 0.7 m/min, and also to eliminate application of absorptive coatings. At cutting of steels the velocity of treatment was doubled, and also an oxygen flow was eliminated from the technological process and replaced by the air. The obtained raise of energy efficiency and quality of cutting is explained by an essential size reducing of a formed penetration channel and by the shifting of a thermal cutting mode from melting to evaporation. The evaluation of interaction efficiency of a combined radiation was produced on the basis of non-stationary thermal-hydrodynamic model of a heating source moving as in the cutting direction, and also into the depth of material.

  7. Improved cutting performance in high power laser cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2003-01-01

    Recent results in high power laser cutting especially with focus on cutting of mild grade steel types for shipbuilding are described.......Recent results in high power laser cutting especially with focus on cutting of mild grade steel types for shipbuilding are described....

  8. CALCULATION OF LASER CUTTING COSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nedic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents description methods of metal cutting and calculation of treatment costs based on model that is developed on Faculty of mechanical engineering in Kragujevac. Based on systematization and analysis of large number of calculation models of cutting with unconventional methods, mathematical model is derived, which is used for creating a software for calculation costs of metal cutting. Software solution enables resolving the problem of calculating the cost of laser cutting, comparison' of costs made by other unconventional methods and provides documentation that consists of reports on estimated costs.

  9. Design and analysis of gasket cutting machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin V. Gopal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Paper is about the design and analysis of the optimized gasket cutting machine which can be provide to the companies where there is use of gaskets at a certain interval of time. The paper contain the cost optimized machine which is provide at a much lower cost as compared to the machines presently available in the market. This machine can be specifically used for the boiler and refrigeration companies where the gaskets are used to avoid the leakage due to the joining of two different diametric pipes. Inspite of giving a large order of gaskets, they can prepare the same at small rate whenever needed at the location.

  10. Cutting NiTi with Femtosecond Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Quintino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Superelastic shape memory alloys are difficult to machine by thermal processes due to the facility for Ti oxidation and by mechanical processes due to their superelastic behavior. In this study, femtosecond lasers were tested to analyze the potential for machining NiTi since femtosecond lasers allow nonthermal processing of materials by ablation. The effect of processing parameters on machining depth was studied, and material removal rates were computed. Surfaces produced were analyzed under SEM which shows a resolidified thin layer with minimal heat affected zones. However, for high cutting speeds, that is, for short interaction times, this layer was not observed. A depletion of Ni was seen which may be beneficial in biomedical applications since Ni is known to produce human tissue reactions in biophysical environments.

  11. Characteristics of laser assisted machining for silicon nitride ceramic according to machining parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Do; Lee, Su Jin; Suh, Jeong

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the Laser Assisted Machining (LAM) that cuts and removes softened parts by locally heating the ceramic with laser. Silicon nitride ceramics can be machined with general machining tools as well, because YSiAlON, which was made up ceramics, is soften at about 1,000 .deg. C. In particular, the laser, which concentrates on highly dense energy, can locally heat materials and very effectively control the temperature of the heated part of specimen. Therefore, this paper intends to propose an efficient machining method of ceramic by deducing the machining governing factors of laser assisted machining and understanding its mechanism. While laser power is the machining factor that controls the temperature, the CBN cutting tool could cut the material more easily as the material gets deteriorated from the temperature increase by increasing the laser power, but excessive oxidation can negatively affect the quality of the material surface after machining. As the feed rate and cutting depth increase, the cutting force increases and tool lifespan decreases, but surface oxidation also decreases. In this experiment, the material can be cut to 3 mm of cutting depth. And based on the results of the experiment, the laser assisted machining mechanism is clarified

  12. Melt Flow and Energy Limitation of Laser Cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Hudeček

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser technology is a convertible technology for plenty of parts in most materials. Laser material processing for industrial manufacturing applications is today a widespread procedure for welding, cutting, marking and micro machining of metal and plastic parts and components. Involvement and support this huge mass-production industry of laser cutting, new technology and dry-process using lasers were and are being actively developed. Fundamentally, industrial laser cutting or other applications on industry should satisfy the four key practical application issues including “Quality or Performance”, “Throughput or Speed”, “Cost or Total Ownership Cost”, and “Reliability”. Laser requires for examples several complicated physical factors to be resolved including die strength to be enable good wire-bonding and survival of severe cycling test, clean cutting wall surface, good cutting of direct attach film, and proper speed of cutting for achieving economy of throughput. Some example of maximum cutting rate, wherewith is normally limited laser energy, cutting speed is depend on type laser, different of cutting with one laser beam and beam pattern and applied laser power/material thickness will be introduced in this paper.

  13. Orthogonal cutting of laser beam melted parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götze, Elisa; Zanger, Frederik; Schulze, Volker

    2018-05-01

    The finishing process of parts manufactured by laser beam melting is of high concern due to the lack of surface accuracy. Therefore, the focus of this work lies on the influence of the build-up direction of the parts and their effect on the finishing process. The orthogonal cutting reveals findings in the fields of chip formation, involved forces and temperatures appearing during machining. In the investigations, the cutting depth was varied between 0.05 and 0.15 mm representing a finishing process and the cutting velocity ranges from 30 to 200 m/min depending on the material. The experiments contain the materials stainless steel (AISI 316L), titanium (Ti6Al4V) and nickel-base alloy (IN718). The two materials named latter are of high interest in the aerospace sector and at the same time titanium is used in the medical field due to its biocompatibility. For the materials IN718 and Ti6Al4V a negative rake angle of -7.5° and for stainless steel a rake angle of 12.5° are chosen for the cutting experiments. The results provide the base for processing strategies. Therefore, the specimens were solely laser beam melted without post-processing like heat treatment. The evaluation of the experiments shows that an increase in cutting speed has different effects depending on the material. For stainless steel the measured forces regarding the machining direction to the layers approach the same values. In contrast, the influence of the layers regarding the forces appearing during orthogonal cutting of the materials IN718 and Ti6Al4V differ for lower cutting speeds.

  14. Test of remote control cutting equipment by Nd:YAG laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Akio [Fuji Electric Corp. Research and Development Ltd., Yokosuka, Kanagawa (Japan); Hosoda, Hiroshi

    1997-11-01

    Technology of remote controlled cutting and reduction of generative secondary products have been required to the cutting system for decommissioning nuclear equipments. At a point of view that laser cutting technology by use of a Nd:YAG laser is effective, we have developed the laser cutting machine and carried out cutting tests for several stainless steel plates. This report is described the result of experiment by test equipment, about element technology of remote controlled cutting nuclear equipments. (author)

  15. Test of remote control cutting equipment by Nd:YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Akio; Hosoda, Hiroshi.

    1997-01-01

    Technology of remote controlled cutting and reduction of generative secondary products have been required to the cutting system for decommissioning nuclear equipments. At a point of view that laser cutting technology by use of a Nd:YAG laser is effective, we have developed the laser cutting machine and carried out cutting tests for several stainless steel plates. This report is described the result of experiment by test equipment, about element technology of remote controlled cutting nuclear equipments. (author)

  16. Laser-cutting pneumatics

    OpenAIRE

    Groenhuis, Vincent; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Pneumatic devices require tight tolerances to keep them leak-free. Specialized companies offer various off-the-shelf devices, while these work well for many applications, there are also situations where custom design and production of pneumatic parts are desired. Cost efficiency, design flexibility, rapid prototyping, and MRI compatibility requirements are reasons why we investigated a method to design and produce different pneumatic devices using a laser cutter from acrylic, acetal, and rubb...

  17. Optimisation Of Cutting Parameters Of Composite Material Laser Cutting Process By Taguchi Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokesh, S.; Niresh, J.; Neelakrishnan, S.; Rahul, S. P. Deepak

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a laser cutting process model that can predict the relationship between the process input parameters and resultant surface roughness, kerf width characteristics. The research conduct is based on the Design of Experiment (DOE) analysis. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is used in this work. It is one of the most practical and most effective techniques to develop a process model. Even though RSM has been used for the optimization of the laser process, this research investigates laser cutting of materials like Composite wood (veneer)to be best circumstances of laser cutting using RSM process. The input parameters evaluated are focal length, power supply and cutting speed, the output responses being kerf width, surface roughness, temperature. To efficiently optimize and customize the kerf width and surface roughness characteristics, a machine laser cutting process model using Taguchi L9 orthogonal methodology was proposed.

  18. Effect of laser cutting parameters on surface roughness of stainless steel 307

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal NASSAR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimal parameters of laser cutting are an important step to improve surface quality of cutting edge in the laser cutting of stainless steel 307. This paper presents a new approach for optimizing the cutting parameters on stainless steel. Based on 33 full factorial experimental design, cutting experiments were conducted for stainless steel 307 plates using a laser machine (AMADA FONT 3015. The cutting parameters such as, cutting speed, cutting power and gas pressure are optimized for maximizing surface quality. The results indicated that cutting power and cutting speed play an important role in surface quality.

  19. Development of underwater laser cutting technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Seiichi; Inaba, Takanori; Inose, Koutarou; Matsumoto, Naoyuki; Sakakibara, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    In is desirable to use remote underwater device for the decommissioning work of highly radioactive components such as the nuclear internals from a view point of reducing the ranitidine exposure to the worker. Underwater laser cutting technology has advantages. First advantage in underwater laser cutting technology is that low reaction force during cutting, namely, remote operability is superior. Second point is that underwater laser cutting generates a little amount of secondary waste, because cutting kerf size is very small. Third point is that underwater laser cutting has low risk of the process delay, because device trouble is hard to happen. While underwater laser cutting has many advantages, the careful consideration in the safe treatment of the offgas which underwater laser cutting generates is necessary. This paper describes outline of underwater laser cutting technology developed by IHI Corporation (IHI) and that this technology is effective in various dismantling works in water. (author)

  20. Modeling and optimization of laser cutting operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadallah Mohamed Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser beam cutting is one important nontraditional machining process. This paper optimizes the parameters of laser beam cutting parameters of stainless steel (316L considering the effect of input parameters such as power, oxygen pressure, frequency and cutting speed. Statistical design of experiments is carried in three different levels and process responses such as average kerf taper (Ta, surface roughness (Ra and heat affected zones are measured accordingly. A response surface model is developed as a function of the process parameters. Responses predicted by the models (as per Taguchi’s L27OA are employed to search for an optimal combination to achieve desired process yield. Response Surface Models (RSMs are developed for mean responses, S/N ratio, and standard deviation of responses. Optimization models are formulated as single objective optimization problem subject to process constraints. Models are formulated based on Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and optimized using Matlab developed environment. Optimum solutions are compared with Taguchi Methodology results. As such, practicing engineers have means to model, analyze and optimize nontraditional machining processes. Validation experiments are carried to verify the developed models with success.

  1. Some aspects of precise laser machining - Part 1: Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyszynski, Dominik; Grabowski, Marcin; Lipiec, Piotr

    2018-05-01

    The paper describes the role of laser beam polarization and deflection on quality of laser beam machined parts made of difficult to cut materials (used for cutting tools). Application of efficient and precise cutting tool (laser beam) has significant impact on preparation and finishing operations of cutting tools for aviation part manufacturing. Understanding the phenomena occurring in the polarized light laser cutting gave possibility to design, build and test opto-mechanical instrumentation to control and maintain process parameters and conditions. The research was carried within INNOLOT program funded by Polish National Centre for Research and Development.

  2. Laser cutting - trends in the development,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2002-01-01

    Since the laser was invented in 1960, the industrial applications of this tool has grown and grown. And - since the beginning of the 1980'ies, the major industrial application of lasers in production has been laser cutting. In this paper a short review of the development of the laser cutting...

  3. Design of instrumentation and software for precise laser machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyszyński, D.; Grabowski, Marcin; Lipiec, Piotr

    2017-10-01

    The paper concerns the design of instrumentation and software for precise laser machining. Application of advanced laser beam manipulation instrumentation enables noticeable improvement of cut quality and material loss. This factors have significant impact on process efficiency and cutting edge quality by means of machined part size and shape accuracy, wall taper, material loss reduction (e.g. diamond) and time effectiveness. The goal can be reached by integration of laser drive, observation and optical measurement system, beam manipulation system and five axis mechanical instrumentation with use of advanced tailored software enabling full laser cutting process control and monitoring.

  4. Practical side of cutting. Part 3. ; CO2 laser cutting. Setsudan gijutsu no jissai. 3. ; Laser setsudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, T.; Shinonaga, H. (Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-03-05

    The nature peculiar to laser beam makes it difficult to understand the phenomena in laser cutting. Quoting an example of cutting steel materials, practical minimum basic subjects, factors governing the cutting phenomena with points to be considered, and the current state of the technology are outlined. Various kinds of expert systems and automatic programming devices have been placed on the market to make NC input easier in laser cutting. Shape accuracy, cutting quality, cutting speed, applicable plate thickness, etc. are among the subjects required for laser cutting. The factors are the method of scanning, characteristics of laser beam, work, machining conditions, etc. The factors obstructing stable processing are the change in the ambient temperature, humidity, dust, oil mist, vibration, etc. The basic factors which control the laser cutting are the power density and its distribution at the working point. Pulse cutting is employed when continuous laser heat input is not appropriate. Summarized report is made on the focal point and assist gas. 16 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Reviews on laser cutting technology for industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muangpool, T.; Pullteap, S.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, an overview of the laser technology applied for the industrial has been reviewed. In general, this technology was used in several engineering applications such as industrial, medical, science, research sectors, etc. Focusing on the laser technology in the industrial section, it was, normally, employed for many purposes i.e. target marking, welding, drilling, and also cutting. Consequently, the laser cutting technology was, however, divided into three classifications YAG, CO2, and fiber laser, respectively. Each laser types have different advantages and disadvantages depending on the material type. The advantages by using laser cutting compared with the general cutting machines were exploited in terms of narrow kerf, high cutting speed, low heat-affected zone (HAZ), improve efficiency of the cutting process, high accuracy, etc. However, the main objectives from the technology used were increasing of the products and also decreasing the production cost. In the opposite way, some disadvantages of the technology were summarized by complexity to operate, high maintenance cost, and also high power consumption. In Thailand industry, there were many factories used this technology as a cutting process. Unfortunately, only few researches were published. It might explains that this technology were difficulty to develop, high investment, and also easy to import from aboard. For becoming to the Thailand 4.0 community, the Thailand industry might awareness to reduce the importing machine and boosting some policies to create novel innovative / know-how from the own country.

  6. Remote Laser Cutting of CFRP: Improvements in the Cut Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Johannes; Zaeh, Michael F.; Conrad, Markus

    In the automotive industry carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) are considered as a future key material to reduce the weight of the vehicle. Therefore, capable production techniques are required to process this material in mass industry. E.g., state of the art methods for cutting are limited by the high tool wear or the feasible feed rate. Laser cutting processes are still under investigation. This paper presents detailed new studies on remote laser cutting of CFRP focusing on the influence of the material properties and the quality of the cut surface. By adding light absorbing soot particles to the resin of the matrix, the cutting process is improved and fewer defects emerge.

  7. Feasibility Study of Laser Cutting for Fabrication of Tensile Specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Y. G.; Baik, S. J.; Kim, G. S.; Heo, G. S.; Yoo, B. O.; Ahn, S. B.; Chun, Y. B.

    2015-01-01

    The specimen fabrication technique was established to machine the specimen from the irradiated materials. The wire cut EDM(electric discharge machine) was modified to fabricate the mechanical testing specimens from irradiated components and fuel claddings. The oxide layer removal system was also developed because the oxide layer on the surface of the irradiated components and claddings interrupted the applying the electric current during the processing. However, zirconium oxide is protective against further corrosion as well as beneficial to mechanical strength for the tensile deformation of the cladding. Thus, it is important to fabricate the irradiated specimens without removal of oxide layer on the surface of the irradiated structural components and claddings. In the present study, laser cutting system was introduced to fabricate the various mechanical testing specimens from the unirradiated fuel cladding and the feasibility of the laser cutting system was studied for the fabrication of various types of irradiated specimens in a hot cell at IMEF (Irradiated Materials Examination Facility) of KAERI. Laser beam machining system was introduced to fabricate the various mechanical testing specimens from the unirradiated fuel cladding and the dimensions were compared for the feasibility of the laser cutting system. The effect of surface oxide layer was also investigated for machining process of the zircaloy-4 fuel cladding and it was found that laser beam machining could be a useful tool to fabricate the specimens with surface oxide layer

  8. Feasibility Study of Laser Cutting for Fabrication of Tensile Specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Y. G.; Baik, S. J.; Kim, G. S.; Heo, G. S.; Yoo, B. O.; Ahn, S. B.; Chun, Y. B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The specimen fabrication technique was established to machine the specimen from the irradiated materials. The wire cut EDM(electric discharge machine) was modified to fabricate the mechanical testing specimens from irradiated components and fuel claddings. The oxide layer removal system was also developed because the oxide layer on the surface of the irradiated components and claddings interrupted the applying the electric current during the processing. However, zirconium oxide is protective against further corrosion as well as beneficial to mechanical strength for the tensile deformation of the cladding. Thus, it is important to fabricate the irradiated specimens without removal of oxide layer on the surface of the irradiated structural components and claddings. In the present study, laser cutting system was introduced to fabricate the various mechanical testing specimens from the unirradiated fuel cladding and the feasibility of the laser cutting system was studied for the fabrication of various types of irradiated specimens in a hot cell at IMEF (Irradiated Materials Examination Facility) of KAERI. Laser beam machining system was introduced to fabricate the various mechanical testing specimens from the unirradiated fuel cladding and the dimensions were compared for the feasibility of the laser cutting system. The effect of surface oxide layer was also investigated for machining process of the zircaloy-4 fuel cladding and it was found that laser beam machining could be a useful tool to fabricate the specimens with surface oxide layer.

  9. Development of cutting machine for disposal of highly activated equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iimura, Katumichi; Kitajima, Toshio; Hosokawa, Jinsaku; Abe, Shinichi; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Ogawa, Mituhiro; Iwai, Takashi

    1994-01-01

    JMTR (Japan Materials Testing Reactor) Project has developed a cutting machine which can cut a highly activated in-pile tube under water and its performance and safety have been confirmed. This machine is for the purpose of cutting a multiplet structure pipe and made possible to cut it under water by adopting under-water discharge method. Furthermore, contamination of canal water and atmosphere is prevented by combining a filter with this machine. This report describes the outline and performance of the developed cutting machine and also results of cutting highly activated in-pile tubes. (author)

  10. Laser circular cutting of Kevlar sheets: Analysis of thermal stress filed and assessment of cutting geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Akhtar, S. S.; Karatas, C.

    2017-11-01

    A Kevlar laminate has negative thermal expansion coefficient, which makes it difficult to machine at room temperaures using the conventional cutting tools. Contararily, laser machining of a Kevlar laminate provides advantages over the conventional methods because of the non-mechanical contact between the cutting tool and the workpiece. In the present study, laser circular cutting of Kevlar laminate is considered. The experiment is carried out to examine and evaluate the cutting sections. Temperature and stress fields formed in the cutting section are simulated in line with the experimental study. The influence of hole diameters on temperature and stress fields are investigated incorporating two different hole diameters. It is found that the Kevlar laminate cutting section is free from large size asperities such as large scale sideways burnings and attachemnt of charred residues. The maximum temperature along the cutting circumference remains higher for the large diameter hole than that of the small diameter hole. Temperature decay is sharp around the cutting section in the region where the cutting terminates. This, in turn, results in high temperature gradients and the thermal strain in the cutting region. von Mises stress remains high in the region where temperature gradients are high. von Mises stress follows similar to the trend of temperature decay around the cutting edges.

  11. Demonstration of Laser Cutting System for Tube Specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Y. G.; Kim, G. S.; Heo, G. S.; Baik, S. J.; Kim, H. M.; Ahn, S. B. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The oxide layer removal system was also developed because the oxide layer on the surface of the irradiated fuel cladding and components interrupted the applying the electric current during the processing. However, it was found that the mechanical testing data of the irradiated specimens with removal of oxide layer was less reliable than the specimens with oxide layer . The laser cutting system using Nd:YAG with fiber optic beam delivery has great potential in material processing applications of the irradiated fuel cladding and components due to non-contact process. Thus, the oxide layer doesn't interrupt the fabrication process during the laser cutting system. In the present study, the laser cutting system was designed to fabricate the mechanical testing specimens from the unirradiated fuel cladding with and without oxide. The feasibility of the laser cutting system was demonstrated for the fabrication of various types of unirradiated specimens. The effect of surface oxide layer was also investigated for machining process of the zirlo fuel cladding and it was found that laser beam machining could be a useful tool to fabricate the specimens with surface oxide layer. Based on the feasibility studies and demonstration, the design of the laser cutting machine for fully or partially automatic and remotely operable system will be proposed and made.

  12. Quality Analysis of Cutting Steel Using Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Markovič

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the quality dependence of the edge surface of steel C45 LST EN 10083-1 obtained cutting the material using laser on different cutting regimes and variations in the thickness of trial steel. The paper presents the influence of the main modes of laser cutting equipment Trulaser 3030, including cutting speed, pressure, angle and the thickness of the surface on the quality characteristics of the sample. The quality of the edge after laser cutting is the most important indicator influencing such technological spread in industry worldwide. Laser cutting is the most popular method of material cutting. Therefore, the article focuses on cutting equipment, cutting defects and methods of analysis. Research on microstructure, roughness and micro-toughness has been performed with reference to edge samples. At the end of the publication, conclusions are drawn.Article in Lithuanian

  13. Quality Analysis of Cutting Steel Using Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Markovič

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the quality dependence of the edge surface of steel C45 LST EN 10083-1 obtained cutting the material using laser on different cutting regimes and variations in the thickness of trial steel. The paper presents the influence of the main modes of laser cutting equipment Trulaser 3030, including cutting speed, pressure, angle and the thickness of the surface on the quality characteristics of the sample. The quality of the edge after laser cutting is the most important indicator influencing such technological spread in industry worldwide. Laser cutting is the most popular method of material cutting. Therefore, the article focuses on cutting equipment, cutting defects and methods of analysis. Research on microstructure, roughness and micro-toughness has been performed with reference to edge samples. At the end of the publication, conclusions are drawn.Article in Lithuanian

  14. Design and development of remotely operated coolant channel cutting machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suthar, R.L.; Sinha, A.K.; Srikrishnamurty, G.

    1994-01-01

    One of the coolant tubes of Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS) reactor needs to be removed. To remove a coolant tube, four cutting operations, (liner tube cutting, end-fitting cutting, machining of seal weld of bellow ring and finally coolant tube cutting) are required to be carried out. A remotely operated cutting machine to carry out all these operations has been designed and developed by Central Workshops. This machine is able to cut at the exact location because of numerically controlled axial and radial travel of tool. Only by changing the tool head and tool holder, same machine can be used for various types of cutting/machining operations. This report details the design, manufacture, assembly and testing work done on the machine. (author). 4 figs

  15. 6kW class laser cutting equipment; 6kW daishutsuryoku laser setsudanki ni yoru atsuita setsudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Y.; Nagahori, M. [Tanaka Engineering Works Ltd., Saitama (Japan)

    1994-11-01

    Application of the laser cutting machine to the area of cutting steel plates of 5 mm thick or more was first enabled in 1990 by the 2 kW oscillator that was introduced in that year. The thick plate cutting industry has a short history. This paper describes the features and performance of the 6 kW laser cutting machine that was announced in April, 1994. The machine uses a newly developed high-speed axial flow type carbon dioxide laser oscillater with the rated output of 6 kW. As the discharge excitation method, the machine adopted the RF (radio frequency) method that causes low contamination in the discharge tube. The 6 kW laser cutting machine has a number of features such as a large cutting area provided by the oscillator contained in the cutting machine, cutting quality stabilized by the optical path length fixing unit, and automatic functions such as automatic setting of the cutting conditions and scheduled operation. The machine can cut mild steel plates of up to 40 mm thick (or up to 16 mm for stainless steel plates) at the cutting speed of 1600 mm/min for a 16 mm thick plate and 2200 mm/min for a 12 mm thick plate, with the good cut sectional surface. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Femtosecond laser ablation and cutting technology on PMP foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Chengwei; Li Guo; Huang Yanhua; Du Kai; Yang Liang

    2013-01-01

    The femtosecond laser ablation results of PMP foam (density of 90 mg/cm 3 ) were analyzed. The laser pulses used for the study were 800 nm in wavelength, 50 fs in pulse duration and the repetition rate was 1000 Hz. The ablation threshold of the foam was 0.91 J/cm 2 when it was shot by 100 laser pulses. The impacts of laser power, the pulse number and the numerical aperture of the focusing objective on the crater diameter were obtained. In the same femtosecond laser machining system, comparing with the ablation shape into copper foil, the important factor causing the irregular shape of the ablation region was verified that there were many different sizes and randomly distributed pores inside PMP foam. The carbonation phenomenon was observed on the edge of the ablated areas when the sample was ablated using high laser power or/and more laser pulses. Thermal effect was considered to be the causes of the carbonation. A new method based on coupling laser beam to cut thickness greater than 1 mm film-foam with femtosecond laser was proposed. Using this method, the femtosecond laser cutting thickness was greater than 1.5 mm, the angle between the cutting side wall and the laser beam optical axis might be less than 5°, and the cutting surface was clean. (authors)

  17. Laser Cutting of Thin Nickel Bellows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, C. L.

    1986-01-01

    Laser cutting technique produces narrow, precise, fast, and repeatable cuts in thin nickel-allow bellows material. Laser cutting operation uses intense focused beam to melt material and assisting gas to force melted material through part thickness, creating void. When part rotated or moved longitudinally, melting and material removal continuous and creates narrow, fast, precise, and repeatable cut. Technique used to produce cuts of specified depths less than material thickness. Avoids distortion, dents, and nicks produced in delicate materials during lathe trimming operations, which require high cutting-tool pressure and holding-fixture forces.

  18. Recent advances in precision laser cutting for the ATLAS hadron calorimeter absorbers production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alikov, B.; Budagov, Yu.

    1995-01-01

    The optimised precision laser cutting technology for high tolerances ATLAS hadron calorimeter absorber plates production is described. Some recent results of laser cut absorber plates dimension measurements are presented. The plates have been manufactured by 'Universalmash' (S.-Petersburg) and RCTL RAS (Shatura). It has been shown that the proved accuracy of the laser machines is not worse than 45 microns. 9 figs

  19. Laser cutting: influence on morphological and physicochemical properties of polyhydroxybutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lootz, D; Behrend, D; Kramer, S; Freier, T; Haubold, A; Benkiesser, G; Schmitz, K P; Becher, B

    2001-09-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a biocompatible and resorbable implant material. For these reasons, it has been used for the fabrication of temporary stents, bone plates, nails and screws (Peng et al. Biomaterials 1996;17:685). In some cases, the brittle mechanical properties of PHB homopolymer limit its application. A typical plasticizer, triethylcitrate (TEC), was used to overcome such limitations by making the material more pliable. In the past few years, CO2-laser cutting of PHB was used in the manufacturing of small medical devices such as stents. Embrittlement of plasticized PHB tubes has been observed, after laser machining. Consequently, the physicochemical and morphological properties of laser-processed surfaces and cut edges of plasticized polymer samples were examined to determine the extent of changes in polymer properties as a result of laser machining. These studies included determination of the depth of the laser-induced heat affected zone by polariscopy of thin polymer sections. Molecular weight changes and changes in the TEC content as a function of distance from the laser-cut edge were determined. In a preliminary test, the cellular response to the processed material was investigated by cell culture study of L929 mouse fibroblasts on laser-machined surfaces. The heat-affected zone was readily classified into four different regions with a total depth of about 60 to 100 microm (Klamp, Master Thesis, University of Rostock, 1998). These results correspond well with the chemical analysis and molecular weight measurements. Furthermore, it was found that cells grew preferentially on the laser-machined area. These findings have significant implications for the manufacture of medical implants from PHB by laser machining.

  20. Laser beam cutting method. Laser ko ni yoru kaitai koho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutsumizu, A. (Obayashi Corp., Osaka (Japan))

    1991-07-01

    In this special issue paper concerning the demolition of concrete structures, was introduced a demolition of concrete structures using laser, of which practical application is expected due to the remarkable progress of generating power and efficiency of laser radiator. The characteristics of laser beam which can give a temperature of one million centigrade at the irradiated spot, the laser radiator consisting of laser medium, laser resonator and pumping apparatus, and the laser kinds for working, such as CO{sub 2} laser, YAG laser and CO laser, were described. The basic constitution of laser cutting equipment consisting of large generating power radiator, beam transmitter, beam condenser, and nozzle for working was also illustrated. Furthermore, strong and weak points in the laser cutting for concrete and reinforcement were enumerated. Applications of laser to cutting of reinforced and unreinforced concrete constructions were shown, and the concept and safety measure for application of laser to practical demolition was discussed. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  1. Selection of Near Optimal Laser Cutting Parameters in CO2 Laser Cutting by the Taguchi Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš MADIĆ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Identification of laser cutting conditions that are insensitive to parameter variations and noise is of great importance. This paper demonstrates the application of Taguchi method for optimization of surface roughness in CO2 laser cutting of stainless steel. The laser cutting experiment was planned and conducted according to the Taguchi’s experimental design using the L27 orthogonal array. Four laser cutting parameters such as laser power, cutting speed, assist gas pressure, and focus position were considered in the experiment. Using the analysis of means and analysis of variance, the significant laser cutting parameters were identified, and subsequently the optimal combination of laser cutting parameter levels was determined. The results showed that the cutting speed is the most significant parameter affecting the surface roughness whereas the influence of the assist gas pressure can be neglected. It was observed, however, that interaction effects have predominant influence over the main effects on the surface roughness.

  2. Setup and maintenance of manufacturing quality in CO2 laser cutting

    OpenAIRE

    Thombansen, U.; Hermanns, T.; Stoyanov, S.

    2014-01-01

    Manufacturing of parts by laser cutting is widely accepted in industry. In the market there are systems which are highly focused on special applications such as robot based 3D cutting in the automotive industry but also all-round machines which cut a diverse set of sheet steels at a variety of thicknesses. Most of these machines use a melt based cutting process where the molten material is ejected by an assist gas. Quality of the laser cut part is determined by a dross free cut with minimal r...

  3. Gluebond strength of laser cut wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles W. McMillin; Henry A. Huber

    1985-01-01

    The degree of strength loss when gluing laser cut wood as compared to conventionally sawn wood and the amount of additional surface treatment needed to improve bond quality were assessed under normal furniture plant operating conditions. The strength of laser cut oak glued with polyvinyl acetate adhesive was reduced to 75 percent of sawn joints and gum was reduced 43...

  4. High power YAG laser cutting; Koshutsuryoku YAG laser ni yoru setsudan gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owaki, K. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-08-01

    This paper describes features of high power YAG cutting. The optical fiber transmission YAG laser machining system has some advantages in which optical path length compensation unit is not required and measures for low power loss and dust are not required, when compared with the CO2 laser system. Its application to the cutting of stainless steel plates has attracted attention. Cutting tests of SUS304 were conducted using high power YAG laser. Cutting of SUS304 plate with a thickness of 40 mm could be successfully done at the power of 3.5 kW. Cutting tests of SUS304 pipes with a thickness of 8 mm in water under the depth of 20 m were also conducted using air as assist gas at the power of 2.5 kW. Excellent results were obtained without scale deposition. For the tests by the composite beam using 3 kW and 4 kW systems, SUS304 plate with a thickness of 50 mm could be cut at the cutting speed of 0.1 m/min. Laser cutting of pipes from the internal surface was conducted using a newly developed small machining head which can rotate in the peripheral direction. Excellent quality for welding was confirmed. Cutting speed and plate thickness were improved by combining water jet cutter and YAG laser unit. 6 refs., 10 figs.

  5. Underwater laser cutting of metallic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfille, J.P.; Schildknecht, J.; Ramaswami, V.S.

    1993-01-01

    In the frame of an european contract, the feasibility of the underwater cutting with a CO 2 laser power is studied. The aim of this work is the dismantling metallic structures of reactors pools. The paper analyzes the general concept of the experimental device, the underwater cutting head, the experimenting vessel, examples of cuttings in dismantling situation with a 500 W CO 2 laser, and examples of cuttings with a 5 kW CO 2 laser. (author). 2 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Underwater laser cutting of metal structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfille, J.P.; Prunele, D. de [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Direction des Technologies Avancees; Pilot, G. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Protection de l`Environnement et des Installations; Fredrick, P.; Ramaswami, V.S.; Muys, P. [Radius Engineering, Gent (Belgium)

    1994-12-31

    Cutting tests were carried out on stainless steel (304L) in air and under 7 meters of water (application to reactor pools), using CO{sub 2} and YAG lasers; results concerned cutting speed, quality of cut, cutting thickness. By-products of sectioning operations using a CO{sub 2} laser were studied: dross, aerosols, suspended particles in water, gas analysis, chemical analysis of the aerosols. Same measurements are currently being taken in the case of the YAG laser with beam transported via optical fiber. (from author). 16 figs., 2 tabs., 3 refs.

  7. Underwater laser cutting of metal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfille, J.P.; Prunele, D. de

    1994-01-01

    Cutting tests were carried out on stainless steel (304L) in air and under 7 meters of water (application to reactor pools), using CO 2 and YAG lasers; results concerned cutting speed, quality of cut, cutting thickness. By-products of sectioning operations using a CO 2 laser were studied: dross, aerosols, suspended particles in water, gas analysis, chemical analysis of the aerosols. Same measurements are currently being taken in the case of the YAG laser with beam transported via optical fiber. (from author). 16 figs., 2 tabs., 3 refs

  8. Thermophysical problems of laser cutting of metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orishich Anatoliy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Variety and complex interaction of physical processes during laser cutting is a critical characteristic of the laser cutting of metals. Small spatial and temporal scales complicate significantly the experimental investigations of the multi-phase fluid flow in the conditions of laser cutting of metals. In these conditions, the surface formed during the cutting is an indicator determining the melt flow character. The quantitative parameter reflecting the peculiarities of the multi-phase fluid flow, is normally the roughness of the forming surface, and the minimal roughness is the criterion of the qualitative flow [1 – 2]. The purpose of this work is to perform the experimental comparative investigation of the thermophysical pattern of the multi-phase melt flow in the conditions of the laser cutting of metals with the laser wavelength of 10.6 μm and 1.07 μm.

  9. Monitoring machining conditions by analyzing cutting force vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piao, Chun Guang; Kim, Ju Wan; Kim, Jin Oh; Shin, Yoan [Soongsl University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    This paper deals with an experimental technique for monitoring machining conditions by analyzing cutting-force vibration measured at a milling machine. This technique is based on the relationship of the cutting-force vibrations with the feed rate and cutting depth as reported earlier. The measurement system consists of dynamic force transducers and a signal amplifier. The analysis system includes an oscilloscope and a computer with a LabVIEW program. Experiments were carried out at various feed rates and cutting depths, while the rotating speed was kept constant. The magnitude of the cutting force vibration component corresponding to the number of cutting edges multiplied by the frequency of rotation was linearly correlated with the machining conditions. When one condition of machining is known, another condition can be identified by analyzing the cutting-force vibration.

  10. Monitoring machining conditions by analyzing cutting force vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piao, Chun Guang; Kim, Ju Wan; Kim, Jin Oh; Shin, Yoan

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with an experimental technique for monitoring machining conditions by analyzing cutting-force vibration measured at a milling machine. This technique is based on the relationship of the cutting-force vibrations with the feed rate and cutting depth as reported earlier. The measurement system consists of dynamic force transducers and a signal amplifier. The analysis system includes an oscilloscope and a computer with a LabVIEW program. Experiments were carried out at various feed rates and cutting depths, while the rotating speed was kept constant. The magnitude of the cutting force vibration component corresponding to the number of cutting edges multiplied by the frequency of rotation was linearly correlated with the machining conditions. When one condition of machining is known, another condition can be identified by analyzing the cutting-force vibration

  11. Comparative investigation of partial least squares discriminant analysis and support vector machines for geological cuttings identification using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Ye; Wang, Zhennan [Optics and Optoelectronics Laboratory, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, Shandong 266100 (China); Han, Xiaoshuang [Optics and Optoelectronics Laboratory, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, Shandong 266100 (China); College of Electronic Information Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia 010021 (China); Hou, Huaming [Optics and Optoelectronics Laboratory, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, Shandong 266100 (China); Zheng, Ronger, E-mail: rzheng@ouc.edu.cn [Optics and Optoelectronics Laboratory, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, Shandong 266100 (China)

    2014-12-01

    With the hope of applying laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to the geological logging field, a series of cutting samples were classified using LIBS coupled with chemometric methods. In this paper, we focused on a comparative investigation of the linear PLS-DA method and non-linear SVM method. Both the optimal PLS-DA model and SVM model were built by the leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) approach with the calibration LIBS spectra, and then tested by validation spectra. We show that the performance of SVM is significantly better than PLS-DA because of its ability to address the non-linear relationships in LIBS spectra, with a correct classification rate of 91.67% instead of 68.34%, and an unclassification rate of 3.33% instead of 28.33%. To further improve the classification accuracy, we then designed a new classification approach by the joint analysis of PLS-DA and SVM models. With this method, 95% of the validation spectra are correctly classified and no unclassified spectra are observed. This work demonstrated that the coupling of LIBS with the non-linear SVM method has great potential to be used for on-line classification of geological cutting samples, and the combination of PLS-DA and SVM enables the cuttings identification with an excellent performance. - Highlights: • The geological cuttings were classified using LIBS coupled with chemometric methods. • The non-linear SVM showed significantly better performance than PLS-DA. • The joint analysis of PLS-DA and SVMs provided an excellent accuracy of 95%.

  12. Comparative investigation of partial least squares discriminant analysis and support vector machines for geological cuttings identification using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Ye; Wang, Zhennan; Han, Xiaoshuang; Hou, Huaming; Zheng, Ronger

    2014-01-01

    With the hope of applying laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to the geological logging field, a series of cutting samples were classified using LIBS coupled with chemometric methods. In this paper, we focused on a comparative investigation of the linear PLS-DA method and non-linear SVM method. Both the optimal PLS-DA model and SVM model were built by the leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) approach with the calibration LIBS spectra, and then tested by validation spectra. We show that the performance of SVM is significantly better than PLS-DA because of its ability to address the non-linear relationships in LIBS spectra, with a correct classification rate of 91.67% instead of 68.34%, and an unclassification rate of 3.33% instead of 28.33%. To further improve the classification accuracy, we then designed a new classification approach by the joint analysis of PLS-DA and SVM models. With this method, 95% of the validation spectra are correctly classified and no unclassified spectra are observed. This work demonstrated that the coupling of LIBS with the non-linear SVM method has great potential to be used for on-line classification of geological cutting samples, and the combination of PLS-DA and SVM enables the cuttings identification with an excellent performance. - Highlights: • The geological cuttings were classified using LIBS coupled with chemometric methods. • The non-linear SVM showed significantly better performance than PLS-DA. • The joint analysis of PLS-DA and SVMs provided an excellent accuracy of 95%

  13. Theoretical aspects of fibre laser cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahrle, A; Beyer, E, E-mail: achim.mahrle@iws.fraunhofer.d [University of Technology Dresden, Institute for Surface and Manufacturing Technology, PO Box, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2009-09-07

    Fibre lasers offer distinct advantages over established laser systems with respect to power efficiency, beam guidance and beam quality. Consequently, the potential of these new laser beam sources will be increasingly exploited for laser cutting applications that are conventionally carried out with CO{sub 2} lasers. However, theoretical estimates of the effective absorptivity at the cut front suggest that the shorter wavelength of the fibre laser in combination with its high focusability seems to be primarily advantageous for thin sheet metal cutting whereas the CO{sub 2} laser is probably still capable of cutting thicker materials more efficiently. This surprising result is a consequence of the absorptivity behaviour of metals that shows essential quantitative differences for the corresponding wavelengths of both laser sources as a function of the angle of incidence between the laser beam and the material to be cut. In evaluation of the revealed dependences, solution strategies for an improvement of the efficiency of fibre laser cutting of thicker metal sheets are suggested.

  14. Relation between Cutting Surface Quality and Alloying Element Contents when Using a CO2 Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Litecká

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the influence of material content on changes in the quality parameters of the cutting surface when cutting with a laser. The study focuses on experiments to find the effect of material structure and cutting parameters on surface roughness, Vickers microhardness and precision of laser cutting. The experimental results are shown in graphs which illustrate the suitability of materials for achieving required cutting surface quality parameters. These results can be used for optimizing production in practical applications using a laser cutting machine.

  15. ANALYSIS OF PARAMETERS AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF A CUTTING MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Onderová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The quality of cutting machines is affected by several factors that can be directly or indirectly influenced by manufacturers, technicians and users of machine tools. The most critical qualitative evaluation parameters of machine tools include accuracy and stability. Investigations of accuracy and repeatable positioning accuracy were essential for the research presented in this paper. The aim was to develop and experimentally verify the design of a methodology for cutting centers aimed at achieving the desired working precision. Before working on the topic described here, it was necessary to make several scientific analyses, which are summarized in this paper. We can build on the initial working hypothesis that by improving the technological parameters (e.g. by increasing the working speed of the machine, or by improving the precision of the positioning the quality of the cutting machine will also be improved. For the purposes of our study, several investigated parameters were set affecting positioning accuracy, such as rigidity, positioning speed, etc. First, the stiffness of the portal structure of the cutting machine was analyzed. FEM analysis was used to investigate several alternative structures of the cutting machine, and also an innovative solution for beam mounting. The second step was to integrate two types of drives into the design of the cutting machine. The first drive is a classic rack and pinion drive for cutting machines. To increase (improve the working speed of the machine, linear motors were designed as an alternative drive. The portal of the cutting machine was designed for a working speed of 260mmin−1 and acceleration of 25 m. s−2. The third step was based on the results of the analysis. In collaboration with Microstep, an experimental cutting machine in a portal version was produced using linear synchronous motors driving the portal on both sides, and with direct linear metering of its position. In the fourth step, an

  16. Cutting weeds with a CO2 laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisel, T.; Schou, Jørgen; Christensen, S.

    2001-01-01

    Stems of Chenopodium album. and Sinapis arvensis. and leaves of Lolium perenne. were cut with a CO2 laser or with a pair of scissors. Treatments were carried out on greenhouse-grown pot plants at three different growth stages and at two heights. Plant dry matter was measured 2 to 5 weeks after...... treatment. The relationship between dry weight and laser energy was analysed using a non-linear dose-response regression model. The regression parameters differed significantly between the weed species. At all growth stages and heights S. arvensis was more difficult to cut with a CO2 laser than C. album....... When stems were cut below the meristems, 0.9 and 2.3 J mm(-1) of CO2 laser energy dose was sufficient to reduce by 90% the biomass of C. album and S. arvensis respectively. Regrowth appeared when dicotyledonous plant stems were cut above meristems, indicating that it is important to cut close...

  17. Laser cutting of sheets for Tailored Blanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1999-01-01

    sound welds. Laser cutting the sheets may therefore be an alternative to shear cutting, if the cut kerf squareness can be kept below 0.05 mm.In a number of systematic laboratory experiments the effects of the major process parameters in laser cutting have been investigated. Each cut was quantified...... by the squareness, the surface roughness and the burr height. Mild steel as well as high strength steel with and with out galvanisation with thickness' of 0.7(5) and 1.25 were used.In the tests the difference in cut quality between a 5" and a 7.5" focusing lens were tested and the effect of using pulsed mode laser...

  18. Craterlike structures on the laser cut surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulyatyev, V. B.; Orishich, A. M.

    2017-10-01

    Analysis of the laser cut surface morphology remain topical. It is related with the fact that the surface roughness is the main index of the cut quality. The present paper deals with the experimental study of the relatively unstudied type of defects on the laser cut surface, dimples, or craters. According to the measurement results, amount of craters per unit of the laser cut surface area rises as the sheet thickness rises. The crater diameter rises together with the sheet thickness and distance from the upper sheet edge. The obtained data permit concluding that the defects like craters are observed predominantly in the case of thick sheets. The results agree with the hypothesis of crater formation as impact structures resulting from the melt drops getting on the cut channel walls upon separation from the cut front by the gas flow.

  19. Performance of 3KW laser in cutting industry. Yodan gyokai ni okeru 3KW reza no koyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kita, H.; Miyaji, T.

    1993-11-01

    Recently, as the CO2 laser oscillator requires bigger power output, steel plates to be cut with a laser cutting machine have become thick plates with thickness of 12mm or more and the size of the plate which can be cut has become from the standard size of 4 inch by 8 inch or 5 inch by 10 inch to a big size of more than several meters because of introduction of the gantry type. In this article, the CO2 laser cutting machine introduced to Komatsu Shearing Co. and its operating conditions are introduced and the trends of powerful laser cutting machines in the cutting industry in the future are predicted. Laser cutting makes high cutting quality, but its device and running costs becomes high. For adopting a laser cutting machine, such items have been individually examined that no bitter work is involved in cutting, no skill is needed, no strain is formed during the press work in the succeeding process and the yield is high (95%), and a Komatsu laser cutting machine has been introduced. As a result, it has been found that the machine can produce a product of higher quality than shearing. Hereafter, this machine will further be used for manufacturing parts of construction machines, etc. for which high accuracy and high quality are demanded. 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Tool path strategy and cutting process monitoring in intelligent machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Wang, Chengdong; An, Qinglong; Ming, Weiwei

    2018-06-01

    Intelligent machining is a current focus in advanced manufacturing technology, and is characterized by high accuracy and efficiency. A central technology of intelligent machining—the cutting process online monitoring and optimization—is urgently needed for mass production. In this research, the cutting process online monitoring and optimization in jet engine impeller machining, cranio-maxillofacial surgery, and hydraulic servo valve deburring are introduced as examples of intelligent machining. Results show that intelligent tool path optimization and cutting process online monitoring are efficient techniques for improving the efficiency, quality, and reliability of machining.

  1. Comparison of CO2 Laser Cutting with Different Laser Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketting, Hans-Ole; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1996-01-01

    This paper contains CO2 laser cutting results in mild and stainless steel with different laser sources. The main factors which affect the cutting speed and quality are the power, the cutting gas and focal point conditions. Keeping the power and cutting gas constant, the focal point conditions have...... size,for the maximum cutting speed. One of the 7 laser sources with different focal length and thus different minimum spot size, was then used to investigate more in details the importance of the focal spot size cutting stainless steel with high pressure nitrogen. It looks as if there is a strong...... connection between the smallest avail-able spot size and cutting speed in mild steel, whereas the conditions in stainless steel, depends strongly on the flow conditions in the cut kerf, and not only on the focal spot size....

  2. Laser welding, cutting and surface treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crafer, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    Fourteen articles cover a wide range of laser applications in welding, cutting and surface treatment. Future trends are covered as well as specific applications in shipbuilding, the manufacture of heart pacemakers, in the electronics industry, in automobile production and in the aeroengine industry. Safety with industrial lasers and the measurement of laser beam parameters are also included. One article on 'Lasers in the Nuclear Industry' is indexed separately. (U.K.)

  3. Study of Cutting Edge Temperature and Cutting Force of End Mill Tool in High Speed Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiprawi Mohammad Ashaari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A wear of cutting tools during machining process is unavoidable due to the presence of frictional forces during removing process of unwanted material of workpiece. It is unavoidable but can be controlled at slower rate if the cutting speed is fixed at certain point in order to achieve optimum cutting conditions. The wear of cutting tools is closely related with the thermal deformations that occurred between the frictional contact point of cutting edge of cutting tool and workpiece. This research paper is focused on determinations of relationship among cutting temperature, cutting speed, cutting forces and radial depth of cutting parameters. The cutting temperature is determined by using the Indium Arsenide (InAs and Indium Antimonide (InSb photocells to measure infrared radiation that are emitted from cutting tools and cutting forces is determined by using dynamometer. The high speed machining process is done by end milling the outer surface of carbon steel. The signal from the photocell is digitally visualized in the digital oscilloscope. Based on the results, the cutting temperature increased as the radial depth and cutting speed increased. The cutting forces increased when radial depth increased but decreased when cutting speed is increased. The setup for calibration and discussion of the experiment will be explained in this paper.

  4. Precision cutting and drilling with the Nd-YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingenfelter, A.C.; Anglin, C.D.; Westrich, C.N.; Murchie, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Laser Processing Facility of the Materials Fabrication Division of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has two pulsed Nd-YAG lasers mounted on machine tool bases. Over the years the authors have had requirements for cutting a wide variety of materials, frequently to very tight dimensional tolerances. They have found that the laser process is particularly well suited for two application areas; (1) for thin cross sections of most all materials, and (2) for refractory metals and ceramics such as tungsten, tantalum, and molybdenum, silicon wafers, alumina, and graphite foil. Some of these materials are difficult if not impossible to cut and drill in any other manner. Examples of each of these types of applications are sighted. Data are presented to illustrate the effects and interactions of laser parameter variables such as aperturing, choice of lenses, focus, pulse length, and energy level. Examples of applications are shown

  5. Innovations: laser-cutting nickel-titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, T.R.; Moore, B.; Toyama, N. [LPL Systems, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Laser-cutting is well established as the preferred method for manufacturing many endovascular medical devices. Sometimes laser processing has been poorly understood by nickel-titanium (NiTi) material suppliers, medical device manufacturers, and device designers, but the field has made important strides in the past several years. A variety of sample, nonspecific applications are presented for cutting tubing and sheet stock. Limiting constraints, key considerations, and areas for future development are identified. (orig.)

  6. Experimental improvement of the technology of cutting of high-pressure hoses with metal braid on hand cutting machine

    OpenAIRE

    Karpenko, Mykola; Bogdevicius, Marijonas; Prentkovskis, Olegas

    2016-01-01

    In the article the review of the problem of improvement of technology of high pressure hoses cutting on the hand cutting machines is analyzed. Different methods of cutting of high pressure hoses into the billets are overviewed and the quality of edge cuts of hoses is analyzed. The comparison of treatment on automatic cutting machines and on hand cutting machines is carried out. Different experimental techniques of improvement of the quality of edges cutting of high pressure hoses are prese...

  7. Plasma cutting or laser cutting. Plasma setsudan ka laser setsudan ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, A. (Tanaka Engineering Works Ltd., Saitama (Japan))

    1991-05-01

    Comparisons and discussions were made on the plasma cutting and laser cutting in sheet steel cutting, referring partly to gas cutting. Historically, the cutting has been developed from gas, plasma, and laser in that order, and currently these three methods are used mixedly. Generally, the plasma cutting is superior in cutting speed, but inferior in cut face quality, and it requires measures of dust collection. Due to high accuracy and quality in cut face, the laser cutting has been practically used for quite some time in the thin sheet industry, but medium to thick sheet cutting had a problem of unavailability of high output laser suitable for these ranges. However, the recent technologies have overcome the problem as a result of development at the authors {prime} company of a 2 kW class laser cutter capable of cutting 19 mm thick sheet. The cutter has been proven being particularly excellent in controllability. Choice of whether plasma or laser would depend upon which priority is to be taken, cost or accuracy. 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Laser Cutting of Materials of Various Thicknesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Grepl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thise paper deals with the application of laser technology and optimizing the parameters for cutting nickel alloy. The theoretical part of the paper describes various types of lasers, their principles and usage. The experimental part focuses on optimizing the section parameteres of Haynes 718 alloy using a CO2 gas laser. This alloy is employed in the production of components for the aircraft industry. The experiment was performed on the Wibro Delta laser system designed for sizable parts. The actual section is measured with respect to its quality and any accompanying side effects that occur during the process. In this case, laser output and cutting speed were the parameters with most influence on the final cut. The summary explains the results achieved in a metallographic laboratory.

  9. Target fabrication using laser and spark erosion machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, X.; Coudeville, A.; Eyharts, P.; Perrine, J.P.; Rouillard, R.

    1982-01-01

    Fabrication of laser fusion targets requires a number of special techniques. We have developed both laser and spark erosion machining to produce minute parts of complex targets. A high repetition rate YAG laser at double frequency is used to etch various materials. For example, marks or patterns are often necessary on structured or advanced targets. The laser is also used to thin down plastic coated stalks. A spark erosion system has proved to be a versatile tool and we describe current fabrication processes like cutting, drilling, and ultra precise machining. Spark erosion has interesting features for target fabrication: it is a highly controllable and reproducible technique as well as relatively inexpensive

  10. Design principles of metal-cutting machine tools

    CERN Document Server

    Koenigsberger, F

    1964-01-01

    Design Principles of Metal-Cutting Machine Tools discusses the fundamentals aspects of machine tool design. The book covers the design consideration of metal-cutting machine, such as static and dynamic stiffness, operational speeds, gearboxes, manual, and automatic control. The text first details the data calculation and the general requirements of the machine tool. Next, the book discusses the design principles, which include stiffness and rigidity of the separate constructional elements and their combined behavior under load, as well as electrical, mechanical, and hydraulic drives for the op

  11. Factors influencing laser cutting of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    V.G. Barnekov; C.W. McMillin; H.A. Huber

    1986-01-01

    Factors influencing the ability of lasers to cut wood may be generally classified into these three areas: 1) characteristics of the laser beam; 2) equipment and processing variables; and 3) properties of the workpiece. Effects of beam power, mode, polarization, and stability are discussed as are aspects of optics, location of focal point, feed speed, gas-jet assist...

  12. Surface quality finish in laser cutting using Taguchi design

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sharma, V.; Chattopadhyaya, S.; Hloch, Sergej

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 1 (2017), s. 15-19 ISSN 1330-3651 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : cutting speed * factorial design * laser pulse width * orthogonal array * pulse repetition rate (PRR) or pulse frequency Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools OBOR OECD: Mechanical engineering Impact factor: 0.723, year: 2016 http://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=clanak&id_clanak_jezik=257818

  13. Laser cutting technology using water jet waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Miyuki; Shiihara, Katsunori; Chida, Itaru

    2013-01-01

    Laser with water jet is examined to cut in-vessel structure. However, it is necessary to increase the break-up length of water jet to cut a thick plate. Therefore, the effects of the water jet parameter (water pressure, assist gas, laser power) on break-up length were investigated. It was found from observation results of water jet that the longest break-up length is about 135mm under condition of water pressure 40 MPa, laser power 30W and helium assist gas 1L/min. (author)

  14. SOFTWARE TOOL FOR LASER CUTTING PROCESS CONTROL – SOLVING REAL INDUSTRIAL CASE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Madić

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Laser cutting is one of the leading non-conventional machining technologies with a wide spectrum of application in modern industry. It order to exploit a number of advantages that this technology offers for contour cutting of materials, it is necessary to carefully select laser cutting conditions for each given workpiece material, thickness and desired cut qualities. In other words, there is a need for process control of laser cutting. After a comprehensive analysis of the main laser cutting parameters and process performance characteristics, the application of the developed software tool “BRUTOMIZER” for off-line control of CO2 laser cutting process of three different workpiece materials (mild steel, stainless steel and aluminum is illustrated. Advantages and abilities of the developed software tool are also illustrated.

  15. Laser Cutting Tool Path Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Dewil, Reginald; Cattrysse, Dirk; Vansteenwegen, Pieter

    2011-01-01

    Given a set of irregular parts nested on a metal sheet, minimize the total non- cutting time for the cutter head, cutting all the required elements and returning to the starting location. The problem is modeled as a generalized traveling sales- person problem with special precedence constraints. An initial feasible solution is generated and improved by local moves embedded in a tabu search framework. The proposed algorithm shows promising results in comparison with a commercial...

  16. Trim cut machining and surface integrity analysis of Nimonic 80A alloy using wire cut EDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitesh Goswami

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This present work deals with the features of trim cut wire EDM machining of Nimonic 80A in terms of machining parameters, to predict material removal rate (MRR, surface roughness (Ra, wire wear ratio (WWR and microstructure analysis. Trim cut is performed after rough cut to remove the rough layer deposited after machining due to melting and re-solidification of the eroded metal from workpiece as well as from wire electrode. Taguchi’s design of experiments methodology has been used for planning and designing the experiments. The relative significance of various factors has also been evaluated and analyzed using ANOVA. The results clearly indicate trim cut potential for high surface finish compared to rough cut machining.

  17. TEA CO2 laser machining of CFRP composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, A.; Li, L.; Mativenga, P.; Whitehead, D.

    2016-05-01

    Carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites have found wide applications in the aerospace, marine, sports and automotive industries owing to their lightweight and acceptable mechanical properties compared to the commonly used metallic materials. Machining of CFRP composites using lasers can be challenging due to inhomogeneity in the material properties and structures, which can lead to thermal damages during laser processing. In the previous studies, Nd:YAG, diode-pumped solid-state, CO2 (continuous wave), disc and fibre lasers were used in cutting CFRP composites and the control of damages such as the size of heat-affected zones (HAZs) remains a challenge. In this paper, a short-pulsed (8 μs) transversely excited atmospheric pressure CO2 laser was used, for the first time, to machine CFRP composites. The laser has high peak powers (up to 250 kW) and excellent absorption by both the carbon fibre and the epoxy binder. Design of experiment and statistical modelling, based on response surface methodology, was used to understand the interactions between the process parameters such as laser fluence, repetition rate and cutting speed and their effects on the cut quality characteristics including size of HAZ, machining depth and material removal rate (MRR). Based on this study, process parameter optimization was carried out to minimize the HAZ and maximize the MRR. A discussion is given on the potential applications and comparisons to other lasers in machining CFRP.

  18. Plasma hot machining for difficult-to-cut materials, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Takeaki; Maekawa, Katsuhiro; Kubo, Akihiko

    1987-01-01

    Machinability of difficult-to-cut materials has been a great concern to manufacturing engineers since demands for new materials in the aerospace and nuclear industries are more and more increasing. The purpose of this study is to develop a hot machining to improve machinability of high hardness materials. A plasma arc is used for heating materials cut. The surface just after being heated is removed as a chip by tungsten carbide tools. The turning experiments of high hardness steels with aid of plasma arc heating show not only the decrease in cutting forces but also the following effectiveness: (1) The application of the plasma hot machining to the condition, under which a built-up edge (BUE) appears in turning 0.46%C steel, makes the BUE disappeared, bringing less flank wear. (2) In the case of 18%Mn steel cutting, deep groove wear on the end-cutting edge diminishes, and roughness of the machined surface is improved by the prevention from chatter. (3) Although the chilled cast iron has high hardness of above HB = 350, the plasma hot machining makes it possible to cut it with tungsten carbide tools having less chipping and flank wear. (author)

  19. A supervisor system for computer aided laser machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    Lasers achieve non divergent beam of short wavelength energy which can propagate through normal atmosphere with little divergence and can be focused on very fine points. The final high energy per unit area on target is highly localised and suitable for various types of machining at high speeds. The most notable factor is that this high energy spot can be located precisely using light-weight optical components. The laser-machining is very amenable to environmental conditions unlike electron beam and other techniques. Precision cutting and welding of nuclear materials in normal or non oxidising atmosphere can be done using this fairly easily. To achieve these objectives, development of a computer controlled laser machining system has been undertaken. The development project aims at building a computer aided machine with indegenous controller and medium power laser suitable for cutting, welding, and marking. This paper describes the integration of the various computer aided functions, spanning over the full range, from job-defining to final finished part-delivary, in computer aided laser machining. Various innovative features of the system that render it suitable for laser tool development as well as for special machining applications with user-friendliness have been covered. (author). 5 refs., 5 figs

  20. Thermal and thermo-mechanical simulation of laser assisted machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germain, G.; Dal Santo, P.; Lebrun, J. L.; Bellett, D.; Robert, P.

    2007-01-01

    Laser Assisted Machining (LAM) improves the machinability of materials by locally heating the workpiece just prior to cutting. The heat input is provided by a high power laser focused several millimeters in front of the cutting tool. Experimental investigations have confirmed that the cutting force can be decreased, by as much as 40%, for various materials (tool steel, titanium alloys and nickel alloys). The laser heat input is essentially superficial and results in non-uniform temperature profiles within the depth of the workpiece. The temperature field in the cutting zone is therefore influenced by many parameters. In order to understand the effect of the laser on chip formation and on the temperature fields in the different deformation zones, thermo-mechanical simulation were undertaken. A thermo-mechanical model for chip formation with and without the laser was also undertaken for different cutting parameters. Experimental tests for the orthogonal cutting of 42CrMo4 steel were used to validate the simulation via the prediction of the cutting force with and without the laser. The thermo-mechanical model then allowed us to highlight the differences in the temperature fields in the cutting zone with and without the laser. In particular, it was shown that for LAM the auto-heating of the material in the primary shear zone is less important and that the friction between the tool and chip also generates less heat. The temperature fields allow us to explain the reduction in the cutting force and the resulting residual stress fields in the workpiece

  1. Performance comparison of CO2 and diode lasers for deep-section concrete cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouse, Philip L.; Li, Lin; Spencer, Julian T.

    2004-01-01

    Layer-by-layer laser machining with mechanical removal of vitrified dross between passes is a new technique with a demonstrated capability for deep-section cutting, not only of concrete, but of ceramic and refractory materials in general. For this application fairly low power densities are required. A comparison of experimental results using high-power CO 2 and diode lasers under roughly equivalent experimental conditions, cutting to depths of >100 mm, is presented. A marked improvement in cutting depth per pass is observed for the case of the diode laser. The increased cutting rate is rationalized in terms of the combined effects of coupling efficiency and beam shape

  2. Enhancement of low power CO2 laser cutting process for injection molded polycarbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Mahmoud; Mehrabi, Omid; Azdast, Taher; Benyounis, Khaled Y.

    2017-11-01

    Laser cutting technology is a non-contact process that typically is used for industrial manufacturing applications. Laser cut quality is strongly influenced by the cutting processing parameters. In this research, CO2 laser cutting specifications have been investigated by using design of experiments (DOE) with considering laser cutting speed, laser power and focal plane position as process input parameters and kerf geometry dimensions (i.e. top and bottom kerf width, ratio of the upper kerf to lower kerf, upper heat affected zone (HAZ)) and surface roughness of the kerf wall as process output responses. A 60 Watts CO2 laser cutting machine is used for cutting the injection molded samples of polycarbonate sheet with the thickness of 3.2 mm. Results reveal that by decreasing the laser focal plane position and laser power, the bottom kerf width will be decreased. Also the bottom kerf width decreases by increasing the cutting speed. As a general result, locating the laser spot point in the depth of the workpiece the laser cutting quality increases. Minimum value of the responses (top kerf, heat affected zone, ratio of the upper kerf to lower kerf, and surface roughness) are considered as optimization criteria. Validating the theoretical results using the experimental tests is carried out in order to analyze the results obtained via software.

  3. Cutting thin glass by femtosecond laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyesung; Kim, Dongsik

    2018-06-01

    The femtosecond laser ablation process for cutting thin aluminoborosilicate glass sheets of thickness 100 μm was investigated with emphasis on effective cutting speed (Veff) and mechanical strength of diced samples. The process parameters including the laser fluence (F), overlap ratio (r) of the laser beam and polarization direction were varied at a fixed pulse repetition rate f = 1 kHz to find the optimal process condition that maximizes Veff and edge strength. A three-point bending test was performed to evaluate the front-side and back-side bending (edge) strength of the laser-cut samples. Veff was proportional to F unless r exceeded a critical value, at which excessive energy began to be delivered at the same spot. The front-side edge strength was bigger than the back-side strength because of the back-side damages such as chipping. Good edge strength, as high as ∼280 MPa (front-side) and ∼230 MPa (back-side), was obtained at F = 19 J/m2, r = 0.99, with laser polarization vertical to the cutting path.

  4. Present and future of laser welding machine; Laser yosetsuki no genjo to tenbo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniu, Y. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-04-01

    This paper describes recent trends of laser welding machine. For CO2 laser welding machine, seam weld of large diameter weld pipes using a 25 kW-class machine, and plate weld of steel plate using a 45 kW-class machine are reported. For YAG laser welding machine, high-output 5.5 kW-class machines are commercialized. Machines with slab structure of plate-like YAG chrystal have been developed which show high-oscillation efficiency and can be applied to cutting. Machines have been developed in which YAG laser output with slab structure is transmitted through GI fiber. High-speed welding of aluminum alloys can be realized by improving the converging performance. Efficiency of YAG laser can be enhanced through the time-divided utilization by switching the beam transmission path using fiber change-over switch. In the automobile industry, CO2 laser is mainly used, and a system combining CO laser with articulate robot is realized. TIG and MIG welding is often used for welding of aluminum for railway vehicles. It is required to reduce the welding strain. In the iron and steel industry, the productivity has been improved by the laser welding. YAG laser is put into practice for nuclear reactors. 5 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Recent results in mirror based high power laser cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Nielsen, Jakob Skov; Elvang, Mads

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, recent results in high power laser cutting, obtained in reseach and development projects are presented. Two types of mirror based focussing systems for laser cutting have been developed and applied in laser cutting studies on CO2-lasers up to 12 kW. In shipyard environment cutting...... speed increase relative to state-of-the-art cutting of over 100 % has been achieved....

  6. Factors influencing laser cutting of wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnekov, V. G.; McMillin, C. W.; Huber, H. A.

    1986-07-01

    Factors influencing the ability of lasers to cut wood may be generally classified into these three areas: 1) characteristics of the laser beam; 2) equipment and processing variables; and 3) properties of the work piece. Effects of beam power, mode, polarization, and stability are discussed as are aspects of optics, location of focal point, feed speed, gas-jet assist system and work piece thickness, density, and moisture content. (author)

  7. Laser cutting - from 200 Watt to 12 Kilowatt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    2004-01-01

    Laser cutting is the most widespread industrial application of high power lasers. The development of this process was initiated around 1970, when scientists at TWI first demonstrated laser cutting with coaxial gas assistance. 10 years later, the polarisation problem was solved and the technology ...... got its breakthrough. Since then some 30,000 laser cutting systems have been installed worldwide, making the laser an important cutting tool in modern industry....

  8. Computerized Machine for Cutting Space Shuttle Thermal Tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Luis E.; Reuter, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    A report presents the concept of a machine aboard the space shuttle that would cut oversized thermal-tile blanks to precise sizes and shapes needed to replace tiles that were damaged or lost during ascent to orbit. The machine would include a computer-controlled jigsaw enclosed in a clear acrylic shell that would prevent escape of cutting debris. A vacuum motor would collect the debris into a reservoir and would hold a tile blank securely in place. A database stored in the computer would contain the unique shape and dimensions of every tile. Once a broken or missing tile was identified, its identification number would be entered into the computer, wherein the cutting pattern associated with that number would be retrieved from the database. A tile blank would be locked into a crib in the machine, the shell would be closed (proximity sensors would prevent activation of the machine while the shell was open), and a "cut" command would be sent from the computer. A blade would be moved around the crib like a plotter, cutting the tile to the required size and shape. Once the tile was cut, an astronaut would take a space walk for installation.

  9. Characterisation of aerosols produced by laser cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauvel, S.; Pilot, G.; Dinechin, G. de; Gosse, X.; Arnaud, P.

    2007-01-01

    Powerful lasers represent a promising alternative solution to traditional cutting processes used in dismantling nuclear equipments. The use of optical fibers has an unquestionable advantage when dealing with airtight workshops. A study funded by COGEMA Marcoule was undertaken by IRSN/SERAC in collaboration with GIP/GERAILP in order to characterise the aerosols emitted by the cutting of evaporators elements with a 4 kW continuous wave Nd:YAG laser. For this study, laser cutting has been carried out in a tight room of 35 m 3 connected to a particle sampling pipe. Iso-kinetic samplers allowed the measurement of the aerosol concentration. A diffusional and inertial spectrometer (SDI 2001) - an Andersen impinger coupled to a diffusion battery - provided the size distribution. An electrostatic filter used upstream a HEPA filter, itself placed before the extractor fan, collected the majority of the emitted aerosol. Its efficiency was measured and controlled throughout the experiments. The results show the influence of the cutting conditions on the characteristics of the aerosol, and allow a comparison with other cutting tools. (authors)

  10. KrF excimer laser precision machining of hard and brittle ceramic biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yao-Xiong; Lu, Jian-Yi; Huang, Jin-Xia

    2014-01-01

    KrF excimer laser precision machining of porous hard–brittle ceramic biomaterials was studied to find a suitable way of machining the materials into various desired shapes and sizes without distorting their intrinsic structure and porosity. Calcium phosphate glass ceramics (CPGs) and hydroxyapatite (HA) were chosen for the study. It was found that KrF excimer laser can cut both CPGs and HA with high efficiency and precision. The ablation rates of CPGs and HA are respectively 0.081 µm/(pulse ⋅ J cm −2 ) and 0.048 µm/(pulse ⋅ J cm −2 ), while their threshold fluences are individually 0.72 and 1.5 J cm −2 . The cutting quality (smoothness of the cut surface) is a function of laser repetition rate and cutting speed. The higher the repetition rate and lower the cutting speed, the better the cutting quality. A comparison between the cross sections of CPGs and HA cut using the excimer laser and using a conventional diamond cutting blade indicates that those cut by the excimer laser could retain their intrinsic porosity and geometry without distortion. In contrast, those cut by conventional machining had distorted geometry and most of their surface porosities were lost. Therefore, when cutting hard–brittle ceramic biomaterials to prepare scaffold and implant or when sectioning them for porosity evaluation, it is better to choose KrF excimer laser machining. (paper)

  11. Optimisation of the Laser Cutting Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Birgitte; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1996-01-01

    The problem in optimising the laser cutting process is outlined. Basic optimisation criteria and principles for adapting an optimisation method, the simplex method, are presented. The results of implementing a response function in the optimisation are discussed with respect to the quality as well...

  12. Wedge cutting of mild steel by CO 2 laser and cut-quality assessment in relation to normal cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Karatas, C.; Uslan, I.; Keles, O.; Usta, Y.; Yilbas, Z.; Ahsan, M.

    2008-10-01

    In some applications, laser cutting of wedge surfaces cannot be avoided in sheet metal processing and the quality of the end product defines the applicability of the laser-cutting process in such situations. In the present study, CO 2 laser cutting of the wedge surfaces as well as normal surfaces (normal to laser beam axis) is considered and the end product quality is assessed using the international standards for thermal cutting. The cut surfaces are examined by the optical microscopy and geometric features of the cut edges such as out of flatness and dross height are measured from the micrographs. A neural network is introduced to classify the striation patterns of the cut surfaces. It is found that the dross height and out of flatness are influenced significantly by the laser output power, particularly for wedge-cutting situation. Moreover, the cut quality improves at certain value of the laser power intensity.

  13. Modeling of tool path for the CNC sheet cutting machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petunin, Aleksandr A.

    2015-11-01

    In the paper the problem of tool path optimization for CNC (Computer Numerical Control) cutting machines is considered. The classification of the cutting techniques is offered. We also propose a new classification of toll path problems. The tasks of cost minimization and time minimization for standard cutting technique (Continuous Cutting Problem, CCP) and for one of non-standard cutting techniques (Segment Continuous Cutting Problem, SCCP) are formalized. We show that the optimization tasks can be interpreted as discrete optimization problem (generalized travel salesman problem with additional constraints, GTSP). Formalization of some constraints for these tasks is described. For the solution GTSP we offer to use mathematical model of Prof. Chentsov based on concept of a megalopolis and dynamic programming.

  14. Laser cutting of concretes with various ballasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamasaki, Masanobu; Katsumura, Munehide; Utsumi, Hiroaki

    1985-01-01

    The biological shield concrete and the radiation shield concrete which construct a part of the atomic reactor must be demolished with the decommissioning of the atomic reactor plants. In a case, the demolition using a laser is expected as one of excellent method for the decommissioning of these radioactive concretes. The fundamental cuttings of a mortar, the concretes with andesite, lime stone and gray wacke as ballast and a concrete reinforced with mild steel rods were therefore carried out using a 5 kW output CO 2 laser. As the results of experiment, it was cleared that cutting results varied with ballasts, 100 mm thick reinforced concrete could be cut, safety was high because few dross and few fume were produced. (author)

  15. Precision Machining When Cutting with Leading Plastic Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Yaroslavtseva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Keeping up the product competitiveness continually requires solving the problems of reducing time for product creation and material costs for its production and ensuring the maximum conformity of the product quality with the individual requirements of a particular consumer. It is especially difficult to implement these tasks in product manufacturing from the hard-to-machine steels and alloys with extremely low production rate in machining (often 10-20 times lower than when cutting the ordinary structural steels.Currently, one of the promising ways to improve the cutting process of hard-to-machine materials and quality of parts made from these materials is development and application of combined processing methods, which use additional energy sources to act on the machined material in the cutting zone. A BMSTU-developed cutting method with leading plastic deformation (LPD, which acts to raise the production rate, gain the cutting tool-life, reduce the surface roughness, improve the accuracy of processing and the performance characteristics of products, ensure the reliable flow chip control, and improve the labor conditions, belongs to such sort of methods.One of the most important indicators of processing quality that has a great impact on the operation and cost characteristics of the product and on the machining rate as well is the accuracy of processing. In cutting, the processing errors largely arise from the elastic deformations of a technological system when the cutting force, and, in particular, the radial component of the cutting force, acts on it.The deforming devices, used in cutting with LPD, being located as a rule, on the diametrically opposite side with respect to the cutting zone, act on the technological system as vibration dampers. In addition, as studies have shown, the choice of a rational direction for applying LPD load helps to compensate partially or completely the cutting force radial component effect on the technological

  16. Fibre laser cutting stainless steel: Fluid dynamics and cut front morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocorni, Jetro; Powell, John; Deichsel, Eckard; Frostevarg, Jan; Kaplan, Alexander F. H.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the morphology of the laser cut front generated by fibre lasers was investigated by observation of the 'frozen' cut front, additionally high speed imaging (HSI) was employed to study the fluid dynamics on the cut front while cutting. During laser cutting the morphology and flow properties of the melt film on the cut front affect cut quality parameters such as cut edge roughness and dross (residual melt attached to the bottom of the cut edge). HSI observation of melt flow down a laser cutting front using standard cutting parameters is experimentally problematic because the cut front is narrow and surrounded by the kerf walls. To compensate for this, artificial parameters are usually chosen to obtain wide cut fronts which are unrepresentative of the actual industrial process. This paper presents a new experimental cutting geometry which permits HSI of the laser cut front using standard, commercial parameters. These results suggest that the cut front produced when cutting medium section (10 mm thick) stainless steel with a fibre laser and a nitrogen assist gas is covered in humps which themselves are covered by a thin layer of liquid. HSI observation and theoretical analysis reveal that under these conditions the humps move down the cut front at an average speed of approximately 0.4 m/s while the covering liquid flows at an average speed of approximately 1.1 m/s, with an average melt depth at the bottom of the cut zone of approximately 0.17 mm.

  17. Design and Fabrication of Automatic Glass Cutting Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veena, T. R.; Kadadevaramath, R. S.; Nagaraj, P. M.; Madhusudhan, S. V.

    2016-09-01

    This paper deals with the design and fabrication of the automatic glass or mirror cutting machine. In order to increase the accuracy of cut and production rate; and decrease the production time and accidents caused due to manual cutting of mirror or glass, this project aims at development of an automatic machine which uses a programmable logic controller (PLC) for controlling the movement of the conveyer and also to control the pneumatic circuit. In this machine, the work of the operator is to load and unload the mirror. The cutter used in this machine is carbide wheel with its cutting edge ground to a V-shaped profile. The PLC controls the pneumatic cylinder and intern actuates the cutter along the glass, a fracture layer is formed causing a mark to be formed below the fracture layer and a crack to be formed below the rib mark. The machine elements are designed using CATIA V5R20 and pneumatic circuit are designed using FESTO FLUID SIM software.

  18. Striation-free fibre laser cutting of mild steel sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobih, M.; Crouse, P.L.; Li, L. [University of Manchester, Laser Processing Research Centre, School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, Sackville Street Building, P.O. Box 88, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2008-01-15

    High-power laser cutting is extensively used in many industrial applications. An important weakness of this process is the formation of striations, i.e. regular lines on the cut surface, which lowers the quality of the surfaces produced. The elimination of striation formation is thus of considerable importance, since it could open a variety of novel high-precision applications. This study presents the initial results of a laser cutting study using a 1 kW single-mode fibre laser, a relative newcomer in the field of laser metal cutting. Striation-free laser cuts are demonstrated when cutting 1 mm thick mild steel sheets. (orig.)

  19. Prediction of melt geometry in laser cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tani, Giovanni; Tomesani, Luca; Campana, Giampaolo

    2003-03-15

    In this paper, an analytical model for the evaluation of the melt film geometry in laser cutting of steels is developed. Using as basis, a previous model for kerf geometry estimation developed by the authors, with both reactive and non-reactive process gases, the film thickness and velocity were determined as a function of the kerf depth in the cutting plate. Two criteria were then adopted to predict the quality of the laser cutting operation: the first is based on a minimum acceptable value of the ejection speed of the melt from the bottom of the kerf, the second on the occlusion of the kerf itself due to an excess of molten material in the boundary layer at the kerf width. These criteria determined a feasibility region in the domain of the process and material variables, such as cutting speed, assistant gas pressure, laser beam power and material characteristics. These factors may be successfully used to build a process-planning tool for parameters optimisation and setting, in order to achieve a satisfactory process quality. The model response is in excellent agreement with the feasibility regions reported from experimental data by various authors and demonstrates a relationship between the occurrence of dross adhesion and the two different mechanisms predicted for such a phenomenon were: unsatisfactory ejection speed of the melt film from the bottom of the kerf and occlusion of the kerf.

  20. MECHANISMS OF CUTTING BLADE WEAR AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON CUTTING ABILITY OF THE TOOL DURING MACHINING OF SPECIAL ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Zlámal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With increased requirements for quality and shelf life of machined parts there is also a higher share of the use of material with specific properties that are identified by the term “superalloys”. These materials differ from common steels by mechanical and physical properties that cause their worse machinability. During machining of “superalloys” worse machinability has negative influence primarily on the amount of cutting edge wear, which shortens durability of the cutting tool. The goal of experimental activity shown in this contribution is to determine individual mechanisms of the cutting edge wear and their effects on the cutting ability during high speed machining of nickel superalloy. A specific exchangeable cutting insert made from cubic boric nitride was used for machining of the 625 material according to ASM 5666F. The criteria to evaluate cutting ability and durability of the cutting tool became selected parameters of surface integrity and quality of the machined surface.

  1. Kinematics of the AM-50 heading machine cutting head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W; Bak, K; Klich, R [Politechnika Slaska, Gliwice (Poland). Instytut Mechanizacji Gornictwa

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes motion of the cutter head of the AM-50 heading machine. Two types of head motion are comparatively evaluated: planar motion and spatial motion. The spatial motion consists of the head rotational motion and horizontal or vertical feed motion, while planar motion consists of rotational motion and vertical feed motion. Equations that describe head motion under conditions of cutter vertical or horizontal feed motion are derived. The angle between the cutting speed direction and working speed direction is defined. On the basis of these formulae variations of cutting speed depending on the cutting tool position on a cutter head are calculated. Calculations made for 2 extreme cutting tools show that the cutting speed ranges from 1,205 m/s to 3,512 m/s. 4 refs.

  2. Investigations of Cutting Fluid Performance Using Different Machining Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Belluco, Walter

    2002-01-01

    An analysis of cutting fluid performance in dif-ferent metal cutting operations is presented based on performance criteria, work material and fluid type. Cutting fluid performance was evaluated in turning, drilling, reaming and tapping operations, with respect to tool life, cutting forces and prod...... will get the same performance ranking for different metalworking fluids no matter what machining test is used, when the fluids are of the same type. Results show that this is mostly true for the water-based fluids on austenitic stainless steel while ranking did change depending on the test with straight......-gated. In the case of austenitic stainless steel as the workpiece material, results using the different operations under different cutting conditions show that the performance of vegetable oil based prod-ucts is superior or equal to that of mineral oil based products. The hypothesis was investigated that one...

  3. Dross formation during laser cutting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilbas, B S; Aleem, B J Abdul [Mechanical Engineering Department, King Fahd University of Petoleum and Minerals, Dhahran 32161 (Saudi Arabia)

    2006-04-07

    Melt formation during laser cutting of metallic substrates is considered and the melt thickness is formulated using a lump parameter analysis. The droplet diameter is also predicted and compared with the experimental results. A CO{sub 2} laser with variable pulse frequency is used in the experiment. Oxygen, as assisting gas, impinging coaxially with the laser beam, is used at different pressures. SEM and XRD are carried out to obtain micrographs and oxide compounds formed in the dross. It is found that the liquid layer thickness increases with increasing laser output power and reduces with increasing assisting gas velocity. The droplet formed is spherical and the droplet size predicted agrees well with the experimental results.

  4. Development of laser cutting method for stainless steel liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Satoshi; Takahata, Masato; Wignarajah, Sivakumaran; Kamata, Hirofumi

    2007-01-01

    The present work is an attempt to develop a laser cutting method for cutting and removing stainless steel liners from concrete walls and floors in nuclear facilities. The effect of basic laser cutting parameters such as energy, cutting speed, assist gas flow etc. were first studied through cutting experiments on mock-up concrete specimens lined with 3mm thick stainless steel sheets using a 1kW Nd:YAG laser. These initial studies were followed by further studies on the effect of unevenness of the liner surface and on a new method of confining contamination during the cutting process using a sliding evacuation hood attached to the laser cutting head. The results showed that laser cutting is superior to other conventional cutting methods from the point of view of safety from radioactivity and work efficiency when cutting contaminated stainless steel liners. (author)

  5. Cutting force model for high speed machining process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, R. E.; Jimenez, J. E.; Jimenez, A.; Lopez-Coronado, J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents cutting force-based models able to describe a high speed machining process. The model considers the cutting force as output variable, essential for the physical processes that are taking place in high speed machining. Moreover, this paper shows the mathematical development to derive the integral-differential equations, and the algorithms implemented in MATLAB to predict the cutting force in real time MATLAB is a software tool for doing numerical computations with matrices and vectors. It can also display information graphically and includes many toolboxes for several research and applications areas. Two end mill shapes are considered (i. e. cylindrical and ball end mill) for real-time implementation of the developed algorithms. the developed models are validated in slot milling operations. The results corroborate the importance of the cutting force variable for predicting tool wear in high speed machining operations. The developed models are the starting point for future work related with vibration analysis, process stability and dimensional surface finish in high speed machining processes. (Author) 19 refs

  6. Cutting of Stainless Steel With Fiber and Disk Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wandera, Catherine; Salminen, Antti; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2006-01-01

    Laser cutting is a major application of laser materials processing. The cutting is usually performed with CO2-laser due to its good beam quality and its relatively low costs of ownership. Ever since entering the market the high power solid state lasers have been expected to achieve a dominating...... of both of the new lasers against traditional CO2-laser. The results showed that the new lasers offer a great potential in improving the productivity of cutting phase with an acceptable edge quality. This is emphasized in thin sheets of 1.3 and 2.3 mm thickness. In that case the width of the cut kerf...... of each thickness. The results were very promising and it can be stated that these new laser types have a great potential in cutting and will probably gain a considerable market share not only in 3D cutting applications but also in ordinary flat sheet cutting....

  7. Stagnant zone formation on diamond cutting tools during machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izman, S.; Tamin, M.N.; Mon, T.T.; Venkatesh, V.C.; Shaharoun, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Formation of an intact region on the rake face of cutting tool during machining is quite common phenomenon but its significance in maintaining tool edge sharpness has not been recognized by many researchers. This region is sometimes called stagnant zone. It is believed that when an intact zone present on the rake face, it delays the crater wear progress and hence maintaining the tool edge sharpness longer. This paper investigates the effect of edge radius, surface roughness of the rake face and cutting parameters on the formation of stagnant zone on two different type of diamond tools i.e. polycrystalline diamond PCD-KD100 and diamond-coated inserts when machining titanium alloy. The used inserta and post-processed chips were examined under FESEM and optical microscope after cutting at three different conditions. Experimental results show that the speed and feel, the tool edge radius, and the tool rake surface roughness significantly affect the stagnant zone formation. (author)

  8. An experimental investigation of pulsed laser-assisted machining of AISI 52100 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjehpour, Afshin; Soleymani Yazdi, Mohammad R.; Shoja-Razavi, Reza

    2014-11-01

    Grinding and hard turning are widely used for machining of hardened bearing steel parts. Laser-assisted machining (LAM) has emerged as an efficient alternative to grinding and hard turning for hardened steel parts. In most cases, continuous-wave lasers were used as a heat source to cause localized heating prior to material removal by a cutting tool. In this study, an experimental investigation of pulsed laser-assisted machining of AISI 52100 bearing steel was conducted. The effects of process parameters (i.e., laser mean power, pulse frequency, pulse energy, cutting speed and feed rate) on state variables (i.e., material removal temperature, specific cutting energy, surface roughness, microstructure, tool wear and chip formation) were investigated. At laser mean power of 425 W with frequency of 120 Hz and cutting speed of 70 m/min, the benefit of LAM was shown by 25% decrease in specific cutting energy and 18% improvement in surface roughness, as compared to those of the conventional machining. It was shown that at constant laser power, the increase of laser pulse energy causes the rapid increase in tool wear rate. Pulsed laser allowed efficient control of surface temperature and heat penetration in material removal region. Examination of the machined subsurface microstructure and microhardness profiles showed no change under LAM and conventional machining. Continuous chips with more uniform plastic deformation were produced in LAM.

  9. A cutting-edge solution for 1µm laser metal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumbach, N.; Kühl, P.; Karam, J.; Jonkers, J.; Villarreal-Saucedo, F.; Reyes, M.

    2017-02-01

    The recent 1μm-laser cutting market is dominated by fiber and disk lasers due to their excellent beam quality of below 4mm*mrad. Teradiode's 4kW direct diode laser source achieves similar beam quality while having a different beam shape and shorter wavelengths which are known for higher absorption rates at the inclined front of the cutting keyhole. Research projects, such as the HALO Project, have additionally shown that polarized radiation and beams with shapes different from the typical LG00 lead to improved cut quality for ferrous and non-ferrous metals. [1] Diode laser have the inherent property of not being sensitive to back reflection which brings advantages in cutting high-reflective materials. The II-VI HIGHYAG laser cutting head BIMO-FSC offers the unique feature of machine controlled and continuous adjustment of both the focus diameter and the focus position. This feature is proven to be beneficial for cutting and piercing with high speed and small hole diameters. In addition, the optics are designed for lowest focus shift. As a leading laser processing head manufacturer, II-VI HIGHYAG qualified its BIMO-FSC MZ (M=magnification, Z=focus position) cutting head for Teradiode's 4kW direct diode laser source to offer a cutting-edge solution for highpower laser cutting. Combining the magnification ability of the cutting head with this laser source, customers experience strong advantages in cutting metals in broad thickness ranges. Thicknesses up to 25mm mild steel can easily be cut with excellent edge quality. Furthermore, a new optical setup equivalent to an axicon with a variable axicon angle is demonstrated which generates variable sized ring spots. The setup provides new degrees of freedom to tailor the energy distribution for even higher productivity and quality.

  10. Cutting of nonmetallic materials using Nd:YAG laser beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bashir Ahmed Tahir; Rashid Ahmed; M. G. B. Ashiq; Afaq Ahmed; M. A. Saeed

    2012-01-01

    This study deals with Nd:YAG laser cutting nonmetallic materials,which is one of the most important and popular industrial applications of laser.The main theme is to evaluate the effects of Nd:YAG laser beam power besides work piece scanning speed.For approximate cutting depth,a theoretical study is conducted in terms of material property and cutting speed.Results show a nonlinear relation between the cutting depth and input energy.There is no significant effect of speed on cutting depth with the speed being larger than 30 mm/s.An extra energy is utilized in the deep cutting.It is inferred that as the laser power increases,cutting depth increases.The experimental outcomes are in good agreement with theoretical results.This analysis will provide a guideline for laser-based industry to select a suitable laser for cutting,scribing,trimming,engraving,and marking nonmetallic materials.

  11. Cutting of nonmetallic materials using Nd:YAG laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, Bashir Ahmed; Ashiq, M.G. B.; Saeed, M.A.; Ahmed, Rashid; Ahmed, Afaq

    2012-01-01

    This study deals with Nd:YAG laser cutting nonmetallic materials, which is one of the most important and popular industrial applications of laser. The main theme is to evaluate the effects of Nd:YAG laser beam power besides work piece scanning speed. For approximate cutting depth, a theoretical study is conducted in terms of material property and cutting speed. Results show a nonlinear relation between the cutting depth and input energy. There is no significant effect of speed on cutting depth with the speed being larger than 30 mm/s. An extra energy is utilized in the deep cutting. It is inferred that as the laser power increases, cutting depth increases. The experimental outcomes are in good agreement with theoretical results. This analysis will provide a guideline for laser-based industry to select a suitable laser for cutting, scribing, trimming, engraving, and marking nonmetallic materials. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  12. Photodiode-based cutting interruption sensor for near-infrared lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelmann, B; Schleier, M; Neumeier, B; Hellmann, R

    2016-03-01

    We report on a photodiode-based sensor system to detect cutting interruptions during laser cutting with a fiber laser. An InGaAs diode records the thermal radiation from the process zone with a ring mirror and optical filter arrangement mounted between a collimation unit and a cutting head. The photodiode current is digitalized with a sample rate of 20 kHz and filtered with a Chebyshev Type I filter. From the measured signal during the piercing, a threshold value is calculated. When the diode signal exceeds this threshold during cutting, a cutting interruption is indicated. This method is applied to sensor signals from cutting mild steel, stainless steel, and aluminum, as well as different material thicknesses and also laser flame cutting, showing the possibility to detect cutting interruptions in a broad variety of applications. In a series of 83 incomplete cuts, every cutting interruption is successfully detected (alpha error of 0%), while no cutting interruption is reported in 266 complete cuts (beta error of 0%). With this remarkable high detection rate and low error rate, the possibility to work with different materials and thicknesses in combination with the easy mounting of the sensor unit also to existing cutting machines highlight the enormous potential for this sensor system in industrial applications.

  13. CO2 Laser Cutting of Hot Stamping Boron Steel Sheets

    OpenAIRE

    Pasquale Russo Spena

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the quality of CO2 laser cutting of hot stamping boron steel sheets that are employed in the fabrication of automotive body-in-white. For this purpose, experimental laser cutting tests were conducted on 1.2 mm sheets at varying levels of laser power, cutting speed, and oxygen pressure. The resulting quality of cut edges was evaluated in terms of perpendicularity tolerance, surface irregularity, kerf width, heat affected zone, and dross extension. Experimental tests wer...

  14. Finite element simulation of laser cutting process of steel sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meško Jozef

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lasers are widely used in industry as cutting tools due to ultra flexibility of the cutting conditions, obtaining high quality end product, quick set up, non-mechanical contact between the workpiece and the tool, and small size of the heat affected zone. In the present study, laser gas assisted cutting process is examined. The laser cutting sheet solution is practically always very convenient compared to conventional technologies and brings the greatest cost savings in the manufacturing process.

  15. Machinability of magnesium and aluminium alloys. Part I: cutting resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balout, B.; Songmene, V.; Masounave, J.

    2002-01-01

    Aluminium (2.7 g/cm 3 ) and magnesium (1.7 g/cm 3 ) are two competing light metals with similar mechanical properties and excellent possibilities for recycling. The forming of magnesium is often seen as an impediment to its use. New forming techniques using magnesium shavings are being developed, particularly in Japan. The machining of magnesium alloys by removal of metal raises safety concerns (risk of fire), which limits many potential applications of magnesium. The purpose of this work is to clarify and compare the machining properties of these two types of metal and better understand the mechanisms that may explain the differences in behaviour. Such a comparison could eventually provide an estimate of the cost of producing shavings for the manufacture of aluminium and magnesium parts through forging and extrusion, which would limit environmental pollution. Based on an analysis of cutting resistance during machining, it was demonstrated that magnesium alloys are easier to machine than similar aluminium alloys. Magnesium shavings are shorter than those of 6061-T6, but are especially more regular than those of A356, and their size is independent of cutting speed. It was also demonstrated that the fragility of materials can be characterized based on the results of cutting resistance produced during drilling

  16. Implementation of the geometrical problem in CNC metal cutting machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erokhin V.V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the tasks of managing the production process (technological process and technological equip-ment, the most detailed analysis of the implementation of the geometric problem in CNC machines. The influence of the solution of the geometric CNC problem on the accuracy of workpiece machining is analyzed by implementing a certain interpolation algorithm and the values of the discreteness of the movements of the working bodies of the CNC machine. The technique of forming a given trajectory of motion of the machine's executive organ is given, by means of which it is required to ensure the coordinated movement of the shaping coordinates according to a certain law, depend-ing on the specified trajectory of the cutting edge of the tool. The advantages and disadvantages of the implementation of interpolation in CNC systems by various methods are considered, and particular attention is paid to combined meth-ods of realizing interpolation.

  17. Characterisation of debris from laser and mechanical cutting of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmanis, Nikolaos; McGuinness, Garrett B; McGeough, Joseph A

    2014-07-01

    Laser cutting of bones has been proposed as a technology in orthopaedic surgery. In this short study, the laser-bone interaction was examined using a pulsed erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet laser and compared to a conventional cutting technique. Microscopic analysis revealed the nature of waste debris and showed higher proportions of finer particles for conventional sagittal sawing compared to laser cutting. © IMechE 2014.

  18. The Evaluation of Surface Integrity During Machining of Inconel 718 with Various Laser Assistance Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciechowski Szymon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the evaluation of surface integrity formed during turning of Inconel 718 with the application of various laser assistance strategies. The primary objective of the work was to determine the relations between the applied machining strategy and the obtained surface integrity, in order to select the effective cutting conditions allowing the obtainment of high surface quality. The carried out experiment included the machining of Inconel 718 in the conventional turning conditions, as well as during the continuous laser assisted machining and sequential laser assistance. The surface integrity was evaluated by the measurements of machined surface topographies, microstructures and the microhardness. Results revealed that surface integrity of Inconel 718 is strongly affected by the selected machining strategy. The significant improvement of the surface roughness formed during machining of Inconel 718, can be reached by the application of simultaneous laser heating and cutting (LAM.

  19. PULSED MODE LASER CUTTING OF SHEETS FOR TAILORED BLANKS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes how the laser cutting process can be optimised in such a way that the cut sheets can subsequently be used to laser weld tailored blanks. In a number of systematic laboratory experiments the effect of cutting speed, assist gas pressure, average laser power and pulse energy...... item for parameter optimisation of laser cut sheets used for tailored blanks. It was concluded that high quality cut edges with a squareness as small as 0.015 mm may be obtained. Such edges are well suited for subsequent laser welding....... was analysed. For quality assessment the squareness, roughness and dross attachment of laser cut blanks were measured. In all tests, the medium strength steel GA 260 with a thickness of 1.8 mm was used. In this work it has been successfully demonstrated that the squareness of a cut can be used as a quality...

  20. Development of the cutting machine for the biological shield wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Mitsuo; Hasegawa, Tetsuo; Kohyama, Kazunori.

    1987-01-01

    22 years have passed since the first commercial nuclear power plant operation in Japan. At present, there were 33 commercial nuclear power plants in operation, supplying about 25 percent of total electricity. Some of them are going to be terminated in the near future and enter into the decommissioning stage. Therefore, it is now necessary to developed decommissioning technologies, including dismantling techniques of these power plants. The development of a concrete cutting machine is one of the most important items applicable to dismantling biological shield walls of the plants. This paper describes the outline of the cutting machine developed for the biological shield wall demolition of the Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR) including actual decommissioning works tested. (author)

  1. Effect of the Machined Surfaces of AISI 4337 Steel to Cutting Conditions on Dry Machining Lathe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Robbi; Napid, Suhardi; Hasibuan, Abdurrozzaq; Rahmah Sibuea, Siti; Yusmartato, Y.

    2018-04-01

    The objective of the research is to obtain a cutting condition which has a good chance of realizing dry machining concept on AISI 4337 steel material by studying surface roughness, microstructure and hardness of machining surface. The data generated from the experiment were then processed and analyzed using the standard Taguchi method L9 (34) orthogonal array. Testing of dry and wet machining used surface test and micro hardness test for each of 27 test specimens. The machining results of the experiments showed that average surface roughness (Raavg) was obtained at optimum cutting conditions when VB 0.1 μm, 0.3 μm and 0.6 μm respectively 1.467 μm, 2.133 μm and 2,800 μm fo r dry machining while which was carried out by wet machining the results obtained were 1,833 μm, 2,667 μm and 3,000 μm. It can be concluded that dry machining provides better surface quality of machinery results than wet machining. Therefore, dry machining is a good choice that may be realized in the manufacturing and automotive industries.

  2. The Influence of Different Assist Gases on Ductile Cast Iron Cutting by CO2 Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meško J.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the technology and principles of the laser cutting of ductile cast iron. The properties of the CO2 laser beam, input parameters of the laser cutting, assist gases, the interaction of cut material and the stability of cutting process are described. The commonly used material (nodular cast iron - share of about 25% of all castings on the market and the method of the laser cutting of that material, including the technological parameters that influence the cutting edge, are characterized. Next, the application and use of this method in mechanical engineering practice is described, focusing on fixing and renovation of mechanical components such as removing the inflow gate from castings with the desired quality of the cut, without the further using of the chip machining technology. Experimental samples from the nodular cast iron were created by using different technological parameters of laser cutting. The heat affected zone (HAZ, its width, microstructure and roughness parameter Pt was monitored on the experimental samples (of thickness t = 13 mm. The technological parameters that were varied during the experiments included the type of assist gases (N2 and O2, to be more specific the ratio of gases, and the cutting speed, which ranged from 1.6 m/min to 0.32 m/min. Both parameters were changed until the desired properties were achieved.

  3. Neodymium:YAG laser cutting of intraocular lens haptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorn, R A; Steinert, R F

    1985-11-01

    Neodymium:YAG laser cutting of polymethylmethacrylate and polypropylene anterior chamber and posterior chamber intraocular lens haptics was studied in terms of ease of transection and physical structure of the cut areas as seen by scanning electron microscopy. A marked difference was discovered, with the polymethylmethacrylate cutting easily along transverse planes, whereas the polypropylene resisted cutting along longitudinal fibers. Clinical guidelines are presented.

  4. Application of laser cutting in shipbuilding factory. Improvement in cutting accuracy and drastic production capacity increase by night-time unmanned operation; Zosen kojo ni okeru laser setsudan no tekiyo. Setsudan seido kojo, yakan mujin unten de seisan noryoku ohaba up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    A shipbuilding factory which introduced the laser cutting machine is introduced. The laser cutting machine was selected to improve cutting accuracy, improve working environment, and achieve unmanned operation. In this factory, a thin plate with a plate thickness of approximately 10 mm is expected to be machined, and the cutting line consists of two plasma cutting machines, one laser cutting machine, and one gas cutting line and the NC rate is high (97 %). The laser cutting machine incorporates a CO2 laser oscillation machine with a maximum output of 3.5 kW. The following result was obtained as compared with the plasma cutting machine. The cutting accuracy was 0.5 mm or less of the calf margin and no upper edge did not melt down and the distortion was low. No dross adheres and the secondary treatment man-hour decreased. Since it was not necessary to replace an electrode by a new one, a continuous unmanned operation was enabled. The automatic power off function, etc. achieve safety measures against earthquake, etc. Neither fume nor noise was generated. Since the dust collector is not required, the initial cost is low and the running cost is inexpensive, namely 31 yen per meter (40 yen for the plasma cutting machine). 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Laser thermokeratoplasty after lamellar corneal cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, M M; Pérez-Santonja, J J; Alió, J L

    1999-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of laser thermokeratoplasty (LTK) in eyes that previously had a lamellar corneal cut. University of Al-Azhar, Cairo, Egypt, and Instituto Oftalmológico de Alicante, Spain. In 15 eyes (10 patients), noncontact LTK was applied 6 to 8 weeks after a lamellar corneal cut had been made. Central pachymetry, keratometry, and videokeratography were performed and uncorrected visual acuity, best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), and manifest and cycloplegic refractions measured before and 1, 6, 12, and 18 months after LTK. Mean follow-up was 19.13 months. Mean refraction was +5.93 diopters (D) +/- 1.9 (SD) before LTK and -0.43 +/- 1.5 D at 1 month, +1.63 +/- 1.6 D at 6 months, 1.91 +/- 1.41 at 12 months, and +2.01 +/- 1.5 D at the end of the study. Total regression did not occur in any case. Mean BSCVA before LTK was 0.66 +/- 0.2, and spontaneous visual acuity at the end of the study was 0.58 +/- 0.18. No patient lost any lines of preoperative BSCVA. There was no significant difference between the results at 12 months and at the end of the study. Corneal lamellar cutting appeared to improve the magnitude of the refractive effect of noncontact LTK and to decrease the amount of regression.

  6. Effect of Process Parameter in Laser Cutting of PMMA Sheet and ANFIS Modelling for Online Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Anamul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser beam machining (LBM is a promising and high accuracy machining technology in advanced manufacturing process. In LBM, crucial machining qualities of the end product include heat affected zone, surface roughness, kerf width, thermal stress, taper angle etc. It is essential for industrial applications especially in laser cutting of thermoplastics to acquire output product with minimum kerf width. The kerf width is dependent on laser input parameters such as laser power, cutting speed, standoff distance, assist gas pressure etc. However it is difficult to get a functional relationship due to the high uncertainty among these parameters. Hence, total 81 sets of full factorial experiment were conducted, representing four input parameters with three different levels. The experiments were performed by a continuous wave (CW CO2 laser with the mode structure of TEM01 named Zech laser machine that can provide maximum laser power up to 500 W. The polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA sheet with thickness of 3.0 mm was used for this experiment. Laser power, cutting speed, standoff distance and assist gas pressure were used as input parameters for the output named kerf width. Standoff distance, laser power, cutting speed and assist gas pressure have the dominant effect on kerf width, respectively, although assist gas has some significant effect to remove the harmful gas. ANFIS model has been developed for online control purposes. This research is considered important and helpful for manufacturing engineers in adjusting and decision making of the process parameters in laser manufacturing industry of PMMA thermoplastics with desired minimum kerf width as well as intricate shape design purposes.

  7. High power laser downhole cutting tools and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zediker, Mark S; Rinzler, Charles C; Faircloth, Brian O; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F

    2015-01-20

    Downhole cutting systems, devices and methods for utilizing 10 kW or more laser energy transmitted deep into the earth with the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena. Systems and devices for the laser cutting operations within a borehole in the earth. These systems and devices can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perform cutting operations in such boreholes deep within the earth.

  8. Experimental study on concrete cutting by CO2 laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutsumizu, Akira; Tomura, Hidemasa; Wakizaka, Tatsuya; Hishikawa, Kyoichi; Moriya, Masahiro

    1994-01-01

    Methods for dismantling nuclear reactor facilities must meet particularly exacting requirements imposed by heavily reinforced and radioactivated reactor shield walls. Conventional methods do not meet all such requirements, however. Intrigued by excellent characteristics of the laser cutting method relative to nuclear facility demolition, we carried out an experimental study to make a comprehensive evaluation of its characteristics, especially for deep cutting, with success in identifying main factors affecting the cutting depth of a laser and characterizing its cutting behavior. The study results indicate that a 50 kW class CO 2 laser has a potential to provide a practicable cutting speed and depth. (author)

  9. New 445 nm blue laser for laryngeal surgery combines photoangiolytic and cutting properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Markus M; Fleischer, Susanne; Ernstberger, Marcel

    2018-06-01

    Photoangiolytic lasers have broadened the surgical armamentarium for many phonosurgical interventions. However, the pulse dye laser and potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser have technical drawbacks and a smaller spectrum of indications. The new 445 nm wavelength laser, the so-called 'blue laser', proves to show tissue effects comparable to the KTP laser and is also capable of treating subepithelial vessels due to its photoangiolytic properties, it can coagulate and carbonize at higher energy levels, and can be used via glass fibers in non-contact and contact mode for in-office procedures. In contrast to the KTP, the new 445 nm laser can also be used as a cutting laser, thus combining very much wanted properties of diode or CO2 lasers with photoangiolytic lasers. Further advantages of the new laser are the; (1) portability of the shoe box sized, shock-proof laser machine for in-office and operating room usage, (2) the selection of pulse rates from continuous wave (cw) to less than a millisecond, (3) stronger tissue effects compared to KTP with similar energy and pulse settings, (4) far better cutting properties than the KTP, and thus (5) more possibilities for usage in laryngology as well as in other fields or surgery. We demonstrate the feasibility of the 445 nm laser in several laboratory experiments and show clinical cases where photoangiolysis and cutting was possible. However, this is a preliminary report and further systematic studies in greater numbers are warranted.

  10. Laser cutting of various materials: Kerf width size analysis and life cycle assessment of cutting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami; Shaukat, Mian Mobeen; Ashraf, Farhan

    2017-08-01

    Laser cutting of various materials including Ti-6Al-4V alloy, steel 304, Inconel 625, and alumina is carried out to assess the kerf width size variation along the cut section. The life cycle assessment is carried out to determine the environmental impact of the laser cutting in terms of the material waste during the cutting process. The kerf width size is formulated and predicted using the lump parameter analysis and it is measured from the experiments. The influence of laser output power and laser cutting speed on the kerf width size variation is analyzed using the analytical tools including scanning electron and optical microscopes. In the experiments, high pressure nitrogen assisting gas is used to prevent oxidation reactions in the cutting section. It is found that the kerf width size predicted from the lump parameter analysis agrees well with the experimental data. The kerf width size variation increases with increasing laser output power. However, this behavior reverses with increasing laser cutting speed. The life cycle assessment reveals that material selection for laser cutting is critical for the environmental protection point of view. Inconel 625 contributes the most to the environmental damages; however, recycling of the waste of the laser cutting reduces this contribution.

  11. Process Damping and Cutting Tool Geometry in Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C. M.; Sims, N. D.; Turner, S.

    2011-12-01

    Regenerative vibration, or chatter, limits the performance of machining processes. Consequences of chatter include tool wear and poor machined surface finish. Process damping by tool-workpiece contact can reduce chatter effects and improve productivity. Process damping occurs when the flank (also known as the relief face) of the cutting tool makes contact with waves on the workpiece surface, created by chatter motion. Tool edge features can act to increase the damping effect. This paper examines how a tool's edge condition combines with the relief angle to affect process damping. An analytical model of cutting with chatter leads to a two-section curve describing how process damped vibration amplitude changes with surface speed for radiussed tools. The tool edge dominates the process damping effect at the lowest surface speeds, with the flank dominating at higher speeds. A similar curve is then proposed regarding tools with worn edges. Experimental data supports the notion of the two-section curve. A rule of thumb is proposed which could be useful to machine operators, regarding tool wear and process damping. The question is addressed, should a tool of a given geometry, used for a given application, be considered as sharp, radiussed or worn regarding process damping.

  12. Process Damping and Cutting Tool Geometry in Machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C M; Sims, N D; Turner, S

    2011-01-01

    Regenerative vibration, or chatter, limits the performance of machining processes. Consequences of chatter include tool wear and poor machined surface finish. Process damping by tool-workpiece contact can reduce chatter effects and improve productivity. Process damping occurs when the flank (also known as the relief face) of the cutting tool makes contact with waves on the workpiece surface, created by chatter motion. Tool edge features can act to increase the damping effect. This paper examines how a tool's edge condition combines with the relief angle to affect process damping. An analytical model of cutting with chatter leads to a two-section curve describing how process damped vibration amplitude changes with surface speed for radiussed tools. The tool edge dominates the process damping effect at the lowest surface speeds, with the flank dominating at higher speeds. A similar curve is then proposed regarding tools with worn edges. Experimental data supports the notion of the two-section curve. A rule of thumb is proposed which could be useful to machine operators, regarding tool wear and process damping. The question is addressed, should a tool of a given geometry, used for a given application, be considered as sharp, radiussed or worn regarding process damping.

  13. Manufacturing Methods for Cutting, Machining and Drilling Composites. Volume 1. Composites Machining Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    12°±30’ 1180±2° OPTIONAL .0005 IN./IN. BACK TAPER 015 RAD LIPS TO BE WITHIN .002 OF TRUE ANGULAR POSITION NOTES: 1. LAND WIDTH: 28% ± .005... horoscope and dye-penetrant requirements. 79 PHASE 1 PHASE II PHASE III PHASE IV CUTTING DRILLING MACHINING NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION METHOD MATERIAL

  14. Comparison of surface roughness quality created by abrasive water jet and CO2 laser beam cutting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zeleňák, M.; Valíček, Jan; Klich, Jiří; Židková, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2012), s. 481-485 ISSN 1330-3651 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : abrasive waterjet cut ting * CO2 laser beam cut ting * optical profilometry * titanium sample Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 0.601, year: 2012 http://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=clanak&id_clanak_jezik=129054

  15. Laser cutting, State of the art and technological trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1999-01-01

    In this paper a short review of the development trends in laser cutting will be given. The technoloty which is the fastest expanding industrial production technology will develop in both its core market segment: Flat bed cutting of sheet metal as it will expand in heavy industry and in cutting of 3......-dimensional shapes. The CO2 laser will also in the near futre be the domination laser source in the market, although the new developments in ND-YAG-lasers opens for new possibilities for this laser type....

  16. Fast femtosecond laser ablation for efficient cutting of sintered alumina substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterbeek, Reece N.; Ward, Thomas; Ashforth, Simon; Bodley, Owen; Rodda, Andrew E.; Simpson, M. Cather

    2016-09-01

    Fast, accurate cutting of technical ceramics is a significant technological challenge because of these materials' typical high mechanical strength and thermal resistance. Femtosecond pulsed lasers offer significant promise for meeting this challenge. Femtosecond pulses can machine nearly any material with small kerf and little to no collateral damage to the surrounding material. The main drawback to femtosecond laser machining of ceramics is slow processing speed. In this work we report on the improvement of femtosecond laser cutting of sintered alumina substrates through optimisation of laser processing parameters. The femtosecond laser ablation thresholds for sintered alumina were measured using the diagonal scan method. Incubation effects were found to fit a defect accumulation model, with Fth,1=6.0 J/cm2 (±0.3) and Fth,∞=2.5 J/cm2 (±0.2). The focal length and depth, laser power, number of passes, and material translation speed were optimised for ablation speed and high quality. Optimal conditions of 500 mW power, 100 mm focal length, 2000 μm/s material translation speed, with 14 passes, produced complete cutting of the alumina substrate at an overall processing speed of 143 μm/s - more than 4 times faster than the maximum reported overall processing speed previously achieved by Wang et al. [1]. This process significantly increases processing speeds of alumina substrates, thereby reducing costs, making femtosecond laser machining a more viable option for industrial users.

  17. Machining of bone: Analysis of cutting force and surface roughness by turning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordin, M Y; Jiawkok, N; Ndaruhadi, P Y M W; Kurniawan, D

    2015-11-01

    There are millions of orthopedic surgeries and dental implantation procedures performed every year globally. Most of them involve machining of bones and cartilage. However, theoretical and analytical study on bone machining is lagging behind its practice and implementation. This study views bone machining as a machining process with bovine bone as the workpiece material. Turning process which makes the basis of the actually used drilling process was experimented. The focus is on evaluating the effects of three machining parameters, that is, cutting speed, feed, and depth of cut, to machining responses, that is, cutting forces and surface roughness resulted by the turning process. Response surface methodology was used to quantify the relation between the machining parameters and the machining responses. The turning process was done at various cutting speeds (29-156 m/min), depths of cut (0.03 -0.37 mm), and feeds (0.023-0.11 mm/rev). Empirical models of the resulted cutting force and surface roughness as the functions of cutting speed, depth of cut, and feed were developed. Observation using the developed empirical models found that within the range of machining parameters evaluated, the most influential machining parameter to the cutting force is depth of cut, followed by feed and cutting speed. The lowest cutting force was obtained at the lowest cutting speed, lowest depth of cut, and highest feed setting. For surface roughness, feed is the most significant machining condition, followed by cutting speed, and with depth of cut showed no effect. The finest surface finish was obtained at the lowest cutting speed and feed setting. © IMechE 2015.

  18. Parameters Influence of CO2 Laser on Cutting Quality of Polymer Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Cep

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with evaluating of the resulting surface state of the three plastic materials and identification of suitable conditions for laser cutting with CO2 tube. As representative were chosen polypropylene, polymethylmethacrylate and polyamide. When cutting these types of materials it could melt eventually their re-sintering. A suitable combination of parameters is possible to achieve of sufficient quality of the cut. The samples were cut at different feed speed and laser power. Then they was compared on the basis of the measured roughness parameters Ra a Rz by using a portable touch roughness Hommel-Etamic W5 and dates was processed according to ČSN EN ISO 4287. Cutting of samples was realized at the Department of Machining, Assembly and Engineering Metrology, VŠB-TUO.

  19. Ultrashort pulse laser machining of metals and alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Michael D.; Stuart, Brent C.

    2003-09-16

    The invention consists of a method for high precision machining (cutting, drilling, sculpting) of metals and alloys. By using pulses of a duration in the range of 10 femtoseconds to 100 picoseconds, extremely precise machining can be achieved with essentially no heat or shock affected zone. Because the pulses are so short, there is negligible thermal conduction beyond the region removed resulting in negligible thermal stress or shock to the material beyond approximately 0.1-1 micron (dependent upon the particular material) from the laser machined surface. Due to the short duration, the high intensity (>10.sup.12 W/cm.sup.2) associated with the interaction converts the material directly from the solid-state into an ionized plasma. Hydrodynamic expansion of the plasma eliminates the need for any ancillary techniques to remove material and produces extremely high quality machined surfaces with negligible redeposition either within the kerf or on the surface. Since there is negligible heating beyond the depth of material removed, the composition of the remaining material is unaffected by the laser machining process. This enables high precision machining of alloys and even pure metals with no change in grain structure.

  20. Application of YAG laser processing in underwater welding and cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohwaki, Katsura; Morita, Ichiro; Kojima, Toshio; Sato, Shuichi [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    The high-power YAG laser is a new fabrication tool. The laser torch is easy to combine with complex with complex mechanics because of beam delivery through optical fiber. A direct underwater laser welding technology has been developed and applied to the preservation, maintenance and removal of nuclear power plants. For subdividing or removing operations for retirement of plants, the laser cutting properties were confirmed to allow a maximum cutting thickness of 80 mm. For repairing inner surface of stainless steel tanks, an underwater laser welding system using a remote-controlled robot was developed and the high quality of underwater laser welding was confirmed. (author)

  1. Elimination of striation in laser cutting of mild steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobih, M; Crouse, P L; Li, L

    2007-01-01

    High-power laser cutting is extensively used in many industrial applications. An important weakness of this process is the formation of striations (regular lines down the cut surface), which affect the quality of the surfaces produced. The elimination of striation formation is of considerable importance, since it could open up a variety of novel high-precision applications. This study presents the results of oxygen-assisted laser cutting of EN43 mild steel sheets, using a high-power fibre laser. Striation-free laser cuts are demonstrated for cutting 1 and 2 mm thick mild steel sheets. The optimal operating windows are presented and a mathematical method is proposed to estimate the critical speed at which striation-free cut can be obtained

  2. Elimination of striation in laser cutting of mild steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobih, M; Crouse, P L; Li, L [Laser Processing Research Centre, School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester, Sackville Street Building, PO Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-21

    High-power laser cutting is extensively used in many industrial applications. An important weakness of this process is the formation of striations (regular lines down the cut surface), which affect the quality of the surfaces produced. The elimination of striation formation is of considerable importance, since it could open up a variety of novel high-precision applications. This study presents the results of oxygen-assisted laser cutting of EN43 mild steel sheets, using a high-power fibre laser. Striation-free laser cuts are demonstrated for cutting 1 and 2 mm thick mild steel sheets. The optimal operating windows are presented and a mathematical method is proposed to estimate the critical speed at which striation-free cut can be obtaine000.

  3. Methods for Optimisation of the Laser Cutting Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Birgitte

    This thesis deals with the adaptation and implementation of various optimisation methods, in the field of experimental design, for the laser cutting process. The problem in optimising the laser cutting process has been defined and a structure for at Decision Support System (DSS......) for the optimisation of the laser cutting process has been suggested. The DSS consists of a database with the currently used and old parameter settings. Also one of the optimisation methods has been implemented in the DSS in order to facilitate the optimisation procedure for the laser operator. The Simplex Method has...... been adapted in two versions. A qualitative one, that by comparing the laser cut items optimise the process and a quantitative one that uses a weighted quality response in order to achieve a satisfactory quality and after that maximises the cutting speed thus increasing the productivity of the process...

  4. Laser cutting of irregular shape object based on stereo vision laser galvanometric scanning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Li; Zhang, Yixin; Wang, Shun; Tang, Zhiqiang; Yang, Huan; Zhang, Xuping

    2015-05-01

    Irregular shape objects with different 3-dimensional (3D) appearances are difficult to be shaped into customized uniform pattern by current laser machining approaches. A laser galvanometric scanning system (LGS) could be a potential candidate since it can easily achieve path-adjustable laser shaping. However, without knowing the actual 3D topography of the object, the processing result may still suffer from 3D shape distortion. It is desirable to have a versatile auxiliary tool that is capable of generating 3D-adjusted laser processing path by measuring the 3D geometry of those irregular shape objects. This paper proposed the stereo vision laser galvanometric scanning system (SLGS), which takes the advantages of both the stereo vision solution and conventional LGS system. The 3D geometry of the object obtained by the stereo cameras is used to guide the scanning galvanometers for 3D-shape-adjusted laser processing. In order to achieve precise visual-servoed laser fabrication, these two independent components are integrated through a system calibration method using plastic thin film target. The flexibility of SLGS has been experimentally demonstrated by cutting duck feathers for badminton shuttle manufacture.

  5. Quality and performance of laser cutting with a high power SM fiber laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Morten; Selchau, Jacob; Olsen, F. O.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of high power single mode fiber lasers allows for a beam of high power and a good beam quality factor (M2 ” 1.2), compared to the multimode fiber lasers often utilised in macro laser metal cutting. This paper describes fundamental studies of macro laser metal cutting with a singl...

  6. An Evaluation of the Cutting Potential of Different Types of High Power Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2006-01-01

    Laser cutting is a widespread industrial process. The boundaries for the performance of the lasers in terms of cutting capabilities is steadily moving towards higher cutting rates and thicker section cutting. In this paper the potential of different high power laser sources in cutting is evaluated...... based upon the historical development, the available cutting mechanisms understanding and the critical parameters involved in high power laser cutting. From the theoretical point of view, the new laser sources, the Disc-laser and the Fibre laser possess a potential of changing dramatically the limits...... for cutting performance. These theoretical considerations are evaluated against available cutting data....

  7. The study on force, surface integrity, tool life and chip on laser assisted machining of inconel 718 using Nd:YAG laser source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, K

    2017-07-01

    Inconel 718, a high-temperature alloy, is a promising material for high-performance aerospace gas turbine engines components. However, the machining of the alloy is difficult owing to immense shear strength, rapid work hardening rate during turning, and less thermal conductivity. Hence, like ceramics and composites, the machining of this alloy is considered as difficult-to-turn materials. Laser assisted turning method has become a promising solution in recent years to lessen cutting stress when materials that are considered difficult-to-turn, such as Inconel 718 is employed. This study investigated the influence of input variables of laser assisted machining on the machinability aspect of the Inconel 718. The comparison of machining characteristics has been carried out to analyze the process benefits with the variation of laser machining variables. The laser assisted machining variables are cutting speeds of 60-150 m/min, feed rates of 0.05-0.125 mm/rev with a laser power between 1200 W and 1300 W. The various output characteristics such as force, roughness, tool life and geometrical characteristic of chip are investigated and compared with conventional machining without application of laser power. From experimental results, at a laser power of 1200 W, laser assisted turning outperforms conventional machining by 2.10 times lessening in cutting force, 46% reduction in surface roughness as well as 66% improvement in tool life when compared that of conventional machining. Compared to conventional machining, with the application of laser, the cutting speed of carbide tool has increased to a cutting condition of 150 m/min, 0.125 mm/rev. Microstructural analysis shows that no damage of the subsurface of the workpiece.

  8. The study on force, surface integrity, tool life and chip on laser assisted machining of inconel 718 using Nd:YAG laser source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Venkatesan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Inconel 718, a high-temperature alloy, is a promising material for high-performance aerospace gas turbine engines components. However, the machining of the alloy is difficult owing to immense shear strength, rapid work hardening rate during turning, and less thermal conductivity. Hence, like ceramics and composites, the machining of this alloy is considered as difficult-to-turn materials. Laser assisted turning method has become a promising solution in recent years to lessen cutting stress when materials that are considered difficult-to-turn, such as Inconel 718 is employed. This study investigated the influence of input variables of laser assisted machining on the machinability aspect of the Inconel 718. The comparison of machining characteristics has been carried out to analyze the process benefits with the variation of laser machining variables. The laser assisted machining variables are cutting speeds of 60–150 m/min, feed rates of 0.05–0.125 mm/rev with a laser power between 1200 W and 1300 W. The various output characteristics such as force, roughness, tool life and geometrical characteristic of chip are investigated and compared with conventional machining without application of laser power. From experimental results, at a laser power of 1200 W, laser assisted turning outperforms conventional machining by 2.10 times lessening in cutting force, 46% reduction in surface roughness as well as 66% improvement in tool life when compared that of conventional machining. Compared to conventional machining, with the application of laser, the cutting speed of carbide tool has increased to a cutting condition of 150 m/min, 0.125 mm/rev. Microstructural analysis shows that no damage of the subsurface of the workpiece.

  9. Multi-Criteria Analysis of Laser Cut Surface Characteristics in CO2 Laser Cutting of Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Radovanović

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an approach for multi-criteria analysis of laser cut surface characteristics using multi-criteria decision making (MCDM approach was presented. Laser cutting experiment was conducted based on Taguchi’s L27 experimental design by varying laser power, cutting speed, assist gas pressure and focus position at three levels. Multi-criteria analysis was performed by using the weighted aggregated sum product assessment (WASPAS method while considering burr height, drag line separation, depth of separation line, surface roughness and perpendicularity of the cut as assessment criteria. Based on conducted experimental investigation the MCDM model with 27 alternatives (laser cuts and five criteria was developed. The relative importance of criteria was determined by using pair-wise comparison matrix and geometric mean method of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP method.

  10. Hydrodynamics of material removal by melt expulsion: Perspectives of laser cutting and drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poprawe, Reinhart; Schulz, Wolfgang; Schmitt, Robert

    With the introduction of fiber-guided radiation at 1 μ wavelength emitting in the milti-kW range at better beam quality than CO2-lasers the most established application in laser processing, namely laser fusion cutting, came back into the industrial and scientific focus. Laser sources with extraordinary optical and economical properties - disk and fiber lasers - in a stormy way enter the market of cutting machines so far reserved for the 10 μ radiation source and led to a volatile situation. The new laser sources can already address a market-relevant class of applications, namely, fusion cutting of steel up to a sheet thickness of 2 mm with pronounced advantages in productivity. However, there is a significant lack of cut quality for larger sheet thickness. The main reason for the drawback and its physical background are given. With the availability of cutting machines with 1 μ fiber-guided radiation the race for the worldwide market regarding the larger sheet thickness is opened and the priority issues to improve the cut quality are related to the three levels: wavelength, beam delivery and the application stage of the machine. The stability model called QuCut is presented which for the first time allows to analyze stability of cutting with fiber-guided radiation. Experimental ripple patterns and ripple spectra resolved with respect to the cutting depth are well reproduced by the new stability model. A number of different experimental methods towards an improved understanding of the dynamics in laser drilling are developed, however, there are gaps related to in-situ observation which is obscured by the hole walls. There are four novel experimental methods resolving the dynamics from a μms-down to a ns-time scale having a spatial resolution with respect to transient drilling depth on the μm scale. As result, the different mechanisms contributing to recast formation and dynamical features of drilling are revealed in more detail. In particular, the action of

  11. Machinability study of steels in precision orthogonal cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Roberto Silva

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The miniaturization of components and systems is advancing steadily in many areas of engineering. Consequently, micro-machining is becoming an important manufacture technology due to the increasing demand for miniaturized products in recent years. Precision machining aims the production of advanced components with high dimensional accuracy and acceptable surface integrity. This work presents an experimental study based on Merchant and Lee & Shaffer theories applied to precision radial turning of AISI D2 cold work tool and AISI 1045 medium carbon steels with uncoated carbide tools ISO grade K15. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of feed rate on chip compression ratio (Rc, chip deformation (ε, friction angle (ρ, shear angle (Φ, normal stress (σ and shear stress (• for both work materials. The results indicated that the shear angle decreased and chip deformation increased as the chip compression ratio was elevated without significant differences between both materials. Additionally, higher cutting and thrust forces and normal and shear stresses were observed for the tool steel. Finally, the Lee & Shaffer model gave shear plane angle values closer to the experimental data.

  12. Effect of the Cutting Tool Geometry on the Tool Wear Resistance When Machining Inconel 625

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Zlámal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the design of a suitable cutting geometry of a tool for the machining of the Inconel 625 nickel alloy. This alloy is among the hard-to-machine refractory alloys that cause very rapid wear on cutting tools. Therefore, SNMG and RCMT indexable cutting insert were used to machine the alloy. The selected insert geometry should prevent notch wear and extend tool life. The alloy was machined under predetermined cutting conditions. The angle of the main edge and thus the size and nature of the wear changed with the depth of the material layer being cut. The criterion for determining a more suitable cutting geometry was the tool’s durability and the roughness of the machined surface.

  13. Effect of the Cutting Tool Geometry on the Tool Wear Resistance when Machining Inconel 625

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Zlámal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the design of a suitable cutting geometry of a tool for the machining of the Inconel 625 nickel alloy. This alloy is among the hard-to-machine refractory alloys that cause very rapid wear on cutting tools. Therefore, SNMG and RCMT indexable cutting insert were used to machine the alloy. The selected insert geometry should prevent notch wear and extend tool life. The alloy was machined under predetermined cutting conditions. The angle of the main edge and thus the size and nature of the wear changed with the depth of the material layer being cut. The criterion for determining a more suitable cutting geometry was the tool’s durability and the roughness of the machined surface.

  14. Laser machining-- a status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. W. McMillin

    1972-01-01

    The laser (an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) provides a source of intense optical radiation. This energy can be focused to a very small diameter. At even moderate power levels, therefore, the energy at the focal point is sufficient to vaporize most materials.

  15. Cutting and drilling of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) by 70W short pulse nanosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeschke, Peter; Stolberg, Klaus; Bastick, Stefan; Ziolkowski, Ewa; Roehner, Markus; Suttmann, Oliver; Overmeyer, Ludger

    2014-02-01

    Continuous carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) are recognized as having a significant lightweight construction potential for a wide variety of industrial applications. However, a today`s barrier for a comprehensive dissemination of CFRP structures is the lack of economic, quick and reliable manufacture processes, e.g. the cutting and drilling steps. In this paper, the capability of using pulsed disk lasers in CFRP machining is discussed. In CFRP processing with NIR lasers, carbon fibers show excellent optical absorption and heat dissipation, contrary to the plastics matrix. Therefore heat dissipation away from the laser focus into the material is driven by heat conduction of the fibres. The matrix is heated indirectly by heat transfer from the fibres. To cut CFRP, it is required to reach the melting temperature for thermoplastic matrix materials or the disintegration temperature for thermoset systems as well as the sublimation temperature of the reinforcing fibers simultaneously. One solution for this problem is to use short pulse nanosecond lasers. We have investigated CFRP cutting and drilling with such a laser (max. 7 mJ @ 10 kHz, 30 ns). This laser offers the opportunity of wide range parameter tuning for systematic process optimization. By applying drilling and cutting operations based on galvanometer scanning techniques in multi-cycle mode, excellent surface and edge characteristics in terms of delamination-free and intact fiber-matrix interface were achieved. The results indicate that nanosecond disk laser machining could consequently be a suitable tool for the automotive and aircraft industry for cutting and drilling steps.

  16. A Study on Mechanical behavior of Tensile Specimen Fabricated by Laser Cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Y. G.; Kim, G. S.; Baik, S. J.; Baek, S. Y. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The mechanical testing data are required for the assessment of dry storage of the spent nuclear fuel. Laser cutting system could be useful tools for material processing such as cutting in radioactive environment due to non-contact nature, ease in handling and the laser cutting process is most advantageous, offering the narrow kerf width and heat affected zone by using small beam spot diameter. The feasibility of the laser cutting system was demonstrated for the fabrication of various types of the unirradiated cladding with and without oxide layer on the specimens. In the present study, the dimensional measurement and tensile test were conducted to investigate the mechanical behavior of the axial tensile test specimens depending on the material processing methods in a hot cell at IMEF (Irradiated Materials Examination Facility) of KAERI. Laser cutting system was used to fabricate the tensile test specimens, and the mechanical behavior was investigated using the dimensional measurement and tensile test. It was shown that the laser beam machining could be a useful tool to fabricate the specimens and this technique will be developed for the fabrication of various types of irradiated specimens in a hotcell.

  17. A Study on Mechanical behavior of Tensile Specimen Fabricated by Laser Cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Y. G.; Kim, G. S.; Baik, S. J.; Baek, S. Y.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical testing data are required for the assessment of dry storage of the spent nuclear fuel. Laser cutting system could be useful tools for material processing such as cutting in radioactive environment due to non-contact nature, ease in handling and the laser cutting process is most advantageous, offering the narrow kerf width and heat affected zone by using small beam spot diameter. The feasibility of the laser cutting system was demonstrated for the fabrication of various types of the unirradiated cladding with and without oxide layer on the specimens. In the present study, the dimensional measurement and tensile test were conducted to investigate the mechanical behavior of the axial tensile test specimens depending on the material processing methods in a hot cell at IMEF (Irradiated Materials Examination Facility) of KAERI. Laser cutting system was used to fabricate the tensile test specimens, and the mechanical behavior was investigated using the dimensional measurement and tensile test. It was shown that the laser beam machining could be a useful tool to fabricate the specimens and this technique will be developed for the fabrication of various types of irradiated specimens in a hotcell

  18. Melt flow characteristics in gas-assisted laser cutting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    industrial applications. In this process the cut ... Under these assumptions the boundary layer theory flow over. Laser beam ... a flat plate can be applied to estimate the distance after which the flow separation takes place by calculating the ...

  19. CO2 laser cutting of advanced high strength steels (AHSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamikiz, A.; Lacalle, L.N. Lopez de; Sanchez, J.A.; Pozo, D. del; Etayo, J.M.; Lopez, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    This article demonstrates the optimum working areas and cutting conditions for the laser cutting of a series of advanced high strength steels (AHSS). The parameters that most influence the cutting of sheet metal have been studied and the results have been divided into two large groups with thickness of more and less than 1 mm. The influence of the material and, more important, the effect of coating have been taken into account. The results, have demonstrate very different behaviours between the thinnest and thickest sheets, whilst the variation of the cutting parameters due to the influence of the material is less relevant. The optimum cutting areas and the quality of the cut evaluated with different criteria are presented. Finally, the best position for the laser beam has been observed to be underneath the sheet

  20. Laser cutting of laminated sheet material: a modeling exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, R.F.; Meijer, J.

    1997-01-01

    Laser cutting has been investigated for a number of aluminum-synthetic laminates, newly developed materials for the aeronautic and automotive industry. The materials consist of alternating aluminum and synthetic layers. It is shown that these materials can be cut at rates comparable to those of

  1. Laser cutting of metal laminates: analysis and experimental validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, R.F.; Meijer, J.

    2000-01-01

    Laser cutting has been investigated for a number of aluminum–synthetic laminates, newly developed materials for the aeronautic and automotive industry. The materials consist of alternating aluminum and synthetic layers. It is shown that these materials can be cut at the same speed as homogeneous

  2. Laser cutting of high manganese cast steel; Komangan chuko no laser setsudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, Y.; Tokunaga, T. [University of Industrial Technology, Kanagawa (Japan); Miyazaki, T. [Chiba Institute of Technology, Chiba (Japan)

    1994-08-25

    This paper discusses applicability of CO2 laser to cut high manganese cast steel, and investigates the cutting conditions and characteristics. The tested material is made of steel scrap, ferro Mn and ferro Cr of 50 kg in total, which was deoxidized by using pure aluminum and injected into CO2 die by means of the ordinary casting method to make a circular rod with a diameter of 28 mm. The rod was given a heating and water toughening treatment in a muffle furnace maintaining N2 atmosphere. The base structure is an austenite system of Mn 12.4% by mass with hardness of MHV 220 to 230. The paper describes discussions on test pieces (with a thickness of 2 mm) fabricated under a laser beam frequency of 150 Hz, power outputs of 250, 350 and 500 W, and cutting speeds of 100, 300 and 500 mm/min. The cutting width increases as the laser power is increased, but is not governed by the cutting speed. Increased cutting speed roughens the surface of a cut face. The laser cutting has caused no change in hardness of the base material, and no processing deterioration has been recognized. As described, the laser cutting can be applied to finish-cutting if the cutting condition is selected properly. Simplification of the cutting process and improvement of working environment can be expected from the laser cutting. 14 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Cutting Zone Temperature Identification During Machining of Nickel Alloy Inconel 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czán, Andrej; Daniš, Igor; Holubják, Jozef; Zaušková, Lucia; Czánová, Tatiana; Mikloš, Matej; Martikáň, Pavol

    2017-12-01

    Quality of machined surface is affected by quality of cutting process. There are many parameters, which influence on the quality of the cutting process. The cutting temperature is one of most important parameters that influence the tool life and the quality of machined surfaces. Its identification and determination is key objective in specialized machining processes such as dry machining of hard-to-machine materials. It is well known that maximum temperature is obtained in the tool rake face at the vicinity of the cutting edge. A moderate level of cutting edge temperature and a low thermal shock reduce the tool wear phenomena, and a low temperature gradient in the machined sublayer reduces the risk of high tensile residual stresses. The thermocouple method was used to measure the temperature directly in the cutting zone. An original thermocouple was specially developed for measuring of temperature in the cutting zone, surface and subsurface layers of machined surface. This paper deals with identification of temperature and temperature gradient during dry peripheral milling of Inconel 718. The measurements were used to identification the temperature gradients and to reconstruct the thermal distribution in cutting zone with various cutting conditions.

  4. Theoretical and experimental aspects of laser cutting with a direct diode laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Rodrigues, G.; Pencinovsky, J.; Cuypers, M.; Duflou, J. R.

    2014-10-01

    Recent developments in beam coupling techniques have made it possible to scale up the power of diode lasers with a laser beam quality suitable for laser cutting of metal sheets. In this paper a prototype of a Direct Diode Laser (DDL) source (BPP of 22 mm-mrad) is analyzed in terms of efficiency and cut performance and compared with two established technologies, CO2 and fiber lasers. An analytical model based on absorption calculations is used to predict the performance of the studied laser source with a good agreement with experimental results. Furthermore results of fusion cutting of stainless steel and aluminium alloys as well as oxygen cutting of structural steel are presented, demonstrating that industrial relevant cutting speeds with high cutting quality can now be achieved with DDL.

  5. Investigation of tool engagement and cutting performance in machining a pocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesta, E. Y. T.; Hamidon, R.; Riza, M.; Alrashidi, R. F. F. A.; Alazemi, A. F. F. S.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the variation of tool engagement for different profile of cutting. In addition, behavior of cutting force and cutting temperature for different tool engagements for machining a pocket also been explored. Initially, simple tool engagement models were developed for peripheral and slot cutting for different types of corner. Based on these models, the tool engagements for contour and zig zag tool path strategies for a rectangular shape pocket with dimension 80 mm x 60 mm were analyzed. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of tool engagements on cutting force and cutting temperature for the machining of a pocket of AISI H13 material. The cutting parameters used were 150m/min cutting speed, 0.05mm/tooth feed, and 0.1mm depth of cut. Based on the results obtained, the changes of cutting force and cutting temperature performance there exist a relationship between cutting force, cutting temperature and tool engagement. A higher cutting force and cutting temperature is obtained when the cutting tool goes through up milling and when the cutting tool makes a full engagement with the workpiece.

  6. Comparative study for different statistical models to optimize cutting parameters of CNC end milling machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Berry, A.; El-Berry, A.; Al-Bossly, A.

    2010-01-01

    In machining operation, the quality of surface finish is an important requirement for many work pieces. Thus, that is very important to optimize cutting parameters for controlling the required manufacturing quality. Surface roughness parameter (Ra) in mechanical parts depends on turning parameters during the turning process. In the development of predictive models, cutting parameters of feed, cutting speed, depth of cut, are considered as model variables. For this purpose, this study focuses on comparing various machining experiments which using CNC vertical machining center, work pieces was aluminum 6061. Multiple regression models are used to predict the surface roughness at different experiments.

  7. OPTIMASI PARAMETER MESIN LASER CUTTING TERHADAP KEKASARAN DAN LAJU PEMOTONGAN PADA SUS 316L MENGGUNAKAN TAGUCHI GREY RELATIONAL ANALYSIS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakasita R

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Optimasi parameter adalah teknik yang digunakan pada proses manufaktur untuk menghasilkan produk terbaik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengoptimasi parameter CNC laser cutting, yaitu titik fokus sinar laser, tekanan gas cutting dan cutting speed untuk mengurangi variasi terhadap respon kekasaran dan laju pemotongan pada material SUS 316L. Masing-masing parameter memiliki 3 level dan pada penelitian ini menggunakan matriks orthogonal L9 (34. Metode ANOVA dan Taguchi digunakan untuk menganalisis data hasil percobaan. Optimasi kekasaran minimum permukaan dan laju pemotongan maksimum pada proses laser cutting dilakukan dengan menggunakan Grey relational analysis. Eksperimen konfirmasi digunakan untuk membuktikan hasil optimal yang telah didapatkan dari metode Taguchi Grey relational analysis. Hasil eksperimen menunjukkan bahwa Taguchi Grey relational analysis efektif digunakan untuk mengoptimasi parameter pemesinan pada laser cutting dengan multi respon.   Abstract Parameter optimization is used in manufacturing as an indicator to produce the best manufacturing product. This paper studies an optimization parameters of CNC laser cutting such as focus of laser beam, pressure cutting gases and cutting speed for reducing variation of surface roughness and cutting rate on material SUS 316L. Based on L9(34 orthogonal array parameters, it is analized using ANOVA based on Taguchi method. In order to optimaze the minimum surface roughness and maximum cutting rate in laser cutting process, it is used Grey relational analysis. The confirmation experiments used to validate the optimal results that has done by Taguchi method. The results show that the Taguchi Grey relational analysis is being effective to optimize the machining parameters for laser cutting process with two responses.

  8. Machinability evaluation of titanium alloys (Part 2)--Analyses of cutting force and spindle motor current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masafumi; Okuno, Osamu

    2004-12-01

    To establish a method of determining the machinability of dental materials for CAD/CAM systems, the machinability of titanium, two titanium alloys (Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb), and free-cutting brass was evaluated through cutting force and spindle motor current. The metals were slotted using a milling machine and square end mills at four cutting conditions. Both the static and dynamic components of the cutting force represented well the machinability of the metals tested: the machinability of Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb was worse than that of titanium, while that of free-cutting brass was better. On the other hand, the results indicated that the spindle motor current was not sensitive enough to detect the material difference among the titanium and its alloys.

  9. Numerical simulation of the shape of laser cut for fiber and CO2 lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, A. V.; Ermolaev, G. V.; Polyanskiy, T. A.; Gurin, A. M.

    2017-10-01

    The results of numerical modeling of steel plate laser cutting with nitrogen as assist gas with consideration of heat transfer into a bulk material are presented. In this work we studied a distribution of absorbed radiation energy inside cut kerf and the difference between CO2 and fiber laser radiation propagation and absorption. The influence of secondary absorption of reflected from the cut front radiation on stability of melt hydrodynamics is discussed for different laser types.

  10. Optimizing cutting conditions on sustainable machining of aluminum alloy to minimize power consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, Rusdi; Suyuti, Muhammad Arsyad; Susanto, Tri Agus

    2017-06-01

    Aluminum is widely utilized in the industrial sector. There are several advantages of aluminum, i.e. good flexibility and formability, high corrosion resistance and electrical conductivity, and high heat. Despite of these characteristics, however, pure aluminum is rarely used because of its lacks of strength. Thus, most of the aluminum used in the industrial sectors was in the form of alloy form. Sustainable machining can be considered to link with the transformation of input materials and energy/power demand into finished goods. Machining processes are responsible for environmental effects accepting to their power consumption. The cutting conditions have been optimized to minimize the cutting power, which is the power consumed for cutting. This paper presents an experimental study of sustainable machining of Al-11%Si base alloy that was operated without any cooling system to assess the capacity in reducing power consumption. The cutting force was measured and the cutting power was calculated. Both of cutting force and cutting power were analyzed and modeled by using the central composite design (CCD). The result of this study indicated that the cutting speed has an effect on machining performance and that optimum cutting conditions have to be determined, while sustainable machining can be followed in terms of minimizing power consumption and cutting force. The model developed from this study can be used for evaluation process and optimization to determine optimal cutting conditions for the performance of the whole process.

  11. Methods and Research for Multi-Component Cutting Force Sensing Devices and Approaches in Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaokang Liang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Multi-component cutting force sensing systems in manufacturing processes applied to cutting tools are gradually becoming the most significant monitoring indicator. Their signals have been extensively applied to evaluate the machinability of workpiece materials, predict cutter breakage, estimate cutting tool wear, control machine tool chatter, determine stable machining parameters, and improve surface finish. Robust and effective sensing systems with capability of monitoring the cutting force in machine operations in real time are crucial for realizing the full potential of cutting capabilities of computer numerically controlled (CNC tools. The main objective of this paper is to present a brief review of the existing achievements in the field of multi-component cutting force sensing systems in modern manufacturing.

  12. Methods and Research for Multi-Component Cutting Force Sensing Devices and Approaches in Machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qiaokang; Zhang, Dan; Wu, Wanneng; Zou, Kunlin

    2016-11-16

    Multi-component cutting force sensing systems in manufacturing processes applied to cutting tools are gradually becoming the most significant monitoring indicator. Their signals have been extensively applied to evaluate the machinability of workpiece materials, predict cutter breakage, estimate cutting tool wear, control machine tool chatter, determine stable machining parameters, and improve surface finish. Robust and effective sensing systems with capability of monitoring the cutting force in machine operations in real time are crucial for realizing the full potential of cutting capabilities of computer numerically controlled (CNC) tools. The main objective of this paper is to present a brief review of the existing achievements in the field of multi-component cutting force sensing systems in modern manufacturing.

  13. Application of laser cutting technology to high radiation environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauley, K.A.; Mitchell, M.R.; Saget, S.N.

    1996-01-01

    A 2 kW Nd:YAG laser system manufactured by the Lumonics Corporation will be used to cut various metals during the fall of 1996 as part of a United States Department of Energy (DOE)-funded technology demonstration at the Hanford Site. The laser cutting demonstration will focus on an evaluation of two issues as the technology applies to the decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of aging nuclear facilities. An assessment will be made as to the ability of laser end effectors to be operated using electromechanical remote manipulators and the ability of both end effector and fiber optics to withstand the damage created by a high radiation field. The laser cutting demonstration will be conducted in two phases. The first phase will be a non-radioactive test to ensure the ability of hot cell remote manipulators to use the laser end effector to successfully cut the types of materials and geometries found in the hot cell. The second phase will introduce the laser end effector and the associated fiber optic cable into the hot cell radiation environment. The testing in the hot cell will investigate the degradation of the optical portions of the end effector and transmission cable in the high radiation field. The objective of the demonstration is to assess the cutting efficiency and life limitations of a laser cutting system for radioactive D ampersand D operations. A successful demonstration will, therefore, allow the laser cutting technology to be integrated into the baseline planning for the D ampersand D of DOE facilities throughout the nation

  14. New developments in laser sintering of diamond cutting disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovalenko, V.; Golovko, L.; Meijer, J.; Anyakin, M.

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of techniques and problems in the fabrication of cutting tools based on super hard composites results in a solution by the application of lasers. The results of systematic study of diamond composites sintering with laser radiation are discussed. A mathematical modeling of the heat

  15. Cutting using the CO laser. Trennen mit dem CO-Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maisenhaelder, F.; Stoehr, M. (DLR, Inst. fuer Technische Physik, Stuttgart (Germany))

    1991-02-01

    Several cutting experiments were performed to investigate the maximum cutting speed when using CO or CO{sub 2} laser radiation. The material which was used for these experiments was mild steel (St 37) and stainless steel (V2A; X5CrNi 189), the material thickness varied from 0.5 mm to 4 mm. The cutting parameters, especially the focal power density and the focal diameter, were equal for both laser wavelengths. The experimental result shows an increased cutting speed with CO laser beams in comparison to CO{sub 2} laser beams.

  16. The use of cutting temperature to evaluate the machinability of titanium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masafumi

    2009-02-01

    This study investigated the machinability of titanium, two commercial titanium alloys (Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb) and free-cutting brass using the cutting temperature. The cutting temperature was estimated by measuring the thermal electromotive force of the tool-workpiece thermocouple during cutting. The thermoelectric power of each metal relative to the tool had previously been determined. The metals were slotted using a milling machine and carbide square end mills under four cutting conditions. The cutting temperatures of Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb were significantly higher than that of the titanium, while that of the free-cutting brass was lower. This result coincided with the relationship of the magnitude of the cutting forces measured in a previous study. For each metal, the cutting temperature became higher when the depth of cut or the cutting speed and feed increased. The increase in the cutting speed and feed was more influential on the value than the increase in the depth of cut when two cutting conditions with the same removal rates were compared. The results demonstrated that cutting temperature measurement can be utilized to develop a new material for dental CAD/CAM applications and to optimize the cutting conditions.

  17. Compact digital NTSC TV signal transmission system using SM optical fibers and its application to operating status monitoring for laser cutting machine; Digital gazo shingo no kan`igata hikari fiber denso system to sono laser cutter no dosa jotai kanshi eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asada, H. [NEC Shizuoka, Ltd., Shizuoka (Japan); Rabou, N. [University of Helwan, (Egypt); Ikeda, H.; Shimodaira, Y.; Yoshida, H. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    This paper describes a compact bandwidth-compressed digital NTSC picture code transmission system in which circuit configurations are simplified and made inexpensive. The bandwidth of digital NTSC picture codes is compressed in accordance with subjective evaluation, and so the sampling rate is set at 8.13 MHz (2.28 times fsc) and the quantizing level at 5 bits. The frame bits for detecting the frames of picture elements me generated by alternately generating 1 and 0 when the frames are specified. The proposed system is constructed using edge- emitting LED`s (ELED`s) and single- mode (SM) fibers for transmitting digital NTSC picture codes w m to easily distribute video signals from a video camera to video monitors. The transmitter was 80 times 100mm in size, 120 g in weight, and 1000mw in power dissipation. The receiver was 55 times 120 mm in size, 100g in weight, and 800mw in power dissipation. Using the compact bandwidth-compressed digital NTSC picture code transmission system a shot of the working pice in the laser cutting machine, as an example, was satisfactorily transmitted via SM optical fibers without noses. 18 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Characterization of cutting parameters in the minimum quantity lubricant (MQL) machining process of a gearbox

    OpenAIRE

    Travieso Rodriguez, Jose Antonio; Gómez Gras, David; García Vilana, Silvia; Mainau Noguer, Ferran; Jerez Mesa, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to find the key process parameters for machining different parts of an automobile gearbox, commissioned by a company that needs to replace with the MQL lubrication system their current machining process based on cutting fluids. It particularly focuses on the definition of appropriate cutting parameters for machining under the MQL condition through a statistical method of Design of Experiments (DOE). Using a combination of recommended parameters, significant improvements in the...

  19. CO2 Laser Cutting of Hot Stamping Boron Steel Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Russo Spena

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the quality of CO2 laser cutting of hot stamping boron steel sheets that are employed in the fabrication of automotive body-in-white. For this purpose, experimental laser cutting tests were conducted on 1.2 mm sheets at varying levels of laser power, cutting speed, and oxygen pressure. The resulting quality of cut edges was evaluated in terms of perpendicularity tolerance, surface irregularity, kerf width, heat affected zone, and dross extension. Experimental tests were based on a L9(34 orthogonal array design, with the effects of the process parameters on the quality responses being determined by means of a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA. Quadratic mathematical models were developed to determine the relationships between the cutting parameters and the quality responses. Finally, a routine based on an optimization criterion was employed to predict the optimal setting of cutting factors and its effect on the quality responses. A confirmation experiment was conducted to verify the appropriateness of the optimization routine. The results show that all of the examined process parameters have a key role in determining the cut quality of hot stamping boron steel sheets, with cutting speed and their interactions having the most influencing effects. Particularly, interactions can have an opposite behavior for different levels of the process parameters.

  20. Acoustic damage detection in laser-cut CFRP composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Michiteru; Harada, Yoshihisa; Suzuki, Takayuki; Niino, Hiroyuki

    2012-03-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) composite material, which is expected to reduce the weight of automotive, airplane and etc., was cut by laser irradiation with a pulsed-CO2 laser (TRUMPF TFL5000; P=800W, 20kHz, τ=8μs, λ=10.6μm, V=1m/min) and single-mode fiber lasers (IPG YLR-300-SM; P=300W, λ=1.07μm, V=1m/min)(IPG YLR- 2000-SM; P=2kW, λ=1.07μm, V=7m/min). To detect thermal damage at the laser cutting of CFRP materials consisting of thermoset resin matrix and PAN or PITCH-based carbon fiber, the cut quality was observed by X-ray CT. The effect of laser cutting process on the mechanical strength for CFRP tested at the tensile test. Acoustic emission (AE) monitoring, high-speed camera and scanning electron microscopy were used for the failure process analysis. AE signals and fractographic features characteristic of each laser-cut CFRP were identified.

  1. Transport of biologically active material in laser cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenz, M; Mathezloic, F; Stoffel, M H; Zweig, A D; Romano, V; Weber, H P

    1988-01-01

    The transport of biologically active material during laser cutting with CO2 and Er lasers is demonstrated. This transport mechanism removes particles from the surface of gelatin, agar, and liver samples into the depth of the laser-formed craters. The transport phenomenon is explained by a contraction and condensation of enclosed hot water vapor. We show by cultivating transported bacteria in agar that biological particles can survive the shock of the transport. Determination of the numbers of active cells evidences a more pronounced activity of the cultivated bacteria after impact with an Er laser than with a CO2 laser.

  2. Measurement of secondary emissions during laser cutting of steel equipments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilot, Guy [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, BP 68, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)], E-mail: guy.pilot@irsn.fr; Fauvel, Sylvain [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, BP 68, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Gosse, Xavier [AREVA NC, Centre de Marcoule, 30200 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France); Dinechin, Guillaume de [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, DEN/DM2S/SEMT, Saclay, Bat. 611, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Vernhet, Didier [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, DEN/VRH/UMODD, Centre de Valrho, BP 17171, 20207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France)

    2008-08-15

    In order to dismantle some equipments of an obsolete reprocessing plant in Marcoule, studies were carried out by IRSN (Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire)/DSU/SERAC in cooperation with CEA (power laser group) on the laser cutting of steel structures, on the request of AREVA NC/Marcoule (UP1 dismantling project manager) and CEA/UMODD (UP1 dismantling owner). These studies were aimed at: {center_dot}quantifying and characterizing the secondary emissions produced by Nd-YAG laser cutting of Uranus 65 steel pieces and examining the influence of different parameters, {center_dot}qualifying a prefiltration technique and particularly an electrostatic precipitator, {center_dot}comparing the Nd-YAG laser used with other cutting tools previously studied especially on aerosol production and aerosol size distribution.

  3. Using laser to measure stem thickness and cut weed stems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisel, T.; Schou, Jørgen; Andreasen, C.

    2002-01-01

    Stem thickness of the weed Solanum nigrum and the crop sugarbeet was determined with a He-Ne laser using a novel non-destructive technique measuring stem shadow. Thereafter, the stems were cut close to the soil surface with a CO2 laser. Treatments were carried out on pot plants, grown....... A binary model was also tested. The non-linear model incorporating stem thickness described the data best, indicating that it would be possible to optimize laser cutting by measuring stem thickness before cutting. The general tendency was that more energy was needed the thicker the stem. Energy uses...... in the greenhouse, at two different growth stages, and plant dry matter was measured 2-5 weeks after treatment. The relationship between plant dry weight and laser energy was analysed using two different non-linear dose-response regression models; one model included stem thickness as a variable, the other did not...

  4. Feasible Application Area Study for Linear Laser Cutting in Paper Making Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happonen, A.; Stepanov, A.; Piili, H.

    Traditional industry sectors, like paper making industry, tend to stay within well-known technology rather than going forward towards promising, but still quite new technical solutions and applications. This study analyses the feasibility of the laser cutting in large-scale industrial paper making processes. Aim was to reveal development and process related challenges and improvement potential in paper making processes by utilizing laser technology. This study has been carried out, because there still seems to be only few large-scale industrial laser processing applications in paper converting processes worldwide, even in the beginning of 2010's. Because of this, the small-scale use of lasers in paper material manufacturing industry is related to a shortage of well-known and widely available published research articles and published measurement data (e.g. actual achieved cut speeds with high quality cut edges, set-up times and so on). It was concluded that laser cutting has strong potential in industrial applications for paper making industries. This potential includes quality improvements and a competitive advantage for paper machine manufacturers and industry. The innovations have also added potential, when developing new paper products. An example of these kinds of products are ones with printed intelligence, which could be a new business opportunity for the paper industries all around the world.

  5. Laser Cutting of Thick Diamond Films Using Low-Power Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Y.J.; Baik, Y.J. [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-02-01

    Laser cutting of thick diamond films is studied rising a low-power(10 W) copper vapor laser. Due to the existence of the saturation depth in laser cutting, thick diamond films are not easily cut by low-power lasers. In this study, we have adopted a low thermal- conductivity underlayer of alumina and a heating stage (up to 500 deg. C in air) to prevent the laser energy from consuming-out and, in turn, enhance the cutting efficiency. Aspect ratio increases twice from 3.5 to 7 when the alumina underlayer used. Adopting a heating stage also increases aspect ratio and more than 10 is obtained at higher temperatures than 400 deg. C. These results show that thick diamond films can be cut, with low-power lasers, simply by modifying the thermal property of underlayer. (author). 13 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Tailor cutting of crystalline solar cells by laser micro jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckert, F.; Pilat, E.; Piron, P.; Torres, P.; Carron, B.; Richerzhagen, B.; Pirot, M.; Monna, R.

    2012-03-01

    Coupling a laser into a hair thin water micro jet (Laser Micro Jet, LMJ) for cutting applications offers a wide range of processes that are quite unique. As the laser beam is guided by internal reflections inside of a liquid cylinder, the cuts are naturally straight and do not reflect any divergence as otherwise occurs with an unguided laser beam. Furthermore, having a liquid media at the point of contact ensures a fast removal of heat and eventual debris ensuring clean cuts, which are free of any burrs. Many applications have indeed been developed for a large variety of materials, which are as different as e.g. diamond, silicon, aluminum, ceramic and hard metals. The photovoltaic industry has enjoyed in the last decades tremendous growth rates, which are still projected into the future. We focus here on the segment of Building Integrated PV (BIPV), which requests tailored solutions to actual buildings and not-one-fits-it-all standardized modules. Having the option to tailor cut solar cells opens a new field of BIPV applications. For the first time, finished crystalline solar cells have been LMJ cut into predetermined shapes. First results show that the cut is clean and neat. Preliminary solar performance measurements are positive. This opens a new avenue of tailored made modules instead of having to rely on the one-fits-alloy approach used so far.

  7. Investigation of Cutting Quality of Remote DOE Laser Cutting in 0.5 mm Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villumsen, Sigurd Lazic; Kristiansen, Morten

    It has previously been shown that the stability of the remote fusion cutting (RFC) process can be increased by modifying the intensity profile of the laser by means of a diffractive optical element (DOE). This paper investigates the quality of remote DOE cutting (RDC) conducted with a 3 kW single mode fiber laser in 0.5 mm stainless steel. An automatic measurement system is used to investigate how the travel speed, focus offset and angle of incidence effect the kerf width and kerf variance. The study shows that the RDC process has a very low kerf width variance, and that the kerf width decreases with cutting speed. Furthermore, selected etched samples show a significant increase in the perpendicularity of the cuts when compared to RFC. Also, on average, the depth of the layer of molten material for RFC is 83% deeper than for RDC.

  8. Smart Cutting Tools and Smart Machining: Development Approaches, and Their Implementation and Application Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kai; Niu, Zhi-Chao; Wang, Robin C.; Rakowski, Richard; Bateman, Richard

    2017-09-01

    Smart machining has tremendous potential and is becoming one of new generation high value precision manufacturing technologies in line with the advance of Industry 4.0 concepts. This paper presents some innovative design concepts and, in particular, the development of four types of smart cutting tools, including a force-based smart cutting tool, a temperature-based internally-cooled cutting tool, a fast tool servo (FTS) and smart collets for ultraprecision and micro manufacturing purposes. Implementation and application perspectives of these smart cutting tools are explored and discussed particularly for smart machining against a number of industrial application requirements. They are contamination-free machining, machining of tool-wear-prone Si-based infra-red devices and medical applications, high speed micro milling and micro drilling, etc. Furthermore, implementation techniques are presented focusing on: (a) plug-and-produce design principle and the associated smart control algorithms, (b) piezoelectric film and surface acoustic wave transducers to measure cutting forces in process, (c) critical cutting temperature control in real-time machining, (d) in-process calibration through machining trials, (e) FE-based design and analysis of smart cutting tools, and (f) application exemplars on adaptive smart machining.

  9. Remote Fiber Laser Cutting System for Dismantling Glass Melter - 13071

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsui, Takashi; Miura, Noriaki [IHI Corporation, 1 Shin-Nakahara-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Oowaki, Katsura; Kawaguchi, Isao [IHI Inspection and Instrumentation Co., Ltd, 1 Shin-Nakahara-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Miura, Yasuhiko; Ino, Tooru [Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited, 4-108, Aza Okitsuke, Oaza Obuchi, Rokkasho-Mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Since 2008, the equipment for dismantling the used glass melter has been developed in High-level Liquid Waste (HLW) Vitrification Facility in the Japanese Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP). Due to the high radioactivity of the glass melter, the equipment requires a fully-remote operation in the vitrification cell. The remote fiber laser cutting system was adopted as one of the major pieces of equipment. An output power of fiber laser is typically higher than other types of laser and so can provide high-cutting performance. The fiber laser can cut thick stainless steel and Inconel, which are parts of the glass melter such as casings, electrodes and nozzles. As a result, it can make the whole of the dismantling work efficiently done for a shorter period. Various conditions of the cutting test have been evaluated in the process of developing the remote fiber cutting system. In addition, the expected remote operations of the power manipulator with the laser torch have been fully verified and optimized using 3D simulations. (authors)

  10. Cutting and drilling studies using high power visible lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kautz, D.D.; Dragon, E.P.; Werve, M.E.; Hargrove, R.S.; Warner, B.E.

    1993-01-01

    High power and radiance laser technologies developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory such as copper-vapor and dye lasers show great promise for material processing tasks. Evaluation of models suggests significant increases in welding, cutting, and drilling capabilities, as well as applications in emerging technologies such as micromachining, surface treatment, and stereolithography. Copper lasers currently operate at 1.8 kW output at approximately three times the diffraction limit and achieve mean time between failures of more than 1,000 hours. Dye lasers have near diffraction limited beam quality at greater than 1.0 kW. Results from cutting and drilling studies in titanium and stainless steel alloys show that cuts and holes with extremely fine features can be made with dye and copper-vapor lasers. High radiance beams produce low distortion and small heat-affected zones. The authors have accomplished very high aspect ratios (> 60:1) and features with micron scale (5-50 μm) sizes. The paper gives a description of the equipment; discusses cutting theory; and gives experimental results of cutting and drilling studies on Ti-6Al-4V and 304 stainless steel

  11. Operational dynamics of the cutting head of the AM-50 heading machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W; Bak, K; Klich, R [Politechnika Slaska, Gliwice (Poland). Instytut Mechanizacji Gornictwa

    1987-01-01

    Operation of the cutter head of an AM-50 heading machine is influenced by a large number of factors, many of them of a random character. Forces acting on each of the cutting tools participating in coal or rock cutting are determined and summed up. The total cutting force is then calculated and on that basis the turning moment is derived. Cutting tool operation also is analyzed as a stochastic process. Cutting forces of each cutting tool change from 0 to maximum. However these forces are distributed in cutting time and the total cutting force is not the sum of the average cutting forces, nor is it the sum of maximum cutting forces. Using calculus of probability, the probable force distribution was determined. This distribution is compared to force distribution calculated on the basis of power consumption of the cutter motors. The differences between the two force distributions are, among others, caused by insufficient investigation into operation of conic cutters. 10 refs.

  12. Effect of microstructure and cutting speed on machining behavior of Ti6Al4V alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telrandhe, Sagar V.; Mishra, Sushil; Saxena, Ashish K. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai (India)

    2017-05-15

    Machining of aerospace and biomedical grade titanium alloys has always been a challenge because of their low conductivity and elastic modulus. Different machining methods and parameters have been adopted for high precision machining of titanium alloys. Machining of titanium alloys can be improved by microstructure optimization. The present study focuses on the effect of microstructure on ma- chinability of Ti6Al4V alloys at different cutting speeds. Samples were subjected to different annealing conditions resulting in different grain sizes and local micro-strains (misorientation). Cutting forces were significantly reduced after annealing; consequently, sub-surface residual stresses were reduced. Deformation twinning was also observed on samples annealed at a higher temperature due to larger grain size. Initial strain free grains and deformation twinning during machining reduces the cutting force at higher cutting speed.

  13. High-quality laser cutting of stainless steel in inert gas atmosphere by ytterbium fibre and CO2 lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golyshev, A A; Malikov, A G; Orishich, A M; Shulyat'ev, V B

    2014-01-01

    Processes of cutting stainless steel by ytterbium fibre and CO 2 lasers have been experimentally compared. The cut surface roughnesses for 3- and 5-mm-thick stainless steel sheets are determined. The absorption coefficient of laser radiation during cutting is measured. It is established that the power absorbed by metal during cutting by the CO 2 laser exceeds that for the ytterbium laser (provided that the cutting speed remains the same). The fact that the maximum cutting speed of the CO 2 laser is lower than that of the ytterbium fibre laser is explained. (laser technologies)

  14. Study into penetration speed during laser cutting of brain tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, Z; Sami, M; Patiroglu, T

    1998-01-01

    The applications of CO2 continuous-wave lasers in neurosurgery have become important in recent years. Theoretical considerations of laser applicability in medicine are subsequently confirmed experimentally. To obtain precision operation in the laser cutting process, further theoretical developments and experimental studies need to be conducted. Consequently, in the present study, the heat transfer mechanism taking place during laser-tissue interaction is introduced using Fourier theory. The results obtained from the theoretical model are compared with the experimental results. In connection with this, an experiment is designed to measure the penetration speed during the laser cutting process. The measurement is carried out using an optical method. It is found that both results for the penetration speed obtained from the theory and experiment are in a good agreement.

  15. Teaching learning algorithm based optimization of kerf deviations in pulsed Nd:YAG laser cutting of Kevlar-29 composite laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Girish Dutt; Pandey, Arun Kumar

    2018-03-01

    Kevlar is the most popular aramid fiber and most commonly used in different technologically advanced industries for various applications. But the precise cutting of Kevlar composite laminates is a difficult task. The conventional cutting methods face various defects such as delamination, burr formation, fiber pullout with poor surface quality and their mechanical performance is greatly affected by these defects. The laser beam machining may be an alternative of the conventional cutting processes due to its non-contact nature, requirement of low specific energy with higher production rate. But this process also faces some problems that may be minimized by operating the machine at optimum parameters levels. This research paper examines the effective utilization of the Nd:YAG laser cutting system on difficult-to-cut Kevlar-29 composite laminates. The objective of the proposed work is to find the optimum process parameters settings for getting the minimum kerf deviations at both sides. The experiments have been conducted on Kevlar-29 composite laminates having thickness 1.25 mm by using Box-Benkhen design with two center points. The experimental data have been used for the optimization by using the proposed methodology. For the optimization, Teaching learning Algorithm based approach has been employed to obtain the minimum kerf deviation at bottom and top sides. A self coded Matlab program has been developed by using the proposed methodology and this program has been used for the optimization. Finally, the confirmation tests have been performed to compare the experimental and optimum results obtained by the proposed methodology. The comparison results show that the machining performance in the laser beam cutting process has been remarkably improved through proposed approach. Finally, the influence of different laser cutting parameters such as lamp current, pulse frequency, pulse width, compressed air pressure and cutting speed on top kerf deviation and bottom kerf

  16. Wavelength dependency in high power laser cutting and welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havrilla, David; Ziermann, Stephan; Holzer, Marco

    2012-03-01

    Laser cutting and welding have been around for more than 30 years. Within those three decades there has never been a greater variety of high power laser types and wavelengths to choose from than there is today. There are many considerations when choosing the right laser for any given application - capital investment, cost of ownership, footprint, serviceability, along with a myriad of other commercial & economic considerations. However, one of the most fundamental questions that must be asked and answered is this - "what type of laser is best suited for the application?". Manufacturers and users alike are realizing what, in retrospect, may seem obvious - there is no such thing as a universal laser. In many cases there is one laser type and wavelength that clearly provides the highest quality application results. This paper will examine the application fields of high power, high brightness 10.6 & 1 micron laser welding & cutting and will provide guidelines for selecting the laser that is best suited for the application. Processing speed & edge quality serve as key criteria for cutting. Whereas speed, seam quality & spatter ejection provide the paradigm for welding.

  17. Performance of Process Damping in Machining Titanium Alloys at Low Cutting Speed with Different Helix Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaharun, M A; Yusoff, A R; Reza, M S; Jalal, K A

    2012-01-01

    Titanium is a strong, lustrous, corrosion-resistant and transition metal with a silver color to produce strong lightweight alloys for industrial process, automotive, medical instruments and other applications. However, it is very difficult to machine the titanium due to its poor machinability. When machining titanium alloys with the conventional tools, the wear rate of the tool is rapidly accelerate and it is generally difficult to achieve at high cutting speed. In order to get better understanding of machining titanium alloy, the interaction between machining structural system and the cutting process which result in machining instability will be studied. Process damping is a useful phenomenon that can be exploited to improve the limited productivity of low speed machining. In this study, experiments are performed to evaluate the performance of process damping of milling under different tool helix geometries. The results showed that the helix of 42° angle is significantly increase process damping performance in machining titanium alloy.

  18. Trend of CO2 laser cutting; Saikin no CO2 laser setsudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, T.; Sano, Y.; Nagahori, M. [Tanaka Engineering Works Ltd., Saitama (Japan)

    1998-08-01

    This paper describes CO2 laser cutting of medium thick plates. Carbon dioxide laser is mainly used for laser generators. The generation efficiency of CO2 laser is 5 to 15% which is higher than that of the other lasers. Ninety percent of the usage is for cutting, piercing and welding. Laser cutter having a separated generator with a power from 3 to 6 kW is often used for cutting medium thick plates. The recent trend of new cutting technology is introduced. When power is increased from 3 kW to 6 kW without using oxygen as assist gas, the cutting thickness of stainless steel plate increased into 1.5 times, and the cutting speed increased into 1.5 to 2 times. For the soft steel members with black coating in which the power-up effects have not been obtained, the cutting speed, quality of cutting surface and cutting stability were improved by introducing new technology. Piercing time has been reduced by developing a method by which pulse generation is changed during piercing and a method by which piercing is conducted by irradiating the maximum power of continuous generation. Cutting quality with high accuracy has been realized by developing light weight generator and high performance NC unit. 10 figs.

  19. Laser cutting of thick steel plates with 30 kW fiber laser for nuclear decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Koji

    2015-01-01

    Laser cutting technologies of the thick steel plates for the nuclear decommissioning were developed with a 30 kW fiber laser. Plates of stainless steel and carbon steel more than 100 mm thick were successfully cut, indicating that this technology is promising for the application to the nuclear decommissioning. (author)

  20. WATER-JET CUTTING MACHINE NOW AVAILABLE FROM THE CERN RAW MATERIALS STORES

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The CERN Raw Materials Stores has recently acquired a new water-jet cutting machine. The machine is capable of cutting all types and shapes of materials up to 70 mm in thickness, with an accuracy of +/- 0.1mm/m. For the time being, users requiring materials to be cut should supply drawings in DXF, DWG or IGES (AutoCad) file format. The machine will be operational as of 1st October 2007. The Stores Team Paulo Dos Santos FI-LS-MM 72308

  1. Efficiency of laser beam utilization in gas laser cutting of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galushkin, M. G.; Grishaev, R. V.

    2018-02-01

    Relying on the condition of dynamic matching of the process parameters in gas laser cutting, the dependence of the beam utilization factor on the cutting speed and the beam power has been determined. An energy balance equation has been derived for a wide range of cutting speed values.

  2. Control of the kerf size and microstructure in Inconel 738 superalloy by femtosecond laser beam cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, J.; Ye, Y.; Sun, Z. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Liu, L., E-mail: liulei@tsinghua.edu.cn [The State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Zou, G., E-mail: sunzhg@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2016-05-01

    Highlights: • Effects of processing parameters on the kerf size in Inconel 738 are investigated. • Defocus is a key parameter affecting the kerf width due to the intensity clamping. • The internal surface microstructures with different scanning speed are presented. • The material removal mechanism contains normal vaporization and phase explosion. • Oxidation mechanism is attributed to the trapping effect of the dangling bonds. - Abstract: Femtosecond laser beam cutting is becoming widely used to meet demands for increasing accuracy in micro-machining. In this paper, the effects of processing parameters in femtosecond laser beam cutting on the kerf size and microstructure in Inconel 738 have been investigated. The defocus, pulse width and scanning speed were selected to study the controllability of the cutting process. Adjusting and matching the processing parameters was a basic enhancement method to acquire well defined kerf size and the high-quality ablation of microstructures, which has contributed to the intensity clamping effect. The morphology and chemical compositions of these microstructures on the cut surface have been characterized by a scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Additionally, the material removal mechanism and oxidation mechanism on the Inconel 738 cut surface have also been discussed on the basis of the femtosecond laser induced normal vaporization or phase explosion, and trapping effect of the dangling bonds.

  3. Selection of parameters on laser cutting mild steel plates taking account of some manufacturing purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Jippei; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Eguchi, Hiroshi

    2003-11-01

    There are large number of processing conditions which can be set for laser-cutting of plate materials, because importance of the objective for the cutting is different from product to product. This study aims to build a system which can set the processing conditions reasonably and efficiently. From plural processing objectives, roughness of cutting surface was taken up from among the required qualities, such as processing speed, circularity of a processed hole, height of dross on the rear side, roughness of cutting surfaces, accuracy of shapes and dimensions, and with of burning, to review the effects of the processing condition on the cutting surface including the drag line gap. In our experiments, a 1 kW CO2 gas laser machine was used to make laser-cutting samples and 389 combinations of samples were used. From the results of the experiments, the range of processing conditions which allow cutting is defined by the energy input per unit area HIA = 4.8 [J/mm2]. The values of roughness of the cutting surface on both front and rear sides of the plates can be reduced if the cutting speed is 1000 mm/min or higher, and they little change at small values if the heat input per unit area is within a range under 20 J/mm2. In a range of thin plate thickness, the drag gap on cutting surfaces can be evaluated by the heat input per unit area. In the case of thicker plate, the greater the duty is, the smaller the drag gap is, if the heat input per units area is kept unchanged. Cutting with small heat input is desirable for better roughness of cutting surface. Cutting with large heat input is required for better drag gap. In the scope of our study, a value 20 J/mm2 of heat input per unit area is recommended for laer-cutting of 0.8 - 4.5 mm thick mild steel plates.

  4. Trend of laser cutting technology; Laser setsudan gijutsu no saikin no doko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murai, T. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-05

    Recent trend of CO2 laser cutting is described. The cutting speed has increased five times in these seven years, and cutting is now performed at 8m/min for a hole that satisfies a circularity of 50{mu}m. In the low-speed domain, again, cutting accuracy is as high as 20{mu}m. In the cutting of thick plates, laser encounters some difficulties, which include the increased thermal load on optical parts and devices in the oscillator, lessened cutting condition tolerance, variation in the accuracy of products, difficult cutting, etc. Discussed in this report are measures for correcting factors affecting product quality with reference taken to a thick soft steel plate. A laser beam emitted by an oscillator is condensed by and projected through a condenser lens, and the condensing capability is affected by various factors, such as the beam mode order, beam diameter, and focal length, etc. What is important is to find out the optimal conditions. The assist gas has to satisfy certain conditions because it assumes an important role in controlling the discharge of molten metal from cut grooves, heat generated by oxidation reaction, and cooling. The properties of the material to be cut also exert some influence. In the case of thick plate cutting, the cutting capability is governed by the geometry to be fabricated. Also employed for the prevention of poor jobs due to improper condition switchover and cutting routes is an optimal cutting condition control technique. 3 refs., 12 figs.

  5. Design and accuracy analysis of a metamorphic CNC flame cutting machine for ship manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shenghai; Zhang, Manhui; Zhang, Baoping; Chen, Xi; Yu, Wei

    2016-09-01

    The current research of processing large size fabrication holes on complex spatial curved surface mainly focuses on the CNC flame cutting machines design for ship hull of ship manufacturing. However, the existing machines cannot meet the continuous cutting requirements with variable pass conditions through their fixed configuration, and cannot realize high-precision processing as the accuracy theory is not studied adequately. This paper deals with structure design and accuracy prediction technology of novel machine tools for solving the problem of continuous and high-precision cutting. The needed variable trajectory and variable pose kinematic characteristics of non-contact cutting tool are figured out and a metamorphic CNC flame cutting machine designed through metamorphic principle is presented. To analyze kinematic accuracy of the machine, models of joint clearances, manufacturing tolerances and errors in the input variables and error models considering the combined effects are derived based on screw theory after establishing ideal kinematic models. Numerical simulations, processing experiment and trajectory tracking experiment are conducted relative to an eccentric hole with bevels on cylindrical surface respectively. The results of cutting pass contour and kinematic error interval which the position error is from-0.975 mm to +0.628 mm and orientation error is from-0.01 rad to +0.01 rad indicate that the developed machine can complete cutting process continuously and effectively, and the established kinematic error models are effective although the interval is within a `large' range. It also shows the matching property between metamorphic principle and variable working tasks, and the mapping correlation between original designing parameters and kinematic errors of machines. This research develops a metamorphic CNC flame cutting machine and establishes kinematic error models for accuracy analysis of machine tools.

  6. Correlation of cutting fluid performance in different machining operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Belluco, Walter

    2001-01-01

    An analysis of cutting fluid performance in different metal cutting operations is presented, based on experimental investigations in which type of operation, performance criteria, work material, and fluid type are considered. Cutting fluid performance was evaluated in turning, drilling, reaming...... investigated. Results show that correlation of cutting fluid performance in different operations exists, within the same group of cutting fluids, in the case of stainless steel as workpiece material. Under the tested conditions, the average correlation coefficients between efficiency parameters with different...... operations on austenitic stainless steel lied in the range 0.87-0.97 for waterbased fluids and 0.79-0.89 for straight oils. A similar correlation could not be found for the other workpiece materials investigated in this work. A rationalisation of cutting fluid performance tests is suggested....

  7. Machining of Some Difficult-to-Cut Materials with Rotary Cutting Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Stjernstoft, Tero

    2004-01-01

    Automobile and aero industries have an increasing interestin materials with improved mechanical properties. However, manyof these new materials are classified as difficult-to-cut withconventional tools. It is obvious that tools, cutting processesand cutting models has to be devel-oped parallel to materialsscience. In this thesis rotary cutting tools are tested as analternative toexpensive diamond or cubic bore nitridetools. Metal matrix composites mostly consist of a light metalalloy (such as...

  8. New Methodologies for Development of High Efficient Machining of Difficult to Cut Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durante, S; Comoglio, M; Rostagno, M

    2011-01-01

    The article focuses on the automotive and aerospace industries. In these industries the need for enhanced materials performance is necessary if they are to remain competitive in global terms. Unfortunately the material properties, which make them so attractive to the aerospace and automotive industry can also make them difficult to machine. This paper will discuss integrated developments in machining techniques and cutting tools, which are emerging to cope with difficult to cut materials.

  9. One-step patterning of hollow microstructures in paper by laser cutting to create microfluidic analytical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jinfang; Liang, Yuanzhi; Zhang, Yun; Le, Shangwang; Li, Dunnan; Zhang, Songbai

    2013-01-21

    In this paper, we report a simple, low-cost method for rapid, highly reproductive fabrication of paper-based microfluidics by using a commercially available, minitype CO(2) laser cutting/engraving machine. This method involves only one operation of cutting a piece of paper by laser according to a predesigned pattern. The hollow microstructures formed in the paper are used as the 'hydrophobic barriers' to define the hydrophilic flowing paths. A typical paper device on a 4 cm × 4 cm piece of paper can be fabricated within ∼7-20 s; it is ready for use once the cutting process is finished. The main fabrication parameters such as the applied current and cutting rate of the laser were optimized. The fabrication resolution and multiplexed analytical capability of the hollow microstructure-patterned paper were also characterized.

  10. Constant Cutting Force Control for CNC Machining Using Dynamic Characteristic-Based Fuzzy Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengli Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a dynamic characteristic-based fuzzy adaptive control algorithm (DCbFACA to avoid the influence of cutting force changing rapidly on the machining stability and precision. The cutting force is indirectly obtained in real time by monitoring and extraction of the motorized spindle current, the feed speed is fuzzy adjusted online, and the current was used as a feedback to control cutting force and maintain the machining process stable. Different from the traditional fuzzy control methods using the experience-based control rules, and according to the complex nonlinear characteristics of CNC machining, the power bond graph method is implemented to describe the dynamic characteristics of process, and then the appropriate variation relations are achieved between current and feed speed, and the control rules are optimized and established based on it. The numerical results indicated that DCbFACA can make the CNC machining process more stable and improve the machining precision.

  11. Influence of Cooling Lubricants on the Surface Roughness and Energy Efficiency of the Cutting Machine Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jersák J.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Technical University of Liberec and Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg investigated the influence of cooling lubricants on the surface roughness and energy efficiency of cutting machine tools. After summarizing the achieved experimental results, the authors conclude that cooling lubricants extensively influence the cutting temperature, cutting forces and energy consumption. Also, it is recognizable that cooling lubricants affect the cutting tools lifetime and the workpiece surface quality as well. Furthermore, costs of these cooling lubricants and the related environmental burden need to be considered. A current trend is to reduce the amount of lubricants that are used, e.g., when the Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL technique is applied. The lubricant or process liquid is thereby transported by the compressed air in the form of an aerosol to the contact area between the tool and workpiece. The cutting process was monitored during testing by the three following techniques: lubricant-free cutting, cutting with the use of a lubricant with the MQL technique, and only utilizing finish-turning and finish-face milling. The research allowed the authors to monitor the cutting power and mark the achieved surface quality in relation to the electrical power consumption of the cutting machine. In conclusions, the coherence between energy efficiency of the cutting machine and the workpiece surface quality regarding the used cooling lubricant is described.

  12. Using internally cooled cutting tools in the machining of difficult-to-cut materials based on Waspaloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Isik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nickel-based superalloys such as Waspaloy are used for engine components and in the nuclear industry, where considerable strength and corrosion resistance at high operating temperatures are called for. These characteristics of such alloys cause increases in cutting temperature and resultant tool damage, even at low cutting speeds and low feed rates. Thus, they are classified as difficult-to-cut materials. This article presents a cooling method to be used in metal cutting based on a tool holder with a closed internal cooling system with cooling fluid circulating inside. Hence, a green cooling method that does not harm the environment and is efficient in removing heat from the cutting zone was developed. A series of cutting experiments were conducted to investigate the practicality and effectiveness of the internally cooled tool model. The developed system achieved up to 13% better surface quality than with dry machining, and tool life was extended by 12%. The results clearly showed that with the reduced cutting temperature of the internal cooling, it was possible to control the temperature and thus prevent reaching the critical cutting temperature during the turning process, which is vitally important in extending tool life during the processing of Waspaloy.

  13. Laser cutting fabrication of magnetic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuenschwander, R.T.; Ricardo, A.; Rodrigues, D.; Talarico, F.W.B.; Goncalves da Silva, C.E.T.

    1992-01-01

    Dipole, quadrupole and sextupole prototypes for the LNLS storage ring have been fabricated using 1.5 mm thick, low carbon steel laminations, with the aid of CO 2 laser cutter, reaching an overall dimensional accuracy of ±0.02 mm (standard deviation). The relevant aspects of the technique are presented, together with the results of magnetic and dimensional measurements. The possibility of mass producing these components with the technique is also analyzed. (author) 2 refs.; 6 figs

  14. Effectiveness and resolution of tests for evaluating the performance of cutting fluids in machining aerospace alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Axinte, Dragos A.

    2008-01-01

    The paper discusses effectiveness and resolution of five cutting tests (turning, milling, drilling, tapping, VIPER grinding) and their quality output measures used in a multi-task procedure for evaluating the performance of cutting fluids when machining aerospace materials. The evaluation takes...

  15. Mathematical modelling and linear stability analysis of laser fusion cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermanns, Torsten; Schulz, Wolfgang; Vossen, Georg; Thombansen, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    A model for laser fusion cutting is presented and investigated by linear stability analysis in order to study the tendency for dynamic behavior and subsequent ripple formation. The result is a so called stability function that describes the correlation of the setting values of the process and the process’ amount of dynamic behavior.

  16. LASER CUTTING AS AN INNOVATIVE CREATIVITY TOOL IN TEXTILE DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Hatice Gurcum

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Innovative technologies have become the most widespread rapid and flexible technique of cutting, welding, printing and coloring in fashion and textile sectors in a very short time. Laser systems as the most common used innovative technology engrave, cut, form, print, shade appropriated formatted drawings and sketches as well as they provide reliable placements for the lay out plans and precision cutting and the production sector rapid and qualified. The practical applications and conveniences that innovative Technologies employ, influence design process, designers can design in a more creative, rapid, precise and effective manner. Although design is a context where technology is effective, the style, mood and the background of the designer is still important. Designers while making innovative studies should take the advantage of the developing technologies in experimental processes and should combine technological opportunities with aesthetics. Textile designer as in all other domains of design, should harmonise with the change and should define his/her style with the innovative Technologies in an innovative manner and renew him/herself all the time. This study aims to classify laser cutting technology applications available in textile and fashion sector as well as to present the laser technology as a means of process, product, material innovation and explains the contributions of laser systems to creativity.

  17. Mathematical modelling and linear stability analysis of laser fusion cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanns, Torsten; Schulz, Wolfgang [RWTH Aachen University, Chair for Nonlinear Dynamics, Steinbachstr. 15, 52047 Aachen (Germany); Vossen, Georg [Niederrhein University of Applied Sciences, Chair for Applied Mathematics and Numerical Simulations, Reinarzstr.. 49, 47805 Krefeld (Germany); Thombansen, Ulrich [RWTH Aachen University, Chair for Laser Technology, Steinbachstr. 15, 52047 Aachen (Germany)

    2016-06-08

    A model for laser fusion cutting is presented and investigated by linear stability analysis in order to study the tendency for dynamic behavior and subsequent ripple formation. The result is a so called stability function that describes the correlation of the setting values of the process and the process’ amount of dynamic behavior.

  18. Dismantling of Evaporators by Laser Cutting Measurement of Secondary Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilot, Guy; Fauvel, Sylvain; Gosse, Xavier; De Dinechin, Guillaume

    2006-01-01

    In order to dismantle the evaporators of an obsolete reprocessing plant in Marcoule, studies were carried out by IRSN (Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire) / DSU/SERAC in cooperation with CEA (power laser group) on the laser cutting of steel structures, on the request of COGEMA (now AREVA NC) /Marcoule (UP1 dismantling project manager) and CEA/UMODD (UP1 dismantling owner). The aim of these studies was: - to quantify and to characterize the secondary emissions produced by Nd-YAG laser cutting of Uranus 65 steel pieces representative of UP1 evaporator elements and to examine the influence of different parameters, - to qualify a pre-filtration technique and particularly an electrostatic precipitator, - to compare the Nd-YAG used with other cutting tools previously studied. The experiments, which took place in a 35 m 3 ventilated cutting cell, allow to underline the following points: for the Uranus 65 steel, the sedimented dross, the deposits on the walls of the cutting cell and the aerosols drawn in the ventilation exhaust duct (∼ 275 m 3 /h), represent respectively between 92% and 99%, between 0.01% and 0.25% and between 1% and 8% of the total collected mass, the attached slag varies much from one configuration to the other and can sometimes amount to a relatively important fraction of the total mass, the kerves vary from 2 mm up to 7 mm for the Uranus 65 steel plates (thickness: 13.8 mm for the single plate and 12.8 + 3.5 mm for the double plate), the exhausted aerosol mass per cut length (g/m) decreases with the cutting speed, varies neither with the stand-off nor with the gas pressure, is dependent upon the gas nature (for the double plate), increases with the laser power, is strongly affected by the nature of the steel (stainless steel or mild steel) and is independent upon the plate position, the size distribution of aerosols is multimodal with a main mode often around 0.45 μm, the electrostatic precipitator has been a satisfactory prefilter

  19. Preliminary cutting and drilling studies using new generation lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kautz, D.D.; Sze, J.S.; Dragon, E.P.; Hargrove, R.S.

    1992-01-01

    High power and radiance dye lasers developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory show promise for material processing tanks. Evaluation using welding heat flow models suggest significant increases in precision and speed are expected. We developed tooling and instrumentation to diagnose important parameters including spot geometry and optical train quality. We started processing studies to determine the viability of these lasers of cutting and drilling. We used titanium alloys first in the studies due to the availability of comparable parametric studies in the technical literature. Results show that cuts and holes with extremely fine features can be made with dye lasers. The high radiance beam produces low distortion and small heat-affected zones. We have accomplished very high aspect ratios and micron scale kerfs and holes. Through continued system improvement and process optimization, we believe that submicron levels will be achieved

  20. Laser cutting of laminated sheet material: a modeling exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Roelof F.; Meijer, Johan

    1997-08-01

    Laser cutting has been investigated for a number of aluminum-synthetic laminates, newly developed materials for the aeronautic and automotive industry. The materials consist of alternating aluminum and synthetic layers. It is shown that these materials can be cut at rates comparable to those of homogeneous aluminum alloys. The cuts show little dross attachment. Also some damage on the synthetic layers has to be accepted. These results initiated a modeling exercise, which resulted in a numerical simulation code. The applied cutting model is based on describing the material in several horizontal layers, each with its own specific thermophysical and optical properties. The separate layers are coupled by known mass, energy and force balanced equations.

  1. Machinability baja AISI 1040 pada proses bubut dengan variasi cutting speed dan feed rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AAIA Sri Komaladewi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain desired results of machining process (turning, parameter of process and material characteristic to be machined should be well known. This is due to different machining conditions and material yield different material machinability as well. It is needed to investigate of material machinability (AISI 1040 such as force, power and shear angle under different cutting speed (80, 160 and 240 m/min and feed rate (0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 mm/rev. The results of investigation show that; at the same cutting speed the higher feed rate the higher cutting force needed; the higher cutting speed and feed rate, the higher power needed; at feed rate 0.1 mm./rev and 0.3 mm/rev, the higher cutting speed the shear angles has a trend to incline; at feed rate 0.2 mm/rev, cutting speed from 80 to 160 m/min yield increasing of shear angle, however, from 160 to 240 m/min shear angle declines.

  2. Effect of reinforcement on the cutting forces while machining metal matrix composites–An experimental approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Shoba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid metal matrix composites are of great interest for researchers in recent years, because of their attractive superior properties over traditional materials and single reinforced composites. The machinabilty of hybrid composites becomes vital for manufacturing industries. The need to study the influence of process parameters on the cutting forces in turning such hybrid composite under dry environment is essentially required. In the present study, the influence of machining parameters, e.g. cutting speed, feed and depth of cut on the cutting force components, namely feed force (Ff, cutting force (Fc, and radial force (Fd has been investigated. Investigations were performed on 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 wt% Silicon carbide (SiC and rice husk ash (RHA reinforced composite specimens. A comparison was made between the reinforced and unreinforced composites. The results proved that all the cutting force components decrease with the increase in the weight percentage of the reinforcement: this was probably due to the dislocation densities generated from the thermal mismatch between the reinforcement and the matrix. Experimental evidence also showed that built-up edge (BUE is formed during machining of low percentage reinforced composites at high speed and high depth of cut. The formation of BUE was captured by SEM, therefore confirming the result. The decrease of cutting force components with lower cutting speed and higher feed and depth of cut was also highlighted. The related mechanisms are explained and presented.

  3. Momentum and velocity of the ablated material in laser machining of carbon fiber preforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, P.; Speker, N.; Weber, R.; Graf, T.

    2013-11-01

    The automation in fabrication of CFRP (carbon-fiber-reinforced plastics) parts demands efficient and low-cost machining technologies. In conventional cutting technologies, tool-wear and low process speeds are some of the reasons for high costs. Thus, the use of lasers is an attractive option for cutting CF-preforms. A typical effect degrading the quality in laser cutting CF-preform is a bulged cutting edge. This effect is assumed to be caused by interaction of the fibers with the ablated material, which leaves the kerf at high velocity. Hence, a method for measuring the momentum and the velocity of the vapor is presented in this article. To measure the momentum of the ablated material, the CF-preform is mounted on a precision scale while cutting it with a laser. The direction of the momentum was determined by measuring the momentum parallel and orthogonal to the CF-preform surface. A change of the direction of the momentum with different cutting-speeds is assessed at constant laser-power. Averaged velocities of the ablation products of up to 300 m/s were determined by measuring the ablated mass and the momentum.

  4. Secondary waste characteristics and ITS filtration system on laser cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Kunio; Miyao, Hidehiko [Research Association for Facility Decommissioning (RANDEC), Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Nakazawa, Masaharu [Tokyo Univ. (Japan); Kataoka, Shinichi; Nagura, Yasumi; Saiki, Hideo [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    Technology of dismantling nuclear facilities has been developing in various fields for its evaluation and dismantling system. RANDEC has been studying remote dismantling system for highly activated equipments such as core internals with a laser using optical fiber. Recently a high power YAG laser having the advantage of application for remote dismantling on thick metallic material is the stage for practical use, and narrow kerf can bring the reduction of secondary waste as well. The present paper describes the experimental results and discussion on the laser cutting, including the secondary waste characteristics and its filtration system using the YAG laser. This study has been performed on consignment to RANDEC from the Science and Technology Agency of Japan. (author)

  5. Ann modeling of kerf transfer in Co2 laser cutting and optimization of cutting parameters using monte carlo method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Madić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt has been made to develop a mathematical model in order to study the relationship between laser cutting parameters such as laser power, cutting speed, assist gas pressure and focus position, and kerf taper angle obtained in CO2 laser cutting of AISI 304 stainless steel. To this aim, a single hidden layer artificial neural network (ANN trained with gradient descent with momentum algorithm was used. To obtain an experimental database for the ANN training, laser cutting experiment was planned as per Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array with three levels for each of the cutting parameters. Statistically assessed as adequate, ANN model was then used to investigate the effect of the laser cutting parameters on the kerf taper angle by generating 2D and 3D plots. It was observed that the kerf taper angle was highly sensitive to the selected laser cutting parameters, as well as their interactions. In addition to modeling, by applying the Monte Carlo method on the developed kerf taper angle ANN model, the near optimal laser cutting parameter settings, which minimize kerf taper angle, were determined.

  6. Automatic quality control in the production of ceramic substrates by pulsed laser cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morace, Renate Erica; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the use of optical coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) in the quality control of ceramic substrates produced by a CO2 pulsed laser. A procedure of automatic measurements on a CMM equipped with a CCD camera was developed. In particular, the number and the distribution...... of cavities on the cut face of thin ceramic substrates were investigated and different strategies to assess the depth and the pitch of cavities were compared. Then, the measurement uncertainty for these two critical parameters was evaluated using the method described in ISO/TS 15530-3....

  7. Micro-hole drilling and cutting using femtosecond fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huan; Yang, Lih-Mei; Liu, Jian

    2014-05-01

    Micro-hole drilling and cutting in ambient air are presented by using a femtosecond fiber laser. At first, the micro-hole drilling was investigated in both transparent (glasses) and nontransparent (metals and tissues) materials. The shape and morphology of the holes were characterized and evaluated with optical and scanning electron microscopy. Debris-free micro-holes with good roundness and no thermal damage were demonstrated with the aspect ratio of 8∶1. Micro-hole drilling in hard and soft tissues with no crack or collateral thermal damage is also demonstrated. Then, trench micromachining and cutting were studied for different materials and the effect of the laser parameters on the trench properties was investigated. Straight and clean trench edges were obtained with no thermal damage.

  8. Market for multiaxis laser machine tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ream, Stanley L.

    1991-03-01

    While it's true that this is an exciting topic, it niay be more exciting than profitable, but it certainly has captured the attention of a lot of us laser folks, and it keeps growing almost because it wants to. First of all let me comment briefly with a word from our sponsor that GE Fanuc is one of the several ways the Fanuc laser product gets into the United States. We market it, GM Fanuc also markets it, and of course it shows up on Japanese machine tool built products. The information in this little presentation came from discussions with you folks wherever possible. In some cases I was unable to make contact with the horse's mouth as it were, but we got roundabout information so it's not gospel, but it's close. We've also had some updated information at the show here updated rumors maybe that suggest that some of the numbers may be high or low. I think in the aggregate it's not too far off.

  9. Effect of cutting parameters on machinability characteristics in milling of magnesium alloy with carbide tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaining Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium alloy has attracted more attentions due to its excellent mechanical properties. However, in process of dry cutting operation, many problems restrict its further development. In this article, the effect of cutting parameters on machinabilities of magnesium alloy is explored under dry milling condition. This research is an attempt to investigate the impact of cutting speed at multiple feed rates on cutting force and surface roughness, while a statistical analysis is adopted to determine the influential intensities accurately. The results showed that cutting force is affected by the positively constant intensity from feed rate and the increasingly negative intensity from cutting speed. In contrast, surface roughness is determined by the gradually increasing negative tendency from feed rate and the positive effect with constant intensity from cutting speed. Within the range of the experiments, feed rate is the leading contribution for cutting force while the cutting speed is the dominant factor for surface roughness according to the absolute intensity values. Meanwhile, the trends of influencing intensities between cutting force and surface roughness are opposite. Besides, it is also found that in milling magnesium alloy, chip morphology is highly sensitive to cutting speed while the chip quality mainly depends on feed rate.

  10. Manipulator motion planning for high-speed robotic laser cutting

    OpenAIRE

    Dolgui , Alexandre; Pashkevich , Anatol

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Recent advances in laser technology, and especially the essential increase of the cutting speed, motivate amending the existing robot path methods, which do not allow the complete utilisation of the actuator capabilities as well as neglect some particularities in the mechanical design of the wrist of the manipulator arm. This research addresses the optimisation of the 6-axes robot motions for continuous contour tracking while considering the redundancy caused by the tool a...

  11. A study of the machining characteristics of AISI 1045 steel and Inconel 718 with a cylindrical shape in laser-assisted milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Wan-Sik; Lee, Choon-Man

    2015-01-01

    Laser-assisted machining (LAM) is an effective and economic technique for enhancing the machinability of materials which are difficult-to-cut, such as nickel alloys, titanium alloys and various ceramics. Recently, many researchers have studied the effectiveness of laser-assisted turning (LAT) by measuring its cutting force, tool wear, specific cutting energy and surface roughness. However, research on laser-assisted milling (LAMill) is still in progress because it is difficult to control the laser heating source and tool path to machine the varying shape of the workpiece using this method. Moreover, there have been no researches of workpieces with three-dimensional shapes. During the LAMill process, the material is softened and the mechanical strength of the material is reduced when a laser is used to irradiate the surface of the workpiece. As a result, the cutting force is reduced and the surface roughness is improved with LAMill. The purpose of this study was to develop three-dimensional LAMill and to verify the effectiveness of this approach by comparing it to the conventional machining (CM) method. A thermal analysis was also conducted in order to determine the effective depth of cut (DOC). Also, the cutting force and surface roughness of AISI 1045 steel and Inconel 718 with cylindrical shapes were measured. Measured results of machining characteristics were also analyzed according to the cutting method, i.e., up cut milling, down cut milling and milling style. - Highlights: • The materials with cylindrical shape is first applied to laser-assisted milling (LAMill). • The method determining the depth of cut through thermal analysis is proposed. • The effectiveness of LAMill is verified by comparing the conventional machining. • Down cut milling is recommended for the case of Inconel 718.

  12. Investigating the CO2 laser cutting parameters of MDF wood composite material

    OpenAIRE

    Eltawahni, Hayat; Olabi, Abdul-Ghani; Benyounis, Khaled

    2011-01-01

    Laser cutting of medium density fibreboard (MDF) is a complicated process and the selection of the process parameters combinations is essential to get the highest quality of the cut section. This paper presents laser cutting of MDF based on design of experiments (DOE). CO2 laser was used to cut three thicknesses 4, 6 and 9 mm of MDF panels. The process factors investigated are: laser power, cutting speed, air pressure and focal point position. In this work, cutting quality was evaluated by me...

  13. Optimization of Cutting Parameters of the Haynes 718 Nickel Alloy With Gas CO2 Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana PETRŮ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the application of laser technology and the optimization of parameters in the area of nickel alloy laser cutting intended for application in the aircraft industry. The main goal is to outline possibilities of use of the laser technology, primarily its application in the area of 3D material cutting. This experiment is focused on the optimization of cutting parameters of the Haynes 718 alloy with a gas CO2 laser. Originating cuts are evaluated primarily from the point of view of cut quality and accompanying undesirable phenomena occurring in the process of cutting. In conclusion the results achieved in the metallographic laboratory are described and analyzed.

  14. Dimensional accuracy of internal cooling channel made by selective laser melting (SLM And direct metal laser sintering (DMLS processes in fabrication of internally cooled cutting tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghani S. A. C.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Selective laser melting(SLM and direct metal laser sintering(DMLS are preferred additive manufacturing processes in producing complex physical products directly from CAD computer data, nowadays. The advancement of additive manufacturing promotes the design of internally cooled cutting tool for effectively used in removing generated heat in metal machining. Despite the utilisation of SLM and DMLS in a fabrication of internally cooled cutting tool, the level of accuracy of the parts produced remains uncertain. This paper aims at comparing the dimensional accuracy of SLM and DMLS in machining internally cooled cutting tool with a special focus on geometrical dimensions such as hole diameter. The surface roughness produced by the two processes are measured with contact perthometer. To achieve the objectives, geometrical dimensions of identical tool holders for internally cooled cutting tools fabricated by SLM and DMLS have been determined by using digital vernier calliper and various magnification of a portable microscope. In the current study, comparing internally cooled cutting tools made of SLM and DMLS showed that generally the higher degree of accuracy could be obtained with DMLS process. However, the observed differences in surface roughness between SLM and DMLS in this study were not significant. The most obvious finding to emerge from this study is that the additive manufacturing processes selected for fabricating the tool holders for internally cooled cutting tool in this research are capable of producing the desired internal channel shape of internally cooled cutting tool.

  15. Applications of optical sensing for laser cutting and drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Mahlen D T; French, Paul; Peters, Chris; Hand, Duncan P; Jones, Julian D C

    2002-08-20

    Any reliable automated production system must include process control and monitoring techniques. Two laser processing techniques potentially lending themselves to automation are percussion drilling and cutting. For drilling we investigate the performance of a modification of a nonintrusive optical focus control system we previously developed for laser welding, which exploits the chromatic aberrations of the processing optics to determine focal error. We further developed this focus control system for closed-loop control of laser cutting. We show that an extension of the technique can detect deterioration in cut quality, and we describe practical trials carried out on different materials using both oxygen and nitrogen assist gas. We base our techniques on monitoring the light generated by the process, captured nonintrusively by the effector optics and processed remotely from the workpiece. We describe the relationship between the temporal and the chromatic modulation of the detected light and process quality and show how the information can be used as the basis of a process control system.

  16. Lumped Parameter experiments for Single Mode Fiber Laser Cutting of Thin Stainless Steel Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Shengying; Jia, Ye; Han, Bing; Wang, Jun; Liu, Zongkai; Ni, Xiaowu; Shen, Zhonghua; Lu, Jian

    2017-06-01

    The present work reports the parameters on laser cutting stainless steel including workpiece thickness, cutting speed, defocus length and assisting gas pressure. The cutting kerf width, dross attachment and cut edge squareness deviation are examined to provide information on cutting quality. The results show that with the increasing thickness, the cutting speed decrease rate is about 27%. The optimal ranges of cutting speed, defocus length and gas pressure are obtained with maximum quality. The first section in your paper

  17. The laser revolution in shipbuilding: laser welding and cutting at Blohm + Voss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minsks, T. [Blohm und Voss GmbH, Hamburg (Germany). Laser Production Line

    2000-12-01

    Precision manufacturing in steel shipbuilding has gained significantly in importance in recent years as a means of raising productivity and thus enhancing competitiveness. Precision manufacturing means working to very narrow tolerances, minimizing assembly costs by eliminating the need for straightening and adjustment, reducing reworking requirements and shortening throughput times. Blohm+Voss GmbH is the world's first shipbuilding company to use laser technology as part of its precision manufacturing approach, combined with complex clamping techniques which render exact prepositioning and tack welding of components superfluous. Laser cutting makes it possible to cut large formats with virtually parallel cut edges and very narrow cutting gaps which - in conjunction with suitable clamping - allow laser welding without the use of fillers. With a smaller heat-affected zone, laser welding causes less part distortion than conventional methods. This makes it possible to use thinner sheets and sections and thus supports the very low-weight constructions required for the types of ship built by Blohm+Voss. By combining laser cutting and laser welding in a single production line, Blohm+Voss currently boasts the most advanced prefabrication facility in shipbuilding, capable of producing components up to 12 meters long and 4 meters wide. (orig.)

  18. A task for laser cutting of lamellae with TruLaser 1030

    OpenAIRE

    Lazov, Lyubomir; Deneva, Hristina; Narica, Pavels

    2015-01-01

    The growing development of manufacturing, automotive, aerospace and other sectors in the industry generates the necessity to continuously expanding on modifications of electrical machinery and equipments which are used in them, as well as to improve their performance and reliability. The report presents some results from a study to the process of laser cutting through melting on lamellae for rotor and stator packages by using the laser system TruLaser 1030. Some functional dependencies are of...

  19. Cutting technique for reactor internals by laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, O.; Sugihara, M.; Matsuda, K.; Miya, K.

    1990-01-01

    At present in Japan the verification tests on the commercial nuclear power reactor decommissioning technology are being conducted as the project of The Ministry of International Trade and Industry by Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center. This paper summarizes the interim results of the verification test for the reactor core internals decommissioning technology, which is being conducted from 1986 as a theme of the above project. All core internals to be studied here are made of stainless steel, and the maximum wall thickness is about 500mm (the maximum one to be cut is about 300mm) for the PWR's, and about 100mm for the BWR's. Though the plasma cutting, arc saw cutting method, etc. have been studied u p to now as the cutting technology for decommissioning these core internals, the authors are carrying out the development and verification test of the cutting technology with the laser beam, which is expected to increase its power in future and can be applied to various materials

  20. High-Power Laser Cutting of Steel Plates: Heat Affected Zone Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imed Miraoui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal effect of CO2 high-power laser cutting on cut surface of steel plates is investigated. The effect of the input laser cutting parameters on the melted zone depth (MZ, the heat affected zone depth (HAZ, and the microhardness beneath the cut surface is analyzed. A mathematical model is developed to relate the output process parameters to the input laser cutting parameters. Three input process parameters such as laser beam diameter, cutting speed, and laser power are investigated. Mathematical models for the melted zone and the heat affected zone depth are developed by using design of experiment approach (DOE. The results indicate that the input laser cutting parameters have major effect on melted zone, heat affected zone, and microhardness beneath cut surface. The MZ depth, the HAZ depth, and the microhardness beneath cut surface increase as laser power increases, but they decrease with increasing cutting speed. Laser beam diameter has a negligible effect on HAZ depth but it has a remarkable effect on MZ depth and HAZ microhardness. The melted zone depth and the heat affected zone depth can be reduced by increasing laser cutting speed and decreasing laser power and laser beam diameter.

  1. The optimization of the cutting process of diamonds with a YAG laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Lubbe

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available A laser cannot, as generally assumed by the layman, cut right through a diamond with a single cut. A couple of hundred cuts may be necessary to "chip carve" through a diamond. There are several parameters, for example cutting speed, focus point, overlapping of cuts, etc., that influence the cutting process. With a view to optimizing the cutting process, laser cuts in diamonds were studied in a systematic way with the aid of an electron microscope. The method, technique and the results of the research are discussed in this article.

  2. Qualitative analysis of laser cutting of CV joints for automobile industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboites, Vicente; Ramirez, Roberto; Rayas, Juan

    2005-02-01

    The optimization of an automatic laser cutting system is reported. This CO2 laser system assisted by an O2 gas jet is used in the cutting of Constant Velocity (CV) joint for the automotive industry. The experimental parameters varied in order to obtain cuts with low roughness were the laser power, cutting speed and oxygen pressure. A mathematical model is presented which explains many of the features of the qualitative optimization realized.

  3. Qualitative analysis of laser cutting of CV joints for the automobile industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboites, V.; Ramírez, R.; Rayas, J.

    2006-02-01

    The optimization of an automatic laser cutting system is reported. This CO II laser system assisted by an O II gas jet is used in the cutting of Constant Velocity (CV) joint for the automotive industry. The experimental parameters varied in order to obtain cuts with low roughness were the laser power, cutting speed and oxygen pressure. A mathematical model is presented which explains many of the features of the qualitative optimization realized.

  4. Impact of Cutting Forces and Chip Microstructure in High Speed Machining of Carbon Fiber – Epoxy Composite Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Y. Allwin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fiber reinforced polymeric (CFRP composite materials are widely used in aerospace, automobile and biomedical industries due to their high strength to weight ratio, corrosion resistance and durability. High speed machining (HSM of CFRP material is needed to study the impact of cutting parameters on cutting forces and chip microstructure which offer vital inputs to the machinability and deformation characteristics of the material. In this work, the orthogonal machining of CFRP was conducted by varying the cutting parameters such as cutting speed and feed rate at high cutting speed/feed rate ranges up to 346 m/min/ 0.446 mm/rev. The impact of the cutting parameters on cutting forces (principal cutting, feed and thrust forces and chip microstructure were analyzed. A significant impact on thrust forces and chip segmentation pattern was seen at higher feed rates and low cutting speeds.

  5. Optimization of cutting parameters for machining time in turning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavliutov, A. R.; Zlotnikov, E. G.

    2018-03-01

    This paper describes the most effective methods for nonlinear constraint optimization of cutting parameters in the turning process. Among them are Linearization Programming Method with Dual-Simplex algorithm, Interior Point method, and Augmented Lagrangian Genetic Algorithm (ALGA). Every each of them is tested on an actual example – the minimization of production rate in turning process. The computation was conducted in the MATLAB environment. The comparative results obtained from the application of these methods show: The optimal value of the linearized objective and the original function are the same. ALGA gives sufficiently accurate values, however, when the algorithm uses the Hybrid function with Interior Point algorithm, the resulted values have the maximal accuracy.

  6. Numerical controlled diamond fly cutting machine for grazing incidence X-ray reflection mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Fumihiko; Moriyama, Shigeo; Seya, Eiiti

    1992-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation has reached the stage of practical use, and the application to the wide fields that support future advanced technologies such as spectroscopy, the structural analysis of matters, semiconductor lithography and medical light source is expected. For the optical system of the equipment utilizing synchrotron radiation, the total reflection mirrors of oblique incidence are used for collimating and collecting X-ray. In order to restrain their optical aberration, nonspherical shape is required, and as the manufacturing method with high precision for nonspherical mirrors, a numerically controlled diamond cutting machine was developed. As for the cutting of soft metals with diamond tools, the high precision machining of any form can be done by numerical control, the machining time can be reduced as compared with grinding, and the cooling effect is large in metals. The construction of the cutting machine, the principle of machining, the control system, the method of calculating numerical control data, the investigation of machinable forms and the result of evaluation are reported. (K.I.)

  7. Machining of high performance workpiece materials with CBN coated cutting tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlmann, E.; Fuentes, J.A. Oyanedel; Keunecke, M.

    2009-01-01

    The machining of high performance workpiece materials requires significantly harder cutting materials. In hard machining, the early tool wear occurs due to high process forces and temperatures. The hardest known material is the diamond, but steel materials cannot be machined with diamond tools because of the reactivity of iron with carbon. Cubic boron nitride (cBN) is the second hardest of all known materials. The supply of such PcBN indexable inserts, which are only geometrically simple and available, requires several work procedures and is cost-intensive. The development of a cBN coating for cutting tools, combine the advantages of a thin film system and of cBN. Flexible cemented carbide tools, in respect to the geometry can be coated. The cBN films with a thickness of up to 2 μm on cemented carbide substrates show excellent mechanical and physical properties. This paper describes the results of the machining of various workpiece materials in turning and milling operations regarding the tool life, resultant cutting force components and workpiece surface roughness. In turning tests of Inconel 718 and milling tests of chrome steel the high potential of cBN coatings for dry machining was proven. The results of the experiments were compared with common used tool coatings for the hard machining. Additionally, the wear mechanisms adhesion, abrasion, surface fatigue and tribo-oxidation were researched in model wear experiments.

  8. Nitinol laser cutting: microstructure and functional properties of femtosecond and continuous wave laser processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffi, C. A.; Tuissi, A.

    2017-03-01

    Thermal processing can affect the properties of smart materials, and the correct selection of the best manufacturing technology is fundamental for producing high tech smart devices, containing embedded functional properties. In this work cutting of thin superelastic Nitinol plates using a femtosecond (fs) and continuous wave (CW) laser was studied. Diamond shaped elements were cut to characterize the kerf qualitative features; microstructural analysis of the cross sections allowed identification of thermal damage characteristics introduced into the material during the laser processes. A thermally undamaged microstructure was observed for fs laser cutting, while CW was seen to be characterized by a large heat-affected zone. Functional properties were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and tensile testing of laser cut microelements and of the reference material. It was seen that the martensitic transformation behavior of Nitinol is not affected by fs regime, while cw cutting provokes an effect equivalent to a high temperature thermal treatment in the material surrounding the cutting kerf, degradating the material properties. Finally, tensile testing indicated that superelastic performances were guaranteed by fs regime, while strong reduction of the recoverable strain was detected in the CW processed sample.

  9. On the Cutting Performance of Coated HSS Taps When Machining of Austenitic Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwkova, Petra; Piska, Miroslav

    2014-12-01

    The paper deals with a quality of the PVD coated HSS taps when cutting the stainless austenitic chromiumnickel non-stabilized steel DIN 1.4301 (X5CrNi 18-10). The main attention is focused on the analysis of loading (cutting moment, specific energy) of the HSS taps by means of pieso-electrical dynamometer Kistler 9272 and the relation between the quality of duplex and triplex PVD coatings and their effects on the quality of machined thread surfaces and tool life of the taps. The results showed a safe and stabilized cutting with acceptable quality of threads for HSSE with the TiN+TiCN+DLC coating.

  10. Development of a semiautomatic cutting machine for the fabrication of 137Cs-brachytherapy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avhad, B.G.; Dutta, M.L.; Saxena, S.K.; Dash, A.

    2004-01-01

    Cesium-137 sources are used in brachytherapy for the treatment of gynaecological cancers.The process of source preparation entails the vitrification of radioactive glass, its conversion into glass spheres, subsequent filling of spheres into platinum moulds and cutting of sources into the tubular form of dimension 1.5 mm(OD) x 5 mm(l). The large scale production of these sources demands the remote cutting operations within 4 inch thick lead shielded processing plants. This paper describes the development of a semi-automatic cutting machine, which can be used in the large scale production of 137 Cs brachytherapy sources. (author)

  11. High-precision cutting of polyimide film using femtosecond laser for the application in flexible electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganin, D. V.; Lapshin, K. E.; Obidin, A. Z.; Vartapetov, S. K.

    2018-01-01

    The experimental results of cutting a polyimide film on the optical glass substrate by means of femtosecond lasers are given. Two modes of laser cutting of this film without damages to a glass base are determined. The first is the photo graphitization using a high repetition rate femtosecond laser. The second is ablative, under the effect of femtosecond laser pulses with high energy and low repetition rate. Cutting of semiconductor chips formed on the polyimide film surface is successfully demonstrated.

  12. Parametric optimization during machining of AISI 304 Austenitic Stainless Steel using CVD coated DURATOMIC cutting insert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kaladhar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, Taguchi method is applied to determine the optimum process parameters for turning of AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel on CNC lathe. A Chemical vapour deposition (CVD coated cemented carbide cutting insert is used which is produced by DuratomicTM technology of 0.4 and 0.8 mm nose radii. The tests are conducted at four levels of Cutting speed, feed and depth of cut. The influence of these parameters are investigated on the surface roughness and material removal rate (MRR. The Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA is also used to analyze the influence of cutting parameters during machining. The results revealed that cutting speed significantly (46.05% affected the machined surface roughness values followed by nose radius (23.7%. The influence of the depth of cut (61.31% in affecting material removal rate (MRR is significantly large. The cutting speed (20.40% is the next significant factor. Optimal range and optimal level of parameters are also predicted for responses.

  13. Investigating the CO 2 laser cutting parameters of MDF wood composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltawahni, H. A.; Olabi, A. G.; Benyounis, K. Y.

    2011-04-01

    Laser cutting of medium density fibreboard (MDF) is a complicated process and the selection of the process parameters combinations is essential to get the highest quality cut section. This paper presents a means for selecting the process parameters for laser cutting of MDF based on the design of experiments (DOE) approach. A CO 2 laser was used to cut three thicknesses, 4, 6 and 9 mm, of MDF panels. The process factors investigated are: laser power, cutting speed, air pressure and focal point position. In this work, cutting quality was evaluated by measuring the upper kerf width, the lower kerf width, the ratio between the upper kerf width to the lower kerf width, the cut section roughness and the operating cost. The effect of each factor on the quality measures was determined. The optimal cutting combinations were presented in favours of high quality process output and in favours of low cutting cost.

  14. Effect of Cut Quality on Hybrid Laser Arc Welding of Thick Section Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhi, F.; Nielsen, S. E.; Schmidt, R. H.; Pedersen, S. S.; Kristiansen, M.

    From an industrial point of view, in a laser cutting-welding production chain, it is of great importance to know the influence of the attainable laser cut quality on the subsequent hybrid laser arc welding process. Many studies have been carried out in the literature to obtain lower surface roughness values on the laser cut edge. However, in practice, the cost and reliability of the cutting process is crucial and it does not always comply with obtaining the highest surface quality. In this study, a number of experiments on 25 mm steel plates were carried out to evaluate the influence of cut surface quality on the final quality of the subsequent hybrid laser welded joints. The different cut surfaces were obtained by different industrial cutting methods including laser cutting, abrasive water cutting, plasma cutting, and milling. It was found that the mentioned cutting methods could be used as preparation processes for the subsequent hybrid laser arc welding. However, cut quality could determine the choice of process parameters of the following hybrid laser arc welding.

  15. Mechanics of Cutting and Boring. Part 7. Dynamics and Energetics of Axial Rotation Machines,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    systematic analytical scheme that can be used to facilitate future work on the mechanics of cutting and boring machines. In the industrial sector, rock...Proceedings. Chapter 66, p. 1149-1158. Mellor, M. and I. Hawkes (1972) How to rate a hard-rock borer. World Construction, Sept, p. 21-23. (Also in Ingenieria

  16. A Comparative Study on Cutting Electrodes for Batteries with Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetke, Matthias; Franke, Volker; Techel, Anja; Himmer, Thomas; Klotzbach, Udo; Wetzig, Andreas; Beyer, Eckhard

    E-mobility is still one of the most discussed topics within the automotive industry. Electric powered vehicles can drive emissionfree and present consequently the future propulsion. Nearly all global players in the automotive industry are making great efforts to develop cost-efficient electric drives, which are suitable for series production. The national governments support this evolution progressively. For example the mobility research programme of the Federal Republic of Germany looks at the production of Li- Ion cells in its entirety. Within this programme the cutting of electrodes for Li-Ion cells by lasers is an issue, too. This paper provides a comparative study on cutting materials relevant for Li-Ion cells with beam sources operating in a cw mode and a pulsed mode respectively.

  17. Effects of machining conditions on the specific cutting energy of carbon fibre reinforced polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, A. I.; Syahmi, A. Z.; Naquib, M.; Lih, T. C.; Mansor, A. F.; Khalil, A. N. M.

    2017-10-01

    This article presents an approach to evaluate the effects of different machining conditions on the specific cutting energy of carbon fibre reinforced polymer composites (CFRP). Although research works in the machinability of CFRP composites have been very substantial, the present literature rarely discussed the topic of energy consumption and the specific cutting energy. A series of turning experiments were carried out on two different CFRP composites in order to determine the power and specific energy constants and eventually evaluate their effects due to the changes in machining conditions. A good agreement between the power and material removal rate using a simple linear relationship. Further analyses revealed that a power law function is best to describe the effect of feed rate on the changes in the specific cutting energy. At lower feed rate, the specific cutting energy increases exponentially due to the nature of finishing operation, whereas at higher feed rate, the changes in specific cutting energy is minimal due to the nature of roughing operation.

  18. Study of cutting speed on surface roughness and chip formation when machining nickel-based alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khidhir, Basim A.; Mohamed, Bashir

    2010-01-01

    Nickel- based alloy is difficult-to-machine because of its low thermal diffusive property and high strength at higher temperature. The machinability of nickel- based Hastelloy C-276 in turning operations has been carried out using different types of inserts under dry conditions on a computer numerical control (CNC) turning machine at different stages of cutting speed. The effects of cutting speed on surface roughness have been investigated. This study explores the types of wear caused by the effect of cutting speed on coated and uncoated carbide inserts. In addition, the effect of burr formation is investigated. The chip burr is found to have different shapes at lower speeds. Triangles and squares have been noticed for both coated and uncoated tips as well. The conclusion from this study is that the transition from thick continuous chip to wider discontinuous chip is caused by different types of inserts. The chip burr has a significant effect on tool damage starting in the line of depth-of-cut. For the coated insert tips, the burr disappears when the speed increases to above 150 m/min with the improvement of surface roughness; increasing the speed above the same limit for uncoated insert tips increases the chip burr size. The results of this study showed that the surface finish of nickel-based alloy is highly affected by the insert type with respect to cutting speed changes and its effect on chip burr formation and tool failure

  19. Influence of cutting data on surface quality when machining 17-4 PH stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovici, T. D.; Dijmărescu, M. R.

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the research presented in this paper is to analyse the cutting data influence upon surface quality for 17-4 PH stainless steel milling machining. The cutting regime parameters considered for the experiments were established using cutting regimes from experimental researches or from industrial conditions as basis, within the recommended ranges. The experimental program structure was determined by taking into account compatibility and orthogonality conditions, minimal use of material and labour. The machined surface roughness was determined by measuring the Ra roughness parameter, followed by surface profile registration in the form of graphics which were saved on a computer with MarSurf PS1Explorer software. Based on Ra roughness parameter, maximum values were extracted from these graphics and the influence charts of the cutting regime parameters upon surface roughness were traced using Microsoft Excel software. After a thorough analysis of the resulting data, relevant conclusions were drawn, presenting the interdependence between the surface roughness of the machined 17-4 PH samples and the cutting data variation.

  20. An investigation of laser cutting quality of 22MnB5 ultra high strength steel using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Abdul Fattah Mohd; Aqida, Syarifah Nur

    2017-07-01

    In hot press forming, changes of mechanical properties in boron steel blanks have been a setback in trimming the final shape components. This paper presents investigation of kerf width and heat affected zone (HAZ) of ultra high strength 22MnB5 steel cutting. Sample cutting was conducted using a 4 kW Carbon Dioxide (CO2) laser machine with 10.6 μm wavelength with the laser spot size of 0.2 mm. A response surface methodology (RSM) using three level Box-Behnken design of experiment was developed with three factors of peak power, cutting speed and duty cycle. The parameters were optimised for minimum kerf width and HAZ formation. Optical evaluation using MITUTOYO TM 505 were conducted to measure the kerf width and HAZ region. From the findings, laser duty cycle was crucial to determine cutting quality of ultra-high strength steel; followed by cutting speed and laser power. Meanwhile, low power intensity with continuous wave contributes the narrowest kerf width formation and least HAZ region.

  1. New pulsed YAG laser performances in cutting thick metallic materials for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfille, J.P.; Prunele, D. de; Pilot, G.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the capacities of the pulsed YAG laser thick cutting on metallic material and to compare with the CO 2 laser capacities. Stainless steel (304L) cutting tests were made in air and underwater using CO 2 and YAG lasers. A performance assessment was made for each laser and the wastes produced in the cutting operation were measured and the gases and the aerosols analyzed. The results show that the pulsed YAG laser is high performance tool for thick cutting and particularly attractive for nuclear applications

  2. INFLUENCE OF MACHINING TECHNOLOGIES ON VALUES OF RESIDUAL STRESSES OF OXIDE CUTTING CERAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Němeček

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the intensive development of engineering ceramic and effort to replace sintered carbides as cutting materials are in progress. With the development of the sintering technology it is now possible to produce compact ceramic cutting samples with very good mechanical properties. The advantage of these materials is their easy accessibility and low purchase price. In this work, the influence of the finishing machine technology on the values of surface residual stresses of cutting ceramic samples Al2O3+TiC were studying. The samples were supplied by Moscow State University of Technology STANKIN. Measurements made in the X-ray diffraction laboratory at the Department of solid state engineering were performed for both the phases. The influence of the parameters of machining to residual stresses was studied and the resulting values were compared with each other.

  3. Prediction of 3D chip formation in the facing cutting with lathe machine using FEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, Yudhi; Tauviqirrahman, Mohamad; Rusnaldy

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the prediction of the chip formation at the machining process using a lathe machine in a more specific way focusing on facing cutting (face turning). The main purpose is to propose a new approach to predict the chip formation with the variation of the cutting directions i.e., the backward and forward direction. In addition, the interaction between stress analysis and chip formation on cutting process was also investigated. The simulations were conducted using three dimensional (3D) finite element method based on ABAQUS software with aluminum and high speed steel (HSS) as the workpiece and the tool materials, respectively. The simulation result showed that the chip resulted using a backward direction depicts a better formation than that using a conventional (forward) direction.

  4. Research on NC laser combined cutting optimization model of sheet metal parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z. Y.; Zhang, Y. L.; Li, L.; Wu, L. H.; Liu, N. B.

    2017-09-01

    The optimization problem for NC laser combined cutting of sheet metal parts was taken as the research object in this paper. The problem included two contents: combined packing optimization and combined cutting path optimization. In the problem of combined packing optimization, the method of “genetic algorithm + gravity center NFP + geometric transformation” was used to optimize the packing of sheet metal parts. In the problem of combined cutting path optimization, the mathematical model of cutting path optimization was established based on the parts cutting constraint rules of internal contour priority and cross cutting. The model played an important role in the optimization calculation of NC laser combined cutting.

  5. [The behavior of fiber-reinforced plastics during laser cutting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmrich, M; Levsen, K; Trasser, F J

    1992-06-01

    The pattern of the organic emissions, which are produced by processing of fibre reinforced plastics (epoxy resins reinforced by aramid and glass fibres and phenol resins reinforced by aramid fibre) with laser beam was studied and the concentrations of the main components determined. Despite the application of plastic materials with different chemical structures, the observed patterns are very similar. Mainly aromatic hydrocarbons are emitted, especially benzene and toluene, as well as some heteroatom-containing aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g. phenol). By use of oxygen as process gas the emissions during cutting of glass fibre reinforced plastics can be reduced, while they will be constantly high with aramid fibre reinforced plastics.

  6. Heat damage-free laser-microjet cutting achieves highest die fracture strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrottet, Delphine; Housh, Roy; Richerzhagen, Bernold; Manley, John

    2005-04-01

    Unlike conventional laser-based technologies, the water jet guided laser does not generate heat damage and contamination is also very low. The negligible heat-affected zone is one reason why die fracture strength is higher than with sawing. This paper first presents the water jet guided laser technology and then explains how it differs from conventional dry laser cutting. Finally, it presents the results obtained by three recent studies conducted to determine die fracture strength after Laser-Microjet cutting.

  7. Secondary emissions during fiber laser cutting of nuclear material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, A., E-mail: beatriz.mendes.lopez@gmail.com [IDMEC, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Assunção, E. [IDMEC, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); European Federation for Welding, Joining and Cutting, Porto Salvo 2740-120 (Portugal); Pires, I. [IDMEC, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Quintino, L. [IDMEC, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); European Federation for Welding, Joining and Cutting, Porto Salvo 2740-120 (Portugal)

    2017-04-15

    The laser process has been studied for dismantling work for more than 10 years, however there is almost no data available concerning secondary emissions generated during the process. These emissions are inevitable during the laser cutting process and can have detrimental effects in human health and in the equipment. In terms of safety, for nuclear decommissioning, is crucial to point out ways of controlling the emissions of the process. This paper gives indications about the parameters to be used in order to reduce these secondary emissions and about the influence of these parameters on the particles size distribution. In general, for producing minimal dross and fume emissions the beam focus should be placed on the surface of the material. The higher percentage of secondary emissions which present higher diameter, increases approximately linearly with the stand-off distance and with the use of low air pressure.

  8. Recent Results in High Power CO2-Laser Cutting for Shipbuilding Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    2003-01-01

    In 1997 a high power laser cutting and welding test facility was established at the Danish shipyard Odense Steel Shipyard (OSS). Research and development projects were initiated in order to establish the basis for applying the full power of the laser for laser-cutting, by developing mirror based...

  9. Investigation of Physical Phenomena and Cutting Efficiency for Laser Cutting on Anode for Li-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongkyoung Lee

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion batteries have a higher energy density than other secondary batteries. Among the lithium-ion battery manufacturing process, electrode cutting is one of the most important processes since poor cut quality leads to performance degradation, separator protrusion, and local electric stress concentration. This may, eventually, lead to malfunction of lithium-ion batteries or explosion. The current mechanical cutting technology uses a contact process and this may lead to process instability. Furthermore, there are additional costs if the tools and cell design are changed. To solve these issues, laser cutting has been used. Conventional dependent parameters have limitations in investigating and explaining many physical phenomena during the laser cutting of electrodes. Therefore, this study proposes specific widths such as melting, top, and kerf width. Moreover, the relationship between laser parameters and multiphysical phenomena with the proposed widths are investigated. Five types of classification with regard to physical phenomena are presented and explained with SEM images. Cutting efficiency is estimated with the proposed widths. The proposed specific cutting widths, five types of geometrical classification, and cutting efficiency can be used as standardized parameters to evaluate the cutting quality.

  10. Factors affecting the laser processing of wood, 2: Effects of material parameters on machinability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, T.; Hayashi, D.

    1994-01-01

    Material parameters of wood were investigated. Factors relating to the workpiece include cutting direction, specific gravity, and components of the wood such as resin-like materials. Also studies of the effects of irregular tissue on machinability were made. The interactions between laser beam and materials are often greatly complex. They depend on the characteristics of the laser beam, the thermal constants of the woods, and the optical surface properties of the woods. Therefore, high quality beam mode and carefully selected materials were used. The following laser cutting properties became clear after studying the experimental results. Slow speed cutting and softwoods make slight differences, regarding cutting section and fiber direction. However, it can beconsidered that there is not very much change except in cross-section. Because of the high power density of laser, cutting speed makes no big difference. The irregular tissue of wood cannot maintain normal cutting speed and accuracy. The factor of genuine density eta, which is thought to be entirely independent of each specific gravity, is definedas the concept of density in general. It can be obtained by applying a simple rule, that is, the eta is the ratio of r(u)/rho(s) where rho(s) is the wood substance as the characteristic value of wood, and r(u)is specific gravity. An experimental formula shows that the depth of cut decreases in proportion to the value of eta. However, in the strict sense of the word, data of wood material as a natural resources mustbe treated qualitatively, because there are deviations from regularity due to various reasons. (author)

  11. Analysis of the heat affected zone in CO2 laser cutting of stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madić Miloš J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation into the effect of the laser cutting parameters on the heat affected zone in CO2 laser cutting of AISI 304 stainless steel. The mathematical model for the heat affected zone was expressed as a function of the laser cutting parameters such as the laser power, cutting speed, assist gas pressure and focus position using the artificial neural network. To obtain experimental database for the artificial neural network training, laser cutting experiment was planned as per Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array with three levels for each of the cutting parameter. Using the 27 experimental data sets, the artificial neural network was trained with gradient descent with momentum algorithm and the average absolute percentage error was 2.33%. The testing accuracy was then verified with 6 extra experimental data sets and the average predicting error was 6.46%. Statistically assessed as adequate, the artificial neural network model was then used to investigate the effect of the laser cutting parameters on the heat affected zone. To analyze the main and interaction effect of the laser cutting parameters on the heat affected zone, 2-D and 3-D plots were generated. The analysis revealed that the cutting speed had maximum influence on the heat affected zone followed by the laser power, focus position and assist gas pressure. Finally, using the Monte Carlo method the optimal laser cutting parameter values that minimize the heat affected zone were identified.

  12. Laser cutting of thick steel plates and simulated steel components using a 30 kW fiber laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Koji; Ishigami, Ryoya; Yamagishi, Ryuichiro

    2016-01-01

    Laser cutting of thick steel plates and simulated steel components using a 30 kW fiber laser was studied for application to nuclear decommissioning. Successful cutting of carbon steel and stainless steel plates up to 300 mm in thickness was demonstrated, as was that of thick steel components such as simulated reactor vessel walls, a large pipe, and a gate valve. The results indicate that laser cutting applied to nuclear decommissioning is a promising technology. (author)

  13. Experimental analysis of Nd-YAG laser cutting of sheet materials - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Amit; Yadava, Vinod

    2018-01-01

    Cutting of sheet material is considered as an important process due to its relevance among products of everyday life such as aircrafts, ships, cars, furniture etc. Among various sheet cutting processes (ASCPs), laser beam cutting is one of the most capable ASCP to create complex geometries with stringent design requirements in difficult-to-cut sheet materials. Based on the recent research work in the area of sheet cutting, it is found that the Nd-YAG laser is used for cutting of sheet material in general and reflective sheet material in particular. This paper reviews the experimental analysis of Nd-YAG laser cutting process, carried out to study the influence of laser cutting parameters on the process performance index. The significance of experimental modeling and different optimization approaches employed by various researchers has also been discussed in this study.

  14. Parametric studies of cutting zircaloy-2 sheets with a laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, S.; Badgujar, B.P.; Goswami, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    The highly reactive and pyrophoric nature of zirconium alloys limits the use of conventional thermal sources (e.g., plasma arc cutting, oxygen flame cutting, etc.) for the cutting and drilling of these alloys. In this context, a highly coherent laser beam provides a good alternative for the cutting and drilling. In the present paper, laser beam cutting of zircaloy-2 sheets of 1.1 mm and 0.74 mm thickness is performed using a 300 W average power pulsed Nd:YAG laser. Pulse energy, pulse repetition rate, nozzle gap, gas pressure and cutting speed were varied to give different laser cutting conditions. Metallographic study of the cut surfaces showed the presence of transformed beta phase in the heat affected zone (HAZ) near the cut surface. The microhardness value across the cut surface was also measured. It showed a gradual increase in microhardness from the base metal (160 VHN) towards the HAZ having a maximum value of 365 VHN. The results of parametric studies of the cutting indicated that, with proper selection of process parameters, very narrow cuts can be easily made in zircaloy-2 using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser with a saving in material and at a much faster rate than alternative processes such as plasma arc cutting and oxygen flame cutting

  15. MULTI-OBJECTIVE OPTIMISATION OF LASER CUTTING USING CUCKOO SEARCH ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. MADIĆ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Determining of optimal laser cutting conditions for improving cut quality characteristics is of great importance in process planning. This paper presents multi-objective optimisation of the CO2 laser cutting process considering three cut quality characteristics such as surface roughness, heat affected zone (HAZ and kerf width. It combines an experimental design by using Taguchi’s method, modelling the relationships between the laser cutting factors (laser power, cutting speed, assist gas pressure and focus position and cut quality characteristics by artificial neural networks (ANNs, formulation of the multiobjective optimisation problem using weighting sum method, and solving it by the novel meta-heuristic cuckoo search algorithm (CSA. The objective is to obtain optimal cutting conditions dependent on the importance order of the cut quality characteristics for each of four different case studies presented in this paper. The case studies considered in this study are: minimisation of cut quality characteristics with equal priority, minimisation of cut quality characteristics with priority given to surface roughness, minimisation of cut quality characteristics with priority given to HAZ, and minimisation of cut quality characteristics with priority given to kerf width. The results indicate that the applied CSA for solving the multi-objective optimisation problem is effective, and that the proposed approach can be used for selecting the optimal laser cutting factors for specific production requirements.

  16. Metal cutting by radiation from a CO2 laser with a self-filtering cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malikov, A G; Orishich, Anatolii M; Shulyat'ev, Viktor B

    2009-01-01

    The possibility of quality cutting by radiation from a CO 2 laser with an unstable self-filtering cavity (SFC) is experimentally investigated. The SFC provides the product of the divergence angle by the beam radius close to that for lower modes in a stable cavity (SC), however, at a higher radiation power, which favours faster cutting. In the far-field zone, the SFC beam has a diffraction structure with side maxima, which is usually considered as a negative factor in laser cutting. 25-mm-thick steel slabs have been cut. The comparison of the obtained results with known data on SC lasers shows that the principal characteristics of the cut (the width, edge roughness, specific expenditure of energy) are close in these lasers. A conclusion is made that at the chosen cavity parameters, the specific spatial structure of the SFC laser beam has no significant effect on the cut characteristics. (laser technologies)

  17. Local drying underwater cutting of reactor core internals by CO laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beppu, Seiji; Takano, Genta; Matsumoto, Osa; Sugihara, Masaaki; Miya, Kenzo.

    1991-01-01

    Since the CO laser operates at shorter wavelength than the CO 2 laser, the former has superior ability to cut materials. Its applicability to the cutting of reactor core internals in a nuclear power plant has been studied. In order to use such a laser for cutting actual structures, it would be useful to develop underwater cutting technology for the purpose of minimizing radiation exposure during cutting. However, since the laser beam is absorbed by water, a path needs to be cleared along the laser's line of sight. The authors have developed a nozzle that forms a local dry zone and have demonstrated that CO laser cutting can be carried out under water as it is in air. (author)

  18. Experimental comparison of laser energy losses in high-quality laser-oxygen cutting of low-carbon steel using radiation from fibre and CO2 lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golyshev, A A; Malikov, A G; Orishich, A M; Shulyat'ev, V B

    2015-01-01

    We report a comparative experimental study of laseroxygen cutting of low-carbon steel using a fibre laser with a wavelength of 1.07 μm and a CO 2 laser with a wavelength of 10.6 μm at the sheet thickness of 3 – 16 mm. For the two lasers we have measured the dependence of the cutting speed on the radiation power and determined the cutting speed at which the surface roughness is minimal. The coefficient of laser radiation absorption in the laser cutting process is measured for these lasers at different values of the cutting speed and radiation power. It is found that the minimal roughness of the cut surface is reached at the absorbed laser energy per unit volume of the removed material, equal to 11 – 13 J mm -3 ; this value is the same for the two lasers and does not depend on the sheet thickness. (laser technologies)

  19. Parameters Influence of CO2 Laser on Cutting Quality of Polymer Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Cep; Sarka Malotova; Marek Pagac; Marek Sadilek; Jiri Lichovnik

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with evaluating of the resulting surface state of the three plastic materials and identification of suitable conditions for laser cutting with CO2 tube. As representative were chosen polypropylene, polymethylmethacrylate and polyamide. When cutting these types of materials it could melt eventually their re-sintering. A suitable combination of parameters is possible to achieve of sufficient quality of the cut. The samples were cut at different feed speed and laser power. Then...

  20. Development of laser repair technique for cutting impurities in secondary side of a steam generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Chung, Chin Man; Kim, Min Suk; Jeong, Tae Moon

    1999-12-01

    In this research, the laser repair technique was investigated for the purpose of cutting impurities in secondary side of a steam generator. For this research, a high quality Nd:YAG laser was manufactured and the beam delivery experiments was performed with multimode optical fibers. Also, the small size focusing system was designed and fabricated for remote cutting and the laser cutting experiment was performed. (author)

  1. CO 2 laser cutting of MDF . 1. Determination of process parameter settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, K. C. P.; Ng, S. L.; Black, I.

    2000-02-01

    This paper details an investigation into the laser processing of medium-density fibreboard (MDF). Part 1 reports on the determination of process parameter settings for the effective cutting of MDF by CO 2 laser, using an established experimental methodology developed to study the interrelationship between and effects of varying laser set-up parameters. Results are presented for both continuous wave (CW) and pulse mode (PM) cutting, and the associated cut quality effects have been commented on.

  2. Target fabrication using laser and spark erosion machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, X.; Coudeville, A.; Eyharts, P.; Perrine , J.P.; Rouillard, R.

    1981-11-01

    Lasers and E.D.M. (electrical discharge machining) are both extremely useful tools for machining the small targets needed in inertial confinement studies. Lasers are currently used in a wide range of target problems and it appears that E.D.M. has a still wider range of applications for plane and spherical targets. The problems of material deformation and tool breaking are practically eliminated as the electrode and the machined part are not in mechanical contact. In comparison with laser micromachining E.D.M. offers: larger versatility with the possibility of new developments and applications; higher production speed for thin conducting materials; lower initial and operating costs; the processes are well controlled, reproducible and can be easily automated; the operation is safe without the dangers associted with lasers

  3. Experimental study on concrete cutting by CO{sub 2} laser beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutsumizu, Akira; Tomura, Hidemasa; Wakizaka, Tatsuya; Hishikawa, Kyoichi; Moriya, Masahiro [Ohbayashi Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-10-01

    Methods for dismantling nuclear reactor facilities must meet particularly exacting requirements imposed by heavily reinforced and radioactivated reactor shield walls. Conventional methods do not meet all such requirements, however. Intrigued by excellent characteristics of the laser cutting method relative to nuclear facility demolition, we carried out an experimental study to make a comprehensive evaluation of its characteristics, especially for deep cutting, with success in identifying main factors affecting the cutting depth of a laser and characterizing its cutting behavior. The study results indicate that a 50 kW class CO{sub 2} laser has a potential to provide a practicable cutting speed and depth. (author).

  4. Heuristic algorithms for solving of the tool routing problem for CNC cutting machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chentsov, P. A.; Petunin, A. A.; Sesekin, A. N.; Shipacheva, E. N.; Sholohov, A. E.

    2015-11-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of minimizing the path of the cutting tool to shape cutting machines began. This problem can be interpreted as a generalized traveling salesman problem. Earlier version of the dynamic programming method to solve this problem was developed. Unfortunately, this method allows to process an amount not exceeding thirty circuits. In this regard, the task of constructing quasi-optimal route becomes relevant. In this paper we propose options for quasi-optimal greedy algorithms. Comparison of the results of exact and approximate algorithms is given.

  5. High-speed fiber laser cutting of thick stainless steel for dismantling tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae Sung; Oh, Seong Yong; Park, Hyunmin; Chung, Chin-Man; Seon, Sangwoo; Kim, Taek-Soo; Lee, Lim; Choi, Byung-Seon; Moon, Jei-Kwon

    2017-09-01

    A high-speed fiber laser cutting technology of thick steels for dismantling tasks was achieved using a 6-kW fiber laser system. At first, a new cutting head for efficient cutting of thick steels was developed, which was composed by a collimator with a focal length of 160 mm and mirror-type focusing objects with a long focal length of 600 mm. The long focal length of the focusing object made it possible for the beam size to be small through the thick cutting material and the cutting efficiency was expected to increase compared with the short focal length. In addition, folding the beam facilitated the compact cutting head with a size of 160 mm (width) × 80 mm (height) × 640 mm (length) and a weight of 6.9 kg. In the cutting experiment, the laser beam was delivered to the cutting head by a 25-m long process fiber with a core diameter of 100 μm. The cutting performances were studied against the thicknesses of stainless steel plates. A maximum cutting speed of 72 mm/min was obtained for the 60-mm thick stainless steel plate cutting and the cut specimen showed an excellent kerf shape and a narrow kerf width. To the best of our knowledge, this cutting speed was higher than other previously reported results when cutting with a 6-kW laser power.

  6. STUDIES ON SELECTED PROPERTIES OF SURFACE LAYER OF C45 STEEL OBJECTS AFTER LASER CUTTING AND MILLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Zaleski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studying the effects of technological parameters of milling upon surface roughness and microhardness of C45 steel objects after laser cutting. The metallographic structure formed as an effect of cutting by laser was also analyzed. The milling was performed on a FV-580a vertical machining centre. Depth of cut and feed per tooth were changed within the following range: ap = 0.09–0.18 mm and fz = 0.02–0.17 mm/tooth. To measure the surface roughness a Surtronic 3+ profile graphometer was used, whereas microhardness was measured with the use of a Leco LM 700AT microhardness tester. The surface roughness was significantly improved as a result of milling. The laser beam input and output zones were eliminated. Only a part of the layer hardened by laser cutting was removed while milling, in effect of which after milling the hardness of surface layer is much higher than hardness of the core.

  7. Vapor-melt Ratio in Laser Fine Cutting of Slot Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xuyue; Meng Qingxuan; Kang Renke; Xu Wenji; Guo Dongming; Wang Lianji

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve cut quality for slot arrays, a new method of laser fine cutting under the consideration of the ratio of vapor to melt is presented. Laser cutting of 6063 aluminum alloy sheet, 0.5 mm in thickness, was carried out on a JK701H Nd:YAG pulse laser cutting system. The effects of vapor-melt ratio on kerf width, surface roughness and recast layer were studied which relate cutting qualities. Observation on the cut samples with different vapor-melt ratios (0.687, 1.574, 3.601 varied with laser power increasing, and 1.535, 3.601, 7.661 with decreasing of beam cutting speed) shows that high vapor-melt ratio improves laser cut quality clearly. Kerf width 0.2 mm of smooth area on kerf top area and thickness 2.03 μm of recast layer are obtained. No dross was found on the kerf bottom and the percentage of the smooth area is up to 40% out of whole kerf side. The research on vapor-melt ratio provides a deeper understanding of laser cutting and improves laser cut quality effectively.

  8. High-quality laser cutting of stainless steel in inert gas atmosphere by ytterbium fibre and CO{sub 2} lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golyshev, A A; Malikov, A G; Orishich, A M; Shulyat' ev, V B [S.A. Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-03-28

    Processes of cutting stainless steel by ytterbium fibre and CO{sub 2} lasers have been experimentally compared. The cut surface roughnesses for 3- and 5-mm-thick stainless steel sheets are determined. The absorption coefficient of laser radiation during cutting is measured. It is established that the power absorbed by metal during cutting by the CO{sub 2} laser exceeds that for the ytterbium laser (provided that the cutting speed remains the same). The fact that the maximum cutting speed of the CO{sub 2} laser is lower than that of the ytterbium fibre laser is explained. (laser technologies)

  9. Tool feed influence on the machinability of CO(2) laser optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, J B; Steger, P J; Saito, T T

    1975-08-01

    Influence of tool feed on reflectivity of diamond-machined surfaces was evaluated using materials (gold, silver, and copper) from which CO(2) laser optics are primarily produced. Fifteen specimens were machined by holding all machining parameters constant, except tool feed. Tool feed was allowed to vary by controlled amounts from one evaluation zone (or part) to another. Past experience has verified that the quality of a diamond-machined surface is not a function of the cutting velocity; therefore, this experiment was conducted on the basis that a variation in cutting velocity was not an influencing factor on the diamondturning process. Inspection results of the specimens indicated that tool feeds significantly higher than 5.1 micro/rev (200 microin./rev) produced detrimental effects on the machined surfaces. In some cases, at feeds as high as 13 microm/rev (500 microin./rev), visible scoring was evident. Those surfaces produced with tool feeds less than 5.1 microm/rev had little difference in reflectivity. Measurements indicat d that their reflectivity existed in a range from 96.7% to 99.3% at 10.6 microm.

  10. Distinguishing butchery cut marks from crocodile bite marks through machine learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Baquedano, Enrique

    2018-04-10

    All models of evolution of human behaviour depend on the correct identification and interpretation of bone surface modifications (BSM) on archaeofaunal assemblages. Crucial evolutionary features, such as the origin of stone tool use, meat-eating, food-sharing, cooperation and sociality can only be addressed through confident identification and interpretation of BSM, and more specifically, cut marks. Recently, it has been argued that linear marks with the same properties as cut marks can be created by crocodiles, thereby questioning whether secure cut mark identifications can be made in the Early Pleistocene fossil record. Powerful classification methods based on multivariate statistics and machine learning (ML) algorithms have previously successfully discriminated cut marks from most other potentially confounding BSM. However, crocodile-made marks were marginal to or played no role in these comparative analyses. Here, for the first time, we apply state-of-the-art ML methods on crocodile linear BSM and experimental butchery cut marks, showing that the combination of multivariate taphonomy and ML methods provides accurate identification of BSM, including cut and crocodile bite marks. This enables empirically-supported hominin behavioural modelling, provided that these methods are applied to fossil assemblages.

  11. Rotary ultrasonic machining of CFRP: a mechanistic predictive model for cutting force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, W L; Pei, Z J; Sun, X; Zhang, C L

    2014-02-01

    Cutting force is one of the most important output variables in rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM) of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composites. Many experimental investigations on cutting force in RUM of CFRP have been reported. However, in the literature, there are no cutting force models for RUM of CFRP. This paper develops a mechanistic predictive model for cutting force in RUM of CFRP. The material removal mechanism of CFRP in RUM has been analyzed first. The model is based on the assumption that brittle fracture is the dominant mode of material removal. CFRP micromechanical analysis has been conducted to represent CFRP as an equivalent homogeneous material to obtain the mechanical properties of CFRP from its components. Based on this model, relationships between input variables (including ultrasonic vibration amplitude, tool rotation speed, feedrate, abrasive size, and abrasive concentration) and cutting force can be predicted. The relationships between input variables and important intermediate variables (indentation depth, effective contact time, and maximum impact force of single abrasive grain) have been investigated to explain predicted trends of cutting force. Experiments are conducted to verify the model, and experimental results agree well with predicted trends from this model. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Laser-induced gas plasma machining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elhadj, Selim; Bass, Isaac Louis; Guss, Gabriel Mark; Matthews, Manyalibo J.

    2017-10-17

    Techniques for removing material from a substrate are provided. A laser beam is focused at a distance from the surface to be treated. A gas is provided at the focus point. The gas is dissociated using the laser energy to generate gas plasma. The substrate is then brought in contact with the gas plasma to enable material removal.

  13. [Research on the laser atomization treatment machine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bei-sheng; Tian, Rong-zhe; Zhang, Liang

    2005-07-01

    This text has introduces a new-type laser treatment device. It utilizes the ultrasound atomized gas passage as its optics and makes the laser beams together with the atomized medicine to be transmitted to the patient's respiratory track and lungs for treatment.

  14. Real-time wavelet-based inline banknote-in-bundle counting for cut-and-bundle machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petker, Denis; Lohweg, Volker; Gillich, Eugen; Türke, Thomas; Willeke, Harald; Lochmüller, Jens; Schaede, Johannes

    2011-03-01

    Automatic banknote sheet cut-and-bundle machines are widely used within the scope of banknote production. Beside the cutting-and-bundling, which is a mature technology, image-processing-based quality inspection for this type of machine is attractive. We present in this work a new real-time Touchless Counting and perspective cutting blade quality insurance system, based on a Color-CCD-Camera and a dual-core Computer, for cut-and-bundle applications in banknote production. The system, which applies Wavelet-based multi-scale filtering is able to count banknotes inside a 100-bundle within 200-300 ms depending on the window size.

  15. Optimization of CO2 Laser Cutting Process using Taguchi and Dual Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Madić

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Selection of optimal cutting parameter settings for obtaining high cut quality in CO2 laser cutting process is of great importance. Among various analytical and experimental optimization methods, the application of Taguchi and response surface methodology is one of most commonly used for laser cutting process optimization. Although the concept of dual response surface methodology for process optimization has been used with success, till date, no experimental study has been reported in the field of laser cutting. In this paper an approach for optimization of CO2 laser cutting process using Taguchi and dual response surface methodology is presented. The goal was to determine the near optimal laser cutting parameter values in order to ensure robust condition for minimization of average surface roughness. To obtain experimental database for development of response surface models, Taguchi’s L25 orthogonal array was implemented for experimental plan. Three cutting parameters, the cutting speed (3, 4, 5, 6, 7 m/min, the laser power (0.7, 0.9, 1.1, 1.3, 1.5 kW, and the assist gas pressure (3, 4, 5, 6, 7 bar, were used in the experiment. To obtain near optimal cutting parameters settings, multi-stage Monte Carlo simulation procedure was performed on the developed response surface models.

  16. Evaluation of laser cutting process with auxiliary gas pressure by soft computing approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazov, Lyubomir; Nikolić, Vlastimir; Jovic, Srdjan; Milovančević, Miloš; Deneva, Heristina; Teirumenieka, Erika; Arsic, Nebojsa

    2018-06-01

    Evaluation of the optimal laser cutting parameters is very important for the high cut quality. This is highly nonlinear process with different parameters which is the main challenge in the optimization process. Data mining methodology is one of most versatile method which can be used laser cutting process optimization. Support vector regression (SVR) procedure is implemented since it is a versatile and robust technique for very nonlinear data regression. The goal in this study was to determine the optimal laser cutting parameters to ensure robust condition for minimization of average surface roughness. Three cutting parameters, the cutting speed, the laser power, and the assist gas pressure, were used in the investigation. As a laser type TruLaser 1030 technological system was used. Nitrogen as an assisted gas was used in the laser cutting process. As the data mining method, support vector regression procedure was used. Data mining prediction accuracy was very high according the coefficient (R2) of determination and root mean square error (RMSE): R2 = 0.9975 and RMSE = 0.0337. Therefore the data mining approach could be used effectively for determination of the optimal conditions of the laser cutting process.

  17. Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Cutting KidsHealth / For Teens / Cutting What's in this article? ... Getting Help Print en español Cortarse What Is Cutting? Emma's mom first noticed the cuts when Emma ...

  18. Analyzing the effect of cutting parameters on surface roughness and tool wear when machining nickel based hastelloy - 276

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khidhir, Basim A; Mohamed, Bashir

    2011-01-01

    Machining parameters has an important factor on tool wear and surface finish, for that the manufacturers need to obtain optimal operating parameters with a minimum set of experiments as well as minimizing the simulations in order to reduce machining set up costs. The cutting speed is one of the most important cutting parameter to evaluate, it clearly most influences on one hand, tool life, tool stability, and cutting process quality, and on the other hand controls production flow. Due to more demanding manufacturing systems, the requirements for reliable technological information have increased. For a reliable analysis in cutting, the cutting zone (tip insert-workpiece-chip system) as the mechanics of cutting in this area are very complicated, the chip is formed in the shear plane (entrance the shear zone) and is shape in the sliding plane. The temperature contributed in the primary shear, chamfer and sticking, sliding zones are expressed as a function of unknown shear angle on the rake face and temperature modified flow stress in each zone. The experiments were carried out on a CNC lathe and surface finish and tool tip wear are measured in process. Machining experiments are conducted. Reasonable agreement is observed under turning with high depth of cut. Results of this research help to guide the design of new cutting tool materials and the studies on evaluation of machining parameters to further advance the productivity of nickel based alloy Hastelloy - 276 machining.

  19. Fusion cutting of aluminum, magnesium, and titanium alloys using high-power fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scintilla, Leonardo Daniele; Tricarico, Luigi

    2013-07-01

    The effects of cutting speed and assist gas pressure on laser cutting of 1-mm thick Al 1050, AZ31, and Ti6Al4V lightweight alloys are experimentally investigated. Fiber laser cutting of these materials is not broadly investigated and the acquisition of a new level of knowledge is of fundamental importance for applications like sheet metal trimming in automotive industry. The main process outputs are in depth compared with results reported in literature and obtained by cutting with CO2 and Nd∶YAG lasers. The good cut quality, the high productivity, and the easy delivery of the beam obtained at the same time, corroborate the advantage of using fiber lasers for thin sheets lightweight alloys cutting.

  20. Laser cutting equipment for dismantling irradiated PFR fuel sub-assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higginson, P.R.; Campbell, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    Laser cutting was identified as a possible technique for dismantling irradiated Prototype Fast Reactor (P.F.R.) fuel sub-assemblies and initial trials showed that it could be used to make essentially swarf free cuts in P.F.R. wrapper material provided sufficient laser power was available to allow use of an inert cutting gas. A programme of development work has established a technique for inert gas cutting with the reliable, commercially available Ferranti MF 400 laser and equipment for laser cutting of sub-assemblies has been installed in the Irradiated Fuel Cave at P.F.R. Test cuts carried out with this equipment on un-irradiated wrapper sections have shown it to be easy to operate remotely, optically stable and reliable in operation. (author)

  1. Statistical characteristics of surface integrity by fiber laser cutting of Nitinol vascular stents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, C.H.; Liu, J.F.; Guo, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Precision kerf with tight tolerance of Nitinol stents can be cut by fiber laser. • No HAZ in the subsurface was detected due to large grain size. • Recast layer has lower hardness than the bulk. • Laser cutting speed has a higher influence on surface integrity than laser power. - Abstract: Nitinol alloys have been widely used in manufacturing of vascular stents due to the outstanding properties such as superelasticity, shape memory, and superior biocompatibility. Laser cutting is the dominant process for manufacturing Nitinol stents. Conventional laser cutting usually produces unsatisfactory surface integrity which has a significant detrimental impact on stent performance. Emerging as a competitive process, fiber laser with high beam quality is expected to produce much less thermal damage such as striation, dross, heat affected zone (HAZ), and recast layer. To understand the process capability of fiber laser cutting of Nitinol alloy, a design-of-experiment based laser cutting experiment was performed. The kerf geometry, roughness, topography, microstructure, and hardness were studied to better understand the nature of the HAZ and recast layer in fiber laser cutting. Moreover, effect size analysis was conducted to investigate the relationship between surface integrity and process parameters.

  2. Statistical characteristics of surface integrity by fiber laser cutting of Nitinol vascular stents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, C.H., E-mail: cfu5@crimson.ua.edu [Dept of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Liu, J.F. [Dept of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Guo, Andrew [Dept of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); College of Arts and Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Precision kerf with tight tolerance of Nitinol stents can be cut by fiber laser. • No HAZ in the subsurface was detected due to large grain size. • Recast layer has lower hardness than the bulk. • Laser cutting speed has a higher influence on surface integrity than laser power. - Abstract: Nitinol alloys have been widely used in manufacturing of vascular stents due to the outstanding properties such as superelasticity, shape memory, and superior biocompatibility. Laser cutting is the dominant process for manufacturing Nitinol stents. Conventional laser cutting usually produces unsatisfactory surface integrity which has a significant detrimental impact on stent performance. Emerging as a competitive process, fiber laser with high beam quality is expected to produce much less thermal damage such as striation, dross, heat affected zone (HAZ), and recast layer. To understand the process capability of fiber laser cutting of Nitinol alloy, a design-of-experiment based laser cutting experiment was performed. The kerf geometry, roughness, topography, microstructure, and hardness were studied to better understand the nature of the HAZ and recast layer in fiber laser cutting. Moreover, effect size analysis was conducted to investigate the relationship between surface integrity and process parameters.

  3. The effect of abrading and cutting instruments on machinability of dental ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakoda, Satoshi; Nakao, Noriko; Watanabe, Ikuya

    2018-03-16

    The aim was to investigate the effect of machining instruments on machinability of dental ceramics. Four dental ceramics, including two zirconia ceramics were machined by three types (SiC, diamond vitrified, and diamond sintered) of wheels with a hand-piece engine and two types (diamond and carbide) of burs with a high-speed air turbine. The machining conditions used were abrading speeds of 10,000 and 15,000 r.p.m. with abrading force of 100 gf for the hand-piece engine, and a pressure of 200 kPa and a cutting force of 80 gf for the air-turbine hand-piece. The machinability efficiency was evaluated by volume losses after machining the ceramics. A high-abrading speed had high-abrading efficiency (high-volume loss) compared to low-abrading speed in all abrading instruments used. The diamond vitrified wheels demonstrated higher volume loss for two zirconia ceramics than those of SiC and diamond sintered wheels. When the high-speed air-turbine instruments were used, the diamond points showed higher volume losses compared to the carbide burs for one ceramic and two zirconia ceramics with high-mechanical properties. The results of this study indicated that the machinability of dental ceramics depends on the mechanical and physical properties of dental ceramics and machining instruments. The abrading wheels show autogenous action of abrasive grains, in which ground abrasive grains drop out from the binder during abrasion, then the binder follow to wear out, subsequently new abrasive grains come out onto the instrument surface (autogenous action) and increase the grinding amount (volume loss) of grinding materials.

  4. Precision machining of pig intestine using ultrafast laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Rainer J.; Góra, Wojciech S.; Carter, Richard M.; Gunadi, Sonny; Jayne, David; Hand, Duncan P.; Shephard, Jonathan D.

    2015-07-01

    Endoluminal surgery for the treatment of early stage colorectal cancer is typically based on electrocautery tools which imply restrictions on precision and the risk of harm through collateral thermal damage to the healthy tissue. As a potential alternative to mitigate these drawbacks we present laser machining of pig intestine by means of picosecond laser pulses. The high intensities of an ultrafast laser enable nonlinear absorption processes and a predominantly nonthermal ablation regime. Laser ablation results of square cavities with comparable thickness to early stage colorectal cancers are presented for a wavelength of 1030 nm using an industrial picosecond laser. The corresponding histology sections exhibit only minimal collateral damage to the surrounding tissue. The depth of the ablation can be controlled precisely by means of the pulse energy. Overall, the application of ultrafast lasers to ablate pig intestine enables significantly improved precision and reduced thermal damage to the surrounding tissue compared to conventional techniques.

  5. TEA CO2 laser machining of CFRP composite

    OpenAIRE

    Salama, Adel; Li, Lin; Mativenga, Paul; Whitehead, David

    2016-01-01

    Carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites have found wide applications in the aerospace, marine, sports and automotive industries owing to their lightweight and acceptable mechanical properties compared to the commonly used metallic materials. Machining of CFRP composites using lasers can be challenging due to inhomogeneity in the material properties and structures, which can lead to thermal damages during laser processing. In the previous studies, Nd:YAG, diode-pumped solid-state, CO...

  6. Study on Surface Integrity of AISI 1045 Carbon Steel when machined by Carbide Cutting Tool under wet conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamin N. Fauzi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the evaluation of surface roughness and roughness profiles when machining carbon steel under wet conditions with low and high cutting speeds. The workpiece materials and cutting tools selected in this research were AISI 1045 carbon steel and canela carbide inserts graded PM25, respectively. The cutting tools undergo machining tests by CNC turning operations and their performances were evaluated by their surface roughness value and observation of the surface roughness profile. The machining tests were held at varied cutting speeds of 35 to 53 m/min, feed rate of 0.15 to 0.50 mm/rev and a constant depth of cut of 1 mm. From the analysis, it was found that surface roughness increased as the feed rate increased. Varian of surface roughness was suspected due to interaction between cutting speeds and feed rates as well as nose radius conditions; whether from tool wear or the formation of a built-up edge. This study helps us understand the effect of cutting speed and feed rate on surface integrity, when machining AISI 1045 carbon steel using carbide cutting tools, under wet cutting conditions.

  7. Cutting performances with new industrial continuous wave ND:YAG high power lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chagnot, C.; Dinechin, G. de; Canneau, G.

    2010-01-01

    Dismantling is a great challenge for nuclear companies which are facing with the cleaning of former nuclear sites. Among the available cutting processes is the multi-kilowatts laser whose power is transmitted through optical fibers. Unlike other cutting processes such as the plasma arc cutting process or the oxy-cutting process, the laser process can be easily implemented by robotic equipments. The mechanised robotic arm carries a laser cutting head to perform, with remote-controlled equipments, the cutting operation. The present study deals with the performances which can be reached with high power continuous wave ND:YAG lasers. The cutting tests were carried out up to 8 kW. The laser power was delivered through a specific power supply chain: a 0.4 mm fiber was transporting the power from the laser to a first interface (coupler) then a second 0.6 mm fiber was bringing the laser power to the cutting head. This solution allowed a power delivery chain whose length could be as high as 100 + 20/50 m. Another advantage of this kind of power supply is that the first fiber can be set in a non-contaminated environment whereas the second fiber lies in the contaminated area. The cutting head used for these tests was a specific tool developed for this laser dismantling work: it is a laser cutting head cooled by pressurized air. This tool was developed with the requirement to be able to sustain a laser power of 14 kW. The pressurized air used to cool the head is also used as cutting gas. The cutting capability was about 10 mm by kW. At the power of 8 kW, austenitic steel plates of thickness 100 mm were cut. These performances were reached with the cut started on the plate's edge. If the cut started in the middle of the plate, the cutting performances were not so high: 8 kW became the power to drill and to cut plates of thickness 40 mm.

  8. Creating compact and microscale features in paper-based devices by laser cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Md Almostasim; Blondeel, Eric J M; Kaddoura, Moufeed; MacDonald, Brendan D

    2016-11-14

    In this work we describe a fabrication method to create compact and microscale features in paper-based microfluidic devices using a CO 2 laser cutting/engraving machine. Using this method we are able to produce the smallest features with the narrowest barriers yet reported for paper-based microfluidic devices. The method uses foil backed paper as the base material and yields inexpensive paper-based devices capable of using small fluid sample volumes and thus small reagent volumes, which is also suitable for mass production. The laser parameters (power and laser head speed) were adjusted to minimize the width of hydrophobic barriers and we were able to create barriers with a width of 39 ± 15 μm that were capable of preventing cross-barrier bleeding. We generated channels with a width of 128 ± 30 μm, which we found to be the physical limit for small features in the chromatography paper we used. We demonstrate how miniaturizing of paper-based microfluidic devices enables eight tests on a single bioassay device using only 2 μL of sample fluid volume.

  9. Effect of laser incidence angle on cut quality of 4 mm thick stainless steel sheet using fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullick, Suvradip; Agrawal, Arpit Kumar; Nath, Ashish Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Fiber laser has potential to outperform the more traditionally used CO2 lasers in sheet metal cutting applications due to its higher efficiency, better beam quality, reliability and ease of beam delivery through optical fiber. It has been however, reported that the higher focusability and shorter wavelength are advantageous for cutting thin metal sheets up to about 2 mm only. Better focasability results in narrower kerf-width, which leads to an earlier flow separation in the flow of assist gas within the kerf, resulting in uncontrolled material removal and poor cut quality. However, the advarse effect of tight focusability can be taken care by shifting the focal point position towards the bottom surface of work-piece, which results in a wider kerf size. This results in a more stable flow within the kerf for a longer depth, which improves the cut quality. It has also been reported that fiber laser has an unfavourable angle of incidence during cutting of thick sections, resulting in poor absorption at the metal surface. Therefore, the effect of laser incidence angle, along with other process parameters, viz. cutting speed and assist gas pressure on the cut quality of 4 mm thick steel sheet has been investigated. The change in laser incidence angle has been incorporated by inclining the beam towards and away from the cut front, and the quality factors are taken as the ratio of kerf width and the striation depth. Besides the absorption of laser radiation, beam inclination is also expected to influence the gas flow characteristics inside the kerf, shear force phenomena on the molten pool, laser beam coupling and laser power distribution at the inclined cut surface. Design of experiment has been used by implementing response surface methodology (RSM) to study the parametric dependence of cut quality, as well as to find out the optimum cut quality. An improvement in quality has been observed for both the inclination due to the combined effect of multiple phenomena.

  10. Laser cut hole matrices in novel armour plate steel for appliqué battlefield vehicle protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available During this research, experimental rolled homogeneous armour steel was cast, annealed and laser cut to form an appliqué plate. This Martensitic–Bainitic microstructure steel grade was used to test a novel means of engineering lightweight armour. It was determined that a laser cutting speed of 1200 mm/min produced optimum hole formations with limited distortion. The array of holes acts as a double-edged solution, in that they provide weight saving of 45%, providing a protective advantage and increasing the surface area. Data collected were used to generate laser cut-edge hole projections in order to identify the optimum cutting speed, edge condition, cost and deformation performance. These parameters resulted in the generation of a surface, with less stress raising features. This can result in a distribution of stress across the wider surface. Provided that appropriate process parameters are used to generate laser cut edges, then the hardness properties of the surface can be controlled. This is due to compressive residual stresses produced in the near edge region as a result of metallurgical transformations. This way the traverse cutting speed parameter can be adjusted to alter critical surface characteristics and microstructural properties in close proximity to the cut-edge. A relationship was identified between the width of the laser HAZ and the hardness of the cut edge. It is the thickness of the HAZ that is affected by the laser process parameters which can be manipulated with adjusting the traverse cutting speed.

  11. Application of laser spot cutting on spring contact probe for semiconductor package inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongkyoung; Cho, Jungdon; Kim, Chan Ho; Lee, Seung Hwan

    2017-12-01

    A packaged semiconductor has to be electrically tested to make sure they are free of any manufacturing defects. The test interface, typically employed between a Printed Circuit Board and the semiconductor devices, consists of densely populated Spring Contact Probe (SCP). A standard SCP typically consists of a plunger, a barrel, and an internal spring. Among these components, plungers are manufactured by a stamping process. After stamping, plunger connecting arms need to be cut into pieces. Currently, mechanical cutting has been used. However, it may damage to the body of plungers due to the mechanical force engaged at the cutting point. Therefore, laser spot cutting is considered to solve this problem. The plunger arm is in the shape of a rectangular beam, 50 μm (H) × 90 μm (W). The plunger material used for this research is gold coated beryllium copper. Laser parameters, such as power and elapsed time, have been selected to study laser spot cutting. Laser material interaction characteristics such as a crater size, material removal zone, ablation depth, ablation threshold, and full penetration are observed. Furthermore, a carefully chosen laser parameter (Etotal = 1000mJ) to test feasibility of laser spot cutting are applied. The result show that laser spot cutting can be applied to cut SCP.

  12. The influence of cooling techniques on cutting forces and surface roughness during cryogenic machining of titanium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wstawska Iwona

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Titanium alloys are one of the materials extensively used in the aerospace industry due to its excellent properties of high specific strength and corrosion resistance. On the other hand, they also present problems wherein titanium alloys are extremely difficult materials to machine. In addition, the cost associated with titanium machining is also high due to lower cutting velocities and shorter tool life. The main objective of this work is a comparison of different cooling techniques during cryogenic machining of titanium alloys. The analysis revealed that applied cooling technique has a significant influence on cutting force and surface roughness (Ra parameter values. Furthermore, in all cases observed a positive influence of cryogenic machining on selected aspects after turning and milling of titanium alloys. This work can be also the starting point to the further research, related to the analysis of cutting forces and surface roughness during cryogenic machining of titanium alloys.

  13. Effect of cutting parameters on sustainable machining performance of coated carbide tool in dry turning process of stainless steel 316

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagaber, Salem A.; Yusoff, Ahmed Razlan

    2017-04-01

    The manufacturing industry aims to produce many products of high quality with relatively less cost and time. Different cutting parameters affect the machining performance of surface roughness, cutting force, and material removal rate. Nevertheless, a few studies reported on the effects of sustainable factors such as power consumed, cycle time during machining, and tool life on the dry turning of AISI 316. The present study aims to evaluate the machining performance of coated carbide in the machining of hard steel AISI 316 under the dry turning process. The influence of cutting parameters of cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut with their five (5) levels is established by a central composite design. Highly significant parameters were determined by analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the main effects of power consumed and time during machining, surface roughness, and tool wear were observed. Results showed that the cutting speed was proportional to power consumption and tool wear. Meanwhile, insignificant to surface roughness, feed rate most significantly affected surface roughness and power consumption followed by depth of cut.

  14. Innovation Study for Laser Cutting of Complex Geometries with Paper Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happonen, A.; Stepanov, A.; Piili, H.; Salminen, A.

    Even though technology for laser cutting of paper materials has existed for over 30 years, it seems that results of applications of this technology and possibilities of laser cutting systems are not easily available. The aim of this study was to analyze the feasibility of the complex geometry laser cutting of paper materials and to analyze the innovation challenges and potential of current laser cutting technologies offer. This research studied the potential and possible challenges in applying CO2 laser cutting technology for cutting of paper materials in current supply chains trying to fulfil the changing needs of customer in respect of shape, fast response during rapid delivery cycle. The study is focused on examining and analyzing the different possibilities of laser cutting of paper material in application area of complex low volume geometry cutting. The goal of this case was to analyze the feasibility of the laser cutting from technical, quality and implementation points of view and to discuss availability of new business opportunities. It was noticed that there are new business models still available within laser technology applications in complex geometry cutting. Application of laser technology, in business-to-consume markets, in synergy with Internet service platforms can widen the customer base and offer new value streams for technology and service companies. Because of this, existing markets and competition has to be identified, and appropriate new and innovative business model needs to be developed. And to be competitive in the markets, models like these need to include the earning logic and the stages from production to delivery as discussed in the paper.

  15. Analysis of machining and machine tools

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Steven Y

    2016-01-01

    This book delivers the fundamental science and mechanics of machining and machine tools by presenting systematic and quantitative knowledge in the form of process mechanics and physics. It gives readers a solid command of machining science and engineering, and familiarizes them with the geometry and functionality requirements of creating parts and components in today’s markets. The authors address traditional machining topics, such as: single and multiple point cutting processes grinding components accuracy and metrology shear stress in cutting cutting temperature and analysis chatter They also address non-traditional machining, such as: electrical discharge machining electrochemical machining laser and electron beam machining A chapter on biomedical machining is also included. This book is appropriate for advanced undergraduate and graduate mechani cal engineering students, manufacturing engineers, and researchers. Each chapter contains examples, exercises and their solutions, and homework problems that re...

  16. Laser startup optics for Baseball II and future mirror machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, A.M.; Chargin, A.K.; Brown, N.J.

    1975-01-01

    The laser startup system for Baseball II-T uses a 300-J CO 2 laser to hit a 100-μ diameter pellet with a laser power density on the order of 10 13 W/cm 2 . The laser is a 20-cm diameter unstable resonator transversely excited (TEA) oscillator. The beam is split and then focused using off-axis parabolas. The symmetric configuration and central obscuration of the CO 2 beam allow coaxial alignment and pellet detection optics. This experiment primarily uses commercially available systems and components. Optical elements were fabricated both by direct machining and standard polishing techniques. The laser and optical systems are directly scalable to reactor requirements using demonstrated technologies

  17. Laser cutting sandwich structure glass-silicon-glass wafer with laser induced thermal-crack propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yecheng; Wang, Maolu; Zhang, Hongzhi; Yang, Lijun; Fu, Xihong; Wang, Yang

    2017-08-01

    Silicon-glass devices are widely used in IC industry, MEMS and solar energy system because of their reliability and simplicity of the manufacturing process. With the trend toward the wafer level chip scale package (WLCSP) technology, the suitable dicing method of silicon-glass bonded structure wafer has become necessary. In this paper, a combined experimental and computational approach is undertaken to investigate the feasibility of cutting the sandwich structure glass-silicon-glass (SGS) wafer with laser induced thermal-crack propagation (LITP) method. A 1064 nm semiconductor laser cutting system with double laser beams which could simultaneously irradiate on the top and bottom of the sandwich structure wafer has been designed. A mathematical model for describing the physical process of the interaction between laser and SGS wafer, which consists of two surface heating sources and two volumetric heating sources, has been established. The temperature stress distribution are simulated by using finite element method (FEM) analysis software ABAQUS. The crack propagation process is analyzed by using the J-integral method. In the FEM model, a stationary planar crack is embedded in the wafer and the J-integral values around the crack front edge are determined using the FEM. A verification experiment under typical parameters is conducted and the crack propagation profile on the fracture surface is examined by the optical microscope and explained from the stress distribution and J-integral value.

  18. Development of cutting technique of reactor core internals by CO laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, G.; Beppu, S.; Matsumoto, O.; Sakamoto, N.; Onozawa, T.; Sugihara, M.; Miya, K.

    1995-01-01

    The CO laser is superior in the absorption characteristic to materials to the CO 2 laser due to its shorter wavelength. In consideration of this characteristic Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation is studying this applicability sponsored by the Ministry of International Trade Industry of Japan to cutting of reactor core internals of commercial nuclear power plant. In decommissioning of reactor core internals it is necessary to cut stainless steel plates of 305 mm thick. The authors cut stainless steel plates of up to 310mm thick in air and those of up to 150 mm thick underwater with a 20kW class laser. Further, models simulating key structural elements of PWR core internals were cut and secondary products to clarify the applicability of the CO laser cutting to reactor core internals were evaluated. (author)

  19. AN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE APPROACH FOR THE PREDICTION OF SURFACE ROUGHNESS IN CO2 LASER CUTTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILOŠ MADIĆ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In laser cutting, the cut quality is of great importance. Multiple non-linear effects of process parameters and their interactions make very difficult to predict cut quality. In this paper, artificial intelligence (AI approach was applied to predict the surface roughness in CO2 laser cutting. To this aim, artificial neural network (ANN model of surface roughness was developed in terms of cutting speed, laser power and assist gas pressure. The experimental results obtained from Taguchi’s L25 orthogonal array were used to develop ANN model. The ANN mathematical model of surface roughness was expressed as explicit nonlinear function of the selected input parameters. Statistical results indicate that the ANN model can predict the surface roughness with good accuracy. It was showed that ANNs may be used as a good alternative in analyzing the effects of cutting parameters on the surface roughness.

  20. Experimental research on the machinability of Hardox steel by abrasive waterjet cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Alexandru Catalin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main present industry challenges is finding the most efficient manufacturing process for a certain part. When parts are made of strong steels like Hardox, their fabrication method is usually difficult. Abrasive waterjet cutting (AWJ is one of the cutting processes which can be used in this case. This paper presents an experimental research on the machinability of Hardox steel by AWJ. The experiments were conducted using a factorial design model considering two of the main influence parameters like the traverse speed and the distance between the nozzle and the surface of the material. Based on the measurement of the dimensions and the roughness of the parts, the influence of the parameters was revealed and analyzed. The manufacturing time was also compared, as it directly influences the production cost. Further research is considered to develop a mathematical model which can be used for a proper choice of the process parameters depending on the initial requirements.

  1. HTGR Metallic Reactor Internals Core Shell Cutting & Machining Antideformation Technique Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Huiping; Xue Song

    2014-01-01

    The reactor shell assembly of HTGR nuclear power station demonstration project metallic reactor internals is key components of reactor, remains with high-precision large component with large-sized thin-walled straight cylinder-shaped structure, and is the first manufacture in China. As compared with other reactor shell, it has a larger ID (Φ5360mm), a longer length (19000mm), a smaller wall thickness (40mm) and a higher precision requirement. During the process of manufacture, the deformation due to cutting & machining will directly affect the final result of manufacture, the control of structural deformation and cutting deformation shall be throughout total manufacture process of such assembly. To realize the control of entire core shell assembly geometry, the key is to innovate and make breakthroughs on anti-deformation technique and then provide reliable technological foundations for the manufacture of HTGR metallic reactor internals. (author)

  2. Advantages of fibre lasers in 3D metal cutting and welding applications supported by a 'beam in motion (BIM)' beam delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller, Torsten; Bastick, André; Griebel, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Modern laser technology is continuously opening up new fields of applications. Driven by the development of increasingly efficient laser sources, the new technology is successfully entering classical applications such as 3D cutting and welding of metals. Especially in light weight applications in the automotive industry laser manufacturing is key. Only by this technology the reduction of welding widths could be realised as well as the efficient machining of aluminium and the abrasion free machining of hardened steel. The paper compares the operation of different laser types in metal machining regarding wavelength, laser power, laser brilliance, process speed and welding depth to give an estimation for best use of single mode or multi mode lasers in this field of application. The experimental results will be presented by samples of applied parts. In addition a correlation between the process and the achieved mechanical properties will be made. For this application JENOPTIK Automatisierungstechnik GmbH is using the BIM beam control system in its machines, which is the first one to realize a fully integrated combination of beam control and robot. The wide performance and wavelength range of the laser radiation which can be transmitted opens up diverse possibilities of application and makes BIM a universal tool.

  3. Process time optimization of robotic remote laser cutting by utilizing customized beam patterns and redundancy space task sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Sigurd

    This dissertation is written as a part of the ROBOCUT project which concerns the development of a new laser cutting technology that seeks to increase the performance of traditional and remote laser cutting by using beam shaping technologies. The resulting customized beam patterns are obtained by ...... axes of the laser cutting system and transforming the sequencing problem into a generalized traveling salesman problem (GTSP)....

  4. Characterization of laser-cut copper foil X-pinches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, G. W.; Valenzuela, J. C.; Hansen, S. B.; Wei, M. S.; Reed, C. T.; Forsman, A. C.; Beg, F. N.

    2016-10-01

    Quantitative data analyses of laser-cut Cu foil X-pinch experiments on the 150 ns quarter-period, ˜250 kA GenASIS driver are presented. Three different foil designs are tested to determine the effects of initial structure on pinch outcome. Foil X-pinch data are also presented alongside the results from wire X-pinches with comparable mass. The X-ray flux and temporal profile of the emission from foil X-pinches differed significantly from that of wire X-pinches, with all emission from the foil X-pinches confined to a ˜3 ns period as opposed to the delayed, long-lasting electron beam emission common in wire X-pinches. Spectroscopic data show K-shell as well as significant L-shell emission from both foil and wire X-pinches. Fits to synthetic spectra using the SCRAM code suggest that pinching foil X's produced a ˜1 keV, ne ≥ 1023 cm-3 plasma. The spectral data combined with the improved reliability of the source timing, flux, and location indicate that foil X-pinches generate a reproducible, K-shell point-projection radiography source that can be easily modified and tailored to suit backlighting needs across a variety of applications.

  5. Flexibility and trackability of laser cut coronary stent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabadíts, Péter; Puskás, Zsolt; Dobránszky, János

    2009-01-01

    Coronary stents are the most important supports in present day cardiology. Flexibility and trackability are two basic features of stents. In this paper, four different balloon-expandable coronary stent systems were investigated mechanically in order to compare their suitability. The coronary stent systems were assessed by measurements of stent flexibility as well as by comparison of forces during simulated stenting in a self-investigated coronary vessel model. The stents were cut by laser from a single tube of 316L stainless steel or L-605 (CoCr) cobalt chromium alloy. The one-and four-point bending tests were carried out to evaluate the stent flexibility E x I (Nmm(2)), under displacement control in crimped and expanded configurations. The flexibility of stents would be rather dependent on the design than on raw material. In general a more flexible stent needs lower tracking force during the implantation. The L-605 raw material stents need lower track force to pass through in the vessel model than the 316L raw material stents. The sort and long stents passed through the curved vessel model in different ways. The long stents nestled to the vessel wall at the outer arc and bent, while the short stents did not bend in the curve, only the delivery systems bent.

  6. Design of an Optical System for High Power CO2 Laser Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lange, D.F.; Meijer, J.; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    2003-01-01

    The results of a design study for the optical system for cutting with high power CO2 lasers (6 kW and up) will be presented. As transparent materials cannot be used for these power levels, mirrors have been applied. A coaxial cutting gas supply has been designed with a laser beam entrance into th...... independent of the entering beam angle or position. manufacturing tolerances have been compensated in a one time adjustment during the assembly of the optical system. Preliminary cutting results in 13 mm thick steel in a shipyard application show a signinficant improvement in the cutting performance....

  7. Laser machining micro-structures on diamond surface with a sub-nanosecond pulsed laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mingtao; Guo, Bing; Zhao, Qingliang

    2018-02-01

    Micro-structure surface on diamond material is widely used in a series of industrial and scientific applications, such as micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), microelectronics, textured or micro-structured diamond machining tools. The efficient machining of micro-structure on diamond surface is urgently demanded in engineering. In this paper, laser machining square micro-structure on diamond surface was studied with a sub-nanosecond pulsed laser. The influences of laser machining parameters, including the laser power, scanning speed, defocusing quantity and scanning pitch, were researched in view of the ablation depth, material removal rate and machined surface topography. Both the ablation depth and material removal rate increased with average laser power. A reduction of the growth rate of the two parameters was induced by the absorption of the laser plasma plume at high laser power. The ablation depth non-linearly decreased with the increasing of the scanning speed while the material removal rate showed an opposite tendency. The increasing of the defocusing quantity induced complex variation of the ablation depth and the material removal rate. The maximum ablation depth and material removal rate were achieved at a defocusing position. The ablation depth and material removal rate oppositely varied about the scanning pitch. A high overlap ratio was meaningful for achieving a smooth micro-structure surface topography. Laser machining with a large defocusing quantity, high laser power and small scanning pitch was helpful for acquiring the desired micro-structure which had a large depth and smooth micro-structure surface topography.

  8. Geometrical quality evaluation in laser cutting of Inconel-718 sheet by using Taguchi based regression analysis and particle swarm optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Prashant Kumar; Pandey, Arun Kumar

    2018-03-01

    The Inconel-718 is one of the most demanding advanced engineering materials because of its superior quality. The conventional machining techniques are facing many problems to cut intricate profiles on these materials due to its minimum thermal conductivity, minimum elastic property and maximum chemical affinity at magnified temperature. The laser beam cutting is one of the advanced cutting method that may be used to achieve the geometrical accuracy with more precision by the suitable management of input process parameters. In this research work, the experimental investigation during the pulsed Nd:YAG laser cutting of Inconel-718 has been carried out. The experiments have been conducted by using the well planned orthogonal array L27. The experimentally measured values of different quality characteristics have been used for developing the second order regression models of bottom kerf deviation (KD), bottom kerf width (KW) and kerf taper (KT). The developed models of different quality characteristics have been utilized as a quality function for single-objective optimization by using particle swarm optimization (PSO) method. The optimum results obtained by the proposed hybrid methodology have been compared with experimental results. The comparison of optimized results with the experimental results shows that an individual improvement of 75%, 12.67% and 33.70% in bottom kerf deviation, bottom kerf width, and kerf taper has been observed. The parametric effects of different most significant input process parameters on quality characteristics have also been discussed.

  9. HIGH PERFORMANCE TAPS FOR CUTTING THREADS IN DIFFICULT TO MACHINE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Akhmedova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This article explores in detail questions of instrument operation function of tapping internal threads in hard materials. The existing relationship between vibration system amplitude and tool durability is indicated; on this basis, it is determined that the best course for improving the durability performance is increasing vibratory resistance. Based on a critical analysis of existing designs with consideration of their flaws, the development of new technological designs of taps is tasked with ensuring stable operation when handling hard materials. Methods. It is noteworthy that one of the main vibration resistance improvement methods of the tool is to reduce the contact area of the tool with the work piece in the cutting zone. Methods are proposed for improving the vibration resistance of taps, considering the correlation adjustment of tap teeth in order to completely eliminate friction at the sides of the thread cutting surface and uneven implementation flute cutting steps. Results. The idea of increasing vibration resistance has seen the new development of vibration-proof tap designs, heralded as innovations due to the accuracy of thread cutting and durability achieved by reducing the thread contact area with the work piece in the cutting zone. Increased vibration resistance is achieved in the modified taps through high correction by means of thread side downgrading of the coarse tap cone by an additional angle of 30º. In another design, the stylus provided with uneven angular spacing. Test results of designed taps machined in corrosion-resistant 1Kh18N9T steel. A manifold increase in tool durability was achieved due to its high vibration resistance. Conclusions. The redesigned taps have a number of advantages, characterised by a high resistance when processing difficult materials and an insignificant increase in the complexity of their manufacture compared with standard taps. Therefore they can be recommended for large

  10. Simulation of Temperature Field Distribution for Cutting the Temperated Glass by Ultraviolet Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, B. J.; He, Y. C.; Dai, F.; Lin, X. C.

    2017-03-01

    The finite element software ANSYS was adopted to simulate the temperature field distribution for laser cutting tempered glass, and the influence of different process parameters, including laser power, glass thickness and cutting speed, on temperature field distribution was studied in detail. The results show that the laser power has a greater influence on temperature field distribution than other paremeters, and when the laser power gets to 60W, the highest temperature reaches 749°C, which is higher than the glass softening temperature. It reflects the material near the laser spot is melted and the molten slag is removed by the high-energy water beam quickly. Finally, through the water guided laser cutting tempered glass experiment the FEM theoretical analysis was verified.

  11. Data acquisition testing in supercritical water oxidation using machine cutting oils and metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, K.M.

    1996-01-01

    The Department of Energy, the Navy, and SERDP provided funding for an extensive series of testing of a Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO) system. The goal of the testing was to create performance data on the process when dealing with highly chlorinated wastes containing heavy metals, and radionuclides. The testing was performed in a MODAR vessel oxidizer. Performance was measured by the ability of the process to achieve greater than 99.99% destruction of the organic content, to partition the metals and radionuclide surrogates for mass balance, and survive the highly corrosive species in the effluent. The test data has shown that these goals were accomplished. 30 gal/day of highly chlorinated machine cutting oil was treated for 130 hrs. There were no significant corrosion or solids handling problems. This machine cutting oil, TRIM reg-sign SOL was chosen by DOE for its complex nature and has proven to be one of the more refractory organic feeds encountered by MODAR. The Navy provided 8 waste streams collected from their shore facilities operation. These paints varied in solids content with wastes such as paint chips, and adhesives. The ninth test run was with all 8 series of wastes combined. The MODAR system successfully treated all of these waste streams providing performance data on the ability of SCWO to treat difficult sludges

  12. The potential of laser cutting and snake arm robots in aspects of nuclear decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilton, Paul; Khan, Ali

    2013-01-01

    This paper will describe recent work conducted in the UK to highlight the potential of applying high power laser cutting to aspects of decommissioning and dismantling in the nuclear sector. A major driver for this activity is size reduction of metallic structures, vessels and tubing, with the objective of efficient stacking of the cut parts for future long term storage. TWI have used a standard 5 kW multi-mode laser with fibre optic delivery of the beam, to demonstrate techniques for cutting stainless steel tubing, at diameters up to 150 mm and wall thicknesses up to 7 mm, and various thicknesses of plate materials. Using specially developed cutting heads, employing long focal length lenses to form the beam, techniques were developed to allow the cutting of tubes from one side only and without changing the focal position of the laser beam with respect to the diameter of the tube perpendicular to the incident beam. The latter means that remote programming of the cutting path becomes much simpler. For cutting plate materials, special gas nozzle dynamics have produced great tolerance of the cutting process to stand-off distance (the distance between the surface of the material being cut and the exit of the cutting nozzle). One particularly interesting method of remote deployment of these cutting techniques is to use 'snake arm' robots. These robots, by nature of their construction, can access areas un-accessible using other techniques. This of course makes them particularly suited to aspects of nuclear decommissioning, particularly in what are termed 'un-structured environments', where the exact disposition of items encountered is not known. The paper will also describe the first time a laser cutting head has been installed on the end of a snake arm robot and the combination used in a simulated nuclear cutting application. (author)

  13. Influence of laser cutting on the fatigue limit of two high strength steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateo, Antonio; Fargas, Gemma; Calvo, Jessica; Roa, Joan Josep

    2015-01-01

    Laser cutting is widely used in the metal industry, particularly when components of high strength steel sheets are produced. However, the roughness of cut edges produced by laser differs from that obtained by other methods, such as mechanical blanking, and this fact influences the fatigue performance. In the present investigation, specimens of two grades of high strength austenitic steels, i.e. AISI 301LN and TWIP17Mn, were cut by laser and tested in the high cycle fatigue regime to determine their corresponding fatigue limits. A series of fatigue specimens were tested without polishing and other series after a careful polishing of the cut edges, in order to assess the influence of the cut edges condition. Results indicate a significant influence of the edge roughness, more distinctive for AISI 301LN than for TWIP steel.

  14. Influence of laser cutting on the fatigue limit of two high strength steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateo, Antonio; Fargas, Gemma; Calvo, Jessica; Roa, Joan Josep [Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering

    2015-02-01

    Laser cutting is widely used in the metal industry, particularly when components of high strength steel sheets are produced. However, the roughness of cut edges produced by laser differs from that obtained by other methods, such as mechanical blanking, and this fact influences the fatigue performance. In the present investigation, specimens of two grades of high strength austenitic steels, i.e. AISI 301LN and TWIP17Mn, were cut by laser and tested in the high cycle fatigue regime to determine their corresponding fatigue limits. A series of fatigue specimens were tested without polishing and other series after a careful polishing of the cut edges, in order to assess the influence of the cut edges condition. Results indicate a significant influence of the edge roughness, more distinctive for AISI 301LN than for TWIP steel.

  15. CO{sub 2} laser cutting of advanced high strength steels (AHSS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamikiz, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of the Basque Country, ETSII-UPV, c/Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)]. E-mail: implamea@bi.ehu.es; Lacalle, L.N. Lopez de [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of the Basque Country, ETSII-UPV, c/Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Sanchez, J.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of the Basque Country, ETSII-UPV, c/Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Pozo, D. del [ROBOTIKER Technology Centre, Parque Tecnologico, Edif. 202, 48170 Zamudio (Spain); Etayo, J.M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of the Basque Country, ETSII-UPV, c/Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); ROBOTIKER Technology Centre, Parque Tecnologico, Edif. 202, 48170 Zamudio (Spain); Lopez, J.M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of the Basque Country, ETSII-UPV, c/Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); ROBOTIKER Technology Centre, Parque Tecnologico, Edif. 202, 48170 Zamudio (Spain)

    2005-04-15

    This article demonstrates the optimum working areas and cutting conditions for the laser cutting of a series of advanced high strength steels (AHSS). The parameters that most influence the cutting of sheet metal have been studied and the results have been divided into two large groups with thickness of more and less than 1 mm. The influence of the material and, more important, the effect of coating have been taken into account. The results, have demonstrate very different behaviours between the thinnest and thickest sheets, whilst the variation of the cutting parameters due to the influence of the material is less relevant. The optimum cutting areas and the quality of the cut evaluated with different criteria are presented. Finally, the best position for the laser beam has been observed to be underneath the sheet.

  16. Development of remote bore tools for pipe welding/cutting by YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Kiyoshi; Nakahira, Masataka; Kakudate, Satoshi; Tada, Eisuke; Obara, Kenjiro; Taguchi, Kou; Nakamori, Naokazu

    1996-07-01

    In D-T burning reactors such as International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), an internal access welding/cutting of blanket cooling pipe with bend sections is inevitably required because of spatial constraint due to nuclear shield and available port opening space. For this purpose, an internal access pipe welding/cutting using YAG laser beam is being developed according to the agreement of the ITER R and D task (T44). A design concept of welding/cutting processing head with a flexible optical fiber has been developed and the basic feasibility studies on welding, cutting and rewelding are performed using stainless steel plate (SS316L). In this report, the details of a welding/cutting head with a flexible optical fiber for YAG laser are described, together with the basic experiment results relating to the welding/cutting and rewelding. (author)

  17. Experimental analysis on semi-finishing machining of Ti6Al4V additively manufactured by direct melting laser sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbrogno, Stano; Bordin, Alberto; Bruschi, Stefania; Umbrello, Domenico

    2016-10-01

    The Additive Manufacturing (AM) techniques are particularly appealing especially for titanium aerospace and biomedical components because they permit to achieve a strong reduction of the buy-to-fly ratio. However, finishing machining operations are often necessary to reduce the uneven surface roughness and geometrics because of local missing accuracy. This work shows the influence of the cutting parameters, cutting speed and feed rate, on the cutting forces as well as on the thermal field observed in the cutting zone, during a turning operation carried out on bars made of Ti6Al4V obtained by the AM process called Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS). Moreover, the sub-surface microstructure alterations due to the process are also showed and commented.

  18. DETERMINATION OF THE MINIMUM INTACT DIMENSIONS AVAILABLE IN PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF LASER CUTTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Gyorgy HORVATH

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The reuse of wastes is one of the main requirements of sustainable wood processing. Technologies available for waste management however are currently suited to the reuse of large quantities. This study investigates the utilisation of individual pieces of sawn wood and veneer wastes by laser cutting, with special emphasis on the search for the practical minimum intact dimension that can be produced by laser cutting

  19. Influence of Chatter of VMC Arising During End Milling Operation and Cutting Conditions on Quality of Machined Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K.M.N. Amin, M.A. Rizal, and M. Razman

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Machine tool chatter is a dynamic instability of the cutting process. Chatter results in poor part surface finish, damaged cutting tool, and an irritating and unacceptable noise. Exten¬sive research has been undertaken to study the mechanisms of chatter formation. Efforts have been also made to prevent the occurrence of chatter vibration. Even though some progress have been made, fundamental studies on the mechanics of metal cutting are necessary to achieve chatter free operation of CNC machine tools to maintain their smooth operating cycle. The same is also true for Vertical Machining Centres (VMC, which operate at high cutting speeds and are capable of offering high metal removal rates. The present work deals with the effect of work materials, cutting conditions and diameter of end mill cutters on the frequency-amplitude characteristics of chatter and on machined surface roughness. Vibration data were recorded using an experimental rig consisting of KISTLER 3-component dynamometer model 9257B, amplifier, scope meters and a PC.  Three different types of vibrations were observed. The first type was a low frequency vibration, associated with the interrupted nature of end mill operation. The second type of vibration was associated with the instability of the chip formation process and the third type was due to chatter. The frequency of the last type remained practically unchanged over a wide range of cutting speed.  It was further observed that chip-tool contact processes had considerable effect on the roughness of the machined surface.Key Words: Chatter, Cutting Conditions, Stable Cutting, Surface Roughness.

  20. Correlation between Surface Roughness Characteristics in CO2 Laser Cutting of Mild Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Radovanović

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available CO2 laser oxygen cutting of mild steel is widely used industrial application. Cut surface quality is a very important characteristic of laser cutting that ensures an advantage over other contour cutting processes. In this paper mathematical models for estimating characteristics of surface quality such as average surface roughness and ten-point mean roughness in CO2 laser cutting of mild steel based on laser cutting parameters were developed. Empirical models were developed using artificial neural networks and experimental data collected. Taguchi’s orthogonal array was implemented for experimental plan. From the analysis of the developed mathematical models it was observed that functional dependence between laser cutting parameters, their interactions and surface roughness characteristics is complex and non-linear. It was also observed that there exist region of minimal average surface roughness to ten-point mean roughness ratio. The relationship between average surface roughness and ten-point mean roughness was found to be nonlinear and can be expressed with a second degree polynomial.

  1. Process parameters for high quality on-contour starting of laser cutting of steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, C.Z.; Meijer, C.Z.; Meijer, J.; Bakkers, E.P.M.

    1997-01-01

    Laser cut initiation in full material usually results in a start hole with bad quality. Starting strategies have been developed to avoid these crater-like holes. Start areas were obtained showing almost the same quality as the rest of the cut. As a result of the experiments and literature research

  2. Estimation of the laser cutting operating cost by support vector regression methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jović, Srđan; Radović, Aleksandar; Šarkoćević, Živče; Petković, Dalibor; Alizamir, Meysam

    2016-09-01

    Laser cutting is a popular manufacturing process utilized to cut various types of materials economically. The operating cost is affected by laser power, cutting speed, assist gas pressure, nozzle diameter and focus point position as well as the workpiece material. In this article, the process factors investigated were: laser power, cutting speed, air pressure and focal point position. The aim of this work is to relate the operating cost to the process parameters mentioned above. CO2 laser cutting of stainless steel of medical grade AISI316L has been investigated. The main goal was to analyze the operating cost through the laser power, cutting speed, air pressure, focal point position and material thickness. Since the laser operating cost is a complex, non-linear task, soft computing optimization algorithms can be used. Intelligent soft computing scheme support vector regression (SVR) was implemented. The performance of the proposed estimator was confirmed with the simulation results. The SVR results are then compared with artificial neural network and genetic programing. According to the results, a greater improvement in estimation accuracy can be achieved through the SVR compared to other soft computing methodologies. The new optimization methods benefit from the soft computing capabilities of global optimization and multiobjective optimization rather than choosing a starting point by trial and error and combining multiple criteria into a single criterion.

  3. Experimental Investigation of Multi-mode Fiber Laser Cutting of Cement Mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This study successfully applied multi-mode laser cutting with the variation of the laser cutting speed to cement mortar for the first time. The effects of the amount of silica sand in the cement mortar on laser cutting are tested and analyzed. The kerf width and penetration depth of the specimens after laser cutting are investigated. As the laser cutting speed increases, the penetration depth decreases for both cement paste and cement mortar, whereas the kerf width becomes saturated and increases, respectively, for cement paste and cement mortar. Cross sections of the specimens are compared with illustrations. Top-view images of the cement mortar with indicators of the physical characteristics, such as re-solidification, burning, and cracks are examined, and the possible causes of these characteristics are explained. The optical absorption rates of cement-based materials are quantified at wide ranges of wavelength to compare the absorption rates in accordance with the materials compositions. The chemical composition variation before and after laser cutting is also compared by EDX (Energy Dispersive X-Ray) analysis. In addition to these observations, material removal mechanisms for cement mortar are proposed. PMID:29439431

  4. Experimental Investigation of Multi-mode Fiber Laser Cutting of Cement Mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongkyoung; Pyo, Sukhoon

    2018-02-10

    This study successfully applied multi-mode laser cutting with the variation of the laser cutting speed to cement mortar for the first time. The effects of the amount of silica sand in the cement mortar on laser cutting are tested and analyzed. The kerf width and penetration depth of the specimens after laser cutting are investigated. As the laser cutting speed increases, the penetration depth decreases for both cement paste and cement mortar, whereas the kerf width becomes saturated and increases, respectively, for cement paste and cement mortar. Cross sections of the specimens are compared with illustrations. Top-view images of the cement mortar with indicators of the physical characteristics, such as re-solidification, burning, and cracks are examined, and the possible causes of these characteristics are explained. The optical absorption rates of cement-based materials are quantified at wide ranges of wavelength to compare the absorption rates in accordance with the materials compositions. The chemical composition variation before and after laser cutting is also compared by EDX (Energy Dispersive X-Ray) analysis. In addition to these observations, material removal mechanisms for cement mortar are proposed.

  5. Comparison of laser chemical processing and lasermicrojet for structuring and cutting silicon substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopman, Sybille; Fell, Andreas; Mayer, Kuno; Mesec, Matthias; Rodofili, Andreas; Kray, Daniel [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    This paper deals with the development of a new cutting method for thin silicon solar wafers with liquid-jet-guided lasers (lasermicrojet {sup registered}, LMJ, and laser chemical processing, LCP). Several laser systems with different wavelengths were tested to find the optimum laser system and processing parameters in terms of efficient material removal and deep laser cutting. Water and potassium hydroxide were used as carrier liquids to enhance laser ablation. The ablation efficiency was defined as a target parameter and experimentally determined by performing single laser grooves. It is demonstrated that the ablation process of LMJ is mainly affected by silicon melting and then removing by the liquid-jet momentum for single laser grooves. Best result for deep laser grooves is achieved if evaporation dominates the ablation process. Better surface quality referred to laser-induced crystalline damage is presented for a cut wafer with LMJ in comparison to a standard multiwire slurry saw. This shows a great potential of wafering with liquid-jet-guided lasers although no optimal liquid media was used. (orig.)

  6. Study on processing parameters of glass cutting by nanosecond 532 nm fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Gao, Fan; Xiong, Baoxing; Zhang, Xiang; Yuan, Xiao

    2018-03-01

    The processing parameters of soda-lime glass cutting with several nanosecond 532 nm pulsed fiber laser are studied in order to obtain sufficiently large ablation rate and better processing quality. The influences of laser processing parameters on effective cutting speed and cutting quality of 1 2 mm thick soda-lime glass are studied. The experimental results show that larger laser pulse energy will lead to higher effective cutting speed and larger maximum edge collapse of the front side of the glass samples. Compared with that of 1.1 mm thick glass samples, the 2.0 mm thick glass samples is more difficult to cut. With the pulse energy of 51.2 μJ, the maximum edge collapse is more than 200 μm for the 2.0 mm thick glass samples. In order to achieve the high effective cutting speed and good cutting quality at the same time, the dual energy overlapping method is used to obtain the better cutting performance for the 2.0 mm thick glass samples, and the cutting speed of 194 mm/s and the maximum edge collapse of less than 132 μm are realized.

  7. Are the same tapes really the same? Ultrasound study of laser-cut and mechanically cut TVT-O post-operative behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusavy, Zdenek; Masata, Jaromir; Svabik, Kamil; Hubka, Petr; Zvara, Karel; Martan, Alois

    2017-11-25

    TVT-O production has been modified to laser cutting from mechanical cutting. We compared the behavior of laser and mechanically cut tension-free vaginal tape-obturator (TVT-O) using ultrasound at various time points after surgery. This is a retrospective analysis of clinical and ultrasound data from two previously reported randomized controlled trials with TVT-O. Behavior of mechanically cut TVT-O implanted in January 2007 to November 2009 and laser-cut TVT-O implanted in May 2010 to May 2012 was assessed by ultrasound at day 1, the 2nd week, the 3rd month, and the 1st and 2nd years post-operatively. Bladder neck and tape margins positions were described by coordinates in the orthogonal system calculated from polar coordinates. Tape mobility was measured as a change in the upper and lower tape margin position from rest to maximal Valsalva. Comparison of 2-year subjective and objective surgery outcomes was also performed. In total, 68 mechanically cut and 50 laser-cut TVT-Os were implanted. Follow-up data were available from 49 and 45 women respectively. No differences in any baseline characteristics or bladder neck mobility were observed. Significantly lower tape mobility was observed on day 1 and week 2 after mechanically cut TVT-O, although subsequent mobility was comparable to laser-cut TVT-O. The subjective and objective surgery outcomes were comparable. Although without clinical significance, early postoperative behavior of the mechanically cut and laser-cut TVT-O tapes differs. The less stiff, mechanically-cut TVT-O loosens within 2 weeks of implantation, whereas the stiffer, laser-cut TVT-O keeps its tension.

  8. Experimental study of laser-oxygen cutting of low-carbon steel using fibre and CO2 lasers under conditions of minimal roughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golyshev, A A; Malikov, A G; Orishich, A M; Shulyatyev, V B

    2014-01-01

    The results of an experimental study of laser-oxygen cutting of low-carbon steel using fibre and CO 2 lasers are generalised. The dependence of roughness of the cut surface on the cutting parameters is investigated, and the conditions under which the surface roughness is minimal are formulated. It is shown that for both types of lasers these conditions can be expressed in the same way in terms of the dimensionless variables – the Péclet number Pe and the output power Q of laser radiation per unit thickness of the cut sheet – and take the form of the similarity laws: Pe = const, Q = const. The optimal values of Pe and Q are found. We have derived empirical expressions that relate the laser power and cutting speed with the thickness of the cut sheet under the condition of minimal roughness in the case of cutting by means of radiation from fibre and CO 2 lasers. (laser technologies)

  9. [Study of cuttings identification using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ye; Wang, Zhen-nan; Hou, Hua-ming; Zhai, Xiao-wei; Ci, Xing-hua; Zheng, Rong-er

    2012-08-01

    Cutting identification is one of the most important links in the course of cutting logging which is very significant in the process of oil drilling. In the present paper, LIBS was used for identification of four kinds of cutting samples coming from logging field, and then multivariate analysis was used in data processing. The whole spectra model and the feature model were built for cuttings identification using PLS-DA method. The accuracy of the whole spectra model was 88.3%, a little more than the feature model with an accuracy of 86.7%. While in the aspect of data size, the variables were decreased from 24,041 to 27 by feature extraction, which increased the efficiency of data processing observably. The obtained results demonstrate that LIBS combined with chemometrics method could be developed as a rapid and valid approach to cutting identification and has great potential to be used in logging field.

  10. Study on the effect of thermal property of metals in ultrasonic-assisted laser machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hu Seung; Kim, Gun Woo; Park, Jong Eun; Cho, Sung Hak; Yang, Min Yang; Park, Jong Kweon

    2015-01-01

    The laser machining process has been proposed as an advanced process for the selective fabrication of electrodes without a mask. In this study, we adapt laser machining to metals that have different thermal properties. Based on the results, the metals exhibit a different surface morphology, heat-affected zone (HAZ), and a recast layer around the machined surface according to their thermal conductivity, boiling point, and thermal diffusivity. Then, we apply ultrasonic-assisted laser machining to remove the recast layer. The ultrasonic-assisted laser machining exhibits a better surface quality in metals with higher diffusivity than those having lower diffusivity

  11. Development of real-time monitoring and control in COIL laser cutting for joint R and D between Korea and U.S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chin Man; Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Min Suk; Baik, Sung Hoon; Kwon, Sung Ok; Park, Sun Kyu

    2000-12-01

    The laser monitoring and control technique investigated to experiment for cutting kerf width and result of laser cutting for D and D of nuclear facility. The demands for this laser monitoring and control technique were applied to process control in laser cutting and to fabricate monitoring and control system, focusing lens assembly. This system can had a advantage to monitor and control the laser cutting on real time. KAERI investigated the COIL laser and monitored 2 kW laser power.

  12. Development of real-time monitoring and control in COIL laser cutting for joint R and D between Korea and U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Chin Man; Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Min Suk; Baik, Sung Hoon; Kwon, Sung Ok; Park, Sun Kyu

    2000-12-01

    The laser monitoring and control technique investigated to experiment for cutting kerf width and result of laser cutting for D and D of nuclear facility. The demands for this laser monitoring and control technique were applied to process control in laser cutting and to fabricate monitoring and control system, focusing lens assembly. This system can had a advantage to monitor and control the laser cutting on real time. KAERI investigated the COIL laser and monitored 2 kW laser power

  13. DIAGNOSTICS OF WORKPIECE SURFACE CONDITION BASED ON CUTTING TOOL VIBRATIONS DURING MACHINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Józwik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents functional relationships between surface geometry parameters, feed and vibrations level in the radial direction of the workpiece. Time characteristics of the acceleration of cutting tool vibration registered during C45 steel and stainless steel machining for separate axes (X, Y, Z were presented as a function of feedrate f. During the tests surface geometric accuracy assessment was performed and 3D surface roughness parameters were determined. The Sz parameter was selected for the analysis, which was then collated with RMS vibration acceleration and feedrate f. The Sz parameter indirectly provides information on peak to valley height and is characterised by high generalising potential i.e. it is highly correlated to other surface and volume parameters of surface roughness. Test results presented in this paper may constitute a valuable source of information considering the influence of vibrations on geometric accuracy of elements for engineers designing technological processes.

  14. Method of distilling machine-cut peat and other finely divided material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1942-03-03

    Apparatus arrangement is given for dry distillation of machine-cut peat and similar materials in particle or powder form, consisting of a tunnel oven through which the material is led and in which it is heated by help of the gases generated in the process. These gases are brought to circulate through the interior of the oven and heat exchangers installed outside the oven, are flushed by hot combustion gases. Through the tunnel oven a mounted turnable shaft is provided with paddles which lift the material and let it fall to make the particles of material get good contact with the circulating gases without offering too much resistance to the flow of the gases.

  15. Desain dan Implementasi Sistem Kendali CNC Router Menggunakan PC untuk Flame Cutting Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni Permana Saputra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on design of router control systems based on computer numerical control (CNC using personal computer (PC implemented in flame cutting machine (FCM. NC-Code entered into the computer translated to be a command signal sent by the PC to a microcontroller to control the end effector’s movement alongthe X and Y axis simultaneously based on linear and circular interpolations calculation on the PC. This control system is implemented on FCM by connecting the output control of the microcontroller with the driver actuator of the FCM in the form of a DC motor. The obtained result is in the form of a CNC router control system prototype to be implemented in the FCM which is capable to perform linear interpolation and circular interpolation. 

  16. High-power fiber laser cutting parameter optimization for nuclear Decommissioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Lopez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available For more than 10 years, the laser process has been studied for dismantling work; however, relatively few research works have addressed the effect of high-power fiber laser cutting for thick sections. Since in the nuclear sector, a significant quantity of thick material is required to be cut, this study aims to improve the reliability of laser cutting for such work and indicates guidelines to optimize the cutting procedure, in particular, nozzle combinations (standoff distance and focus position, to minimize waste material. The results obtained show the performance levels that can be reached with 10 kW fiber lasers, using which it is possible to obtain narrower kerfs than those found in published results obtained with other lasers. Nonetheless, fiber lasers appear to show the same effects as those of CO2 and ND:YAG lasers. Thus, the main factor that affects the kerf width is the focal position, which means that minimum laser spot diameters are advised for smaller kerf widths.

  17. Analysis of laser remote fusion cutting based on a mathematical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matti, R. S. [Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Luleå University of Technology, S-971 87 Luleå (Sweden); Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Mosul, Mosul (Iraq); Ilar, T.; Kaplan, A. F. H. [Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Luleå University of Technology, S-971 87 Luleå (Sweden)

    2013-12-21

    Laser remote fusion cutting is analyzed by the aid of a semi-analytical mathematical model of the processing front. By local calculation of the energy balance between the absorbed laser beam and the heat losses, the three-dimensional vaporization front can be calculated. Based on an empirical model for the melt flow field, from a mass balance, the melt film and the melting front can be derived, however only in a simplified manner and for quasi-steady state conditions. Front waviness and multiple reflections are not modelled. The model enables to compare the similarities, differences, and limits between laser remote fusion cutting, laser remote ablation cutting, and even laser keyhole welding. In contrast to the upper part of the vaporization front, the major part only slightly varies with respect to heat flux, laser power density, absorptivity, and angle of front inclination. Statistical analysis shows that for high cutting speed, the domains of high laser power density contribute much more to the formation of the front than for low speed. The semi-analytical modelling approach offers flexibility to simplify part of the process physics while, for example, sophisticated modelling of the complex focused fibre-guided laser beam is taken into account to enable deeper analysis of the beam interaction. Mechanisms like recast layer generation, absorptivity at a wavy processing front, and melt film formation are studied too.

  18. Finesse of transparent tissue cutting by ultrafast lasers at various wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jenny; Schuele, Georg; Palanker, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    Transparent ocular tissues, such as the cornea and crystalline lens, can be ablated or dissected using short-pulse lasers. In refractive and cataract surgeries, the cornea, lens, and lens capsule can be cut by producing dielectric breakdown in the focus of a near-infrared (IR) femtosecond laser, which results in explosive vaporization of the interstitial water, causing mechanical rupture of the surrounding tissue. Here, we compare the texture of edges of lens capsule cut by femtosecond lasers with IR and ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths and explore differences in interactions of these lasers with biological molecules. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that a 400-nm laser is capable of producing very smooth cut edges compared to 800 or 1030 nm at a similar focusing angle. Using gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, we observe laser-induced nonlinear breakdown of proteins and polypeptides by 400-nm femtosecond pulses above and below the dielectric breakdown threshold. On the other hand, 800-nm femtosecond lasers do not produce significant dissociation even above the threshold of dielectric breakdown. However, despite this additional interaction of UV femtosecond laser with proteins, we determine that efficient cutting requires plasma-mediated bubble formation and that remarkably smooth edges are the result of reduced thresholds and smaller focal volume.

  19. Analysis of laser remote fusion cutting based on a mathematical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matti, R. S.; Ilar, T.; Kaplan, A. F. H.

    2013-01-01

    Laser remote fusion cutting is analyzed by the aid of a semi-analytical mathematical model of the processing front. By local calculation of the energy balance between the absorbed laser beam and the heat losses, the three-dimensional vaporization front can be calculated. Based on an empirical model for the melt flow field, from a mass balance, the melt film and the melting front can be derived, however only in a simplified manner and for quasi-steady state conditions. Front waviness and multiple reflections are not modelled. The model enables to compare the similarities, differences, and limits between laser remote fusion cutting, laser remote ablation cutting, and even laser keyhole welding. In contrast to the upper part of the vaporization front, the major part only slightly varies with respect to heat flux, laser power density, absorptivity, and angle of front inclination. Statistical analysis shows that for high cutting speed, the domains of high laser power density contribute much more to the formation of the front than for low speed. The semi-analytical modelling approach offers flexibility to simplify part of the process physics while, for example, sophisticated modelling of the complex focused fibre-guided laser beam is taken into account to enable deeper analysis of the beam interaction. Mechanisms like recast layer generation, absorptivity at a wavy processing front, and melt film formation are studied too

  20. High-power fiber laser cutting parameter optimization for nuclear decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Ana Beatriz; Assuncao, Eurico; Quintino, Luisa [IDMEC, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Khan, Ali; Blackbun, Jonathan [TWI Ltd., Cambridge (United States)

    2017-06-15

    For more than 10 years, the laser process has been studied for dismantling work; however, relatively few research works have addressed the effect of high-power fiber laser cutting for thick sections. Since in the nuclear sector, a significant quantity of thick material is required to be cut, this study aims to improve the reliability of laser cutting for such work and indicates guidelines to optimize the cutting procedure, in particular, nozzle combinations (standoff distance and focus position), to minimize waste material. The results obtained show the performance levels that can be reached with 10 kW fiber lasers, using which it is possible to obtain narrower kerfs than those found in published results obtained with other lasers. Nonetheless, fiber lasers appear to show the same effects as those of CO{sub 2} and ND:YAG lasers. Thus, the main factor that affects the kerf width is the focal position, which means that minimum laser spot diameters are advised for smaller kerf widths.

  1. Optoacoustic monitoring of cutting efficiency and thermal damage during laser ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Erwin; Douplik, Alexandre; Razansky, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Successful laser surgery is characterized by a precise cut and effective hemostasis with minimal collateral thermal damage to the adjacent tissues. Consequently, the surgeon needs to control several parameters, such as power, pulse repetition rate, and velocity of movements. In this study we propose utilizing optoacoustics for providing the necessary real-time feedback of cutting efficiency and collateral thermal damage. Laser ablation was performed on a bovine meat slab using a Q-switched Nd-YAG laser (532 nm, 4 kHz, 18 W). Due to the short pulse duration of 7.6 ns, the same laser has also been used for generation of optoacoustic signals. Both the shockwaves, generated due to tissue removal, as well as the normal optoacoustic responses from the surrounding tissue were detected using a single broadband piezoelectric transducer. It has been observed that the rapid reduction in the shockwave amplitude occurs as more material is being removed, indicating decrease in cutting efficiency, whereas gradual decrease in the optoacoustic signal likely corresponds to coagulation around the ablation crater. Further heating of the surrounding tissue leads to carbonization accompanied by a significant shift in the optoacoustic spectra. Our results hold promise for real-time monitoring of cutting efficiency and collateral thermal damage during laser surgery. In practice, this could eventually facilitate development of automatic cut-off mechanisms that will guarantee an optimal tradeoff between cutting and heating while avoiding severe thermal damage to the surrounding tissues.

  2. Investigation of diffractive optical element femtosecond laser machining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabrol, Grégoire R., E-mail: g.chabrol@ecam-strasbourg.eu [ECAM Strasbourg-Europe, Espace Européen de l’entreprise, 2, rue de Madrid – 67300 SCHILTIGHEIM, CS. 20013, 67012 Strasbourg CEDEX (France); Laboratoire des Sciences de l’Ingénieur, de l’Informatique et de l’Imagerie (ICube), UDS-CNRS, UMR 7357, 300 bld Sébastien Brant, CS 10413, 67412 Illkirch cedex (France); Ciceron, Adline [ECAM Strasbourg-Europe, Espace Européen de l’entreprise, 2, rue de Madrid – 67300 SCHILTIGHEIM, CS. 20013, 67012 Strasbourg CEDEX (France); Laboratoire des Sciences de l’Ingénieur, de l’Informatique et de l’Imagerie (ICube), UDS-CNRS, UMR 7357, 300 bld Sébastien Brant, CS 10413, 67412 Illkirch cedex (France); Twardowski, Patrice; Pfeiffer, Pierre [Laboratoire des Sciences de l’Ingénieur, de l’Informatique et de l’Imagerie (ICube), UDS-CNRS, UMR 7357, 300 bld Sébastien Brant, CS 10413, 67412 Illkirch cedex (France); Télécom Physique Strasbourg – Pôle API – 300 Bd Sébastien Brant – CS 10413, Illkirch Graffenstaden F 67400 (France); and others

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • A method for rapid manufacturing of optical diffractive element in BK7 is proposed. • A binary grating in BK7 was successfully machined by femtosecond laser pulses. • Process relying on nonlinear absorption in the dielectric due to photoionization. • The binary grating was analysed by SEM and interferometric microscopy. • Simulations by Fourier modal method supported the measured diffractive efficiency. - Abstract: This paper presents an explorative study on the machining of diffractive optical elements (DOEs) in transparent materials using a femtosecond laser source. A simple form of DOE, a binary phase grating with a period of 20.85 μm (σ = 0.5 μm), a groove depth and width of 0.7 μm (σ = 0.2 μm) and 8.8 μm (σ = 0.5 μm) respectively, was successfully machined in BK7. The topographic characteristics were measured by white light interferometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The processing was carried out on high precision stages with an ultrafast fibre laser (350 fs) emitting a 343 nm pulse focused onto the sample with a stationary microscope objective. A diffracted efficiency of 27%, obtained with a spectro goniometer, was corroborated by the theoretical results obtained by the Fourier modal method (FMM), taking into account the measured topographic values. These encouraging results demonstrate that high-speed femtosecond laser manufacturing of DOE in bulk glasses can be achieved, opening the way to rapid prototyping of multi-layered-DOEs.

  3. Taguchi based fuzzy logic optimization of multiple quality characteristics in laser cutting of Duralumin sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Arun Kumar; Dubey, Avanish Kumar

    2012-03-01

    Capability of laser cutting mainly depends on optical and thermal properties of work material. Highly reflective and thermally conductive Duralumin sheets are difficult-to-laser-cut. Application of Duralumin sheets in aeronautic and automotive industries due to its high strength to weight ratio demand narrow and complex cuts with high geometrical accuracy. The present paper experimentally investigates the laser cutting of Duralumin sheet with the aim to improve geometrical accuracy by simultaneously minimizing the kerf width and kerf deviations at top and bottom sides. A hybrid approach, obtained by combining robust parameter design methodology and Fuzzy logic theory has been applied to compute the fuzzy multi-response performance index. This performance index is further used for multi-objective optimization. The predicted optimum results have been verified by performing the confirmation tests. The confirmation tests show considerable reduction in kerf deviations at top and bottom sides.

  4. Cutting thin sheets of allyl diglycol carbonate (CR-39) with a CW CO2, laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukreja, L.M.; Bhawalkar, D.D.; Basu, C.; Goswami, J.N.

    1984-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that Allyl Diglycol Carbonate, commercially known as CR-39 (the most sensitive among etch track detectors) can detect relativistic oxygen and other heavier nuclei. We are using large sheets of special grade CR-39 (DOP) in our experiment in Space Shuttle-Spacelab-3. As CR-39 is a highly brittle substance, special care is required to cut CR-39 shetts, especially in case of large sheets and circular cuts. A study of cutting of CR-39 sheets using laser light is described in this paper. It has been found that this method is sufficiently fast to handle large number of sheets and also equally safe for big sheets. A maximum speed up to 200 cm/min with a 5 x 10 4 W/cm 2 laser is obtained during the present study. This study also shows that laser cutting does not affect the track properties of CR-39. (orig.)

  5. Towards crack-free ablation cutting of thin glass sheets with picosecond pulsed lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingying; Eppelt, Urs; Hartmann, Claudia; Schulz, Wolfgang; Zhu, Jianqiang; Lin, Zunqi

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the morphology and mechanism of laser-induced damage in the ablation cutting of thin glass sheets with picosecond laser. Two kinds of damage morphologies observed on the cross-section of the cut channel, are caused by high-density free-electrons and the temperature accumulation, respectively. Notches and micro-cracks can be observed on the top surface of the sample near the cut edge. The surface micro-cracks were related to high energy free-electrons and also the heat-affected zone. Heat-affected-zone and visible-cracks free conditions of glass cutting were achieved by controlling the repetition rate and spatial overlap of laser pulses.

  6. Effects of cutting parameters and machining environments on surface roughness in hard turning using design of experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mia, Mozammel; Bashir, Mahmood Al; Dhar, Nikhil Ranjan

    2016-07-01

    Hard turning is gradually replacing the time consuming conventional turning process, which is typically followed by grinding, by producing surface quality compatible to grinding. The hard turned surface roughness depends on the cutting parameters, machining environments and tool insert configurations. In this article the variation of the surface roughness of the produced surfaces with the changes in tool insert configuration, use of coolant and different cutting parameters (cutting speed, feed rate) has been investigated. This investigation was performed in machining AISI 1060 steel, hardened to 56 HRC by heat treatment, using coated carbide inserts under two different machining environments. The depth of cut, fluid pressure and material hardness were kept constant. The Design of Experiment (DOE) was performed to determine the number and combination sets of different cutting parameters. A full factorial analysis has been performed to examine the effect of main factors as well as interaction effect of factors on surface roughness. A statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to determine the combined effect of cutting parameters, environment and tool configuration. The result of this analysis reveals that environment has the most significant impact on surface roughness followed by feed rate and tool configuration respectively.

  7. Optimization of CO2 laser cutting parameters on Austenitic type Stainless steel sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthiban, A.; Sathish, S.; Chandrasekaran, M.; Ravikumar, R.

    2017-03-01

    Thin AISI 316L stainless steel sheet widely used in sheet metal processing industries for specific applications. CO2 laser cutting is one of the most popular sheet metal cutting processes for cutting of sheets in different profile. In present work various cutting parameters such as laser power (2000 watts-4000 watts), cutting speed (3500mm/min - 5500 mm/min) and assist gas pressure (0.7 Mpa-0.9Mpa) for cutting of AISI 316L 2mm thickness stainless sheet. This experimentation was conducted based on Box-Behenken design. The aim of this work is to develop a mathematical model kerf width for straight and curved profile through response surface methodology. The developed mathematical models for straight and curved profile have been compared. The Quadratic models have the best agreement with experimental data, and also the shape of the profile a substantial role in achieving to minimize the kerf width. Finally the numerical optimization technique has been used to find out best optimum laser cutting parameter for both straight and curved profile cut.

  8. Neodymium:YAG laser cutting of intraocular lens haptics in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, J M; Rosenberg, M A; Farber, M D

    1989-09-01

    Various complications following intraocular lens (IOL) surgery result in explantation of the lenses. Haptic fibrosis may necessitate cutting the IOL haptics prior to removal. In this study we used the neodymium: YAG (Nd:YAG) laser to cut polypropylene and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) haptics in vitro and in rabbit eyes. In vitro we were able to cut 100% of both haptic types successfully (28 PMMA and 30 polypropylene haptics). In rabbit eyes we were able to cut 50% of the PMMA haptics and 43% of the polypropylene haptics. Poly(methyl methacrylate) haptics were easier to cut in vitro and in vivo than polypropylene haptics, requiring fewer shots for transection. Complications of Nd:YAG laser use frequently interfered with haptic transections in rabbit eyes. Haptic transection may be more easily accomplished in human eyes.

  9. The Effect of Operational Cutting Parameters on Nitinol-60 in Wire Electrodischarge Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar LotfiNeyestanak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Shape memory alloys are a kind of active materials, which have significant characteristics in comparison with other alloys. Since these materials are applicable in different fields such as aerospace, automobile industry, medicine, and dentistry, the effects of wire electrodischarge machining on the properties of these alloys have been studied. In this paper, changes in the shape recovery ability and microhardness of the machined surface of Nitonol-60 shape memory alloy have been studied considering recasting and formation of resolidificated layer on the shape memory alloy surface. XRD and EDXA analyses of the surface layer of the sample besides a microscopic study of the shape memory alloy layer by SEM and a study of the changes in mechanical properties of the surface layer were done by performing microhardness and tension tests on the work piece surface. Considering the surface layer, reversible strain has been studied according to the shape recovery percentage of Nitinol-60 shape memory alloy. Results show that the surface layer formed on the surface of the samples has caused changes in both physical and mechanical properties of the cut surface because of the penetration of the separated materials in comparison with deeper layers of the piece.

  10. High repetition rate ultrashort laser cuts a path through fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, Lorena; Schubert, Elise; Mongin, Denis; Klingebiel, Sandro; Schultze, Marcel; Metzger, Thomas; Michel, Knut; Kasparian, Jérôme; Wolf, Jean-Pierre

    2016-12-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that the transmission of a 1030 nm, 1.3 ps laser beam of 100 mJ energy through fog increases when its repetition rate increases to the kHz range. Due to the efficient energy deposition by the laser filaments in the air, a shockwave ejects the fog droplets from a substantial volume of the beam, at a moderate energy cost. This process opens prospects for applications requiring the transmission of laser beams through fogs and clouds.

  11. Laser vs bur for bone cutting in impacted mandibular third molar surgery: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passi, Deepak; Pal, Uma Shankar; Mohammad, Shadab; Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Mehrotra, Divya; Singh, Geeta; Kumar, Manoj; Chellappa, Arul A L; Gupta, Chandan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of Er: YAG laser in bone cutting for removal of impacted lower third molar teeth and compare its outcomes with that of surgical bur. The study comprised 40 subjects requiring removal of impacted mandibular third molar, randomly categorized into two equal groups of 20 each, who had their impacted third molar removed either using Er: YAG laser or surgical bur as per their group, using standard methodology of extraction of impacted teeth. Clinical parameters like pain, bleeding, time taken for bone cutting, postoperative swelling, trismus, wound healing and complications were compared for both groups. Clinical parameters like pain, bleeding and swelling were lower in laser group than bur group, although the difference was statistically not significant. However, postoperative swelling showed significant difference in the two groups. Laser group required almost double the time taken for bone cutting with bur. Trismus persisted for a longer period in laser group. Wound healing and complications were assessed clinically and there was no significant difference in both the groups. Based on the results of our study, the possibility of bone cutting using lasers is pursued, the osteotomy is easily performed and the technique is better suited to minimally invasive surgical procedures. The use of Er: YAG laser may be considered as an alternative tool to surgical bur, specially in anxious patients.

  12. PROCESS PERFORMANCE LASER CUTTING THROUGH PRACTICE DRY BRANCH IN METAL-MECHANIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deivis Zismann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The quest for optimization and quality of products has caused many organizations to eliminate the inefficiencies of their production processes, to reduce costs and increase profitability so that they can ensure their survival in the current economic scenario. Thus, it is necessary to use methods and techniques that help in getting better results. Minimize waste and promote overall product quality has become one of the main goals of the organizations. This study is Bibliographically the concept of Lean Manufacturing (Lean Manufacturing, which focused on eliminating waste, served as the basis for this study, which through an action - research aimed to applying lean practices for performance improvement the laser cutting process for an industry of the metalmechanic sector. The results show that the identification of the main sources of waste and the constant search for its elimination brought productivity advantages for the company, by reducing the processes of machines and minimize production costs time. With this, the company started to produce more, and improve their processes in the proper use of available resources.

  13. Influence of Vegetable Oil-Based Controlled Cutting Fluid Impinging Supply System on Micro Hardness in Machining of Ti-6Al-4V

    OpenAIRE

    Salah Gariani; Islam Shyha; Fawad Inam; Dehong Huo

    2017-01-01

    A controlled cutting fluid impinging supply system (CUT-LIST) was developed to deliver an accurate amount of cutting fluid into the machining zone via well-positioned coherent nozzles based on a calculation of the heat generated. The performance of the CUT-LIST was evaluated against a conventional flood cutting fluid supply system during step shoulder milling of Ti-6Al-4V using vegetable oil-based cutting fluid. In this paper, the micro-hardness of the machined surface was used as the main cr...

  14. Parametric optimization of multiple quality characteristics in laser cutting of Inconel-718 by using hybrid approach of multiple regression analysis and genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Prashant Kumar; Pandey, Arun Kumar

    2018-06-01

    Inconel-718 has found high demand in different industries due to their superior mechanical properties. The traditional cutting methods are facing difficulties for cutting these alloys due to their low thermal potential, lower elasticity and high chemical compatibility at inflated temperature. The challenges of machining and/or finishing of unusual shapes and/or sizes in these materials have also faced by traditional machining. Laser beam cutting may be applied for the miniaturization and ultra-precision cutting and/or finishing by appropriate control of different process parameter. This paper present multi-objective optimization the kerf deviation, kerf width and kerf taper in the laser cutting of Incone-718 sheet. The second order regression models have been developed for different quality characteristics by using the experimental data obtained through experimentation. The regression models have been used as objective function for multi-objective optimization based on the hybrid approach of multiple regression analysis and genetic algorithm. The comparison of optimization results to experimental results shows an improvement of 88%, 10.63% and 42.15% in kerf deviation, kerf width and kerf taper, respectively. Finally, the effects of different process parameters on quality characteristics have also been discussed.

  15. Cutting efficiency of a mid-infrared laser on human enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, G; Koubi, G F; Miserendino, L J

    1998-02-01

    In this study, the cutting ability of a newly developed dental laser was compared with a dental high-speed handpiece and rotary bur for removal of enamel. Measurements of the volume of tissue removed, energy emitted, and time of exposure were used to quantify the ablation rate (rate of tissue removal) for each test group and compared. Cutting efficiency (mm3/s) of the laser was calculated based on the mean volume of tissue removed per pulse (mm3/pulse) and unit energy expended (mm3/J) over the range of applied powers (2, 4, 6, and 8 W). The specimens were then examined by light microscopy and scanning electron micrographs for qualitative analysis of the amount of remaining debris and the presence of the smear layer on the prepared enamel surface. Calculations of the cutting efficiency of the laser over the range of powers tested revealed a linear relationship with the level of applied power. The maximum average rate of tissue removal by the laser was 0.256 mm3/s at 8 W, compared with 0.945 mm3/s by the dental handpiece. Light microscopy and scanning electron micrograph examinations revealed a reduction in the amount of remaining debris and smear layer in the laser-prepared enamel surfaces, compared with the conventional method. Based on the results of this study, the cutting efficiency of the high-speed handpiece and dental bur was 3.7 times greater than the laser over the range of powers tested, but the laser appeared to create a cleaner enamel surface with minimal thermal damage. Further modifications of the laser system are suggested for improvement of laser cutting efficiency.

  16. Multiple-objective optimization in precision laser cutting of different thermoplastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamrin, K. F.; Nukman, Y.; Choudhury, I. A.; Shirley, S.

    2015-04-01

    Thermoplastics are increasingly being used in biomedical, automotive and electronics industries due to their excellent physical and chemical properties. Due to the localized and non-contact process, use of lasers for cutting could result in precise cut with small heat-affected zone (HAZ). Precision laser cutting involving various materials is important in high-volume manufacturing processes to minimize operational cost, error reduction and improve product quality. This study uses grey relational analysis to determine a single optimized set of cutting parameters for three different thermoplastics. The set of the optimized processing parameters is determined based on the highest relational grade and was found at low laser power (200 W), high cutting speed (0.4 m/min) and low compressed air pressure (2.5 bar). The result matches with the objective set in the present study. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is then carried out to ascertain the relative influence of process parameters on the cutting characteristics. It was found that the laser power has dominant effect on HAZ for all thermoplastics.

  17. High speed pulsed laser cutting of LiCoO2 Li-ion battery electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutey, Adrian H. A.; Fortunato, Alessandro; Carmignato, Simone; Fiorini, Maurizio

    2017-09-01

    Laser cutting of Li-ion battery electrodes represents an alternative to mechanical blanking that avoids complications associated with tool wear and allows assembly of different cell geometries with a single device. In this study, laser cutting of LiCoO2 Li-ion battery electrodes is performed at up to 5m /s with a 1064nm wavelength nanosecond pulsed fiber laser with a maximum average power of 500W and a repetition rate of up to 2MHz . Minimum average cutting power for cathode and anode multi-layer films is established for 12 parameter groups with velocities over the range 1 - 5m /s , varying laser pulse fluence and overlap. Within the tested parameter range, minimum energy per unit cut length is found to decrease with increasing repetition rate and velocity. SEM analysis of the resulting cut edges reveals visible clearance widths in the range 20 - 50 μm , with cut quality found to improve with velocity due to a reduction in lateral heat conduction losses. Raman line map spectra reveal changes in the cathode at 60 μm from the cut edge, where bands at 486cm-1 and 595cm-1 , corresponding to the Eg and A1g modes of LiCoO2 , are replaced with a single wide band centered at 544cm-1 , and evidence of carbon black is no longer present. No changes in Raman spectra are observed in the anode. The obtained results suggest that further improvements in cutting efficiency and quality could be achieved by increasing the repetition rate above 2MHz , thereby improving ablation efficiency of the metallic conductor layers. The laser source utilized in the present study nonetheless represents an immediately available solution for repeatability and throughput that are superior to mechanical blanking.

  18. Measurements of secondary emissions from plasma arc and laser cutting in standard experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilot, G.; Noel, M.; Leautier, R.; Steiner, H.; Tarroni, G.; Waldie, B.

    1990-01-01

    As part of an inter-facility comparison of secondary emissions from plasma-arc and laser cutting techniques, standard cutting tests have been done by plasma arc underwater and in air and laser beam in air. The same team, CEA/DPT/SPIN, was commissioned to measure the secondary emissions (solid and gaseous) in each contractor's facility with the same measuring rig. 20 mm and 40 mm thick grade 304 stainless steel plates were cut by plasma-torch in three different facilities: Heriot Watt University of Edinburgh, Institute fuer Werkstoffkunde of Hannover and CEA/CEN Cadarache. 10 mm and sometimes 20 mm thick grade 304 stainless steel plates were cut by laser beam in four different facilities: CEA/CEN Fontenay, CEA/CEN Saclay, Institute fuer Werkstoffkunde of Hannover and ENEA/FRASCATI. The results obtained in the standard experiments are rather similar, the differences that appear can be explained by the various scales of the facilities (semi-industrial and laboratory scale) and by some particularity in the cutting parameters (additional secondary gas flow of oxygen in plasma cutting at Hannover for example). Some supplementary experiments show the importance of some cutting parameters. (author)

  19. Thirteen Year Loblolly Pine Growth Following Machine Application of Cut-Stump Treament Herbicides For Hardwood Stump-Sprout Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyde G. Vidrine; John C. Adams

    2002-01-01

    Thirteen year growth results of 1-0 out-planted loblolly pine seedlings on nonintensively prepared up-land mixed pine-hardwood sites receiving machine applied cut-stump treatment (CST) herbicides onto hardwood stumps at the time of harvesting is presented. Plantation pine growth shows significantly higher growth for pine in the CST treated plots compared to non-CST...

  20. Study of PVD AlCrN Coating for Reducing Carbide Cutting Tool Deterioration in the Machining of Titanium Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, Natalia L; Cue-Sampedro, Rodrigo; Siller, Héctor R; Arizmendi-Morquecho, Ana M; Rivera-Solorio, Carlos I; Di-Nardo, Santiago

    2013-05-24

    The manufacture of medical and aerospace components made of titanium alloys and other difficult-to-cut materials requires the parallel development of high performance cutting tools coated with materials capable of enhanced tribological and resistance properties. In this matter, a thin nanocomposite film made out of AlCrN (aluminum-chromium-nitride) was studied in this research, showing experimental work in the deposition process and its characterization. A heat-treated monolayer coating, competitive with other coatings in the machining of titanium alloys, was analyzed. Different analysis and characterizations were performed on the manufactured coating by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDXS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Furthermore, the mechanical behavior of the coating was evaluated through hardness test and tribology with pin-on-disk to quantify friction coefficient and wear rate. Finally, machinability tests using coated tungsten carbide cutting tools were executed in order to determine its performance through wear resistance, which is a key issue of cutting tools in high-end cutting at elevated temperatures. It was demonstrated that the specimen (with lower friction coefficient than previous research) is more efficient in machinability tests in Ti6Al4V alloys. Furthermore, the heat-treated monolayer coating presented better performance in comparison with a conventional monolayer of AlCrN coating.

  1. Cemented carbide cutting tool: Laser processing and thermal stress analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilbas, B.S. [Mechanical Engineering Department, KFUPM, Box 1913, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: bsyilbas@kfupm.edu.sa; Arif, A.F.M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, KFUPM, Box 1913, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Karatas, C. [Engineering Faculty, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey); Ahsan, M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, KFUPM, Box 1913, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2007-04-15

    Laser treatment of cemented carbide tool surface consisting of W, C, TiC, TaC is examined and thermal stress developed due to temperature gradients in the laser treated region is predicted numerically. Temperature rise in the substrate material is computed numerically using the Fourier heating model. Experiment is carried out to treat the tool surfaces using a CO{sub 2} laser while SEM, XRD and EDS are carried out for morphological and structural characterization of the treated surface. Laser parameters were selected include the laser output power, duty cycle, assisting gas pressure, scanning speed, and nominal focus setting of the focusing lens. It is found that temperature gradient attains significantly high values below the surface particularly for titanium and tantalum carbides, which in turn, results in high thermal stress generation in this region. SEM examination of laser treated surface and its cross section reveals that crack initiation below the surface occurs and crack extends over the depth of the laser treated region.

  2. Fibre laser cutting of polycaprolactone sheet for stents manufacturing: A feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Antonio J.; Farjas, Jordi; Ciurana, Joaquim

    2017-10-01

    The role of the stent is temporary and it is limited to the intervention and shortly thereafter. Bioresorbable polymer stents were introduced to overcome this problem, making the stent manufacturing process rather difficult considering the complexity of the material. The stent forecast sale makes constant technology development necessary on this field. The adaptation of the laser manufacturing industry to these new materials is costly, thus further studies employing different sorts of lasers are necessary. This paper aims to explore the feasibility of 1.08 μm wavelength fibre laser to cut polycaprolactone sheet, which is especially interesting for long-term implantable devices, such as stents. The laser cut samples were analysed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Tensile Stress Test, and Optical Microscopy in order to study the effects of the laser process over the workpiece. The parameters measured were: taper angle, dimensional precision, material structure changes and mechanical properties changes. Results showed a dimensional precision above 95.75% with a taper angle lower than 0.033°. The laser ablation process has exhibited a minor influence upon material properties. Results exhibit the feasibility of fibre laser to cut polycaprolactone, making the fibre laser an alternative to manufacture stents.

  3. A comparative investigation of bone surface after cutting with mechanical tools and Er:YAG laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Kyung-Won; Deibel, Waldemar; Marinov, Dilyan; Griessen, Mathias; Dard, Michel; Bruno, Alfredo; Zeilhofer, Hans-Florian; Cattin, Philippe; Juergens, Philipp

    2015-07-01

    Despite of the long history of medical application, laser ablation of bone tissue became successful only recently. Laser bone cutting is proven to have higher accuracy and to increase bone healing compared to conventional mechanical bone cutting. But the reason of subsequent better healing is not biologically explained yet. In this study we present our experience with an integrated miniaturized laser system mounted on a surgical lightweight robotic arm. An Erbium-doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (Er:YAG) laser and a piezoelectric (PZE) osteotome were used for comparison. In six grown up female Göttingen minipigs, comparative surgical interventions were done on the edentulous mandibular ridge. Our laser system was used to create different shapes of bone defects on the left side of the mandible. On the contralateral side, similar bone defects were created by PZE osteotome. Small bone samples were harvested to compare the immediate post-operative cut surface. The analysis of the cut surface of the laser osteotomy and conventional mechanical osteotomy revealed an essential difference. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed biologically open cut surfaces from the laser osteotomy. The samples from PZE osteotomy showed a flattened tissue structure over the cut surface, resembling the "smear layer" from tooth preparation. We concluded that our new finding with the mechanical osteotomy suggests a biological explanation to the expected difference in subsequent bone healing. Our hypothesis is that the difference of surface characteristic yields to different bleeding pattern and subsequently results in different bone healing. The analyses of bone healing will support our hypothesis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Modeling and Simulated Annealing Optimization of Surface Roughness in CO2 Laser Nitrogen Cutting of Stainless Steel

    OpenAIRE

    M. Madić; M. Radovanović; B. Nedić

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic methodology for empirical modeling and optimization of surface roughness in nitrogen, CO2 laser cutting of stainless steel . The surface roughness prediction model was developed in terms of laser power , cutting speed , assist gas pressure and focus position by using The artificial neural network ( ANN ) . To cover a wider range of laser cutting parameters and obtain an experimental database for the ANN model development, Taguchi 's L27 orthogonal array was im...

  5. Development of underwater laser cutting technique for steel and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    post-irradiation examination, maintenance, decommissioning and to reduce storage space of irradiated materials like used zircaloy pressure tubes etc., of nuclear power plants. ... laser; material processing; heat affected zone; microstructure.

  6. Fuzzy Logic Approach for the Prediction of Dross Formation in CO2 Laser Cutting of Mild Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Madić

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dross free laser cutting is very important in the application of laser cutting technology. This paper focuses on the development of a fuzzy logic model to predict dross formation in CO2 laser oxygen cutting of mild steel. Laser cutting experiment, conducted according to Taguchi’s experimental design using L25 orthogonal array, provided a set of data for the development of a fuzzy rule base. The predicting fuzzy logic model is based on using Mamdani-type inference system. Developed fuzzy logic model considered the cutting speed, laser power and assist gas pressure as inputs. Using this model the effects of the selected laser cutting parameters on the dross formation were investigated. Additionally, 3-D surface plots were generated to study the interaction effects of the laser cutting parameters. The analysis revealed that the cutting speed has the most significant effect, followed by laser power and assist gas pressure. The results indicated that the fuzzy logic modeling approach can be effectively used for the dross formation prediction in CO2 laser cutting of mild steel.

  7. Method of vertically and horizontally cutting steel pipe piles and removing them based on the development of a steel pipe pile vertically cutting machine; Kokanko tatehoko setsudanki no kaihatsu ni yoru kochi chubu no juo setsudan tekkyo koho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, S.; Takeshita, A.; Kobayashi, K.

    1997-07-25

    A machine for vertically cutting steel pipe piles has newly been developed for the purpose of removing the end portions the shore protection steel pipe piles which interfere with the shield tunneling work in the Ohokagawa River tunneling section on the Minato Mirai 21 Line. This paper reports the development of the machine for vertically cutting steel pipe piles, and a method of cutting the shield tunneling work hindering piles under the ground by using this machine. The obstacle-constituting portions of the piles are removed by destroying the copings, excavating the interior of the piles to make the same hollow so that a cutting machine can be inserted, and cutting the piles vertically and horizontally. The basic structure of the cutting machine comprises a lower cutting unit for making forward and backward and upward and downward movements of a cutter, and an upper movable unit for controlling the rotation of the cutting unit. The cutting of a pile is done by projecting the cutter by a cylinder the base of which is joined to a cutter driver, and then moving the rotating cutter upward. The amounts of movements of these parts are detected by sensors, and an arbitrary range of the underground portion of a pile can be cut by a remote control operation. 10 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Oxygen-assisted multipass cutting of carbon fiber reinforced plastics with ultra-short laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kononenko, T. V.; Komlenok, M. S.; Konov, V. I. [Natural Sciences Center, General Physics Institute, Vavilov str. 38, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University, “MEPhI,” Kashirskoye shosse 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Freitag, C. [Universität Stuttgart, Institut für Strahlwerkzeuge (IFSW), Pfaffenwaldring 43, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); GSaME Graduate School of Excellence Advanced Manufacturing Engineering, Nobelstrasse 12, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Onuseit, V.; Weber, R.; Graf, T. [Universität Stuttgart, Institut für Strahlwerkzeuge (IFSW), Pfaffenwaldring 43, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-03-14

    Deep multipass cutting of bidirectional and unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) with picosecond laser pulses was investigated in different static atmospheres as well as with the assistance of an oxygen or nitrogen gas flow. The ablation rate was determined as a function of the kerf depth and the resulting heat affected zone was measured. An assisting oxygen gas flow is found to significantly increase the cutting productivity, but only in deep kerfs where the diminished evaporative ablation due to the reduced laser fluence reaching the bottom of the kerf does not dominate the contribution of reactive etching anymore. Oxygen-supported cutting was shown to also solve the problem that occurs when cutting the CFRP parallel to the fiber orientation where a strong deformation and widening of the kerf, which temporarily slows down the process speed, is revealed to be typical for processing in standard air atmospheres.

  9. Oxygen-assisted multipass cutting of carbon fiber reinforced plastics with ultra-short laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kononenko, T. V.; Komlenok, M. S.; Konov, V. I.; Freitag, C.; Onuseit, V.; Weber, R.; Graf, T.

    2014-01-01

    Deep multipass cutting of bidirectional and unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) with picosecond laser pulses was investigated in different static atmospheres as well as with the assistance of an oxygen or nitrogen gas flow. The ablation rate was determined as a function of the kerf depth and the resulting heat affected zone was measured. An assisting oxygen gas flow is found to significantly increase the cutting productivity, but only in deep kerfs where the diminished evaporative ablation due to the reduced laser fluence reaching the bottom of the kerf does not dominate the contribution of reactive etching anymore. Oxygen-supported cutting was shown to also solve the problem that occurs when cutting the CFRP parallel to the fiber orientation where a strong deformation and widening of the kerf, which temporarily slows down the process speed, is revealed to be typical for processing in standard air atmospheres

  10. How to optimize ultrashort pulse laser interaction with glass surfaces in cutting regimes?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bulgakova, Nadezhda M.; Zhukov, V.P.; Collins, A.R.; Rostohar, Danijela; Derrien, Thibault; Mocek, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 336, May (2015), s. 364-374 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/01.0027; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0143 Grant - others:HILASE(XE) CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0027; OP VK 6(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0143 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : laser material processing * high power lasers * glass cutting * laser-matter interaction * biwave length irradiation * ambient gas ionization Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.150, year: 2015

  11. Effect of laser cutting on microstructure and on magnetic properties of grain non-oriented electrical steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belhadj, A. E-mail: ahmed@metallur.rug.ac.be; Baudouin, P.; Breaban, F.; Deffontaine, A.; Dewulf, M.; Houbaert, Y

    2003-01-01

    Non-oriented electrical steels have been cut with two different techniques, the laser cutting and the mechanical cutting. In order to investigate the effect of the first technique on magnetic properties, different cutting parameters have been tested. Despite this, the best magnetic properties have been obtained after mechanical cutting. The laser cutting causes a coercive field increase and a permeability drop. Due to thermal effect, internal stress seems to be the main process drawback. No correlation between the heat affected zone and the magnetic properties has been found00.

  12. Study on Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Machining Applying the Non-Resonant Three-Dimensional Elliptical Vibration Cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming Lu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The poor machinability of Ti-6Al-4V alloy makes it hard to process by conventional processing methods even though it has been widely used in military and civilian enterprise fields. Non-resonant three-dimensional elliptical vibration cutting (3D-EVC is a novel cutting technique which is a significant development potential for difficult-to-cut materials. However, few studies have been conducted on processing the Ti-6Al-4V alloy using the non-resonant 3D-EVC technique, the effect of surface quality, roughness, topography and freeform surface has not been clearly researched yet. Therefore, the machinability of Ti-6Al-4V alloy using the non-resonant 3D-EVC apparatus is studied in this paper. Firstly, the principle of non-resonant 3D-EVC technique and the model of cutter motion are introduced. Then the tool path is synthesized. The comparison experiments are carried out with traditional continuous cutting (TCC, two-dimension elliptical vibration cutting (2D-EVC, and the non-resonant 3D-EVC method. The experimental results shown that the excellent surface and lower roughness (77.3 nm could be obtained using the non-resonant 3D-EVC method; the shape and dimension of elliptical cutting mark also relates to the cutting speed and vibration frequency, and the concave/convex spherical surface topography are achieved by non-resonant 3D-EVC in the Ti-6Al-4V alloy. This proved that the non-resonant 3D-EVC technique has the better machinability compared with the TCC and 2D-EVC methods.

  13. Laser Beam Machining (LBM), State of the Art and New Opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, J.

    2004-01-01

    An overview is given of the state of the art of laser beam machining in general with special emphasis on applications of short and ultrashort lasers. In laser welding the trend is to apply optical sensors for process control. Laser surface treatment is mostly used to apply corrosion and wear

  14. Use of laser cutting techniques for dismantling tasks in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haferkamp, H.; Drygalla, M.; Goede, M.

    2001-01-01

    A handguided laser processing system developed by laser zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) allows impressive cutting, notching, and material removal applications for the dismantling of nuclear power plants. The handguided unit is equipped with a motor drive for consistent processing results and flexible processing for as long as desired. It offers the possibility to adjust the nozzle as well as focal position in order that various materials with different material thicknesses may be processed. The set process parameters may be viewed on a display which also indicates the laser processing programme selected. An integrated exhaust system guarantees a shielded process. The operator is not only protected against process emissions but also against laser beam reflexions. The handguided unit is connected to the laser beam source via an optical fibre and can be used for laser output powers of up to 1500 W with a high beam quality. For handguided laser material processing low emissions at high feed rates as well as cutting kerf widths between 0.5 and 0.3 mm for special applications such as the dismantling of large facilities or units, etc. are decisive, especially when cutting metal sheets for the dismantling of nuclear power plants. (orig.)

  15. Use of laser cutting techniques for dismantling tasks in nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haferkamp, H.; Drygalla, M.; Goede, M. [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    A handguided laser processing system developed by laser zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) allows impressive cutting, notching, and material removal applications for the dismantling of nuclear power plants. The handguided unit is equipped with a motor drive for consistent processing results and flexible processing for as long as desired. It offers the possibility to adjust the nozzle as well as focal position in order that various materials with different material thicknesses may be processed. The set process parameters may be viewed on a display which also indicates the laser processing programme selected. An integrated exhaust system guarantees a shielded process. The operator is not only protected against process emissions but also against laser beam reflexions. The handguided unit is connected to the laser beam source via an optical fibre and can be used for laser output powers of up to 1500 W with a high beam quality. For handguided laser material processing low emissions at high feed rates as well as cutting kerf widths between 0.5 and 0.3 mm for special applications such as the dismantling of large facilities or units, etc. are decisive, especially when cutting metal sheets for the dismantling of nuclear power plants. (orig.)

  16. Descriptive Analysis of In Vitro Cutting of Swine Mitral Cusps: Comparison of High-Power Laser and Scalpel Blade Cutting Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Nathali Cordeiro; Pomerantzeff, Pablo Maria Alberto; Deana, Alessandro; Zezell, Denise; Benetti, Carolina; Aiello, Vera Demarchi; Lopes, Luciana Almeida; Jatene, Fabio Biscegli; Chavantes, M Cristina

    2017-02-01

    The most common injury to the heart valve with rheumatic involvement is mitral stenosis, which is the reason for a big number of cardiac operations in Brazil. Commissurotomy is the traditional technique that is still widely used for this condition, although late postoperative restenosis is concerning. This study's purpose was to compare the histological findings of porcine cusp mitral valves treated in vitro with commissurotomy with a scalpel blade to those treated with high-power laser (HPL) cutting, using appropriate staining techniques. Five mitral valves from healthy swine were randomly divided into two groups: Cusp group (G1), cut with a scalpel blade (n = 5), and Cusp group (G2), cut with a laser (n = 5). G2 cusps were treated using a diode laser (λ = 980 nm, power = 9.0 W, time = 12 sec, irradiance = 5625 W/cm 2 , and energy = 108 J). In G1, no histological change was observed in tissue. A hyaline basophilic aspect was focally observed in G2, along with a dark red color on the edges and areas of lower birefringence, when stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Masson's trichrome, and Sirius red. Further, the mean distances from the cutting edge in cusps submitted to laser application and stained with Masson's trichrome and Sirius red were 416.7 and 778.6 μm, respectively, never overcoming 1 mm in length. Thermal changes were unique in the group submitted to HPL and not observed in the cusp group cut with a scalpel blade. The mean distance of the cusps' collagen injury from the cutting edge was less than 1 mm with laser treatment. Additional studies are needed to establish the histological evolution of the laser cutting and to answer whether laser cutting may avoid valvular restenosis better than blade cutting.

  17. Emissions generated during laser cutting; safety precautions; Emissions produits lors du coupage au laser; mesures de securite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haferkamp, H.; Goede, M.; Puster, T.; Seebaum, D. [Laser Eentrum, Hanovre (Germany); Bach, F. [Institut fur Werkstoffkunde, Universite de Hanovre (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    The generation of particulate and gaseous emissions from metals and organic materials during CO{sub 2} and Nd:YAG laser cutting is described. The laser-generated air contaminants (LGAC's) are characterised in terms of their quantity, composition, and chemical complexity, and the emissions are assessed on an occupational medicine basis. The hazard potential of LGAC's are mentioned, and safety systems are discussed.

  18. Theoretical analysis of material removal mechanisms in pulsed laser fusion cutting of ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintero, F [Dpto FIsica Aplicada, Universidad de Vigo, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, Lagoas-Marcosende 9, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Varas, F [Dpto Matematica Aplicada II, Universidad de Vigo, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, Lagoas-Marcosende 9, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Pou, J [Dpto FIsica Aplicada, Universidad de Vigo, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, Lagoas-Marcosende 9, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Lusquinos, F [Dpto FIsica Aplicada, Universidad de Vigo, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, Lagoas-Marcosende 9, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Boutinguiza, M [Dpto FIsica Aplicada, Universidad de Vigo, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, Lagoas-Marcosende 9, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Soto, R [Dpto FIsica Aplicada, Universidad de Vigo, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, Lagoas-Marcosende 9, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Perez-Amor, M [Dpto FIsica Aplicada, Universidad de Vigo, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, Lagoas-Marcosende 9, 36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2005-02-21

    It is well known that the efficiency of material removal mechanisms has a crucial influence on the performance and quality of the laser cutting process. However, they are very difficult to study since the physical processes and parameters which govern them are quite complicated to observe and measure experimentally. For this reason, the development of theoretical models to analyse the material removal mechanisms is very important for understanding the characteristics and influence of these processes. In this paper, a theoretical model of the pulsed laser fusion cutting of ceramics is presented. The material removal mechanisms from the cutting front are modelled under the assumption that the ceramic material may be, simultaneously, melted and evaporated by the laser radiation. Therefore, three ejection mechanisms are investigated together: ejection of molten material by the assist gas, evaporation of the liquid and ejection of molten material due to the recoil pressure generated by the evaporation from the cutting front. The temporal evolution of the material removal mechanisms and the thickness of the molten layer are solved for several laser pulse modes. Theoretical results are compared with experimental observations to validate the conclusions regarding the influence of frequency and pulse length on the cutting process.

  19. Measurements of secondary emissions from plasma arc and laser cutting in standard experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilot, G.; Noel, J.P.; Leautier, R.; Steiner, H.; Tarroni, G.; Waldie, B.

    1992-01-01

    As part of an inter-facility comparison of secondary emissions from plasma arc and laser-cutting techniques, standard cutting tests have been done by plasma arc underwater and in air, and by laser beam in air. The same team was commissioned to measure the secondary emissions (solid and gaseous) in each contractor's facility with the same measuring rig. 20 mm and 40 mm thick, grade 304 stainless-steel plates were cut by plasma-torch in three different facilities: Heriot Watt University of Edinburgh, Institut fuer Werkstoffkunde of Universitaet Hannover and CEA/CEN Cadarache. 10 mm and in some cases 20 mm thick, grade 304, stainless-steel plates were cut by laser beam in five different facilities: CEA-CEN Fontenay, CEA-CEN Saclay, Institut fuer Werkstoffkunde of Universitaet Hannover and ENEA/Frascati. The results obtained in the standard experiments are rather similar, and the differences that appear can be explained by the various scales of the involved facilities (semi-industrial and laboratory) and by some particularities in the cutting parameters (an additional secondary gas flow of oxygen in plasma cutting at Universitaet Hannover, for example)

  20. Experimental investigation of the effect of the laser beam polarization state on the quality of steel sheet cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golyshev, A. A.; Orishich, A. M.; Shulyatyev, V. B.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the results of experimental investigation of the effect of the beam polarization on the quality of the oxygen-assisted laser cutting of steel by a CO2-laser. Under consideration is the effect of the laser cutting parameters by the beam with the linear polarization on the cut surface roughness. It is founded that the minimal roughness is reached when the electric field vector is perpendicular to the cutting speed vector. It is concluded that the absorbed power distribution imposes the essential influence on the surface quality, and that the radiation heating of side walls is important to have lower roughness. Obtained results enabled to present probable reasons of the worse surface quality of the metals cut by a fiber laser than the ones cut by a CO2-laser.

  1. Laser cut hole matrices in novel armour plate steel for appliqué battlefield vehicle protection

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    During this research, experimental rolled homogeneous armour steel was cast, annealed and laser cut to form an appliqué plate. This Martensitic–Bainitic microstructure steel grade was used to test a novel means of engineering lightweight armour. It was determined that a laser cutting speed of 1200 mm/min produced optimum hole formations with limited distortion. The array of holes acts as a double-edged solution, in that they provide weight saving of 45%, providing a protective advantage and i...

  2. Ureteroscopic holmium laser cutting for inadvertently sutured drainage tube (report of five cases).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xu; Lu, Xin; Ren, Shancheng; Xu, Chuanliang; Sun, Yinghao

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to report a simple solution for inadvertently sutured drainage tube after urological surgery and discuss the different managements according to different types of this embarrassing complication. From September 2001 to January 2007, five inadvertently sutured drainage tubes were treated with ureteroscopic holmium laser cutting for the suture. All drainage tubes were removed after the operation without other complications. Holmium laser cutting via ureteroscope is a simple solution for the embarrassing problem of inadvertently sutured drainage tube. It can save the patient from undergoing another open surgery.

  3. Laser capture microdissection: Arcturus(XT) infrared capture and UV cutting methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Rosa I; Blakely, Steven R; Liotta, Lance A; Espina, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Laser capture microdissection (LCM) is a technique that allows the precise procurement of enriched cell populations from a heterogeneous tissue under direct microscopic visualization. LCM can be used to harvest the cells of interest directly or can be used to isolate specific cells by ablating the unwanted cells, resulting in histologically enriched cell populations. The fundamental components of laser microdissection technology are (a) visualization of the cells of interest via microscopy, (b) transfer of laser energy to a thermolabile polymer with either the formation of a polymer-cell composite (capture method) or transfer of laser energy via an ultraviolet laser to photovolatize a region of tissue (cutting method), and (c) removal of cells of interest from the heterogeneous tissue section. Laser energy supplied by LCM instruments can be infrared (810 nm) or ultraviolet (355 nm). Infrared lasers melt thermolabile polymers for cell capture, whereas ultraviolet lasers ablate cells for either removal of unwanted cells or excision of a defined area of cells. LCM technology is applicable to an array of applications including mass spectrometry, DNA genotyping and loss-of-heterozygosity analysis, RNA transcript profiling, cDNA library generation, proteomics discovery, and signal kinase pathway profiling. This chapter describes the unique features of the Arcturus(XT) laser capture microdissection instrument, which incorporates both infrared capture and ultraviolet cutting technology in one instrument, using a proteomic downstream assay as a model.

  4. Development of laser cutting/welding system for remote maintenance of ITER manifold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaoka, Hiroto; Tsuchiya, Kazuyuki; Awano, Toshihiko [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Oka, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2002-09-01

    A remote pipe cutting/welding system using a YAG laser was designed and fabricated for the maintenance of the main structural parts of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), and a mock-up test carried out. The functions of this system are to cut 100A x Sch 40 pipes of SUS316L by internal access, to adjust the core gap between the as-cut pipe and new pipe, and to weld the pipes automatically. The core gap of the pipes could be decreased within the proper welding conditions by the mock-up test, and sound beads were obtained. (author)

  5. Diode-pumped two-frequency lasers based on c-cut vanadate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirotkin, A A; Garnov, Sergei V; Zagumennyi, A I; Zavartsev, Yu D; Kutovoi, S A; Vlasov, V I; Shcherbakov, Ivan A

    2009-01-01

    The luminescent and lasing properties of the neo-dymium ion at the 4 F 3/2 - 4 I 11/2 transition in c-cut vanadate crystals (Nd:YVO 4 , Nd:GdVO 4 , and Nd:Gd 1-x Y x VO 4 ) are studied. Tuning of the laser radiation wavelength (Δλ = 5.4 nm) is demonstrated. Two-frequency laser schemes with the use of a Lyot filter, a Fabry-Perot etalon, and a Brewster prism as spectral selection elements are proposed and experimentally realised. Stable two-frequency lasing of a laser based on the c-cut Nd:GdVO 4 crystal was obtained in the cw, Q-switched (nanosecond pulses), and active acousto-optic mode-locked (picosecond pulses) regimes. (lasers)

  6. Simulation of surface profile formation in oxygen laser cutting of mild steel due to combustion cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermolaev, G V; Kovalev, O B [Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Institutskaya Str 4/1, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2009-09-21

    A physicomathematical model of cyclic iron combustion in an oxygen flow during oxygen laser cutting of metal sheets is developed. The combustion front is set into motion by focused laser radiation and a heterogeneous oxidation reaction in oxygen. The burning rate is limited by oxygen supply from the gas phase towards the metal surface, and the interface motion depends on the local temperature. A 3D numerical simulation predicts wavy structures on the metal surface; their linear sizes depend on the scanning speed of the laser beam, the thickness of the produced liquid oxide film and the parameters of the oxygen jet flow. Simulation results help in understanding the mechanism of striation formation during oxygen gas-laser cutting of mild steel and are in qualitative agreement with experimental findings.

  7. Development in high speed and high quality laser cutting process in fiber reinforced plastics; FRP no laser ni yoru kosoku, kohinshitsu setsudan gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishide, T.; Shirota, H.; Matsumoto, O. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-06-01

    Trimming was performed and studied by cutting KFRP, an epoxy matrix with Kevlar fiber woven thereinto, using various laser beams. The CO2 laser is capable of high-speed cutting but the product is low in quality. The surface of a cut by the YAG laser is not high in quality even with its peak output elevated. The thermally affected area is smaller under the excimer laser but it is low in cutting speed. The ablation properties of the excimer laser were investigated and the beam was shaped into a linear beam for another experiment, but it failed to attain the target speed of cutting. Next, a combination of excimer laser and CO2 laser was used for cutting. It was so designed that the preceding CO2 laser cuts the KFRP at a high speed to leave behind a carbonized layer, which is followed by a linear beam which vaporizes the carbonized layer for removal. An optical system is adopted for reshaping the excimer oscillated beam into a tube-like beam. Optical conditions were determined for a fluence value required for the removal of the carbonized layer. When the CO2 laser was set at 160W and the excimer laser at 20W, a 1mm-thick sheet was successfully cut at a speed of 16.7mm/sec. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Hydrodynamic effects in laser cutting of biological tissue phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhigarkov, V. S.; Yusupov, V. I.; Tsypina, S. I.; Bagratashvili, V. N.

    2017-11-01

    We study the thermal and transport processes that occur in the course of incision formation at the surface of a biological tissue phantom under the action of near-IR, moderate-power, continuous-wave laser radiation (λ = 1.94 μm) delivered by means of an optical fibre with an absorbing coating on its exit face. It is shown that in addition to the thermal effect, the laser-induced hydrodynamic effects caused by the explosive boiling of the interstitial water make a large contribution to the phantom destruction mechanism. These effects lead to the tissue rupture accompanied by the ejection of part of the fragmented substance from the site of laser impact and the formation of highly porous structure near the incision surface. We have found that the depth, the width and the relief of the laser incision wall in the case of using the optical fibre moving with a constant velocity, depend on the fibre tilt angle with respect to the phantom surface, as well as the direction of the fibre motion.

  9. Cutting edge science: Laser surgery illuminates viscoelasticity of merotelic kinetochores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Simon; Gachet, Yannick; Tournier, Sylvie

    2016-03-28

    Increasing evidence in eukaryotic cells suggests that mechanical forces are essential for building a robust mitotic apparatus and correcting inappropriate chromosome attachments. In this issue, Cojoc et al. (2016. J. Cell Biol., http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201506011) use laser microsurgery in vivo to measure and study the viscoelastic properties of kinetochores. © 2016 Cabello.

  10. How to optimize ultrashort pulse laser interaction with glass surfaces in cutting regimes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulgakova, Nadezhda M., E-mail: bulgakova@fzu.cz [HiLASE Centre, Institute of Physics ASCR, Za Radnicí 828, 25241 Dolní Břežany (Czech Republic); Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS, 1 Lavrentyev Ave., Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Zhukov, Vladimir P. [Institute of Computational Technologies SB RAS, 6 Lavrentyev Ave., 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, 20 Karl Marx Ave., 630073 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Collins, Adam R. [NCLA, NUI Galway, Galway (Ireland); Rostohar, Danijela; Derrien, Thibault J.-Y.; Mocek, Tomáš [HiLASE Centre, Institute of Physics ASCR, Za Radnicí 828, 25241 Dolní Břežany (Czech Republic)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • The factors influencing laser micromachining of transparent materials are analyzed. • Important role of ambient gas in laser processing is shown by numerical simulations. • The large potential of bi-wavelength laser processing is demonstrated. - Abstract: The interaction of short and ultrashort pulse laser radiation with glass materials is addressed. Particular attention is paid to regimes which are important in industrial applications such as laser cutting, drilling, functionalization of material surfaces, etc. Different factors influencing the ablation efficiency and quality are summarized and their importance is illustrated experimentally. The effects of ambient gas ionization in front of the irradiated target are also analyzed. A possibility to enhance laser coupling with transparent solids by bi-wavelength irradiation is discussed.

  11. Analysis of femtosecond laser assisted capsulotomy cutting edges and manual capsulorhexis using environmental scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrao, Sebastiano; Lombardo, Giuseppe; Desiderio, Giovanni; Buratto, Lucio; Schiano-Lomoriello, Domenico; Pileri, Marco; Lombardo, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the structure and irregularity of the capsulotomy cutting edges created by two femtosecond (FS) laser platforms in comparison with manual continuous circular capsulorhexis (CCC) using environmental scanning electron microscopy (eSEM). Methods. Ten anterior capsulotomies were obtained using two different FS laser cataract platforms (LenSx, n = 5, and Victus, n = 5). In addition, five manual CCC (n = 5) were obtained using a rhexis forceps. The specimens were imaged by eSEM (FEI Quanta 400, OR, USA). Objective metrics, which included the arithmetic mean deviation of the surface (Sa) and the root-mean-square deviation of the surface (Sq), were used to evaluate the irregularity of both the FS laser capsulotomies and the manual CCC cutting edges. Results. Several microirregularities were shown across the FS laser capsulotomy cutting edges. The edges of manually torn capsules were shown, by comparison of Sa and Sq values, to be smoother (P < 0.05) than the FS laser capsulotomy edges. Conclusions. Work is needed to understand whether the FS laser capsulotomy edge microirregularities, not seen in manual CCC, may act as focal points for the concentration of stress that would increase the risk of capsular tear during phacoemulsification as recently reported in the literature.

  12. Analysis of Femtosecond Laser Assisted Capsulotomy Cutting Edges and Manual Capsulorhexis Using Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiano Serrao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the structure and irregularity of the capsulotomy cutting edges created by two femtosecond (FS laser platforms in comparison with manual continuous circular capsulorhexis (CCC using environmental scanning electron microscopy (eSEM. Methods. Ten anterior capsulotomies were obtained using two different FS laser cataract platforms (LenSx, n=5, and Victus, n=5. In addition, five manual CCC (n=5 were obtained using a rhexis forceps. The specimens were imaged by eSEM (FEI Quanta 400, OR, USA. Objective metrics, which included the arithmetic mean deviation of the surface (Sa and the root-mean-square deviation of the surface (Sq, were used to evaluate the irregularity of both the FS laser capsulotomies and the manual CCC cutting edges. Results. Several microirregularities were shown across the FS laser capsulotomy cutting edges. The edges of manually torn capsules were shown, by comparison of Sa and Sq values, to be smoother (P<0.05 than the FS laser capsulotomy edges. Conclusions. Work is needed to understand whether the FS laser capsulotomy edge microirregularities, not seen in manual CCC, may act as focal points for the concentration of stress that would increase the risk of capsular tear during phacoemulsification as recently reported in the literature.

  13. Analysis of surface integrity in machining of AISI 304 stainless steel under various cooling and cutting conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocke, F.; Döbbeler, B.; Lung, S.; Seelbach, T.; Jawahir, I. S.

    2018-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that machining under specific cooling and cutting conditions can be used to induce a nanocrystalline surface layer in the workspiece. This layer has beneficial properties, such as improved fatigue strength, wear resistance and tribological behavior. In machining, a promising approach for achieving grain refinement in the surface layer is the application of cryogenic cooling. The aim is to use the last step of the machining operation to induce the desired surface quality to save time-consuming and expensive post machining surface treatments. The material used in this study was AISI 304 stainless steel. This austenitic steel suffers from low yield strength that limits its technological applications. In this paper, liquid nitrogen (LN2) as cryogenic coolant, as well as minimum quantity lubrication (MQL), was applied and investigated. As a reference, conventional flood cooling was examined. Besides the cooling conditions, the feed rate was varied in four steps. A large rounded cutting edge radius and finishing cutting parameters were chosen to increase the mechanical load on the machined surface. The surface integrity was evaluated at both, the microstructural and the topographical levels. After turning experiments, a detailed analysis of the microstructure was carried out including the imaging of the surface layer and hardness measurements at varying depths within the machined layer. Along with microstructural investigations, different topological aspects, e.g., the surface roughness, were analyzed. It was shown that the resulting microstructure strongly depends on the cooling condition. This study also shows that it was possible to increase the micro hardness in the top surface layer significantly.

  14. Fundamental experiment for flash removal of aluminum alloy by CO2 laser beam cutting; CO2 laser beam setsudan ni yoru aluminium gokin no ibaritori no kiso jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, Y.; Tokunaga, T. [University of Industrial Technology, Kanagawa (Japan); Miyazaki, T. [Chiba Institute of Technology, Chiba (Japan)

    1995-08-25

    CO2 laser beam has been applied to cut of the aluminum alloy. Average cut width, roughness of cut surface and average thickness of heat affected zone are investigated as functions of laser power, cutting speed and assist gas pressure. The average cut width increases with laser power, but it does not depend on the cutting speed. The narrowest average cut width obtained is 0.22mm under the conditions of laser power of 900W and cutting speeds from 600 to 1000mm/min. The roughness of cut surface decreases with decreasing cutting speed. The best smoothness of cut surface obtained is 17 {mu}m (Rmax) , when the conditions are 1100W and 600mm/min. The average thickness of heat affected zone decreases with increasing assist gas pressure. CO2 laser beam cutting is applicable to flash removal from aluminum alloy casting. This process is expected to reduce the need of physical labor and to improve the working conditions in the foundry industry. 32 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. EVALUATION OF MACHINABILITY OF DUCTILE IRONS ALLOYED WITH Ni AND Cu IN TERMS OF CUTTING FORCES AND SURFACE QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yücel AŞKUN

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the enhanced strength, ductility and thoughness of Ductile Iron (DI when compared to the other types cast iron, its machinability is relatively poor. When a steel part is replaced with ductile iron, however, better machinability is considered to be the most important gain. This study presents the results of machining tests of ductile irons alloyed with Ni and Cu at various contents to determine the effect of their microstructure and mechanical properties on cutting forces and surface roughness. Six different specimen groups of ductile iron alloyed with various amounts of nickel and copper were subjected to machining tests and their machinabilities were investigated based on cutting forces and surface roughness criteria. The results were evaluated according to microstructure and mechanical properties of specimens determined before. In terms of both criterion, the best result obtained was specimen added 0.7 % Ni and 0.7 % Cu. When the specimens were evaluated according to their mechanical properties, the specimens alloyed 1 % Ni and 0.65 % Cu seemed promising.

  16. Effects of momentum transfer on sizing of current collectors for lithium-ion batteries during laser cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongkyoung; Mazumder, Jyotirmoy

    2018-02-01

    One of the challenges of the lithium-ion battery manufacturing process is the sizing of electrodes with good cut surface quality. Poor cut surface quality results in internal short circuits in the cells and significant heat generation. One of the solutions that may improve the cut quality with a high cutting speed is laser cutting due to its high energy concentration, fast processing time, high precision, small heat affected zone, flexible range of laser power and contact free process. In order to utilize the advantages of laser electrode cutting, understanding the physical phenomena for each material is crucial. Thus, this study focuses on the laser cutting of current collectors, such as pure copper and aluminum. A 3D self-consistent mathematical model for the laser cutting, including fluid flow, heat transfer, recoil pressure, multiple reflections, capillary and thermo-capillary forces, and phase changes, is presented and solved numerically. Simulation results for the laser cutting are analyzed in terms of penetration time, depth, width, and absorptivity, based on these selected laser parameters. In addition, melt pool flow, melt pool geometry and temperature distribution are investigated.

  17. Experimental comparison of laser energy losses in high-quality laser-oxygen cutting of low-carbon steel using radiation from fibre and CO{sub 2} lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golyshev, A A; Malikov, A G; Orishich, A M; Shulyat' ev, V B [S.A. Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-30

    We report a comparative experimental study of laseroxygen cutting of low-carbon steel using a fibre laser with a wavelength of 1.07 μm and a CO{sub 2} laser with a wavelength of 10.6 μm at the sheet thickness of 3 – 16 mm. For the two lasers we have measured the dependence of the cutting speed on the radiation power and determined the cutting speed at which the surface roughness is minimal. The coefficient of laser radiation absorption in the laser cutting process is measured for these lasers at different values of the cutting speed and radiation power. It is found that the minimal roughness of the cut surface is reached at the absorbed laser energy per unit volume of the removed material, equal to 11 – 13 J mm{sup -3}; this value is the same for the two lasers and does not depend on the sheet thickness. (laser technologies)

  18. CO{sub 2} laser beam cutting with long-focused optics system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okimura, Koji [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe Shipyard and Machinery Works, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Nagura, Yasumi; Ishide, Takashi; Hiramoto, Yoneo

    1999-07-01

    In cutting the decommissioned nuclear facility, it is required to ensure the safety for dismantling workers, to control the amount of wastes generated by cutting, to reduce the costs, etc. Recently, the laser power has increased remarkably and its application tests are carried out at various fields. In this work, cutting tests were carried out with the CO{sub 2} laser having a long-focused optics system of the meter scale. Then, in the optics system of 5 m focal length, it is possible to cut the steel plates of 30 and 40 mm thickness with the laser power of 20 and 40 kW respectively and 42 mm out diameter steel pipe of 5 mm thickness with that of 20 kW without using assistant gas. This cutting process can be developed such a new dismantling method that may dismantle crowded overhead pipes without a scaffolding, so it is expected to ensure the safety for dismantling workers, to decrease the amount of total radiation exposure and to reduce the costs. (author)

  19. Multifocal laser surgery: cutting enhancement by hydrodynamic interactions between cavitation bubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toytman, I; Silbergleit, A; Simanovski, D; Palanker, D

    2010-10-01

    Transparent biological tissues can be precisely dissected with ultrafast lasers using optical breakdown in the tight focal zone. Typically, tissues are cut by sequential application of pulses, each of which produces a single cavitation bubble. We investigate the hydrodynamic interactions between simultaneous cavitation bubbles originating from multiple laser foci. Simultaneous expansion and collapse of cavitation bubbles can enhance the cutting efficiency, by increasing the resulting deformations in tissue, and the associated rupture zone. An analytical model of the flow induced by the bubbles is presented and experimentally verified. The threshold strain of the material rupture is measured in a model tissue. Using the computational model and the experimental value of the threshold strain one can compute the shape of the rupture zone in tissue resulting from application of multiple bubbles. With the threshold strain of 0.7 two simultaneous bubbles produce a continuous cut when applied at the distance 1.35 times greater than that required in sequential approach. Simultaneous focusing of the laser in multiple spots along the line of intended cut can extend this ratio to 1.7. Counterpropagating jets forming during collapse of two bubbles in materials with low viscosity can further extend the cutting zone-up to approximately a factor of 1.5.

  20. Measuring the State-of-the-Art in Laser Cut Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Pocorni, Jetro; Powell, John; Ilar, Torbjörn; Schwarz, A.; Kaplan, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the strategy appropriate to investigating the state of the art of laser cutting from an industrial point of view. The importance of creating the samples in a high quality industrial environment is emphasised and preliminary results are presented.

  1. Laser cutting eliminates nucleic acid cross-contamination in dried-blood-spot processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sean C; Daza, Glenda; Chang, Ming; Coombs, Robert

    2012-12-01

    Dried blood spots (DBS) are useful for molecular assays but are prone to false positives from cross-contamination. In our malaria DBS assay, cross-contamination was encountered despite cleaning techniques suitable for HIV-1. We therefore developed a contact-free laser cutting system that effectively eliminated cross-contamination during DBS processing.

  2. Femtosecond laser cutting of human corneas for the subbasal nerve plexus evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowtharapu, B S; Marfurt, C; Hovakimyan, M; Will, F; Richter, H; Wree, A; Stachs, O; Guthoff, R F

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of various morphological parameters of the corneal subbasal nerve plexus is a valuable method of documenting the structural and presumably functional integrity of the corneal innervation in health and disease. The aim of this work is to establish a rapid, reliable and reproducible method for visualization of the human corneal SBP using femtosecond laser cut corneal tissue sections. Trephined healthy corneal buttons were fixed and processed using TissueSurgeon-a femtosecond laser based microtome, to obtain thick tissue sections of the corneal epithelium and anterior stroma cut parallel to the ocular surface within approximately 15 min. A near infrared femtosecond laser was focused on to the cornea approximately 70-90 μm from the anterior surface to induce material separation using TissueSurgeon. The obtained corneal sections were stained following standard immunohistochemical procedures with anti-neuronal β-III tubulin antibody for visualization of the corneal nerves. Sections that contained the epithelium and approximately 20-30 μm of anterior stroma yielded excellent visualisation of the SBP with minimal optical interference from underlying stromal nerves. In conclusion, the results of this study have demonstrated that femtosecond laser cutting of the human cornea offers greater speed, ease and reliability than standard tissue preparation methods for obtaining high quality thick sections of the anterior cornea cut parallel to the ocular surface. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2016 Royal Microscopical Society.

  3. Development of in-situ laser cutting technique for removal of single selected coolant channel from pressurized heavy water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishwakarma, S.C.; Upadhyaya, B.N.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the development of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser based cutting technique for removal of single coolant channel from pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR). It includes development of special tools/manipulators and optimization of laser cutting process parameters for cutting of liner tube, end fitting, bellow lip weld joint, and pressure tube stubs. For each cutting operation, a special tool with precision motion control is utilized. These manipulators/tools hold and move the laser cutting nozzle in the required manner and are fixed on the same coolant channel, which has to be removed. This laser cutting technique has been successfully deployed for removal of selected coolant channels Q-16, Q-15 and N-6 of KAPS-2 reactor with minimum radiation dose consumption and in short time. (author)

  4. Laser cutting performances for thick steel specimens studied by molten metal removal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Koji; Toyama, Shin'ichi

    2017-01-01

    Laser cutting performances for thick carbon steel and stainless steel specimens up to 300 mm in thickness were studied to dismantle large steel objects. The cutting performances were summarized based on the assist gas flow rate and the front kerf width, and the range for appropriate cutting conditions was shown. Gas pressure in the kerf region required for molten metal removal was estimated from the pressure loss on the kerf surface, which depended on the gas flow rate and the kerf width. The relation to keep sufficient gas pressure in the kerf well corresponded to the experimental relations for appropriate cutting. Drag force to the molten metal on the kerf surface was also estimated, which varied by the structures and materials. The behaviors such as cavity formation and its expansion in the kerf region at the unsuccessful cutting trials were well explained. The results are informative for the development of the laser cutting technology applied to the thick steel specimen for the nuclear decommissioning. (author)

  5. Underwater cutting of reactor core internals by CO laser using local-dry-zone creating nozzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Osa (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Takasago, Hyogo (Japan). Takasago Research and Development Center); Sugihara, Masaaki; Miya, Kenzo

    1992-11-01

    With a view to practical application of the CO laser to underwater cutting of thick steel plates, a nozzle for creating a local dry zone on the workpiece has been developed and tested. The nozzle directed against the workpiece surface discharges a jet of air, which forms the local dry zone, bounded by a cone of high-speed water jet discharged from a concentric annular outlet. Preliminary tests were performed to optimize the nozzle shape and operating conditions. The resulting nozzle was used with a 5 kW CO laser for actual underwater cutting tests on stainless steel plates: Entirely satisfactory cutting performance was confirmed on various workpiece geometries and working positions. (author).

  6. Burr formation detector for fiber laser cutting based on a photodiode sensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleier, Max; Adelmann, Benedikt; Neumeier, Benedikt; Hellmann, Ralf

    2017-11-01

    We report a unique sensor system based on a InGaAs photodiode to detect the formation of burr during near infrared fiber laser cutting. The sensor approach encompasses the measurement of the thermal radiation form the process zone, optical filtering, digitalized sampling at 20 kHz, digital filtering using an elliptical band-pass filter 12th order and calculation of the standard deviation. We find a linear correlation between the deduced sensor signal and the generated burr height with this functionality being experimentally confirmed for laser cutting of mild and stainless steel of different thicknesses. The underlying mechanism of this transducer concept is attributed to the melt flow dynamics inside the cut kerf.

  7. Clinical observation of cutting fluctuations on central corneal thickness after laser subepithelial keratomileusis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cheng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the percentage of cutting fluctuations of central corneal thickness(CCTintraoperative used low concentration(0.02%mitomycin C(MMCafter laser-assisted subepithelial keratomileusis(LASEK. METHODS: In this prospective study, low and medium myopia group(spherical equivalent≤6.0DShas 138 patients(276 eyes. Low concentration MMC used topically in 69 patients(138 eyesrandomized after excimer laser ablation; the another traditional LASEK as control. High myopia group(6.0DSt test and their repeatability was assessed using the coefficient of variation(CV.RESULTS: At 3mo after operation, the difference of central corneal thickness and cutting value between different treatment groups was statistically significant(PPPPCONCLUSION: The study on percentage of cutting fluctuations of central corneal thickness, further confirmed low concentrations MMC in reducing postoperative corneal stromal proliferation reaction, inhibition of haze production.

  8. Experimental investigation of hydrodynamics of melt layer during laser cutting of steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, Koji; Fabbro, Remy, E-mail: hirano.koji@nsc.co.jp [PIMM Laboratory (Arts et Metiers ParisTech-CNRS), 151 Boulevard de l' Hopital 75013 Paris (France)

    2011-03-16

    In a laser cutting process, understanding of the hydrodynamics of melt layer is significant, because it is an important factor which controls the final quality. In this work, we observed the hydrodynamics of melt layer on a kerf front in the case of laser cutting of steel with an inert gas. The observation shows that the melt flow on the kerf front exhibits strong instability, depending on cutting velocity. In the intermediate range of velocities, the flow on the central part of the kerf front is continuous, whereas the flow along the sides is discontinuous. It is first confirmed that the instability in the side flow is the cause of striation initiation from the top part of the kerf. The origin of the instability is discussed in terms of instabilities in thermal dynamics and hydrodynamics. The proposed model shows reasonable agreement with experimental results.

  9. Laser cutting of graphite anodes for automotive lithium-ion secondary batteries: investigations in the edge geometry and heat-affected zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmieder, Benjamin

    2012-03-01

    To serve the high need of lithium-ion secondary batteries of the automobile industry in the next ten years it is necessary to establish highly reliable, fast and non abrasive machining processes. In previous works [1] it was shown that high cutting speeds with several meters per second are achievable. For this, mainly high power single mode fibre lasers with up to several kilo watts were used. Since lithium-ion batteries are very fragile electro chemical systems, the cutting speed is not the only thing important. To guarantee a high cycling stability and a long calendrical life time the edge quality and the heat affected zone (HAZ) are equally important. Therefore, this paper tries to establish an analytical model for the geometry of the cutting edge based on the ablation thresholds of the different materials. It also deals with the composition of the HAZ in dependence of the pulse length, generated by laser remote cutting with pulsed fibre laser. The characterisation of the HAZ was done by optical microscopy, SEM, EDX and Raman microscopy.

  10. OPTIMIZATION OF MACHINING PARAMETERS USING TAGUCHI APPROACH DURING HARD TURNING OF ALLOY STEEL WITH UNCOATED CARBIDE UNDER DRY CUTTING ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Das

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world of manufacturing by machining process two things are very important, one is productivity and the other one is quality. Quality of a product generally depends upon the surface finish and dimensional deviations. The productivity can be seen as a key economic indicator of innovation in terms of higher material removal rate with a less time and cost in machining industries. Taguchi method is a popular statistical technique for optimization of input parameters to get the best output results. Dry machining is a popular methodology for machining hard material and it has been accepted by many researchers to a great extent because of its low cost and safety. Many scientists have taken various input parameters and studied their effects on different output responses. In the present paper an attempt has been made to study the effect of input parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut on Surface roughness, Tool wear, Power consumption and Chip reduction co-efficient under dry condition using uncoated carbide insert. Signal to noise ratio has been used to select the optimal condition for various output responses. ANOVA table has been drawn for each output responses and finally mathematical model of multiple regression analysis has been prepared and authenticity of the statistical model have been checked by normal probability plot. It has been found from the experimental result that the power consumption and flank wear both were minimum at the cutting speed of 250 rpm and 400 rpm respectively. Chip reduction coefficient has been found minimum at a depth of cut of 0.3 mm and surface roughness was minimum at 0.1 mm/rev. feed rate.

  11. Laser Cutting of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics - Investigation of Hazardous Process Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Juergen; Hustedt, Michael; Staehr, Richard; Kaierle, Stefan; Jaeschke, Peter; Suttmann, Oliver; Overmeyer, Ludger

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) show high potential for use in lightweight applications not only in aircraft design, but also in the automotive or wind energy industry. However, processing of CFRP is complex and expensive due to their outstanding mechanical properties. One possibility to manufacture CFRP structures flexibly at acceptable process speeds is high-power laser cutting. Though showing various advantages such as contactless energy transfer, this process is connected to potentially hazardous emission of respirable dust and organic gases. Moreover, the emitted particles may be fibrous, thus requiring particular attention. Here, a systematic analysis of the hazardous substances emitted during laser cutting of CFRP with thermoplastic and thermosetting matrix is presented. The objective is to evaluate emission rates for the total particulate and gaseous fractions as well as for different organic key components. Furthermore, the influence of the laser process conditions shall be assessed, and first proposals to handle the emissions adequately are made.

  12. Effects of cutting parameters on machinability characteristics of Ni-based superalloys: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaya Eren

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nickel based superalloys offer high strength, corrosion resistance, thermal stability and superb thermal fatigue properties. However, they have been one of the most difficult materials to machine due to these properties. Although we are witnessing improved machining strategies with the developing machining, tooling and inspection technologies, machining of nickel based superalloys is still a challenging task due to in-process strains and post process part quality demands.

  13. Investigation into the accuracy of a proposed laser diode based multilateration machine tool calibration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, S; Longstaff, A P; Myers, A

    2005-01-01

    Geometric and thermal calibration of CNC machine tools is required in modern machine shops with volumetric accuracy assessment becoming the standard machine tool qualification in many industries. Laser interferometry is a popular method of measuring the errors but this, and other alternatives, tend to be expensive, time consuming or both. This paper investigates the feasibility of using a laser diode based system that capitalises on the low cost nature of the diode to provide multiple laser sources for fast error measurement using multilateration. Laser diode module technology enables improved wavelength stability and spectral linewidth which are important factors for laser interferometry. With more than three laser sources, the set-up process can be greatly simplified while providing flexibility in the location of the laser sources improving the accuracy of the system

  14. Femtosecond laser cutting of multiple thin corneal stromal lamellae for endothelial bioengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Aurélien; He, Zhiguo; Forest, Fabien; Gauthier, Anne-Sophie; Peocʼh, Michel; Dumollard, Jean-Marc; Acquart, Sophie; Montard, Romain; Delbosc, Bernard; Gain, Philippe; Thuret, Gilles

    2015-02-01

    To assess the feasibility of cutting multiple thin stromal lamellae in human donor corneas using a commercial femtosecond laser (FSL) to provide cell carriers for future endothelial graft bioengineering. Eight edematous organ-cultured corneas not suitable for grafting for endothelial reasons were mounted on a Ziemer anterior chamber and cut with a Z6 FSL with 6 successive parallel cuts, from depth to surface. Target thickness of each lamella ranged from 100 to 150 μm depending on initial corneal thickness. Thickness was measured using anterior segment optical coherence tomography before and after cutting on mounted corneas, and on each stromal lamella after detachment. Scanning electron microscopy observation was performed on 4 lamellae and histological cross sections on 1 cornea before detachment. A median of 5 (minimum 3, maximum 7) lamellae was obtained per cornea. All lamellae still attached were the most posterior ones, suggesting that FSL was less efficient because of light scattering by edematous stroma. Cut precision and postdetachment swelling were correlated with anterior-posterior position within the cornea. Median lamella thickness was 127 μm (56-222 μm) before detachment and 196 μm (80-304 μm) after detachment. Surface state was consistent with previously reported FSL lamellar cuts during Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty. Up to 7 thin lamellae can be cut in stored corneas with an FSL. This method, once optimized primarily by using deswelled, more transparent corneas, could prove effective for recycling unsuitable donor corneas in corneal bioengineering processes.

  15. Experimental use of road header (AM-50) as face cutting machine for extraction of coal in longwall panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passi, K.K.; Kumar, C.R.; Prasad, P. [DGMS, Dhanbad (India)

    2001-07-01

    The scope of this paper has been limited to the use of available machines and techniques for attaining higher and more efficient production in underground coal mines. Under certain conditions of strata and higher degree of gassiness, the longwall method with hydraulic sand stowing is the only appropriate method of work for extraction of thick seam. In Moonidih Jitpur Colliery of M/S IISCO, No. 14 seam, Degree III gassy seam, 9.07 m thick, is extracted in multilift system with hydraulic sand stowing. In general, the bottom lift is extracted by Single Ended Ranging Arm Shearer and the middle and top lift are extracted by conventional method. However, in one of the panels spare road header machine was used as face cutting machine in bottom lift, on an experimental basis. This paper presents a successful case study of extraction of bottom lift coal by the longwall method with hydraulic sand stowing using road header (AM 50) as the face cutting machines. 9 figs.

  16. Analysis and prediction of dimensions and cost of laser micro-machining internal channel fabrication process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brabazon D.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the utilisation of Response Surface Methodology (RSM as the prediction tool for the laser micro-machining process. Laser internal microchannels machined using pulsed Nd:YVO4 laser in polycarbonate were investigated. The experiments were carried out according to 33 factorial Design of Experiment (DoE. In this work the three input process set as control parameters were laser power, P; pulse repetition frequency, PRF; and sample translation speed, U. Measured responses were the channel width and the micro-machining operating cost per metre of produced microchannels. The responses were sufficiently predicted within the set micro-machining parameters limits. Two factorial interaction (2FI and quadratic polynomial regression equations for both responses were constructed. It is proposed that the developed prediction equations can be used to find locally optimal micro-machining process parameters under experimental and operational conditions.

  17. Modelling and optimization of cut quality during pulsed Nd:YAG laser cutting of thin Al-alloy sheet for straight profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Amit; Yadava, Vinod

    2012-02-01

    Thin sheets of aluminium alloys are widely used in aerospace and automotive industries for specific applications. Nd:YAG laser beam cutting is one of the most promising sheetmetal cutting process for cutting sheets for any profile. Al-alloy sheets are difficult to cut by laser beam because of its highly reflective nature. This paper presents modelling and optimization of cut quality during pulsed Nd:YAG laser cutting of thin Al-alloy sheet for straight profile. In the present study, four input process parameters such as oxygen pressure, pulse width, pulse frequency, and cutting speed and two output parameters such as average kerf taper ( Ta) and average surface roughness ( Ra) are considered. The hybrid approach comprising of Taguchi methodology (TM) and response surface methodology (RSM) is used for modelling whereas multi-objective optimization is performed using hybrid approach of TM and grey relational analysis (GRA) coupled with entropy measurement methodology. The entropy measurement methodology is employed for the calculation of weight corresponding to each quality characteristic. The results indicate that the hybrid approaches applied for modelling and optimization of the LBC process are reasonable.

  18. Determination of laser cutting process conditions using the preference selection index method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madić, Miloš; Antucheviciene, Jurgita; Radovanović, Miroslav; Petković, Dušan

    2017-03-01

    Determination of adequate parameter settings for improvement of multiple quality and productivity characteristics at the same time is of great practical importance in laser cutting. This paper discusses the application of the preference selection index (PSI) method for discrete optimization of the CO2 laser cutting of stainless steel. The main motivation for application of the PSI method is that it represents an almost unexplored multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) method, and moreover, this method does not require assessment of the considered criteria relative significances. After reviewing and comparing the existing approaches for determination of laser cutting parameter settings, the application of the PSI method was explained in detail. Experiment realization was conducted by using Taguchi's L27 orthogonal array. Roughness of the cut surface, heat affected zone (HAZ), kerf width and material removal rate (MRR) were considered as optimization criteria. The proposed methodology is found to be very useful in real manufacturing environment since it involves simple calculations which are easy to understand and implement. However, while applying the PSI method it was observed that it can not be useful in situations where there exist a large number of alternatives which have attribute values (performances) very close to those which are preferred.

  19. Towards a safety case for the use of laser cutting in nuclear decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilton, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Some of the requirements in nuclear decommissioning include size reduction of contaminated containers, pipework and other structures manufactured from stainless and other steels. Size reduction is generally performed using mechanical saws or shears, with drawbacks of quick wear, significant applied force, difficult remote operation and addition to contaminated waste mass. The use of lasers for cutting within the context of nuclear decommissioning has been recently demonstrated by TWI and others. In this paper, aspects of drawing together a safety case for using laser beams for cutting in a nuclear decommissioning cell are discussed, via analysis of relevant purpose designed experimental data. Data presented includes assessment of the use of different focal length lenses and the power densities anticipated at distances of up to 3 m from the focal point, as well as beam effects on material behind the cutting zone. An assessment of anticipated material damage from stray beams or unintended exposure to laser light of surrounding items is also presented. Finally materials for effective screening against stray beams during the cutting process have been tested for effectiveness. (authors)

  20. Transient time of an Ising machine based on injection-locked laser network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takata, Kenta; Utsunomiya, Shoko; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2012-01-01

    We numerically study the dynamics and frequency response of the recently proposed Ising machine based on the polarization degrees of freedom of an injection-locked laser network (Utsunomiya et al 2011 Opt. Express 19 18091). We simulate various anti-ferromagnetic Ising problems, including the ones with symmetric Ising and Zeeman coefficients, which enable us to study the problem size up to M = 1000. Transient time, to reach a steady-state polarization configuration after a given Ising problem is mapped onto the system, is inversely proportional to the locking bandwidth and does not scale exponentially with the problem size. In the Fourier analysis with first-order linearization approximation, we find that the cut-off frequency of a system's response is almost identical to the locking bandwidth, which supports the time-domain analysis. It is also shown that the Zeeman term, which is created by the horizontally polarized injection signal from the master laser, serves as an initial driving force on the system and contributes to the transient time in addition to the inverse locking bandwidth. (paper)

  1. On the Gas Dynamics of Inert-Gas-Assisted Laser Cutting of Steel Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, A. D.; Settles, G. S.; Scroggs, S. D.

    1996-11-01

    Laser beam cutting of sheet metal requires an assist gas to blow away the molten material. Since the assist-gas dynamics influences the quality and speed of the cut, the orientation of the gas nozzle with respect to the kerf is also expected to be important. A 1 kW cw CO2 laser with nitrogen assist gas was used to cut mild steel sheet of 1 to 4 mm thickness, using a sonic coaxial nozzle as a baseline. Off-axis nozzles were oriented from 20 deg to 60 deg from normal with exit Mach numbers from 1 to 2.4. Results showed maximum cutting speed at a 40 deg nozzle orientation. Shadowgrams of a geometrically-similar model kerf then revealed a separated shock wave-boundary layer interaction within the kerf for the (untilted) coaxial nozzle case. This was alleviated, resulting in a uniform supersonic flow throughout the kerf and consequent higher cutting speeds, by tilting the nozzle between 20 deg and 45 deg from the normal. This result did not depend upon the exit Mach number of the nozzle. (Research supported by NSF Grant DMI-9400119.)

  2. Cutting performance of TiCN–HSS cermet in dry machining

    OpenAIRE

    Canteli Fernández, José Antonio; Cantero Guisández, José Luis; Marín, N.C.; Gómez, B.; Gordo Odériz, Elena; Miguélez, Henar

    2010-01-01

    This work is focused on the cutting performance of a new cermet based on high-speed steel (HSS) matrix with hard phase TiCN. The processing route to manufacture the cermet M2+ 50 vol.% TiCN is described. Orthogonal cutting tests, carried out in a lathe showed the ability of the new cermet to achieve turning operations, showing reasonably wear resistance performing dry cutting operations. Tool life was significantly increased, when the cermet was compared with the reference materia...

  3. On-line Cutting Tool Condition Monitoring in Machining Processes Using Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Vallejo, Antonio J.; Morales-Menéndez, Rub&#;n; Alique, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter presented new ideas for monitoring and diagnosis of the cutting tool condition with two different algorithms for pattern recognition: HMM, and ANN. The monitoring and diagnosis system was implemented for peripheral milling process in HSM, where several Aluminium alloys and cutting tools were used. The flank wear (VB) was selected as the criterion to evaluate the tool's life and four cutting tool conditions were defined to be recognized: New, half new, half worn, and worn conditio...

  4. Modeling of Wear of Knives of Paper-Cutting Machines in Use

    OpenAIRE

    Кулак, Михаил Иосифович; Медяк, Диана Михайловна

    2016-01-01

    Development of the theory of cutting of paper and methods of measurement of width of the cutting edge in the course of wear of a knife is analyzed. Device to a micrometer for measurement of the tool edge width and a way of determination of radius of a curve of the cutting edge of such tool is presented. The card of wear of a knife is constructed and process of wear of the self-sharpened knife is investigated.

  5. Low-cost 420nm blue laser diode for tissue cutting and hemostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Kurt J.

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes the use of a 420 nm blue laser diode for possible surgery and hemostasis. The optical absorption of blood-containing tissue is strongly determined by the absorption characteristics of blood. Blood is primarily comprised of plasma (yellowish extracellular fluid that is approximately 95% water by volume) and formed elements: red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs) and platelets. The RBCs (hemoglobin) are the most numerous, and due to the spectral absorption characteristics of hemoglobin, the optical absorption of blood has a strong relative maximum value in the 420 nm blue region of the optical spectrum. Small, low-cost laser diodes emitting at 420 nm with tens of watts of continuous wave (CW) optical power are becoming commercially available. Experiments on the use of such laser diodes for tissue cutting with simultaneous hemostasis were carried out and are here described. It was found that 1 mm deep x 1 mm wide cuts can be achieved in red meat at a focused laser power level of 3 W moving at a velocity of ~ 1 mm/s. The peripheral necrosis and thermal damage zone extended over a width of approximately 0.5 mm adjacent to the cuts. Preliminary hemostasis experiments were carried out with fresh equine blood in Tygon tubing, where it was demonstrated that cauterization can occur in regions of intentional partial tubing puncture.

  6. Analysis of correlations of multiple-performance characteristics for optimization of CO2 laser nitrogen cutting of AISI 304 stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Madić

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The identification of laser cutting conditions for satisfying different requirements such as improving cut quality characteristics and material removal rate is of great importance. In this paper, an attempt has been made to develop mathematical models in order to relate laser cutting parameters such as the laser power, cutting speed, assist gas pressure and focus position, and cut quality characteristics such as the surface roughness, kerf width and width of heat affected zone (HAZ. A laser cutting experiment was planned as per Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array with three levels for each of laser cutting parameters considered. 3 mm thick AISI 304 stainless steel was used as workpiece material. Mathematical models were developed using a single hidden layer artificial neural network (ANN trained with the Levenberg– Marquardt algorithm. On the basis of the developed ANN models the effects of the laser cutting parameters on the cut quality characteristics were presented. It was observed that laser cutting parameters variously affect cut quality characteristics. Also, for the range of operating conditions considered in the experiment, laser cut quality operating diagrams were shown. From these operating diagrams one can see the values of cut quality characteristics that can be achieved and subsequently select laser cutting parameter values. Furthermore, the analysis includes correlations between cut quality characteristics and material removal rate. To this aim, six trade-off operating diagrams for improving multiple responses at the same time were given.

  7. The influence of assist gas on magnetic properties of electrotechnical steel sheets cut with laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaworska-Koniarek, Dominika; Szubzda, Bronislaw; Wilczynski, Wieslaw; Drosik, Jerzy; Karas, Kazimierz

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the influence of assist gas (air and nitrogen) during laser cutting on magnetization, magnetic permeability and loss characteristics of non-oriented electrical steels. The research was made on an non-oriented M330-50A grade electrical steels by means of single sheet tester. In order to enhance the effect of cutting and the same degradation zone on magnetic properties, strips with different width were achieved. Measurements results indicate that application of air as assist gas has more destructive effect on magnetic properties of electrical steels than nitrogen one.

  8. The influence of assist gas on magnetic properties of electrotechnical steel sheets cut with laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaworska-Koniarek, Dominika; Szubzda, Bronisław; Wilczyński, Wiesław; Drosik, Jerzy; Karaś, Kazimierz

    2011-07-01

    The paper presents the influence of assist gas (air and nitrogen) during laser cutting on magnetization, magnetic permeability and loss characteristics of non-oriented electrical steels. The research was made on an non-oriented M330-50A grade electrical steels by means of single sheet tester. In order to enhance the effect of cutting and the same degradation zone on magnetic properties, strips with different width were achieved. Measurements results indicate that application of air as assist gas has more destructive effect on magnetic properties of electrical steels than nitrogen one.

  9. TECHNOLOGY OF REVERSE-BLAST CORROSION CLEANING OF STEEL SHEETS PRIOR TO LASER CUTTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Zguk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of surface cleaning against corrosion influences on efficiency in realization of a number of technological processes. While using bentonite clays in power fluid reverse-blast cleaning ensures formation of anticorrosion protective coating with light absorbing properties on the cleaned surface and prevents formation of the repeated corrosion. The paper presents results of the investigations pertaining to influence of reverse-blast cleaning parameters of steel sheets on quality of the cleaned surface prior to laser cutting. Processing conditions, applied compositions of power fluid and also properties of the protective film coatings on the cleaned surface have been given in the paper. The paper considers topography, morphology and chemical composition of the given coating while applying complex metal micrographic, X-ray diffraction and electronic and microscopic investigations. A complex of laser cutting (refer to gas lasers with output continuous capacity of 2.5/4.0 kW has been applied for experimental works to evaluate influence of the formed surface quality on efficiency of laser cutting process. Specimens having dimension 120×120 mm, made of steel Ст3пс, with thickness from 3 to 10 mm have been prepared for the experiments. An analysis has shown that the application of reverse-blast cleaning ensures higher speed in laser cutting by a mean of 10–20 %. The investigations have made it possible to determine optimum cleaning modes: distance from a nozzle to the surface to be cleaned, jet velocity, pressure. It has been revealed that after drying of the specimens processed by power fluid based on water with concentrations of bentonite clay and calcined soda a protective film coating with thickness of some 5–7 µm has been formed on the whole cleaned specimen surfaces. Chemical base of the coating has been formed by the elements which are included in the composition of bentonite clay being the basic component of the power fluid. 

  10. Microstructure and chemical bond evolution of diamond-like carbon films machined by femtosecond laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Chunhui [Science and Technology on Thermostructure Composite Materials Laboratory, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Liu, Yongsheng, E-mail: yongshengliu@nwpu.edu.cn [Science and Technology on Thermostructure Composite Materials Laboratory, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Cheng, Laifei [Science and Technology on Thermostructure Composite Materials Laboratory, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Li, Weinan [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi’an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 10068 (China); Zhang, Qing [Science and Technology on Thermostructure Composite Materials Laboratory, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Yang, Xiaojun [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi’an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 10068 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • The machining depth was essentially proportional to the laser power. • The well patterned microgrooves and ripple structures with nanoparticles were formed distinctly in the channels. And the number of nanoparticles increased with the processing power as well. • It revealed a conversion from amorphous carbon to nanocrystalline graphite after laser treated with increasing laser power. • It showed that a great decrease of sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} after laser treatment. - Abstract: Femtosecond laser is of great interest for machining high melting point and hardness materials such as diamond-like carbon, SiC ceramic, et al. In present work, the microstructural and chemical bond evolution of diamond-like carbon films were investigated using electron microscopy and spectroscopy techniques after machined by diverse femtosecond laser power in air. The results showed the machining depth was essentially proportional to the laser power. The well patterned microgrooves and ripple structures with nanoparticles were formed distinctly in the channels. Considering the D and G Raman band parameters on the laser irradiation, it revealed a conversion from amorphous carbon to nanocrystalline graphite after laser treated with increasing laser power. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed a great decrease of sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} after laser treatment.

  11. Comparative evaluation of laser-assisted micro-milling for AISI 316, AISI 422, TI-6AL-4V and Inconel 718 in a side-cutting configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelton, Jonathan A; Shin, Yung C

    2010-01-01

    This paper is focused on numerical modeling and experimental evaluation of laser-assisted micro-milling (LAMM). An experimental setup consisting of a 25 W CO 2 laser, three-axis CNC linear stages and a high-speed spindle was used to implement the LAMM process. Micro-endmills between 100 and 300 µm in diameter were used to perform side-cutting operations with and without laser preheat on four materials: AISI 316, AISI 422, Ti-6Al-4V and Inconel 718. A three-dimensional transient finite-volume-based thermal model was used to analytically predict appropriate process parameters on the basis of material-removal temperatures. The effects of LAMM on the machined surface finish, edge burrs, tool wear and workpiece microstructure were evaluated experimentally.

  12. Inverse cutting of posterior lamellar corneal grafts by a femtosecond laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjortdal, Jesper; Nielsen, Esben; Vestergaard, Anders; Søndergaard, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Posterior lamellar grafting of the cornea has become the preferred technique for treatment of corneal endothelial dysfunction. Posterior lamellar grafts are usually cut by a micro-keratome or a femto-second laser after the epithelial side of the donor cornea has been applanated. This approach often results in variable central graft thickness in different grafts and an increase in graft thickness towards the periphery in every graft. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if posterior lamellar grafts can be prepared from the endothelial side by a femto-second laser, resulting in reproducible, thin grafts of even thickness. A CZM 500 kHz Visumax femto-second laser was used. Organ cultured donor grafts were mounted in an artifical anterior chamber with the endothelial side up and out. Posterior grafts of 7.8 mm diameter and 130 micron thickness were prepared by femto-second laser cutting. A standard DSAEK procedure was performed in 10 patients with Fuchs endothelial dystrophy. Patients were followed-up regularly and evaluated by measurement of complications, visual acuity, corneal thickness (Pentacam HR), and endothelial cell density. Femto-laser cutting of grafts and surgery was uncomplicated. Rebubbling was necessary in 5 of 10 cases (normally only in 1 of 20 cases). All grafts were attached and cleared up during the first few weeks. After six months, the average visual acuity was 0.30 (range: 0.16 to 0.50), corneal thickness was 0.58 mm (range 0.51 to 0.63), and endothelial cell density was 1.570 per sq. mm (range: 1.400 to 2.000 cells per sq. mm). The grafts were of uniform thickness, but substantial interface haze was present in most grafts. Posterior lamellar corneal grafts can be prepared from the endothelial side using a femto-second laser. All grafts were clear after 6 months with satisfying endothelial cell counts. Poor visual acuity caused by interface scatter was observed in most patients. Femto-second laser cutting parameters needs to be optimised to

  13. Energetics of the multi-phase fluid flow in a narrow kerf in laser cutting conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golyshev, A. A.; Orishich, A. M.; Shulyatyev, V. B.

    2016-10-01

    The energy balance of the multi-phase medium flow is studied experimentally under the laser cutting. Experimental data are generalized due to the condition of minimal roughness of the created surface used as a quality criterion of the melt flow, and also due to the application of dimensionless parameters: Peclet number and dimensionless absorbed laser power. For the first time ever it is found that, regardless the assistant gas (oxygen or nitrogen), laser type (the fiber one with the wavelength of 1.07 µm or CO2-laser with the wavelength of 10.6 µm), the minimal roughness is provided at a certain energy input in a melt unit, about 26 J/mm3. With oxygen, 50% of this input is provided by the radiation, the other 50% - by the exothermic reaction of iron oxidation.

  14. Experimental investigation of transient temperature characteristic in high power fiber laser cutting of a thick steel plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phi Long, Nguyen; Matsunaga, Yukihiro; Hanari, Toshihide; Yamada, Tomonori; Muramatsu, Toshiharu

    2016-10-01

    Experiment of temperature measurement was performed to investigate the transient temperature characteristics of molten metal during laser cutting. The aim of this study was to establish a method for measuring the surface temperature variation near the molten pool correlated with changes in cutting parameters. The relationship between temperature inside the kerf cut and characteristic of the cut surface was investigated by using thermography and thermocouples. Results show strong correlations between the transient temperatures and the thermal image for different cutting conditions. In addition, two-color thermometer has been used to obtain radiation intensity emitted from the irradiating zone as a function of operating conditions. Experiments have shown that one can detect the cutting quality by characterization of the surface temperature during laser cutting process.

  15. A high-peak-power passively Q-switched composite variable-cut vanadate laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirotkin, A A

    2014-01-01

    We present laser sources based on a novel method of controlling spectral parameters in diode-pumped vanadate lasers. Angular dependences of the luminescence intensity of Stark transitions at the 4F3/2‒4I11/2 transition in vanadate crystals are investigated. The operation of diode-pumped passively Q-switched composite variable-cut (θ = var, φ = 0) YVO 4 –Nd 3+  : YVO 4 lasers with Cr 4+  : YAG saturable absorber is demonstrated (the narrowest pulse of 2 ns with the highest peak power of 24.3 kW). In the experiment, an efficient self-Raman laser was realized, based on the multifunctional variable-cut (θ = 25°, φ = 0) YVO 4 –Nd 3+  : YVO 4 laser crystal with the passive Q-switched. (letters)

  16. Accuracy Enhancement with Processing Error Prediction and Compensation of a CNC Flame Cutting Machine Used in Spatial Surface Operating Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghai Hu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the precision performance of the CNC flame-cutting machine used in spatial surface operating conditions and presents an accuracy enhancement method based on processing error modeling prediction and real-time compensation. Machining coordinate systems and transformation matrix models were established for the CNC flame processing system considering both geometric errors and thermal deformation effects. Meanwhile, prediction and compensation models were constructed related to the actual cutting situation. Focusing on the thermal deformation elements, finite element analysis was used to measure the testing data of thermal errors, the grey system theory was applied to optimize the key thermal points, and related thermal dynamics models were carried out to achieve high-precision prediction values. Comparison experiments between the proposed method and the teaching method were conducted on the processing system after performing calibration. The results showed that the proposed method is valid and the cutting quality could be improved by more than 30% relative to the teaching method. Furthermore, the proposed method can be used under any working condition by making a few adjustments to the prediction and compensation models.

  17. Laser-oxygen cutting of mild steel: the thermodynamics of the oxidation reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, J; Kaplan, A F H [Department of Applied Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Luleaa University of Technology, SE-971 87 Luleaa (Sweden); Petring, D [Fraunhofer-Institute for Laser Technology (ILT), Steinbachstrasse 15, Aachen (Germany); Kumar, R V [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Al-Mashikhi, S O; Voisey, K T [Department of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: jpowell@laserexp.co.uk

    2009-01-07

    In a considerable proportion of the published work on the subject of laser-oxygen cutting of mild steel, the details of the oxidation reaction are overlooked or confused. For example, it is not uncommon for the oxidized material to be attributed with the physical characteristics of iron rather than iron oxide. Also, the fact that the oxidation reaction cannot take place above a certain temperature limit is usually overlooked. This paper presents, for the first time, an in-depth analysis of the Iron to FeO oxidation reaction in the context of laser-oxygen cutting of mild steel. The paper concludes by presenting a number of guidelines for future theoretical models.

  18. Stress Distribution around Laser-Welded Cutting Wheels Using a Spherical Indentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yun Hee; Lee, Wan Kyu; Jeong, In Hyeon; Nahm, Seung Hoon [KRISS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    A spherical indentation has been proposed as a nondestructive method of measuring local residual stress field in laser-voided joints. The apparent yield strengths interpreted from the spherical indentation data of as-welded cutting wheel were compared with the intrinsic yield strengths measured at nearly equivalent locations in annealed wheel. Their difference along the distance from the welding line is welding stress distribution because the intrinsic yield strength is invariant regardless of the elastic residual stress. The spherical indentations show that the laser-welded diamond cutting wheel displays a 10 min-wide distribution of the welding residual stress and has peak compressive and tensile stresses in the shank and tip regions, respectively.

  19. Modeling and optimization of kerf taper and surface roughness in laser cutting of titanium alloy sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Arun Kumar; Dubey, Avanish Kumar [Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2013-07-15

    Laser cutting of titanium and its alloys is difficult due to it's poor thermal conductivity and chemical reactivity at elevated temperatures. But demand of these materials in different advanced industries such as aircraft, automobile and space research, require accurate geometry with high surface quality. The present research investigates the laser cutting process behavior of titanium alloy sheet (Ti-6Al-4V) with the aim to improve geometrical accuracy and surface quality by minimizing the kerf taper and surface roughness. The data obtained from L{sub 27} orthogonal array experiments have been used for developing neural network (NN) based models of kerf taper and surface roughness. A hybrid approach of neural network and genetic algorithm has been proposed and applied for the optimization of different quality characteristics. The optimization results show considerable improvements in both the quality characteristics. The results predicted by NN models are well in agreement with the experimental data.

  20. Laser-oxygen cutting of mild steel: the thermodynamics of the oxidation reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J; Kaplan, A F H; Petring, D; Kumar, R V; Al-Mashikhi, S O; Voisey, K T

    2009-01-01

    In a considerable proportion of the published work on the subject of laser-oxygen cutting of mild steel, the details of the oxidation reaction are overlooked or confused. For example, it is not uncommon for the oxidized material to be attributed with the physical characteristics of iron rather than iron oxide. Also, the fact that the oxidation reaction cannot take place above a certain temperature limit is usually overlooked. This paper presents, for the first time, an in-depth analysis of the Iron to FeO oxidation reaction in the context of laser-oxygen cutting of mild steel. The paper concludes by presenting a number of guidelines for future theoretical models.