WorldWideScience

Sample records for laser capture micro

  1. Laser capture microdissection followed by next-generation sequencing identifies disease-related microRNAs in psoriatic skin that reflect systemic microRNA changes in psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvendorf, Marianne B; Mitsui, Hiroshi; Zibert, John R

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a systemic disease with cutaneous manifestations. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that are differentially expressed in psoriatic skin; however, only few cell- and region-specific miRNAs have been identified in psoriatic lesions. We used laser capture...... microdissection (LCM) and next-generation sequencing (NGS) to study the specific miRNA expression profiles in the epidermis (Epi) and dermal inflammatory infiltrates (RD) of psoriatic skin (N = 6). We identified 24 deregulated miRNAs in the Epi and 37 deregulated miRNAs in the RD of psoriatic plaque compared...... with normal psoriatic skin (FCH > 2, FDR

  2. Laser Capture Microdissection Assisted Identification of Epithelial MicroRNA Expression Signatures for Prognosis of Stage I NSCLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    SiC  relativ stains (B) are p tandard error 0 ng of RN on of a muc , a finding s measured crease in t dissection l, given tha of total RN ummary o...the yield and quality of microRNAs from LMD microdissectates of FFPE tissues for downstream analysis. Materials and Methods Ethics statement

  3. Laser-capture micro dissection combined with next-generation sequencing analysis of cell type-specific deafness gene expression in the mouse cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Shin-Ya; Takumi, Yutaka; Usami, Shin-Ichi

    2017-05-01

    Cochlear implantation (CI), which directly stimulates the cochlear nerves, is the most effective and widely used medical intervention for patients with severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss. The etiology of the hearing loss is speculated to have a major influence of CI outcomes, particularly in cases resulting from mutations in genes preferentially expressed in the spiral ganglion region. To elucidate precise gene expression levels in each part of the cochlea, we performed laser-capture micro dissection in combination with next-generation sequencing analysis and determined the expression levels of all known deafness-associated genes in the organ of Corti, spiral ganglion, lateral wall, and spiral limbs. The results were generally consistent with previous reports based on immunocytochemistry or in situ hybridization. As a notable result, the genes associated with many kinds of syndromic hearing loss (such as Clpp, Hars2, Hsd17b4, Lars2 for Perrault syndrome, Polr1c and Polr1d for Treacher Collins syndrome, Ndp for Norrie Disease, Kal for Kallmann syndrome, Edn3 and Snai2 for Waardenburg Syndrome, Col4a3 for Alport syndrome, Sema3e for CHARGE syndrome, Col9a1 for Sticker syndrome, Cdh23, Cib2, Clrn1, Pcdh15, Ush1c, Ush2a, Whrn for Usher syndrome and Wfs1 for Wolfram syndrome) showed higher levels of expression in the spiral ganglion than in other parts of the cochlea. This dataset will provide a base for more detailed analysis in order to clarify gene functions in the cochlea as well as predict CI outcomes based on gene expression data. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Laser 3D micro-manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piqué, Alberto; Auyeung, Raymond C Y; Kim, Heungsoo; Charipar, Nicholas A; Mathews, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    Laser-based materials processing techniques are gaining widespread use in micro-manufacturing applications. The use of laser microfabrication techniques enables the processing of micro- and nanostructures from a wide range of materials and geometries without the need for masking and etching steps commonly associated with photolithography. This review aims to describe the broad applications space covered by laser-based micro- and nanoprocessing techniques and the benefits offered by the use of lasers in micro-manufacturing processes. Given their non-lithographic nature, these processes are also referred to as laser direct-write and constitute some of the earliest demonstrations of 3D printing or additive manufacturing at the microscale. As this review will show, the use of lasers enables precise control of the various types of processing steps—from subtractive to additive—over a wide range of scales with an extensive materials palette. Overall, laser-based direct-write techniques offer multiple modes of operation including the removal (via ablative processes) and addition (via photopolymerization or printing) of most classes of materials using the same equipment in many cases. The versatility provided by these multi-function, multi-material and multi-scale laser micro-manufacturing processes cannot be matched by photolithography nor with other direct-write microfabrication techniques and offer unique opportunities for current and future 3D micro-manufacturing applications. (topical review)

  5. Laser based micro forming and assembly.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacCallum, Danny O' Neill; Wong, Chung-Nin Channy; Knorovsky, Gerald Albert; Steyskal, Michele D.; Lehecka, Tom (Pennsylvania State University, Freeport, PA); Scherzinger, William Mark; Palmer, Jeremy Andrew

    2006-11-01

    It has been shown that thermal energy imparted to a metallic substrate by laser heating induces a transient temperature gradient through the thickness of the sample. In favorable conditions of laser fluence and absorptivity, the resulting inhomogeneous thermal strain leads to a measurable permanent deflection. This project established parameters for laser micro forming of thin materials that are relevant to MESA generation weapon system components and confirmed methods for producing micrometer displacements with repeatable bend direction and magnitude. Precise micro forming vectors were realized through computational finite element analysis (FEA) of laser-induced transient heating that indicated the optimal combination of laser heat input relative to the material being heated and its thermal mass. Precise laser micro forming was demonstrated in two practical manufacturing operations of importance to the DOE complex: micrometer gap adjustments of precious metal alloy contacts and forming of meso scale cones.

  6. MicroRNA Expression in Laser Micro-dissected Breast Cancer Tissue Samples - a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seclaman, Edward; Narita, Diana; Anghel, Andrei; Cireap, Natalia; Ilina, Razvan; Sirbu, Ioan Ovidiu; Marian, Catalin

    2017-10-28

    Breast cancer continues to represent a significant public health burden despite outstanding research advances regarding the molecular mechanisms of cancer biology, biomarkers for diagnostics and prognostic and therapeutic management of this disease. The studies of micro RNAs in breast cancer have underlined their potential as biomarkers and therapeutic targets; however most of these studies are still done on largely heterogeneous whole breast tissue samples. In this pilot study we have investigated the expression of four micro RNAs (miR-21, 145, 155, 92) known to be involved in breast cancer, in homogenous cell populations collected by laser capture microdissection from breast tissue section slides. Micro RNA expression was assessed by real time PCR, and associations with clinical and pathological characteristics were also explored. Our results have confirmed previous associations of miR-21 expression with poor prognosis characteristics of breast cancers such as high stage, large and highly proliferative tumors. No statistically significant associations were found with the other micro RNAs investigated, possibly due to the small sample size of our study. Our results also suggest that miR-484 could be a suitable endogenous control for data normalization in breast tissues, these results needing further confirmation by future studies. In summary, our pilot study showed the feasibility of detecting micro RNAs expression in homogenous laser captured microdissected invasive breast cancer samples, and confirmed some of the previously reported associations with poor prognostic characteristics of breast tumors.

  7. Micro-Cavity Fluidic Dye Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helbo, Bjarne; Kristensen, Anders; Menon, Aric Kumaran

    2003-01-01

    We have successfully designed, fabricated and characterized a micro-cavity fluidic dye laser with metallic mirrors, which can be integrated with polymer based lab-on-a-chip microsystems without further processing steps. A simple rate-equation model is used to predict the average pumping power...... threshold for lasing as function of cavity-mirror reflectance, laser dye concentration and cavity length. The laser device is characterized using the laser dye Rhodamine 6G dissolved in ethanol. Lasing is observed, and the influence of dye concentration is investigated....

  8. Mechanism of laser micro-adjustment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Hong

    2008-01-01

    Miniaturization is a requirement in engineering to produce competitive products in the field of optical and electronic industries. Laser micro-adjustment is a new and promising technology for sheet metal actuator systems. Efforts have been made to understand the mechanisms of metal plate forming using a laser heating source. Three mechanisms have been proposed for describing the laser forming processes in different scenarios, namely the temperature gradient mechanism (TGM), buckling mechanism and upsetting mechanism (UM). However, none of these mechanisms can fully describe the deformation mechanisms involved in laser micro-adjustment. Based on the thermal and elastoplastic analyses, a coupled TGM and UM are presented in this paper to illustrate the thermal mechanical behaviours of two-bridge actuators when applying a laser forming process. To validate the proposed coupling mechanism, numerical simulations are carried out and the corresponding results demonstrate the mechanism proposed. The mechanism of the micro-laser adjustment could be taken as a supplement to the laser forming process.

  9. Laser capture microdissection: Arcturus(XT) infrared capture and UV cutting methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Rosa I; Blakely, Steven R; Liotta, Lance A; Espina, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Laser capture microdissection (LCM) is a technique that allows the precise procurement of enriched cell populations from a heterogeneous tissue under direct microscopic visualization. LCM can be used to harvest the cells of interest directly or can be used to isolate specific cells by ablating the unwanted cells, resulting in histologically enriched cell populations. The fundamental components of laser microdissection technology are (a) visualization of the cells of interest via microscopy, (b) transfer of laser energy to a thermolabile polymer with either the formation of a polymer-cell composite (capture method) or transfer of laser energy via an ultraviolet laser to photovolatize a region of tissue (cutting method), and (c) removal of cells of interest from the heterogeneous tissue section. Laser energy supplied by LCM instruments can be infrared (810 nm) or ultraviolet (355 nm). Infrared lasers melt thermolabile polymers for cell capture, whereas ultraviolet lasers ablate cells for either removal of unwanted cells or excision of a defined area of cells. LCM technology is applicable to an array of applications including mass spectrometry, DNA genotyping and loss-of-heterozygosity analysis, RNA transcript profiling, cDNA library generation, proteomics discovery, and signal kinase pathway profiling. This chapter describes the unique features of the Arcturus(XT) laser capture microdissection instrument, which incorporates both infrared capture and ultraviolet cutting technology in one instrument, using a proteomic downstream assay as a model.

  10. Notochord isolation using laser capture microdissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santegoeds, R G C; Yakkioui, Y; Jahanshahi, A; Raven, G; Van Overbeeke, J J; Herrler, A; Temel, Y

    2017-03-01

    Chordoma are malignant tumors of the axial skeleton, which arise from remnants of the notochord. The Notochord (chorda dorsalis) is an essential embryonic structure involved in the development of the nervous system and axial skeleton. Therefore, the notochord seems to be the most biologically relevant control tissue to study chordoma in molecular biology research. Nevertheless, up to now mainly different tissues but not the notochord have been used as control for chordoma, due to difficulty of isolating notochordal tissue. Here, we describe a fast and precise method of isolating notochordal cells. Examination of human fetuses, with a gestation of 9, 11 and 13 weeks, using (immuno)histochemical methods was performed. To isolate pure notochord cells for further molecular biology investigation five flash frozen fetuses between 9 and 10 weeks of gestation were dissected by microtome slicing. Thereafter pure notochord cells for further molecular biology investigation where harvested by using laser capture microdissection (LCM). RNA was extracted from these samples and used in quantitative PCR. This study illustrates notochord of embryonic spines in three different stages of gestation (9-11-13 weeks). Immunohistochemical staining with brachyury showed strong staining of the notochord, but also weak staining of the intervertebral disc and vertebral body. LCM of notochord slices and subsequent total RNA extraction resulted in a good yield of total RNA. qPCR analysis of two housekeeping genes confirmed the quality of the RNA. LCM is a fast and precise method to isolate notochord and the quality and yield RNA extracted from this tissue is sufficient for qPCR analysis. Therefore early embryo notochord isolated by LCM is suggested to be the gold standard for future research in chordoma development, classification and diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Infrared Laser Ablation with Vacuum Capture for Fingermark Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnarumma, Fabrizio; Camp, Eden E.; Cao, Fan; Murray, Kermit K.

    2017-09-01

    Infrared laser ablation coupled to vacuum capture was employed to collect material from fingermarks deposited on surfaces of different porosity and roughness. Laser ablation at 3 μm was performed in reflection mode with subsequent capture of the ejecta with a filter connected to vacuum. Ablation and capture of standards from fingermarks was demonstrated on glass, plastic, aluminum, and cardboard surfaces. Using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI), it was possible to detect caffeine after spiking with amounts as low as 1 ng. MALDI detection of condom lubricants and detection of antibacterial peptides from an antiseptic cream was demonstrated. Detection of explosives from fingermarks left on plastic surfaces as well as from direct deposition on the same surface using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was shown. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. Analysis of coaxial laser micro cladding processing conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Tarasova, Tatiana Vasilievna; Gvozdeva, Galina Olegovna; Nowotny, Steffen; Ableyeva, Riana R.; Dolzhikova, Evgenia Yu

    2018-01-01

    The laser build-up cladding is a well-known technique for repair, coatings and additive manufacturing tasks. Modern equipment for the laser cladding enables material to be deposited with the lateral resolution of about 100 μm and to manufacture miniature precise parts. However, the micro cladding regimes are unknown. Determination of these regimes is an expensive task as a well-known relation between laser cladding parameters and melt pool dimensions are changing by technology micro-miniaturi...

  13. Laser beam micro-milling of micro-channels in aerospace alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Naveed; Al-Ahmari, Abdulrahman

    2017-01-01

    This volume is greatly helpful to micro-machining and laser engineers as it offers obliging guidelines about the micro-channel fabrications through Nd:YAG laser beam micro-milling. The book also demonstrates how the laser beam micro-milling behaves when operating under wet conditions (under water), and explores what are the pros and cons of this hybrid technique. From the predictive mathematical models, the readers can easily estimate the resulting micro-channel size against the desired laser parametric combinations. The book considers micro-channels in three highly important research materials commonly used in aerospace industry: titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V, nickel alloy Inconel 718 and aluminum alloy AA 2024. Therefore, the book is highly practicable in the fields of micro-channel heat exchangers, micro-channel aerospace turbine blades, micro-channel heat pipes, micro-coolers and micro-channel pulsating heat plates. These are frequently used in various industries such as aerospace, automotive, biomedical and m...

  14. Capturing and modelling high-complex alluvial topography with UAS-borne laser scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandlburger, Gottfried; Wieser, Martin; Pfennigbauer, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Due to fluvial activity alluvial forests are zones of highest complexity and relief energy. Alluvial forests are dominated by new and pristine channels in consequence of current and historic flood events. Apart from topographic features, the vegetation structure is typically very complex featuring, both, dense under story as well as high trees. Furthermore, deadwood and debris carried from upstream during periods of high discharge within the river channel are deposited in these areas. Therefore, precise modelling of the micro relief of alluvial forests using standard tools like Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) is hardly feasible. Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), in turn, is very time consuming for capturing larger areas as many scan positions are necessary for obtaining complete coverage due to view occlusions in the forest. In the recent past, the technological development of Unmanned Arial Systems (UAS) has reached a level that light-weight survey-grade laser scanners can be operated from these platforms. For capturing alluvial topography this could bridge the gap between ALS and TLS in terms of providing a very detailed description of the topography and the vegetation structure due to the achievable very high point density of >100 points per m2. In our contribution we demonstrate the feasibility to apply UAS-borne laser scanning for capturing and modelling the complex topography of the study area Neubacher Au, an alluvial forest at the pre-alpine River Pielach (Lower Austria). The area was captured with Riegl's VUX-1 compact time-of-flight laser scanner mounted on a RiCopter (X-8 array octocopter). The scanner features an effective scan rate of 500 kHz and was flown in 50-100 m above ground. At this flying height the laser footprint is 25-50 mm allowing mapping of very small surface details. Furthermore, online waveform processing of the backscattered laser energy enables the retrieval of multiple targets for single laser shots resulting in a dense point cloud of

  15. Research on applications of rectangular beam in micro laser propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, L.; Cai, J.; Ma, H.H.; Li, G.X.; Li, L.; Shen, Z.W.; Tang, Z.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Diode laser bar of 808 nm is introduced into the micro laser propulsion field. • Double base propellant (DBP) coating with BOPP substrate was obtained. • The combination of laser power and energy decides the propulsion performance. • The new rectangular beam prefers to produce higher impulse. - Abstract: Micro laser propulsion is a new technology with brilliant future. In order to reduce the thruster mass and volume further, laser bar is introduced into the micro laser propulsion field. A new kind of 220 × 20 μm rectangular beam of 808 nm was obtained by oval lens compressing the light of diode at fast axes and slow axes. The effect of laser power, energy and coating thickness of double base propellant on propulsion performance was studied. Propulsion performance of double base propellant under static and dynamic mode shows some different characters. Compared to round beam, the new beam prefers to produce higher impulse. Ablation efficiency of DBP shows better performance in short laser duration. The combination of power density and energy density decides the laser propulsion performance. The new rectangular beam is appropriate for millisecond micro-laser propulsion

  16. Laser-assisted micro sheet forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtkamp, Jens; Gillner, Arnold

    2008-01-01

    The fast growing market for micro technical products requires parts with increasing complexity. While sheet metal forming enables low cost mass production with short cycle times, it is limited by the maximum degree of deformation and the quality of the cut edge. The technology of warm forming partially eliminates these deficiencies. This operation takes place at elevated temperatures before structural transformation is initiated. It combines characteristic advantages of traditional cold and hot forming processes. Lasers as heat sources provide a high, selective and controllable energy input. The general difficulty of a uniform temperature distribution during the heating process can be reached by using an Axicon which generates an annulus on the sheet metal surface. The temperature of the workpiece, measured by a pyrometer, is tuned by a PI-Controller. A tool incorporating a multistage operation die is used for the manufacturing of up to three parts at the same time. The tool is integrated into a hydraulical press. A gearwheel made of the magnesium alloy AZ31 is chosen as metal demonstrator. The quality of these punched parts could be significantly improved at elevated temperatures

  17. Hybrid micromachining using a nanosecond pulsed laser and micro EDM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sanha; Chung, Do Kwan; Shin, Hong Shik; Chu, Chong Nam; Kim, Bo Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Micro electrical discharge machining (micro EDM) is a well-known precise machining process that achieves micro structures of excellent quality for any conductive material. However, the slow machining speed and high tool wear are main drawbacks of this process. Though the use of deionized water instead of kerosene as a dielectric fluid can reduce the tool wear and increase the machine speed, the material removal rate (MRR) is still low. In contrast, laser ablation using a nanosecond pulsed laser is a fast and non-wear machining process but achieves micro figures of rather low quality. Therefore, the integration of these two processes can overcome the respective disadvantages. This paper reports a hybrid process of a nanosecond pulsed laser and micro EDM for micromachining. A novel hybrid micromachining system that combines the two discrete machining processes is introduced. Then, the feasibility and characteristics of the hybrid machining process are investigated compared to conventional EDM and laser ablation. It is verified experimentally that the machining time can be effectively reduced in both EDM drilling and milling by rapid laser pre-machining prior to micro EDM. Finally, some examples of complicated 3D micro structures fabricated by the hybrid process are shown

  18. Diffusion dynamics in micro-fluidic dye lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg-Hansen, Morten; Balslev, Søren; Mortensen, Niels Asger

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated the bleaching dynamics that occur in opto-fluidic dye lasers, where the liquid laser dye in a channel is locally bleached due to optical pumping. Our studies suggest that for micro-fluidic devices, the dye bleaching may be compensated through diffusion of dye molecules alone....... By relying on diffusion rather than convection to generate the necessary dye replenishment, our observation potentially allows for a significant simplification of opto-fluidic dye laser device layouts, omitting the need for cumbersome and costly external fluidic handling or on-chip micro-fluidic pumping...

  19. Advancing three-dimensional MEMS by complimentary laser micro manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jeremy A.; Williams, John D.; Lemp, Tom; Lehecka, Tom M.; Medina, Francisco; Wicker, Ryan B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes improvements that enable engineers to create three-dimensional MEMS in a variety of materials. It also provides a means for selectively adding three-dimensional, high aspect ratio features to pre-existing PMMA micro molds for subsequent LIGA processing. This complimentary method involves in situ construction of three-dimensional micro molds in a stand-alone configuration or directly adjacent to features formed by x-ray lithography. Three-dimensional micro molds are created by micro stereolithography (MSL), an additive rapid prototyping technology. Alternatively, three-dimensional features may be added by direct femtosecond laser micro machining. Parameters for optimal femtosecond laser micro machining of PMMA at 800 nanometers are presented. The technical discussion also includes strategies for enhancements in the context of material selection and post-process surface finish. This approach may lead to practical, cost-effective 3-D MEMS with the surface finish and throughput advantages of x-ray lithography. Accurate three-dimensional metal microstructures are demonstrated. Challenges remain in process planning for micro stereolithography and development of buried features following femtosecond laser micro machining.

  20. Micro and nano lasers for digital photonics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hill, M.T.; Oei, Y.S.; Zhu, Y.C.; Smit, M.K.

    2007-01-01

    The small size, low-power and high-speed of nano-lasers make them an attractive nonlinear element for digital photonics. Further miniaturization of lasers below the diffraction limit is required before digital photonics can compete with electronics.

  1. Multi-longitudinal-mode micro-laser model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staliunas, Kestutis

    2017-10-01

    We derive a convenient model for broad aperture micro-lasers, such as microchip lasers, broad area semiconductor lasers, or VCSELs, taking into account several longitudinal mode families. We provide linear stability analysis, and show characteristic spatio-temporal dynamics in such multi-longitudinal mode laser models. Moreover, we derive the coupled mode model in the presence of intracavity refraction index modulation (intracavity photonic crystal). Contribution to the Topical Issue "Theory and Applications of the Lugiato-Lefever Equation", edited by Yanne K. Chembo, Damia Gomila, Mustapha Tlidi, Curtis R. Menyuk.

  2. Micro-hole drilling and cutting using femtosecond fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huan; Yang, Lih-Mei; Liu, Jian

    2014-05-01

    Micro-hole drilling and cutting in ambient air are presented by using a femtosecond fiber laser. At first, the micro-hole drilling was investigated in both transparent (glasses) and nontransparent (metals and tissues) materials. The shape and morphology of the holes were characterized and evaluated with optical and scanning electron microscopy. Debris-free micro-holes with good roundness and no thermal damage were demonstrated with the aspect ratio of 8∶1. Micro-hole drilling in hard and soft tissues with no crack or collateral thermal damage is also demonstrated. Then, trench micromachining and cutting were studied for different materials and the effect of the laser parameters on the trench properties was investigated. Straight and clean trench edges were obtained with no thermal damage.

  3. Laser machining micro-structures on diamond surface with a sub-nanosecond pulsed laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mingtao; Guo, Bing; Zhao, Qingliang

    2018-02-01

    Micro-structure surface on diamond material is widely used in a series of industrial and scientific applications, such as micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), microelectronics, textured or micro-structured diamond machining tools. The efficient machining of micro-structure on diamond surface is urgently demanded in engineering. In this paper, laser machining square micro-structure on diamond surface was studied with a sub-nanosecond pulsed laser. The influences of laser machining parameters, including the laser power, scanning speed, defocusing quantity and scanning pitch, were researched in view of the ablation depth, material removal rate and machined surface topography. Both the ablation depth and material removal rate increased with average laser power. A reduction of the growth rate of the two parameters was induced by the absorption of the laser plasma plume at high laser power. The ablation depth non-linearly decreased with the increasing of the scanning speed while the material removal rate showed an opposite tendency. The increasing of the defocusing quantity induced complex variation of the ablation depth and the material removal rate. The maximum ablation depth and material removal rate were achieved at a defocusing position. The ablation depth and material removal rate oppositely varied about the scanning pitch. A high overlap ratio was meaningful for achieving a smooth micro-structure surface topography. Laser machining with a large defocusing quantity, high laser power and small scanning pitch was helpful for acquiring the desired micro-structure which had a large depth and smooth micro-structure surface topography.

  4. Micro-Bulges Investigation on Laser Modified Tool Steel Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauzun Fazliana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents micro-bulges investigation on laser modified tool steel. The aim of this study is to understand the effect of laser irradiance and interaction time on surface morphology configuration. An Nd:YAG laser system with TEM00 pulse processing mode was used to modify the samples. Metallographic study shows samples were analyzed for focal position effect on melted pool size, angle of peaks geometry and laser modified layer depth. Surface morphology were analyzed for surface roughness. Laser modified layer shows depth ranged between 42.22 and 420.12 μm. Angle of peak bulge was found to be increase with increasing peak power. The maximum roughness, Ra, achieved in modified H13 was 21.10 μm. These findings are significant to enhance surface properties of laser modified steel and cast iron for dies and high wear resistance applications.

  5. Dome shaped micro-laser encapsulated in a flexible film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioppolo, T.; Manzo, M.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we demonstrated multimode laser emission from a dome shaped micro-scale resonator encapsulated in a flexible polymer film. The resonator with a radius of ~60 microns was made of Norland Blocking Adhesive (NBA 107) doped with a solution of rhodamine 6G and ethanol. The dome was encapsulated in a flexible polymeric film made of polydymethylsiloxane (PDMS) with a thickness of 1 mm. The micro-scale laser was optically pumped using a frequency doubled Q-switch Nd:YAG laser with pulse repetition of 10 Hz and pulse duration of 9 ns. Experiments were carried out to investigate the lasing properties of this laser structure. The pumping threshold for multimode laser emission was below 100 µJ cm-2. The average optical quality factor for all observed laser modes was of the order of 104. Using a fluence of 315.8 µJ cm-2 it was observed that the intensity of the laser emission dropped by 62% after 5 min of operation. These results showed that these solid state flexible lasers are easy to fabricate and can be integrated into novel flexible photonic devices and novel photonic sensors.

  6. Dome shaped micro-laser encapsulated in a flexible film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioppolo, T; Manzo, M

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrated multimode laser emission from a dome shaped micro-scale resonator encapsulated in a flexible polymer film. The resonator with a radius of ∼60 microns was made of Norland Blocking Adhesive (NBA 107) doped with a solution of rhodamine 6G and ethanol. The dome was encapsulated in a flexible polymeric film made of polydymethylsiloxane (PDMS) with a thickness of 1 mm. The micro-scale laser was optically pumped using a frequency doubled Q-switch Nd:YAG laser with pulse repetition of 10 Hz and pulse duration of 9 ns. Experiments were carried out to investigate the lasing properties of this laser structure. The pumping threshold for multimode laser emission was below 100 µJ cm −2 . The average optical quality factor for all observed laser modes was of the order of 10 4 . Using a fluence of 315.8 µJ cm −2 it was observed that the intensity of the laser emission dropped by 62% after 5 min of operation. These results showed that these solid state flexible lasers are easy to fabricate and can be integrated into novel flexible photonic devices and novel photonic sensors. (paper)

  7. Impurity-doped micro-lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollnau, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Recently rare-earth-ion-doped dielectric channel waveguides have proven their ability to generate highly efficient laser output in the fundamental mode. Here we review our recent achievements obtained in crystalline potassium double tungstates and amorphous aluminum oxide.

  8. Precision laser processing for micro electronics and fiber optic manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Andrew; Osborne, Mike; Foster-Turner, Gideon; Dinkel, Duane W.

    2008-02-01

    The application of laser based materials processing for precision micro scale manufacturing in the electronics and fiber optic industry is becoming increasingly widespread and accepted. This presentation will review latest laser technologies available and discuss the issues to be considered in choosing the most appropriate laser and processing parameters. High repetition rate, short duration pulsed lasers have improved rapidly in recent years in terms of both performance and reliability enabling flexible, cost effective processing of many material types including metal, silicon, plastic, ceramic and glass. Demonstrating the relevance of laser micromachining, application examples where laser processing is in use for production will be presented, including miniaturization of surface mount capacitors by applying a laser technique for demetalization of tracks in the capacitor manufacturing process and high quality laser machining of fiber optics including stripping, cleaving and lensing, resulting in optical quality finishes without the need for traditional polishing. Applications include telecoms, biomedical and sensing. OpTek Systems was formed in 2000 and provide fully integrated systems and sub contract services for laser processes. They are headquartered in the UK and are establishing a presence in North America through a laser processing facility in South Carolina and sales office in the North East.

  9. Fundamentals of laser-assisted micro- and nanotechnologies

    CERN Document Server

    Konov, Vitaly

    2014-01-01

    This book covers the state of the art of laser micro- and nanotechnology. The physical fundamentals of different processes and the application are presented. The book deals with different materials like phase change and memory alloys, thin films, polymers etc. New phenomena and mechanisms of laser-matter interaction in nano-domains are explained. This book is helpful for students, postgraduates, engineers and researches working not only in the field of laser microtechnology but also in high-tech industry, like photonics, microelectronics, information technology.

  10. Laser-induced micro-jetting from armored droplets

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2015-01-01

    after a nanosecond laser pulse. Using ultra-high-speed imaging up to 320,610 fps, we investigate the extremely rapid dynamics following the cavitation, which manifests itself in the form of a plethora of micro-jets emanating simultaneously from

  11. High resolution laser micro sintering / melting using q-switched and high brilliant laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exner, H.; Streek, A.

    2015-03-01

    Since the discovery of selective laser sintering/melting, numerous modifications have been made to upgrade or customize this technology for industrial purposes. Laser micro sintering (LMS) is one of those modifications: Powders with particles in the range of a few micrometers are used to obtain products with highly resolved structures. Pulses of a q-switched laser had been considered necessary in order to generate sinter layers from the micrometer scaled metal powders. LMS has been applied with powders from metals as well as from ceramic and cermet feedstock's to generate micro parts. Recent technological progress and the application of high brilliant continuous laser radiation have now allowed an efficient laser sintering/melting of micrometer scaled metal powders. Thereby it is remarkable that thin sinter layers are generated using high continuous laser power. The principles of the process, the state of the art in LMS concerning its advantages and limitations and furthermore the latest results of the recent development of this technology will be presented. Laser Micro Sintering / Laser Micro Melting (LMM) offer a vision for a new dimension of additive fabrication of miniature and precise parts also with application potential in all engineering fields.

  12. Femtosecond laser three-dimensional micro- and nanofabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugioka, Koji, E-mail: ksugioka@riken.jp [RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Cheng, Ya, E-mail: ya.cheng@siom.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 800-211, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2014-12-15

    The rapid development of the femtosecond laser has revolutionized materials processing due to its unique characteristics of ultrashort pulse width and extremely high peak intensity. The short pulse width suppresses the formation of a heat-affected zone, which is vital for ultrahigh precision fabrication, whereas the high peak intensity allows nonlinear interactions such as multiphoton absorption and tunneling ionization to be induced in transparent materials, which provides versatility in terms of the materials that can be processed. More interestingly, irradiation with tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses inside transparent materials makes three-dimensional (3D) micro- and nanofabrication available due to efficient confinement of the nonlinear interactions within the focal volume. Additive manufacturing (stereolithography) based on multiphoton absorption (two-photon polymerization) enables the fabrication of 3D polymer micro- and nanostructures for photonic devices, micro- and nanomachines, and microfluidic devices, and has applications for biomedical and tissue engineering. Subtractive manufacturing based on internal modification and fabrication can realize the direct fabrication of 3D microfluidics, micromechanics, microelectronics, and photonic microcomponents in glass. These microcomponents can be easily integrated in a single glass microchip by a simple procedure using a femtosecond laser to realize more functional microdevices, such as optofluidics and integrated photonic microdevices. The highly localized multiphoton absorption of a tightly focused femtosecond laser in glass can also induce strong absorption only at the interface of two closely stacked glass substrates. Consequently, glass bonding can be performed based on fusion welding with femtosecond laser irradiation, which provides the potential for applications in electronics, optics, microelectromechanical systems, medical devices, microfluidic devices, and small satellites. This review paper

  13. Micro and nanohardness testing of laser welds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebestová, H.; Čtvrtlík, Radim; Chmelíčková, H.; Tomáštík, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 3 (2014), s. 247-253 ISSN 1454-9069 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010517 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Vickers microhardness * depth sensing indentation * laser welding Subject RIV: JP - Industrial Processing Impact factor: 1.658, year: 2014

  14. Research on Laser Micro Polishing of SLS Technology Sintered Iron-Based Powder Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Gerda Vaitkūnaitė; Vladislav Markovič; Olegas Černašėjus

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes laser micro polishing of 1.2083 steel samples produced applying selective laser sintering (SLS) method. The study has evaluated the distribution of the shape, size and temperature of the laser beam treated area in the surface layer of sintered and laser polished samples. Experimental tests have shown the impact of the technical parameters of laser micro polishing on the width and hardness of the impact zone of the treated sample. The microstructure analysis of laser treat...

  15. Tailor cutting of crystalline solar cells by laser micro jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckert, F.; Pilat, E.; Piron, P.; Torres, P.; Carron, B.; Richerzhagen, B.; Pirot, M.; Monna, R.

    2012-03-01

    Coupling a laser into a hair thin water micro jet (Laser Micro Jet, LMJ) for cutting applications offers a wide range of processes that are quite unique. As the laser beam is guided by internal reflections inside of a liquid cylinder, the cuts are naturally straight and do not reflect any divergence as otherwise occurs with an unguided laser beam. Furthermore, having a liquid media at the point of contact ensures a fast removal of heat and eventual debris ensuring clean cuts, which are free of any burrs. Many applications have indeed been developed for a large variety of materials, which are as different as e.g. diamond, silicon, aluminum, ceramic and hard metals. The photovoltaic industry has enjoyed in the last decades tremendous growth rates, which are still projected into the future. We focus here on the segment of Building Integrated PV (BIPV), which requests tailored solutions to actual buildings and not-one-fits-it-all standardized modules. Having the option to tailor cut solar cells opens a new field of BIPV applications. For the first time, finished crystalline solar cells have been LMJ cut into predetermined shapes. First results show that the cut is clean and neat. Preliminary solar performance measurements are positive. This opens a new avenue of tailored made modules instead of having to rely on the one-fits-alloy approach used so far.

  16. Demonstrator study for micro-ranging-laser device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Hartmut; Bernhardt, Bodo; Pereira do Carmo, J.

    2017-11-01

    Within ESA's Innovation Triangle Initiative (ITI) a demonstrator breadboard for a micro-ranging-laser device "MYLRAD" has been developed. Its working principle is the measurement of the round-trip delay time of a laser beam as a phase shift. The demonstrator consists of the laser diode (30 mW, square wave AM), optics, APD detector, narrowband preamplifier, limiter, and a phase digitiser based on a novel noise-shaping synchroniser (NSS) circuit; this works without ADCs and can be built from rad-hard components for space. The system timing and the digitiser algorithm are performed by an FPGA. The demonstrator has been tested at ranges from 1 m to 30 m. With a static non-cooperative target an RMS noise of 1 mm at a result rate of 60 Hz was reached. The demonstrator needs less than 2.5 W power.

  17. Supersonic laser-induced jetting of aluminum micro-droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zenou, M. [Racah Institute of Physics and the Harvey M. Kruger Family Center for Nano-science and Nanotechnology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 91904 Jerusalem (Israel); Additive Manufacturing Lab, Orbotech Ltd., P.O. Box 215, 81101 Yavne (Israel); Sa' ar, A. [Racah Institute of Physics and the Harvey M. Kruger Family Center for Nano-science and Nanotechnology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 91904 Jerusalem (Israel); Kotler, Z. [Additive Manufacturing Lab, Orbotech Ltd., P.O. Box 215, 81101 Yavne (Israel)

    2015-05-04

    The droplet velocity and the incubation time of pure aluminum micro-droplets, printed using the method of sub-nanosecond laser induced forward transfer, have been measured indicating the formation of supersonic laser-induced jetting. The incubation time and the droplet velocity were extracted by measuring a transient electrical signal associated with droplet landing on the surface of the acceptor substrate. This technique has been exploited for studying small volume droplets, in the range of 10–100 femto-litters for which supersonic velocities were measured. The results suggest elastic propagation of the droplets across the donor-to-acceptor gap, a nonlinear deposition dynamics on the surface of the acceptor and overall efficient energy transfer from the laser beam to the droplets.

  18. Supersonic laser-induced jetting of aluminum micro-droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenou, M.; Sa'ar, A.; Kotler, Z.

    2015-01-01

    The droplet velocity and the incubation time of pure aluminum micro-droplets, printed using the method of sub-nanosecond laser induced forward transfer, have been measured indicating the formation of supersonic laser-induced jetting. The incubation time and the droplet velocity were extracted by measuring a transient electrical signal associated with droplet landing on the surface of the acceptor substrate. This technique has been exploited for studying small volume droplets, in the range of 10–100 femto-litters for which supersonic velocities were measured. The results suggest elastic propagation of the droplets across the donor-to-acceptor gap, a nonlinear deposition dynamics on the surface of the acceptor and overall efficient energy transfer from the laser beam to the droplets

  19. Micro-Encapsulation of non-aqueous solvents for energy-efficient carbon capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolaroff, Joshua K; Ye, Congwang; Oakdale, James [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Baker, Sarah; Nugyen, Du; Smith, William; Aines, Roger

    2016-11-14

    Here, we demonstrate micro-encapsulation of several promising designer solvents: an IL, PCIL, and CO2BOL. We develop custom polymers that cure by UV light in the presence of each solvent while maintaining high CO2 permeability. We use several new process strategies to accommodate the viscosity and phase changes. We then measure and compare the CO2 absorption rate and capacity as well as the multi-cycle performance of the encapsulated solvents. These results are compared with previous work on encapsulated sodium carbonate solution. The prospects for designer solvents to reduce the cost of post-combustion capture and the implications for process design with encapsulated solvents are discussed.

  20. The Laser MicroJet (LMJ): a multi-solution technology for high quality micro-machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Tuan Anh; Richerzhagen, Bernold; Snowdon, Paul C.; Wood, David; Maropoulos, Paul G.

    2007-02-01

    The field of laser micromachining is highly diverse. There are many different types of lasers available in the market. Due to their differences in irradiating wavelength, output power and pulse characteristic they can be selected for different applications depending on material and feature size [1]. The main issues by using these lasers are heat damages, contamination and low ablation rates. This report examines on the application of the Laser MicroJet(R) (LMJ), a unique combination of a laser beam with a hair-thin water jet as a universal tool for micro-machining of MEMS substrates, as well as ferrous and non-ferrous materials. The materials include gallium arsenide (GaAs) & silicon wafers, steel, tantalum and alumina ceramic. A Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm (infra red) and frequency doubled 532 nm (green) were employed for the micro-machining of these materials.

  1. Advances in lasers and optical micro-nano-systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurell, F.; Fazio, E.

    2010-09-01

    Lasers represent a well consolidated technology: nevertheless, research in this field remains very active and productive, in both basic and applied directions. At the moment significant attention is given to those sources that bring together high power and compactness. Such high power lasers find important applications for material treatments and such applications are presented by Ehsani et al and Saiedeh Saghafi et al, in the treatment of dielectric thin films (Alteration of optical and morphological properties of polycarbonate illuminated by visible/IR laser beams) or of biological tissues like pistachio seeds (Investigating the effects of laser beams (532 and 660 nm) in annihilation of pistachio mould fungus using spectrophotometry analysis). In particular the latter paper show how laser sources can find very important applications in new domains, preserving goods and food without the need for preservatives or pesticides by simply sterilizing them using light. Optical Micro and Nano Systems presents a new domain for exploration. In this framework this special issue is very attractive, because it assembles papers reporting new results in three directions: new techniques for monitoring integrated micro- and nano-systems, new integrated systems and novel high performance metamaterial configurations. Integrated micro-components can be monitored and controlled using reflectance measurements as presented by Piombini et al (Toward the reflectance measurement of micro components). Speckle formation during laser beam reflection can also be a very sophisticated tool for detecting ultra-precise displacements, as presented by Filter et al (High resolution displacement detection with speckles : accuracy limits in linear displacement speckle metrology). Three dimensional integrated optical structures is indeed a big challenge and a peculiarity of photonics, they can be formed through traditional holography or using more sophisticated and novel ! technologies. Thus, special

  2. Metal vapor micro-jet controls material redistribution in laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Ly, Sonny; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Khairallah, Saad A.; Guss, Gabe; Matthews, Manyalibo J.

    2017-01-01

    The results of detailed experiments and finite element modeling of metal micro-droplet motion associated with metal additive manufacturing (AM) processes are presented. Ultra high speed imaging of melt pool dynamics reveals that the dominant mechanism leading to micro-droplet ejection in a laser powder bed fusion AM is not from laser induced recoil pressure as is widely believed and found in laser welding processes, but rather from vapor driven entrainment of micro-particles by an ambient gas...

  3. Efficient capture of CO2 over ordered micro-mesoporous hybrid carbon nanosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changwei; Yu, Yanke; He, Chi; Wang, Li; Huang, Huang; Albilali, Reem; Cheng, Jie; Hao, Zhengping

    2018-05-01

    Four kinds of carbon-based adsorbents (micro-mesoporous hybrid carbon nanosphere and N-doped hollow carbon sphere with single-, double- or ruga-shell morphology) with different structural and textural properties were prepared and systematically studied in CO2 capture. All synthesized samples possess high specific surface area (828-910 m2 g-1), large pore volume (0.71-1.81 cm3 g-1), and different micropore contents varied from 2.1% to 46.4%. Amongst, the ordered micro-mesoporous carbon nanosphere (OM-CNS) exhibits the best adsorption performance with CO2 uptake as high as 3.01 mmol g-1 under conditions of 298 K and 1.0 bar, better than most of the reported CO2 adsorbents. The excellent CO2 adsorption capacity of OM-CNS can be reasonably attributed to the synergistic effect of ordered mesopore channels and abundant structural micropores which are beneficial for the diffusion and trapping of CO2 adsorbate. Moreover, the OM-CNS shows excellent CO2 trapping selectivity and superior stability and recyclability, which endow the OM-CNS as a promising and environmental-friendly adsorbent for CO2 capture and separation under practical conditions.

  4. Laser induced ultrasonic phased array using full matrix capture data acquisition and total focusing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratoudaki, Theodosia; Clark, Matt; Wilcox, Paul D

    2016-09-19

    Laser ultrasonics is a technique where lasers are employed to generate and detect ultrasound. A data collection method (full matrix capture) and a post processing imaging algorithm, the total focusing method, both developed for ultrasonic arrays, are modified and used in order to enhance the capabilities of laser ultrasonics for nondestructive testing by improving defect detectability and increasing spatial resolution. In this way, a laser induced ultrasonic phased array is synthesized. A model is developed and compared with experimental results from aluminum samples with side drilled holes and slots at depths of 5 - 20 mm from the surface.

  5. Fully Automated Laser Ablation Liquid Capture Sample Analysis using NanoElectrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, Matthias [ORNL; Ovchinnikova, Olga S [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE: Laser ablation provides for the possibility of sampling a large variety of surfaces with high spatial resolution. This type of sampling when employed in conjunction with liquid capture followed by nanoelectrospray ionization provides the opportunity for sensitive and prolonged interrogation of samples by mass spectrometry as well as the ability to analyze surfaces not amenable to direct liquid extraction. METHODS: A fully automated, reflection geometry, laser ablation liquid capture spot sampling system was achieved by incorporating appropriate laser fiber optics and a focusing lens into a commercially available, liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA ) ready Advion TriVersa NanoMate system. RESULTS: Under optimized conditions about 10% of laser ablated material could be captured in a droplet positioned vertically over the ablation region using the NanoMate robot controlled pipette. The sampling spot size area with this laser ablation liquid capture surface analysis (LA/LCSA) mode of operation (typically about 120 m x 160 m) was approximately 50 times smaller than that achievable by direct liquid extraction using LESA (ca. 1 mm diameter liquid extraction spot). The set-up was successfully applied for the analysis of ink on glass and paper as well as the endogenous components in Alstroemeria Yellow King flower petals. In a second mode of operation with a comparable sampling spot size, termed laser ablation/LESA , the laser system was used to drill through, penetrate, or otherwise expose material beneath a solvent resistant surface. Once drilled, LESA was effective in sampling soluble material exposed at that location on the surface. CONCLUSIONS: Incorporating the capability for different laser ablation liquid capture spot sampling modes of operation into a LESA ready Advion TriVersa NanoMate enhanced the spot sampling spatial resolution of this device and broadened the surface types amenable to analysis to include absorbent and solvent resistant

  6. Coherent quantum cascade laser micro-stripe arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. de Naurois

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We have fabricated InP-based coherent quantum cascade laser micro-stripe arrays. Phase-locking is provided by evanescent coupling between adjacent stripes. Stripes are buried into semi-insulating iron doped InP. Lasing at room temperature is obtained at 8.4μm for stripe arrays comprising up to 16 emitters. Pure supermode emission is demonstrated via farfield measurements and simulations. The farfield pattern shows a dual-lobe emission, corroborating the predicted phase-locked antisymmetric supermode emission.

  7. Laser-induced micro-jetting from armored droplets

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.

    2015-06-23

    We present findings from an experimental study of laser-induced cavitation within a liquid drop coated with a granular material, commonly referred to as “armored droplets” or “liquid marbles.” The cavitation event follows the formation of plasma after a nanosecond laser pulse. Using ultra-high-speed imaging up to 320,610 fps, we investigate the extremely rapid dynamics following the cavitation, which manifests itself in the form of a plethora of micro-jets emanating simultaneously from the spaces between particles on the surface of the drop. These fine jets break up into droplets with a relatively narrow diameter range, on the order of 10 μm. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  8. An Experimental and Conceptual Investigation of Laser Micro Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Jian; Hu Xiaojun; Tang Zhiping

    2006-01-01

    The laser micro-impulse torsion pendulum has been developed in this lab. A thin glass plate of about 80μm thick is made as the target holder where the propellant film sticks on. Such structure can be used for both the R-mode and the T-mode measurements. The minimal resolution of this apparatus is 3x10-9N.s. A package, which combines a 2W single LD with its lenses, is evaluated by the pendulum under R-mode and T-mode conditions, respectively, in this lab. the momentum coupling coefficient Cm is about 2dyn/W and the specific impulsion Isp is about 170s. A new conceptual fiber-distributed structure of laser micropropulsion system for microsatellites has been proposed and discussed in this article

  9. Ablation laser pour la microélectronique plastique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloncle, A.-P.; Thomas, B.; Grojo, D.; Delaporte, Ph.; Sentis, M.; Sanaur, S.; Barret, M.; Collot, Ph.

    2006-12-01

    La microélectronique plastique connaît un développement sans précédent dans le domaine de la recherche. Cette étude s'intéresse à l'utilisation des lasers impulsionnels pour la réalisation de composants organiques sur supports souples. Les deux aspects plus particulièrement étudiés sont d'une part la gravure de polymère pour réaliser un canal entre la source et le drain, et d'autre part le développement d'un procédéde dépôt appelé LIFT pour Laser Induced Forward Transfer. Ce dernier pourrait notamment permettre dedéposer des composés organiques non solubles.

  10. Identification of novel immune and barrier genes in atopic dermatitis by means of laser capture microdissection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esaki, Hitokazu; Ewald, David Adrian; Ungar, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    are unknown. Objective : We sought to establish the genomic profile of the epidermal and dermal compartments of lesional and nonlesional AD skin compared with normal skin. Methods : Laser capture microdissection was performed to separate the epidermis and dermis of lesional and nonlesional skin from patients...... epidermal and dermal genomic signatures of lesional and nonlesional AD skin and normal skin compared with whole tissues. These data establish the utility of laser capture microdissection to separate different compartments and cellular subsets in patients with AD, allowing localization of key barrier...

  11. Laser accelerated protons captured and transported by a pulse power solenoid

    OpenAIRE

    Burris-Mog, T.; Harres, K.; Zielbauer, B.; Bagnoud, V.; Herrmannsdoerfer, T.; Roth, M.; Cowan, T. E.; Nürnberg, F.; Busold, S.; Bussmann, M.; Deppert, O.; Hoffmeister, G.; Joost, M.; Sobiella, M.; Tauschwitz, A.

    2011-01-01

    Using a pulse power solenoid, we demonstrate efficient capture of laser accelerated proton beams and the ability to control their large divergence angles and broad energy range. Simulations using measured data for the input parameters give inference into the phase-space and transport efficiencies of the captured proton beams. We conclude with results from a feasibility study of a pulse power compact achromatic gantry concept. Using a scaled target normal sheath acceleration spectrum, we prese...

  12. Circuit simulation model multi-quantum well laser diodes inducing transport and capture/escape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuber-Okrog, K.

    1996-04-01

    This work describes the development of world's first circuit simulation model for multi-quantum well (MQW) semiconductor lasers comprising caier transport and capture/escape effects. This model can be seen as the application of a new semiconductor device simulator for quasineutral structures including MQW layers with an extension for simple single mode modeling of optical behavior. It is implemented in a circuit simulation program. The model is applied to Fabry-Perot laser diodes and compared to measured data. (author)

  13. Assessment of pesticide residues in some fruits using gas chromatography coupled with micro electron capture detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latif, Y.; Sherazi, S.T.H.; Bhanger, M.I.

    2011-01-01

    A very sensitive analytical method for the determination of 26 pesticides in some fruits based on solid phase extraction (SPE) cleanup was developed using gas chromatography (GC) coupled with micro electron capture detector (mu ECD). The identity of the pesticides was confirmed by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) using selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Ethyl acetate was used as a solvent for the extraction of pesticide residues with assistance of sonication. For cleanup an octadecyl, C18 SPE column was used. A linear response of mu ECD was observed for all pesticides with good correlation coefficients (>0.9992). Proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of pesticide residues in the orange, apple, and grape fruits. Average recoveries achieved for all of the pesticides at fortification levels of 0.05, 1.0 and 2.0 mu g g/sup -1/ in analyzed fruits were above 90% with relative standard deviations (RSD) less than 6%. (author)

  14. Research on Laser Micro Polishing of SLS Technology Sintered Iron-Based Powder Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Vaitkūnaitė

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes laser micro polishing of 1.2083 steel samples produced applying selective laser sintering (SLS method. The study has evaluated the distribution of the shape, size and temperature of the laser beam treated area in the surface layer of sintered and laser polished samples. Experimental tests have shown the impact of the technical parameters of laser micro polishing on the width and hardness of the impact zone of the treated sample. The microstructure analysis of laser treated and untreated areas of the material has been made.

  15. Biomechanical model-based displacement estimation in micro-sensor motion capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, X L; Sun, S Y; Wu, J K; Zhang, Z Q; 3 Building, 21 Heng Mui Keng Terrace (Singapore))" data-affiliation=" (Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore (NUS), 02-02-10 I3 Building, 21 Heng Mui Keng Terrace (Singapore))" >Wong, W C

    2012-01-01

    In micro-sensor motion capture systems, the estimation of the body displacement in the global coordinate system remains a challenge due to lack of external references. This paper proposes a self-contained displacement estimation method based on a human biomechanical model to track the position of walking subjects in the global coordinate system without any additional supporting infrastructures. The proposed approach makes use of the biomechanics of the lower body segments and the assumption that during walking there is always at least one foot in contact with the ground. The ground contact joint is detected based on walking gait characteristics and used as the external references of the human body. The relative positions of the other joints are obtained from hierarchical transformations based on the biomechanical model. Anatomical constraints are proposed to apply to some specific joints of the lower body to further improve the accuracy of the algorithm. Performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with an optical motion capture system. The method is also demonstrated in outdoor and indoor long distance walking scenarios. The experimental results demonstrate clearly that the biomechanical model improves the displacement accuracy within the proposed framework. (paper)

  16. Investigation of micro-plasma in physiological saline produced by a high-power YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jian; Ni Xiaowu; He Anzhi

    1994-01-01

    Micro-plasma and shock waves in the physiological saline produced by a Q-switched pulse YAG laser with nearby optical breakdown threshold energy are investigated by using optical shadowing exploring method, and a series of optical shadow graphs of micro-plasma and shock waves versus the incident laser energy and the delay time are obtained. Influence of mechanical action of shock waves for the high-power pulse laser on the ophthalmic treatment is discussed

  17. Extracting physical properties of arbitrarily shaped laser-doped micro-scale areas in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, Martin; Kluska, Sven; Hameiri, Ziv; Hoex, Bram; Aberle, Armin G.

    2013-01-01

    We present a method that allows the extraction of relevant physical properties such as sheet resistance and dopant profile from arbitrarily shaped laser-doped micro-scale areas formed in semiconductors with a focused pulsed laser beam. The key feature of the method is to use large laser-doped areas with an identical average number of laser pulses per area (laser pulse density) as the arbitrarily shaped areas. The method is verified using sheet resistance measurements on laser-doped silicon samples. Furthermore, the method is extended to doping with continuous-wave lasers by using the average number of passes per area or density of passes

  18. Laser beam soldering of micro-optical components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, R.

    2003-05-01

    MOTIVATION Ongoing miniaturisation and higher requirements within optical assemblies and the processing of temperature sensitive components demands for innovative selective joining techniques. So far adhesive bonding has primarily been used to assemble and adjust hybrid micro optical systems. However, the properties of the organic polymers used for the adhesives limit the application of these systems. In fields of telecommunication and lithography, an enhancement of existing joining techniques is necessary to improve properties like humidity resistance, laserstability, UV-stability, thermal cycle reliability and life time reliability. Against this background laser beam soldering of optical components is a reasonable joining technology alternative. Properties like: - time and area restricted energy input - energy input can be controlled by the process temperature - direct and indirect heating of the components is possible - no mechanical contact between joining tool and components give good conditions to meet the requirements on a joining technology for sensitive optical components. Additionally to the laser soldering head, for the assembly of optical components it is necessary to include positioning units to adjust the position of the components with high accuracy before joining. Furthermore, suitable measurement methods to characterize the soldered assemblies (for instance in terms of position tolerances) need to be developed.

  19. Nondestructive web thickness measurement of micro-drills with an integrated laser inspection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Shui-Fa; Chen, Yen-Chung; Chang, Wen-Tung; Lin, Ching-Chih; Tarng, Yeong-Shin

    2010-09-01

    Nowadays, the electric and semiconductor industries use numerous micro-drills to machine micro-holes in printed circuit boards. The measurement of web thickness of micro-drills, a key parameter of micro-drill geometry influencing drill rigidity and chip-removal ability, is quite important to ensure quality control. Traditionally, inefficiently destructive measuring method is adopted by inspectors. To improve quality and efficiency of the web thickness measuring tasks, a nondestructive measuring method is required. In this paper, based on the laser micro-gauge (LMG) and laser confocal displacement meter (LCDM) techniques, a nondestructive measuring principle of web thickness of micro-drills is introduced. An integrated laser inspection system, mainly consisting of a LMG, a LCDM and a two-axis-driven micro-drill fixture device, was developed. Experiments meant to inspect web thickness of micro-drill samples with a nominal diameter of 0.25 mm were conducted to test the feasibility of the developed laser inspection system. The experimental results showed that the web thickness measurement could achieve an estimated repeatability of ± 1.6 μm and a worst repeatability of ± 7.5 μm. The developed laser inspection system, combined with the nondestructive measuring principle, was able to undertake the web thickness measuring tasks for certain micro-drills.

  20. Femtosecond laser micro-machined polyimide films for cell scaffold applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antanavičiute, Ieva; Šimatonis, Linas; Ulčinas, Orestas

    2018-01-01

    of commercially available 12.7 and 25.4μm thickness polyimide (PI) film was applied. Mechanical properties of the fabricated scaffolds, i.e. arrays of differently spaced holes, were examined via custom-built uniaxial micro-tensile testing and finite element method simulations. We demonstrate that experimental...... micro-tensile testing results could be numerically simulated and explained by two-material model, assuming that 2-6μm width rings around the holes possessed up to five times higher Young's modulus and yield stress compared with the rest of the laser intacted PI film areas of 'dog-bone'-shaped specimens......Engineering of sophisticated synthetic 3D scaffolds that allow controlling behaviour and location of the cells requires advanced micro/nano-fabrication techniques. Ultrafast laser micro-machining employing a 1030-nm wavelength Yb:KGW femtosecond laser and a micro-fabrication workstation for micro-machining...

  1. Extended Field Laser Confocal Microscopy (EFLCM): Combining automated Gigapixel image capture with in silico virtual microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaberg, Emilie; Sabelström, Per; Strandh, Christer; Szekely, Laszlo

    2008-01-01

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy has revolutionized cell biology. However, the technique has major limitations in speed and sensitivity due to the fact that a single laser beam scans the sample, allowing only a few microseconds signal collection for each pixel. This limitation has been overcome by the introduction of parallel beam illumination techniques in combination with cold CCD camera based image capture. Using the combination of microlens enhanced Nipkow spinning disc confocal illumination together with fully automated image capture and large scale in silico image processing we have developed a system allowing the acquisition, presentation and analysis of maximum resolution confocal panorama images of several Gigapixel size. We call the method Extended Field Laser Confocal Microscopy (EFLCM). We show using the EFLCM technique that it is possible to create a continuous confocal multi-colour mosaic from thousands of individually captured images. EFLCM can digitize and analyze histological slides, sections of entire rodent organ and full size embryos. It can also record hundreds of thousands cultured cells at multiple wavelength in single event or time-lapse fashion on fixed slides, in live cell imaging chambers or microtiter plates. The observer independent image capture of EFLCM allows quantitative measurements of fluorescence intensities and morphological parameters on a large number of cells. EFLCM therefore bridges the gap between the mainly illustrative fluorescence microscopy and purely quantitative flow cytometry. EFLCM can also be used as high content analysis (HCA) instrument for automated screening processes

  2. Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Some Fruits Using Gas Chromatography Coupled with Micro Electron Capture Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Bhanger

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A very sensitive analytical method for the determination of 26 pesticides in some fruits based on solid phase extraction (SPE cleanup was developed using gas chromatography (GC coupled with micro electron capture detector (μECD. The identity of the pesticides was confirmed by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS using selected ion monitoring (SIM mode. Ethyl acetate was used as a solvent for the extraction of pesticide residues with assistance of sonication. For cleanup an octadecyl, C18 SPE column was used. A linear response of μECD was observed for all pesticides with good correlation coefficients (>0.9992. Proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of pesticide residues in the orange, apple, and grape fruits. Average recoveries achieved for all of the pesticides at fortification levels of 0.05, 1.0 and 2.0 μg g-1 in analyzed fruits were above 90% with relative standard deviations (RSD less than 6

  3. Laser accelerated protons captured and transported by a pulse power solenoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Burris-Mog

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Using a pulse power solenoid, we demonstrate efficient capture of laser accelerated proton beams and the ability to control their large divergence angles and broad energy range. Simulations using measured data for the input parameters give inference into the phase-space and transport efficiencies of the captured proton beams. We conclude with results from a feasibility study of a pulse power compact achromatic gantry concept. Using a scaled target normal sheath acceleration spectrum, we present simulation results of the available spectrum after transport through the gantry.

  4. Experimental and Numerical Simulation Research on Micro-Gears Fabrication by Laser Shock Punching Process

    OpenAIRE

    Huixia Liu; Jianwen Li; Zongbao Shen; Qing Qian; Hongfeng Zhang; Xiao Wang

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to fabricate micro-gears via laser shock punching with Spitlight 2000 Nd-YAG Laser, and to discuss effects of process parameters namely laser energy, soft punch properties and blank-holder on the quality of micro-gears deeply. Results show that dimensional accuracy is the best shocked at 1690 mJ. Tensile fracture instead of shear fracture is the main fracture mode under low laser energy. The soft punch might cause damage to punching quality when too high energy is emp...

  5. Histological staining methods preparatory to laser capture microdissection significantly affect the integrity of the cellular RNA

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hongyang; Owens, James D; Shih, Joanna H; Li, Ming-Chung; Bonner, Robert F; Mushinski, J Frederic

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Gene expression profiling by microarray analysis of cells enriched by laser capture microdissection (LCM) faces several technical challenges. Frozen sections yield higher quality RNA than paraffin-imbedded sections, but even with frozen sections, the staining methods used for histological identification of cells of interest could still damage the mRNA in the cells. To study the contribution of staining methods to degradation of results from gene expression profiling of LCM...

  6. Analysis and prediction of dimensions and cost of laser micro-machining internal channel fabrication process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brabazon D.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the utilisation of Response Surface Methodology (RSM as the prediction tool for the laser micro-machining process. Laser internal microchannels machined using pulsed Nd:YVO4 laser in polycarbonate were investigated. The experiments were carried out according to 33 factorial Design of Experiment (DoE. In this work the three input process set as control parameters were laser power, P; pulse repetition frequency, PRF; and sample translation speed, U. Measured responses were the channel width and the micro-machining operating cost per metre of produced microchannels. The responses were sufficiently predicted within the set micro-machining parameters limits. Two factorial interaction (2FI and quadratic polynomial regression equations for both responses were constructed. It is proposed that the developed prediction equations can be used to find locally optimal micro-machining process parameters under experimental and operational conditions.

  7. The Isolation of Pure Populations of Neurons by Laser Capture Microdissection: Methods and Application in Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Renée; Mehta, Prachi

    2018-01-01

    In mammals, the central nervous system (CNS) is constituted of various cellular elements, posing a challenge to isolating specific cell types to investigate their expression profile. As a result, tissue homogenization is not amenable to analyses of motor neurons profiling as these represent less than 10% of the total spinal cord cell population. One way to tackle the problem of tissue heterogeneity and obtain meaningful genomic, proteomic, and transcriptomic profiling is to use laser capture microdissection technology (LCM). In this chapter, we describe protocols for the capture of isolated populations of motor neurons from spinal cord tissue sections and for downstream transcriptomic analysis of motor neurons with RT-PCR. We have also included a protocol for the immunological confirmation that the captured neurons are indeed motor neurons. Although focused on spinal cord motor neurons, these protocols can be easily optimized for the isolation of any CNS neurons.

  8. Neuronal type-specific gene expression profiling and laser-capture microdissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietersen, Charmaine Y; Lim, Maribel P; Macey, Laurel; Woo, Tsung-Ung W; Sonntag, Kai C

    2011-01-01

    The human brain is an exceptionally heterogeneous structure. In order to gain insight into the neurobiological basis of neural circuit disturbances in various neurologic or psychiatric diseases, it is often important to define the molecular cascades that are associated with these disturbances in a neuronal type-specific manner. This can be achieved by the use of laser microdissection, in combination with molecular techniques such as gene expression profiling. To identify neurons in human postmortem brain tissue, one can use the inherent properties of the neuron, such as pigmentation and morphology or its structural composition through immunohistochemistry (IHC). Here, we describe the isolation of homogeneous neuronal cells and high-quality RNA from human postmortem brain material using a combination of rapid IHC, Nissl staining, or simple morphology with Laser-Capture Microdissection (LCM) or Laser Microdissection (LMD).

  9. The possibility of using laser and micro-jet technology in the welding of structural elements of vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Wojciech MAJEWSKI

    2015-01-01

    A paper presents the possibility of laser welding using micro-jet cooling. The effect of micro-jet cooling on microstructure and mechanical properties of the weld metal deposit was carried out. New welding process was analyzed for use in the automotive industry. Studies have confirmed the positive effect of cooling micro-jet cooling both for the MIG welding and laser welding.

  10. Experimental study of micro dimple fabrication based on laser shock processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kangmei; Hu, Yongxiang; Yao, Zhenqiang

    2013-06-01

    Micro-dimple array has been generally considered as a valuable texture for sliding surfaces. It can improve lubrication and reduce wear by acting as reservoirs of lubricants and grinding debris. Laser shock processing (LSP) is an innovative process which can not only improve fatigue, corrosion and wearing resistance but also shape metallic parts accurately. In this study, a new process for the fabrication of micro dimples based on LSP was proposed, which was named as laser peen texturing (LPT). Experiments were performed on 2024 aluminum alloy, Oxygen-Free High Conductivity (OFHC) copper and SUS304 stainless steel to study the effects of processing parameters of LPT on surface integrity of the specimen. Surface morphology, micro hardness and microstructure of the micro dimples were investigated under various laser power densities, laser spot diameters and repeated shock numbers. It was found that the depth of the micro dimples induced by LPT is strongly dependent on material properties. The diameter, depth as well as aspect ratio of micro dimples were increased with the laser power density and the repeated shock number under the conditions in this study. But when the laser spot diameter changed, the variation laws of the diameter, depth and aspect ratio of the dimple were different from each other. The results of micro hardness measurements suggested that LPT is beneficial for the improvement of the micro hardness beneath the dimple. Grain refinement was found significantly on 2024 aluminum alloy and OFHC copper but not clearly on SUS304 stainless steel. Both the hardening effect and the grain refinement have close relationship with the depth of the micro dimple.

  11. An experimental analysis of process parameters to manufacture micro-channels in AISI H13 tempered steel by laser micro-milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixidor, D.; Ferrer, I.; Ciurana, J.

    2012-04-01

    This paper reports the characterization of laser machining (milling) process to manufacture micro-channels in order to understand the incidence of process parameters on the final features. Selection of process operational parameters is highly critical for successful laser micromachining. A set of designed experiments is carried out in a pulsed Nd:YAG laser system using AISI H13 hardened tool steel as work material. Several micro-channels have been manufactured as micro-mold cavities varying parameters such as scanning speed (SS), pulse intensity (PI) and pulse frequency (PF). Results are obtained by evaluating the dimensions and the surface finish of the micro-channel. The dimensions and shape of the micro-channels produced with laser-micro-milling process exhibit variations. In general the use of low scanning speeds increases the quality of the feature in both surface finishing and dimensional.

  12. Numerical Simulation of the Micro-explosion during Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Yucheng; Huang Chuyun; Xu Guowang; Yan Xudong; Wang Yanlin

    2011-01-01

    The micro-explosion during Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy may cause calculus fragmentation and migration. It plays an important role to the surgery. A numerical simulation of the micro-explosion during Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy has been developed. The explosion problem in water environment was solved by the Euler algorithm and the piecewise parabolic method (PPM) was selected in the calculation. This simulation investigated the explosion dynamics evolution in the lithotripsy area. The pressure and intensity of the calculus surface were calculated for different laser pulse energy and different distance between calculus and fiber tip. The calculation results indicate that the micro-explosion's properties are determined by the pulse energy, pulse duration and the water distance. Though Short pulse duration and large pulse energy cause high ablation efficiency, it mains more calculus retropulsion at the same time. The ideal surgery results need property laser parameters.

  13. Characterizations of Stress and Strain Variation in Three-Dimensional Forming of Laser Micro-Manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming, Zhou; Guo-Huan, Zhao; Tao, Huang; Hua, Ding; Lan, Cai

    2010-01-01

    A micro-manufacturing technology is presented to form three-dimensional metallic micro-structures directly. Micro grid array structures are replicated on a metallic foil surface, with high spatial resolution in micron levels. The numerical simulation results indicate that the material deformation process is characterized by an ultrahigh strain rate. With increasing pulse duration, the sample absorption strain energy increases, and the sample deformation degree enlarges. The stress state of the central point fluctuates between tensile stress and compression stress. The stress state of the angular point is altered from compressive stress to tensile stress due to geometry and loading conditions. The duration length of pulse stress has an effect on the stress state, as with the increase of pulse duration, fluctuation in the stress state decreases. Therefore, laser micro-manufacturing technology will be a potential laser micro forming method which is characterized by low cost and high efficiency. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  14. Laser capture microdissection in the genomic and proteomic era: targeting the genetic basis of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domazet, Barbara; Maclennan, Gregory T; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Montironi, Rodolfo; Cheng, Liang

    2008-03-15

    The advent of new technologies has enabled deeper insight into processes at subcellular levels, which will ultimately improve diagnostic procedures and patient outcome. Thanks to cell enrichment methods, it is now possible to study cells in their native environment. This has greatly contributed to a rapid growth in several areas, such as gene expression analysis, proteomics, and metabolonomics. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) as a method of procuring subpopulations of cells under direct visual inspection is playing an important role in these areas. This review provides an overview of existing LCM technology and its downstream applications in genomics, proteomics, diagnostics and therapy.

  15. Manufacture of micro fluidic devices by laser welding using thermal transfer printing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, R.; Klein, K. F.; Tobisch, T.; Thoelken, D.; Belz, M.

    2016-03-01

    Micro-fluidic devices are widely used today in the areas of medical diagnostics and drug research, as well as for applications within the process, electronics and chemical industry. Microliters of fluids or single cell to cell interactions can be conveniently analyzed with such devices using fluorescence imaging, phase contrast microscopy or spectroscopic techniques. Typical micro-fluidic devices consist of a thermoplastic base component with chambers and channels covered by a hermetic fluid and gas tight sealed lid component. Both components are usually from the same or similar thermoplastic material. Different mechanical, adhesive or thermal joining processes can be used to assemble base component and lid. Today, laser beam welding shows the potential to become a novel manufacturing opportunity for midsize and large scale production of micro-fluidic devices resulting in excellent processing quality by localized heat input and low thermal stress to the device during processing. For laser welding, optical absorption of the resin and laser wavelength has to be matched for proper joining. This paper will focus on a new approach to prepare micro-fluidic channels in such devices using a thermal transfer printing process, where an optical absorbing layer absorbs the laser energy. Advantages of this process will be discussed in combination with laser welding of optical transparent micro-fluidic devices.

  16. Effects of the bleaching procedures on enamel micro-hardness: Plasma Arc and diode laser comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nematianaraki, Saeid; Fekrazad, Reza; Naghibi, Nasim; Kalhori, Katayoun Am; Junior, Aldo Brugnera

    2015-10-02

    One of the major side effects of vital bleaching is the reduction of enamel micro-hardness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of two different bleaching systems, Plasma Arc and GaAlAs laser, on the enamel micro-hardness. 15 freshly extracted human third molars were sectioned to prepare 30 enamel blocks (5×5 mm). These samples were then randomly divided into 2 groups of 15 each (n=15): a plasma arc bleaching group (: 350-700 nm) + 35% Hydrogen Peroxide whitening gel and a laser bleaching group (GaAlAs laser, λ: 810 nm, P: 10 W, CW, Special Tip) + 35% Hydrogen Peroxide whitening gel. Samples were subjected to the Vickers micro-hardness test (VHN) at a load of 50 g for 15s before and after treatment. Data were statistically analyzed by a Mann-Whitney test (p≤0.05). In the GaAlAs laser group, the enamel micro-hardness was 618.2 before and was reduced to 544.6 after bleaching procedures. In the plasma arc group, the enamel micro-hardness was 644.8 before and 498.9 after bleaching. Although both techniques significantly reduced VHN, plasma arc bleaching resulted in a 22.62% reduction in VHN for enamel micro-hardness, whereas an 11.89% reduction in VHN was observed for laser bleaching; this difference is statistically significant (plaser than with the plasma arc. Therefore GaAlAs laser bleaching has fewer harmful effects than plasma arc in respect to enamel micro-hardness reduction.

  17. Laser Direct Write micro-fabrication of large area electronics on flexible substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharatos, F.; Makrygianni, M.; Geremia, R.; Biver, E.; Karnakis, D.; Leyder, S.; Puerto, D.; Delaporte, P.; Zergioti, I.

    2016-06-01

    To date, Laser Direct Write (LDW) techniques, such as Laser Induced Forward Transfer (LIFT), selective laser ablation and selective laser sintering of metal nanoparticle (NP) ink layers are receiving growing attention for the printing of uniform and well-defined conductive patterns with resolution down to 10 μm. For flexible substrates in particular, selective laser sintering of such NP patterns has been widely applied, as a low temperature and high resolution process compatible with large area electronics. In this work, LDW of silver NP inks has been carried out on polyethylene-terephthalate (PET), polyethylene-naphthalate (PEN) and polyimide (PI) substrates to achieve low electrical resistivity electrodes. In more detail, high speed short pulsed (picosecond and nanosecond) lasers with repetition rates up to 1 MHz were used to print (LIFT) metal NP inks. We thus achieved uniform and continuous patterns with a minimum feature size of 1 μm and a total footprint larger than 1 cm2. Next, the printed patterns were laser sintered with ns pulses at 532 nm over a wide laser fluence window, resulting in an electrical resistivity of 10 μΩ cm. We carried out spatial beam shaping experiments to achieve a top-hat laser intensity profile and employed selective laser ablation of thin films (thickness on the order of 100 nm) to produce silver micro-electrodes with a resolution on the order of 10 μm and a low line edge roughness. Laser sintering was combined with laser ablation to constitute a fully autonomous micro-patterning technique of metallic micro-features, with a 10 μm resolution and geometrical characteristics tuned for interdigitated electrodes for sensor applications.

  18. Potential of a novel airborne hydrographic laser scanner for capturing shallow water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandlburger, G.; Pfennigbauer, M.; Steinbacher, F.; Pfeifer, N.

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we present the general design of a hydrographic laser scanner (prototype instrument) manufactured by the company Riegl Laser Measurement Systems in cooperation with the University of Innsbruck, Unit of Hydraulic Engineering. The instrument utilizes very short laser pulses (1 ns) in the green wavelength domain (λ=532 nm) capable of penetrating the water column. The backscattered signal is digitized in a waveform recorder at high frequency enabling sophisticated waveform processing, both, online during the flight and in post processing. In combination with a traditional topographic airborne laser scanner (λ=1500 nm) mounted on the same platform a complete hydrographic and topographic survey of the riparian foreland, the water surface and river bed can be carried out in a single campaign. In contrast to existing bathymetric LiDAR systems, the presented system uses only medium pulse energy but a high pulse repetition rate of up to 250 kHz and, thus, focuses on a detailed description of shallow water bodies under clear water conditions. Different potential fields of applications of the instrument (hydraulic modelling, hydro-morphology, hydro-biology, ecology, river restoration and monitoring) are discussed and the results of first real-world test flights in Austria and Germany are presented. It is shown that: (i) the high pulse repetition rate enables a point density on the ground of the water body of 10-20 pts/m2, (ii) the short laser pulses together with waveform processing enable a discrimination between water and ground reflections at a water depth of less than 25 cm, (iii) the combination of a topographic and hydrographic laser scanner enable the acquisition of the geometry data for hydraulic modeling in a single survey, thus, providing a much more homogeneous data basis compared to traditional techniques, and (iv) the high point density and the ranging accuracy of less than 10 cm enable a detailed and precise description of the river bed

  19. Process and Material Design for Micro-Encapsulated Ionic Liquids in Post-Combustion CO2 Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Bo [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States); Brennecke, Joan F [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States); McCready, Mark [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States); Stadtherr, Mark [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    2016-11-18

    Aprotic Heterocyclic Anion (AHA) Ionic Liquids (ILs) have been identified as promising new solvents for post-combustion carbon capture due to their high CO2 uptake and the high tenability 1,2 of their binding energy with CO2. Some of these compounds change phase (solid to liquid) on absorption of CO2; these Phase Change ILs (PCILs)3 offer the additional advantage that part of the heat needed to desorb the CO2 from the absorbent is provided by the heat of fusion as the PCIL solidifies upon release of CO2. However, the relatively high viscosity of AHA ILs and the occurrence of a phase change in PCILs present challenges for conventional absorption equipment. To overcome these challenges we are pursuing the use of new technology to micro-encapsulate the AHA ILs and PCILs. Our partners at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have successfully demonstrated this technology in the application of post-combustion carbon capture with sodium and potassium carbonate solutions,4 and have recently shown the feasibility of micro-encapsulation of an AHA IL for carbon capture.5 The large effective surface area and high CO2 permeability of the micro-capsules is expected to offset the drawback of the high IL viscosity and to provide for a more efficient and cost-effective mass transfer operation involving AHA ILs and PCILs. These opportunities, however, present us with both process and materials design questions. For example, what is the target CO2 absorption strength (enthalpy of chemical absorption) for the tunable AHA IL? What is the target for micro-capsule diameter in order to obtain a high mass transfer rate and good fluidization performance? What are the appropriate temperatures and pressures for the absorber and stripper? In order to address these and other questions, we have developed a rate-based model of a post-combustion CO2 capture process using micro-encapsulated ILs. As a performance baseline

  20. Low-temperature micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy on laser-doped silicon with different surface conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Young-Joon; Franklin, Evan; Fell, Andreas; Ernst, Marco; Nguyen, Hieu T.; Macdonald, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Low-temperature micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy (μ-PLS) is applied to investigate shallow layers of laser-processed silicon for solar cell applications. Micron-scale measurement (with spatial resolution down to 1 μm) enables investigation of the fundamental impact of laser processing on the electronic properties of silicon as a function of position within the laser-processed region, and in particular at specific positions such as at the boundary/edge of processed and unprocessed regions. Low-temperature μ-PLS enables qualitative analysis of laser-processed regions by identifying PLS signals corresponding to both laser-induced doping and laser-induced damage. We show that the position of particular luminescence peaks can be attributed to band-gap narrowing corresponding to different levels of subsurface laser doping, which is achieved via multiple 248 nm nanosecond excimer laser pulses with fluences in the range 1.5-4 J/cm2 and using commercially available boron-rich spin-on-dopant precursor films. We demonstrate that characteristic defect PL spectra can be observed subsequent to laser doping, providing evidence of laser-induced crystal damage. The impact of laser parameters such as fluence and number of repeat pulses on laser-induced damage is also analyzed by observing the relative level of defect PL spectra and absolute luminescence intensity. Luminescence owing to laser-induced damage is observed to be considerably larger at the boundaries of laser-doped regions than at the centers, highlighting the significant role of the edges of laser-doped region on laser doping quality. Furthermore, by comparing the damage signal observed after laser processing of two different substrate surface conditions (chemically-mechanically polished and tetramethylammonium hydroxide etched), we show that wafer preparation can be an important factor impacting the quality of laser-processed silicon and solar cells.

  1. Effects of laser shock peening with contacting foil on micro laser texturing surface of Ti6Al4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Fengze; Zhang, Zidong; Ren, Xudong; Lu, Jinzhong; Huang, Shu

    2018-02-01

    Ti6Al4V samples with micro-dimple arrays were subjected to laser shock peening in contact with foil (HCLSP). The surface roughness, micro-hardness, the residual stress distribution and the surface morphology of the micro-dimple arrays were studied to evaluate the effects of HCLSP. Moreover, the surface topography of the foils in contact was also analyzed. The gap existence between the foil and the to-be treated surface led the mechanism of HCLSP to be different compared to regular laser shock peening. The surface roughness reduction, the work-hardening effects, the compressive residual stress and the micro crack enclosure were achieved. A simplified ball-hitting-surface model was utilized to analyze the HCLSP impact. The model could well explain the experimental results. When treated by the HCLSP with H62 foil at the laser power density of 4.24 GW/cm2, the Ti6Al4V samples with micro-dimple arrays exhibit well surface topography and mechanical performance.

  2. Impact of CO_2-enriched combustion air on micro-gas turbine performance for carbon capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, Thom; Finney, Karen N.; Ingham, Derek B.; Pourkashanian, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Power generation is one of the largest anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission sources; although it is now reducing in carbon intensity due to switching from coal to gas, this is only part of a bridging solution that will require the utilization of carbon capture technologies. Gas turbines, such as those at the UK Carbon Capture Storage Research Centre's Pilot-scale Advanced CO_2 Capture Technology (UKCCSRC PACT) National Core Facility, have high exhaust gas mass flow rates with relatively low CO_2 concentrations; therefore solvent-based post-combustion capture is energy intensive. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) can increase CO_2 levels, reducing the capture energy penalty. The aim of this paper is to simulate EGR through enrichment of the combustion air with CO_2 to assess changes to turbine performance and potential impacts on complete generation and capture systems. The oxidising air was enhanced with CO_2, up to 6.29%vol dry, impacting mechanical performance, reducing both engine speed by over 400 revolutions per minute and compression temperatures. Furthermore, it affected complete combustion, seen in changes to CO and unburned hydrocarbon emissions. This impacted on turbine efficiency, which increased specific fuel consumption (by 2.9%). CO_2 enhancement could therefore result in significant efficiency gains for the capture plant. - Highlights: • Experimental investigation of the impact of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on GT performance. • Combustion air was enhanced with CO_2 to simulate EGR. • EGR impact was ascertained by CO and unburned hydrocarbon changes. • Primary factor influencing performance was found to be oxidiser temperature. • Impact of CO_2 enhancement on post-combustion capture efficiency.

  3. Laser and Particle Guiding Micro-Elements for Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Plettner, Tomas; Spencer, James; Wisdom, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    Laser driven particle accelerators based on the current generation of lasers will require sub-micron control of the laser field as well as precise beam guiding. Hence the fabrication techniques that allow integrating both elements into an accelerator-on-chip format become critical for the success of such particle accelerators. Micromachining technology for silicon has been shown to be one such feasible technology in PAC2003 but with a variety of complications on the laser side. Fortunately, in recent years the fabrication of transparent ceramics has become an interesting technology that could be applied for laser-particle accelerators in several ways. We discuss this area, its advantages such as the range of materials it provides and various ways to implement it followed by some different test examples that have been considered. One important goal of this approach is an integrated system that could avoid the necessity of having to inject either laser or particle pulses into these structures.

  4. Transmission Geometry Laser Ablation into a Non-Contact Liquid Vortex Capture Probe for Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovchinnikova, Olga S [ORNL; Bhandari, Deepak [ORNL; Lorenz, Matthias [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE: Capture of material from a laser ablation plume into a continuous flow stream of solvent provides the means for uninterrupted sampling, transport and ionization of collected material for coupling with mass spectral analysis. Reported here is the use of vertically aligned transmission geometry laser ablation in combination with a new non-contact liquid vortex capture probe coupled with electrospray ionization for spot sampling and chemical imaging with mass spectrometry. Methods: A vertically aligned continuous flow liquid vortex capture probe was positioned directly underneath a sample surface in a transmission geometry laser ablation (355 nm, 10 Hz, 7 ns pulse width) setup to capture into solution the ablated material. The outlet of the vortex probe was coupled to the Turbo V ion source of an AB SCIEX TripleTOF 5600+ mass spectrometer. System operation and performance metrics were tested using inked patterns and thin tissue sections. Glass slides and slides designed especially for laser capture microdissection, viz., DIRECTOR slides and PEN 1.0 (polyethylene naphthalate) membrane slides, were used as sample substrates. Results: The estimated capture efficiency of laser ablated material was 24%, which was enabled by the use of a probe with large liquid surface area (~ 2.8 mm2) and with gravity to help direct ablated material vertically down towards the probe. The swirling vortex action of the liquid surface potentially enhanced capture and dissolution of not only particulates, but also gaseous products of the laser ablation. The use of DIRECTOR slides and PEN 1.0 (polyethylene naphthalate) membrane slides as sample substrates enabled effective ablation of a wide range of sample types (basic blue 7, polypropylene glycol, insulin and cyctochrome c) without photodamage using a UV laser. Imaging resolution of about 6 m was demonstrated for stamped ink on DIRECTOR slides based on the ability to distinguish features present both in the optical and in the

  5. Hydrodynamic modeling of laser interaction with micro-structured targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velechovsky, Jan; Limpouch, Jiri; Liska, Richard; Tikhonchuk, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    A model is developed for numerical simulations of laser absorption in plasmas made of porous materials, with particular interest in low-density foams. Laser absorption is treated on two spatial scales simultaneously. At the microscale, the expansion of a thin solid pore wall is modeled in one dimension and the information obtained is used in the macroscale fluid simulations for the description of the plasma homogenization behind the ionization front. This two-scale laser absorption model is implemented in the arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian hydrocode PALE. In conclusion, the numerical simulations of laser penetration into low-density foams compare favorably with published experimental data.

  6. Effect of Laser Preheating AISI 4140 Specimens for Micro-Forging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung C.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Many high performance and permanent service parts require suitable material characteristics-high fatigue strength is one of the most important characteristics. For this reason, surface treatment processes are essential to increase the material performance and avoid the use of costly ineffective material. There exist various surface treatment processes for various applications. Each process has advantages and disadvantages and hybridization can solve various problems. The micro-forging process delivers a controlled and uniform surface hardness, but the depth of the forged surface is limited. On the other hand, laser heat treatment can increase the hardness drastically, but the surface may become brittle, which reduces the fatigue life. Laser-assisted micro-forging is a novel hybrid process of laser heat treatment and micro-forging that has the potential to increase the forging depth and relax the stress caused by the high temperature of the forging process.

  7. Bright X-ray source from a laser-driven micro-plasma-waveguide

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, Longqing

    2016-01-01

    Bright tunable x-ray sources have a number of applications in basic science, medicine and industry. The most powerful sources are synchrotrons, where relativistic electrons are circling in giant storage rings. In parallel, compact laser-plasma x-ray sources are being developed. Owing to the rapid progress in laser technology, very high-contrast femtosecond laser pulses of relativistic intensities become available. These pulses allow for interaction with micro-structured solid-density plasma without destroying the structure by parasitic pre-pulses. The high-contrast laser pulses as well as the manufacturing of materials at micro- and nano-scales open a new realm of possibilities for laser interaction with photonic materials at the relativistic intensities. Here we demonstrate, via numerical simulations, that when coupling with a readily available 1.8 Joule laser, a micro-plasma-waveguide (MPW) may serve as a novel compact x-ray source. Electrons are extracted from the walls by the laser field and form a dense ...

  8. A three-dimensional model for calculating the micro disk laser resonant-modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabetjoo, H.; Bahrampor, A.; Farrahi-Moghaddam, R.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, a semi-analytical model for theoretical analysis of micro disk lasers is presented. Using this model, the necessary conditions for the existence of loss less and low-loss modes of micro-resonators are obtained. The resonance frequency of the resonant modes and also the attenuation of low-loss modes are calculated. By comparing the results with results of finite difference method, their validity is certified.

  9. Fast parallel diffractive multi-beam femtosecond laser surface micro-structuring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Kuang, E-mail: z.kuang@liv.ac.uk [Laser Group, Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Brodie Building, Liverpool L69 3GQ (United Kingdom); Dun Liu; Perrie, Walter; Edwardson, Stuart; Sharp, Martin; Fearon, Eamonn; Dearden, Geoff; Watkins, Ken [Laser Group, Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Brodie Building, Liverpool L69 3GQ (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    Fast parallel femtosecond laser surface micro-structuring is demonstrated using a spatial light modulator (SLM). The Gratings and Lenses algorithm, which is simple and computationally fast, is used to calculate computer generated holograms (CGHs) producing diffractive multiple beams for the parallel processing. The results show that the finite laser bandwidth can significantly alter the intensity distribution of diffracted beams at higher angles resulting in elongated hole shapes. In addition, by synchronisation of applied CGHs and the scanning system, true 3D micro-structures are created on Ti6Al4V.

  10. Comparison between Laser and Stamping without Die (SWD for Micro Tapered Hole Forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Chou Hung

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The forming of a micro tapered hole is based on nanosecond pulsed laser processing, which conforms to fast processing time and high throughput; however, the microhole quality should be improved. Micro stamping is a technology providing high precise size and speed. The greatest difficulty in forming a microhole by micro stamping is the precision alignment of the punch head to the lower die. In order to overcome the difficulty, we proposed a concept of stamping without die (SWD. Without a lower die, the tapered punch head was directly applied to the workpiece for micro stamping, and a thicker workpiece surrounding the punching area provides a better support to the stamping process. Thus, a successful forming of micro tapered holes is completed. The micro tapered hole depth is 300 μm, and the maximum ratio of inlet to outlet diameter is 18:1. In order to reduce the number of experiments, the finite element analysis software DEFORM-3D was used for forming analysis. The simulation forecast result was compared with the experimental processing, which was well validated. Under different experimental parameters of laser energy and defocusing distance, drilling results by two methods show that the microhole quality by stamping process is better than by laser processing.

  11. Experimental and numerical study of the micro-spalling of metallic targets subjected to laser shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loison, D.

    2012-01-01

    Micro-spalling is a failure phenomenon consisting in dynamic fragmentation of a material after partial or full melting under intense shock wave loading. High power pulsed lasers are used as shock wave generators in laboratory for scientific and industrial purposes, such as research on inertial confinement fusion. In this context, the production of high velocity fragments can damage the facilities where shock experiments are conducted. This thesis, realized in collaboration with different teams from CEA, aims at understanding and modeling the different processes involved in micro-spalling phenomenon. Experiments to study micro-spalling of laser shock-loaded tin and aluminum targets have been performed. Various and complementary diagnostics (photonic Doppler velocimetry, soft recovery of debris and microtomography) have been used to characterize the ballistic properties (size distributions and velocities) of droplets constituting the micro-spalling cloud. In parallel, phase transition and fragmentation models have been adapted to simulate micro-spalling. These models have been implemented in a code to predict the sizes and velocities of debris. The combination of experimental and numerical results allows characterizing the successive stages of micro-spalling from laser-matter interaction to the ejection of droplets. (author)

  12. Laser Direct Write micro-fabrication of large area electronics on flexible substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacharatos, F.; Makrygianni, M.; Geremia, R.; Biver, E.; Karnakis, D.; Leyder, S.; Puerto, D.; Delaporte, P.; Zergioti, I.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Laser Direct Writing of metallic patterns with a minimum feature size of 1 μm. • Selective Laser Ablation of 50 nm thick metal films on flexible substrates. • Selective Laser sintering resulting in an electrical resistivity of 9 μΩ cm. • Laser fabrication of interdigitated electrodes for sensor applications. - Abstract: To date, Laser Direct Write (LDW) techniques, such as Laser Induced Forward Transfer (LIFT), selective laser ablation and selective laser sintering of metal nanoparticle (NP) ink layers are receiving growing attention for the printing of uniform and well-defined conductive patterns with resolution down to 10 μm. For flexible substrates in particular, selective laser sintering of such NP patterns has been widely applied, as a low temperature and high resolution process compatible with large area electronics. In this work, LDW of silver NP inks has been carried out on polyethylene-terephthalate (PET), polyethylene-naphthalate (PEN) and polyimide (PI) substrates to achieve low electrical resistivity electrodes. In more detail, high speed short pulsed (picosecond and nanosecond) lasers with repetition rates up to 1 MHz were used to print (LIFT) metal NP inks. We thus achieved uniform and continuous patterns with a minimum feature size of 1 μm and a total footprint larger than 1 cm"2. Next, the printed patterns were laser sintered with ns pulses at 532 nm over a wide laser fluence window, resulting in an electrical resistivity of 10 μΩ cm. We carried out spatial beam shaping experiments to achieve a top-hat laser intensity profile and employed selective laser ablation of thin films (thickness on the order of 100 nm) to produce silver micro-electrodes with a resolution on the order of 10 μm and a low line edge roughness. Laser sintering was combined with laser ablation to constitute a fully autonomous micro-patterning technique of metallic micro-features, with a 10 μm resolution and geometrical characteristics tuned for

  13. Laser Direct Write micro-fabrication of large area electronics on flexible substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacharatos, F.; Makrygianni, M. [National Technical University of Athens, Physics Department, Zografou Campus, 15780 (Greece); Geremia, R.; Biver, E.; Karnakis, D. [Oxford Lasers Ltd, Unit 8 Moorbrook Park, Oxfordshire OX11 7HP (United Kingdom); Leyder, S.; Puerto, D.; Delaporte, P. [Aix-Marseille University, CNRS, LP3 – UMR 7341, 13288 Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Zergioti, I., E-mail: zergioti@central.ntua.gr [National Technical University of Athens, Physics Department, Zografou Campus, 15780 (Greece)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • Laser Direct Writing of metallic patterns with a minimum feature size of 1 μm. • Selective Laser Ablation of 50 nm thick metal films on flexible substrates. • Selective Laser sintering resulting in an electrical resistivity of 9 μΩ cm. • Laser fabrication of interdigitated electrodes for sensor applications. - Abstract: To date, Laser Direct Write (LDW) techniques, such as Laser Induced Forward Transfer (LIFT), selective laser ablation and selective laser sintering of metal nanoparticle (NP) ink layers are receiving growing attention for the printing of uniform and well-defined conductive patterns with resolution down to 10 μm. For flexible substrates in particular, selective laser sintering of such NP patterns has been widely applied, as a low temperature and high resolution process compatible with large area electronics. In this work, LDW of silver NP inks has been carried out on polyethylene-terephthalate (PET), polyethylene-naphthalate (PEN) and polyimide (PI) substrates to achieve low electrical resistivity electrodes. In more detail, high speed short pulsed (picosecond and nanosecond) lasers with repetition rates up to 1 MHz were used to print (LIFT) metal NP inks. We thus achieved uniform and continuous patterns with a minimum feature size of 1 μm and a total footprint larger than 1 cm{sup 2}. Next, the printed patterns were laser sintered with ns pulses at 532 nm over a wide laser fluence window, resulting in an electrical resistivity of 10 μΩ cm. We carried out spatial beam shaping experiments to achieve a top-hat laser intensity profile and employed selective laser ablation of thin films (thickness on the order of 100 nm) to produce silver micro-electrodes with a resolution on the order of 10 μm and a low line edge roughness. Laser sintering was combined with laser ablation to constitute a fully autonomous micro-patterning technique of metallic micro-features, with a 10 μm resolution and geometrical characteristics tuned for

  14. LASER WELDING WITH MICRO-JET COOLING FOR TRUCK FRAME WELDING

    OpenAIRE

    Jan PIWNIK; Bożena SZCZUCKA-LASOTA; Tomasz WĘGRZYN; Wojciech MAJEWSKI

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the mechanical properties of the weld steel structure of car body truck frames after laser welding. The best welding conditions involve the use of proper materials and alloy elements in steel and filer materials, in addition to welding technology, state of stress and temperature of exploitation. We present for the first time the properties of steel track structures after laser welding with micro-jet cooling. Therefore, good selection of both welding paramet...

  15. U-shaped micro-groove fiber based on femtosecond laser processing for humidity sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Gui; Ma, Li-li; Su, Fu-fang; Shi, Meng

    2018-05-01

    A novel optical fiber sensor with a U-shaped micro-groove structure ablated by femtosecond laser on single-mode fiber for measuring air relative humidity (RH) is reported in this paper. In order to improve the accuracy of sensor, a graphene oxide (GO)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composite film is coated on the surface of micro-groove structure. In the U-shaped micro-groove structure, the remaining core and micro-cavity in the micro-groove make up two major optical propagation paths, forming a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI). The sensor has a good linear response within the RH range of 30%—85%, and the maximum sensitivity can reach 0.638 1 nm/%RH. The effect of temperature on the overall performance of the humidity sensor is also investigated. As a new type of all-fiber device, the sensor shows excellent sensitivity and stability.

  16. Micro Sampling System for Highly Radioactive Specimen by Laser Ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sun Ho; Ha, Yeong Keong; Han, Ki Chul; Park, Yang Soon; Jee, Kwang Yong; Kim, Won Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-03-15

    Shielded laser ablation system composed of laser system, image analyser, XYZ translator with motion controller, ablation chamber, manipulator and various optics was designed. Nd:YAG laser which can be tunable from 1064 nm to 266 nm was selected as light source. CCD camera(< x 200) was chosen to analyze a crater less than 50 un in diameter. XYZ translator was composed of three linear stage which can travel 50 w with a minimum movement of 1 {mu}m and motion controller. Before the performance test, each part of system was optically aligned. To perform the ablation test, the specimen was ablated by 50 {mu}m interval and observed by image analyser The shape of crater was almost round, indicating laser beam has homogeneous energy distribution. The resolution and magnification of image system were compatible with the design.

  17. Study of novel plasma devices generated by high power lasers coupled with a micro-pulse power technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, A; Chen, Z L; Jin, Z; Kondo, K; Nakagawa, M; Kodama, R; Arima, H; Yoneda, H

    2008-01-01

    The authors have proposed introducing a micro pulse power technology in high power laser plasma experiments to boost up the return current, resulting in efficiently guiding of energetic electrons. High current pulse power generators with a pulse laser trigger system generate high-density plasma that is well conductor. To efficiently guiding by using a micro pulse power, we estimated parameter of a micro pulse power system that is voltage of rise time, current, charging voltage and capacitance

  18. The possibility of using laser and micro-jet technology in the welding of structural elements of vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech MAJEWSKI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A paper presents the possibility of laser welding using micro-jet cooling. The effect of micro-jet cooling on microstructure and mechanical properties of the weld metal deposit was carried out. New welding process was analyzed for use in the automotive industry. Studies have confirmed the positive effect of cooling micro-jet cooling both for the MIG welding and laser welding.

  19. Exploring the potential of laser capture microdissection technology in integrated oral biosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thennavan, A; Sharma, M; Chandrashekar, C; Hunter, K; Radhakrishnan, R

    2017-09-01

    Laser capture microdissection (LCM) is a high-end research and diagnostic technology that helps in obtaining pure cell populations for the purpose of cell- or lesion-specific genomic and proteomic analysis. Literature search on the application of LCM in oral tissues was made through PubMed. There is ample evidence to substantiate the utility of LCM in understanding the underlying molecular mechanism involving an array of oral physiological and pathological processes, including odontogenesis, taste perception, eruptive tooth movement, oral microbes, and cancers of the mouth and jaw tumors. This review is aimed at exploring the potential application of LCM in oral tissues as a high-throughput tool for integrated oral sciences. The indispensable application of LCM in the construction of lesion-specific genomic libraries with emphasis on some of the novel molecular markers thus discovered is also highlighted. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Application of Laser Micro-irradiation for Examination of Single and Double Strand Break Repair in Mammalian Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holton, Nathaniel W; Andrews, Joel F; Gassman, Natalie R

    2017-09-05

    Highly coordinated DNA repair pathways exist to detect, excise and replace damaged DNA bases, and coordinate repair of DNA strand breaks. While molecular biology techniques have clarified structure, enzymatic functions, and kinetics of repair proteins, there is still a need to understand how repair is coordinated within the nucleus. Laser micro-irradiation offers a powerful tool for inducing DNA damage and monitoring the recruitment of repair proteins. Induction of DNA damage by laser micro-irradiation can occur with a range of wavelengths, and users can reliably induce single strand breaks, base lesions and double strand breaks with a range of doses. Here, laser micro-irradiation is used to examine repair of single and double strand breaks induced by two common confocal laser wavelengths, 355 nm and 405 nm. Further, proper characterization of the applied laser dose for inducing specific damage mixtures is described, so users can reproducibly perform laser micro-irradiation data acquisition and analysis.

  1. Histological staining methods preparatory to laser capture microdissection significantly affect the integrity of the cellular RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ming-Chung

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression profiling by microarray analysis of cells enriched by laser capture microdissection (LCM faces several technical challenges. Frozen sections yield higher quality RNA than paraffin-imbedded sections, but even with frozen sections, the staining methods used for histological identification of cells of interest could still damage the mRNA in the cells. To study the contribution of staining methods to degradation of results from gene expression profiling of LCM samples, we subjected pellets of the mouse plasma cell tumor cell line TEPC 1165 to direct RNA extraction and to parallel frozen sectioning for LCM and subsequent RNA extraction. We used microarray hybridization analysis to compare gene expression profiles of RNA from cell pellets with gene expression profiles of RNA from frozen sections that had been stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E, Nissl Stain (NS, and for immunofluorescence (IF as well as with the plasma cell-revealing methyl green pyronin (MGP stain. All RNAs were amplified with two rounds of T7-based in vitro transcription and analyzed by two-color expression analysis on 10-K cDNA microarrays. Results The MGP-stained samples showed the least introduction of mRNA loss, followed by H&E and immunofluorescence. Nissl staining was significantly more detrimental to gene expression profiles, presumably owing to an aqueous step in which RNA may have been damaged by endogenous or exogenous RNAases. Conclusion RNA damage can occur during the staining steps preparatory to laser capture microdissection, with the consequence of loss of representation of certain genes in microarray hybridization analysis. Inclusion of RNAase inhibitor in aqueous staining solutions appears to be important in protecting RNA from loss of gene transcripts.

  2. Histological staining methods preparatory to laser capture microdissection significantly affect the integrity of the cellular RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyang; Owens, James D; Shih, Joanna H; Li, Ming-Chung; Bonner, Robert F; Mushinski, J Frederic

    2006-04-27

    Gene expression profiling by microarray analysis of cells enriched by laser capture microdissection (LCM) faces several technical challenges. Frozen sections yield higher quality RNA than paraffin-imbedded sections, but even with frozen sections, the staining methods used for histological identification of cells of interest could still damage the mRNA in the cells. To study the contribution of staining methods to degradation of results from gene expression profiling of LCM samples, we subjected pellets of the mouse plasma cell tumor cell line TEPC 1165 to direct RNA extraction and to parallel frozen sectioning for LCM and subsequent RNA extraction. We used microarray hybridization analysis to compare gene expression profiles of RNA from cell pellets with gene expression profiles of RNA from frozen sections that had been stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Nissl Stain (NS), and for immunofluorescence (IF) as well as with the plasma cell-revealing methyl green pyronin (MGP) stain. All RNAs were amplified with two rounds of T7-based in vitro transcription and analyzed by two-color expression analysis on 10-K cDNA microarrays. The MGP-stained samples showed the least introduction of mRNA loss, followed by H&E and immunofluorescence. Nissl staining was significantly more detrimental to gene expression profiles, presumably owing to an aqueous step in which RNA may have been damaged by endogenous or exogenous RNAases. RNA damage can occur during the staining steps preparatory to laser capture microdissection, with the consequence of loss of representation of certain genes in microarray hybridization analysis. Inclusion of RNAase inhibitor in aqueous staining solutions appears to be important in protecting RNA from loss of gene transcripts.

  3. Optically transparent glass micro-actuator fabricated by femtosecond laser exposure and chemical etching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenssen, B.L.K.; Bellouard, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Femtosecond laser manufacturing combined with chemical etching has recently emerged as a flexible platform for fabricating three-dimensional devices and integrated optical elements in glass substrates. Here, we demonstrate an optically transparent micro-actuator fabricated out of a single piece of

  4. Capturing microRNA targets using an RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC)-trap approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambronne, Xiaolu A; Shen, Rongkun; Auer, Paul L; Goodman, Richard H

    2012-12-11

    Identifying targets is critical for understanding the biological effects of microRNA (miRNA) expression. The challenge lies in characterizing the cohort of targets for a specific miRNA, especially when targets are being actively down-regulated in miRNA- RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC)-messengerRNA (mRNA) complexes. We have developed a robust and versatile strategy called RISCtrap to stabilize and purify targets from this transient interaction. Its utility was demonstrated by determining specific high-confidence target datasets for miR-124, miR-132, and miR-181 that contained known and previously unknown transcripts. Two previously unknown miR-132 targets identified with RISCtrap, adaptor protein CT10 regulator of kinase 1 (CRK1) and tight junction-associated protein 1 (TJAP1), were shown to be endogenously regulated by miR-132 in adult mouse forebrain. The datasets, moreover, differed in the number of targets and in the types and frequency of microRNA recognition element (MRE) motifs, thus revealing a previously underappreciated level of specificity in the target sets regulated by individual miRNAs.

  5. Efficient green lasers for high-resolution scanning micro-projector displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Vikram; Bauco, Anthony S.; Oubei, Hassan M.; Loeber, David A. S.

    2010-02-01

    Laser-based projectors are gaining increased acceptance in mobile device market due to their low power consumption, superior image quality and small size. The basic configuration of such micro-projectors is a miniature mirror that creates an image by raster scanning the collinear red, blue and green laser beams that are individually modulated on a pixel-bypixel basis. The image resolution of these displays can be limited by the modulation bandwidth of the laser sources, and the modulation speed of the green laser has been one of the key limitations in the development of these displays. We will discuss how this limitation is fundamental to the architecture of many laser designs and then present a green laser configuration which overcomes these difficulties. In this green laser architecture infra-red light from a distributed Bragg-reflector (DBR) laser diode undergoes conversion to green light in a waveguided second harmonic generator (SHG) crystal. The direct doubling in a single pass through the SHG crystal allows the device to operate at the large modulation bandwidth of the DBR laser. We demonstrate that the resultant product has a small footprint (9% electrical-to-optical conversion) and large modulation bandwidth (>100 MHz).

  6. Robust precision alignment algorithm for micro tube laser forming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folkersma, Ger; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Römer, Gerardus Richardus, Bernardus, Engelina; Herder, Justus Laurens

    2016-01-01

    Tube laser forming on a small diameter tube can be used as a high precision actuator to permanently align small (optical)components. Applications, such as the alignment of optical fibers to photonic integrated circuits, often require sub-micron alignment accuracy. Although the process causes

  7. Selective particle and cell capture in a continuous flow using micro-vortex acoustic streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, David J; Khoo, Bee Luan; Ma, Zhichao; Winkler, Andreas; Weser, Robert; Schmidt, Hagen; Han, Jongyoon; Ai, Ye

    2017-05-16

    Acoustic streaming has emerged as a promising technique for refined microscale manipulation, where strong rotational flow can give rise to particle and cell capture. In contrast to hydrodynamically generated vortices, acoustic streaming is rapidly tunable, highly scalable and requires no external pressure source. Though streaming is typically ignored or minimized in most acoustofluidic systems that utilize other acoustofluidic effects, we maximize the effect of acoustic streaming in a continuous flow using a high-frequency (381 MHz), narrow-beam focused surface acoustic wave. This results in rapid fluid streaming, with velocities orders of magnitude greater than that of the lateral flow, to generate fluid vortices that extend the entire width of a 400 μm wide microfluidic channel. We characterize the forces relevant for vortex formation in a combined streaming/lateral flow system, and use these acoustic streaming vortices to selectively capture 2 μm from a mixed suspension with 1 μm particles and human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MDA-231) from red blood cells.

  8. Temperature effects on the geometry during the formation of micro-holes fabricated by femtosecond laser in PMMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Dong, Xinran; Yin, Kai; Song, Yuxin; Tian, Yaxiang; Wang, Cong; Duan, Ji'an

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the temperature effects on hole geometry of the PMMA during micro-holes drilling by femtosecond laser has been studied under various pulse energy and number of pulse. The laser-induced hole's diameter is considerably increased by 73% as the temperature rises from 20 °C to 90 °C. Remarkable enhancement in the removal volume of micro-hole is also observed under high temperature. The possible mechanism for such changes is discussed in detail on account of optical absorption enhancement and higher density of surface plasma. The atomic percentage of oxygen obviously increases with the increase of temperature, which is beneficial to femtosecond laser fabrication of PMMA micro-hole. The spatter area of micro-hole has been found to tremendously extend with the increase of temperature, which is due to recoil pressure effect. These results demonstrate that temperature plays a crucial role to tailor micro-hole fabrication by femtosecond laser.

  9. Digital laser printing of aluminum micro-structure on thermally sensitive substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenou, Michael; Sa’ar, Amir; Kotler, Zvi

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum metal is of particular interest for use in printed electronics due to its low cost, high conductivity and low migration rate in electrically driven organic-based devices. However, the high reactivity of Al particles at the nano-scale is a major obstacle in preparing stable inks from this metal. We describe digital printing of aluminum micro-structures by laser-induced forward transfer in a sub-nanosecond pulse regime. We manage to jet highly stable molten aluminum micro-droplets with very low divergence, less than 2 mrad, from 500 nm thin metal donor layers. We analyze the micro-structural properties of the print geometry and their dependence on droplet volume, print gap and spreading. High quality printing of aluminum micro-patterns on plastic and paper is demonstrated. (paper)

  10. Microscope self-calibration based on micro laser line imaging and soft computing algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolinar Muñoz Rodríguez, J.

    2018-06-01

    A technique to perform microscope self-calibration via micro laser line and soft computing algorithms is presented. In this technique, the microscope vision parameters are computed by means of soft computing algorithms based on laser line projection. To implement the self-calibration, a microscope vision system is constructed by means of a CCD camera and a 38 μm laser line. From this arrangement, the microscope vision parameters are represented via Bezier approximation networks, which are accomplished through the laser line position. In this procedure, a genetic algorithm determines the microscope vision parameters by means of laser line imaging. Also, the approximation networks compute the three-dimensional vision by means of the laser line position. Additionally, the soft computing algorithms re-calibrate the vision parameters when the microscope vision system is modified during the vision task. The proposed self-calibration improves accuracy of the traditional microscope calibration, which is accomplished via external references to the microscope system. The capability of the self-calibration based on soft computing algorithms is determined by means of the calibration accuracy and the micro-scale measurement error. This contribution is corroborated by an evaluation based on the accuracy of the traditional microscope calibration.

  11. Direct laser-patterned micro-supercapacitors from paintable MoS2 films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liujun; Yang, Shubin; Gao, Wei; Liu, Zheng; Gong, Yongji; Ma, Lulu; Shi, Gang; Lei, Sidong; Zhang, Yunhuai; Zhang, Shengtao; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2013-09-09

    Micrometer-sized electrochemical capacitors have recently attracted attention due to their possible applications in micro-electronic devices. Here, a new approach to large-scale fabrication of high-capacitance, two-dimensional MoS2 film-based micro-supercapacitors is demonstrated via simple and low-cost spray painting of MoS2 nanosheets on Si/SiO2 chip and subsequent laser patterning. The obtained micro-supercapacitors are well defined by ten interdigitated electrodes (five electrodes per polarity) with 4.5 mm length, 820 μm wide for each electrode, 200 μm spacing between two electrodes and the thickness of electrode is ∼0.45 μm. The optimum MoS2 -based micro-supercapacitor exhibits excellent electrochemical performance for energy storage with aqueous electrolytes, with a high area capacitance of 8 mF cm(-2) (volumetric capacitance of 178 F cm(-3) ) and excellent cyclic performance, superior to reported graphene-based micro-supercapacitors. This strategy could provide a good opportunity to develop various micro-/nanosized energy storage devices to satisfy the requirements of portable, flexible, and transparent micro-electronic devices. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Micro-bubble generated by laser irradiation on an individual carbon nanocoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yanming; Pan, Lujun; Liu, Yuli; Sun, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We have investigated laser irradiated microbubbles which can be generated at fixed point on surface of an individual carbon nanocoil (CNC) immerged in deionized water. • The microbubble can be operated easily and flexibly. • Based on classical heat and mass transfer theories, the bubble growth data is in good agreement with the simplified model. - Abstract: We have investigated the micro-bubbles generated by laser induction on an individual carbon nanocoil (CNC) immerged in deionized water. The photon energy of the incident focused laser beam is absorbed by CNC and converted to thermal energy, which efficiently vaporizes the surrounding water, and subsequently a micro-bubble is generated at the laser location. The dynamics behavior of bubble generation, including its nucleation, expansion and steady-state, has been studied experimentally and theoretically. We have derived equations to analyze the expansion process of a bubble based on classical heat and mass transfer theories. The conclusion is in good agreement with the experiment. CNC, which acts as a realistic micro-bubble generator, can be operated easily and flexibly

  13. Hybrid integrated single-wavelength laser with silicon micro-ring reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Min; Pu, Jing; Krishnamurthy, Vivek; Xu, Zhengji; Lee, Chee-Wei; Li, Dongdong; Gonzaga, Leonard; Toh, Yeow T.; Tjiptoharsono, Febi; Wang, Qian

    2018-02-01

    A hybrid integrated single-wavelength laser with silicon micro-ring reflector is demonstrated theoretically and experimentally. It consists of a heterogeneously integrated III-V section for optical gain, an adiabatic taper for light coupling, and a silicon micro-ring reflector for both wavelength selection and light reflection. Heterogeneous integration processes for multiple III-V chips bonded to an 8-inch Si wafer have been developed, which is promising for massive production of hybrid lasers on Si. The III-V layer is introduced on top of a 220-nm thick SOI layer through low-temperature wafer-boning technology. The optical coupling efficiency of >85% between III-V and Si waveguide has been achieved. The silicon micro-ring reflector, as the key element of the hybrid laser, is studied, with its maximized reflectivity of 85.6% demonstrated experimentally. The compact single-wavelength laser enables fully monolithic integration on silicon wafer for optical communication and optical sensing application.

  14. Design of LD in-band direct-pumping side surface polished micro-rod Nd:YVO4 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wen-Qi; Wang Fei; Liu Qiang; Gong Ma-Li

    2016-01-01

    To diminish the thermal load, two ways, that is, in-band direct pumping and micro-rod crystal, could be adopted at the same time. The efficiency of LD in-band direct-pumping side surface polished micro-rod Nd:YVO 4 laser is numerically analyzed. By optimizing parameters such as crystal length, laser mode radius, pump beam radius, doping concentration and crystal cross-section size, the overall efficiency can reach over 50%. It is found that with micro-rod crystal implemented in the laser oscillator, high overall efficiency LD in-band direct-pumping Nd:YVO 4 laser could be realized. High efficiency combined with low thermal load makes this laser an outstanding scheme for building high-power Nd:YVO 4 lasers. (paper)

  15. Analysis of gene expression in prostate cancer epithelial and interstitial stromal cells using laser capture microdissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregg, Jennifer L; Brown, Kathleen E; Mintz, Eric M; Piontkivska, Helen; Fraizer, Gail C

    2010-01-01

    The prostate gland represents a multifaceted system in which prostate epithelia and stroma have distinct physiological roles. To understand the interaction between stroma and glandular epithelia, it is essential to delineate the gene expression profiles of these two tissue types in prostate cancer. Most studies have compared tumor and normal samples by performing global expression analysis using a mixture of cell populations. This report presents the first study of prostate tumor tissue that examines patterns of differential expression between specific cell types using laser capture microdissection (LCM). LCM was used to isolate distinct cell-type populations and identify their gene expression differences using oligonucleotide microarrays. Ten differentially expressed genes were then analyzed in paired tumor and non-neoplastic prostate tissues by quantitative real-time PCR. Expression patterns of the transcription factors, WT1 and EGR1, were further compared in established prostate cell lines. WT1 protein expression was also examined in prostate tissue microarrays using immunohistochemistry. The two-step method of laser capture and microarray analysis identified nearly 500 genes whose expression levels were significantly different in prostate epithelial versus stromal tissues. Several genes expressed in epithelial cells (WT1, GATA2, and FGFR-3) were more highly expressed in neoplastic than in non-neoplastic tissues; conversely several genes expressed in stromal cells (CCL5, CXCL13, IGF-1, FGF-2, and IGFBP3) were more highly expressed in non-neoplastic than in neoplastic tissues. Notably, EGR1 was also differentially expressed between epithelial and stromal tissues. Expression of WT1 and EGR1 in cell lines was consistent with these patterns of differential expression. Importantly, WT1 protein expression was demonstrated in tumor tissues and was absent in normal and benign tissues. The prostate represents a complex mix of cell types and there is a need to analyze

  16. Micro-Welding of Copper Plate by Frequency Doubled Diode Pumped Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashiba, Shin-Ichi; Okamoto, Yasuhiro; Sakagawa, Tomokazu; Takai, Sunao; Okada, Akira

    A pulsed laser of 532 nm wavelength with ms range pulse duration was newly developed by second harmonic generation of diode pumped pulsed Nd:YAG laser. High electro-optical conversion efficiency more than 13% could be achieved, and 1.5 kW peak power green laser pulse was put in optical fiber of 100 μm in diameter. In micro- welding of 1.0 mm thickness copper plate, a keyhole welding was successfully performed by 1.0 kW peak power at spot diameter less than 200 μm. The frequency doubled pulsed laser improved the processing efficiency of copper welding, and narrow and deep weld bead was stably obtained.

  17. Laser-drilled micro-hole arrays on polyurethane synthetic leather for improvement of water vapor permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.; Wang, A.H.; Zheng, R.R.; Tang, H.Q.; Qi, X.Y.; Ye, B.

    2014-01-01

    Three kinds of lasers at 1064, 532 and 355 nm wavelengths respectively were adopted to construct micro-hole arrays on polyurethane (PU) synthetic leather with an aim to improve water vapor permeability (WVP) of PU synthetic leather. The morphology of the laser-drilled micro-holes was observed to optimize laser parameters. The WVP and slit tear resistance of the laser-drilled leather were measured. Results show that the optimized pulse energy for the 1064, 532 and 355 nm lasers are 0.8, 1.1 and 0.26 mJ, respectively. The diameters of the micro-holes drilled with the optimized laser pulse energy were about 20, 15 and 10 μm, respectively. The depths of the micro-holes drilled with the optimized pulse energy were about 21, 60 and 69 μm, respectively. Compared with the untreated samples, the highest WVP growth ratio was 38.4%, 46.8% and 53.5% achieved by the 1064, 532 and 355 nm lasers, respectively. And the highest decreasing ratio of slit tear resistance was 11.1%, 14.8%, and 22.5% treated by the 1064, 532 and 355 nm lasers, respectively. Analysis of the interaction mechanism between laser beams at three kinds of laser wavelengths and the PU synthetic leather revealed that laser micro-drilling at 355 nm wavelength displayed both photochemical ablation and photothermal ablation, while laser micro-drilling at 1064 and 532 nm wavelengths leaded to photothermal ablation only.

  18. Laser-drilled micro-hole arrays on polyurethane synthetic leather for improvement of water vapor permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Wang, A. H.; Zheng, R. R.; Tang, H. Q.; Qi, X. Y.; Ye, B.

    2014-06-01

    Three kinds of lasers at 1064, 532 and 355 nm wavelengths respectively were adopted to construct micro-hole arrays on polyurethane (PU) synthetic leather with an aim to improve water vapor permeability (WVP) of PU synthetic leather. The morphology of the laser-drilled micro-holes was observed to optimize laser parameters. The WVP and slit tear resistance of the laser-drilled leather were measured. Results show that the optimized pulse energy for the 1064, 532 and 355 nm lasers are 0.8, 1.1 and 0.26 mJ, respectively. The diameters of the micro-holes drilled with the optimized laser pulse energy were about 20, 15 and 10 μm, respectively. The depths of the micro-holes drilled with the optimized pulse energy were about 21, 60 and 69 μm, respectively. Compared with the untreated samples, the highest WVP growth ratio was 38.4%, 46.8% and 53.5% achieved by the 1064, 532 and 355 nm lasers, respectively. And the highest decreasing ratio of slit tear resistance was 11.1%, 14.8%, and 22.5% treated by the 1064, 532 and 355 nm lasers, respectively. Analysis of the interaction mechanism between laser beams at three kinds of laser wavelengths and the PU synthetic leather revealed that laser micro-drilling at 355 nm wavelength displayed both photochemical ablation and photothermal ablation, while laser micro-drilling at 1064 and 532 nm wavelengths leaded to photothermal ablation only.

  19. High-intensity fibre laser design for micro-machining applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Neria, D. I.; Martinez-Piñón, F.; Hernandez-Escamilla, H.; Alvarez-Chavez, J. A.

    2010-11-01

    This work is focused on the design of a 250W high-intensity continuous-wave fibre optic laser with a 15μm spot size beam and a beam parameter product (BPP) of 1.8 for its use on Laser-assisted Cold Spray process (LCS) in the micro-machining areas. The metal-powder deposition process LCS, is a novel method based on Cold Spray technique (CS) assisted by laser technology. The LCS accelerates metal powders by the use of a high-pressure gas in order to achieve flash welding of particles over substrate. In LCS, the critical velocity of impact is lower with respect with CS while the powder particle is heated before the deposition by a laser beam. Furthermore, LCS does not heat the powder to achieve high temperatures as it happens in plasma processes. This property puts aside cooling problems which normally happen in sintered processes with high oxygen/nitrogen concentration levels. LCS will be used not only in deposition of thin layers. After careful design, proof of concept, experimental data, and prototype development, it should be feasible to perform micro-machining precise work with the use of the highintensity fibre laser presented in this work, and selective deposition of particles, in a similar way to the well-known Direct Metal Laser Sintering process (DMLS). The fibre laser consists on a large-mode area, Yb3+-doped, semi-diffraction limited, 25-m fibre laser cavity, operating in continuous wave regime. The fibre shows an arguably high slope-efficiency with no signs of roll-over. The measured M2 value is 1.8 and doping concentration of 15000ppm. It was made with a slight modification of the traditional MCVD technique. A full optical characterization will be presented.

  20. Review of fission produce capture measurements at the Oak Ridge Electron Laser Accelerator (ORELA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.C.; Macklin, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    The 40-meter capture system of R.L. Macklin at ORELA has been used to measure capture cross sections for over eighty isotopes between A = 75 and 161, the primary mass region of interest for fission products. This review outlines the primary features of the capture system, lists the isotopes measured and their references, and describes recent changes incorporated in the capture system

  1. Field emission study from an array of hierarchical micro protrusions on stainless steel surface generated by femtosecond pulsed laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, A.K., E-mail: anilks@barc.gov.in [Laser & Plasma Technology Division, BARC, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Suryawanshi, Sachin R.; More, M.A. [Department of Physics, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune, 411007 (India); Basu, S. [Solid State Physics Division, BARC, Mumbai, 40085 (India); Sinha, Sucharita [Laser & Plasma Technology Division, BARC, Mumbai, 400085 (India)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Array of self assembled micro-protrusions have been generated on stainless steel surfaces by femtosecond pulsed laser irradiation. • Density of the formed micro-protrusions is ∼5.6 × 105 protrusions/cm{sup 2}. • Laser treated surface is mainly composed of iron oxide and cementite phases. • Micro-structured sample has shown good field emission properties – low turn on field, high field enhancement factor and stable emission current. - Abstract: This paper reports our results on femtosecond (fs) pulsed laser induced surface micro/nano structuring of stainless steel 304 (SS 304) samples and their characterization in terms of surface morphology, formed material phases on laser irradiation and field emission studies. Our investigations reveal that nearly uniform and dense array of hierarchical micro-protrusions (density: ∼5.6 × 10{sup 5} protrusions/cm{sup 2}) is formed upon laser treatment. Typical tip diameters of the generated protrusions are in the range of 2–5 μm and these protrusions are covered with submicron sized features. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) analysis of the laser irradiated sample surface has shown formation mainly of iron oxides and cementite (Fe{sub 3}C) phases in the treated region. These laser micro-structured samples have shown good field emission properties such as low turn on field (∼4.1 V/μm), high macroscopic field enhancement factor (1830) and stable field emission current under ultra high vacuum conditions.

  2. Injection moulding of optical functional micro structures using laser structured, PVD-coated mould inserts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopmann, Ch.; Weber, M.; Schöngart, M.; Schäfer, C., E-mail: weber@ikv-aachen.de [Institute of Plastics Processing (IKV) at RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Bobzin, K.; Bagcivan, N.; Brögelmann, T.; Theiß, S.; Münstermann, T. [Surface Engineering Institute (IOT), RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Steger, M. [Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology (ILT), Aachen (Germany)

    2015-05-22

    Micro structured optical plastics components are intensively used i. e. in consumer electronics, for optical sensors in metrology, innovative LED-lighting or laser technology. Injection moulding has proven to be successful for the large-scale production of those parts. However, the production of those parts still causes difficulties due to challenges in the moulding and demoulding of plastics parts created with laser structured mould inserts. A complete moulding of the structures often leads to increased demoulding forces, which then cause a breaking of the structures and a clogging of the mould. An innovative approach is to combine PVD-coated (physical vapour deposition), laser structured inserts and a variothermal moulding process to create functional mic8iüro structures in a one-step process. Therefore, a PVD-coating is applied after the laser structuring process in order to improve the wear resistance and the anti-adhesive properties against the plastics melt. In a series of moulding trials with polycarbonate (PC) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) using different coated moulds, the mould temperature during injection was varied in the range of the glass transition and the melt temperature of the polymers. Subsequently, the surface topography of the moulded parts is evaluated by digital 3D laser-scanning microscopy. The influence of the moulding parameters and the coating of the mould insert on the moulding accuracy and the demoulding behaviour are being analysed. It is shown that micro structures created by ultra-short pulse laser ablation can be successfully replicated in a variothermal moulding process. Due to the mould coating, significant improvements could be achieved in producing micro structured optical plastics components.

  3. Optimization of laser capture microdissection and RNA amplification for gene expression profiling of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasmatzis George

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To discover prostate cancer biomarkers, we profiled gene expression in benign and malignant cells laser capture microdissected (LCM from prostate tissues and metastatic prostatic adenocarcinomas. Here we present methods developed, optimized, and validated to obtain high quality gene expression data. Results RNase inhibitor was included in solutions used to stain frozen tissue sections for LCM, which improved RNA quality significantly. Quantitative PCR assays, requiring minimal amounts of LCM RNA, were developed to determine RNA quality and concentration. SuperScript II™ reverse transcriptase was replaced with SuperScript III™, and SpeedVac concentration was eliminated to optimize linear amplification. The GeneChip® IVT labeling kit was used rather than the Enzo BioArray™ HighYield™ RNA transcript labeling kit since side-by-side comparisons indicated high-end signal saturation with the latter. We obtained 72 μg of labeled complementary RNA on average after linear amplification of about 2 ng of total RNA. Conclusion Unsupervised clustering placed 5/5 normal and 2/2 benign prostatic hyperplasia cases in one group, 5/7 Gleason pattern 3 cases in another group, and the remaining 2/7 pattern 3 cases in a third group with 8/8 Gleason pattern 5 cases and 3/3 metastatic prostatic adenocarcinomas. Differential expression of alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase (AMACR and hepsin was confirmed using quantitative PCR.

  4. Warp simulations for capture and control of laser-accelerated proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuernberg, Frank; Harres, K; Roth, M; Friedman, A; Grote, D P; Logan, B G; Schollmeier, M

    2010-01-01

    The capture of laser-accelerated proton beams accompanied by co-moving electrons via a solenoid field has been studied with particle-in-cell simulations. The main advantages of the Warp simulation suite that we have used, relative to envelope or tracking codes, are the possibility of including all source parameters energy resolved, adding electrons as second species and considering the non-negligible space-charge forces and electrostatic self-fields. It was observed that the influence of the electrons is of vital importance. The magnetic effect on the electrons outbalances the space-charge force. Hence, the electrons are forced onto the beam axis and attract protons. Beside the energy dependent proton density increase on axis, the change in the particle spectrum is also important for future applications. Protons are accelerated/decelerated slightly, electrons highly. 2/3 of all electrons get lost directly at the source and 27% of all protons hit the inner wall of the solenoid.

  5. Warp simulations for capture and control of laser-accelerated proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurnberg, F.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.; Harres, K.; Logan, B.G.; Schollmeier, M.; Roth, M.

    2009-01-01

    The capture of laser-accelerated proton beams accompanied by co-moving electrons via a solenoid field has been studied with particle-in-cell simulations. The main advantages of the Warp simulation suite that was used, relative to envelope or tracking codes, are the possibility of including all source parameters energy resolved, adding electrons as second species and considering the non-negligible space-charge forces and electrostatic self-fields. It was observed that the influence of the electrons is of vital importance. The magnetic effect on the electrons out balances the space-charge force. Hence, the electrons are forced onto the beam axis and attract protons. Besides the energy dependent proton density increase on axis, the change in the particle spectrum is also important for future applications. Protons are accelerated/decelerated slightly, electrons highly. 2/3 of all electrons get lost directly at the source and 27% of all protons hit the inner wall of the solenoid.

  6. Laser-Induced Motion of a Nanofluid in a Micro-Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Tran X. Phuoc; Mehrdad Massoudi; Ping Wang

    2016-01-01

    Since a photon carries both energy and momentum, when it interacts with a particle, photon-particle energy and momentum transfer occur, resulting in mechanical forces acting on the particle. In this paper we report our theoretical study on the use of a laser beam to manipulate and control the flow of nanofluids in a micro-channel. We calculate the velocity induced by a laser beam for TiO2, Fe2O3, Al2O3 MgO, and SiO2 nanoparticles with water as the base fluid. The particle diameter is 50 nm an...

  7. Launch and capture of a single particle in a pulse-laser-assisted dual-beam fiber-optic trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhenhai; She, Xuan; Li, Nan; Hu, Huizhu

    2018-06-01

    The rapid loading and manipulation of microspheres in optical trap is important for its applications in optomechanics and precision force sensing. We investigate the microsphere behavior under coaction of a dual-beam fiber-optic trap and a pulse laser beam, which reveals a launched microsphere can be effectively captured in a spatial region. A suitable order of pulse duration for launch is derived according to the calculated detachment energy threshold of pulse laser. Furthermore, we illustrate the effect of structural parameters on the launching process, including the spot size of pulse laser, the vertical displacement of beam waist and the initial position of microsphere. Our result will be instructive in the optimal design of the pulse-laser-assisted optical tweezers for controllable loading mechanism of optical trap.

  8. Numerical simulation for the influence of laser-induced plasmas addition on air mass capture of hypersonic inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Dou, Zhiguo; Li, Qian

    2012-03-01

    The theory of laser-induced plasmas addition to hypersonic airflow off a vehicle to increase air mass capture and improve the performance of hypersonic inlets at Mach numbers below the design value is explored. For hypersonic vehicles, when flying at mach numbers lower than the design one, we can increase the mass capture ratio of inlet through laser-induced plasmas injection to the hypersonic flow upstream of cowl lip to form a virtual cowl. Based on the theory, the model of interaction between laser-induced plasmas and hypersonic flow was established. The influence on the effect of increasing mass capture ratio was studied at different positions of laser-induced plasmas region for the external compression hypersonic inlet at Mach 5 while the design value is 6, the power of plasmas was in the range of 1-8mJ. The main results are as follows: 1. the best location of the plasma addition region is near the intersection of the nose shock of the vehicle with the continuation of the cowl line, and slightly below that line. In that case, the shock generated by the heating is close to the shock that is a reflection of the vehicle nose shock off the imaginary solid surface-extension of the cowl. 2. Plasma addition does increase mass capture, and the effect becomes stronger as more energy is added, the peak value appeared when the power of plasma was about 4mJ, when the plasma energy continues to get stronger, the mass capture will decline slowly.

  9. LASER WELDING WITH MICRO-JET COOLING FOR TRUCK FRAME WELDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan PIWNIK

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the mechanical properties of the weld steel structure of car body truck frames after laser welding. The best welding conditions involve the use of proper materials and alloy elements in steel and filer materials, in addition to welding technology, state of stress and temperature of exploitation. We present for the first time the properties of steel track structures after laser welding with micro-jet cooling. Therefore, good selection of both welding parameters and micro-jet cooling parameters is very important to achieve a proper steel structure. In this study, the metallographic structure, tensile results and impact toughness of welded joints have been analysed in terms of welding parameters.

  10. TruMicro Series 2000 sub-400 fs class industrial fiber lasers: adjustment of laser parameters to process requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanal, Florian; Kahmann, Max; Tan, Chuong; Diekamp, Holger; Jansen, Florian; Scelle, Raphael; Budnicki, Aleksander; Sutter, Dirk

    2017-02-01

    and multi-level quad-loop stabilization of the output power of the laser.2 In addition to the well-established platform latest developments addressed single-pulse energies up to 50 μJ and made femtosecond pulse durations available for the TruMicro Series 2000. Beyond these stabilization aspects this laser architecture together with other optical modules and combined with smart laser control software enables process-driven adjustments of the parameters (e. g. repetition rate, multi-pulse functionalities, pulse energy, pulse duration) by external signals, which will be presented in this work.

  11. Circuit Design and Implementation of Micro-Displacement Measurement System of Laser Self-Mixing Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Ya LIU

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we put forward the basic structure of a micro-displacement measuring system based on the basic theory of laser feedback, and designed a hardware circuit of the system, including the LD driver and modulation circuit, photoelectric signal amplifier and filter circuit, which meet the requirements of the follow-up experimental study by theoretical analysis and Multisim simulation to the circuit.

  12. Micro-Fluidic Dye Ring Laser - Experimental Tuning of the Wavelength and Numerical Simulation of the Cavity Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg-Hansen, Morten; Balslev, Søren; Mortensen, Niels Asger

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate wavelength tuning of a micro-fluidic dye ring laser. Wavelength tunability is obtained by controlling the liquid dye concentration. The device performance is modelled by FEM simulations supporting a ray-tracing view.......We demonstrate wavelength tuning of a micro-fluidic dye ring laser. Wavelength tunability is obtained by controlling the liquid dye concentration. The device performance is modelled by FEM simulations supporting a ray-tracing view....

  13. Micro packaging of hermetic seal mini dual in line laser diode module for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Alex A.; Chan, Eric; Koshinz, Dennis

    2014-09-01

    Normally, reliable, reproducible, high-yield packaging technologies are essential for meeting the cost, performance, and service objectives for the harsh environment of space applications. This paper describes a new improved micro packaging method of hermetic seal mini-DIL (dual in line) laser diode module. The problem of using a softer solder resulted in failure mechanisms observed in the mini-DIL laser diode module based laser firing unit (LFU) for ordinance ignition of a missile system. These failures included: (1) failure in light output pulse power, (2) fiber pigtail damage inside the package snout which caused low LFU production yield. Our distinctive challenge for this project is the micro packaging of mini-DIL. For this package a new technique for the hermetic sealing using a micro-soldering process was developed. The process is able to confine the solder seal to a small region inside the snout near the fiber feed-through hole on the wall of the mini-DIL package. After completing the development, which included temperature and thermal cycling, X-rays analysis showed the new method had no fiber damage after the microsoldering seal. The new process resulted in 100% success in the packaging design and was granted a patent for the innovative development.

  14. Laser carved micro-crack channels in paper-based dilution devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Xu, Chaoping; Liang, Heng

    2017-12-01

    We developed novel laser carved micro-crack (LCC) paper-based channels to significantly accelerate the liquid flow without an external pump. For the aqueous solutions they increased the flow velocity 59 times in 16% laser power-8 micro-cracks-LCC channel compared with it in solely-printed channels. All experimental data from both LCC and solely-printed channels were well-fitted by the time-distance quadratic trinomial that we developed on laser power and micro-crack number. We designed and fabricated T-junction microstructures of LCCs. Further, the microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) of LCC on dye mixing gradient and pH gradient were developed with the characteristics, fast self-acting transportation and high-performance mixing of liquid flows. In the dye mixing gradient the time cost was reduced from 2355s in the solely-printed one to only 123s in the five-stage of this LCC-μPAD. It was useful for quick and long-distance transferences through the multiple units of μPADs. Certainly, this LCC-μPAD was inexpensive, disposable, portable and applicable to resource-limited environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. An Experimental Study on Micro Clinching of Metal Foils with Cutting by Laser Shock Forming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Li, Cong; Ma, Youjuan; Shen, Zongbao; Sun, Xianqing; Sha, Chaofei; Gao, Shuai; Li, Liyin; Liu, Huixia

    2016-07-13

    This paper describes a novel technique for joining similar and dissimilar metal foils, namely micro clinching with cutting by laser shock forming. A series of experiments were conducted to study the deformation behavior of single layer material, during which many important process parameters were determined. The process window of the 1060 pure aluminum foils and annealed copper foils produced by micro clinching with cutting was analyzed. Moreover, similar material combination (annealed copper foils) and dissimilar material combination (1060 pure aluminum foils and 304 stainless steel foils) were successfully achieved. The effect of laser energy on the interlock and minimum thickness of upper foils was investigated. In addition, the mechanical strength of different material combinations joined by micro clinching with cutting was measured in single lap shearing tests. According to the achieved results, this novel technique is more suitable for material combinations where the upper foil is thicker than lower foil. With the increase of laser energy, the interlock increased while the minimum thickness of upper foil decreased gradually. The shear strength of 1060 pure aluminum foils and 304 stainless steel foils combination was three times as large as that of 1060 pure aluminum foils and annealed copper foils combination.

  16. An Experimental Study on Micro Clinching of Metal Foils with Cutting by Laser Shock Forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a novel technique for joining similar and dissimilar metal foils, namely micro clinching with cutting by laser shock forming. A series of experiments were conducted to study the deformation behavior of single layer material, during which many important process parameters were determined. The process window of the 1060 pure aluminum foils and annealed copper foils produced by micro clinching with cutting was analyzed. Moreover, similar material combination (annealed copper foils and dissimilar material combination (1060 pure aluminum foils and 304 stainless steel foils were successfully achieved. The effect of laser energy on the interlock and minimum thickness of upper foils was investigated. In addition, the mechanical strength of different material combinations joined by micro clinching with cutting was measured in single lap shearing tests. According to the achieved results, this novel technique is more suitable for material combinations where the upper foil is thicker than lower foil. With the increase of laser energy, the interlock increased while the minimum thickness of upper foil decreased gradually. The shear strength of 1060 pure aluminum foils and 304 stainless steel foils combination was three times as large as that of 1060 pure aluminum foils and annealed copper foils combination.

  17. Imaging micro-well proportional counters fabricated with masked UV laser ablation

    CERN Document Server

    Deines-Jones, P; Crawford, H; Hunter, S D

    2002-01-01

    The micro-well detector is a gas-proportional counter similar to the CAT (Bartol et al., J. Phys. III 6 (1996) 337) and WELL detectors (Bellazzini et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 423 (1999) 125). The micro-well is a cylindrical hole formed in the polymer substrate of commercially fabricated copper-clad flexible printed circuit board by UV laser ablation. The micro-wells are drilled at GSFC's UV laser-ablation facility. The cathode is a metal annulus that surrounds the opening of the well. The anode is a metal pad that fills the bottom of the well. Advantages of this topology include intrinsic two-dimensional sensing, thick robust electrodes, and large localized image charge on the cathodes. We have fabricated 5 cmx5 cm micro-well detectors with segmented anodes (1-d) and with both anodes and cathodes segmented (2-d), and have demonstrated: - stable, proportional operation at gas gains in excess of 30,000 in Ar- and Xe-based gases; - FWHM energy resolution of 20% at 6 keV in P-10; - preliminary 1-d spatial re...

  18. The research of PSD location method in micro laser welding fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiue; Zhang, Rong; Dong, Hua

    2010-11-01

    In the field of micro laser welding, besides the special requirement in the parameter of lasers, the locating in welding points accurately is very important. The article adopt position sensitive detector (PSD) as hard core, combine optic system, electric circuits and PC and software processing, confirm the location of welding points. The signal detection circuits adopt the special integrate circuit H-2476 to process weak signal. It is an integrated circuit for high-speed, high-sensitivity optical range finding, which has stronger noiseproof feature, combine digital filter arithmetic, carry out repair the any non-ideal factors, increasing the measure precision. The amplifier adopt programmable amplifier LTC6915. The system adapt two dimension stepping motor drive the workbench, computer and corresponding software processing, make sure the location of spot weld. According to different workpieces to design the clamps. The system on-line detect PSD 's output signal in the moving processing. At the workbench moves in the X direction, the filaments offset is detected dynamic. Analyze the X axes moving sampling signal direction could be estimate the Y axes moving direction, and regulate the Y axes moving values. The workbench driver adopt A3979, it is a stepping motor driver with insert transducer and operate easily. It adapts the requirement of location in micro laser welding fields, real-time control to adjust by computer. It can be content up 20 μm's laser micro welding requirement on the whole. Using laser powder cladding technology achieve inter-penetration welding of high quality and reliability.

  19. Split-disk micro-lasers: Tunable whispering gallery mode cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Siegle

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Optical micro-cavities of various types have emerged as promising photonic structures, for both the investigation of fundamental science in cavity quantum electrodynamics and simultaneously for various applications, e.g., lasers, filters, or modulators. In either branch a demand for adjustable and tunable photonic devices becomes apparent, which has been mainly based on the modification of the refractive index of the micro-resonators so far. In this paper, we report on a novel type of whispering gallery mode resonator where resonance tuning is achieved by modification of the configuration. This is realized by polymeric split-disks consisting of opposing half-disks with an intermediate air gap. Functionality of the split-disk concept and its figures of merit like low-threshold lasing are demonstrated for laser dye-doped split-disks fabricated by electron beam lithography on Si substrates. Reversible resonance tuning is achieved for split-disks structured onto elastomeric substrates by direct laser writing. The gap width and hence the resonance wavelength can be well-controlled by mechanically stretching the elastomer and exploiting the lateral shrinkage of the substrate. We demonstrate a broad spectral tunability of laser modes by more than three times the free spectral range. These cavities have the potential to form a key element of flexible and tunable photonic circuits based on polymers.

  20. Experimental and Numerical Simulation Research on Micro-Gears Fabrication by Laser Shock Punching Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixia Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to fabricate micro-gears via laser shock punching with Spitlight 2000 Nd-YAG Laser, and to discuss effects of process parameters namely laser energy, soft punch properties and blank-holder on the quality of micro-gears deeply. Results show that dimensional accuracy is the best shocked at 1690 mJ. Tensile fracture instead of shear fracture is the main fracture mode under low laser energy. The soft punch might cause damage to punching quality when too high energy is employed. Appropriate thickness and hardness of soft punch is necessary. Silica gel with 200 µm in thickness is beneficial to not only homogenize energy but also propagate the shock wave. Polyurethane films need more energy than silica gel with the same thickness. In addition, blank-holders with different weight levels are used. A heavier blank-holder is more beneficial to improve the cutting quality. Furthermore, the simulation is conducted to reveal typical stages and the different deformation behavior under high and low pulse energy. The simulation results show that the fracture mode changes under lower energy.

  1. Micro-Crater Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy--an Analytical approach in metals samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piscitelli, Vincent [UCV- Laboratorio de Espectroscopia Laser, Caracas (Venezuela); Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory, Berkeley, US (United States); Gonzalez, Jhanis; Xianglei, Mao; Russo, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory, Berkeley, US (United States); Fernandez, Alberto [UCV- Laboratorio de Espectroscopia Laser, Caracas (Venezuela)

    2008-04-15

    The laser ablation has been increasing its popularity like as technique of chemical analysis. This is due to its great potentiality in the analysis of solid samples. On the way to contributing to the development of the technique, we in this work studied the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in conditions of micro ablation for future studies of coverings and micro crates analysis. Craters between 2 and 7 micrometers of diameter were made using an Nd-YAG nanosecond laser in their fundamental emission of 1064 nm. In order to create these craters we use an objective lens of long distance work and 0.45 of numerical aperture. The atomic emission versus the energy of the laser and its effect on the size of craters was study. We found that below 3 micrometers although there was evidence of material removal by the formation of a crater, it was no detectable atomic emission for our instruments. In order to try to understand this, curves of size of crater versus plasma temperature using the Boltzmann distribution graphs taking the Copper emission lines in the visible region were made. In addition calibration curves for Copper and aluminum were made in two different matrices; one of it was a Cu/Zn alloy and the other a Zinc Matrix. The atomic lines Cu I (521.78 nm) and Al I (396.15 nm) was used. From the Calibration curve the analytical limit of detection and other analytical parameters were obtained.

  2. Enhancing structural integrity of adhesive bonds through pulsed laser surface micro-machining

    KAUST Repository

    Diaz, Edwin Hernandez

    2015-06-01

    Enhancing the effective peel resistance of plastically deforming adhesive joints through laser-based surface micro-machining Edwin Hernandez Diaz Inspired by adhesion examples commonly found in nature, we reached out to examine the effect of different kinds of heterogeneous surface properties that may replicate this behavior and the mechanisms at work. In order to do this, we used pulsed laser ablation on copper substrates (CuZn40) aiming to increase adhesion for bonding. A Yb-fiber laser was used for surface preparation of the substrates, which were probed with a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Heterogeneous surface properties were devised through the use of simplified laser micromachined patterns which may induce sequential events of crack arrest propagation, thereby having a leveraging effect on dissipation. The me- chanical performance of copper/epoxy joints with homogeneous and heterogeneous laser micromachined interfaces was then analyzed using the T-peel test. Fractured surfaces were analyzed using SEM to resolve the mechanism of failure and adhesive penetration within induced surface asperities from the treatment. Results confirm positive modifications of the surface morphology and chemistry from laser ablation that enable mechanical interlocking and cohesive failure within the adhesive layer. Remarkable improvements of apparent peel energy, bond toughness, and effective peel force were appreciated with respect to sanded substrates as control samples.

  3. Multiphysics modelling and simulation of dry laser cleaning of micro-slots with particle contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Liyang; Wang Zengbo; Li Lin

    2012-01-01

    Light could interact differently with thin-film contaminants and particle contaminates because of their different surface morphologies. In the case of dry laser cleaning of small transparent particles, it is well known that particles could function like mini-lenses, causing a localized near-field hot spot effect on the cleaning process. This paper looks into a special, yet important, phenomenon of dry laser cleaning of particles trapped in micro-sized slots. The effects of slot size, particle size and particle aggregate states in the cleaning process have been theoretically investigated, based on a coupled electromagnetic-thermal-mechanical multiphysics modelling and simulation approach. The study is important for the development and optimization of laser cleaning processes for contamination removal from cracks and slots. (paper)

  4. Real-time depth measurement for micro-holes drilled by lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Hsiang; Powell, Rock A.; Jiang, Lan; Xiao, Hai; Chen, Shean-Jen; Tsai, Hai-Lung

    2010-02-01

    An optical system based on the confocal principle has been developed for real-time precision measurements of the depth of micro-holes during the laser drilling process. The capability of the measuring system is theoretically predicted by the Gaussian lens formula and experimentally validated to achieve a sensitivity of 0.5 µm. A nanosecond laser system was used to drill holes, and the hole depths were measured by the proposed measuring system and by the cut-and-polish method. The differences between these two measurements are found to be 5.0% for hole depths on the order of tens of microns and 11.2% for hundreds of microns. The discrepancies are caused mainly by the roughness of the bottom surface of the hole and by the existence of debris in the hole. This system can be easily implemented in a laser workstation for the fabrication of 3D microstructures.

  5. Biological function evaluation and effects of laser micro-pore burn-denatured acellular dermal matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youlai; Zeng, Yuanlin; Xin, Guohua; Zou, Lijin; Ding, Yuewei; Duyin, Jiang

    2018-03-01

    In the field of burns repairs, many problems exist in the shortage of donor skin, the expense of allograft or xenograft skin, temporary substitution and unsatisfactory extremity function after wound healing. Previous studies showed that burn-denatured skin could return to normal dermis formation and function. This study investigates the application of laser micro-pore burn-denatured acellular dermis matrix (DADM) from an escharotomy in the repair of burn wounds and evaluates the biological properties and wound repair effects of DADM in implantation experiments in Kunming mice. Specific-pathogen-free (SPF) Kunming mice were used in this study. A deep II° burn wound was created on the dorsum of the mice by an electric heated water bath. The full-thickness wound tissue was harvested. The necrotic tissue and subcutaneous tissue were removed. The denatured dermis was preserved and treated with 0.25% trypsin, 0.5% Triton X-100. The DADM was drilled by laser micro-pore. The biological properties and grafting effects of laser micro-pore burn-DADM were evaluated by morphology, cytokine expression levels and subcutaneous implantation experiments in Kunming mice. We found statistical significance (Ppore burn-DADM (experimental group) compared to the control group (no laser micro-pore burn-DADM). Cytokine expression level was different in the dermal matrixes harvested at various time points after burn (24h, 48h, 72h and infected wound group). Comparing the dermal matrix from 24h burn tissue to infected wound tissue, the expression level of IL-6, MMP-24, VE-cadherin and VEGF were decreased. We found no inflammatory cells infiltration in the dermal matrix were observed in both experimental and control groups (24h burn group), while the obviously vascular infiltration and fiber fusion were observed in the experimental group after subcutaneous implantation experiments. There was better bio-performance, low immunogenicity and better dermal incorporation after treated by laser

  6. Cell differentiation in cardiac myxomas: confocal microscopy and gene expression analysis after laser capture microdissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucci, Angela; Mattioli, Claudia; Matteucci, Marco; Lorenzini, Daniele; Panvini, Francesca; Pacini, Simone; Ippolito, Chiara; Celiento, Michele; De Martino, Andrea; Dolfi, Amelio; Belgio, Beatrice; Bortolotti, Uberto; Basolo, Fulvio; Bartoloni, Giovanni

    2018-05-22

    Cardiac myxomas are rare tumors with a heterogeneous cell population including properly neoplastic (lepidic), endothelial and smooth muscle cells. The assessment of neoplastic (lepidic) cell differentiation pattern is rather difficult using conventional light microscopy immunohistochemistry and/or whole tissue extracts for mRNA analyses. In a preliminary study, we investigated 20 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded cardiac myxomas by means of conventional immunohistochemistry; in 10/20 cases, cell differentiation was also analyzed by real-time RT-PCR after laser capture microdissection of the neoplastic cells, whereas calretinin and endothelial antigen CD31 immunoreactivity was localized in 4/10 cases by double immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. Gene expression analyses of α-smooth muscle actin, endothelial CD31 antigen, alpha-cardiac actin, matrix metalloprotease-2 (MMP2) and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloprotease-1 (TIMP1) was performed on cDNA obtained from either microdissected neoplastic cells or whole tumor sections. We found very little or absent CD31 and α-Smooth Muscle Actin expression in the microdissected cells as compared to the whole tumors, whereas TIMP1 and MMP2 genes were highly expressed in both ones, greater levels being found in patients with embolic phenomena. α-Cardiac Actin was not detected. Confocal microscopy disclosed two different signals corresponding to calretinin-positive myxoma cells and to endothelial CD31-positive cells, respectively. In conclusion, the neoplastic (lepidic) cells showed a distinct gene expression pattern and no consistent overlapping with endothelial and smooth muscle cells or cardiac myocytes; the expression of TIMP1 and MMP2 might be related to clinical presentation; larger series studies using also systematic transcriptome analysis might be useful to confirm the present results.

  7. DNA profiling of spermatozoa by laser capture microdissection and low volume-PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-xia Li

    Full Text Available Genetic profiling of sperm from complex biological mixtures such as sexual assault casework samples requires isolation of a pure sperm population and the ability to analyze low abundant samples. Current standard procedure for sperm isolation includes preferential lysis of epithelial contaminants followed by collection of intact sperm by centrifugation. While effective for samples where sperm are abundant, this method is less effective when samples contain few spermatozoa. Laser capture microdissection (LCM is a proven method for the isolation of cells biological mixtures, even when found in low abundance. Here, we demonstrate the efficacy of LCM coupled with on-chip low volume PCR (LV-PCR for the isolation and genotyping of low abundance sperm samples. Our results indicate that this method can obtain complete profiles (13-16 loci from as few as 15 sperm cells with 80% reproducibility, whereas at least 40 sperm cells are required to profile 13-16 loci by standard 'in-tube' PCR. Further, LCM and LV-PCR of a sexual assault casework sample generated a DNA genotype that was consistent with that of the suspect. This method was unable, however, to analyze a casework sample from a gang rape case in which two or more sperm contributors were in a mixed population. The results indicate that LCM and LV-PCR is sensitive and effective for genotyping sperm from sperm/epithelial cell mixtures when epithelial lysis may be insufficient due to low abundance of sperm; LCM and LV-PCR, however, failed in a casework sample when spermatozoa from multiple donors was present, indicating that further study is necessitated.

  8. Myosin content of individual human muscle fibers isolated by laser capture microdissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Charles A; Stone, William L; Howell, Mary E A; Brannon, Marianne F; Hall, H Kenton; Gibson, Andrew L; Stone, Michael H

    2016-03-01

    Muscle fiber composition correlates with insulin resistance, and exercise training can increase slow-twitch (type I) fibers and, thereby, mitigate diabetes risk. Human skeletal muscle is made up of three distinct fiber types, but muscle contains many more isoforms of myosin heavy and light chains, which are coded by 15 and 11 different genes, respectively. Laser capture microdissection techniques allow assessment of mRNA and protein content in individual fibers. We found that specific human fiber types contain different mixtures of myosin heavy and light chains. Fast-twitch (type IIx) fibers consistently contained myosin heavy chains 1, 2, and 4 and myosin light chain 1. Type I fibers always contained myosin heavy chains 6 and 7 (MYH6 and MYH7) and myosin light chain 3 (MYL3), whereas MYH6, MYH7, and MYL3 were nearly absent from type IIx fibers. In contrast to cardiomyocytes, where MYH6 (also known as α-myosin heavy chain) is seen solely in fast-twitch cells, only slow-twitch fibers of skeletal muscle contained MYH6. Classical fast myosin heavy chains (MHC1, MHC2, and MHC4) were present in variable proportions in all fiber types, but significant MYH6 and MYH7 expression indicated slow-twitch phenotype, and the absence of these two isoforms determined a fast-twitch phenotype. The mixed myosin heavy and light chain content of type IIa fibers was consistent with its role as a transition between fast and slow phenotypes. These new observations suggest that the presence or absence of MYH6 and MYH7 proteins dictates the slow- or fast-twitch phenotype in skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Polarization and fluence effects in femtosecond laser induced micro/nano structures on stainless steel with antireflection property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Caizhen; Ye, Yayun; Jia, Baoshen; Li, Yuan; Ding, Renjie; Jiang, Yong; Wang, Yuxin; Yuan, Xiaodong

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, micro/nano structures on stainless steel were prepared in single spot irradiation mode and scan mode by using femtosecond laser technique. The influence of polarization and fluence on the formation of micro/nano structures were explored. Surface morphology, microstructure, roughness and composition of prepared samples were characterized. The antireflection property and wettability of laser treated samples were also tested and compared with that of original stainless steel.Results showed that the laser-induced spot consists of two distinct regions due to the Gaussian beam profile: a core region of moth-eye-like structure and a peripheral region of nanoparticles-covered laser-induced periodic surface structure (NC-LIPSS). The proportion of the core region and dimension of micro/nano structure increase with increasing laser fluence. Polarization can be used to tune the direction of NC-LIPSS. Atomic ratios of Cr and Mn increase and atomic ratio of Ni decreases after laser irradiation. Oxygen is not detected on laser irradiated samples, indicating that oxidation reactions are not significant during the interaction process between femtosecond laser and 304 stainless steel. These are good for the application of stainless steel as its physical properties would not change or even enhanced. The overlaps between two laser scan lines significantly influence the surface roughness and should be controlled carefully during the preparation process. The laser irradiated surface has a better antireflection property in comparison with that of original stainless steel, which may due to the scattering and absorption of micro/nano structures. Contact angle of micro/nano structured stainless steel decreases with the increase of laser fluence. The hydrophilic property can be explained by Wenzel's model. The interference between the surface plasmon wave and the incident light wave leads to the formation of NC-LIPSS.

  10. Determination of Strain Rate Sensitivity of Micro-struts Manufactured Using the Selective Laser Melting Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümrük, Recep; Mines, R. A. W.; Karadeniz, Sami

    2018-03-01

    Micro-lattice structures manufactured using the selective laser melting (SLM) process provides the opportunity to realize optimal cellular materials for impact energy absorption. In this paper, strain rate-dependent material properties are measured for stainless steel 316L SLM micro-lattice struts in the strain rate range of 10-3 to 6000 s-1. At high strain rates, a novel version of the split Hopkinson Bar has been developed. Strain rate-dependent materials data have been used in Cowper-Symonds material model, and the scope and limit of this model in the context of SLM struts have been discussed. Strain rate material data and the Cowper-Symonds model have been applied to the finite element analysis of a micro-lattice block subjected to drop weight impact loading. The model output has been compared to experimental results, and it has been shown that the increase in crush stress due to impact loading is mainly the result of strain rate material behavior. Hence, a systematic methodology has been developed to investigate the impact energy absorption of a micro-lattice structure manufactured using additive layer manufacture (SLM). This methodology can be extended to other micro-lattice materials and configurations, and to other impact conditions.

  11. Direct writing of large-area micro/nano-structural arrays on single crystalline germanium substrates using femtosecond lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Wang, Jun

    2017-06-01

    A direct writing technique for fabricating micro/nano-structural arrays without using a multi-scanning process, multi-beam interference, or any assisted microlens arrays is reported. Various sub-wavelength micro/nano-structural arrays have been directly written on single crystalline germanium substrate surfaces using femtosecond laser pulses. The evolution of the multiscale surface morphology from periodic micro/nano-structures to V-shaped microgrooves has been achieved, and the relationship between array characteristics and laser polarization directions has been discussed. The self-organization model agrees well with the experimental results in this study.

  12. Monolithic micro-laser with KTP ridge waveguides for injection seeding high power lasers, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This NASA Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will develop a technique to greatly improve the direct coupling of a diode laser to an optical waveguide...

  13. Effect of laser beam conditioning on fabrication of clean micro-channel on stainless steel 316L using second harmonic of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sanasam Sunderlal; Baruah, Prahlad Kr; Khare, Alika; Joshi, Shrikrishna N.

    2018-02-01

    Laser micromachining of metals for fabrication of micro-channels generate ridge formation along the edges accompanied by ripples along the channel bed. The ridge formation is due to the formation of interference pattern formed by back reflections from the beam splitter and other optical components involved before focusing on the work piece. This problem can be curtailed by using a suitable aperture or Iris diaphragm so as to cut the unwanted portion of the laser beam before illuminating the sample. This paper reports an experimental investigation on minimizing this problem by conditioning the laser beam using an Iris diaphragm and using optimum process parameters. In this work, systematic experiments have been carried out using the second harmonic of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser to fabricate micro-channels. Initial experiments revealed that formation of ridges along the sides of micro-channel can easily be minimized with the help of Iris diaphragm. Further it is noted that a clean micro-channel of depth 43.39 μm, width up to 64.49 μm and of good surface quality with average surface roughness (Ra) value of 370 nm can be machined on stainless steel (SS) 316L by employing optimum process condition: laser beam energy of 30 mJ/pulse, 11 number of laser scans and scan speed of 169.54 μm/s with an opening of 4 mm diameter of Iris diaphragm in the path of the laser beam.

  14. Isotope analysis of micro metal particles by adopting laser-ablation mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kyu Seok; Ha, Young Kyung; Han, Sun Ho; Park, Yong Joon; Kim, Won Ho

    2005-01-01

    The isotope analysis of microparticles in environmental samples as well as laboratory samples is an important task. A special concern is necessary in particle analysis of swipe samples. Micro particles are normally analyzed either by dissolving particles in the solvents and adopting conventional analytical methods or direct analysis method such as a laser-ablation ICP mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), SIMS, and SNMS (sputtered neutral mass spectrometry). But the LA-ICPMS uses large amount of samples because normally laser beam is tightly focused on the target particle for the complete ablation. The SIMS and SNMS utilize ion beams for the generation of sample ions from the particle. But the number of ions generated by an ion beam is less than 5% of the total generated particles in SIMS. The SNMS is also an excellent analytical technique for particle analysis, however, ion beam and frequency tunable laser system are required for the analysis. Recently a direct analysis of elements as well as isotopes by using laser-ablation is recognized one of the most efficient detection technology for particle samples. The laser-ablation mass spectrometry requires only one laser source without frequency tuneability with no sample pretreatment. Therefore this technique is one of the simplest analysis techniques for solid samples as well as particles. In this study as a part of the development of the new isotope analysis techniques for particles samples, a direct laser-ablation is adopted with mass spectrometry. Zinc and gadolinium were chosen as target samples, since these elements have isotopes with minor abundance (0.62% for Zn, and 0.2% for Gd). The preliminary result indicates that isotopes of these two elements are analyzed within 10% of natural abundance with good mass resolution by using direct laser-ablation mass spectrometry

  15. Micro-Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (Micro-LIBS) Study on Ancient Roman Mortars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnotta, Stefano; Lezzerini, Marco; Ripoll-Seguer, Laura; Hidalgo, Montserrat; Grifoni, Emanuela; Legnaioli, Stefano; Lorenzetti, Giulia; Poggialini, Francesco; Palleschi, Vincenzo

    2017-04-01

    The laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique was used for analyzing the composition of an ancient Roman mortar (5th century A.D.), exploiting an experimental setup which allows the determination of the compositions of binder and aggregate in few minutes, without the need for sample treatment. Four thousand LIBS spectra were acquired from an area of 10 mm 2 , with a 50 µm lateral resolution. The elements of interest in the mortar sample (H, C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe) were detected and mapped. The collected data graphically shown as compositional images were interpreted using different statistical approaches for the determination of the chemical composition of the binder and aggregate fraction. The methods of false color imaging, blind separation, and self-organizing maps were applied and their results are discussed in this paper. In particular, the method based on the use of self-organizing maps gives well interpretable results in very short times, without any reduction in the dimensionality of the system.

  16. Frequency characteristics of the MIM thick film capacitors fabricated by laser micro-cladding electronic pastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yu; Li Xiangyou; Zeng Xiaoyan

    2008-01-01

    With rapid development of the electronic industry, how to respond the market requests quickly, shorten R and D prototyping fabrication period, and reduce the cost of the electronic devices have become a challenge work, which need flexible manufacturing methods. In this work, two direct write processing methods, direct material deposition by microPen and Nd:YAG laser micro-cladding, are integrated with CAD/CAM technology for the hybrid fabrication of passive electronic components. Especially, the metal-insulator-metal (MIM) type thick film capacitors are fabricated on ceramic substrates by this method. A basic two-step procedure of laser micro-cladding electronic pastes (LMCEPs) process for the thick film pattern preparation is presented. For a better understanding of the MIM thick film capacitor characterization, equivalent circuit models at low-frequency and high-frequency domains are introduced, respectively. The frequency characteristics tests up to 1.8 GHz of capacitance stability, equivalent series resistance (ESR), equivalent series inductance (ESL) and impendence are performed, and the results show good DC voltage stability (<2.48%), good frequency stability (<2.6%) and low dissipation factor (<0.6%) of the MIM thick film capacitors, which may get application to megahertz regions. The further developments of the LMCEP process for fabricating MIM thick film capacitors are also investigated

  17. Frequency characteristics of the MIM thick film capacitors fabricated by laser micro-cladding electronic pastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Yu; Li Xiangyou [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Sci and Tech, 430074 Wuhan, Hubei (China); Zeng Xiaoyan [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Sci and Tech, 430074 Wuhan, Hubei (China)], E-mail: xyzeng@mail.hust.edu.cn

    2008-05-25

    With rapid development of the electronic industry, how to respond the market requests quickly, shorten R and D prototyping fabrication period, and reduce the cost of the electronic devices have become a challenge work, which need flexible manufacturing methods. In this work, two direct write processing methods, direct material deposition by microPen and Nd:YAG laser micro-cladding, are integrated with CAD/CAM technology for the hybrid fabrication of passive electronic components. Especially, the metal-insulator-metal (MIM) type thick film capacitors are fabricated on ceramic substrates by this method. A basic two-step procedure of laser micro-cladding electronic pastes (LMCEPs) process for the thick film pattern preparation is presented. For a better understanding of the MIM thick film capacitor characterization, equivalent circuit models at low-frequency and high-frequency domains are introduced, respectively. The frequency characteristics tests up to 1.8 GHz of capacitance stability, equivalent series resistance (ESR), equivalent series inductance (ESL) and impendence are performed, and the results show good DC voltage stability (<2.48%), good frequency stability (<2.6%) and low dissipation factor (<0.6%) of the MIM thick film capacitors, which may get application to megahertz regions. The further developments of the LMCEP process for fabricating MIM thick film capacitors are also investigated.

  18. A Laser-based Ultrasonic Inspection System to Detect Micro Fatigue Cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung Kyu; Baik, Sung Hoon; Park, Moon Cheol; Lim, Chang Hwan; Cha, Hyung Ki

    2005-01-01

    Laser-based ultrasonic techniques have been established as a viable non-contact alternative to piezoelectric transducers for generating and receiving ultrasound. Laser-based ultrasonic inspection system provides a number of advantages over the conventional generation by piezoelectric transducers, especially a non-contact generation and detection of ultrasonic waves, high spatial scanning resolution, controllable narrow-band and wide-band spectrum, absolute measurements of the moving distance, use of fiber optics, and an ability to operate on curved and rough surfaces and at hard-to-access locations like a nuclear power plant. Ochiai and Miura used the laser-based ultrasound to detect micro fatigue cracks for the inspection of a material degradation in nuclear power plants. This widely applicable laser-based ultrasonic inspection system is comparatively expensive and provides low signal-to-noise ratio to measure ultrasound by using the laser interferometer. Many studies have been carried out to improve the measuring efficiency of the laser interferometer. One of the widely used laser interferometer types to measure the ultrasound is the Confocal Fabry-Perot Interferometer(CFPI). The measurement gain of the CFPI is slightly and continually varied according to the small change of the cavity length and the fluctuations of the measuring laser beam frequency with time. If we continually adjust the voltage of a PZT which is fixed to one of the interferometer mirrors, the optimum working point of the CFPI can be fixed. Though a static stabilizer can fix the gain of the CFPI where the CW laser beam is targeted at one position, it can not be used when the CW laser beam is scanned like a scanning laser source(SLS) technique. A dynamic stabilizer can be used for the scanning ultrasonic inspection system. A robust dynamic stabilizer is needed for an application to the industrial inspection fields. Kromine showed that the SLS technique is effective to detect small fatigue cracks

  19. Micromachining and dicing of sapphire, gallium nitride and micro LED devices with UV copper vapour laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, E.; Jeon, C.W.; Choi, H.W.; Rice, G.; Dawson, M.D.; Illy, E.K.; Knowles, M.R.H.

    2004-01-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) and sapphire are important materials for fabricating photonic devices such as high brightness light emitting diodes (LEDs). These materials are strongly resistant to wet chemical etching and also, low etch rates restrict the use of dry etching. Thus, to develop alternative high resolution processing and machining techniques for these materials is important in fabricating novel photonic devices. In this work, a repetitively pulsed UV copper vapour laser (255 nm) has been used to machine and dice sapphire, GaN and micro LED devices. Machining parameters were optimised so as to achieve controllable machining and high resolution. For sapphire, well-defined grooves 30 μm wide and 430 μm deep were machined. For GaN, precision features such as holes on a tens of micron length scale have been fabricated. By using this technique, compact micro LED chips with a die spacing 100 and a 430 μm thick sapphire substrate have been successfully diced. Measurements show that the performances of LED devices are not influenced by the UV laser machining. Our results demonstrate that the pulsed UV copper vapour laser is a powerful tool for micromachining and dicing of photonic materials and devices

  20. Effect of laser phototherapy on human alveolar bone repair: micro tomographic and histomorphometrical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romão, Marcia M. A.; Marques, Márcia M.; Cortes, Arthur R. G.; Horliana, Anna C. R. T.; Moreira, Maria S.; Lascala, Cesar A.

    2015-06-01

    The immediate dental implant placement in the molars region is critical, because of the high amount of bone loss and the discrepancy between the alveolar crest thickness and the dental implant platform. Laser phototherapy (LPT) improves bone repair thus could accelerate the implant placement. Twenty patients were selected for the study. Ten patients were submitted to LPT with GaAlAs diode laser (808nm) during molar extraction, immediately after, 24h, 48h, 72h, 96h and 7 days. The irradiations were applied in contact and punctual mode (100mW, 0.04cm2, 0.75J/cm2, 30s per point, 3J per point). The control group (n=10) received the same treatment; however with the power of the laser off. Forty days later samples of the tissue formed inside the sockets were obtained for further microtomography (microCTs) and histomorphometry analyses. Data were compared by the Student t test, whereas those from the different microCT parameters were compared by the Pearson correlation test (pPearson correlation test it was possible to infer that the lased group presented a more homogeneous trabecular configuration, which would allow earlier dental implant placement.

  1. Determination of organophosphorus pesticides by dispersive liquid-liquid micro extraction coupled with gas chromatography-electron capture detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Marsin Sanagi; Siti Umairah Mokhtar; Mazidatul Akmam Miskam; Wan Aini Wan Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive method termed as dispersive liquid-liquid micro extraction (DLLME) combined with gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) was developed for the determination of selected organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) namely chloropyrifos, dimethoate and diazinon in water sample. In this method, a mixture of carbon disulfide, CS 2 (extraction solvent) and methanol (disperser solvent) was rapidly injected using syringe into the 5.00 mL water sample to form a cloudy solution where the OPPs were extracted into the fine droplets of extraction solvent. Upon centrifugation for 3 min at 3500 rpm, the fine droplets were sedimented at the bottom of the centrifuge tube. Sedimented phase (1 μL) was injected into the GC-ECD for separation and determination of OPPs. Important extraction parameters, such as type of disperser solvent, volume of extraction solvent and volume of disperser solvent were investigated. The optimized conditions for DLLME of the selected OPPs were methanol as disperser solvent, 30 μL of extraction solvent (CS 2 ) and 1.0 mL of disperser solvent (methanol). Under the optimum extraction conditions, the method showed good linearity in the range of 0.1 to 1.0 μg/ mL with correlation coefficient (r 2 ), in the range of 0.9976 to 0.9994 and low limits of detection (LOD) between 0.047 and 0.201 μg/ mL. The proposed method provided acceptable recoveries (72.67- 144 %) with good RSDs ranging from 2.74 % to 7.48 %. This method was successfully applied to the determination of OPPs in water samples obtained from a golf course and chloropyrifos and diazinon were detected at concentration 0.18 μg/ mL and 0.07 μg/ mL, respectively. (author)

  2. Fabrication of locally micro-structured fiber Bragg gratings by fs-laser machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutz, Franz J.; Stephan, Valentin; Marchi, Gabriele; Koch, Alexander W.; Roths, Johannes; Huber, Heinz P.

    2018-06-01

    Here, we describe a method for producing locally micro-structured fiber Bragg gratings (LMFGB) by fs-laser machining. This technique enables the precise and reproducible ablation of cladding material to create circumferential grooves inside the claddings of optical fibers. From initial ablation experiments we acquired optimized process parameters. The fabricated grooves were located in the middle of uniform type I fiber Bragg gratings. LMFBGs with four different groove widths of 48, 85, 135 and 205 μ { {m}} were produced. The grooves exhibited constant depths of about 30 μ {m} and steep sidewall angles. With the combination of micro-structures and fiber Bragg gratings, fiber optic sensor elements with enhanced functionalities can be achieved.

  3. Micro-fabricated packed gas chromatography column based on laser etching technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J H; Guan, F Y; Zhu, X F; Ning, Z W; Ma, T J; Liu, J H; Deng, T

    2016-01-15

    In this work, a micro packed gas chromatograph column integrated with a micro heater was fabricated by using laser etching technology (LET) for analyzing environmental gases. LET is a powerful tool to etch deep well-shaped channels on the glass wafer, and it is the most effective way to increase depth of channels. The fabricated packed GC column with a length of over 1.6m, to our best knowledge, which is the longest so far. In addition, the fabricated column with a rectangular cross section of 1.2mm (depth) × 0.6mm (width) has a large aspect ratio of 2:1. The results show that the fabricated packed column had a large sample capacity, achieved a separation efficiency of about 5800 plates/m and eluted highly symmetrical Gaussian peaks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Spontaneous decoration of Au nanoparticles on micro-patterned reduced graphene oxide shaped by focused laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Y. C.; Tok, E. S.; Teoh, H. F.; Sow, C. H.

    2015-01-01

    We report a facile, two-step method for the micro-landscaping of Au nanoparticles(NPs) on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) film en route to micro-patterned Au(NPs)-rGO hybrid functional materials. This method employs a focused laser beam to first locally convert GO to rGO before immersing the micro-patterned GO-rGO film into HAuCl 4 solution. The rGO micro-pattern, shaped by the focused laser beam, serves as nucleation sites for the reduction of Au ions. The reduction mechanism that governs the decoration of Au NPs on rGO films is akin to electroless deposition process. In this instance, surface charges that are formed during laser reduction of GO to rGO provide active nucleation sites for Au 3+ ions to form Au NPs when HAuCl 4 solution is introduced. The number density, the size, and size distribution of the Au NPs can thus be directly tuned and preferentially anchored onto the rGO micro-pattern by varying the incident laser power, the scanning speed of the laser, or the concentration of HAuCl 4 . The resulting hybrid materials can be used as a substrate for Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS). Using Rhodamine 6G as the test subject, we found an improvement of SERS enhancement over bare rGO of up to four times, depending on the size of the Au NPs

  5. Spontaneous decoration of Au nanoparticles on micro-patterned reduced graphene oxide shaped by focused laser beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Y. C.; Tok, E. S. [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Teoh, H. F. [Graduate School of Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 28 Medical Drive, Singapore 117456 (Singapore); Sow, C. H. [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Graduate School of Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 28 Medical Drive, Singapore 117456 (Singapore)

    2015-02-07

    We report a facile, two-step method for the micro-landscaping of Au nanoparticles(NPs) on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) film en route to micro-patterned Au(NPs)-rGO hybrid functional materials. This method employs a focused laser beam to first locally convert GO to rGO before immersing the micro-patterned GO-rGO film into HAuCl{sub 4} solution. The rGO micro-pattern, shaped by the focused laser beam, serves as nucleation sites for the reduction of Au ions. The reduction mechanism that governs the decoration of Au NPs on rGO films is akin to electroless deposition process. In this instance, surface charges that are formed during laser reduction of GO to rGO provide active nucleation sites for Au{sup 3+} ions to form Au NPs when HAuCl{sub 4} solution is introduced. The number density, the size, and size distribution of the Au NPs can thus be directly tuned and preferentially anchored onto the rGO micro-pattern by varying the incident laser power, the scanning speed of the laser, or the concentration of HAuCl{sub 4}. The resulting hybrid materials can be used as a substrate for Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS). Using Rhodamine 6G as the test subject, we found an improvement of SERS enhancement over bare rGO of up to four times, depending on the size of the Au NPs.

  6. Three-Dimensional Glass Monolithic Micro-Flexure Fabricated by Femtosecond Laser Exposure and Chemical Etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Tielen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Flexures are components of micro-mechanisms efficiently replacing classical multi-part joints found at the macroscale. So far, flexures have been limited to two-dimensional planar designs due to the lack of a suitable three-dimensional micromanufacturing process. Here we demonstrate and characterize a high-strength transparent monolithic three-dimensional flexural component fabricated out of fused silica using non-ablative femtosecond laser processing combined with chemical etching. As an illustration of the potential use of this flexure, we propose a design of a Hoecken linkage entirely made with three-dimensional cross-spring pivot hinges.

  7. Micro-scale mechanical characterization of Inconel cermet coatings deposited by laser cladding

    OpenAIRE

    Chao Chang; Davide Verdi; Miguel Angel Garrido; Jesus Ruiz-Hervias

    2016-01-01

    In this study, an Inconel 625-Cr3C2 cermet coating was deposited on a steel alloy by laser cladding. The elastic and plastic mechanical properties of the cermet matrix were studied by the depth sensing indentation (DSI) in the micro scale. These results were compared with those obtained from an Inconel 600 bulk specimen. The values of Young's modulus and hardness of cermet matrix were higher than those of an Inconel 600 bulk specimen. Meanwhile, the indentation stress–strain curve of the cerm...

  8. Printing of metallic 3D micro-objects by laser induced forward transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenou, Michael; Kotler, Zvi

    2016-01-25

    Digital printing of 3D metal micro-structures by laser induced forward transfer under ambient conditions is reviewed. Recent progress has allowed drop on demand transfer of molten, femto-liter, metal droplets with a high jetting directionality. Such small volume droplets solidify instantly, on a nanosecond time scale, as they touch the substrate. This fast solidification limits their lateral spreading and allows the fabrication of high aspect ratio and complex 3D metal structures. Several examples of micron-scale resolution metal objects printed using this method are presented and discussed.

  9. Laser microprobe mass spectrometry: Potential and limitations for inorganic and organic micro-analysis. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeck, I. van; Gijbels, R.

    1990-01-01

    Laser microprobe mass spectrometry (LMMS) employs a highly focused UV laser beam to ionise a microvolume in the order of 1 μm 3 . The ions produced are then mass-separated in a time-of-flight (TOF) or a Fourier Transform (FT) mass spectrometer. TOF LMMS allows element localisation, detailed speciation of inorganic substances and structural information of organic molecules. Quantitation is difficult. This paper focuses on instrumental aspects and inorganic analysis. Organic applications are treated in part II of this series. Selected examples illustrate that TOF LMMS is a valuable tool for the qualitative characterisation of micro-samples. Also, the applicability to the analysis with high spatial resolution is shown. The current technology and the prospects from the recent FTMS development are discussed. (orig.)

  10. Laser controllable generation and manipulation of micro-bubbles in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelsky, O. V.; Bekshaev, A. Ya.; Maksimyak, P. P.; Maksimyak, A. P.; Hanson, S. G.; Kontush, S. M.

    2018-01-01

    Micrometer-sized vapor bubbles are formed due to local heating of the water suspension containing absorptive pigment particles of 100 nm diameter. The heating is performed by the CW near-infrared laser radiation. By changing the laser power, four regimes are realized: (1) bubble generation, (2) stable growth of the existing bubbles; (3) stationary existence of the bubbles and (4) bubbles' shrinkage and collapse. The generation and evolution of single bubbles and ensembles of bubbles with controllable sizes and numbers is demonstrated. The bubbles are grouped within the laserilluminated region. They can be easily moved and transported together with the focal spot. The results can be useful for applications associated with the precise manipulation and the species delivery in nano- and micro-engineering problems.

  11. Analysis and optimisation of vertical surface roughness in micro selective laser melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abele, Eberhard; Kniepkamp, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Surface roughness is a major disadvantage of many additive manufacturing technologies like selective laser melting (SLM) compared to established processes like milling or drilling. With recent advancements the resolution of the SLM process could be increased to layer heights of less than 10 μm leading to a new process called micro selective laser melting (μSLM). The purpose of this paper is to analyze the influence of the μSLM process parameters and exposure strategies on the morphology of vertical surfaces. Contour scanning using varying process parameters was used to increase the surface quality. It is shown that it is possible to achieve average surface roughness of less than 1.7 μm using low scan speeds compared to 8–10 μm without contour scanning. Furthermore it is shown that a contour exposure prior to the core exposure leads to surface defects and thus increased roughness. (paper)

  12. Investigation of the dye concentration influence on the lasing wavelength and threshold for a micro-fluidic dye laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helbo, Bjarne; Kragh, Søren; Kjeldsen, B.G.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate a micro-fluidic dye laser, which can be integrated with polymer-based lab-on-a-chip microsystems without further processing steps. A simple rate-equation model is used to predict the lasing threshold. The laser device is characterised using the laser dye Rhodamine 6G dissolved...... in ethanol, and the influence of dye concentration on the lasing wavelength and threshold is investigated. The experiments confirm the predictions of the rate-equation model, that lasing can be achieved in the 10 mum long laser cavity with moderate concentrations of Rhodamine 6G in ethanol, starting from 5 x...

  13. Impact of initial surface parameters on the final quality of laser micro-polished surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Michael; Bordatchev, Evgueni V.; Knopf, George K.

    2012-03-01

    Laser micro-polishing (LμP) is a new laser-based microfabrication technology for improving surface quality during a finishing operation and for producing parts and surfaces with near-optical surface quality. The LμP process uses low power laser energy to melt a thin layer of material on the previously machined surface. The polishing effect is achieved as the molten material in the laser-material interaction zone flows from the elevated regions to the local minimum due to surface tension. This flow of molten material then forms a thin ultra-smooth layer on the top surface. The LμP is a complex thermo-dynamic process where the melting, flow and redistribution of molten material is significantly influenced by a variety of process parameters related to the laser, the travel motions and the material. The goal of this study is to analyze the impact of initial surface parameters on the final surface quality. Ball-end micromilling was used for preparing initial surface of samples from H13 tool steel that were polished using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The height and width of micromilled scallops (waviness) were identified as dominant parameter affecting the quality of the LμPed surface. By adjusting process parameters, the Ra value of a surface, having a waviness period of 33 μm and a peak-to-valley value of 5.9 μm, was reduced from 499 nm to 301 nm, improving the final surface quality by 39.7%.

  14. Fabrication and hydrophobic characteristics of micro / nanostructures on polydimethylsiloxane surface prepared by picosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Wang; Dong, Shiyun; Yan, Shixing; Gang, Xiao; Xie, Zhiwei

    2018-03-01

    Picosecond laser has ultrashort pulse width and ultrastrong peak power, which makes it widely used in the field of micro-nanoscale fabrication. polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is a typical silicone elastomer with good hydrophobicity. In order to further improve the hydrophobicity of PDMS, the picosecond laser was used to fabricate a grid-like microstructure on the surface of PDMS, and the relationship between hydrophobicity of PDMS with surface microstructure and laser processing parameters, such as processing times and cell spacing was studied. The results show that: compared with the unprocessed PDMS, the presence of surface microstructure significantly improved the hydrophobicity of PDMS. When the number of processing is constant, the hydrophobicity of PDMS decreases with the increase of cell spacing. However, when the cell spacing is fixed, the hydrophobicity of PDMS first increases and then decreases with the increase of processing times. In particular, when the times of laser processing is 6 and the cell spacing is 50μm, the contact angle of PDMS increased from 113° to 154°, which reached the level of superhydrophobic.

  15. TOPSIS based parametric optimization of laser micro-drilling of TBC coated nickel based superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthiban, K.; Duraiselvam, Muthukannan; Manivannan, R.

    2018-06-01

    The technique for order of preference by similarity ideal solution (TOPSIS) approach was used for optimizing the process parameters of laser micro-drilling of nickel superalloy C263 with Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC). Plasma spraying was used to deposit the TBC and a pico-second Nd:YAG pulsed laser was used to drill the specimens. Drilling angle, laser scan speed and number of passes were considered as input parameters. Based on the machining conditions, Taguchi L8 orthogonal array was used for conducting the experimental runs. The surface roughness and surface crack density (SCD) were considered as the output measures. The surface roughness was measured using 3D White Light Interferometer (WLI) and the crack density was measured using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The optimized result achieved from this approach suggests reduced surface roughness and surface crack density. The holes drilled at an inclination angle of 45°, laser scan speed of 3 mm/s and 400 number of passes found to be optimum. From the Analysis of variance (ANOVA), inclination angle and number of passes were identified as the major influencing parameter. The optimized parameter combination exhibited a 19% improvement in surface finish and 12% reduction in SCD.

  16. Direct Silver Micro Circuit Patterning on Transparent Polyethylene Terephthalate Film Using Laser-Induced Photothermochemical Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Jui Lan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a new and improved approach to the rapid and green fabrication of highly conductive microscale silver structures on low-cost transparent polyethylene terephthalate (PET flexible substrate. In this new laser direct synthesis and pattering (LDSP process, silver microstructures are simultaneously synthesized and laid down in a predetermined pattern using a low power continuous wave (CW laser. The silver ion processing solution, which is transparent and reactive, contains a red azo dye as the absorbing material. The silver pattern is formed by photothermochemical reduction of the silver ions induced by the focused CW laser beam. In this improved LDSP process, the non-toxic additive in the transparent ionic solution absorbs energy from a low cost CW visible laser without the need for the introduction of any hazardous chemical process. Tests were carried out to determine the durability of the conductive patterns, and numerical analyses of the thermal and fluid transport were performed to investigate the morphology of the deposited patterns. This technology is an advanced method for preparing micro-scale circuitry on an inexpensive, flexible, and transparent polymer substrate that is fast, environmentally benign, and shows potential for Roll-to-Roll manufacture.

  17. Picosecond laser micro/nano surface texturing of nickel for superhydrophobicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. C.; Wang, B.; Xie, H.; Zheng, H. Y.; Lam, Y. C.

    2018-03-01

    A single step direct picosecond laser texturing process was demonstrated to be able to obtain a superhydrophobic surface on a nickel substrate, a key material for mold fabrication in the manufacture of various devices, including polymeric microfluidic devices. A two-scale hierarchical surface structure of regular 2D array micro-bumps with nano-ripples was produced on a nickel surface. The laser textured surface initially showed superhydrophilicity with almost complete wetting of the structured surface just after laser treatment, then quickly changed to nearly superhydrophobic with a water contact angle (WCA) of 140° in less than 1 d, and finally became superhydrophobic with a WCA of more than 150° and a contact angle hysteresis (CAH) of less than 5°. The mechanism involved in the process is discussed in terms of surface morphology and surface chemistry. The ultra-fast laser induced NiO catalytic effect was thought to play a key role in modifying the surface chemistry so as to lower the surface energy. The developed process has the potential to improve the performance of nickel mold in the fabrication of microfluidic devices.

  18. Micro-scale novel stable isotope fractionation during weathering disclosed by femtosecond laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuessler, J. A.; von Blanckenburg, F.

    2012-12-01

    The stable isotope fractionation of metals and metalloids during chemical weathering and alteration of rocks at low temperature is a topic receiving increasing scientific attention. For these systems, weathering of primary minerals leads to selective partitioning of isotopes between the secondary minerals formed from them, and the dissolved phase of soil or river water. While the isotopic signatures of these processes have been mapped-out at the catchment or the soil scale, the actual isotopic fractionation is occurring at the mineral scale. To identify the processes underlying such micro-scale fractionation, the development of micro-analytical tools allows to investigate mechanisms of isotope fractionation in-situ, in combination with textural information of weathering reactions. We have developed a second-generation UV femtosecond (fs) laser system at GFZ Potsdam. The advantage of UV-fs laser ablation is the reduction of laser-induced isotopic and elemental fractionation by avoiding 'thermal effects' during ablation, such that accurate isotope ratios can be measured by standard-sample-standard bracketing using laser ablation multicollector ICP-MS; where the matrix of the bracketing standard does not need to match that of the sample [1]. Our system consists of the latest generation femtosecond solid-state laser (Newport Spectra Physics Solstice), producing an ultra short pulse width of about 100 femtoseconds at a wavelength of 196 nm. The system is combined with a custom-build computer-controlled sample stage and allows fully automated isotope analyses through synchronised operation of the laser with the Neptune MC-ICP-MS. To assess precision and accuracy of our laser ablation method, we analysed various geological reference materials. We obtained δ30Si values of -0.31 ± 0.23 (2SD, n = 13) for basalt glass BHVO-2G, and -1.25 ± 0.21 (2SD, n = 27) for pure Si IRMM17 when bracketed against NBS-28 quartz. δ56Fe and δ26Mg values obtained from non-matrix matched

  19. Data processing with PC-9801 micro-computer for HCN laser scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, T.; Okajima, S.; Kawahata, K.; Tetsuka, T.; Fujita, J.

    1986-09-01

    In order to process the data of HCN laser scattering experiments, a micro-computer software has been developed and applied to the measurements of density fluctuations in the JIPP T-IIU tokamak plasma. The data processing system consists of a spectrum analyzer, SM-2100A Signal Analyzer (IWATSU ELECTRIC CO., LTD.), PC-9801m3 micro-computer, a CRT-display and a dot-printer. The output signals from the spectrum analyzer are A/D converted, and stored on a mini-floppy-disk equipped to the signal analyzer. The software to process the data is composed of system-programs and several user-programs. The real time data processing is carried out for every shot of plasma at 4 minutes interval by the micro-computer connected with the signal analyzer through a GP-IB interface. The time evolutions of the frequency spectrum of the density fluctuations are displayed on the CRT attached to the micro-computer and printed out on a printer-sheet. In the case of the data processing after experiments, the data stored on the floppy-disk of the signal analyzer are read out by using a floppy-disk unit attached to the micro-computer. After computation with the user-programs, the results, such as monitored signal, frequency spectra, wave number spectra and the time evolutions of the spectrum, are displayed and printed out. In this technical report, the system, the software and the directions for use are described. (author)

  20. Laser capture microdissection-based in vivo genomic profiling of wound keratinocytes identifies similarities and differences to squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tanja Xenia; Leethanakul, Chidchanop; Patel, Vyomesh

    2003-01-01

    keratinocytes from incisional mouse skin wounds and adjacent normal skin keratinocytes. Changes in gene expression were determined by comparative cDNA array analyses, and the approach was validated by in situ hybridization. The analyses identified 48 candidate genes not previously associated with wound...... reepithelialization. Furthermore, the analyses revealed that the phenotypic resemblance of wound keratinocytes to squamous cell carcinoma is mimicked at the level of gene expression, but notable differences between the two tissue-remodeling processes were also observed. The combination of laser capture...

  1. Laser-Driven Ion Acceleration from Plasma Micro-Channel Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, D. B.; Pukhov, A.; Yi, L. Q.; Zhou, H. B.; Yu, T. P.; Yin, Y.; Shao, F. Q.

    2017-02-01

    Efficient energy boost of the laser-accelerated ions is critical for their applications in biomedical and hadron research. Achiev-able energies continue to rise, with currently highest energies, allowing access to medical therapy energy windows. Here, a new regime of simultaneous acceleration of ~100 MeV protons and multi-100 MeV carbon-ions from plasma micro-channel targets is proposed by using a ~1020 W/cm2 modest intensity laser pulse. It is found that two trains of overdense electron bunches are dragged out from the micro-channel and effectively accelerated by the longitudinal electric-field excited in the plasma channel. With the optimized channel size, these “superponderomotive” energetic electrons can be focused on the front surface of the attached plastic substrate. The much intense sheath electric-field is formed on the rear side, leading to up to ~10-fold ionic energy increase compared to the simple planar geometry. The analytical prediction of the optimal channel size and ion maximum energies is derived, which shows good agreement with the particle-in-cell simulations.

  2. Multiplicity and contiguity of ablation mechanisms in laser-assisted analytical micro-sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleiner, Davide; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2006-01-01

    Laser ablation is implemented in several scientific and technological fields, as well as a rapid sample introduction technique in elemental and trace analysis. At high laser fluence, the ejection of micro-sized droplets causes the enhancement of the surface recession speed and depth resolution degradation as well as the alteration of the sampling stoichiometry. The origin of such large particles seems to be due to at least two different processes, phase explosion and melt splashing. Experimental evidence for both was found in metallic matrices, whereas non-metallic samples showed more complex phenomena like cracking. The spatial distribution of the beam energy profile is responsible for significant differences in the ablation mechanism across the irradiated region and for heterogeneous sampling. Under Gaussian irradiance distribution, the center of the crater, where the irradiance is the highest, experienced a fast heating with rapid ejection of a mixture of particles and vapor (spinodal breakdown). The crater periphery was subjected to more modest irradiation, with melt mobilization and walls formation. The overall resulting particle size distribution was composed of an abundant nano-sized fraction, produced by vapor condensation, and a micro-sized fraction during melt expulsion

  3. Ultrafast laser driven micro-lens to focus and energy select MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toncian, Toma

    2008-05-01

    A technique for simultaneous focusing and energy selection of high-current, MeV proton beams using radial, transient electric fields (10 7 -10 10 V/m) triggered on the inner wall of a hollow micro-cylinder by an intense, sub-picosecond laser-pulse is presented. Due to the transient nature of the radial focusing field, the proposed method allows selection of a desired range out of the spectrum of the poly-energetic proton beam. This technique addresses current drawbacks of laser-accelerated proton beams, i.e. their broad spectrum and divergence at the source. This thesis presents both experimental and computational studies that led to the understanding of the physical processes driving the micro-lens. After an one side irradiation of a hollow metallic cylinder a radial electric field develops inside the cylinder. Hot electrons generated by the interaction between laser pulse and cylinder wall spread inside the cylinder generating a plasma at the wall. This plasma expands into vacuum and sustains an electric field that acts as a collecting lens on a proton beam propagating axially through the cylinder. Both focusing and the reduction of the intrinsic beam divergence from 20 deg to.3 deg for a narrow spectral range was demonstrated. By sub-aperturing the beam a narrow spectral range (δε/ε < 3%) was selected from the poly-energetic beam. The micro-lens properties are tunable allowing for optimization towards applications. Optical probing techniques and proton imaging were employed to study the spacial and temporal evolution of the field and revealed a complex physical scenario of the rise and decay of the radial electric field. Each aspect studied experimentally is interpreted using 2D PIC and ray tracing simulations. A very good agreement between the experimental and computational data is found. The PIC simulations are used to upscale the demonstrated micro-lens capabilities to the focusing of a 270 MeV proton beam, an energy relevant for medical applications such

  4. Ultrafast laser driven micro-lens to focus and energy select MeV protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toncian, Toma

    2008-05-15

    A technique for simultaneous focusing and energy selection of high-current, MeV proton beams using radial, transient electric fields (10{sup 7}-10{sup 10} V/m) triggered on the inner wall of a hollow micro-cylinder by an intense, sub-picosecond laser-pulse is presented. Due to the transient nature of the radial focusing field, the proposed method allows selection of a desired range out of the spectrum of the poly-energetic proton beam. This technique addresses current drawbacks of laser-accelerated proton beams, i.e. their broad spectrum and divergence at the source. This thesis presents both experimental and computational studies that led to the understanding of the physical processes driving the micro-lens. After an one side irradiation of a hollow metallic cylinder a radial electric field develops inside the cylinder. Hot electrons generated by the interaction between laser pulse and cylinder wall spread inside the cylinder generating a plasma at the wall. This plasma expands into vacuum and sustains an electric field that acts as a collecting lens on a proton beam propagating axially through the cylinder. Both focusing and the reduction of the intrinsic beam divergence from 20 deg to.3 deg for a narrow spectral range was demonstrated. By sub-aperturing the beam a narrow spectral range ({delta}{epsilon}/{epsilon} < 3%) was selected from the poly-energetic beam. The micro-lens properties are tunable allowing for optimization towards applications. Optical probing techniques and proton imaging were employed to study the spacial and temporal evolution of the field and revealed a complex physical scenario of the rise and decay of the radial electric field. Each aspect studied experimentally is interpreted using 2D PIC and ray tracing simulations. A very good agreement between the experimental and computational data is found. The PIC simulations are used to upscale the demonstrated micro-lens capabilities to the focusing of a 270 MeV proton beam, an energy relevant

  5. The interaction of super-intense ultra-short laser pulse and micro-clusters with large atomic clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Jingwei; Yang Chaowen; An Zhu; Yuan Xuedong; Sun Weiguo; Luo Xiaobing; Wang Hu; Bai Lixing; Shi Miangong; Miao Lei; Zhen Zhijian; Gu Yuqin; Liu Hongjie; Zhu Zhouseng; Sun Liwei; Liao Xuehua

    2007-01-01

    The fusion mechanism of large deuterium clusters (100-1000 Atoms/per cluster) in super-intense ultra-short laser pulse field, Coulomb explosions of micro-cluster in solids, gases and Large-size clusters have been studied using the interaction of a high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses with large deuterium clusters, collision of high-quality beam of micro-cluster from 2.5 MV van de Graaff accelerator with solids, gases and large clusters. The experimental advance of the project is reported. (authors)

  6. A method of measuring micro-impulse with torsion pendulum based on multi-beam laser heterodyne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Chao; Wang, Chun-Hui

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel method of multi-beam laser heterodyne measurement for micro-impulse. The measurement of the micro-impulse, which is converted into the measurement of the small tuning angle of the torsion pendulum, is realized by considering the interaction between pulse laser and working medium. Based on Doppler effect and heterodyne technology, the information regarding the small tuning angle is loaded to the frequency difference of the multi-beam laser heterodyne signal by the frequency modulation of the oscillating mirror, thereby obtaining many values of the small tuning angle after the multi-beam laser heterodyne signal demodulation simultaneously. Processing these values by weighted-average, the small tuning angle can be obtained accurately and the value of the micro-impulse can eventually be calculated. Using Polyvinylchlorid+2%C as a working medium, this novel method is used to simulate the value of the micro-impulse by MATLAB which is generated by considering the interaction between the pulse laser and the working medium, the obtained result shows that the relative error of this method is just 0.5%.

  7. A method of measuring micro-impulse with torsion pendulum based on multi-beam laser heterodyne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yan-Chao; Wang Chun-Hui

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel method of multi-beam laser heterodyne measurement for micro-impulse. The measurement of the micro-impulse, which is converted into the measurement of the small tuning angle of the torsion pendulum, is realized by considering the interaction between pulse laser and working medium. Based on Doppler effect and heterodyne technology, the information regarding the small tuning angle is loaded to the frequency difference of the multi-beam laser heterodyne signal by the frequency modulation of the oscillating mirror, thereby obtaining many values of the small tuning angle after the multi-beam laser heterodyne signal demodulation simultaneously. Processing these values by weighted-average, the small tuning angle can be obtained accurately and the value of the micro-impulse can eventually be calculated. Using Polyvinylchlorid+2%C as a working medium, this novel method is used to simulate the value of the micro-impulse by MATLAB which is generated by considering the interaction between the pulse laser and the working medium, the obtained result shows that the relative error of this method is just 0.5%. (general)

  8. Micro-fresnel structures for microscopy of laser generated bright x-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceglio, N.M.; Shavers, D.C.; Flanders, D.C.; Smith, H.I.

    1979-01-01

    A brief parametric survey of the x-ray characteristics of a gold micro-disk irradiated at 3 x 10 14 watt/cm 2 by a 1 nsec Nd-glass laser pulse has been provided as an example of a laser generated bright x-ray source. It was shown that a simple phenomenological model of the laser generated x-ray source as a microscopic equilibrium plasma radiating as a blackbody for a finite time determined by its hydrodynamic disassembly and radiation losses, serves to provide an adequate approximation to the x-ray characteristics of such sources. The current state of x-ray microscopy within the LLL laser fusion program was briefly reviewed. Kirpatrick--Baez grazing incidence reflection x-ray microscopes are being used to provide 3 to 5 μm resolution, broadband images (ΔE/E approx. 0.3) over a spectral range from .6 keV to 3.5 keV. Zone Plate Coded Imaging is used to provide 5 to 10 μm resolution, broadband (ΔE/E approx. 0.5) images over a spectral range from 3 keV to 50 keV. Efficient x-ray lensing elements with anticipated submicron resolution are being developed for narrowband (ΔE/E approx. 10 -2 ) imaging applications over a spectral range .1 keV to 8 keV. The x-ray lens design is that of a transmission blazed Fresnel phase plate. Micro--Fresnel zone plates with 3200 A minimum linewidth have been fabricated and preliminary resolution tests begun. The first resolution test pattern, having minimum linewidth of 2.5 μm, was imaged in lambda = 8.34 A light with no difficulty. Newer test patterns with submicron minimum line are being prepared for the next stage of resolution testing. An off-axis Fresnel zone plate with 1600 A minimum linewidth is presently being fabricated for use as an imaging spectrometer in order to provide spatially separated, chromatically distinct images of characteristic line emissions from laser fusion targets

  9. Experimental analysis of the production of micro- and nanofibres by Laser Spinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintero, F.; Pou, J.; Lusquinos, F.; Riveiro, A.

    2007-01-01

    Laser Spinning is a new technique for the production of glass fibres with diameters in the nanometre to micrometre scale. It allows large quantities of nanofibres to be made with specific, controllable chemical compositions. Furthermore, the production of amorphous micro- and nanofibres of non-ready glass former materials was demonstrated. All these novel characteristics will potentially open up a whole new range of applications for the fibres. In this technique a high power laser is employed to melt the precursor solid material, while a supersonic gas jet is injected into the melt volume. The melt forms glass fibres as a result of its viscous elongation and cooling by the drag force and convective heat transfer produced by the gas jet. The influence of several operating conditions controlling the morphology, composition, and diameter distribution of the fibres is experimentally assessed by means of electron microscopy analysis, X-ray fluorescence and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. The experimental results are discussed based on a theoretical explanation of the process of fibre formation. This leads ultimately to the deduction of a set of rules regarding the influence of the factors studied on the production of nanofibres by Laser Spinning

  10. Micro- and Nanoprocessing of Polymers Using a Laser Plasma Extreme Ultraviolet Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartnik, A.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Jarocki, R.; Kostecki, J.; Rakowski, R.; Szczurek, A.; Szczurek, M.

    2010-01-01

    Laser plasma with temperature of the order of tens eV can be an efficient source of extreme ultraviolet (EUV). The radiation can be focused using different kind of optics, giving sufficient fluence for some applications. In this work we present results of investigations concerning applications of a laser plasma EUV source based on a double stream gas puff target. The source was equipped with two different grazing incidence collectors. One of them was a multifoil collector, the second one was an axisymmetrical ellipsoidal collector. The multifoil mirror was used mainly in experiments concerning micromachining of organic polymers by direct photo-etching. The experiments were performed for different polymers that were irradiated through a fine metal grid as a contact mask. The smallest element of a pattern structure obtained in this way was 5 μm, while the structure height was 50 μm giving an aspect ratio about 10. The laser-plasma EUV source equipped with the axisymmetrical ellipsoidal collector was used for surface modification of organic polymers and inorganic solids. The surface morphology after irradiation was investigated. Different forms of micro- and nanostructures were obtained depending on material and irradiation conditions. (author)

  11. Laser-Induced Motion of a Nanofluid in a Micro-Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran X. Phuoc

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Since a photon carries both energy and momentum, when it interacts with a particle, photon-particle energy and momentum transfer occur, resulting in mechanical forces acting on the particle. In this paper we report our theoretical study on the use of a laser beam to manipulate and control the flow of nanofluids in a micro-channel. We calculate the velocity induced by a laser beam for TiO2, Fe2O3, Al2O3 MgO, and SiO2 nanoparticles with water as the base fluid. The particle diameter is 50 nm and the laser beam is a 4 W continuous beam of 6 mm diameter and 532 nm wavelength. The results indicate that, as the particle moves, a significant volume of the surrounding water (up to about 8 particle diameters away from the particle surface is disturbed and dragged along with the moving particle. The results also show the effect of the particle refractive index on the particle velocity and the induced volume flow rate. The velocity and the volume flowrate induced by the TiO2 nanoparticle (refractive index n = 2.82 are about 0.552 mm/s and 9.86 fL, respectively, while those induced by SiO2 (n = 1.46 are only about 7.569 μm/s and 0.135, respectively.

  12. Wafer-level vacuum packaged resonant micro-scanning mirrors for compact laser projection displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Ulrich; Oldsen, Marten; Quenzer, Hans-Joachim; Janes, Joachim; Heller, Martin; Weiss, Manfred; Fakas, Georgios; Ratzmann, Lars; Marchetti, Eleonora; D'Ascoli, Francesco; Melani, Massimiliano; Bacciarelli, Luca; Volpi, Emilio; Battini, Francesco; Mostardini, Luca; Sechi, Francesco; De Marinis, Marco; Wagner, Bernd

    2008-02-01

    Scanning laser projection using resonant actuated MEMS scanning mirrors is expected to overcome the current limitation of small display size of mobile devices like cell phones, digital cameras and PDAs. Recent progress in the development of compact modulated RGB laser sources enables to set up very small laser projection systems that become attractive not only for consumer products but also for automotive applications like head-up and dash-board displays. Within the last years continuous progress was made in increasing MEMS scanner performance. However, only little is reported on how mass-produceability of these devices and stable functionality even under harsh environmental conditions can be guaranteed. Automotive application requires stable MEMS scanner operation over a wide temperature range from -40° to +85°Celsius. Therefore, hermetic packaging of electrostatically actuated MEMS scanning mirrors becomes essential to protect the sensitive device against particle contamination and condensing moisture. This paper reports on design, fabrication and test of a resonant actuated two-dimensional micro scanning mirror that is hermetically sealed on wafer level. With resonant frequencies of 30kHz and 1kHz, an achievable Theta-D-product of 13mm.deg and low dynamic deformation <20nm RMS it targets Lissajous projection with SVGA-resolution. Inevitable reflexes at the vacuum package surface can be seperated from the projection field by permanent inclination of the micromirror.

  13. Laser-induced surface modification of biopolymers – micro/nanostructuring and functionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankova, N. E.; Atanasov, P. A.; Nedyalkov, N. N.; Tatchev, Dr; Kolev, K. N.; Valova, E. I.; Armyanov, St. A.; Grochowska, K.; Śliwiński, G.; Fukata, N.; Hirsch, D.; Rauschenbach, B.

    2018-03-01

    The medical-grade polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer is a widely used biomaterial in medicine for preparation of high-tech devices because of its remarkable properties. In this paper, we present experimental results on surface modification of PDMS elastomer by using ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared ns-laser system and investigation of the chemical composition and the morphological structure inside the treated area in dependence on the processing parameters – wavelength, laser fluence and number of pulses. Remarkable chemical transformations and changes of the morphological structure were observed, resulting in the formation of a highly catalytically active surface, which was successfully functionalized via electroless Ni and Pt deposition by a sensitizing-activation free process. The results obtained are very promising in view of applying the methods of laser-induced micro- and nano-structuring and activation of biopolymers’ surface and further electroless metal plating to the preparation of, e.g., multielectrode arrays (MEAs) devices in neural and muscular surface interfacing implantable systems.

  14. Control of wettability of hydrogenated amorphous carbon thin films by laser-assisted micro- and nanostructuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfleging, Wilhelm; Kohler, Robert; Torge, Maika; Trouillet, Vanessa; Danneil, Friederike; Stueber, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A flexible and rapid surface functionalization of amorphous carbon films shows a great potential for various application fields such as biological surfaces and tribological systems. For this purpose, the combination of thin film deposition and subsequent laser material processing was investigated. Amorphous carbon layers doped with hydrogen were deposited on silicon wafers by reactive direct-current magnetron sputtering. Films with three different hydrogen contents were synthesized. Subsequent to the thin film deposition process, UV laser material processing at wavelengths of 193 nm or 248 nm was performed with respect to chemical surface modification and surface structuring on micro- and nanometer scale. Depending on structure size and laser-induced chemical surface modification the adjustment of the surface energy and wetting behaviour in a broad range from hydrophobic to hydrophilic was possible. The chemical modification and the ablation mechanisms near the ablation threshold were strongly influenced by the hydrogen content in amorphous carbon thin films. Structural and chemical information of the as-deposited and modified films was obtained by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle measurements.

  15. Micro-engineered first wall tungsten armor for high average power laser fusion energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafat, Shahram; Ghoniem, Nasr M.; Anderson, Michael; Williams, Brian; Blanchard, Jake; Snead, Lance; HAPL Team

    2005-12-01

    The high average power laser program is developing an inertial fusion energy demonstration power reactor with a solid first wall chamber. The first wall (FW) will be subject to high energy density radiation and high doses of high energy helium implantation. Tungsten has been identified as the candidate material for a FW armor. The fundamental concern is long term thermo-mechanical survivability of the armor against the effects of high temperature pulsed operation and exfoliation due to the retention of implanted helium. Even if a solid tungsten armor coating would survive the high temperature cyclic operation with minimal failure, the high helium implantation and retention would result in unacceptable material loss rates. Micro-engineered materials, such as castellated structures, plasma sprayed nano-porous coatings and refractory foams are suggested as a first wall armor material to address these fundamental concerns. A micro-engineered FW armor would have to be designed with specific geometric features that tolerate high cyclic heating loads and recycle most of the implanted helium without any significant failure. Micro-engineered materials are briefly reviewed. In particular, plasma-sprayed nano-porous tungsten and tungsten foams are assessed for their potential to accommodate inertial fusion specific loads. Tests show that nano-porous plasma spray coatings can be manufactured with high permeability to helium gas, while retaining relatively high thermal conductivities. Tungsten foams where shown to be able to overcome thermo-mechanical loads by cell rotation and deformation. Helium implantation tests have shown, that pulsed implantation and heating releases significant levels of implanted helium. Helium implantation and release from tungsten was modeled using an expanded kinetic rate theory, to include the effects of pulsed implantations and thermal cycles. Although, significant challenges remain micro-engineered materials are shown to constitute potential

  16. Micro-engineered first wall tungsten armor for high average power laser fusion energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharafat, Shahram; Ghoniem, Nasr M.; Anderson, Michael; Williams, Brian; Blanchard, Jake; Snead, Lance

    2005-01-01

    The high average power laser program is developing an inertial fusion energy demonstration power reactor with a solid first wall chamber. The first wall (FW) will be subject to high energy density radiation and high doses of high energy helium implantation. Tungsten has been identified as the candidate material for a FW armor. The fundamental concern is long term thermo-mechanical survivability of the armor against the effects of high temperature pulsed operation and exfoliation due to the retention of implanted helium. Even if a solid tungsten armor coating would survive the high temperature cyclic operation with minimal failure, the high helium implantation and retention would result in unacceptable material loss rates. Micro-engineered materials, such as castellated structures, plasma sprayed nano-porous coatings and refractory foams are suggested as a first wall armor material to address these fundamental concerns. A micro-engineered FW armor would have to be designed with specific geometric features that tolerate high cyclic heating loads and recycle most of the implanted helium without any significant failure. Micro-engineered materials are briefly reviewed. In particular, plasma-sprayed nano-porous tungsten and tungsten foams are assessed for their potential to accommodate inertial fusion specific loads. Tests show that nano-porous plasma spray coatings can be manufactured with high permeability to helium gas, while retaining relatively high thermal conductivities. Tungsten foams where shown to be able to overcome thermo-mechanical loads by cell rotation and deformation. Helium implantation tests have shown, that pulsed implantation and heating releases significant levels of implanted helium. Helium implantation and release from tungsten was modeled using an expanded kinetic rate theory, to include the effects of pulsed implantations and thermal cycles. Although, significant challenges remain micro-engineered materials are shown to constitute potential

  17. Laser capture microdissection of enriched populations of neurons or single neurons for gene expression analysis after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Deborah R; Sell, Stacy L; Hellmich, Helen Lee

    2013-04-10

    Long-term cognitive disability after TBI is associated with injury-induced neurodegeneration in the hippocampus-a region in the medial temporal lobe that is critical for learning, memory and executive function. Hence our studies focus on gene expression analysis of specific neuronal populations in distinct subregions of the hippocampus. The technique of laser capture microdissection (LCM), introduced in 1996 by Emmert-Buck, et al., has allowed for significant advances in gene expression analysis of single cells and enriched populations of cells from heterogeneous tissues such as the mammalian brain that contains thousands of functional cell types. We use LCM and a well established rat model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) to investigate the molecular mechanisms that underlie the pathogenesis of TBI. Following fluid-percussion TBI, brains are removed at pre-determined times post-injury, immediately frozen on dry ice, and prepared for sectioning in a cryostat. The rat brains can be embedded in OCT and sectioned immediately, or stored several months at -80 °C before sectioning for laser capture microdissection. Additionally, we use LCM to study the effects of TBI on circadian rhythms. For this, we capture neurons from the suprachiasmatic nuclei that contain the master clock of the mammalian brain. Here, we demonstrate the use of LCM to obtain single identified neurons (injured and degenerating, Fluoro-Jade-positive, or uninjured, Fluoro-Jade-negative) and enriched populations of hippocampal neurons for subsequent gene expression analysis by real time PCR and/or whole-genome microarrays. These LCM-enabled studies have revealed that the selective vulnerability of anatomically distinct regions of the rat hippocampus are reflected in the different gene expression profiles of different populations of neurons obtained by LCM from these distinct regions. The results from our single-cell studies, where we compare the transcriptional profiles of dying and adjacent surviving

  18. In-process monitoring and adaptive control for gap in micro butt welding with pulsed YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahito, Yousuke; Kito, Masayuki; Katayama, Seiji

    2007-01-01

    A gap is one of the most important issues to be solved in laser welding of a micro butt joint, because the gap results in welding defects such as underfilling or a non-bonded joint. In-process monitoring and adaptive control has been expected as one of the useful procedures for the stable production of sound laser welds without defects. The objective of this research is to evaluate the availability of in-process monitoring and adaptive control in micro butt welding of pure titanium rods with a pulsed neodymium : yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd : YAG) laser beam of a 150 μm spot diameter. It was revealed that a 45 μm narrow gap was detected by the remarkable jump in a reflected light intensity due to the formation of the molten pool which could bridge the gap. Heat radiation signal levels increased in proportion to the sizes of molten pools or penetration depths for the respective laser powers. As for adaptive control, the laser peak power was controlled on the basis of the reflected light or the heat radiation signals to stably produce a sound deeply penetrated weld reduced underfilling. In the case of a 100 μm gap, the underfilling was greatly reduced by half smaller than those made with a conventional rectangular pulse shape in seam welding as well as spot welding with a pulsed Nd : YAG laser beam. Consequently, the adaptive control of the laser peak power on the basis of in-process monitoring could reduce the harmful effects due to a gap in micro butt laser welding with a pulsed laser beam

  19. Continuous-scanning laser Doppler vibrometry: Extensions to arbitrary areas, multi-frequency and 3D capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weekes, B.; Ewins, D.; Acciavatti, F.

    2014-01-01

    To date, differing implementations of continuous scan laser Doppler vibrometry have been demonstrated by various academic institutions, but since the scan paths were defined using step or sine functions from function generators, the paths were typically limited to 1D line scans or 2D areas such as raster paths or Lissajous trajectories. The excitation was previously often limited to a single frequency due to the specific signal processing performed to convert the scan data into an ODS. In this paper, a configuration of continuous-scan laser Doppler vibrometry is demonstrated which permits scanning of arbitrary areas, with the benefit of allowing multi-frequency/broadband excitation. Various means of generating scan paths to inspect arbitrary areas are discussed and demonstrated. Further, full 3D vibration capture is demonstrated by the addition of a range-finding facility to the described configuration, and iteratively relocating a single scanning laser head. Here, the range-finding facility was provided by a Microsoft Kinect, an inexpensive piece of consumer electronics

  20. High beta capture and mirror confinement of laser produced plasmas. Semiannual report, July 1, 1975--January 31, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haught, A.F.; Polk, D.H.; Fader, W.J.; Tomlinson, R.G.; Jong, R.A.; Ard, W.B.; Mensing, A.E.; Churchill, T.L.; Stufflebeam, J.H.; Bresnock, F.J.

    1976-01-01

    The Laser Initiated Target Experiment (LITE) at the United Technologies Research Center is designed to address the target plasma buildup approach to a steady state mirror fusion device. A dense, mirror confined, target plasma is produced by high power laser irradiation of a solid lithium hydride particle, electrically suspended in a vacuum at the center of an established minimum-B magnetic field. Following expansion in and capture by the magnetic field, this target plasma is irradiated by an energetic neutral hydrogen beam. Charge exchange collisions with energetic beam particles serve to heat the confined plasma while ionization of the neutral beam atoms and trapping in the mirror magnetic field add particles to the confined plasma. For sufficiently high beam intensities, confined plasmas losses will be offset so that buildup of the plasma density occurs, thus demonstrating sustenance and fueling as well as the heating by neutral beam injection of a steady state mirror fusion device. Investigations of the decay of the magnetically confined target plasmas and initial studies of energetic neutral beam injection into confined target plasmas, conducted during this report period, are presented. Additional development of the LITE experimental systems including improvements in the laser plasma production facility, the energetic neutral beam line, and the heavy ion probe diagnostic is reported. A series of calculations on enhanced scattering and classical decay for plasma mirror confined in a LITE type system are discussed

  1. Quantitative measurement of carbon isotopic composition in CO2 gas reservoir by Micro-Laser Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiajia; Li, Rongxi; Zhao, Bangsheng; Guo, Hui; Zhang, Shuan; Cheng, Jinghua; Wu, Xiaoli

    2018-04-15

    The use of Micro-Laser Raman spectroscopy technology for quantitatively determining gas carbon isotope composition is presented. In this study, 12 CO 2 and 13 CO 2 were mixed with N 2 at various molar fraction ratios to obtain Raman quantification factors (F 12CO2 and F 13CO2 ), which provide a theoretical basis for calculating the δ 13 C value. And the corresponding values were 0.523 (0Raman peak area can be used for the determination of δ 13 C values within the relative errors range of 0.076% to 1.154% in 13 CO 2 / 12 CO 2 binary mixtures when F 12CO2 /F 13CO2 is 0.466972625. In addition, measurement of δ 13 C values by Micro-Laser Raman analysis were carried out on natural CO 2 gas from Shengli Oil-field at room temperature under different pressures. The δ 13 C values obtained by Micro-Laser Raman spectroscopy technology and Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) technology are in good agreement with each other, and the relative errors range of δ 13 C values is 1.232%-6.964%. This research provides a fundamental analysis tool for determining gas carbon isotope composition (δ 13 C values) quantitatively by using Micro-Laser Raman spectroscopy. Experiment of results demonstrates that this method has the potential for obtaining δ 13 C values in natural CO 2 gas reservoirs. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Direct laser writing of micro-supercapacitors on hydrated graphite oxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Singh, Neelam; Song, Li; Liu, Zheng; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Ci, Lijie; Vajtai, Robert; Zhang, Qing; Wei, Bingqing; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2011-08-01

    Microscale supercapacitors provide an important complement to batteries in a variety of applications, including portable electronics. Although they can be manufactured using a number of printing and lithography techniques, continued improvements in cost, scalability and form factor are required to realize their full potential. Here, we demonstrate the scalable fabrication of a new type of all-carbon, monolithic supercapacitor by laser reduction and patterning of graphite oxide films. We pattern both in-plane and conventional electrodes consisting of reduced graphite oxide with micrometre resolution, between which graphite oxide serves as a solid electrolyte. The substantial amounts of trapped water in the graphite oxide makes it simultaneously a good ionic conductor and an electrical insulator, allowing it to serve as both an electrolyte and an electrode separator with ion transport characteristics similar to that observed for Nafion membranes. The resulting micro-supercapacitor devices show good cyclic stability, and energy storage capacities comparable to existing thin-film supercapacitors.

  3. Micro-scale mechanical characterization of Inconel cermet coatings deposited by laser cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ch.; Verdi, D.; Garrido, M.A.; Ruiz-Hervias, J.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, an Inconel 625-Cr3C2 cermet coating was deposited on a steel alloy by laser cladding. The elastic and plastic mechanical properties of the cermet matrix were studied by the depth sensing indentation (DSI) in the micro scale. These results were compared with those obtained from an Inconel 600 bulk specimen. The values of Young's modulus and hardness of cermet matrix were higher than those of an Inconel 600 bulk specimen. Meanwhile, the indentation stress–strain curve of the cermet matrix showed a strain hardening value which was more than twice the one obtained for the Inconel 600 bulk. Additionally, the mechanical properties of unmelted Cr3C2 ceramic particles, embedded in the cermet matrix were also evaluated by DSI using a spherical indenter. (Author)

  4. Micro-scale mechanical characterization of Inconel cermet coatings deposited by laser cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Chang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an Inconel 625-Cr3C2 cermet coating was deposited on a steel alloy by laser cladding. The elastic and plastic mechanical properties of the cermet matrix were studied by the depth sensing indentation (DSI in the micro scale. These results were compared with those obtained from an Inconel 600 bulk specimen. The values of Young's modulus and hardness of cermet matrix were higher than those of an Inconel 600 bulk specimen. Meanwhile, the indentation stress–strain curve of the cermet matrix showed a strain hardening value which was more than twice the one obtained for the Inconel 600 bulk. Additionally, the mechanical properties of unmelted Cr3C2 ceramic particles, embedded in the cermet matrix were also evaluated by DSI using a spherical indenter.

  5. Fabrication of Hierarchically Micro- and Nano-structured Mold Surfaces Using Laser Ablation for Mass Production of Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Jiwhan; Lee, Jae-Hoon; Na, Suckjoo; Lim, Hyuneui; Jung, Dae-Hwan

    2010-10-01

    Many studies have examined the formation of surfaces with mixed patterns of micro- and nano-sized lotus leaves that have hydrophobic properties. In this study, micro- and nano-shapes such as lotus leaves were fabricated on a metal mold surface using laser ablation and ripple formation. A microstructure on the mold surface was replicated onto poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) using the polymer casting method to manufacture low-cost hydrophobic surfaces. A PDMS surface with micro- and nano-structures that were the inverse image of a lotus leaf showed hydrophobic characteristics (water contact angle: 157°). From these results, we deduced that portions of the microstructures were wet and that air gaps existed between the microstructures and the water drops. In this paper we suggest the possibility of the mass production of hydrophobic plastic surfaces and the development of a methodology for the hydrophobic texturing of various polymer surfaces, using the polymer casting method with laser-processed molds.

  6. Systematic analysis of DNA damage induction and DNA repair pathway activation by continuous wave visible light laser micro-irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Muster

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Laser micro-irradiation can be used to induce DNA damage with high spatial and temporal resolution, representing a powerful tool to analyze DNA repair in vivo in the context of chromatin. However, most lasers induce a mixture of DNA damage leading to the activation of multiple DNA repair pathways and making it impossible to study individual repair processes. Hence, we aimed to establish and validate micro-irradiation conditions together with inhibition of several key proteins to discriminate different types of DNA damage and repair pathways using lasers commonly available in confocal microscopes. Using time-lapse analysis of cells expressing fluorescently tagged repair proteins and also validation of the DNA damage generated by micro-irradiation using several key damage markers, we show that irradiation with a 405 nm continuous wave laser lead to the activation of all repair pathways even in the absence of exogenous sensitization. In contrast, we found that irradiation with 488 nm laser lead to the selective activation of non-processive short-patch base excision and single strand break repair, which were further validated by PARP inhibition and metoxyamine treatment. We conclude that these low energy conditions discriminated against processive long-patch base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair as well as double strand break repair pathways.

  7. A stochastic model simulating the capture of pathogenic micro-organisms by superparamagnetic particles in an isodynamic magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotariu, O; Strachan, N J C; Badescu, V

    2004-01-01

    The method of immunomagnetic separation (IMS) has become an established technique to concentrate and separate animal cells, biologically active compounds and pathogenic micro-organisms from clinical, food and environmental matrices. One drawback of this technique is that the analysis is only possible for small sample volumes. We have developed a stochastic model that involves numerical simulations to optimize the process of concentration of pathogenic micro-organisms onto superparamagnetic carrier particles (SCPs) in a gradient magnetic field. Within the range of the system parameters varied in the simulations, optimal conditions favour larger particles with higher magnetite concentrations. The dependence on magnetic field intensity and gradient together with concentration of particles and micro-organisms was found to be less important for larger SCPs but these parameters can influence the values of the collision time for small particles. These results will be useful in aiding the design of apparatus for immunomagnetic separation from large volume samples

  8. A bio-ballistic micro-jet for drug injection into animal skin using a Nd:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoh, J. J.; Jang, H.; Park, M.; Han, T.; Hah, J.

    2016-01-01

    Imaging of the abdominal skin of a guinea pig after injecting a fluorescent probe and biotin via the laser-induced ballistic technique revealed the epidermal and dermal layers which were stained well below 60 \\upmu m underneath the outer layer of the skin. An extensive network of cells was evident in the deeper layer of the stained dermis as the distributed fluorescein isothiocyanate dose was administered by repeated injection using a laser-based micro-jet. We performed optically controlled release of the drug by breaching the guinea pig's skin tissue targeting the region 10-400 \\upmu m beneath the outermost layer. Tissue damage was minimized by reducing the injection volume to approximately 100 nl per pulse. This was done using a micro-jet diameter equal to half of that of a conventional 200 \\upmu m syringe needle. Thus, the optimally controlled delivery of liquid drugs using an irradiated laser pulse was shown to be possible.

  9. Analysis of host microRNA function uncovers a role for miR-29b-2-5p in Shigella capture by filopodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkavalli, Ushasree; Aguilar, Carmen; Silva, Ricardo Jorge; Sharan, Malvika; Cruz, Ana Rita; Tawk, Caroline; Maudet, Claire; Mano, Miguel; Eulalio, Ana

    2017-04-01

    MicroRNAs play an important role in the interplay between bacterial pathogens and host cells, participating as host defense mechanisms, as well as exploited by bacteria to subvert host cellular functions. Here, we show that microRNAs modulate infection by Shigella flexneri, a major causative agent of bacillary dysentery in humans. Specifically, we characterize the dual regulatory role of miR-29b-2-5p during infection, showing that this microRNA strongly favors Shigella infection by promoting both bacterial binding to host cells and intracellular replication. Using a combination of transcriptome analysis and targeted high-content RNAi screening, we identify UNC5C as a direct target of miR-29b-2-5p and show its pivotal role in the modulation of Shigella binding to host cells. MiR-29b-2-5p, through repression of UNC5C, strongly enhances filopodia formation thus increasing Shigella capture and promoting bacterial invasion. The increase of filopodia formation mediated by miR-29b-2-5p is dependent on RhoF and Cdc42 Rho-GTPases. Interestingly, the levels of miR-29b-2-5p, but not of other mature microRNAs from the same precursor, are decreased upon Shigella replication at late times post-infection, through degradation of the mature microRNA by the exonuclease PNPT1. While the relatively high basal levels of miR-29b-2-5p at the start of infection ensure efficient Shigella capture by host cell filopodia, dampening of miR-29b-2-5p levels later during infection may constitute a bacterial strategy to favor a balanced intracellular replication to avoid premature cell death and favor dissemination to neighboring cells, or alternatively, part of the host response to counteract Shigella infection. Overall, these findings reveal a previously unappreciated role of microRNAs, and in particular miR-29b-2-5p, in the interaction of Shigella with host cells.

  10. Analysis of host microRNA function uncovers a role for miR-29b-2-5p in Shigella capture by filopodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ushasree Sunkavalli

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs play an important role in the interplay between bacterial pathogens and host cells, participating as host defense mechanisms, as well as exploited by bacteria to subvert host cellular functions. Here, we show that microRNAs modulate infection by Shigella flexneri, a major causative agent of bacillary dysentery in humans. Specifically, we characterize the dual regulatory role of miR-29b-2-5p during infection, showing that this microRNA strongly favors Shigella infection by promoting both bacterial binding to host cells and intracellular replication. Using a combination of transcriptome analysis and targeted high-content RNAi screening, we identify UNC5C as a direct target of miR-29b-2-5p and show its pivotal role in the modulation of Shigella binding to host cells. MiR-29b-2-5p, through repression of UNC5C, strongly enhances filopodia formation thus increasing Shigella capture and promoting bacterial invasion. The increase of filopodia formation mediated by miR-29b-2-5p is dependent on RhoF and Cdc42 Rho-GTPases. Interestingly, the levels of miR-29b-2-5p, but not of other mature microRNAs from the same precursor, are decreased upon Shigella replication at late times post-infection, through degradation of the mature microRNA by the exonuclease PNPT1. While the relatively high basal levels of miR-29b-2-5p at the start of infection ensure efficient Shigella capture by host cell filopodia, dampening of miR-29b-2-5p levels later during infection may constitute a bacterial strategy to favor a balanced intracellular replication to avoid premature cell death and favor dissemination to neighboring cells, or alternatively, part of the host response to counteract Shigella infection. Overall, these findings reveal a previously unappreciated role of microRNAs, and in particular miR-29b-2-5p, in the interaction of Shigella with host cells.

  11. Grasping Force Control for a Robotic Hand by Slip Detection Using Developed Micro Laser Doppler Velocimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobutomo Morita

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to show the feasibility of grasping force control by feeding back signals of the developed micro-laser Doppler velocimeter (μ-LDV and by discriminating whether a grasped object is slipping or not. LDV is well known as a high response surface velocity sensor which can measure various surfaces—such as metal, paper, film, and so on—thus suggesting the potential application of LDV as a slip sensor for grasping various objects. However, the use of LDV as a slip sensor has not yet been reported because the size of LDVs is too large to be installed on a robotic fingertip. We have solved the size problem and enabled the performance of a feasibility test with a few-millimeter-scale LDV referred to as micro-LDV (μ-LDV by modifying the design which was adopted from MEMS (microelectromechanical systems fabrication process. In this paper, by applying our developed μ-LDV as a slip sensor, we have successfully demonstrated grasping force control with three target objects—aluminum block, wood block, and white acrylic block—considering that various objects made of these materials can be found in homes and factories, without grasping force feedback. We provide proofs that LDV is a new promising candidate slip sensor for grasping force control to execute target grasping.

  12. Grasping Force Control for a Robotic Hand by Slip Detection Using Developed Micro Laser Doppler Velocimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Nobutomo; Nogami, Hirofumi; Higurashi, Eiji; Sawada, Renshi

    2018-01-23

    The purpose of this paper is to show the feasibility of grasping force control by feeding back signals of the developed micro-laser Doppler velocimeter (μ-LDV) and by discriminating whether a grasped object is slipping or not. LDV is well known as a high response surface velocity sensor which can measure various surfaces-such as metal, paper, film, and so on-thus suggesting the potential application of LDV as a slip sensor for grasping various objects. However, the use of LDV as a slip sensor has not yet been reported because the size of LDVs is too large to be installed on a robotic fingertip. We have solved the size problem and enabled the performance of a feasibility test with a few-millimeter-scale LDV referred to as micro-LDV (μ-LDV) by modifying the design which was adopted from MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) fabrication process. In this paper, by applying our developed μ-LDV as a slip sensor, we have successfully demonstrated grasping force control with three target objects-aluminum block, wood block, and white acrylic block-considering that various objects made of these materials can be found in homes and factories, without grasping force feedback. We provide proofs that LDV is a new promising candidate slip sensor for grasping force control to execute target grasping.

  13. Investigation of germanium implanted with aluminum by multi-laser micro-Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanson, A., E-mail: andrea.sanson@unipd.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Napolitani, E. [MATIS IMM-CNR at Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Impellizzeri, G. [MATIS IMM-CNR and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Giarola, M. [Dipartimento di Informatica, Università di Verona, Strada le Grazie 15, I-37134 Verona (Italy); De Salvador, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Privitera, V.; Priolo, F. [MATIS IMM-CNR and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Mariotto, G. [Dipartimento di Informatica, Università di Verona, Strada le Grazie 15, I-37134 Verona (Italy); Carnera, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2013-08-31

    Germanium samples, implanted with aluminum and annealed, have been investigated by micro-Raman spectroscopy using different excitation lines with the aim of gaining insights about the Al distribution at different depths beneath the sample surface and to correlate the Raman spectra with the electrical and chemical profiles, obtained by Spreading Resistance Profiling (SRP) and Secondary Ions Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) measurements, respectively. The intensity of the Al–Ge Raman peak at about 370 cm{sup −1}, due to the local vibrational mode of the substitutional Al atoms in the Ge matrix, has been directly related to the SRP behavior, while no correlation has been observed with SIMS profiles. These findings show that the electrically active content is entirely due to the substitutional Al atoms. Finally, a clear down shift is observed for the Ge–Ge Raman peak at ∼ 300 cm{sup −1}, which also seems to be directly related to the active content of Al dopant atoms. This work shows that micro-Raman spectroscopy can be a suitable tool for the study of doping profiles in Ge. - Highlights: ► Al-implanted Ge and annealed were studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy. ► Using different laser lines we have investigated the implants at different depths. ► The Al–Ge Raman peak at about 370 cm{sup −1} is directly related to the SRP behavior. ► The electrically active content is entirely due to the substitutional Al atoms. ► Carrier effects are observed on the Ge–Ge peak at ∼ 300 cm{sup −1}.

  14. Investigation of germanium implanted with aluminum by multi-laser micro-Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanson, A.; Napolitani, E.; Impellizzeri, G.; Giarola, M.; De Salvador, D.; Privitera, V.; Priolo, F.; Mariotto, G.; Carnera, A.

    2013-01-01

    Germanium samples, implanted with aluminum and annealed, have been investigated by micro-Raman spectroscopy using different excitation lines with the aim of gaining insights about the Al distribution at different depths beneath the sample surface and to correlate the Raman spectra with the electrical and chemical profiles, obtained by Spreading Resistance Profiling (SRP) and Secondary Ions Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) measurements, respectively. The intensity of the Al–Ge Raman peak at about 370 cm −1 , due to the local vibrational mode of the substitutional Al atoms in the Ge matrix, has been directly related to the SRP behavior, while no correlation has been observed with SIMS profiles. These findings show that the electrically active content is entirely due to the substitutional Al atoms. Finally, a clear down shift is observed for the Ge–Ge Raman peak at ∼ 300 cm −1 , which also seems to be directly related to the active content of Al dopant atoms. This work shows that micro-Raman spectroscopy can be a suitable tool for the study of doping profiles in Ge. - Highlights: ► Al-implanted Ge and annealed were studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy. ► Using different laser lines we have investigated the implants at different depths. ► The Al–Ge Raman peak at about 370 cm −1 is directly related to the SRP behavior. ► The electrically active content is entirely due to the substitutional Al atoms. ► Carrier effects are observed on the Ge–Ge peak at ∼ 300 cm −1

  15. Laser Capture and Deep Sequencing Reveals the Transcriptomic Programmes Regulating the Onset of Pancreas and Liver Differentiation in Human Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Jennings

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To interrogate the alternative fates of pancreas and liver in the earliest stages of human organogenesis, we developed laser capture, RNA amplification, and computational analysis of deep sequencing. Pancreas-enriched gene expression was less conserved between human and mouse than for liver. The dorsal pancreatic bud was enriched for components of Notch, Wnt, BMP, and FGF signaling, almost all genes known to cause pancreatic agenesis or hypoplasia, and over 30 unexplored transcription factors. SOX9 and RORA were imputed as key regulators in pancreas compared with EP300, HNF4A, and FOXA family members in liver. Analyses implied that current in vitro human stem cell differentiation follows a dorsal rather than a ventral pancreatic program and pointed to additional factors for hepatic differentiation. In summary, we provide the transcriptional codes regulating the start of human liver and pancreas development to facilitate stem cell research and clinical interpretation without inter-species extrapolation.

  16. Novel method to ascertain chromatin accessibility at specific genomic loci from frozen brain homogenates and laser capture microdissected defined cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvaux, Elaine; Mastroeni, Diego; Nolz, Jennifer; Coleman, Paul D

    2016-06-01

    We describe a novel method for assessing the "open" or "closed" state of chromatin at selected locations within the genome. This method combines the use of Benzonase, which can digest DNA in the presence of actin, with qPCR to define digested regions. We demonstrate the application of this method in brain homogenates and laser captured cells. We also demonstrate application to selected sites within more than one gene and multiple sites within one gene. We demonstrate the validity of the method by treating cells with valproate, known to render chromatin more permissive, and by comparison with classical digestion with DNase I in an in vitro preparation. Although we demonstrate the use of this method in brain tissue we also recognize its applicability to other tissue types.

  17. Novel method to ascertain chromatin accessibility at specific genomic loci from frozen brain homogenates and laser capture microdissected defined cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Delvaux

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe a novel method for assessing the “open” or “closed” state of chromatin at selected locations within the genome. This method combines the use of Benzonase, which can digest DNA in the presence of actin, with quantitative polymerase chain reaction to define digested regions. We demonstrate the application of this method in brain homogenates and laser captured cells. We also demonstrate application to selected sites within more than 1 gene and multiple sites within 1 gene. We demonstrate the validity of the method by treating cells with valproate, known to render chromatin more permissive, and by comparison with classical digestion with DNase I in an in vitro preparation. Although we demonstrate the use of this method in brain tissue, we also recognize its applicability to other tissue types.

  18. Navigation Aiding by a Hybrid Laser-Camera Motion Estimator for Micro Aerial Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atman, Jamal; Popp, Manuel; Ruppelt, Jan; Trommer, Gert F

    2016-09-16

    Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) equipped with various sensors are able to carry out autonomous flights. However, the self-localization of autonomous agents is mostly dependent on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). In order to provide an accurate navigation solution in absence of GNSS signals, this article presents a hybrid sensor. The hybrid sensor is a deep integration of a monocular camera and a 2D laser rangefinder so that the motion of the MAV is estimated. This realization is expected to be more flexible in terms of environments compared to laser-scan-matching approaches. The estimated ego-motion is then integrated in the MAV's navigation system. However, first, the knowledge about the pose between both sensors is obtained by proposing an improved calibration method. For both calibration and ego-motion estimation, 3D-to-2D correspondences are used and the Perspective-3-Point (P3P) problem is solved. Moreover, the covariance estimation of the relative motion is presented. The experiments show very accurate calibration and navigation results.

  19. Controlling cell adhesion via replication of laser micro/nano-textured surfaces on polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koufaki, Niki; Ranella, Anthi; Barberoglou, Marios; Psycharakis, Stylianos; Fotakis, Costas; Stratakis, Emmanuel [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas (FORTH), 711 10, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Aifantis, Katerina E, E-mail: stratak@iesl.forth.gr [Lab of Mechanics and Materials, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2011-12-15

    The aim of this study is to investigate cell adhesion and viability on highly rough polymeric surfaces with gradient roughness ratios and wettabilities prepared by microreplication of laser micro/nano-textured Si surfaces. Negative replicas on polydimethylsiloxane as well as positive ones on a photocurable (organically modified ceramic) and a biodegradable (poly(lactide-co-glycolide)) polymer have been successfully reproduced. The final culture substrates comprised from forests of micron-sized conical spikes exhibiting a range of roughness ratios and wettabilities, was achieved by changing the laser fluence used to fabricate the original template surfaces. Cell culture experiments were performed with the fibroblast NIH/3T3 and PC12 neuronal cell lines in order to investigate how these surfaces are capable of modulating different types of cellular responses including, viability, adhesion and morphology. The results showed a preferential adhesion of both cell types on the microstructured surfaces compared to the unstructured ones. In particular, the fibroblast NIH/3T3 cells show optimal adhesion for small roughness ratios, independent of the surface wettability and polymer type, indicating a non-monotonic dependence of cell adhesion on surface energy. In contrast, the PC12 cells were observed to adhere well to the patterned surfaces independent of the roughness ratio and wettability. These experimental findings are correlated with micromechanical measurements performed on the unstructured and replicated surfaces and discussed on the basis of previous observations describing the relation of cell response to surface energy and rigidity.

  20. Navigation Aiding by a Hybrid Laser-Camera Motion Estimator for Micro Aerial Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Atman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs equipped with various sensors are able to carry out autonomous flights. However, the self-localization of autonomous agents is mostly dependent on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS. In order to provide an accurate navigation solution in absence of GNSS signals, this article presents a hybrid sensor. The hybrid sensor is a deep integration of a monocular camera and a 2D laser rangefinder so that the motion of the MAV is estimated. This realization is expected to be more flexible in terms of environments compared to laser-scan-matching approaches. The estimated ego-motion is then integrated in the MAV’s navigation system. However, first, the knowledge about the pose between both sensors is obtained by proposing an improved calibration method. For both calibration and ego-motion estimation, 3D-to-2D correspondences are used and the Perspective-3-Point (P3P problem is solved. Moreover, the covariance estimation of the relative motion is presented. The experiments show very accurate calibration and navigation results.

  1. Micro flow-through PCR in a PMMA chip fabricated by KrF excimer laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Liying; Liu, Baoan; Chen, Tao; Liu, Shibing; Zuo, Tiechuan

    2005-09-01

    As the third PCR technology, micro flow-through PCR chip can amplify DNA specifically in an exponential fashion in vitro. Nowadays many academies in the world have successfully amplified DNA using their own-made flow-through PCR chip. In this paper, the ablation principle of PMMA at 248 nm excimer laser was studied, then a PMMA based flow-through PCR chip with 20 cycles was fabricated by excimer laser at 19 kv and 18 mm/min. The chip was bonded together with another cover chip at 105( composite function)C, 160 N and 20 minutes. In the end, it was integrated with electrical thermal thin films and Pt 100 temperature sensors. The temperature controllers was built standard PID digital temperature controller, the temperature control precision was +/- 0.2( composite function)C. The temperature grads between the three temperature zones were 16.5 and 22.2( composite function)C respectively, the gaps between the temperature zones could realize heat insulation.

  2. Controlling cell adhesion via replication of laser micro/nano-textured surfaces on polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koufaki, Niki; Ranella, Anthi; Barberoglou, Marios; Psycharakis, Stylianos; Fotakis, Costas; Stratakis, Emmanuel; Aifantis, Katerina E

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate cell adhesion and viability on highly rough polymeric surfaces with gradient roughness ratios and wettabilities prepared by microreplication of laser micro/nano-textured Si surfaces. Negative replicas on polydimethylsiloxane as well as positive ones on a photocurable (organically modified ceramic) and a biodegradable (poly(lactide-co-glycolide)) polymer have been successfully reproduced. The final culture substrates comprised from forests of micron-sized conical spikes exhibiting a range of roughness ratios and wettabilities, was achieved by changing the laser fluence used to fabricate the original template surfaces. Cell culture experiments were performed with the fibroblast NIH/3T3 and PC12 neuronal cell lines in order to investigate how these surfaces are capable of modulating different types of cellular responses including, viability, adhesion and morphology. The results showed a preferential adhesion of both cell types on the microstructured surfaces compared to the unstructured ones. In particular, the fibroblast NIH/3T3 cells show optimal adhesion for small roughness ratios, independent of the surface wettability and polymer type, indicating a non-monotonic dependence of cell adhesion on surface energy. In contrast, the PC12 cells were observed to adhere well to the patterned surfaces independent of the roughness ratio and wettability. These experimental findings are correlated with micromechanical measurements performed on the unstructured and replicated surfaces and discussed on the basis of previous observations describing the relation of cell response to surface energy and rigidity.

  3. Laser Capture Microdissection and Multiplex-Tandem PCR Analysis of Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cell Signaling in Human Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Ray; Wang, Xiangju; Kassianos, Andrew J.; Zuryn, Steven; Roper, Kathrein E.; Osborne, Andrew; Sampangi, Sandeep; Francis, Leo; Raghunath, Vishwas; Healy, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Interstitial fibrosis, a histological process common to many kidney diseases, is the precursor state to end stage kidney disease, a devastating and costly outcome for the patient and the health system. Fibrosis is historically associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) but emerging evidence is now linking many forms of acute kidney disease (AKD) with the development of CKD. Indeed, we and others have observed at least some degree of fibrosis in up to 50% of clinically defined cases of AKD. Epithelial cells of the proximal tubule (PTEC) are central in the development of kidney interstitial fibrosis. We combine the novel techniques of laser capture microdissection and multiplex-tandem PCR to identify and quantitate “real time” gene transcription profiles of purified PTEC isolated from human kidney biopsies that describe signaling pathways associated with this pathological fibrotic process. Our results: (i) confirm previous in-vitro and animal model studies; kidney injury molecule-1 is up-regulated in patients with acute tubular injury, inflammation, neutrophil infiltration and a range of chronic disease diagnoses, (ii) provide data to inform treatment; complement component 3 expression correlates with inflammation and acute tubular injury, (iii) identify potential new biomarkers; proline 4-hydroxylase transcription is down-regulated and vimentin is up-regulated across kidney diseases, (iv) describe previously unrecognized feedback mechanisms within PTEC; Smad-3 is down-regulated in many kidney diseases suggesting a possible negative feedback loop for TGF-β in the disease state, whilst tight junction protein-1 is up-regulated in many kidney diseases, suggesting feedback interactions with vimentin expression. These data demonstrate that the combined techniques of laser capture microdissection and multiplex-tandem PCR have the power to study molecular signaling within single cell populations derived from clinically sourced tissue. PMID:24475278

  4. Micro-fractional ablative skin resurfacing with two novel erbium laser systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierickx, Christine C; Khatri, Khalil A; Tannous, Zeina S; Childs, James J; Cohen, Richard H; Erofeev, Andrei; Tabatadze, David; Yaroslavsky, Ilya V; Altshuler, Gregory B

    2008-02-01

    Fractional ablation offers the potential benefits of full-surface ablative skin resurfacing while minimizing adverse effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety, damage profile, and efficacy of erbium fractional lasers. Histology from animal and human skin as well as clinical evaluations were conducted with erbium YAG (2,940 nm) and erbium YSGG (2,790 nm) fractional lasers varying pulse width, microbeam (microb) energy, number of passes, and stacking of pulses. Single-pulse treatment parameters from 1 to 12 mJ per 50-70 microm diameter microbeam and 0.25-5 milliseconds pulse widths produced microcolumns of ablation with border coagulation of up to 100 microm width and 450 microm depth. Stacking of pulses generated deeper microcolumns. Clinical observations and in vivo histology demonstrate rapid re-epithelization and limited adverse side effects. Facial treatments were performed in the periorbital and perioral areas using 1-8 passes of single and stacked pulses. Treatments were well-tolerated and subjects could resume their normal routine in 4 days. A statistically significant reduction in wrinkle scores at 3 months was observed for both periorbital and perioral wrinkles using blinded grading. For periorbital treatments of four passes or more, over 90% had > or =1 score wrinkle reduction (0-9 scale) and 42% had > or =2. For perioral wrinkles, over 50% had substantial improvements (> or =2). The clinical observations and histology findings demonstrate that micro-fractional ablative treatment with 2,790 and 2,940 nm erbium lasers resulted in safe and effective wrinkle reduction with minimal patient downtime. The depth and width of the ablated microcolumns and varying extent of surrounding coagulation can be controlled and used to design new treatment procedures targeted for specific indications and areas such as moderate to severe rhytides and photodamaged skin.

  5. Initial characterization of the large genome of the salamander Ambystoma mexicanum using shotgun and laser capture chromosome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinath, Melissa C; Timoshevskiy, Vladimir A; Timoshevskaya, Nataliya Y; Tsonis, Panagiotis A; Voss, S Randal; Smith, Jeramiah J

    2015-11-10

    Vertebrates exhibit substantial diversity in genome size, and some of the largest genomes exist in species that uniquely inform diverse areas of basic and biomedical research. For example, the salamander Ambystoma mexicanum (the Mexican axolotl) is a model organism for studies of regeneration, development and genome evolution, yet its genome is ~10× larger than the human genome. As part of a hierarchical approach toward improving genome resources for the species, we generated 600 Gb of shotgun sequence data and developed methods for sequencing individual laser-captured chromosomes. Based on these data, we estimate that the A. mexicanum genome is ~32 Gb. Notably, as much as 19 Gb of the A. mexicanum genome can potentially be considered single copy, which presumably reflects the evolutionary diversification of mobile elements that accumulated during an ancient episode of genome expansion. Chromosome-targeted sequencing permitted the development of assemblies within the constraints of modern computational platforms, allowed us to place 2062 genes on the two smallest A. mexicanum chromosomes and resolves key events in the history of vertebrate genome evolution. Our analyses show that the capture and sequencing of individual chromosomes is likely to provide valuable information for the systematic sequencing, assembly and scaffolding of large genomes.

  6. Non-invasive characterization and quality assurance of silicon micro-strip detectors using pulsed infrared laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, P.

    2016-01-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR is composed of 8 tracking stations consisting of roughly 1300 double sided silicon micro-strip detectors of 3 different dimensions. For the quality assurance of prototype micro-strip detectors a non-invasive detector charaterization is developed. The test system is using a pulsed infrared laser for charge injection and characterization, called Laser Test System (LTS). The system is aimed to develop a set of characterization procedures which are non-invasive (non-destructive) in nature and could be used for quality assurances of several silicon micro-strip detectors in an efficient, reliable and reproducible way. The procedures developed (as reported here) uses the LTS to scan sensors with a pulsed infra-red laser driven by step motor to determine the charge sharing in-between strips and to measure qualitative uniformity of the sensor response over the whole active area. The prototype detector modules which are tested with the LTS so far have 1024 strips with a pitch of 58 μm on each side. They are read-out using a self-triggering prototype read-out electronic ASIC called n-XYTER. The LTS is designed to measure sensor response in an automatized procedure at several thousand positions across the sensor with focused infra-red laser light (spot size ≈ 12 μm, wavelength = 1060 nm). The pulse with a duration of ≈ 10 ns and power ≈ 5 mW of the laser pulse is selected such, that the absorption of the laser light in the 300 μm thick silicon sensor produces ≈ 24000 electrons, which is similar to the charge created by minimum ionizing particles (MIP) in these sensors. The laser scans different prototype sensors and various non-invasive techniques to determine characteristics of the detector modules for the quality assurance is reported.

  7. Liver gene expression profiles of rats treated with clofibric acid: comparison of whole liver and laser capture microdissected liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Cécile; Desdouets, Chantal; Sacre-Salem, Béatrice; Gautier, Jean-Charles; Roberts, Ruth; Boitier, Eric

    2003-12-01

    Clofibric acid (CLO) is a peroxisome proliferator (PP) that acts through the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha, leading to hepatocarcinogenesis in rodents. CLO-induced hepatocarcinogenesis is a multi-step process, first transforming normal liver cells into foci. The combination of laser capture microdissection (LCM) and genomics has the potential to provide expression profiles from such small cell clusters, giving an opportunity to understand the process of cancer development in response to PPs. To our knowledge, this is the first evaluation of the impact of the successive steps of LCM procedure on gene expression profiling by comparing profiles from LCM samples to those obtained with non-microdissected liver samples collected after a 1 month CLO treatment in the rat. We showed that hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and laser microdissection itself do not impact on RNA quality. However, the overall process of the LCM procedure affects the RNA quality, resulting in a bias in the gene profiles. Nonetheless, this bias did not prevent accurate determination of a CLO-specific molecular signature. Thus, gene-profiling analysis of microdissected foci, identified by H&E staining may provide insight into the mechanisms underlying non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogenesis in the rat by allowing identification of specific genes that are regulated by CLO in early pre-neoplastic foci.

  8. Quantitative measurement of carbon isotopic composition in CO2 gas reservoir by Micro-Laser Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiajia; Li, Rongxi; Zhao, Bangsheng; Guo, Hui; Zhang, Shuan; Cheng, Jinghua; Wu, Xiaoli

    2018-04-01

    The use of Micro-Laser Raman spectroscopy technology for quantitatively determining gas carbon isotope composition is presented. In this study, 12CO2 and 13CO2 were mixed with N2 at various molar fraction ratios to obtain Raman quantification factors (F12CO2 and F13CO2), which provide a theoretical basis for calculating the δ13C value. And the corresponding values were 0.523 (0 Laser Raman analysis were carried out on natural CO2 gas from Shengli Oil-field at room temperature under different pressures. The δ13C values obtained by Micro-Laser Raman spectroscopy technology and Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) technology are in good agreement with each other, and the relative errors range of δ13C values is 1.232%-6.964%. This research provides a fundamental analysis tool for determining gas carbon isotope composition (δ13C values) quantitatively by using Micro-Laser Raman spectroscopy. Experiment of results demonstrates that this method has the potential for obtaining δ13C values in natural CO2 gas reservoirs.

  9. Effect of focusing condition on molten area characteristics in micro-welding of borosilicate glass by picosecond pulsed laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordin, I.H.W.; Okamoto, Y.; Okada, A.; Takekuni, T. [Okayama University, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama (Japan); Sakagawa, T. [Kataoka Corporation, Yokohama (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    The characteristics of the molten area are attributed not only by laser energy condition but also the focusing condition. In this study, a picosecond pulsed laser of 1064 nm in wavelength and 12.5 ps in pulse duration was used as a laser source for joining glass material. Influence of focusing condition on micro-welding of glasses was experimentally investigated by using an objective lens with and without spherical aberration correction, and its molten area was characterized. The usage of objective lens with spherical aberration correction led to a larger molten area inside the bulk material of glass even under the same pulse energy, which related to the efficient micro-welding of glass materials. In addition, an optical system with the spherical aberration correction led to a stable absorption of laser energy inside the bulk glass material, stabilizing the shape of molten area, which resulted in the reliable weld joint. On the other hand, breaking strength of the specimens with spherical aberration correction was higher than that without spherical aberration correction. Therefore, it is concluded that the focusing condition with spherical aberration correction led to the larger and stable molten area, which resulted in higher joining strength in micro-welding of glass materials. (orig.)

  10. Spatial beam shaping using a micro-structured optical fiber and all-fiber laser amplification system for large-scale laser facilities seeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvet, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Spatial beam shaping is an important topic for the lasers applications. For various industrial areas (marking, drilling, laser-matter interaction, high-power laser seeding...) the optical beam has to be flattened. Currently, the state of the art of the beam shaping: 'free-space' solutions or highly multimode fibers, are not fully suitable. The first ones are very sensitive to any perturbations and the maintenance is challenging, the second ones cannot deliver a coherent beam. For this reason, we present in this manuscript a micro-structured optical single-mode fiber delivering a spatially flattened beam. This 'Top-Hat' fiber can shape any beam in a spatially coherent beam what is a progress with respect to the highly multimode fibers used in the state of the art. The optical fibers are easy to use and very robust, what is a strong benefit with respect to the 'free-space' solutions. Thanks to this fiber, we could realize an all-fiber multi-stage laser chain to amplify a 10 ns pulse to 100 μJ. Moreover the temporal, spectral and spatial properties were preserved. We adapted this 'Top-Hat' fiber to this multi-stage laser chain, we proved the capability and the interest of this fiber for the spatial beam shaping of the laser beams in highly performing and robust laser systems. (author) [fr

  11. DETECTION OF K-RAS AND P53 MUTATIONS IN SPUTUM SAMPLES OF LUNG CANCER PATIENTS USING LASER CAPTURE MICRODISSECTION MICROSCOPE AND MUTATION ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detection of K-ras and p53 Mutations in Sputum Samples of Lung Cancer Patients Using Laser Capture Microdissection Microscope and Mutation AnalysisPhouthone Keohavong a,*, Wei-Min Gao a, Kui-Cheng Zheng a, Hussam Mady b, Qing Lan c, Mona Melhem b, and Judy Mumford d.<...

  12. Investigations on femtosecond laser modified micro-textured surface with anti-friction property on bearing steel GCr15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lijun; Ding, Ye; Cheng, Bai; He, Jiangtao; Wang, Genwang; Wang, Yang

    2018-03-01

    This work puts forward femtosecond laser modification of micro-textured surface on bearing steel GCr15 in order to reduce frictional wear and enhance load capacity during its application. Multi pulses femtosecond laser ablation experiments are established for the confirmation of laser spot radius as well as single pulse threshold fluence and pulse incubation coefficient of bulk material. Analytical models are set up in combination with hydrodynamics lubrication theory. Corresponding simulations are carried out on to explore influences of surface and cross sectional morphology of textures on hydrodynamics lubrication effect based on Navier-Stokes (N-S) equation. Technological experiments focus on the impacts of femtosecond laser machining variables, like scanning times, scanning velocity, pulse frequency and scanning gap on morphology of grooves as well as realization of optimized textures proposed by simulations, mechanisms of which are analyzed from multiple perspectives. Results of unidirectional rotating friction tests suggest that spherical texture with depth-to-width ratio of 0.2 can significantly improve tribological properties at low loading and velocity condition comparing with un-textured and other textured surfaces, which also verifies the accuracy of simulations and feasibility of femtosecond laser in modification of micro-textured surface.

  13. Near-field-optical-microscopy studies of micro-modifications caused by femtosecond laser irradiation in lithium niobate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamela, J.; Jaque, D.; Rodenas, A.; Jaque, F.; Torchia, G.A.; Vazquez, J.R.; Mendez, C.; Roso, L.

    2008-01-01

    Near-field-optical-microscopy has been used to study the micro-modifications caused by femtosecond laser pulses focused at the surface and in the volume of lithium niobate crystals. We have found experimental evidence of the existence, close to femtosecond ablation craters, of periodic modifications in the surface reflectivity. In addition, the potential application of near-field-optical microscopy for the spatial location of permanent modifications caused by femtosecond pulses focused inside lithium niobate crystals has been also demonstrated. (orig.)

  14. Pathway-focused PCR array profiling of enriched populations of laser capture microdissected hippocampal cells after traumatic brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah R Boone

    Full Text Available Cognitive deficits in survivors of traumatic brain injury (TBI are associated with irreversible neurodegeneration in brain regions such as the hippocampus. Comparative gene expression analysis of dying and surviving neurons could provide insight into potential therapeutic targets. We used two pathway-specific PCR arrays (RT2 Profiler Apoptosis and Neurotrophins & Receptors PCR arrays to identify and validate TBI-induced gene expression in dying (Fluoro-Jade-positive or surviving (Fluoro-Jade-negative pyramidal neurons obtained by laser capture microdissection (LCM. In the Apoptosis PCR array, dying neurons showed significant increases in expression of genes associated with cell death, inflammation, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress compared with adjacent, surviving neurons. Pro-survival genes with pleiotropic functions were also significantly increased in dying neurons compared to surviving neurons, suggesting that even irreversibly injured neurons are able to mount a protective response. In the Neurotrophins & Receptors PCR array, which consists of genes that are normally expected to be expressed in both groups of hippocampal neurons, only a few genes were expressed at significantly different levels between dying and surviving neurons. Immunohistochemical analysis of selected, differentially expressed proteins supported the gene expression data. This is the first demonstration of pathway-focused PCR array profiling of identified populations of dying and surviving neurons in the brain after TBI. Combining precise laser microdissection of identifiable cells with pathway-focused PCR array analysis is a practical, low-cost alternative to microarrays that provided insight into neuroprotective signals that could be therapeutically targeted to ameliorate TBI-induced neurodegeneration.

  15. Influence of matrices on electron temperature of laser micro-plasma in argon atmosphere at reduced pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Qinlin; Zhou Yulong; Zhang Bo; Zhang Qiulin; Zhang Jinping; Huai Sufang

    2007-01-01

    Laser micro-spectral analysis coupled with CCD spectrometer was used in this experiment. With Fe I 356.54 nm and Fe I 358.12 nm as analysis spectral lines, the micro-plasma temperature and its spatial distribution were investigated in different matrices, namely Mg, Al, Si, and steel alloy6-0. The electron temperature as a function of location in each matrix and the differences of that at the same location in different matrices were determined and an explanation was given. Finally, with Cu I 324.75 nm and Zn I 394.50 nm as analysis spectral lines, we have successfully used the calculated micro-plasma temperature to discuss the matrix effect. (authors)

  16. Surface Charge Measurement of SonoVue, Definity and Optison: A Comparison of Laser Doppler Electrophoresis and Micro-Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ja'afar, Fairuzeta; Leow, Chee Hau; Garbin, Valeria; Sennoga, Charles A; Tang, Meng-Xing; Seddon, John M

    2015-11-01

    Microbubble (MB) contrast-enhanced ultrasonography is a promising tool for targeted molecular imaging. It is important to determine the MB surface charge accurately as it affects the MB interactions with cell membranes. In this article, we report the surface charge measurement of SonoVue, Definity and Optison. We compare the performance of the widely used laser Doppler electrophoresis with an in-house micro-electrophoresis system. By optically tracking MB electrophoretic velocity in a microchannel, we determined the zeta potentials of MB samples. Using micro-electrophoresis, we obtained zeta potential values for SonoVue, Definity and Optison of -28.3, -4.2 and -9.5 mV, with relative standard deviations of 5%, 48% and 8%, respectively. In comparison, laser Doppler electrophoresis gave -8.7, +0.7 and +15.8 mV with relative standard deviations of 330%, 29,000% and 130%, respectively. We found that the reliability of laser Doppler electrophoresis is compromised by MB buoyancy. Micro-electrophoresis determined zeta potential values with a 10-fold improvement in relative standard deviation. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of the shielding effect on the formation of a micro-texture on the cermet with nanosecond pulsed laser ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jiandong; Liang, Liang; Jiang, Lelun; Liu, Xin

    2018-04-01

    The degree of laser pulse overlapping in a laser scanning path has a significant impact on the ablation regime in the laser machining of a micro-texture. In this Letter, a nanosecond pulsed laser is used to prepare the micro-scaled groove on WC-8Co cermet under different scanning speeds. It is observed that as the scanning speed increases, the ablated trace morphology in the first scanning pass transits from a succession of intermittent deep dimples to the consecutive overlapped shallow pits. The test result also indicates that ablated trace morphology with respect to the low scanning speed stems from a plume shielding effect. Moreover, the ablation regime considering the shielding effect in micro-groove formation process is clarified. The critical scanning speed that can circumvent the shielding effect is also summarized with respect to different laser powers.

  18. Relativistic magnetic reconnection driven by a moderately intense laser interacting with a micro-plasma-slab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Longqing; Shen, Baifei; Pukhov, Alexander; Fülöp, Tünde

    2017-10-01

    Magnetic reconnection (MR) in the relativistic regime is generally thought to be responsible for powering rapid bursts of non-thermal radiation in astrophysical events. It is therefore of significant importance to study how the field energy is transferred to the plasma to power the observed emission. However, due to the difficulty in making direct measurements in astrophysical systems or achieving relativistic MR in laboratory environments, the particle acceleration is usually studied using fully kinetic PIC simulations. Here we present a numerical study of a readily available (TW-mJ-class) laser interacting with a micro-scale plasma slab. The simulations show when the electron beams excited on both sides of the slab approach the end of the plasma structure, ultrafast relativistic MR occurs. As the field topology changes, the explosive release of magnetic energy results in emission of relativistic electron jets with cut-off energy 12 MeV. The proposed novel scenario can be straightforwardly implemented in experiments, and might significantly improve the understanding of fundamental questions such as field dissipation and particle acceleration in relativistic MR. This work is supported by the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation and the European Research Council (ERC-2014-CoG Grant 64712).

  19. Laser-Printed In-Plane Micro-Supercapacitors: From Symmetric to Asymmetric Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gui-Wen; Li, Na; Du, Yi; Feng, Qing-Ping; Xiao, Hong-Mei; Wu, Xing-Hua; Fu, Shao-Yun

    2018-01-10

    Here, we propose and demonstrate a complete solution for efficiently fabricating in-plane micro-supercapacitors (MSCs) from a symmetric to asymmetric structure. By using an original laser printing process, symmetric MSC with reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/silver nanowire (Ag-NW) hybrid electrodes was facilely fabricated and a high areal capacitance of 5.5 mF cm -2 was achieved, which reaches the best reports on graphene-based MSCs. More importantly, a "print-and-fold" method has been creatively proposed that enabled the rapid manufacturing of asymmetric in-plane MSCs beyond the traditional cumbersome technologies. α-Ni(OH) 2 particles with high tapping density were successfully synthesized and employed as the pseudocapacitive material. Consequently, an improved supply voltage of 1.5 V was obtained and an areal capacitance as high as 8.6 mF cm -2 has been realized. Moreover, a demonstration of a miniaturized MSC pack was performed by multiply-folding the serial Ag-NW-connected MSC units. As a result, a compact MSC pack with a high supply voltage of 3 V was obtained, which can be utilized to power a light-emitting diode light. These presented technologies may pave the way for the efficiently producing high performance in-plane MSCs, meanwhile offering a solution for the achievement of practical power supply packs integrated in limited spaces.

  20. A study on embedded resistor components fabricated by laser micro-cladding and rapid prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huiling; Zeng Xiaoyan

    2006-01-01

    With the rapid development of IC and packaging, electronic devices are required to be smaller, to have a high-density integration, to become multifunction and to be of lower cost and high-reliability. Thick-film technology is not able to meet the current developing demands because of its shortcomings, such as the limit of pattern resolution, the severe torsion and delay of high-speed signal transmission. The speed and quality of signal transmission will be improved if embedded resistor components are directly integrated in the multiplayer substrate of multi-chip or laminated module, and high-density integration and reliability are achieved because the short interconnection and the less soldering point. In this paper, a technique named laser micro-cladding and rapid prototype is used to directly fabricate embedded resistor units on the multiplayer ceramic substrate without using a mask and high-temperature sintering, and without trimming resistor, which will simplify processing and decrease cost as well as improving high-speed and reliable performance

  1. Laser micro-machining of hydrophobic-hydrophilic patterns for fluid driven self-alignment in micro-assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römer, Gerardus Richardus, Bernardus, Engelina; Jorritsma, Mark; Arnaldo del Cerro, D.; Chang, Bo; Liimatainen, Ville; Zhou, Quan; Huis in 't Veld, Bert

    2011-01-01

    Fluid driven self-alignment is a low cost alternative to fast but relatively inaccurate robotic pickand-place assembly of micro-fabricated components. This fluidic self-alignment technique relies on a hydrophobic-hydrophilic pattern on the surface of the receiving substrate, which confines a fluid

  2. High-efficiency single cell encapsulation and size selective capture of cells in picoliter droplets based on hydrodynamic micro-vortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalakshakurup, Gopakumar; Lee, Abraham P

    2017-12-05

    Single cell analysis has emerged as a paradigm shift in cell biology to understand the heterogeneity of individual cells in a clone for pathological interrogation. Microfluidic droplet technology is a compelling platform to perform single cell analysis by encapsulating single cells inside picoliter-nanoliter (pL-nL) volume droplets. However, one of the primary challenges for droplet based single cell assays is single cell encapsulation in droplets, currently achieved either randomly, dictated by Poisson statistics, or by hydrodynamic techniques. In this paper, we present an interfacial hydrodynamic technique which initially traps the cells in micro-vortices, and later releases them one-to-one into the droplets, controlled by the width of the outer streamline that separates the vortex from the flow through the streaming passage adjacent to the aqueous-oil interface (d gap ). One-to-one encapsulation is achieved at a d gap equal to the radius of the cell, whereas complete trapping of the cells is realized at a d gap smaller than the radius of the cell. The unique feature of this technique is that it can perform 1. high efficiency single cell encapsulations and 2. size-selective capturing of cells, at low cell loading densities. Here we demonstrate these two capabilities with a 50% single cell encapsulation efficiency and size selective separation of platelets, RBCs and WBCs from a 10× diluted blood sample (WBC capture efficiency at 70%). The results suggest a passive, hydrodynamic micro-vortex based technique capable of performing high-efficiency single cell encapsulation for cell based assays.

  3. Spatial distributions of Kv4 channels and KChip2 isoforms in the murine heart based on laser capture microdissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teutsch, Christine; Kondo, Richard P; Dederko, Dorothy A; Chrast, Jacqueline; Chien, Kenneth R; Giles, Wayne R

    2007-03-01

    Regional differences in repolarizing K(+) current densities and expression levels of their molecular components are important for coordinating the pattern of electrical excitation and repolarization of the heart. The small size of hearts from mice may obscure these interventricular and/or transmural expression differences of K(+) channels. We have examined this possibility in adult mouse ventricle using a technology that provides very high spatial resolution of tissue collection. Conventional manual dissection and laser capture microdissection (LCM) were utilized to dissect tissue from distinct ventricular regions. RNA was isolated from epicardial, mid-myocardial and endocardial layers of both the right and left ventricles. Real-time RT-PCR was used to quantify the transcript expression in these different regions. LCM revealed significant interventricular and transmural gradients for both Kv4.2 and the alpha-subunit of KChIP2. The expression profile of a second K(+) channel transcript, Kir2.1, which is responsible for the inwardly rectifying K(+) current I(k1), showed no interventricular or transmural gradients and therefore served as a negative control. Our findings are in contrast to previous reports of a relatively uniform left ventricular transmural pattern of expression of Kv4.2, Kv4.3 and KChIP2 in adult mouse heart, which appear to be different than that in larger mammals. Specifically, our results demonstrate significant epi- to endocardial differences in the patterns of expression of both Kv4.2 and KChIP2.

  4. Analysis of transcription factor mRNAs in identified oxytocin and vasopressin magnocellular neurons isolated by laser capture microdissection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madison Humerick

    Full Text Available The oxytocin (Oxt and vasopressin (Avp magnocellular neurons (MCNs in the hypothalamus are the only neuronal phenotypes that are present in the supraoptic nucleus (SON, and are characterized by their robust and selective expression of either the Oxt or Avp genes. In this paper, we take advantage of the differential expression of these neuropeptide genes to identify and isolate these two individual phenotypes from the rat SON by laser capture microdissection (LCM, and to analyze the differential expression of several of their transcription factor mRNAs by qRT-PCR. We identify these neuronal phenotypes by stereotaxically injecting recombinant Adeno-Associated Viral (rAAV vectors which contain cell-type specific Oxt or Avp promoters that drive expression of EGFP selectively in either the Oxt or Avp MCNs into the SON. The fluorescent MCNs are then dissected by LCM using a novel Cap Road Map protocol described in this paper, and the purified MCNs are extracted for their RNAs. qRT-PCR of these RNAs show that some transcription factors (RORA and c-jun are differentially expressed in the Oxt and Avp MCNs.

  5. CO2 capture on micro/meso-porous composites of (zeolite A)/(MCM-41) with Ca2+ located: Computer simulation and experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jianhai Zhou; Huiling Zhao; Jinxia Li; Yujun Zhu; Jun Hu; Honglai Liu; Ying Hu

    2013-01-01

    Composing of both zeolite and meso-porous structures, micro/meso-porous composites exhibit promising CO 2 capture capabilities. In this work, a full-atomic mimetic 5A-MCM-41 structure with bimodal pores has been constructed, in which the microporous structure of 5A zeolite is constructed and optimized based on zeolite A with Ca and Na cations introduced; whereas the meso-porous MCM-41 structure is produced by caving the cylindrical pores in the obtained 5A zeolite matrix. CO 2 adsorption on 5A-MCM- 41 has been simulated by the grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC). The simulation results demonstrated that CO 2 is preferentially adsorbed in micropores, and the CO 2 adsorption capacity and its isosteric heat on 5A-MCM-41 are much larger than those of N 2 . The CO 2 selectivity of 5A-MCM-41 results from the electrostatic interaction of the quadrupole CO 2 molecule with Ca 2+ cations of the zeolite. Furthermore, the hierarchical micro/meso-porous composites are synthesized to verify the simulated predictions. By the hydrothermal reaction using 5A zeolite 'seeds' as the silicon source and hexadecyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as the meso-porous template, 5A-MCM-41 composites are obtained, the characteristic results show that typical 5A microporous structure is remained and disordered meso-porous networks are produced in the composites.Moreover, the CO 2 adsorption capacity of the 5A-MCM- 41 composites can reach as high as 4.08 mmol/g at 100 kPa and 298 K. These observations have been strongly supported that micro/meso-porous composites with metal ions located would be promising adsorbents for CO 2 separation. (authors)

  6. Preparation of 1-pyrenebutyric acid and pyrene submicron dots by laser-induced molecular micro-jet implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pihosh, Y.; Goto, M.; Kasahara, A.; Tosa, M.

    2009-01-01

    Pyrene and 1-pyrenebuturic acid molecules were deposited on glass and copper substrates with the formation of submicron dots by laser-induced molecular micro-jet implantation through polar and non-polar liquid layers. The size of the smallest 1-pyrenebuturic acid molecules dots prepared on a glass substrate by implantation through water and diiodomethane was estimated to be about 400 nm and 300 nm at laser fluences of 235 J/cm 2 and 326 J/cm 2 , respectively. The fluorescence and the Raman spectra showed that the implanted 1-pyrenebutyric acid molecules did not decompose during the implantation process. The smallest size of a pyrene dot was 700 nm at the laser fluence of 378 J/cm 2 . However, the pyrene dots could be formed only by implantation through a water layer.

  7. Micro-processing of NiMnGa shape memory alloy by using a nanosecond fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffi, C. A.; Tuissi, A.

    2016-04-01

    The interest on Ferromagnetic Shape Memory Alloys (FSMAs), such as NiMnGa, is growing up, thanks to their functional properties to be employed in a new class of micro-devices. The most evident critical issue, limiting the use of these systems in the production of industrial devices, is the brittleness of the bulk material; its workability by using convectional processing methods is very limited. Thus, alternative processing methods, including laser processing, are encouraged for the manufacture of FSMAs based new devices. In this work, the effect of the nanosecond laser microprocessing on Ni45Mn33Ga22 [at%] has been studied. Linear grooves were realized by a nanosecond 30 W fiber laser; the machined surfaces were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy, coupled with energetic dispersion spectroscopy for the composition analysis. The morphology of the grooves was affected by the laser scanning velocity and the number of laser pulses while the measured material removal rate appeared to be influenced mainly by the number of laser pulses. Compositional modification, associated to the loss of Ga content, was detected only for the lower scanning velocity, because of the high fluence. On the contrary, by increasing the velocity up to 1000 mm/s no Ga loss can be seen, making possible the laser processing of this functional alloy without its chemical modification. The use of short pulses allowed also to reduce the amount of recast material and the compositional change with respect to long pulses. Finally, the calorimetric analysis indicated that laser nanosecond microprocessing could affect the functional properties of this alloy: a larger decrease of the characteristic temperatures of the martensitic transformation was observed in correspondence of the low scanning velocity.

  8. Transcriptome profiling of sheep granulosa cells and oocytes during early follicular development obtained by Laser Capture Microdissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnet Agnes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful achievement of early folliculogenesis is crucial for female reproductive function. The process is finely regulated by cell-cell interactions and by the coordinated expression of genes in both the oocyte and in granulosa cells. Despite many studies, little is known about the cell-specific gene expression driving early folliculogenesis. The very small size of these follicles and the mixture of types of follicles within the developing ovary make the experimental study of isolated follicular components very difficult. The recently developed laser capture microdissection (LCM technique coupled with microarray experiments is a promising way to address the molecular profile of pure cell populations. However, one main challenge was to preserve the RNA quality during the isolation of single cells or groups of cells and also to obtain sufficient amounts of RNA. Using a new LCM method, we describe here the separate expression profiles of oocytes and follicular cells during the first stages of sheep folliculogenesis. Results We developed a new tissue fixation protocol ensuring efficient single cell capture and RNA integrity during the microdissection procedure. Enrichment in specific cell types was controlled by qRT-PCR analysis of known genes: six oocyte-specific genes (SOHLH2, MAEL, MATER, VASA, GDF9, BMP15 and three granulosa cell-specific genes (KL, GATA4, AMH. A global gene expression profile for each follicular compartment during early developmental stages was identified here for the first time, using a bovine Affymetrix chip. Most notably, the granulosa cell dataset is unique to date. The comparison of oocyte vs. follicular cell transcriptomes revealed 1050 transcripts specific to the granulosa cell and 759 specific to the oocyte. Functional analyses allowed the characterization of the three main cellular events involved in early folliculogenesis and confirmed the relevance and potential of LCM-derived RNA. Conclusions

  9. Laser heating of aqueous samples on a micro-optical-electro-mechanical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Kennedy, Ian

    2013-02-05

    A system of heating a sample on a microchip includes the steps of providing a microchannel flow channel in the microchip; positioning the sample within the microchannel flow channel, providing a laser that directs a laser beam onto the sample for heating the sample; providing the microchannel flow channel with a wall section that receives the laser beam and enables the laser beam to pass through wall section of the microchannel flow channel without being appreciably heated by the laser beam; and providing a carrier fluid in the microchannel flow channel that moves the sample in the microchannel flow channel wherein the carrier fluid is not appreciably heated by the laser beam.

  10. High-efficiency cavity-dumped micro-chip Yb:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, M.; Maruko, A.; Inoue, M.; Takama, M.; Matsubara, S.; Okunishi, H.; Kato, K.; Kyomoto, K.; Yoshida, T.; Shimabayashi, K.; Morioka, M.; Inayoshi, S.; Yamagata, S.; Kawato, S.

    2014-09-01

    High-efficiency cavity-dumped ytterbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Yb:YAG) laser was developed. Although the high quantum efficiency of ytterbium-doped laser materials is appropriate for high-efficiency laser oscillation, the efficiency is decreased by their quasi-three/four laser natures. High gain operation by high intensity pumping is suitable for high efficiency oscillation on the quasi-three/four lasers without extremely low temperature cooling. In our group, highest efficiency oscillations for continuous wave, nanosecond to picosecond pulse lasers were achieved at room temperature by the high gain operation in which pump intensities were beyond 100 kW/cm2.

  11. Enhancement of Wound Healing by Non-Thermal N2/Ar Micro-Plasma Exposure in Mice with Fractional-CO2-Laser-Induced Wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Pei-Lin; Liao, Jiunn-Der; Wong, Tak-Wah; Wang, Yi-Cheng; Leu, Steve; Yip, Hon-Kan

    2016-01-01

    Micro-plasma is a possible alternative treatment for wound management. The effect of micro-plasma on wound healing depends on its composition and temperature. The authors previously developed a capillary-tube-based micro-plasma system that can generate micro-plasma with a high nitric oxide-containing species composition and mild working temperature. Here, the efficacy of micro-plasma treatment on wound healing in a laser-induced skin wound mouse model was investigated. A partial thickness wound was created in the back skin of each mouse and then treated with micro-plasma. Non-invasive methods, namely wound closure kinetics, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and laser Doppler scanning, were used to measure the healing efficiency in the wound area. Neo-tissue growth and the expressions of matrix metallopeptidase-3 (MMP-3) and laminin in the wound area were assessed using histological and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis. The results show that micro-plasma treatment promoted wound healing. Micro-plasma treatment significantly reduced the wound bed region. The OCT images and histological analysis indicates more pronounced tissue regrowth in the wound bed region after micro-plasma treatment. The laser Doppler images shows that micro-plasma treatment promoted blood flow in the wound bed region. The IHC results show that the level of laminin increased in the wound bed region after micro-plasma treatment, whereas the level of MMP-3 decreased. Based on these results, micro-plasma has potential to be used to promote the healing of skin wounds clinically. PMID:27248979

  12. Optimizing laser beam profiles using micro-lens arrays for efficient material processing: applications to solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauschild, Dirk; Homburg, Oliver; Mitra, Thomas; Ivanenko, Mikhail; Jarczynski, Manfred; Meinschien, Jens; Bayer, Andreas; Lissotschenko, Vitalij

    2009-02-01

    High power laser sources are used in various production tools for microelectronic products and solar cells, including the applications annealing, lithography, edge isolation as well as dicing and patterning. Besides the right choice of the laser source suitable high performance optics for generating the appropriate beam profile and intensity distribution are of high importance for the right processing speed, quality and yield. For industrial applications equally important is an adequate understanding of the physics of the light-matter interaction behind the process. In advance simulations of the tool performance can minimize technical and financial risk as well as lead times for prototyping and introduction into series production. LIMO has developed its own software founded on the Maxwell equations taking into account all important physical aspects of the laser based process: the light source, the beam shaping optical system and the light-matter interaction. Based on this knowledge together with a unique free-form micro-lens array production technology and patented micro-optics beam shaping designs a number of novel solar cell production tool sub-systems have been built. The basic functionalities, design principles and performance results are presented with a special emphasis on resilience, cost reduction and process reliability.

  13. Fabrication of a micro-hole array on metal foil by nanosecond pulsed laser beam machining using a cover plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Kyoung Ho; Lee, Se Won; Jee, Won Young; Chu, Chong Nam; Kim, Janggil

    2015-01-01

    A novel laser beam machining (LBM) method is proposed to achieve higher precision and better quality beyond the limits of a commercialized nanosecond pulsed laser system. The use of a cover plate is found to be effective for the precision machining of a thin metal foil at micro scale. For verifying the capability of cover plate laser beam machining (c-LBM) technology, a 30 by 30 array of micro-holes was fabricated on 8 µm-thick stainless steel 304 (STS) foil. As a result, thermal deformation and cracks were significantly reduced in comparison with the results using LBM without a cover plate. The standard deviation of the inscribed and circumscribed circle of the holes with a diameter of 12 µm was reduced to 33% and 81%, respectively and the average roundness improved by 77%. Moreover, the smallest diameter obtainable by c-LBM in the given equipment was found to be 6.9 µm, which was 60% less than the minimum size hole by LBM without a cover plate. (technical note)

  14. Laser direct writing of micro- and nano-scale medical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittard, Shaun D; Narayan, Roger J

    2010-01-01

    Laser-based direct writing of materials has undergone significant development in recent years. The ability to modify a variety of materials at small length scales and using short production times provides laser direct writing with unique capabilities for fabrication of medical devices. In many laser-based rapid prototyping methods, microscale and submicroscale structuring of materials is controlled by computer-generated models. Various laser-based direct write methods, including selective laser sintering/melting, laser machining, matrix-assisted pulsed-laser evaporation direct write, stereolithography and two-photon polymerization, are described. Their use in fabrication of microstructured and nanostructured medical devices is discussed. Laser direct writing may be used for processing a wide variety of advanced medical devices, including patient-specific prostheses, drug delivery devices, biosensors, stents and tissue-engineering scaffolds. PMID:20420557

  15. Comparison of acoustic shock waves generated by micro and nanosecond lasers for a smart laser surgery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguendon Kenhagho, Hervé K.; Rauter, Georg; Guzman, Raphael; C. Cattin, Philippe; Zam, Azhar

    2018-02-01

    Characterization of acoustic shock wave will guarantee efficient tissue differentiation as feedback to reduce the probability of undesirable damaging (i.e. cutting) of tissues in laser surgery applications. We ablated hard (bone) and soft (muscle) tissues using a nanosecond pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm and a microsecond pulsed Er:YAG laser at 2.94 μm. When the intense short ns-pulsed laser is applied to material, the energy gain causes locally a plasma at the ablated spot that expands and propagates as an acoustic shock wave with a rarefaction wave behind the shock front. However, when using a μs-pulsed Er:YAG laser for material ablation, the acoustic shock wave is generated during the explosion of the ablated material. We measured and compared the emitted acoustic shock wave generated by a ns-pulsed Nd:YAG laser and a μs-pulsed Er:YAG laser measured by a calibrated microphone. As the acoustic shock wave attenuates as it propagates through air, the distance between ablation spots and a calibrated microphone was at 5 cm. We present the measurements on the propagation characteristics of the laser generated acoustic shock wave by measuring the arrival time-of-flight with a calibrated microphone and the energy-dependent evolution of acoustic parameters such as peak-topeak pressure, the ratio of the peak-to-peak pressures for the laser induced breakdown in air, the ablated muscle and the bone, and the spectral energy.

  16. Micro-structured rough surfaces by laser etching for heat transfer enhancement on flush mounted heat sinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventola, L; Scaltrito, L; Ferrero, S; Chiavazzo, E; Asinari, P; Maccioni, G

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to improve heat transfer performances of flush mounted heat sinks used in electronic cooling. To do this we patterned 1.23 cm 2 heat sinks surfaces by microstructured roughnesses built by laser etching manufacturing technique, and experimentally measured the convective heat transfer enhancements due to different patterns. Each roughness differs from the others with regards to the number and the size of the micro-fins (e.g. the micro- fin length ranges from 200 to 1100 μm). Experimental tests were carried out in forced air cooling regime. In particular fully turbulent flows (heating edge based Reynolds number ranging from 3000 to 17000) were explored. Convective heat transfer coefficient of the best micro-structured heat sink is found to be roughly two times compared to the smooth heat sinks one. In addition, surface area roughly doubles with regard to smooth heat sinks, due to the presence of micro-fins. Consequently, patterned heat sinks thermal transmittance [W/K] is found to be roughly four times the smooth heat sinks one. We hope this work may open the way for huge boost in the technology of electronic cooling by innovative manufacturing techniques.

  17. Corrosion characterisation of laser beam and tungsten inert gas weldment of nickel base alloys: Micro-cell technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, Geogy J.; Kain, V.; Dey, G.K.; Raja, V.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Grain matrix showed better corrosion resistance than grain boundary. • Microcell studies showed distinct corrosion behaviour of individual regions of weldment. • TIG welding resulted in increased stable anodic current density on weld fusion zone. • LB welding resulted in high stable anodic current density for heat affected zone. - Abstract: The electrochemical studies using micro-cell technique gave new understanding of electrochemical behaviour of nickel base alloys in solution annealed and welded conditions. The welding simulated regions depicted varied micro structural features. In case of tungsten inert gas (TIG) weldments, the weld fusion zone (WFZ) showed least corrosion resistance among all other regions. For laser beam (LB) weldments it was the heat-affected zone (HAZ) that showed comparatively high stable anodic current density. The high heat input of TIG welding resulted in slower heat dissipation hence increased carbide precipitation and segregation in WFZ resulting in high stable anodic current density

  18. Fabrication of 3D electro-thermal micro actuators in silica glass by femtosecond laser wet etch and microsolidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qichao; Shan, Chao; Yang, Qing; Chen, Feng; Bian, Hao; Hou, Xun

    2017-02-01

    This paper demonstrates a novel electro-thermal micro actuator's design, fabrication and device tests which combine microfluidic technology and microsolidics process. A three-dimensional solenoid microchannel with high aspect ratio is fabricated inside the silica glass by an improved femtosecond laser wet etch (FLWE) technology, and the diameter of the spiral coil is only 200 μm. Molten alloy (Bi/In/Sn/Pb) with high melting point is injected into the three-dimensional solenoid microchannel inside the silica glass , then it solidifys and forms an electro-thermal micro actuator. The device is capable of achieving precise temperature control and quick response, and can also be easily integrated into MEMS, sensors and `lab on a chip' (LOC) platform inside the fused silica substrate.

  19. XeCl Excimer Laser For Micro - Machining Of Materials: Preliminary Theoretical And Experimental Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanejko, Leszek; Pokora, Ludwik; Stefanski, Miroslaw; Ujda, Zbigniew

    1987-10-01

    The paper presents the results of preliminary investigations, both theoretical and experimental, of XeC1 excimer laser pumped by transverse electric discharge with UU preionization. The medium was a mixture of gases He-Xe-HC1. A theoretical model of the XeC1 laser was worked out and a lot of laser parameters calculations were done. In the same time an excimer laser operating on the mixture He-Xe-HC1 was started, the generation of laser radiation was of energy about 20mJ.

  20. Direct writing of micro/nano-scale patterns by means of particle lens arrays scanned by a focused diode pumped Nd:YVO4 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Ana; Wang, Zengbo; Whitehead, David; Li, Lin

    2010-11-01

    A practical approach to a well-known technique of laser micro/nano-patterning by optical near fields is presented. It is based on surface patterning by scanning a Gaussian laser beam through a self-assembled monolayer of silica micro-spheres on a single-crystalline silicon (Si) substrate. So far, the outcome of this kind of near-field patterning has been related to the simultaneous, parallel surface-structuring of large areas either by top hat or Gaussian laser intensity distributions. We attempt to explore the possibility of using the same technique in order to produce single, direct writing of features. This could be of advantage for applications in which only some areas need to be patterned (i.e. local area selective patterning) or single lines are required (e.g. a particular micro/nano-fluidic channel). A diode pumped Nd:YVO4 laser system (wavelength of 532 nm, pulse duration of 8 ns, repetition rate of 30 kHz) with a computer-controlled 3 axis galvanometer beam scanner was employed to write user-defined patterns through the particle lens array on the Si substrate. After laser irradiation, the obtained patterns which are in the micro-scale were composed of sub-micro/micro-holes or bumps. The micro-pattern resolution depends on the dimension of both the micro-sphere’s diameter and the beam’s spot size. The developed technique could potentially be employed to fabricate photonic crystal structures mimicking nature’s butterfly wings and anti-reflective “moth eye” arrays for photovoltaic cells.

  1. Superhydrophylic textures fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses on sub-micro- and nano-crystalline titanium surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolobov, Yury R; Smolyakova, Marina Yu; Kolobova, Anastasia Yu; Ionin, Andrey A; Kudryashov, Sergey I; Makarov, Sergey V; Saltuganov, Pavel N; Zayarny, Dmitry A; Ligachev, Alexander E

    2014-01-01

    Sub-micron quasi-regular surface textures were fabricated on surfaces of pure titanium (VT1-0) with micro- and ultrafine-grained bulk structures by multiple femtosecond laser pulses in the scanning mode and characterized by scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. Their wetting characteristics acquired for the initial non-textured and as-textured samples, as well as upon ultrasonic and plasma cleaning, demonstrate corresponding drastic changes of the wetting angles from 87° to ≤ 10°, with much more pronounced contamination, cleaning and wetting effects for the ultrafine-grained titanium. (letter)

  2. Analysis of materials modifications caused by UV laser micro drilling of via holes in AlGaN/GaN transistors on SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernicke, Tim [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany)]. E-mail: tim.wernicke@fbh-berlin.de; Krueger, Olaf [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Herms, Martin [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Wuerfl, Joachim [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Kirmse, Holm [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Institut fuer Physik, AG Kristallographie, Newtonstr. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Neumann, Wolfgang [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Institut fuer Physik, AG Kristallographie, Newtonstr. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Behm, Thomas [Technische Universitaet Bergakademie Freiberg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Bernhard-von-Cotta-Str. 4, 09596 Freiberg (Germany); Irmer, Gert [Technische Universitaet Bergakademie Freiberg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Bernhard-von-Cotta-Str. 4, 09596 Freiberg (Germany); Traenkle, Guenther [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2007-07-31

    Pulsed UV laser drilling can be applied to fabricate vertical electrical interconnects (vias) for AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor devices on single-crystalline silicon carbide (SiC) substrate. Through-wafer micro holes with a diameter of 50-100 {mu}m were formed in 400 {mu}m thick bulk 4H-SiC by a frequency-tripled solid-state laser (355 nm) with a pulse width of {<=}30 ns and a focal spot size of {approx}15 {mu}m. The impact of laser machining on the material system in the vicinity of micro holes was investigated by means of micro-Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. After removing the loosely deposited debris by etching in buffered hydrofluoric acid, a layer of <4 {mu}m resolidified material remains at the side walls of the holes. The thickness of the resolidified layer depends on the vertical distance to the hole entry as observed by scanning electron microscopy. Micro-Raman spectra indicate a change of internal strain due to laser drilling and evidence the formation of nanocrystalline silicon (Si). Microstructure analysis of the vias' side walls using cross sectional TEM reveals altered degree of crystallinity in SiC. Layers of heavily disturbed SiC, and nanocrystalline Si are formed by laser irradiation. The layers are separated by 50-100 nm thick interface regions. No evidence of extended defects, micro cracking or crystal damage was found beneath the resolidified layer. The precision of UV laser micro ablation of SiC using nanosecond pulses is not limited by laser-induced extended crystal defects.

  3. The laser micro-machining system for diamond anvil cell experiments and general precision machining applications at the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrubiak, Rostislav; Sinogeikin, Stanislav; Rod, Eric; Shen, Guoyin

    2015-07-01

    We have designed and constructed a new system for micro-machining parts and sample assemblies used for diamond anvil cells and general user operations at the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team, sector 16 of the Advanced Photon Source. The new micro-machining system uses a pulsed laser of 400 ps pulse duration, ablating various materials without thermal melting, thus leaving a clean edge. With optics designed for a tight focus, the system can machine holes any size larger than 3 μm in diameter. Unlike a standard electrical discharge machining drill, the new laser system allows micro-machining of non-conductive materials such as: amorphous boron and silicon carbide gaskets, diamond, oxides, and other materials including organic materials such as polyimide films (i.e., Kapton). An important feature of the new system is the use of gas-tight or gas-flow environmental chambers which allow the laser micro-machining to be done in a controlled (e.g., inert gas) atmosphere to prevent oxidation and other chemical reactions in air sensitive materials. The gas-tight workpiece enclosure is also useful for machining materials with known health risks (e.g., beryllium). Specialized control software with a graphical interface enables micro-machining of custom 2D and 3D shapes. The laser-machining system was designed in a Class 1 laser enclosure, i.e., it includes laser safety interlocks and computer controls and allows for routine operation. Though initially designed mainly for machining of the diamond anvil cell gaskets, the laser-machining system has since found many other micro-machining applications, several of which are presented here.

  4. The laser micro-machining system for diamond anvil cell experiments and general precision machining applications at the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrubiak, Rostislav; Sinogeikin, Stanislav; Rod, Eric; Shen, Guoyin

    2015-01-01

    We have designed and constructed a new system for micro-machining parts and sample assemblies used for diamond anvil cells and general user operations at the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team, sector 16 of the Advanced Photon Source. The new micro-machining system uses a pulsed laser of 400 ps pulse duration, ablating various materials without thermal melting, thus leaving a clean edge. With optics designed for a tight focus, the system can machine holes any size larger than 3 μm in diameter. Unlike a standard electrical discharge machining drill, the new laser system allows micro-machining of non-conductive materials such as: amorphous boron and silicon carbide gaskets, diamond, oxides, and other materials including organic materials such as polyimide films (i.e., Kapton). An important feature of the new system is the use of gas-tight or gas-flow environmental chambers which allow the laser micro-machining to be done in a controlled (e.g., inert gas) atmosphere to prevent oxidation and other chemical reactions in air sensitive materials. The gas-tight workpiece enclosure is also useful for machining materials with known health risks (e.g., beryllium). Specialized control software with a graphical interface enables micro-machining of custom 2D and 3D shapes. The laser-machining system was designed in a Class 1 laser enclosure, i.e., it includes laser safety interlocks and computer controls and allows for routine operation. Though initially designed mainly for machining of the diamond anvil cell gaskets, the laser-machining system has since found many other micro-machining applications, several of which are presented here

  5. Diode-pumped laser with Yb:YAG single-crystal fiber grown by the micro-pulling down technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangla, D.; Aubry, N.; Didierjean, J.; Perrodin, D.; Balembois, F.; Lebbou, K.; Brenier, A.; Georges, P.; Tillement, O.; Fourmigué, J.-M.

    2009-02-01

    Laser emission obtained from an Yb:YAG single-crystal fiber directly grown by the micro-pulling down technique is demonstrated for the first time. We achieved 11.2 W of continuous wave (CW) output power at 1031 nm for 55 W of incident pump power at 940 nm. In the Q-switched regime, we obtained pulses as short as 17 ns, for an average power of 2.3 W at 2 kHz corresponding to an energy of 1.15 mJ. In both cases, the M 2 factor was 2.5. This single-crystal fiber showed performance similar to a standard rod elaborated by the Czochralski method. The potential of Yb3+-doped single-crystal fibers is presented for scalable high-average and high-peak-power laser systems.

  6. Micro-focus x-ray inspection of the bearing pad welded by laser for CANDU fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W. K.; Kim, S. S.; Lee, J. W.; Yang, M. S.

    2001-01-01

    To attach the bearing pads on the surface of CANDU fuel element, laser welding technique has been reviewed to replace brazing technology which is complicate process and makes use of the toxic beryllium. In this study, to evaluate the soundness of the weld of the bearing pad of CANDU fuel element, a precise X-ray inspection system was developed using a micro-focus X-ray generator with an image intensifier and a real time camera system. The weld of the bearing pad welded by Nd:YAG laser has been inspected by the developed inspection system. Image processing technique has been applied to reduce random noise and to enhance the contrast of the X-ray image. A few defects on the weld of the bearing pads have been detected by the X-ray inspection process

  7. Microstructure and micro-hardness analyses of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V parts manufactured by selective laser melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lancea Camil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Selective Laser Melting (SLM is one of the powder based additive manufacturing technologies and it is, as well, the most rapidly growing technique in Rapid Prototyping. In this paper is presented a microstructure analysis using Scanning Electron Microscope (LEO 1525 SEM, of Ti6Al4V parts exposed into a corrosion environment. The corrosion environment was generated using a salt chamber with 5% and 10% NaCl concentration and an ACS-Sunrise climatic chamber. The parts were also subjected to tests in order to determine their micro-hardness, followed by a statistical processing of the obtained data. The parts, having a lattice structure, were built on a Selective Laser Melting machine.

  8. Excited argon 1s5 production in micro-hollow cathode discharges for use as potential rare gas laser sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Richard D.; Eshel, Ben; Rice, Christopher A.; Perram, Glen P.

    2018-02-01

    The diode-pumped rare gas laser (DPRGL) has been suggested as a potential high-gain, high-energy laser which requires densities on the order of 1013 cm-3 at pressures around 1 atmosphere for efficient operation. Argon 1s5 number densities have been measured in micro-hollow cathode discharges with electrode gaps of 127 and 254 μm and hole diameters from 100-400 μm. The dependency of the metastable argon (1s5) density on total gas pressure, electrode gap distance and hole diameter were explored. The measured densities were all in the range of 0.5 - 2 × 1013 cm-3 with the 400 μm hole diameters being the lowest.

  9. Growth and shape of indium islands on molybdenum at micro-roughened spots created by femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringleb, F.; Eylers, K.; Teubner, Th.; Schramm, H.-P.; Symietz, C.; Bonse, J.; Andree, S.; Heidmann, B.; Schmid, M.; Krüger, J.; Boeck, T.

    2017-10-01

    Indium islands on molybdenum coated glass can be grown in ordered arrays by surface structuring using a femtosecond laser. The effect of varying the molybdenum coated glass substrate temperature and the indium deposition rate on island areal density, volume and geometry is investigated and evaluated in a physical vapor deposition (PVD) process. The joined impact of growth conditions and spacing of the femtosecond laser structured spots on the arrangement and morphology of indium islands is demonstrated. The results yield a deeper understanding of the island growth and its precise adjustment to industrial requirements, which is indispensable for a technological application of such structures at a high throughput, for instance as precursors for the preparation of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 micro concentrator solar cells.

  10. Vacuum isostatic micro/macro molding of PTFE materials for laser beam shaping in environmental applications: large scale UV laser water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizotte, Todd; Ohar, Orest

    2009-08-01

    Accessibility to fresh clean water has determined the location and survival of civilizations throughout the ages [1]. The tangible economic value of water is demonstrated by industry's need for water in fields such as semiconductor, food and pharmaceutical manufacturing. Economic stability for all sectors of industry depends on access to reliable volumes of good quality water. As can be seen on television a nation's economy is seriously affected by water shortages through drought or mismanagement and as such those water resources must therefore be managed both for the public interest and the economic future. For over 50 years ultraviolet water purification has been the mainstay technology for water treatment, killing potential microbiological agents in water for leisure activities such as swimming pools to large scale waste water treatment facilities where the UV light photo-oxidizes various pollutants and contaminants. Well tailored to the task, UV provides a cost effective way to reduce the use of chemicals in sanitization and anti-biological applications. Predominantly based on low pressure Hg UV discharge lamps, the system is plagued with lifetime issues (~1 year normal operation), the last ten years has shown that the technology continues to advance and larger scale systems are turning to more advanced lamp designs and evaluating solidstate UV light sources and more powerful laser sources. One of the issues facing the treatment of water with UV lasers is an appropriate means of delivering laser light efficiently over larger volumes or cross sections of water. This paper examines the potential advantages of laser beam shaping components made from isostatically micro molding microstructured PTFE materials for integration into large scale water purification and sterilization systems, for both lamps and laser sources. Applying a unique patented fabrication method engineers can form micro and macro scale diffractive, holographic and faceted reflective structures

  11. Application of solid-phase micro extraction for the determination of pesticides in vegetable samples by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, Mee Kin; Tan, Guan Huat; Kumari, Asha

    2008-01-01

    A solid-phase micro extraction (SPME) method has been developed for the determination of 9 pesticides in 2 vegetables -cucumber and tomato - samples, based on direct immersion mode and subsequent desorption into the injection port of a gas chromatograph with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The main factors affecting the SPME process such as extraction time and temperature, desorption time and temperature, the effect of salt addition and fiber depth into the liner were studied and optimized. The analytical procedure proposed consisted of a 30 minute ultrasonic extraction of the target compounds from 1.0 g vegetable samples with 5 mL of distilled water. Then, the samples were filtered and topped up with distilled water to 10 mL. The analytes in this aqueous extract were extracted for 15 minutes with a 100 μm thickness polydimethylsiloxane SPME fiber. Relative standard deviations for triplicate analyses of samples were less than 10 %. The recoveries of the pesticides studied in cucumber and tomato ranged from 52 % to 82 % and the RSD were below 10 %. Therefore, the proposed method is applicable in the analysis of pesticides in vegetable matrices. SPME has been shown to be a simple extraction technique, which has a number of advantages such as solvent free extraction, simplicity and compatibility with the chromatographic analytical system. (author)

  12. Micro-joule pico-second range Yb3+-doped fibre laser for medical applications in acupuncture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Chavez, J. A.; Rivera-Manrique, S. I.; Jacques, S. L.

    2011-08-01

    The work described here is based on the optical design, simulation and on-going implementation of a pulsed (Q-switch) Yb3+-doped, 1-um diffraction-limited fibre laser with pico-second, 10 micro-Joule-range energy pulses for producing the right energy pulses which could be of benefit for patients who suffer chronic headache, photophobia, and even nausea which could is sometimes triggered by a series of factors. The specific therapeutic effect known as acupunctural analgesia is the main objective of this medium-term project. It is a simple design on which commercially available software was employed for laser cavity design. Monte Carlo technique for skin light-transport, thermal diffusion and the possible thermal de-naturalization optical study and prediction will also be included in the presentation. Full optical characterization will be included and a complete set of recent results on the laser-skin interaction and the so called moxi-bustion from the laser design will be extensively described.

  13. The Effect of Diode Laser Treatment for Root Canal Disinfection on Fracture Resistance and Micro-hardness of the Tooth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmiligy, H.H; Diab, A.H.; Sabet, N.E.; Saafan, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of diode laser treatment for root canal disinfection on fracture resistance and micro-hardness of the tooth. Sixty freshly extracted mandibular and maxillary premolars were accessed under coolant then root canals were flared up to apical preparation size 40 MFA coupled with 5.25% NaOCl as an irrigant. Teeth were divided into two groups, control group (group I) and lased group (group II) that was lased by diode laser with average power 2 w through fibrooptic into the canal 2 mm shorter than the apex. Each tooth was embedded in acrylic block, and then subjected to the fracture resistance test. Each root was then sectioned transversely and polished to record dentin Vickers hardness. Data was analysed with student t-test then with linear regression test. The Lased samples presented a significantly higher resistance to fracture than unlased samples. There was no statistically significant differences found between Vickers hardness (HV) of lased and unlased samples and there was no relation between fracture resistance and microhardness. Diode laser (980 nm) treatment had no adverse effect on dentin microhardness, also it increased the fracture resistance of dentin. Diode laser (980 nm) treatment could attain better function ability and maintenance of tooth after endodontic treatment.

  14. A novel patterning effect during high frequency laser micro-cutting of hard ceramics for microelectronics applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savriama, Guillaume, E-mail: guillaume.savriama@gmail.com [GREMI-UMR 7344, CNRS/Univ-Orléans, 14 rue d’Issoudun, BP 6744, F-45067 Orléans (France); STMicroelectronics, 10 rue Thalès de Milet, CS 97155, 37071 Tours Cedex 2 (France); Jarry, Vincent; Barreau, Laurent [STMicroelectronics, 10 rue Thalès de Milet, CS 97155, 37071 Tours Cedex 2 (France); Boulmer-Leborgne, Chantal; Semmar, Nadjib [GREMI-UMR 7344, CNRS/Univ-Orléans, 14 rue d’Issoudun, BP 6744, F-45067 Orléans (France)

    2014-05-01

    This paper investigates the laser micro-cutting of wide band gap materials for microelectronics industry purposes. An ultraviolet (355 nm) diode-pumped solid-state (DPSS) nanosecond laser was used in this investigation. The laser energy varied from 7 to 140 μJ/pulse with typical frequencies from 40 to 200 kHz. The effect of pulse energy and scanning speed on the depth of the cutting street of α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and glass was studied. Typical depths of 200 μm were achieved on α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} for 140 μJ/pulse, 40 kHz at 13 mm/s. SEM images showed periodic patterns produced by periodic explosive boiling that can influence the achieved depth. The shape, size and periodicity of the recast material depended on the feed rate and the laser beam frequency. This periodic removal mechanism seems to be specific to dielectrics since it was not observed for semiconductors such as silicon or silicon carbide.

  15. The effect of optical system design for laser micro-hole drilling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chien-Fang; Lan, Yin-Te; Chien, Yu-Lun; Young, Hong-Tsu

    2017-08-01

    Lasers are a promising high accuracy tool to make small holes in composite or hard material. They offer advantages over the conventional machining process, which is time consuming and has scaling limitations. However, the major downfall in laser material processing is the relatively large heat affect zone or number of molten burrs it generates, even when using nanosecond lasers over high-cost ultrafast lasers. In this paper, we constructed a nanosecond laser processing system with a 532 nm wavelength laser source. In order to enhance precision and minimize the effect of heat generation with the laser drilling process, we investigated the geometric shape of optical elements and analyzed the images using the modulation transfer function (MTF) and encircled energy (EE) by using optical software Zemax. We discuss commercial spherical lenses, including plano-convex lenses, bi-convex lenses, plano-concave lenses, bi-concave lenses, best-form lenses, and meniscus lenses. Furthermore, we determined the best lens configuration by image evaluation, and then verified the results experimentally by carrying out the laser drilling process on multilayer flexible copper clad laminate (FCCL). The paper presents the drilling results obtained with different lens configurations and found the best configuration had a small heat affect zone and a clean edge along laser-drilled holes.

  16. Ablation of intervertebral discs in dogs using a MicroJet-assisted dye-enhanced injection device coupled with the diode laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Kenneth E.; Henry, George A.; Dickey, D. Thomas; Stair, Ernest L.; Powell, Ronald; Schafer, Steven A.; Nordquist, Robert E.; Frederickson, Christopher J.; Hayes, Donald J.; Wallace, David B.

    1998-07-01

    Use of holmium laser energy for vaporization/coagulation of the nucleus pulposus in canine intervertebral discs has been previously reported and is currently being applied clinically in veterinary medicine. The procedure was originally developed in the canine model and intended for potential human use. Since the pulsed (15 Hz) holmium laser energy exerts photomechanical and photothermal effects, the potential for extrusion of additional disc material to the detriment of the patient is possible using the procedure developed for the dog. To reduce this potential complication, use of diode laser (805 nm - CW mode) energy, coupled with indocyanine green (ICG) as a selective laser energy absorber, was formulated as a possible alternative. Delivery of the ICG and diode laser energy was through a MicroJet device that could dispense dye interactively between individual laser 'shots.' Results have shown that it is possible to selectively ablate nucleus pulposus in the canine model using the device described. Acute observations (gross and histopathologic) illustrate that accurate placement of the spinal needle before introduction of the MicroJet device is critically dependent on the expertise of the interventional radiologist. In addition, the success of the overall technique depends on consistent delivery of both ICG and diode laser energy. Minimizing tissue carbonization on the tip of the MicroJet device is also of crucial importance for effective application of the technique in clinical veterinary medicine.

  17. Digital selective fabrication of micro/nano-composite structured TiO2 nanorod arrays by laser direct writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; He, Xiaoning; Liu, Hongzhong; Yin, Lei; Shi, Yongsheng; Ding, Yucheng

    2014-11-01

    In this article, we report on the digital selective fabrication of micro/nano-composite structured TiO2 nanorod arrays by laser direct writing. The pattern of TiO2 nanorod arrays can be easily designed and fabricated by laser scanning technology integrated with a computer-aided design system, which allows a high degree of freedom corresponding to the various pattern design demands. The approach basically involves the hydrothermal growth of TiO2 nanorod arrays on a transparent conductive substrate, the micropattern of TiO2 nanorod arrays and surface fluorination treatment. With these micro/nano-composite TiO2 nanorod array based films, we have demonstrated superhydrophilic patterned TiO2 nanorod arrays with rapid water spreading ability and superhydrophobic patterned TiO2 nanorod arrays with an excellent droplet bouncing effect and a good self-cleaning performance. The dynamic behaviours of the water droplets observed on the patterned TiO2 nanorod arrays were demonstrated by experiments and simulated by a finite element method. The approaches we will show are expected to provide potential applications in fields such as self-cleaning, surface protection, anticrawling and microfluidic manipulation.

  18. Comparison of various excitation and detection schemes for dye-doped polymeric whispering gallery mode micro-lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegle, Tobias; Kellerer, Jonas; Bonenberger, Marielle; Krämmer, Sarah; Klusmann, Carolin; Müller, Marius; Kalt, Heinz

    2018-02-05

    We compare different excitation and collection configurations based on free-space optics and evanescently coupled tapered fibers for both lasing and fluorescence emission from dye-doped doped polymeric whispering gallery mode (WGM) micro-disk lasers. The focus of the comparison is on the lasing threshold and efficiency of light collection. With the aid of optical fibers, we localize the pump energy to the cavity-mode volume and reduce the necessary pump energy to achieve lasing by two orders of magnitude. When using fibers for detection, the collection efficiency is enhanced by four orders of magnitude compared to a free-space read-out perpendicular to the resonator plane. By enhancing the collection efficiency we are able to record a pronounced modulation of the dye fluorescence under continuous wave (cw) pumping conditions evoked by coupling to the WGMs. Alternatively to fibers as a collection tool, we present a read-out technique based on the detection of in-plane radiated light. We show that this method is especially beneficial in an aqueous environment as well as for size-reduced micro-lasers where radiation is strongly pronounced. Furthermore, we show that this technique allows for the assignment of transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) polarization to the observed fundamental modes in a water environment by performing polarization-dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. We emphasize the importance of the polarization determination for sensing applications and verify expected differences in the bulk refractive index sensitivity for TE and TM WGMs experimentally.

  19. Electron acceleration by femtosecond laser interaction with micro-structured plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goers, Andy James

    Laser-driven accelerators are a promising and compact alternative to RF accelerator technology for generating relativistic electron bunches for medical, scientific, and security applications. This dissertation presents three experiments using structured plasmas designed to advance the state of the art in laser-based electron accelerators, with the goal of reducing the energy of the drive laser pulse and enabling higher repetition rate operation with current laser technology. First, electron acceleration by intense femtosecond laser pulses in He-like nitrogen plasma waveguides is demonstrated. Second, significant progress toward a proof of concept realization of quasi-phasematched direct acceleration (QPM-DLA) is presented. Finally, a laser wakefield accelerator at very high plasma density is studied, enabling relativistic electron beam generation with ˜10 mJ pulse energies. Major results from these experiments include: • Acceleration of electrons up to 120 MeV from an ionization injected wakefield accelerator driven in a 1.5 mm long He-like nitrogen plasma waveguide • Guiding of an intense, quasi-radially polarized femtosecond laser pulse in a 1 cm plasma waveguide. This pulse provides a strong drive field for the QPM-DLA concept. • Wakefield acceleration of electrons up to ˜10 MeV with sub-terawatt, ˜10 mJ pulses interacting with a thin (˜200 mum), high density (>1020 cm-3) plasma. • Observation of an intense, coherent, broadband wave breaking radiation flash from a high plasma density laser wakefield accelerator. The flash radiates > 1% of the drive laser pulse energy in a bandwidth consistent with half-cycle (˜1 fs) emission from violent unidirectional acceleration of electron bunches from rest. These results open the way to high repetition rate (>˜kHz) laser-driven generation of relativistic electron beams with existing laser technology.

  20. Enhancing structural integrity of adhesive bonds through pulsed laser surface micro-machining

    KAUST Repository

    Diaz, Edwin Hernandez

    2015-01-01

    of different kinds of heterogeneous surface properties that may replicate this behavior and the mechanisms at work. In order to do this, we used pulsed laser ablation on copper substrates (CuZn40) aiming to increase adhesion for bonding. A Yb-fiber laser

  1. Laser-assisted growth of carbon nanotubes on laser-patterned substrates and inside sealed micro-channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgt, Y. van de; Bellouard, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon nanotube assemblies can be used for specific applications such as sensors and filters. We present a method and proof-of-concept to directly grow vertically-aligned carbon nanotube structures within sealed enclosures by means of a feedback-controlled laser-assisted chemical vapor deposition

  2. Uniform nano-ripples on the sidewall of silicon carbide micro-hole fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation and acid etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khuat, Vanthanh [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, No. 28, Xianning West Road, Xi' an 710049 (China); Le Quy Don Technical University, No. 100, Hoang Quoc Viet Street, Hanoi 7EN-248 (Viet Nam); Chen, Tao; Gao, Bo; Si, Jinhai, E-mail: jinhaisi@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Ma, Yuncan; Hou, Xun [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, No. 28, Xianning West Road, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2014-06-16

    Uniform nano-ripples were observed on the sidewall of micro-holes in silicon carbide fabricated by 800-nm femtosecond laser and chemical selective etching. The morphology of the ripple was analyzed using scanning electronic microscopy. The formation mechanism of the micro-holes was attributed to the chemical reaction of the laser affected zone with mixed solution of hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid. The formation of nano-ripples on the sidewall of the holes could be attributed to the standing wave generated in z direction due to the interference between the incident wave and the reflected wave.

  3. Separation and screening of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in environmental samples using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro electron capture detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dan; Gao, Lirong; Zhu, Shuai; Zheng, Minghui

    2014-11-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are highly complex technical mixtures with thousands of isomers and numerous homologs. They are classified as priority candidate persistent organic pollutants under the Stockholm Convention for their persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity. Analyzing SCCPs is challenging because of the complexity of the mixtures. Chromatograms of SCCPs acquired using one-dimensional (1D) gas chromatography (GC) contain a large characteristic "peak" with a broad and unresolved profile. Comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GC×GC) shows excellent potential for separating complex mixtures. In this study, GC×GC coupled with micro electron capture detection (μECD) was used to separate and screen SCCPs. The chromatographic parameters, including the GC column types, oven temperature program, and modulation period, were systematically optimized. The SCCP congeners were separated into groups using a DM-1 column connected to a BPX-50 column. The SCCP congeners in technical mixtures were separated according to the number of chlorine substituents for a given carbon chain length and according to the number of carbon atoms plus chlorine atoms for different carbon chain lengths. A fish tissue sample was analyzed to illustrate the feasibility of the GC×GC-μECD method in analyzing biological samples. Over 1,500 compounds were identified in the fish extract, significantly more than were identified using 1D GC. The detection limits for five selected SCCP congeners were between 1 and 5 pg/L using the GC×GC method, and these were significantly lower than those achieved using 1D GC. This method is a good choice for analysis of SCCPs in environmental samples, exhibiting good separation and good sensitivity.

  4. The con focal laser scanning microscope: a powerful tool for the investigation of micro devices and nano structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montereali, R.M.; Baldacchini, G.; Bonfigli, F.; Vincenti, M.A.; Almaviva, S.

    2008-01-01

    In the last years the Con focal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM), a versatile and powerful optical instrument, gained a strong increase of interest in the scientific community, not only for biological applications, but also for the characterization of materials, microstructures and devices. The conditions that favoured its wide diffusion are surely the large availability of laser sources and powerful computer-imaging and data-processing systems at relatively low cost; however, the main reason that contributed to its popularity is the ability to obtain tri dimensional reconstruction of a great variety of biological and non-biological samples with sub micrometric resolution. In this report we show the main properties and characteristics of the Con focal Microscope Nikon Eclipse 80-i C1, which has operated sinc more than two years in the Solid State Laser and Spectroscopy Laboratory of the ENEA Research Center in Frascati. Some of the results obtained in the characterization of luminescent micro and nano structures based on lithium fluoride color centers will be presented [it

  5. Growth of porous type anodic oxide films at micro-areas on aluminum exposed by laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Tatsuya [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13-W8, Kita-Ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)], E-mail: kiku@eng.hokudai.ac.jp; Sakairi, Masatoshi [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13-W8, Kita-Ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Takahashi, Hideaki [Asahikawa National College of Technology, Syunkohdai, 2-2, 1-6, Asahikawa 071-8142 (Japan)

    2009-11-30

    Aluminum covered with pore-sealed anodic oxide films was irradiated with a pulsed Nd-YAG laser to remove the oxide film at micro-areas. The specimen was re-anodized for long periods to examine the growth of porous anodic oxide films at the area where substrate had been exposed by measuring current variations and morphological changes in the oxide during the re-anodizing. The chemical dissolution resistance of the pore-sealed anodic oxide films in an oxalic acid solution was also examined by measuring time-variations in rest potentials during immersion. The resistance to chemical dissolution of the oxide film became higher with increasing pore-sealing time and showed higher values at lower solution temperatures. During potentiostatic re-anodizing at five 35-{mu}m wide and 4-mm long lines for 72 h after the film was removed the measured current was found to increase linearly with time. Semicircular columnar-shaped porous type anodic oxide was found to form during the re-anodizing at the laser-irradiated area, and was found to grow radially, thus resulting in an increase in the diameter. After long re-anodizing, the central and top parts of the oxide protruded along the longitudinal direction of the laser-irradiated area. The volume expansion during re-anodizing resulted in the formation of cracks, parallel to the lines, in the oxide film formed during the first anodizing.

  6. Quantitative assessment of wound-healing process as a response to laser-induced micro-injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Bargo, Paulo; Kollias, Nikiforos

    2009-02-01

    Currently, most investigations of wound healing rely on invasive biopsy followed by histology and immunohistochemistry staining. There is a great need to develop non-invasive techniques for in vivo diagnostic, clinical and scientific evaluation. Here, we performed a comprehensive investigation on the dynamic wound healing process as a response to laser-induced microinjuries using non-invasive imaging techniques such as reflectance laser-scanning confocal microscopy and video microscopy. Eight healthy subjects ranging from Fitzpatrick skin type II-VI with age from 27 to 57 years were recruited. The volar forearm of each subject was treated with a laser device that generates an array of microbeams with an infrared wavelength. The microscopic changes of epidermal cells and collagen during the wound healing process were assessed non-invasively using confocal microscopy. We also developed a quantitative method to evaluate the dynamic wound healing process at the microscopic level in three areas of interest: (1) treated micro-wounding zone, (2) surrounding collateral damage zone and (3) normal area. The depth-dependent intensity profile derived from reflectance confocal microscope images clearly distinguishes the three areas of interest and quantitatively measures the cellular structure-associated changes. A progressive change in depth-dependent intensity profiles in subjects with different ages parallels the clinical observation of wound healing rate. The quantitative analysis developed in this study may find broad applications in assessing the skin response to treatment at a microscopic level.

  7. Laser ablation of toluene liquid for surface micro-structuring of silica glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niino, H.; Kawaguchi, Y.; Sato, T.; Narazaki, A.; Gumpenberger, T.; Kurosaki, R.

    2006-01-01

    Microstructures with well-defined micropatterns were fabricated on the surfaces of silica glass using a laser-induced backside wet etching (LIBWE) method by diode-pumped solid state (DPSS) UV laser at the repetition rate of 10 kHz. For a demonstration of flexible rapid prototyping as mask-less exposure system, the focused laser beam was directed to the sample by galvanometer-based point scanning system. Additionally, a diagnostics study of plume propagation in the ablated products of toluene solid film was carried out with an intensified CCD (ICCD) camera

  8. Laser Beam Focus Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Carøe; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2007-01-01

    the obtainable features in direct laser machining as well as heat affected zones in welding processes. This paper describes the development of a measuring unit capable of analysing beam shape and diameter of lasers to be used in manufacturing processes. The analyser is based on the principle of a rotating......The quantitative and qualitative description of laser beam characteristics is important for process implementation and optimisation. In particular, a need for quantitative characterisation of beam diameter was identified when using fibre lasers for micro manufacturing. Here the beam diameter limits...... mechanical wire being swept through the laser beam at varying Z-heights. The reflected signal is analysed and the resulting beam profile determined. The development comprised the design of a flexible fixture capable of providing both rotation and Z-axis movement, control software including data capture...

  9. A laser-based technology for fabricating a soda-lime glass based microfluidic device for circulating tumour cell capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Daniel; Couceiro, Ramiro; Aymerich, Maria; Lopez-Lopez, Rafael; Abal, Miguel; Flores-Arias, María Teresa

    2015-10-01

    We developed a laser-based technique for fabricating microfluidic microchips on soda-lime glass substrates. The proposed methodology combines a laser direct writing, as a manufacturing tool for the fabrication of the microfluidics structures, followed by a post-thermal treatment with a CO2 laser. This treatment will allow reshaping and improving the morphological (roughness) and optical qualities (transparency) of the generated microfluidics structures. The use of lasers commonly implemented for material processing makes this technique highly competitive when compared with other glass microstructuring approaches. The manufactured chips were tested with tumour cells (Hec 1A) after being functionalized with an epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) antibody coating. Cells were successfully arrested on the pillars after being flown through the device giving our technology a translational application in the field of cancer research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. High-intensity laser-accelerated ion beam produced from cryogenic micro-jet target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthier, M., E-mail: maxence.gauthier@stanford.edu; Kim, J. B.; Curry, C. B.; Gamboa, E. J.; Göde, S.; Propp, A.; Glenzer, S. H. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Aurand, B.; Willi, O. [Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf (Germany); Goyon, C.; Hazi, A.; Pak, A.; Ruby, J.; Williams, G. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Kerr, S. [University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1R1 (Canada); Ramakrishna, B. [Indian Institute of Technology, Hyderabad (India); Rödel, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Jena (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    We report on the successful operation of a newly developed cryogenic jet target at high intensity laser-irradiation. Using the frequency-doubled Titan short pulse laser system at Jupiter Laser Facility, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we demonstrate the generation of a pure proton beam a with maximum energy of 2 MeV. Furthermore, we record a quasi-monoenergetic peak at 1.1 MeV in the proton spectrum emitted in the laser forward direction suggesting an alternative acceleration mechanism. Using a solid-density mixed hydrogen-deuterium target, we are also able to produce pure proton-deuteron ion beams. With its high purity, limited size, near-critical density, and high-repetition rate capability, this target is promising for future applications.

  11. Micro-Fabrication of Spray Cooling Nozzles for High-Power Diode Laser Arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chow, Louis

    2003-01-01

    .... A novel fabrication method was developed in the late 1980's called stereolithography. This process involved using a low power laser to introduce free radicals in a polymer in which the molecules would cross-link and become solid...

  12. Application and potentiality of laser micro-irradiation of chromosomes in animal and plant cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, H Liang; Wang, L L [Laboratory of Laser and Genetics, Institute of Genetics, Academia Sinica, Beijing (China)

    1990-01-01

    Full text: The classical methods of inducing genetic variation use chemical or physical mutagens applied to populations of cells. Since the development of laser techniques allows focussing a beam to a submicron spot, laser microsurgery of chromosomes was attempted. In mammalian cells, the nucleolus formation could be prevented. Also several chromosome damages were produced by focussing on specific chromosomes in prophase, metaphase and anaphase. Chromosomes of broad bean, maize, wheat, barley were dissected into small fragments. (author)

  13. Micro machining workstation for a diode pumped Nd:YAG high brightness laser system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijhorst, R.A.; Offerhaus, Herman L.; Bant, P.

    1998-01-01

    A Nd:YAG micro-machining workstation that allows cutting on a scale of a few microns has been developed and operated. The system incorporates a telescope viewing system that allows control during the work and a software interface to translate AutoCad files. Some examples of the performance are

  14. Supersonic micro-jets and their application to few-cycle laser-driven electron acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, Karl

    2009-01-01

    This thesis covers the few-cycle laser-driven acceleration of electrons in a laser-generated plasma. The laser system employed in this work is a new development based on optical parametric chirped pulse amplification and is the only multi-TW few-cycle laser in the world. In the experiment, the laser beam is focused onto a supersonic helium gas jet which leads to the formation of a plasma channel. The laser pulse, having an intensity of 10 19 W/cm 2 propagates through the plasma with an electron density of 2 x 10 19 cm -3 and forms via a highly nonlinear interaction a strongly anharmonic plasma wave. The amplitude of the wave is so large that the wave breaks, thereby injecting electrons from the background plasma into the accelerating phase. The energy transfer from the laser pulse to the plasma is so strong that the maximum propagation distance is limited to the 100 m range. Therefore, gas jets specifically tuned to these requirements have to be employed. The properties of microscopic supersonic gas jets are thoroughly analyzed in this work. Based on numeric flow simulation, this study encompasses several extensive parameter studies that illuminate all relevant features of supersonic flows in microscopic gas nozzles. This allowed the optimized design of de Laval nozzles with exit diameters ranging from 150 μm to 3 mm. The employment of these nozzles in the experiment greatly improved the electron beam quality. After these optimizations, the laser-driven electron accelerator now yields monoenergetic electron pulses with energies up to 50 MeV and charges between one and ten pC. The electron beam has a typical divergence of 5 mrad and comprises an energy spectrum that is virtually free from low energetic background. The electron pulse duration could not yet be determined experimentally but simulations point towards values in the range of 1 fs. The acceleration gradient is estimated from simulation and experiment to be approximately 0.5 TV/m. The electron accelerator

  15. Supersonic micro-jets and their application to few-cycle laser-driven electron acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Karl

    2009-07-23

    This thesis covers the few-cycle laser-driven acceleration of electrons in a laser-generated plasma. The laser system employed in this work is a new development based on optical parametric chirped pulse amplification and is the only multi-TW few-cycle laser in the world. In the experiment, the laser beam is focused onto a supersonic helium gas jet which leads to the formation of a plasma channel. The laser pulse, having an intensity of 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2} propagates through the plasma with an electron density of 2 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3} and forms via a highly nonlinear interaction a strongly anharmonic plasma wave. The amplitude of the wave is so large that the wave breaks, thereby injecting electrons from the background plasma into the accelerating phase. The energy transfer from the laser pulse to the plasma is so strong that the maximum propagation distance is limited to the 100 m range. Therefore, gas jets specifically tuned to these requirements have to be employed. The properties of microscopic supersonic gas jets are thoroughly analyzed in this work. Based on numeric flow simulation, this study encompasses several extensive parameter studies that illuminate all relevant features of supersonic flows in microscopic gas nozzles. This allowed the optimized design of de Laval nozzles with exit diameters ranging from 150 {mu}m to 3 mm. The employment of these nozzles in the experiment greatly improved the electron beam quality. After these optimizations, the laser-driven electron accelerator now yields monoenergetic electron pulses with energies up to 50 MeV and charges between one and ten pC. The electron beam has a typical divergence of 5 mrad and comprises an energy spectrum that is virtually free from low energetic background. The electron pulse duration could not yet be determined experimentally but simulations point towards values in the range of 1 fs. The acceleration gradient is estimated from simulation and experiment to be approximately 0.5 TV/m. The

  16. Efficacy of laser capture microdissection plus RT-PCR technique in analyzing gene expression levels in human gastric cancer and colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Hiroshi; Uetake, Hiroyuki; Danenberg, Kathleen; Danenberg, Peter V; Sugihara, Kenichi

    2008-01-01

    Thymidylate synthase, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase, thymidine phosphorylase, and orotate phosphoribosyltransferase gene expressions are reported to be valid predictive markers for 5-fluorouracil sensitivity to gastrointestinal cancer. For more reliable predictability, their expressions in cancer cells and stromal cells in the cancerous tissue (cancerous stroma) have been separately investigated using laser capture microdissection. Thymidylate synthase, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase, thymidine phosphorylase, and orotate phosphoribosyltransferase mRNA in cancer cells and cancerous stroma from samples of 47 gastric and 43 colon cancers were separately quantified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction after laser capture microdissection. In both gastric and colon cancers, thymidylate synthase and orotate phosphoribosyltransferase mRNA expressions were higher (p < 0.0001, p <0.0001 respectively in gastric cancer and P = 0.0002, p < 0.0001 respectively in colon cancer) and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase mRNA expressions were lower in cancer cells than in cancerous stroma (P = 0.0136 in gastric cancer and p < 0.0001 in colon cancer). In contrast, thymidine phosphorylase mRNA was higher in cancer cells than in cancerous stroma in gastric cancer (p < 0.0001) and lower in cancer cells than in cancerous stroma in colon cancer (P = 0.0055). By using this method, we could estimate gene expressions separately in cancer cells and stromal cells from colon and gastric cancers, in spite of the amount of stromal tissue. Our method is thought to be useful for accurately evaluating intratumoral gene expressions

  17. Influence of micro- and macro-processes on the high-order harmonic generation in laser-produced plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganeev, R. A., E-mail: rashid-ganeev@mail.ru [Ophthalmology and Advanced Laser Medical Center, Saitama Medical University, 38 Morohongo, Moroyama-machi, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan); Physical Department, Voronezh State University, Voronezh 394006 (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-21

    We compare the resonance-induced enhancement of single harmonic and the quasi-phase-matching-induced enhancement of the group of harmonics during propagation of the tunable mid-infrared femtosecond pulses through the perforated laser-produced indium plasma. We show that the enhancement of harmonics using the macro-process of quasi-phase-matching is comparable with the one using micro-process of resonantly enhanced harmonic. These studies show that joint implementation of the two methods of the increase of harmonic yield could be a useful tool for generation of strong short-wavelength radiation in different spectral regions. We compare these effects in indium, as well as in other plasmas.

  18. Multiplexed microRNA detection using lanthanide-labeled DNA probes and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Bang, Thomas Christian; Shah, Pratik; Cho, Seok Keun

    2014-01-01

    coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). Three miRNAs from Arabidopsis thaliana were analyzed simultaneously with high specificity, and the sensitivity of the method was comparable to radioactive detection (low femtomol range). The perspective of the developed method is highly multiplexed......In the past decade, microRNAs (miRNAs) have drawn increasing attention due to their role in regulation of gene expression. Especially, their potential as biomarkers in disease diagnostics has motivated miRNA research, including the development of simple, accurate, and sensitive detection methods....... The narrow size range of miRNAs (20-24 nucleotides) combined with the chemical properties of conventional reporter tags has hampered the development of multiplexed miRNA assays. In this study, we have used lanthanide-labeled DNA probes for the detection of miRNAs on membranes using laser ablation inductively...

  19. Nano and micro structured targets to modulate the spatial profile of laser driven proton beams

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Giuffrida, Lorenzo; Svensson, K.; Pšikal, Jan; Margarone, Daniele; Lutoslawski, P.; Scuderi, Valentina; Milluzzo, G.; Kaufman, Jan; Wiste, Tuomas; Dalui, M.; Ekerfelt, H.; Gallardo Gonzalez, I.; Lundh, O.; Persson, A.; Picciotto, A.; Crivellari, M.; Bagolini, A.; Bellutti, P.; Magnusson, J.; Gonoskov, A.; Klimša, Ladislav; Kopeček, Jaromír; Laštovička, Tomáš; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Wahlström, C.-G.; Korn, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, Mar (2017), s. 1-6, č. článku C03040. ISSN 1748-0221. [Medical and Multidisciplinary Applications of Laser -Driven Ion Beams at Eli-Beamlines. Catania, 07.09.2016-10.09.2016] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-02964S; GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : accelerator Applications * Beam dynamics Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Laser s OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016

  20. Time-resolved study of femtosecond laser induced micro-modifications inside transparent brittle materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, F.; Matylitsky, V. V.; Domke, M.; Huber, Heinz P.

    2016-03-01

    Laser processing of optically transparent or semi-transparent, brittle materials is finding wide use in various manufacturing sectors. For example, in consumer electronic devices such as smartphones or tablets, cover glass needs to be cut precisely in various shapes. The unique advantage of material processing with femtosecond lasers is efficient, fast and localized energy deposition in nearly all types of solid materials. When an ultra-short laser pulse is focused inside glass, only the localized region in the neighborhood of the focal volume absorbs laser energy by nonlinear optical absorption. Therefore, the processing volume is strongly defined, while the rest of the target stays unaffected. Thus ultra-short pulse lasers allow cutting of the chemically strengthened glasses such as Corning Gorilla glass without cracking. Non-ablative cutting of transparent, brittle materials, using the newly developed femtosecond process ClearShapeTM from Spectra-Physics, is based on producing a micron-sized material modification track with well-defined geometry inside. The key point for development of the process is to understand the induced modification by a single femtosecond laser shot. In this paper, pump-probe microscopy techniques have been applied to study the defect formation inside of transparent materials, namely soda-lime glass samples, on a time scale between one nanosecond to several tens of microseconds. The observed effects include acoustic wave propagation as well as mechanical stress formation in the bulk of the glass. Besides better understanding of underlying physical mechanisms, our experimental observations have enabled us to find optimal process parameters for the glass cutting application and lead to better quality and speed for the ClearShapeTM process.

  1. Laser direct-write and crystallization of FeSi II micro-dot array for NIR light-emitting device application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narazaki, Aiko; Kurosaki, Ryozo; Sato, Tadatake; Kawaguchi, Yoshizo; Niino, Hiroyuki

    2007-02-01

    We printed FeSi II micro-dot array on various kinds of substrates utilizing laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT). An amorphous FeSi II was deposited by sputtering on a transparent plate as a source film. A single KrF excimer laser pulse through a mask-projection system was imaged with a small micrometer-sized grid pattern onto a film/plate interface, resulting in the deposition of FeSi II micro-dot array on a facing substrate with a high number density of 10 4 mm -2. FeSi II in the β crystalline phase is a promising eco-friendly semiconductor because of NIR electroluminescence used for optical networking as well as abundant components reserve on the earth and non-toxicity. However, the β-FeSi II film fabrication generally required high-temperature multi-processes which hamper its integration and performance reproducibility. Using the LIFT of micro-dot array, we succeeded in room-temperature preparation of β-FeSi II. Micro-Raman spectroscopy confirmed the β crystalline phase in the micro-dots deposited on an unheated silica glass substrate. Thus, the LIFT is useful for integrating functional micro-dot array accompanied by the crystallization at lower temperatures.

  2. Target micro-displacement measurement by a "comb" structure of intensity distribution in laser plasma propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Z. Y.; Zhang, S. Q.; Gao, L.; Gao, H.

    2015-05-01

    A "comb" structure of beam intensity distribution is designed and achieved to measure a target displacement of micrometer level in laser plasma propulsion. Base on the "comb" structure, the target displacement generated by nanosecond laser ablation solid target is measured and discussed. It is found that the "comb" structure is more suitable for a thin film target with a velocity lower than tens of millimeters per second. Combing with a light-electric monitor, the `comb' structure can be used to measure a large range velocity.

  3. Comparative evaluation of laser-assisted micro-milling for AISI 316, AISI 422, TI-6AL-4V and Inconel 718 in a side-cutting configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelton, Jonathan A; Shin, Yung C

    2010-01-01

    This paper is focused on numerical modeling and experimental evaluation of laser-assisted micro-milling (LAMM). An experimental setup consisting of a 25 W CO 2 laser, three-axis CNC linear stages and a high-speed spindle was used to implement the LAMM process. Micro-endmills between 100 and 300 µm in diameter were used to perform side-cutting operations with and without laser preheat on four materials: AISI 316, AISI 422, Ti-6Al-4V and Inconel 718. A three-dimensional transient finite-volume-based thermal model was used to analytically predict appropriate process parameters on the basis of material-removal temperatures. The effects of LAMM on the machined surface finish, edge burrs, tool wear and workpiece microstructure were evaluated experimentally.

  4. Capturing Thoughts, Capturing Minds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Janni

    2004-01-01

    Think Aloud is cost effective, promises access to the user's mind and is the applied usability technique. But 'keep talking' is difficult, besides, the multimodal interface is visual not verbal. Eye-tracking seems to get around the verbalisation problem. It captures the visual focus of attention...

  5. Micro-fabricated solid state dye lasers based on a photo-definable polymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Daniel; Balslev, Søren; Gregersen, Misha Marie

    2005-01-01

    the commercially available laser dye Rhodamine 6G, which is incorporated into the SU-8 polymer matrix. The single-mode slab waveguide is formed by three-step spin-coating deposition: a buffer layer of undoped SU-8, a core layer of SU-8 doped with Rhodamine, and a cladding layer of undoped SU-8. (c) 2005 Optical...

  6. Parameters optimization, microstructure and micro-hardness of silicon carbide laser deposited on titanium alloy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adebiyia, DI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Silicon carbide (SiC), has excellent mechanical properties such as high hardness and good wear resistance, and would have been a suitable laser-coating material for titanium alloy to enhance the poor surface hardness of the alloy. However, SiC has...

  7. Elemental and mineralogical imaging of a weathered limestone rock by double-pulse micro-Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senesi, Giorgio S.; Campanella, Beatrice; Grifoni, Emanuela; Legnaioli, Stefano; Lorenzetti, Giulia; Pagnotta, Stefano; Poggialini, Francesco; Palleschi, Vincenzo; De Pascale, Olga

    2018-05-01

    The present work aims to evaluate the alteration conditions of historical limestone rocks exposed to urban environment using the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique. The approach proposed is based on the microscale three dimensional (3D) compositional imaging of the sample through double-pulse micro-Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (DP-μLIBS) in conjunction with optical microscopy. DP-μLIBS allows to perform a quick and detailed in-depth analysis of the composition of the weathered artifact by creating a 'virtual thin section' (VTS) of the sample which can estimate the extent of the alteration processes occurred at the limestone surface. The DP-μLIBS analysis of these thin sections showed a reduction with depth of the elements (mainly Fe, Si and Na) originating from atmospheric dust, particulate deposition and the surrounding environment (due to the proximity of the sea), whereas, the LIBS signal of Ca increased in intensity from the black crust to the limestone underneath.

  8. High power vertical stacked and horizontal arrayed diode laser bar development based on insulation micro-channel cooling (IMCC) and hard solder bonding technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Boxue; Jia, Yangtao; Zhang, Haoyu; Jia, Shiyin; Liu, Jindou; Wang, Weifeng; Liu, Xingsheng

    2018-02-01

    An insulation micro-channel cooling (IMCC) has been developed for packaging high power bar-based vertical stack and horizontal array diode lasers, which eliminates many issues caused in its congener packaged by commercial copper formed micro-channel cooler(MCC), such as coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch between cooler and diode laser bar, high coolant quality requirement (DI water) and channel corrosion and electro-corrosion induced by DI water if the DI-water quality is not well maintained The IMCC cooler separates water flow route and electrical route, which allows tap-water as coolant without electro-corrosion and therefore prolongs cooler lifetime dramatically and escalated the reliability of these diode lasers. The thickness of ceramic and copper in an IMCC cooler is well designed to minimize the CTE mismatch between laser bar and cooler, consequently, a very low "SMILE" of the laser bar can be achieved for small fast axis divergence after collimation. In additional, gold-tin hard solder bonding technology was also developed to minimize the risk of solder electromigration at high current density and thermal fatigue under hard-pulse operation mode. Testing results of IMCC packaged diode lasers are presented in this report.

  9. Low-level lasers on microRNA and uncoupling protein 2 mRNA levels in human breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, K. S.; Teixeira, A. F.; Rodrigues, J. A.; Paoli, F.; Nogueira, E. M.; Mencalha, A. L.; Fonseca, A. S.

    2017-06-01

    MicroRNA is short non-coding RNA and is a mediator of post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. In addition, uncoupling proteins (UCPs) regulate thermogenesis, metabolic and energy balance, and decrease reactive oxygen species production. Both microRNA and UCP2 expression can be altered in cancer cells. At low power, laser wavelength, frequency, fluence and emission mode deternube photobiological responses, which are the basis of low-level laser therapy. There are few studies on miRNA and UCP mRNA levels after low-level laser exposure on cancer cells. In this work, we evaluate the micrRNA (mir-106b and mir-15a) and UCP2 mRNA levels in human breast cancer cells exposed to low-level lasers. MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells were exposed to low-level red and infrared lasers, total RNA was extracted for cDNA synthesis and mRNA levels by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction were evaluated. Data show that mir-106b and mir-15a relative levels are not altered, but UCP2 mRNA relative levels are increased in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells exposed to low-level red and infrared lasers at fluences used in therapeutic protocols.

  10. Micro-spectrochemical analysis of document paper and gel inks by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trejos, Tatiana, E-mail: trejost@fiu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); International Forensic Research Institute (IFRI), Florida International University, Miami, FL 3319 (United States); Flores, Alejandra, E-mail: aflor017@fiu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Almirall, Jose R., E-mail: almirall@fiu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); International Forensic Research Institute (IFRI), Florida International University, Miami, FL 3319 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Current methods used in document examinations are not suitable to associate or discriminate between sources of paper and gel inks with a high degree of certainty. Nearly non-destructive, laser-based methods using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) were used to improve the forensic comparisons of gel inks, ballpoint inks and document papers based on similarities in elemental composition. Some of the advantages of these laser-based methods include minimum sample consumption/destruction, high sensitivity, high selectivity and excellent discrimination between samples from different origins. Figures of merit are reported including limits of detection, precision, homogeneity at a micro-scale and linear dynamic range. The variation of the elemental composition in paper was studied within a single sheet, between pages from the same ream, between papers produced by the same plant at different time intervals and between seventeen paper sources produced by ten different plants. The results show that elemental analysis of paper by LIBS and LA-ICP-MS provides excellent discrimination (> 98%) between different sources. Batches manufactured at weekly and monthly intervals in the same mill were also differentiated. The ink of more than 200 black pens was analyzed to determine the variation of the chemical composition of the ink within a single pen, between pens from the same package and between brands of gel inks and ballpoint inks. Homogeneity studies show smaller variation of elemental compositions within a single source than between different sources (i.e. brands and types). It was possible to discriminate between pen markings from different brands and between pen markings from the same brand but different model. Discrimination of {approx} 96-99% was achieved for sets that otherwise would remain inseparable by conventional methods. The results show that elemental analysis, using either LA

  11. Micro-spectrochemical analysis of document paper and gel inks by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trejos, Tatiana; Flores, Alejandra; Almirall, Jose R.

    2010-01-01

    Current methods used in document examinations are not suitable to associate or discriminate between sources of paper and gel inks with a high degree of certainty. Nearly non-destructive, laser-based methods using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) were used to improve the forensic comparisons of gel inks, ballpoint inks and document papers based on similarities in elemental composition. Some of the advantages of these laser-based methods include minimum sample consumption/destruction, high sensitivity, high selectivity and excellent discrimination between samples from different origins. Figures of merit are reported including limits of detection, precision, homogeneity at a micro-scale and linear dynamic range. The variation of the elemental composition in paper was studied within a single sheet, between pages from the same ream, between papers produced by the same plant at different time intervals and between seventeen paper sources produced by ten different plants. The results show that elemental analysis of paper by LIBS and LA-ICP-MS provides excellent discrimination (> 98%) between different sources. Batches manufactured at weekly and monthly intervals in the same mill were also differentiated. The ink of more than 200 black pens was analyzed to determine the variation of the chemical composition of the ink within a single pen, between pens from the same package and between brands of gel inks and ballpoint inks. Homogeneity studies show smaller variation of elemental compositions within a single source than between different sources (i.e. brands and types). It was possible to discriminate between pen markings from different brands and between pen markings from the same brand but different model. Discrimination of ∼ 96-99% was achieved for sets that otherwise would remain inseparable by conventional methods. The results show that elemental analysis, using either LA-ICP-MS or

  12. Laser microprobe mass spectrometry: Potential and limitations for inorganic and organic micro-analysis. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeck, I. van; Gijbels, R.

    1990-01-01

    Laser microprobe mass spectrometry (LMMS) employs a highly focused UV laser beam to ionise a microvolume in the order of 1 μm 3 . The produced ions are then mass-separated in a time-of-flight (TOF) or a Fourier Transform (FT) mass spectrometer. The technique allows element localisation, detailed speciation of inorganic substances and structural information of organic molecules. Inorganic applications are treated in the preceding part. This paper will focus on the organic aspects. Selected examples illustrate that TOF LMMS can achieve structural characterisation of molecules, untractable by conventional mass spectrometric techniques. Applicability to the analysis with high spatial resolution is shown and the need for surface availability of organic target molecules is discussed. The recently developed FT LMMS may fulfil the need for better mass resolution. However, the comparability of FT LMMS results with TOF LMMS data is not yet obvious. (orig.)

  13. Performance of laser sintered Ti-6Al-4V implants with bone-inspired porosity and micro/nanoscale surface roughness in the rabbit femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, David J; Cheng, Alice; Sahingur, Kaan; Clohessy, Ryan M; Hopkins, Louis B; Boyan, Barbara D; Schwartz, Zvi

    2017-04-28

    Long term success of bone-interfacing implants remains a challenge in compromised patients and in areas of low bone quality. While surface roughness at the micro/nanoscale can promote osteogenesis, macro-scale porosity is important for promoting mechanical stability of the implant over time. Currently, machining techniques permit pores to be placed throughout the implant, but the pores are generally uniform in dimension. The advent of laser sintering provides a way to design and manufacture implants with specific porosity and variable dimensions at high resolution. This approach enables production of metal implants that mimic complex geometries found in biology. In this study, we used a rabbit femur model to compare osseointegration of laser sintered solid and porous implants. Ti-6Al-4V implants were laser sintered in a clinically relevant size and shape. One set of implants had a novel porosity based on human trabecular bone; both sets had grit-blasted/acid-etched surfaces. After characterization, implants were inserted transaxially into rabbit femora; mechanical testing, micro-computed tomography (microCT) and histomorphometry were conducted 10 weeks post-operatively. There were no differences in pull-out strength or bone-to-implant contact. However, both microCT and histomorphometry showed significantly higher new bone volume for porous compared to solid implants. Bone growth was observed into porous implant pores, especially near apical portions of the implant interfacing with cortical bone. These results show that laser sintered Ti-6Al-4V implants with micro/nanoscale surface roughness and trabecular bone-inspired porosity promote bone growth and may be used as a superior alternative to solid implants for bone-interfacing implants.

  14. High Power Picosecond Laser Surface Micro-texturing of H13 Tool Steel and Pattern Replication onto ABS Plastics via Injection Moulding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otanocha, Omonigho B.; Li, Lin; Zhong, Shan; Liu, Zhu

    2016-03-01

    H13 tool steels are often used as dies and moulds for injection moulding of plastic components. Certain injection moulded components require micro-patterns on their surfaces in order to modify the physical properties of the components or for better mould release to reduce mould contamination. With these applications it is necessary to study micro-patterning to moulds and to ensure effective pattern transfer and replication onto the plastic component during moulding. In this paper, we report an investigation into high average powered (100 W) picosecond laser interactions with H13 tool steel during surface micro-patterning (texturing) and the subsequent pattern replication on ABS plastic material through injection moulding. Design of experiments and statistical modelling were used to understand the influences of laser pulse repetition rate, laser fluence, scanning velocity, and number of scans on the depth of cut, kerf width and heat affected zones (HAZ) size. The characteristics of the surface patterns are analysed. The process parameter interactions and significance of process parameters on the processing quality and efficiency are characterised. An optimum operating window is recommended. The transferred geometry is compared with the patterns generated on the dies. A discussion is made to explain the characteristics of laser texturing and pattern replication on plastics.

  15. Analytical performances of laser-induced micro-plasma of Al samples with single and double ultrashort pulses in air and with Ar-jet: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semerok, A.; Dutouquet, C.

    2014-01-01

    Ultrashort pulse laser microablation coupled with optical emission spectroscopy was under study to obtain several micro-LIBS analytical features (shot-to-shot reproducibility, spectral line intensity and lifetime, calibration curves, detection limits). Laser microablation of Al matrix samples with known Cu- and Mg-concentrations was performed by single and double pulses of 50 fs and 1 ps pulse duration in air and with Ar-jet. The micro-LIBS analytical features obtained under different experimental conditions were characterized and compared. The highest shot-to-shot reproducibility and gain in plasma spectral line intensity were obtained with double pulses with Ar-jet for both 50 fs and 1 ps pulse durations. The best calibration curves were obtained with 1 ps pulse duration with Ar-jet. Micro-LIBS with ultrashort double pulses may find its effective application for surface elemental microcartography. - Highlights: • Analytical performances of micro-LIBS with ultrashort double pulses were studied. • The maximal line intensity gain of 20 was obtained with double pulses and Ar-jet. • LIBS gain was obtained without additional ablation of a sample by the second pulse. • LIBS properties were almost the same for both 50 fs and 1 ps pulses. • The micro-LIBS detection limit was around 35 ppm

  16. Characterization and analyses on micro-hardness, residual stress and microstructure in laser cladding coating of 316L stainless steel subjected to massive LSP treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, K.Y.; Jing, X.; Sheng, J. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); Sun, G.F. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, 211189 (China); Yan, Z. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); Lu, J.Z., E-mail: jzlu@ujs.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China)

    2016-07-15

    The effects of massive laser shock peening (LSP) treatment on micro-hardness, residual stress and microstructure in four different zones of laser cladding coating was investigated. Furthermore, micro-hardness curves and residual stress distributions with and without massive LSP treatment were presented and compared, and typical microstructure in different zones of both coatings were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and cross-sectional optical microscope (OM) observations. Results and analyses showed that massive LSP treatment had an important influence on micro-hardness and residual stress of the cladding coating. Special attempt was made to the effects of massive LSP treatment on microstructure in three zones of the cladding coating. In addition, the underlying mechanism of massive LSP treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties of the cladding coating was revealed clearly. - Highlights: • Micro-hardness and residual stress curves of both coatings were presented and compared. • Typical microstructure in different zones of both coatings were characterized and analyzed. • LSP causes increased micro-activities, and induces plastic deformation layer in three zones. • Underlying mechanism of LSP on mechanical properties of cladding coating was revealed.

  17. Laser material processing

    CERN Document Server

    Steen, William

    2010-01-01

    This text moves from the basics of laser physics to detailed treatments of all major materials processing techniques for which lasers are now essential. New chapters cover laser physics, drilling, micro- and nanomanufacturing and biomedical laser processing.

  18. Numerical and Experimental Investigations of Humping Phenomena in Laser Micro Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Andreas; Patschger, Andreas; Seiler, Michael

    The Humping effect is a phenomenon which is observed approximately since 50 years in various welding procedures and is characterized by droplets due to a pile-up of the melt pool. It occurs within a broad range of process parameters. Particularly during micro welding, humping effect is critical due to typically high feed rates. In the past, essentially two approaches (fluid-dynamic approach of streaming melt within the molten pool and the Plateau-Rayleigh instability of a liquid jet) were discussed in order to explain the occurrence of the humping effect. But none of both can fully explain all observed effects. For this reason, experimental studies in micro welding of thin metal foils were performed in order to determine the influence of process parameters on the occurrence of humping effects. The experimental observations were compared with results from numerical multi-physical simulations (incorporating beam propagation, incoupling, heat transfer, fluid dynamics etc.) to provide a deeper understanding of the causes for hump formation.

  19. Cellular Scanning Strategy for Selective Laser Melting: Capturing Thermal Trends with a Low-Fidelity, Pseudo-Analytical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankhya Mohanty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulations of additive manufacturing processes are known to be computationally expensive. The resulting large runtimes prohibit their application in secondary analysis requiring several complete simulations such as optimization studies, and sensitivity analysis. In this paper, a low-fidelity pseudo-analytical model has been introduced to enable such secondary analysis. The model has been able to mimic a finite element model and was able to capture the thermal trends associated with the process. The model has been validated and subsequently applied in a small optimization case study. The pseudo-analytical modelling technique is established as a fast tool for primary modelling investigations.

  20. Development of procedures for spectrometer brand Spectral Products to capture spectra of incoherent optical radiation for the Laboratorio de Fotonica y Tecnologia Laser Aplicada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias Avendano, Fabio Andres

    2008-01-01

    The procedure to capture spectra of incoherent optical radiation for the Laboratorio de Fotonica y Tecnologia Laser Aplicada (LAFTLA), of the Escuela de Ingenieria Electrica de la Universidad de Costa Rica is developed through the use of a spectrometer brand Spectral Products. The thorough understanding of manuals spectrometer brand Spectral Products was necessary for the satisfactory development of the project. Spectrometer and the card National Instruments are installed and run both devices with a montage of suitable laboratory. Two catches of spectrum for two different sources of optical radiation are performanced, since damages to the files .ddl precluded that the SM 240 spectrometer worked properly to take more catches to other sources of optical radiation. A final report containing the two catches is produced with the respective analysis. (author) [es

  1. Ambient infrared laser ablation mass spectrometry (AIRLAB-MS) with plume capture by continuous flow solvent probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jeremy T.; Williams, Evan R.; Holman, Hoi-Ying N.

    2017-10-31

    A new experimental setup for spatially resolved ambient infrared laser ablation mass spectrometry (AIRLAB-MS) that uses an infrared microscope with an infinity-corrected reflective objective and a continuous flow solvent probe coupled to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer is described. The efficiency of material transfer from the sample to the electrospray ionization emitter was determined using glycerol/methanol droplets containing 1 mM nicotine and is .about.50%. This transfer efficiency is significantly higher than values reported for similar techniques.

  2. Comparison of Maraging Steel Micro- and Nanostructure Produced Conventionally and by Laser Additive Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A. Jägle

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Maraging steels are used to produce tools by Additive Manufacturing (AM methods such as Laser Metal Deposition (LMD and Selective Laser Melting (SLM. Although it is well established that dense parts can be produced by AM, the influence of the AM process on the microstructure—in particular the content of retained and reversed austenite as well as the nanostructure, especially the precipitate density and chemistry, are not yet explored. Here, we study these features using microhardness measurements, Optical Microscopy, Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS, and Atom Probe Tomography (APT in the as-produced state and during ageing heat treatment. We find that due to microsegregation, retained austenite exists in the as-LMD- and as-SLM-produced states but not in the conventionally-produced material. The hardness in the as-LMD-produced state is higher than in the conventionally and SLM-produced materials, however, not in the uppermost layers. By APT, it is confirmed that this is due to early stages of precipitation induced by the cyclic re-heating upon further deposition—i.e., the intrinsic heat treatment associated with LMD. In the peak-aged state, which is reached after a similar time in all materials, the hardness of SLM- and LMD-produced material is slightly lower than in conventionally-produced material due to the presence of retained austenite and reversed austenite formed during ageing.

  3. Comparison of Maraging Steel Micro- and Nanostructure Produced Conventionally and by Laser Additive Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jägle, Eric A; Sheng, Zhendong; Kürnsteiner, Philipp; Ocylok, Sörn; Weisheit, Andreas; Raabe, Dierk

    2016-12-24

    Maraging steels are used to produce tools by Additive Manufacturing (AM) methods such as Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) and Selective Laser Melting (SLM). Although it is well established that dense parts can be produced by AM, the influence of the AM process on the microstructure-in particular the content of retained and reversed austenite as well as the nanostructure, especially the precipitate density and chemistry, are not yet explored. Here, we study these features using microhardness measurements, Optical Microscopy, Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), and Atom Probe Tomography (APT) in the as-produced state and during ageing heat treatment. We find that due to microsegregation, retained austenite exists in the as-LMD- and as-SLM-produced states but not in the conventionally-produced material. The hardness in the as-LMD-produced state is higher than in the conventionally and SLM-produced materials, however, not in the uppermost layers. By APT, it is confirmed that this is due to early stages of precipitation induced by the cyclic re-heating upon further deposition-i.e., the intrinsic heat treatment associated with LMD. In the peak-aged state, which is reached after a similar time in all materials, the hardness of SLM- and LMD-produced material is slightly lower than in conventionally-produced material due to the presence of retained austenite and reversed austenite formed during ageing.

  4. Limitations to laser machining of silicon using femtosecond micro-Bessel beams in the infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grojo, David; Mouskeftaras, Alexandros; Delaporte, Philippe; Lei, Shuting

    2015-01-01

    We produce and characterize high-angle femtosecond Bessel beams at 1300-nm wavelength leading to nonlinearly ionized plasma micro-channels in both glass and silicon. With microjoule pulse energy, we demonstrate controlled through-modifications in 150-μm glass substrates. In silicon, strong two-photon absorption leads to larger damages at the front surface but also a clamping of the intensity inside the bulk at a level of ≈4 × 10 11  W cm −2 which is below the threshold for volume and rear surface modification. We show that the intensity clamping is associated with a strong degradation of the Bessel-like profile. The observations highlight that the inherent limitation to ultrafast energy deposition inside semiconductors with Gaussian focusing [Mouskeftaras et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 191103 (2014)] applies also for high-angle Bessel beams

  5. Nano and micro structured targets to modulate the spatial profile of laser driven proton beams

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Giuffrida, Lorenzo; Svensson, K.; Pšikal, Jan; Margarone, Daniele; Lutoslawski, P.; Scuderi, Valentina; Milluzzo, G.; Kaufman, Jan; Wiste, Tuomas; Dalui, M.; Ekerfelt, H.; Gonzalez, I.G.; Lundh, O.; Persson, A.; Picciotto, A.; Crivellari, M.; Bagolini, A.; Bellutti, P.; Magnusson, J.; Gonoskov, A.; Klimša, Ladislav; Kopeček, Jaromír; Laštovička, Tomáš; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Wahlström, C.-G.; Korn, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, Mar (2017), s. 1-6, č. článku C03040. ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162; GA MŠk LQ1606; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-02964S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 284464 - LASER LAB-EUROPE Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : accelerator applications * beam dynamics Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016

  6. Toughness amplification in copper/epoxy joints through pulsed laser micro-machined interface heterogeneities

    KAUST Repository

    Hernandez Diaz, Edwin

    2017-11-21

    This work addresses the mechanics of debonding along copper/epoxy joints featuring patterned interfaces. Engineered surface heterogeneities with enhanced adhesion properties are generated through pulsed laser irradiation. Peel tests are carried out to ascertain the effect of patterns shape and area fraction on the mechanical response. Experimental results are evaluated with the support of three-dimensional finite element simulations based on the use of cohesive surfaces. Results discussion is largely framed in terms of effective peel force and energy absorbed to sever the samples. It is shown that surface heterogeneities act as sites of potential crack pinning able to trigger crack initiation, propagation and arrest. Surface patterns ultimately enable a remarkable increase in the effective peel force and dissipated energy with respect to baseline homogeneous sanded interface.

  7. Toughness amplification in copper/epoxy joints through pulsed laser micro-machined interface heterogeneities

    KAUST Repository

    Diaz, Edwin Hernandez; Alfano, Marco; Pulungan, Ditho Ardiansyah; Lubineau, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    This work addresses the mechanics of debonding along copper/epoxy joints featuring patterned interfaces. Engineered surface heterogeneities with enhanced adhesion properties are generated through pulsed laser irradiation. Peel tests are carried out to ascertain the effect of patterns shape and area fraction on the mechanical response. Experimental results are evaluated with the support of three-dimensional finite element simulations based on the use of cohesive surfaces. Results discussion is largely framed in terms of effective peel force and energy absorbed to sever the samples. It is shown that surface heterogeneities act as sites of potential crack pinning able to trigger crack initiation, propagation and arrest. Surface patterns ultimately enable a remarkable increase in the effective peel force and dissipated energy with respect to baseline homogeneous sanded interface.

  8. High beta capture and mirror confinement of laser produced plasmas. Semiannual report, April 1, 1977--September 30, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haught, A.F.; Tomlinson, R.G.; Ard, W.B.

    1977-09-01

    The LITE research program is addressing two aspects of mirror confinement physics. ECRH heating of the confined LITE plasma is being investigated as a means for producing a local electrostatic well to trap cold ions within the plasma and provide DCLC stabilization without the energy drain effects obtained with a cold stabilizing stream. Concurrently, the heavy ion beam probe diagnostic being developed in LITE to experimentally measure the space potential within a minimum-B mirror plasma. During the period, 10-A beam injection focused on the target location has been achieved with the neutral beam source; investigations of hot ion building have been carried out with both a laser produced and a washer gun target; calculations modeling the ECRH stabilization have been performed, the experimental program defined, and preparations for the ECRH stabilization investigation undertaken; and the high current cesium source and high resolution electrostatic analyzer have been developed for the heavy ion beam probe. The physics of the ECRH stabilization model is studied, and conditions necessary to produce a local potential well for trapping cold ions are examined. An analysis of the stabilizing effect of this potential dip on the DCLC mode is presented. The heavy ion probe, under development for direct measurement of the mirror plasma space potential, is discussed. Using Thomson scattering measurements to calibrate the complex response of an electron cyclotron resonance microwave radiometer, measurements have been made of the time history of the electron temperature for the decaying mirror confined laser plasma target with and without streaming plasma stabilization and are reported

  9. Influence of Er,Cr:YSGG Laser Surface Treatments on Micro Push-Out Bond Strength of Fiber Posts to Composite Resin Core Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrsima Ghavami-Lahiji

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of problem: The bonding of fiber post to resin core or root dentin is challenged by limited penetration of resin material to the polymeric matrix of fiber posts. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Er,Cr:YSGG on micro push-out bond strength of glass fiber posts to resin core material. Materials and Methods: We used 2 commercially available fiber posts, Exacto (Angelus and White Post DC (FGM, which had similar coronal diameters. Specimens of each fiber post (n=36 were randomly divided into three subgroups (n=12 posts per group according to different surface treatment methods: control (no surface treatment, irradiation by 1W Er,Cr:YSGG, and irradiation by 1.5W Er,Cr:YSGG. A cylindrical plastic tube was placed around the post. Resin core material was filled into the tube and cured. Coronal portions of the posts were sectioned into 1-mm-thick slices. Then, the specimens were subjected to a thermocyling device for 3000 cycles. The micro push-out test was carried out using a Universal Testing Machine. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s HSD post hoc test to investigate the effect of different surface treatments on each type of fiber post. Results: The 1.5W Er,Cr:YSGG laser statistically reduced micro push-out bond strength values in the Exacto groups (P0.05. Mode of failure analysis showed that mixed failure was the predominant failure type for all surface treatment groups. Conclusions: The beneficial effect of Er,Cr:YSGG laser application could not be confirmed based on the results of this in vitro study. Er,Cr:YSGG laser could not significantly enhance the bond strength values. However, the 1.5W laser statistically decreased micro push-out bond strength in the Exacto fiber posts.

  10. Useful method to monitor the physiological effects of alcohol ingestion by combination of micro-integrated laser Doppler blood flow meter and arm-raising test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Wataru; Nogami, Hirofumi; Ito, Hiroki; Gotanda, Takeshi; Peng, Yao; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Furue, Masutaka; Higurashi, Eiji; Sawada, Renshi

    2012-10-01

    Alcohol has a variety of effects on the human body, affecting both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. We examined the peripheral blood flow of alcohol drinkers using a micro-integrated laser Doppler blood flow meter (micro-electromechanical system blood flow sensor). An increased heart rate and blood flow was recorded at the earlobe after alcohol ingestion, and we observed strong correlation between blood flow, heart rate, and breath alcohol content in light drinkers; but not heavy drinkers. We also found that the amplitude of pulse waves measured at the fingertip during an arm-raising test significantly decreased on alcohol consumption, regardless of the individual's alcohol tolerance. Our micro-electromechanical system blood flow sensor successfully detected various physiological changes in peripheral blood circulation induced by alcohol consumption.

  11. New insights on the Dronino iron meteorite by double-pulse micro-Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempesta, Gioacchino; Senesi, Giorgio S.; Manzari, Paola; Agrosì, Giovanna

    2018-06-01

    Two fragments of an iron meteorite shower named Dronino were characterized by a novel technique, i.e. Double-Pulse micro-Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (DP-μLIBS) combined with optical microscope. This technique allowed to perform a fast and detailed analysis of the chemical composition of the fragments and permitted to determine their composition, the alteration state differences and the cooling rate of the meteorite. Qualitative analysis indicated the presence of Fe, Ni and Co in both fragments, whereas the elements Al, Ca, Mg, Si and, for the first time Li, were detected only in one fragment and were related to its post-falling alteration and contamination by weathering processes. Quantitative analysis data obtained using the calibration-free (CF) - LIBS method showed a good agreement with those obtained by traditional methods generally applied to meteorite analysis, i.e. Electron Dispersion Spectroscopy - Scanning Electron Microscopy (EDS-SEM), also performed in this study, and Electron Probe Microanalysis (EMPA) (literature data). The local and coupled variability of Ni and Co (increase of Ni and decrease of Co) determined for the unaltered portions exhibiting plessite texture, suggested the occurrence of solid state diffusion processes under a slow cooling rate for the Dronino meteorite.

  12. Modeling of electro-statically actuated two-axis (tip-tilt) MEMS torsion micro-mirrors for laser beamsteering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, C. L.; Boone, B. G.; Levine, W. S.; Davis, C. C.

    2007-04-01

    The availability of recently developed MEMS micro-mirror technology provides an opportunity to replace macro-scale actuators for free-space laser beamsteering in lidar and communication systems. Such an approach is under investigation at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory for use on space-based platforms. Precision modeling of mirror pointing and its dynamics are critical to optimal design and control of MEMS beamsteerers. Beginning with Hornbeck's torque approach, this paper presents a first-principle, analytically closed-form torque model for an electro-statically actuated two-axis (tip-tilt) MEMS structure. An Euler dynamic equation formulation describes the gimbaled motion as a coupled pair of damped harmonic oscillators with a common forcing function. Static physical parameters such as MEMS mirror dimensions, facet mass, and height are inputs to the model as well as dynamic harmonic oscillator parameters such as damping and restoring constants fitted from measurements. A Taylor series expansion of the torque function provides valuable insights into basic one dimensional as well as two dimensional MEMS behavior, including operational sensitivities near "pull-in." The model also permits the natural inclusion and analysis of pointing noise sources such as electrical drive noise, platform vibration, and molecular Brownian motion. MATLAB and SIMULINK simulations illustrate performance sensitivities, controllability, and physical limitations, important considerations in the design of optimal pointing systems.

  13. Effects of laser shock processing on mechanical properties and micro-structure of ANSI 304 austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, K.Y.; Lu, J.Z.; Zhang, Y.K.; Zhou, J.Z.; Zhang, L.F.; Dai, F.Z.; Zhang, L.; Zhong, J.W.; Cui, C.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Effects of LSP on mechanical properties of stainless steel ANSI 304 are evaluated. → LSP can clearly enhance the values of mechanical properties in the shocked region. → Martensite transformation does not take place in the surface layer subjected to LSP. → Enhancement mechanisms of LSP on mechanical property of stainless steel are revealed. → The results can provide some insights on the surface modification of stainless steel. - Abstract: The aim of this article is to address the effects of a single laser shock processing (LSP) impact on the nano-hardness, elastic modulus, residual stress and phase transformation of ANSI 304 austenitic stainless steel. Residual stress distribution of the LSP-shocked region is determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) with sin 2 ψ method, and the micro-structural features in the near-surface layer are characterized by using cross-sectional optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). By comparing with the untreated samples, LSP can clearly improve nano-hardness, elastic modulus, and residual stress in the LSP-shocked region. The underlying enhancement mechanisms of LSP on nano-hardness, elastic modulus and residual stress of stainless steel ANSI 304 are also revealed. These studies may provide some important insights into surface modification for metal materials.

  14. Unambiguous detection of multiple TP53 gene mutations in AAN-associated urothelial cancer in Belgium using laser capture microdissection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Aydin

    Full Text Available In the Balkan and Taiwan, the relationship between exposure to aristolochic acid and risk of urothelial neoplasms was inferred from the A>T genetic hallmark in TP53 gene from malignant cells. This study aimed to characterize the TP53 mutational spectrum in urothelial cancers consecutive to Aristolochic Acid Nephropathy in Belgium. Serial frozen tumor sections from female patients (n=5 exposed to aristolochic acid during weight-loss regimen were alternatively used either for p53 immunostaining or laser microdissection. Tissue areas with at least 60% p53-positive nuclei were selected for microdissecting sections according to p53-positive matching areas. All areas appeared to be carcinoma in situ. After DNA extraction, mutations in the TP53 hot spot region (exons 5-8 were identified using nested-PCR and sequencing. False-negative controls consisted in microdissecting fresh-frozen tumor tissues both from a patient with a Li-Fraumeni syndrome who carried a p53 constitutional mutation, and from KRas mutated adenocarcinomas. To rule out false-positive results potentially generated by microdissection and nested-PCR, a phenacetin-associated urothelial carcinoma and normal fresh ureteral tissues (n=4 were processed with high laser power. No unexpected results being identified, molecular analysis was pursued on malignant tissues, showing at least one mutation in all (six different mutations in two patients, with 13/16 exonic (nonsense, 2; missense, 11 and 3/16 intronic (one splice site mutations. They were distributed as transitions (n=7 or transversions (n=9, with an equal prevalence of A>T and G>T (3/16 each. While current results are in line with A>T prevalence previously reported in Balkan and Taiwan studies, they also demonstrate that multiple mutations in the TP53 hot spot region and a high frequency of G>T transversion appear as a complementary signature reflecting the toxicity of a cumulative dose of aristolochic acid ingested over a short period

  15. Laser-generated Micro-bubbles for Molecular Delivery to Adherent Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Suzanne Lee

    We examine the use of optical breakdown in aqueous media as a means to deliver molecules into live adherent cell cultures. This process, called optoinjection (OI), is affected both by the media composition and the cellular exposure to hydrodynamic stresses associated with the cavitation bubble formed by the optical breakdown process. Here we explore the possibility of performing OI using laser microbeams focused at low numerical aperture to provide conditions where OI can be performed at high-throughput. We first investigate the effect of media composition on plasma and cavitation bubble formation. We make the discovery that irradiation of minimal essential media, supports the formation of low-density plasmas (LDP) resulting in the generation of small (2--20 mum radius) cavitation bubbles. This provides gentle specific hydrodynamic perturbations to single or small groups of cells. The addition of supplemental fetal bovine serum to the medium prevents the formation LDPs and the resulting avalanche ionization generates larger (> 100 mum radius) bubbles and more violent hydrodynamic effects. Second, using high-speed photography we provide the first visualization of LDP-generated cavitation bubbles at precise offset locations relative to a boundary on which a cell monolayer can be cultured. These images depict the cellular exposure to different hydrodynamic conditions depending on the normalized offset distance (gamma = s/Rmax) and show how it affects the cellular exposure to shear stresses upon bubble expansion and different distributions of bubble energy upon collapse. Lastly, we examine the effects of pulse energy, parameters, and single vs. multiple laser exposures on the ability to deliver 3-5 kDa dextrans into adherent cells using both small (< 20 mum) and large (100mu m) radius bubbles. For single exposures, we identify several conditions under which OI can be optimized: (a) conditions where cell viability is maximized (˜90%) but optoinjection of viable cells

  16. MODELLING OF AN INEXPENSIVE 9M SATELLITE DISH FROM 3D POINT CLOUDS CAPTURED BY TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Belton

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of Terrestrial laser scanners (TLS to model the surface of satellite dish. In this case, the dish was an inexpensive 9m parabolic satellite dish with a mesh surface, and was to be utilised in radio astronomy. The aim of the modelling process was to determine the deviation of the surface away from its true parabolic shape, in order to estimate the surface efficiency with respect to its principal receiving frequency. The main mathematical problems were the optimal and unbiased estimation the orientation of the dish and the fitting of a parabola to the local orientation or coordinate system, which were done by both orthogonal and algebraic minimization using the least-squares method. Due to the mesh structure of the dish, a classification method was also applied to filter out erroneous points being influenced by the supporting structure behind the dish. Finally, a comparison is performed between the ideal parabolic shape, and the data collected from three different temporal intervals.

  17. Flexible micro supercapacitors based on laser-scribed graphene/ZnO nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Morteza Hassanpour; Namdar, Naser; Mashayekhi, Alireza; Ghasemi, Foad; Sanaee, Zeinab; Mohajerzadeh, Shams

    2016-08-01

    We report on the fabrication of graphene/Zno nanocomposite supercapacitor electrodes. Laser-scribing process was implemented in order to reduce the graphene oxide (GO)/ZnO mixture on a DVD disk. With reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/ZnO composite prepared by a mass ratio of 1:25 of Zn(NO3)2·6H2O to GO constituents, nanoparticles of ZnO with sizes ranging from 20 to 50 nm are obtained. Consequently, 12 times improvement in the specific capacitance was achieved at a current density of 0.1 mA/cm2 compared with pristine rGO electrodes. In addition, flexible microsupercapacitor was fabricated by spin coating of the gel electrolyte, showing high stack capacitance of 9 F/cm3 at a current density of 150 mA/cm2. This microsupercapacitor delivers power density of 70 mW/cm3 and energy density of 1.2 mWh/cm3. Furthermore, the performance of device was investigated at different bending angles. The resulted characteristics demonstrate that LSG/ZnO nanocomposite is a promising electrode material for high-performance supercapacitors.

  18. Flexible micro supercapacitors based on laser-scribed graphene/ZnO nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiri, Morteza Hassanpour; Namdar, Naser; Mashayekhi, Alireza; Ghasemi, Foad; Sanaee, Zeinab; Mohajerzadeh, Shams

    2016-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of graphene/Zno nanocomposite supercapacitor electrodes. Laser-scribing process was implemented in order to reduce the graphene oxide (GO)/ZnO mixture on a DVD disk. With reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/ZnO composite prepared by a mass ratio of 1:25 of Zn(NO_3)_2·6H_2O to GO constituents, nanoparticles of ZnO with sizes ranging from 20 to 50 nm are obtained. Consequently, 12 times improvement in the specific capacitance was achieved at a current density of 0.1 mA/cm"2 compared with pristine rGO electrodes. In addition, flexible microsupercapacitor was fabricated by spin coating of the gel electrolyte, showing high stack capacitance of 9 F/cm"3 at a current density of 150 mA/cm"2. This microsupercapacitor delivers power density of 70 mW/cm"3 and energy density of 1.2 mWh/cm"3. Furthermore, the performance of device was investigated at different bending angles. The resulted characteristics demonstrate that LSG/ZnO nanocomposite is a promising electrode material for high-performance supercapacitors.Graphical Abstract.

  19. Air Trapping Mechanism in Artificial Salvinia-Like Micro-Hairs Fabricated via Direct Laser Lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Tricinci

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Salvinia leaves represent an extraordinary example of how nature found a strategy for the long term retainment of air, and thus oxygen, on a surface, the so-called ‘Salvinia effect’, thanks to the peculiar three-dimensional and hierarchical shape of the hairs covering the leaves. Here, starting from the natural model, we have microfabricated hairs inspired by those present on the Salvinia molesta leaves, by means of direct laser lithography. Artificial hairs, like their natural counterpart, are composed of a stalk and a crown-like head, and have been reproduced in the microscale since this ensures, if using a proper design, an air-retaining behavior even if the bulk structural material is hydrophilic. We have investigated the capability of air retainment inside the heads of the hairs that can last up to 100 h, demonstrating the stability of the phenomenon. For a given dimension of the head, the greater the number of filaments, the greater the amount of air that can be trapped inside the heads since the increase in the number of solid–air interfaces able to pin the liquid phase. For this reason, such type of pattern could be used for the fabrication of surfaces for controlled gas retainment and gas release in liquid phases. The range of applications would be quite large, including industrial, medical, and biological fields.

  20. Flexible micro supercapacitors based on laser-scribed graphene/ZnO nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amiri, Morteza Hassanpour; Namdar, Naser [University of Tehran, Thin Film and Nano-electronic Laboratory, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mashayekhi, Alireza [University of Tehran, Nano-fabricated Energy Devices Laboratory, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghasemi, Foad [University of Tehran, Thin Film and Nano-electronic Laboratory, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sanaee, Zeinab [University of Tehran, Nano-fabricated Energy Devices Laboratory, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohajerzadeh, Shams, E-mail: mohajer@ut.ac.ir [University of Tehran, Thin Film and Nano-electronic Laboratory, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    We report on the fabrication of graphene/Zno nanocomposite supercapacitor electrodes. Laser-scribing process was implemented in order to reduce the graphene oxide (GO)/ZnO mixture on a DVD disk. With reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/ZnO composite prepared by a mass ratio of 1:25 of Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O to GO constituents, nanoparticles of ZnO with sizes ranging from 20 to 50 nm are obtained. Consequently, 12 times improvement in the specific capacitance was achieved at a current density of 0.1 mA/cm{sup 2} compared with pristine rGO electrodes. In addition, flexible microsupercapacitor was fabricated by spin coating of the gel electrolyte, showing high stack capacitance of 9 F/cm{sup 3} at a current density of 150 mA/cm{sup 2}. This microsupercapacitor delivers power density of 70 mW/cm{sup 3} and energy density of 1.2 mWh/cm{sup 3}. Furthermore, the performance of device was investigated at different bending angles. The resulted characteristics demonstrate that LSG/ZnO nanocomposite is a promising electrode material for high-performance supercapacitors.Graphical Abstract.

  1. Micro spatial analysis of seashell surface using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yuan; Li, Yuandong; Li, Ying [Optics and Optoelectronics Lab, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Wang, Yangfan; Wang, Shi; Bao, Zhenmin [Life Science College, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003 (China); Zheng, Ronger, E-mail: rzheng@ouc.edu.cn [Optics and Optoelectronics Lab, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China)

    2015-08-01

    The seashell has been studied as a proxy for the marine researches since it is the biomineralization product recording the growth development and the ocean ecosystem evolution. In this work a hybrid of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Raman spectroscopy was introduced to the composition analysis of seashell (scallop, bivalve, Zhikong). Without any sample treatment, the compositional distribution of the shell was obtained using LIBS for the element detection and Raman for the molecule recognition respectively. The elements Ca, K, Li, Mg, Mn and Sr were recognized by LIBS; the molecule carotene and carbonate were identified with Raman. It was found that the LIBS detection result was more related to the shell growth than the detection result of Raman. The obtained result suggested the shell growth might be developing in both horizontal and vertical directions. It was indicated that the LIBS–Raman combination could be an alternative way for the shell researches. - Highlights: • A LIBS–Raman hybrid system was developed. • A seashell has been analyzed for the elementary and molecular distribution with a system. • The shell growth development was studied on the surface and in the depth.

  2. Characterization of silicon micro-strip sensors with a pulsed infra-red laser system for the CBM experiment at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, P.

    2015-01-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR is composed of 8 tracking stations consisting of 1292 double sided silicon micro-strip sensors. For the quality assurance of produced prototype sensors a laser test system (LTS) has been developed. The aim of the LTS is to scan sensors with a pulsed infra-red laser driven by step motor to determine the charge sharing in-between strips and to measure qualitative uniformity of the sensor response over the whole active area. The prototype sensors which are tested with the LTS so far have 256 strips with a pitch of 50 μm on each side. They are read-out using a self-triggering prototype read-out electronic ASIC called n-XYTER. The LTS is designed to measure sensor response in an automatized procedure at several thousand positions across the sensor with focused infra-red laser light (spot size ≈ 12 μm , wavelength = 1060 nm). The pulse with duration (≈ 10 ns) and power (≈ 5 mW) of the laser pulses is selected such, that the absorption of the laser light in the 300 μm thick silicon sensors produces a number of about 24000 electrons, which is similar to the charge created by minimum ionizing particles (MIP) in these sensors. Laser scans different prototype sensors is reported

  3. Characterization of silicon micro-strip sensors with a pulsed infra-red laser system for the CBM experiment at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Pradeep [Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Eschke, Juergen [GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research, GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The Silicon Tracking System (STS) of the CBM experiment at FAIR is composed of 8 tracking stations comprising of 1292 double-sided silicon micro-strip sensors. A Laser Test System (LTS) has been developed for the quality assurance of prototype sensors. The aim is to scan sensors with a pulsed infra-red laser driven by step motor to determine the charge sharing in-between strips and to measure qualitative uniformity of the sensor response over the whole active area. Several prototype sensors with strip pitch of 50 and 58 μm have been tested, as well as a prototype module with realistic mechanical arrangement of sensor and read-out cables. The LTS is designed to measure sensor response in an automatized procedure across the sensor with focused laser beam (spot-size ∼ 12 μm, wavelength = 1060 nm). The pulse with duration (∼ 10 ns) and power (∼ 5 mW) of the laser pulses is selected such, that the absorption of the laser light in the 300 μm thick silicon sensors produces a number of about 24000 electrons, which is similar to the charge created by minimum ionizing particles (MIP) in these sensors. Results from laser scans of prototype sensors and detector module are reported.

  4. Programs for interfacing digital storage oscilloscope and micro positioner to a PC for laser induced vaporisation mass spectrometric facility - an application note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, M.; Sivakumar, N.

    1995-01-01

    A laser induced vaporization mass spectrometry (LIV-MS) facility is being developed in our laboratory. The primary motivation for building this mass spectrometry system is the need to generate vapour pressure data of reactor fuels at very high temperatures (∼ 5000K). High power pulsed lasers are ideal heat sources to attain these high temperatures in a containerless fashion and the mass spectrometer can be used to characterise the vapour species that are formed during laser vaporization. In this report the interfacing programs developed for the data acquisition from Digital Storage Oscilloscope and for controlling the micro positioner by a PC through a General Purpose Interface Bus (GPIB/IEEE 488) card are presented. The general structure adopted in the programs will be suitable for any such data collection procedures. (author)

  5. Arrays of 3D micro-columns generated by laser ablation of Ta and steel: modelling of a black body emitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensaoula, A.; Boney, C.; Pillai, R.; Starikov, D. [Texas Center for Superconductivity and Advanced Materials, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Shafeev, G.A.; Simakin, A.V. [Wave Research Center, General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-09-01

    Three-dimensional extended arrays of micro-columns are generated on the surface of Ta and several stainless steels by their ablation by radiation of a Cu vapor laser either in vacuum or in air. The reflectivity of the arrays is tested in both visible and near-IR regions using the facilities at NASA Johnson Space Center. The reflectivity of the laser-treated areas was found to be very low (0.03-0.08) in the range 250-2800 nm. The emissivity of 3D arrays measured at elevated temperatures is close to the emissivity of a calibrated black body emitter. The effects of the experimental conditions of ablation (laser fluence, environment, etc.) on the integral optical characteristics of the generated arrays are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Ultra-short pulse delivery at high average power with low-loss hollow core fibers coupled to TRUMPF's TruMicro laser platforms for industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumbach, S.; Pricking, S.; Overbuschmann, J.; Nutsch, S.; Kleinbauer, J.; Gebs, R.; Tan, C.; Scelle, R.; Kahmann, M.; Budnicki, A.; Sutter, D. H.; Killi, A.

    2017-02-01

    Multi-megawatt ultrafast laser systems at micrometer wavelength are commonly used for material processing applications, including ablation, cutting and drilling of various materials or cleaving of display glass with excellent quality. There is a need for flexible and efficient beam guidance, avoiding free space propagation of light between the laser head and the processing unit. Solid core step index fibers are only feasible for delivering laser pulses with peak powers in the kW-regime due to the optical damage threshold in bulk silica. In contrast, hollow core fibers are capable of guiding ultra-short laser pulses with orders of magnitude higher peak powers. This is possible since a micro-structured cladding confines the light within the hollow core and therefore minimizes the spatial overlap between silica and the electro-magnetic field. We report on recent results of single-mode ultra-short pulse delivery over several meters in a lowloss hollow core fiber packaged with industrial connectors. TRUMPF's ultrafast TruMicro laser platforms equipped with advanced temperature control and precisely engineered opto-mechanical components provide excellent position and pointing stability. They are thus perfectly suited for passive coupling of ultra-short laser pulses into hollow core fibers. Neither active beam launching components nor beam trackers are necessary for a reliable beam delivery in a space and cost saving packaging. Long term tests with weeks of stable operation, excellent beam quality and an overall transmission efficiency of above 85 percent even at high average power confirm the reliability for industrial applications.

  7. International Conference: Fundamentals of Laser Assisted Micro- & Nanotechnologies (FLAMN-07). Workshop: Laser Cleaning and Artworks Conservation (LCAC). St. Petersburg, Russia, 25-28 June 2007. Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-28

    DIKETONATE OF EUROPIUM (EUFOD3) CONFINED IN MICROPOROUS GLASS: UV LASER INDUCED LUMINESCENCE KINETICS AND QUANTUM YIELD...efficiency of controllable laser thermal cleavage of insulating materials,” J.Opt.Technol. 71, 117-120 (2004). WEDNESDAY, JUNE 27 Laser-induced static...PS2_23 B-diketonate of europium (EuFOD3) confined in microporous glass: UV laser induced luminescence kinetics and quantum yield Chutko E.A.1

  8. Spatial and molecular resolution of diffuse malignant mesothelioma heterogeneity by integrating label-free FTIR imaging, laser capture microdissection and proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Großerueschkamp, Frederik; Bracht, Thilo; Diehl, Hanna C.; Kuepper, Claus; Ahrens, Maike; Kallenbach-Thieltges, Angela; Mosig, Axel; Eisenacher, Martin; Marcus, Katrin; Behrens, Thomas; Brüning, Thomas; Theegarten, Dirk; Sitek, Barbara; Gerwert, Klaus

    2017-03-01

    Diffuse malignant mesothelioma (DMM) is a heterogeneous malignant neoplasia manifesting with three subtypes: epithelioid, sarcomatoid and biphasic. DMM exhibit a high degree of spatial heterogeneity that complicates a thorough understanding of the underlying different molecular processes in each subtype. We present a novel approach to spatially resolve the heterogeneity of a tumour in a label-free manner by integrating FTIR imaging and laser capture microdissection (LCM). Subsequent proteome analysis of the dissected homogenous samples provides in addition molecular resolution. FTIR imaging resolves tumour subtypes within tissue thin-sections in an automated and label-free manner with accuracy of about 85% for DMM subtypes. Even in highly heterogeneous tissue structures, our label-free approach can identify small regions of interest, which can be dissected as homogeneous samples using LCM. Subsequent proteome analysis provides a location specific molecular characterization. Applied to DMM subtypes, we identify 142 differentially expressed proteins, including five protein biomarkers commonly used in DMM immunohistochemistry panels. Thus, FTIR imaging resolves not only morphological alteration within tissue but it resolves even alterations at the level of single proteins in tumour subtypes. Our fully automated workflow FTIR-guided LCM opens new avenues collecting homogeneous samples for precise and predictive biomarkers from omics studies.

  9. Laser capture microdissection and cDNA array analysis of endometrium identify CCL16 and CCL21 as epithelial-derived inflammatory mediators associated with endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Rebecca L

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the pathophysiology of chemokine secretion in endometriosis may offer a novel area of therapeutic intervention. This study aimed to identify chemokines differentially expressed in epithelial glands in eutopic endometrium from normal women and those with endometriosis, and to establish the expression profiles of key chemokines in endometriotic lesions. Methods Laser capture microdissection isolated epithelial glands from endometrial eutopic tissue from women with and without endometriosis in the mid-secretory phase of their menstrual cycles. Gene profiling of the excised glands used a human chemokine and receptor cDNA array. Selected chemokines were further examined using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Results 22 chemokine/receptor genes were upregulated and two downregulated in pooled endometrial epithelium of women with endometriosis compared with controls. CCL16 and CCL21 mRNA was confirmed as elevated in some women with endometriosis compared to controls on individual samples. Immunoreactive CCL16 and CCL21 were predominantly confined to glands in eutopic and ectopic endometrium: leukocytes also stained. Immunoreactive CCL16 was overall higher in glands in ectopic vs. eutopic endometrium from the same woman (P Conclusion This study provides novel candidate molecules and suggests a potential local role for CCL16 and CCL21 as mediators contributing to the inflammatory events associated with endometriosis.

  10. A minute focus of extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma arising in Hashimoto thyroiditis diagnosed with PCR after laser capture microdissection: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Antonio Antonio

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary thyroid gland lymphomas are uncommon tumours that occur in the setting of lymphocytic thyroiditis or Hashimoto's disease in almost all cases. In this condition a distinction between an inflammatory lymphoid infiltrate and a low grade lymphoma may be extremely difficult and precise criteria are necessary for a correct diagnosis. Patient and methods We report a case of a minute focus of primary extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (EMZBCL, incidentally discovered in a 63-year-old man with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT and diagnosed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR after laser capture microdissection. The histological examination of surgical specimen confirmed the diagnosis of HT and showed a minute focus of dense lymphoid infiltrate (less than 4 mm in diameter, composed by centrocyte-like cells forming MALT balls. Immunoistochemistry was not useful. A microscopic focus of EMZBCL was suspected on the basis of morphological features. PCR assays revealed the rearrangement of the heavy chain of immunoglobulins only in the microdissected suspicious area, confirming the diagnosis of EMZBCL. Conclusion Our finding suggests that in cases of autoimmune thyroiditis a careful examination of the thyroid specimen is warranted, in order to disclose areas or small foci of lymphomatous transformation. Furthermore, in difficult cases with doubtful immunohistological findings, ancillary techniques, such as molecular studies, are necessary for a conclusive diagnosis.

  11. Gene Expression Analysis of Immunostained Endothelial Cells Isolated from Formaldehyde-fixated Paraffin Embedded Tumors Using Laser Capture Microdissection – a Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Tomoatsu; Okiji, Takashi; Kaneko, Reika; Suda, Hideaki; Nör, Jacques E.

    2009-01-01

    Laser capture microdissection (LCM) allows microscopic procurement of specific cell types from tissue sections that can then be used for gene expression analysis. In conventional LCM, frozen tissues stained with hematoxylin are normally used to the molecular analysis. Recent studies suggested that it is possible to carry out gene expression analysis of formaldehyde-fixated paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues that were stained with hematoxylin. However, it is still unclear if quantitative gene expression analyses can be performed from LCM cells from FFPE tissues that were subjected to immunostaining to enhance identification of target cells. In this proof-of-principle study, we analyzed by RT-PCR and real time PCR the expression of genes in factor VIII immunostained human endothelial cells that were dissected from FFPE tissues by LCM. We observed that immunostaining should be performed at 4°C to preserve the mRNA from the cells. The expression of Bcl-2 in the endothelial cells was evaluated by RT-PCR and by real time PCR. GAPDH and 18S were used as house keeping genes for RT-PCR and real time PCR, respectively. This report unveils a method for quantitative gene expression analysis in cells that were identified by immunostaining and retrieved by LCM from FFPE tissues. This method is ideally suited for the analysis of relatively rare cell types within a tissue, and should improve on our ability to perform differential diagnosis of pathologies as compared to conventional LCM. PMID:19425073

  12. Tailoring the electrode-electrolyte interface of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) by laser micro-patterning to improve their electrochemical performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebollero, J. A.; Lahoz, R.; Laguna-Bercero, M. A.; Larrea, A.

    2017-08-01

    Cathode activation polarisation is one of the main contributions to the losses of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell. To reduce this loss we use a pulsed laser to modify the surface of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes to make a corrugated micro-patterning in the mesoscale. The beam of the laser source, 5 ns pulse width and emitting at λ = 532 nm (green region), is computer-controlled to engrave the selected micro-pattern on the electrolyte surface. Several laser scanning procedures and geometries have been tested. Finally, we engrave a square array with 28 μm of lattice parameter and 7 μm in depth on YSZ plates. With these plates we prepare LSM-YSZ/YSZ/LSM-YSZ symmetrical cells (LSM: La1-xSrxMnO3) and determine their activation polarisation by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). To get good electrode-electrolyte contact after sintering it is necessary to use pressure-assisted sintering with low loads (about 5 kPa), which do not modify the electrode microstructure. The decrease in polarisation with respect to an unprocessed cell is about 30%. EIS analysis confirms that the reason for this decrease is an improvement in the activation processes at the electrode-electrolyte interface.

  13. Gravitational capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondi, H.

    1979-01-01

    In spite of the strength of gravitational focres between celestial bodies, gravitational capture is not a simple concept. The principles of conservation of linear momentum and of conservation of angular momentum, always impose severe constraints, while conservation of energy and the vital distinction between dissipative and non-dissipative systems allows one to rule out capture in a wide variety of cases. In complex systems especially those without dissipation, long dwell time is a more significant concept than permanent capture. (author)

  14. ;Study of secondary hydriding at high temperature in zirconium based nuclear fuel cladding tubes by coupling information from neutron radiography/tomography, electron probe micro analysis, micro elastic recoil detection analysis and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brachet, Jean-Christophe; Hamon, Didier; Le Saux, Matthieu; Vandenberghe, Valérie; Toffolon-Masclet, Caroline; Rouesne, Elodie; Urvoy, Stéphane; Béchade, Jean-Luc; Raepsaet, Caroline; Lacour, Jean-Luc; Bayon, Guy; Ott, Frédéric

    2017-05-01

    This paper gives an overview of a multi-scale experimental study of the secondary hydriding phenomena that can occur in nuclear fuel cladding materials exposed to steam at high temperature (HT) after having burst (loss-of-coolant accident conditions). By coupling information from several facilities, including neutron radiography/tomography, electron probe micro analysis, micro elastic recoil detection analysis and micro laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, it was possible to map quantitatively, at different scales, the distribution of oxygen and hydrogen within M5™ clad segments having experienced ballooning and burst at HT followed by steam oxidation at 1100 and 1200 °C and final direct water quenching down to room temperature. The results were very reproducible and it was confirmed that internal oxidation and secondary hydriding at HT of a cladding after burst can lead to strong axial and azimuthal gradients of hydrogen and oxygen concentrations, reaching 3000-4000 wt ppm and 1.0-1.2 wt% respectively within the β phase layer for the investigated conditions. Consistent with thermodynamic and kinetics considerations, oxygen diffusion into the prior-β layer was enhanced in the regions highly enriched in hydrogen, where the α(O) phase layer is thinner and the prior-β layer thicker. Finally the induced post-quenching hardening of the prior-β layer was mainly related to the local oxygen enrichment. Hardening directly induced by hydrogen was much less significant.

  15. Narrow-line external cavity diode laser micro-packaging in the NIR and MIR spectral range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, A.; Milde, T.; Staacke, N.; Aßmann, C.; Carpintero, G.; Sacher, J.

    2017-07-01

    Narrow-linewidth tunable diode lasers are an important tool for spectroscopic instrumentation. Conventional external cavity diode lasers offer high output power and narrow linewidth. However, most external cavity diode lasers are designed as laboratory instrument and do not allow portability. In comparison, other commonly used lasers, like distributed feedback lasers (DFB) that are capable of driving a handheld device, are limited in power and show linewidths which are not sufficiently narrow for certain applications. We present new miniaturized types of tunable external cavity diode laser which overcome the drawbacks of conventional external cavity diode lasers and which preserve the advantages of this laser concept. Three different configurations are discussed in this article. The three types of miniaturized external cavity diode laser systems achieve power values of more than 50 mW within the 1.4 μm water vapor absorption band with excellent side-mode suppression and linewidth below 100 kHz. Typical features outstand with respect to other type of laser systems which are of extended use such as DFB laser diodes. The higher output power and the lower linewidth will enable a higher sensitivity and resolution for a wide range of applications.

  16. Peri-implant osseointegration after low-level laser therapy: micro-computed tomography and resonance frequency analysis in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Luciano; Gomes, Fernando Vacilotto; de Oliveira, Marília Gerhardt; de Moraes, João Feliz Duarte; Carlsson, Lennart

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effects of low-level laser therapy on the osseointegration process by comparing resonance frequency analysis measurements performed at implant placement and after 30 days and micro-computed tomography images in irradiated vs nonirradiated rabbits. Fourteen male New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into two groups of seven animals each, one control group (nonirradiated animals) and one experimental group that received low-level laser therapy (Thera Lase®, aluminum-gallium-arsenide laser diode, 10 J per spot, two spots per session, seven sessions, 830 nm, 50 mW, CW, Ø 0.0028 cm 2 ). The mandibular left incisor was surgically extracted in all animals, and one osseointegrated implant was placed immediately afterward (3.25ø × 11.5 mm; NanoTite, BIOMET 3i). Resonance frequency analysis was performed with the Osstell® device at implant placement and at 30 days (immediately before euthanasia). Micro-computed tomography analyses were then conducted using a high-resolution scanner (SkyScan 1172 X-ray Micro-CT) to evaluate the amount of newly formed bone around the implants. Irradiated animals showed significantly higher implant stability quotients at 30 days (64.286 ± 1.596; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 60.808-67.764) than controls (56.357 ± 1.596; 95 %CI 52.879-59.835) (P = .000). The percentage of newly formed bone around the implants was also significantly higher in irradiated animals (75.523 ± 8.510; 95 %CI 61.893-89.155) than in controls (55.012 ± 19.840; 95 %CI 41.380-68.643) (P = .027). Laser therapy, based on the irradiation protocol used in this study, was able to provide greater implant stability and increase the volume of peri-implant newly formed bone, indicating that laser irradiation effected an improvement in the osseointegration process.

  17. An Analysis of Laser-Welded Nicr-Ir and Nicr-Pt Micro Joints on Spark Plug Electrodes in Biogas-Fuelled Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabas B.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the laser beam welding of tips to central and side spark plug electrodes made of a nickel-chromium alloy. The tips attached to the central electrodes were made from a solid iridium wire 0.8 mm in diameter and 2 mm in length, while the tips connected to the side electrodes were made from a platinum wire 1.5 mm in diameter and 0.25 mm in thickness. In both cases, accurate positioning of the tips was required before they were resistance welded to the electrodes. Then, a fillet weld was produced with an Nd:YAG laser using single, partly overlapping conductive pulses. The laser welding was performed at different laser power levels and pulse durations. Metallographic sections of the joints were prepared to observe changes in the microstructure and determine their correlation with the changes in the process parameters. The results were used to select appropriate welding parameters for the materials joined. The microscopic analysis indicated welding imperfections such as micro cracks at the interface between the elements joined. The tips welded to the spark plug electrodes can help extend the service life of spark plugs in highly corrosive environments.

  18. 3D-imaging of selective laser melting defects in a Co–Cr–Mo alloy by synchrotron radiation micro-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Xin; Wang, Dianzheng; Liu, Xihe; Zhang, DanDan; Qu, Shilian; Ma, Jing; London, Gary; Shen, Zhijian; Liu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Microstructure defects set the mechanical property limits for solid Co–Cr–Mo alloy prepared by selective laser melting (SLM). Previous studies were mainly based on 2D SEM images and thus not able to provide information of the 3D morphologies of the complex defects. In this paper, the remaining porosities in Co–Cr–Mo alloy parts prepared by selective laser melting were presented in relation to the laser processing parameters. In order to understand the defect forming mechanism, accurate 3D images of defects inside SLM fabricated Co–Cr–Mo samples were provided by synchrotron radiation micro-CT imaging of 300 μm thick slices cut from a 10 mm cube. With 3D reconstructed images distinctive morphologies of SLM defects spanning across the consolidated powder layers were generated. The faults can be classified as single layer or multi-layers defects. The accidental single layer defects form as gaps between adjacent laser melt tracks or melt track discontinuousness caused by inherent fluid instability under various disturbances. The first formed single layer defect generates often a multi-layer defect spanning for 2–3 subsequent powder layers. By stabilizing the melt pool flow and by reducing the surface roughness through adjusting processing parameters it appears possible to reduce the defect concentrations

  19. An optimised protocol for isolation of RNA from small sections of laser-capture microdissected FFPE tissue amenable for next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Parisa; Ettlin, Julia; Opitz, Lennart; Clementi, Elena; Malbon, Alexandra; Markkanen, Enni

    2017-08-23

    Formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue constitutes a vast treasury of samples for biomedical research. Thus far however, extraction of RNA from FFPE tissue has proved challenging due to chemical RNA-protein crosslinking and RNA fragmentation, both of which heavily impact on RNA quantity and quality for downstream analysis. With very small sample sizes, e.g. when performing Laser-capture microdissection (LCM) to isolate specific subpopulations of cells, recovery of sufficient RNA for analysis with reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) or next-generation sequencing (NGS) becomes very cumbersome and difficult. We excised matched cancer-associated stroma (CAS) and normal stroma from clinical specimen of FFPE canine mammary tumours using LCM, and compared the commonly used protease-based RNA isolation procedure with an adapted novel technique that additionally incorporates a focused ultrasonication step. We successfully adapted a protocol that uses focused ultrasonication to isolate RNA from small amounts of deparaffinised, stained, clinical LCM samples. Using this approach, we found that total RNA yields could be increased by 8- to 12-fold compared to a commonly used protease-based extraction technique. Surprisingly, RNA extracted using this new approach was qualitatively at least equal if not superior compared to the old approach, as Cq values in RT-qPCR were on average 2.3-fold lower using the new method. Finally, we demonstrate that RNA extracted using the new method performs comparably in NGS as well. We present a successful isolation protocol for extraction of RNA from difficult and limiting FFPE tissue samples that enables successful analysis of small sections of clinically relevant specimen. The possibility to study gene expression signatures in specific small sections of archival FFPE tissue, which often entail large amounts of highly relevant clinical follow-up data, unlocks a new dimension of hitherto difficult-to-analyse samples which now

  20. Micro rapid prototyping system for micro components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaochun; Choi Hongseok; Yang Yong

    2002-01-01

    Similarities between silicon-based micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) and Shape Deposition Manufacturing (SDM) processes are obvious: both integrate additive and subtractive processes and use part and sacrificial materials to obtain functional structures. These MEMS techniques are two-dimensional (2-D) processes for a limited number of materials while SDM enables the building of parts that have traditionally been impossible to fabricate because of their complex shapes or of their variety in materials. This work presents initial results on the development of a micro rapid prototyping system that adapts SDM methodology to micro-fabrication. This system is designed to incorporate microdeposition and laser micromachining. In the hope of obtaining a precise microdeposition, an ultrasonic-based micro powder-feeding mechanism was developed in order to form thin patterns of dry powders that can be cladded or sintered onto a substrate by a micro-sized laser beam. Furthermore, experimental results on laser micromachining using a laser beam with a wavelength of 355 nm are also presented. After further improvement, the developed micro manufacturing system could take computer-aided design (CAD) output to reproduce 3-D heterogeneous micro-components from a wide selection of materials

  1. Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Milonni, Peter W

    1988-01-01

    A comprehensive introduction to the operating principles and applications of lasers. Explains basic principles, including the necessary elements of classical and quantum physics. Provides concise discussions of various laser types including gas, solid state, semiconductor, and free electron lasers, as well as of laser resonators, diffraction, optical coherence, and many applications including holography, phase conjugation, wave mixing, and nonlinear optics. Incorporates many intuitive explanations and practical examples. Discussions are self-contained in a consistent notation and in a style that should appeal to physicists, chemists, optical scientists and engineers.

  2. Capture of microRNA-bound mRNAs identifies the tumor suppressor miR-34a as a regulator of growth factor signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Lal

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A simple biochemical method to isolate mRNAs pulled down with a transfected, biotinylated microRNA was used to identify direct target genes of miR-34a, a tumor suppressor gene. The method reidentified most of the known miR-34a regulated genes expressed in K562 and HCT116 cancer cell lines. Transcripts for 982 genes were enriched in the pull-down with miR-34a in both cell lines. Despite this large number, validation experiments suggested that ~90% of the genes identified in both cell lines can be directly regulated by miR-34a. Thus miR-34a is capable of regulating hundreds of genes. The transcripts pulled down with miR-34a were highly enriched for their roles in growth factor signaling and cell cycle progression. These genes form a dense network of interacting gene products that regulate multiple signal transduction pathways that orchestrate the proliferative response to external growth stimuli. Multiple candidate miR-34a-regulated genes participate in RAS-RAF-MAPK signaling. Ectopic miR-34a expression reduced basal ERK and AKT phosphorylation and enhanced sensitivity to serum growth factor withdrawal, while cells genetically deficient in miR-34a were less sensitive. Fourteen new direct targets of miR-34a were experimentally validated, including genes that participate in growth factor signaling (ARAF and PIK3R2 as well as genes that regulate cell cycle progression at various phases of the cell cycle (cyclins D3 and G2, MCM2 and MCM5, PLK1 and SMAD4. Thus miR-34a tempers the proliferative and pro-survival effect of growth factor stimulation by interfering with growth factor signal transduction and downstream pathways required for cell division.

  3. Capture of microRNA-bound mRNAs identifies the tumor suppressor miR-34a as a regulator of growth factor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Ashish; Thomas, Marshall P; Altschuler, Gabriel; Navarro, Francisco; O'Day, Elizabeth; Li, Xiao Ling; Concepcion, Carla; Han, Yoon-Chi; Thiery, Jerome; Rajani, Danielle K; Deutsch, Aaron; Hofmann, Oliver; Ventura, Andrea; Hide, Winston; Lieberman, Judy

    2011-11-01

    A simple biochemical method to isolate mRNAs pulled down with a transfected, biotinylated microRNA was used to identify direct target genes of miR-34a, a tumor suppressor gene. The method reidentified most of the known miR-34a regulated genes expressed in K562 and HCT116 cancer cell lines. Transcripts for 982 genes were enriched in the pull-down with miR-34a in both cell lines. Despite this large number, validation experiments suggested that ~90% of the genes identified in both cell lines can be directly regulated by miR-34a. Thus miR-34a is capable of regulating hundreds of genes. The transcripts pulled down with miR-34a were highly enriched for their roles in growth factor signaling and cell cycle progression. These genes form a dense network of interacting gene products that regulate multiple signal transduction pathways that orchestrate the proliferative response to external growth stimuli. Multiple candidate miR-34a-regulated genes participate in RAS-RAF-MAPK signaling. Ectopic miR-34a expression reduced basal ERK and AKT phosphorylation and enhanced sensitivity to serum growth factor withdrawal, while cells genetically deficient in miR-34a were less sensitive. Fourteen new direct targets of miR-34a were experimentally validated, including genes that participate in growth factor signaling (ARAF and PIK3R2) as well as genes that regulate cell cycle progression at various phases of the cell cycle (cyclins D3 and G2, MCM2 and MCM5, PLK1 and SMAD4). Thus miR-34a tempers the proliferative and pro-survival effect of growth factor stimulation by interfering with growth factor signal transduction and downstream pathways required for cell division.

  4. Capture of MicroRNA–Bound mRNAs Identifies the Tumor Suppressor miR-34a as a Regulator of Growth Factor Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Day, Elizabeth; Li, Xiao Ling; Concepcion, Carla; Han, Yoon-Chi; Thiery, Jerome; Rajani, Danielle K.; Deutsch, Aaron; Hofmann, Oliver; Ventura, Andrea; Hide, Winston; Lieberman, Judy

    2011-01-01

    A simple biochemical method to isolate mRNAs pulled down with a transfected, biotinylated microRNA was used to identify direct target genes of miR-34a, a tumor suppressor gene. The method reidentified most of the known miR-34a regulated genes expressed in K562 and HCT116 cancer cell lines. Transcripts for 982 genes were enriched in the pull-down with miR-34a in both cell lines. Despite this large number, validation experiments suggested that ∼90% of the genes identified in both cell lines can be directly regulated by miR-34a. Thus miR-34a is capable of regulating hundreds of genes. The transcripts pulled down with miR-34a were highly enriched for their roles in growth factor signaling and cell cycle progression. These genes form a dense network of interacting gene products that regulate multiple signal transduction pathways that orchestrate the proliferative response to external growth stimuli. Multiple candidate miR-34a–regulated genes participate in RAS-RAF-MAPK signaling. Ectopic miR-34a expression reduced basal ERK and AKT phosphorylation and enhanced sensitivity to serum growth factor withdrawal, while cells genetically deficient in miR-34a were less sensitive. Fourteen new direct targets of miR-34a were experimentally validated, including genes that participate in growth factor signaling (ARAF and PIK3R2) as well as genes that regulate cell cycle progression at various phases of the cell cycle (cyclins D3 and G2, MCM2 and MCM5, PLK1 and SMAD4). Thus miR-34a tempers the proliferative and pro-survival effect of growth factor stimulation by interfering with growth factor signal transduction and downstream pathways required for cell division. PMID:22102825

  5. Growth of micro-crystals in solution by in-situ heating via continuous wave infrared laser light and an absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Shashank; Dharmadhikari, Jayashree A.; Thamizhavel, A.; Mathur, Deepak; Dharmadhikari, Aditya K.

    2016-01-01

    We report on growth of micro-crystals such as sodium chloride (NaCl), copper sulphate (CuSO4), potassium di-hydrogen phosphate (KDP) and glycine (NH2CH2COOH) in solution by in-situ heating using continuous wave Nd:YVO4 laser light. Crystals are grown by adding single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). The SWNTs absorb 1064 nm light and act as an in-situ heat source that vaporizes the solvent producing microcrystals. The temporal dynamics of micro-crystal growth is investigated by varying experimental parameters such as SWNT bundle size and incident laser power. We also report crystal growth without SWNT in an absorbing medium: copper sulphate in water. Even though the growth dynamics with SWNT and copper sulphate are significantly different, our results indicate that bubble formation is necessary for nucleation. Our simple method may open up new vistas for rapid growth of seed crystals especially for examining the crystallizability of inorganic and organic materials.

  6. Local deposition of polypyrrole on aluminum by anodizing, laser irradiation, and electrolytic polymerization and its application to the fabrication of micro-actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13 W8 Kita-Ku, Sapporo (Japan); Kikuchi, T. [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13 W8 Kita-Ku, Sapporo (Japan)]. E-mail: kiku@elechem1-mc.eng.hokudai.ac.jp; Ueda, M. [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13 W8 Kita-Ku, Sapporo (Japan); Iida, M. [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13 W8 Kita-Ku, Sapporo (Japan); Sakairi, M. [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13 W8 Kita-Ku, Sapporo (Japan); Takahashi, H. [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13 W8 Kita-Ku, Sapporo (Japan)

    2006-06-15

    Polypyrrole was deposited at selected areas on aluminum by anodizing, laser irradiation, and electrolytic polymerization, and the application of the technique for fabricating micro-actuators was attempted. Aluminum specimens covered with porous type anodic oxide films were irradiated with a pulsed Nd-YAG laser to remove the oxide films locally, and then thin Ni layers were deposited at areas where film had been removed. Polypyrrole could be successfully deposited only on the Ni layer by anodic polarization of the specimens in pyrrole monomer solution, and a polypyrrole/Ni bilayer structure could be obtained by dissolution of the aluminum substrate and anodic oxide film in NaOH solutions. The bilayer structure was found to be inactive to doping and dedoping of ions during anodic and cathodic polarization. A three-layer structure, nitrocellulose/Ni/polypyrrole, fabricated by electrolytic polymerization after nitrocellulose coating on a Ni layer detached from the aluminum substrate, showed ion-doping and -dedoping activity, suggesting the possibility of fabricating micro-actuators in this manner.

  7. Fabrication of a three-dimensional micro-manipulator by laser irradiation and electrochemical techniques and the effect of electrolytes on its performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, T.; Akiyama, Y.; Ueda, M.; Sakairi, M.; Takahashi, H. [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13, W8, Kita-Ku, Sapporo (Japan)

    2007-03-20

    Ribbon type and three-dimensional micro-actuators, consisting of three-layer structure of acrylic acid resin/Au/polypyrrole, were fabricated by aluminum anodizing, laser irradiation, and electrochemical techniques, and their performance was examined. Anodized aluminum specimens were irradiated with a pulsed Nd-YAG laser to remove anodic oxide films locally, and then an Au layer was deposited at the area where film had been removed. The subsequent electrophoretic deposition of acrylic acid resin on the Au layer, dissolution of anodic oxide film and the metal substrate, and deposition of polypyrrole on backside of Au layer by electro-polymerization enabled the fabrication of a three-layer actuator. Cyclic voltammetry of the ribbon type actuator in different electrolyte solutions showed that redox reactions of polypyrrole is accompanied with doping and dedoping of hydrated cations, and that the redox reaction strongly depends on the valency of cations in the solutions. The three-dimensional micro-actuator showed good performance as a manipulator, gripping and moving objects of several milligram in solutions. (author)

  8. Senescent vs. non-senescent cells in the human annulus in vivo: Cell harvest with laser capture microdissection and gene expression studies with microarray analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingram Jane A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Senescent cells are well-recognized in the aging/degenerating human disc. Senescent cells are viable, cannot divide, remain metabolically active and accumulate within the disc over time. Molecular analysis of senescent cells in tissue offers a special challenge since there are no cell surface markers for senescence which would let one use fluorescence-activated cell sorting as a method for separating out senescent cells. Methods We employed a novel laser capture microdissection (LCM design to selectively harvest senescent and non-senescent annulus cells in paraffin-embedded tissue, and compared their gene expression with microarray analysis. LCM was used to separately harvest senescent and non-senescent cells from 11 human annulus specimens. Results Microarray analysis revealed significant differences in expression levels in senescent cells vs non-senescent cells: 292 genes were upregulated, and 321 downregulated. Genes with established relationships to senescence were found to be significantly upregulated in senescent cells vs. non-senescent cells: p38 (MPAK14, RB-Associated KRAB zinc finger, Discoidin, CUB and LCCL domain, growth arrest and DNA-damage inducible beta, p28ING5, sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 and somatostatin receptor 3; cyclin-dependent kinase 8 showed significant downregulation in senescent cells. Nitric oxidase synthase 1, and heat shock 70 kDa protein 6, both of which were significantly down-regulated in senescent cells, also showed significant changes. Additional genes related to cytokines, cell proliferation, and other processes were also identified. Conclusions Our LCM-microarray analyses identified a set of genes associated with senescence which were significantly upregulated in senescent vs non-senescent cells in the human annulus. These genes include p38 MAP kinase, discoidin, inhibitor of growth family member 5, and growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible beta. Other genes, including genes

  9. Identification of IL-28B Genotype Modification in Hepatocytes after Living Donor Liver Transplantation by Laser Capture Microdissection and Pyrosequencing Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King-Wah Chiu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to elucidate the biogenetic modification of donor and recipient interleukin-28B (IL-28B genotypes in liver graft biopsies after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT for chronic hepatitis C virus- (HCV- related, end-stage liver disease. Fifty liver graft biopsies were collected from recipients during LDLT treatment for HCV-related, end-stage liver disease. DNA was extracted from all 50 liver tissues, and the IL-28B single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs rs8099917 and rs12979860 were studied for allelic discrimination by real-time PCR analysis. Blood samples were obtained from donors and recipients on postoperative day 0 (POD0, POD7, and POD30. We randomly selected five liver biopsies and isolated the hepatocytes by laser capture microdissection (LCM to evaluate genotype modifications resulting from LDLT. After LDLT, the IL-28B SNP rs8099917 was identified not only in the liver graft biopsies and donors’ sera (TT = 41 : 43; GT = 9 : 5; GG = 0 : 2, but also in liver graft biopsies and recipients’ sera on POD0 (TT = 41 : 44; GT = 9 : 4; GG = 0 : 2, POD7 (TT = 41 : 30; GT = 9 : 18; GG = 0 : 2, and POD30 (TT = 41 : 29; GT = 9 : 19; GG = 0 : 2. A significant difference was observed between the rs8099917 allele frequencies of liver graft biopsies and recipients’ sera on POD30 (p=0.039. In addition, a significant difference was also noted between the rs12979860 allele frequencies of liver graft biopsies and donors’ sera (CT = 49 : 39; TT = 1 : 10 (p=0.012 and of liver graft biopsies and recipients’ sera on POD0 (CT = 49 : 39; TT = 1 : 11 (p=0.002, POD7 (CT = 49 : 42; TT = 1 : 8 (p=0.016, and POD30 (CT = 49 : 41; TT = 1 : 9 (p=0.008. This phenomenon was confirmed by pyrosequencing of hepatocytes isolated by LCM. Following LDLT, the TT-to-GT IL-28B genotype modification predominated in rs8099917, and the CC-to-CT modification predominated

  10. Antibody-validated proteins in inflamed islets of fulminant type 1 diabetes profiled by laser-capture microdissection followed by mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoriko Nishida

    Full Text Available There are no reports of proteomic analyses of inflamed islets in type 1 diabetes.Proteins expressed in the islets of enterovirus-associated fulminant type 1 diabetes (FT1DM with extensive insulitis were identified by laser-capture microdissection mass spectrometry using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded pancreatic tissues.Thirty-eight proteins were identified solely in FT1DM islets, most of which have not been previously linked to type 1 diabetes. Five protein-protein interacting clusters were identified, and the cellular localization of selected proteins was validated immunohistochemically. Migratory activity-related proteins, including plastin-2 (LCP1, moesin (MSN, lamin-B1 (LMNB1, Ras GTPase-activating-like protein (IQGAP1 and others, were identified in CD8+ T cells and CD68+ macrophages infiltrated to inflamed FT1DM islets. Proteins involved in successive signaling in innate/adaptive immunity were identified, including SAM domain and HD domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1, Ras GTPase-activating-like protein (IQGAP1, proteasome activator complex subunit 1 (PSME1, HLA class I histocompatibility antigen (HLA-C, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1-alpha/beta (STAT1. Angiogenic (thymidine phosphorylase (TYMP and anti-angiogenic (tryptophan-tRNA ligase (WARS factors were identified in migrating CD8+ T cells and CD68+ macrophages. Proteins related to virus replication and cell proliferation, including probable ATP-dependent RNA helicase DEAD box helicase 5 (DDX5 and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H (HNRNPH1, were identified. The anti-apoptotic protein T-complex protein 1 subunit epsilon (CCT5, the anti-oxidative enzyme 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PDG, and the anti-viral and anti-apoptotic proteins serpin B6 (SERPINB6 and heat shock 70 kDa protein1-like (HSPA1L, were identified in FT1DM-affected islet cells.The identified FT1DM-characterizing proteins include those involved in aggressive beta cell destruction through

  11. Alpha-spectrometry and fractal analysis of surface micro-images for characterisation of porous materials used in manufacture of targets for laser plasma experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aushev, A A; Barinov, S P; Vasin, M G; Drozdov, Yu M; Ignat' ev, Yu V; Izgorodin, V M; Kovshov, D K; Lakhtikov, A E; Lukovkina, D D; Markelov, V V; Morovov, A P; Shishlov, V V [Russian Federal Nuclear Center ' All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics' , Sarov, Nizhnii Novgorod region (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-30

    We present the results of employing the alpha-spectrometry method to determine the characteristics of porous materials used in targets for laser plasma experiments. It is shown that the energy spectrum of alpha-particles, after their passage through porous samples, allows one to determine the distribution of their path length in the foam skeleton. We describe the procedure of deriving such a distribution, excluding both the distribution broadening due to statistical nature of the alpha-particle interaction with an atomic structure (straggling) and hardware effects. The fractal analysis of micro-images is applied to the same porous surface samples that have been studied by alpha-spectrometry. The fractal dimension and size distribution of the number of the foam skeleton grains are obtained. Using the data obtained, a distribution of the total foam skeleton thickness along a chosen direction is constructed. It roughly coincides with the path length distribution of alpha-particles within a range of larger path lengths. It is concluded that the combined use of the alpha-spectrometry method and fractal analysis of images will make it possible to determine the size distribution of foam skeleton grains (or pores). The results can be used as initial data in theoretical studies on propagation of the laser and X-ray radiation in specific porous samples. (laser plasma)

  12. Laser-Sintered Constructs with Bio-inspired Porosity and Surface Micro/Nano-Roughness Enhance Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation and Matrix Mineralization In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Alice; Cohen, David J; Boyan, Barbara D; Schwartz, Zvi

    2016-12-01

    Direct metal laser sintering can produce porous Ti-6Al-4V orthopedic and dental implants. The process requires reduced resources and time and can provide greater structural control than machine manufacturing. Implants in bone are colonized by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which can differentiate into osteoblasts and contribute to osseointegration. This study examined osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization of human MSCs cultured on laser-sintered Ti-6Al-4V constructs with varying porosity and at different time scales. 2D solid disks and low, medium and high porosity (LP, MP, and HP) 3D constructs based on a human trabecular bone template were laser sintered from Ti-6Al-4V powder and further processed to have micro- and nanoscale roughness. hMSCs exhibited greater osteoblastic differentiation and local factor production on all 3D porous constructs compared to 2D surfaces, which was sustained for 9 days without use of exogenous factors. hMSCs cultured for 8 weeks on MP constructs in osteogenic medium (OM), OM supplemented with BMP2 or collagen-coated MP constructs in OM exhibited bone-like extracellular matrix mineralization. Use of bio-inspired porosity for the 3D architecture of additively manufactured Ti-6Al-4V enhanced osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs beyond surface roughness alone. This study suggests that a 3D architecture may enhance the osseointegration of orthopedic and dental implants in vivo.

  13. Non-contact quantification of laser micro-impulse in water by atomic force microscopy and its application for biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiroh

    2011-12-01

    We developed a local force measurement system of a femtosecond laser-induced impulsive force, which is due to shock and stress waves generated by focusing an intense femtosecond laser into water with a highly numerical aperture objective lens. In this system, the force localized in micron-sized region was detected by bending movement of a cantilever of atomic force microscope (AFM). Here we calculated the bending movement of the AFM cantilever when the femtosecond laser is focused in water at the vicinity of the cantilever and the impulsive force is loaded on the cantilever. From the result, a method to estimate the total of the impulsive force at the laser focal point was suggested and applied to estimate intercellular adhesion strength.

  14. Effects of corticopuncture (CP) and low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the rate of tooth movement and root resorption in rats using micro-CT evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Selly Sayuri; Garcez, Aguinaldo Silva; Reese, Patricia Oblitas; Suzuki, Hideo; Ribeiro, Martha Simões; Moon, Won

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the rate of tooth displacement, quantity of root resorption, and alveolar bone changes in five groups: corticopuncture (CP), low-level laser therapy (LLLT), CP combined with LLLT (CP + LLLT), control (C), and negative control (NC). A total of 60 half-maxilla from 30 male Wistar rats (10 weeks old) were divided randomly into five groups: three (CP, LLLT, and CP + LLLT) test groups with different stimulation for accelerated-tooth-movement (ATM), one control (C) group, and one negative control (NC) group with no tooth movement. Nickel-titanium coil springs with 50 g of force were tied from the upper left and right first molars to micro-implants placed behind the maxillary incisors. For the CP and CP + LLLT groups, two perforations in the palate and one mesially to the molars were performed. For the LLLT and CP + LLLT groups, GaAlAs diode laser was applied every other day for 14 days (810 nm, 100 mW, 15 s). The tooth displacements were measured directly from the rat's mouth and indirectly from microcomputer (micro-CT) tomographic images. Bone responses at the tension and compression sites and root resorption were analyzed from micro-CT images. The resulting alveolar bone responses were evaluated by measuring bone mineral density (BMD), bone volume fraction (BV/TV), and trabecular thickness (TbTh). Root resorption crater volumes were measured on both compression and tension sides of mesial and distal buccal roots. The tooth displacement in the CP + LLLT group was the greatest when measured clinically, followed by the CP, LLLT, and control groups (C and NC), respectively (p CP and CP + LLLT groups compared to the LLLT and control groups. The BMD, BV/TV, and TbTh values were lower at the compression side and higher at the tension side for all three test groups compared to the control group. The root resorption crater volume of the distal buccal root was higher in the control group, followed by CP, LLLT

  15. Fabrication of TiNb{sub 2}O{sub 7} thin film electrodes for Li-ion micro-batteries by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daramalla, V. [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bengalore 560012 (India); Penki, Tirupathi Rao; Munichandraiah, N. [Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bengalore 560012 (India); Krupanidhi, S.B., E-mail: sbk@mrc.iisc.ernet.in [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bengalore 560012 (India)

    2016-11-15

    Graphical abstract: The TiNb{sub 2}O{sub 7} thin film electrodes as anode material in Li-ion rechargeable micro-batteries are successfully demonstrated. The pulsed laser deposited TiNb{sub 2}O{sub 7} thin film electrode delivers high discharge specific capacity of 143 μAh μm{sup −1} cm{sup −2} at 50 μA cm{sup −2} current density, with 92% coulombic efficiency. The thin films are very stable in crystal structure, with good fast reversible reaction at average Li-insertion voltage 1.65 V. - Highlights: • TiNb{sub 2}O{sub 7} thin films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition. • TiNb{sub 2}O{sub 7} as anode thin films demonstrated successfully. • High discharge specific capacity with 92% coulombic efficiency. • Excellent crystal stability and good reversible reaction. - Abstract: Pulsed laser deposited TiNb{sub 2}O{sub 7} thin films are demonstrated as anode materials in rechargeable Li-ion micro-batteries. The monoclinic and chemically pure TiNb{sub 2}O{sub 7} films in different morphologies were successfully deposited at 750 °C. The single phase formation was confirmed by grazing incident X-ray diffraction, micro-Raman spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The oxygen partial pressure during the deposition significantly influenced the properties of TiNb{sub 2}O{sub 7} films. The TiNb{sub 2}O{sub 7} thin films exhibited excellent stability with fast kinetics reversible reaction. The TiNb{sub 2}O{sub 7} films showed initial discharge specific capacity of 176, 143 μAh μm{sup −1} cm{sup −2} at 30, 50 μA cm{sup −2} current densities respectively with 92% coulombic efficiency in a non-aqueous electrolyte consisting of Li{sup +} ions. The high discharge specific capacity of TiNb{sub 2}O{sub 7} thin films may be attributed to nanometer grain size with high roughness which offers high surface area for Li-diffusion during charge and discharge

  16. Mapping Analyte Distributions in Surrogate Nuclear Melt Glass Using Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Micro X-Ray Fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shattan, Michael [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stowe, Ashley [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McIntosh, Kathryn [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Auxier II, John [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Parigger, Christian [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Hall, Howard [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2017-10-10

    Explore feasibility of portable LIBS and micro-XRF systems as methods of field screening for real debris; Develop a LIBS Capability to rapidly screen beads for production quality control; Complete 3D elemental mapping of surrogate debris to determine uranium and other elemental migration patterns during debris formation

  17. Improved bioactivity of selective laser melting titanium: Surface modification with micro-/nano-textured hierarchical topography and bone regeneration performance evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jia-yun [Department of Oral Implantology, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Hospital of Stomatology, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Chen, Xian-shuai; Zhang, Chun-yu [Guangzhou Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 511458 (China); Liu, Yun; Wang, Jing [Department of Oral Implantology, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Hospital of Stomatology, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Deng, Fei-long, E-mail: drdfl@163.com [Department of Oral Implantology, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Hospital of Stomatology, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Guangzhou 510055 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) titanium requires surface modification to improve its bioactivity. The microrough surface of it can be utilized as the micro primary substrate to create a micro-/nano-textured topography for improved bone regeneration. In this study, the microrough SLM titanium substrate was optimized by sandblasting, and nano-porous features of orderly arranged nanotubes and disorderly arranged nanonet were produced by anodization (SAN) and alkali-heat treatment (SAH), respectively. The results were compared with the control group of an untreated surface (native-SLM) and a microtopography only surface treated by acid etching (SLA). The effects of the different topographies on cell functions and bone formation performance were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. It was found that micro-/nano-textured topographies of SAN and SAH showed enhanced cell behaviour relative to the microtopography of SLA with significantly higher proliferation on the 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th day (P < 0.05) and higher total protein contents on the 14th day (P < 0.05). In vivo, SAN and SAH formed more successively regenerated bone, which resulted in higher bone-implant contact (BIC%) and bone-bonding force than native-SLM and SLA. In addition, the three-dimensional nanonet of SAH was expected to be more similar to native extracellular matrix (ECM) and thus led to better bone formation. The alkaline phosphatase activity of SAH was significantly higher than the other three groups at an earlier stage of the 7th day (P < 0.05) and the BIC% was nearly double that of native-SLM and SLA in the 8th week. In conclusion, the addition of nano-porous features on the microrough SLM titanium surface is effective in improving the bioactivity and bone regeneration performance, in which the ECM-like nanonet with a disorderly arranged biomimetic feature is suggested to be more efficient than nanotubes. - Highlights: • SLM titanium is modified by adding nano-porous features to the microrough substrate

  18. Improved bioactivity of selective laser melting titanium: Surface modification with micro-/nano-textured hierarchical topography and bone regeneration performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jia-yun; Chen, Xian-shuai; Zhang, Chun-yu; Liu, Yun; Wang, Jing; Deng, Fei-long

    2016-01-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) titanium requires surface modification to improve its bioactivity. The microrough surface of it can be utilized as the micro primary substrate to create a micro-/nano-textured topography for improved bone regeneration. In this study, the microrough SLM titanium substrate was optimized by sandblasting, and nano-porous features of orderly arranged nanotubes and disorderly arranged nanonet were produced by anodization (SAN) and alkali-heat treatment (SAH), respectively. The results were compared with the control group of an untreated surface (native-SLM) and a microtopography only surface treated by acid etching (SLA). The effects of the different topographies on cell functions and bone formation performance were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. It was found that micro-/nano-textured topographies of SAN and SAH showed enhanced cell behaviour relative to the microtopography of SLA with significantly higher proliferation on the 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th day (P < 0.05) and higher total protein contents on the 14th day (P < 0.05). In vivo, SAN and SAH formed more successively regenerated bone, which resulted in higher bone-implant contact (BIC%) and bone-bonding force than native-SLM and SLA. In addition, the three-dimensional nanonet of SAH was expected to be more similar to native extracellular matrix (ECM) and thus led to better bone formation. The alkaline phosphatase activity of SAH was significantly higher than the other three groups at an earlier stage of the 7th day (P < 0.05) and the BIC% was nearly double that of native-SLM and SLA in the 8th week. In conclusion, the addition of nano-porous features on the microrough SLM titanium surface is effective in improving the bioactivity and bone regeneration performance, in which the ECM-like nanonet with a disorderly arranged biomimetic feature is suggested to be more efficient than nanotubes. - Highlights: • SLM titanium is modified by adding nano-porous features to the microrough substrate

  19. Fast all-optical multistate flip-flop operation realized by a single self-sustained micro-ring laser memory cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhuoran; Yuan, Guohui

    2013-01-01

    We investigate all-optical multistate flip-flop operation realized by a single self-sustained micro-ring laser memory cell based on a time-domain multi-mode nonlinear model. Each state is written by the corresponding 100 ps-width input non-return-to-zero (NRZ) pulse carrying the directional and wavelength information, and the cell remains in the written state until another trigger arrives. The effects of key parameters including the detuning frequency and injection power ratio on the injection locking and flipping regions of different modes in both directions of the micro-ring device are studied. By optimizing the operation conditions, we simulate the minimal switching speed for each mode. The fast switching speed of less than 20 ps and up to ten mode flip-flop operation indicate that this single optical memory cell can support ten states at a data rate of at least 10 Gbps, which is particularly valuable for the realization of future all-optical networking and functional sub-system technology. (letter)

  20. Improved method for extraction and detection of Helicobacter pylori DNA in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded gastric biopsies using laser micro-dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loayza, María Fernanda; Villavicencio, Fernando Xavier; Santander, Stephanie Carolina; Baldeón, Manuel; Ponce, Lourdes Karina; Salvador, Iván; Vivar Díaz, Nicolás

    2015-01-01

    To assess the molecular events exerted by Helicobacter pylori interacting directly with gastric epithelial cells, an improved procedure for microbial DNA isolation from stained hematoxilin-eosin gastric biopsies was developed based on laser micro-dissection (LM) [1]. Few articles have described the use of LM to select and detect H. pylori genome from formalin-fixed paraffin embedded gastric tissue [2]. To improve the yield and quality of DNA isolated from H. pylori contacting intestinal epithelial cells, the following conditions were established after modification of the QIAamp DNA Micro kit. •Use of at least 25 cut sections of 10-20 μm of diameter and 3 μm thick with more than 10 bacteria in each cut.•Lysis with 30 μL of tissue lysis buffer and 20 μL of proteinase K (PK) with the tube in an upside-down position.•The use of thin purification columns with 35 μL of elution buffer. The mean of DNA concentration obtained from 25 LM cut sections was 1.94± 0 .16 ng/μL, and it was efficiently amplified with qPCR in a Bio Rad iCycler instrument. The LM can improve the sample selection and DNA extraction for molecular analysis of H. pylori associated with human gastric epithelium.

  1. Assessment of statistical agreement of three techniques for the study of cut marks: 3D digital microscope, laser scanning confocal microscopy and micro-photogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maté-González, Miguel Ángel; Aramendi, Julia; Yravedra, José; Blasco, Ruth; Rosell, Jordi; González-Aguilera, Diego; Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel

    2017-09-01

    In the last few years, the study of cut marks on bone surfaces has become fundamental for the interpretation of prehistoric butchery practices. Due to the difficulties in the correct identification of cut marks, many criteria for their description and classification have been suggested. Different techniques, such as three-dimensional digital microscope (3D DM), laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) and micro-photogrammetry (M-PG) have been recently applied to the study of cut marks. Although the 3D DM and LSCM microscopic techniques are the most commonly used for the 3D identification of cut marks, M-PG has also proved to be very efficient and a low-cost method. M-PG is a noninvasive technique that allows the study of the cortical surface without any previous preparation of the samples, and that generates high-resolution models. Despite the current application of microscopic and micro-photogrammetric techniques to taphonomy, their reliability has never been tested. In this paper, we compare 3D DM, LSCM and M-PG in order to assess their resolution and results. In this study, we analyse 26 experimental cut marks generated with a metal knife. The quantitative and qualitative information registered is analysed by means of standard multivariate statistics and geometric morphometrics to assess the similarities and differences obtained with the different methodologies. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  2. Improved bioactivity of selective laser melting titanium: Surface modification with micro-/nano-textured hierarchical topography and bone regeneration performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia-Yun; Chen, Xian-Shuai; Zhang, Chun-Yu; Liu, Yun; Wang, Jing; Deng, Fei-Long

    2016-11-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) titanium requires surface modification to improve its bioactivity. The microrough surface of it can be utilized as the micro primary substrate to create a micro-/nano-textured topography for improved bone regeneration. In this study, the microrough SLM titanium substrate was optimized by sandblasting, and nano-porous features of orderly arranged nanotubes and disorderly arranged nanonet were produced by anodization (SAN) and alkali-heat treatment (SAH), respectively. The results were compared with the control group of an untreated surface (native-SLM) and a microtopography only surface treated by acid etching (SLA). The effects of the different topographies on cell functions and bone formation performance were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. It was found that micro-/nano-textured topographies of SAN and SAH showed enhanced cell behaviour relative to the microtopography of SLA with significantly higher proliferation on the 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th day (P<0.05) and higher total protein contents on the 14th day (P<0.05). In vivo, SAN and SAH formed more successively regenerated bone, which resulted in higher bone-implant contact (BIC%) and bone-bonding force than native-SLM and SLA. In addition, the three-dimensional nanonet of SAH was expected to be more similar to native extracellular matrix (ECM) and thus led to better bone formation. The alkaline phosphatase activity of SAH was significantly higher than the other three groups at an earlier stage of the 7th day (P<0.05) and the BIC% was nearly double that of native-SLM and SLA in the 8th week. In conclusion, the addition of nano-porous features on the microrough SLM titanium surface is effective in improving the bioactivity and bone regeneration performance, in which the ECM-like nanonet with a disorderly arranged biomimetic feature is suggested to be more efficient than nanotubes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Microdissecção e captura a laser na investigação do gene TP53 em tecidos incluídos em parafina Laser-capture microdissection for TP53 gene analysis in paraffin-embedded tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadia Muhammad Ihlaseh

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Microdissecção e captura a laser (MCL é uma técnica de desenvolvimento recente que permite a coleta de células individuais ou pequeno conjunto de células para análise molecular. Atualmente, no Brasil, há raros microscópios para MCL, de modo que a divulgação dos procedimentos inerentes a essa técnica é oportuna para destacar seu amplo potencial para diagnóstico e investigação. OBJETIVO: Este trabalho descreve a padronização dos procedimentos de MCL e de extração de DNA de material fixado em formalina e incluído em parafina. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram estudados o éxon 8 do gene TP53 e o gene da ciclofilina em amostras de tecido normal e de neoplasias de fígado e rim provenientes de modelo de carcinogênese química induzida em rato. A extração do DNA foi comprovada por reação em cadeia da polimerase (nested-PCR. RESULTADOS: Foram padronizados os procedimentos de preparo dos cortes histológicos, de microdissecção e captura a laser e de obtenção de seqüências gênicas pela reação de nested-PCR para tecidos incluídos em parafina. Obtivemos amplificação de 48,3% das amostras para o éxon 8 do gene TP53 e 51,7% para o gene da ciclofilina. Considerando pelo menos um dos dois segmentos gênicos, foram amplificadas 79,3% das amostras. DISCUSSÃO E CONCLUSÃO: A extração de DNA de tecidos fixados em formalina e incluídos em parafina e a técnica de nested-PCR foram adequadamente padronizadas para produtos gênicos de interesse, obtidos de material coletado por MCL. Esses procedimentos podem ser úteis para a obtenção de seqüências de DNA de arquivos para análise molecular.BACKGORUND: Laser-capture micro-dissection (LCM is a recently developed procedure that provides single cells or specific cell groups for molecular analysis. Currently, there are few LCM systems in Brazil, in such a way that it is necessary to disseminate the technical procedures inherent to the methodology, and also to

  4. Evaluation of microstructure and micro-hardness of 410L SS coatings fabricated using laser assisted cold spraying: process development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mathebula, TE

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available , contaminating and erosive environments which accelerate the degradation of these components. Surface coatings are generally used to protect and prolong the lifetime of the parts. Laser Assisted Cold Spray (LACS) is a relatively new surface coating process which...

  5. Time-resolved photoemission micro-spectrometer using higher-order harmonics of Ti:sapphire laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azuma, J.; Kamada, M.; Kondo, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: A new photoemission spectrometer is under construction for the photoemission microscopy and the time-resolved pump- probe experiment. The higher order harmonics of the Ti:sapphire laser is used as the light source of the VUV region in this system. Because the fundamental laser is focused tightly into the rare gas jet to generate the higher order harmonics, the spot size of the laser, in other words, the spot size of the VUV light source is smaller than a few tens of micrometer. This smallness of the spot size has advantage for the microscopy. In order to compensate the low flux of the laser harmonics, a multilayer-coated schwaltzshild optics was designed. The multilayers play also as the monochromatic filter. The spatial resolution of this schwaltzshild system is found to be less than 1 micrometer by the ray-tracing calculations. A main chamber of the system is equipped with a time-of-flight energy analyzer to improve the efficiency of the electron detection. The main chamber and the gas chamber are separated by a differential pumping chamber and a thin Al foil. The system is designed for the study of the clean surface. It will be capable to perform the sub-micron photoemission microscopy and the femto-second pump-probe photoemission study for the various photo-excited dynamics on clean surfaces

  6. Controllable generation and manipulation of micro-bubbles in water with absorptive colloid particles by CW laser radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsky, O. V.; Bekshaev, A. Ya.; Maksimyak, P. P.

    2017-01-01

    Micrometer-sized vapor-gas bubbles are formed due to local heating of a water suspension containing absorptive pigment particles of 100 nm diameter. The heating is performed by CW near-infrared (980 nm) laser radiation with controllable power, focused into a 100 mu m spot within a 2 mm suspension...

  7. In vivo non-invasive monitoring of collagen remodelling by two-photon microscopy after micro-ablative fractional laser resurfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchi, Riccardo; Kapsokalyvas, Dimitrios; Troiano, Michela; Campolmi, Piero; Morini, Cristiano; Massi, Daniela; Cannarozzo, Giovanni; Lotti, Torello; Pavone, Francesco Saverio

    2014-11-01

    Non-linear optical microscopy is becoming popular as a non-invasive in vivo imaging modality in dermatology. In this study, combined TPF and SHG microscopy were used to monitor collagen remodelling in vivo after micro-ablative fractional laser resurfacing. Papillary dermis of living subjects, covering a wide age range, was imaged immediately before and forty days after treatment. A qualitative visual examination of acquired images demonstrated an age-dependent remodelling effect on collagen. Additional quantitative analysis of new collagen production was performed by means of two image analysis methods. A higher increase in SHG to TPF ratio, corresponding to a stronger treatment effectiveness, was found in older subjects, whereas the effect was found to be negligible in young, and minimal in middle age subjects. Analysis of collagen images also showed a dependence of the treatment effectiveness with age but with controversial results. While the diagnostic potential of in vivo multiphoton microscopy has already been demonstrated for skin cancer and other skin diseases, here we first successfully explore its potential use for a non-invasive follow-up of a laser-based treatment. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Nanosecond laser texturing of uniformly and non-uniformly wettable micro structured metal surfaces for enhanced boiling heat transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zupančič, Matevž, E-mail: matevz.zupancic@fs.uni-lj.si; Može, Matic; Gregorčič, Peter; Golobič, Iztok

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • Surfaces with periodically changed wettability were produced by a ns marking laser. • Heat transfer was investigated on uniformly and non-uniformly wettable surfaces. • Microporous surfaces with non-uniform wettability enhance boiling heat transfer. • The most bubble nucleations were observed in the vicinity of the microcavities. • Results agree with the predictions of the nucleation criteria. - Abstract: Microstructured uniformly and non-uniformly wettable surfaces were created on 25-μm-thin stainless steel foils by laser texturing using a marking nanosecond Nd:YAG laser (λ = 1064 nm) and utilizing various laser fluences and scan line separations. High-speed photography and high-speed IR thermography were used to investigate nucleate boiling heat transfer on the microstructured surfaces. The most pronounced results were obtained on a surface with non-uniform microstructure and non-uniform wettability. The obtained results show up to a 110% higher heat transfer coefficients and 20–40 times higher nucleation site densities compared to the untextured surface. We show that the number of active nucleation sites is significantly increased in the vicinity of microcavities that appeared in areas with the smallest (10 μm) scan line separation. Furthermore, this confirms the predictions of nucleation criteria and proves that straightforward, cost-effective nanosecond laser texturing allows the production of cavities with diameters of up to a few micrometers and surfaces with non-uniform wettability. Additionally, this opens up important possibilities for a more deterministic control over the complex boiling process.

  9. “Study of secondary hydriding at high temperature in zirconium based nuclear fuel cladding tubes by coupling information from neutron radiography/tomography, electron probe micro analysis, micro elastic recoil detection analysis and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brachet, Jean-Christophe, E-mail: jean-christophe.brachet@cea.fr [DEN-Service de Recherches Métallurgiques Appliquées (SRMA), CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Hamon, Didier; Le Saux, Matthieu [DEN-Service de Recherches Métallurgiques Appliquées (SRMA), CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Vandenberghe, Valérie [DEN-Service de Recherches Métallurgiques Appliquées (SRMA), CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); DEN-Service d’Etudes Mécaniques et Thermiques (SEMT), CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Toffolon-Masclet, Caroline; Rouesne, Elodie; Urvoy, Stéphane [DEN-Service de Recherches Métallurgiques Appliquées (SRMA), CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Béchade, Jean-Luc [DEN-Service de Recherches Métallurgiques Appliquées (SRMA), CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); DEN-Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Physique (SRMP), CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Raepsaet, Caroline [LEEL, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); NIMBE, CEA, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); and others

    2017-05-15

    This paper gives an overview of a multi-scale experimental study of the secondary hydriding phenomena that can occur in nuclear fuel cladding materials exposed to steam at high temperature (HT) after having burst (loss-of-coolant accident conditions). By coupling information from several facilities, including neutron radiography/tomography, electron probe micro analysis, micro elastic recoil detection analysis and micro laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, it was possible to map quantitatively, at different scales, the distribution of oxygen and hydrogen within M5™ clad segments having experienced ballooning and burst at HT followed by steam oxidation at 1100 and 1200 °C and final direct water quenching down to room temperature. The results were very reproducible and it was confirmed that internal oxidation and secondary hydriding at HT of a cladding after burst can lead to strong axial and azimuthal gradients of hydrogen and oxygen concentrations, reaching 3000–4000 wt ppm and 1.0–1.2 wt% respectively within the β phase layer for the investigated conditions. Consistent with thermodynamic and kinetics considerations, oxygen diffusion into the prior-β layer was enhanced in the regions highly enriched in hydrogen, where the α(O) phase layer is thinner and the prior-β layer thicker. Finally the induced post-quenching hardening of the prior-β layer was mainly related to the local oxygen enrichment. Hardening directly induced by hydrogen was much less significant. - Highlights: •More than 50% of the gaseous hydrogen produced by the inner clad oxidation absorbed and trapped into prior-β layer. •High hydrogen and oxygen local concentrations, up to 3000–4000 wt. ppm and 1.0–1.2 wt.% respectively, within the β phase. •Enhanced oxygen diffusion into hydrogen enriched prior-β layer, with locally thinner α(O) and thicker prior-β layers. •Post-quenching hardening of the prior-β structure mainly related to the (local) oxygen concentration.

  10. Determination of acrylamide in Chinese traditional carbohydrate-rich foods using gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detector and isotope dilution liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yu; Ren Yiping; Zhao Hangmei; Zhang Ying

    2007-01-01

    The present study developed two analytical methods for quantification of acrylamide in complex food matrixes, such as Chinese traditional carbohydrate-rich foods. One is based on derivatization with potassium bromate and potassium bromide without clean-up prior to gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detector (GC-MECD). Alternatively, the underivatized acrylamide was detected by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) in the positive electrospray ionization mode. For both methods, the Chinese carbohydrate-rich samples were homogenized, defatted with petroleum ether and extracted with aqueous solution of sodium chloride. Recovery rates for acrylamide from spiked Chinese style foods with the spiking level of 50, 500 and 1000 μg kg -1 were in the range of 79-93% for the GC-MECD including derivatization and 84-97% for the HPLC-MS/MS method. Typical quantification limits of the HPLC-MSMS method were 4 μg kg -1 for acrylamide. The GC-MECD method achieved quantification limits of 10 μg kg -1 in Chinese style foods. Thirty-eight Chinese traditional foods purchased from different manufacturers were analyzed and compared with four Western style foods. Acrylamide contaminant was found in all of samples at the concentration up to 771.1 and 734.5 μg kg -1 detected by the GC and HPLC method, respectively. The concentrations determined with the two different quantitative methods corresponded well with each other. A convenient and fast pretreatment procedure will be optimized in order to satisfy further investigation of hundreds of samples

  11. Simultaneous analysis of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in air samples by using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography dual electron capture detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokbel, Haifaa; Al Dine, Enaam Jamal; Elmoll, Ahmad; Liaud, Céline; Millet, Maurice

    2016-04-01

    An analytical method associating accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) in immersion mode combined with gas chromatography dual electrons capture detectors (SPME-GC-2ECD) has been developed and studied for the simultaneous determination of 19 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 22 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in air samples (active and XAD-2 passive samplers). Samples were extracted with ASE with acetonitrile using the following conditions: temperature, 150 °C; pressure, 1500 psi; static, 15 min; cycles, 3; purge, 300 s; flush, 100 %. Extracts were reduced to 1 mL, and 500 μL of this extract, filled with deionised water, was subject to SPME extraction. Experimental results indicated that the proposed method attained the best extraction efficiency under the optimised conditions: extraction of PCB-OCP mixture using 100-μm PDMS fibre at 80 °C for 40 min with no addition of salt. The performance of the proposed ASE-SPME-GC-2ECD methodology with respect to linearity, limit of quantification and detection was evaluated by spiking of XAD-2 resin with target compounds. The regression coefficient (R (2)) of most compounds was found to be high of 0.99. limits of detection (LODs) are between 0.02 and 4.90 ng m(-3), and limits of quantification (LOQs) are between 0.05 and 9.12 ng m(-3) and between 0.2 and 49 ng/sampler and 0.52 and 91 ng/sampler, respectively, for XAD-2 passive samplers. Finally, a developed procedure was applied to determine selected PCBs and OCPs in the atmosphere.

  12. UV laser-induced high resolution cleaving of Si wafers for micro-nano devices and polymeric waveguide characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casquel, R.; Holgado, M.; Garcia-Ballesteros, J.J.; Zinoviev, K.; Fernandez-Sanchez, C.; Sanza, F.J.; Molpeceres, C.; Laguna, M.F.; Llobera, A.; Ocana, J.L.; Dominguez, C.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we propose a method for cleaving silicon-based photonic chips by using a laser based micromachining system, consisting of a ND:YVO 4 laser emitting at 355 nm in nanosecond pulse regime and a micropositioning system. The laser makes grooved marks placed at the desired locations and directions where cleaves have to be initiated, and after several processing steps, a crack appears and propagate along the crystallographic planes of the silicon wafer. This allows cleavage of the chips automatically and with high positioning accuracy, and provides polished vertical facets with better quality than the obtained with other cleaving process, which eases the optical characterization of photonic devices. This method has been found to be particularly useful when cleaving small-sized chips, where manual cleaving is hard to perform; and also for polymeric waveguides, whose facets get damaged or even destroyed with polishing or manual cleaving processing. Influence of length of the grooved line and speed of processing is studied for a variety of silicon chips. An application for cleaving and characterizing sol-gel waveguides is presented. The total amount of light coupled is higher than when using any other procedure.

  13. UV laser-induced high resolution cleaving of Si wafers for micro-nano devices and polymeric waveguide characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casquel, R., E-mail: rafael.casquel@upm.es [Centro Laser UPM, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Campus Sur UPM, 28031 Madrid (Spain); Holgado, M.; Garcia-Ballesteros, J.J. [Centro Laser UPM, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Campus Sur UPM, 28031 Madrid (Spain); Zinoviev, K.; Fernandez-Sanchez, C. [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, Centro Nacional de Microelectronica - CSIC, Campus Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Sanza, F.J.; Molpeceres, C.; Laguna, M.F. [Centro Laser UPM, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Campus Sur UPM, 28031 Madrid (Spain); Llobera, A. [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, Centro Nacional de Microelectronica - CSIC, Campus Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Ocana, J.L. [Centro Laser UPM, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Campus Sur UPM, 28031 Madrid (Spain); Dominguez, C. [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, Centro Nacional de Microelectronica - CSIC, Campus Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-04-01

    In this work we propose a method for cleaving silicon-based photonic chips by using a laser based micromachining system, consisting of a ND:YVO{sub 4} laser emitting at 355 nm in nanosecond pulse regime and a micropositioning system. The laser makes grooved marks placed at the desired locations and directions where cleaves have to be initiated, and after several processing steps, a crack appears and propagate along the crystallographic planes of the silicon wafer. This allows cleavage of the chips automatically and with high positioning accuracy, and provides polished vertical facets with better quality than the obtained with other cleaving process, which eases the optical characterization of photonic devices. This method has been found to be particularly useful when cleaving small-sized chips, where manual cleaving is hard to perform; and also for polymeric waveguides, whose facets get damaged or even destroyed with polishing or manual cleaving processing. Influence of length of the grooved line and speed of processing is studied for a variety of silicon chips. An application for cleaving and characterizing sol-gel waveguides is presented. The total amount of light coupled is higher than when using any other procedure.

  14. Integration of micro-optics and microfluidics in a glass chip by fs-laser for optofluidic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osellame, Roberto; Martinez, Rebeca; Laporta, Paolo; Ramponi, Roberta; Cerullo, Giulio

    2009-02-01

    A lab-on-a-chip (LOC) is a device that incorporates in a single substrate the functionalities of a biological laboratory, i.e. a network of fluidic channels, reservoirs, valves, pumps and sensors, all with micrometer dimensions. Its main advantages are the possibility of working with small samples quantities (from nano- to picoliters), high sensitivity, speed of analysis and the possibility of measurement automation and standardization. They are becoming the most powerful tools of analytical chemistry with a broad application in life sciences, biotechnology and drug development. The next technological challenge of LOCs is direct on-chip integration of photonic functionalities for sensing of biomolecules flowing in the microchannels. Ultrafast laser processing of the bulk of a dielectric material is a very flexible and simple method to produce photonic devices inside microfluidic chips for capillary electrophoresis (CE) or chemical microreactors. By taking advantage of the unique three-dimensional capabilities of this fabrication technique, more complex functionalities, such as splitters or Mach-Zehnder interferometers, can be implemented. In this work we report on the use of femtosecond laser pulses to fabricate photonic devices (as waveguides, splitters and interferometers) inside commercial CE chips, without affecting the manufacturing procedure of the microfluidic part of the device. The fabrication of single waveguides intersecting the channels allows one to perform absorption or Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) sensing of the molecules separated inside the microchannels. Waveguide splitters are used for multipoint excitation of the microfluidic channel for parallel or higher sensitivity measurements. Finally, Mach-Zehnder interferometers are used for label-free sensing of the samples flowing in the microfluidic channels by means of refractive index changes detection.

  15. Adaptation and micro-structure of Co-Cr alloy maxillary complete denture base plates fabricated by selective laser melting technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ye; Jiao, Ting; Zhu, Jiarui; Sun, Jian

    2018-01-24

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the adaptation and micro-structure of Co-Cr alloy maxillary complete denture base plates fabricated by the selective laser melting (SLM) technique. Twenty pairs of edentulous casts were randomly and evenly divided into two groups, and manufacturing of the Co-Cr alloy maxillary complete denture base was conducted either by the SLM technique or by the conventional method. The base-cast sets were transversally sectioned into three sections at the distal canines, mesial of the first molars and the posterior palatal zone. The gap between the metal base and cast was measured in these three sections with a stereoscopic microscope, and the data were analysed using t tests. A total of five specimens of 5 mm diameter were fabricated with the Co-Cr alloy by SLM and the traditional casting technology. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to evaluate the differences in microstructure between these specimens. There was no statistical difference between the three sections in all four groups (P > 0.05). At the region of the canines, the clearance value for the SLM Co-Cr alloy group was larger than that of the conventional method group (P  0.05). The SLM Co-Cr alloy has a denser microstructure behaviour and less casting defect than the cast Co-Cr alloy. The SLM technique showed initial feasibility for the manufacture of dental bases of complete dentures, but large sample studies are needed to prove its reliability in clinical applications. The mechanical properties and microstructure of the denture frameworks prepared by selective laser melting indicate that these dentures are appropriate for clinical use.

  16. Reduction of front-metallization grid shading in concentrator cells through laser micro-grooved cover glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Linares, Pablo; Voarino, Philippe; Besson, Pierre; Baudrit, Mathieu; Dominguez, César; Dellea, Olivier; Fugier, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Concentrator solar cell front-grid metallizations are designed so that the trade-off between series resistance and shading factor (SF) is optimized for a particular irradiance. High concentrator photovoltaics (CPV) typically requires a metallic electrode pattern that covers up to 10% of the cell surface. The shading effect produced by this front electrode results in a significant reduction in short-circuit current (I SC ) and hence, in a significant efficiency loss. In this work we present a cover glass (originally meant to protect the cell surface) that is laser-grooved with a micrometric pattern that redirects the incident solar light towards interfinger regions and away from the metallic electrodes, where they would be wasted in terms of photovoltaic generation. Quantum efficiency (QE) and current (I)-voltage (V) characterization under concentration validate the proof-of-concept, showing great potential for CPV applications

  17. Reduction of front-metallization grid shading in concentrator cells through laser micro-grooved cover glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Linares, Pablo, E-mail: pablo.garcia-linares@cea.fr; Voarino, Philippe; Besson, Pierre; Baudrit, Mathieu [CEA-LITEN, Laboratoire de Photovoltaïque à Concentration, INES, Le Bourget du Lac (France); Dominguez, César [CEA-LITEN, Laboratoire de Photovoltaïque à Concentration, INES, Le Bourget du Lac (France); Instituto de Energía Solar - Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Dellea, Olivier; Fugier, Pascal [CEA-LITEN, Laboratoire de Surfaces Nanostructurées, Grenoble (France)

    2015-09-28

    Concentrator solar cell front-grid metallizations are designed so that the trade-off between series resistance and shading factor (SF) is optimized for a particular irradiance. High concentrator photovoltaics (CPV) typically requires a metallic electrode pattern that covers up to 10% of the cell surface. The shading effect produced by this front electrode results in a significant reduction in short-circuit current (I{sub SC}) and hence, in a significant efficiency loss. In this work we present a cover glass (originally meant to protect the cell surface) that is laser-grooved with a micrometric pattern that redirects the incident solar light towards interfinger regions and away from the metallic electrodes, where they would be wasted in terms of photovoltaic generation. Quantum efficiency (QE) and current (I)-voltage (V) characterization under concentration validate the proof-of-concept, showing great potential for CPV applications.

  18. A combined application of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy and isothermal micro-calorimetry for calorespirometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueckner, David; Solokhina, Anna; Krähenbühl, Stephan; Braissant, Olivier

    2017-08-01

    Calorespirometry is the simultaneous analysis of the rate of heat emission (R q ), O 2 consumption (R O2 ) and CO 2 production (R CO2 ) by living systems such as tissues or organism cultures. The analysis provides useful knowledge about thermodynamic parameters relevant for e.g. biotechnology where parameter based yield maximization (fermentation) is relevant. The determination of metabolism related heat emission is easy and normally done by a calorimeter. However, measuring the amount of consumed O 2 and produced CO 2 can be more challenging, as additional preparation or instrumentation might be needed. Therefore, tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was investigated as an alternative approach for respirometric analysis in order to facilitate the data collection procedure. The method determines by a spectroscopic laser non-invasively CO 2 and O 2 gas concentration changes in the respective vial headspaces. The gathered growth data from Pseudomonas aeruginosa cultured in two different scarce media was used to compute respiratory quotient (RQ) and calorespirometric ratios (CR CO2 [R q /R CO2 ], CR O2 [R q /R O2 ]). A comparison of the computed (experimental) values (for RQ, CR CO2 and CR O2 ) with values reported in the literature confirmed the appropriateness of TDLAS in calorespirometric studies. Thus, it could be demonstrated that TDLAS is a well-performing and convenient way to evaluate non-invasively respiratory rates during calorespirometric studies. Therefore, the technique is definitively worth to be investigated further for its potential use in research and in diverse productive environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Biocavity Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourley, P.L.; Gourley, M.F.

    2000-10-05

    Laser technology has advanced dramatically and is an integral part of today's healthcare delivery system. Lasers are used in the laboratory analysis of human blood samples and serve as surgical tools that kill, burn or cut tissue. Recent semiconductor microtechnology has reduced the size o f a laser to the size of a biological cell or even a virus particle. By integrating these ultra small lasers with biological systems, it is possible to create micro-electrical mechanical systems that may revolutionize health care delivery.

  20. Characterization of the inhomogeneous constitutive properties of laser welding beams by the micro-Vickers hardness test and the rule of mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Yanli; Hua, Lin; Chu, Dongning; Lan, Jian

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Relationship between Vickers hardness and material parameters was quantitatively built. ► Inhomogeneous weld properties were determined by hardness test combined the rule of mixture. ► Instrumented indentation tests verified these calculated properties of welds. ► Deviations between the calculated and experimental results were limited to 8.0%. -- Abstract: A novel approach has been proposed to characterize the inhomogeneous mechanical properties of weld materials by using the micro-Vickers hardness test combined with the rule of mixture. This proposed method has introduced the influences of the inhomogeneous properties of weld materials by considering the variations in plastic behaviour across the weld cross-section. The inhomogeneous properties of laser welding beams for tailor welded blanks (TWBs), which were three different types of combinations of DX56D and DP600 automotive steel sheets, were extracted by using this proposed method. The instrumented indentation tests were conducted to verify the measured inhomogeneous properties of weld materials. The fact that the calculated true stress–strain curves agreed well with the experimental ones has confirmed the reliability and accuracy of the proposed method.

  1. Tissue-based metabolite profiling and qualitative comparison of two species of Achyranthes roots by use of UHPLC-QTOF MS and laser micro-dissection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yogini Jaiswal; Zhitao Liang; Alan Ho; Hubiao Chen; Leonard Williams; Zhongzhen Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Achyranthes bidentata and Achyranthes aspera are saponin and steroid rich medicinal plants, used extensively for therapeutic treatments in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda. A. bidentata is reported to be one of the rare and extensively exploited medicinal plant species that face the issue of being endangered. Finding qualitative substitute with identical phyto-constituents contributing to similar composition and pharmacological benefits wil help in reducing the burden of exploitation of the natural habitats of such plants. In the present study, a comparative metabolite analysis of the whole drug and specific tissues isolated by laser micro-dissection (LMD) was carried out for both the selected species, by use of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF MS). The results of the study indicate that the cortex and the medullary ray tissues are rich in their content of steroidal and saponin con-stituents such as (25S)-inokosterone-20,22-acetonide, ginsenoside Ro, bidentatoside II and achyranthoside B. Metabolite profiling of the whole tissues of both the species indicates presence of identical constituents. Thus, it is inferred that A. bidentata and A. aspera can be used as qualitative substitutes for each other.

  2. First improvements in the detection and quantification of label-free nucleic acids by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: Application to the deoxyribonucleic acid micro-array technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Meur, Julien; Menut, Denis; Wodling, Pascal; Salmon, Laurent; Thro, Pierre-Yves; Chevillard, Sylvie; Ugolin, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    The accurate quantification of nucleic acids is essential in many fields of modern biology and industry, and in some cases requires the use of fluorescence labeling. Yet, in addition to standardization problems and quantification reproducibility, labeling can modify the physicochemical properties of molecules or affect their stability. To address these limitations, we have developed a novel method to detect and quantify label-free nucleic acids. This method is based on stoichiometric proportioning of phosphorus in the nucleic acid skeleton, using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, and a specific statistical analysis, which indicates the error probability for each measurement. The results obtained appear to be quantitative, with a limit of detection of 10 5 nucleotides/μm 2 (i.e. 2 x 10 13 phosphorus atoms/cm 2 ). Initial micro-array analysis has given very encouraging results, which point to new ways of quantifying hybridized nucleic acids. This is essential when comparing molecules of different sequences, which is presently very difficult with fluorescence labeling

  3. First improvements in the detection and quantification of label-free nucleic acids by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: Application to the deoxyribonucleic acid micro-array technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Meur, Julien [Laboratoire de Cancerologie Experimentale, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique de Fontenay-aux-Roses, Direction des Sciences du Vivant, Departement de Radiobiologie et Radiopathologie, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Menut, Denis [Laboratoire de Reactivite des Surfaces et des Interfaces, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique de Saclay, Direction de l' Energie Nucleaire, Departement de Physico-Chimie, Gif sur Yvette (France); Wodling, Pascal [Laboratoire d' Interaction Laser-Matiere, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique de Saclay, Direction de l' Energie Nucleaire, Departement de Physico-Chimie, Gif sur Yvette (France); Salmon, Laurent [Laboratoire de Reactivite des Surfaces et des Interfaces, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique de Saclay, Direction de l' Energie Nucleaire, Departement de Physico-Chimie, Gif sur Yvette (France); Thro, Pierre-Yves [Laboratoire d' Interaction Laser-Matiere, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique de Saclay, Direction de l' Energie Nucleaire, Departement de Physico-Chimie, Gif sur Yvette (France); Chevillard, Sylvie [Laboratoire de Cancerologie Experimentale, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique de Fontenay-aux-Roses, Direction des Sciences du Vivant, Departement de Radiobiologie et Radiopathologie, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Ugolin, Nicolas [Laboratoire de Cancerologie Experimentale, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique de Fontenay-aux-Roses, Direction des Sciences du Vivant, Departement de Radiobiologie et Radiopathologie, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)], E-mail: nugolin@cea.fr

    2008-04-15

    The accurate quantification of nucleic acids is essential in many fields of modern biology and industry, and in some cases requires the use of fluorescence labeling. Yet, in addition to standardization problems and quantification reproducibility, labeling can modify the physicochemical properties of molecules or affect their stability. To address these limitations, we have developed a novel method to detect and quantify label-free nucleic acids. This method is based on stoichiometric proportioning of phosphorus in the nucleic acid skeleton, using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, and a specific statistical analysis, which indicates the error probability for each measurement. The results obtained appear to be quantitative, with a limit of detection of 10{sup 5} nucleotides/{mu}m{sup 2} (i.e. 2 x 10{sup 13} phosphorus atoms/cm{sup 2}). Initial micro-array analysis has given very encouraging results, which point to new ways of quantifying hybridized nucleic acids. This is essential when comparing molecules of different sequences, which is presently very difficult with fluorescence labeling.

  4. Monitoring gas-phase CO2 in the headspace of champagne glasses through combined diode laser spectrometry and micro-gas chromatography analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriaux, Anne-Laure; Vallon, Raphaël; Parvitte, Bertrand; Zeninari, Virginie; Liger-Belair, Gérard; Cilindre, Clara

    2018-10-30

    During Champagne or sparkling wine tasting, gas-phase CO 2 and volatile organic compounds invade the headspace above glasses, thus progressively modifying the chemical space perceived by the consumer. Gas-phase CO 2 in excess can even cause a very unpleasant tingling sensation perturbing both ortho- and retronasal olfactory perception. Monitoring as accurately as possible the level of gas-phase CO 2 above glasses is therefore a challenge of importance aimed at better understanding the close relationship between the release of CO 2 and a collection of various tasting parameters. Here, the concentration of CO 2 found in the headspace of champagne glasses served under multivariate conditions was accurately monitored, all along the 10 min following pouring, through a new combined approach by a CO 2 -Diode Laser Sensor and micro-gas chromatography. Our results show the strong impact of various tasting conditions (volume dispensed, intensity of effervescence, and glass shape) on the release of gas-phase CO 2 above the champagne surface. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of Prototype Micro-Lidar using Narrow Linewidth Semiconductor Lasers for Mars Boundary Layer Wind and Dust Opacity Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Robert T.; Cardell, Greg; Chiao, Meng; Esproles, Carlos; Forouhar, Siamak; Hemmati, Hamid; Tratt, David

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a compact Doppler lidar concept which utilizes recent developments in semiconductor diode laser technology in order to be considered suitable for wind and dust opacity profiling in the Mars lower atmosphere from a surface location. The current understanding of the Mars global climate and meteorology is very limited, with only sparse, near-surface data available from the Viking and Mars Pathfinder landers, supplemented by long-range remote sensing of the Martian atmosphere. The in situ measurements from a lander-based Doppler lidar would provide a unique dataset particularly for the boundary layer. The coupling of the radiative properties of the lower atmosphere with the dynamics involves the radiative absorption and scattering effects of the wind-driven dust. Variability in solar irradiance, on diurnal and seasonal time scales, drives vertical mixing and PBL (planetary boundary layer) thickness. The lidar data will also contribute to an understanding of the impact of wind-driven dust on lander and rover operations and lifetime through an improvement in our understanding of Mars climatology. In this paper we discuss the Mars lidar concept, and the development of a laboratory prototype for performance studies, using, local boundary layer and topographic target measurements.

  6. Micro-Structures and High-Temperature Friction-Wear Performances of Laser Cladded Cr–Ni Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jiahong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cr–Ni coatings with the mass ratios of 17% Cr–83% Ni, 20% Cr–80% Ni and 24% Cr–76% Ni were fabricated on H13 hot work mould steel using a laser cladding (LC. The surface–interface morphologies, chemical elements, surface roughness and phase composition of the obtained Cr–Ni coatings were analysed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM, energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS, atomic force microscope (AFM and X–ray diffractometer (XRD, respectively. The friction–wear properties and wear rates of Cr–Ni coatings with the different mass ratios of Cr and Ni at 600 °C were investigated, and the worn morphologies and wear mechanism of Cr–Ni coatings were analysed. The results show that the phases of Cr–Ni coatings with mass ratios of 17% Cr–83% Ni, 20% Cr–80% Ni and 24% Cr–76% Ni are composed of Cr + Ni single-phases and their compounds at the different stoichiometry, the porosities on the Cr–Ni coatings increase with the Cr content increasing. The average coefficient of friction (COF of 17% Cr–83% Ni, 20% Cr–80% Ni and 24% Cr–76% coatings are 1.10, 0.33 and 0.87, respectively, in which the average COF of 20% Cr–80% Ni coating is the lowest, exhibiting the better anti-friction performance. The wear rate of 17% Cr–83% Ni, 20% Cr–80% Ni and 24% Cr–76% Ni coatings is 4.533 × 10−6, 5.433 × 10−6, and 1.761 × 10−6 N−1·s−1, respectively, showing the wear resistance of Cr–Ni coatings at a high temperature increases with the Cr content, in which the wear rate is 24% Cr–76% Ni coating with the better reducing wear. The wear mechanism of 17% Cr–83% Ni and 20% Cr–80% Ni and 24% Cr–76% coatings at 600 °C is primarily adhesive wear, and that of 24% Cr–76% coating is also accompanied by oxidative wear.

  7. The potential of using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma time of flight mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-TOF-MS) in the forensic analysis of micro debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scadding, Cameron J; Watling, R John; Thomas, Allen G

    2005-08-15

    The majority of crimes result in the generation of some form of physical evidence, which is available for collection by crime scene investigators or police. However, this debris is often limited in amount as modern criminals become more aware of its potential value to forensic scientists. The requirement to obtain robust evidence from increasingly smaller sized samples has required refinement and modification of old analytical techniques and the development of new ones. This paper describes a new method for the analysis of oxy-acetylene debris, left behind at a crime scene, and the establishment of its co-provenance with single particles of equivalent debris found on the clothing of persons of interest (POI). The ability to rapidly determine and match the elemental distribution patterns of debris collected from crime scenes to those recovered from persons of interest is essential in ensuring successful prosecution. Traditionally, relatively large amounts of sample (up to several milligrams) have been required to obtain a reliable elemental fingerprint of this type of material [R.J. Walting , B.F. Lynch, D. Herring, J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 12 (1997) 195]. However, this quantity of material is unlikely to be recovered from a POI. This paper describes the development and application of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma time of flight mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-TOF-MS), as an analytical protocol, which can be applied more appropriately to the analysis of micro-debris than conventional quadrupole based mass spectrometry. The resulting data, for debris as small as 70mum in diameter, was unambiguously matched between a single spherule recovered from a POI and a spherule recovered from the scene of crime, in an analytical procedure taking less than 5min.

  8. Bone regeneration by the osteoconductivity of porous titanium implants manufactured by selective laser melting: a histological and micro computed tomography study in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wild, Michael; Schumacher, Ralf; Mayer, Kyrill; Schkommodau, Erik; Thoma, Daniel; Bredell, Marius; Kruse Gujer, Astrid; Grätz, Klaus W; Weber, Franz E

    2013-12-01

    The treatment of large bone defects still poses a major challenge in orthopaedic and cranio-maxillofacial surgery. One possible solution could be the development of personalized porous titanium-based implants that are designed to meet all mechanical needs with a minimum amount of titanium and maximum osteopromotive properties so that it could be combined with growth factor-loaded hydrogels or cell constructs to realize advanced bone tissue engineering strategies. Such implants could prove useful for mandibular reconstruction, spinal fusion, the treatment of extended long bone defects, or to fill in gaps created on autograft harvesting. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanical properties and potential of bone formation of light weight implants generated by selective laser melting (SLM). We mainly focused on osteoconduction, as this is a key feature in bone healing and could serve as a back-up for osteoinduction and cell transplantation strategies. To that end, defined implants were produced by SLM, and their surfaces were left untreated, sandblasted, or sandblasted/acid etched. In vivo bone formation with the different implants was tested throughout calvarial defects in rabbits and compared with untreated defects. Analysis by micro computed tomography (μCT) and histomorphometry revealed that all generatively produced porous Ti structures were well osseointegrated into the surrounding bone. The histomorphometric analysis revealed that bone formation was significantly increased in all implant-treated groups compared with untreated defects and significantly increased in sand blasted implants compared with untreated ones. Bone bridging was significantly increased in sand blasted acid-etched scaffolds. Therefore, scaffolds manufactured by SLM should be surface treated. Bone augmentation beyond the original bone margins was only seen in implant-treated defects, indicating an osteoconductive potential of the implants that could be utilized clinically for bone

  9. Micro Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alting, Leo; Kimura, F.; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2003-01-01

    The paper addresses the questions of how micro products are designed and how they are manufactured. Definitions of micro products and micro engineering are discussed and the presentation is aimed at describing typical issues, possibilities and tools regarding design of micro products. The implica......The paper addresses the questions of how micro products are designed and how they are manufactured. Definitions of micro products and micro engineering are discussed and the presentation is aimed at describing typical issues, possibilities and tools regarding design of micro products...

  10. Effects of Laser Scanning Conditions on Metallic Micro/Nanostructures in Multiphoton Nanofabrication%多光子纳米加工中激光扫描条件对金属微纳结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳伟; 董贤子; 赵震声; 段宣明

    2011-01-01

    The influences of laser scanning conditions on the silver micro/nanostructures in multipho-ton photoreduction of metallic micro/nanostructures and morphology using femtosecond laser were investigated. The results indicated that increasing the distance between scanning points (d) could make the width of lines become smaller and extending the exposure of time (t) could make the lines broadening. Furthermore, the increasing of scanning times (N) led to the formation of large silver particles and lumps on the structures due to the fusion of silver nanoparticles which on the surface of metallic micro/nanostructures.%研究了飞秒激光多光子还原制备银微纳结构技术中激光扫描条件对金属微纳结构与形貌的影响.结果表明:增加激光扫描点间距d可获得较小线宽,延长曝光时间t使线条变宽,增加扫描次数N可使金属微纳结构表面银纳米粒子熔融凝固成较大尺寸颗粒及块状物.

  11. Micro-educational reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade, Stefan Bastholm; Thomsen, Jens Peter

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzes the persistence of educational inequality in advanced industrialized societies with expanding and differentiated education systems. Using Denmark as a case, we investigate changes in immobility patterns for cohorts born 1960–1981 and develop a new micro-educational classificat...... forms of reproduction. In addition, the micro-educational approach far better explains the immobility of sons than it explains that of daughters, revealing important gender differences in the immobility patterns for sons and daughters......., in particular for sons. We also find great variation in immobility for specific micro-educations within the university level. Studies of educational immobility would therefore benefit from paying attention to micro-educational classifications, because they capture patterns of multidimensional, disaggregated...

  12. Nano lasers in photonic VLSI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hill, M.T.; Oei, Y.S.; Smit, M.K.

    2007-01-01

    We examine the use of micro and nano lasers to form digital photonic VLSI building blocks. Problems such as isolation and cascading of building blocks are addressed, and the potential of future nano lasers explored.

  13. Laser microdissection and capture of pure cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts from infarcted heart regions: perceived hyperoxia induces p21 in peri-infarct myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Donald E; Roy, Sashwati; Radtke, Jared; Khanna, Savita; Sen, Chandan K

    2007-03-01

    Myocardial infarction caused by ischemia-reperfusion in the coronary vasculature is a focal event characterized by an infarct-core, bordering peri-infarct zone and remote noninfarct zone. Recently, we have reported the first technique, based on laser microdissection pressure catapulting (LMPC), enabling the dissection of infarction-induced biological responses in multicellular regions of the heart. Molecular mechanisms in play at the peri-infarct zone are central to myocardial healing. At the infarct site, myocytes are more sensitive to insult than robust fibroblasts. Understanding of cell-specific responses in the said zones is therefore critical. In this work, we describe the first technique to collect the myocardial tissue with a single-cell resolution. The infarcted myocardium was identified by using a truncated hematoxylin-eosin stain. Cell elements from the infarct, peri-infarct, and noninfarct zones were collected in a chaotropic RNA lysis solution with micron-level surgical precision. Isolated RNA was analyzed for quality by employing microfluidics technology and reverse transcribed to generate cDNA. Purity of the collected specimen was established by real-time PCR analyses of cell-specific genes. Previously, we have reported that the oxygen-sensitive induction of p21/Cip1/Waf1/Sdi1 in cardiac fibroblasts in the peri-infarct zone plays a vital role in myocardial remodeling. Using the novel LMPC technique developed herein, we confirmed that finding and report for the first time that the induction of p21 in the peri-infarct zone is not limited to fibroblasts but is also evident in myocytes. This work presents the first account of an analytical technique that applies the LMPC technology to study myocardial remodeling with a cell-type specific resolution.

  14. CAPTURING REALITY AT CENTRE BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Boulanger

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Centre Block of Canada’s Parliament buildings, National Historic Site of Canada is set to undergo a major rehabilitation project that will take approximately 10 years to complete. In preparation for this work, Heritage Conservation Services (HCS of Public Services and Procurement Canada has been completing heritage documentation of the entire site which includes laser scanning of all interior rooms and accessible confined spaces such as attics and other similar areas. Other documentation completed includes detailed photogrammetric documentation of rooms and areas of high heritage value. Some of these high heritage value spaces present certain challenges such as accessibility due to the height and the size of the spaces. Another challenge is the poor lighting conditions, requiring the use of flash or strobe lighting to either compliment or completely eliminate the available ambient lighting. All the spaces captured at this higher level of detail were also captured with laser scanning. This allowed the team to validate the information and conduct a quality review of the photogrammetric data. As a result of this exercise, the team realized that in most, if not all cases, the photogrammetric data was more detailed and at a higher quality then the terrestrial laser scanning data. The purpose and motivation of this paper is to present these findings, as well provide the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods and data sets.

  15. Capturing Reality at Centre Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, C.; Ouimet, C.; Yeomans, N.

    2017-08-01

    The Centre Block of Canada's Parliament buildings, National Historic Site of Canada is set to undergo a major rehabilitation project that will take approximately 10 years to complete. In preparation for this work, Heritage Conservation Services (HCS) of Public Services and Procurement Canada has been completing heritage documentation of the entire site which includes laser scanning of all interior rooms and accessible confined spaces such as attics and other similar areas. Other documentation completed includes detailed photogrammetric documentation of rooms and areas of high heritage value. Some of these high heritage value spaces present certain challenges such as accessibility due to the height and the size of the spaces. Another challenge is the poor lighting conditions, requiring the use of flash or strobe lighting to either compliment or completely eliminate the available ambient lighting. All the spaces captured at this higher level of detail were also captured with laser scanning. This allowed the team to validate the information and conduct a quality review of the photogrammetric data. As a result of this exercise, the team realized that in most, if not all cases, the photogrammetric data was more detailed and at a higher quality then the terrestrial laser scanning data. The purpose and motivation of this paper is to present these findings, as well provide the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods and data sets.

  16. Comparison of laser microprobe mass spectrometry (LMMS) and micro particle induced x-ray emission (micro-PIXE) for the analysis of senile plaques in Alzheimer`s disease. A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovell, M A; Robertson, J D; Ehmann, W D [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Markesbery, W R [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States); Teesdale, W J; Campbell, J L [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics

    1995-08-01

    Results of micro-PIXE analysis of senile plaques (SP) in Alzheimer`s disease (AD) brain have been utilized to independently confirm levels of iron (Fe) as measured by LMMS in adjacent brain sections. LMMS concentrations were calculated based on the preparation and analysis of an iron calibration curve prepared in our laboratory. The LMMS standards consist of iron cis-dicylclohexano-18-crown-6 ether coordination complexes dissolved in Spurr`s low viscosity embedding medium. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of micro-PIXE, with its spatial resolution and detection limits comparable to that of LMMS, in the validation of LMMS results. The agreement observed between results obtained for Fe by micro-PIXE and LMMS indicates that the use of our LMMS standards, at least in the case of Fe, yields accurate results. (author). 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  17. Flow control of micro-ramps on supersonic forward-facing step flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qing-Hu; Zhu Tao; Wu Anping; Yi Shihe

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the micro-ramps on supersonic turbulent flow over a forward-facing step (FFS) was experimentally investigated in a supersonic low-noise wind tunnel at Mach number 3 using nano-tracer planar laser scattering (NPLS) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques. High spatiotemporal resolution images and velocity fields of supersonic flow over the testing model were captured. The fine structures and their spatial evolutionary characteristics without and with the micro-ramps were revealed and compared. The large-scale structures generated by the micro-ramps can survive the downstream FFS flowfield. The micro-ramps control on the flow separation and the separation shock unsteadiness was investigated by PIV results. With the micro-ramps, the reduction in the range of the reversal flow zone in streamwise direction is 50% and the turbulence intensity is also reduced. Moreover, the reduction in the average separated region and in separation shock unsteadiness are 47% and 26%, respectively. The results indicate that the micro-ramps are effective in reducing the flow separation and the separation shock unsteadiness. (paper)

  18. Biochemical changes on the repair of surgical bone defects grafted with biphasic synthetic micro-granular HA + β-tricalcium phosphate induced by laser and LED phototherapies and assessed by Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Antônio Luiz Barbosa; Soares, Luiz Guilherme Pinheiro; Marques, Aparecida Maria Cordeiro; Cangussú, Maria Cristina Teixeira; Pacheco, Marcos Tadeu Tavares; Silveira, Landulfo

    2017-04-01

    This work aimed the assessment of biochemical changes induced by laser or LED irradiation during mineralization of a bone defect in an animal model using a spectral model based on Raman spectroscopy. Six groups were studied: clot, laser (λ = 780 nm; 70 mW), LED (λ = 850 ± 10 nm; 150 mW), biomaterial (biphasic synthetic micro-granular hydroxyapatite (HA) + β-tricalcium phosphate), biomaterial + laser, and biomaterial + LED. When indicated, defects were further irradiated at a 48-h interval during 2 weeks (20 J/cm 2 per session). At the 15th and 30th days, femurs were dissected and spectra of the defects were collected. Raman spectra were submitted to a model to estimate the relative amount of collagen, phosphate HA, and carbonate HA by using the spectra of pure collagen and biomaterials composed of phosphate and carbonate HA, respectively. The use of the biomaterial associated to phototherapy did not change the collagen formation at both 15 and 30 days. The amount of carbonate HA was not different in all groups at the 15th day. However, at the 30th day, there was a significant difference (ANOVA, p = 0.01), with lower carbonate HA for the group biomaterial + LED compared to biomaterial (p biomaterial grafts at the 15th day compared to clot (significant for the biomaterial; p biomaterial + laser, while this was lower for all the other groups. These results indicated that the use of laser phototherapy improved the repair of bone defects grafted with the biomaterial by increasing the deposition of phosphate HA.

  19. Micro Vision

    OpenAIRE

    Ohba, Kohtaro; Ohara, Kenichi

    2007-01-01

    In the field of the micro vision, there are few researches compared with macro environment. However, applying to the study result for macro computer vision technique, you can measure and observe the micro environment. Moreover, based on the effects of micro environment, it is possible to discovery the new theories and new techniques.

  20. A study of the process of synchronisation and micronucleation in Beta vulgaris and the monitoring of an isolation procedure for micro-nuclei and micro-protoplasts by confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Famelaer, I.; Verhoeven, H.A.; Dijkhuis, P.; Ramulu, K.S.

    2007-01-01

    The process of synchronization and micro-nuclei induction in a suspension culture of Beta vulgaris, was induced by the sequential treatment with the DNA-synthesis inhibitor aphidicolin (30 mu M, 24 h) and the spindle-toxin amiprophos-methyl (32 mu M, 24 h). Mitotic arrest of divisions, spreading of

  1. Production of high quality brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) RNA from isolated populations of rat spinal cord motor neurons obtained by Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Prachi; Premkumar, Brian; Morris, Renée

    2016-08-03

    The mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is composed of multiple cellular elements, making it challenging to segregate one particular cell type to study their gene expression profile. For instance, as motor neurons represent only 5-10% of the total cell population of the spinal cord, meaningful transcriptional analysis on these neurons is almost impossible to achieve from homogenized spinal cord tissue. A major challenge faced by scientists is to obtain good quality RNA from small amounts of starting material. In this paper, we used Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM) techniques to identify and isolate spinal cord motor neurons. The present analysis revealed that perfusion with paraformaldehyde (PFA) does not alter RNA quality. RNA integrity numbers (RINs) of tissue samples from rubrospinal tract (RST)-transected, intact spinal cord or from whole spinal cord homogenate were all above 8, which indicates intact, high-quality RNA. Levels of mRNA for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or for its tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) were not affected by rubrospinal tract (RST) transection, a surgical procedure that deprive motor neurons from one of their main supraspinal input. The isolation of pure populations of neurons with LCM techniques allows for robust transcriptional characterization that cannot be achieved with spinal cord homogenates. Such preparations of pure population of motor neurons will provide valuable tools to advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying spinal cord injury and neuromuscular diseases. In the near future, LCM techniques might be instrumental to the success of gene therapy for these debilitating conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The occasional role of low-risk human papillomaviruses 6, 11, 42, 44, and 70 in anogenital carcinoma defined by laser capture microdissection/PCR methodology: results from a global study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimerà, Núria; Lloveras, Belén; Lindeman, Jan; Alemany, Laia; van de Sandt, Miekel; Alejo, Maria; Hernandez-Suarez, Gustavo; Bravo, Ignacio G; Molijn, Anco; Jenkins, David; Cubilla, Antonio; Muñoz, Nubia; de Sanjose, Silvia; Bosch, Francesc Xavier; Quint, Wim

    2013-09-01

    Low-risk human papillomaviruses (LR-HPVs) have been associated occasionally with clinically and pathologically unusual anogenital malignancies. The relation between clinicopathologic features and any pathogenetic role of LR-HPV remains unclear. From a global study of 13,328 anogenital carcinomas, we identified 57 cases in which whole-tissue polymerase chain reaction using SPF10-LiPA25 showed single LR-HPV infection. In 43/46 (93.5%) available carcinomas, multiple polymerase chain reaction assays confirmed single detection of HPV6, 11, 42, 44, or 70 DNA. In 75% (n=32) of these, LR-HPV DNA was confirmed in tumor cells by laser capture microdissection. In 2 cases, including 1 adenocarcinoma, viral DNA was only found outside the tumor. All anogenital tumors with confirmed HPV6/11 showed a distinctive range of papillary, warty or warty-basaloid, squamous, or transitional histology with patchy or negative p16 expression. HPV6-associated cervical tumors occurred at a low median age. HPV42/70 was associated with typical squamous cell carcinoma showing diffuse p16 staining like high-risk HPV-related malignancies. HPV44 was found in malignant cells in 1 case. Viral taxonomy and theoretical analysis show that HPV6/11 belong to a different genus from HPV42/70 with E6/E7 gene products that would not bind pRb or p53, whereas HPV42/70 could bind pRb. Our data support the causal involvement of LR-HPVs in the carcinogenesis of <2% of anogenital malignancies of 2 distinct clinicopathologic patterns related to the genetic structure of the HPV types 6/11 and 70/42. HPV42/70 was associated with typical squamous carcinomas. Importantly all carcinomas associated with HPV6/11 globally showed verruco-papillary, well-differentiated, squamous, or transitional histology without p16 expression.

  3. Debris of potassium–magnesium silicate glass generated by femtosecond laser-induced ablation in air: An analysis by near edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy, micro Raman and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grehn, M.; Seuthe, T.; Reinhardt, F.; Höfner, M.; Griga, N.; Eberstein, M.; Bonse, J.

    2014-01-01

    The redeposited material (debris) resulting from ablation of a potassium–magnesium silicate glass upon scanning femtosecond laser pulse irradiation (130 fs, 800 nm) in air environment is investigated by means of three complementary surface analytical methods. Changes in the electronic band structure of the glass constituent Magnesium (Mg) were identified by X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure spectroscopy (XANES) using synchrotron radiation. An up-shift of ≈0.8 eV of a specific Magnesium K-edge absorption peak in the spectrum of the redeposited material along with a significant change in its leading edge position was detected. In contrast, the surface left after laser ablation exhibits a downshift of the peak position by ≈0.9 eV. Both observations may be related to a change of the Mg coordinative state of the laser modified/redeposited glass material. The presence of carbon in the debris is revealed by micro Raman spectroscopy (μ-RS) and was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). These observations are attributed to structural changes and chemical reactions taking place during the ablation process.

  4. Radiative electron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggerstaff, J.A.; Appleton, B.R.; Datz, S.; Moak, C.D.; Neelavathi, V.N.; Noggle, T.S.; Ritchie, R.H.; VerBeek, H.

    1975-01-01

    Some data are presented for radiative electron capture by fast moving ions. The radiative electron capture spectrum is shown for O 8+ in Ag, along with the energy dependence of the capture cross-section. A discrepancy between earlier data, theoretical prediction, and the present data is pointed out. (3 figs) (U.S.)

  5. Laser-induced micro-thermography - an innovative method of nondestructive testing of coatings. Laserinduzierte Mikrothermographie - ein innovatives ZfP-Verfahren zur Pruefung von Beschichtungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, U; Crostack, H A; Peppler, P; Winschuh, E

    1992-01-01

    The described, innovative NDT method of the laser-induced thermowave analysis, also called laser-induced microthermography, permits the 3D imaging of thermal characteristics with high axial and lateral resolution. The results show that the method is suitable for the quality control of coatings and yields information on thickness, thermal homogeneity and adhesion as well as valuable additional information, as compared to conventional metallography. (orig.)

  6. Electrodeless excimer laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisi, N.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper it is proposed how to build an excimer laser based on an electrodeless discharge (or Dielectric Barrier Discharge). Such laser could operate with a low energy per pulse ( 2 excimer molecule, whose emission wavelength in the VUV range (157 nm) at high reprate is particularly interesting in the micro-lithography field [it

  7. Micro/nanostructures formation by femtosecond laser surface processing on amorphous and polycrystalline Ni{sub 60}Nb{sub 40}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Edwin, E-mail: edwin.peng@huskers.unl.edu [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States); Tsubaki, Alfred; Zuhlke, Craig A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States); Wang, Meiyu [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States); Bell, Ryan [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States); Lucis, Michael J. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States); Anderson, Troy P.; Alexander, Dennis R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States); Gogos, George; Shield, Jeffrey E. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Femtosecond laser processing of glass-forming Ni{sub 60}Nb{sub 40} produce surface structures. • Cross sectioning, imaging, & TEM sample preparation with dual-beam SEM. • Low laser fluence surface structures’ form by ablation. • High laserfluence surface structures form by ablation and fluid flow. - Abstract: Femtosecond laser surface processing is a technology that can be used to functionalize many surfaces, imparting specialized properties such as increased broadband optical absorption or superhydrophilicity/superhydrophobicity. In this study, two unique classes of surface structures, below surface growth (BSG) and above surface growth (ASG) mounds, were formed by femtosecond laser surface processing on amorphous and polycrystalline Ni{sub 60}Nb{sub 40} with two different grain sizes. Cross sectional imaging of these mounds revealed thermal evidence of the unique formation processes for each class of surface structure. BSG mounds formed on all three substrates using the same laser parameters had similar surface morphology. The microstructures in the mounds were unaltered compared with the substrate before laser processing, suggesting their formation was dominated by preferential valley ablation. ASG mounds had similar morphology when formed on the polycrystalline Ni{sub 60}Nb{sub 40} substrates with 100 nm and 2 μm grain size. However, the ASG mounds had significantly wider diameter and higher peak-to-valley heights when the substrate was amorphous Ni{sub 60}Nb{sub 40}. Hydrodynamic melting was primarily responsible for ASG mound formation. On amorphous Ni{sub 60}Nb{sub 40} substrates, the ASG mounds are most likely larger due to lower thermal diffusivity. There was clear difference in growth mechanism of femtosecond laser processed BSG and ASG mounds, and grain size does not appear to be a factor.

  8. CpG Methylation Analysis of HPV16 in Laser Capture Microdissected Archival Tissue and Whole Tissue Sections from High Grade Anal Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions: A Potential Disease Biomarker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Molano

    Full Text Available Incidence and mortality rates of anal cancer are increasing globally. More than 90% of anal squamous cell carcinomas (ASCC are associated with human papillomavirus (HPV. Studies on HPV-related anogenital lesions have shown that patterns of methylation of viral and cellular DNA targets could potentially be developed as disease biomarkers. Lesion-specific DNA isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissues from existing or prospective patient cohorts may constitute a valuable resource for methylation analysis. However, low concentrations of DNA make these samples technically challenging to analyse using existing methods. We therefore set out to develop a sensitive and reproducible nested PCR-pyrosequencing based method to accurately quantify methylation at 10 CpG sites within the E2BS1, E2BS2,3,4 and Sp1 binding sites in the viral upstream regulatory region of HPV16 genome. Methylation analyses using primary and nested PCR-pyrosequencing on 52 FFPE tissue [26 paired whole tissue sections (WTS and laser capture microdissected (LCM tissues] from patients with anal squamous intraepithelial lesions was performed. Using nested PCR, methylation results were obtained for the E2BS1, E2BS2,3,4 and Sp1 binding sites in 86.4% of the WTS and 81.8% of the LCM samples. Methylation patterns were strongly correlated within median values of matched pairs of WTS and LCM sections, but overall methylation was higher in LCM samples at different CpG sites. High grade lesions showed low methylation levels in the E2BS1 and E2BS2 regions, with increased methylation detected in the E2BS,3,4/Sp1 regions, showing the highest methylation at CpG site 37. The method developed is highly sensitive in samples with low amounts of DNA and demonstrated to be suitable for archival samples. Our data shows a possible role of specific methylation in the HPV16 URR for detection of HSIL.

  9. Investigating Micro-Tensile Bond Strength of Silorane Based Composite in Enamel Surfaces Prepared by Er:YAG Laser vs. Bur-Cut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Daneshkazemi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recently, Er:YAG laser has been used for tooth preparations and silorane-based composites have been introduced to dentistry, though investigating this type of composites has received scant attention. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare microtensile bond strength (MTBS of silorane- based composite (Filtek P90 3M/USA to enamel sufaces, prepared by Er:YAG laser irradiation versus bur cut. Methods:Same sized cavities were prepared by ER:YAG laser and bur on the enamel of 20 extracted teeth which were randomly divided into 4 groups:E1 laser + acid etching, E2: laser, E3: bur + acid etching, E4: bur. Then primer, adhesive and P60 resin composite were utilized according to the manufacturer instructions. After thermocycling, 20 samples were created in the form of an hour glass model with 1 mm2 slices in each group, and were tested by SD Mechatronic MTD 500 (Germany machine with cross head speed of 1mm/min to create the fracture. The failure mode was assessed under stereomicroscope (ZTX-3E, Zhejiang/China, and the study data were analysed by ANOVA test. Results: The study results revealed that highest and lowest microtensile bond strength belonged to E3 and E2 group respectively. No significant differences were observed between the tested groups(p= 0.213. Highest and lowest modes of failure were adhesive and cohesive respectively. ANOVA results did not demonstrate any significant differences between groups(p=0.845. Conclusion: Laser-prepared or bur-prepared cavities with or without etching and silorane based composite could not significantly affect MTBS in order to enamel.

  10. Compact semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Siyuan; Lourtioz, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    This book brings together in a single volume a unique contribution by the top experts around the world in the field of compact semiconductor lasers to provide a comprehensive description and analysis of the current status as well as future directions in the field of micro- and nano-scale semiconductor lasers. It is organized according to the various forms of micro- or nano-laser cavity configurations with each chapter discussing key technical issues, including semiconductor carrier recombination processes and optical gain dynamics, photonic confinement behavior and output coupling mechanisms, carrier transport considerations relevant to the injection process, and emission mode control. Required reading for those working in and researching the area of semiconductors lasers and micro-electronics.

  11. Stimulus-driven capture and contingent capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theeuwes, J.; Olivers, C.N.L.; Belopolsky, A.V.

    2010-01-01

    Whether or not certain physical events can capture attention has been one of the most debated issues in the study of attention. This discussion is concerned with how goal-directed and stimulus-driven processes interact in perception and cognition. On one extreme of the spectrum is the idea that

  12. Combined Fractional Treatment of Acne Scars Involving Non-ablative 1,550-nm Erbium-glass Laser and Micro-needling Radiofrequency: A 16-week Prospective, Randomized Split-face Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuck Hoon Kwon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An optimized therapeutic regimen involving a non-ablative fractionated laser or radiofrequency therapy for acne scars has not yet been established. To evaluate whether the combination of a non-ablative fractional laser (NAF and fractional micro-needling radiofrequency (FMR has clinical advantages for the treatment of atrophic acne scars compared with NAF alone, a 16-week prospective, randomized split-face study was performed. Each facial side of a patient was treated with 3 sessions of either NAF with FMR or NAF alone, with a 4-week interval between each session. Although both sides demonstrated significant decreases in the échelle d’évaluation clinique des cicatrices d’acné (ECCA score, the facial side treated using the combination regimen demonstrated greater improvement in ECCA score regarding degree and onset time than the NAF-treated side. Histopathological and immunohistochemical results confirmed the clinical findings. This study demonstrated that a combination regimen involving NAF and FMR could be a viable option with satisfactory efficacy.

  13. Micro Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulslev Pedersen, Rasmus; Kühn Pedersen, Mogens

    2014-01-01

    such as medical and manufacturing. These new sensor applications have implications for information systems (IS) and, the authors visualize this new class of information systems as fractals growing from an established class of systems; namely that of information systems (IS). The identified applications...... and implications are used as an empirical basis for creating a model for these small new information systems. Such sensor systems are called embedded systems in the technical sciences, and the authors want to couple it with general IS. They call the merger of these two important research areas (IS and embedded...... systems) for micro information systems (micro-IS). It is intended as a new research field within IS research. An initial framework model is established, which seeks to capture both the possibilities and constraints of this new paradigm, while looking simultaneously at the fundamental IS and ICT aspects...

  14. Capture ready study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minchener, A.

    2007-07-15

    There are a large number of ways in which the capture of carbon as carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) can be integrated into fossil fuel power stations, most being applicable for both gas and coal feedstocks. To add to the choice of technology is the question of whether an existing plant should be retrofitted for capture, or whether it is more attractive to build totally new. This miscellany of choices adds considerably to the commercial risk of investing in a large power station. An intermediate stage between the non-capture and full capture state would be advantageous in helping to determine the best way forward and hence reduce those risks. In recent years the term 'carbon capture ready' or 'capture ready' has been coined to describe such an intermediate stage plant and is now widely used. However a detailed and all-encompassing definition of this term has never been published. All fossil fuel consuming plant produce a carbon dioxide gas byproduct. There is a possibility of scrubbing it with an appropriate CO{sub 2} solvent. Hence it could be said that all fossil fuel plant is in a condition for removal of its CO{sub 2} effluent and therefore already in a 'capture ready' state. Evidently, the practical reality of solvent scrubbing could cost more than the rewards offered by such as the ETS (European Trading Scheme). In which case, it can be said that although the possibility exists of capturing CO{sub 2}, it is not a commercially viable option and therefore the plant could not be described as ready for CO{sub 2} capture. The boundary between a capture ready and a non-capture ready condition using this definition cannot be determined in an objective and therefore universally acceptable way and criteria must be found which are less onerous and less potentially contentious to assess. 16 refs., 2 annexes.

  15. Influence of the λ780nm laser light on the repair of surgical bone defects grafted or not with biphasic synthetic micro-granular hydroxylapatite+Beta-Calcium triphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Luiz Guilherme P; Marques, Aparecida Maria C; Guarda, Milena G; Aciole, Jouber Mateus S; dos Santos, Jean Nunes; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz B

    2014-02-05

    The treatment of bone loss due to different etiologic factors is difficult and many techniques aim to improve repair, including a wide range of biomaterials and, recently, photobioengineering. This work aimed to assess, through histological analysis The aim of this study was to assess, by light microscopy, the repair of bone defects grafted or not with biphasic synthetic micro-granular Calcium hydroxyapatite (HA)+Beta-TCP associated or not with Laser phototherapy - LPT (λ780nm). Forty rats were divided into 4 groups each subdivided into 2 subgroups according to the time of sacrifice (15 and 30days). Surgical bone defects were made on femur of each animal with a trephine drill. On animals of Clot group the defect was filled only by blood clot, on Laser group the defect filled with the clot was further irradiated. On animals of Biomaterial and Laser+Biomaterial groups the defect was filled by biomaterial and the last one was further irradiated (λ780nm, 70mW, spot size∼0.4cm(2), 20J/cm(2)-session, 140J/cm(2)-treatment) in four points around the defect at 48-h intervals and repeated for 2weeks. At both 15th and 30th days following sacrifice, samples were taken and analyzed by light microscopy. Many similarities were observed histologically between groups on regards bone reabsorption and neoformation, inflammatory infiltrate and collagen deposition. The criterion degree of maturation, marked by the presence of basophilic lines, indicated that the use of LPT associated with HA+Beta TCP graft, resulted in more advanced stage of bone repair at the end of the experiment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Carbon Capture and Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benson, S.M.; Bennaceur, K.; Cook, P.; Davison, J.; Coninck, H. de; Farhat, K.; Ramirez, C.A.; Simbeck, D.; Surles, T.; Verma, P.; Wright, I.

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of carbon dioxide, the most important long-lived anthropogenic greenhouse gas, can be reduced by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). CCS involves the integration of four elements: CO 2 capture, compression of the CO2 from a gas to a liquid or a denser gas, transportation of pressurized CO 2

  17. CAPTURED India Country Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Donoghue, R.; Brouwers, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides the findings of the India Country Evaluation and is produced as part of the overall CAPTURED End Evaluation. After five years of support by the CAPTURED project the End Evaluation has assessed that results are commendable. I-AIM was able to design an approach in which health

  18. Interatomic Coulombic electron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokhberg, K.; Cederbaum, L. S.

    2010-01-01

    In a previous publication [K. Gokhberg and L. S. Cederbaum, J. Phys. B 42, 231001 (2009)] we presented the interatomic Coulombic electron capture process--an efficient electron capture mechanism by atoms and ions in the presence of an environment. In the present work we derive and discuss the mechanism in detail. We demonstrate thereby that this mechanism belongs to a family of interatomic electron capture processes driven by electron correlation. In these processes the excess energy released in the capture event is transferred to the environment and used to ionize (or to excite) it. This family includes the processes where the capture is into the lowest or into an excited unoccupied orbital of an atom or ion and proceeds in step with the ionization (or excitation) of the environment, as well as the process where an intermediate autoionizing excited resonance state is formed in the capturing center which subsequently deexcites to a stable state transferring its excess energy to the environment. Detailed derivation of the asymptotic cross sections of these processes is presented. The derived expressions make clear that the environment assisted capture processes can be important for many systems. Illustrative examples are presented for a number of model systems for which the data needed to construct the various capture cross sections are available in the literature.

  19. Algal Energy Conversion and Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.

    2015-12-01

    We address the potential for energy conversions and capture for: energy generation; reduction in energy use; reduction in greenhouse gas emissions; remediation of water and air pollution; protection and enhancement of soil fertility. These processes have the potential to sequester carbon at scales that may have global impact. Energy conversion and capture strategies evaluate energy use and production from agriculture, urban areas and industries, and apply existing and emerging technologies to reduce and recapture energy embedded in waste products. The basis of biocrude production from Micro-algal feedstocks: 1) The nutrients from the liquid fraction of waste streams are concentrated and fed into photo bioreactors (essentially large vessels in which microalgae are grown) along with CO2 from flue gasses from down stream processes. 2) The algae are processed to remove high value products such as proteins and beta-carotenes. The advantage of algae feedstocks is the high biomass productivity is 30-50 times that of land based crops and the remaining biomass contains minimal components that are difficult to convert to biocrude. 3) The remaining biomass undergoes hydrothermal liquefaction to produces biocrude and biochar. The flue gasses of this process can be used to produce electricity (fuel cell) and subsequently fed back into the photobioreactor. The thermal energy required for this process is small, hence readily obtained from solar-thermal sources, and furthermore no drying or preprocessing is required keeping the energy overhead extremely small. 4) The biocrude can be upgraded and refined as conventional crude oil, creating a range of liquid fuels. In principle this process can be applied on the farm scale to the municipal scale. Overall, our primary food production is too dependent on fossil fuels. Energy conversion and capture can make food production sustainable.

  20. FY1995 study of ultra high resolution laser and microwave spectroscopy and its application to future standards; 1995 nendo choseimitsu laser micro ha bunko to sono jisedai hyojun eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Ultra high resolution spectroscopy is carried out in a range from microwave to ultraviolet using lasers with laser cooling, saturated absorption, 2 photon absorption and ion trap, and optical parametric oscillation is studied for optical frequency measurement. A temperature of 10 {mu}K and that of 150 mK were obtained for Cs atoms and a single Yb ion, respectively. A stability of 3.3 x 10{sup -12} was obtained for iodine stabilized YAG lasers. A saturation signal of C{sub 2}H{sub 2} was observed during wore than 9 months. An optical parametric oscillator, which was fabricated to measure an optical frequency, was probed to work continuously more than 3 hours. (NEDO)

  1. HOMOGENIZERS OF LASER RADIATION FABRICATED BY LASER GRAVING OF POLYMER FILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Balya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with homogenizers of laser radiation based on crossing micro-prism structures and random diffusers by laser ablation of thermo-sensitive film and subsequent nano-imprint copying.

  2. 110 GHz hybrid mode-locked fiber laser with enhanced extinction ratio based on nonlinear silicon-on-insulator micro-ring-resonator (SOI MRR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yang; Hsu, Yung; Chow, Chi-Wai; Yang, Ling-Gang; Lai, Yin-Chieh; Yeh, Chien-Hung; Tsang, Hon-Ki

    2016-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a new 110 GHz high-repetition-rate hybrid mode-locked fiber laser using a silicon-on-insulator microring-resonator (SOI MRR) acting as the optical nonlinear element and optical comb filter simultaneously. By incorporating a phase modulator (PM) that is electrically driven at a fraction of the harmonic frequency, an enhanced extinction ratio (ER) of the optical pulses can be produced. The ER of the optical pulse train increases from 3 dB to 10 dB. As the PM is only electrically driven by the signal at a fraction of the harmonic frequency, in this case 22 GHz (110 GHz/5 GHz), a low bandwidth PM and driving circuit can be used. The mode-locked pulse width and the 3 dB spectral bandwidth of the proposed mode-locked fiber laser are measured, showing that the optical pulses are nearly transform limited. Moreover, stability evaluation for an hour is performed, showing that the proposed laser can achieve stable mode-locking without the need for optical feedback or any other stabilization mechanism. (letter)

  3. Optional carbon capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alderson, T.; Scott, S.; Griffiths, J. [Jacobs Engineering, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    In the case of IGCC power plants, carbon capture can be carried out before combustion. The carbon monoxide in the syngas is catalytically shifted to carbon dioxide and then captured in a standard gas absorption system. However, the insertion of a shift converter into an existing IGCC plant with no shift would mean a near total rebuild of the gasification waste heat recovery, gas treatment system and HRSG, with only the gasifier and gas turbine retaining most of their original features. To reduce the extent, cost and time taken for the revamping, the original plant could incorporate the shift, and the plant would then be operated without capture to advantage, and converted to capture mode of operation when commercially appropriate. This paper examines this concept of placing a shift converter into an IGCC plant before capture is required, and operating the same plant first without and then later with CO{sub 2} capture in a European context. The advantages and disadvantages of this 'capture ready' option are discussed. 6 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Micromachining with copper lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Martyn R. H.; Bell, Andy; Foster-Turner, Gideon; Rutterford, Graham; Chudzicki, J.; Kearsley, Andrew J.

    1997-04-01

    In recent years the copper laser has undergone extensive development and has emerged as a leading and unique laser for micromachining. The copper laser is a high average power (10 - 250 W), high pulse repetition rate (2 - 32 kHz), visible laser (511 nm and 578 nm) that produces high peak power (typically 200 kW), short pulses (30 ns) and very good beam quality (diffraction limited). This unique set of laser parameters results in exceptional micro-machining in a wide variety of materials. Typical examples of the capabilities of the copper laser include the drilling of small holes (10 - 200 micrometer diameter) in materials as diverse as steel, ceramic, diamond and polyimide with micron precision and low taper (less than 1 degree) cutting and profiling of diamond. Application of the copper laser covers the electronic, aerospace, automotive, nuclear, medical and precision engineering industries.

  5. Laser-assisted fabrication of materials

    CERN Document Server

    Manna, Indranil

    2013-01-01

    Laser assisted fabrication involves shaping of materials using laser as a source of heat. It can be achieved by removal of materials (laser assisted cutting, drilling, etc.), deformation (bending, extrusion), joining (welding, soldering) and addition of materials (surface cladding or direct laser cladding). This book on ´Laser assisted Fabrication’ is aimed at developing in-depth engineering concepts on various laser assisted macro and micro-fabrication techniques with the focus on application and a review of the engineering background of different micro/macro-fabrication techniques, thermal history of the treated zone and microstructural development and evolution of properties of the treated zone.

  6. Refinement in the structural and magnetic properties of Co{sub 0.5}Ni{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and its application as laser micro-propellant using ablation confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raza Ahmad, Muhammad, E-mail: mrazaahmad@gmail.com [Centre for Advanced Studies in Physics (CASP), GC University, Lahore, Punjab (Pakistan); Jamil, Yasir, E-mail: yasirjamil@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Punjab (Pakistan); Tabasuum, Ayesha [Department of Physics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Punjab (Pakistan); Hussain, Tousif [Centre for Advanced Studies in Physics (CASP), GC University, Lahore, Punjab (Pakistan)

    2015-06-15

    The transition metal-substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles Co{sub 0.5}X{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (with X=Cu, Zn, Mn and Ni) exhibit a wide range of properties that result in their application in low loss magnetic core materials, vertical recording heads, antenna rods, memory elements, ferrofluids, biomedical applications, sensors and laser propulsion. Keeping in view its importance we investigated for the first time the structural and magnetic properties of the Co{sub 0.5}Ni{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} samples that were subsequently subjected to thermal treatments for different time durations. The average crystallite sizes of the synthesized samples were found in the range of 24–46 nm. The values of the saturation magnetization and coercivity varied from 25.7 to 31.2 emu/g and 523.59 to 927.62 O{sub e}, respectively. The XRD patterns showed that increase in thermal treatment time resulted in the refinement of the structure whereas the SEM micrographs depicted a uniform particle size distribution of the synthesized material. We also explored the application of the synthesized material as a micro-thruster. It was found that the confinement of the laser induced plasma of Co{sub 0.5}×{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} led to an increase in the value of coupling coefficient from the range of 5.747×10{sup −5}–7.0644×10{sup −5} N-s/J for unconfined to that of 1.41×10{sup −4}–2.68×10{sup −4}N-s/J for confined plasma corresponding to the Nd:YAG laser fluencies of 4×10{sup 9} J/m{sup 2}–6×10{sup 9} J/m{sup 2}. - Highlights: • Thermal treatment modifies the properties of Co{sub 0.5}Ni{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. • Change in magnetic properties with increase in calcination time. • Confinement increases the laser propulsion parameters of Co{sub 0.5}Ni{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}.

  7. Activation of ion implanted Si for backside processing by Ultra-fast Laser Thermal Annealing: Energy homogeneity and micro-scale sheet resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huet, K.; Lin, Rong; Boniface, C

    2009-01-01

    In this paper ion activation of implanted silicon using ultra-fast laser thermal annealing (LTA) process was discussed. The results stated that there was high dopant activation using LTA process for over 70%, excellent within shot activation uniformity, and there was a possibility for overlap...... parameter optimization. It was observed that, for activation LTA process, shallow box-shaped profiles- high diffusivity of B in liquids and high-temperatures was observed only near the surface in a submicrosecond timescale. Possible solutions were suggested as to low-cost and high-end for overlap...

  8. Micro Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2003-01-01

    Manufacturing deals with systems that include products, processes, materials and production systems. These systems have functional requirements, constraints, design parameters and process variables. They must be decomposed in a systematic manner to achieve the best possible system performance....... If a micro manufacturing system isn’t designed rationally and correctly, it will be high-cost, unreliable, and not robust. For micro products and systems it is a continuously increasing challenge to create the operational basis for an industrial production. As the products through product development...... processes are made applicable to a large number of customers, the pressure in regard to developing production technologies that make it possible to produce the products at a reasonable price and in large numbers is growing. The micro/nano manufacturing programme at the Department of Manufacturing...

  9. Wafer-scale growth of highly textured piezoelectric thin films by pulsed laser deposition for micro-scale sensors and actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, M. D.; Tiggelaar, R.; Aukes, T.; Rijnders, G.; Roelof, G.

    2017-11-01

    Piezoelectric lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) thin films were deposited on 4-inch (111)Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si(001) wafers using large-area pulsed laser deposition (PLD). This study was focused on the homogeneity in film thickness, microstructure, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of PZT thin films. The results indicated that the highly textured (001)-oriented PZT thin films with wafer-scale thickness homogeneity (990 nm ± 0.8%) were obtained. The films were fabricated into piezoelectric cantilevers through a MEMS microfabrication process. The measured longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient (d 33f = 210 pm/V ± 1.6%) and piezoelectric transverse coefficient (e 31f = -18.8 C/m2 ± 2.8%) were high and homogeneity across wafers. The high piezoelectric properties on Si wafers will extend industrial application of PZT thin films and further development of piezoMEMS.

  10. US Spacesuit Knowledge Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Thomas, Ken; McMann, Joe; Dolan, Kristi; Bitterly, Rose; Lewis, Cathleen

    2011-01-01

    The ability to learn from both the mistakes and successes of the past is vital to assuring success in the future. Due to the close physical interaction between spacesuit systems and human beings as users, spacesuit technology and usage lends itself rather uniquely to the benefits realized from the skillful organization of historical information; its dissemination; the collection and identification of artifacts; and the education of those in the field. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), other organizations and individuals have been performing United States (U.S.) Spacesuit Knowledge Capture since the beginning of space exploration. Avenues used to capture the knowledge have included publication of reports; conference presentations; specialized seminars; and classes usually given by veterans in the field. More recently the effort has been more concentrated and formalized whereby a new avenue of spacesuit knowledge capture has been added to the archives in which videotaping occurs engaging both current and retired specialists in the field presenting technical scope specifically for education and preservation of knowledge. With video archiving, all these avenues of learning can now be brought to life with the real experts presenting their wealth of knowledge on screen for future learners to enjoy. Scope and topics of U.S. spacesuit knowledge capture have included lessons learned in spacesuit technology, experience from the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab and Shuttle programs, hardware certification, design, development and other program components, spacesuit evolution and experience, failure analysis and resolution, and aspects of program management. Concurrently, U.S. spacesuit knowledge capture activities have progressed to a level where NASA, the National Air and Space Museum (NASM), Hamilton Sundstrand (HS) and the spacesuit community are now working together to provide a comprehensive closed-looped spacesuit knowledge capture system which includes

  11. Adiabatic capture and debunching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, K.Y.

    2012-01-01

    In the study of beam preparation for the g-2 experiment, adiabatic debunching and adiabatic capture are revisited. The voltage programs for these adiabbatic processes are derived and their properties discussed. Comparison is made with some other form of adiabatic capture program. The muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab calls for intense proton bunches for the creation of muons. A booster batch of 84 bunches is injected into the Recycler Ring, where it is debunched and captured into 4 intense bunches with the 2.5-MHz rf. The experiment requires short bunches with total width less than 100 ns. The transport line from the Recycler to the muon-production target has a low momentum aperture of ∼ ±22 MeV. Thus each of the 4 intense proton bunches required to have an emittance less than ∼ 3.46 eVs. The incoming booster bunches have total emittance ∼ 8.4 eVs, or each one with an emittance ∼ 0.1 eVs. However, there is always emittance increase when the 84 booster bunches are debunched. There will be even larger emittance increase during adiabatic capture into the buckets of the 2.5-MHz rf. In addition, the incoming booster bunches may have emittances larger than 0.1 eVs. In this article, we will concentrate on the analysis of the adiabatic capture process with the intention of preserving the beam emittance as much as possible. At this moment, beam preparation experiment is being performed at the Main Injector. Since the Main Injector and the Recycler Ring have roughly the same lattice properties, we are referring to adiabatic capture in the Main Injector instead in our discussions.

  12. Motion Capturing Emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Wood Karen; Cisneros Rosemary E.; Whatley Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The paper explores the activities conducted as part of WhoLoDancE: Whole Body Interaction Learning for Dance Education which is an EU-funded Horizon 2020 project. In particular, we discuss the motion capture sessions that took place at Motek, Amsterdam as well as the dancers’ experience of being captured and watching themselves or others as varying visual representations through the HoloLens. HoloLens is Microsoft’s first holographic computer that you wear as you would a pair of glasses. The ...

  13. Nuclear muon capture

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, N C

    1977-01-01

    Our present knowledge of the nuclear muon capture reactions is surveyed. Starting from the formation of the muonic atom, various phenomena, having a bearing on the nuclear capture, are reviewed. The nuclear reactions are then studied from two angles-to learn about the basic muon+nucleon weak interaction process, and to obtain new insights on the nuclear dynamics. Future experimental prospects with the newer generation muon 'factories' are critically examined. Possible modification of the muon+nucleon weak interaction in complex nuclei remains the most important open problem in this field. (380 refs).

  14. Proton capture resonance studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, G.E. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States) 27695]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708; Bilpuch, E.G. [Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708; Bybee, C.R. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States) 27695]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708; Cox, J.M.; Fittje, L.M. [Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, Tennessee (United States) 38505]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708; Labonte, M.A.; Moore, E.F.; Shriner, J.D. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States) 27695]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708; Shriner, J.F. Jr. [Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, Tennessee (United States) 38505]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708; Vavrina, G.A. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States) 27695]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708; Wallace, P.M. [Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708

    1997-02-01

    The fluctuation properties of quantum systems now are used as a signature of quantum chaos. The analyses require data of extremely high quality. The {sup 29}Si(p,{gamma}) reaction is being used to establish a complete level scheme of {sup 30}P to study chaos and isospin breaking in this nuclide. Determination of the angular momentum J, the parity {pi}, and the isospin T from resonance capture data is considered. Special emphasis is placed on the capture angular distributions and on a geometric description of these angular distributions. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. O-band electrically injected quantum dot micro-ring lasers on on-axis (001) GaP/Si and V-groove Si.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yating; Jung, Daehwan; Norman, Justin; Shang, Chen; MacFarlane, Ian; Li, Qiang; Kennedy, M J; Gossard, Arthur C; Lau, Kei May; Bowers, John E

    2017-10-30

    We report statistical comparisons of lasing characteristics in InAs quantum dot (QD) micro-rings directly grown on on-axis (001) GaP/Si and V-groove (001) Si substrates. CW thresholds as low as 3 mA and high temperature operation exceeding 80 °C were simultaneously achieved on the GaP/Si template template with an outer-ring radius of 50 µm and a ring width of 4 μm, while a sub-milliamp threshold of 0.6 mA was demonstrated on the V-groove Si template with a smaller cavity size of 5-μm outer-ring radius and 3-μm ring width. Evaluations were also made with devices fabricated simultaneously on native GaAs substrates over a significant sampling analysis. The overall assessment spotlights compelling insights in exploring the optimum epitaxial scheme for low-threshold lasing on industry standard Si substrates.

  16. The bounds on tracking performance utilising a laser-based linear and angular sensing and measurement methodology for micro/nano manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Leon; Shirinzadeh, Bijan; Tian, Yanling; Zhong, Yongmin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the tracking performance of a planar three degrees of freedom (DOF) flexure-based mechanism for micro/nano manipulation, utilising a tracking methodology for the measurement of coupled linear and angular motions. The methodology permits trajectories over a workspace with large angular range through the reduction of geometric errors. However, when combining this methodology with feedback control systems, the accuracy of performed manipulations can only be stated within the bounds of the uncertainties in measurement. The dominant sources of error and uncertainty within each sensing subsystem are therefore identified, which leads to a formulation of the measurement uncertainty in the final system outputs, in addition to methods of reducing their magnitude. Specific attention is paid to the analysis of the vision-based subsystem utilised for the measurement of angular displacement. Furthermore, a feedback control scheme is employed to minimise tracking errors, and the coupling of certain measurement errors is shown to have a detrimental effect on the controller operation. The combination of controller tracking errors and measurement uncertainty provides the bounds on the final tracking performance. (paper)

  17. Micro benchtop optics by bulk silicon micromachining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Abraham P.; Pocha, Michael D.; McConaghy, Charles F.; Deri, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    Micromachining of bulk silicon utilizing the parallel etching characteristics of bulk silicon and integrating the parallel etch planes of silicon with silicon wafer bonding and impurity doping, enables the fabrication of on-chip optics with in situ aligned etched grooves for optical fibers, micro-lenses, photodiodes, and laser diodes. Other optical components that can be microfabricated and integrated include semi-transparent beam splitters, micro-optical scanners, pinholes, optical gratings, micro-optical filters, etc. Micromachining of bulk silicon utilizing the parallel etching characteristics thereof can be utilized to develop miniaturization of bio-instrumentation such as wavelength monitoring by fluorescence spectrometers, and other miniaturized optical systems such as Fabry-Perot interferometry for filtering of wavelengths, tunable cavity lasers, micro-holography modules, and wavelength splitters for optical communication systems.

  18. Muon capture in deuterium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ricci, P.; Truhlík, Emil; Mosconi, B.; Smejkal, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 837, - (2010), s. 110-144 ISSN 0375-9474 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Negative muon capture * Deuteron * Potential models Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.986, year: 2010

  19. Capture Matrices Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    materials, the affinity ligand would need identification , as well as chemistries that graft the affinity ligand onto the surface of magnetic...ACTIVE CAPTURE MATRICES FOR THE DETECTION/ IDENTIFICATION OF PHARMACEUTICALS...6 As shown in Figure 2.3-1a, the spectra exhibit similar baselines and the spectral peaks lineup . Under these circumstances, the spectral

  20. Capacitance for carbon capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landskron, Kai

    2018-01-01

    Metal recycling: A sustainable, capacitance-assisted carbon capture and sequestration method (Supercapacitive Swing Adsorption) can turn scrap metal and CO 2 into metal carbonates at an attractive energy cost. (copyright 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Capacitance for carbon capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landskron, Kai [Department of Chemistry, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    2018-03-26

    Metal recycling: A sustainable, capacitance-assisted carbon capture and sequestration method (Supercapacitive Swing Adsorption) can turn scrap metal and CO{sub 2} into metal carbonates at an attractive energy cost. (copyright 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Embedded enzymes catalyse capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentish, Sandra

    2018-05-01

    Membrane technologies for carbon capture can offer economic and environmental advantages over conventional amine-based absorption, but can suffer from limited gas flux and selectivity to CO2. Now, a membrane based on enzymes embedded in hydrophilic pores is shown to exhibit combined flux and selectivity that challenges the state of the art.

  3. Attention Capture by Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langton, Stephen R. H.; Law, Anna S.; Burton, A. Mike; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2008-01-01

    We report three experiments that investigate whether faces are capable of capturing attention when in competition with other non-face objects. In Experiment 1a participants took longer to decide that an array of objects contained a butterfly target when a face appeared as one of the distracting items than when the face did not appear in the array.…

  4. Laser precision microfabrication in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Isamu; Ooie, Toshihiko; Takeno, Shozui

    2000-11-01

    Electronic devices such as handy phones and micro computers have been rapidly expanding their market recent years due to their enhanced performance, down sizing and cost down. This has been realized by the innovation in the precision micro- fabrication technology of semiconductors and printed wiring circuit boards (PWB) where laser technologies such as lithography, drilling, trimming, welding and soldering play an important role. In phot lithography, for instance, KrF excimer lasers having a resolution of 0.18 micrometers has been used in production instead of mercury lamp. Laser drilling of PWB has been increased up to over 1000 holes per second, and approximately 800 laser drilling systems of PWB are expected to be delivered in the world market this year, and most of these laser processing systems are manufactured in Japan. Trend of laser micro-fabrication in Japanese industry is described along with recent topics of R&D, government supported project and future tasks of industrial laser precision micro-fabrication on the basis of the survey conducted by Japan laser Processing Society.

  5. Data Integration Acquired from Micro-Uav and Terrestrial Laser Scanner for the 3d Mapping of Jesuit Ruins of São Miguel das Missões

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, M. L. L.; da Rocha, R. S.; Ferraz, R. S.; Cruz, V. C.; Morador, L. Q.; Yamawaki, M. K.; Rodrigues, E. L. S.; Cole, J. O.; Mezzomo, W.

    2016-06-01

    The Jesuit Missions the Guaranis were one of the great examples of cultural, social, and scientific of the eighteenth century, which had its decline from successive wars that followed the exchange of territories domain occupied by Portugal and Spain with the Madrid Treaty of January 13, 1750. One of the great examples of this development is materialized in the ruins of 30 churches and villages that remain in a territory that now comprises part of Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay. These Churches, São Miguel das Missões is among the Brazilian ruins, the best preserved. The ruins of São Miguel das Missões were declared a UNESCO World Cultural Heritage in 1983 and the Institute of National Historical Heritage (IPHAN) is the Brazilian Federal agency that manages and maintains this heritage. In order to produce a geographic database to assist the IPHAN in the management of the Ruins of São Miguel das Missões it was proposed a three-dimensional mapping of these ruins never performed in this location before. The proposal is integrated data acquired from multiple sensors: two micro-UAV, an Asctec Falcon 8 (rotary wing) and a Sensefly e-Bee (fixed wing); photos from terrestrial cameras; two terrestrial LIDAR sensors, one Faro Focus 3D S-120 and Optec 3D-HD ILRIS. With this abundance of sensors has been possible to perform comparisons and integration of the acquired data, and produce a 3D reconstruction of the church with high completeness and accuracy (better than 25 mm), as can be seen in the presentation of this work.

  6. Effect of UV laser irradiation on tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Takeyoshi; Kubo, Uichi

    1992-01-01

    Laser-tissue interactions have been investigated through Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA), UV-visible optical absorption and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Three excimer lasers, ArF, KrF and XeCl, were used to irradiate tissue; cow thighbone and gelatin thin film. Features of UV laser irradiation are described. (author)

  7. Plasma assisted nitriding for micro-texturing onto martensitic stainless steels*

    OpenAIRE

    Katoh Takahisa; Aizawa Tatsuhiko; Yamaguchi Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Micro-texturing method has grown up to be one of the most promising procedures to form micro-lines, micro-dots and micro-grooves onto the mold-die materials and to duplicate these micro-patterns onto metallic or polymer sheets via stamping or injection molding. This related application requires for large-area, fine micro-texturing onto the martensitic stainless steel mold-die materials. A new method other than laser-machining, micro-milling or micro-EDM is awaited for further advancement of t...

  8. Lasers '89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.G.; Shay, T.M.

    1990-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: XUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Lasers, excimer lasers, chemical lasers, nuclear pumped lasers, high power gas lasers, solid state lasers, laser spectroscopy. The paper presented include: Development of KrF lasers for fusion and Nuclear driven solid-state lasers

  9. Micro Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Spanjersberg , Herman

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In the 1970s a need arose to perform special arithmetic operations on minicomputers much more quickly than had been possible in the past. This paper tells the story of why micro programming was needed for special arithmetic operations on mini computers in the 1970s and how it was implemented. The paper tells how the laboratory in which the first experiment took place had a PDP-9 minicomputer from Digital Equipment Corporation and how the author, with several colleagues...

  10. Laser solenoid: an alternate use of lasers in fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, P.H.

    1977-01-01

    A unique laser assisted fusion approach is under development at Mathematical Sciences Northwest, Inc. (MSNW). This approach captures one of the most developed aspects of high energy laser technology, the efficient, large, scalable, pulsed electron beam initiated, electric discharge, CO 2 infrared laser. This advanced technology is then combined with the simple geometry of a linear magnetic confinement system. The laser solenoid concept will be described, current work and experimental progress will be discussed, and the technological problems of building such a system will be assessed. Finally a comparison will be made of the technology and economics for the laser solenoid and alternative fusion approaches

  11. Introductory remarks on electron capture by multicharged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, D.H.

    1979-01-01

    An overview is presented of applications of multicharged-ion electron capture and, through the qualitative assessment of availability of information, the general status of current understanding of such capture. A chart is given on which the various ion collision processes are related to other pertinent fields of physical research notably fusion, astrophysics, the solar corona, and lasers. The production and transport of ions is also noted. The symposium considers collision velocities less than 4 x 10 8 cm/s, where the capture cross sections are largest and where most of the available results are quite recent

  12. Gadolinium neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akine, Yasuyuki; Tokita, Nobuhiko; Tokuuye, Koichi; Satoh, Michinao; Churei, Hisahiko

    1993-01-01

    Gadolinium neutron capture therapy makes use of photons and electrons produced by nuclear reactions between gadolinium and lower-energy neutrons which occur within the tumor. The results of our studies have shown that its radiation effect is mostly of low LET and that the electrons are the significant component in the over-all dose. The dose from gadolinium neutron capture reactions does not seem to increase in proportion to the gadolinium concentration, and the Gd-157 concentration of about 100 μg/ml appears most optimal for therapy. Close contact between gadolinium and the cell is not necessarily required for cell inactivation, however, the effect of electrons released from intracellular gadolinium may be significant. Experimental studies on tumor-bearing mice and rabbits have shown that this is a very promising modality though further improvements in gadolinium delivery to tumors are needed. (author)

  13. Higher Order Modes Excitation of Micro Cantilever Beams

    KAUST Repository

    Jaber, Nizar

    2014-01-01

    are highly curled up due to stress gradient, which is a common imperfection in surface micro machining. Using a laser Doppler vibrometer, we applied a noise signal to experimentally find the first four resonance frequencies. Then, using a data acquisition

  14. Recent advances in long wavelength quantum dot lasers and amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nötzel, R.; Bente, E.A.J.M.; Smit, M.K.; Dorren, H.J.S.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate 1.55-µm InAs/InGaAsP/InP (100) quantum dot (QD) shallow and deep etched Fabry-Pérot and ring lasers, micro-ring lasers, mode-locked lasers, Butt-joint integrated lasers, polarization control of gain, and wavelength conversion in QD amplifiers.

  15. Motion Capturing Emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Karen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the activities conducted as part of WhoLoDancE: Whole Body Interaction Learning for Dance Education which is an EU-funded Horizon 2020 project. In particular, we discuss the motion capture sessions that took place at Motek, Amsterdam as well as the dancers’ experience of being captured and watching themselves or others as varying visual representations through the HoloLens. HoloLens is Microsoft’s first holographic computer that you wear as you would a pair of glasses. The study embraced four dance genres: Ballet, Contemporary, Flamenco and Greek Folk dance. We are specifically interested in the kinesthetic and emotional engagement with the moving body and what new corporeal awareness may be experienced. Positioning the moving, dancing body as fundamental to technological advancements, we discuss the importance of considering the dancer’s experience in the real and virtual space. Some of the artists involved in the project have offered their experiences, which are included, and they form the basis of the discussion. In addition, we discuss the affect of immersive environments, how these environments expand reality and what effect (emotionally and otherwise that has on the body. The research reveals insights into relationships between emotion, movement and technology and what new sensorial knowledge this evokes for the dancer.

  16. Synovectomy by Neutron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H.R.; Torres M, C.

    1998-01-01

    The Synovectomy by Neutron capture has as purpose the treatment of the rheumatoid arthritis, illness which at present does not have a definitive curing. This therapy requires a neutron source for irradiating the articulation affected. The energy spectra and the intensity of these neutrons are fundamental since these neutrons induce nuclear reactions of capture with Boron-10 inside the articulation and the freely energy of these reactions is transferred at the productive tissue of synovial liquid, annihilating it. In this work it is presented the neutron spectra results obtained with moderator packings of spherical geometry which contains in its center a Pu 239 Be source. The calculations were realized through Monte Carlo method. The moderators assayed were light water, heavy water base and the both combination of them. The spectra obtained, the average energy, the neutron total number by neutron emitted by source, the thermal neutron percentage and the dose equivalent allow us to suggest that the moderator packing more adequate is what has a light water thickness 0.5 cm (radius 2 cm) and 24.5 cm heavy water (radius 26.5 cm). (Author)

  17. Detector for imaging and dosimetry of laser-driven epithermal neutrons by alpha conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirfayzi, S. R.; Alejo, A.; Ahmed, H.; Wilson, L. A.; Ansell, S.; Armstrong, C.; Butler, N. M. H.; Clarke, R. J.; Higginson, A.; Notley, M.; Raspino, D.; Rusby, D. R.; Borghesi, M.; Rhodes, N. J.; McKenna, P.; Neely, D.; Brenner, C. M.; Kar, S.

    2016-10-01

    An epithermal neutron imager based on detecting alpha particles created via boron neutron capture mechanism is discussed. The diagnostic mainly consists of a mm thick Boron Nitride (BN) sheet (as an alpha converter) in contact with a non-borated cellulose nitride film (LR115 type-II) detector. While the BN absorbs the neutrons in the thermal and epithermal ranges, the fast neutrons register insignificantly on the detector due to their low neutron capture and recoil cross-sections. The use of solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD), unlike image plates, micro-channel plates and scintillators, provide safeguard from the x-rays, gamma-rays and electrons. The diagnostic was tested on a proof-of-principle basis, in front of a laser driven source of moderated neutrons, which suggests the potential of using this diagnostic (BN+SSNTD) for dosimetry and imaging applications.

  18. Wafer-scale micro-optics fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelkel, Reinhard

    2012-07-01

    Micro-optics is an indispensable key enabling technology for many products and applications today. Probably the most prestigious examples are the diffractive light shaping elements used in high-end DUV lithography steppers. Highly-efficient refractive and diffractive micro-optical elements are used for precise beam and pupil shaping. Micro-optics had a major impact on the reduction of aberrations and diffraction effects in projection lithography, allowing a resolution enhancement from 250 nm to 45 nm within the past decade. Micro-optics also plays a decisive role in medical devices (endoscopes, ophthalmology), in all laser-based devices and fiber communication networks, bringing high-speed internet to our homes. Even our modern smart phones contain a variety of micro-optical elements. For example, LED flash light shaping elements, the secondary camera, ambient light and proximity sensors. Wherever light is involved, micro-optics offers the chance to further miniaturize a device, to improve its performance, or to reduce manufacturing and packaging costs. Wafer-scale micro-optics fabrication is based on technology established by the semiconductor industry. Thousands of components are fabricated in parallel on a wafer. This review paper recapitulates major steps and inventions in wafer-scale micro-optics technology. The state-of-the-art of fabrication, testing and packaging technology is summarized.

  19. Robust automated knowledge capture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris; Trumbo, Michael Christopher Stefan; Haass, Michael Joseph; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes research conducted through the Sandia National Laboratories Robust Automated Knowledge Capture Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The objective of this project was to advance scientific understanding of the influence of individual cognitive attributes on decision making. The project has developed a quantitative model known as RumRunner that has proven effective in predicting the propensity of an individual to shift strategies on the basis of task and experience related parameters. Three separate studies are described which have validated the basic RumRunner model. This work provides a basis for better understanding human decision making in high consequent national security applications, and in particular, the individual characteristics that underlie adaptive thinking.

  20. Fragment capture device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Lloyd R.; Cole, David L.

    2010-03-30

    A fragment capture device for use in explosive containment. The device comprises an assembly of at least two rows of bars positioned to eliminate line-of-sight trajectories between the generation point of fragments and a surrounding containment vessel or asset. The device comprises an array of at least two rows of bars, wherein each row is staggered with respect to the adjacent row, and wherein a lateral dimension of each bar and a relative position of each bar in combination provides blockage of a straight-line passage of a solid fragment through the adjacent rows of bars, wherein a generation point of the solid fragment is located within a cavity at least partially enclosed by the array of bars.

  1. Capturing the Daylight Dividend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Boyce; Claudia Hunter; Owen Howlett

    2006-04-30

    Capturing the Daylight Dividend conducted activities to build market demand for daylight as a means of improving indoor environmental quality, overcoming technological barriers to effective daylighting, and informing and assisting state and regional market transformation and resource acquisition program implementation efforts. The program clarified the benefits of daylight by examining whole building systems energy interactions between windows, lighting, heating, and air conditioning in daylit buildings, and daylighting's effect on the human circadian system and productivity. The project undertook work to advance photosensors, dimming systems, and ballasts, and provided technical training in specifying and operating daylighting controls in buildings. Future daylighting work is recommended in metric development, technology development, testing, training, education, and outreach.

  2. MicroED data collection and processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattne, Johan; Reyes, Francis E.; Nannenga, Brent L.; Shi, Dan; Cruz, M. Jason de la [Janelia Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ashburn, VA 20147 (United States); Leslie, Andrew G. W. [Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Gonen, Tamir, E-mail: gonent@janelia.hhmi.org [Janelia Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ashburn, VA 20147 (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The collection and processing of MicroED data are presented. MicroED, a method at the intersection of X-ray crystallography and electron cryo-microscopy, has rapidly progressed by exploiting advances in both fields and has already been successfully employed to determine the atomic structures of several proteins from sub-micron-sized, three-dimensional crystals. A major limiting factor in X-ray crystallography is the requirement for large and well ordered crystals. By permitting electron diffraction patterns to be collected from much smaller crystals, or even single well ordered domains of large crystals composed of several small mosaic blocks, MicroED has the potential to overcome the limiting size requirement and enable structural studies on difficult-to-crystallize samples. This communication details the steps for sample preparation, data collection and reduction necessary to obtain refined, high-resolution, three-dimensional models by MicroED, and presents some of its unique challenges.

  3. Asynchronous beating of cilia enhances particle capture rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yang; Kanso, Eva

    2014-11-01

    Many aquatic micro-organisms use beating cilia to generate feeding currents and capture particles in surrounding fluids. One of the capture strategies is to ``catch up'' with particles when a cilium is beating towards the overall flow direction (effective stroke) and intercept particles on the downstream side of the cilium. Here, we developed a 3D computational model of a cilia band with prescribed motion in a viscous fluid and calculated the trajectories of the particles with different sizes in the fluid. We found an optimal particle diameter that maximizes the capture rate. The flow field and particle motion indicate that the low capture rate of smaller particles is due to the laminar flow in the neighbor of the cilia, whereas larger particles have to move above the cilia tips to get advected downstream which decreases their capture rate. We then analyzed the effect of beating coordination between neighboring cilia on the capture rate. Interestingly, we found that asynchrony of the beating of the cilia can enhance the relative motion between a cilium and the particles near it and hence increase the capture rate.

  4. Laser Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauger, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Describes lasers and indicates that learning about laser technology and creating laser technology activities are among the teacher enhancement processes needed to strengthen technology education. (JOW)

  5. Ultra short pulse laser generated surface textures for anti-ice applications in aviation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römer, G.W.; Del Cerro, D.A.; Sipkema, R.C.J.; Groenendijk, M.N.W.; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    By laser ablation with ultra short laser pulses in the pico- and femto-second range, well controlled dual scaled micro- and nano-scaled surface textures can be obtained. The micro-scale of the texture is mainly determined by the dimensions of the laser spot, whereas the superimposed nano-structure

  6. ANISOTROPY EFFECTS IN ELECTRON-CAPTURE BY O6+ FROM ALIGNED NA-ASTERISK(3P)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHLATMANN, AR; WIERSEMA, WP; HOEKSTRA, R; MORGENSTERN, R; OLSON, RE; PASCALE, J

    1994-01-01

    We report results of one electron capture by highly charged ions colliding with laser excited aligned Na*(3p). The 0 vi(10-->8) photon emission cross section after electron capture by the O6+ projectile is measured in the collision energy range 2-8 keV/amu. Effects of the Na*(3p) orbital alignment

  7. Micro club

    CERN Multimedia

    Micro club

    2014-01-01

    Opération NEMO   Pour finir en beauté les activités spéciales que le CMC a réalisé pendant cette année 2014, pour commémorer le 60ème anniversaire du CERN, et le 30ème du Micro Club, l’ Opération NEMO aura cette année un caractère très particulier. Nous allons proposer 6 fabricants de premier ordre qui offriront chacun deux ou trois produits à des prix exceptionnels. L’opération débute le lundi 17 novembre 2014. Elle se poursuivra  jusqu’au samedi 6 décembre inclus. Les délais de livraison seront de deux à trois semaines, selon les fabricants. Donc les commandes faites la dernière semaine, du 1 au 6 décembre, risquent d’arriver qu'au début du mois de janvier 2015. Liste de fabricants part...

  8. Micro club

    CERN Multimedia

    Micro Club

    2014-01-01

    Jeudi 18 septembre 2014 à 18h30 au Bât. 567 R-029 Le CERN MICRO CLUB organise un Atelier sur la sécurité informatique. La Cyber-sécurité : Ce qui se passe vraiment, comment ne pas en être victime ! Orateur : Sebastian Lopienski Adjoint au Computer Security Officer du Département IT. Sujet : Cet exposé vous présentera les modes de sécurité actuels et les problèmes touchants les applications logicielles des ordinateurs, les réseaux ainsi que leurs utilisateurs. Cela inclus des informations sur les nouveaux types de vulnérabilité, les vecteurs d'attaque récents et une vue d'ensemble sur le monde de la cyber-sécurité en 2014. Biographie : Sebastian Lopienski travaille au CERN depuis 2001. Il est actuellement adjoint au Computer Security Officer et s'occupe de la protection de...

  9. Micro Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser (COIL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    some of the monthly reports, was to provide effective MEMS-scale thermal insulation to prevent heat leakage. The second, which was ultimately chosen for...this is the first reported demonstration of separation of a liquid-gas mixture below atmospheric pressure using the capillary micropore concept [8]. The...temperature to reach an operating temperature of 243 K. Owing to heat addition through insulated coolant lines and flowmeters, this corresponded to a

  10. Micro Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser (COIL)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Livermore-Clifford, Carol

    2007-01-01

    .... The MEMS SOG contained an array of reaction channels for the chemical reaction of BHP and chlorine gas, a liquid-gas separator based on capillary effects, and integrated heat exchangers for thermal management...

  11. The MicroObservatory Net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecher, K.; Sadler, P.

    1994-12-01

    A group of scientists, engineers and educators based at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) has developed a prototype of a small, inexpensive and fully integrated automated astronomical telescope and image processing system. The project team is now building five second generation instruments. The MicroObservatory has been designed to be used for classroom instruction by teachers as well as for original scientific research projects by students. Probably in no other area of frontier science is it possible for a broad spectrum of students (not just the gifted) to have access to state-of-the-art technologies that would allow for original research. The MicroObservatory combines the imaging power of a cooled CCD, with a self contained and weatherized reflecting optical telescope and mount. A microcomputer points the telescope and processes the captured images. The MicroObservatory has also been designed to be used as a valuable new capture and display device for real time astronomical imaging in planetariums and science museums. When the new instruments are completed in the next few months, they will be tried with high school students and teachers, as well as with museum groups. We are now planning to make the MicroObservatories available to students, teachers and other individual users over the Internet. We plan to allow the telescope to be controlled in real time or in batch mode, from a Macintosh or PC compatible computer. In the real-time mode, we hope to give individual access to all of the telescope control functions without the need for an "on-site" operator. Users would sign up for a specific period of time. In the batch mode, users would submit jobs for the telescope. After the MicroObservatory completed a specific job, the images would be e-mailed back to the user. At present, we are interested in gaining answers to the following questions: (1) What are the best approaches to scheduling real-time observations? (2) What criteria should be used

  12. Neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, B. J.

    1998-11-01

    The overall state of the art related with neutron capture therapy(NCT) is surveyed. Since the field related with NCT is very wide, it is not intended to survey all related subjects in depth. The primary objective of this report is to help those working for the installation of a NCT facility and a PGNAA(prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis) system for the boron analysis understand overall NCT at Hanaro. Therefore, while the parts of reactor neutron source and PGNAA are dealt in detail, other parts are limited to the level necessary to understand related fields. For example, the subject of chemical compound which requires intensive knowledge on chemistry, is not dealt as a separated item. However, the requirement of a compound for NCT, currently available compounds, their characteristics, etc. could be understood through this report. Although the subject of cancer treated by NCT is out of the capability of the author, it is dealt focussing its characteristics related with the success of NCT. Each detailed subject is expected to be dealt more detail by specialists in future. This report would be helpful for the researchers working for the NCT to understand related fields. (author). 128 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs

  13. Captured by Aliens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achenbach, Joel

    2000-03-01

    Captured by Aliens is a long and twisted voyage from science to the supernatural and back again. I hung out in Roswell, N.M., spent time with the Mars Society, met a guy who was figuring out the best way to build a spaceship to go to Alpha Centauri. I visited the set of the X-Files and talked to Mulder and Scully. One day over breakfast I was told by NASA administrator Dan Goldin, We live in a fog, man! He wants the big answers to the big questions. I spent a night in the base of a huge radio telescope in the boondocks of West Virginia, awaiting the signal from the aliens. I was hypnotized in a hotel room by someone who suspected that I'd been abducted by aliens and that this had triggered my interest in the topic. In the last months of his life, I talked to Carl Sagan, who believed that the galaxy riots with intelligent civilizations. He's my hero, for his steadfast adherence to the scientific method. What I found in all this is that the big question that needs immediate attention is not what's out THERE, but what's going on HERE, on Earth, and why we think the way we do, and how we came to be here in the first place.

  14. The Generic Data Capture Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Edward B.; Barnes, William P.; Stallings, William H.

    1987-01-01

    The Generic Data Capture Facility, which can provide data capture support for a variety of different types of spacecraft while enabling operations costs to be carefully controlled, is discussed. The data capture functions, data protection, isolation of users from data acquisition problems, data reconstruction, and quality and accounting are addressed. The TDM and packet data formats utilized by the system are described, and the development of generic facilities is considered.

  15. Carbon captured from the air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, D. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    This article presented an innovative way to achieve the efficient capture of atmospheric carbon. A team of scientists from the University of Calgary's Institute for Sustainable Energy, Environment and Economy have shown that it is possible to reduce carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) using a simple machine that can capture the trace amount of CO{sub 2} present in ambient air at any place on the planet. The thermodynamics of capturing the small concentrations of CO{sub 2} from the air is only slightly more difficult than capturing much larger concentrations of CO{sub 2} from power plants. The research is significant because it offers a way to capture CO{sub 2} emissions from transportation sources such as vehicles and airplanes, which represent more than half of the greenhouse gases emitted on Earth. The energy efficient and cost effective air capture technology could complement other approaches for reducing emissions from the transportation sector, such as biofuels and electric vehicles. Air capture differs from carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology used at coal-fired power plants where CO{sub 2} is captured and pipelined for permanent storage underground. Air capture can capture the CO{sub 2} that is present in ambient air and store it wherever it is cheapest. The team at the University of Calgary showed that CO{sub 2} could be captured directly from the air with less than 100 kWhrs of electricity per tonne of CO{sub 2}. A custom-built tower was able to capture the equivalent of 20 tonnes per year of CO{sub 2} on a single square meter of scrubbing material. The team devised a way to use a chemical process from the pulp and paper industry to cut the energy cost of air capture in half. Although the technology is only in its early stage, it appears that CO{sub 2} could be captured from the air with an energy demand comparable to that needed for CO{sub 2} capture from conventional power plants, but costs will be higher. The simple, reliable and scalable technology

  16. Resource capture by single leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, S.P.

    1992-05-01

    Leaves show a variety of strategies for maximizing CO{sub 2} and light capture. These are more meaningfully explained if they are considered in the context of maximizing capture relative to the utilization of water, nutrients and carbohydrates reserves. There is considerable variation between crops in their efficiency of CO{sub 2} and light capture at the leaf level. Understanding of these mechanisms indicate some ways in which efficiency of resource capture could be level cannot be meaningfully considered without simultaneous understanding of implications at the canopy level. 36 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Carbon captured from the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keith, D.

    2008-01-01

    This article presented an innovative way to achieve the efficient capture of atmospheric carbon. A team of scientists from the University of Calgary's Institute for Sustainable Energy, Environment and Economy have shown that it is possible to reduce carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) using a simple machine that can capture the trace amount of CO 2 present in ambient air at any place on the planet. The thermodynamics of capturing the small concentrations of CO 2 from the air is only slightly more difficult than capturing much larger concentrations of CO 2 from power plants. The research is significant because it offers a way to capture CO 2 emissions from transportation sources such as vehicles and airplanes, which represent more than half of the greenhouse gases emitted on Earth. The energy efficient and cost effective air capture technology could complement other approaches for reducing emissions from the transportation sector, such as biofuels and electric vehicles. Air capture differs from carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology used at coal-fired power plants where CO 2 is captured and pipelined for permanent storage underground. Air capture can capture the CO 2 that is present in ambient air and store it wherever it is cheapest. The team at the University of Calgary showed that CO 2 could be captured directly from the air with less than 100 kWhrs of electricity per tonne of CO 2 . A custom-built tower was able to capture the equivalent of 20 tonnes per year of CO 2 on a