WorldWideScience

Sample records for laser biochemical sensor

  1. Novel method of dual fiber Bragg gratings integrated in fiber ring laser for biochemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, H.; Pham, T. B.; Nguyen, V. A.; Pham, V. D.; Do, T. C.; Nguyen, T. V.; Hoang, T. H. C.; Le, H. T.; Pham, V. H.

    2018-05-01

    Optical sensors have been shown to be very effective for measuring the toxic content in liquid and air environments. Optical sensors, which operate based on the wavelength shift of the optical signals, require an expensive spectrometer. In this paper, we propose a new configuration of the optical sensor device for measuring wavelength shift without using a spectrometer. This configuration has a large potential for application in biochemical sensing techniques, and comes with a low cost. This configuration uses dual fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) integrated in a fiber ring laser structure of erbium-doped fiber, in which one FBG is used as a reference to sweep over the applicable spectrum of the etched-Bragg grating. The etched-FBG as a sensing probe is suitable for bio- and/or chemical sensors. The sensitivity and accuracy of the sensor system can be improved by the narrow linewidth of emission spectra from the laser, the best limit of detection of this sensor is 1.5  ×  10‑4 RIU (RIU: refractive index unit), as achieved by the optical sensor using a high resolution spectrometer. This sensor system has been experimentally investigated to detect different types of organic compounds, gasoline, mixing ratios of organic solvents in gasoline, and nitrate concentration in water samples. The experimental results show that this sensing method could determine different mixing ratios of organic solvents with good repeatability, high accuracy, and rapid response: e.g. for ethanol and/or methanol in gasoline RON 92 (RON: research octane number) of 0%–14% v/v, and nitrate in water samples at a low concentration range of 0–50 ppm. These results suggest that the proposed configuration can construct low-cost and accurate biochemical sensors.

  2. Slot-waveguide biochemical sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Carlos A; Gylfason, Kristinn B; Sánchez, Benito; Griol, Amadeu; Sohlström, H; Holgado, M; Casquel, R

    2007-11-01

    We report an experimental demonstration of an integrated biochemical sensor based on a slot-waveguide microring resonator. The microresonator is fabricated on a Si3N4-SiO2 platform and operates at a wavelength of 1.3 microm. The transmission spectrum of the sensor is measured with different ambient refractive indices ranging from n=1.33 to 1.42. A linear shift of the resonant wavelength with increasing ambient refractive index of 212 nm/refractive index units (RIU) is observed. The sensor detects a minimal refractive index variation of 2x10(-4) RIU.

  3. Polymer laser bio-sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders; Vannahme, Christoph; Hermannsson, Pétur Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Organic dye based distributed feed-back lasers, featuring narrow linewidth and thus high quality spectral resolution, are used as highly sensitive refractive index sensors. The design, fabrication and application of the laser intra-cavity sensors are discussed....

  4. Optical Slot-Waveguide Based Biochemical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Angulo Barrios

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Slot-waveguides allow light to be guided and strongly confined inside a nanometer-scale region of low refractive index. Thus stronger light-analyte interaction can be obtained as compared to that achievable by a conventional waveguide, in which the propagating beam is confined to the high-refractive-index core of the waveguide. In addition, slot-waveguides can be fabricated by employing CMOS compatible materials and technology, enabling miniaturization, integration with electronic, photonic and fluidic components in a chip, and mass production. These advantages have made the use of slot-waveguides for highly sensitive biochemical optical integrated sensors an emerging field. In this paper, recent achievements in slot-waveguide based biochemical sensing will be reviewed. These include slot-waveguide ring resonator based refractometric label-free biosensors, label-based optical sensing, and nano-opto-mechanical sensors.

  5. Airborne Laser Polarization Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalshoven, James, Jr.; Dabney, Philip

    1991-01-01

    Instrument measures polarization characteristics of Earth at three wavelengths. Airborne Laser Polarization Sensor (ALPS) measures optical polarization characteristics of land surface. Designed to be flown at altitudes of approximately 300 m to minimize any polarizing or depolarizing effects of intervening atmosphere and to look along nadir to minimize any effects depending on look angle. Data from measurements used in conjunction with data from ground surveys and aircraft-mounted video recorders to refine mathematical models used in interpretation of higher-altitude polarimetric measurements of reflected sunlight.

  6. Real-time biochemical sensor based on Raman scattering with CMOS contact imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyun Cao; Yuhua Li; Yadid-Pecht, Orly

    2015-08-01

    This work presents a biochemical sensor based on Raman scattering with Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) contact imaging. This biochemical optical sensor is designed for detecting the concentration of solutions. The system is built with a laser diode, an optical filter, a sample holder and a commercial CMOS sensor. The output of the system is analyzed by an image processing program. The system provides instant measurements with a resolution of 0.2 to 0.4 Mol. This low cost and easy-operated small scale system is useful in chemical, biomedical and environmental labs for quantitative bio-chemical concentration detection with results reported comparable to a highly cost commercial spectrometer.

  7. Sensitivity Enhancement of Biochemical Sensors Based on Er+3 Doped Microsphere Coupled to an External Mirror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza BAHRAMPOUR

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we proposed an active optical sensor designed based on the Er+3-doped microsphere coupled to an external mirror. The microsphere-mirror coupling causes the degeneracy splitting of the resonance frequencies. Each of resonance frequencies splits in to two different resonance frequencies .The coupling coefficient changes as a result of altering the refractive index of surrounding medium. So, the presence of bio/chemical analytes can be detected by measuring the change of laser output power, laser frequency or the difference between frequencies of the red and blue shifted modes. In the presence of mirror at least one order of magnitude sensitivity enhancement is obtained relative to the active microsphere biochemical sensors.

  8. [INVITED] Tilted fiber grating mechanical and biochemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tuan; Liu, Fu; Guan, Bai-Ou; Albert, Jacques

    2016-04-01

    The tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) is a new kind of fiber-optic sensor that possesses all the advantages of well-established Bragg grating technology in addition to being able to excite cladding modes resonantly. This device opens up a multitude of opportunities for single-point sensing in hard-to-reach spaces with very controllable cross-sensitivities, absolute and relative measurements of various parameters, and an extreme sensitivity to materials external to the fiber without requiring the fiber to be etched or tapered. Over the past five years, our research group has been developing multimodal fiber-optic sensors based on TFBG in various shapes and forms, always keeping the device itself simple to fabricate and compatible with low-cost manufacturing. This paper presents a brief review of the principle, fabrication, characterization, and implementation of TFBGs, followed by our progress in TFBG sensors for mechanical and biochemical applications, including one-dimensional TFBG vibroscopes, accelerometers and micro-displacement sensors; two-dimensional TFBG vector vibroscopes and vector rotation sensors; reflective TFBG refractometers with in-fiber and fiber-to-fiber configurations; polarimetric and plasmonic TFBG biochemical sensors for in-situ detection of cell, protein and glucose.

  9. Laser self-mixing interference fibre sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jun; Zhao Yan; Jin Guofan

    2008-01-01

    Fibre sensors exhibit a number of advantages over other sensors such as high sensitivity, electric insulation, corrosion resistance, interference rejection and so on. And laser self-mixing interference can accurately detect the phase difference of feedback light. In this paper, a novel laser self-mixing interference fibre sensor that combines the advantages of fibre sensors with those of laser self-mixing interference is presented. Experimental configurations are set up to study the relationship between laser power output and phase of laser feedback light when the fibre trembles or when the fibre is stretched or pressed. The theoretical analysis of pressure sensors based on laser self-mixing interference is indicated to accord with the experimental results. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  10. Optical bio-chemical sensors on SNOW ring resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorasaninejad, Mohammadreza; Clarke, Nigel; Anantram, M. P.; Singh Saini, Simarjeet

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we propose and analyze novel ring resonator based bio-chemical sensors on silicon nanowire optical waveguide (SNOW) and show that the sensitivity of the sensors can be increased by an order of magnitude as compared to silicon-on-insulator based ring resonators while maintaining high index contrast and compact devices. The core of the waveguide is hollow and allows for introduction of biomaterial in the center of the mode, thereby increasing the sensitivity of detection. A sensitivity of 243 nm/refractive index unit (RIU) is achieved for a change in bulk refractive index. For surface attachment, the sensor is able to detect monolayer attachments as small as 1 Å on the surface of the silicon nanowires.

  11. Laser induced fluorescence of biochemical for UV LIDAR application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, L; Sharma, R C; Razdan, A K; Maini, A K

    2014-05-01

    Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy in the ultraviolet regime has been used for the detection of biochemical through a fiber coupled CCD detector from a distance of 2 m. The effect of concentration and laser excitation energy on the fluorescence spectra of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) has been investigated. The signature fluorescence peak of NADH was centred about 460 nm. At lower concentration Raman peak centred at 405 nm was also observed. The origin of this peak has been discussed. Detection limit with the proposed set up is found to be 1 ppm.

  12. Laser Truss Sensor for Segmented Telescope Phasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Duncan T.; Lay, Oliver P.; Azizi, Alireza; Erlig, Herman; Dorsky, Leonard I.; Asbury, Cheryl G.; Zhao, Feng

    2011-01-01

    A paper describes the laser truss sensor (LTS) for detecting piston motion between two adjacent telescope segment edges. LTS is formed by two point-to-point laser metrology gauges in a crossed geometry. A high-resolution (distribution can be optimized using the range-gated metrology (RGM) approach.

  13. Silicon-Nitride-based Integrated Optofluidic Biochemical Sensors using a Coupled-Resonator Optical Waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiawei eWANG

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Silicon nitride (SiN is a promising material platform for integrating photonic components and microfluidic channels on a chip for label-free, optical biochemical sensing applications in the visible to near-infrared wavelengths. The chip-scale SiN-based optofluidic sensors can be compact due to a relatively high refractive index contrast between SiN and the fluidic medium, and low-cost due to the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS-compatible fabrication process. Here, we demonstrate SiN-based integrated optofluidic biochemical sensors using a coupled-resonator optical waveguide (CROW in the visible wavelengths. The working principle is based on imaging in the far field the out-of-plane elastic-light-scattering patterns of the CROW sensor at a fixed probe wavelength. We correlate the imaged pattern with reference patterns at the CROW eigenstates. Our sensing algorithm maps the correlation coefficients of the imaged pattern with a library of calibrated correlation coefficients to extract a minute change in the cladding refractive index. Given a calibrated CROW, our sensing mechanism in the spatial domain only requires a fixed-wavelength laser in the visible wavelengths as a light source, with the probe wavelength located within the CROW transmission band, and a silicon digital charge-coupled device (CCD / CMOS camera for recording the light scattering patterns. This is in sharp contrast with the conventional optical microcavity-based sensing methods that impose a strict requirement of spectral alignment with a high-quality cavity resonance using a wavelength-tunable laser. Our experimental results using a SiN CROW sensor with eight coupled microrings in the 680nm wavelength reveal a cladding refractive index change of ~1.3 × 10^-4 refractive index unit (RIU, with an average sensitivity of ~281 ± 271 RIU-1 and a noise-equivalent detection limit (NEDL of 1.8 ×10^-8 RIU ~ 1.0 ×10^-4 RIU across the CROW bandwidth of ~1 nm.

  14. Focused-laser interferometric position sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, Stephen J.; Barwick, Brett; Batelaan, Herman

    2005-01-01

    We describe a simple method to measure the position shifts of an object with a range of tens of micrometers using a focused-laser (FL) interferometric position sensor. In this article we examine the effects of mechanical vibration on FL and Michelson interferometers. We tested both interferometers using vibration amplitudes ranging from 0 to 20 μm. Our FL interferometer has a resolution much better than the diffraction grating periodicities of 10 and 14 μm used in our experiments. A FL interferometer provides improved mechanical stability at the expense of spatial resolution. Our experimental results show that Michelson interferometers cannot be used when the vibration amplitude is more than an optical wavelength. The main purpose of this article is to demonstrate that a focused-laser interferometric position sensor can be used to measure the position shifts of an object on a less sensitive, micrometer scale when the vibration amplitude is too large to use a Michelson interferometer

  15. Optical Cutting Interruption Sensor for Fiber Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Adelmann

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We report on an optical sensor system attached to a 4 kW fiber laser cutting machine to detect cutting interruptions. The sensor records the thermal radiation from the process zone with a modified ring mirror and optical filter arrangement, which is placed between the cutting head and the collimator. The process radiation is sensed by a Si and InGaAs diode combination with the detected signals being digitalized with 20 kHz. To demonstrate the function of the sensor, signals arising during fusion cutting of 1 mm stainless steel and mild steel with and without cutting interruptions are evaluated and typical signatures derived. In the recorded signals the piercing process, the laser switch on and switch off point and waiting period are clearly resolved. To identify the cutting interruption, the signals of both Si and InGaAs diodes are high pass filtered and the signal fluctuation ranges being subsequently calculated. Introducing a correction factor, we identify that only in case of a cutting interruption the fluctuation range of the Si diode exceeds the InGaAs diode. This characteristic signature was successfully used to detect 80 cutting interruptions of 83 incomplete cuts (alpha error 3.6% and system recorded no cutting interruption from 110 faultless cuts (beta error of 0. This particularly high detection rate in combination with the easy integration of the sensor, highlight its potential for cutting interruption detection in industrial applications.

  16. Flexible temperature and flow sensor from laser-induced graphene

    KAUST Repository

    Marengo, Marco; Marinaro, Giovanni; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2017-01-01

    Herein we present a flexible temperature sensor and a flow speed sensor based on laser-induced graphene. The main benefits arise from peculiar electrical, thermal and mechanical performances of the material thus obtained, along with a cheap

  17. Chemical sensors based on quantum cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittel, Frank K.; Kosterev, Anatoliy A.; Rochat, Michel; Beck, Mattias; Faist, Jerome

    2002-09-01

    There is an increasing need in many chemical sensing applications ranging from industrial process control to environmental science and medical diagnostics for fast, sensitive, and selective gas detection based on laser spectroscopy. The recent availability of novel pulsed and cw quantum cascade distributed feedback (QC-DFB) lasers as mid-infrared spectroscopic sources address this need. A number of spectroscopic techniques have been demonstrated. For example, the authors have employed QC-DFB lasers for the monitoring and quantification of several trace gases and isotopic species in ambient air at ppmv and ppbv levels by means of direct absorption, wavelength modulation, cavity enhanced and cavity ringdown spectroscopy. In this work, pulsed thermoelectrically cooled QC-DFB lasers operating at ~15.6 μm were characterized for spectroscopic gas sensing applications. A new method for wavelength scanning based on the repetition rate modulation was developed. A non-wavelength-selective pyroelectric detector was incorporated in the gas sensor giving an advantage of room-temperature operation and low cost. Absorption lines of CO2 and H2O were observed in ambient air providing information about the concentration of these species.

  18. Planar Laser-Based QEPAS Trace Gas Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei Ma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS trace gas detection scheme is reported in this paper. A cylindrical lens was employed for near-infrared laser focusing. The laser beam was shaped as a planar line laser between the gap of the quartz tuning fork (QTF prongs. Compared with a spherical lens-based QEPAS sensor, the cylindrical lens-based QEPAS sensor has the advantages of easier laser beam alignment and a reduction of stringent stability requirements. Therefore, the reported approach is useful in long-term and continuous sensor operation.

  19. Applications of small surface plasmon resonance sensors for biochemical monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Jean-Francois; Battaglia, Tina M.; Beaudoin, Stephen; Booksh, Karl S.

    2004-12-01

    The development of small surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors to detect biological markers for myocardial ischemia (MI), spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), and wound healing was achieved at low ng/mL and in less than 10 minutes. The markers of interest for MIs are myoglobin (MG) and cardiac Troponin I (cTnI). The limits of detection for these markers are respectively 600 pg/mL and 1.4 ng/mL in saline solution. To study SMA, the level of survival motor neuron protein (SMN) was investigated. A limit of detection of 990 pg/mL was achieved for the detection of SMN. The interactions of SMN with MG decreased the signal for both SMN and MG. Interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFa) were investigated to monitor wound healing. The sensor's performance in more complex solutions, e.g.: serum, showed a large non-specific signal. Modifying the support on which the antibodies are attached improved the sensor's stability in serum by a factor of 5. To achieve this non-specific binding (NSB) reduction, different polysaccharides, biocompatible polymers and short chain thiols were investigated.

  20. pH measurements of FET-based (bio)chemical sensors using portable measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitsekhivska, T; Zorgiebel, F; Suthau, E; Wolter, K-J; Bock, K; Cuniberti, G

    2015-01-01

    In this study we demonstrate the sensing capabilities of a portable multiplex measurement system for FET-based (bio)chemical sensors with an integrated microfluidic interface. We therefore conducted pH measurements with Silicon Nanoribbon FET-based Sensors using different measurement procedures that are suitable for various applications. We have shown multiplexed measurements in aqueous medium for three different modes that are mutually specialized in fast data acquisition (constant drain current), calibration-less sensing (constant gate voltage) and in providing full information content (sweeping mode). Our system therefore allows surface charge sensing for a wide range of applications and is easily adaptable for multiplexed sensing with novel FET-based (bio)chemical sensors.

  1. Optical Fiber Sensors Based on Fiber Ring Laser Demodulation Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wen-Ge; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Wang, Peng-Zhao; Wang, Jian-Zhang

    2018-02-08

    A review for optical fiber sensors based on fiber ring laser (FRL) demodulation technology is presented. The review focuses on the principles, main structures, and the sensing performances of different kinds of optical fiber sensors based on FRLs. First of all, the theory background of the sensors has been discussed. Secondly, four different types of sensors are described and compared, which includes Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) typed sensors, Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) typed sensors, Sagnac typed sensors, and fiber Bragg grating (FBG) typed sensors. Typical studies and main properties of each type of sensors are presented. Thirdly, a comparison of different types of sensors are made. Finally, the existing problems and future research directions are pointed out and analyzed.

  2. Biochemical component identification by plasmonic improved whispering gallery mode optical resonance based sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saetchnikov, Vladimir A.; Tcherniavskaia, Elina A.; Saetchnikov, Anton V.; Schweiger, Gustav; Ostendorf, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Experimental data on detection and identification of variety of biochemical agents, such as proteins, microelements, antibiotic of different generation etc. in both single and multi component solutions under varied in wide range concentration analyzed on the light scattering parameters of whispering gallery mode optical resonance based sensor are represented. Multiplexing on parameters and components has been realized using developed fluidic sensor cell with fixed in adhesive layer dielectric microspheres and data processing. Biochemical component identification has been performed by developed network analysis techniques. Developed approach is demonstrated to be applicable both for single agent and for multi component biochemical analysis. Novel technique based on optical resonance on microring structures, plasmon resonance and identification tools has been developed. To improve a sensitivity of microring structures microspheres fixed by adhesive had been treated previously by gold nanoparticle solution. Another technique used thin film gold layers deposited on the substrate below adhesive. Both biomolecule and nanoparticle injections caused considerable changes of optical resonance spectra. Plasmonic gold layers under optimized thickness also improve parameters of optical resonance spectra. Biochemical component identification has been also performed by developed network analysis techniques both for single and for multi component solution. So advantages of plasmon enhancing optical microcavity resonance with multiparameter identification tools is used for development of a new platform for ultra sensitive label-free biomedical sensor.

  3. State-of-the-Art of (Bio)Chemical Sensor Developments in Analytical Spanish Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plata, María Reyes; Contento, Ana María; Ríos, Angel

    2010-01-01

    (Bio)chemical sensors are one of the most exciting fields in analytical chemistry today. The development of these analytical devices simplifies and miniaturizes the whole analytical process. Although the initial expectation of the massive incorporation of sensors in routine analytical work has been truncated to some extent, in many other cases analytical methods based on sensor technology have solved important analytical problems. Many research groups are working in this field world-wide, reporting interesting results so far. Modestly, Spanish researchers have contributed to these recent developments. In this review, we summarize the more representative achievements carried out for these groups. They cover a wide variety of sensors, including optical, electrochemical, piezoelectric or electro-mechanical devices, used for laboratory or field analyses. The capabilities to be used in different applied areas are also critically discussed. PMID:22319260

  4. Urinary incontinence monitoring system using laser-induced graphene sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Nag, Anindya

    2017-12-25

    This paper presents the design and development of a sensor patch to be used in a sensing system to deal with the urinary incontinence problem primarily faced by women and elderly people. The sensor patches were developed from laser-induced graphene from low-cost commercial polyimide (PI) polymers. The graphene was manually transferred to a commercial tape, which was used as sensor patch for experimentation. Salt solutions with different concentrations were tested to determine the most sensitive frequency region of the sensor. The results are encouraging to further develop this sensor in a platform for a fully functional urinary incontinence detection system.

  5. Flexible temperature and flow sensor from laser-induced graphene

    KAUST Repository

    Marengo, Marco

    2017-12-25

    Herein we present a flexible temperature sensor and a flow speed sensor based on laser-induced graphene. The main benefits arise from peculiar electrical, thermal and mechanical performances of the material thus obtained, along with a cheap and simple fabrication process. The temperature sensor is a negative temperature coefficient thermistor with non-linear response typical of semi-metals. The thermistor shows a 4% decrease of the resistance in a temperature range of 20–60 °C. The flow sensor exploits the piezoresistive properties of laser-induced graphene and can be used both in gaseous and liquid media thanks to a protective polydimethylsiloxane coating. Main characteristics are ultra-fast response and versatility in design offered by the laser technology.

  6. Photobiological effects of helium neon laser on hematologic and biochemical factors of rabbit blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Rahmani Kahnamoei

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Low-level helium neon laser has many applications due to its photobiostimulatory effects. Although the therapeutic effects of low-level laser radiation of different wavelengths and doses are well known, but the exact mechanism of action of the laser radiation on living cells is not yet determined. The present study is designed to evaluate the photobiological effects of 2 mw helium neon laser with wavelength of 632.8 nm on hematologic and biochemical factors of rabbit blood for this purpose, 30 male New Zealand white rabbits with the body weight of 1/5-2 kg were randomly allocated into two groups of control and laser treatment. Animals of both groups were anesthetized and those of laser treatment group were subjected to irradiation with helium neon laser at a                        wavelength of 632.8 nm and output 2 mw for 30 minutes. Finally blood samples were collected from all animals and the biochemical and hematologic factors evaluated. Significant difference (p

  7. Fiber Bragg Grating vibration sensor with DFB laser diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siska, Petr; Brozovic, Martin; Cubik, Jakub; Kepak, Stanislav; Vitasek, Jan; Koudelka, Petr; Latal, Jan; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    The Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors are nowadays used in many applications. Thanks to its quite big sensitivity to a surrounding environment, they can be used for sensing of temperature, strain, vibration or pressure. A fiber Bragg grating vibration sensor, which is interrogated by a distributed feedback laser diode (DFB) is demonstrated in this article. The system is based on the intensity modulation of the narrow spectral bandwidth of the DFB laser, when the reflection spectrum of the FBG sensor is shifted due to the strain that is applied on it in form of vibrations caused by acoustic wave pressure from loud speaker. The sensor's response in frequency domain and strain is measured; also the factor of sensor pre-strain impact on its sensitivity is discussed.

  8. Experimental Implementation of a Biometric Laser Synaptic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Pisarchik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We fabricate a biometric laser fiber synaptic sensor to transmit information from one neuron cell to the other by an optical way. The optical synapse is constructed on the base of an erbium-doped fiber laser, whose pumped diode current is driven by a pre-synaptic FitzHugh–Nagumo electronic neuron, and the laser output controls a post-synaptic FitzHugh–Nagumo electronic neuron. The implemented laser synapse displays very rich dynamics, including fixed points, periodic orbits with different frequency-locking ratios and chaos. These regimes can be beneficial for efficient biorobotics, where behavioral flexibility subserved by synaptic connectivity is a challenge.

  9. Laser-based gas sensors keep moisture out of pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2006-07-15

    Natural gas often contains contaminants that cause corrosion, and long-term deterioration, and must be cleaned and brought to pipeline standards before it can be delivered to high-pressure, long-distance pipelines. Many older sensors produce false data that can result in contaminated gas getting through. This article presented details of the SpectraSensor, a new laser-based sensor technology used by the El Paso Natural Gas Company (EPNG). The SpectraSensor is comprised of a tunable diode laser (TDL) based technology developed by the National American Space Agency (NASA). The gas analyzer provides non-contact measurement of moisture, carbon dioxide, and other corrosives in natural gas pipelines, and the tunable laser-based gas sensors are fast, accurate, and flexible. Producers can monitor El Paso's gas analyzer readings by capturing the electronic signal from El Paso's unit via a SCADA system and view the readings from control rooms. While initial purchase price is higher than more problematic surface-based gas sensors, an evaluation of the technology has indicated that maintenance savings alone may provide an almost immediate return on investments. Unlike electrochemical and crystal gas sensors, laser-based gas analyzers do not come into direct contact with any substances, a fact which practically eliminates maintenance and operational costs. Studies have shown that the cost of operating conventional electrochemical sensors can result in a cumulative annual expense exceeding $50,000 per unit including labour; recalibration and rebuilding; back-up sensor heads; and gas dehydration and tariffs. 1 fig.

  10. Integrated sensors for robotic laser welding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iakovou, D.; Aarts, Ronald G.K.M.; Meijer, J.; Beyer, E.; Dausinger, F; Ostendorf, A; Otto, A.

    2005-01-01

    A welding head is under development with integrated sensory systems for robotic laser welding applications. Robotic laser welding requires sensory systems that are capable to accurately guide the welding head over a seam in three-dimensional space and provide information about the welding process as

  11. Sensor integration for robotic laser welding processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iakovou, D.; Aarts, Ronald G.K.M.; Meijer, J.; Ostendorf, A; Hoult, A.; Lu, Y.

    2005-01-01

    The use of robotic laser welding is increasing among industrial applications, because of its ability to weld objects in three dimensions. Robotic laser welding involves three sub-processes: seam detection and tracking, welding process control, and weld seam inspection. Usually, for each sub-process,

  12. Laser deposition of sulfonated phthalocyanines for gas sensors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fitl, Přemysl; Vrňata, M.; Kopecký, D.; Vlček, J.; Škodová, J.; Bulíř, Jiří; Novotný, Michal; Pokorný, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 302, MAY (2014), s. 37-41 ISSN 0169-4332. [European-Materials-Research-Society Symposium on Laser Material Interactions for Micro- and Nano- Applications /5./. Strasbourg, 27.05.2013-31.05.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/1298 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation * substituted phthalocyanine s * gas sensors * impedance measurements Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.711, year: 2014

  13. Direct laser writing for nanoporous liquid core laser sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossmann, Tobias; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Peterson, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    We report the fabrication of nanoporous liquid core lasers via direct laser writing based on two-photon absorption in combination with thiolene-chemistry. As gain medium Rhodamine 6G was embedded in the nanoporous polybutadiene matrix. The lasing devices with thresholds of 19 µJ/mm2 were measured...

  14. Flow Type Bio-Chemical Calorimeter with Micro Differential Thermopile Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Masataka; Nakabeppu, Osamu

    2015-04-01

    Bio-chemical calorimeters with a MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) thermopile sensor have been studied for monitoring detailed processes of the biochemical reactions of a minute sample with a high temporal resolution. The bio-calorimeters are generally divided into a batch-type and a flow-type. We developed a highly sensitive batch-type calorimeter which can detect a 100 nW level thermal reaction. However it shows a long settling time of 2 hours because of the heat capacity of a whole calorimeter. Thus, the flow-type calorimeters in passive and active mode have been studied for measuring the thermal reactions in an early stage after starting an analysis. The flow-type calorimeter consists of the MEMS differential thermopile sensor, a pair of micro channel reactor in a PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) sheet in a three-fold thermostat chamber. The calorimeter in the passive mode was tested with dilution reactions of ethanol to water and NaCl aqueous solution to water. It was shown that the calorimeter detects exo- and endothermic reaction over 250 nW at solution flow rate of 0.05 ~ 1 µl/min with a settling time of about 4 minutes. In the active mode, a response test was conducted by using heat removal by water flow from the reactor channel. The active calorimetry enhances the response time about three to four times faster.

  15. A wireless laser displacement sensor node for structural health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyo Seon; Kim, Jong Moon; Choi, Se Woon; Kim, Yousok

    2013-09-30

    This study describes a wireless laser displacement sensor node that measures displacement as a representative damage index for structural health monitoring (SHM). The proposed measurement system consists of a laser displacement sensor (LDS) and a customized wireless sensor node. Wireless communication is enabled by a sensor node that consists of a sensor module, a code division multiple access (CDMA) communication module, a processor, and a power module. An LDS with a long measurement distance is chosen to increase field applicability. For a wireless sensor node driven by a battery, we use a power control module with a low-power processor, which facilitates switching between the sleep and active modes, thus maximizing the power consumption efficiency during non-measurement and non-transfer periods. The CDMA mode is also used to overcome the limitation of communication distance, which is a challenge for wireless sensor networks and wireless communication. To evaluate the reliability and field applicability of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system, the system is tested onsite to obtain the required vertical displacement measurements during the construction of mega-trusses and an edge truss, which are the primary structural members in a large-scale irregular building currently under construction. The measurement values confirm the validity of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system and its potential for use in safety evaluations of structural elements.

  16. A Wireless Laser Displacement Sensor Node for Structural Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Woon Choi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a wireless laser displacement sensor node that measures displacement as a representative damage index for structural health monitoring (SHM. The proposed measurement system consists of a laser displacement sensor (LDS and a customized wireless sensor node. Wireless communication is enabled by a sensor node that consists of a sensor module, a code division multiple access (CDMA communication module, a processor, and a power module. An LDS with a long measurement distance is chosen to increase field applicability. For a wireless sensor node driven by a battery, we use a power control module with a low-power processor, which facilitates switching between the sleep and active modes, thus maximizing the power consumption efficiency during non-measurement and non-transfer periods. The CDMA mode is also used to overcome the limitation of communication distance, which is a challenge for wireless sensor networks and wireless communication. To evaluate the reliability and field applicability of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system, the system is tested onsite to obtain the required vertical displacement measurements during the construction of mega-trusses and an edge truss, which are the primary structural members in a large-scale irregular building currently under construction. The measurement values confirm the validity of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system and its potential for use in safety evaluations of structural elements.

  17. Designing and testing a laser-based vibratory sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, G.

    2018-04-01

    Sensor technology has proved its importance, not only in the range of few-meter applications in different fields, but in micro, nano, atomic and sub-atomic-sized objects. The present work describes the designing of a laser-based vibratory sensor using a He-Ne laser as the signal source. The received characteristics of the signal are mainly the frequency and amplitude of the vibration from which the physical parameters such as energy, power and absorption coefficients of the material are determined, which enables us to provide information of the hidden target or object. This laboratory-designed sensor finds application in different local phenomena as well as laboratory practical activity for students.

  18. Laser sensor for monitoring radioactive contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kascheev, S. V.; Elizarov, V. V.; Grishkanich, A. S.; Bespalov, V. G.; Vasiev, S. K.; Zhevlakov, A. P.

    2014-11-01

    Remote laser spectroscopy availability for airborne search of radionuclides polution has been examined. Experiments were carried out under the CARS circuit. The method of remote detection a radionuclide in atmosphere from container burial places and in places of recycling the fuel waste of the atomic power station is elaborated. Preliminary results of investigation show the real possibility to register of leakage of a radionuclide with concentration at level of 1012÷1013 cm-3 on a safe distance from the infected object.

  19. Development of a diamond waveguide sensor for sensitive protein analysis using IR quantum cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piron, P.; Vargas Catalan, E.; Haas, J.; Österlund, L.; Nikolajeff, F.; Andersson, P. O.; Bergström, J.; Mizaikoff, B.; Karlsson, M.

    2018-02-01

    Microfabricated diamond waveguides, between 5 and 20 μm thick, manufactured by chemical vapor deposition of diamond, followed by standard lithographic techniques and inductively coupled plasma etching of diamond, are used as bio-chemical sensors in the mid infrared domain: 5-11 μm. Infrared light, emitted from a broadly tunable quantum cascade laser with a wavelength resolution smaller than 20 nm, is coupled through the diamond waveguides for attenuated total reflection spectroscopy. The expected advantages of these waveguides are a high sensitivity due to the high number of internal reflections along the propagation direction, a high transmittance in the mid-IR domain, the bio-compatibility of diamond and the possibility of functionalizing the surface layer. The sensor will be used for analyzing different forms of proteins such as α-synuclein which is relevant in understanding the mechanism behind Parkinson's disease. The fabrication process of the waveguide, its characteristics and several geometries are introduced. The optical setup of the biosensor is described and our first measurements on two analytes to demonstrate the principle of the sensing method will be presented. Future use of this sensor includes the functionalization of the diamond waveguide sensor surface to be able to fish out alpha-synuclein from cerebrospinal fluid.

  20. THE DEVELOPMENT OF BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND SENSOR USING LOCAL YEAST: Candida fukuyamaensis, UICC Y-247

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Saepudin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to shorten the measurement time of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, a BOD sensor based on yeastmetabolism was developed. Local yeast, Indonesian Origin, Candida fukuyamaensis UICC Y-247, was used as atransducer. The yeast was immobilized as a thin film in agarose matrix with the auxiliary of Nafion® acting as themembrane for ion exchange process. The film was then attached to gold-modified glassy carbons and used as transduceron the working electrodes. The measurements were conducted by observing the depletion of glucose concentrationusing multipulse amperometric method and then converted to BOD values. Optimum condition was observed in awaiting measurement time of 30 min at an applied potential of 450 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl. Linearity was shown in glucoseconcentration range of 0.1–0.5 mM, which was equivalent to BOD concentration range of 10–50 mg/L. A detectionlimit of 1.13 mg/L BOD could be achieved. Good repeatability was shown by a relative standard deviation (RSD of2.7% (n = 15. However, decreasing current response of ~50% was found after 3 days. Comparing to the conventionalBOD measurement, this BOD sensor can be used as an alternative method for BOD measurements.

  1. Brain machine interfaces combining microelectrode arrays with nanostructured optical biochemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajj-Hassan, Mohamad; Gonzalez, Timothy; Ghafer-Zadeh, Ebrahim; Chodavarapu, Vamsy; Musallam, Sam; Andrews, Mark

    2009-02-01

    Neural microelectrodes are an important component of neural prosthetic systems which assist paralyzed patients by allowing them to operate computers or robots using their neural activity. These microelectrodes are also used in clinical settings to localize the locus of seizure initiation in epilepsy or to stimulate sub-cortical structures in patients with Parkinson's disease. In neural prosthetic systems, implanted microelectrodes record the electrical potential generated by specific thoughts and relay the signals to algorithms trained to interpret these thoughts. In this paper, we describe novel elongated multi-site neural electrodes that can record electrical signals and specific neural biomarkers and that can reach depths greater than 8mm in the sulcus of non-human primates (monkeys). We hypothesize that additional signals recorded by the multimodal probes will increase the information yield when compared to standard probes that record just electropotentials. We describe integration of optical biochemical sensors with neural microelectrodes. The sensors are made using sol-gel derived xerogel thin films that encapsulate specific biomarker responsive luminophores in their nanostructured pores. The desired neural biomarkers are O2, pH, K+, and Na+ ions. As a prototype, we demonstrate direct-write patterning to create oxygen-responsive xerogel waveguide structures on the neural microelectrodes. The recording of neural biomarkers along with electrical activity could help the development of intelligent and more userfriendly neural prosthesis/brain machine interfaces as well as aid in providing answers to complex brain diseases and disorders.

  2. Polymeric turbidity sensor fabricated by laser direct writing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shu; Lin, Qiao; Wu, George; Chen, Liuhua; Wu, X

    2011-01-01

    The design of a miniature-sized turbidity sensor fabricated by laser direct writing was proposed and tested. A dual-beam dual-detector sensing structure was written by a 488 nm laser from UV curable optical polymer to form a 4 mm diameter turbidity sensing probe, with the fabrication process being shortened to a few seconds. Experimental tests on prototypes were conducted by using standard turbidity solutions, and the data were processed with a self-adapting neural network based on a single input single output algorithm. The scattering coefficient for normalized turbidity of the standards was obtained, and system accuracy was validated by an error analysis. Experimental results indicated that in the testing situation presented in this paper, the sensor was capable of responding to turbidity with a relative error of about 3%

  3. Temperature Sensor Using a Multiwavelength Erbium-Doped Fiber Ring Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Diaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel temperature sensor is presented based on a multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser. The laser is comprised of fiber Bragg grating reflectors as the oscillation wavelength selecting filters. The performance of the temperature sensor in terms of both wavelength and laser output power was investigated, as well as the application of this system for remote temperature measurements.

  4. Disruptive laser diode source for embedded LIDAR sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal, Celine; Laugustin, Arnaud; Kohl, Andreas; Rabot, Olivier

    2017-02-01

    Active imaging based on laser illumination is used in various fields such as medicine, security, defense, civil engineering and in the automotive sector. In this last domain, research and development to bring autonomous vehicles on the roads has been intensified these last years with an emphasis on lidar technology that is probably the key to achieve full automation level. Based on time-of-flight measurements, the profile of objects can be measured together with their location in various conditions, creating a 3D mapping of the environment. To be embedded on a vehicle as advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), these sensors require compactness, low-cost and reliability, as it is provided by a flash lidar. An attractive candidate, especially with respect to cost reduction, for the laser source integrated in these devices is certainly laser diodes as long as they can provide sufficiently short pulses with a high energy. A recent breakthrough in laser diode and diode driver technology made by Quantel (Les Ulis, France) now allows laser emission higher than 1 mJ with pulses as short as 12 ns in a footprint of 4x5 cm2 (including both the laser diode and driver) and an electrical-to-optical conversion efficiency of the whole laser diode source higher than 25% at this level of energy. The components used for the laser source presented here can all be manufactured at low cost. In particular, instead of having several individual laser diodes positioned side by side, the laser diodes are monolithically integrated on a single semiconductor chip. The chips are then integrated directly on the driver board in a single assembly step. These laser sources emit in the range of 800-1000 nm and their emission is considered to be eye safe when taking into account the high divergence of the output beam and the aperture of possible macro lenses so that they can be used for end consumer applications. Experimental characterization of these state-of-the-art pulsed laser diode sources

  5. New laser power sensor using weighing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinot, P.; Silvestri, Z.

    2018-01-01

    We present a set-up using a piece of pyrolytic carbon (PyC) to measure laser power in the range from a few milliwatts to a few watts. The experimental configuration consists in measuring the magnetic repulsion force acting between a piece of PyC placed on a weighing pan and in a magnetic induction generated by a magnet array in a fixed position above the PyC sheet. This involves a repulsion force on the PyC piece which is expressed in terms of mass by the balance display. The quantities affecting the measurement results have been identified. An example of metrological characterization in terms of accuracy, linearity and sensitivity is given. A relative uncertainty of optical power measurement for the first experimental set-up is around 1%. The wavelength and power density dependence on power response of this device has been demonstrated. This PyC-based device presented here in weighing configuration and the other one previously studied in levitation configuration offer a new technique for measuring optical power.

  6. Biochemical and topological analysis of bovine sperm cells induced by low power laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, T. R.; Siqueira, A. F. P.; Magrini, T. D.; Fiorito, P. A.; Assumpção, M. E. O. A.; Nichi, M.; Martinho, H. S.; Milazzotto, M. P.

    2011-07-01

    Low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) increases ATP production and energy supply to the cell which could increase sperm motility, acrossomal reaction and consequently the fertilizing potential. The aim of this study was to characterize the biochemical and topological changes induced by low power laser irradiation on bull sperm cells. Post-thawing sperm were irradiated with a 633nm laser with fluence rates of 30, 150 and 300mJ.cm-2 (power of 5mW for 1, 5 and 10minutes, respectively); 45, 230, and 450mJ.cm-2 (7.5mW for 1, 5 and 10 minutes); and 60, 300 and 600mJ.cm-2 (10mW for 1, 5 and 10 minutes). Biochemical and metabolical changes were analyzed by FTIR and flow cytometry; oxygen reactive species production was assessed by TBARS and the morphological changes were evaluated by AFM. Motility had no difference among times or powers of irradiation. Increasing in ROS generation was observed with power of 5mW compared to 7.5 and 10mW, and with 10min of irradiation in comparison with 5 and 1min of irradiation. This higher ROS generation was related to an increase in acrossomal and plasma membrane damage. FTIR results showed that the amount of lipids was inversely proportional to the quantity of ROS generated. AFM images showed morphological differences in plasma/acrossomal membrane, mainly on the equatorial region. We conclude that LLLI is an effective method to induce changes on sperm cell metabolism but more studies are necessary to establish an optimal dose to increase the fertility potential of these cells.

  7. Nanosecond-laser induced crosstalk of CMOS image sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Rongzhen; Wang, Yanbin; Chen, Qianrong; Zhou, Xuanfeng; Ren, Guangsen; Cui, Longfei; Li, Hua; Hao, Daoliang

    2018-02-01

    The CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) is photoelectricity image device which focused the photosensitive array, amplifier, A/D transfer, storage, DSP, computer interface circuit on the same silicon substrate[1]. It has low power consumption, high integration,low cost etc. With large scale integrated circuit technology progress, the noise suppression level of CIS is enhanced unceasingly, and its image quality is getting better and better. It has been in the security monitoring, biometrice, detection and imaging and even military reconnaissance and other field is widely used. CIS is easily disturbed and damaged while it is irradiated by laser. It is of great significance to study the effect of laser irradiation on optoelectronic countermeasure and device for the laser strengthening resistance is of great significance. There are some researchers have studied the laser induced disturbed and damaged of CIS. They focused on the saturation, supersaturated effects, and they observed different effects as for unsaturation, saturation, supersaturated, allsaturated and pixel flip etc. This paper research 1064nm laser interference effect in a typical before type CMOS, and observring the saturated crosstalk and half the crosstalk line. This paper extracted from cmos devices working principle and signal detection methods such as the Angle of the formation mechanism of the crosstalk line phenomenon are analyzed.

  8. Biochemical gas sensor (bio-sniffer) for ultrahigh-sensitive gaseous formaldehyde monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Yuki; Gessei, Tomoko; Takahashi, Daishi; Arakawa, Takahiro; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2010-10-15

    An ultrahigh-sensitive fiber-optic biochemical gas sensor (bio-sniffer) for continuous monitoring of indoor formaldehyde was constructed and tested. The bio-sniffer measures gaseous formaldehyde as fluorescence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), which is the product of formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH) reaction. The bio-sniffer device was constructed by attaching a flow cell with a FALDH immobilized membrane onto a fiber-optic NADH measurement system. The NADH measurement system utilizes an ultraviolet-light emitting diode (UV-LED) with peak emission of 335 nm as an excitation light source. The excitation light was introduced to an optical fiber probe, and fluorescence emission of neighboring NADH, which was produced by applying formaldehyde vapor to the FALDH membrane, was concentrically measured with a photomultiplier tube. Assessment of the bio-sniffer was carried out using a standard gas generator. Response, calibration range and selectivity to other chemical substances were investigated. Circulating phosphate buffer, which contained NAD+, available for continuous monitoring of formaldehyde vapor. The calibration range of the bio-sniffer was 2.5 ppb to 10 ppm, which covers the guideline value of the World Health Organization (80 ppb). High selectivity to other gaseous substances due to specific activity of FALDH was also confirmed. Considering its high sensitivity, a possible application of the bio-sniffer is continuous indoor formaldehyde monitoring to provide healthy residential atmosphere. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Laser Cladding of Embedded Sensors for Thermal Barrier Coating Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The accurate real-time monitoring of surface or internal temperatures of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs in hostile environments presents significant benefits to the efficient and safe operation of gas turbines. A new method for fabricating high-temperature K-type thermocouple sensors on gas turbine engines using coaxial laser cladding technology has been developed. The deposition of the thermocouple sensors was optimized to provide minimal intrusive features to the TBC, which is beneficial for the operational reliability of the protective coatings. Notably, this avoids a melt pool on the TBC surface. Sensors were deposited onto standard yttria-stabilized zirconia (7–8 wt % YSZ coated substrates; subsequently, they were embedded with second YSZ layers by the Atmospheric Plasma Spray (APS process. Morphology of cladded thermocouples before and after embedding was optimized in terms of topography and internal homogeneity, respectively. The dimensions of the cladded thermocouple were in the order of 200 microns in thickness and width. The thermal and electrical response of the cladded thermocouple was tested before and after embedding in temperatures ranging from ambient to approximately 450 °C in a furnace. Seebeck coefficients of bared and embedded thermocouples were also calculated correspondingly, and the results were compared to that of a commercial standard K-type thermocouple, which demonstrates that laser cladding is a prospective technology for manufacturing microsensors on the surface of or even embedded into functional coatings.

  10. IR laser sensors for the detection food adulteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giubileo, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    The paper reports the results of the project SAL@CQO aimed at the development of instrumentation Innovative optical, laser based sensors, for the improvement of the level of safety of products food and for the detection of food fraud. Through the developed prototypes, the project aims provide on the one hand a means of rapid screening, automated, and to facilitate the use of simplified Work of the Audit Institutions responsible for monitoring and repression of food frauds. On the other hand It intends to provide a method of production chains practical monitoring for the maintenance of a of the final product quality standards. [it

  11. Quality assurance tests of the CBM silicon tracking system sensors with an infrared laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teklishyn, Maksym [FAIR GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); KINR, Kyiv (Ukraine); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Double-sided 300 μm thick silicon microstrip sensors are planned to be used in the Silicon Tracking System (STS) of the future CBM experiment. Different tools, including an infrared laser, are used to induce charge in the sensor medium to study the sensor response. We use present installation to develop a procedure for the sensor quality assurance during mass production. The precise positioning of the laser spot allows to make a clear judgment about the sensor interstrip gap response which provides information about the charge distribution inside the sensor medium. Results are compared with the model estimations.

  12. Design and Performance Analysis of Laser Displacement Sensor Based on Position Sensitive Detector (PSD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, H X; Wang, X D; Ma, L Q; Cai, M Z; Cao, T Z

    2006-01-01

    By using PSD as sensitive element, and laser diode as emitting element, laser displacement sensor based on triangulation method has been widely used. From the point of view of design, sensor and its performance were studied. Two different sensor configurations were described. Determination of the dimension, sensing resolution and comparison of the two different configurations were presented. The factors affecting the performance of the laser displacement sensor were discussed and two methods, which can eliminate the affection of dark current and environment light, are proposed

  13. Performance of laser distance sensors for Atlas Micromegas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Ralph; Biebel, Otmar; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Flierl, Bernhard; Hertenberger, Ralf; Loesel, Philipp; Pree, Elias [LMU Muenchen (Germany); Zibell, Andre [JMU Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    During the second long LHC shutdown, 2018/19, the precision tracking detectors of the ATLAS muon spectrometer in the inner end caps will be replaced using Micromegas, a planar gas-detector technology. Modules of 2 m{sup 2} area are built in quadruplets from five precisely planar sandwich panels that define the anodes and the cathodes of the four active detector planes. Single plane spatial resolutions below 100 μ m are achievable when the deviation from planarity of the strip-anodes does not exceed 80 μ m RMS over the whole active area and the parallelism of the readout strips is within 30 μ m. In order to measure the dimensional accuracy of each panel, laser distance sensors to be combined with a coordinate measurement system have been investigated. One of them turned out to be capable to measure the planarity of the panels. It has a resolution of 0.3 μ m and a beam spot diameter of ∼50 μ m, which is well below 100 μ m the size of the smallest structures. For monitoring purposes during the construction process a less accurate but cheaper sensor turned out to be sufficient. We report on the performance of the sensors and their applicability to our tasks.

  14. Speckle reduction for a laser light sectioning sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutsch Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Automated optical inspection is an important test procedure in electronic circuits assembly. Frequently 3d information is required and laser light sectioning sensors are often applied. However, some effects complicate the reliable automatic detection of the shape of such assemblies and their components. The packages of electronic components often are made of black plastics or ceramics so that the intensity available for the optical detection is quite low, especially in comparison to the surface of the PCBs where the components are mounted on. In addition due to rough surfaces of the components and the coherence length of the laser light speckle structures arise. In the work presented here a piezo actuator is used to oscillate the illuminating laser lines along the direction of the lines. The aim is to reduce the visibility of the speckle structures by averaging while maintaining the geometrical shape of the lines. In addition, image processing methods like segmentation and skeletonization are used to allow the detection of the shape of components and assemblies also if materials with distinct differences in the reflectivity are involved. Investigations include the influence of the parameters amplitude and frequency of the piezo actuator.

  15. Measurement of drill grinding parameters using laser sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanping, Peng; Kumehara, Hiroyuki; Wei, Zhang; Nomura, Takashi

    2005-12-01

    To measure the grinding parameters and geometry parameters accurately for a drill point is essential to its design and reconditioning. In recent years, a number of non-contact coordinate measuring apparatuses, using CCD camera or laser sensors, are developed. But, a lot work is to be done for further improvement. This paper reports another kind of laser coordinate meter. As an example of its application, the method for geometry inspection of the drill flank surface is detailed. Measured data from laser scanning on the flank surface around some points with several 2-dimensional curves are analyzed with mathematical procedure. If one of these curves turns to be a straight line, it must be the generatrix of the grinding cone. Thus, the grinding parameters are determined by a set of three generatrices. Then, the measurement method and data processing procedure are proposed. Its validity is assessed by measuring a sample with given parameters. The point geometry measured agrees well with the known values. In comparison with other methods in the published literature, it is simpler in computation and more accurate in results.

  16. Short-Range Sensor for Underwater Robot Navigation using Line-lasers and Vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Nicholas; Nielsen, Mikkel Cornelius; Christensen, David Johan

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates a minimalistic laser-based range sensor, used for underwater inspection by Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV). This range detection system system comprise two lasers projecting vertical lines, parallel to a camera’s viewing axis, into the environment. Using both lasers...

  17. A wearable biochemical sensor for monitoring alcohol consumption lifestyle through Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) detection in human sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvam, Anjan Panneer; Muthukumar, Sriram; Kamakoti, Vikramshankar; Prasad, Shalini

    2016-03-21

    We demonstrate for the first time a wearable biochemical sensor for monitoring alcohol consumption through the detection and quantification of a metabolite of ethanol, ethyl glucuronide (EtG). We designed and fabricated two co-planar sensors with gold and zinc oxide as sensing electrodes. We also designed a LED based reporting for the presence of EtG in the human sweat samples. The sensor functions on affinity based immunoassay principles whereby monoclonal antibodies for EtG were immobilized on the electrodes using thiol based chemistry. Detection of EtG from human sweat was achieved through chemiresistive sensing mechanism. In this method, an AC voltage was applied across the two coplanar electrodes and the impedance across the sensor electrodes was measured and calibrated for physiologically relevant doses of EtG in human sweat. EtG detection over a dose concentration of 0.001-100 μg/L was demonstrated on both glass and polyimide substrates. Detection sensitivity was lower at 1 μg/L with gold electrodes as compared to ZnO, which had detection sensitivity of 0.001 μg/L. Based on the detection range the wearable sensor has the ability to detect alcohol consumption of up to 11 standard drinks in the US over a period of 4 to 9 hours.

  18. A wearable biochemical sensor for monitoring alcohol consumption lifestyle through Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) detection in human sweat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneer Selvam, Anjan; Muthukumar, Sriram; Kamakoti, Vikramshankar; Prasad, Shalini

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate for the first time a wearable biochemical sensor for monitoring alcohol consumption through the detection and quantification of a metabolite of ethanol, ethyl glucuronide (EtG). We designed and fabricated two co-planar sensors with gold and zinc oxide as sensing electrodes. We also designed a LED based reporting for the presence of EtG in the human sweat samples. The sensor functions on affinity based immunoassay principles whereby monoclonal antibodies for EtG were immobilized on the electrodes using thiol based chemistry. Detection of EtG from human sweat was achieved through chemiresistive sensing mechanism. In this method, an AC voltage was applied across the two coplanar electrodes and the impedance across the sensor electrodes was measured and calibrated for physiologically relevant doses of EtG in human sweat. EtG detection over a dose concentration of 0.001-100 μg/L was demonstrated on both glass and polyimide substrates. Detection sensitivity was lower at 1 μg/L with gold electrodes as compared to ZnO, which had detection sensitivity of 0.001 μg/L. Based on the detection range the wearable sensor has the ability to detect alcohol consumption of up to 11 standard drinks in the US over a period of 4 to 9 hours.

  19. Learning probabilistic features for robotic navigation using laser sensors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidel Aznar

    Full Text Available SLAM is a popular task used by robots and autonomous vehicles to build a map of an unknown environment and, at the same time, to determine their location within the map. This paper describes a SLAM-based, probabilistic robotic system able to learn the essential features of different parts of its environment. Some previous SLAM implementations had computational complexities ranging from O(Nlog(N to O(N(2, where N is the number of map features. Unlike these methods, our approach reduces the computational complexity to O(N by using a model to fuse the information from the sensors after applying the Bayesian paradigm. Once the training process is completed, the robot identifies and locates those areas that potentially match the sections that have been previously learned. After the training, the robot navigates and extracts a three-dimensional map of the environment using a single laser sensor. Thus, it perceives different sections of its world. In addition, in order to make our system able to be used in a low-cost robot, low-complexity algorithms that can be easily implemented on embedded processors or microcontrollers are used.

  20. Learning probabilistic features for robotic navigation using laser sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, Fidel; Pujol, Francisco A; Pujol, Mar; Rizo, Ramón; Pujol, María-José

    2014-01-01

    SLAM is a popular task used by robots and autonomous vehicles to build a map of an unknown environment and, at the same time, to determine their location within the map. This paper describes a SLAM-based, probabilistic robotic system able to learn the essential features of different parts of its environment. Some previous SLAM implementations had computational complexities ranging from O(Nlog(N)) to O(N(2)), where N is the number of map features. Unlike these methods, our approach reduces the computational complexity to O(N) by using a model to fuse the information from the sensors after applying the Bayesian paradigm. Once the training process is completed, the robot identifies and locates those areas that potentially match the sections that have been previously learned. After the training, the robot navigates and extracts a three-dimensional map of the environment using a single laser sensor. Thus, it perceives different sections of its world. In addition, in order to make our system able to be used in a low-cost robot, low-complexity algorithms that can be easily implemented on embedded processors or microcontrollers are used.

  1. Simple laser vision sensor calibration for surface profiling applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Nabah, Bassam A.; ElSoussi, Adnane O.; Al Alami, Abed ElRahman K.

    2016-09-01

    Due to the relatively large structures in the Oil and Gas industry, original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) have been implementing custom-designed laser vision sensor (LVS) surface profiling systems as part of quality control in their manufacturing processes. The rough manufacturing environment and the continuous movement and misalignment of these custom-designed tools adversely affect the accuracy of laser-based vision surface profiling applications. Accordingly, Oil and Gas businesses have been raising the demand from the OEMs to implement practical and robust LVS calibration techniques prior to running any visual inspections. This effort introduces an LVS calibration technique representing a simplified version of two known calibration techniques, which are commonly implemented to obtain a calibrated LVS system for surface profiling applications. Both calibration techniques are implemented virtually and experimentally to scan simulated and three-dimensional (3D) printed features of known profiles, respectively. Scanned data is transformed from the camera frame to points in the world coordinate system and compared with the input profiles to validate the introduced calibration technique capability against the more complex approach and preliminarily assess the measurement technique for weld profiling applications. Moreover, the sensitivity to stand-off distances is analyzed to illustrate the practicality of the presented technique.

  2. Design Parameter Optimization of a Silicon-Based Grating Waveguide for Performance Improvement in Biochemical Sensor Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yoo-Seung; Cho, Chun-Hyung; Sung, Hyuk-Kee

    2018-03-05

    We performed numerical analysis and design parameter optimization of a silicon-based grating waveguide refractive index (RI) sensor. The performance of the grating waveguide RI sensor was determined by the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) and the shift in the resonance wavelength in the transmission spectrum. The transmission extinction, a major figure-of-merit of an RI sensor that reflects both FWHM and resonance shift performance, could be significantly improved by the proper determination of three major grating waveguide parameters: duty ratio, grating period, and etching depth. We analyzed the transmission characteristics of the grating waveguide under various design parameter conditions using a finite-difference time domain method. We achieved a transmission extinction improvement of >26 dB under a given bioenvironmental target change by the proper choice of the design procedure and parameters. This design procedure and choice of appropriate parameters would enable the widespread application of silicon-based grating waveguide in high-performance RI biochemical sensor.

  3. Laser sensor with Bragg gratings of fiber optics to physics parameter measuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, R.; Garcia, C.; May, M.; Camas, J.

    2009-01-01

    We present the operation of a fiber laser sensor made by an Erbium Doped Fiber pumped at 980nm, an 4.23 km passive fiber and two fiber Bragg gratings placed at the ends of the laser cavity. Under normal conditions, the Bragg gratings have different reflection wavelengths and laser emission is not generated. The two Bragg gratings can be placed at the same reflection wavelength when the Bragg grating with the lowest reflective wavelength increases their temperature which can be used as a sensor element. The laser generation thus shows that the Bragg grating is increasing their temperature. We used a Peltier cell for to change gradually the temperature. (Author)

  4. An improved triangulation laser rangefinder using a custom CMOS HDR linear image sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liscombe, Michael

    3-D triangulation laser rangefinders are used in many modern applications, from terrain mapping to biometric identification. Although a wide variety of designs have been proposed, laser speckle noise still provides a fundamental limitation on range accuracy. These works propose a new triangulation laser rangefinder designed specifically to mitigate the effects of laser speckle noise. The proposed rangefinder uses a precision linear translator to laterally reposition the imaging system (e.g., image sensor and imaging lens). For a given spatial location of the laser spot, capturing N spatially uncorrelated laser spot profiles is shown to improve range accuracy by a factor of N . This technique has many advantages over past speckle-reduction technologies, such as a fixed system cost and form factor, and the ability to virtually eliminate laser speckle noise. These advantages are made possible through spatial diversity and come at the cost of increased acquisition time. The rangefinder makes use of the ICFYKWG1 linear image sensor, a custom CMOS sensor developed at the Vision Sensor Laboratory (York University). Tests are performed on the image sensor's innovative high dynamic range technology to determine its effects on range accuracy. As expected, experimental results have shown that the sensor provides a trade-off between dynamic range and range accuracy.

  5. Highly sensitive SnO2 sensor via reactive laser-induced transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palla Papavlu, Alexandra; Mattle, Thomas; Temmel, Sandra; Lehmann, Ulrike; Hintennach, Andreas; Grisel, Alain; Wokaun, Alexander; Lippert, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Gas sensors based on tin oxide (SnO2) and palladium doped SnO2 (Pd:SnO2) active materials are fabricated by a laser printing method, i.e. reactive laser-induced forward transfer (rLIFT). Thin films from tin based metal-complex precursors are prepared by spin coating and then laser transferred with high resolution onto sensor structures. The devices fabricated by rLIFT exhibit low ppm sensitivity towards ethanol and methane as well as good stability with respect to air, moisture, and time. Promising results are obtained by applying rLIFT to transfer metal-complex precursors onto uncoated commercial gas sensors. We could show that rLIFT onto commercial sensors is possible if the sensor structures are reinforced prior to printing. The rLIFT fabricated sensors show up to 4 times higher sensitivities then the commercial sensors (with inkjet printed SnO2). In addition, the selectivity towards CH4 of the Pd:SnO2 sensors is significantly enhanced compared to the pure SnO2 sensors. Our results indicate that the reactive laser transfer technique applied here represents an important technical step for the realization of improved gas detection systems with wide-ranging applications in environmental and health monitoring control.

  6. Cantilever-based bio-chemical sensor integrated in a microliquid handling system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jacob; Marie, Rodolphe; Boisen, Anja

    2001-01-01

    The cantilevers have integrated piezoresistive readout which, compared to optical readout, enables simple measurements on even non-transparent liquids, such as blood. First, we introduce a simple theory for using piezoresistive cantilevers as surface stress sensors. Then, the sensor fabrication...... based on conventional microfabrication is described and the sensor characterization is discussed. During the characterization we found a stress sensitivity of (ΔR/R)=4.6:10 -4 (N/m)-1 and a minimum detectable surface stress change of 2.6 mN/m. Aqua regia etch of gold on top of the cantilevers has been...... monitored, and immobilization of single-stranded thiol modified DNA-oligos has been detected by the sensor. Finally, it is demonstrated that it is possible to analyze two samples simultaneously by utilizing the laminar flow in the microliquid handling system....

  7. Low power continuous wave-laser seed irradiation effect on Moringa oleifera germination, seedling growth and biochemical attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urva; Shafique, Hina; Jamil, Yasir; Haq, Zia Ul; Mujahid, Tamveel; Khan, Aman Ullah; Iqbal, Munawar; Abbas, Mazhar

    2017-05-01

    Recently, laser application in agriculture has gained much attention since plant characteristics were improved significantly in response of pre-sowing seed treatment. Pre-sowing laser seed treatment effects on germination, seedling growth and mineral profile were studied in Moringa olifera. M. olifera healthy seeds were exposed to 25, 50, 75mJ low power continuous wave laser light and grown under greenhouse conditions. The seedling growth and biochemical attributes were evaluated from 10-day-old seedlings. The germination parameters (percentage, mean germination time), vigor index, seedling growth (root length, seedling length, shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight, shoot dry weight, root dry weight) enhanced considerably. The laser energy levels used for seed irradiation showed variable effects on germination, seedling growth and mineral profile. The mineral contents were recorded to be higher in seedling raised from laser treated seeds, which were higher in roots versus shoots and leaves. The effect of laser treatment on seedling fat, nitrogen and protein content was insignificant and at higher energy level both nitrogen and protein contents decreased versus control. Results revealed that M. olifera germination, seedling growth and mineral contents were enhanced and optimum laser energy level has more acceleratory effect since at three laser energy levels the responses were significantly different. Overall the laser energy levels effect on germination and seedling growth was found in following order; 75mJ>50mJ>25mJ, where as in case of fat, protein and nitrogen contents the trend was as; 25mJ>50mJ and 75mJ. However, this technique could possibly be used to improve the M. olifera germination, seedling growth, and minerals contents where germination is low due to unfavorable conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Localized Temperature Variations in Laser-Irradiated Composites with Embedded Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    R. Brian Jenkins; Peter Joyce; Deborah Mechtel

    2017-01-01

    Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) temperature sensors are embedded in composites to detect localized temperature gradients resulting from high energy infrared laser radiation. The goal is to detect the presence of radiation on a composite structure as rapidly as possible and to identify its location, much the same way human skin senses heat. A secondary goal is to determine how a network of sensors can be optimized to detect thermal damage in laser-irradiated composite materials or structures. Initia...

  9. Development of Laser LEDs Based a Programmable Optical Sensor for Detection of Environmental Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit K. Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The laser LED based optical sensor and its multifunctional operation for detection of environmental pollutants are described. The work will provide the instructions to design of circuitry for optical sensor instrument with a program based on a microcontroller (8902051-24PI, and to allow this program to communicate via RS-232 with computer. An algorithm is outlined by which the sensor instrument can use three laser LEDs (blue, Green and red to quantify the composition of pollutant. The operation of measurement through optical sensor has been applied to the study of detection and rate of reaction of pollutant i.e. methyl parathion and the produced informative data were also correlated with UV-vis spectrophotometry for the validation of results. The purpose of designed optical sensor is that the sophisticated analytical techniques show costly impact, time taking process, high consumable solvents and not suit for field application purpose which focuses the merits of the optical sensor.

  10. Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser vapor sensor using swelling polymer reflection modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansbæk, Thor; Nielsen, Claus Højgård; Dohn, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Vapor detection using a low-refractive index polymer for reflection modulation of the top mirror in a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) is demonstrated. The VCSEL sensor concept presents a simple method to detect the response of a sensor polymer in the presence of volatile organic...

  11. Biochemical sensor tubing for point-of-care monitoring of intravenous drugs and metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Charles J; Wu, Hsin-Yu; George, Sherine; Weyhenmeyer, Jonathan; Cunningham, Brian T

    2012-02-07

    In medical facilities, there is strong motivation to develop detection systems that can provide continuous analysis of fluids in medical tubing used to either deliver or remove fluids from a patient's body. Possible applications include systems that increase the safety of intravenous (IV) drug injection and point-of-care health monitoring. In this work, we incorporated a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensor comprised of an array of closely spaced metal nanodomes into flexible tubing commonly used for IV drug delivery and urinary catheters. The nanodome sensor was fabricated by a low-cost, large-area process that enables single use disposable operation. As exemplary demonstrations, the sensor was used to kinetically detect promethazine (pain medication) and urea (urinary metabolite) within their clinically relevant concentration ranges. Distinct SERS peaks for each analyte were used to demonstrate separate detection and co-detection of the analytes.

  12. Research on sensor design for internet of things and laser manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Yao, Jianquan; Guo, Ling; Zhang, Yanchun

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, we will introduce the research on sensor design for IOT (Internet of Things) and laser manufacturing, and supporting the establishment of local area IOT. The main contents include studying on the structure designing of silicon micro tilt sensor, data acquisition and processing, addressing implanted and building Local Area IOT with wireless sensor network technology. At last, it is discussed the status and trends of the Internet of Things from the promoters, watchers, pessimists and doers.

  13. Current and emerging laser sensors for greenhouse gas sensing and leak detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frish, Michael B.

    2014-05-01

    To reduce atmospheric accumulation of the greenhouse gases methane and carbon dioxide, networks of continuously operating sensors that monitor and map their sources are desirable. In this paper, we discuss advances in laser-based open-path leak detectors, as well as technical and economic challenges inhibiting widespread sensor deployment for "ubiquitous monitoring". We describe permanently-installed, wireless, solar-powered sensors that overcome previous installation and maintenance difficulties while providing autonomous real-time leak reporting without false alarms.

  14. Position control of ECRH launcher mirrors by laser speckle sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelsen, Poul K.; Bindslev, Henrik; Hansen, Rene Skov; Hanson, Steen G.

    2003-01-01

    The planned ECRH system for JET included several fixed and steerable mirrors some of which should have been fixed to the building structure and some to the JET vessel structure. A similar system may be anticipated for ITER and for other fusion devices in the future. In order to have high reproducibility of the ECRH beam direction, it is necessary to know the exact positions of the mirrors. This is not a trivial problem because of thermal expansion of the vessel structures and of the launcher itself and of its support structure, the mechanical load on mirrors and support structures, and the accessibility to the various mirrors. We suggest to use a combination of infrared diagnostic of beam spot positions and a new technique published recently, which is based on a non-contact laser speckle sensor for measuring one- and two-dimensional angular displacement. The method is based on Fourier transforming the scattered field from a single laser beam that illuminates the target. The angular distribution of the light field at the target is linearly mapped onto an array image sensor placed in the Fourier plane. Measuring the displacement of this so-called speckle pattern facilitates the determination of the mirror orientation. Transverse target movement can be measured by observing the speckle movement in the image plane of the object. No special surface treatment is required for surfaces having irregularities of the order of or larger than the wavelength of the incident light. For the JET ECRH launcher it is mainly for the last mirror pointing towards the plasma where the technique may be useful. This mirror has to be steerable in order to reflect the microwave beam in the correct direction towards the plasma. Maximum performance of the microwave heating requires that the beam hits this mirror at its centre and that the mirror is turned in the correct angle. Inaccuracies in the positioning of the pull rods for controlling the mirror turning and thermal effects makes it

  15. Development and characterization of electrochemical cantilever sensor for bio/chemical sensing applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quan, Xueling; Fischer, Lee MacKenzie; Boisen, Anja

    2011-01-01

    We report the improvements made to our previously developed electrochemical cantilever (EC) sensor, where nanoporous gold material is employed as working electrodes in microcantilever arrays, while combined counter-reference electrodes are integrated on the chip. For a surface stress change of 1m...

  16. Robotic tool positioning process using a multi-line off-axis laser triangulation sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, T. C.; Matos, G.

    2018-03-01

    Proper positioning of a friction stir welding head for pin insertion, driven by a closed chain robot, is important to ensure quality repair of cracks. A multi-line off-axis laser triangulation sensor was designed to be integrated to the robot, allowing relative measurements of the surface to be repaired. This work describes the sensor characteristics, its evaluation and the measurement process for tool positioning to a surface point of interest. The developed process uses a point of interest image and a measured point cloud to define the translation and rotation for tool positioning. Sensor evaluation and tests are described. Keywords: laser triangulation, 3D measurement, tool positioning, robotics.

  17. Stabilizing operation point technique based on the tunable distributed feedback laser for interferometric sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xuefeng; Zhou, Xinlei; Yu, Qingxu

    2016-02-01

    We describe a stabilizing operation point technique based on the tunable Distributed Feedback (DFB) laser for quadrature demodulation of interferometric sensors. By introducing automatic lock quadrature point and wavelength periodically tuning compensation into an interferometric system, the operation point of interferometric system is stabilized when the system suffers various environmental perturbations. To demonstrate the feasibility of this stabilizing operation point technique, experiments have been performed using a tunable-DFB-laser as light source to interrogate an extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric vibration sensor and a diaphragm-based acoustic sensor. Experimental results show that good tracing of Q-point was effectively realized.

  18. Nanoimprinted distributed feedback dye laser sensor for real-time imaging of small molecule diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannahme, Christoph; Dufva, Martin; Kristensen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Label-free imaging is a promising tool for the study of biological processes such as cell adhesion and small molecule signaling processes. In order to image in two dimensions of space current solutions require motorized stages which results in low imaging frame rates. Here, a highly sensitive...... distributed feedback (DFB) dye laser sensor for real-time label-free imaging without any moving parts enabling a frame rate of 12 Hz is presented. The presence of molecules on the laser surface results in a wavelength shift which is used as sensor signal. The unique DFB laser structure comprises several areas...

  19. Experiment of Laser Pointing Stability on Different Surfaces to validate Micrometric Positioning Sensor

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)721924; Mainaud Durand, Helene; Piedigrossi, Didier; Sandomierski, Jacek; Sosin, Mateusz; Geiger, Alain; Guillaume, Sebastien

    2014-01-01

    CLIC requires 10 μm precision and accuracy over 200m for the pre-alignment of beam related components. A solution based on laser beam as straight line reference is being studied at CERN. It involves camera/shutter assemblies as micrometric positioning sensors. To validate the sensors, it is necessary to determine an appropriate material for the shutter in terms of laser pointing stability. Experiments are carried out with paper, metal and ceramic surfaces. This paper presents the standard deviations of the laser spot coordinates obtained on the different surfaces, as well as the measurement error. Our experiments validate the choice of paper and ceramic for the shutter of the micrometric positioning sensor. It also provides an estimate of the achievable precision and accuracy of the determination of the laser spot centre with respect to the shutter coordinate system defined by reference targets.

  20. Adaptive Pulsed Laser Line Extraction for Terrain Reconstruction using a Dynamic Vision Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eBrandli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile robots need to know the terrain in which they are moving for path planning and obstacle avoidance. This paper proposes the combination of a bio-inspired, redundancy-suppressing dynamic vision sensor with a pulsed line laser to allow fast terrain reconstruction. A stable laser stripe extraction is achieved by exploiting the sensor’s ability to capture the temporal dynamics in a scene. An adaptive temporal filter for the sensor output allows a reliable reconstruction of 3D terrain surfaces. Laser stripe extractions up to pulsing frequencies of 500Hz were achieved using a line laser of 3mW at a distance of 45cm using an event-based algorithm that exploits the sparseness of the sensor output. As a proof of concept, unstructured rapid prototype terrain samples have been successfully reconstructed with an accuracy of 2mm.

  1. A novel laser alignment system for tracking detectors using transparent silicon strip sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, W.; Kroha, H.; Widmann, P.

    1995-02-01

    Modern large-area precision tracking detectors require increasing accuracy of the geometrical alignment over large distances. A novel optical multi-point alignment system has been developed for the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The system uses collimated laser beams as alignment references which are monitored by semi-transparent optical position sensors. The custom designed sensors provide very precise and uniform position information on the order of 1 μm over a wide measurement range. At suitable laser wavelengths, produced by laser diodes, transmission rates above 90% have been achieved which allow to align more than 30 sensors along one laser beam. With this capability and equipped with integrated readout electronics, the alignment system offers high flexibility for precision applications in a wide range of detector systems. (orig.)

  2. Enhancement of methane gas sensing characteristics of graphene oxide sensor by heat treatment and laser irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assar, Mohammadreza; Karimzadeh, Rouhollah

    2016-12-01

    The present study uses a rapid, easy and practical method for cost-effective fabrication of a methane gas sensor. The sensor was made by drop-casting a graphene oxide suspension onto an interdigital circuit surface. The electrical conductivity and gas-sensing characteristics of the sensor were determined and then heat treatment and in situ laser irradiation were applied to improve the device conductivity and gas sensitivity. Real-time monitoring of the evolution of the device current as a function of heat treatment time revealed significant changes in the conductance of the graphene oxide sensor. The use of low power laser irradiation enhanced both the electrical conductivity and sensing response of the graphene oxide sensor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of silicon microstrip sensors with a pulsed infrared laser system for the CBM experiment at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Pradeep [Goethe Univ., Frankfurt (Germany); GSI (Germany); Eschke, Juergen [GSI (Germany); FAIR (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The Silicon Tracking System (STS) for the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR will comprise more than 1200 double-sided silicon microstrip sensors. For the quality assurance of the prototype sensors a laser test system has been built up. The aim of the sensor scans with the pulsed infrared laser system is to determine the charge sharing between strips and to measure the uniformity of the sensor response over the whole active area. The laser system measures the sensor response in an automatized procedure at several thousand positions across the sensor with focused infrared laser light (σ∼15 μm, λ=1060 nm). The duration (5 ns) and power (few mW) of the laser pulses are selected such, that the absorption of the laser light in the 300 μm thick silicon sensors produces a number of about 24k electrons, which is similar to the charge created by minimum ionizing particles in these sensors. Results from the characterization of monolithic active pixel sensors, to understand the spot-size of the laser, and laser scans for different sensors are presented.

  4. Sensor development and integration for robotized laser welding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iakovou, D.

    2009-01-01

    Laser welding requires fast and accurate positioning of the laser beam over the seam trajectory. The task of accurate positioning of the laser tools is performed by robotic systems. It is therefore necessary to teach the robot the path it has to follow. Seam teaching is implemented in several ways:

  5. Multilayer Slab Waveguide Distributed Feedback Dye Laser Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannahme, Christoph; Smith, Cameron; Leung, M.

    2013-01-01

    of DFB lasers. Here, we present a simple yet precise model for calculating the emission wavelength of multilayer DFB lasers. We ¯nd that experimental and calculated wavelength values are in compelling agreement for hybrid nanoimprinted Ormocomp-TiO2 (doped with Pyrromethene 597) ¯rst order DFB lasers [2...

  6. Characterization of FBG sensor interrogation based on a FDML wavelength swept laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Eun Joo; Kim, Chang-Seok; Jeong, Myung Yung; Kim, Moon Ki; Jeon, Min Yong; Jung, Woonggyu; Chen, Zhongping

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we develop an ultra-fast fiber Bragg grating sensor system that is based on the Fourier domain mode-locked (FDML) swept laser. A FDML wavelength swept laser has many advantages compared to the conventional wavelength swept laser source, such as high-speed interrogation, narrow spectral sensitivity, and high phase stability. The newly developed FDML wavelength swept laser shows a superior performance of a high scan rate of 31.3 kHz and a broad scan range of over 70 nm simultaneously. The performance of the grating sensor interrogating system using a FDML wavelength swept laser is characterized in both static and dynamic strain responses. PMID:18852764

  7. High frame rate multi-resonance imaging refractometry with distributed feedback dye laser sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannahme, Christoph; Dufva, Martin; Kristensen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    imaging refractometry without moving parts is presented. DFB dye lasers are low-cost and highly sensitive refractive index sensors. The unique multi-wavelength DFB laser structure presented here comprises several areas with different grating periods. Imaging in two dimensions of space is enabled...... by analyzing laser light from all areas in parallel with an imaging spectrometer. With this multi-resonance imaging refractometry method, the spatial position in one direction is identified from the horizontal, i.e., spectral position of the multiple laser lines which is obtained from the spectrometer charged...

  8. Fiber Laser methane sensor with the function of self-diagnose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-fang; Wei, Yu-bin; Shang, Ying; Wang, Chang; Liu, Tong-yu

    2012-02-01

    Using the technology of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy and the technology of micro-electronics, a fiber laser methane sensor based on the microprocessor C8051F410 is given. In this paper, we use the DFB Laser as the light source of the sensor. By tuning temperature and driver current of the DFB laser, we can scan the laser over the methane absorption line, Based on the Beer-Lambert law, through detect the variation of the light power before and after the absorption we realize the methane detection. It makes the real-time and online detection of methane concentration to be true, and it has the advantages just as high accuracy, immunity to other gases , long calibration cycle and so on. The sensor has the function of adaptive gain and self-diagnose. By introducing digital potentiometers, the gain of the photoelectric conversion operational amplifier can be controlled by the microprocessor according to the light power. When the gain and the conversion voltage achieve the set value, then we can consider the sensor in a fault status, and then the software will alarm us to check the status of the probe. So we improved the dependence and the stability of the measured results. At last we give some analysis on the sensor according the field application and according the present working, we have a look of our next work in the distance.

  9. Bullet Design and Fabrication of Dual Mode Pyroelectric Sensor: High Sensitive Energymeter for Nd: YAG Laser and Detector for Chopped He-Ne Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. SATAPATHY

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Pyroelectric sensor using TGS has been designed and fabricated which can be operated in laser energy meter mode as well as pyroelectric detector mode. The amplifying circuit configuration has very good signal to noise ratio, very high input impedance and low drift. The pyroelectric sensor has been tested using Q-switched Nd: YAG laser and chopped He-Ne laser. The sensitivity of pyroelectric sensor in energymeter mode is 421.7V/J and the voltage responsivity of the pyroelectric sensor is 3.27 V/W in detector mode.

  10. Autonomous Kinematic Calibration of the Robot Manipulator with a Linear Laser-Vision Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hee-Jun; Jeong, Jeong-Woo; Shin, Sung-Weon; Suh, Young-Soo; Ro, Young-Schick

    This paper presents a new autonomous kinematic calibration technique by using a laser-vision sensor called "Perceptron TriCam Contour". Because the sensor measures by capturing the image of a projected laser line on the surface of the object, we set up a long, straight line of a very fine string inside the robot workspace, and then allow the sensor mounted on a robot to measure the point intersection of the line of string and the projected laser line. The data collected by changing robot configuration and measuring the intersection points are constrained to on a single straght line such that the closed-loop calibration method can be applied. The obtained calibration method is simple and accurate and also suitable for on-site calibration in an industrial environment. The method is implemented using Hyundai VORG-35 for its effectiveness.

  11. Assessment of Sesame Oil as a Radioprotector against Some Biochemical Alterations Induced by Argon Laser on Albino Rat Head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omran, M.F.

    2007-01-01

    The plant (Sesamum indicum) is a lovely annual shrub with white bell-shaped flowers tinged with a hint of blue, red or yellow. The rich, almost odourless oil expressed from the tiny seeds is very stable and contains an antioxidant system comprising sesamol and sesamolinol formed from sesamolin, which substantially reduces its oxidation rate. The objective of this study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of sesame oil to reduce the altered biochemical indices in brain of irradiated rats exposed to argon laser at wavelength 488 nm. Methods: Animals were divided into 4 groups. Group 1: Control group where 6 rats are dissected as control for other irradiated rats. Group 2: Irradiated with argon laser at wavelength 488 nm receiving energy (1.0 J x 3 times) on head of rats day by day. Group 3: Animals administered with sesame oil 500 mg/kg body wt/day for 20 successive days. Group 4: Irradiated with argon laser at wavelength 488 nm receiving an energy (1.0 J x 3 times) animals administered with sesame oil 500 mg/kg body wt/day through the radiation. Each group was dissected after 1, 9 and 14 days after exposure to laser radiation (presented in NCRRT). Results: The use of naturally occurring agents as antioxidant agents as sesame oil can slow the degenerative process in several neuro degenerative diseases. These data are addition to the antioxidant properties of the sesame oil against argon laser at wavelength 488 nm to indicate a possible role for the use in treatment of diseases involving free radicals and oxidative damage

  12. Laser of optical fiber composed by two coupled cavities: application as optical fiber sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez S, R.A.; Kuzin, E.A.; Ibarra E, B.; May A, M.; Shlyagin, M.; Marquez B, I.

    2004-01-01

    We show an optical fiber laser sensor which consist of two cavities coupled and three fiber Bragg gratings. We used one Bragg grating (called reference) and two Bragg gratings (called sensors), which have the lower reflection wavelength. The reference grating with the two sensors grating make two cavities: first one is the internal cavity which has 4230 m of length and the another one is the external cavity which has 4277 m of length. Measuring the laser beating frequency for a resonance cavity and moving the frequency peaks when the another cavity is put in resonance, we prove that the arrangement can be used as a two points sensor for determining the difference of temperature or stress between these two points. (Author)

  13. Application of the laser scanning confocal microscope in fluorescent film sensor research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyan; Liu, Wei-Min; Zhao, Wen-Wen; Dai, Qing; Wang, Peng-Fei

    2010-10-01

    Confocal microscopy offers several advantages over conventional optical microscopy; we show an experimental investigation laser scanning confocal microscope as a tool to be used in cubic boron nitride (cBN) film-based fluorescent sensor research. Cubic boron nitride cBN film sensors are modified with dansyl chloride and rhodamine B isothiocyanate respectively. Fluorescent modification quality on the cubic boron nitride film is clearly express and the sensor ability to Hg2+ cations and pH are investigated in detail. We evidence the rhodamine B isothiocyanate modified quality on cBN surface is much better than that of dansyl chloride. And laser scanning confocal microscope has potential application lighttight fundus film fluorescent sensor research.

  14. Study on robot motion control for intelligent welding processes based on the laser tracking sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Wang, Qian; Tang, Chen; Wang, Ju

    2017-06-01

    A robot motion control method is presented for intelligent welding processes of complex spatial free-form curve seams based on the laser tracking sensor. First, calculate the tip position of the welding torch according to the velocity of the torch and the seam trajectory detected by the sensor. Then, search the optimal pose of the torch under constraints using genetic algorithms. As a result, the intersection point of the weld seam and the laser plane of the sensor is within the detectable range of the sensor. Meanwhile, the angle between the axis of the welding torch and the tangent of the weld seam meets the requirements. The feasibility of the control method is proved by simulation.

  15. Optical fiber sensor for the detection of laser-generated ultrasound in arterial tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Paul C.; Mills, Timothy N.

    1995-02-01

    Theoretical and experimental aspects of an extrinsic Fabry-Perot optical fiber ultrasound sensor for use in a photoacoustic-guided laser angioplasty system are described. The sensor has been characterized using laser generated thermoelastic waves as a source of wideband ultrasound. A system sensitivity of 25 mV/MPa and an acoustic noise floor of 2 Pa/Hz1/2 are reported using a transparent polymer film as the sensing element. The system demonstrates the required bandwidth for sensing thermoelastic waves containing frequency components up to 20 MHz.

  16. All-fiber-coupled laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy sensor for hazardous materials analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohling, Christian [Institut fuer Physik und Physikalische Technologien, Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Leibnizstrasse 4, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); SECOPTA GmbH, Ostendstr. 25, 12459 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: c.bohling@pe.tu-clausthal.de; Hohmann, Konrad [Institut fuer Physik und Physikalische Technologien, Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Leibnizstrasse 4, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)], E-mail: k.hohmann@pe.tu-clausthal.de; Scheel, Dirk [Systektum GmbH, Arnold-Sommerfeld-Str. 6, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)], E-mail: d.scheel@systektum.de; Bauer, Christoph [LaserAnwendungsCentrum (LAC) Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Arnold-Sommerfeld-Strasse 6, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)], E-mail: c.bauer@pe.tu-clausthal.de; Schippers, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Physik und Physikalische Technologien, Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Leibnizstrasse 4, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)], E-mail: w.schippers@pe.tu-clausthal.de; Burgmeier, Joerg [LaserAnwendungsCentrum (LAC) Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Arnold-Sommerfeld-Strasse 6, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)], E-mail: j.burgmeier@pe.tu-clausthal.de; Willer, Ulrike [Institut fuer Physik und Physikalische Technologien, Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Leibnizstrasse 4, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); LaserAnwendungsCentrum (LAC) Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Arnold-Sommerfeld-Strasse 6, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)], E-mail: u.willer@pe.tu-clausthal.de; Holl, Gerhard [Wehrwissenschaftliches Institut fuer Werk-, Explosiv- und Betriebsstoffe (WIWEB), Grosses Cent, 53913, Swisttal (Germany)], E-mail: gerhardholl@bwb.orgd; Schade, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Physik und Physikalische Technologien, Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Leibnizstrasse 4, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); LaserAnwendungsCentrum (LAC) Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Arnold-Sommerfeld-Strasse 6, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)], E-mail: w.schade@pe.tu-clausthal.de

    2007-12-15

    An all-fiber-coupled laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) sensor device is developed. A passively Q-switched Cr{sup 4+}Nd{sup 3+}:YAG microchip laser is amplified within an Yb fiber amplifier, thus generating high power laser pulses (pulse energy E{sub p} = 0.8 mJ, wavelength {lambda} = 1064 nm, repetition rate f{sub rep.} = 5 kHz, pulse duration t{sub p} = 1.2 ns). A passive (LMA) optical fiber is spliced to the active fiber of an Yb fiber amplifier for direct guiding of high power laser pulses to the sensor tip. In front of the sensor a plasma is generated on the surface to be analyzed. The plasma emission is collected by a set of optical fibers also integrated into the sensor tip. The spectrally resolved LIBS spectra are processed by application of principal component analysis (PCA) and analyzed together with the time-resolved spectra with neural networks. Such procedure allows accurate analysis of samples by LIBS even for materials with similar atomic composition. The system has been tested successfully during field measurements at the German Armed Forces test facility at Oberjettenberg. The LIBS sensor is not restricted to anti-personnel mine detection but has also the potential to be suitable for analysis of bulk explosives and surface contaminations with explosives, e.g. for the detection of improvised explosive devices (IEDs)

  17. Improved response time of laser etched polymer optical fiber Bragg grating humidity sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Xianfeng; Liu, Chen; Lu, Yuanfu; Cardoso, Marcos; Webb, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The humidity sensor made of polymer optical fiber Bragg grating (POFBG) responds to the water content change in fiber induced by the change of environmental condition. The response time strongly depends on fiber size as the water change is a diffusion process. The ultra short laser pulses have been providing an effective micro fabrication method to achieve spatial localized modification in materials. In this work we used the excimer laser to create different microstructures (slot, D-shape) in...

  18. Enhanced response of microbial fuel cell using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone membrane as a biochemical oxygen demand sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayyaru, Sivasankaran; Dharmalingam, Sangeetha, E-mail: sangeetha@annauniv.edu

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) membrane in SCMFC used to determine the BOD. • The biosensor produces a good linear relationship with the BOD concentration up to 650 ppm. • This sensing range was 62.5% higher than that of Nafion{sup ®}. • SPEEK exhibited one order lesser oxygen permeability than Nafion{sup ®}. • Nafion{sup ®} shows high anodic internal resistance (67 Ω) than the SPEEK (39 Ω). - Abstract: The present study is focused on the development of single chamber microbial fuel cell (SCMFC) using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) membrane to determine the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) matter present in artificial wastewater (AW). The biosensor produces a good linear relationship with the BOD concentration up to 650 ppm when using artificial wastewater. This sensing range was 62.5% higher than that of Nafion{sup ®}. The most serious problem in using MFC as a BOD sensor is the oxygen diffusion into the anode compartment, which consumes electrons in the anode compartment, thereby reducing the coulomb yield and reducing the electrical signal from the MFC. SPEEK exhibited one order lesser oxygen permeability than Nafion{sup ®}, resulting in low internal resistance and substrate loss, thus improving the sensing range of BOD. The system was further improved by making a double membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with an increased electrode surface area which provide high surface area for electrically active bacteria.

  19. Urinary incontinence monitoring system using laser-induced graphene sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Nag, Anindya; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2017-01-01

    from low-cost commercial polyimide (PI) polymers. The graphene was manually transferred to a commercial tape, which was used as sensor patch for experimentation. Salt solutions with different concentrations were tested to determine the most sensitive

  20. Remote Laser Evaporative Molecular Absorption Spectroscopy Sensor System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a sensor system capable of remotely probing the molecular composition of cold solar system targets (asteroids, comets, planets, moons), such as from a...

  1. Fiber-optic laser sensor for mine detection and verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohling, Christian; Scheel, Dirk; Hohmann, Konrad; Schade, Wolfgang; Reuter, Matthias; Holl, Gerhard

    2006-01-01

    What we believe to be a new optical approach for the identification of mines and explosives by analyzing the surface materials and not only bulk is developed. A conventional manually operated mine prodder is upgraded by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). In situ and real-time information of materials that are in front of the prodder are obtained during the demining process in order to optimize the security aspects and the speed of demining. A Cr4+:Nd3+:YAG microchip laser is used as a seed laser for an ytterbium-fiber amplifier to generate high-power laser pulses at 1064 nm with pulse powers up to Ep=1 mJ, a repetition rate of frep.=2-20 kHz and a pulse duration of tp=620 ps. The recorded LIBS signals are analyzed by applying neural networks for the data analysis

  2. Hatch ability, growth and some blood biochemical parameters in hatching quails following the exposure of incubated eggs to red laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Taleb, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    A total number of 600 Japanese quail eggs were used this study. The eggs were divided into three groups then incubated. Eggs of groups one (G1) and two (G2) were exposed to 30 and 60 minutes, respectively, to the red laser rays (Laser Pointer LD-300) at 0, 7 and 14 days of embryogenesis,while group three (G3) was not treated and served as control. Hatch ability body weight and mortality were recorded weekly for each group. Furthermore, five blood samples were collected from one day old chicks at hatching and at six weeks of age from each group to determine some hematological parameters including RBCs, WBCs, PCV and Hb. Liver enzyme activities (GPT and GOT), kidney function (uric acid and creatinine), cholesterol and total lipids were determined for the 6 weeks old chicks only. The present results indicated that exposure to red to significant increase in hatch ability percentage and promoted early hatch ability and decreased embryonic mortality in treated groups (G1) and (G2) than control (G3). Significant decreases in RBCs counts, cholesterol and total lipids were found in G1 and G2. Exposure of developing embryos to red laser radiation had no significant effect on PCV in one day old hatching chicks, or RBCs and WBCs counts, PCV, GOT, uric acid creatinine in six weeks old birds. At the same time, significant increases in Hb and WBCs counts were occurred in one day old chicks and Hb and GPT in six weeks old birds. It could be concluded from the reported findings that exposure to red laser radiation may affect some factors that accelerate hatch ability and cause changes in some biochemical parameters in Japanese quails

  3. Redox Cycling Realized in Paper-Based Biochemical Sensor for Selective Detection of Reversible Redox Molecules Without Micro/Nano Fabrication Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, So; Uno, Shigeyasu

    2018-02-28

    This paper describes a paper-based biochemical sensor that realizes redox cycling with close interelectrode distance. Two electrodes, the generator and collector electrodes, can detect steady-state oxidation and reduction currents when suitable potential is held at each electrode. The sensor has two gold plates on both sides of a piece of chromatography paper and defines the interelectrode distance by the thickness of the paper (180 μm) without any micro-fabrication processes. Our proposed sensor geometry has successfully exhibited signatures of redox cycling. As a result, the concentration of ferrocyanide as reversible redox molecules was successfully quantified under the interference by ascorbic acid as a strong irreversible reducing agent. This was possible because the ascorbic acids are completely consumed by the irreversible reaction, while maintaining redox cycling of reversible ferrocyanide. This suggests that a sensor based on the redox cycling method will be suitable for detecting target molecules at low concentration.

  4. A sulfur hexafluoride sensor using quantum cascade and CO2 laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Mila; Sthel, Marcelo; Lima, Guilherme; da Silva, Marcelo; Schramm, Delson; Miklós, András; Vargas, Helion

    2010-01-01

    The increase in greenhouse gas emissions is a serious environmental problem and has stimulated the scientific community to pay attention to the need for detection and monitoring of gases released into the atmosphere. In this regard, the development of sensitive and selective gas sensors has been the subject of several research programs. An important greenhouse gas is sulphur hexafluoride, an almost non-reactive gas widely employed in industrial processes worldwide. Indeed it is estimated that it has a radiative forcing of 0.52 W/m(2). This work compares two photoacoustic spectrometers, one coupled to a CO(2) laser and another one coupled to a Quantum Cascade (QC) laser, for the detection of SF(6). The laser photoacoustic spectrometers described in this work have been developed for gas detection at small concentrations. Detection limits of 20 ppbv for CO(2) laser and 50 ppbv for quantum cascade laser were obtained.

  5. Laser cleaning of parchment: structural, thermal and biochemical studies into the effect of wavelength and fluence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, Craig J.; Vest, Marie; Cooper, Martin; Wess, Tim J.

    2004-01-01

    Laser cleaning of parchment is a novel technique that has the potential to provide contactless, chemical-free cleaning of historically important documents. However, the effect of laser cleaning on the collagenous structure of parchment is still poorly understood, as is the effect of the wavelength or the energy density (fluence level) used to clean parchment. In this study, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), shrinkage temperature (Ts) measurements by the micro hot table technique and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of parchment samples after laser cleaning reveal the effect of cleaning to the structural, thermal and molecular characteristics of parchment, respectively. The effect of cleaning at infrared (1064 nm), green (532 nm) and ultraviolet (266 nm) wavelengths at a range of fluence levels is investigated. SAXS is used to investigate the removal of dirt from parchment. Laser cleaning at IR or green wavelengths appears not to alter the collagen diffraction pattern from SAXS, the shrinkage activity or shrinkage temperature from Ts measurements or the molecular integrity of parchment as shown by SDS-PAGE. However, parchments cleaned at the ultraviolet wavelength display structural damage and a reduction in hydrothermal stability and molecular integrity

  6. Laser Doppler perfusion imaging with a complimentary metal oxide semiconductor image sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serov, Alexander; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; de Mul, F.F.M.

    2002-01-01

    We utilized a complimentary metal oxide semiconductor video camera for fast f low imaging with the laser Doppler technique. A single sensor is used for both observation of the area of interest and measurements of the interference signal caused by dynamic light scattering from moving particles inside

  7. Process control of stainless steel laser welding using an optical spectroscopie sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konuk, A.R.; Aarts, Ronald G.K.M.; Huis in 't Veld, Bert; Sibillano, T.; Rizzi, D.; Ancona, A.

    2011-01-01

    The in-process monitoring and real-time control of the penetration depth during laser welding is evaluated. An optical collimator collects the optical emission for measurement with a fast spectrometer. The sensor data are used to calculate the electron temperature and subsequently to determine the

  8. Localized Temperature Variations in Laser-Irradiated Composites with Embedded Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Brian Jenkins

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiber Bragg grating (FBG temperature sensors are embedded in composites to detect localized temperature gradients resulting from high energy infrared laser radiation. The goal is to detect the presence of radiation on a composite structure as rapidly as possible and to identify its location, much the same way human skin senses heat. A secondary goal is to determine how a network of sensors can be optimized to detect thermal damage in laser-irradiated composite materials or structures. Initial tests are conducted on polymer matrix composites reinforced with either carbon or glass fiber with a single optical fiber embedded into each specimen. As many as three sensors in each optical fiber measure the temporal and spatial thermal response of the composite to high energy radiation incident on the surface. Additional tests use a 2 × 2 × 3 array of 12 sensors embedded in a carbon fiber/epoxy composite to simultaneously measure temperature variations at locations on the composite surface and through the thickness. Results indicate that FBGs can be used to rapidly detect temperature gradients in a composite and their location, even for a direct strike of laser radiation on a sensor, when high temperatures can cause a non-uniform thermal response and FBG decay.

  9. Localized Temperature Variations in Laser-Irradiated Composites with Embedded Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, R Brian; Joyce, Peter; Mechtel, Deborah

    2017-01-27

    Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) temperature sensors are embedded in composites to detect localized temperature gradients resulting from high energy infrared laser radiation. The goal is to detect the presence of radiation on a composite structure as rapidly as possible and to identify its location, much the same way human skin senses heat. A secondary goal is to determine how a network of sensors can be optimized to detect thermal damage in laser-irradiated composite materials or structures. Initial tests are conducted on polymer matrix composites reinforced with either carbon or glass fiber with a single optical fiber embedded into each specimen. As many as three sensors in each optical fiber measure the temporal and spatial thermal response of the composite to high energy radiation incident on the surface. Additional tests use a 2 × 2 × 3 array of 12 sensors embedded in a carbon fiber/epoxy composite to simultaneously measure temperature variations at locations on the composite surface and through the thickness. Results indicate that FBGs can be used to rapidly detect temperature gradients in a composite and their location, even for a direct strike of laser radiation on a sensor, when high temperatures can cause a non-uniform thermal response and FBG decay.

  10. Burr formation detector for fiber laser cutting based on a photodiode sensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleier, Max; Adelmann, Benedikt; Neumeier, Benedikt; Hellmann, Ralf

    2017-11-01

    We report a unique sensor system based on a InGaAs photodiode to detect the formation of burr during near infrared fiber laser cutting. The sensor approach encompasses the measurement of the thermal radiation form the process zone, optical filtering, digitalized sampling at 20 kHz, digital filtering using an elliptical band-pass filter 12th order and calculation of the standard deviation. We find a linear correlation between the deduced sensor signal and the generated burr height with this functionality being experimentally confirmed for laser cutting of mild and stainless steel of different thicknesses. The underlying mechanism of this transducer concept is attributed to the melt flow dynamics inside the cut kerf.

  11. Oil spill sensing in marine and coastal environments using laser-based sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C. E.; Fingas, M. F.

    1998-01-01

    A prototype laser environmental airborne fluorosensor (LEAF) under development by the Environmental Protection Service of Environment Canada, which has the ability to detect and classify oil on water, land and conditions of snow and ice, real-time from an airborne platform, was described. Also under development are a scanning laser environmental airborne fluorosensor (SLEAF) to detect and map oil in complex marine and shoreline environments where other nonspecific sensors are not effective, and a laser ultrasonic remote sensing of oil thickness (LURSOT) sensor, which is expected to provide a measurement of oil thickness from an airborne platform. Details of each of these remote sensing technologies are provided, along with a discussion of expected benefits to the oil spill response community. 12 refs

  12. Magnetic field sensor based on the Ampere's force using dual-polarization DBR fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shuang; Zhang, Yang; Guan, Baiou

    2015-08-01

    A novel magnetic field sensor using distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) fiber laser by Ampere's force effect is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The key sensing element, that is the dual-polarization DBR fiber laser, is fixed on the middle part of two copper plates which carry the current. Ampere's force is applied onto the coppers due to an external magnetic field generated by a DC solenoid. Thus, the lateral force from the coppers is converted to a corresponding beat frequency signal shift produced by the DBR laser. The electric current sensing is also realized by the same configuration and same principle simultaneously in an intuitive manner. Good agreement between the theory calculation and the experimental results is obtained, which shows a good linearity. This sensor's sensitivity to the magnetic field and to the electric current finally reaches ~258.92 kHz/mT and ~1.08727 MHz/A, respectively.

  13. Multi-image acquisition-based distance sensor using agile laser spot beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riza, Nabeel A; Amin, M Junaid

    2014-09-01

    We present a novel laser-based distance measurement technique that uses multiple-image-based spatial processing to enable distance measurements. Compared with the first-generation distance sensor using spatial processing, the modified sensor is no longer hindered by the classic Rayleigh axial resolution limit for the propagating laser beam at its minimum beam waist location. The proposed high-resolution distance sensor design uses an electronically controlled variable focus lens (ECVFL) in combination with an optical imaging device, such as a charged-coupled device (CCD), to produce and capture different laser spot size images on a target with these beam spot sizes different from the minimal spot size possible at this target distance. By exploiting the unique relationship of the target located spot sizes with the varying ECVFL focal length for each target distance, the proposed distance sensor can compute the target distance with a distance measurement resolution better than the axial resolution via the Rayleigh resolution criterion. Using a 30 mW 633 nm He-Ne laser coupled with an electromagnetically actuated liquid ECVFL, along with a 20 cm focal length bias lens, and using five spot images captured per target position by a CCD-based Nikon camera, a proof-of-concept proposed distance sensor is successfully implemented in the laboratory over target ranges from 10 to 100 cm with a demonstrated sub-cm axial resolution, which is better than the axial Rayleigh resolution limit at these target distances. Applications for the proposed potentially cost-effective distance sensor are diverse and include industrial inspection and measurement and 3D object shape mapping and imaging.

  14. Fiber-Optic Bio-sniffer (Biochemical Gas Sensor) Using Reverse Reaction of Alcohol Dehydrogenase for Exhaled Acetaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iitani, Kenta; Chien, Po-Jen; Suzuki, Takuma; Toma, Koji; Arakawa, Takahiro; Iwasaki, Yasuhiko; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2018-02-23

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) exhaled in breath have huge potential as indicators of diseases and metabolisms. Application of breath analysis for disease screening and metabolism assessment is expected since breath samples can be noninvasively collected and measured. In this research, a highly sensitive and selective biochemical gas sensor (bio-sniffer) for gaseous acetaldehyde (AcH) was developed. In the AcH bio-sniffer, a reverse reaction of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) was employed for reducing AcH to ethanol and simultaneously consuming a coenzyme, reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). The concentration of AcH can be quantified by fluorescence detection of NADH that was consumed by reverse reaction of ADH. The AcH bio-sniffer was composed of an ultraviolet light-emitting diode (UV-LED) as an excitation light source, a photomultiplier tube (PMT) as a fluorescence detector, and an optical fiber probe, and these three components were connected with a bifurcated optical fiber. A gas-sensing region of the fiber probe was developed with a flow-cell and an ADH-immobilized membrane. In the experiment, after optimization of the enzyme reaction conditions, the selectivity and dynamic range of the AcH bio-sniffer were investigated. The AcH bio-sniffer showed a short measurement time (within 2 min) and a broad dynamic range for determination of gaseous AcH, 0.02-10 ppm, which encompassed a typical AcH concentration in exhaled breath (1.2-6.0 ppm). Also, the AcH bio-sniffer exhibited a high selectivity to gaseous AcH based on the specificity of ADH. The sensor outputs were observed only from AcH-contained standard gaseous samples. Finally, the AcH bio-sniffer was applied to measure the concentration of AcH in exhaled breath from healthy subjects after ingestion of alcohol. As a result, a significant difference of AcH concentration between subjects with different aldehyde dehydrogenase type 2 (ALDH2) phenotypes was observed. The AcH bio-sniffer can be

  15. RGB-D, Laser and Thermal Sensor Fusion for People following in a Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreto Susperregi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Detecting and tracking people is a key capability for robots that operate in populated environments. In this paper, we used a multiple sensor fusion approach that combines three kinds of sensors in order to detect people using RGB-D vision, lasers and a thermal sensor mounted on a mobile platform. The Kinect sensor offers a rich data set at a significantly low cost, however, there are some limitations to its use in a mobile platform, mainly that the Kinect algorithms for people detection rely on images captured by a static camera. To cope with these limitations, this work is based on the combination of the Kinect and a Hokuyo laser and a thermopile array sensor. A real-time particle filter system merges the information provided by the sensors and calculates the position of the target, using probabilistic leg and thermal patterns, image features and optical flow to this end. Experimental results carried out with a mobile platform in a Science museum have shown that the combination of different sensory cues increases the reliability of the people following system.

  16. Experiments of Laser Pointing Stability in Air and in Vacuum to Validate Micrometric Positioning Sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Stern, G; Piedigrossi, D; Sandomierski, J; Sosin, M; Geiger, A; Guillaume, S

    2014-01-01

    Aligning accelerator components over 200m with 10 μm accuracy is a challenging task within the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) study. A solution based on laser beam in vacuum as straight line reference is proposed. The positions of the accelerator’s components are measured with respect to the laser beam by sensors made of camera/shutter assemblies. To validate these sensors, laser pointing stability has to be studied over 200m. We perform experiments in air and in vacuum in order to know how laser pointing stability varies with the distance of propagation and with the environment. The experiments show that the standard deviations of the laser spot coordinates increase with the distance of propagation. They also show that the standard deviations are much smaller in vacuum (8 μm at 35m) than in air (2000 μm at 200m). Our experiment validates the concept of laser beam in vacuum with camera/shutter assembly for micrometric positioning over 35m. It also gives an estimation of the achievable precision.

  17. Resonant-cantilever bio/chemical sensors with an integrated heater for both resonance exciting optimization and sensing repeatability enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Haitao; Li Xinxin; Gan Xiaohua; Liu Yongjing; Liu Xiang; Xu Pengcheng; Li Jungang; Liu Min

    2009-01-01

    With an integrated resonance exciting heater and a self-sensing piezoresistor, resonant micro-cantilever bio/chemical sensors are optimally designed and fabricated by micromachining techniques. This study is emphasized on the optimization of the integrated heating resistor. Previous research has put the heater at either the cantilever clamp end, the midpoint or the free end. Aiming at sufficiently high and stable resonant amplitude, our research indicates that the optimized location of the thermal-electric exciting resistor is the clamp end instead of other positions. By both theoretical analysis and resonance experiments where three heating resistors are placed at the three locations of the fabricated cantilever, it is clarified that the clamp end heating provides the most efficient resonance excitation in terms of resonant amplitude, Q-factor and resonance stability. Besides, the optimized combination of dc bias and ac voltage is determined by both analysis and experimental verification. With the optimized heating excitation, the resonant cantilever is used for biotin–avidin-specific detection, resulting in a ±0.1 Hz ultra-low noise floor of the frequency signal and a 130 fg mass resolution. In addition to resonance excitation, the heater is used to heat up the cantilever for speed-up desorption after detection that helps rapid and repeated sensing to chemical vapor. The clamp end is determined (by simulation) as the optimal heating location for uniform temperature distribution on the cantilever. Using the resonant cantilever, a rapid and repeated sensing experiment on dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) vapor shows that a short-period heating at the detection interval significantly quickens the signal recovery and enhances the sensing repeatability

  18. Continued Optical Sensor Operations in a Laser Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    laser aperture), efficiency (i.e., high ratio of output power to input power), low jitter (i.e., high reproducibility from 6 pulse to pulse), and...Services Committee House of Representatives (Washington, DC: GAO, November 2004); and Lindsay Peacock and Alexander Von Rosenbach, eds., Jane’s World

  19. Polymer photonic crystal dye lasers as optofluidic cell sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Lopacinska, Joanna M.; Jakobsen, Mogens Havsteen

    2009-01-01

    Dye doped hybrid polymer lasers are implemented as label free evanescent field biosensors for detection of cells. It is demonstrated that although the coverage is irregular and the cells extend over several lattice constants, the emission wavelength depends linearly on the fraction of the surface...

  20. Tailored Algorithm for Sensitivity Enhancement of Gas Concentration Sensors Based on Tunable Laser Absorption Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Rodriguez, Everardo; Guzman-Chavez, Ana Dinora; Baeza-Serrato, Roberto

    2018-06-04

    In this work, a novel tailored algorithm to enhance the overall sensitivity of gas concentration sensors based on the Direct Absorption Tunable Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (DA-ATLAS) method is presented. By using this algorithm, the sensor sensitivity can be custom-designed to be quasi constant over a much larger dynamic range compared with that obtained by typical methods based on a single statistics feature of the sensor signal output (peak amplitude, area under the curve, mean or RMS). Additionally, it is shown that with our algorithm, an optimal function can be tailored to get a quasi linear relationship between the concentration and some specific statistics features over a wider dynamic range. In order to test the viability of our algorithm, a basic C 2 H 2 sensor based on DA-ATLAS was implemented, and its experimental measurements support the simulated results provided by our algorithm.

  1. Diode laser based velocity sensors for industrial applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Theis Faber Quist

    is part of a single optical unit, combining an additional optical spatial filter and a transmitter used for beam shaping. The optical unit used in the miniaturized sensor is acting in combination with an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) fitted with appropriate detector arrays facilitating...... a two dimensional velocity measurement of in-plane translation of a rigid object (surface). Particularly, the beam shaping transmitter optic is redesigned for optimum performance using a Fourier optical diffraction model. Furthermore, a ray tracing model is developed for the receiving part...... and discussed. The observations made outlines possible advantageous properties that may be exploited to develop ultrathin touch sensitive sensors for use as cursor control devices in form-factor critical applications, such as e.g. mobile phones....

  2. Photodiode-based cutting interruption sensor for near-infrared lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelmann, B; Schleier, M; Neumeier, B; Hellmann, R

    2016-03-01

    We report on a photodiode-based sensor system to detect cutting interruptions during laser cutting with a fiber laser. An InGaAs diode records the thermal radiation from the process zone with a ring mirror and optical filter arrangement mounted between a collimation unit and a cutting head. The photodiode current is digitalized with a sample rate of 20 kHz and filtered with a Chebyshev Type I filter. From the measured signal during the piercing, a threshold value is calculated. When the diode signal exceeds this threshold during cutting, a cutting interruption is indicated. This method is applied to sensor signals from cutting mild steel, stainless steel, and aluminum, as well as different material thicknesses and also laser flame cutting, showing the possibility to detect cutting interruptions in a broad variety of applications. In a series of 83 incomplete cuts, every cutting interruption is successfully detected (alpha error of 0%), while no cutting interruption is reported in 266 complete cuts (beta error of 0%). With this remarkable high detection rate and low error rate, the possibility to work with different materials and thicknesses in combination with the easy mounting of the sensor unit also to existing cutting machines highlight the enormous potential for this sensor system in industrial applications.

  3. Multi-parameter sensor based on random fiber lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Xu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a concept of utilizing random fiber lasers to achieve multi-parameter sensing. The proposed random fiber ring laser consists of an erbium-doped fiber as the gain medium and a random fiber grating as the feedback. The random feedback is effectively realized by a large number of reflections from around 50000 femtosecond laser induced refractive index modulation regions over a 10cm standard single mode fiber. Numerous polarization-dependent spectral filters are formed and superimposed to provide multiple lasing lines with high signal-to-noise ratio up to 40dB, which gives an access for a high-fidelity multi-parameter sensing scheme. The number of sensing parameters can be controlled by the number of the lasing lines via input polarizations and wavelength shifts of each peak can be explored for the simultaneous multi-parameter sensing with one sensing probe. In addition, the random grating induced coupling between core and cladding modes can be potentially used for liquid medical sample sensing in medical diagnostics, biology and remote sensing in hostile environments.

  4. Laser light and magnetic field stimulation effect on biochemical, enzymes activities and chlorophyll contents in soybean seeds and seedlings during early growth stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Tehseen; Jamil, Yasir; Iqbal, Munawar; Zia-Ul-Haq; Abbas, Mazhar

    2016-12-01

    Laser and magnetic field bio-stimulation attracted the keen interest of scientific community in view of their potential to enhance seed germination, seedling growth, physiological, biochemical and yield attributes of plants, cereal crops and vegetables. Present study was conducted to appraise the laser and magnetic field pre-sowing seed treatment effects on soybean sugar, protein, nitrogen, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) ascorbic acid (AsA), proline, phenolic and malondialdehyde (MDA) along with chlorophyll contents (Chl "a" "b" and total chlorophyll contents). Specific activities of enzymes such as protease (PRT), amylase (AMY), catalyst (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxides (POD) were also assayed. The specific activity of enzymes (during germination and early growth), biochemical and chlorophyll contents were enhanced significantly under the effect of both laser and magnetic pre-sowing treatments. Magnetic field treatment effect was slightly higher than laser treatment except PRT, AMY and ascorbic acid contents. However, both treatments (laser and magnetic field) effects were significantly higher versus control (un-treated seeds). Results revealed that laser and magnetic field pre-sowing seed treatments have potential to enhance soybean biological moieties, chlorophyll contents and metabolically important enzymes (degrade stored food and scavenge reactive oxygen species). Future study should be focused on growth characteristics at later stages and yield attributes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of laser ablation techniques in a-si technologies for position-sensor development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molpeceres, C.; Lauzurica, S.; Ocana, J. L.; Gandia, J. J.; Urbina, L.; Carabe, J.

    2005-07-01

    Laser micromachining of semiconductor and Transparent Conductive Oxides (TCO) materials is very important for the practical applications in photovoltaic industry. In particular, a problem of controlled ablation of those materials with minimum of debris and small heat affected zone is one of the most vital for the successful implementation of laser micromachining. In particular, selective ablation of thin films for the development of new photovoltaic panels and sensoring devices based on amorphous silicon (a-Si) is an emerging field, in which laser micromachining systems appear as appropriate tools for process development and device fabrication. In particular, a promising application is the development of purely photovoltaic position sensors. Standard p-i-n or Schottky configurations using Transparent Conductive Oxides (TCO), a-Si and metals are especially well suited for these applications, appearing selective laser ablation as an ideal process for controlled material patterning and isolation. In this work a detailed study of laser ablation of a widely used TCO, Indium-tin-oxide (ITO), and a-Si thin films of different thicknesses is presented, with special emphasis on the morphological analysis of the generated grooves. The profiles of ablated grooves have been studied in order to determine the best processing conditions, i.e. laser pulse energy and wavelength, and to asses this technology as potentially competitive to standard photolithographic processes. The encouraging results obtained, with well defined ablation grooves having thicknesses in the order of 10 μm both in ITO and a-Si, open up the possibility of developing a high-performance double Schottky photovoltaic matrix position sensor.

  6. Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Sensor on an Optical Fiber Probe Fabricated with a Femtosecond Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Xiaodong; Huo, Haibin; Wang, Wenhui; Tian, Ye; Wu, Nan; Guthy, Charles; Shen, Mengyan; Wang, Xingwei

    2010-01-01

    A novel fabrication method for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensors that used a fast femtosecond (fs) laser scanning process to etch uniform patterns and structures on the endface of a fused silica optical fiber, which is then coated with a thin layer of silver through thermal evaporation is presented. A high quality SERS signal was detected on the patterned surface using a Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) solution. The uniform SERS sensor built on the tip of the optical fiber tip was small, l...

  7. In situ ozone data for comparison with laser absorption remote sensor: 1980 pepe/neros program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcdougal, D.S.; Lee, R.B. III; Bendura, R.J.

    1982-05-01

    Several sets of in situ ozone (O 3 ) measurements were made by a NASA aircraft in support of the laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) remote sensor. These measurements were designed to provide comparative O 3 data for the LAS sensor. The LAS, which was flown on a second aircraft, remotely measured the vertical burden of O 3 from the aircraft to the surface. In situ results of the air quality (O 3 and B sub scat) and meteorological (temperature and dewpoint) parameters for three correlative missions are presented. The aircraft flight plans, in situ concentration profiles and vertical burdens, and measurement errors are summarized

  8. Quantum Cascade Laser-Based Photoacoustic Sensor for Trace Detection of Formaldehyde Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Mario Lugarà

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We report on the development of a photoacoustic sensor for the detection of formaldehyde (CH2O using a thermoelectrically cooled distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser operating in pulsed mode at 5.6 mm. A resonant photoacoustic cell, equipped with four electret microphones, is excited in its first longitudinal mode at 1,380 Hz. The absorption line at 1,778.9 cm-1 is selected for CH2O detection. A detection limit of 150 parts per billion in volume in nitrogen is achieved using a 10 seconds time constant and 4 mW laser power. Measurements in ambient air will require water vapour filters.

  9. Continuous Water Vapor Mass Flux and Temperature Measurements in a Model Scramjet Combustor Using a Diode Laser Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Upschulte, B. L; Miller, M. F; Allen, M. G; Jackson, K; Gruber, M; Mathur, T

    1998-01-01

    A sensor for simultaneous measurements of water vapor density, temperature and velocity has been developed based on absorption techniques using room temperature diode lasers (InGaAsP) operating at 1.31 micrometers...

  10. Diode Laser Sensor for Gas Temperature and H2O Concentration in a Scramjet Combustor Using Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy (Postprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rieker, Gregory B; Li, Jonathan T; Jeffries, Jay B; Mathur, Tarun; Gruber, Mark R; Carter, Campbell D

    2005-01-01

    A diode laser absorption sensor which probes three spectral features of water vapor in the near infrared region to infer gas temperature and water vapor concentration near the exit of a scramjet combustor is presented...

  11. Numerical simulation of a DFB - fiber laser sensor (part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan SAVASTRU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the preliminary results obtained in developing a numerical simulationanalysis of fiber optic bending sensitivity aiming to improve the design of fiber lasers. The developednumerical simulation method relies on an analysis of both the fundamental mode propagation alongan optical fiber and of how bending of this fiber influence the optical radiation losses. The cases ofsimple, undoped and of doped with Er3+ ions optical fibers are considered. The presented results arebased on numerical simulation of eigen-modes of a laser intensity distribution by the use of finiteelement method (FEM developed in the frame of COMSOL software package. The numericalsimulations are performed by considering the cases of both normal, non-deformed optic fiber and ofsymmetrically deformed optic fiber resembling micro-bending of it. Both types of fiber optic bendinglosses are analyzed, namely: the transition loss, associated with the abrupt or rapid change incurvature at the beginning and the end of a bend, and pure bend loss is associated with the loss fromthe bend of constant curvature in between.

  12. Compact, diode-pumped, solid-state lasers for next generation defence and security sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, M.; Lee, S. T.; Borthwick, A.; McRae, I.; Jackson, D.; Alexander, W.

    2015-06-01

    Low-cost semiconductor laser diode pump sources have made a dramatic impact in sectors such as advanced manufacturing. They are now disrupting other sectors, such as defence and security (D&S), where Thales UK is a manufacturer of sensor systems for application on land, sea, air and man portable. In this talk, we will first give an overview of the market trends and challenges in the D&S sector. Then we will illustrate how low cost pump diodes are enabling new directions in D&S sensors, by describing two diode pumped, solid- state laser products currently under development at Thales UK. The first is a new generation of Laser Target Designators (LTD) that are used to identify targets for the secure guiding of munitions. Current systems are bulky, expensive and require large battery packs to operate. The advent of low cost diode technology, merged with our novel solid-state laser design, has created a designator that will be the smallest, lowest cost, STANAG compatible laser designator on the market. The LTD delivers greater that 50mJ per pulse up to 20Hz, and has compact dimensions of 125×70×55mm. Secondly, we describe an ultra-compact, eye-safe, solid-state laser rangefinder (LRF) with reduced size, weight and power consumption compared to existing products. The LRF measures 100×55×34mm, weighs 200g, and can range to greater than 10km with a single laser shot and at a reprate of 1Hz. This also leverages off advances in laser pump diodes, but also utilises low cost, high reliability, packaging technology commonly found in the telecoms sector. As is common in the D&S sector, the products are designed to work in extreme environments, such as wide temperature range (-40 to +71°C) and high levels of shock and vibration. These disruptive products enable next- generation laser sensors such as rangefinders, target designators and active illuminated imagers.

  13. Structural Integration of Sensors/Actuators by Laser Beam Melting for Tailored Smart Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Töppel, Thomas; Lausch, Holger; Brand, Michael; Hensel, Eric; Arnold, Michael; Rotsch, Christian

    2018-03-01

    Laser beam melting (LBM), an additive laser powder bed fusion technology, enables the structural integration of temperature-sensitive sensors and actuators in complex monolithic metallic structures. The objective is to embed a functional component inside a metal part without losing its functionality by overheating. The first part of this paper addresses the development of a new process chain for bonded embedding of temperature-sensitive sensor/actuator systems by LBM. These systems are modularly built and coated by a multi-material/multi-layer thermal protection system of ceramic and metallic compounds. The characteristic of low global heat input in LBM is utilized for the functional embedding. In the second part, the specific functional design and optimization for tailored smart components with embedded functionalities are addressed. Numerical and experimental validated results are demonstrated on a smart femoral hip stem.

  14. Distributed Intrusion Sensor Using DFB Laser with Optical Feedback and Saturable Absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoo Nam Choi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of a distributed intrusion sensor using a coherent DFB laser diode with an external optical feedback and saturable absorber were experimentally investigated. The stimulus at a location of 2 km using a PZT transducer placed the location of a simulated intruder in Φ-OTDR trace after averaging 32 times. Field trials demonstrated the detection of a vehicle and a pedestrian crossing above the sensing line and a loop in a burial depth of 50 cm. This distributed intrusion sensor using a coherent DFB laser diode as the light source had the advantages of a simple structure and intruder detection capability at the underground burial location.

  15. Temperature monitoring with FBG sensor during diffuser-assisted laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Ngot T.; Lee, Seul Lee; Lee, Yong Wook; Kang, Hyun Wook

    2017-02-01

    Temperature variations are often monitored by using sensors operating at the site of treatment during Laser-induced Interstitial Thermotherapy (LITT). Currently, temperature measurements during LITT have been performed with thermocouples (TCs). However, TCs could directly absorb laser light and lead to self-heating (resulting in an over-estimation). Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors can instead overcome this limitation of the TCs due to its insensitivity to electromagnetic interference. The aim of the current study was to quantitatively evaluate the FBG temperature sensor with a K-type thermocouple to real-time monitor temperature increase in ex vivo tissue during diffuser-assisted LITT. A 4-W 980-nm laser was employed to deliver optical energy in continuous mode through a 600-µm core-diameter diffusing applicator. A goniometric measurement validated the uniform light distribution in polar and longitudinal directions. The FBG sensor showed a linear relationship (R2 = 0.995) between wavelength shift and temperature change in air and tissue along with a sensitivity of 0.0114 nm/˚C. Regardless of sensor type, the measured temperature increased with irradiation time and applied power but decreased with increasing distance from the diffuser surface. The temperature elevation augmented the degree of thermal coagulation in the tissue during LITT (4.0±0.3-mm at 99˚C after 120-s). The temperature elevation augmented the degree of thermal coagulation in the tissue during LITT s irradiation). The FBG-integrated diffuser was able to monitor the interstitial temperature in tubular tissue (porcine urethra) real-time during laser treatment. However, the thermal coagulation thickness of the porcine urethra was measured to be 1.5 mm that was slightly thicker ( 20%) than that of the bovine liver after 4-W 980-nm laser for 48 s. The FBG temperature sensor can be a feasible tool to real-time monitor the temporal development of the temperature during the diffuser-assisted LITT to

  16. Functional characterization of planar sensors with active edges using laser and X-ray beam scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povoli, M.; Bagolini, A.; Boscardin, M.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Giacomini, G.; Hasi, J.; Oh, A.; Zorzi, N.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the functional characterization of planar sensors with active edges fabricated at Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Trento, Italy. The measurements here reported were performed by means of laser and X-ray beam scans mainly focusing on the signal efficiency of the edge region of the devices. Results are very encouraging and show very good sensitivity up to few microns away from the device physical edge

  17. Functional characterization of planar sensors with active edges using laser and X-ray beam scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Povoli, M., E-mail: povoli@disi.unitn.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Università di Trento, Via Sommarive, 14, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento),Via Sommarive, 14, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Bagolini, A.; Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Via Sommarive, 18, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Università di Trento, Via Sommarive, 14, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento),Via Sommarive, 14, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Giacomini, G. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Via Sommarive, 18, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Hasi, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025-7015 (United States); Oh, A. [The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Via Sommarive, 18, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    We report on the functional characterization of planar sensors with active edges fabricated at Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Trento, Italy. The measurements here reported were performed by means of laser and X-ray beam scans mainly focusing on the signal efficiency of the edge region of the devices. Results are very encouraging and show very good sensitivity up to few microns away from the device physical edge.

  18. Radiological (MRI and Biochemical effects of Low Level LASER therapy in chronic Osteo arthritis in Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia: A Randomized Control Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Nambi S

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis is one of the degenerative diseases and Low level laser therapy (LLLT has been prescribed as nonoperative treatment in physiotherapy. But the available evidences of finding the radiological and biochemical effectiveness of LLLT are very few. So, the purpose of this study is to find the radiological and biochemical effect of Low level laser therapy (LLLT in the treatment of Osteoarthritis. 34 subjects who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were divided into two groups (Active Laser group – ALG & Placebo Laser group - PLG with randomized sampling method. ALG was treated with active laser head, whereas PLG treated same like ALG but without emission of energy. Both groups were applied with kinesio tape for 4 weeks. The frequency of the treatment was three times per week for 4 weeks in both groups. Subjects were assessed at baseline, 4th and 8th week. Contact area (mm2 – medial & lateral and cartilage thickness (percentage - medial & lateral was measured by Magnetic resonance image (MRI and CTX-II (μmg/mmol was measured by urine analysis. A statistically significant (p ≤0.05 difference between both groups were noted at the period of 8 week for contact area (lateral and CTX-II and insignificant (p ≥ 0.05 difference in contact area (medial and cartilage thickness (medial & lateral were noted. In conclusion, the low level laser therapy is helpful in modifying the biochemical components and leads to make changes in the cartilage which subsequently improve the quality of life of OA patients.

  19. Fabrication Quality Analysis of a Fiber Optic Refractive Index Sensor Created by CO2 Laser Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Te Wu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the CO2 laser-stripped partial cladding of silica-based optic fibers with a core diameter of 400 μm, which enables them to sense the refractive index of the surrounding environment. However, inappropriate treatments during the machining process can generate a number of defects in the optic fiber sensors. Therefore, the quality of optic fiber sensors fabricated using CO2 laser machining must be analyzed. The results show that analysis of the fiber core size after machining can provide preliminary defect detection, and qualitative analysis of the optical transmission defects can be used to identify imperfections that are difficult to observe through size analysis. To more precisely and quantitatively detect fabrication defects, we included a tensile test and numerical aperture measurements in this study. After a series of quality inspections, we proposed improvements to the existing CO2 laser machining parameters, namely, a vertical scanning pathway, 4 W of power, and a feed rate of 9.45 cm/s. Using these improved parameters, we created optical fiber sensors with a core diameter of approximately 400 μm, no obvious optical transmission defects, a numerical aperture of 0.52 ± 0.019, a 0.886 Weibull modulus, and a 1.186 Weibull-shaped parameter. Finally, we used the optical fiber sensor fabricated using the improved parameters to measure the refractive indices of various solutions. The results show that a refractive-index resolution of 1.8 × 10−4 RIU (linear fitting R2 = 0.954 was achieved for sucrose solutions with refractive indices ranging between 1.333 and 1.383. We also adopted the particle plasmon resonance sensing scheme using the fabricated optical fibers. The results provided additional information, specifically, a superior sensor resolution of 5.73 × 10−5 RIU, and greater linearity at R2 = 0.999.

  20. Laser Doppler Blood Flow Imaging Using a CMOS Imaging Sensor with On-Chip Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cally Gill

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The first fully integrated 2D CMOS imaging sensor with on-chip signal processing for applications in laser Doppler blood flow (LDBF imaging has been designed and tested. To obtain a space efficient design over 64 × 64 pixels means that standard processing electronics used off-chip cannot be implemented. Therefore the analog signal processing at each pixel is a tailored design for LDBF signals with balanced optimization for signal-to-noise ratio and silicon area. This custom made sensor offers key advantages over conventional sensors, viz. the analog signal processing at the pixel level carries out signal normalization; the AC amplification in combination with an anti-aliasing filter allows analog-to-digital conversion with a low number of bits; low resource implementation of the digital processor enables on-chip processing and the data bottleneck that exists between the detector and processing electronics has been overcome. The sensor demonstrates good agreement with simulation at each design stage. The measured optical performance of the sensor is demonstrated using modulated light signals and in vivo blood flow experiments. Images showing blood flow changes with arterial occlusion and an inflammatory response to a histamine skin-prick demonstrate that the sensor array is capable of detecting blood flow signals from tissue.

  1. Laser doppler blood flow imaging using a CMOS imaging sensor with on-chip signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Diwei; Nguyen, Hoang C; Hayes-Gill, Barrie R; Zhu, Yiqun; Crowe, John A; Gill, Cally; Clough, Geraldine F; Morgan, Stephen P

    2013-09-18

    The first fully integrated 2D CMOS imaging sensor with on-chip signal processing for applications in laser Doppler blood flow (LDBF) imaging has been designed and tested. To obtain a space efficient design over 64 × 64 pixels means that standard processing electronics used off-chip cannot be implemented. Therefore the analog signal processing at each pixel is a tailored design for LDBF signals with balanced optimization for signal-to-noise ratio and silicon area. This custom made sensor offers key advantages over conventional sensors, viz. the analog signal processing at the pixel level carries out signal normalization; the AC amplification in combination with an anti-aliasing filter allows analog-to-digital conversion with a low number of bits; low resource implementation of the digital processor enables on-chip processing and the data bottleneck that exists between the detector and processing electronics has been overcome. The sensor demonstrates good agreement with simulation at each design stage. The measured optical performance of the sensor is demonstrated using modulated light signals and in vivo blood flow experiments. Images showing blood flow changes with arterial occlusion and an inflammatory response to a histamine skin-prick demonstrate that the sensor array is capable of detecting blood flow signals from tissue.

  2. Two transparent optical sensors for the positioning of detectors using a reference laser beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriere, J.Ch.; Blumenfeld, H.; Bourdinaud, M.; Cloue, O.; Guyot, C.; Molinie, F.; Ponsot, P.; Saudemont, J.C.; Schuller, J.P.; Schune, Ph.; Sube, S. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France). Dept. d' Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l' Instrumentation Associee

    1999-07-01

    We have developed two different optical systems in order to position detectors with respect to a reference laser beam. The first system, a telescope, permits the absolute positioning of an element with respect to a reference laser beam. The resolution is of the order of 10 {mu}m in translation and 50 {mu}rad in rotation. It is highly transparent (-90%) permitting several elements to be aligned. A calibration procedure has also been studied and is currently being tested in order to obtain an absolute alignment information. The second system is a highly transparent (95%) two dimensional position sensor which allows the accurate positioning (below 20 {mu}m) of several (up to ten) elements to which each sensor is attached, transversally to a laser beam used as a reference straight line. The present useful area of the first sensor is 20 x 20 mm{sup 2} and is 15 x 15 mm{sup 2} for the second. In both case it can be further increased to meet the experiment's requirement. (authors)

  3. Two transparent optical sensors for the positioning of detectors using a reference laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriere, J.Ch.; Blumenfeld, H.; Bourdinaud, M.; Cloue, O.; Guyot, C.; Molinie, F.; Ponsot, P.; Saudemont, J.C.; Schuller, J.P.; Schune, Ph.; Sube, S.

    1999-01-01

    We have developed two different optical systems in order to position detectors with respect to a reference laser beam. The first system, a telescope, permits the absolute positioning of an element with respect to a reference laser beam. The resolution is of the order of 10 μm in translation and 50 μrad in rotation. It is highly transparent (-90%) permitting several elements to be aligned. A calibration procedure has also been studied and is currently being tested in order to obtain an absolute alignment information. The second system is a highly transparent (95%) two dimensional position sensor which allows the accurate positioning (below 20 μm) of several (up to ten) elements to which each sensor is attached, transversally to a laser beam used as a reference straight line. The present useful area of the first sensor is 20 x 20 mm 2 and is 15 x 15 mm 2 for the second. In both case it can be further increased to meet the experiment's requirement. (authors)

  4. Simultaneous Intrinsic and Extrinsic Parameter Identification of a Hand-Mounted Laser-Vision Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taikyeong Jeong

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a simultaneous intrinsic and extrinsic parameter identification of a hand-mounted laser-vision sensor (HMLVS. A laser-vision sensor (LVS, consisting of a camera and a laser stripe projector, is used as a sensor component of the robotic measurement system, and it measures the range data with respect to the robot base frame using the robot forward kinematics and the optical triangulation principle. For the optimal estimation of the model parameters, we applied two optimization techniques: a nonlinear least square optimizer and a particle swarm optimizer. Best-fit parameters, including both the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the HMLVS, are simultaneously obtained based on the least-squares criterion. From the simulation and experimental results, it is shown that the parameter identification problem considered was characterized by a highly multimodal landscape; thus, the global optimization technique such as a particle swarm optimization can be a promising tool to identify the model parameters for a HMLVS, while the nonlinear least square optimizer often failed to find an optimal solution even when the initial candidate solutions were selected close to the true optimum. The proposed optimization method does not require good initial guesses of the system parameters to converge at a very stable solution and it could be applied to a kinematically dissimilar robot system without loss of generality.

  5. Integration of High-Resolution Laser Displacement Sensors and 3D Printing for Structural Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Wei Chang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel experimental design for complex structural health monitoring (SHM studies achieved by integrating 3D printing technologies, high-resolution laser displacement sensors, and multiscale entropy SHM theory. A seven-story structure with a variety of composite bracing systems was constructed using a dual-material 3D printer. A wireless Bluetooth vibration speaker was used to excite the ground floor of the structure, and high-resolution laser displacement sensors (1-μm resolution were used to monitor the displacement history on different floors. Our results showed that the multiscale entropy SHM method could detect damage on the 3D-printed structures. The results of this study demonstrate that integrating 3D printing technologies and high-resolution laser displacement sensors enables the design of cheap, fast processing, complex, small-scale civil structures for future SHM studies. The novel experimental design proposed in this study provides a suitable platform for investigating the validity and sensitivity of SHM in different composite structures and damage conditions for real life applications in the future.

  6. Integration of High-Resolution Laser Displacement Sensors and 3D Printing for Structural Health Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Wei; Lin, Tzu-Kang; Kuo, Shih-Yu; Huang, Ting-Hsuan

    2017-12-22

    This paper presents a novel experimental design for complex structural health monitoring (SHM) studies achieved by integrating 3D printing technologies, high-resolution laser displacement sensors, and multiscale entropy SHM theory. A seven-story structure with a variety of composite bracing systems was constructed using a dual-material 3D printer. A wireless Bluetooth vibration speaker was used to excite the ground floor of the structure, and high-resolution laser displacement sensors (1-μm resolution) were used to monitor the displacement history on different floors. Our results showed that the multiscale entropy SHM method could detect damage on the 3D-printed structures. The results of this study demonstrate that integrating 3D printing technologies and high-resolution laser displacement sensors enables the design of cheap, fast processing, complex, small-scale civil structures for future SHM studies. The novel experimental design proposed in this study provides a suitable platform for investigating the validity and sensitivity of SHM in different composite structures and damage conditions for real life applications in the future.

  7. Design and Implementation of a Laser-Based Ammonia Breath Sensor for Medical Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Owen, Kyle

    2012-06-01

    Laser-based sensors can be used as non-invasive monitoring tools to measure parts per billion (ppb) levels of trace gases. Ammonia sensors are useful for applications in environmental pollutant monitoring, atmospheric and combustion kinetic studies, and medical diagnostics. This sensor was specifically designed to measure ammonia in exhaled breath to be used as a medical diagnostic and monitoring tool, however, it can also be extended for use in other applications. Although ammonia is a naturally occurring species in exhaled breath, abnormally elevated levels can be an indication of adverse medical conditions. Laser-based breath diagnostics have many benefits since they are cost effective, non-invasive, painless, real time monitors. They have the potential to improve the quality of medical care by replacing currently used blood tests and providing immediate feedback to physicians. This sensor utilizes a Quantum Cascade Laser and Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy with second harmonic normalized by first harmonic detection in a 76 m multi-pass absorption cell to measure ppb levels of ammonia with improved sensitivity over previous sensors. Initial measurements to determine the ammonia absorption line parameters were performed using direct absorption spectroscopy. This is the first experimental study of the ammonia absorption line transitions near 1103.46 cm1 with absorption spectroscopy. The linestrengths were measured with uncertainties less than 10%. The collisional broadening coefficients for each of the ammonia lines with nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor, and carbon dioxide were also measured, many of which had uncertainties less than 5%. The sensor was characterized to show a detectability limit of 10 ppb with an uncertainty of less than 5% at typical breath ammonia levels. Initial breath test results showed that some of the patients with chronic kidney disease had elevated ammonia levels while others had ammonia levels in the same range as expected for healthy

  8. Broadband external cavity quantum cascade laser based sensor for gasoline detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Junya; He, Tianbo; Zhou, Sheng; Li, Jinsong

    2018-02-01

    A new type of tunable diode spectroscopy sensor based on an external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) and a quartz crystal tuning fork (QCTF) were used for quantitative analysis of volatile organic compounds. In this work, the sensor system had been tested on different gasoline sample analysis. For signal processing, the self-established interpolation algorithm and multiple linear regression algorithm model were used for quantitative analysis of major volatile organic compounds in gasoline samples. The results were very consistent with that of the standard spectra taken from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) database. In future, The ECQCL sensor will be used for trace explosive, chemical warfare agent, and toxic industrial chemical detection and spectroscopic analysis, etc.

  9. Camera-laser fusion sensor system and environmental recognition for humanoids in disaster scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Inho; Oh, Jaesung; Oh, Jun-Ho; Kim, Inhyeok

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to develop a vision sensor system and a recognition algorithm to enable a humanoid to operate autonomously in a disaster environment. In disaster response scenarios, humanoid robots that perform manipulation and locomotion tasks must identify the objects in the environment from those challenged by the call by the United States’ Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, e.g., doors, valves, drills, debris, uneven terrains, and stairs, among others. In order for a humanoid to undertake a number of tasks, we con- struct a camera–laser fusion system and develop an environmental recognition algorithm. Laser distance sensor and motor are used to obtain 3D cloud data. We project the 3D cloud data onto a 2D image according to the intrinsic parameters of the camera and the distortion model of the lens. In this manner, our fusion sensor system performs functions such as those performed by the RGB-D sensor gener- ally used in segmentation research. Our recognition algorithm is based on super-pixel segmentation and random sampling. The proposed approach clusters the unorganized cloud data according to geometric characteristics, namely, proximity and co-planarity. To assess the feasibility of our system and algorithm, we utilize the humanoid robot, DRC-HUBO, and the results are demonstrated in the accompanying video.

  10. Camera-laser fusion sensor system and environmental recognition for humanoids in disaster scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Inho [Institute for Human and Machine Cognition (IHMC), Florida (United States); Oh, Jaesung; Oh, Jun-Ho [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Inhyeok [NAVER Green Factory, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    This research aims to develop a vision sensor system and a recognition algorithm to enable a humanoid to operate autonomously in a disaster environment. In disaster response scenarios, humanoid robots that perform manipulation and locomotion tasks must identify the objects in the environment from those challenged by the call by the United States’ Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, e.g., doors, valves, drills, debris, uneven terrains, and stairs, among others. In order for a humanoid to undertake a number of tasks, we con- struct a camera–laser fusion system and develop an environmental recognition algorithm. Laser distance sensor and motor are used to obtain 3D cloud data. We project the 3D cloud data onto a 2D image according to the intrinsic parameters of the camera and the distortion model of the lens. In this manner, our fusion sensor system performs functions such as those performed by the RGB-D sensor gener- ally used in segmentation research. Our recognition algorithm is based on super-pixel segmentation and random sampling. The proposed approach clusters the unorganized cloud data according to geometric characteristics, namely, proximity and co-planarity. To assess the feasibility of our system and algorithm, we utilize the humanoid robot, DRC-HUBO, and the results are demonstrated in the accompanying video.

  11. A calibration-free ammonia breath sensor using a quantum cascade laser with WMS 2f/1f

    KAUST Repository

    Owen, Kyle; Farooq, Aamir

    2013-01-01

    modulation spectroscopy with second harmonic normalized by the first harmonic (WMS 2f/1f) is a sensitive technique used in the development of calibration-free sensors. An ammonia gas sensor is designed and developed that uses a quantum cascade laser operating

  12. Sensor Fusion of Cameras and a Laser for City-Scale 3D Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsu Bok

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a sensor fusion system of cameras and a 2D laser sensorfor large-scale 3D reconstruction. The proposed system is designed to capture data on afast-moving ground vehicle. The system consists of six cameras and one 2D laser sensor,and they are synchronized by a hardware trigger. Reconstruction of 3D structures is doneby estimating frame-by-frame motion and accumulating vertical laser scans, as in previousworks. However, our approach does not assume near 2D motion, but estimates free motion(including absolute scale in 3D space using both laser data and image features. In orderto avoid the degeneration associated with typical three-point algorithms, we present a newalgorithm that selects 3D points from two frames captured by multiple cameras. The problemof error accumulation is solved by loop closing, not by GPS. The experimental resultsshow that the estimated path is successfully overlaid on the satellite images, such that thereconstruction result is very accurate.

  13. Optical fibres sensor based in the intensity switch of a linear laser with two Bragg gratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basurto P, M.A.; Kuzin, E.A.; Archundia B, C.; Marroquin, E.; May A, M.; Cerecedo N, H.H.; Sanchez M, J.J.; Tentori S, D.; Marquez B, I.; Shliagin, M.; Miridonov, S.

    2000-01-01

    In this work we propose a new configuration for an optical fiber temperature sensor, based on a linear type Er-doped fiber laser. The laser cavity consists of an Er-doped fiber and two identical Bragg gratings at the fiber ends (working as reflectors). Temperature changes are detected by measuring, through one of the gratings, the intensity variations at the system's output. When the temperature of one of the Bragg gratings is modified, a wavelength shift of its spectral reflectivity is observed. Hence, the laser emission intensity of the system is modified. We present experimental results of the intensity switch observed when the temperature difference between the gratings detunes their spectral reflectance. Making use of this effect it is possible to develop limit comparators to bound the temperature range for the object under supervision. This limiting work can be performed with a high sensitivity using a very simple interrogation procedure. (Author)

  14. High-quality phase-shifted Bragg grating sensor inscribed with only one laser pulse in a polymer optical fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marques, C. A. F.; Pospori, A.; Pereira, L.

    2017-01-01

    We present the first phase-shifted polymer optical fiber Bragg grating sensor inscribed with only one KrF laser pulse. The phase shift defect was created directly during the grating inscription process by placing a very narrow blocking aperture, in the center of the UV beam. One laser pulse...

  15. Laser fluorosensors : a survey of applications and developments of a versatile sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.E.; Fingas, M.F.; An, J.

    2001-01-01

    Recent advances in the development of laser fluorosensors were reviewed. Laser fluorosensors are used for several purposes including airborne monitoring of oil spills, the exploration of marine petroleum resources, and the monitoring of environmentally important substances such as chlorophyll. Since laser fluorosensors provide their own source of excitation, they can be used during daylight or darkness. Certain compounds such as chlorophyll found in plant material, plankton and in aromatic hydrocarbons from petroleum oils can absorb ultraviolet laser light and become electronically excited. This excitation is quickly removed by the process of fluorescence emission, mostly in the visible region of the spectrum. Natural substances such as chlorophyll can be differentiated from materials such as petroleum oils by careful choice of the excitation laser wavelength and range-gated detection at specific emission wavelengths. This paper described the different system components of laser fluorosensors such as excitation laser source, and detection schemes that make it possible for these sensors to be used for the detection and classification of a wide range of fluorescent compounds. Many fluorosensors have been used as research and development tools on both ship and aircraft to help determine the direction of oil spills. This real-time operating system provides information that can be rapidly transferred to personnel on the ground or at sea to mitigate the effects of an oil spill on marine and coastal environments. Environment Canada's Scanning Laser Environmental Airborne Fluorosensor (SLEAF) was designed to detect, characterize and map oil contamination in marine and coastal shoreline environments. Principle component analysis is used to classify the oil class as light refined, crude or heavy refined and the extent of oil coverage as clean, light, moderate or heavy. 18 refs

  16. Laser fluorosensors : a survey of applications and developments of a versatile sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, C.E.; Fingas, M.F.; An, J. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science Div

    2001-07-01

    Recent advances in the development of laser fluorosensors were reviewed. Laser fluorosensors are used for several purposes including airborne monitoring of oil spills, the exploration of marine petroleum resources, and the monitoring of environmentally important substances such as chlorophyll. Since laser fluorosensors provide their own source of excitation, they can be used during daylight or darkness. Certain compounds such as chlorophyll found in plant material, plankton and in aromatic hydrocarbons from petroleum oils can absorb ultraviolet laser light and become electronically excited. This excitation is quickly removed by the process of fluorescence emission, mostly in the visible region of the spectrum. Natural substances such as chlorophyll can be differentiated from materials such as petroleum oils by careful choice of the excitation laser wavelength and range-gated detection at specific emission wavelengths. This paper described the different system components of laser fluorosensors such as excitation laser source, and detection schemes that make it possible for these sensors to be used for the detection and classification of a wide range of fluorescent compounds. Many fluorosensors have been used as research and development tools on both ship and aircraft to help determine the direction of oil spills. This real-time operating system provides information that can be rapidly transferred to personnel on the ground or at sea to mitigate the effects of an oil spill on marine and coastal environments. Environment Canada's Scanning Laser Environmental Airborne Fluorosensor (SLEAF) was designed to detect, characterize and map oil contamination in marine and coastal shoreline environments. Principle component analysis is used to classify the oil class as light refined, crude or heavy refined and the extent of oil coverage as clean, light, moderate or heavy. 18 refs.

  17. Laser-based sensors on UAVs for quantifying local emissions of greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zondlo, Mark; Tao, Lei; O'Brien, Anthony; Ross, Kevin; Khan, Amir; Pan, Da; Golston, Levi; Sun, Kang; DiGangi, Josh

    2015-04-01

    Small unmanned aerial systems (UAS) provide an ideal platform to sample both locally near an emission source as well as within the atmospheric boundary layer. However, small UAS (those with wingspans or rotors on the order of a meter) place severe constraints on sensor size (~ liter volume), mass (~ kg), and power (10s W). Laser-based sensors employing absorption techniques are ideally suited for such platforms due to their high sensitivity, high selectivity, and compact footprint. We have developed and flown compact sensors for water vapor, carbon dioxide and methane using new advances in open-path, laser-based spectroscopy on a variety of platforms ranging from remote control helicopters to long-duration UAS. Open-path spectroscopy allows for high frequency sampling (10-25 Hz) while avoiding the size/mass/power of sample delays, inlet lines, and pumps. To address the challenges of in-flight stability in changing environmental conditions and any associated flight artifacts on the measurement itself (e.g. vibrations), we use an in-line reference cell at a reduced pressure (10 hPa) to account for systematic drift continuously while in flight. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy is used at different harmonics to isolate the narrow linewidth of the in-line reference signal from the ambient, pressure-broadened absorption lineshape of the trace gas of interest. As a result, a metric of in-flight performance is achieved in real-time on the same optical pathlength as the ambient signal. To demonstrate the great potential of laser-based sensors on UAS, we deployed a 1.65 micron-based methane sensor (4 kg, 50 W, 100 ppbv precision at 10 Hz) on a UT-Dallas remote control aircraft for two weeks around gas/oil extraction activities as part of the EDF Barnett Coordinated Campaign in October 2013. We conducted thirty-four flights around a compressor station to examine the spatial and temporal characteristics of its emissions. Leaks of methane were typically lofted to altitudes

  18. Control of the positional relationship between a sample collection instrument and a surface to be analyzed during a sampling procedure using a laser sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Gary J [Clinton, TN; Kertesz, Vilmos [Knoxville, TN

    2012-02-21

    A system and method utilizes distance-measuring equipment including a laser sensor for controlling the collection instrument-to-surface distance during a sample collection process for use, for example, with mass spectrometric detection. The laser sensor is arranged in a fixed positional relationship with the collection instrument, and a signal is generated by way of the laser sensor which corresponds to the actual distance between the laser sensor and the surface. The actual distance between the laser sensor and the surface is compared to a target distance between the laser sensor and the surface when the collection instrument is arranged at a desired distance from the surface for sample collecting purposes, and adjustments are made, if necessary, so that the actual distance approaches the target distance.

  19. Tunable Diode Laser Sensor for Monitoring and Control of Harsh Combustion Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VonDrasek, William; Melsio-Pubill, Anna

    2006-05-30

    This work represents the collaborative effort between American Air Liquide and Physical Sciences, Inc. for developing a sensor based on near-IR tunable diode lasers (TDL). The multi-species capability of the sensor for simultaneous monitoring of CO, O2, and H2O concentration as well as gas temperature is ideal for in-situ monitoring on industrial furnaces. The chemical species targeted are fundamental for controlling the combustion space for improved energy efficiency, reduced pollutants, and improved product quality, when coupling the measurement to a combustion control system. Several add-on modules developed provide flexibility in the system configuration for handling different process monitoring applications. For example, the on-Demand Power Control system for the 1.5 ?m laser is used for high particle density exhaust streams where laser transmission is problematic. For long-distance signal collection a fiber optic communication system is used to reduce noise pick-up. Finally, hardened modules to withstand high ambient temperatures, immune to EMF interference, protection from flying debris, and interfaced with pathlength control laser beam shielding probes were developed specifically for EAF process monitoring. Demonstration of these different system configurations was conducted on Charter Steel's reheat furnace, Imco Recycling, Inc. (now Aleris International, Inc.) aluminum reverberatory furnace, and Gerdau Ameristeel's EAF. Measurements on the reheat furnace demonstrated zone monitoring with the measurement performed close to the steel billet. Results from the aluminum furnace showed the benefit of measuring in-situ near the bath. In this case, low-level furnace optimization was performed and demonstrated 5% fuel savings. Monitoring tests on the EAF off-gas demonstrated the level of industrialization of the sensor to survive the harsh EAF environment. Long-term testing on the EAF has been on-going for over 6 months with essentially zero maintenance

  20. Enabling new sensor applications for (V)HTRS by laser hybrid brazing of oxide ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heilmann, F.; Rixecker, G. [Robert Bosch GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany). Corporate Research and Development; Herrmann, M.; Lippmann, W.; Hurtado, A. [Univ. of Technology, Dresden (Germany). Chair of Hydrogen- and Nuclear Engineering

    2008-07-01

    The use of (very) high temperature reactors ((V)HTRs) requires a sensor technology suitable to withstand thermal loads both in normal operation mode and under incident conditions which may appear during service. Especially ceramic sensors are ideal to suit this purpose. A special sensor type that is based upon oxide ceramics is the high temperature oxygen sensor. Base material for this application is yttria-doped zirconia. At elevated temperatures (above 450 C) the activation energy of oxygen ions is sufficient to migrate in the ZrO{sub 2} lattice following an oxygen partial pressure gradient. This diffusion process is facilitated by the trivalent yttrium ions which give rise to a high concentration of oxygen vacancies. The macroscopical effect of the migration of the oxygen ions can be detected as a Nernst voltage or, alternatively, as an electrical current. Thus it is possible to compare the oxygen content of measured media with that of a known reference gas. To be able to produce such sensors both efficiently and in the desired quality, joining technologies adapted to ceramics are necessary. Laser-based technologies for brazing with glass or glass-ceramic solders are especially suitable, as they combine high precision with high throughput. They thus enable cost efficient production processes both for large and small lot sizes. (orig.)

  1. Development of a portable heavy-water leak sensor based on laser absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Lim; Park, Hyunmin; Kim, Taek-Soo; Kim, Minho; Jeong, Do-Young

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed a compact and portable laser sensor for a detection of heavy water leakage. • The sensor is wearable and also easy to use to search for the leak point. • It is sensitive enough to find invisible very tiny leaks. - Abstract: A compact and portable leak sensor based on cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy has been newly developed for a detection of heavy water leakage which may happen in the facilities using heavy water such as pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR). The developed portable sensor is suitable as an individual instrument for the measuring leak rate and finding the leak location because it is sufficiently compact in size and weight and operated by using an internal battery. In the performance test, the minimum detectable leak rate was estimated as 0.05 g/day from the calibration curve. This new sensor is expected to be a reliable and promising device for the detection of heavy water leakage since it has advantages on real-time monitoring and early detection for nuclear safety.

  2. Characterization of a Low-Cost Optical Flow Sensor When Using an External Laser as a Direct Illumination Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Palacín

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a low cost optical flow sensor is combined with an external laser device to measure surface displacements and mechanical oscillations. The measurement system is based on applying coherent light to a diffuser surface and using an optical flow sensor to analyze the reflected and transferred light to estimate the displacement of the surface or the laser spot. This work is focused on the characterization of this measurement system, which can have the optical flow sensor placed at different angles and distances from the diffuser surface. The results have shown that the displacement of the diffuser surface is badly estimated when the optical mouse sensor is placed in front of the diffuser surface (angular orientation >150° while the highest sensitivity is obtained when the sensor is located behind the diffuser surface and on the axis of the laser source (angular orientation 0°. In this case, the coefficient of determination of the measured displacement, R2, was very high (>0.99 with a relative error of less than 1.29%. Increasing the distance between the surface and the sensor also increased the sensitivity which increases linearly, R2 = 0.99. Finally, this measurement setup was proposed to measure very low frequency mechanical oscillations applied to the laser device, up to 0.01 Hz in this work. The results have shown that increasing the distance between the surface and the optical flow sensor also increases the sensitivity and the measurement range.

  3. An Improved Measurement Method for the Strength of Radiation of Reflective Beam in an Industrial Optical Sensor Based on Laser Displacement Meter

    OpenAIRE

    Youngchul Bae

    2016-01-01

    An optical sensor such as a laser range finder (LRF) or laser displacement meter (LDM) uses reflected and returned laser beam from a target. The optical sensor has been mainly used to measure the distance between a launch position and the target. However, optical sensor based LRF and LDM have numerous and various errors such as statistical errors, drift errors, cyclic errors, alignment errors and slope errors. Among these errors, an alignment error that contains measurement error for the stre...

  4. In-situ position and vibration measurement of rough surfaces using laser Doppler distance sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarske, J.; Pfister, T.; Günther, P.; Büttner, L.

    2009-06-01

    In-situ measurement of distances and shapes as well as dynamic deformations and vibrations of fast moving and especially rotating objects, such as gear shafts and turbine blades, is an important task at process control. We recently developed a laser Doppler distance frequency sensor, employing two superposed fan-shaped interference fringe systems with contrary fringe spacing gradients. Via two Doppler frequency evaluations the non-incremental position (i.e. distance) and the tangential velocity of rotating bodies are determined simultaneously. The distance uncertainty is in contrast to e.g. triangulation in principle independent of the object velocity. This unique feature allows micrometer resolutions of fast moved rough surfaces. The novel sensor was applied at turbo machines in order to control the tip clearance. The measurements at a transonic centrifugal compressor were performed during operation at up to 50,000 rpm, i.e. 586 m/s velocity of the blade tips. Due to the operational conditions such as temperatures of up to 300 °C, a flexible and robust measurement system with a passive fiber-coupled sensor, using diffractive optics, has been realized. Since the tip clearance of individual blades could be temporally resolved an analysis of blade vibrations was possible. A Fourier transformation of the blade distances results in an average period of 3 revolutions corresponding to a frequency of 1/3 of the rotary frequency. Additionally, a laser Doppler distance sensor using two tilted fringe systems and phase evaluation will be presented. This phase sensor exhibits a minimum position resolution of σz = 140 nm. It allows precise in-situ shape measurements at grinding and turning processes.

  5. Design and implementation of a laser-based absorption spectroscopy sensor for in situ monitoring of biomass gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveros Salazar, David; Goldenstein, Christopher S.; Jeffries, Jay B.; Seiser, Reinhard; Cattolica, Robert J.; Hanson, Ronald K.

    2017-12-01

    Research to demonstrate in situ laser-absorption-based sensing of H2O, CH4, CO2, and CO mole fraction is reported for the product gas line of a biomass gasifier. Spectral simulations were used to select candidate sensor wavelengths that optimize sensitive monitoring of the target species while minimizing interference from other species in the gas stream. A prototype sensor was constructed and measurements performed in the laboratory at Stanford to validate performance. Field measurements then were demonstrated in a pilot scale biomass gasifier at West Biofuels in Woodland, CA. The performance of a prototype sensor was compared for two sensor strategies: wavelength-scanned direct absorption (DA) and wavelength-scanned wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS). The lasers used had markedly different wavelength tuning response to injection current, and modern distributed feedback lasers (DFB) with nearly linear tuning response to injection current were shown to be superior, leading to guidelines for laser selection for sensor fabrication. Non-absorption loss in the transmitted laser intensity from particulate scattering and window fouling encouraged the use of normalized WMS measurement schemes. The complications of using normalized WMS for relatively large values of absorbance and its mitigation are discussed. A method for reducing adverse sensor performance effects of a time-varying WMS background signal is also presented. The laser absorption sensor provided measurements with the sub-second time resolution needed for gasifier control and more importantly provided precise measurements of H2O in the gasification products, which can be problematic for the typical gas chromatography sensors used by industry.

  6. Synthesis of nano-structured materials by laser-ablation and their application to sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, T.; Suehiro, J.

    2007-01-01

    We describe the synthesis of nano-structured materials of ZnO and Pd by laser ablation and their applications to sensors. The synthesis of ZnO nano-wires was performed by nano-particle assisted deposition (NPAD) where nano-crystals were grown with nano-particles generated by laser-ablating a ZnO sintered target in an Ar background gas. The synthesized ZnO nano-wires were characterized with a scanning electron microscopy and the photoluminescent characteristics were examined under an excitation with the third harmonics of a Nd:YAG laser. The nano-wires with a diameter in the range from 50 to 150 nm and a length of up to 5 μm were taken out of the substrate by laser blow-off technique and/or sonication. It was confirmed that the nano-wires showed the stimulated emission under optical pumping, indicating a high quality of the crystalinity. Pd nano-particles were generated by laser-ablating a Pd plate in pure water. The transmission electron microscope observation revealed that Pd nano-particles with a diameter in the range from 3 nm to several tens of nanometers were produced. Using these nano-structured materials, we successfully fabricated sensors by the dielectrophoresis techniques. In the case of the ultraviolet photosensor, a detection sensitivity of 10 nW/cm 2 was achieved and in the case of hydrogen sensing, the response time of less than 10 s has been demonstrated with Pd nano-particles

  7. Calibrating airborne measurements of airspeed, pressure and temperature using a Doppler laser air-motion sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Cooper

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A new laser air-motion sensor measures the true airspeed with a standard uncertainty of less than 0.1 m s−1 and so reduces uncertainty in the measured component of the relative wind along the longitudinal axis of the aircraft to about the same level. The calculated pressure expected from that airspeed at the inlet of a pitot tube then provides a basis for calibrating the measurements of dynamic and static pressure, reducing standard uncertainty in those measurements to less than 0.3 hPa and the precision applicable to steady flight conditions to about 0.1 hPa. These improved measurements of pressure, combined with high-resolution measurements of geometric altitude from the global positioning system, then indicate (via integrations of the hydrostatic equation during climbs and descents that the offset and uncertainty in temperature measurement for one research aircraft are +0.3 ± 0.3 °C. For airspeed, pressure and temperature, these are significant reductions in uncertainty vs. those obtained from calibrations using standard techniques. Finally, it is shown that although the initial calibration of the measured static and dynamic pressures requires a measured temperature, once calibrated these measured pressures and the measurement of airspeed from the new laser air-motion sensor provide a measurement of temperature that does not depend on any other temperature sensor.

  8. Numerical investigations of the potential for laser focus sensors in micrometrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Jörg; Mastylo, Rostyslav; Manske, Eberhard

    2017-06-01

    Laser focus sensors (LFS)1 attached to a scanning nano-positioning and measuring machine (NPMM) enable near diffraction limit resolution with very large measuring areas up to 200 x 200 mm1. Further extensions are planned to address wafer sizes of 8 inch and beyond. Thus, they are preferably suited for micro-metrology on large wafers. On the other hand, the minimum lateral features in state-of-the-art semiconductor industry are as small as a few nanometer and therefore far beyond the resolution limits of classical optics. New techniques such as OCD or ODP3,4 a.k.a. as scatterometry have helped to overcome these constraints considerably. However, scatterometry relies on regular patterns and therefore, the measurements have to be performed on special reference gratings or boxes rather than in-die. Consequently, there is a gap between measurement and the actual structure of interest which becomes more and more an issues with shrinking feature sizes. On the other hand, near-field approaches would also allow to extent the resolution limit greatly5 but they require very challenging controls to keep the working distance small enough to stay within the near field zone. Therefore, the feasibility and the limits of a LFS scanner system have been investigated theoretically. Based on simulations of laser focus sensor scanning across simple topographies, it was found that there is potential to overcome the diffraction limitations to some extent by means of vicinity interference effects caused by the optical interaction of adjacent topography features. We think that it might be well possible to reconstruct the diffracting profile by means of rigorous diffraction simulation based on a thorough model of the laser focus sensor optics in combination with topography diffraction 6 in a similar way as applied in OCD. The difference lies in the kind of signal itself which has to be modeled. While standard OCD is based on spectra, LFS utilizes height scan signals. Simulation results are

  9. Laser-Based and Ultra-Portable Gas Sensor for Indoor and Outdoor Formaldehyde (HCHO) Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutter, J. D.; Allen, N.; Paul, J.; Thiebaud, J.; So, S.; Scherer, J. J.; Keutsch, F. N.

    2017-12-01

    While used as a key tracer of oxidative chemistry in the atmosphere, formaldehyde (HCHO) is also a known human carcinogen and is listed and regulated by the United States EPA as a hazardous air pollutant. Combustion processes and photochemical oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the major outdoor sources of HCHO, and building materials and household products are ubiquitous sources of indoor HCHO. Due to the ease with which humans can be exposed to HCHO, it is imperative to monitor levels of both indoor and outdoor HCHO exposure in both short and long-term studies.High-quality direct and indirect methods of quantifying HCHO mixing ratios exist, but instrument size and user-friendliness can make them cumbersome or impractical for certain types of indoor and long-term outdoor measurements. In this study, we present urban HCHO measurements by using a new, commercially-available, ppbv-level accurate HCHO gas sensor (Aeris Technologies' MIRA Pico VOC Laser-Based Gas Analyzer) that is highly portable (29 cm x 20 cm x 10 cm), lightweight (3 kg), easy-to-use, and has low power (15 W) consumption. Using an ultra-compact multipass cell, an absorption path length of 13 m is achieved, resulting in a sensor capable of achieving ppbv/s sensitivity levels with no significant spectral interferences.To demonstrate the utility of the gas sensor for emissions measurements, a GPS was attached to the sensor's housing in order to map mobile HCHO measurements in real-time around the Boston, Massachusetts, metro area. Furthermore, the sensor was placed in residential and industrial environments to show its usefulness for indoor and outdoor pollution measurements. Lastly, we show the feasibility of using the HCHO sensor (or a network of them) in long-term monitoring stations for hazardous air pollutants.

  10. Real-time measurements of endogenous CO production from vascular cells using an ultrasensitive laser sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Y.; Durante, W.; Lancaster, D. G.; Klattenhoff, J.; Tittel, F. K.

    2001-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) has been implicated as a biological messenger molecule analogous to nitric oxide. A compact gas sensor based on a midinfrared laser absorption spectroscopy was developed for direct and real-time measurement of trace levels (in approximate pmol) of CO release by vascular cells. The midinfrared light is generated by difference frequency mixing of two nearinfrared lasers in a nonlinear optical crystal. A strong infrared absorption line of CO (4.61 microm) is chosen for convenient CO detection without interference from other gas species. The generation of CO from cultured vascular smooth muscle cells was detected every 20 s without any chemical modification to the CO. The sensitivity of the sensor reached 6.9 pmol CO. CO synthesis was measured from untreated control cells (0.25 nmol per 10(7) cells/h), sodium nitroprusside-treated cells (0.29 nmol per 10(7) cells/h), and hemin-treated cells (0.49 nmol per 10(7) cells/h). The sensor also detected decreases in CO production after the addition of the heme oxygenase (HO) inhibitor tin protoporphyrin-IX (from 0.49 to 0.02 nmol per 10(7) cells/h) and increases after the administration of the HO substrate hemin (from 0.27 to 0.64 nmol per 10(7) cells/h). These results demonstrate that midinfrared laser absorption spectroscopy is a useful technique for the noninvasive and real-time detection of trace levels of CO from biological tissues.

  11. High-Power DFB Diode Laser-Based CO-QEPAS Sensor: Optimization and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei Ma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A highly sensitive carbon monoxide (CO trace gas sensor based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS was demonstrated. A high-power distributed feedback (DFB, continuous wave (CW 2.33 μm diode laser with an 8.8 mW output power was used as the QEPAS excitation source. By optimizing the modulation depth and adding an optimum micro-resonator, compared to a bare quartz tuning fork (QTF, a 10-fold enhancement of the CO-QEPAS signal amplitude was achieved. When water vapor acting as a vibrational transfer catalyst was added to the target gas, the signal was further increased by a factor of ~7. A minimum detection limit (MDL of 11.2 ppm and a calculated normalized noise equivalent absorption (NNEA coefficient of 1.8 × 10−5 cm−1W/√Hz were obtained for the reported CO-QEPAS sensor.

  12. High-Power DFB Diode Laser-Based CO-QEPAS Sensor: Optimization and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yufei; Tong, Yao; He, Ying; Yu, Xin; Tittel, Frank K

    2018-01-04

    A highly sensitive carbon monoxide (CO) trace gas sensor based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) was demonstrated. A high-power distributed feedback (DFB), continuous wave (CW) 2.33 μm diode laser with an 8.8 mW output power was used as the QEPAS excitation source. By optimizing the modulation depth and adding an optimum micro-resonator, compared to a bare quartz tuning fork (QTF), a 10-fold enhancement of the CO-QEPAS signal amplitude was achieved. When water vapor acting as a vibrational transfer catalyst was added to the target gas, the signal was further increased by a factor of ~7. A minimum detection limit (MDL) of 11.2 ppm and a calculated normalized noise equivalent absorption (NNEA) coefficient of 1.8 × 10 -5 cm -1 W/√Hz were obtained for the reported CO-QEPAS sensor.

  13. Real-time trace gas sensor using a multimode diode laser and multiple-line integrated cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpf, Andreas; Rao, Gottipaty N

    2015-07-01

    We describe and demonstrate a highly sensitive trace gas sensor based on a simplified design that is capable of measuring sub-ppb concentrations of NO2 in tens of milliseconds. The sensor makes use of a relatively inexpensive Fabry-Perot diode laser to conduct off-axis cavity enhanced spectroscopy. The broad frequency range of a multimode Fabry-Perot diode laser spans a large number of absorption lines, thereby removing the need for a single-frequency tunable laser source. The use of cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy enhances the sensitivity of the sensor by providing a pathlength on the order of 1 km in a small volume. Off-axis alignment excites a large number of cavity modes simultaneously, thereby reducing the sensor's susceptibility to vibration. Multiple-line integrated absorption spectroscopy (where one integrates the absorption spectra over a large number of rovibronic transitions of the molecular species) further improves the sensitivity of detection. Relatively high laser power (∼400  mW) is used to compensate for the low coupling efficiency of a broad linewidth laser to the optical cavity. The approach was demonstrated using a 407 nm diode laser to detect trace quantities of NO2 in zero air. Sensitivities of 750 ppt, 110 ppt, and 65 ppt were achieved using integration times of 50 ms, 5 s, and 20 s respectively.

  14. SENSOR-TOPOLOGY BASED SIMPLICIAL COMPLEX RECONSTRUCTION FROM MOBILE LASER SCANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Guinard

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new method for the reconstruction of simplicial complexes (combining points, edges and triangles from 3D point clouds from Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS. Our main goal is to produce a reconstruction of a scene that is adapted to the local geometry of objects. Our method uses the inherent topology of the MLS sensor to define a spatial adjacency relationship between points. We then investigate each possible connexion between adjacent points and filter them by searching collinear structures in the scene, or structures perpendicular to the laser beams. Next, we create triangles for each triplet of self-connected edges. Last, we improve this method with a regularization based on the co-planarity of triangles and collinearity of remaining edges. We compare our results to a naive simplicial complexes reconstruction based on edge length.

  15. Sensor-Topology Based Simplicial Complex Reconstruction from Mobile Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinard, S.; Vallet, B.

    2018-05-01

    We propose a new method for the reconstruction of simplicial complexes (combining points, edges and triangles) from 3D point clouds from Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS). Our main goal is to produce a reconstruction of a scene that is adapted to the local geometry of objects. Our method uses the inherent topology of the MLS sensor to define a spatial adjacency relationship between points. We then investigate each possible connexion between adjacent points and filter them by searching collinear structures in the scene, or structures perpendicular to the laser beams. Next, we create triangles for each triplet of self-connected edges. Last, we improve this method with a regularization based on the co-planarity of triangles and collinearity of remaining edges. We compare our results to a naive simplicial complexes reconstruction based on edge length.

  16. Characterization of a FBG sensor interrogation system based on a mode-locked laser scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal, Javier; Fraile-Peláez, Francisco Javier; Zheng, Di; Barrera, David; Sales, Salvador

    2017-10-02

    This paper is focused on the characterization of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor interrogation system based on a fiber ring laser with a semiconductor optical amplifier as the gain medium, and an in-loop electro-optical modulator. This system operates as a switchable active (pulsed) mode-locked laser. The operation principle of the system is explained theoretically and validated experimentally. The ability of the system to interrogate an array of different FBGs in wavelength and spatial domain is demonstrated. Simultaneously, the influence of several important parameters on the performance of the interrogation technique has been investigated. Specifically, the effects of the bandwidth and the reflectivity of the FBGs, the SOA gain, and the depth of the intensity modulation have been addressed.

  17. Toward the integration of optical sensors in smartphone screens using femtosecond laser writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Jerome; Parent, Francois; de Lima Filho, Elton Soares; Loranger, Sébastien; Kashyap, Raman

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate a new type of sensor incorporated directly into Corning Gorilla glass, an ultraresistant glass widely used in the screen of popular devices such as smartphones, tablets, and smart watches. Although physical space is limited in portable devices, the screens have been so far neglected in regard to functionalization. Our proof-of-concept shows a new niche for photonics device development, in which the screen becomes an active component integrated into the device. The sensor itself is a near-surface waveguide, sensitive to refractive index changes, enabling the analysis of liquids directly on the screen of a smartphone, without the need for any add-ons, thus opening this part of the device to advanced functionalization. The primary function of the screen is unaffected, since the sensor and waveguide are effectively invisible to the naked eye. We fabricated a waveguide just below the glass surface, directly written without any surface preparation, in which the change in refractive index on the surface-air interface changes the light guidance, thus the transmission of light. This work reports on sensor fabrication, using a femtosecond pulsed laser, and the light-interaction model of the beam propagating at the surface is discussed and compared with experimental measurement for refractive indexes in the range 1.3-1.7. A new and improved model, including input and output reflections due to the effective mode index change, is also proposed and yields a better match with our experimental measurements and also with previous measurements reported in the literature.

  18. Tunable Diode Laser Sensors to Monitor Temperature and Gas Composition in High-Temperature Coal Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, Ronald [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Whitty, Kevin [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) when combined with carbon capture and storage can be one of the cleanest methods of extracting energy from coal. Control of coal and biomass gasification processes to accommodate the changing character of input-fuel streams is required for practical implementation of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) technologies. Therefore a fast time-response sensor is needed for real-time monitoring of the composition and ideally the heating value of the synthesis gas (here called syngas) as it exits the gasifier. The goal of this project was the design, construction, and demonstration an in situ laserabsorption sensor to monitor multiple species in the syngas output from practical-scale coal gasifiers. This project investigated the hypothesis of using laser absorption sensing in particulateladen syngas. Absorption transitions were selected with design rules to optimize signal strength while minimizing interference from other species. Successful in situ measurements in the dusty, high-pressure syngas flow were enabled by Stanford’s normalized and scanned wavelength modulation strategy. A prototype sensor for CO, CH4, CO2, and H2O was refined with experiments conducted in the laboratory at Stanford University, a pilot-scale at the University of Utah, and an engineering-scale gasifier at DoE’s National Center for Carbon Capture with the demonstration of a prototype sensor with technical readiness level 6 in the 2014 measurement campaign.

  19. A flexible and highly sensitive nonenzymatic glucose sensor based on DVD-laser scribed graphene substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Songyue; Feng, Wendou; Miao, Xiaofei; Zhang, Xiangxin; Chen, Sujing; Chen, Yuanqiang; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Yining

    2018-07-01

    Flexible and implantable glucose biosensors are emerging technologies for continuous monitoring of blood-glucose of diabetes. Developing a flexible conductive substrates with high active surface area is critical for advancing the technology. Here, we successfully fabricate a flexible and highly sensitive nonenzymatic glucose by using DVD-laser scribed graphene (LSG) as a flexible conductively substrate. Copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) are electrodeposited as the catalyst. The LSG/Cu-NPs sensor demonstrates excellent catalytic activity toward glucose oxidation and exhibits a linear glucose detection range from 1 μM to 4.54 mM with high sensitivity (1.518 mA mM -1 cm -2 ) and low limit of detection (0.35 μM). Moreover, the LSG/Cu-NPs sensor shows excellent reproducibility and long-term stability. It is also highly selective toward glucose oxidation under the presence of various interfering species. Excellent flexing stability is also demonstrated by the LSG/Cu-NPs sensor, which is capable of maintaining 83.9% of its initial current after being bent against a 4-mm diameter rod for 180 times. The LSG/Cu-NPs sensor shows great potential for practical application as a nonenzymatic glucose biosensor. Meanwhile, the LSG conductive substrate provides a platform for the developing next-generation flexible and potentially implantable bioelectronics and biosensors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of visible-laser-diode fiber optic sensors in the beverage industry and environmental controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Van Hoi; Chu, Dinh T.; Bui, Huy; Tran, Viet L.

    1997-01-01

    The fiber-optic refractometer using visible laser diodes with wavelengths of 650 divided by 670 nm for the liquid refractive-index measurement is presented. The refractive- index measures by fiber-optic sensors of the connected configuration for different liquids with refractive indices from 1.33 to 1.5 have given the accuracy of 5.10-3. The fiber-optic refractometer was performanced for the distinguish of the salt or sugar content in the mixtures with range of 10-3 and 5.10-4, respectively. These refractometers are already to use for the sugar control systems of beverage industry and salt-water environment.

  1. Radiation effects on optical components of a laser radar sensor designed for remote metrology in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.M.; Grann, E.B.; Slotwinski, A.

    1997-09-01

    A frequency modulated laser radar is being developed for in-vessel metrology and viewing of plasma-facing surfaces. Some optical components of this sensor must withstand intense gamma radiation (3 x 10 6 rad/h) during operation. The authors have tested the effect of radiation on a silica core polarization maintaining optical fiber and on TeO 2 crystals at doses up to ∼ 10 9 rad. Additional tests are planned for evaluating the performance of a complete acousto-optic (AO) scanning device. The progress made in these tests is also described

  2. Femtosecond Laser Processing of Membranes for Sensor Devices on different Bulk Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Zehetner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate that diaphragms for sensor applications can be fabricated by laser ablation in a~variety of substrates such as ceramics, glass, sapphire or SiC. However, ablation can cause pinholes in membranes made of SiC, Si and metals. Our experiments indicate that pinhole defects in the ablated membranes are affected by ripple structures related to the polarization of the laser. From our simulation results on light propagation in Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Structures (LIPSS we find out that they are acting as a slot waveguide in SiC material. The results further show that field intensity is enhanced inside LIPSS and spreads out at surface distortions promoting the formation of pinholes. The membrane corner area is most vulnerable for pinhole formation. Pinholes funnel laser radiation into the bulk material causing structural damage and stress in the membrane. We show that a~polarization flipping technique inhibits the formation of pin holes caused by LIPSS.

  3. Tunable, multiwavelength-swept fiber laser based on nematic liquid crystal device for fiber-optic electric-field sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Ji; Kim, Sung-Jo; Ko, Myeong Ock; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Jeon, Min Yong

    2018-03-01

    We propose a tunable multiwavelength-swept laser based on a nematic liquid crystal (NLC) Fabry-Perot (FP) etalon, which is embedded in the resonator of a wavelength-swept laser. We achieve the continuous wavelength tuning of the multiwavelength-swept laser by applying the electric field to the NLC FP etalon. The free spectral range of the fabricated NLC FP etalon is approximately 7.9 nm. When the electric field applied to the NLC FP etalon exceeds the threshold value (Fréedericksz threshold voltage), the output of the multiwavelength-swept laser can be tuned continuously. The tuning range of the multiwavelength-swept laser can be achieved at a value greater than 75 nm, which has a considerably wider tunable range than a conventional multiwavelength laser based on an NLC FP etalon. The slope efficiencies in the spectral and temporal domains for the tunable multiwavelength-swept laser are 22.2 nm/(mVrms / μm) and 0.17 ms/(mVrms / μm), respectively in the linear region. Therefore, the developed multiwavelength-swept laser based on the NLC FP etalon can be applied to an electric-field sensor. Because the wavelength measurement and time measurement have a linear relationship, the electric-field sensor can detect a rapid change in the electric-field intensity by measuring the peak change of the pulse in the temporal domain using the NLC FP etalon-based multiwavelength-swept laser.

  4. Laser of optical fiber composed by two coupled cavities: application as optical fiber sensor; Laser de fibra optica compuesto por dos cavidades acopladas: aplicacion como sensor de fibra optica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez S, R.A.; Kuzin, E.A.; Ibarra E, B. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE), A.P. 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); May A, M. [Universidad Autonoma del Carmen (UNACAR) Av. 56 No. 4 por Av. Concordia, Campeche (Mexico); Shlyagin, M.; Marquez B, I. [Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Ensenanza Superior de Ensenada (CICESE), 22860 Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)]. e-mail: ravsa100@hotmail.com

    2004-07-01

    We show an optical fiber laser sensor which consist of two cavities coupled and three fiber Bragg gratings. We used one Bragg grating (called reference) and two Bragg gratings (called sensors), which have the lower reflection wavelength. The reference grating with the two sensors grating make two cavities: first one is the internal cavity which has 4230 m of length and the another one is the external cavity which has 4277 m of length. Measuring the laser beating frequency for a resonance cavity and moving the frequency peaks when the another cavity is put in resonance, we prove that the arrangement can be used as a two points sensor for determining the difference of temperature or stress between these two points. (Author)

  5. Characterization of silicon micro-strip sensors with a pulsed infra-red laser system for the CBM experiment at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Pradeep [Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Eschke, Juergen [GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research, GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The Silicon Tracking System (STS) of the CBM experiment at FAIR is composed of 8 tracking stations comprising of 1292 double-sided silicon micro-strip sensors. A Laser Test System (LTS) has been developed for the quality assurance of prototype sensors. The aim is to scan sensors with a pulsed infra-red laser driven by step motor to determine the charge sharing in-between strips and to measure qualitative uniformity of the sensor response over the whole active area. Several prototype sensors with strip pitch of 50 and 58 μm have been tested, as well as a prototype module with realistic mechanical arrangement of sensor and read-out cables. The LTS is designed to measure sensor response in an automatized procedure across the sensor with focused laser beam (spot-size ∼ 12 μm, wavelength = 1060 nm). The pulse with duration (∼ 10 ns) and power (∼ 5 mW) of the laser pulses is selected such, that the absorption of the laser light in the 300 μm thick silicon sensors produces a number of about 24000 electrons, which is similar to the charge created by minimum ionizing particles (MIP) in these sensors. Results from laser scans of prototype sensors and detector module are reported.

  6. Laser-engraved carbon nanotube paper for instilling high sensitivity, high stretchability, and high linearity in strain sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Xin, Yangyang

    2017-06-29

    There is an increasing demand for strain sensors with high sensitivity and high stretchability for new applications such as robotics or wearable electronics. However, for the available technologies, the sensitivity of the sensors varies widely. These sensors are also highly nonlinear, making reliable measurement challenging. Here we introduce a new family of sensors composed of a laser-engraved carbon nanotube paper embedded in an elastomer. A roll-to-roll pressing of these sensors activates a pre-defined fragmentation process, which results in a well-controlled, fragmented microstructure. Such sensors are reproducible and durable and can attain ultrahigh sensitivity and high stretchability (with a gauge factor of over 4.2 × 10(4) at 150% strain). Moreover, they can attain high linearity from 0% to 15% and from 22% to 150% strain. They are good candidates for stretchable electronic applications that require high sensitivity and linearity at large strains.

  7. A Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor Interrogation System Based on a Linearly Wavelength-Swept Thermo-Optic Laser Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyung-Seok; Lee, Hwi Don; Kim, Hyo Jin; Cho, Jae Du; Jeong, Myung Yung; Kim, Chang-Seok

    2014-01-01

    A linearized wavelength-swept thermo-optic laser chip was applied to demonstrate a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor interrogation system. A broad tuning range of 11.8 nm was periodically obtained from the laser chip for a sweep rate of 16 Hz. To measure the linear time response of the reflection signal from the FBG sensor, a programmed driving signal was directly applied to the wavelength-swept laser chip. The linear wavelength response of the applied strain was clearly extracted with an R-squared value of 0.99994. To test the feasibility of the system for dynamic measurements, the dynamic strain was successfully interrogated with a repetition rate of 0.2 Hz by using this FBG sensor interrogation system. PMID:25177803

  8. Laser Power Measurement Using Commercial MEMS Pressure Sensor along with PSoC Embedded Read-out

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jayapandian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid-state, gas, semiconductor and other types of lasers are extensively employed in industry for producing laser beams used in such wide ranging fields as machining, medicine and communications. In such applications, it is necessary to be able to accurately measure the power of the laser beam that is emitted by the laser. This paper describes a novel design technique which uses the diaphragm of a commercial MEMS pressure sensor as a target surface on which laser beam impinge, transfer heat and causes change in piezo resistance. The measured change in resistance was proportional to the intensity of laser beam in the range of 0 to 300 mW. The ratio metric embedded read-out design using a single chip programmable system on chip (PSoC has been used to acquire the resistance.

  9. A mid-infrared laser absorption sensor for carbon monoxide and temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderover, Jeremy

    A mid-infrared (mid-IR) absorption sensor based on quantum cascade laser (QCL) technology has been developed and demonstrated for high-temperature thermometry and carbon monoxide (CO) measurements in combustion environments. The sensor probes the high-intensity fundamental CO ro-vibrational band at 4.6 mum enabling sensitive measurement of CO and temperature at kHz acquisition rates. Because the sensor operates in the mid-IR CO fundamental band it is several orders of magnitude more sensitive than most of the previously developed CO combustion sensors which utilized absorption in the near-IR overtone bands and mature traditional telecommunications-based diode lasers. The sensor has been demonstrated and validated under operation in both scanned-wavelength absorption and wavelength-modulation spectroscopy (WMS) modes in room-temperature gas cell and high-temperature shock tube experiments with known and specified gas conditions. The sensor has also been demonstrated for CO and temperature measurements in an atmospheric premixed ethylene/air McKenna burner flat flame for a range of equivalence ratios (phi = 0.7-1.4). Demonstration of the sensor under scanned-wavelength direct absorption operation was performed in a room-temperature gas cell (297 K and 0.001-1 atm) allowing validation of the line strengths and line shapes predicted by the HITRAN 2004 spectroscopic database. Application of the sensor in scanned-wavelength mode, at 1-2 kHz acquisition bandwidths, to specified high-temperature shock-heated gases (950-3400 K, 1 atm) provided validation of the sensor for measurements under the high-temperature conditions found in combustion devices. The scanned-wavelength shock tube measurements yielded temperature determinations that deviated by only +/-1.2% (1-sigma deviation) with the reflected shock temperatures and CO mole fraction determinations that deviated by that specified CO mole fraction by only +/-1.5% (1-sigma deviation). These deviations are in fact smaller

  10. Nanoparticle Thin Films for Gas Sensors Prepared by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rella

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE technique has been used for the deposition of metal dioxide (TiO2, SnO2 nanoparticle thin films for gas sensor applications. For this purpose, colloidal metal dioxide nanoparticles were diluted in volatile solvents, the solution was frozen at the liquid nitrogen temperature and irradiated with a pulsed excimer laser. The dioxide nanoparticles were deposited on Si and Al2O3 substrates. A rather uniform distribution of TiO2 nanoparticles with an average size of about 10 nm and of SnO2 nanoparticles with an average size of about 3 nm was obtained, as demonstrated by high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM-FEG inspections. Gas-sensing devices based on the resistive transduction mechanism were fabricated by depositing the nanoparticle thin films onto suitable rough alumina substrates equipped with interdigitated electrical contacts and heating elements. Electrical characterization measurements were carried out in controlled environment. The results of the gas-sensing tests towards low concentrations of ethanol and acetone vapors are reported. Typical gas sensor parameters (gas responses, response/recovery time, sensitivity, and low detection limit towards ethanol and acetone are presented.

  11. Nanoparticle thin films for gas sensors prepared by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricato, Anna Paola; Luches, Armando; Rella, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    The matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) technique has been used for the deposition of metal dioxide (TiO(2), SnO(2)) nanoparticle thin films for gas sensor applications. For this purpose, colloidal metal dioxide nanoparticles were diluted in volatile solvents, the solution was frozen at the liquid nitrogen temperature and irradiated with a pulsed excimer laser. The dioxide nanoparticles were deposited on Si and Al(2)O(3) substrates. A rather uniform distribution of TiO(2) nanoparticles with an average size of about 10 nm and of SnO(2) nanoparticles with an average size of about 3 nm was obtained, as demonstrated by high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM-FEG) inspections. Gas-sensing devices based on the resistive transduction mechanism were fabricated by depositing the nanoparticle thin films onto suitable rough alumina substrates equipped with interdigitated electrical contacts and heating elements. Electrical characterization measurements were carried out in controlled environment. The results of the gas-sensing tests towards low concentrations of ethanol and acetone vapors are reported. Typical gas sensor parameters (gas responses, response/recovery time, sensitivity, and low detection limit) towards ethanol and acetone are presented.

  12. Fast Prototyping of Sensorized Cell Culture Chips and Microfluidic Systems with Ultrashort Laser Pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian M. Bonk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We developed a confined microfluidic cell culture system with a bottom plate made of a microscopic slide with planar platinum sensors for the measurement of acidification, oxygen consumption, and cell adhesion. The slides were commercial slides with indium tin oxide (ITO plating or were prepared from platinum sputtering (100 nm onto a 10-nm titanium adhesion layer. Direct processing of the sensor structures (approximately three minutes per chip by an ultrashort pulse laser facilitated the production of the prototypes. pH-sensitive areas were produced by the sputtering of 60-nm Si3N4 through a simple mask made from a circuit board material. The system body and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS molding forms for the microfluidic structures were manufactured by micromilling using a printed circuit board (PCB milling machine for circuit boards. The microfluidic structure was finally imprinted in PDMS. Our approach avoided the use of photolithographic techniques and enabled fast and cost-efficient prototyping of the systems. Alternatively, the direct production of metallic, ceramic or polymeric molding tools was tested. The use of ultrashort pulse lasers improved the precision of the structures and avoided any contact of the final structures with toxic chemicals and possible adverse effects for the cell culture in lab-on-a-chip systems.

  13. Contactless respiratory monitoring system for magnetic resonance imaging applications using a laser range sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krug Johannes W.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available During a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI exam, a respiratory signal can be required for different purposes, e.g. for patient monitoring, motion compensation or for research studies such as in functional MRI. In addition, respiratory information can be used as a biofeedback for the patient in order to control breath holds or shallow breathing. To reduce patient preparation time or distortions of the MR imaging system, we propose the use of a contactless approach for gathering information about the respiratory activity. An experimental setup based on a commercially available laser range sensor was used to detect respiratory induced motion of the chest or abdomen. This setup was tested using a motion phantom and different human subjects in an MRI scanner. A nasal airflow sensor served as a reference. For both, the phantom as well as the different human subjects, the motion frequency was precisely measured. These results show that a low cost, contactless, laser-based approach can be used to obtain information about the respiratory motion during an MRI exam.

  14. Localized surface plasmon resonance with five-branched gold nanostars in a plastic optical fiber for bio-chemical sensor implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cennamo, Nunzio; D'Agostino, Girolamo; Donà, Alice; Dacarro, Giacomo; Pallavicini, Piersandro; Pesavento, Maria; Zeni, Luigi

    2013-10-29

    In this paper a refractive index sensor based on localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in a Plastic Optical Fiber (POF), is presented and experimentally tested. LSPR is achieved exploiting five-branched gold nanostars (GNS) obtained using Triton X-100 in a seed-growth synthesis. They have the uncommon feature of three localized surface plasmon resonances. The strongest LSPRs fall in two ranges, one in the 600-900 nm range (LSPR 2) and the other one in the 1,100-1,600 nm range (LSPR 3), both sensible to refractive index changes. Anyway, due to the extremely strong attenuation (>10(2) dB/m) of the employed POF in the 1,100-1,600 nm range, only LSPR 2 will be exploited for refractive index change measurements, useful for bio-chemical sensing applications, as a proof of principle of the possibility of realizing a compact, low cost and easy-to-use GNS based device.

  15. Characterization of silicon micro-strip sensors with a pulsed infra-red laser system for the CBM experiment at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, P.

    2015-01-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR is composed of 8 tracking stations consisting of 1292 double sided silicon micro-strip sensors. For the quality assurance of produced prototype sensors a laser test system (LTS) has been developed. The aim of the LTS is to scan sensors with a pulsed infra-red laser driven by step motor to determine the charge sharing in-between strips and to measure qualitative uniformity of the sensor response over the whole active area. The prototype sensors which are tested with the LTS so far have 256 strips with a pitch of 50 μm on each side. They are read-out using a self-triggering prototype read-out electronic ASIC called n-XYTER. The LTS is designed to measure sensor response in an automatized procedure at several thousand positions across the sensor with focused infra-red laser light (spot size ≈ 12 μm , wavelength = 1060 nm). The pulse with duration (≈ 10 ns) and power (≈ 5 mW) of the laser pulses is selected such, that the absorption of the laser light in the 300 μm thick silicon sensors produces a number of about 24000 electrons, which is similar to the charge created by minimum ionizing particles (MIP) in these sensors. Laser scans different prototype sensors is reported

  16. Extrinsic Calibration of Camera and 2D Laser Sensors without Overlap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil M. Ahmad Yousef

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Extrinsic calibration of a camera and a 2D laser range finder (lidar sensors is crucial in sensor data fusion applications; for example SLAM algorithms used in mobile robot platforms. The fundamental challenge of extrinsic calibration is when the camera-lidar sensors do not overlap or share the same field of view. In this paper we propose a novel and flexible approach for the extrinsic calibration of a camera-lidar system without overlap, which can be used for robotic platform self-calibration. The approach is based on the robot–world hand–eye calibration (RWHE problem; proven to have efficient and accurate solutions. First, the system was mapped to the RWHE calibration problem modeled as the linear relationship AX = ZB , where X and Z are unknown calibration matrices. Then, we computed the transformation matrix B , which was the main challenge in the above mapping. The computation is based on reasonable assumptions about geometric structure in the calibration environment. The reliability and accuracy of the proposed approach is compared to a state-of-the-art method in extrinsic 2D lidar to camera calibration. Experimental results from real datasets indicate that the proposed approach provides better results with an L2 norm translational and rotational deviations of 314 mm and 0 . 12 ∘ respectively.

  17. Extrinsic Calibration of Camera and 2D Laser Sensors without Overlap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Yousef, Khalil M; Mohd, Bassam J; Al-Widyan, Khalid; Hayajneh, Thaier

    2017-10-14

    Extrinsic calibration of a camera and a 2D laser range finder (lidar) sensors is crucial in sensor data fusion applications; for example SLAM algorithms used in mobile robot platforms. The fundamental challenge of extrinsic calibration is when the camera-lidar sensors do not overlap or share the same field of view. In this paper we propose a novel and flexible approach for the extrinsic calibration of a camera-lidar system without overlap, which can be used for robotic platform self-calibration. The approach is based on the robot-world hand-eye calibration (RWHE) problem; proven to have efficient and accurate solutions. First, the system was mapped to the RWHE calibration problem modeled as the linear relationship AX = ZB , where X and Z are unknown calibration matrices. Then, we computed the transformation matrix B , which was the main challenge in the above mapping. The computation is based on reasonable assumptions about geometric structure in the calibration environment. The reliability and accuracy of the proposed approach is compared to a state-of-the-art method in extrinsic 2D lidar to camera calibration. Experimental results from real datasets indicate that the proposed approach provides better results with an L2 norm translational and rotational deviations of 314 mm and 0 . 12 ∘ respectively.

  18. Sensing System for Salinity Testing Using Laser-induced Graphene Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Nag, Anindya

    2017-08-05

    The paper presents the development and implementation of a low-cost salinity sensing system. Commercial polymer films were laser ablated at specific conditions to form graphene-based sensors on flexible Kapton substrates. Sodium chloride was considered as the primary constituent for testing due to its prominent presence in water bodies. The sensor was characterized by testing different concentrations of sodium chloride. A standard curve was developed to perform real-time testing with a sample taken from sea water of unknown concentration. The sensitivity and resolution of these graphene sensors for the experimental solutions were 1.07Ω/ppm and 1ppm respectively. The developed system was validated by testing it with a real sample and cross checking it on the calibration curve. The signal conditioning circuit was further enhanced by embedding a microcontroller to the designed system. The obtained results did provide a platform for implementation of a low-cost salinity sensing system that could be used in marine applications.

  19. Sensing System for Salinity Testing Using Laser-induced Graphene Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Nag, Anindya; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the development and implementation of a low-cost salinity sensing system. Commercial polymer films were laser ablated at specific conditions to form graphene-based sensors on flexible Kapton substrates. Sodium chloride was considered as the primary constituent for testing due to its prominent presence in water bodies. The sensor was characterized by testing different concentrations of sodium chloride. A standard curve was developed to perform real-time testing with a sample taken from sea water of unknown concentration. The sensitivity and resolution of these graphene sensors for the experimental solutions were 1.07Ω/ppm and 1ppm respectively. The developed system was validated by testing it with a real sample and cross checking it on the calibration curve. The signal conditioning circuit was further enhanced by embedding a microcontroller to the designed system. The obtained results did provide a platform for implementation of a low-cost salinity sensing system that could be used in marine applications.

  20. Turbo machine tip clearance and vibration measurements using a fibre optic laser Doppler position sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, T.; Büttner, L.; Czarske, J.; Krain, H.; Schodl, R.

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents a novel fibre optic laser Doppler position sensor for single blade tip clearance and vibration measurements at turbo machines, which offers high temporal resolution and high position resolution simultaneously. The sensor principle is based on the generation of a measurement volume consisting of two superposed fan-like interference fringe systems with contrary fringe spacing gradients using wavelength division multiplexing. A flexible and robust measurement system with an all-passive fibre coupled measurement head has been realized employing diffractive and refractive optics. Measurements of tip clearance and rotor vibrations at a transonic centrifugal compressor performed during operation at up to 50 000 rpm (833 Hz) corresponding to 21.7 kHz blade frequency and 586 m s-1 blade tip velocity are presented. The results are in excellent agreement with those of capacitive probes. The mean uncertainty of the position measurement was around 20 µm and, thus, considerably better than for conventional tip clearance probes. Consequently, this sensor is capable of fulfilling the requirements for future active clearance control systems and has great potential for in situ and online tip clearance and vibration measurements at metallic and non-metallic turbine blades with high precision.

  1. A calibration-free ammonia breath sensor using a quantum cascade laser with WMS 2f/1f

    KAUST Repository

    Owen, Kyle

    2013-12-22

    The amount of ammonia in exhaled breath has been linked to a variety of adverse medical conditions, including chronic kidney disease (CKD). The development of accurate, reliable breath sensors has the potential to improve medical care. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy with second harmonic normalized by the first harmonic (WMS 2f/1f) is a sensitive technique used in the development of calibration-free sensors. An ammonia gas sensor is designed and developed that uses a quantum cascade laser operating near 1,103.44 cm -1 and a multi-pass cell with an effective path length of 76.45 m. The sensor has a 7 ppbv detection limit and 5 % total uncertainty for breath measurements. The sensor was successfully used to detect ammonia in exhaled breath and compare healthy patients to patients diagnosed with CKD. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  2. Real time detection of exhaled human breath using quantum cascade laser based sensor technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittel, Frank K.; Lewicki, Rafal; Dong, Lei; Liu, Kun; Risby, Terence H.; Solga, Steven; Schwartz, Tim

    2012-02-01

    The development and performance of a cw, TE-cooled DFB quantum cascade laser based sensor for quantitative measurements of ammonia (NH3) and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations present in exhaled breath will be reported. Human breath contains ~ 500 different chemical species, usually at ultra low concentration levels, which can serve as biomarkers for the identification and monitoring of human diseases or wellness states. By monitoring NH3 concentration levels in exhaled breath a fast, non-invasive diagnostic method for treatment of patients with liver and kidney disorders, is feasible. The NH3 concentration measurements were performed with a 2f wavelength modulation quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) technique, which is suitable for real time breath measurements, due to the fast gas exchange inside a compact QEPAS gas cell. A Hamamatsu air-cooled high heat load (HHL) packaged CW DFB-QCL is operated at 17.5°C, targeting the optimum interference free NH3 absorption line at 967.35 cm-1 (λ~10.34 μm), with ~ 20 mW of optical power. The sensor architecture includes a reference cell, filled with a 2000 ppmv NH3 :N2 mixture at 130 Torr, which is used for absorption line-locking. A minimum detection limit (1σ) for the line locked NH3 sensor is ~ 6 ppbv (with a 1σ 1 sec time resolution of the control electronics). This NH3 sensor was installed in late 2010 and is being clinically tested at St. Luke's Hospital in Bethlehem, PA.

  3. Online NIR diagnostic of laser welding processes and its potential for quality assuring sensor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsch, Friedhelm; Braun, Holger; Keβler, Steffen; Pfitzner, Dieter; Rominger, Volker

    2014-02-01

    We have integrated an imaging thermographic sensor into commercial welding optics for observation of the weld zone. Key element of the sensor is an InGaAs-camera that detects the thermal radiation of the welding process in the wavelength range of 1,200 to 1,700 nm. This is well suited to record images of the keyhole, the melt pool and the thermal trace. The sensor was integrated to the welding heads for on-axis observation to minimize the interfering contour to ensure easy adaption to industrial processes. The welding heads used were established industrial-grade TRUMPF optics: a BEO fixed optics with 280 mm focal length, or a TRUMPF PFO-3D scanner optics with 450 mm focal length. We used a TRUMPF TruDisk 16002 16kW-thin disk laser that transmits its power through a 200 μm core diameter light cable. The images were recorded and features of the various process zones were evaluated by image processing. It turns out that almost all weld faults can be clearly detected in the NIR images. Quantitative features like the dimension of the melt pool and the thermal trace can be derived from the captured images. They are correlated to process input parameters as well as to process results. In contrast to observation in the visible spectrum the NIR camera records the melt pool without auxiliary illumination. As an unrivaled attribute of the NIR sensor it supports an online heat flow thermography of the seam and allows identifying missing fusion ("false friends") of lap joints virtually during the welding process. Automated weld fault detection and documentation is possible by online image processing which sets the basis for comprehensive data documentation for quality assurance and traceability.

  4. Frequency-modulated laser ranging sensor with closed-loop control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Fabian M.; Böttger, Gunnar; Janeczka, Christian; Arndt-Staufenbiel, Norbert; Schröder, Henning; Schneider-Ramelow, Martin

    2018-02-01

    Advances in autonomous driving and robotics are creating high demand for inexpensive and mass-producible distance sensors. A laser ranging system (Lidar), based on the frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) method is built in this work. The benefits of an FMCW Lidar system are the low-cost components and the performance in comparison to conventional time-of-flight Lidar systems. The basic system consists of a DFB laser diode (λ= 1308 nm) and an asymmetric fiber-coupled Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a fixed delay line in one arm. Linear tuning of the laser optical frequency via injection current modulation creates a beat signal at the interferometer output. The frequency of the beat signal is proportional to the optical path difference in the interferometer. Since the laser frequency-to-current response is non-linear, a closed-loop feed-back system is designed to improve the tuning linearity, and consequently the measurement resolution. For fast active control, an embedded system with FPGA is used, resulting in a nearly linear frequency tuning, realizing a narrow peak in the Fourier spectrum of the beat signal. For free-space measurements, a setup with two distinct interferometers is built. The fully fiber-coupled Mach-Zehnder reference interferometer is part of the feed-back loop system, while the other - a Michelson interferometer - has a free-space arm with collimator lens and reflective target. A resolution of 2:0 mm for a 560 mm distance is achieved. The results for varying target distances show high consistency and a linear relation to the measured beat-frequency.

  5. SnO.sub.2./sub. and SnAcAc thin film sensors created by laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Myslík, V.; Vysloužil, F.; Vrňata, M.; Jelínek, Miroslav; Lančok, Ján

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 374, - (2002), s. 285-288 ISSN 1058-725X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : laser deposition * thin films * gas sensors Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.457, year: 2002

  6. Intra-pulse laser absorption sensor with cavity enhancement for oxidation experiments in a rapid compression machine

    KAUST Repository

    Nasir, Ehson Fawad; Farooq, Aamir

    2018-01-01

    A sensor based on a mid-IR pulsed quantum cascade laser (QCL) and off-axis cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OA-CEAS) has been developed for highly sensitive concentration measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) in a rapid compression machine

  7. A widely tunable, near-infrared laser-based trace gas sensor for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) detection in exhaled breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, M.; Mandon, J.; Neerincx, A. H.; Liu, Z.; Mink, J.; Merkus, P. J. F. M.; Cristescu, S. M.; Harren, F. J. M.

    2017-11-01

    A compact, cost-effective sensor is developed for detection of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in exhaled breath within seconds. For this, an off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy setup is combined with a widely tunable compact near-infrared laser (tunability 1527-1564 nm). For HCN a detection sensitivity has been obtained of 8 ppbv in nitrogen (within 1 s), equal to a noise equivalent absorption sensitivity of 1.9 × 10-9 cm-1 Hz-1/2. With this sensor we demonstrated the presence of HCN in exhaled breath; its detection could be a good indicator for bacterial lung infection. Due to its compact, cost-effective and user-friendly design, this laser-based sensor has the potential to be implemented in future clinical applications.

  8. Low Cost Multi-Sensor Robot Laser Scanning System and its Accuracy Investigations for Indoor Mapping Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Zou, X.; Tian, M.; Li, J.; Wu, W.; Song, Y.; Dai, W.; Yang, B.

    2017-11-01

    In order to solve the automation of 3D indoor mapping task, a low cost multi-sensor robot laser scanning system is proposed in this paper. The multiple-sensor robot laser scanning system includes a panorama camera, a laser scanner, and an inertial measurement unit and etc., which are calibrated and synchronized together to achieve simultaneously collection of 3D indoor data. Experiments are undertaken in a typical indoor scene and the data generated by the proposed system are compared with ground truth data collected by a TLS scanner showing an accuracy of 99.2% below 0.25 meter, which explains the applicability and precision of the system in indoor mapping applications.

  9. Laser displacement sensor to monitor the layup process of composite laminate production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miesen, Nick; Groves, Roger M.; Sinke, Jos; Benedictus, Rinze

    2013-04-01

    Several types of flaw can occur during the layup process of prepreg composite laminates. Quality control after the production process checks the end product by testing the specimens for flaws which are included during the layup process or curing process, however by then these flaws are already irreversibly embedded in the laminate. This paper demonstrates the use of a laser displacement sensor technique applied during the layup process of prepreg laminates for in-situ flaw detection, for typical flaws that can occur during the composite production process. An incorrect number of layers and fibre wrinkling are dominant flaws during the process of layup. These and other dominant flaws have been modeled to determine the requirements for an in-situ monitoring during the layup process of prepreg laminates.

  10. Progress Toward Measuring CO2 Isotopologue Fluxes in situ with the LLNL Miniature, Laser-based CO2 Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuna, J. L.; Bora, M.; Bond, T.

    2015-12-01

    One method to constrain photosynthesis and respiration independently at the ecosystem scale is to measure the fluxes of CO2­ isotopologues. Instrumentation is currently available to makes these measurements but they are generally costly, large, bench-top instruments. Here, we present progress toward developing a laser-based sensor that can be deployed directly to a canopy to passively measure CO2 isotopologue fluxes. In this study, we perform initial proof-of-concept and sensor characterization tests in the laboratory and in the field to demonstrate performance of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) tunable diode laser flux sensor. The results shown herein demonstrate measurement of bulk CO2 as a first step toward achieving flux measurements of CO2 isotopologues. The sensor uses a Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) in the 2012 nm range. The laser is mounted in a multi-pass White Cell. In order to amplify the absorption signal of CO2 in this range we employ wave modulation spectroscopy, introducing an alternating current (AC) bias component where f is the frequency of modulation on the laser drive current in addition to the direct current (DC) emission scanning component. We observed a strong linear relationship (r2 = 0.998 and r2 = 0.978 at all and low CO2 concentrations, respectively) between the 2f signal and the CO2 concentration in the cell across the range of CO2 concentrations relevant for flux measurements. We use this calibration to interpret CO2 concentration of a gas flowing through the White cell in the laboratory and deployed over a grassy field. We will discuss sensor performance in the lab and in situ as well as address steps toward achieving canopy-deployed, passive measurements of CO2 isotopologue fluxes. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-675788

  11. Improved laser-based triangulation sensor with enhanced range and resolution through adaptive optics-based active beam control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, Syed Azer; Khwaja, Tariq Shamim; Mazhar, Mohsin Ali; Niazi, Haris Khan; Nawab, Rahma

    2017-07-20

    Various existing target ranging techniques are limited in terms of the dynamic range of operation and measurement resolution. These limitations arise as a result of a particular measurement methodology, the finite processing capability of the hardware components deployed within the sensor module, and the medium through which the target is viewed. Generally, improving the sensor range adversely affects its resolution and vice versa. Often, a distance sensor is designed for an optimal range/resolution setting depending on its intended application. Optical triangulation is broadly classified as a spatial-signal-processing-based ranging technique and measures target distance from the location of the reflected spot on a position sensitive detector (PSD). In most triangulation sensors that use lasers as a light source, beam divergence-which severely affects sensor measurement range-is often ignored in calculations. In this paper, we first discuss in detail the limitations to ranging imposed by beam divergence, which, in effect, sets the sensor dynamic range. Next, we show how the resolution of laser-based triangulation sensors is limited by the interpixel pitch of a finite-sized PSD. In this paper, through the use of tunable focus lenses (TFLs), we propose a novel design of a triangulation-based optical rangefinder that improves both the sensor resolution and its dynamic range through adaptive electronic control of beam propagation parameters. We present the theory and operation of the proposed sensor and clearly demonstrate a range and resolution improvement with the use of TFLs. Experimental results in support of our claims are shown to be in strong agreement with theory.

  12. Recognition of flow in everyday life using sensor agent robot with laser range finder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goshima, Misa; Mita, Akira

    2011-04-01

    In the present paper, we suggest an algorithm for a sensor agent robot with a laser range finder to recognize the flows of residents in the living spaces in order to achieve flow recognition in the living spaces, recognition of the number of people in spaces, and the classification of the flows. House reform is or will be demanded to prolong the lifetime of the home. Adaption for the individuals is needed for our aging society which is growing at a rapid pace. Home autonomous mobile robots will become popular in the future for aged people to assist them in various situations. Therefore we have to collect various type of information of human and living spaces. However, a penetration in personal privacy must be avoided. It is essential to recognize flows in everyday life in order to assist house reforms and aging societies in terms of adaption for the individuals. With background subtraction, extra noise removal, and the clustering based k-means method, we got an average accuracy of more than 90% from the behavior from 1 to 3 persons, and also confirmed the reliability of our system no matter the position of the sensor. Our system can take advantages from autonomous mobile robots and protect the personal privacy. It hints at a generalization of flow recognition methods in the living spaces.

  13. Dynamic Sensor Interrogation Using Wavelength-Swept Laser with a Polygon-Scanner-Based Wavelength Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong Seok; Ko, Myeong Ock; Jung, Mi Sun; Park, Ik Gon; Kim, Namje; Han, Sang-Pil; Ryu, Han-Cheol; Park, Kyung Hyun; Jeon, Min Yong

    2013-01-01

    We report a high-speed (∼2 kHz) dynamic multiplexed fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor interrogation using a wavelength-swept laser (WSL) with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter. The scanning frequency of the WSL is 18 kHz, and the 10 dB scanning bandwidth is more than 90 nm around a center wavelength of 1,540 nm. The output from the WSL is coupled into the multiplexed FBG array, which consists of five FBGs. The reflected Bragg wavelengths of the FBGs are 1,532.02 nm, 1,537.84 nm, 1,543.48 nm, 1,547.98 nm, and 1,553.06 nm, respectively. A dynamic periodic strain ranging from 500 Hz to 2 kHz is applied to one of the multiplexed FBGs, which is fixed on the stage of the piezoelectric transducer stack. Good dynamic performance of the FBGs and recording of their fast Fourier transform spectra have been successfully achieved with a measuring speed of 18 kHz. The signal-to-noise ratio and the bandwidth over the whole frequency span are determined to be more than 30 dB and around 10 Hz, respectively. We successfully obtained a real-time measurement of the abrupt change of the periodic strain. The dynamic FBG sensor interrogation system can be read out with a WSL for high-speed and high-sensitivity real-time measurement. PMID:23899934

  14. A laser-optical sensor system for blade vibration detection of high-speed compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Mathias; Dreier, Florian; Günther, Philipp; Wilke, Ulrich; Fischer, Andreas; Büttner, Lars; Holzinger, Felix; Schiffer, Heinz-Peter; Czarske, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    Improved efficiency as well as increased lifetime of turbines and compressors are important goals in turbomachinery development. A significant enhancement to accomplish these aims can be seen in online monitoring of the operating parameters of the machines. During the operation of compressors it is of high interest to predict critical events like flutter or stall which can be achieved by observing blade deformations and vibrations. We have developed a laser Doppler distance sensor (LDDS), which is capable of simultaneously measuring the radial blade expansions, the circumferential blade deflections as well as the circumferential velocities of the rotor blade tips. As a result, an increase of blade vibrations is measured before stall at characteristic frequencies. While the detected vibration frequencies and the vibration increase are in agreement with the measurement results of a commercial capacitive blade tip timing system, the measured values of the vibration amplitudes differ by a factor of three. This difference can be mainly attributed to the different measurement locations and to the different measurement approaches. Since the LDDS is applicable to metal as well as ceramic, carbon-fiber and glass-fiber reinforced composite blades, a universally applicable sensor system for stall prediction and status monitoring is presented.

  15. Design of pre-optics for laser guide star wavefront sensor for the ELT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslimov, Eduard; Dohlen, Kjetil; Neichel, Benoit; Hugot, Emmanuel

    2017-12-01

    In the present paper, we consider the optical design of a zoom system for the active refocusing in laser guide star wavefront sensors. The system is designed according to the specifications coming from the Extremely Large Telescope (ELT)-HARMONI instrument, the first-light, integral field spectrograph for the European (E)-ELT. The system must provide a refocusing of the laser guide as a function of telescope pointing and large decentring of the incoming beam. The system considers four moving lens groups, each of them being a doublet with one aspherical surface. The advantages and shortcomings of such a solution in terms of the component displacements and complexity of the surfaces are described in detail. It is shown that the system can provide the median value of the residual wavefront error of 13.8-94.3 nm and the maximum value <206 nm, while the exit pupil distortion is 0.26-0.36% for each of the telescope pointing directions.

  16. Biostimulation effect of low-level laser on healing process after third molar surgery, based on biochemical markers in saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroulikova, Veronika; Dostálová, Tatjana; Podzimek, Stepan

    2015-02-01

    Third molar extractions in general anesthesia have become a standard procedure in dentistry. There is an effort to shorten healing time and decrease the number of complications as well as increase comfort after the treatment. Low-level lasers are known for their analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and stimulatory effect. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of low-level laser after surgery in general anesthesia reducing the patient's discomfort, i.e. mainly pain, and also, to monitor the biostimulation process. Our study included 79 patients treated at the Department of Maxilofacial Surgery, diagnosed with third molar retention. Diode low-level laser radiation (wavelength 830 nm, output power 270 mW, probe aperture of 6.4 mm2) with dose ~ 3 mJ was applied. The control group was treated by using placebo - red light. The exposure time was 11 seconds immediately after the suture; the treatment was repeated every day for the following 3 days. To evaluate the effect of laser biostimulation, the objective markers for immunological determination of healing - sIgA and lysozyme in non-stimulated saliva of patients - were used. The sIgA decreases after laser application from 546.91 mg/l to 304. 91mg/l and in the control group from 602.25mg/l to 425.62 mg/l. The results were statistically significant. The level of lysozyme decreases from 54.27 mg/l to 2.45mg/l after laser biostimulation, from 304.371mg/l to 11.08mg/l after placebo effect. The study has confirmed a low-level laser healing effect not directly related to pain.

  17. Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Pigorsch, Enrico

    1997-01-01

    This is the 5th edition of the Metra Martech Directory "EUROPEAN CENTRES OF EXPERTISE - SENSORS." The entries represent a survey of European sensors development. The new edition contains 425 detailed profiles of companies and research institutions in 22 countries. This is reflected in the diversity of sensors development programmes described, from sensors for physical parameters to biosensors and intelligent sensor systems. We do not claim that all European organisations developing sensors are included, but this is a good cross section from an invited list of participants. If you see gaps or omissions, or would like your organisation to be included, please send details. The data base invites the formation of effective joint ventures by identifying and providing access to specific areas in which organisations offer collaboration. This issue is recognised to be of great importance and most entrants include details of collaboration offered and sought. We hope the directory on Sensors will help you to find the ri...

  18. Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, H. [PBI-Dansensor A/S (Denmark); Toft Soerensen, O. [Risoe National Lab., Materials Research Dept. (Denmark)

    1999-10-01

    A new type of ceramic oxygen sensors based on semiconducting oxides was developed in this project. The advantage of these sensors compared to standard ZrO{sub 2} sensors is that they do not require a reference gas and that they can be produced in small sizes. The sensor design and the techniques developed for production of these sensors are judged suitable by the participating industry for a niche production of a new generation of oxygen sensors. Materials research on new oxygen ion conducting conductors both for applications in oxygen sensors and in fuel was also performed in this project and finally a new process was developed for fabrication of ceramic tubes by dip-coating. (EHS)

  19. Laser beam welding quality monitoring system based in high-speed (10 kHz) uncooled MWIR imaging sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Rodrigo; Vergara, German; Gutiérrez, Raúl; Fernández, Carlos; Villamayor, Víctor; Gómez, Luis; González-Camino, Maria; Baldasano, Arturo; Castro, G.; Arias, R.; Lapido, Y.; Rodríguez, J.; Romero, Pablo

    2015-05-01

    The combination of flexibility, productivity, precision and zero-defect manufacturing in future laser-based equipment are a major challenge that faces this enabling technology. New sensors for online monitoring and real-time control of laserbased processes are necessary for improving products quality and increasing manufacture yields. New approaches to fully automate processes towards zero-defect manufacturing demand smarter heads where lasers, optics, actuators, sensors and electronics will be integrated in a unique compact and affordable device. Many defects arising in laser-based manufacturing processes come from instabilities in the dynamics of the laser process. Temperature and heat dynamics are key parameters to be monitored. Low cost infrared imagers with high-speed of response will constitute the next generation of sensors to be implemented in future monitoring and control systems for laser-based processes, capable to provide simultaneous information about heat dynamics and spatial distribution. This work describes the result of using an innovative low-cost high-speed infrared imager based on the first quantum infrared imager monolithically integrated with Si-CMOS ROIC of the market. The sensor is able to provide low resolution images at frame rates up to 10 KHz in uncooled operation at the same cost as traditional infrared spot detectors. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of the new sensor technology, a low-cost camera was assembled on a standard production laser welding head, allowing to register melting pool images at frame rates of 10 kHz. In addition, a specific software was developed for defect detection and classification. Multiple laser welding processes were recorded with the aim to study the performance of the system and its application to the real-time monitoring of laser welding processes. During the experiments, different types of defects were produced and monitored. The classifier was fed with the experimental images obtained. Self

  20. Retrieval of water vapor mixing ratios from a laser-based sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, George F.

    1995-01-01

    Langley Research Center has developed a novel external path sensor which monitors water vapor along an optical path between an airplane window and reflective material on the plane's engine. An infrared tunable diode laser is wavelength modulated across a water vapor absorption line at a frequency f. The 2f and DC signals are measured by a detector mounted adjacent to the laser. The 2f/DC ratio depends on the amount of wavelength modulation, the water vapor absorption line being observed, and the temperature, pressure, and water vapor content of the atmosphere. The present work concerns efforts to quantify the contributions of these factors and to derive a method for extracting the water vapor mixing ratio from the measurements. A 3 m cell was fabricated in order to perform laboratory tests of the sensor. Measurements of 2f/DC were made for a series of pressures and modulation amplitudes. During my 1994 faculty fellowship, a computer program was created which allowed 2f/DC to be calculated for any combination of the variables which effect it. This code was used to generate 2f/DC values for the conditions measured in the laboratory. The experimental and theoretical values agreed to within a few percent. As a result, the laser modulation amplitude can now be set in the field by comparing the response of the instrument to the calculated response as a function of modulation amplitude. Once the validity of the computer code was established, it was used to investigate possible candidate absorption lines. 2f/DC values were calculated for pressures, temperatures, and water vapor mixing ratios expected to be encountered in future missions. The results have been incorporated into a database which will be used to select the best line for a particular mission. The database will also be used to select a retrieval technique. For examples under some circumstances there is little temperature dependence in 2f/DC so temperature can be neglected. In other cases, there is a dependence

  1. High Temperature and High Sensitive NOx Gas Sensor with Hetero-Junction Structure using Laser Ablation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Shi, Liqin; Hasegawa, Yuki; Katsube, Teruaki

    In order to develop a high temperature (200°C˜400°C) and high sensitive NOx gas sensor, we developed a new structure of SiC-based hetero-junction device Pt/SnO2/SiC/Ni, Pt/In2O3/SiC/Ni and Pt/WO3/SiC/Ni using a laser ablation method for the preparation of both metal (Pt) electrode and metal-oxide film. It was found that Pt/In2O3/SiC/Ni sensor shows higher sensitivity to NO2 gas compared with the Pt/SnO2/SiC/Ni and Pt/WO3/SiC/Ni sensor, whereas the Pt/WO3/SiC/Ni sensor had better sensitivity to NO gas. These results suggest that selective detection of NO and NO2 gases may be obtained by choosing different metal oxide films.

  2. Development and characterization of a semi-conductor laser sensor for real time measurement and identification of atmospheric pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulos, F.; Zaatar, Y.; Atanas, J.P.; Bechara, J.

    2004-01-01

    Full text.Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) in the near infrared (NIR) using semiconductor lasers of compounds between elements of group III (Ga, Al and In) and group V (P, As and Sb) is being increasingly used in various environmental and industrial process control applications. This technique exploits the unique properties of these laser materials i.e., high coherence, high monochromaticity, low divergence and high brightness to permit rapid sensitive detection with high selectivity and spectral resolution. A computer-interfaced near infrared semiconductor laser sensor has been developed in our laboratory for spectroscopic applications in air pollution monitoring. The sensor can be operated in two configurations: open path free beam coupled to a multiple pass White cell and fiber optic guided beam coupled to an evanescent wave sensor. This paper will present an overview of the system's modulation, sensing and data acquisition methods and some recent measurement results, together with a description of ongoing research and development for the improvement of the system's performance and sensitivity

  3. Self-Passivation by Fluorine Plasma Treatment and Low-Temperature Annealing in SiGe Nano wires for Biochemical Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, K.; Chen, C.; Kuo, P.; Chen, Y.; Chang, T.; Lai, C.; Whang, A. J.; Lai, Y.; Chen, H.; Hsieh, I.

    2014-01-01

    Nano wires are widely used as highly sensitive sensors for electrical detection of biological and chemical species. Modifying the band structure of strained-Si metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors by applying the in-plane tensile strain reportedly improves electron and hole mobility. The oxidation-induced Ge condensation increases the Ge fraction in a SiGe-on-insulator (SGOI) and substantially increases hole mobility. However, oxidation increases the number of surface states, resulting in hole mobility degradation. In this work, 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) was used as a biochemical reagent. The hydroxyl molecule on the oxide surface was replaced by the methoxy groups of the APTMS molecule. We proposed a surface plasma treatment to improve the electrical properties of SiGe nano wires. Fluorine plasma treatment can result in enhanced rates of thermal oxidation and speed up the formation of a self-passivation oxide layer. Like a capping oxide layer, the self-passivation oxide layer reduces the rate of follow-up oxidation. Pre oxidation treatment also improved the sensitivity of SiGe nano wires because the Si-F binding was held at a more stable interface state compared to bare nano wire on the SiGe surface. Additionally, the sensitivity can be further improved by either the N 2 plasma posttreatment or the low-temperature post annealing due to the suppression of out diffusion of Ge and F atoms from the SiGe nano wire surface.

  4. Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance with Five-Branched Gold Nanostars in a Plastic Optical Fiber for Bio-Chemical Sensor Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cennamo, Nunzio; D'Agostino, Girolamo; Donà, Alice; Dacarro, Giacomo; Pallavicini, Piersandro; Pesavento, Maria; Zeni, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a refractive index sensor based on localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in a Plastic Optical Fiber (POF), is presented and experimentally tested. LSPR is achieved exploiting five-branched gold nanostars (GNS) obtained using Triton X-100 in a seed-growth synthesis. They have the uncommon feature of three localized surface plasmon resonances. The strongest LSPRs fall in two ranges, one in the 600–900 nm range (LSPR 2) and the other one in the 1,100–1,600 nm range (LSPR 3), both sensible to refractive index changes. Anyway, due to the extremely strong attenuation (>102 dB/m) of the employed POF in the 1,100–1,600 nm range, only LSPR 2 will be exploited for refractive index change measurements, useful for bio-chemical sensing applications, as a proof of principle of the possibility of realizing a compact, low cost and easy-to-use GNS based device. PMID:24172284

  5. Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance with Five-Branched Gold Nanostars in a Plastic Optical Fiber for Bio-Chemical Sensor Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Zeni

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a refractive index sensor based on localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR in a Plastic Optical Fiber (POF, is presented and experimentally tested. LSPR is achieved exploiting five-branched gold nanostars (GNS obtained using Triton X-100 in a seed-growth synthesis. They have the uncommon feature of three localized surface plasmon resonances. The strongest LSPRs fall in two ranges, one in the 600–900 nm range (LSPR 2 and the other one in the 1,100–1,600 nm range (LSPR 3, both sensible to refractive index changes. Anyway, due to the extremely strong attenuation (>102 dB/m of the employed POF in the 1,100–1,600 nm range, only LSPR 2 will be exploited for refractive index change measurements, useful for bio-chemical sensing applications, as a proof of principle of the possibility of realizing a compact, low cost and easy-to-use GNS based device.

  6. Heterodyne laser Doppler distance sensor with phase coding measuring stationary as well as laterally and axially moving objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfister, T; Günther, P; Nöthen, M; Czarske, J

    2010-01-01

    Both in production engineering and process control, multidirectional displacements, deformations and vibrations of moving or rotating components have to be measured dynamically, contactlessly and with high precision. Optical sensors would be predestined for this task, but their measurement rate is often fundamentally limited. Furthermore, almost all conventional sensors measure only one measurand, i.e. either out-of-plane or in-plane distance or velocity. To solve this problem, we present a novel phase coded heterodyne laser Doppler distance sensor (PH-LDDS), which is able to determine out-of-plane (axial) position and in-plane (lateral) velocity of rough solid-state objects simultaneously and independently with a single sensor. Due to the applied heterodyne technique, stationary or purely axially moving objects can also be measured. In addition, it is shown theoretically as well as experimentally that this sensor offers concurrently high temporal resolution and high position resolution since its position uncertainty is in principle independent of the lateral object velocity in contrast to conventional distance sensors. This is a unique feature of the PH-LDDS enabling precise and dynamic position and shape measurements also of fast moving objects. With an optimized sensor setup, an average position resolution of 240 nm was obtained

  7. Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy Sensor for Calibration Free Humidity Measurements in Pure Methane and Low CO2 Natural Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaboh, Javis Anyangwe; Pratzler, Sonja; Werhahn, Olav; Ebert, Volker

    2017-05-01

    We report a new direct tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (dTDLAS) sensor for absolute measurements of H 2 O in methane, ethane, propane, and low CO 2 natural gas. The sensor is operated with a 2.7 µm DFB laser, equipped with a high pressure single pass gas cell, and used to measure H 2 O amount of substance fractions in the range of 0.31-25 000 µmol/mol. Operating total gas pressures are up to 5000 hPa. The sensor has been characterized, addressing the traceability of the spectrometric results to the SI and the evaluation of the combined uncertainty, following the guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM). The relative reproducibility of H 2 O amount of substance fraction measurements at 87 µmol/mol is 0.26% (0.23 µmol/mol). The maximum precision of the sensor was determined using a H 2 O in methane mixture, and found to be 40 nmol/mol for a time resolution of 100 s. This corresponds to a normalized detection limit of 330 nmol mol -1 ·m Hz -1/2 . The relative combined uncertainty of H 2 O amount fraction measurements delivered by the sensor is 1.2%.

  8. Effect of excimer laser (Arf, 193 nm) on aqueous humor during photorefractive keratectomy biophysical and biochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, S.S.; Mahmoud, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Ultraviolet light (193 nm) produced by an excimer laser has been used to produce precise tissue ablation with minimal thermal damage to adjacent tissue. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of excimer laser during photo refractive keratectomy (PRK) on aqueous humor constituents and also the effect of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD)- applied topically- on these changes if exist. Five groups of schenchilla rabbits were involved in this study, where four groups underwent corneal stromal ablation using argon fluoride excimer laser (Ar F, 193 nm). Two of these four groups were treated with superoxide dismutase intra operatively. The fifth group was used as control one. The obtained results revealed depletion of aqueous humor ascorbate and glutathione contents. Aqueous humor refractive index, cholesterol, phospholipids, malondialdehyde (MDA) and total protein were measured. In conclusion, the excimer laser can induce changes in aqueous humor constituents during PRK. These changes lasted at least for 24 hours and as the time increased to 4 weeks, these changes became limited. The use of exogenous SOD seems to exert beneficial effect on aqueous humor refractive index and total protein

  9. Sensitive Mid-IR Laser Sensor Development and Mass Spectrometric Measurements in Shock Tube and Flames

    KAUST Repository

    Alquaity, Awad

    2016-11-01

    With global emission regulations becoming stringent, development of new combustion technologies that meet future emission regulations is essential. In this vein, this dissertation presents the application of sensitive diagnostic tools to validate and improve chemical kinetic mechanisms that play a fundamental role in the design of new combustion technologies. First, a novel high sensitivity laser-based sensor with a wide frequency tuning range (900 – 1000 cm-1) was developed utilizing pulsed cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS) technique. The novel laser-based sensor was illustrated by measuring trace amounts of multiple combustion intermediates, namely ethylene, propene, allene, and 1-butene in a static cell at ambient conditions. Subsequently, pulsed CRDS technique was utilized to develop an ultra-fast, high sensitivity diagnostic to monitor trace concentrations of ethylene in shock tube pyrolysis experiments. This diagnostic represented the first ever successful application of CRDS technique to transient species measurements in a shock tube. The high sensitivity and fast time response (10μs) diagnostic may be utilized for measuring other key neutrals and radicals which are crucial in the oxidation chemistry of practical fuels. Secondly, a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) was employed to measure relative cation mole fractions in atmospheric and low-pressure (30 Torr) flames of methane/oxygen diluted in argon. Lean, stoichiometric and rich flames were 4 examined to evaluate the dependence of ion chemistry on flame stoichiometry. Spatial distribution of cations was compared with predictions of an existing ion chemistry model. Based on the extensive measurements carried out in this work, modifications were suggested to improve the ion chemistry model to enhance the fidelity of such mechanisms. In-depth understanding of flame ion chemistry is vital to model the interaction of flames with electric fields and thereby pave the way to enable active combustion control

  10. Ubiquitous Total Station Development using Smartphone, RSSI and Laser Sensor providing service to Ubi-GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Shoushtari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The growing trend in technological advances and Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS has targeted for intelligent human lives. Accordingly, Ubiquitous Computing Approach was proposed by Mark Weiser. This paper proposes an ubiquitous surveying solution in Geometrics and surveying field. Ubiquitous Surveying provides cost-effective, smart and available surveying techniques while traditional surveying equipment are so expensive and have small availability specially in indoor and daily surveying jobs. In order to have a smart surveying instrument, different information technology methods and tools like Triangle method, Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI method and laser sensor are used. These new ways in combine with surveying equations introduces a modern surveying equipment called Ubi-Total Station that also employed different sensors embedded in smartphone and mobile stand. RSSI-based localization and Triangle method technique are easy and well known methods to predict the position of an unknown node in indoor environments whereas additional measures are required for a sufficient accuracy. In this paper the main goal is to introduce the Ubiquitous Total Station as a development in smart and ubiquitous GIS. In order to public use of the surveying equipment, design and implementation of this instrument has been done. Conceptual model of Smartphone-based system is designed for this study and based on this model, an Android application as a first sample is developed. Finally the evaluations shows that absolute errors in X and Y calculation are 0.028 and 0.057 meter respectively. Also RMSE of 0.26 was calculated in RSSI method for distance measurement. The high price of traditional equipment and their requirement for professional surveyors has given way to intelligent surveying. In the suggested system, smartphones can be used as tools for positioning and coordinating geometric information of objects.

  11. Proposed ultraviolet free-electron laser at Brookhaven National Laboratory: A source for time-resolved biochemical spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.D.; Sutherland, J.C.; Laws, W.R.

    1992-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory is designing an ultraviolet free- electron laser (UV-FEL) user facility that will provide pico-second and sub-picosecond pulses of coherent ultraviolet radiation for wavelengths from 300 to 75 nm. Pulse width will be variable from abut 7 ps to ∼ 200 fs, with repetition rates as high as 10 4 Hz, single pulse energies > 1 mJ and hence peak pulse power >200 MW and average beam power > 10 W. The facility will be capable of ''pump-probe'' experiments utilizing the FEL radiation with: (1) synchronized auxiliary lasers, (2) a second, independently tunable FEL beam, or (3) broad-spectrum, high-intensity x-rays from the adjacent National Synchrotron Light Source. The UV-FEL consists of a high repetition rate recirculating superconducting linear accelerator which feeds pulses of electrons to two magnetic wigglers. Within these two devices, photons from tunable ''conventional'' laser would be frequency multiplied and amplified. By synchronously tuning the seed laser and modulating the energy of the electron beam, tuning of as much as 60% in wavelength is possible between alternating pulses supplied to different experimental stations, with Fourier transform limited resolution. Thus, up to four independent experiments may operate at one time, each with independent control of the wavelength and pulse duration. The UV-FEL will make possible new avenues of inquiry in time studies of diverse field including chemical, surface, and solid state physics, biology and materials science. The experimental area is scheduled to include a station dedicated to biological research. The complement of experimental and support facilities required by the biology station will be determined by the interests of the user community. 7 refs., 5 figs

  12. Optical fibres sensor based in the intensity switch of a linear laser with two Bragg gratings; Sensor de fibra optica basado en el salto de intensidad de un laser lineal con dos rejillas de Bragg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basurto P, M.A.; Kuzin, E.A.; Archundia B, C.; Marroquin, E.; May A, M.; Cerecedo N, H.H.; Sanchez M, J.J. [Departamento de Fotonica y Fisica Optica, Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE). Apartado Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Tentori S, D.; Marquez B, I.; Shliagin, M.; Miridonov, S. [Centro de Investigacion CESE (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In this work we propose a new configuration for an optical fiber temperature sensor, based on a linear type Er-doped fiber laser. The laser cavity consists of an Er-doped fiber and two identical Bragg gratings at the fiber ends (working as reflectors). Temperature changes are detected by measuring, through one of the gratings, the intensity variations atthe system's output. When the temperature of one of the Bragg gratings is modified, a wavelength shift of its spectral reflectivity is observed. Hence, the laser emission intensity of the system is modified. We present experimental results of the intensity switch observed when the temperature difference between the gratings detunes their spectral reflectance. Making use of this effect it is possible to develop limit comparators to bound the temperature range for the object under supervision. This limiting work can be performed with a high sensitivity using a very simple interrogation procedure. (Author)

  13. Single-point relative process using Laser-Doppler velocimetry for calibration of flow sensors at temperatures above 100 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    Due to technical difficulties, the calibration of flow sensors of heat meters above 100 C cannot be performed by the gravimetric standard method. A novel method using a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) was therefore developed, based on the gravimetric method below 100 C and on Reynolds' similarity law. This method allows a turbine meter to be calibrated as a secondary flowrate standard with a relative uncertainty below 0,2% for temperatures of up to 180 C. (orig.) [de

  14. Laser light-section sensor automating the production of textile-reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, R.; Niggemann, C.; Mersmann, C.

    2009-05-01

    Due to their advanced weight-specific mechanical properties, the application of fibre-reinforced plastics (FRP) has been established as a key technology in several engineering areas. Textile-based reinforcement structures (Preform) in particular achieve a high structural integrity due to the multi-dimensional build-up of dry-fibre layers combined with 3D-sewing and further textile processes. The final composite parts provide enhanced damage tolerances through excellent crash-energy absorbing characteristics. For these reasons, structural parts (e.g. frame) will be integrated in next generation airplanes. However, many manufacturing processes for FRP are still involving manual production steps without integrated quality control. The non-automated production implies considerable process dispersion and a high rework rate. Before the final inspection there is no reliable information about the production status. This work sets metrology as the key to automation and thus an economically feasible production, applying a laser light-section sensor system (LLSS) to measure process quality and feed back the results to close control loops of the production system. The developed method derives 3D-measurements from height profiles acquired by the LLSS. To assure the textile's quality a full surface scan is conducted, detecting defects or misalignment by comparing the measurement results with a CAD model of the lay-up. The method focuses on signal processing of the height profiles to ensure a sub-pixel accuracy using a novel algorithm based on a non-linear least-square fitting to a set of sigmoid functions. To compare the measured surface points to the CAD model, material characteristics are incorporated into the method. This ensures that only the fibre layer of the textile's surface is included and gaps between the fibres or overlaying seams are neglected. Finally, determining the uncertainty in measurement according to the GUM-standard proofed the sensor system's accuracy

  15. A Fiber Optic PD Sensor Using a Balanced Sagnac Interferometer and an EDFA-Based DOP Tunable Fiber Ring Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lutang; Fang, Nian; Wu, Chunxu; Qin, Haijuan; Huang, Zhaoming

    2014-01-01

    A novel fiber-optic acoustic sensor using an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA)-based fiber ring laser and a balanced Sagnac interferometer for acoustic sensing of the partial discharge (PD) in power transformers is proposed and demonstrated. As a technical background, an experimental investigation on how the variations of the fiber birefringence affect the sensor performances was carried out, and the results are discussed. The operation principles are described, and the relevant formulas are derived. The analytical results show that an EDFA-based fiber ring laser operating in chaotic mode can provide a degree of polarization (DOP) tunable light beam for effectively suppressing polarization fading noises. The balanced Sagnac interferometer can eliminate command intensity noises and enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Furthermore, it inherently operates at the quadrature point of the response curve without any active stabilizations. Several experiments are conducted for evaluating the performances of the sensor system, as well as for investigating the ability of the detection of high-frequency acoustic emission signals. The experimental results demonstrate that the DOP of the laser beam can be continuously tuned from 0.2% to 100%, and the power fluctuation in the whole DOP tuning range is less than 0.05 dBm. A high-frequency response up to 300 kHz is reached, and the high sensing sensitivity for detections of weak corona discharges, as well as partial discharges also is verified. PMID:24824371

  16. Prototype of a laser guide star wavefront sensor for the Extremely Large Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patti, M.; Lombini, M.; Schreiber, L.; Bregoli, G.; Arcidiacono, C.; Cosentino, G.; Diolaiti, E.; Foppiani, I.

    2018-06-01

    The new class of large telescopes, like the future Extremely Large Telescope (ELT), are designed to work with a laser guide star (LGS) tuned to a resonance of atmospheric sodium atoms. This wavefront sensing technique presents complex issues when applied to big telescopes for many reasons, mainly linked to the finite distance of the LGS, the launching angle, tip-tilt indetermination and focus anisoplanatism. The implementation of a laboratory prototype for the LGS wavefront sensor (WFS) at the beginning of the phase study of MAORY (Multi-conjugate Adaptive Optics Relay) for ELT first light has been indispensable in investigating specific mitigation strategies for the LGS WFS issues. This paper presents the test results of the LGS WFS prototype under different working conditions. The accuracy within which the LGS images are generated on the Shack-Hartmann WFS has been cross-checked with the MAORY simulation code. The experiments show the effect of noise on centroiding precision, the impact of LGS image truncation on wavefront sensing accuracy as well as the temporal evolution of the sodium density profile and LGS image under-sampling.

  17. Compact laser interferometer for translation and tilt measurement as optical readout for the LISA inertial sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuldt, Thilo; Gohlke, Martin; Weise, Dennis; Johann, Ulrich; Peters, Achim; Braxmaier, Claus

    2007-10-01

    The space mission LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) aims at detecting gravitational waves in the frequency range 30 μ Hz to 1Hz. Free flying proof masses inside the satellites act as inertial sensors and represent the end mirrors of the interferometer. In the current baseline design, LISA utilizes an optical readout of the position and tilt of the proof mass with respect to the satellite housing. This readout must have ~ 5pm/√Hz sensitivity for the translation measurement (for frequencies above 2.8mHz with an ƒ -2 relaxation down to 30 μHz) and ~ 10 nrad/√Hz sensitivity for the tilt measurement (for frequencies above 0.1mHz with an ƒ -1 relaxation down to 30 μHz). The University of Applied Sciences Konstanz (HTWG) - in collaboration with Astrium GmbH, Friedrichshafen, and the Humboldt-University Berlin - therefore develops a highly symmetric heterodyne interferometer implementing differential wavefront sensing for the tilt measurement. We realized a mechanically highly stable and compact setup. In a second, improved setup we measured initial noise levels below 5 pm/√Hz and 10 nrad/√Hz, respectively, for frequencies above 10mHz.

  18. A flexible calibration method for laser displacement sensors based on a stereo-target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jie; Sun, Junhua; Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Guangjun

    2014-01-01

    Laser displacement sensors (LDSs) are widely used in online measurement owing to their characteristics of non-contact, high measurement speed, etc. However, existing calibration methods for LDSs based on the traditional triangulation measurement model are time-consuming and tedious to operate. In this paper, a calibration method for LDSs based on a vision measurement model of the LDS is presented. According to the constraint relationships of the model parameters, the calibration is implemented by freely moving a stereo-target at least twice in the field of view of the LDS. Both simulation analyses and real experiments were conducted. Experimental results demonstrate that the calibration method achieves an accuracy of 0.044 mm within the measurement range of about 150 mm. Compared to traditional calibration methods, the proposed method has no special limitation on the relative position of the LDS and the target. The linearity approximation of the measurement model in the calibration is not needed, and thus the measurement range is not limited in the linearity range. It is easy and quick to implement the calibration for the LDS. The method can be applied in wider fields. (paper)

  19. A laser-based sensor for measurement of off-gas composition and temperature in basic oxygen steelmaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottesen, D.; Allendorf, S.; Ludowise, P.; Hardesty, D.; Miller, T.; Goldstein, D.; Smith, C.; Bonin, M.

    1999-01-01

    We are developing an optical sensor for process control in basic oxygen steelmaking. The sensor measures gas temperature and relative CO/CO 2 concentration ratios in the furnace off-gas by transmitting the laser probe beam directly above the furnace lip and below the exhaust hood during oxygen blowing. Dynamic off-gas information is being evaluated for optimizing variables such as lance height, oxygen flow, post-combustion control, and prediction of final melt-carbon content. The non-invasive nature of the optical sensor renders it robust and relatively maintenance-free. Additional potential applications of the method are process control for electric arc furnace and bottom-blown oxygen steelmaking processes. (author)

  20. A simulation environment for assisting system design of coherent laser doppler wind sensor for active wind turbine pitch control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Leilei; Pham Tran, Tuan Anh; Beuth, Thorsten; Umesh Babu, Harsha; Heussner, Nico; Bogatscher, Siegwart; Danilova, Svetlana; Stork, Wilhelm

    2013-05-01

    In order to assist a system design of laser coherent Doppler wind sensor for active pitch control of wind turbine systems (WTS), we developed a numerical simulation environment for modeling and simulation of the sensor system. In this paper we present this simulation concept. In previous works, we have shown the general idea and the possibility of using a low cost coherent laser Doppler wind sensing system for an active pitch control of WTS in order to achieve a reduced mechanical stress, increase the WTS lifetime and therefore reduce the electricity price from wind energy. Such a system is based on a 1.55μm Continuous-Wave (CW) laser plus an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) with an output power of 1W. Within this system, an optical coherent detection method is chosen for the Doppler frequency measurement in megahertz range. A comparatively low cost short coherent length laser with a fiber delay line is used for achieving a multiple range measurement. In this paper, we show the current results on the improvement of our simulation by applying a Monte Carlo random generation method for positioning the random particles in atmosphere and extend the simulation to the entire beam penetrated space by introducing a cylindrical co-ordinate concept and meshing the entire volume into small elements in order to achieve a faster calculation and gain more realistic simulation result. In addition, by applying different atmospheric parameters, such as particle sizes and distributions, we can simulate different weather and wind situations.

  1. Intra-pulse laser absorption sensor with cavity enhancement for oxidation experiments in a rapid compression machine

    KAUST Repository

    Nasir, Ehson Fawad

    2018-05-23

    A sensor based on a mid-IR pulsed quantum cascade laser (QCL) and off-axis cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OA-CEAS) has been developed for highly sensitive concentration measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) in a rapid compression machine. The duty cycle and the pulse repetition rate of the laser were optimized for increased tuning range, high chirp rate, and small line width to achieve effective laser-cavity coupling. This enabled spectrally resolved CO line-shape measurements at high pressures (P ~10 bar). A gain factor of 133 and a time resolution of 10 μs were demonstrated. CO concentration-time profiles during the oxidation of highly dilute n-octane/air mixtures were recorded, illustrating new opportunities in RCM experiments for chemical kinetics.

  2. Photoacoustic CO2 sensor based on a DFB diode laser at 2.7 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, M.; Germer, M.; Groninga, H. G.; Harde, H.

    2008-01-01

    We present a new detection scheme for carbon dioxide (CO{2}) based on a custom-made room temperature distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser at 2.7 μm, currently representing one of the lasers with the highest emission wavelength of its kind. The detector's especially compact and simple set-up is based on photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS). This method makes use of the transformation of absorbed modulated radiation into a sound wave. The sensor enables a very high detection sensitivity for CO{2} in the ppb range. Furthermore, the carefully selected spectral region as well as the narrow bandwidth and wide tunability of the single-mode laser ensure an excellent selectivity. Even measurements of different CO{2} isotopes can be easily performed. This enables applications in industrial sensing and medical diagnostics (e.g. 13C-breath tests).

  3. Polymer photonic crystal dye lasers as label free evanescent cell sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Lopacinska, Joanna M.; Jakobsen, Mogens Havsteen

    2009-01-01

    . The lasers are fabricated by combined nanoimprint and photolithography (CNP) in Ormocore hybrid polymer doped with the laser dye Pyrromethene 597. The lasers emit in the chip plane at a wavelength around 595 nm when pumped with 5 ns pulses from a compact frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser. We investigate...

  4. Laser self-mixing interferometry in VCSELs - an ultra-compact and massproduceable deflection detection system for nanomechanical polymer cantilever sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, David; Yvind, Kresten; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2008-01-01

    We have realised an ultra-compact deflection detection system based on laser self-mixing interferometry in a Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL). The system can be used together with polymer nanomechanical cantilevers to form chemical sensors capable of detecting less than 1nm deflection....

  5. Aerometrics' laser-based lane-tracker sensor: engineering and on-the-road evaluation of advanced prototypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Carlos A.; Tapos, Francis M.; Alayleh, Mehyeddine M.; Bachalo, William D.

    1997-02-01

    Aerometrics initiated and continues on the development an innovative laser-diode based device that provides a warning signal when a motor-vehicle deviates from the center of the lane. The device is based on a sensor that scans the roadway on either side of the vehicle and determines the lateral position relative to the existing painted lines marking the lane. The principles of operation of the sensor, and the results of Aerometrics' early testing were presented last year in this forum. This paper presents Aerometrics' continuing efforts in bringing the technology to market. New prototypes have been developed and tested. Aerometrics' engineering efforts and the use of latest technologies have resulted in a 24-fold reduction in sensor volume when compared to their predecessors and similar reductions in weight. The current prototype measures less than 9 cm X 8 cm X 7 cm, and can be easily fit within the cavity of rear-view mirror holders used in most present-day vehicles. Also, advances in signal conditioning and processing have improved the reliability of the sensor. Results of continuing testing of the sensor will be presented.

  6. Constraining atmospheric ammonia emissions through new observations with an open-path, laser-based sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kang

    As the third most abundant nitrogen species in the atmosphere, ammonia (NH3) is a key component of the global nitrogen cycle. Since the industrial revolution, humans have more than doubled the emissions of NH3 to the atmosphere by industrial nitrogen fixation, revolutionizing agricultural practices, and burning fossil fuels. NH3 is a major precursor to fine particulate matter (PM2.5), which has adverse impacts on air quality and human health. The direct and indirect aerosol radiative forcings currently constitute the largest uncertainties for future climate change predictions. Gas and particle phase NH3 eventually deposits back to the Earth's surface as reactive nitrogen, leading to the exceedance of ecosystem critical loads and perturbation of ecosystem productivity. Large uncertainties still remain in estimating the magnitude and spatiotemporal patterns of NH3 emissions from all sources and over a range of scales. These uncertainties in emissions also propagate to the deposition of reactive nitrogen. To improve our understanding of NH3 emissions, observational constraints are needed from local to global scales. The first part of this thesis is to provide quality-controlled, reliable NH3 measurements in the field using an open-path, quantum cascade laser-based NH3 sensor. As the second and third part of my research, NH3 emissions were quantified from a cattle feedlot using eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements, and the similarities between NH3 turbulent fluxes and those of other scalars (temperature, water vapor, and CO2) were investigated. The fourth part involves applying a mobile laboratory equipped with the open-path NH3 sensor and other important chemical/meteorological measurements to quantify fleet-integrated NH3 emissions from on-road vehicles. In the fifth part, the on-road measurements were extended to multiple major urban areas in both the US and China in the context of five observation campaigns. The results significantly improved current urban NH3

  7. A Quantum Cascade Laser-Based CO Sensor for Fire Warning, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Maxion Technologies, Inc. (Maxion) proposes to develop and field test a Carbon Monoxide (CO)-sensor prototype for post fire cleanup and CO detection. The sensor will...

  8. An Improved Measurement Method for the Strength of Radiation of Reflective Beam in an Industrial Optical Sensor Based on Laser Displacement Meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngchul Bae

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An optical sensor such as a laser range finder (LRF or laser displacement meter (LDM uses reflected and returned laser beam from a target. The optical sensor has been mainly used to measure the distance between a launch position and the target. However, optical sensor based LRF and LDM have numerous and various errors such as statistical errors, drift errors, cyclic errors, alignment errors and slope errors. Among these errors, an alignment error that contains measurement error for the strength of radiation of returned laser beam from the target is the most serious error in industrial optical sensors. It is caused by the dependence of the measurement offset upon the strength of radiation of returned beam incident upon the focusing lens from the target. In this paper, in order to solve these problems, we propose a novel method for the measurement of the output of direct current (DC voltage that is proportional to the strength of radiation of returned laser beam in the received avalanche photo diode (APD circuit. We implemented a measuring circuit that is able to provide an exact measurement of reflected laser beam. By using the proposed method, we can measure the intensity or strength of radiation of laser beam in real time and with a high degree of precision.

  9. An Improved Measurement Method for the Strength of Radiation of Reflective Beam in an Industrial Optical Sensor Based on Laser Displacement Meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Youngchul

    2016-05-23

    An optical sensor such as a laser range finder (LRF) or laser displacement meter (LDM) uses reflected and returned laser beam from a target. The optical sensor has been mainly used to measure the distance between a launch position and the target. However, optical sensor based LRF and LDM have numerous and various errors such as statistical errors, drift errors, cyclic errors, alignment errors and slope errors. Among these errors, an alignment error that contains measurement error for the strength of radiation of returned laser beam from the target is the most serious error in industrial optical sensors. It is caused by the dependence of the measurement offset upon the strength of radiation of returned beam incident upon the focusing lens from the target. In this paper, in order to solve these problems, we propose a novel method for the measurement of the output of direct current (DC) voltage that is proportional to the strength of radiation of returned laser beam in the received avalanche photo diode (APD) circuit. We implemented a measuring circuit that is able to provide an exact measurement of reflected laser beam. By using the proposed method, we can measure the intensity or strength of radiation of laser beam in real time and with a high degree of precision.

  10. Real time ammonia detection in exhaled human breath using a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser based sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicki, Rafał; Kosterev, Anatoliy A.; Thomazy, David M.; Risby, Terence H.; Solga, Steven; Schwartz, Timothy B.; Tittel, Frank K.

    2011-01-01

    A continuous wave, thermoelectrically cooled, distributed feedback quantum cascade laser (DFB-QCL) based sensor platform for the quantitative detection of ammonia (NH3) concentrations present in exhaled human breath is reported. The NH3 concentration measurements are performed with a 2f wavelength modulation quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) technique, which is very well suited for real time breath analysis, due to the fast gas exchange inside a compact QEPAS gas cell. An air-cooled DFB-QCL was designed to target the interference-free NH3 absorption line located at 967.35 cm-1 (λ~10.34 μm). The laser is operated at 17.5 °C, emitting ~ 24 mW of optical power at the selected wavelength. A 1σ minimum detectable concentration of ammonia for the line-locked NH3 sensor is ~ 6 ppb with 1 sec time resolution. The NH3 sensor, packaged in a 12"x14"x10" housing, is currently installed at a medical breath research center in Bethlehem, PA and tested as an instrument for non-invasive verification of liver and kidney disorders based on human breath samples.

  11. Low-Temperature Rapid Fabrication of ZnO Nanowire UV Sensor Array by Laser-Induced Local Hydrothermal Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukjoon Hong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate ZnO nanowire based UV sensor by laser-induced hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowire. By inducing a localized temperature rise using focused laser, ZnO nanowire array at ~15 μm size consists of individual nanowires with ~8 μm length and 200~400 nm diameter is readily synthesized on gold electrode within 30 min at the desired position. The laser-induced growth process is consecutively applied on two different points to bridge the micron gap between the electrodes. The resultant photoconductive ZnO NW interconnections display 2~3 orders increase in the current upon the UV exposure at a fixed voltage bias. It is also confirmed that the amount of photocurrent can be easily adjusted by changing the number of ZnO NW array junctions. The device exhibits clear response to the repeated UV illumination, suggesting that this process can be usefully applied for the facile fabrication of low-cost UV sensor array.

  12. Graphene functionalised by laser-ablated V2O5 for a highly sensitive NH3 sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margus Kodu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Graphene has been recognized as a promising gas sensing material. The response of graphene-based sensors can be radically improved by introducing defects in graphene using, for example, metal or metal oxide nanoparticles. We have functionalised CVD grown, single-layer graphene by applying pulsed laser deposition (PLD of V2O5 which resulted in a thin V2O5 layer on graphene with average thickness of ≈0.6 nm. From Raman spectroscopy, it was concluded that the PLD process also induced defects in graphene. Compared to unmodified graphene, the obtained chemiresistive sensor showed considerable improvement of sensing ammonia at room temperature. In addition, the response time, sensitivity and reversibility were essentially enhanced due to graphene functionalisation by laser deposited V2O5. This can be explained by an increased surface density of gas adsorption sites introduced by high energy atoms in laser ablation plasma and formation of nanophase boundaries between deposited V2O5 and graphene.

  13. Optical fiber laser sensor with a cavity of 8.6 Km formed by two fiber Bragg gratings used as mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May A, M.; Kuzin, E.A.; Vazquez S, R.A. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, A. P. 51 y 216, C.P. 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Basurto P, M.A. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad No. 1001, Col. Chamilpa, C.P. 62210 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Shlyagin, M.G.; Marquez B, I. [Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Ensenanza Superior de Ensenada, C.P. 22860 Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    We report the operation of a fiber laser sensor made by an Erbium Doped Fiber pumped at 980 nm, an 8.67 km passive fiber and two fiber Bragg gratings placed at the ends of the laser cavity. Under normal conditions, the Bragg gratings have different reflection wavelengths and laser emission is not generated. The two Bragg gratings can be placed at the same reflection wavelength when the Bragg grating with the lowest reflective wavelength is strained which can be used as a sensor element. The laser generation thus shows that the Bragg grating is under strain. Furthermore, our configuration give us the possibility for knowing the distance between two Bragg gratings when the laser beating frequency is measured. A measurement precision better than 25 m in 8.67 Km is shown to be feasible. (Author)

  14. Optical fiber laser sensor with a cavity of 8.6 Km formed by two fiber Bragg gratings used as mirrors

    CERN Document Server

    May, M; Vázquez, R A; Basurto, M A; Shlyagin, M G; Márquez, I

    2002-01-01

    We report the operation of a fiber laser sensor made by an Erbium Doped Fiber pumped at 980 nm, an 8.67 km passive fiber and two fiber Bragg gratings placed at the ends of the laser cavity. Under normal conditions, the Bragg gratings have different reflection wavelengths and laser emission is not generated. The two Bragg gratings can be placed at the same reflection wavelength when the Bragg grating with the lowest reflective wavelength is strained which can be used as a sensor element. The laser generation thus shows that the Bragg grating is under strain. Furthermore, our configuration give us the possibility for knowing the distance between two Bragg gratings when the laser beating frequency is measured. A measurement precision better than 25 m in 8.67 Km is shown to be feasible. (Author)

  15. Multilayered metal oxide thin film gas sensors obtained by conventional and RF plasma-assisted laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitu, B.; Marotta, V.; Orlando, S.

    2006-01-01

    Multilayered thin films of In 2 O 3 and SnO 2 have been deposited by conventional and RF plasma-assisted reactive pulsed laser ablation, with the aim to evaluate their behaviour as toxic gas sensors. The depositions have been carried out by a frequency doubled Nd-YAG laser (λ = 532 nm, τ = 7 ns) on Si(1 0 0) substrates, in O 2 atmosphere. The thin films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrical resistance measurements. A comparison of the electrical response of the simple (indium oxide, tin oxide) and multilayered oxides to toxic gas (nitric oxide, NO) has been performed. The influence on the structural and electrical properties of the deposition parameters, such as substrate temperature and RF power is reported

  16. Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Gleeson, Helen; Dierking, Ingo; Grieve, Bruce; Woodyatt, Christopher; Brimicombe, Paul

    2015-01-01

    An electrical temperature sensor (10) comprises a liquid crystalline material (12). First and second electrically conductive contacts (14), (16), having a spaced relationship there between, contact the liquid crystalline material (12). An electric property measuring device is electrically connected to the first and second contacts (14), (16) and is arranged to measure an electric property of the liquid crystalline material (12). The liquid crystalline material (12) has a transition temperatur...

  17. Highly Stretchable Potentiometric pH Sensor Fabricated via Laser Carbonization and Machining of Carbon-Polyaniline Composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Rahim; Ochoa, Manuel; Tamayol, Ali; Khalili, Shahla; Khademhosseini, Ali; Ziaie, Babak

    2017-03-15

    The development of stretchable sensors has recently attracted considerable attention. These sensors have been used in wearable and robotics applications, such as personalized health-monitoring, motion detection, and human-machine interfaces. Herein, we report on a highly stretchable electrochemical pH sensor for wearable point-of-care applications that consists of a pH-sensitive working electrode and a liquid-junction-free reference electrode, in which the stretchable conductive interconnections are fabricated by laser carbonizing and micromachining of a polyimide sheet bonded to an Ecoflex substrate. This method produces highly porous carbonized 2D serpentine traces that are subsequently permeated with polyaniline (PANI) as the conductive filler, binding material, and pH-sensitive membrane. The experimental and simulation results demonstrate that the stretchable serpentine PANI/C-PI interconnections with an optimal trace width of 0.3 mm can withstand elongations of up to 135% and are robust to more than 12 000 stretch-and-release cycles at 20% strain without noticeable change in the resistance. The pH sensor displays a linear sensitivity of -53 mV/pH (r 2 = 0.976) with stable performance in the physiological range of pH 4-10. The sensor shows excellent stability to applied longitudinal and transverse strains up to 100% in different pH buffer solutions with a minimal deviation of less than ±4 mV. The material biocompatibility is confirmed with NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells via PrestoBlue assays.

  18. Continued Development of the AF/SGR Tricorder Program - Laser Eye Protection, Biomarkers of Laser Injury and Sensor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    The less abundant serum proteins including our retinal proteins could have been removed along with albumin, hemoglobin and other depleted proteins... Nutrition , 1990. 51(2): p. 225-227. 3. Khan, D.A., et al., Evaluation of lead body burden in occupational workers by lead mobilization test. JPMA. The...operation. Instead, SSI needed to work with various AF organizations to educate them about the laser illumination problem and explain what kind of

  19. Self-injection locking of the DFB laser through an external ring fiber cavity: Application for phase sensitive OTDR acoustic sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Bueno Escobedo

    Full Text Available Self-injection locking of DFB laser implemented through the laser coupling with an external fiber optic ring cavity allows its direct employment as an interrogating light source for a phase sensitive OTDR acoustic sensor. Distributed detection and localization of dynamic perturbations of the optical fiber is experimentally demonstrated at the distance of 9270 m. Keywords: Self-injection locking, Optical fiber resonator, φ-OTDR

  20. Biochemical changes on the repair of surgical bone defects grafted with biphasic synthetic micro-granular HA + β-tricalcium phosphate induced by laser and LED phototherapies assessed by Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz B.; Soares, Luiz Guilherme P.; Marques, Aparecida Maria C.; Silveira, Landulfo

    2016-03-01

    This work aimed the assessment of the biochemical changes during bone mineralization induced by laser and LED irradiation in an animal model of bone repair using a spectral model based on Raman spectroscopy. Six groups were studied: Clot, Laser (λ780 nm, 70 mW), LED (λ850 nm +/- 10 nm, 150 mW), Biomaterial (biphasic synthetic microgranular hydroxyapatite (HA) + β-tricalcium phosphate), Laser + Biomaterial and LED + Biomaterial. When indicated, defects were further irradiated at 48 h interval during 2 wks, 20 J/cm2 per session. At 15th and 30th days, femurs were dissected and spectra of the defects were collected. Raman spectra were submitted to a model to estimate the relative amount of collagen, phosphate HA and carbonate HA, by using spectra of pure collagen, biomaterial and basal bone, respectively. At 15th days, the use of biomaterial associated to phototherapy reduced the collagen formation, whereas the amount of carbonate HA was not different in all groups. The phosphate HA was higher in the groups that received biomaterial grafts. At 30th days, it was observed an increase of collagen for the group Laser + Biomaterial, and a reduction in the carbonate HA for the LED + Biomaterial. The phosphate HA was higher for the groups LED + Biomaterial and Laser + Biomaterial, while decreased for the group Biomaterial. These results indicated that the use of Laser and LED phototherapies improved the repair of bone defects grafted with the biomaterial by increasing the collagen deposition and phosphate HA.

  1. 671-nm microsystem diode laser based on portable Raman sensor device for in-situ identification of meat spoilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowoidnich, Kay; Schmidt, Heinar; Schwägele, Fredi; Kronfeldt, Heinz-Detlef

    2011-05-01

    Based on a miniaturized optical bench with attached 671 nm microsystem diode laser we present a portable Raman system for the rapid in-situ characterization of meat spoilage. It consists of a handheld sensor head (dimensions: 210 x 240 x 60 mm3) for Raman signal excitation and collection including the Raman optical bench, a laser driver, and a battery pack. The backscattered Raman radiation from the sample is analyzed by means of a custom-designed miniature spectrometer (dimensions: 200 x 190 x 70 mm3) with a resolution of 8 cm-1 which is fiber-optically coupled to the sensor head. A netbook is used to control the detector and for data recording. Selected cuts from pork (musculus longissimus dorsi and ham) stored refrigerated at 5 °C were investigated in timedependent measurement series up to three weeks to assess the suitability of the system for the rapid detection of meat spoilage. Using a laser power of 100 mW at the sample meat spectra can be obtained with typical integration times of 5 - 10 seconds. The complex spectra were analyzed by the multivariate statistical tool PCA (principal components analysis) to determine the spectral changes occurring during the storage period. Additionally, the Raman data were correlated with reference analyses performed in parallel. In that way, a distinction between fresh and spoiled meat can be found in the time slot of 7 - 8 days after slaughter. The applicability of the system for the rapid spoilage detection of meat and other food products will be discussed.

  2. Gas Sensing Properties of Metal Doped WO3 Thin Film Sensors Prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition and DC Sputtering Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Md. Mosharraf Hossain; Ueda, Tsuyoshi; Ikegami, Tomoaki; Ebihara, Kenji

    2006-10-01

    Tungsten trioxide (WO3) thin films gas sensors were prepared by the KrF excimer pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. The films were prepared on the quartz glass, silicon and also on the Al2O3 sensor substrates with platinum interdigitated electrodes. The effect of doping of the platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd) or gold (Au) on the WO3 thin film was also investigated. These metals were doped to the WO3 thin film by the DC sputtering process during the PLD. The substrate temperature and the oxygen pressure were 400 °C and 100 mTorr, respectively, during the deposition. The films were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The sensitivity of the prepared sensors to 60 ppm NO gas was examined using the two terminal resistance method in a chamber at atmospheric pressure and operating temperatures of 25-350 °C. The sensitivity of the WO3 thin films doped with Pt, Pd, or Au was found to be higher than that of the undoped WO3 thin film.

  3. Infra-red laser source using Tm:Ho optical fibre for potential sensor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S Y; Yeo, T L; Leighton, J; Sun, T; Grattan, K T V; Lade, R; Powell, B; Foster-Turner, G; Osborne, M

    2007-01-01

    In this work, a 1600nm Er fibre laser, which demonstrates a high pumping efficiency, has been used to pump an efficient all-fibre Tm:Ho laser system using a 0.3 m length of optical fibre. A low threshold of 33 mW and a slope efficiency of 0.6% have been achieved with operation at a wavelength of ∼1870 nm. A cross-comparison has been made with the output of a device pumped by a 785 nm laser diode. The focus of the work is better and more compact sources for gas sensing in the near infra red region of the spectrum

  4. Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser-Based Sensors for Hypersonic Flows (7275-020), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to design, build, test, and deliver to NASA a THz wavelength absorption sensor for continuous monitoring of atomic oxygen...

  5. Diode Laser-Based Sensor for Fast Measurement of Binary Gas Mixtures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McNesby, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    The development and characterization of a gas sensor to measure binary mixtures of oxygen and the vapor from a series of volatile organic compounds, with a time resolution of 10 milliseconds, is described...

  6. Laser-Induced Emissions Sensor for Soot Mass in Rocket Plumes, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A method is proposed to measure soot mass concentration non-intrusively from a distance in a rocket engine exhaust stream during ground tests using laser-induced...

  7. Narrow linewidth diode laser modules for quantum optical sensor applications in the field and in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicht, A.; Bawamia, A.; Krüger, M.; Kürbis, Ch.; Schiemangk, M.; Smol, R.; Peters, A.; Tränkle, G.

    2017-02-01

    We present the status of our efforts to develop very compact and robust diode laser modules specifically suited for quantum optics experiments in the field and in space. The paper describes why hybrid micro-integration and GaAs-diode laser technology is best suited to meet the needs of such applications. The electro-optical performance achieved with hybrid micro-integrated, medium linewidth, high power distributed-feedback master-oscillator-power-amplifier modules and with medium power, narrow linewidth extended cavity diode lasers emitting at 767 nm and 780 nm are briefly described and the status of space relevant stress tests and space heritage is summarized. We also describe the performance of an ECDL operating at 1070 nm. Further, a novel and versatile technology platform is introduced that allows for integration of any type of laser system or electro-optical module that can be constructed from two GaAs chips. This facilitates, for the first time, hybrid micro-integration, e.g. of extended cavity diode laser master-oscillator-poweramplifier modules, of dual-stage optical amplifiers, or of lasers with integrated, chip-based phase modulator. As an example we describe the implementation of an ECDL-MOPA designed for experiments on ultra-cold rubidium and potassium atoms on board a sounding rocket and give basic performance parameters.

  8. H2O temperature sensor for low-pressure flames using tunable diode laser absorption near 2.9 νm

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Sijie; Farooq, Aamir; Hanson, Ronald Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Making use of a newly available rapid-tuning diode laser operating at wavelengths up to 2.9 νm, an absorption-based temperature sensor was developed for in situ measurements in low-pressure flames. Based on the systematic analysis of H2O vapor

  9. Study of a high-precision SAW-MOEMS strain sensor with laser optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xinwei; Chen, Shufen; Zou, Zhengfeng; Fu, Lei; Meng, Yanbin; Li, Honglang

    2015-01-01

    A novel structure design of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) micro-optic-electro-mechanical-system (MOEMS) strain sensor with a light readout unit is presented in this paper. By measuring the polarization intensity ratio of the TE/TM mode outputted from the waveguide, the strain produced from an object can be measured precisely. The basic working principle of the SAW MOEMS strain sensor is introduced and the mathematical model of the strain sensor system is established. The SAW characteristics effected by the strain sensor are mathematically deduced. The coupling coefficient between the SAW modes and light modes can be calculated based on the theory of coupling modes. The conversion coefficient of polarized light modes is obtained. Due to the restrictions of the specific parameters of the device, the level of technology and the material characteristics, the sensitivity of the strain sensor system is calculated through simulation as 0.1 με, with a dynamic range of 0 ∼ ±50 με. (paper)

  10. Laser-based sensor for a coolant leak detection in a nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T.-S.; Park, H.; Ko, K.; Lim, G.; Cha, Y.-H.; Han, J.; Jeong, D.-Y.

    2010-08-01

    Currently, the nuclear industry needs strongly a reliable detection system to continuously monitor a coolant leak during a normal operation of reactors for the ensurance of nuclear safety. In this work, we propose a new device for the coolant leak detection based on tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLS) by using a compact diode laser. For the feasibility experiment, we established an experimental setup consisted of a near-IR diode laser with a wavelength of about 1392 nm, a home-made multi-pass cell and a sample injection system. The feasibility test was performed for the detection of the heavy water (D2O) leaks which can happen in a pressurized heavy water reactor (PWHR). As a result, the device based on the TDLS is shown to be operated successfully in detecting a HDO molecule, which is generated from the leaked heavy water by an isotope exchange reaction between D2O and H2O. Additionally, it is suggested that the performance of the new device, such as sensitivity and stability, can be improved by adapting a cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy and a compact DFB diode laser. We presume that this laser-based leak detector has several advantages over the conventional techniques currently employed in the nuclear power plant, such as radiation monitoring, humidity monitoring and FT-IR spectroscopy.

  11. Pulsed Laser Deposition of Polymers Doped with Fluorescent Probes. Application to Environmental Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebollar, E; Villavieja, Mm; Gaspard, S; Oujja, M; Corrales, T; Georgiou, S; Domingo, C; Bosch, P; Castillejo, M

    2007-01-01

    Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) has been used to obtain thin films of poly(methyl methacrylate) and polystyrene doped with fluorescent probes, amino aromatic compounds S5 and S6, that could be used to sense the presence of contaminating environmental agents. These dopants both in solution and inserted in polymeric films are sensitive to changes in pH, viscosity and polarity, increasing their fluorescence emission and/or modifying the position of their emission band. Films deposits on quartz substrates, obtained by irradiating targets with a Ti:Sapphire laser (800 nm, 120 fs pulse) were analyzed by optical and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy, Fluorescence Microscopy, Laser-Induced Fluorescence, Micro Raman Spectroscopy and Flow Injection Analysis-Mass Spectrometry. The transfer of the polymer and the probe to the substrate is observed to be strongly dependent on the optical absorption coefficient of the polymeric component of the target at the irradiation wavelength

  12. Femtosecond Laser Ablated FBG with Composite Microstructure for Hydrogen Sensor Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Zou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A composite microstructure in fiber Bragg grating (FBG with film deposition for hydrogen detection is presented. Through ablated to FBG cladding by a femtosecond laser, straight-trenches and spiral micro-pits are formed. A Pd–Ag film is sputtered on the surface of the laser processed FBG single mode fiber, and acts as hydrogen sensing transducer. The demonstrated experimental outcomes show that a composite structure produced the highest sensitivity of 26.3 pm/%H, nearly sevenfold more sensitive compared with original standard FBG. It offers great potential in engineering applications for its good structure stability and sensitivity.

  13. Toward the Realization of a Compact Chemical Sensor Platform using Quantum Cascade Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    capable of trace gas detection at parts-per-trillion (ppt) levels.5, 6 Although these studies demonstrate the sensitivity capabilities of...sensor system, we have acllieved a detection limit well below the suggested value of 1 ppm (Tlu·eshold Limit Value, 20 nun exposme) . (A) 0020 :;; 0

  14. A quartz enhanced photo-acoustic gas sensor based on a custom tuning fork and a terahertz quantum cascade laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patimisco, Pietro; Borri, Simone; Sampaolo, Angelo; Beere, Harvey E; Ritchie, David A; Vitiello, Miriam S; Scamarcio, Gaetano; Spagnolo, Vincenzo

    2014-05-07

    An innovative quartz enhanced photoacoustic (QEPAS) gas sensing system operating in the THz spectral range and employing a custom quartz tuning fork (QTF) is described. The QTF dimensions are 3.3 cm × 0.4 cm × 0.8 cm, with the two prongs spaced by ∼800 μm. To test our sensor we used a quantum cascade laser as the light source and selected a methanol rotational absorption line at 131.054 cm(-1) (∼3.93 THz), with line-strength S = 4.28 × 10(-21) cm mol(-1). The sensor was operated at 10 Torr pressure on the first flexion QTF resonance frequency of 4245 Hz. The corresponding Q-factor was 74 760. Stepwise concentration measurements were performed to verify the linearity of the QEPAS signal as a function of the methanol concentration. The achieved sensitivity of the system is 7 parts per million in 4 seconds, corresponding to a QEPAS normalized noise-equivalent absorption of 2 × 10(-10) W cm(-1) Hz(-1/2), comparable with the best result of mid-IR QEPAS systems.

  15. A Quantum Cascade Laser-Based Optical Sensor for Continuous Monitoring of Environmental Methane in Dunkirk (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabih Maamary

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A room-temperature continuous-wave (CW quantum cascade laser (QCL-based methane (CH4 sensor operating in the mid-infrared near 8 μm was developed for continuous measurement of CH4 concentrations in ambient air. The well-isolated absorption line (7F2,4 ← 8F1,2 of the ν4 fundamental band of CH4 located at 1255.0004 cm−1 was used for optical measurement of CH4 concentration by direct absorption in a White-type multipass cell with an effective path-length of 175 m. A 1σ (SNR = 1 detection limit of 33.3 ppb in 218 s was achieved with a measurement precision of 1.13%. The developed sensor was deployed in a campaign of measurements of time series CH4 concentration on a site near a suburban traffic road in Dunkirk (France from 9th to 22nd January 2013. An episode of high CH4 concentration of up to ~3 ppm has been observed and analyzed with the help of meteorological parameters combined with back trajectory calculation using the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT model of NOAA.

  16. Computer modeling of the sensitivity of a laser water vapor sensor to variations in temperature and air speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, George F.

    1994-01-01

    Currently, there is disagreement among existing methods of determining atmospheric water vapor concentration at dew-points below -40 C. A major source of error is wall effects which result from the necessity of bringing samples into the instruments. All of these instruments also have response times on the order of seconds. NASA Langley is developing a water vapor sensor which utilizes the absorption of the infrared radiation produced by a diode laser to estimate water vapor concentration. The laser beam is directed through an aircraft window to a retroreflector located on an engine. The reflected beam is detected by an infrared detector located near the laser. To maximize signal to noise, derivative signals are analyzed. By measuring the 2f/DC signal and correcting for ambient temperature, atmospheric pressure and air speed (which results in a Doppler shifting of the laser beam), the water vapor concentration can be retrieved. Since this is an in situ measurement there are no wall effects and measurements can be made at a rate of more than 20 per second. This allows small spatial variations of water vapor to be studied. In order to study the sensitivity of the instrument to variations in temperature and air speed, a computer program which generated the 2f, 3f, 4f, DC and 2f/DC signals of the instrument as a function of temperature, pressure and air speed was written. This model was used to determine the effect of errors in measurement of the temperature and air speed on the measured water vapor concentration. Future studies will quantify the effect of pressure measurement errors, which are expected to be very small. As a result of these studied, a retrieval algorithm has been formulated, and will be applied to data taken during the PEM-West atmospheric science field mission. Spectroscopic studies of the water vapor line used by the instrument will be used to refine this algorithm. To prepare for these studies, several lasers have been studied to determine their

  17. Sensor based robot laser welding - based on feed forward and gain sceduling algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik John

    2001-01-01

    A real-time control system forlaser welding of thick steel plates are developed and tested in a industrial environment. The robotic execution of the laser welding process is based on measure weld joint geometry and impirically established welding procedures. The influence of industrial production...

  18. Uncertainty estimation and multi sensor fusion for kinematic laser tracker measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    Laser trackers are widely used to measure kinematic tasks such as tracking robot movements. Common methods to evaluate the uncertainty in the kinematic measurement include approximations specified by the manufacturers, various analytical adjustment methods and the Kalman filter. In this paper a new, real-time technique is proposed, which estimates the 4D-path (3D-position + time) uncertainty of an arbitrary path in space. Here a hybrid system estimator is applied in conjunction with the kinematic measurement model. This method can be applied to processes, which include various types of kinematic behaviour, constant velocity, variable acceleration or variable turn rates. The new approach is compared with the Kalman filter and a manufacturer's approximations. The comparison was made using data obtained by tracking an industrial robot's tool centre point with a Leica laser tracker AT901 and a Leica laser tracker LTD500. It shows that the new approach is more appropriate to analysing kinematic processes than the Kalman filter, as it reduces overshoots and decreases the estimated variance. In comparison with the manufacturer's approximations, the new approach takes account of kinematic behaviour with an improved description of the real measurement process and a reduction in estimated variance. This approach is therefore well suited to the analysis of kinematic processes with unknown changes in kinematic behaviour as well as the fusion among laser trackers.

  19. Femtosecond laser micromachining of polylactic acid/graphene composites for designing interdigitated microelectrodes for sensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Kelly T.; Gaál, Gabriel; Almeida, G. F. B.; Andrade, M. B.; Facure, Murilo H. M.; Correa, Daniel S.; Riul, Antonio; Rodrigues, Varlei; Mendonça, Cleber R.

    2018-05-01

    There is an increasing interest in the last years towards electronic applications of graphene-based materials and devices fabricated from patterning techniques, with the ultimate goal of high performance and temporal resolution. Laser micromachining using femtosecond pulses is an attractive methodology to integrate graphene-based materials into functional devices as it allows changes to the focal volume with a submicrometer spatial resolution due to the efficient nonlinear nature of the absorption, yielding rapid prototyping for innovative applications. We present here the patterning of PLA-graphene films spin-coated on a glass substrate using a fs-laser at moderate pulse energies to fabricate interdigitated electrodes having a minimum spatial resolution of 5 μm. Raman spectroscopy of the PLA-graphene films indicated the presence of multilayered graphene fibers. Subsequently, the PLA-graphene films were micromachined using a femtosecond laser oscillator delivering 50-fs pulses and 800 nm, where the pulse energy and scanning speed was varied in order to determine the optimum irradiation parameters (16 nJ and 100 μm/s) to the fabrication of microstructures. The micromachined patterns were characterized by optical microscopy and submitted to electrical measurements in liquid samples, clearly distinguishing all tastes tested. Our results confirm the femtosecond laser micromachining technique as an interesting approach to efficiently pattern PLA-graphene filaments with high precision and minimal mechanical defects, allowing the easy fabrication of interdigitated structures and an alternative method to those produced by conventional photolithography.

  20. Femtosecond laser micromachining of compound parabolic concentrator fiber tipped glucose sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Hafeez Ul; Lacraz, Amédée; Kalli, Kyriacos

    2017-01-01

    We report on highly accurate femtosecond (fs) laser micromachining of a compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) fiber tip on a polymer optical fiber (POF). The accuracy is reflected in an unprecedented correspondence between the numerically predicted and experimentally found improvement in fluoresc...

  1. Laser created thin films sensors based on Sn- and indium compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Myslík, V.; Vysloužil, F.; Vrňata, M.; Fryček, R.; Jelínek, Miroslav; Lančok, Ján

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 2 (2002), s. 329-333 ISSN 1054-660X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : PLD * Sn-based thin films * In-based thin films Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.798, year: 2002

  2. Polymer-coated vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diode vapor sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansbæk, Thor; Nielsen, Claus Højgaard; Larsen, Niels Bent

    2010-01-01

    We report a new method for monitoring vapor concentration of volatile organic compounds using a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). The VCSEL is coated with a polymer thin film on the top distributed Bragg reflector (DBR). The analyte absorption is transduced to the electrical domain ...

  3. Analysis and experimental kinematics of a skid-steering wheeled robot based on a laser scanner sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianmiao; Wu, Yao; Liang, Jianhong; Han, Chenhao; Chen, Jiao; Zhao, Qiteng

    2015-04-24

    Skid-steering mobile robots are widely used because of their simple mechanism and robustness. However, due to the complex wheel-ground interactions and the kinematic constraints, it is a challenge to understand the kinematics and dynamics of such a robotic platform. In this paper, we develop an analysis and experimental kinematic scheme for a skid-steering wheeled vehicle based-on a laser scanner sensor. The kinematics model is established based on the boundedness of the instantaneous centers of rotation (ICR) of treads on the 2D motion plane. The kinematic parameters (the ICR coefficient , the path curvature variable and robot speed ), including the effect of vehicle dynamics, are introduced to describe the kinematics model. Then, an exact but costly dynamic model is used and the simulation of this model's stationary response for the vehicle shows a qualitative relationship for the specified parameters and . Moreover, the parameters of the kinematic model are determined based-on a laser scanner localization experimental analysis method with a skid-steering robotic platform, Pioneer P3-AT. The relationship between the ICR coefficient and two physical factors is studied, i.e., the radius of the path curvature and the robot speed . An empirical function-based relationship between the ICR coefficient of the robot and the path parameters is derived. To validate the obtained results, it is empirically demonstrated that the proposed kinematics model significantly improves the dead-reckoning performance of this skid-steering robot.

  4. Estimation of Biomass and Canopy Height in Bermudagrass, Alfalfa, and Wheat Using Ultrasonic, Laser, and Spectral Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Joshua Pittman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-destructive biomass estimation of vegetation has been performed via remote sensing as well as physical measurements. An effective method for estimating biomass must have accuracy comparable to the accepted standard of destructive removal. Estimation or measurement of height is commonly employed to create a relationship between height and mass. This study examined several types of ground-based mobile sensing strategies for forage biomass estimation. Forage production experiments consisting of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers.], and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. were employed to examine sensor biomass estimation (laser, ultrasonic, and spectral as compared to physical measurements (plate meter and meter stick and the traditional harvest method (clipping. Predictive models were constructed via partial least squares regression and modeled estimates were compared to the physically measured biomass. Least significant difference separated mean estimates were examined to evaluate differences in the physical measurements and sensor estimates for canopy height and biomass. Differences between methods were minimal (average percent error of 11.2% for difference between predicted values versus machine and quadrat harvested biomass values (1.64 and 4.91 t·ha−1, respectively, except at the lowest measured biomass (average percent error of 89% for harvester and quad harvested biomass < 0.79 t·ha−1 and greatest measured biomass (average percent error of 18% for harvester and quad harvested biomass >6.4 t·ha−1. These data suggest that using mobile sensor-based biomass estimation models could be an effective alternative to the traditional clipping method for rapid, accurate in-field biomass estimation.

  5. Development of an auto-welding system for CRD nozzle repair welds using a 3D laser vision sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, K.; Kim, Y.; Byeon, J.; Sung, K.; Yeom, C.; Rhee, S.

    2007-01-01

    A control rod device (CRD) nozzle attaches to the hemispherical surface of a reactor head with J-groove welding. Primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) causes degradation in these welds, which requires that these defect areas be repaired. To perform this repair welding automatically on a complicated weld groove shape, an auto-welding system was developed incorporating a laser vision sensor that measures the 3-dimensional (3D) shape of the groove and a weld-path creation program that calculates the weld-path parameters. Welding trials with a J-groove workpiece were performed to establish a basis for developing this auto-welding system. Because the reactor head is placed on a lay down support, the outer-most region of the CRD nozzle has restricted access. Due to this tight space, several parameters of the design, such as size, weight and movement of the auto-welding system, had to be carefully considered. The cross section of the J-groove weld is basically an oval shape where the included angle of the J-groove ranges from 0 to 57 degrees. To measure the complex shape, we used double lasers coupled to a single charge coupled device (CCD) camera. We then developed a program to generate the weld-path parameters using the measured 3D shape as a basis. The program has the ability to determine the first and final welding positions and to calculate all weld-path parameters. An optimized image-processing algorithm was applied to resolve noise interference and diffused reflection of the joint surfaces. The auto-welding system is composed of a 4-axis manipulator, gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) power supply, an optimized designed and manufactured GTAW torch and a 3D laser vision sensor. Through welding trials with 0 and 38-degree included-angle workpieces with both J-groove and U-groove weld, the performance of this auto-welding system was qualified for field application

  6. In-plane Tire Deformation Measurement Using a Multi-Laser Sensor System

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The interactions between tires and roads are basic mechanisms that alter the dynamic states of vehicles. A fundamental understanding of tire-road interactions is clearly demanded in tire design to achieve performance improvements. The emergence of various tire sensors provides an opportunity to make accurate measurement of the physical quantities that are involved in tire-road interactions.  This thesis aims to measure and analyze the in-plane deformation of rolling tires through its direc...

  7. CO concentration and temperature sensor for combustion gases using quantum-cascade laser absorption near 4.7 μm

    KAUST Repository

    Ren, Wei

    2012-05-25

    A sensor for sensitive in situ measurements of carbon monoxide and temperature in combustion gases has been developed using absorption transitions in the (v′ = 1 ← v″ = 0) and (v′ = 2 ← v″ = 1) fundamental bands of CO. Recent availability of mid-infrared quantum-cascade (QC) lasers provides convenient access to the CO fundamental band near 4.7 μm, having approximately 104 and 102 times stronger absorption line-strengths compared to the overtone bands near 1.55 μm and 2.3 μm used previously to sense CO in combustion gases. Spectroscopic parameters of the selected transitions were determined via laboratory measurements in a shock tube over the 1100-2000 K range and also at room temperature. A single-laser absorption sensor was developed for accurate CO measurements in shock-heated gases by scanning the line pair v″ = 0, R(12) and v″ = 1, R(21) at 2.5 kHz. To capture the rapidly varying CO time-histories in chemical reactions, two different QC lasers were then used to probe the line-center absorbance of transitions v″ = 0, P(20) and v″ = 1, R(21) with a bandwidth of 1 MHz using fixed-wavelength direct absorption. The sensor was applied in successful shock tube measurements of temperature and CO time-histories during the pyrolysis and oxidation of methyl formate, illustrating the capability of this sensor for chemical kinetic studies. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  8. CO concentration and temperature sensor for combustion gases using quantum-cascade laser absorption near 4.7 μm

    KAUST Repository

    Ren, Wei; Farooq, Aamir; Davidson, David Frank; Hanson, Ronald Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    A sensor for sensitive in situ measurements of carbon monoxide and temperature in combustion gases has been developed using absorption transitions in the (v′ = 1 ← v″ = 0) and (v′ = 2 ← v″ = 1) fundamental bands of CO. Recent availability of mid-infrared quantum-cascade (QC) lasers provides convenient access to the CO fundamental band near 4.7 μm, having approximately 104 and 102 times stronger absorption line-strengths compared to the overtone bands near 1.55 μm and 2.3 μm used previously to sense CO in combustion gases. Spectroscopic parameters of the selected transitions were determined via laboratory measurements in a shock tube over the 1100-2000 K range and also at room temperature. A single-laser absorption sensor was developed for accurate CO measurements in shock-heated gases by scanning the line pair v″ = 0, R(12) and v″ = 1, R(21) at 2.5 kHz. To capture the rapidly varying CO time-histories in chemical reactions, two different QC lasers were then used to probe the line-center absorbance of transitions v″ = 0, P(20) and v″ = 1, R(21) with a bandwidth of 1 MHz using fixed-wavelength direct absorption. The sensor was applied in successful shock tube measurements of temperature and CO time-histories during the pyrolysis and oxidation of methyl formate, illustrating the capability of this sensor for chemical kinetic studies. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  9. Hand-held Raman sensor head for in-situ characterization of meat quality applying a microsystem 671 nm diode laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Heinar; Sowoidnich, Kay; Maiwald, Martin; Sumpf, Bernd; Kronfeldt, Heinz-Detlef

    2009-05-01

    A hand-held Raman sensor head was developed for the in-situ characterization of meat quality. As light source, a microsystem based external cavity diode laser module (ECDL) emitting at 671 nm was integrated in the sensor head and attached to a miniaturized optical bench which contains lens optics for excitation and signal collection as well as a Raman filter stage for Rayleigh rejection. The signal is transported with an optical fiber to the detection unit which was in the initial phase a laboratory spectrometer with CCD detector. All elements of the ECDL are aligned on a micro optical bench with 13 x 4 mm2 footprint. The wavelength stability is provided by a reflection Bragg grating and the laser has an optical power of up to 200 mW. However, for the Raman measurements of meat only 35 mW are needed to obtain Raman spectra within 1 - 5 seconds. Short measuring times are essential for the hand-held device. The laser and the sensor head are characterized in terms of stability and performance for in-situ Raman investigations. The function is demonstrated in a series of measurements with raw and packaged pork meat as samples. The suitability of the Raman sensor head for the quality control of meat and other products will be discussed.

  10. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy - An emerging chemical sensor technology for real-time field-portable, geochemical, mineralogical, and environmental applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, Russell S.; DeLucia, Frank C.; McManus, Catherine E.; McMillan, Nancy J.; Jenkins, Thomas F.; Walsh, Marianne E.; Miziolek, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a simple spark spectrochemical sensor technology in which a laser beam is directed at a sample surface to create a high-temperature microplasma and a detector used to collect the spectrum of light emission and record its intensity at specific wavelengths. LIBS is an emerging chemical sensor technology undergoing rapid advancement in instrumentation capability and in areas of application. Attributes of a LIBS sensor system include: (i) small size and weight; (ii) technologically mature, inherently rugged, and affordable components; (iii) real-time response; (iv) in situ analysis with no sample preparation required; (v) a high sensitivity to low atomic weight elements which are difficult to determine by other field-portable sensor techniques, and (vi) point sensing or standoff detection. Recent developments in broadband LIBS provide the capability for detection at very high resolution (0.1 nm) of all elements in any unknown target material because all chemical elements emit in the 200-980 nm spectral region. This progress portends a unique potential for the development of a rugged and reliable field-portable chemical sensor that has the potential to be utilized in variety of geochemical, mineralogical, and environmental applications

  11. Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Milonni, Peter W

    1988-01-01

    A comprehensive introduction to the operating principles and applications of lasers. Explains basic principles, including the necessary elements of classical and quantum physics. Provides concise discussions of various laser types including gas, solid state, semiconductor, and free electron lasers, as well as of laser resonators, diffraction, optical coherence, and many applications including holography, phase conjugation, wave mixing, and nonlinear optics. Incorporates many intuitive explanations and practical examples. Discussions are self-contained in a consistent notation and in a style that should appeal to physicists, chemists, optical scientists and engineers.

  12. Large Size High Performance Transparent Amorphous Silicon Sensors for Laser Beam Position Detection and Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon, A.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Sobron, M.; Vila, I.; Virto; Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J. M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M. I.; Luque, J. M.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J. C.; Kohler, C.; Lutz, B.; Schubert, M. B.

    2006-09-04

    We present the measured performance of a new generation of semitransparente amorphous silicon position detectors. They have a large sensitive area (30 x 30 mm2) and show good properties such as a high response (about 20 mA/W), an intinsic position resolution better than 3 m, a spatial point reconstruction precision better than 10 m, deflection angles smaller than 10 rad and a transmission power in the visible and NIR higher than 70%. In addition, multipoint alignment monitoring, using up to five sensors lined along a light path of about 5 meters, can be achieved with a resolution better than 20m. (Author)

  13. Large Size High Performance Transparent Amorphous Silicon Sensors for Laser Beam Position Detection and Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon, A.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Sobron, M.; Vila, I.; Virto; Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J. M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M. I.; Luque, J. M.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J. C.; Kohler, C.; Lutz, B.; Schubert, M. B.

    2006-01-01

    We present the measured performance of a new generation of semitransparente amorphous silicon position detectors. They have a large sensitive area (30 x 30 mm2) and show good properties such as a high response (about 20 mA/W), an intinsic position resolution better than 3 m, a spatial point reconstruction precision better than 10 m, deflection angles smaller than 10 rad and a transmission power in the visible and NIR higher than 70%. In addition, multipoint alignment monitoring, using up to five sensors lined along a light path of about 5 meters, can be achieved with a resolution better than 20m. (Author)

  14. Laser Research Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laser Research lab is thecenter for the development of new laser sources, nonlinear optical materials, frequency conversion processes and laser-based sensors for...

  15. Differential Laser Doppler based Non-Contact Sensor for Dimensional Inspection with Error Propagation Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketsaya Vacharanukul

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available To achieve dynamic error compensation in CNC machine tools, a non-contactlaser probe capable of dimensional measurement of a workpiece while it is being machinedhas been developed and presented in this paper. The measurements are automatically fedback to the machine controller for intelligent error compensations. Based on a well resolvedlaser Doppler technique and real time data acquisition, the probe delivers a very promisingdimensional accuracy at few microns over a range of 100 mm. The developed opticalmeasuring apparatus employs a differential laser Doppler arrangement allowing acquisitionof information from the workpiece surface. In addition, the measurements are traceable tostandards of frequency allowing higher precision.

  16. Pre-sowing laser light effect on some biochemical and physiological processes in seeds and plants of maize (Zea mays L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podleśny, J.; Stochmal, A.

    2005-01-01

    The work is a contribution towards to widen the knowledge concerning the influence of laser irradiation on maize seeds and plants. The treating of seeds by laser light increased the activity of amylolytic enzymes in studied seeds. The largest differentiation of amylolytic activity for irridiated vs. non irridiated seeds was found after 96 hours from sowing. The dynamics of activity of these enzymes was similar in the seeds of both maize hybrids. Pre-sowing laser stimulation of seeds also positively influenced the growth and development of seedlings grew from the seeds

  17. Multi-sensors multi-baseline mapping system for mobile robot using stereovision camera and laser-range device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Faisal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Countless applications today are using mobile robots, including autonomous navigation, security patrolling, housework, search-and-rescue operations, material handling, manufacturing, and automated transportation systems. Regardless of the application, a mobile robot must use a robust autonomous navigation system. Autonomous navigation remains one of the primary challenges in the mobile-robot industry; many control algorithms and techniques have been recently developed that aim to overcome this challenge. Among autonomous navigation methods, vision-based systems have been growing in recent years due to rapid gains in computational power and the reliability of visual sensors. The primary focus of research into vision-based navigation is to allow a mobile robot to navigate in an unstructured environment without collision. In recent years, several researchers have looked at methods for setting up autonomous mobile robots for navigational tasks. Among these methods, stereovision-based navigation is a promising approach for reliable and efficient navigation. In this article, we create and develop a novel mapping system for a robust autonomous navigation system. The main contribution of this article is the fuse of the multi-baseline stereovision (narrow and wide baselines and laser-range reading data to enhance the accuracy of the point cloud, to reduce the ambiguity of correspondence matching, and to extend the field of view of the proposed mapping system to 180°. Another contribution is the pruning the region of interest of the three-dimensional point clouds to reduce the computational burden involved in the stereo process. Therefore, we called the proposed system multi-sensors multi-baseline mapping system. The experimental results illustrate the robustness and accuracy of the proposed system.

  18. Biochemical changes on the repair of surgical bone defects grafted with biphasic synthetic micro-granular HA + β-tricalcium phosphate induced by laser and LED phototherapies and assessed by Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Antônio Luiz Barbosa; Soares, Luiz Guilherme Pinheiro; Marques, Aparecida Maria Cordeiro; Cangussú, Maria Cristina Teixeira; Pacheco, Marcos Tadeu Tavares; Silveira, Landulfo

    2017-04-01

    This work aimed the assessment of biochemical changes induced by laser or LED irradiation during mineralization of a bone defect in an animal model using a spectral model based on Raman spectroscopy. Six groups were studied: clot, laser (λ = 780 nm; 70 mW), LED (λ = 850 ± 10 nm; 150 mW), biomaterial (biphasic synthetic micro-granular hydroxyapatite (HA) + β-tricalcium phosphate), biomaterial + laser, and biomaterial + LED. When indicated, defects were further irradiated at a 48-h interval during 2 weeks (20 J/cm 2 per session). At the 15th and 30th days, femurs were dissected and spectra of the defects were collected. Raman spectra were submitted to a model to estimate the relative amount of collagen, phosphate HA, and carbonate HA by using the spectra of pure collagen and biomaterials composed of phosphate and carbonate HA, respectively. The use of the biomaterial associated to phototherapy did not change the collagen formation at both 15 and 30 days. The amount of carbonate HA was not different in all groups at the 15th day. However, at the 30th day, there was a significant difference (ANOVA, p = 0.01), with lower carbonate HA for the group biomaterial + LED compared to biomaterial (p biomaterial grafts at the 15th day compared to clot (significant for the biomaterial; p biomaterial + laser, while this was lower for all the other groups. These results indicated that the use of laser phototherapy improved the repair of bone defects grafted with the biomaterial by increasing the deposition of phosphate HA.

  19. Selection of heat transfer model for describing short-pulse laser heating silica-based sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Xiangnan; Nie Jinsong; Li Hua; Bian Jintian

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental equations of Fourier heat transfer model and non-Fourier heat transfer model were numerically solved, with the finite difference method. The relative changes between temperature curves of the two heat transfer models were analyzed under laser irradiation with different pulse widths of 10 ns, 1 ns, 100 ps, 10 ps. The impact of different thermal relaxation time on non-Fourier model results was discussed. For pulses of pulse width less than or equal to 100 ps irradiating silicon material, the surface temperature increases slowly and carrier effect happens, which the non-Fourier model can reflect properly. As for general material, when the pulse width is less than or equal to the thermal relaxation time of material, carrier effect occurs. In this case, the non-Fourier model should be used. (authors)

  20. Diode laser absorption spectroscopy for process control: Sensor system design methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berzins, L.V.; Anklam, T.M.; Chambers, F.; Galanti, S.; Haynam, C.A.; Worden, E.F.

    1995-03-01

    A laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) system has been developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for process control. LAS has proven itself to be an accurate and reliable method to monitor both density and composition. In this paper the important features and components of an industrial LAS diagnostic are described. Application of this approach to vaporization processes requires careful selection of the species and transitions to be monitored The relative vapor pressure, hyperfine structure, isotopic frequency shifts, and electronic temperature all effect the selection of a particular transition. In this paper we describe the methodology for choosing the optimal transition or transitions. Coevaporation of a titanium-niobium alloy is used to illustrate the methodology. In a related paper, T.M. Anklam et al describe the application of this diagnostic to monitoring and controlling composition in a physical vapor deposition process of industrial interest

  1. Vernier effect-based multiplication of the Sagnac beating frequency in ring laser gyroscope sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, George A.; Sabry, Yasser M.; Khalil, Diaa

    2018-02-01

    A multiplication method of the Sagnac effect scale factor in ring laser gyroscopes is presented based on the Vernier effect of a dual-coupler passive ring resonator coupled to the active ring. The multiplication occurs when the two rings have comparable lengths or integer multiples and their scale factors have opposite signs. In this case, and when the rings have similar areas, the scale factor is multiplied by ratio of their length to their length difference. The scale factor of the presented configuration is derived analytically and the lock-in effect is analyzed. The principle is demonstrated using optical fiber rings and semiconductor optical amplifier as gain medium. A scale factor multiplication by about 175 is experimentally measured, demonstrating larger than two orders of magnitude enhancement in the Sagnac effect scale factor for the first time in literature, up to the authors' knowledge.

  2. Extraction of Trees Stem Diameters at Breast Height by Terrestrial Laser Sensor for Selective Cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yili ZHENG

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to assist the operators of the logging harvester automatically and quickly select the appropriate trees for selective cutting, using two-dimensional laser scanner and inertial measurement system, the two-dimensional cloud points of the trunks at breast-height are obtained for several trees. After projection, clustering, linear transformation and fitting for the point clouds data, the parameters of the breast-height-diameters and center locations of the trees are obtained. The calculation is implemented in MATLAB by Polak-Ribiere-Polyak (PRP conjugate gradient algorithm and the result is shown in VC++ environment. Using this method, absolute errors of the breast-height- diameters and center locations are 2.3 cm and (12.4, 11.4 cm respectively, and meet the requirements on the automatically selective cutting of the logging harvester.

  3. Wearable bio and chemical sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Coyle, Shirley; Curto, Vincenzo F.; Benito-Lopez, Fernando; Florea, Larisa; Diamond, Dermot

    2014-01-01

    Chemical and biochemical sensors have experienced tremendous growth in the past decade due to advances in material chemistry combined with the emergence of digital communication technologies and wireless sensor networks (WSNs) [1]. The emergence of wearable chemical and biochemical sensors is a relatively new concept that poses unique challenges to the field of wearable sensing. This is because chemical sensors have a more complex mode of operation, compared to physical transducers, in that t...

  4. A Framework Based on Reference Data with Superordinate Accuracy for the Quality Analysis of Terrestrial Laser Scanning-Based Multi-Sensor-Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenz, Ulrich; Hartmann, Jens; Paffenholz, Jens-André; Neumann, Ingo

    2017-08-16

    Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is an efficient solution to collect large-scale data. The efficiency can be increased by combining TLS with additional sensors in a TLS-based multi-sensor-system (MSS). The uncertainty of scanned points is not homogenous and depends on many different influencing factors. These include the sensor properties, referencing, scan geometry (e.g., distance and angle of incidence), environmental conditions (e.g., atmospheric conditions) and the scanned object (e.g., material, color and reflectance, etc.). The paper presents methods, infrastructure and results for the validation of the suitability of TLS and TLS-based MSS. Main aspects are the backward modelling of the uncertainty on the basis of reference data (e.g., point clouds) with superordinate accuracy and the appropriation of a suitable environment/infrastructure (e.g., the calibration process of the targets for the registration of laser scanner and laser tracker data in a common coordinate system with high accuracy) In this context superordinate accuracy means that the accuracy of the acquired reference data is better by a factor of 10 than the data of the validated TLS and TLS-based MSS. These aspects play an important role in engineering geodesy, where the aimed accuracy lies in a range of a few mm or less.

  5. A reduced-order adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system model as a software sensor for rapid estimation of five-day biochemical oxygen demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noori, Roohollah; Safavi, Salman; Nateghi Shahrokni, Seyyed Afshin

    2013-07-01

    The five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) is one of the key parameters in water quality management. In this study, a novel approach, i.e., reduced-order adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ROANFIS) model was developed for rapid estimation of BOD5. In addition, an uncertainty analysis of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and ROANFIS models was carried out based on Monte-Carlo simulation. Accuracy analysis of ANFIS and ROANFIS models based on both developed discrepancy ratio and threshold statistics revealed that the selected ROANFIS model was superior. Pearson correlation coefficient (R) and root mean square error for the best fitted ROANFIS model were 0.96 and 7.12, respectively. Furthermore, uncertainty analysis of the developed models indicated that the selected ROANFIS had less uncertainty than the ANFIS model and accurately forecasted BOD5 in the Sefidrood River Basin. Besides, the uncertainty analysis also showed that bracketed predictions by 95% confidence bound and d-factor in the testing steps for the selected ROANFIS model were 94% and 0.83, respectively.

  6. On-machine measurement of the grinding wheels' 3D surface topography using a laser displacement sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yongcheng; Zhao, Qingliang; Guo, Bing

    2014-08-01

    A method of non-contact, on-machine measurement of three dimensional surface topography of grinding wheels' whole surface was developed in this paper, focusing on an electroplated coarse-grained diamond grinding wheel. The measuring system consists of a Keyence laser displacement sensor, a Keyence controller and a NI PCI-6132 data acquisition card. A resolution of 0.1μm in vertical direction and 8μm in horizontal direction could be achieved. After processing the data by LabVIEW and MATLAB, the 3D topography of the grinding wheel's whole surface could be reconstructed. When comparing the reconstructed 3D topography of the grinding wheel's marked area to its real topography captured by a high-depth-field optical digital microscope (HDF-ODM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), they were very similar to each other, proving that this method is accurate and effective. By a subsequent data processing, the topography of every grain could be extracted and then the active grain number, the active grain volume and the active grain's bearing ration could be calculated. These three parameters could serve as the criterion to evaluate the grinding performance of coarse-grained diamond grinding wheels. Then the performance of the grinding wheel could be evaluated on-machine accurately and quantitatively.

  7. Monolithic integration of a silicon nanowire field-effect transistors array on a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor chip for biochemical sensor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livi, Paolo; Kwiat, Moria; Shadmani, Amir; Pevzner, Alexander; Navarra, Giulio; Rothe, Jörg; Stettler, Alexander; Chen, Yihui; Patolsky, Fernando; Hierlemann, Andreas

    2015-10-06

    We present a monolithic complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-based sensor system comprising an array of silicon nanowire field-effect transistors (FETs) and the signal-conditioning circuitry on the same chip. The silicon nanowires were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition methods and then transferred to the CMOS chip, where Ti/Pd/Ti contacts had been patterned via e-beam lithography. The on-chip circuitry measures the current flowing through each nanowire FET upon applying a constant source-drain voltage. The analog signal is digitized on chip and then transmitted to a receiving unit. The system has been successfully fabricated and tested by acquiring I-V curves of the bare nanowire-based FETs. Furthermore, the sensing capabilities of the complete system have been demonstrated by recording current changes upon nanowire exposure to solutions of different pHs, as well as by detecting different concentrations of Troponin T biomarkers (cTnT) through antibody-functionalized nanowire FETs.

  8. Long Path Quantum Cascade Laser Based Sensor for Environment Sensing/Ambient Detection of CH4 and N2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, P. C.; Sydoryk, I.; Gross, B.; Moshary, F.

    2013-12-01

    Methane (CH4) and Nitrous Oxide (N2O) are long-lived greenhouse gases in the atmosphere with significant global warming effects. These gases also are known to be produced in a number of anthropogenic settings such as manure management systems, which releases substantial GHGs and is mandated by the EPA to provide continuous monitoring. In addition, natural gas leaks in urban areas is another source of strong spatially inhomogeneous methane emissions Most open path methods for quantitative detection of trace gases utilize either Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTIR) or near-IR differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS). Although, FTIR is suitable for ambient air monitoring measurement of more abundant gases such as CO2 and H20 etc., the lack of spectral resolution makes the retrieval of weaker absorbing features such as N20 more difficult. On the other hand, conventional DOAS systems can be large and impractical. As an alternative, we illustrate a robust portable quantum cascade laser (QCL) approach for simultaneous detection of CH4 and N2O. In particular, gas spectra were recorded by ultrafast pulse intensity (thermal) chirp tuning over the 1299 - 1300cm-1 spectral window. Etalon measurements insure stable tuning was obtained. To deal with multiple species, a LSQ spectral fitting approach was used which accounted for both the overlapping trace gases , background water vapor as well as detector drift and calibration. In summary, ambient concentrations of CH4 with and N2O with accuracy < 1% was obtained on the order of 5ms using optical paths of 500 m path length. In addition, unattended long term operation was demonstrated and validations using other sensors when possible were shown to be consistent. The system accuracy is limited by systemic errors, which are still being explored.

  9. A real-time deflection monitoring system for wind turbine blades using a built-in laser displacement sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyeong-Cheol; Giri, Paritosh; Lee, Jung-Ryul [Korea Chonbuk National Univ., Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering and LANL-CBNU Engineering Inst.

    2012-07-01

    Renewable energy is considered a good alternative to deal with the issues related to fossil fuel and environmental pollution. Wind energy as one of such renewable energy alternatives has seen a substantial growth. With commercially viable global wind power potential, wind energy penetration is further expected to rise, and so will the related problems. One of the issues is the collision of wind blade and tower during operation. To improve safety during operation, to minimize the risk of sudden failure or total breakdown, and to ensure reliable power generation and reduce wind turbine life cycle costs, a structural health monitoring (SHM) technology is required. This study proposes a single laser displacement sensor (LDS) system, where all of the rotating blades could be evaluated effectively. The system is cost-effective as well, as the system costs only a mere thousand dollars. If the blade bolt loosening occurs, it causes deflection in the affected blade. In a similar manner, nacelle tilt or mass loss damage in the blade will result in change of blade's position and the proposed system can identify such problems with ease. With increased demand of energy, the sizes of wind blades are getting bigger and bigger due to which people are installing wind turbines very high above the ground level or offshore. It is impractical to monitor the deflection through wired connection in these cases and hence can be replaced by a wireless solution. This wireless solution is achieved using Zigbee technology which operates in the industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) radio bands, typically 2.4 GHz, 915 MHz and 868 MHz. The output from the LDS is fed to the microcontroller which acts as an analog to digital converter which in turn is connected to the Zigbee transceiver module, which transmits the data. At the other end, the Zigbee reads the data and displays on the PC from where user can monitor the condition of wind blades. (orig.)

  10. Characteristics of the Fiber Laser Sensor System Based on Etched-Bragg Grating Sensing Probe for Determination of the Low Nitrate Concentration in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thanh Binh; Bui, Huy; Le, Huu Thang; Pham, Van Hoi

    2016-12-22

    The necessity of environmental protection has stimulated the development of many kinds of methods allowing the determination of different pollutants in the natural environment, including methods for determining nitrate in source water. In this paper, the characteristics of an etched fiber Bragg grating (e-FBG) sensing probe-which integrated in fiber laser structure-are studied by numerical simulation and experiment. The proposed sensor is demonstrated for determination of the low nitrate concentration in a water environment. Experimental results show that this sensor could determine nitrate in water samples at a low concentration range of 0-80 ppm with good repeatability, rapid response, and average sensitivity of 3.5 × 10 -3 nm/ppm with the detection limit of 3 ppm. The e-FBG sensing probe integrated in fiber laser demonstrates many advantages, such as a high resolution for wavelength shift identification, high optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR of 40 dB), narrow bandwidth of 0.02 nm that enhanced accuracy and precision of wavelength peak measurement, and capability for optical remote sensing. The obtained results suggested that the proposed e-FBG sensor has a large potential for the determination of low nitrate concentrations in water in outdoor field work.

  11. Characteristics of the Fiber Laser Sensor System Based on Etched-Bragg Grating Sensing Probe for Determination of the Low Nitrate Concentration in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Binh Pham

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of environmental protection has stimulated the development of many kinds of methods allowing the determination of different pollutants in the natural environment, including methods for determining nitrate in source water. In this paper, the characteristics of an etched fiber Bragg grating (e-FBG sensing probe—which integrated in fiber laser structure—are studied by numerical simulation and experiment. The proposed sensor is demonstrated for determination of the low nitrate concentration in a water environment. Experimental results show that this sensor could determine nitrate in water samples at a low concentration range of 0–80 ppm with good repeatability, rapid response, and average sensitivity of 3.5 × 10−3 nm/ppm with the detection limit of 3 ppm. The e-FBG sensing probe integrated in fiber laser demonstrates many advantages, such as a high resolution for wavelength shift identification, high optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR of 40 dB, narrow bandwidth of 0.02 nm that enhanced accuracy and precision of wavelength peak measurement, and capability for optical remote sensing. The obtained results suggested that the proposed e-FBG sensor has a large potential for the determination of low nitrate concentrations in water in outdoor field work.

  12. H2O temperature sensor for low-pressure flames using tunable diode laser absorption near 2.9 νm

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Sijie

    2011-10-19

    Making use of a newly available rapid-tuning diode laser operating at wavelengths up to 2.9 νm, an absorption-based temperature sensor was developed for in situ measurements in low-pressure flames. Based on the systematic analysis of H2O vapor transitions in the fundamental vibrational bands (ν1 and ν3) of H2O in the range of 2.5-3.0 νm, an optimal closely-spaced spectral line pair near 2.9 νm was selected for its temperature sensitivity in the range of 1000-2500 K. The narrow-linewidth room-temperature laser was scanned repetitively across these spectral features at 5 kHz, enabling fast, accurate temperature sensing. Use of the temperature sensor was investigated in low-pressure flames supported on a McKenna burner at 15, 25 and 60 Torr. To avoid absorption by the cold gases in the flame edges and the recirculation region between the burner and the vacuum chamber wall, a variable-path in situ probe was designed and an optimal path length was determined to accurately measure the flame centerline temperature. Different flame conditions were investigated to illustrate the potential of this sensor system for sensitive measurements of combustion temperature in low-pressure flames. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  13. Calibration-free sensor for pressure and H2O concentration in headspace of sterile vial using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Tingdong; Gao, Guangzhen; Liu, Ying

    2013-11-10

    Tunable diode laser absorption measurements of pressure and H2O concentration in the headspace of vials using a distributed-feedback (DFB) diode laser near 1.4 μm are reported. A H2O line located near 7161.41 cm(-1) is selected based on its strong absorption strength and isolation from interference of neighboring transitions. Direct absorption spectra of H2O are obtained for the measurement path as well as the reference path by scanning the laser wavelength. The pressure and H2O vapor concentration in the headspace of a vial are inferred from a differential absorption signal, which is the difference between the measured and the referenced absorbance spectra. This sensor is calibration-free and no purge gas is needed. The demonstrated capability would enable measurements of pressure and H2O concentration in the headspace of vials within 2.21% and 2.86%, respectively. A precision of 1.02 Torr and 390 ppm is found for the pressure and H2O concentration, respectively. A set of measurements for commercial freeze-dried products are also performed to illustrate the usefulness of this sensor.

  14. Distributed Optical Fiber Sensors with Ultrafast Laser Enhanced Rayleigh Backscattering Profiles for Real-Time Monitoring of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Aidong; Huang, Sheng; Li, Shuo; Chen, Rongzhang; Ohodnicki, Paul; Buric, Michael; Lee, Shiwoo; Li, Ming-Jun; Chen, Kevin P

    2017-08-24

    This paper reports a technique to enhance the magnitude and high-temperature stability of Rayleigh back-scattering signals in silica fibers for distributed sensing applications. With femtosecond laser radiation, more than 40-dB enhancement of Rayleigh backscattering signal was generated in silica fibers using 300-nJ laser pulses at 250 kHz repetition rate. The laser-induced Rayleigh scattering defects were found to be stable from the room temperature to 800 °C in hydrogen gas. The Rayleigh scatter at high temperatures was correlated to the formation and modification of nanogratings in the fiber core. Using optical fibers with enhanced Rayleigh backscattering profiles as distributed temperature sensors, we demonstrated real-time monitoring of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) operations with 5-mm spatial resolution at 800 °C. Information gathered by these fiber sensor tools can be used to verify simulation results or operated in a process-control system to improve the operational efficiency and longevity of SOFC-based energy generation systems.

  15. Validez y fiabilidad del sensor láser del sistema BioLaserSport® para el análisis de la velocidad de la carrera. (Validity and reliability of the laser sensor of BioLaserSport® system for the analysis of the running velocity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Aguado-Gómez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl análisis de la velocidad de carrera mediante sensores láser permite la obtención de datos en tiempo real siendo ventajosos frente a otros sistemas. El objetivo de este estudio fue valorar la validez y fiabilidad del sensor láser del sistema BioLaserSportÒ para el cálculo de velocidades medias y máximas mediante estadísticos relativos y absolutos. Los participantes fueron 17 varones (20.85 ± 1.54 años. Se utilizó un sensor láser tipo 1 (LDM301, Jenoptik, Germany que registró posiciones de los deportistas a 2000 Hz. Los datos se trataron con la rutina DSL-30 creada con DasyLab v.10.0. Para la validación se utilizó un sistema de fotogrametría-2D con una cámara de alta velocidad (Exilim High Speed EX-F1, Casio y SkillSpector v.1.3.2. (Video4coach, Grubbemollevej. Además, se utilizaron foto-células de doble haz (Polifemo Light, Microgate, Italy y un cronómetro Racetime2 (Microgate, Italy. Se registraron, durante dos días, tres series de 30 m de carrera a máxima velocidad. El sensor láser proporcionó, con relación a la fotogrametría, diferencias en las velocidades medias y máximas de -0.11 m·s-1 y 0.14 m·s-1, respectivamente, con unos coeficientes de correlación superiores a 0.86, y mayores de 0.92 con las foto-células para las velocidades medias. Este mostró una excelente fiabilidad test-retest para las velocidades medias con un coeficiente de correlación intraclase (ICC entre 0.7-0.9 y un error estándar de la media (SEM y SEM%, intrasesión e intersesión, menor de 0.05 m·s-1 y 0.12 m·s-1, respectivamente, y menores de 0.75% y de 2%, respectivamente. Para las velocidades máximas, los valores fueron menores de 0.10 m·s-1 y 0.17 m·s-1, respectivamente, y en ambos casos menores a 1.36% y 1,89%. El láser fue capaz de identificar mínimos cambios detectables (MDC y MDC% intrasesión, para ambas variables, menores a 0.14 m·s-1 y 0.29 m·s-1, respectivamente (AbstractSpeed running analysis using laser

  16. A IR-Femtosecond Laser Hybrid Sensor to Measure the Thermal Expansion and Thermo-Optical Coefficient of Silica-Based FBG at High Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Litong; Lv, Dajuan; Yang, Minghong; Xiong, Liangming; Luo, Jie

    2018-01-26

    In this paper, a hybrid sensor was fabricated using a IR-femtosecond laser to measure the thermal expansion and thermo-optical coefficient of silica-based fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). The hybrid sensor was composed of an inline fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer (FFPI) cavity and a type-II FBG. Experiment results showed that the type-II FBG had three high reflectivity resonances in the wavelength ranging from 1100 to 1600 nm, showing the peaks in 1.1, 1.3 and 1.5 μm, respectively. The thermal expansion and thermo-optical coefficient (1.3 μm, 1.5 μm) of silica-based FBG, under temperatures ranging from 30 to 1100 °C, had been simultaneously calculated by measuring the wavelength of the type-II FBG and FFPI cavity length.

  17. Compact and portable open-path sensor for simultaneous measurements of atmospheric N2O and CO using a quantum cascade laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Lei; Sun, Kang; Khan, M Amir; Miller, David J; Zondlo, Mark A

    2012-12-17

    A compact and portable open-path sensor for simultaneous detection of atmospheric N(2)O and CO has been developed with a 4.5 μm quantum cascade laser (QCL). An in-line acetylene (C(2)H(2)) gas reference cell allows for continuous monitoring of the sensor drift and calibration in rapidly changing field environments and thereby allows for open-path detection at high precision and stability. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) is used to detect simultaneously both the second and fourth harmonic absorption spectra with an optimized dual modulation amplitude scheme. Multi-harmonic spectra containing atmospheric N(2)O, CO, and the reference C(2)H(2) signals are fit in real-time (10 Hz) by combining a software-based lock-in amplifier with a computationally fast numerical model for WMS. The sensor consumes ~50 W of power and has a mass of ~15 kg. Precision of 0.15 ppbv N(2)O and 0.36 ppbv CO at 10 Hz under laboratory conditions was demonstrated. The sensor has been deployed for extended periods in the field. Simultaneous N(2)O and CO measurements distinguished between natural and fossil fuel combustion sources of N(2)O, an important greenhouse gas with poorly quantified emissions in space and time.

  18. Modelling and precision of the localization of the robotic mobile platforms for constructions with laser tracker and SmartTrack sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dima, M.; Francu, C.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a way to expand the field of use of the laser tracker and SmartTrack sensor localization device used in lately for the localisation of the end effector of the industrial robots to the localization of the mobile construction robots. The research paper presents the equipment along with its characteristics, determines the relationships for the localization coordinates by comparison to the forward kinematics of the industrial robot's spherical arm (positioning mechanism in spherical coordinates) and the orientation mechanism with three revolute axes. In the end of the paper the accuracy of the mobile robot's localization is analysed.

  19. Investigation of the Stability of a Two-Span Bridge with the use of a High-Precision Laser Displacement Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddaeva, O.; Churin, P.; Fedosova, A.; Truhanov, S.

    2018-03-01

    Studies of aerodynamics of bridge structures are an actual problem. Such attention is paid to the study of wind influence on bridge structures not at all by chance; a large number of cases of loss of stability of such structures are known under the influence of wind up to their complete destruction. The development of non-contact systems of measuring equipment allows solving this problem with a high level of accuracy and reliability. This article presents the results of experimental studies of wind impact on a two-span bridge using specialized measuring system based on high-precision laser displacement sensors.

  20. Fiber optic and laser sensors IV; Proceedings of the Meeting, Cambridge, MA, Sept. 22-24, 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paula, Ramon P. (Editor); Udd, Eric (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The conference presents papers on industrial uses of fiber optic sensors, point and distributed polarimetric optical fiber sensors, fiber optic electric field sensor technology, micromachined resonant structures, single-mode fibers for sensing applications, and measurement techniques for magnetic field gradient detection. Consideration is also given to electric field meter and temperature measurement techniques for the power industry, the calibration of high-temperature fiber-optic microbend pressure transducers, and interferometric sensors for dc measurands. Other topics include the recognition of colors and collision avoidance in robotics using optical fiber sensors, the loss compensation of intensity-modulating fiber-optic sensors, and an embedded optical fiber strain tensor for composite structure applications.

  1. A single laser all fibre based optical sensor and switching system and method for measuring velocity in atmospheric air flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    A system for measuring a velocity of tracer particle motion in a fluid comprising at least one laser emitter configured to emit a continuous wave laser beam and a plur ality of optical devices being configured to alternately receive a laser beam, focusing the laser beam onto a same probe volume...... comprising tracer particles, and receiving backscattered light from the tracer particles. The optical devices have a common optical input/output port for transmitting the received continuous-wave laser beam and for receiving the backscattered radiation. The optical devices are provided to have mutual...... pointing angles so that each of the plurality of optical devices points at the probe volume under a different angle. A processor is configured to receive a part of the trans - mitted laser beam and the received backscattered radiation beam to calculate a Doppler shift, and thereby determine a plurality...

  2. Combined computational and biochemical study reveals the importance of electrostatic interactions between the "pH sensor" and the cation binding site of the sodium/proton antiporter NhaA of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkhova, Elena; Kozachkov, Lena; Padan, Etana; Michel, Hartmut

    2009-08-15

    Sodium proton antiporters are essential enzymes that catalyze the exchange of sodium ions for protons across biological membranes. The crystal structure of NhaA has provided a basis to explore the mechanism of ion exchange and its unique regulation by pH. Here, the mechanism of the pH activation of the antiporter is investigated through functional and computational studies of several variants with mutations in the ion-binding site (D163, D164). The most significant difference found computationally between the wild type antiporter and the active site variants, D163E and D164N, are low pK(a) values of Glu78 making them insensitive to pH. Although in the variant D163N the pK(a) of Glu78 is comparable to the physiological one, this variant cannot demonstrate the long-range electrostatic effect of Glu78 on the pH-dependent structural reorganization of trans-membrane helix X and, hence, is proposed to be inactive. In marked contrast, variant D164E remains sensitive to pH and can be activated by alkaline pH shift. Remarkably, as expected computationally and discovered here biochemically, D164E is viable and active in Na(+)/H(+) exchange albeit with increased apparent K(M). Our results unravel the unique electrostatic network of NhaA that connect the coupled clusters of the "pH sensor" with the binding site, which is crucial for pH activation of NhaA. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Prototype fiber Bragg Grattings (FBG) sensor based on intensity modulation of the laser diode low frequency vibrations measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiono, Andi; Ula, Rini Khamimatul; Hanto, Dwi; Widiyatmoko, Bambang; Purnamaningsih, Retno Wigajatri

    2016-02-01

    In general, Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor works based on observation of spectral response characteristic to detect the desired parameter. In this research, we studied intensity response characteristic of FBG to detect the dynamic strain. Experiment result show that the reflected intensity had linier relationships with dynamic strain. Based on these characteristics, we developed the FBG sensor to detect low frequency vibration. This sensor is designed by attaching the FBG on the bronze cantilever with dimensions of 85×3×0.5 mm. Measurement results showed that the sensor was able to detect vibrations in the frequency range of 7-10 Hz at temperature range of 25-45 ˚C. The measured frequency range is still within the frequency range of digging activity, therefore this vibration sensor can be applied for oil pipelines vandalisation detection system.

  4. Direct determination of glucose, lactate and triglycerides in blood serum by a tunable quantum cascade laser-based mid-IR sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstetter, M.; Volgger, L.; Genner, A.; Jungbauer, C.; Lendl, B.

    2013-02-01

    This work reports on a compact sensor for fast and reagent-free point-of-care determination of glucose, lactate and triglycerides in blood serum based on a tunable (1030-1230 cm-1) external-cavity quantum cascade laser (EC-QCL). For simple and robust operation a single beam set-up was designed and only thermoelectric cooling was used for the employed laser and detector. Full computer control of analysis including liquid handling and data analysis facilitated routine measurements. A high optical pathlength (>100 μm) is a prerequisite for robust measurements in clinical practice. Hence, the optimum optical pathlength for transmission measurements in aqueous solution was considered in theory and experiment. The experimentally determined maximum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was around 140 μm for the QCL blood sensor and around 50 μm for a standard FT-IR spectrometer employing a liquid nitrogen cooled mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) detector. A single absorption spectrum was used to calculate the analyte concentrations simultaneously by using a partial-least-squares (PLS) regression analysis. Glucose was determined in blood serum with a prediction error (RMSEP) of 6.9 mg/dl and triglycerides with an error of cross-validation (RMSECV) of 17.5 mg/dl in a set of 42 different patients. In spiked serum samples the lactate concentration could be determined with an RMSECV of 8.9 mg/dl.

  5. BISEN: Biochemical simulation environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanlier, J.; Wu, F.; Qi, F.; Vinnakota, K.C.; Han, Y.; Dash, R.K.; Yang, F.; Beard, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    The Biochemical Simulation Environment (BISEN) is a suite of tools for generating equations and associated computer programs for simulating biochemical systems in the MATLAB® computing environment. This is the first package that can generate appropriate systems of differential equations for

  6. Optical Graphene Gas Sensors Based on Microfibers: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Graphene has become a bridge across optoelectronics, mechanics, and bio-chemical sensing due to its unique photoelectric characteristics. Moreover, benefiting from its two-dimensional nature, this atomically thick film with full flexibility has been widely incorporated with optical waveguides such as fibers, realizing novel photonic devices including polarizers, lasers, and sensors. Among the graphene-based optical devices, sensor is one of the most important branch, especially for gas sensing, as rapid progress has been made in both sensing structures and devices in recent years. This article presents a comprehensive and systematic overview of graphene-based microfiber gas sensors regarding many aspects including sensing principles, properties, fabrication, interrogating and implementations.

  7. Field Demonstration of the Ground to Space Laser Calibration: Illumination of NASA’s Earth Observing Sensors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We will capitalize on a NASA-NIST partnership to conduct a test illumination of an existing radiometric sensor on orbit. This preliminary demonstration would target...

  8. New GasB-based single-mode diode lasers in the NIR and MIR spectral regime for sensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milde, Tobias; Hoppe, Morten; Tatenguem, Herve; Honsberg, Martin; Mordmüller, Mario; O'Gorman, James; Schade, Wolfgang; Sacher, Joachim

    2018-02-01

    The NIR/MIR region between 1.8μm and 3.5μm contains important absorption lines for gas detection. State of the art are InP laser based setups, which show poor gain above 1.8μm and cannot be applied beyond 2.1μm. GaSb laser show a significantly higher output power (100mW for Fabry-Perot, 30mW for DFB). The laser design is presented with simulation and actual performance data. The superior performance of the GaSb lasers is verified in gas sensing applications. TDLAS and QEPAS measurements at trace gases like CH4, CO2 and N2O are shown to prove the spectroscopy performance.

  9. Performance of a Distributed Simultaneous Strain and Temperature Sensor Based on a Fabry-Perot Laser Diode and a Dual-Stage FBG Optical Demultiplexer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinwon Kang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A simultaneous strain and temperature measurement method using a Fabry-Perot laser diode (FP-LD and a dual-stage fiber Bragg grating (FBG optical demultiplexer was applied to a distributed sensor system based on Brillouin optical time domain reflectometry (BOTDR. By using a Kalman filter, we improved the performance of the FP-LD based OTDR, and decreased the noise using the dual-stage FBG optical demultiplexer. Applying the two developed components to the BOTDR system and using a temperature compensating algorithm, we successfully demonstrated the simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature distributions under various experimental conditions. The observed errors in the temperature and strain measured using the developed sensing system were 0.6 °C and 50 με, and the spatial resolution was 1 m, respectively.

  10. Performance of a distributed simultaneous strain and temperature sensor based on a Fabry-Perot laser diode and a dual-stage FBG optical demultiplexer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suhwan; Kwon, Hyungwoo; Yang, Injae; Lee, Seungho; Kim, Jeehyun; Kang, Shinwon

    2013-11-12

    A simultaneous strain and temperature measurement method using a Fabry-Perot laser diode (FP-LD) and a dual-stage fiber Bragg grating (FBG) optical demultiplexer was applied to a distributed sensor system based on Brillouin optical time domain reflectometry (BOTDR). By using a Kalman filter, we improved the performance of the FP-LD based OTDR, and decreased the noise using the dual-stage FBG optical demultiplexer. Applying the two developed components to the BOTDR system and using a temperature compensating algorithm, we successfully demonstrated the simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature distributions under various experimental conditions. The observed errors in the temperature and strain measured using the developed sensing system were 0.6 °C and 50 με, and the spatial resolution was 1 m, respectively.

  11. Trace gas sensing using quantum cascade lasers and a fiber-coupled optoacoustic sensor: Application to formaldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elia, A; Lugara, P M; Scamarcio, G [CNR-INFM Regional Laboratory LIT and Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica, Universita di Bari, via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy); Spagnolo, V [CNR-INFM Regional Laboratory LIT and Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica, Politecnico di Bari, via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy); Di Franco, C, E-mail: spagnolo@fisica.uniba.i [CNR-INFM Regional Laboratory LIT, via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2010-03-01

    We will report here on the design and realization of an optoacoustic sensor for the detection of formaldehyde. The sensor consists of a commercial QCL and a resonant PA cell. Two different cell configurations have been investigated: a 'standard' H cell and an innovative T-cell with an optical fiber directly inserted into. Two different type of sound detector have been employed: electret microphones and optical MEMS-based microphone. As possible applications, we will describe the results obtained in the detection of formaldehyde (CH{sub 2}O), a gas of great interest for industrial processes and environmental monitoring.

  12. From chemical or biochemical microsensors to fast detection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pistre, J.; Dejous, C.; Rebiere, D.

    2011-01-01

    The market of chemical and biochemical sensors is increasing and represents a large opportunity. The problem of chemical and biochemicaldetection involves the use of one/several transducing layer/interface. Several types of detection exist. Among them, acoustic wave devices present many advantages. The paper deals with surface acoustic waves devices and their implementation. The role and properties of the sensing layer are discussed for chemical sensors and biochemical sensors as well. Examples of realizations are presented taking into account the microfluidic approach.

  13. A Fast and On-Machine Measuring System Using the Laser Displacement Sensor for the Contour Parameters of the Drill Pipe Thread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixu Dong

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The inconvenient loading and unloading of a long and heavy drill pipe gives rise to the difficulty in measuring the contour parameters of its threads at both ends. To solve this problem, in this paper we take the SCK230 drill pipe thread-repairing machine tool as a carrier to design and achieve a fast and on-machine measuring system based on a laser probe. This system drives a laser displacement sensor to acquire the contour data of a certain axial section of the thread by using the servo function of a CNC machine tool. To correct the sensor’s measurement errors caused by the measuring point inclination angle, an inclination error model is built to compensate data in real time. To better suppress random error interference and ensure real contour information, a new wavelet threshold function is proposed to process data through the wavelet threshold denoising. Discrete data after denoising is segmented according to the geometrical characteristics of the drill pipe thread, and the regression model of the contour data in each section is fitted by using the method of weighted total least squares (WTLS. Then, the thread parameters are calculated in real time to judge the processing quality. Inclination error experiments show that the proposed compensation model is accurate and effective, and it can improve the data acquisition accuracy of a sensor. Simulation results indicate that the improved threshold function is of better continuity and self-adaptability, which makes sure that denoising effects are guaranteed, and, meanwhile, the complete elimination of real data distorted in random errors is avoided. Additionally, NC50 thread-testing experiments show that the proposed on-machine measuring system can complete the measurement of a 25 mm thread in 7.8 s, with a measurement accuracy of ±8 μm and repeatability limit ≤ 4 μm (high repeatability, and hence the accuracy and efficiency of measurement are both improved.

  14. Fibre optic system for biochemical and microbiological sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penwill, L A; Slater, J H; Hayes, N W; Tremlett, C J

    2007-01-01

    This poster will discuss state-of-the-art fibre optic sensors based on evanescent wave technology emphasising chemophotonic sensors for biochemical reactions and microbe detection. Devices based on antibody specificity and unique DNA sequences will be described. The development of simple sensor devices with disposable single use sensor probes will be illustrated with a view to providing cost effective field based or point of care analysis of major themes such as hospital acquired infections or bioterrorism events. This presentation will discuss the nature and detection thresholds required, the optical detection techniques investigated, results of sensor trials and the potential for wider commercial application

  15. One-Step Laser Patterned Highly Uniform Reduced Graphene Oxide Thin Films for Circuit-Enabled Tattoo and Flexible Humidity Sensor Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowoon Park

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of graphene oxide (GO into reduced graphene oxide (rGO is imperative for the electronic device applications of graphene-based materials. Efficient and cost-effective fabrication of highly uniform GO films and the successive reduction into rGO on a large area is still a cumbersome task through conventional protocols. Improved film casting of GO sheets on a polymeric substrate with quick and green reduction processes has a potential that may establish a path to the practical flexible electronics. Herein, we report a facile deposition process of GO on flexible polymer substrates to create highly uniform thin films over a large area by a flow-enabled self-assembly approach. The self-assembly of GO sheets was successfully performed by dragging the trapped solution of GO in confined geometry, which consisted of an upper stationary blade and a lower moving substrate on a motorized translational stage. The prepared GO thin films could be selectively reduced and facilitated from the simple laser direct writing process for programmable circuit printing with the desired configuration and less sample damage due to the non-contact mode operation without the use of photolithography, toxic chemistry, or high-temperature reduction methods. Furthermore, two different modes of the laser operating system for the reduction of GO films turned out to be valuable for the construction of novel graphene-based high-throughput electrical circuit boards compatible with integrating electronic module chips and flexible humidity sensors.

  16. Ultracompact low-threshold organic laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deotare, Parag B; Mahony, Thomas S; Bulović, Vladimir

    2014-11-25

    We report an ultracompact low-threshold laser with an Alq3:DCM host:guest molecular organic thin film gain layer. The device uses a photonic crystal nanobeam cavity which provides a high quality factor to mode volume (Q/V) ratio and increased spontaneous emission factor along with a small footprint. Lasing is observed with a threshold of 4.2 μJ/cm(2) when pumped by femtosecond pulses of λ = 400 nm wavelength light. We also model the dynamics of the laser and show good agreement with the experimental data. The inherent waveguide geometry of the structure enables easy on-chip integration with potential applications in biochemical sensing, inertial sensors, and data communication.

  17. Development of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy sensor to assess groundwater quality impacts resulting from geologic carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Cantwell G.; Goueguel, Christian; Jain, Jinesh; McIntyre, Dustin

    2015-05-01

    The injection of CO2 into deep aquifers can potentially affect the quality of groundwater supplies were leakage to occur from the injection formation or fluids. Therefore, the detection of CO2 and/or entrained contaminants that migrate into shallow groundwater aquifers is important both to assess storage permanence and to evaluate impacts on water resources. Naturally occurring elements (i.e., Li, Sr) in conjunction with isotope ratios can be used to detect such leakage. We propose the use of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as an analytical technique to detect a suite of elements in water samples. LIBS has real time monitoring capabilities and can be applied for elemental and isotopic analysis of solid, liquid, and gas samples. The flexibility of probe design and use of fiber optics make it a suitable technique for real time measurements in harsh conditions and in hard to reach places. The laboratory scale experiments to measure Li, K, Ca, and Sr composition of water samples indicate that the technique produces rapid and reliable data. Since CO2 leakage from saline aquifers may accompany a brine solution, we studied the effect of sodium salts on the accuracy of LIBS analysis. This work specifically also details the fabrication and application of a miniature ruggedized remotely operated diode pumped solid state passively Q-switched laser system for use as the plasma excitation source for a real time LIBS analysis. This work also proposes the optical distribution of many laser spark sources across a wide area for widespread leak detection and basin monitoring.

  18. Design of smart optical sensor using polyvinyl alcohol/Fluorescein sodium salt: Laser filters and optical limiting effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, I. S.; Bouzidi, A.; Zahran, H. Y.; Jilani, W.; AlFaify, S.; Algarni, H.; Guermazi, H.

    2018-03-01

    Pure poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and PVA doped Fluorescein-Sodium salt (FSS/PVA composite films) have synthesized on wide scale laser optical filters. The investigated polymeric composite films have been characterized using several methods. The XRD patterns exhibit a decrease of the average crystalline size and an increase of the internal strain, which explained the imperfection and distortion in the prepared films. The optical characterizations showed a decrease in the transmission of the incident light for different samples, which may be explained to the layer formed by intermolecular hydrogen bonding between the PVA matrix and the FSS particles. The FSS/PVA polymeric composite films are being a completely blocking in the UV-Vis light at the range between 190 and 560 nm, agreement with the optical limiting effect, which makes the composite films suitable for CUT-OFF laser filters applications. The decrease in its, directly and indirectly, allowed transition band gaps were controlled by the added FSS dyes molecules. The variation of the exponent frequency (s) of the power law for FSS/PVA polymeric composite films has been characterized to improve the hopping conduction mechanism in the materials. The dielectric permittivity (e‧) and dielectric loss (e'') have been decreased with increasing the applied frequency, and the incorporated FSS molecules due to the DC electric conductivity can cause the decreases of the polarization of the as-prepared films over the studied ranges.

  19. Photo-acoustic sensor based on an inexpensive piezoelectric film transducer and an amplitude-stabilized single-mode external cavity diode laser for in vitro measurements of glucose concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrakli, Ismail; Erdogan, Yasar Kemal

    2018-06-01

    The present paper focuses on development of a compact photo-acoustic sensor using inexpensive components for glucose analysis. An amplitude-stabilized wavelength-tunable single-mode external cavity diode laser operating around 1050 nm was realized and characterized for the use of laser beam as an excitation light source. In the established setup, a fine tuning range of 9 GHz was achieved. The glucose solution was obtained by diluting D-glucose in sterile water. The acoustic signal generated by the optical excitation was detected via a chip piezoelectric film transducer. A detection limit of 50 mM (900 mg/dl) was achieved. The device may be of great interest for its applications in medicine and health monitoring. The sensor is promising for non-invasive in vivo glucose measurements from interstitial fluid.

  20. Multiwavelength Raman-fiber-laser-based long-distance remote sensor for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Young-Geun; Tran, T V A; Kim, Sang-Hyuck; Lee, Sang Bae

    2005-06-01

    We propose a simple and flexible multiwavelength Raman-fiber-laser-based long-distance remote-sensing scheme for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature by use of fiber Bragg gratings. By combining two uniform fiber Bragg gratings with a tunable chirped fiber grating, we readily achieve simultaneous two-channel sensing probes with a high extinction ratio of more than approximately 50 dB over a 50-km distance. When strain and temperature are applied, lasing wavelength separation and shift occur, respectively, since the two uniform fiber Bragg gratings have identical material composition and different cladding diameters. This allows simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature for long-distance sensing applications of more than 50 km.

  1. Local measurements in two-phase flow using a double-sensor conductivity probes and laser doppler anemometry in a vertical pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiva, S.; Julia, E.; Hernandez, L.; Mendez, S.; Munoz-Cobo, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    An upward isothermal co-current air-water flow in a vertical pipe (50.2 mm inner diameter) has been experimental investigated. Local measurements of void fraction, interfacial area concentration (IAC), and interfacial velocity and Sauter mean diameter were measured using a double sensor conductivity probe. Liquid velocity and turbulence intensity were measured using laser Doppler anemometry. Different air-water flow configurations was investigated for a liquid flow rate ranged from 0.29 m/s to 2 m/s and a void fraction up to 15%. For each two-phase flow configuration 15 radial position and three axial positions was measured by the conductivity probe methodology, and several radial profiles was measured with LDA at different axial positions. Two theoretical calibration factors have been defined to relate the mean measurable parameter to the interfacial area concentrations obtained and the measured bubbles, including the missed bubbles. Those factors include the effects of bubble motions, and probe spacing. These calibration factors were obtained through new analytical and numerical method, using a Monte Carlo approach. (author)

  2. Advanced nanoimprint patterning for functional electronics and biochemical sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao

    Nano-fabrication has been widely used for a variety of disciplines, including electronics, material science, nano-optics, and nano-biotechnology. This dissertation focuses on nanoimprint lithography (NIL) based novel nano-patterning techniques for fabricating functional structures, and discusses their applications in advanced electronics and high-sensitivity molecular sensing. In this dissertation, examples of using nano-fabricated structures for promising electronic applications are presented. For instance, 10 nm and 18 nm features are NIL-fabricated for Si/SiGe heterojunction tunneling transistors and graphene nano-ribbon transistors, using shadow evaporation and line-width shrinking techniques, respectively. An ultrafast laser melting based method is applied on flexible plastic substrates to correct defects of nano-features. Nano-texturing of sapphire substrate is developed to improve the light extraction of GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) by 70 %. A novel multi-layer nano-patterned Si-mediated catalyst is discovered to grow straight and uniform Si nanowires with optimized properties in size, location, and crystallization on amorphous SiO2 substrate. Nano-structures are also functionalized into highly sensitive bio-chemical sensors. Plasmonic nano-bar antenna arrays are demonstrated to effectively sense infrared molecules >10 times better than conventional plasmonic sensors. As small as 20 nm wide nano-channel fluidic devices are developed to linearize and detect DNA molecules for potential DNA sequencing. An integrated fluidic system is built to incorporate plasmonic nano-structures for 30X-enhanced fluorescence detection of large DNA molecules.

  3. Optical fiber sensors: Systems and applications. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culshaw, Brian; Dakin, John

    State-of-the-art fiber-optic (FO) sensors and their applications are described in chapters contributed by leading experts. Consideration is given to interferometers, FO gyros, intensity- and wavelength-based sensors and optical actuators, Si in FO sensors, point-sensor multiplexing principles, and distributed FO sensor systems. Also examined are chemical, biochemical, and medical sensors; physical and chemical sensors for process control; FO-sensor applications in the marine and aerospace industries; FO-sensor monitoring systems for security and safety, structural integrity, NDE, and the electric-power industry; and the market situation for FO-sensor technology. Diagrams, drawings, graphs, and photographs are provided.

  4. Short-range remote spectral sensor using mid-infrared semiconductor lasers with orthogonal code-division multiplexing approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbi, Zulfikar; Ho, D. B.; Ren, H.-W.; Le, Han Q.; Pei, Shin Shem

    2002-09-01

    Demonstration of short-range multispectral remote sensing, using 3 to 4-micrometers mid- infrared Sb semiconductor lasers based on code-division multiplexing (CDM) architecture, is described. The system is built on a principle similar to intensity- modulated/direct-detection optical-CDMA for communications, but adapted for sensing with synchronous, orthogonal codes to distinguish different wavelength channels with zero interchannel correlation. The concept is scalable for any number of channels, and experiments with a two-wavelength system are conducted. The CDM-signal processing yielded a white-Gaussian-like system noise that is found to be near the theoretical level limited by the detector fundamental intrinsic noise. With sub-mW transmitter average power, the system was able to detect an open-air acetylene gas leak of 10-2 STP ft3/hr from 10-m away with time-varying, random, noncooperative backscatters. A similar experiment detected and positively distinguished hydrocarbon oil contaminants on water from bio-organic oils and detergents. Projection for more advanced systems suggests a multi-kilometer-range capability for watt-level transmitters, and hundreds of wavelength channels can also be accommodated for active hyperspectral remote sensing application.

  5. Roadmap on optical sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Mário F S; Castro-Camus, Enrique; Ottaway, David J; López-Higuera, José Miguel; Feng, Xian; Jin, Wei; Jeong, Yoonchan; Picqué, Nathalie; Tong, Limin; Reinhard, Björn M; Pellegrino, Paul M; Méndez, Alexis; Diem, Max; Vollmer, Frank; Quan, Qimin

    2017-08-01

    Sensors are devices or systems able to detect, measure and convert magnitudes from any domain to an electrical one. Using light as a probe for optical sensing is one of the most efficient approaches for this purpose. The history of optical sensing using some methods based on absorbance, emissive and florescence properties date back to the 16th century. The field of optical sensors evolved during the following centuries, but it did not achieve maturity until the demonstration of the first laser in 1960. The unique properties of laser light become particularly important in the case of laser-based sensors, whose operation is entirely based upon the direct detection of laser light itself, without relying on any additional mediating device. However, compared with freely propagating light beams, artificially engineered optical fields are in increasing demand for probing samples with very small sizes and/or weak light-matter interaction. Optical fiber sensors constitute a subarea of optical sensors in which fiber technologies are employed. Different types of specialty and photonic crystal fibers provide improved performance and novel sensing concepts. Actually, structurization with wavelength or subwavelength feature size appears as the most efficient way to enhance sensor sensitivity and its detection limit. This leads to the area of micro- and nano-engineered optical sensors. It is expected that the combination of better fabrication techniques and new physical effects may open new and fascinating opportunities in this area. This roadmap on optical sensors addresses different technologies and application areas of the field. Fourteen contributions authored by experts from both industry and academia provide insights into the current state-of-the-art and the challenges faced by researchers currently. Two sections of this paper provide an overview of laser-based and frequency comb-based sensors. Three sections address the area of optical fiber sensors, encompassing both

  6. Roadmap on optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Mário F. S.; Castro-Camus, Enrique; Ottaway, David J.; López-Higuera, José Miguel; Feng, Xian; Jin, Wei; Jeong, Yoonchan; Picqué, Nathalie; Tong, Limin; Reinhard, Björn M.; Pellegrino, Paul M.; Méndez, Alexis; Diem, Max; Vollmer, Frank; Quan, Qimin

    2017-08-01

    Sensors are devices or systems able to detect, measure and convert magnitudes from any domain to an electrical one. Using light as a probe for optical sensing is one of the most efficient approaches for this purpose. The history of optical sensing using some methods based on absorbance, emissive and florescence properties date back to the 16th century. The field of optical sensors evolved during the following centuries, but it did not achieve maturity until the demonstration of the first laser in 1960. The unique properties of laser light become particularly important in the case of laser-based sensors, whose operation is entirely based upon the direct detection of laser light itself, without relying on any additional mediating device. However, compared with freely propagating light beams, artificially engineered optical fields are in increasing demand for probing samples with very small sizes and/or weak light-matter interaction. Optical fiber sensors constitute a subarea of optical sensors in which fiber technologies are employed. Different types of specialty and photonic crystal fibers provide improved performance and novel sensing concepts. Actually, structurization with wavelength or subwavelength feature size appears as the most efficient way to enhance sensor sensitivity and its detection limit. This leads to the area of micro- and nano-engineered optical sensors. It is expected that the combination of better fabrication techniques and new physical effects may open new and fascinating opportunities in this area. This roadmap on optical sensors addresses different technologies and application areas of the field. Fourteen contributions authored by experts from both industry and academia provide insights into the current state-of-the-art and the challenges faced by researchers currently. Two sections of this paper provide an overview of laser-based and frequency comb-based sensors. Three sections address the area of optical fiber sensors, encompassing both

  7. Measures of Biochemical Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel; Marsh, Mitchell

    2008-01-01

    In a previous article, the authors introduced a new sub field in sociology that we labeled "biochemical sociology." We introduced the definition of a sociology that encompasses sociological measures, psychological measures, and biological indicators Snell & Marsh (2003). In this article, we want to demonstrate a research strategy that would assess…

  8. Measurements of laser parameters for the Shiva laser fusion facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozarski, R.G.

    1979-01-01

    Large laser systems require numerous laser diagnostics to provide configuration, performance and maintenance data to permit efficient operation. The following diagnostics for a large laser system named Shiva are discussed: (1) description of Shiva laser system, (2) what measurements are desired and or required and why, (3) what measurement techniques and packages are employed and a brief description of the operating principles of the sensors employed, and (4) the laser diagnostic data acquisition and display system

  9. Laser tests of silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolezal, Zdenek; Escobar, Carlos; Gadomski, Szymon; Garcia, Carmen; Gonzalez, Sergio; Kodys, Peter; Kubik, Petr; Lacasta, Carlos; Marti, Salvador; Mitsou, Vasiliki A.; Moorhead, Gareth F.; Phillips, Peter W.; Reznicek, Pavel; Slavik, Radan

    2007-01-01

    This paper collects experiences from the development of a silicon sensor laser testing setup and from tests of silicon strip modules (ATLAS End-cap SCT), pixel modules (DEPFET) and large-area diodes using semiconductor lasers. Lasers of 1060 and 680 nm wavelengths were used. A sophisticated method of focusing the laser was developed. Timing and interstrip properties of modules were measured. Analysis of optical effects involved and detailed discussion about the usability of laser testing for particle detectors are presented

  10. Ammonia Sensor Using Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Farooq, Aamir; Owen, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    An ammonia sensor can include a laser detector configured to provide stable sample readings. The sensor can implement a method including processing the recorded intensity of the laser beam to determine a first harmonic component and a second harmonic component and the amount of ammonia in the sample.

  11. Ammonia Sensor Using Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Farooq, Aamir

    2015-09-01

    An ammonia sensor can include a laser detector configured to provide stable sample readings. The sensor can implement a method including processing the recorded intensity of the laser beam to determine a first harmonic component and a second harmonic component and the amount of ammonia in the sample.

  12. Optical fiber powered pressure sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, P.; Neveux, L.; Ostrowsky, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    In the system described, a pressure sensor and its associated electronics are optically powered by a 20 mw laser and a photovoltaic cell via an optical fiber. The sensor is periodically interrogated and sends the measures obtained back to the central unit using an LED and a second fiber. The results obtained as well as the expected evolution will be described

  13. Association between mild cognitive impairment and trajectory-based spatial parameters during timed up and go test using a laser range sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiguchi, Shu; Yorozu, Ayanori; Adachi, Daiki; Takahashi, Masaki; Aoyama, Tomoki

    2017-08-08

    The Timed Up and Go (TUG) test may be a useful tool to detect not only mobility impairment but also possible cognitive impairment. In this cross-sectional study, we used the TUG test to investigate the associations between trajectory-based spatial parameters measured by laser range sensor (LRS) and cognitive impairment in community-dwelling older adults. The participants were 63 community-dwelling older adults (mean age, 73.0 ± 6.3 years). The trajectory-based spatial parameters during the TUG test were measured using an LRS. In each forward and backward phase, we calculated the minimum distance from the marker, the maximum distance from the x-axis (center line), the length of the trajectories, and the area of region surrounded by the trajectory of the center of gravity and the x-axis (center line). We measured mild cognitive impairment using the Mini-Mental State Examination score (26/27 was the cut-off score for defining mild cognitive impairment). Compared with participants with normal cognitive function, those with mild cognitive impairment exhibited the following trajectory-based spatial parameters: short minimum distance from the marker (p = 0.044), narrow area of center of gravity in the forward phase (p = 0.012), and a large forward/whole phase ratio of the area of the center of gravity (p = 0.026) during the TUG test. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, a short minimum distance from the marker (odds ratio [OR]: 0.82, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.69-0.98), narrow area of the center of gravity in the forward phase (OR: 0.01, 95% CI: 0.00-0.36), and large forward/whole phase ratio of the area of the center of gravity (OR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.88-0.99) were independently associated with mild cognitive impairment. In conclusion, our results indicate that some of the trajectory-based spatial parameters measured by LRS during the TUG test were independently associated with cognitive impairment in older adults. In particular, older adults with

  14. Development of printed sensors for taste sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Nag, Anindya

    2018-01-30

    The paper presents an idea of developing taste sensors using novel printed sensors. The raw materials used for developing the sensors were commercial polymer films. Powered graphene was produced using laser induction technique. This powder was separately transferred to Kapton tapes to developed flexible graphene sensors. The fabricated sensors were tested with different chemicals having specific attributes with the idea to develop a taste sensor. Three different types of chemicals were tested and analyzed to verify the ability of the developed sensor patch to differentiate between the individual chemicals. The initial results have provided a significant platform in the process of developing a fully functionalized taste sensing system.

  15. Development of printed sensors for taste sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Nag, Anindya; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents an idea of developing taste sensors using novel printed sensors. The raw materials used for developing the sensors were commercial polymer films. Powered graphene was produced using laser induction technique. This powder was separately transferred to Kapton tapes to developed flexible graphene sensors. The fabricated sensors were tested with different chemicals having specific attributes with the idea to develop a taste sensor. Three different types of chemicals were tested and analyzed to verify the ability of the developed sensor patch to differentiate between the individual chemicals. The initial results have provided a significant platform in the process of developing a fully functionalized taste sensing system.

  16. Biochemical Hypermedia: Galactose Metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Sugai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Animations of biochemical processes and virtual laboratory environments lead to true molecular simulations. The use of interactive software’s in education can improve cognitive capacity, better learning and, mainly, it makes information acquisition easier. Material and Methods: This work presents the development of a biochemical hypermedia to understanding of the galactose metabolism. It was developed with the help of concept maps, ISIS Draw, ADOBE Photoshop and FLASH MX Program. Results and Discussion: A step by step animation process shows the enzymatic reactions of galactose conversion to glucose-1-phosphate (to glycogen synthesis, glucose-6-phosphate (glycolysis intermediary, UDP-galactose (substrate to mucopolysaccharides synthesis and collagen’s glycosylation. There are navigation guide that allow scrolling the mouse over the names of the components of enzymatic reactions of via the metabolism of galactose. Thus, explanatory text box, chemical structures and animation of the actions of enzymes appear to navigator. Upon completion of the module, the user’s response to the proposed exercise can be checked immediately through text box with interactive content of the answer. Conclusion: This hypermedia was presented for undergraduate students (UFSC who revealed that it was extremely effective in promoting the understanding of the theme.

  17. Taste sensor; Mikaku sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toko, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1998-03-05

    This paper introduces a taste sensor having a lipid/polymer membrane to work as a receptor of taste substances. The paper describes the following matters: this sensor uses a hollow polyvinyl chloride rod filled with KCl aqueous solution, and placed with silver and silver chloride wires, whose cross section is affixed with a lipid/polymer membrane as a lipid membrane electrode to identify taste from seven or eight kinds of response patterns of electric potential output from the lipid/polymer membrane; measurements of different substances presenting acidic taste, salty taste, bitter taste, sweet taste and flavor by using this sensor identified clearly each taste (similar response is shown to a similar taste even if the substances are different); different responses are indicated on different brands of beers; from the result of measuring a great variety of mineral waters, a possibility was suggested that this taste sensor could be used for water quality monitoring sensors; and application of this taste sensor may be expected as a maturation control sensor for Japanese sake (wine) and miso (bean paste) manufacturing. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Implantable biochemical fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, G; Rao, J R

    1978-01-05

    Implantable biochemical fuel cells for the operation of heart pacemakers or artificial hearts convert oxidisable body substances such as glucose on the anode side and reduce the oxygen contained in body fluids at the cathode. The anode and cathode are separated by membranes which are impermeable to albumen and blood corpuscles in body fluids. A chemical shortcircuit cannot occur in practice if, according to the invention, one or more selective oxygen electrodes with carbon as catalyst are arranged so that the mixture which diffuses into the cell from body fluids during operation reaches the fuel cell electrode through the porous oxygen electrode. The membranes used must be permeable to water. Cellulose, polymerised polyvinyl alcohol or an ion exchanger with a buffering capacity between pH5 and 8 act as permeable materials.

  19. Range-Measuring Video Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Richard T.; Briscoe, Jeri M.; Corder, Eric L.; Broderick, David

    2006-01-01

    Optoelectronic sensors of a proposed type would perform the functions of both electronic cameras and triangulation- type laser range finders. That is to say, these sensors would both (1) generate ordinary video or snapshot digital images and (2) measure the distances to selected spots in the images. These sensors would be well suited to use on robots that are required to measure distances to targets in their work spaces. In addition, these sensors could be used for all the purposes for which electronic cameras have been used heretofore. The simplest sensor of this type, illustrated schematically in the upper part of the figure, would include a laser, an electronic camera (either video or snapshot), a frame-grabber/image-capturing circuit, an image-data-storage memory circuit, and an image-data processor. There would be no moving parts. The laser would be positioned at a lateral distance d to one side of the camera and would be aimed parallel to the optical axis of the camera. When the range of a target in the field of view of the camera was required, the laser would be turned on and an image of the target would be stored and preprocessed to locate the angle (a) between the optical axis and the line of sight to the centroid of the laser spot.

  20. Optical beam deflection sensor: design and experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, João M S; Marques, Renan B; Kitano, Cláudio; Rodrigues, Nicolau A S; Riva, Rudimar

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we present a double-pass optical beam deflection sensor and its optical design method. To accomplish that, a mathematical model was proposed and computational simulations were performed, in order to obtain the sensor's characteristic curves and to analyze its behavior as function of design parameters. The mathematical model was validated by comparison with the characteristic curves acquired experimentally. The sensor was employed to detect acoustic pulses generated by a pulsed laser in a sample surface, in order to show its potential for monitoring applications handling high energy input as laser welding or laser ablation.

  1. The emergence of mass spectrometry in biochemical research

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    The initial steps toward routinely applying mass spectrometry in the biochemical laboratory have been achieved. In the past, mass spectrometry was confined to the realm of small, relatively stable molecules; large or thermally labile molecules did not survive the desorption and ionization processes intact. Electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry allow for the analysis of both small and large biomolecules through "mild" desorption...

  2. Lasers '89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.G.; Shay, T.M.

    1990-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: XUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Lasers, excimer lasers, chemical lasers, nuclear pumped lasers, high power gas lasers, solid state lasers, laser spectroscopy. The paper presented include: Development of KrF lasers for fusion and Nuclear driven solid-state lasers

  3. Single frequency semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Zujie; Chen, Gaoting; Qu, Ronghui

    2017-01-01

    This book systematically introduces the single frequency semiconductor laser, which is widely used in many vital advanced technologies, such as the laser cooling of atoms and atomic clock, high-precision measurements and spectroscopy, coherent optical communications, and advanced optical sensors. It presents both the fundamentals and characteristics of semiconductor lasers, including basic F-P structure and monolithic integrated structures; interprets laser noises and their measurements; and explains mechanisms and technologies relating to the main aspects of single frequency lasers, including external cavity lasers, frequency stabilization technologies, frequency sweeping, optical phase locked loops, and so on. It paints a clear, physical picture of related technologies and reviews new developments in the field as well. It will be a useful reference to graduate students, researchers, and engineers in the field.

  4. Ambient Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketches comprise two custom-built ambient sensors, i.e. a noise and a movement sensor. Both sensors measure an ambient value and process the values to a color gradient (green > yellow > red). The sensors were built using the Processing 1.5.1 development environment. Available under

  5. Ouroboros - Playing A Biochemical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Rodrigues

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ouroboros: Playing A Biochemical RODRIGUES,D.T.1,2;GAYER, M.C.1,2; ESCOTO, D.F.1; DENARDIN, E.L.G.2, ROEHRS, R.1,2 1Interdisciplinary Research Group on Teaching Practice, Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil 2Laboratory of Physicochemical Studies and Natural Products, Post Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil Introduction: Currently, teachers seek different alternatives to enhance the teaching-learning process. Innovative teaching methodologies are increasingly common tools in educational routine. The use of games, electronic or conventional, is an effective tool to assist in learning and also to raise the social interaction between students. Objective: In this sense our work aims to evaluate the card game and "Ouroboros" board as a teaching and learning tool in biochemistry for a graduating class in Natural Sciences. Materials and methods: The class gathered 22 students of BSc in Natural Sciences. Each letter contained a question across the board that was drawn to a group to answer within the allotted time. The questions related concepts of metabolism, organic and inorganic chemical reactions, bioenergetics, etc.. Before the game application, students underwent a pre-test with four issues involving the content that was being developed. Soon after, the game was applied. Then again questions were asked. Data analysis was performed from the ratio of the number of correct pre-test and post-test answers. Results and discussion: In the pre-test 18.1% of the students knew all issues, 18.1% got 3 correct answers, 40.9% answered only 2 questions correctly and 22.7% did not hit any. In post-test 45.4% answered all the questions right, 31.8% got 3 questions and 22.7% got 2 correct answers. The results show a significant improvement of the students about the field of content taught through the game. Conclusion: Generally, traditional approaches of chemistry and biochemistry are abstract and complex. Thus, through games

  6. Enzyme and biochemical producing fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübeck, Peter Stephensen; Lübeck, Mette; Nilsson, Lena

    2010-01-01

    factories for sustainable production of important molecules. For developing fungi into efficient cell factories, the project includes identification of important factors that control the flux through the pathways using metabolic flux analysis and metabolic engineering of biochemical pathways....

  7. Advanced Sensors for Airborne Magnetic Measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bobb, L

    2001-01-01

    Numerous ground tests and platform tests were conducted to evaluate platform integration issues and the performance of the POLATOMIC 2000 magnetometer, a laser-pumped helium-4 total magnetic field sensor...

  8. Integrating Sensor-Collected Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    APPENDIX H: ACRONYMS & GLOSSARY OF TERMS______________________________________________ KML Keyhole Markup Language L LADAR Laser Radar LAN Local... close to the sensor as possible. I endorse the Task Force’s findings and recommendations and encourage you to review the report. Dr. William...deeply-buried targets – require that the relevant sensors be in close proximity to the target. The task force discussed the requirements of close -in

  9. Rancang Bangun Sistem Pengukur Kecepatan Kendaraan Menggunakan Sensor Magnetik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Ramdhani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Data kecepatan kendaran di jalan raya sangat berpengaruh bagi keamanan dan keselamatan pengguna jalan raya. Kemajuan tekhnologi sensor sangat membantu dalam mengukur kecepatan kendaraan dengan otomatis. Metode yang umum dipakai ialah metode dengan menggunakan dua buah rangkaian sensor yang sudah diatur pada jarak tertentu. Sensor digunakan sebagai pendeteksi keberadaan kendaraan. Data kecepatan kendaraan didapatkan dengan mencari selang waktu yang dibutuhkan kendaraan melaju dari sensor pertama menuju sensor kedua. Saat kendaraan melaju melewati sensor maka sinyal keluaran sensor menjadi acuan perhitungan waktu start dan stop. Berbagai jenis sensor yang sudah digunakan ialah sensor LDR, sensor ultrasonic, sensor laser, sensor loop induktif dan sensor kamera. Setiap sensor yang sudah dipergunakan memiliki berbagai jenis kekurangan dalam mendeteksi kendaraan pada jalan raya. Oleh karena itu penulis memunculkan ide baru dengan menggunakan sensor magnetik yang memiliki faktor gangguan eksternal yang rendah. Sensor magnetik yang digunakan ialah sensor Giant MagnetoResistance (GMR. Perancangan sistem pengukur kecepatan kendaraan yang penulis lakukan berupa sebuah prototype. Hasil pengujian sistem pengukur kecepatan kendaraan menggunakan sensor magnetik GMR menunjukan respon yang bagus saat pengujian dilakukan pada jarak 30cm dan 70cm antara dua buah sensor GMR. Data speed of vehicles on the highway are very influential to the security and safety of users of the highway. Advances in sensor technology is very helpful in measuring the speed of vehicles with automatic. A common method used is the method by using two sensor circuit which is set at a certain distance. The sensor is used as a detector for the exixtance of the vehicle. Vehicle speed data obtained by finding the time required vehicles drove from the first sensor to the second sensor. When the vehicle drove past the sensor, the sensor output signal to be a reference calculation start and stop

  10. Color Laser Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awamura, D.; Ode, T.; Yonezawa, M.

    1987-04-01

    A color laser microscope utilizing a new color laser imaging system has been developed for the visual inspection of semiconductors. The light source, produced by three lasers (Red; He-Ne, Green; Ar, Blue; He-Cd), is deflected horizontally by an AOD (Acoustic Optical Deflector) and vertically by a vibration mirror. The laser beam is focused in a small spot which is scanned over the sample at high speed. The light reflected back from the sample is reformed to contain linear information by returning to the original vibration mirror. The linear light is guided to the CCD image sensor where it is converted into a video signal. Individual CCD image sensors are used for each of the three R, G, or B color image signals. The confocal optical system with its laser light source yields a color TV monitor image with no flaring and a much sharper resolution than that of the conventional optical microscope. The AOD makes possible a high speed laser scan and a NTSC or PAL TV video signal is produced in real time without any video memory. Since the light source is composed of R, G, and B laser beams, color separation superior to that of white light illumination is achieved. Because of the photometric linearity of the image detector, the R, G, and B outputs of the system are most suitably used for hue analysis. The CCD linear image sensors in the optical system produce no geometrical distortion, and good color registration is available principally. The output signal can be used for high accuracy line width measuring. The many features of the color laser microscope make it ideally suited for the visual inspection of semiconductor processing. A number of these systems have already been installed in such a capacity. The Color Laser Microscope can also be a very useful tool for the fields of material engineering and biotechnology.

  11. Single Nanoparticle Plasmonic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Sriram

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of plasmonic nanomaterials in optical sensors, coupled with the advances in detection techniques, has opened the way for biosensing with single plasmonic particles. Single nanoparticle sensors offer the potential to analyse biochemical interactions at a single-molecule level, thereby allowing us to capture even more information than ensemble measurements. We introduce the concepts behind single nanoparticle sensing and how the localised surface plasmon resonances of these nanoparticles are dependent upon their materials, shape and size. Then we outline the different synthetic approaches, like citrate reduction, seed-mediated and seedless growth, that enable the synthesis of gold and silver nanospheres, nanorods, nanostars, nanoprisms and other nanostructures with tunable sizes. Further, we go into the aspects related to purification and functionalisation of nanoparticles, prior to the fabrication of sensing surfaces. Finally, the recent developments in single nanoparticle detection, spectroscopy and sensing applications are discussed.

  12. Laser Megajoule synchronization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luttmann, M.; Pastor, J.F; Drouet, V.; Prat, M.; Raimbourg, J.; Adolf, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the synchronisation system under development on the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) in order to synchronize the laser quads on the target to better than 40 ps rms. Our architecture is based on a Timing System (TS) which delivers trigger signals with jitter down to 15 ps rms coupled with an ultra precision timing system with 5 ps rms jitter. In addition to TS, a sensor placed at the target chamber center measures the arrival times of the 3 omega nano joule laser pulses generated by front end shots. (authors)

  13. Monitoring of Moisture in Transformer Oil Using Optical Fiber as Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    S. Laskar; S. Bordoloi

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an optical fiber sensor and temperature sensor-based instrumentation system to measure the moisture content in transformer oil. The sensor system consists of (i) Diode Laser Source, (ii) a bare and bent multimode fiber as sensor probe, (iii) an LDR as detector, (iv) LM35-based temperature sensor, and (v) microcontroller system having a trained ANN for processing and calibration. The bare and bent optical fiber sensor and the temperature sensor LM35 are used to provide the...

  14. Chemical sensors for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonting, Sjoerd L.

    1992-01-01

    The payload of the Space Station Freedom will include sensors for frequent monitoring of the water recycling process and for measuring the many biochemical parameters related to onboard experiments. This paper describes the sensor technologies and the types of transducers and selectors considered for these sensors. Particular attention is given to such aspects of monitoring of the water recycling process as the types of water use, the sources of water and their hazards, the sensor systems for monitoring, microbial monitoring, and monitoring toxic metals and organics. An approach for monitoring water recycling is suggested, which includes microbial testing with a potentiometric device (which should be in first line of tests), the use of an ion-selective electrode for inorganic ion determinations, and the use of optic fiber techniques for the determination of total organic carbon.

  15. Elevation scanning laser/multi-sensor hazard detection system controller and mirror/mast speed control components. [roving vehicle electromechanical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, J.; Yerazunis, S. W.

    1978-01-01

    The electro-mechanical and electronic systems involved with pointing a laser beam from a roving vehicle along a desired vector are described. A rotating 8 sided mirror, driven by a phase-locked dc motor servo system, and monitored by a precision optical shaft encoder is used. This upper assembly is then rotated about an orthogonal axis to allow scanning into all 360 deg around the vehicle. This axis is also driven by a phase locked dc motor servo-system, and monitored with an optical shaft encoder. The electronics are realized in standard TTL integrated circuits with UV-erasable proms used to store desired coordinates of laser fire. Related topics such as the interface to the existing test vehicle are discussed.

  16. Multi-pollutants sensors based on near-IR telecom lasers and mid-IR difference frequency generation: development and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousin, J.

    2006-12-01

    At present the detection of VOC and other anthropic trace pollutants is an important challenge in the measurement of air quality. Infrared spectroscopy, allowing spectral regions rich in molecular absorption to be probed, is a suitable technique for in-situ monitoring of the air pollution. Thus the aim of this work was to develop instruments capable of detecting multiple pollutants for in-situ monitoring by IR spectroscopy. A first project benefited from the availability of the telecommunications lasers emitting in near-IR. This instrument was based on an external cavity diode laser (1500 - 1640 nm) in conjunction with a multipass cell (100 m). The detection sensitivity was optimised by employing a balanced detection and a sweep integration procedure. The instrument developed is deployable for in-situ measurements with a sensitivity of -8 cm -1 Hz -1/2 and allowed the quantification of chemical species such as CO 2 , CO, C 2 H 2 , CH 4 and the determination of the isotopic ratio 13 CO 2 / 12 CO 2 in combustion environment The second project consisted in mixing two near-IR fiber lasers in a non-linear crystal (PPLN) in order to produce a laser radiation by difference frequency generation in the middle-IR (3.15 - 3.43 μm), where the absorption bands of the molecules are the most intense. The first studies with this source were carried out on detection of ethylene (C 2 H 4 ) and benzene (C 6 H 6 ). Developments, characterizations and applications of these instruments in the near and middle IR are detailed and the advantages of the 2 spectral ranges is highlighted. (author)

  17. Optical Fiber Grating based Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Susanne

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis differenct optical fiber gratings are used for sensor purposes. If a fiber with a core concentricity error (CCE) is used, a directional dependent bend sensor can be produced. The CCE direction can be determined by means of diffraction. This makes it possible to produce long......-period gratings in a fiber with a CCE direction parallel or perpendicular to the writing direction. The maximal bending sensitivity is independent on the writing direction, but the detailed bending response is different in the two cases. A temperature and strain sensor, based on a long-period grating and two...... sampled gratings, was produced and investigated. It is based on the different temperature and strain response of these gratings. Both a transfer matrix method and an overlap calculation is performed to explain the sensor response. Another type of sensor is based on tuning and modulation of a laser...

  18. Surface Effects in Segmented Silicon Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Kopsalis, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    Silicon detectors in Photon Science and Particle Physics require silicon sensors with very demanding specifications. New accelerators like the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (EuXFEL) and the High Luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), pose new challenges for silicon sensors, especially with respect to radiation hardness. High radiation doses and fluences damage the silicon crystal and the SiO2 layers at the surface, thus changing the sensor properties and limiting their...

  19. Attention Sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketch was used in the context of an experiment for the PhD project “Ambient Learning Displays”. The sketch comprises a custom-built attention sensor. The sensor measured (during the experiment) whether a participant looked at and thus attended a public display. The sensor was built

  20. Biochemical reactions of the organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorova, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    Effects of mercury, strontium chloride, GMDA, trichlorfon as well as some radionuclides ( 89 Sr, 137 Cs, 203 Hg) were studied on rats. Changes in biochemical parameters (histamine content, activity of cholinesterase and histaminase) are noted. Most noticeable changes were observed in enzymatic activity. Distortion of enzymatic systems and accumulation of intermediate exchange and decay products of tissues in excess quantities affecting other systems can be the reason for changes in the organism. The observed changes in biochemical parameters should be necessarily taken into account at hygienic regulations of harmful effects of enviroment

  1. A novel approach for quality control system using sensor fusion of infrared and visual image processing for laser sealing of food containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Habaibeh, A.; Shi, F.; Brown, N.; Kerr, D.; Jackson, M.; Parkin, R. M.

    2004-10-01

    This paper presents a new mechatronic approach of using infrared thermography combined with image processing for the quality control of a laser sealing process for food containers. The suggested approach uses an online infrared system to assess the heat distribution within the container seal in order to guarantee the integrity of the process. Visual image processing is then used for quality assurance to guarantee optimum sealing. The results described in this paper show examples of the capability of the condition monitoring system to detect faults in the sealing process. The results found indicate that the suggested approach could form an effective quality control and assurance system.

  2. Laser Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauger, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Describes lasers and indicates that learning about laser technology and creating laser technology activities are among the teacher enhancement processes needed to strengthen technology education. (JOW)

  3. Gamma and Neutron Irradiation of Semitransparent Amorphous Silicon Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carabe, J.; Fernandez, M. G.; Ferrando, A.; Fuentes, J.; Gandia, J.; Josa, M. I.; Molinero, A.; Oller, J. C.; Arce, P.; Calvo, E.; Figueroa, C. F.; Garcia, N.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Vila, I.; Virto, A. L.; Fenyvesi, A.; Molnar, J.; Sohler, D.

    1999-12-01

    Semitransparent amorphous silicon sensors are key elements for laser light 2D position reconstruction in the CMS multipoint alignment link system. Some of the sensors have to work in very hard radiation environment. We have irradiated with gammas, up to 10 Mrad, and neutrons, up to 10 ''14 cm''-2, two different type of sensors and measured their change in performance. (Author) 10 refs

  4. Laser therapy of muscle injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Munqith S; Al-Salihi, Anam Rasheed; Qasim, Amenah Wala'a

    2013-05-01

    Low-level lasers are used in general therapy and healing process due to their good photo-bio-stimulation effects. In this paper, the effects of diode laser and Nd:YAG laser on the healing process of practically managed skeletal muscle trauma has been successfully studied. Standard impact trauma was induced by using a specially designed mechanical device. The impacted muscle was left for 3 days for complete development of blunt trauma. After that it was irradiated by five laser sessions for 5 days. Two types of lasers were used; 785-nm diode laser and 1.064-nm Nd:YAG laser, both in continuous and pulsed modes. A special electronic circuit was designed and implemented to modulate the diode laser for this purpose. Tissue samples of crushed skeletal muscle have been dissected from the injured irradiated muscle then bio-chemically analyzed for the regeneration of contractile and collagenous proteins using Lowry assay for protein determination and Reddy and Enwemeka assay for hydroxyproline determination. The results showed that both lasers stimulate the regeneration capability of traumatized skeletal muscle. The diode laser in CW and pulsed modes showed better results than the Nd:YAG in accelerating the preservation of the normal tissue content of collagenous and contractile proteins beside controlling the regeneration of non-functional fibrous tissue. This study proved that the healing achieved by the laser treatment was faster than the control group by 15-20 days.

  5. Active standoff detection of CH4 and N2O leaks using hard-target backscattered light using an open-path quantum cascade laser sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Adrian; Thomas, Benjamin; Castillo, Paulo; Gross, Barry; Moshary, Fred

    2016-05-01

    Fugitive gas emissions from agricultural or industrial plants and gas pipelines are an important environmental concern as they contribute to the global increase of greenhouse gas concentrations. Moreover, they are also a security and safety concern because of possible risk of fire/explosion or toxicity. This study presents standoff detection of CH4 and N2O leaks using a quantum cascade laser open-path system that retrieves path-averaged concentrations by collecting the backscattered light from a remote hard target. It is a true standoff system and differs from other open-path systems that are deployed as point samplers or long-path transmission systems that use retroreflectors. The measured absorption spectra are obtained using a thermal intra-pulse frequency chirped DFB quantum cascade laser at ~7.7 µm wavelength range with ~200 ns pulse width. Making fast time resolved observations, the system simultaneously realizes high spectral resolution and range to the target, resulting in path-averaged concentration retrieval. The system performs measurements at high speed ~15 Hz and sufficient range (up to 45 m, ~148 feet) achieving an uncertainty of 3.1 % and normalized sensitivity of 3.3 ppm m Hz-1/2 for N2O and 9.3 % and normalized sensitivity of 30 ppm m Hz-1/2 for CH4 with a 0.31 mW average power QCL. Given these characteristics, this system is promising for mobile or multidirectional search and remote detection of gas leaks.

  6. Pulsed Laser Deposition: passive and active waveguides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínek, Miroslav; Flory, F.; Escoubas, L.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 4 (2009), s. 438-449 ISSN 0268-1900 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0216 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : PLD * pulsed laser deposition * laser ablation * passive waveguides * active waveguides * waveguide laser * sensors * thin films * butane detection Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.384, year: 2009

  7. Circadian Clocks: Unexpected Biochemical Cogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Tetsuya; Mchaourab, Hassane; Johnson, Carl Hirschie

    2015-10-05

    A circadian oscillation can be reconstituted in vitro from three proteins that cycles with a period of ∼ 24 h. Two recent studies provide surprising biochemical answers to why this remarkable oscillator has such a long time constant and how it can switch effortlessly between alternating enzymatic modes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Circadian Clocks: Unexpected Biochemical Cogs

    OpenAIRE

    Mori, Tetsuya; Mchaourab, Hassane; Johnson, Carl Hirschie

    2015-01-01

    A circadian oscillation can be reconstituted in vitro from three proteins that cycles with a period of ~24 h. Two recent studies provide surprising biochemical answers to why this remarkable oscillator has such a long time constant and how it can switch effortlessly between alternating enzymatic modes.

  9. Wavefront Measurement for Laser-Guiding Diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, S.; Gonsalves, A.J.; Lin, C.; Nakamura, K.; Osterhoff, J.; Sokollik, T.; van Tilborg, J.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Schroeder, C.B.; Toth, Cs.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W.P.

    2010-01-01

    The wavefront of a short laser pulse after interaction in a laser-plasma accelerator (LPA) was measured to diagnose laser-guiding quality. Experiments were performed on a 100 TW class laser at the LOASIS facility of LBNL using a hydrogenfilled capillary discharge waveguide. Laser-guiding with a pre-formed plasma channel allows the laser pulse to propagate over many Rayleigh lengths at high intensity and is crucial to accelerate electrons to the highest possible energy. Efficient coupling of laser energy into the plasma is realized when the laser and the channel satisfy a matched guiding condition, in which the wavefront remains flat within the channel. Using a wavefront sensor, the laser-guiding quality was diagnosed based on the wavefront of the laser pulse exiting the plasma channel. This wavefront diagnostic will contribute to achieving controlled, matched guiding in future experiments.

  10. Wafer-scale growth of highly textured piezoelectric thin films by pulsed laser deposition for micro-scale sensors and actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, M. D.; Tiggelaar, R.; Aukes, T.; Rijnders, G.; Roelof, G.

    2017-11-01

    Piezoelectric lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) thin films were deposited on 4-inch (111)Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si(001) wafers using large-area pulsed laser deposition (PLD). This study was focused on the homogeneity in film thickness, microstructure, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of PZT thin films. The results indicated that the highly textured (001)-oriented PZT thin films with wafer-scale thickness homogeneity (990 nm ± 0.8%) were obtained. The films were fabricated into piezoelectric cantilevers through a MEMS microfabrication process. The measured longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient (d 33f = 210 pm/V ± 1.6%) and piezoelectric transverse coefficient (e 31f = -18.8 C/m2 ± 2.8%) were high and homogeneity across wafers. The high piezoelectric properties on Si wafers will extend industrial application of PZT thin films and further development of piezoMEMS.

  11. Sensors, Volume 4, Thermal Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Jorg; Ricolfi, Teresio

    1996-12-01

    'Sensors' is the first self-contained series to deal with the whole area of sensors. It describes general aspects, technical and physical fundamentals, construction, function, applications and developments of the various types of sensors. This volume describes the construction and applicational aspects of thermal sensors while presenting a rigorous treatment of the underlying physical principles. It provides a unique overview of the various categories of sensors as well as of specific groups, e.g. temperature sensors (resistance thermometers, thermocouples, and radiation thermometers), noise and acoustic thermometers, heat-flow and mass-flow sensors. Specific facettes of applications are presented by specialists from different fields including process control, automotive technology and cryogenics. This volume is an indispensable reference work and text book for both specialists and newcomers, researchers and developers.

  12. Chemical sensors for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnanasekaran, K.I.

    2012-01-01

    Development of chemical sensors for detection of gases at trace levels for applications in nuclear industry will be highlighted. The sensors have to be highly sensitive, reliable and rugged with long term stability to operate in harsh industrial environment. Semiconductor and solid electrolyte based electrochemical sensors satisfy the requirements. Physico-chemical aspects underlying the development of H 2 sensors in sodium and in cover gas circuit of the Fast breeder reactors for its smooth functioning, NH 3 and H 2 S sensors for use in Heavy water production industries and NO x sensors for spent fuel reprocessing plants will be presented. Development of oxygen sensors to monitor the oxygen level in the reactor containments and sodium sensors for detection of sodium leakages will also be discussed. The talk will focus the general aspects of identification of the sensing material for the respective analyte species, development of suitable chemical route for preparing them as fine powders, the need for configuring them in thick film or thin film geometries and their performance. Pulsed laser deposition method, an elegant technique to prepare the high quality thin films of multicomponent oxides is demonstrated for preparation of nanostructured thin films of complex oxides and its use in tailoring the morphology of the complex sensing material in the desired form by optimizing the in-situ growth conditions. (author)

  13. Integrated optical sensors for the chemical domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambeck, Paul

    2006-01-01

    During the last decade there has been a rapidly growing interest in integrated optical (IO) sensors, expecially because many of them principally allow for sensitive, real time, label-free-on-site measurements of the concentration of (bio-)chemical species. This review aims at giving an overview of

  14. 基于激光传感器的智能车路径识别系统设计%The Design of Intelligent Vehicle Path Identification System Based on Laser Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗强; 徐文城; 刘尧

    2012-01-01

    The self - tracking intelligent vehicle path identification system is achieved in this paper. The system is based on laser sensors. The hardware and algorithm of the system is designed in this paper. The capability of Previem and Immunity of the Intelligent Vehicle is improved. Experiment shows that this system is much more stable and accurate, can make the Intelligent Vehicle run steadily by 2. 7m/s . By using the system, we have a better result in the race.%实现了一种自主式循迹智能车路径识别系统,设计了基于激光传感器的路径识别系统的硬件和控制算法,提高了光电式智能车的前瞻和抗干扰能力.实践表明,具有较高的稳定性和准确性,可使智能车以2.7 m/s的平均速度稳定运行,已在竞赛中取得了良好的成绩.

  15. Biochemical Process Development and Integration | Bioenergy | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochemical Process Development and Integration Biochemical Process Development and Integration Our conversion and separation processes to pilot-scale integrated process development and scale up. We also Publications Accounting for all sugar produced during integrated production of ethanol from lignocellulosic

  16. Aspects on the Physiological and Biochemical Foundations of Neurocritical Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl-Henrik Nordström

    2017-06-01

    , the information from all monitoring techniques should be presented bedside online. Accordingly, in the future, the chemical variables obtained from microdialysis will probably be analyzed by biochemical sensors.

  17. Gas Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan

    2015-01-22

    A gas sensor using a metal organic framework material can be fully integrated with related circuitry on a single substrate. In an on-chip application, the gas sensor can result in an area-efficient fully integrated gas sensor solution. In one aspect, a gas sensor can include a first gas sensing region including a first pair of electrodes, and a first gas sensitive material proximate to the first pair of electrodes, wherein the first gas sensitive material includes a first metal organic framework material.

  18. Gas Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Omran, Hesham; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Shekhah, Osama; Salama, Khaled N.

    2015-01-01

    A gas sensor using a metal organic framework material can be fully integrated with related circuitry on a single substrate. In an on-chip application, the gas sensor can result in an area-efficient fully integrated gas sensor solution. In one aspect, a gas sensor can include a first gas sensing region including a first pair of electrodes, and a first gas sensitive material proximate to the first pair of electrodes, wherein the first gas sensitive material includes a first metal organic framework material.

  19. Sensor web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delin, Kevin A. (Inventor); Jackson, Shannon P. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A Sensor Web formed of a number of different sensor pods. Each of the sensor pods include a clock which is synchronized with a master clock so that all of the sensor pods in the Web have a synchronized clock. The synchronization is carried out by first using a coarse synchronization which takes less power, and subsequently carrying out a fine synchronization to make a fine sync of all the pods on the Web. After the synchronization, the pods ping their neighbors to determine which pods are listening and responded, and then only listen during time slots corresponding to those pods which respond.

  20. Hybrid Nanogenerator for Concurrently Harvesting Biomechanical and Biochemical Energy

    KAUST Repository

    Hansen, Benjamin J.

    2010-07-27

    Harvesting energy from multiple sources available in our personal and daily environments is highly desirable, not only for powering personal electronics, but also for future implantable sensor-transmitter devices for biomedical and healthcare applications. Here we present a hybrid energy scavenging device for potential in vivo applications. The hybrid device consists of a piezoelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanofiber nanogenerator for harvesting mechanical energy, such as from breathing or from the beat of a heart, and a flexible enzymatic biofuel cell for harvesting the biochemical (glucose/O2) energy in biofluid, which are two types of energy available in vivo. The two energy harvesting approaches can work simultaneously or individually, thereby boosting output and lifetime. Using the hybrid device, we demonstrate a "self-powered" nanosystem by powering a ZnO nanowire UV light sensor. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  1. Biochemical markers of bone turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Deog Yoon

    1999-01-01

    Biochemical markers of bone turnover has received increasing attention over the past few years, because of the need for sensitivity and specific tool in the clinical investigation of osteoporosis. Bone markers should be unique to bone, reflect changes of bone less, and should be correlated with radiocalcium kinetics, histomorphometry, or changes in bone mass. The markers also should be useful in monitoring treatment efficacy. Although no bone marker has been established to meet all these criteria, currently osteocalcin and pyridinium crosslinks are the most efficient markers to assess the level of bone turnover in the menopausal and senile osteoporosis. Recently, N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase are considered as new valid markers of bone turnover. Recent data suggest that CTX and free deoxypyridinoline could predict the subsequent risk of hip fracture of elderly women. Treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen, calcitonin and bisphosphonates demonstrated rapid decrease of the levels of bone markers that correlated with the long-term increase of bone mass. Factors such as circadian rhythms, diet, age, sex, bone mass and renal function affect the results of biochemical markers and should be appropriately adjusted whenever possible. Each biochemical markers of bone turnover may have its own specific advantages and limitations. Recent advances in research will provide more sensitive and specific assays

  2. Biochemical toxicology of environmental agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruin, A. de

    1976-01-01

    A thorough and up-to-date account of the molecular-biological aspects of harmful agents - both chemical and physical - is given. This current treatise is principally intended to serve as an informative reference work for researchers in various areas of the field. In the pursuit of this aim, a devision of the entire field into 42 chapters has been made. Each chapter starts with a short introductory account dealing with the biochemical essentials of the particular subject. Radiation effects are discussed briefly at the end of each treatise. In order to make the treatise useful as a source book, a substantial collection of pertinent literature references is provided which are numbered in order of citation in the text. Initial chapters are devoted to the metabolic fate of the major classes of xenobiotic compounds. Peripheral topics, closely related to metabolism and dealing with modification of xenobiotic-metabolizing ability, as well as interaction phenomena follow (chs. 5-8). Subjects that draw heavily on the practical field of occupational hygiene are dealt with in chapters 9 and 10. The systematic treatment of how chemical and physical agents interact with the various biochemical and enzymatic systems they encounter during their passage through the organism occupies quantitatively the main part of the book (chs. 11-36). Finally, radiation biochemistry is discussed from the viewpoint of its high degree of scientific advancement, and secondly because the type of biochemical changes produced in vivo by X-rays closely parallel those evoked by chemical agents

  3. Characterization of femtosecond laser written waveguides for integrated biochemical sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongre, C.; Dekker, R.; Hoekstra, Hugo; Nolli, D.; Martinez-Vazquez, R.; Osellame, R.; Laporta, P.; Cerullo, G.; Pollnau, Markus; Emplit, Ph.; Delqué, M.; Gorza, S.-P.; Kockaart, P.; Leijtens, X

    2007-01-01

    Fluorescence detection is known to be one of the most sensitive among the different optical sensing techniques. This work focuses on excitation and detection of fluorescence emitted by DNA strands labeled with fluorescent dye molecules that can be excited at a specific wavelength. Excitation occurs

  4. Automated Laser Seeker Performance Evaluation System (ALSPES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility provides complete open-loop test capability for semi-active laser (SAL) seekers/sensors operating at 1.064 microns. ALSPES provides characterizations...

  5. Chemical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, C.W.; Gordon, R.L.

    1987-05-01

    The revolution in analytical chemistry promised by recent developments in the field of chemical sensors has potential for significant positive impact on both research and production activities conducted by and for the Department of Energy. Analyses which were, in the past, performed only with a roomful of expensive equipment can now be performed with miniature solid-state electronic devices or small optical probes. Progress in the development of chemical sensors has been rapid, and the field is currently growing at a great rate. In accordance, Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated a survey of recent literature so that contributors to active programs in research on analytical methods could be made aware of principles and applications of this new technology. This report presents the results of that survey. The sensors discussed here are divided into three types: micro solid-state devices, optical sensors, and piezoelectric crystal devices. The report is divided into three corresponding sections. The first section, ''Micro Solid-State Devices,'' discusses the design, operation, and application of electronic sensors that are produced in much the same way as standard solid-state electronic devices. The second section, ''Optrodes,'' covers the design and operation of chemical sensors that use fiber optics to detect chemically induced changes in optical properties. The final section, ''Piezoelectric Crystal Detectors,'' discusses two types of chemical sensors that depend on the changes in the properties of an oscillating piezoelectric crystal to detect the presence of certain materials. Advantages and disadvantages of each type of sensor are summarized in each section

  6. Optical devices for biochemical sensing in flame hydrolysis deposited glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano-Lopez, Jesus M.

    Previous research in the field of Flame Hydrolysis Deposition (FHD) of glasses has focused on the production of low cost optical devices for the field of telecommunications. The originality of this doctoral research resides in the exploration of this technology in the fabrication of optical bio-chemical sensors, with integrated "Lab-on-a-chip" devices. To achieve this goal, we have combined and applied different microfabrication processes for the manufacture of sensor platforms using FHD. These structures are unique in that they take advantage of the intrinsic benefits of the microfabrication process, such as, miniaturisation and mass production, and combine them with the properties of FHD glass, namely: low loss optical transducing mechanisms, planar technologies and monolithic integration. This thesis demonstrates that FHD is a suitable technology for biosensing and Lab- on-a-Chip applications. The objective is to provide future researchers with the necessary tools to accomplish an integrated analytical system based on FHD. We have designed, fabricated, and successfully tested a FHD miniaturised sensor, which comprised optical and microfluidic circuitry, in the framework of low volume fluorescence assays. For the first time, volumes as low as 570 pL were analysed with a Cyanine-5 fluorophore with a detection limit of 20 pM, or ca. 6000 molecules (+/-3sigma) for this platform. The fabrication of the sensor generated a compilation of processes that were then utilised to produce other possible optical platforms for bio-chemical sensors in FHD, e.g. arrays and microfluidics. The "catalogue" of methods used included new recipes for reactive ion etching, glass deposition and bonding techniques that enabled the development of the microfluidic circuitry, integrated with an optical circuitry. Furthermore, we developed techniques to implement new tasks such as optical signal treatment using integrated optical structures, planar arraying of sensors, a separating element for

  7. Proceedings of the IEEE laser and electro-optics society annual meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, M.J.B.; Raney, H.; Raney, D.; Spalaris, C.N.

    1990-01-01

    This book is covered under the following headings: Electro-optic systems; Emerging laser technology; Optical sensors and measurements; Optoelectronics; Semiconductor diode lasers; Solid state lasers; UV and short wavelength; Applied optical diagnostics of semiconductor materials and devices symposium and optical sensors and measurements; and Applied optical diagnostics of semiconductor materials and devices symposium

  8. Biochemical Abnormalities in Batten's Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jytte Lene; Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel; Jensen, Gunde Egeskov

    1978-01-01

    The present data indicate that a group of ten patients with Batten's syndrome showed reduced activity of erythrocyte glutathione (GSH) peroxidase (Px) (glutathione: H2O2 oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.9.) using H2O2 as peroxide donor. Assay of erythrocyte GSHPx using H2O2, cumene hydroperoxide and t......-butyl hydroperoxide as donors also makes it possible biochemically to divide Batten's syndrome into two types: (1) one type with decreased values when H2O2 and cumene hydroperoxide are used, and (2) one type with increased values when t-butyl hydroperoxide is used. Furthermore an increased content of palmitic, oleic...

  9. Thermodynamic analysis of biochemical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Y.; Fan, L.T.; Shieh, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    Introduction of the concepts of the availability (or exergy), datum level materials, and the dead state has been regarded as some of the most significant recent developments in classical thermodynamics. Not only the available energy balance but also the material and energy balances of a biological system may be established in reference to the datum level materials in the dead state or environment. In this paper these concepts are illustrated with two examples of fermentation and are shown to be useful in identifying sources of thermodynamic inefficiency, thereby leading naturally to the rational definition of thermodynamic efficiency of a biochemical process

  10. Automotive sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Jiri; Illing, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    Sensors are an essential component of most electronic systems in the car. They deliver input parameters for comfort features, engine and emission control as well as for the active and passive safety systems. New technologies such as silicon micromachining play an important role for the introduction of these sensors in all vehicle classes. The importance and use of these sensor technologies in today"s automotive applications will be shown in this article. Finally an outlook on important current developments and new functions in the car will be given.

  11. Piezoceramic Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Sharapov, Valeriy

    2011-01-01

    This book presents the latest and complete information about various types of piezosensors. A sensor is a converter of the measured physical size to an electric signal. Piezoelectric transducers and sensors are based on piezoelectric effects. They have proven to be versatile tools for the measurement of various processes. They are used for quality assurance, process control and for research and development in many different industries. In each area of application specific requirements to the parameters of transducers and sensors are developed. This book presents the fundamentals, technical des

  12. Autonomous bio-chemical decontaminator (ABCD) against weapons of mass destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyacinthe, Berg P.

    2006-05-01

    The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and the use of such elements pose an eminent asymmetric threat with disastrous consequences to the national security of any nation. In particular, the use of biochemical warfare agents against civilians and unprotected troops in international conflicts or by terrorists against civilians is considered as a very peculiar threat. Accordingly, taking a quarantine-before-inhalation approach to biochemical warfare, the author introduces the notion of autonomous biochemical decontamination against WMD. In the unfortunate event of a biochemical attack, the apparatus proposed herein is intended to automatically detect, identify, and more importantly neutralize a biochemical threat. Along with warnings concerning a cyber-WMD nexus, various sections cover discussions on human senses and computer sensors, corroborating evidence related to detection and neutralization of chemical toxins, and cyber-assisted olfaction in stand alone, peer-to-peer, and network settings. In essence, the apparatus can be used in aviation and mass transit security to initiate mass decontamination by dispersing a decontaminant aerosol or to protect the public water supply against a potential bioterrorist attack. Future effort may involve a system-on-chip (SoC) embodiment of this apparatus that allows a safer environment for the emerging phenomenon of cyber-assisted olfaction and morph cell phones into ubiquitous sensors/decontaminators. Although this paper covers mechanisms and protocols to avail a neutralizing substance, further research will need to explore the substance's various pharmacological profiles and potential side effects.

  13. A comparative study of misalignment detection using a novel Wireless Sensor with conventional Wired Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arebi, L; Gu, F; Ball, A

    2012-01-01

    The advancement in low cost and low power MEMS sensors makes it possible to develop a cost-effective wireless accelerometer for condition monitoring. Especially, the MEMS accelerometer can be mounted directly on a rotating shaft, which has the potential to capture the dynamics of the shaft more accurately and hence to achieve high monitoring performance. In this paper a systematic comparison of shaft misalignment detection is conducted, based on a bearing test rig, between the wireless sensor measurement scheme and other three common sensors: a laser vibrometer, an accelerometer and a shaft encoder. These four sensors are used to measure simultaneously the dynamic responses: Instantaneous Angular Speed (IAS) from the encoder, bearing house acceleration from the accelerometer, shaft displacements from the laser vibrometer and angular acceleration from the wireless sensor. These responses are then compared in both the time and frequency domains in detecting and diagnosing different levels of shaft misalignment. Results show the effectiveness of wireless accelerometer in detecting the faults.

  14. Optischer Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Brandenburg, A.; Hutter, F.; Edelhaeuser, R.

    1992-01-01

    WO 2010040565 A1 UPAB: 20100506 NOVELTY - The integrated optical sensor comprises a first waveguide (4), a second waveguide (5) optically coupled to the first waveguide via a directional coupler, a substrate, which carries the first and the second waveguides, a single waveguide coupled with a light source, and an output waveguide coupled with a light-sensitive element. The sensor has a functional surface in the region of the directional coupler for depositing or deposition of the substance to...

  15. Wireless sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, Vincent E.; Howell, JR, Layton N.; Mee, David K.; Sepaniak, Michael J.

    2016-02-09

    Disclosed is a sensor for detecting a target material. The sensor includes a ferromagnetic metal and a molecular recognition reagent coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The molecular recognition reagent is operable to expand upon exposure to vapor or liquid from the target material such that the molecular recognition reagent changes a tensile stress upon the ferromagnetic metal. The target material is detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the changes in the tensile stress.

  16. Embedded fiber optic ultrasonic sensors and generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorighi, John F.; Krishnaswamy, Sridhar; Achenbach, Jan D.

    1995-04-01

    Ultrasonic sensors and generators based on fiber-optic systems are described. It is shown that intrinsic fiber optic Fabry-Perot ultrasound sensors that are embedded in a structure can be stabilized by actively tuning the laser frequency. The need for this method of stabilization is demonstrated by detecting piezoelectric transducer-generated ultrasonic pulses in the presence of low frequency dynamic strains that are intentionally induced to cause sensor drift. The actively stabilized embedded fiber optic Fabry-Perot sensor is also shown to have sufficient sensitivity to detect ultrasound that is generated in the interior of a structure by means of a high-power optical fiber that pipes energy from a pulsed laser to an embedded generator of ultrasound.

  17. Laser modulator for LISA pathfinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voland, C.; Lund, G.; Coppoolse, W.; Crosby, P.; Stadler, M.; Kudielka, K.; Özkan, C.

    2017-11-01

    LISA Pathfinder is an ESA experiment to demonstrate the key technologies needed for the LISA mission to detect gravitational waves in space. The LISA Pathfinder spacecraft represents one arm of the LISA interferometer, containing an optical metrology system and two proof masses as inertial references for the drag-free control system. The LISA Pathfinder payload consists of two drag-free floating test masses located in the inertial sensors with their control electronics and an optical metrology subsystem. The optical metrology subsystem monitors the movement of both test masses relative to each other and to the spacecraft with very high sensitivity and resolution. This is achieved with a heterodyne Mach- Zehnder interferometer. This interferometer requires as input two coherent laser beams with a heterodyne frequency difference of a few kHz. To generate the two laser beams with a heterodyne frequency difference a Nd:YAG laser is used together with the Laser Modulator. The Nd:YAG laser generates a single coherent laser signal at a wavelength of 1064nm which is fibre coupled to the Laser Modulator. The Laser Modulator then generates the two optical beams with the required heterodyne frequency offset. In addition, the Laser Modulator is required to perform laser amplitude stabilization and optical path difference control for the two optical signals. The Laser Modulator consists of an optical unit - the LMU - and RF synthesiser, power amplification and control electronics. These electronics are all housed in the Laser Modulator Electronics (LME). The LMU has four primary functions: • Splitting of the input laser beam into two paths for later superposition in the interferometer. • Applying different frequency shifts to each of the beams. • Providing amplitude modulation control to each of the beams. • Providing active control of the optical path length difference between the two optical paths. The present paper describes the design and performance of the LMU

  18. Precision operation of the Nova laser for fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caird, J.A.; Ehrlich, R.B.; Hermes, G.L.; Landen, O.L.; Laumann, C.W.; Lerche, R.A.; Miller, J.L.; Murray, J.E.; Nielsen, N.D.; Powell, H.T.; Rushford, M.C.; Saunders, R.L.; Thompson, C.E.; VanArsdall, P.J.; Vann, C.S.; Weiland, T.L.

    1994-01-01

    The operation of a Neodymium glass laser of a special design for fusion experiments is improved by a better pulse synchronization, the gain stabilization, and the laser diagnostics. We used sensor upgrading and antifriction coating of focusing lenses. The pointing accuracy of the Nova laser meets now our goal for precision operation. (AIP) copyright 1994 American Institute of Physics

  19. A three-dimensional laser vibration measurement technology realized on five laser beam and its calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lu-Ke; Zhang, Shen-Feng

    2018-03-01

    Put forward a kind of three-dimensional vibration information technology of vibrating object by the mean of five laser beam of He-Ne laser, and with the help of three-way sensor, measure the three-dimensional laser vibration developed by above mentioned technology. The technology based on the Doppler principle of interference and signal demodulation technology, get the vibration information of the object, through the algorithm processing, extract the three-dimensional vibration information of space objects, and can achieve the function of angle calibration of five beam in the space, which avoid the effects of the mechanical installation error, greatly improve the accuracy of measurement. With the help of a & B K4527 contact three axis sensor, measure and calibrate three-dimensional laser vibrometer, which ensure the accuracy of the measurement data. Summarize the advantages and disadvantages of contact and non-contact sensor, and analysis the future development trends of the sensor industry.

  20. Basic opto-electronics on silicon for sensor applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joppe, J.L.; Bekman, H.H.P.Th.; de Krijger, A.J.T.; Albers, H.; Chalmers, J.; Chalmers, J.D.; Holleman, J.; Ikkink, T.J.; Ikkink, T.; van Kranenburg, H.; Zhou, M.-J.; Zhou, Ming-Jiang; Lambeck, Paul

    1994-01-01

    A general platform for integrated opto-electronic sensor systems on silicon is proposed. The system is based on a hybridly integrated semiconductor laser, ZnO optical waveguides and monolithic photodiodes and electronic circuiry.

  1. Sensor-guided threat countermeasure system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Brent C.; Hackel, Lloyd A.; Hermann, Mark R.; Armstrong, James P.

    2012-12-25

    A countermeasure system for use by a target to protect against an incoming sensor-guided threat. The system includes a laser system for producing a broadband beam and means for directing the broadband beam from the target to the threat. The countermeasure system comprises the steps of producing a broadband beam and directing the broad band beam from the target to blind or confuse the incoming sensor-guided threat.

  2. Biochemical nature of Russell Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossuto, Maria Francesca; Ami, Diletta; Anelli, Tiziana; Fagioli, Claudio; Doglia, Silvia Maria; Sitia, Roberto

    2015-07-30

    Professional secretory cells produce and release abundant proteins. Particularly in case of mutations and/or insufficient chaperoning, these can aggregate and become toxic within or amongst cells. Immunoglobulins (Ig) are no exception. In the extracellular space, certain Ig-L chains form fibrils causing systemic amyloidosis. On the other hand, Ig variants lacking the first constant domain condense in dilated cisternae of the early secretory compartment, called Russell Bodies (RB), frequently observed in plasma cell dyscrasias, autoimmune diseases and chronic infections. RB biogenesis can be recapitulated in lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells by expressing mutant Ig-μ, providing powerful models to investigate the pathophysiology of endoplasmic reticulum storage disorders. Here we analyze the aggregation propensity and the biochemical features of the intra- and extra-cellular Ig deposits in human cells, revealing β-aggregated features for RB.

  3. Biochemical Markers in Neurocritical Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omidvar Rezae

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, a variety of serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biochemical markers in daily clinical practice have been recommended to diagnose and monitor diverse diseases or pathologic situations. It will be essential to develop a panel of biomarkers, to be suitable for evaluation of treatment efficacy, representing distinct phases of injury and recovery and consider the temporal profile of those. Among the possible and different biochemical markers, S100b appeared to fulfill many of optimized criteria of an ideal marker. S100b, a cytosolic low molecular weight dimeric calciumbinding protein from chromosome 21, synthesized in glial cells throughout the CNS, an homodimeric diffusible, belongs to a family of closely related protein, predominantly expressed by astrocytes and Schwann cells and a classic immunohistochemical marker for these cells, is implicated in brain development and neurophysiology. Of the 3 isoforms of S-100, the BB subunit (S100B is present in high concentrations in central and peripheral glial and Schwann cells, Langerhans and anterior pituitary cells, fat, muscle, and bone marrow tissues. The biomarker has shown to be a sensitive marker of clinical and subclinical cerebral damage, such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury. Increasing evidence suggests that the biomarker plays a double function as an intracellular regulator and an extracellular signal of the CNS. S100b is found in the cytoplasm in a soluble form and also is associated with intracellular membranes, centrosomes, microtubules, and type III intermediate filaments. Their genomic organization now is known, and many of their target proteins have been identified, although the mechanisms of regulating S100b secretion are not completely understood and appear to be related to many factors, such as the proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a, interleukin (IL-1b, and metabolic stress. 

  4. Augmented reality in laser laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quercioli, Franco

    2018-05-01

    Laser safety glasses block visibility of the laser light. This is a big nuisance when a clear view of the beam path is required. A headset made up of a smartphone and a viewer can overcome this problem. The user looks at the image of the real world on the cellphone display, captured by its rear camera. An unimpeded and safe sight of the laser beam is then achieved. If the infrared blocking filter of the smartphone camera is removed, the spectral sensitivity of the CMOS image sensor extends in the near infrared region up to 1100 nm. This substantial improvement widens the usability of the device to many laser systems for industrial and medical applications, which are located in this spectral region. The paper describes this modification of a phone camera to extend its sensitivity beyond the visible and make a true augmented reality laser viewer.

  5. Dempster Shafer Sensor Fusion for Autonomously Driving Vehicles : Association Free Tracking of Dynamic Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Högger, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous driving vehicles introduce challenging research areas combining differ-ent disciplines. One challenge is the detection of obstacles with different sensors and the combination of information to generate a comprehensive representation of the environment, which can be used for path planning and decision making.The sensor fusion is demonstrated using two Velodyne multi beam laser scanners, but it is possible to extend the proposed sensor fusion framework for different sensor types. Sensor...

  6. The Newest Laser Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Baek Yeon

    2007-01-01

    This book mentions laser processing with laser principle, laser history, laser beam property, laser kinds, foundation of laser processing such as laser oscillation, characteristic of laser processing, laser for processing and its characteristic, processing of laser hole including conception of processing of laser hole and each material, and hole processing of metal material, cut of laser, reality of cut, laser welding, laser surface hardening, application case of special processing and safety measurement of laser.

  7. Portable Diode Laser Diagnostic System for Collaborative Research on Air-Breathing Combustion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanson, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    This equipment grant focused on four areas: (1) portable diode laser sensors with new fiber-coupled diode lasers and the support equipment to provide higher power with extended wavelength tuning range and speed; (2...

  8. VIBRATIONAL SPECTROSCOPIC SENSORS Fundamentals, Instrumentation and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Martin

    In textbook descriptions of chemical sensors, almost invariably a chemical sensor is described as a combination of a (dumb) transducer and a (smart) recognition layer. The reason for this is that most transducers, while (reasonably) sensitive, have limited analyte specificity. This is in particular true for non-optical, e.g. mass-sensitive or electrochemical systems, but also many optical transducers are as such incapable of distinguishing between different substances. Consequently, to build sensors operational in multicomponent environments, such transducers must be combined with physicochemical, chemical or biochemical recognition systems providing the required analyte specificity. Although advancements have been made in this field over the last years, selective layers are frequently not (yet) up to the demands set by industrial or environmental applications, in particular when operated over prolonged periods of time. Another significant obstacle are cross-sensitivities that may interfere with the analytical accuracy. Together, these limitations restrict the real-world applicability of many otherwise promising chemical sensors.

  9. Laser Range Profiling for Active Protection System Target Classification and Aim-Point Selection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Michael

    2004-01-01

    .... The attractiveness of smaller, faster interceptors precipitated the investigation of a laser radar sensor augmentation for CIAPS that could quickly resolve the range profile of an incoming projectile...

  10. Calibration of displacement sensors up to 300 µm with nanometre accuracy and direct traceability to a primary standard of length

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haitjema, H.; Schellekens, P.H.J.; Wetzels, S.F.C.L.

    2000-01-01

    A new class of sensor has recently appeared: nanometre sensors. These sensors are characterized by nanometre or sub-nanometre resolution and an uncertainty of a few nanometres over a range of at least several micrometres. Instruments such as capacitive or inductive sensors, laser interferometers,

  11. Radiation sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.L.; Geronime, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation sensor and thermocouple, respectively, which can be used for reactor in-core instrumentation. The radiation sensor consists of an inconel conductor wire and rhodium emitter wire, the thermocouple of two intertwined alumel or chromel wires. Both are arranged in the center of a metal tube relative to which they are separated by an insulator made of SiO 2 fibers. This insulator is first introduced as a loose fabric between the radiation sensor and the thermocouple, respectively, and the metal tube and then compacted to a density of 35-73% of pure SiO 2 by drawing the tube. There is no need for soldering or welding. The insulation resistivity at room temperature ist between 10 14 and 10 15 ohms. (ORU) [de

  12. Water Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Mike Morris, former Associate Director of STAC, formed pHish Doctor, Inc. to develop and sell a pH monitor for home aquariums. The monitor, or pHish Doctor, consists of a sensor strip and color chart that continually measures pH levels in an aquarium. This is important because when the level gets too high, ammonia excreted by fish is highly toxic; at low pH, bacteria that normally break down waste products stop functioning. Sales have run into the tens of thousands of dollars. A NASA Tech Brief Technical Support Package later led to a salt water version of the system and a DoE Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant for development of a sensor for sea buoys. The company, now known as Ocean Optics, Inc., is currently studying the effects of carbon dioxide buildup as well as exploring other commercial applications for the fiber optic sensor.

  13. All-plastic fiber-based pressure sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundalo, Ivan-Lazar; Lwin, Richard; Leon-Saval, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    We present a feasibility study and a prototype of an all-plastic fiber-based pressure sensor. The sensor is based on long period gratings inscribed for the first time to the best of our knowledge by a CO2 laser in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) microstructured fibers and coupled to a pod......-like transducer that converts pressure to strain. The sensor prototype was characterized for pressures up to 150 mbars, and various parameters related to its construction were also characterized in order to enhance sensitivity. We consider this sensor in the context of future applications in endoscopic pressure...... sensors....

  14. Laser Beam Machining (LBM), State of the Art and New Opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, J.

    2004-01-01

    An overview is given of the state of the art of laser beam machining in general with special emphasis on applications of short and ultrashort lasers. In laser welding the trend is to apply optical sensors for process control. Laser surface treatment is mostly used to apply corrosion and wear

  15. LPG based all plastic pressure sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundalo, Ivan-Lazar; Lwin, R.; Leon-Saval, S.

    2015-01-01

    A prototype all-plastic pressure sensor is presented and characterized for potential use as an endoscope. The sensor is based on Long Period Gratings (LPG) inscribed with a CO2 laser in 6-ring microstructured PMMA fiber. Through a latex coated, plastic 3D-printed transducer pod, external pressure...... is converted to longitudinal elongation of the pod and therefore of the fiber containing the LPG. The sensor has been characterised for pressures of up to 160 mBar in an in-house built pressure chamber. Furthermore, the influence of the fiber prestrain, fiber thickness and the effect of different glues...

  16. Digest of NASA earth observation sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    A digest of technical characteristics of remote sensors and supporting technological experiments uniquely developed under NASA Applications Programs for Earth Observation Flight Missions is presented. Included are camera systems, sounders, interferometers, communications and experiments. In the text, these are grouped by types, such as television and photographic cameras, lasers and radars, radiometers, spectrometers, technology experiments, and transponder technology experiments. Coverage of the brief history of development extends from the first successful earth observation sensor aboard Explorer 7 in October, 1959, through the latest funded and flight-approved sensors under development as of October 1, 1972. A standard resume format is employed to normalize and mechanize the information presented.

  17. Prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tile prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities was studied in a group of 256 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (104 coloureds, 100 whites and 52 blacks). The most common biochemical abnormalities detected were a reduction in the serum creatinine value (43,4%), raised globulins (39,7%), raised serum ...

  18. Ultrasensitive and selective detection of mercury (II) in serum based on the gold film sensor using a laser scanning confocal imaging-surface plasmon resonance system in real time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sha; Zhang, Hongyan; Liu, Weimin; Wang, Pengfei

    2015-10-01

    Hg2+ ions are one of the most toxic heavy metal ion pollutants, and are caustic and carcinogenic materials with high cellular toxicity. The Hg2+ ions can accumulate in the human body through the food chain and cause serious and permanent damage to the brain with both acute and chronic toxicity. According to the US Environment Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines, Hg2+ ions must be at concentrations below 1 ng/ml (10 nM) in drinking water. If the Hg2+ ions are higher than 2.5 ng/ml in serum, that will bring mercury poisoning. The traditional testing for Hg2+ ions includes atomic absorption, atomic fluorescence, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. These methods are usually coupled with gas chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and capillary electrophoresis. However, these instrument-based techniques are rather complicated, time-consuming, costly, and unsuitable for online and portable use. An ultrasensitive and selective detection of mercury (II) in serum was investigated using a laser scanning confocal imaging-surface plasmon resonance system (LSCI-SPR). The detection limit was as low as 0.01 ng/ml for Hg2+ ions in fetal calf serum and that is lower than that was required Hg2+ ions must be at concentrations below 1 ng/ml by the US Environment Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines. This sensor was designed on a T-rich, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-modified gold film, which can be individually manipulated using specific T-Hg2+-T complex formation. The quenching intensity of the fluorescence images for rhodamine-labeled ssDNA fitted well with the changes in SPR. The changes varied with the Hg2+ ion concentration, which is unaffected by the presence of other metal ions. A good liner relation was got with the coefficients of 0.9116 in 30% fetal calf serums with the linear part over a range of 0.01 ng/ml to10 ng/ml.

  19. Integrated Microfluidic Sensor System with Magnetostrictive Resonators

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Cai; Kosel, Jü rgen; Gooneratne, Chinthaka

    2011-01-01

    The present embodiments describe a method that integrates a magnetostrictive sensor with driving and detecting elements into a microfluidic chip to detect a chemical, biochemical or biomedical species. These embodiments may also measure the properties of a fluid such as viscosity, pH values. The whole system can be referred to lab-on-a-chip (LOC) or micro-total-analysis-systems (.mu.TAS). In particular, this present embodiments include three units, including a microfluidics unit, a magnetostrictive sensor, and driving/detecting elements. An analyzer may also be provided to analyze an electrical signal associated with a feature of a target specimen.

  20. Integrated Microfluidic Sensor System with Magnetostrictive Resonators

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Cai

    2011-12-08

    The present embodiments describe a method that integrates a magnetostrictive sensor with driving and detecting elements into a microfluidic chip to detect a chemical, biochemical or biomedical species. These embodiments may also measure the properties of a fluid such as viscosity, pH values. The whole system can be referred to lab-on-a-chip (LOC) or micro-total-analysis-systems (.mu.TAS). In particular, this present embodiments include three units, including a microfluidics unit, a magnetostrictive sensor, and driving/detecting elements. An analyzer may also be provided to analyze an electrical signal associated with a feature of a target specimen.

  1. Intra-laser-cavity microparticle sensing with a dual-wavelength distributed-feedback laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernhardi, Edward H.; van der Werf, Kees O; Hollink, Anton J F; Wörhoff, Kerstin; de Ridder, René M; Subramaniam, Vinod; Pollnau, Markus

    An integrated intra-laser-cavity microparticle sensor based on a dual-wavelength distributed-feedback channel waveguide laser in ytterbium-doped amorphous aluminum oxide on a silicon substrate is demonstrated. Real-time detection and accurate size measurement of single micro-particles with diameters

  2. Practical Use Technique of Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Gyu Seop

    1985-11-01

    This book tells of practical use technology of sensor, introducing the recent trend of sensor for electronic industry, IC temperature sensor, radiation temperature sensor of surface acoustic wave, optical fiber temperature sensor, a polyelectrolyte film humidity sensor, semiconductor pressure sensor for industrial instrumentation, silicon integration pressure sensor, thick film humidity sensor and its application, photo sensor reflection type, and color sensor. It also deals with sensor for FA, sensor for a robot and sensor for the chemical industry.

  3. Practical Use Technique of Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Gyu Seop

    1985-11-15

    This book tells of practical use technology of sensor, introducing the recent trend of sensor for electronic industry, IC temperature sensor, radiation temperature sensor of surface acoustic wave, optical fiber temperature sensor, a polyelectrolyte film humidity sensor, semiconductor pressure sensor for industrial instrumentation, silicon integration pressure sensor, thick film humidity sensor and its application, photo sensor reflection type, and color sensor. It also deals with sensor for FA, sensor for a robot and sensor for the chemical industry.

  4. Toward Optical Sensors: Review and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabri, Naseer; Aljunid, S A; Ahmad, R B; Salim, M S; Kamaruddin, R

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in fiber optics (FOs) and the numerous advantages of light over electronic systems have boosted the utility and demand for optical sensors in various military, industry and social fields. Environmental and atmospheric monitoring, earth and space sciences, industrial chemical processing and biotechnology, law enforcement, digital imaging, scanning, and printing are exemplars of them. The ubiquity of photonic technologies could drive down prices which reduced the cost of optical fibers and lasers. Fiber optic sensors (FOSs) offer a wide spectrum of advantages over traditional sensing systems, such as small size and longer lifetime. Immunity to electromagnetic interference, amenability to multiplexing, and high sensitivity make FOs the sensor technology of choice in several fields, including the healthcare and aerospace sectors. FOSs show reliable and rigid sensing tasks over conventional electrical and electronic sensors. This paper presents an executive review of optical fiber sensors and the most beneficial applications.

  5. Toward Optical Sensors: Review and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, Naseer; Aljunid, S. A.; Salim, M. S.; Ahmad, R. B.; Kamaruddin, R.

    2013-04-01

    Recent advances in fiber optics (FOs) and the numerous advantages of light over electronic systems have boosted the utility and demand for optical sensors in various military, industry and social fields. Environmental and atmospheric monitoring, earth and space sciences, industrial chemical processing and biotechnology, law enforcement, digital imaging, scanning, and printing are exemplars of them. The ubiquity of photonic technologies could drive down prices which reduced the cost of optical fibers and lasers. Fiber optic sensors (FOSs) offer a wide spectrum of advantages over traditional sensing systems, such as small size and longer lifetime. Immunity to electromagnetic interference, amenability to multiplexing, and high sensitivity make FOs the sensor technology of choice in several fields, including the healthcare and aerospace sectors. FOSs show reliable and rigid sensing tasks over conventional electrical and electronic sensors. This paper presents an executive review of optical fiber sensors and the most beneficial applications.

  6. Organic and biochemical synthesis group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Stable isotopes, because of their unique properties and non-radioactive nature, have great potential for many fields of science and technology. In particular, isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur (the basic building blocks of all biological molecules) would be widely used in biomedical and environmental research if they were economically available in sufficient quantities and in the required chemical forms. The major objective of our program continues to be stimulation of the widespread utilization of stable isotopes and commercial involvement through development and demonstration of applications which have potential requirements for large quantities of isotopes. Thus, demand will be created which is necessary for large-scale production of stable isotopes and labeled compounds and concomitant low unit costs. The program continues to produce a variety of labeled materials needed for clinical, biomedical, chemical, and environmental applications which serve as effective demonstrations of unique and advantageous utilization of stable isotopes. Future commercial involvement should benefit, and is a consideration in our research and development, from the technology transfer that can readily be made as a result of our organic and biochemical syntheses and also of various techniques involved in applications

  7. Parametric Investigation of Laser Doppler Microphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, M.; Naguib, A.

    2002-11-01

    The concept of a Laser Doppler Microphone (LDM) is based on utilizing the Doppler frequency shift of a focused laser beam to measure the unsteady velocity of the center point of a flexible polymer diaphragm that is mounted on top of a hole and subjected to the unsteady pressure. Time integration of the velocity signal yields a time series of the diaphragm displacement, which can be converted to pressure from knowledge of the sensor's deflection sensitivity. In our APS/DFD presentation last year, the stringent frequency resolution requirement of these new sensors and methods to meet this requirement were discussed. Here, the dependence of the sensor characteristics (sensitivity, bandwidth, and noise floor) on various significant parameters is investigated in detail by calibrating the sensor in a plane wave tube in the frequency range of 50 - 5000 Hz. Parameters investigated include sensor diaphragm material and thickness, sensor size, damping of the diaphragm motion and laser beam spot size. The results shed light on the operating limits of the new sensor and demonstrate its ability to conduct high-spatial-resolution measurements in typical high-Reynolds-number test facilities. Moreover, calibrated LDM sensors were used to conduct measurements in a separating/reattaching flow and the results are compared to classical electret-type microphones with a similar sensing diameter.

  8. Measuring intracellular redox conditions using GFP-based sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björnberg, Olof; Ostergaard, Henrik; Winther, Jakob R

    2006-01-01

    Recent years have seen the development of methods for analyzing the redox conditions in specific compartments in living cells. These methods are based on genetically encoded sensors comprising variants of Green Fluorescent Protein in which vicinal cysteine residues have been introduced at solvent......-exposed positions. Several mutant forms have been identified in which formation of a disulfide bond between these cysteine residues results in changes of their fluorescence properties. The redox sensors have been characterized biochemically and found to behave differently, both spectroscopically and in terms...... of redox properties. As genetically encoded sensors they can be expressed in living cells and used for analysis of intracellular redox conditions; however, which parameters are measured depends on how the sensors interact with various cellular redox components. Results of both biochemical and cell...

  9. Smart architecture for stable multipoint fiber Bragg grating sensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Tsai, Ning; Zhuang, Yuan-Hong; Huang, Tzu-Jung; Chow, Chi-Wai; Chen, Jing-Heng; Liu, Wen-Fung

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we propose and investigate an intelligent fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based sensor system in which the proposed stabilized and wavelength-tunable single-longitudinal-mode erbium-doped fiber laser can improve the sensing accuracy of wavelength-division-multiplexing multiple FBG sensors in a longer fiber transmission distance. Moreover, we also demonstrate the proposed sensor architecture to enhance the FBG capacity for sensing strain and temperature, simultaneously.

  10. Chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, R. David (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A sensor for detecting a chemical substance includes an insertion element having a structure which enables insertion of the chemical substance with a resulting change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element under conditions sufficient to permit effective insertion; the change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element is detected as an indication of the presence of the chemical substance.

  11. Load sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Ende, D.; Almeida, P.M.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a load sensor comprising a polymer matrix and a piezo-ceramic material such as PZT, em not bedded in the polymer matrix, which together form a compos not ite, wherein the polymer matrix is a liquid crystalline resin, and wherein the piezo-ceramic material is a PZT powder

  12. Gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Santos, Benito; de la Figuera, Juan

    2014-09-09

    A gas sensor is described which incorporates a sensor stack comprising a first film layer of a ferromagnetic material, a spacer layer, and a second film layer of the ferromagnetic material. The first film layer is fabricated so that it exhibits a dependence of its magnetic anisotropy direction on the presence of a gas, That is, the orientation of the easy axis of magnetization will flip from out-of-plane to in-plane when the gas to be detected is present in sufficient concentration. By monitoring the change in resistance of the sensor stack when the orientation of the first layer's magnetization changes, and correlating that change with temperature one can determine both the identity and relative concentration of the detected gas. In one embodiment the stack sensor comprises a top ferromagnetic layer two mono layers thick of cobalt deposited upon a spacer layer of ruthenium, which in turn has a second layer of cobalt disposed on its other side, this second cobalt layer in contact with a programmable heater chip.

  13. 2 DOF resolution adjustment laser position sensor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shaik, A

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available means. [19, 20] Other - Displacement measuring instruments utilizing eddy currents, capacitive and inductive properties exist, but are not as widely spread as the technologies mentioned. Accelerometers and Gyroscopes are used to determine... resolution. The current accuracy of the IRB 340 Flex Picker, a rapid pick and place machine, is 0.1 mm. The lower limit on screen resolution for absolute 2D positioning would then be 400 phototransistors per square mm, a screen with twice the resolution...

  14. Handheld Universal Diagnostic Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    The rHEALTH technology is designed to shrink an entire hospital testing laboratory onto a handheld device. A physician or healthcare provider performs the test by collecting a fingerstick of blood from a patient. The tiny volume of blood is inserted into the rHEALTH device. Inside the device is a microfluidic chip that contains small channels about the width of a human hair. These channels help move the blood and analyze the blood sample. The rHEALTH sensor uses proprietary reagents called nanostrips, which are nanoscale test strips that enable the clinical assays. The readout is performed by laser-induced fluorescence. Overall, the time from blood collection through analysis is less than a minute.

  15. Dynamically variable spot size laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Paul R. (Inventor); Hurst, John F. (Inventor); Middleton, James R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A Dynamically Variable Spot Size (DVSS) laser system for bonding metal components includes an elongated housing containing a light entry aperture coupled to a laser beam transmission cable and a light exit aperture. A plurality of lenses contained within the housing focus a laser beam from the light entry aperture through the light exit aperture. The lenses may be dynamically adjusted to vary the spot size of the laser. A plurality of interoperable safety devices, including a manually depressible interlock switch, an internal proximity sensor, a remotely operated potentiometer, a remotely activated toggle and a power supply interlock, prevent activation of the laser and DVSS laser system if each safety device does not provide a closed circuit. The remotely operated potentiometer also provides continuous variability in laser energy output.

  16. Light Manipulation in Inhomogeneous Liquid Flow and Its Application in Biochemical Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfeng Zuo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Light manipulation has always been the fundamental subject in the field of optics since centuries ago. Traditional optical devices are usually designed using glasses and other materials, such as semiconductors and metals. Optofluidics is the combination of microfluidics and optics, which brings a host of new advantages to conventional solid systems. The capabilities of light manipulation and biochemical sensing are inherent alongside the emergence of optofluidics. This new research area promotes advancements in optics, biology, and chemistry. The development of fast, accurate, low-cost, and small-sized biochemical micro-sensors is an urgent demand for real-time monitoring. However, the fluid flow in the on-chip sensor is usually non-uniformed, which is a new and emerging challenge for the accuracy of optical detection. It is significant to reveal the principle of light propagation in an inhomogeneous liquid flow and the interaction between biochemical samples and light in flowing liquids. In this review, we summarize the current state of optofluidic lab-on-a-chip techniques from the perspective of light modulation by the unique dynamic properties of fluid in heterogeneous media, such as diffusion, heat transfer, and centrifugation etc. Furthermore, this review introduces several novel photonic phenomena in an inhomogeneous liquid flow and demonstrates their application in biochemical sensing.

  17. MAPLE activities and applications in gas sensors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínek, Miroslav; Remsa, Jan; Kocourek, Tomáš; Kubešová, B.; Schůrek, J.; Myslík, V.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 3 (2011), 643-649 ISSN 0947-8396 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : MAPLE * gas sensors * biomedicine * thin films Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.630, year: 2011

  18. Submersible microbial fuel cell sensor for monitoring microbial activity and BOD in groundwater: Focusing on impact of anodic biofilm on sensor applicability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    was required for application of the sensor for microbial activity measurement, while biofilm‐colonized anode was needed for utilizing the sensor for BOD content measurement. The current density of SUMFC sensor equipped with a biofilm‐colonized anode showed linear relationship with BOD content, to up to 250 mg......A sensor, based on a submersible microbial fuel cell (SUMFC), was developed for in situ monitoring of microbial activity and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in groundwater. Presence or absence of a biofilm on the anode was a decisive factor for the applicability of the sensor. Fresh anode...

  19. Random distributed feedback fibre lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turitsyn, Sergei K., E-mail: s.k.turitsyn@aston.ac.uk [Aston Institute of Photonic Technologies, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Novosibirsk State University, 2 Pirogova str., 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Babin, Sergey A. [Novosibirsk State University, 2 Pirogova str., 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Automation and Electrometry SB RAS, 1 Ac. Koptug. ave., 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Churkin, Dmitry V. [Aston Institute of Photonic Technologies, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Novosibirsk State University, 2 Pirogova str., 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Automation and Electrometry SB RAS, 1 Ac. Koptug. ave., 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Vatnik, Ilya D.; Nikulin, Maxim [Institute of Automation and Electrometry SB RAS, 1 Ac. Koptug. ave., 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Podivilov, Evgenii V. [Novosibirsk State University, 2 Pirogova str., 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Automation and Electrometry SB RAS, 1 Ac. Koptug. ave., 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-09-10

    generation of a stationary near-Gaussian beam with a narrow spectrum. A random distributed feedback fibre laser has efficiency and performance that are comparable to and even exceed those of similar conventional fibre lasers. The key features of the generated radiation of random distributed feedback fibre lasers include: a stationary narrow-band continuous modeless spectrum that is free of mode competition, nonlinear power broadening, and an output beam with a Gaussian profile in the fundamental transverse mode (generated both in single mode and multi-mode fibres). This review presents the current status of research in the field of random fibre lasers and shows their potential and perspectives. We start with an introductory overview of conventional distributed feedback lasers and traditional random lasers to set the stage for discussion of random fibre lasers. We then present a theoretical analysis and experimental studies of various random fibre laser configurations, including widely tunable, multi-wavelength, narrow-band generation, and random fibre lasers operating in different spectral bands in the 1–1.6 μm range. Then we discuss existing and future applications of random fibre lasers, including telecommunication and distributed long reach sensor systems. A theoretical description of random lasers is very challenging and is strongly linked with the theory of disordered systems and kinetic theory. We outline two key models governing the generation of random fibre lasers: the average power balance model and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation based model. Recently invented random distributed feedback fibre lasers represent a new and exciting field of research that brings together such diverse areas of science as laser physics, the theory of disordered systems, fibre optics and nonlinear science. Stable random generation in optical fibre opens up new possibilities for research on wave transport and localization in disordered media. We hope that this review will provide

  20. Random distributed feedback fibre lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turitsyn, Sergei K.; Babin, Sergey A.; Churkin, Dmitry V.; Vatnik, Ilya D.; Nikulin, Maxim; Podivilov, Evgenii V.

    2014-01-01

    generation of a stationary near-Gaussian beam with a narrow spectrum. A random distributed feedback fibre laser has efficiency and performance that are comparable to and even exceed those of similar conventional fibre lasers. The key features of the generated radiation of random distributed feedback fibre lasers include: a stationary narrow-band continuous modeless spectrum that is free of mode competition, nonlinear power broadening, and an output beam with a Gaussian profile in the fundamental transverse mode (generated both in single mode and multi-mode fibres). This review presents the current status of research in the field of random fibre lasers and shows their potential and perspectives. We start with an introductory overview of conventional distributed feedback lasers and traditional random lasers to set the stage for discussion of random fibre lasers. We then present a theoretical analysis and experimental studies of various random fibre laser configurations, including widely tunable, multi-wavelength, narrow-band generation, and random fibre lasers operating in different spectral bands in the 1–1.6 μm range. Then we discuss existing and future applications of random fibre lasers, including telecommunication and distributed long reach sensor systems. A theoretical description of random lasers is very challenging and is strongly linked with the theory of disordered systems and kinetic theory. We outline two key models governing the generation of random fibre lasers: the average power balance model and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation based model. Recently invented random distributed feedback fibre lasers represent a new and exciting field of research that brings together such diverse areas of science as laser physics, the theory of disordered systems, fibre optics and nonlinear science. Stable random generation in optical fibre opens up new possibilities for research on wave transport and localization in disordered media. We hope that this review will provide

  1. CMOS Active-Pixel Image Sensor With Intensity-Driven Readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbacher, Harry T.; Fossum, Eric R.; Kemeny, Sabrina

    1996-01-01

    Proposed complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) integrated-circuit image sensor automatically provides readouts from pixels in order of decreasing illumination intensity. Sensor operated in integration mode. Particularly useful in number of image-sensing tasks, including diffractive laser range-finding, three-dimensional imaging, event-driven readout of sparse sensor arrays, and star tracking.

  2. Recent Advances in Paper-Based Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Chow

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Paper-based sensors are a new alternative technology for fabricating simple, low-cost, portable and disposable analytical devices for many application areas including clinical diagnosis, food quality control and environmental monitoring. The unique properties of paper which allow passive liquid transport and compatibility with chemicals/biochemicals are the main advantages of using paper as a sensing platform. Depending on the main goal to be achieved in paper-based sensors, the fabrication methods and the analysis techniques can be tuned to fulfill the needs of the end-user. Current paper-based sensors are focused on microfluidic delivery of solution to the detection site whereas more advanced designs involve complex 3-D geometries based on the same microfluidic principles. Although paper-based sensors are very promising, they still suffer from certain limitations such as accuracy and sensitivity. However, it is anticipated that in the future, with advances in fabrication and analytical techniques, that there will be more new and innovative developments in paper-based sensors. These sensors could better meet the current objectives of a viable low-cost and portable device in addition to offering high sensitivity and selectivity, and multiple analyte discrimination. This paper is a review of recent advances in paper-based sensors and covers the following topics: existing fabrication techniques, analytical methods and application areas. Finally, the present challenges and future outlooks are discussed.

  3. Research on photoconductor radiological sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaumont, Francois

    1989-01-01

    Because of the evolution of medical imaging techniques to digital systems, it is necessary to replace radiological film which has many drawbacks, by a detector quite as efficient and quickly giving a digitable signal. The purpose of this thesis is to find new X-ray digital imaging processes using photoconductor materials such as amorphous selenium. After reviewing the principle of direct radiology and functions to be served by the X-ray sensor (i e. detection, memory, assignment, visualization), we explain specification. We especially show the constraints due to the object to be radio-graphed (condition of minimal exposure), and to the reading signal (electronic noise detection associated with a reading frequency). As a result of this study, a first photoconductor sensor could be designed. Its principle is based on photo carrier trapping at dielectric-photoconductor structure interface. The reading system needs the scanning of a laser beam upon the sensor surface. The dielectric-photoconductor structure enabled us to estimate the possibilities offered by the sensor and to build a complete x-ray imaging system. The originality of thermos-dielectric sensor, that was next studied, is to allow a thermal assignment reading. The chosen system consists in varying the ferroelectric polymer capacity whose dielectric permittivity is weak at room temperature. The thermo-dielectric material was studied by thermal or Joule effect stimulation. During our experiments, trapping was found in a sensor made of amorphous selenium between two electrodes. This new effect was performed and enabled us to expose a first interpretation. Eventually, the comparison of these new sensor concepts with radiological film shows the advantage of the proposed solution. (author) [fr

  4. A pH Sensor Based on a Stainless Steel Electrode Electrodeposited with Iridium Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, C. C. M.; Madrid, R. E.; Felice, C. J.

    2009-01-01

    A simple procedure to make an iridium oxide (IrO[subscript 2]) electrodeposited pH sensor, that can be used in a chemical, biomedical, or materials laboratory, is presented here. Some exercises, based on this sensor, that can be used to teach important concepts in the field of biomedical, biochemical, tissue, or materials engineering, are also…

  5. Semiconductor sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor sensors have been around since the 1950s and today, every high energy physics experiment has one in its repertoire. In Lepton as well as Hadron colliders, silicon vertex and tracking detectors led to the most amazing physics and will continue doing so in the future. This contribution tries to depict the history of these devices exemplarily without being able to honor all important developments and installations. The current understanding of radiation damage mechanisms and recent R and D topics demonstrating the future challenges and possible technical solutions for the SLHC detectors are presented. Consequently semiconductor sensor candidates for an LHC upgrade and a future linear collider are also briefly introduced. The work presented here is a collage of the work of many individual silicon experts spread over several collaborations across the world.

  6. Multi-Sensor Testing for Automated Rendezvous and Docking Sensor Testing at the Flight Robotics Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, L.; Johnston, A.; Howard, R.; Mitchell, J.; Cryan, S.

    2007-01-01

    The Exploration Systems Architecture defines missions that require rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking (RPOD) of two spacecraft both in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and in Low Lunar Orbit (LLO). Uncrewed spacecraft must perform automated and/or autonomous rendezvous, proximity operations and docking operations (commonly known as AR&D). The crewed missions may also perform rendezvous and docking operations and may require different levels of automation and/or autonomy, and must provide the crew with relative navigation information for manual piloting. The capabilities of the RPOD sensors are critical to the success of the Exploration Program. NASA has the responsibility to determine whether the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) contractor proposed relative navigation sensor suite will meet the requirements. The relatively low technology readiness level of AR&D relative navigation sensors has been carried as one of the CEV Project's top risks. The AR&D Sensor Technology Project seeks to reduce the risk by the testing and analysis of selected relative navigation sensor technologies through hardware-in-the-loop testing and simulation. These activities will provide the CEV Project information to assess the relative navigation sensors maturity as well as demonstrate test methods and capabilities. The first year of this project focused on a series of"pathfinder" testing tasks to develop the test plans, test facility requirements, trajectories, math model architecture, simulation platform, and processes that will be used to evaluate the Contractor-proposed sensors. Four candidate sensors were used in the first phase of the testing. The second phase of testing used four sensors simultaneously: two Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Video Guidance Sensors (AVGS), a laser-based video sensor that uses retroreflectors attached to the target vehicle, and two commercial laser range finders. The multi-sensor testing was conducted at MSFC's Flight Robotics Laboratory (FRL

  7. Laser spark distribution and ignition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Steven [Morgantown, WV; McIntyre, Dustin L [Morgantown, WV

    2008-09-02

    A laser spark distribution and ignition system that reduces the high power optical requirements for use in a laser ignition and distribution system allowing for the use of optical fibers for delivering the low peak energy pumping pulses to a laser amplifier or laser oscillator. An optical distributor distributes and delivers optical pumping energy from an optical pumping source to multiple combustion chambers incorporating laser oscillators or laser amplifiers for inducing a laser spark within a combustion chamber. The optical distributor preferably includes a single rotating mirror or lens which deflects the optical pumping energy from the axis of rotation and into a plurality of distinct optical fibers each connected to a respective laser media or amplifier coupled to an associated combustion chamber. The laser spark generators preferably produce a high peak power laser spark, from a single low power pulse. The laser spark distribution and ignition system has application in natural gas fueled reciprocating engines, turbine combustors, explosives and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy diagnostic sensors.

  8. Load sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Ende, D.; Almeida, P.M.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a load sensor comprising a polymer matrix and a piezo-ceramic material such as PZT, em not bedded in the polymer matrix, which together form a compos not ite, wherein the polymer matrix is a liquid crystalline resin, and wherein the piezo-ceramic material is a PZT powder forming 30-60% by volume of the composite, and wherein the PZT powder forms 40-50% by volume of the composite.

  9. Image Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Jerram, Paul; Stefanov, Konstantin

    2017-01-01

    An image sensor of the type for providing charge multiplication by impact ionisation has plurality of multiplication elements. Each element is arranged to receive charge from photosensitive elements of an image area and each element comprises a sequence of electrodes to move charge along a transport path. Each of the electrodes has an edge defining a boundary with a first electrode, a maximum width across the charge transport path and a leading edge that defines a boundary with a second elect...

  10. Optischer Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Brandenburg, A.; Fischer, A.

    1995-01-01

    An optical sensor (1) comprising an integrated optical arrangement has a waveguide (4) and at least one defraction grating (5) arranged in this waveguide. Light can launched into the waveguide via the defraction grating. In the reflection area of defraction grating, part of the light is dispersed through the waveguide at the beam angle for which the launch conditions and thus the defraction in the waveguide are fulfilled, so that, at this angle, a dark line (14) occurs whose position is evalu...

  11. Gas sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorogan, V.; Korotchenkov, Gh.; Vieru, T.; Prodan, I.

    2003-01-01

    The invention relates to the gas sensors on base of metal-oxide films (SnO, InO), which may be used for enviromental control, in the fireextinguishing systema etc. The gas includes an insulating substrate, an active layer, a resistive layer with ohmic contacts. The resistive layer has two or more regions with dofferent resistances , and on the active layer are two or more pairs of ohmic contacts

  12. Laser Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Laser Resurfacing Uses for Laser Resurfacing Learn more ...

  13. Biochemical thermodynamics: applications of Mathematica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberty, Robert A

    2006-01-01

    reactants. Thus loading this package makes available 774 mathematical functions for these properties. These functions can be added and subtracted to obtain changes in these properties in biochemical reactions and apparent equilibrium constants.

  14. Lasers technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Laser Technology Program of IPEN is developed by the Center for Lasers and Applications (CLA) and is committed to the development of new lasers based on the research of new optical materials and new resonator technologies. Laser applications and research occur within several areas such as Nuclear, Medicine, Dentistry, Industry, Environment and Advanced Research. Additional goals of the Program are human resource development and innovation, in association with Brazilian Universities and commercial partners

  15. Morphological, physiological and biochemical studies on Pyricularia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-02-28

    Feb 28, 2014 ... compounds seem to reflect inherent biochemical and physiological differences among P. grisea isolates .... solutions for imaging and microscopy, soft image system .... characteristics among 12 P. grisea isolates from rice were.

  16. Biochemical changes in blood caused by radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapol'skaya, N.A.; Fedorova, A.V.

    1975-01-01

    The changes were studied occurring in some biochemical indicators in blood at chronic peroral administration of strontium-90, cesium-137 and iodine-131 in amounts resulting in accumulation of commensurable doses in critical organs corresponding to each isotope

  17. Biochemical and kinetic characterization of geranylgeraniol 18 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suchart

    2015-07-22

    Jul 22, 2015 ... biochemical characterization of GGOH 18-hydroxylase activity in the microsomal fraction from C. .... method as previously described (Chanama et al., 2009). Briefly, 30 g of frozen ..... Catalytic properties of the plant cytochrome.

  18. Short Report Biochemical derangements prior to emergency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MMJ VOL 29 (1): March 2017. Biochemical derangements prior to emergency laparotomy at QECH 55. Malawi Medical Journal 29 (1): March 2017 ... Venepuncture was performed preoperatively for urgent cases, defined as those requiring.

  19. A Program on Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San, Ka-Yiu; McIntire, Larry V.

    1989-01-01

    Presents an introduction to the Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering program at Rice University. Describes the development of the academic and enhancement programs, including organizational structure and research project titles. (YP)

  20. Raman spectroscopic biochemical mapping of tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Nicholas; Hart Prieto, Maria C.; Kendall, Catherine A.; Shetty, Geeta; Barr, Hugh

    2006-02-01

    Advances in technologies have brought us closer to routine spectroscopic diagnosis of early malignant disease. However, there is still a poor understanding of the carcinogenesis process. For example it is not known whether many cancers follow a logical sequence from dysplasia, to carcinoma in situ, to invasion. Biochemical tissue changes, triggered by genetic mutations, precede morphological and structural changes. These can be probed using Raman or FTIR microspectroscopy and the spectra analysed for biochemical constituents. Local microscopic distribution of various constituents can then be visualised. Raman mapping has been performed on a number of tissues including oesophagus, breast, bladder and prostate. The biochemical constituents have been calculated at each point using basis spectra and least squares analysis. The residual of the least squares fit indicates any unfit spectral components. The biochemical distribution will be compared with the defined histopathological boundaries. The distribution of nucleic acids, glycogen, actin, collagen I, III, IV, lipids and others appear to follow expected patterns.

  1. Application of chronic intravascular blood glucose sensor in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J C; Lucisano, J Y; McKean, B D; Gough, D A

    1990-12-01

    An intravenous glucose sensor was implanted in six dogs for 1-15 wk. The glucose sensor is a flexible cylinder, approximately 0.2 cm diam and 30 cm long, with a tip containing immobilized glucose oxidase and catalase coupled to a potentiostatic O2 sensor. The sensor and a similar O2 reference sensor were implanted in the superior vena cava near the entrance of the right atrium. The sensor response was conveyed externally either by a telemetry system implanted nearby, surgically accessed leads, or chronically maintained percutaneous leads. Summing over the six implants, there was a total implantation period of 333 days during which glucose sensors were functional on demand. The sensor response showed agreement with conventionally assayed blood samples after accounting for a response lag. Sensor response to glucose showed little change over the implant period. Biocompatibility, enzyme lifetime, O2 availability, O2 sensor stability, and biochemical interference were not limitations. Results demonstrated that this sensor can function effectively as an implant in dogs for a period of months and has the potential for long-term operation.

  2. [Biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papyshev, I P; Astashkina, O G; Tuchik, E S; Nikolaev, B S; Cherniaev, A L

    2013-01-01

    Biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication remains a topical problem in forensic medical science and practice. We investigated materials obtained in the course of forensic medical expertise of the cases of fatal opium intoxication. The study revealed significant differences between myoglobin levels in blood, urine, myocardium, and skeletal muscles. The proposed approach to biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication enhances the accuracy and the level of evidence of expert conclusions.

  3. YCOB lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Martin; Hammons, Dennis; Eichenholz, Jason; Chai, Bruce; Ye, Qing; Jang, Won; Shah, Lawrence

    1999-01-01

    We review new developments with a new laser host material, YCa 4 O(BO 3 ) 3 or YCOB. Lasers based on this host material will open new opportunities for the development of compact, high-power, frequency-agile visible and near IR laser sources, as well as sources for ultrashort pulses. Efficient diode-pumped laser action with both Nd-doped and Yb-doped YCOB has already been demonstrated. Moreover, since these materials are biaxial, and have high nonlinear optical coefficients, they have become the first laser materials available as efficient self-frequency-doubled lasers, capable of providing tunable laser emission in several regions of the visible spectrum. Self-frequency doubling eliminates the need for inclusion of a nonlinear optical element within or external to the laser resonator. These laser materials possess excellent thermal and optical properties, have high laser-damage thresholds, and can be grown to large sizes. In addition they are non-hygroscopic. They therefore possess all the characteristics necessary for laser materials required in rugged, compact systems. Here we summarize the rapid progress made in the development of this new class of lasers, and review their potential for a number of applications. (author)

  4. Laser sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbatenko, A A; Revina, E I

    2015-01-01

    The review is devoted to the major advances in laser sampling. The advantages and drawbacks of the technique are considered. Specific features of combinations of laser sampling with various instrumental analytical methods, primarily inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, are discussed. Examples of practical implementation of hybrid methods involving laser sampling as well as corresponding analytical characteristics are presented. The bibliography includes 78 references

  5. HF laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kazuya; Iwasaki, Matae

    1977-01-01

    A review is made of the research and development of HF chemical laser and its related work. Many gaseous compounds are used as laser media successfully; reaction kinetics and technological problems are described. The hybrid chemical laser of HF-CO 2 system and the topics related to the isotope separation are also included. (auth.)

  6. Integração de dados do laser scanner com a banda pan-cromática do sensor QuickBird II para a identificação de edificações através das redes neurais numa abordagem orientação a regiões - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v27i2.1489

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosar Faria Botelho

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A imagens produzidas pelo sensor QuickBird II e pelos dados laser scanner são produtos caros para comercialização, porém têm mostrado seu valor técnico-científico no processamento digital de imagens. O objetivo deste estudo está em mostrar uma alternativa viável para a identificação de edificações através da classificação de imagem de alta resolução utilizando dados do sistema laser scanner e imagens do QuickBird II. No intuito de diminuir os custos na aquisição dos dados para o processamento digital, foram utilizados dados de intensidade e altimetria do laser, integrando-os com a banda pan-cromática do sensor QuickBird II, por meio do algoritmo de redes neurais e uma abordagem orientada a regiões. O trabalho justifica-se por utilizar tecnologias recentes (laser scanner e imagem QuickBird II e um algoritmo integrador de variáveis de diferentes origens (as redes neurais artificiais, na elaboração de mapas temáticos com custos menores. O método mostrou-se viável para a elaboração de mapa temático

  7. Improving Marine Ecosystem Models with Biochemical Tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethybridge, Heidi R.; Choy, C. Anela; Polovina, Jeffrey J.; Fulton, Elizabeth A.

    2018-01-01

    Empirical data on food web dynamics and predator-prey interactions underpin ecosystem models, which are increasingly used to support strategic management of marine resources. These data have traditionally derived from stomach content analysis, but new and complementary forms of ecological data are increasingly available from biochemical tracer techniques. Extensive opportunities exist to improve the empirical robustness of ecosystem models through the incorporation of biochemical tracer data and derived indices, an area that is rapidly expanding because of advances in analytical developments and sophisticated statistical techniques. Here, we explore the trophic information required by ecosystem model frameworks (species, individual, and size based) and match them to the most commonly used biochemical tracers (bulk tissue and compound-specific stable isotopes, fatty acids, and trace elements). Key quantitative parameters derived from biochemical tracers include estimates of diet composition, niche width, and trophic position. Biochemical tracers also provide powerful insight into the spatial and temporal variability of food web structure and the characterization of dominant basal and microbial food web groups. A major challenge in incorporating biochemical tracer data into ecosystem models is scale and data type mismatches, which can be overcome with greater knowledge exchange and numerical approaches that transform, integrate, and visualize data.

  8. RMBNToolbox: random models for biochemical networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niemi Jari

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increasing interest to model biochemical and cell biological networks, as well as to the computational analysis of these models. The development of analysis methodologies and related software is rapid in the field. However, the number of available models is still relatively small and the model sizes remain limited. The lack of kinetic information is usually the limiting factor for the construction of detailed simulation models. Results We present a computational toolbox for generating random biochemical network models which mimic real biochemical networks. The toolbox is called Random Models for Biochemical Networks. The toolbox works in the Matlab environment, and it makes it possible to generate various network structures, stoichiometries, kinetic laws for reactions, and parameters therein. The generation can be based on statistical rules and distributions, and more detailed information of real biochemical networks can be used in situations where it is known. The toolbox can be easily extended. The resulting network models can be exported in the format of Systems Biology Markup Language. Conclusion While more information is accumulating on biochemical networks, random networks can be used as an intermediate step towards their better understanding. Random networks make it possible to study the effects of various network characteristics to the overall behavior of the network. Moreover, the construction of artificial network models provides the ground truth data needed in the validation of various computational methods in the fields of parameter estimation and data analysis.

  9. Bio-Inspired Micromechanical Directional Acoustic Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, William; Alves, Fabio; Karunasiri, Gamani

    Conventional directional sound sensors employ an array of spatially separated microphones and the direction is determined using arrival times and amplitudes. In nature, insects such as the Ormia ochracea fly can determine the direction of sound using a hearing organ much smaller than the wavelength of sound it detects. The fly's eardrums are mechanically coupled, only separated by about 1 mm, and have remarkable directional sensitivity. A micromechanical sensor based on the fly's hearing system was designed and fabricated on a silicon on insulator (SOI) substrate using MEMS technology. The sensor consists of two 1 mm2 wings connected using a bridge and to the substrate using two torsional legs. The dimensions of the sensor and material stiffness determine the frequency response of the sensor. The vibration of the wings in response to incident sound at the bending resonance was measured using a laser vibrometer and found to be about 1 μm/Pa. The electronic response of the sensor to sound was measured using integrated comb finger capacitors and found to be about 25 V/Pa. The fabricated sensors showed good directional sensitivity. In this talk, the design, fabrication and characteristics of the directional sound sensor will be described. Supported by ONR and TDSI.

  10. Multi-Sensor Testing for Automated Rendezvous and Docking Sensor Testing at the Flight Robotics Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, Linda L.; Howard, Richard T.; Johnston, A. S.; Carrington, Connie; Mitchell, Jennifer D.; Cryan, Scott P.

    2008-01-01

    The Exploration Systems Architecture defines missions that require rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking (RPOD) of two spacecraft both in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and in Low Lunar Orbit (LLO). Uncrewed spacecraft must perform automated and/or autonomous rendezvous, proximity operations and docking operations (commonly known as AR&D). The crewed missions may also perform rendezvous and docking operations and may require different levels of automation and/or autonomy, and must provide the crew with relative navigation information for manual piloting. The capabilities of the RPOD sensors are critical to the success ofthe Exploration Program. NASA has the responsibility to determine whether the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) contractor-proposed relative navigation sensor suite will meet the requirements. The relatively low technology readiness level of AR&D relative navigation sensors has been carried as one of the CEV Project's top risks. The AR&D Sensor Technology Project seeks to reduce the risk by the testing and analysis of selected relative navigation sensor technologies through hardware-in-the-Ioop testing and simulation. These activities will provide the CEV Project information to assess the relative navigation sensors maturity as well as demonstrate test methods and capabilities. The first year of this project focused on a series of "pathfinder" testing tasks to develop the test plans, test facility requirements, trajectories, math model architecture, simulation platform, and processes that will be used to evaluate the Contractor-proposed sensors. Four candidate sensors were used in the first phase of the testing. The second phase of testing used four sensors simultaneously: two Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Video Guidance Sensors (AVGS), a laser-based video sensor that uses retroreflectors attached to the target vehicle, and two commercial laser range finders. The multi-sensor testing was conducted at MSFC's Flight Robotics Laboratory (FRL

  11. Tactile Sensing From Laser-Ablated Metallized PET Films

    KAUST Repository

    Nag, Anindya; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the design, fabrication, and implementation of a novel sensor patch developed from commercial polyethylene terephthalate films metallized with aluminum on one side. The aluminum was ablated with laser to form interdigitated

  12. Innovative applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized nanostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimotsuma, Yasuhiko; Miura, Kiyotaka; Sakakura, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    The nanostructure induced by the direct-writing of femtosecond-laser pulses can open a new opportunity to develop avant-garde devices such as a 5D optical storage, polarization imaging sensor, thermoelectric conversion elements. (author)

  13. Molecularly Imprinted Nanomaterials for Sensor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irshad, Muhammad; Iqbal, Naseer; Mujahid, Adnan; Afzal, Adeel; Hussain, Tajamal; Sharif, Ahsan; Ahmad, Ejaz; Athar, Muhammad Makshoof

    2013-01-01

    Molecular imprinting is a well-established technology to mimic antibody-antigen interaction in a synthetic platform. Molecularly imprinted polymers and nanomaterials usually possess outstanding recognition capabilities. Imprinted nanostructured materials are characterized by their small sizes, large reactive surface area and, most importantly, with rapid and specific analysis of analytes due to the formation of template driven recognition cavities within the matrix. The excellent recognition and selectivity offered by this class of materials towards a target analyte have found applications in many areas, such as separation science, analysis of organic pollutants in water, environmental analysis of trace gases, chemical or biological sensors, biochemical assays, fabricating artificial receptors, nanotechnology, etc. We present here a concise overview and recent developments in nanostructured imprinted materials with respect to various sensor systems, e.g., electrochemical, optical and mass sensitive, etc. Finally, in light of recent studies, we conclude the article with future perspectives and foreseen applications of imprinted nanomaterials in chemical sensors. PMID:28348356

  14. SSTAC/ARTS review of the draft Integrated Technology Plan (ITP). Volume 8: Aerothermodynamics Automation and Robotics (A/R) systems sensors, high-temperature superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs of briefings presented at the SSTAC/ARTS review of the draft Integrated Technology Plan (ITP) on aerothermodynamics, automation and robotics systems, sensors, and high-temperature superconductivity are included. Topics covered include: aerothermodynamics; aerobraking; aeroassist flight experiment; entry technology for probes and penetrators; automation and robotics; artificial intelligence; NASA telerobotics program; planetary rover program; science sensor technology; direct detector; submillimeter sensors; laser sensors; passive microwave sensing; active microwave sensing; sensor electronics; sensor optics; coolers and cryogenics; and high temperature superconductivity.

  15. SSTAC/ARTS review of the draft Integrated Technology Plan (ITP). Volume 8: Aerothermodynamics Automation and Robotics (A/R) systems sensors, high-temperature superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    Viewgraphs of briefings presented at the SSTAC/ARTS review of the draft Integrated Technology Plan (ITP) on aerothermodynamics, automation and robotics systems, sensors, and high-temperature superconductivity are included. Topics covered include: aerothermodynamics; aerobraking; aeroassist flight experiment; entry technology for probes and penetrators; automation and robotics; artificial intelligence; NASA telerobotics program; planetary rover program; science sensor technology; direct detector; submillimeter sensors; laser sensors; passive microwave sensing; active microwave sensing; sensor electronics; sensor optics; coolers and cryogenics; and high temperature superconductivity

  16. The use of erbium fiber laser relaxation frequency for sensing refractive index and solute concentration of aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arellano-Sotelo, H; Barmenkov, Yu O; Kir'yanov, A V

    2008-01-01

    We report a novel-principle fiber-laser intra-cavity sensor for measuring refractive index and solute concentration of aqueous solutions. The sensor operation is based on a variation of the laser oscillation relaxation frequency (the measured parameter), sensitive to the intra-cavity loss change. The sensor capacity is demonstrated on the example of measurements of sugar concentration in water. A modeling of the sensor operation is presented, allowing its performance optimization

  17. Intrusion detection sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.D.

    1978-07-01

    Intrusion detection sensors are an integral part of most physical security systems. Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Safeguards and Security, Sandia Laboratories has conducted a survey of available intrusion detection sensors and has tested a number of different sensors. An overview of these sensors is provided. This overview includes (1) the operating principles of each type of sensor, (2) unique sensor characteristics, (3) desired sensor improvements which must be considered in planning an intrusion detection system, and (4) the site characteristics which affect the performance of both exterior and interior sensors. Techniques which have been developed to evaluate various intrusion detection sensors are also discussed

  18. Hydrogen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yixiang; Jia, Quanxi; Cao, Wenqing

    2010-11-23

    A hydrogen sensor for detecting/quantitating hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes includes a sampling line and a microplasma generator that excites hydrogen from a gas sample and produces light emission from excited hydrogen. A power supply provides power to the microplasma generator, and a spectrometer generates an emission spectrum from the light emission. A programmable computer is adapted for determining whether or not the gas sample includes hydrogen, and for quantitating the amount of hydrogen and/or hydrogen isotopes are present in the gas sample.

  19. 8TH International Laser Physics Workshop Lphys󈨧 Budapest, July 2-6, 1999, Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-05

    Gerhard J. MUller (Germany) Rudolf Steiner (Germany) Symposium Status and Future Directions of High-Power Laser Installations Co-Chairs: See Leang...Sciences, Kazan. Russia I.A. Shcherbakov General Physics Institute. Russian Academy of Sciences. Moscow, Russia R. Steiner Institute of Laser Technologies...14.50-15.15 R. Steiner , A. Pohl, A. Bentele, T. Meier (Ulm, Germany) Laser Doppler sensor for laser assisted injection 30 SEMINAR 5 --- LASER METHODS IN

  20. Optical improvement for laser material processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosman, J.; De Keijzer, M.A.; De Kok, C.J.G.M. [ECN Engineering and Services, Petten (Netherlands); Molenaar, R.; Kettelarij, H.

    2010-05-15

    The use of laser technology enables flexibility and new concepts for example solar cell production but also optical moulds. The reason why laser technology is used in these cases is not the laser system itself but the ability to tailor this type of energy to the demands of the production processes. To ensure the full potential of the laser technology it can be improved by adding optical elements like polarizer, cameras, lenses and sensors. Two of these extra optical elements are presented here. First laser pulse energy attenuation. This is used to increase the controllability of laser processes. And second a new camera optic that enables integrated alignment with respect to features on the product. This last option enables marking on existing features and automated compensation of scanner drift. These camera systems can be used for micro welding of polymers and repair of existing markings in moulds.