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Sample records for lasalocid monensin narasin

  1. Ruminal changes in monensin- and lasalocid-fed cattle grazing bloat-provocative alfalfa pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, M P; Nagaraja, T G; Fina, L R

    1986-10-01

    Microbial and fermentation changes in the rumen in monensin- and lasalocid-fed cattle grazing bloat-provocative alfalfa pasture were studied using genetically bloat-susceptible, ruminally-cannulated adult cattle. Monensin at .66 and .99 mg/kg body weight daily reduced the severity of legume bloat by 41 and 73%, respectively. The same doses of lasalocid reduced bloat by 25 and 12%. Comparison of ruminal contents from animals before treatment with ruminal contents from antibiotic-treated animals showed no differences in pH, ammonia, soluble N, soluble carbohydrate, ethanol-precipitable slime and anaerobic bacterial counts. Monensin treatment decreased protozoal numbers and microbial activity, as evidenced by lower gas production from in vitro fermentation of ground alfalfa hay when compared to pretreatment. Lasalocid had no effect on protozoal counts and in vitro gas production. Addition of monensin or lasalocid (12 micrograms/ml) to in vitro fermentation of chopped, fresh alfalfa reduced microbial activity as evidenced by higher soluble N, lower ammonia concentration and decreased gas production. Monensin reduced the amount of ethanol-precipitable slime and protozoal numbers. Reduction in the severity of bloat when monensin was fed appears to be due to decreased protozoal numbers, which resulted in decreased gas production. Lasalocid did not reduce legume bloat because of its minimal effect on the ruminal protozoa.

  2. 78 FR 25182 - New Animal Drugs; Dexmedetomidine; Lasalocid; Melengestrol; Monensin; and Tylosin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0002] New Animal Drugs; Dexmedetomidine; Lasalocid; Melengestrol; Monensin; and... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval actions for new animal drug applications and abbreviated new animal drug applications during March 2013. FDA...

  3. Anticoccidial activity of lasalocid (avatec)r and other anticoccidial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Lasalocid AvetecR at a concentration of 75ppm in the feed ration and other currently marketed anticoccidial drugs in Nigerian was studied by monitoring the coccidia, oocyst production in broiler chicken. Five anticoccidial drugs: Lasalocid, halofuginone, monensin, salinomycin, and amprolium were tested ...

  4. Monensin, a polyether ionophore antibiotic, overcomes TRAIL resistance in glioma cells via endoplasmic reticulum stress, DR5 upregulation and c-FLIP downregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Mi Jin; Kang, You Jung; Kim, In Young; Kim, Eun Hee; Lee, Ju Ahn; Lim, Jun Hee; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Choi, Kyeong Sook

    2013-08-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-induced ligand (TRAIL) is preferentially cytotoxic to cancer cells over normal cells. However, many cancer cells, including malignant glioma cells, tend to be resistant to TRAIL. Monensin (a polyether ionophore antibiotic that is widely used in veterinary medicine) and salinomycin (a compound that is structurally related to monensin and shows cancer stem cell-inhibiting activity) are currently recognized as anticancer drug candidates. In this study, we show that monensin effectively sensitizes various glioma cells, but not normal astrocytes, to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis; this occurs at least partly via monensin-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, CHOP-mediated DR5 upregulation and proteasome-mediated downregulation of c-FLIP. Interestingly, other polyether antibiotics, such as salinomycin, nigericin, narasin and lasalocid A, also stimulated TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in glioma cells via ER stress, CHOP-mediated DR5 upregulation and c-FLIP downregulation. Taken together, these results suggest that combined treatment of glioma cells with TRAIL and polyether ionophore antibiotics may offer an effective therapeutic strategy.

  5. Decoquinate, lasalocid and monensin for starter feeds and the performance of holstein calves to 20 weeks of age Decoquinato, lasalocida e monensina em concentrado inicial e desempenho de bezerros holandeses até 20 semanas de idade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Maris Bittar Nussio

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The large utilization of coccidiostats in dairy herds has raised the question regards the best product to use, based on better animal performance. Sixty-four Holstein calves were randomly assigned to four treatments at 10 (±4 d of age to evaluate calf performance when fed approved coccidiostats available on the market in Arizona, USA. Calves received a dry calf starter without (control or with one of the following coccidiostats: lasalocid, 30 mg kg-1; decoquinate, 19 mg kg-1; and monensin, 30 mg kg-1. Calves received 3.6 kg d-1 of a commercial 22% CP:20% fat milk replacer until 6 wk of age. Calves were offered starter "ad libitum" up to 2 kg d-1, and calves had free access to water throughout the trial. Alfalfa hay was offered "ad libitum" after weaning. Performance and dry matter intake (DMI were monitored for 20 weeks and broken down in different periods of measurement (0-6, 7-12 and 13-20 weeks, respectively. Despite the lower dry matter intake and weight gain for females on monensin treatment during the whole period, differences among coccidiostats were seldom observed under the conditions of this study. Good calf management and the dry, hot climate of Arizona perhaps diminished the chances for subclinical and chronic disease appearance which negated potential differences and differences in calf performances.A larga utilização de coccidiostaticos em rebanhos leiteiros tem levantado questões relacionadas à escolha do melhor produto baseada no suposto melhor desempenho de bezerros leiteiros. Este trabalho avaliou o desempenho de bezerros leiteiros recebendo 3 diferentes coccidiostaticos em fazenda no estado do Arizona, EUA. Sessenta e quatro bezerros holandêses foram distribuidos ao acaso em quatro tratamentos com 10 ± 4 dias de vida. Os bezerros receberam concentrado inicial sem (controle ou com a adição de um dos seguintes coccidiostáticos: lasalocida, 30 mg kg-1; decoquinato, 19 mg kg-1; e monensina, 30 mg kg-1. Os bezerros

  6. Quantification of four ionophores in soil, sediment and manure using pressurised liquid extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Søren Alex; Hansen, Martin; Pedersen, Kenneth Munk

    2013-01-01

    A multi-residue pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) methodology has been established for the determination of the four ionophores: lasalocid, monensin, salinomycin and narasin in solid environmental matrices. The PLE methodology is combined with solid phase extraction as clean-up using liquid...

  7. Abiotic degradation of antibiotic ionophores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohn, Pernille; Bak, Søren A; Björklund, Erland

    2013-01-01

    Hydrolytic and photolytic degradation were investigated for the ionophore antibiotics lasalocid, monensin, salinomycin, and narasin. The hydrolysis study was carried out by dissolving the ionophores in solutions of pH 4, 7, and 9, followed by incubation at three temperatures of 6, 22, and 28 °C f...... because they absorb light of environmentally irrelevant wavelengths....

  8. Sequential enzymatic epoxidation involved in polyether lasalocid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Atsushi; Shimaya, Mayu; Suzuki, Gaku; Migita, Akira; Shinde, Sandip S; Sato, Kyohei; Watanabe, Kenji; Tamura, Tomohiro; Oguri, Hiroki; Oikawa, Hideaki

    2012-05-02

    Enantioselective epoxidation followed by regioselective epoxide opening reaction are the key processes in construction of the polyether skeleton. Recent genetic analysis of ionophore polyether biosynthetic gene clusters suggested that flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs) could be involved in the oxidation steps. In vivo and in vitro analyses of Lsd18, an FMO involved in the biosynthesis of polyether lasalocid, using simple olefin or truncated diene of a putative substrate as substrate mimics demonstrated that enantioselective epoxidation affords natural type mono- or bis-epoxide in a stepwise manner. These findings allow us to figure out enzymatic polyether construction in lasalocid biosynthesis. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  9. Monensin poisoning in dromedary camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, H M; Elsheikh, H A

    1992-11-01

    Four female fistulated camels (Camelus dromedarius), 4-5 years of age, were each given two grams of 10% monensin intraruminally daily for six days to study the effect of monensin on the rumen fermentation pattern. Signs of toxicity appeared on the sixth day, and included depression, anorexia, muscular weakness, inability to stand, salivation and regurgitation of ruminal contents. On the eighth day, two animals died. The ruminal contents were replaced in the survivors, but they died on the tenth and eleventh day from the start of the experiment.

  10. EEG- ringstudie van lasalocid-natrium in voeders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, W.M.J.; Herben, P.J.; Buizer, F.G.; Broex, N.; Worp, van de H.

    1983-01-01

    Lasalocid-natrium is een coccidiostaticum dat gebruikt wordt bij kippen op een doseringsniveau tussen 75 en 125 mg/kg. De analyse van het produc in voeder kan zowel microbiologisch als analytisch chemisch geschieden. Door de Belgische EEG-delegatie werden twee monsters mengvoeder gezonden om de

  11. Evaluation of ionophore sensitivity of Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria maxima isolated from the Algerian to Jijel province poultry farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djemai, Samir; Mekroud, Abdeslam; Jenkins, Mark C

    2016-07-15

    The present study represents the first description of ionophore resistance in recovered from commercial Algerian (Jijel-Algeria) broiler farms. Microscopy and intervening transcribed sequence 1 PCR (ITS1 PCR) revealed only 2 Eimeria species present in litter from these farms- namely Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria maxima. A pool of these isolates were evaluated in broiler chickens (Cobb 500) for sensitivity to 5 anticoccidial compounds-diclazuril (1ppm), lasalocid (125ppm), monensin (125ppm), narasin (70ppm) and salinomycin (60ppm). As indicated by anticoccidial sensitivity profiles based on lesion scores and anticoccidial index (ACI), complete resistance to monensin and narasin, partial resistance to salinomycin and lasalocid, and complete sensitivity to diclazuril was observed. While lack of sensitivity to monensin is not surprising given its use for years as the sole anticoccidial compound, the resistance to monoether (narasin) and polyether (lasalocid) ionophores suggests that cross-resistance has developed in a segment of the Eimeria population. The fairly uniform Eimeria species composition among all poultry farms suggests that E. acervulina and E. maxima more rapidly develop resistance to ionophore drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Epoxide hydrolase-lasalocid a structure provides mechanistic insight into polyether natural product biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Fong T; Hotta, Kinya; Chen, Xi; Fang, Minyi; Watanabe, Kenji; Kim, Chu-Young

    2015-01-14

    Biosynthesis of some polyether natural products involves a kinetically disfavored epoxide-opening cyclic ether formation, a reaction termed anti-Baldwin cyclization. One such example is the biosynthesis of lasalocid A, an ionophore antibiotic polyether. During lasalocid A biosynthesis, an epoxide hydrolase, Lsd19, converts the bisepoxy polyketide intermediate into the tetrahydrofuranyl-tetrahydropyran product. We report the crystal structure of Lsd19 in complex with lasalocid A. The structure unambiguously shows that the C-terminal domain of Lsd19 catalyzes the intriguing anti-Baldwin cyclization. We propose a general mechanism for epoxide selection by ionophore polyether epoxide hydrolases.

  13. Determination of the residue levels of nicarbazin and combination nicarbazin-narasin in broiler chickens after oral administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Guilherme Resende; de Assis, Débora Cristina Sampaio; Cançado, Silvana de Vasconcelos

    2017-01-01

    The depletion times of the anticoccidial nicarbazin administered individually and of nicarbazin and narasin administered in combination were evaluated by determining the presence and levels of 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC), the marker residue for nicarbazin, and narasin residues in the muscle tissues of broiler chickens subjected to a pharmacological treatment. A high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was used. The results showed the presence of all anticoccidial residues; however, the DNC levels were higher when the nicarbazin was administered individually than when it was used in association with narasin throughout the experimental period. After six days of withdrawal, the DNC level following nicarbazin administration alone was lower than the maximum residue level (MRL) of 200 μg kg-1. However, when the nicarbazin was co-administered with narasin, the concentrations of DNC were lower than the MRL after four days of withdrawal. These results may be justified because the dosage of nicarbazin, when administrated individually, is greater than when it is used in combination with narasin. The levels of narasin were lower than the MRL of 15 μg kg-1 throughout the evaluation period. It was concluded that nicarbazin is rapidly metabolized from the broiler muscles up to six days of withdrawal since the DNC levels were lower than the maximum residue level (MRL) and the concentrations of narasin were lower than the MRL throughout the evaluation period. PMID:28750013

  14. Assessing the impact of Narasin on biogeochemical N-cycling in unsaturated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, S. L.; Loving, M.; Logozzo, L. A.; Zhang, P.

    2016-12-01

    Agricultural soils are exposed to Narasin, an anti-coccidiodal drug, when poultry litter is applied as a nitrogen fertilizer. Though it has a relatively short half-life in soil, narasin may persist at concentrations ranging from pg·kg-1 to ng·kg-1. A recent study reported that that exposure in this range affect the composition of soil microbial communities, leading to delayed or modified rates of biogeochemical nitrogen redox reactions. The objective of this experiment was to conduct a comprehensive examination into the effects of 1-1000 ng kg-1 Narasin on the rates of nitrogen mineralization, nitrification, and denitrification as well as the associated impacts on soil N availability and N2O losses. Soils tested at 40%, 60%, and 80% WFPS showed that ultralow doses of narasin (1-1000 ng kg-1) can significantly alter one or more steps in the N cycle in ways that may impact N availability to crop plants and increase non-point source N pollution.

  15. Trace Level Determination of Polyether Ionophores in Feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokka, Mervi; Jestoi, Marika; Peltonen, Kimmo

    2013-01-01

    A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric method was developed and validated to determine six polyether ionophores (lasalocid sodium, monensin sodium, salinomycin sodium, narasin, maduramicin ammonium alpha, and semduramicin sodium) in feed samples. The method developed was very straightforward, involving extraction with 84% acetonitrile of the coccidiostats from the feed samples and filtration of the raw extract prior to chromatographic analysis. Method validation included the determination of selectivity, linearity, specificity, repeatability, the limit of detection, limit of quantification, decision limit (CCα), detection capability (CCβ), and recovery. Feed samples from the Finnish national feed control programme and suspected carry-over samples from a feed manufacturer were analysed in parallel with an existing liquid chromatography method coupled with ultraviolet detection. All feed control samples were negative in LC-UV, but with the developed MS method, monensin, salinomycin, and narasin were detected at concentrations of <0.025–0.73 mg/kg, <0.025–0.027 mg/kg, and <0.025–1.6 mg/kg, respectively. In suspected carry-over samples after an output of 2.0 tonnes of unmedicated feed in the pelletizer line, the concentrations of monensin, salinomycin, and narasin varied from undetected to 16 mg/kg. In the mixer line, after 3.2 tonnes of unmedicated feed output, the concentrations of monensin, salinomycin, and narasin varied from undetected to 2.4 mg/kg. PMID:23484082

  16. Benutting van monensin in proteien-energielekke deur lammerooie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    17 Jun 1983 ... Utilization of monensin in protein-energy licks by lactating ewes on sour winter veld; (a) Preweaning. The influence of monensin, at a level of 0,36 mg/kg body mass, to ewes in high and low energy licks (HEL and LEL) and in creep feed for lambs was investigated during the 1979 to 1981 winter seasons.

  17. Development of intramammary delivery systems containing lasalocid for the treatment of bovine mastitis: impact of solubility improvement on safety, efficacy, and milk distribution in dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Song, Yunmei; Petrovski, Kiro; Eats, Patricia; Trott, Darren J; Wong, Hui San; Page, Stephen W; Perry, Jeanette; Garg, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background Mastitis is a major disease of dairy cattle. Given the recent emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a cause of bovine mastitis, new intramammary (IMA) treatments are urgently required. Lasalocid, a member of the polyether ionophore class of antimicrobial agents, has not been previously administered to cows by the IMA route and has favorable characteristics for development as a mastitis treatment. This study aimed to develop an IMA drug delivery system (IMDS) of lasalocid for the treatment of bovine mastitis. Methods Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined applying the procedures recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Solid dispersions (SDs) of lasalocid were prepared and characterized using differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. IMDSs containing lasalocid of micronized, nano-sized, or as SD form were tested for their IMA safety in cows. Therapeutic efficacy of lasalocid IMDSs was tested in a bovine model involving experimental IMA challenge with the mastitis pathogen Streptococcus uberis. Results Lasalocid demonstrated antimicrobial activity against the major Gram-positive mastitis pathogens including S. aureus (MIC range 0.5–8 μg/mL). The solubility test confirmed limited, ion-strength-dependent water solubility of lasalocid. A kinetic solubility study showed that SDs effectively enhanced water solubility of lasalocid (21–35-fold). Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-lasalocid SD caused minimum mammary irritation in treated cows and exhibited faster distribution in milk than either nano or microsized lasalocid. IMDSs with PVP-lasalocid SD provided effective treatment with a higher mastitis clinical and microbiological cure rate (66.7%) compared to cloxacillin (62.5%). Conclusion Lasalocid SD IMDS provided high cure rates and effectiveness in treating bovine mastitis with acceptable safety in treated cows. PMID:25653501

  18. Development of intramammary delivery systems containing lasalocid for the treatment of bovine mastitis: impact of solubility improvement on safety, efficacy, and milk distribution in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Song, Yunmei; Petrovski, Kiro; Eats, Patricia; Trott, Darren J; Wong, Hui San; Page, Stephen W; Perry, Jeanette; Garg, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Mastitis is a major disease of dairy cattle. Given the recent emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a cause of bovine mastitis, new intramammary (IMA) treatments are urgently required. Lasalocid, a member of the polyether ionophore class of antimicrobial agents, has not been previously administered to cows by the IMA route and has favorable characteristics for development as a mastitis treatment. This study aimed to develop an IMA drug delivery system (IMDS) of lasalocid for the treatment of bovine mastitis. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined applying the procedures recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Solid dispersions (SDs) of lasalocid were prepared and characterized using differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. IMDSs containing lasalocid of micronized, nano-sized, or as SD form were tested for their IMA safety in cows. Therapeutic efficacy of lasalocid IMDSs was tested in a bovine model involving experimental IMA challenge with the mastitis pathogen Streptococcus uberis. Lasalocid demonstrated antimicrobial activity against the major Gram-positive mastitis pathogens including S. aureus (MIC range 0.5-8 μg/mL). The solubility test confirmed limited, ion-strength-dependent water solubility of lasalocid. A kinetic solubility study showed that SDs effectively enhanced water solubility of lasalocid (21-35-fold). Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-lasalocid SD caused minimum mammary irritation in treated cows and exhibited faster distribution in milk than either nano or microsized lasalocid. IMDSs with PVP-lasalocid SD provided effective treatment with a higher mastitis clinical and microbiological cure rate (66.7%) compared to cloxacillin (62.5%). Lasalocid SD IMDS provided high cure rates and effectiveness in treating bovine mastitis with acceptable safety in treated cows.

  19. Quantification of four ionophores in soil, sediment and manure using pressurised liquid extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Søren Alex; Hansen, Martin; Pedersen, Kenneth Munk

    2013-01-01

    A multi-residue pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) methodology has been established for the determination of the four ionophores: lasalocid, monensin, salinomycin and narasin in solid environmental matrices. The PLE methodology is combined with solid phase extraction as clean-up using liquid...... chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry applying electrospray ionisation for detection. The samples were freeze-dried prior to extraction. The absolute recoveries for soil and sediment ranged from 71 to 123% (relative standard deviation (RSDs) below 16%) and in the range 94-133% (RSDs 9...

  20. Effect of monensin on fermentation characteristics of the artificial rumen.

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, R J; Cheng, K J; Czerkawski, J W

    1980-01-01

    Addition of monensin (Rumensin, Eli Lilly and Co.) to an artificial rumen immediately depressed the digestion of roughage and of roughage/concentrate (50:50) feeds. Methane and propionate production were affected only with the roughage/concentrate feed.

  1. Effects of narasin (Skycis) on live performance and carcass traits of finishing pigs sold in a three-phase marketing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkfeld, E K; Carr, S N; Rincker, P J; Gruber, S L; Allee, G L; Dilger, A C; Boler, D D

    2015-10-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of feeding narasin (Skycis; Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN) on growth performance and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs sold in a 3-phase marketing system. Pigs ( = 1,232) were housed in 56 single-sex pens (22 pigs/pen) divided into 2 even blocks based on initiation of treatment. Each treatment × sex combination was replicated 14 times. Pigs were fed either 0 mg/kg narasin (control) or 15 mg/kg narasin for up to 85 d of finishing (initiated at an average of 52.95 kg BW). In each pen, 18% (4 pigs per pen) of pigs were sold in the first marketing group (Day 64 of dietary treatment), 50% (11 of the original 22) were sold in the second marketing group (Day 78), and 32% (the remaining 7 pigs) were sold in the third marketing group (Day 85). Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design with pen as the experimental unit. The model included the fixed effects of diet, sex, and their interaction. Block and replicate nested within block were random variables. Carcass data from pigs in marketing group 3 of block 2 was not collected due to inclement weather. Narasin had no effect on growth performance traits ( ≥ 0.15) in phases 1 (Days 1-28) or 2 (Days 29-56), regardless of sex. Barrows fed narasin had a 2.0% greater overall (Day 0-85) ADG than barrows fed the control diet ( carcass composition in marketing groups 1 and 2. Narasin-fed barrows in marketing group 3 had 0.9 percentage units lower ( carcass lean compared with barrows fed control diets (51.0 vs. 52.0%); no difference existed in gilts ( = 0.21). This is likely due to narasin-fed barrows of marketing group 3 tending ( = 0.06) to have 7.7% greater fat depth than control barrows of marketing group 3. Pooled effects (across all 3 marketing groups) of feeding narasin tended ( = 0.08) to reduce loin depth by 1.1% (60.00 vs. 60.66 mm), but there were no effects on fat depth ( = 0.24) or estimated carcass lean ( = 0.11). Overall, narasin can be used during

  2. Biosynthetic machinery of ionophore polyether lasalocid: enzymatic construction of polyether skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Atsushi; Oguri, Hiroki; Watanabe, Kenji; Oikawa, Hideaki

    2013-08-01

    Diversity of natural polycyclic polyethers originated from very simple yet versatile strategy consisting of epoxidation of linear polyene followed by epoxide opening cascade. To understand two-step enzymatic transformations at molecular basis, a flavin containing monooxygenase (EPX) Lsd18 and an epoxide hydrolase (EH) Lsd19 were selected as model enzymes for extensive investigation on substrate specificity, catalytic mechanism, cofactor requirement and crystal structure. This pioneering study on prototypical lasalocid EPX and EH provides insight into detailed mechanism of ionophore polyether assembly machinery and clarified remaining issues for polyether biosynthesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of intramammary delivery systems containing lasalocid for the treatment of bovine mastitis: impact of solubility improvement on safety, efficacy, and milk distribution in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang W

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wen Wang,1 Yunmei Song,1 Kiro Petrovski,2 Patricia Eats,2 Darren J Trott,2 Hui San Wong,2 Stephen W Page,3 Jeanette Perry,2 Sanjay Garg11School of Pharmacy and Medical Science, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 2School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 3Luoda Pharma Pty Ltd, Caringbah, NSW, AustraliaBackground: Mastitis is a major disease of dairy cattle. Given the recent emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a cause of bovine mastitis, new intramammary (IMA treatments are urgently required. Lasalocid, a member of the polyether ionophore class of antimicrobial agents, has not been previously administered to cows by the IMA route and has favorable characteristics for development as a mastitis treatment. This study aimed to develop an IMA drug delivery system (IMDS of lasalocid for the treatment of bovine mastitis.Methods: Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs were determined applying the procedures recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Solid dispersions (SDs of lasalocid were prepared and characterized using differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. IMDSs containing lasalocid of micronized, nano-sized, or as SD form were tested for their IMA safety in cows. Therapeutic efficacy of lasalocid IMDSs was tested in a bovine model involving experimental IMA challenge with the mastitis pathogen Streptococcus uberis.Results: Lasalocid demonstrated antimicrobial activity against the major Gram-positive mastitis pathogens including S. aureus (MIC range 0.5–8 µg/mL. The solubility test confirmed limited, ion-strength-dependent water solubility of lasalocid. A kinetic solubility study showed that SDs effectively enhanced water solubility of lasalocid (21–35-fold. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP-lasalocid SD caused minimum mammary irritation in treated cows and exhibited faster distribution in milk than

  4. The fate and effect of monensin during anaerobic digestion of dairy manure under mesophilic conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman A Arikan

    Full Text Available There is growing concern about residual antibiotics and feed additives in the manure of treated animals because of the effects of these residues in the environment. Monensin is the most widely used ionophore coccidiostat in the U.S. The objective of this study was to determine the fate and effect of monensin during the anaerobic digestion of dairy manure. Duplicate plug flow field-scale digesters were operated using non-amended dairy manure and dairy manure amended with monensin to 1 and 10 mg/L for 56 days at 30°C at an organic loading rate of 1.4 kg VS/m3-d and 17-day hydraulic retention time. Results showed that monensin was reduced approximately 70% during anaerobic digestion. Methane production from digesters using manure amended with 1 mg/L monensin was comparable to that from digesters operated without added monensin. However, digesters using manure amended with 10 mg/L monensin yielded 75% less methane than digesters using manure without added monensin. These results suggest that anaerobic digestion is an effective treatment for reducing, but not eliminating, monensin in dairy manure. Monensin did not reduce methane production at concentrations expected in dairy manure at recommended dosage rates.

  5. Monensin and Nisin Affect Rumen Fermentation and Microbiota Differently In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junshi Shen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nisin, a bacteriocin, is a potential alternative to antibiotics to modulate rumen fermentation. However, little is known about its impacts on rumen microbes. This study evaluated the effects of nisin (1 and 5 μM on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics, microbiota, and select groups of rumen microbes in comparison with monensin (5 μM, one of the most commonly used ionophores in ruminants. Nisin had greater effects than monensin in inhibiting methane production and decreasing acetate/propionate ratio. Unlike monensin, nisin had no adverse effect on dry matter digestibility. Real-time PCR analysis showed that both monensin and nisin reduced the populations of total bacteria, fungi, and methanogens, while the population of protozoa was reduced only by monensin. Principal component analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons showed a clear separation between the microbiota shaped by monensin and by nisin. Comparative analysis also revealed a significant difference in relative abundance of some bacteria in different taxa between monensin and nisin. The different effects of monensin and nisin on microbial populations and bacterial communities are probably responsible for the discrepancy in their effects on rumen fermentation. Nisin may have advantages over monensin in modulating ruminal microbial ecology and reducing ruminant methane production without adversely affecting feed digestion, and thus it may be used as a potential alternative to monensin fed to ruminants.

  6. 21 CFR 520.1448 - Monensin oral dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Monensin oral dosage forms. 520.1448 Section 520.1448 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... distance the spots travel from the starting line divided by the distance the solvent front travels from the...

  7. EFFECT OF MONENSIN, SODIUM BICARBONATE AND VITAMIN A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monensin has been extensively used as a feed additive in the ... acid levels to increase in relation to the other rumen volatile ... the fine milling of feed results in a reduction of saliva ... supplied 13,8%crude protein, 12,6%crude fibre, 0,76%.

  8. Intermediates in monensin biosynthesis: A late step in biosynthesis of the polyether ionophore monensin is crucial for the integrity of cation binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Hüttel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyether antibiotics such as monensin are biosynthesised via a cascade of directed ring expansions operating on a putative polyepoxide precursor. The resulting structures containing fused cyclic ethers and a lipophilic backbone can form strong ionophoric complexes with certain metal cations. In this work, we demonstrate for monensin biosynthesis that, as well as ether formation, a late-stage hydroxylation step is crucial for the correct formation of the sodium monensin complex. We have investigated the last two steps in monensin biosynthesis, namely hydroxylation catalysed by the P450 monooxygenase MonD and O-methylation catalysed by the methyl-transferase MonE. The corresponding genes were deleted in-frame in a monensin-overproducing strain of Streptomyces cinnamonensis. The mutants produced the expected monensin derivatives in excellent yields (ΔmonD: 1.13 g L−1 dehydroxymonensin; ΔmonE: 0.50 g L−1 demethylmonensin; and double mutant ΔmonDΔmonE: 0.34 g L−1 dehydroxydemethylmonensin. Single crystals were obtained from purified fractions of dehydroxymonensin and demethylmonensin. X-ray structure analysis revealed that the conformation of sodium dimethylmonensin is very similar to that of sodium monensin. In contrast, the coordination of the sodium ion is significantly different in the sodium dehydroxymonensin complex. This shows that the final constitution of the sodium monensin complex requires this tailoring step as well as polyether formation.

  9. Intermediates in monensin biosynthesis: A late step in biosynthesis of the polyether ionophore monensin is crucial for the integrity of cation binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüttel, Wolfgang; Spencer, Jonathan B; Leadlay, Peter F

    2014-01-01

    Polyether antibiotics such as monensin are biosynthesised via a cascade of directed ring expansions operating on a putative polyepoxide precursor. The resulting structures containing fused cyclic ethers and a lipophilic backbone can form strong ionophoric complexes with certain metal cations. In this work, we demonstrate for monensin biosynthesis that, as well as ether formation, a late-stage hydroxylation step is crucial for the correct formation of the sodium monensin complex. We have investigated the last two steps in monensin biosynthesis, namely hydroxylation catalysed by the P450 monooxygenase MonD and O-methylation catalysed by the methyl-transferase MonE. The corresponding genes were deleted in-frame in a monensin-overproducing strain of Streptomyces cinnamonensis. The mutants produced the expected monensin derivatives in excellent yields (ΔmonD: 1.13 g L(-1) dehydroxymonensin; ΔmonE: 0.50 g L(-1) demethylmonensin; and double mutant ΔmonDΔmonE: 0.34 g L(-1) dehydroxydemethylmonensin). Single crystals were obtained from purified fractions of dehydroxymonensin and demethylmonensin. X-ray structure analysis revealed that the conformation of sodium dimethylmonensin is very similar to that of sodium monensin. In contrast, the coordination of the sodium ion is significantly different in the sodium dehydroxymonensin complex. This shows that the final constitution of the sodium monensin complex requires this tailoring step as well as polyether formation.

  10. Redundancy in Anaerobic Digestion Microbiomes during Disturbances by the Antibiotic Monensin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirito, Catherine M.; Daly, Sarah E.; Werner, Jeffrey J.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT The antibiotic monensin is fed to dairy cows to increase milk production efficiency. A fraction of this monensin is excreted into the cow manure. Previous studies have found that cow manure containing monensin can negatively impact the performance of anaerobic digesters, especially upon first introduction. Few studies have examined whether the anaerobic digester microbiome can adapt to monensin during the operating time. Here, we conducted a long-term time series study of four lab-scale anaerobic digesters fed with cow manure. We examined changes in both the microbiome composition and function of the anaerobic digesters when subjected to the dairy antibiotic monensin. In our digesters, monensin was not rapidly degraded under anaerobic conditions. The two anaerobic digesters that were subjected to manure from monensin feed-dosed cows exhibited relatively small changes in microbiome composition and function due to relatively low monensin concentrations. At higher concentrations of monensin, which we dosed directly to control manure (from dairy cows without monensin), we observed major changes in the microbiome composition and function of two anaerobic digesters. A rapid introduction of monensin to one of these anaerobic digesters led to the impairment of methane production. Conversely, more gradual additions of the same concentrations of monensin to the other anaerobic digester led to the adaptation of the anaerobic digester microbiomes to the relatively high monensin concentrations. A member of the candidate OP11 (Microgenomates) phylum arose in this anaerobic digester and appeared to be redundant with certain Bacteroidetes phylum members, which previously were dominating. IMPORTANCE Monensin is a common antibiotic given to dairy cows in the United States and is partly excreted with dairy manure. An improved understanding of how monensin affects the anaerobic digester microbiome composition and function is important to prevent process failure for farm

  11. Jacobsen Catalyst as a Cytochrome P450 Biomimetic Model for the Metabolism of Monensin A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Alves Rocha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Monensin A is a commercially important natural product isolated from Streptomyces cinnamonensins that is primarily employed to treat coccidiosis. Monensin A selectively complexes and transports sodium cations across lipid membranes and displays a variety of biological properties. In this study, we evaluated the Jacobsen catalyst as a cytochrome P450 biomimetic model to investigate the oxidation of monensin A. Mass spectrometry analysis of the products from these model systems revealed the formation of two products: 3-O-demethyl monensin A and 12-hydroxy monensin A, which are the same ones found in in vivo models. Monensin A and products obtained in biomimetic model were tested in a mitochondrial toxicity model assessment and an antimicrobial bioassay against Staphylococcus aureus, S. aureus methicillin-resistant, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli. Our results demonstrated the toxicological effects of monensin A in isolated rat liver mitochondria but not its products, showing that the metabolism of monensin A is a detoxification metabolism. In addition, the antimicrobial bioassay showed that monensin A and its products possessed activity against Gram-positive microorganisms but not for Gram-negative microorganisms. The results revealed the potential of application of this biomimetic chemical model in the synthesis of drug metabolites, providing metabolites for biological tests and other purposes.

  12. Biochemical background of toxic interaction between tiamulin and monensin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szucs, Gyula; Tamási, Viola; Laczay, Péter; Monostory, Katalin

    2004-03-15

    Tiamulin, a diterpene antibiotic, is used for treatment of pulmonary and gastrointestinal infections in swine and poultry. Combined administration of tiamulin and ionophores (e.g. monensin) to farm animals may lead to intoxication manifested in severe clinical symptoms. Tiamulin metabolite complex with cytochrome P450 has been suggested to be the basis of drug-interactions. However, the formation of metabolic intermediate complex is questionable. The effect of tiamulin-treatment on cytochrome P450 activities was investigated in rats. Ethylmorphine and aminopyrine N-demethylation activities as well as monensin metabolism (O-demethylation) increased in liver microsomes of tiamulin-treated (200 mg/kg) animals. CYP3A1 induction caused by tiamulin was confirmed by the results of Western blot analysis. To test metabolic intermediate complex formation as a result of tiamulin treatment, cytochrome P450 activities were also determined in the presence of potassium ferricyanide. The findings together with those of in vitro complex formation suggested that formation of metabolic intermediate complexes of tiamulin with cytochrome P450 could be excluded. On the other hand, the results of inhibition studies showed significant decrease of ethylmorphine or aminopyrine as well as monensin demethylation in the presence of tiamulin. Our results proved that tiamulin has dual effect on cytochromes P450. It is able to induce and directly inhibit CYP3A enzymes, which are predominantly responsible for monensin O-demethylation. The direct effect of tiamulin as an inhibitor might play a more important role in toxicity than its putative effect as a chemical inducer of CYP3A enzymes.

  13. Anti-methanogenic effects of monensin in dairy and beef cattle: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appuhamy, J.A.D.R.N.; Strathe, A.B.; Jayasundara, S.; Wagner-Riddle, C.; Dijkstra, J.; France, J.; Kebreab, E.

    2013-01-01

    Monensin is a widely used feed additive with the potential to minimize methane (CH4) emissions from cattle. Several studies have investigated the effects of monensin on CH4, but findings have been inconsistent. The objective of the present study was to conduct meta-analyses to quantitatively

  14. Effects of solid-liquid separation and storage on monensin attenuation in dairy waste management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Sarah C.; Watanabe, Naoko; Harter, Thomas; Bergamaschi, Brian; Parikh, Sanjai J.

    2017-01-01

    Environmental release of veterinary pharmaceuticals has been of regulatory concern for more than a decade. Monensin is a feed additive antibiotic that is prevalent throughout the dairy industry and is excreted in dairy waste. This study investigates the potential of dairy waste management practices to alter the amount of monensin available for release into the environment. Analysis of wastewater and groundwater from two dairy farms in California consistently concluded that monensin is most present in lagoon water and groundwater downgradient of lagoons. Since the lagoons represent a direct source of monensin to groundwater, the effect of waste management, by mechanical screen separation and lagoon aeration, on aqueous monensin concentration was investigated through construction of lagoon microcosms. The results indicate that monensin attenuation is not improved by increased solid-liquid separation prior to storage in lagoons, as monensin is rapidly desorbed after dilution with water. Monensin is also shown to be easily degraded in lagoon microcosms receiving aeration, but is relatively stable and available for leaching under typical anaerobic lagoon conditions.

  15. The effect of monensin on milk production, milk urea nitrogen and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty Holstein-Friesian cows, two to four months postpartum, were randomly assigned to two groups. The control group received no monensin, whereas the treatment group received 300 mg monensin per cow per day. Cows grazed kikuyu pasture and received maize-based concentrates (2% of body weight) in two equal ...

  16. 77 FR 58021 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Monensin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-0002] New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Monensin AGENCY: Food and Drug... amending the animal drug regulations to remove a warning for growing cattle on pasture or in dry lot and to... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: FDA has noticed that the animal drug regulations for certain monensin free-choice...

  17. Effect of monensin on milk production by Holstein and Jersey cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, van der J.H.J.; Jonker, L.J.; Oldenbroek, J.K.

    1998-01-01

    Effects of the administration of monensin via concentrates to dairy cows were studied in two trials. In one trial, 64 Holstein cows were assigned to four groups that received 0, 150, 300, or 450 mg/d of monensin from 5 to 24 wk postpartum. Milk production tended to increase (4.0, 3.3, and 5.4%,

  18. Effect of monensin on in vitro fermentation of silages and microbial protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wischer, Gerald; Boguhn, Jeannette; Steingaß, Herbert; Schollenberger, Margit; Hartung, Karin; Rodehutscord, Markus

    2013-06-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of monensin on silage fermentation and microbial net protein synthesis. In Experiment 1, monensin (0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, or 10 µg) was added to syringes that contained 120 mg of grass silage (GS), grass silage and concentrate (GS + C), or maize silage (MS), resulting in concentrations of 4.2, 8.3, 16.7, 33.3, 50.0 and 83.3 mg monensin/kg feed. Samples were incubated for 24 h to determine the monensin concentration that resulted in the maximum reduction in methane production without effects on the total gas production. In Experiment 2, GS and GS + C were incubated in a rumen simulation technique (Rusitec) to assess the monensin effects (133 and 266 mg/kg feed) on the production of total gas, methane and volatile fatty acids (VFA), degradation of nutrients and microbial net protein synthesis. In Experiment 1, methane production was reduced without significant effects on the total gas production; the reductions were 17% (GS), 10% (GS + C) and 13% (MS) with 16.7 (GS), 50.0 (GS + C) and 33.3 (MS) mg monensin/kg feed. Monensin reduced the total gas and methane production in GS and GS + C in Experiment 2. Propionate production was enhanced by monensin, accompanied by a decrease in acetate production. Along with a reduction in crude protein (CP) degradation, monensin reduced the ammonia nitrogen concentration in the effluent of both treatments. While the protein produced by liquid-associated microbes increased with monensin, protein production by solid-associated microbes was reduced. Total microbial net protein synthesis increased in the presence of monensin. Monensin influenced the production of total gas, methane and VFA from the silages without an effect on the degradation of organic matter (OM). Different microbial fractions were affected differently by monensin supplementation. If monensin is used as a tool to reduce methane emission, the supplementation level must be carefully chosen to avoid negative effects on

  19. Effect of dietary monensin on the bacterial population structure of dairy cattle colonic contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, Jeffery A; Hamilton, Scott W; DePeters, Edward J; Mitloehner, Frank M

    2010-02-01

    To determine the effect of monensin, a carboxylic polyether ionophore antibiotic, on the bacterial population structure of dairy cattle colonic contents, we fed six lactating Holstein cows a diet containing monensin (600 mg day(-1)) or an identical diet without monensin. Fresh waste samples were taken directly from the animals once a month for 3 months and assayed for their bacterial population structure via 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. In total 6,912 16S rRNA genes were examined, comprising 345 and 315 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from the monensin fed and control animals, respectively. Coverage estimates of the OTUs identified were 87.6% for the monensin fed and 88.3% for the control colonic content derived library. Despite this high level of coverage, no significant difference was found between the libraries down to the genus level. Thus we concluded that although monensin is believed to increase milk production in dairy cattle by altering the bacterial population structure within the bovine gastrointestinal tract, we were unable to identify any significant difference in the bacterial population structure of the colonic contents of monensin fed vs. the control dairy cattle, down to the genus level.

  20. Studies on the toxic interaction between monensin and tiamulin in rats: toxicity and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szücs, G; Bajnógel, J; Varga, A; Móra, Z; Laczay, P

    2000-01-01

    The characteristics of the toxic interaction between monensin and tiamulin were investigated in rats. A three-day comparative oral repeated-dose toxicity study was performed in Phase I, when the effects of monensin and tiamulin were studied separately (monensin 10, 30, and 50 mg/kg or tiamulin 40, 120, and 200 mg/kg body weight, respectively). In Phase II, the two compounds were administered simultaneously to study the toxic interaction (monensin 10 mg/kg and tiamulin 40 mg/kg b.w., respectively). Monensin proved to be toxic to rats at doses of 30 and 50 mg/kg. Tiamulin was well tolerated up to the dose of 200 mg/kg. After combined administration, signs of toxicity were seen (including lethality in females). Monensin caused a dose-dependent cardiotoxic effect and vacuolar degeneration of the skeletal muscles in the animals given 50 mg/kg. Both compounds exerted a toxic effect on the liver in high doses. After simultaneous administration of the two compounds, there was a mild effect on the liver (females only), hydropic degeneration of the myocardium and vacuolar degeneration of the skeletal muscles. The alteration seen in the skeletal muscles was more marked than that seen after the administration of 50 mg/kg monensin alone.

  1. One-pot synthesis and cytotoxicity studies of new Mannich base derivatives of polyether antibiotic--lasalocid acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huczyński, Adam; Rutkowski, Jacek; Borowicz, Izabela; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Maj, Ewa; Brzezinski, Bogumil

    2013-09-15

    Seven Mannich base derivatives of polyether antibiotic Lasalocid acid (2a-2g) were synthesized and screened for their antiproliferative activity against various human cancer cell lines. A novel chemoselective one-pot synthesis of these Mannich bases was developed. Compounds 2a-2c and 2g with sterically smaller dialkylamine substituent, displayed potent antiproliferative activity (IC50: 3.2-7.3 μM), and demonstrated higher than twofold selectivity for specific type of cancer. The nature of Mannich base substituent on C-2 atom at the aromatic ring may be critical in the search for selectivity towards a particular cancer cell. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Monensin toxicosis in swine: potentiation by tiamulin administration and ameliorative effect of treatment with selenium and/or vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vleet, J F; Runnels, L J; Cook, J R; Scheidt, A B

    1987-10-01

    Modulation of acute monensin toxicosis in swine was evaluated in 2 studies. In study 1, 56 weanling male pigs were allotted to 14 groups of 4 each. Pigs in 7 groups were given tiamulin in the drinking water (to supply 7.7 mg/kg of body weight/day) for 3 days before and for 2 days after monensin administration. Monensin was given as a single oral dose (at 0, 7.5, 15, 25, 50, 75, or 100 mg/kg) to pigs in groups with or without tiamulin exposure. Prominent acute clinical signs of monensin toxicosis (hypermetria, hind limb ataxia, paresis, knuckling of hind limbs, and recumbency) developed by 2 to 6 hours after dosing in pigs given 15 or 25 mg of monensin/kg with tiamulin exposure, but not in pigs given the 15 or 25 mg of monensin/kg without tiamulin exposure. Also, the extent of monensin-induced skeletal muscle damage at 4 days after monensin dosing was enhanced in pigs given 7.5, 15, or 25 mg of monensin/kg and exposed to tiamulin. In study 2, 48 weanling male pigs were allotted to 8 groups of 6 each. Four groups of pigs were given 20 mg of monensin/kg orally, and 4 groups were given 100 mg of monensin/kg orally. For each monensin dose, a group was treated 24 hours before monensin administration with (i) selenium (Se)-vitamin E preparation, 0.25 mg of Se and 68 IU of d-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (vitamin E)/kg, IM; (ii) vitamin E only, 68 IU of d-alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg; (iii) Se only, 0.25 mg of Se/kg; or (iv) vehicle.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Jacobsen Catalyst as a Cytochrome P450 Biomimetic Model for the Metabolism of Monensin A

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rocha, B. A.; de Oliveira, A. M.; Pazin, M.; Dorta, D.J.; Rodrigues, A.P.N.; Berretta, A.A.; Peti, A. P. F.; de Moraes, L.A.B.; Lopes, N. P.; Pospíšil, Stanislav; Gates, P. J.; Assis, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2014, č. 2014 (2014), s. 1-8 ISSN 2314-6133 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Monensin A * Jacobsen Catalyst Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.579, year: 2014

  4. DETECTION OF LASALOCID RESIDUES IN THE TISSUES OF BROILER CHICKENS BY A NEW SCREENING TEST TOTAL ANTIBIOTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Levkut, ml.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the microbial growth inhibition test Total antibiotics for the screening of lasalocid residues in the tissues of broiler chickens after its oral administration in medicated feed. The residues were investigated throughout the 5-day withdrawal period /WP/ and also on day 6 representing the first day following the WP. All broiler chicken tissues were positive for lasalocid. The breast muscle was positive (the presence of residues at/above the detection limit /LOD/ of method up to day 1 of the WP, the thigh muscle, gizzard, heart, skin and fat up to day 3 of the WP and the liver and kidneys up to day 4 of the WP. When evaluating the dubious results (the presence of residues just below the LOD of method, the breast muscle was suspect positive up to day 3 of the WP and the gizzard, skin and fat up to day 4 of the WP. No positive or dubious results were detected on day 5 of the WP. The LOD of Bacillus stearothermophilus var. calidolactis for maduramycin was 500 µg.l-1.doi:10.5219/140

  5. Efficacy of treatments with toltrazuril 7.5% and lasalocid sodium in sheep naturally infected with Eimeria spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Fernando de Souza; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo Roland; Paiva, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an experimental formulation of toltrazuril 7.5% + Trimix™ on a naturally acquired infection of Eimeria spp. in suckling lambs kept on pasture and, in another trial, evaluate the comparative efficacy between lasalocid and toltrazuril 7.5% + Trimix™ in newly weaned sheep under feedlot conditions that had been naturally infected with Eimeria spp. In the first experiment, 30 suckling lambs were divided into two groups: A - treated with toltrazuril 7.5% + Trimix™ and B- control. In experiment 2, 30 weaned sheep were divided into three groups: I - treated with toltrazuril 7.5% + Trimix™, II - treated with lasalocid and III - control. Treatment group A showed an efficacy of 90, 99.4 and 87.3% on days 5, 10 and 20, respectively. Treatment group I had an efficacy of 98.2, 92.6 and 94.5%, while group II had an efficacy of 72.7, 81.6 and 95.9% on days 7, 21 and 42, respectively. Eight Eimeria species were identified; E. ovinoidalis was the most common. Treatment with the toltrazuril 7.5% +Trimix ™ formulation was effective against Eimeria spp. in suckling lambs in field conditions and lambs weaned in under feedlot conditions.

  6. Studies on the toxic interaction between monensin and tiamulin in rats: effects on P450 activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szücs, G; Laczay, P; Bajnógel, J; Móra, Z

    2000-01-01

    Studies were carried out to investigate the effects of monensin and tiamulin, and the simultaneous administration of both compounds on microsomal enzymes in rats. In Phase I of the experiments the effects of monensin and tiamulin were studied separately (monensin 10, 30, and 50 mg/kg or tiamulin 40, 120, and 200 mg/kg body weight, respectively), while in Phase II the two compounds were administered simultaneously (monesin 10 mg/kg and tiamulin 40 mg/kg b.w., respectively). When monensin was administered by itself, it exerted no significant effect on microsomal liver enzymes. In a few cases, slight inhibition of certain enzyme activities was seen. Tiamulin provoked a dose-dependent hepatic enzyme induction. The combined administration of monensin and tiamulin at low doses (10 and 40 mg/kg, respectively) resulted in marked elevation of P450-related enzyme activities. The enzyme induction was more pronounced in females than in males. The results suggest that the simultaneous administration of tiamulin may influence the biotransformation of monensin, possibly increasing the amount of reactive metabolite(s) of the ionophore antibiotic.

  7. Investigation of ruminal bacterial diversity in dairy cattle fed supplementary monensin alone and in combination with fat, using pyrosequencing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M; Eastridge, M L; Yu, Z

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to examine and compare the effects of monensin, both alone and together with dietary fat, on ruminal bacterial communities in dairy cattle fed the following 3 diets: a control diet, the control diet supplemented with monensin, and the control diet supplemented with both monensin and fat. Bacterial communities in the liquid and the adherent fractions of rumen content were analyzed using 454 pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Most sequences were assigned to phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, irrespective of diets and fractions. Prevotella was the most dominant genus, but most sequences could not be classified at the genus level. The proportion of Gram-positive Firmicutes was reduced by 4.5% in response to monensin but increased by 12.8% by combination of monensin and fat, compared with the control diet. Some of the operational taxonomic units in Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were also affected by monensin or by the combination of monensin with fat. The proportion of numerous bacteria potentially involved in lipolysis and (or) biohydrogenation was increased by both monensin and fat. The Shannon diversity index was decreased in the control diet supplemented with both monensin and fat, compared with the other 2 diet groups. Supplementary fats hinder bacterial attachment to plant particles and then result in decreased bacterial diversity in the rumen. The finding of this study may help in understanding the effect of monensin and fat on ruminant nutrition and the adverse effect of monensin and fat, such as milk fat depression and decreased feed digestibility.

  8. Monensin controlled-release intraruminal capsule for control of bloat in pastured dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, L B; Ball, G J; Carruthers, V R; Dobos, R C; Lynch, G A; Moate, P J; Poole, P R; Valentine, S C

    1991-01-01

    Monensin, a polyether ionophore antibiotic, is potentially an important agent for bloat relief in dairy cows grazing temperate legume-based pasture. A series of studies was undertaken to determine the effect of monensin, when delivered continuously in the rumen of lactating dairy cows by means of controlled-release capsules (monensin CRC). Such devices release approximately 300 mg/head/day for 100 d. A short-term pilot study made at Ruakura, New Zealand, tested monensin CRC in cows selected for high susceptibility to bloat and grazing lucerne (Medicago sativa) or red clover (Trifolium pratense). Treatment significantly reduced the incidence of bloat, while milk yield and protein yield were increased. There was no effect on fat yield. Following the pilot study, 6 large-scale field experiments involving a total of 368 lactating dairy cows, were made in Australia and New Zealand to confirm the effectiveness of monensin CRC for bloat control and to measure the effect of such treatment on milk production and composition. A severe bloat problem occurred in 2 experiments, mild bloat occurred in 2 others, while no visual signs of bloat were observed in the remaining 2 experiments. Bloat was significantly (P less than 0.05) reduced by monensin CRC treatment when data was pooled over the 4 experiments in which bloat occurred. Daily milk yield was increased in all experiments from a mean of 17.7 in untreated groups to 18.8 kg/head/day (P less than 0.05) in monensin CRC-treated cows. Protein percentage was not affected by treatment, while there was a decrease from 4.29 to 4.10% fat, although total fat yield was not affected.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Environmental occurrence and shallow ground water detection of the antibiotic monensin from dairy farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, N.; Harter, T.H.; Bergamaschi, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals used in animal feeding operations have been detected in various environmental settings. There is a growing concern about the impact on terrestrial and aquatic organisms and the development of antibiotic-resistant strains of microorganisms. Pharmaceutical use in milking cows is relatively limited compared with other livestock operations, except for the ionophore monensin, which is given to lactating cows as a feed. By weight, monensin can be the most significant antibiotic used in a dairy farm. This study investigates the potential of monensin to move from dairy operations into the surrounding ground water. Using two dairy farms in California as study sites, we twice collected samples along the environmental pathway-from flush lanes, lagoon waters, and shallow ground water beneath the dairies and beneath its associated manured fields. Monensin concentrations were determined using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with positive electrospray ionization. Monensin was detected in all of the flush lane and lagoon water samples. Theoretical maximum concentration estimated from the actual dosing rate and the theoretical excretion rate assuming no attenuation was one order of magnitude greater than observed concentrations, suggesting significant attenuation in the manure collection and storage system. Monensin was also detected, at levels ranging from 0.04 to 0.39 microg L(-1), in some of the ground water samples underneath the production area of the dairy but not from the adjacent manured fields. Concentrations in ground water immediately downgradient of the lagoons were one to two orders of magnitude lower than the concentrations detected in lagoons, suggesting attenuation in the subsurface. The data suggest the possibility of monensin transport into shallow (2-5 m) alluvial ground water from dairy management units, including manure storage lagoons and freestalls occupied by heifers, lactating cows, and dry cows.

  10. Using of Different Grain Sources with or without Monensin on Fattening Performance of Brown Swiss Male Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bashtani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of barley or triticale and monensin on fattening performance of Brown Swiss calves (with average body weight of 170±30 kg were studied in a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement of 2×2 and 4 replicates. Experimental treatments were: 1- barley grain without monensin 2- barley grain with monensin 3- triticale grain without monensin and 4- triticale grain with monensin. The amount of monensin in the ration was set to be 30 mg/kg DM. Calves weighing was undertaken monthly and dry matter intake was measured daily. Sampling from rumen fluid was carried out using a stomach tube, and blood sampes were taken at the end of each month. Average daily gain, feed conversion ratio and daily feed intake were not significantly affected by the treatments. Monensin had no significant effect on blood glucose concentration. Ruminal N-NH3, blood urea nitrogen and ruminal pH were not significantly affected by the experimental treatments. As grain sources and monensin application had no effect on fattening performance of the calves. it can therefore concluded that triticale grain might be utilized substituted with barley grain in feed lot diets. This substitutionn can be important from the economical of view in calves feed lot interprise.

  11. Effect of haylage and monensin supplementation on ruminal bacterial communities of feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minseok; Felix, Tara L; Loerch, Steve C; Yu, Zhongtang

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the ruminal bacterial communities as affected by monensin, haylage, and their interaction of feedlot cattle fed 60 % dried distillers grains with solubles in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Pyrosequencing analysis of the V1-V3 region (about 500 bp) of 16S rRNA gene from the four dietary treatments (3 treatment plus one control diets) collectively revealed 51 genera of bacteria within 11 phyla. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the first and the second most predominant phyla, respectively, irrespective of the dietary treatments. Monensin supplementation decreased the proportion of Gram-positive Firmicutes while increasing that of Gram-negative Bacteroidetes. However, the monensin supplementation did not reduce the proportion of all genera of Gram-positive bacteria placed within Firmicutes and lowered that of some genera of Gram-negative bacteria placed within Bacteroidetes. Haylage supplementation appeared to attenuate inhibition of monensin on some genera of bacteria. Factors other than monensin and haylage could affect ruminal bacterial communities.

  12. Spectroscopic, semiempirical studies and antibacterial activity of new urethane derivatives of natural polyether antibiotic - Monensin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huczyński, Adam; Stefańska, Joanna; Piśmienny, Mieszko; Brzezinski, Bogumil

    2013-02-01

    A series of new Monensin A dimers linked by diurethane moiety were synthesised and their molecular structures were studied using ESI-MS, FT-IR, 1H and 13C NMR and PM5 methods. The results showed that the compounds form a pseudo-cyclic structure stabilized by three intramolecular hydrogen bonds and the sodium cation was coordinated by five oxygen atoms of polyether skeleton of Monensin moiety. The NMR and FT-IR data of complexes of Monensin urethane sodium salts demonstrated that within the pseudo-cyclic structure the carbonyl oxygen atom of the urethane group did not coordinate the sodium cation. Monensin urethanes were tested in vitro for the activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi as well as against a series of clinical isolates of Staphylococcus: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA). The most active compound against MRSA and MSSA was 1,4-phenylene diurethane of Monensin with MIC 10.4-41.4 μmol/L).

  13. Narasin effects on energy, nutrient, and fiber digestibility in corn-soybean meal or corn-soybean meal-dried distillers grains with soluble diets fed to 16-, 92-, and 141-kg pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three experiments were conducted determine the effect of narasin on growth performance, and on GE and nutrient digestibility in nursery, grower, and finishing pigs fed either a corn-soybean (CSBM) diet or a CSBM diet supplemented with distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), in combination with...

  14. Impact of narasin on manure composition and microbial ecology, and gas emissions from finishing pigs fed either a corn-soybean meal or a corn-soybean meal-dried distillers grains with solubles diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of feeding finishing pigs either a corn-soybean (CSBM) diet or a CSBM diet supplemented with 30.34% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), in combination with either 0 or 30 mg narasin/kg of diet, on subsequent manure composition, manure mic...

  15. Epoxide hydrolase Lsd19 for polyether formation in the biosynthesis of lasalocid A: direct experimental evidence on polyene-polyepoxide hypothesis in polyether biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shichijo, Yoshihiro; Migita, Akira; Oguri, Hiroki; Watanabe, Mami; Tokiwano, Tetsuo; Watanabe, Kenji; Oikawa, Hideaki

    2008-09-17

    Polyether metabolites are an important class of natural products. Although their biosynthesis, especially construction of polyether skeletons, attracted organic chemists for many years, no experimental data on the enzymatic polyether formation has been obtained. In this study, a putative epoxide hydrolase gene lsd19 found on the biosynthetic gene cluster of an ionophore polyether lasalocid was cloned and successfully overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Using the purified Lsd19, a proposed substrate, bisepoxyprelasalocid, and its synthesized analogue were successfully converted into lasalocid A and its derivative via a 6-endo-tet cyclization mode. On the other hand, treatment of the bisepoxide with trichloroacetic acid gave isolasalocid A via a 5-exo-tet cyclization mode. Therefore, the enzymatic conversion observed in this study unambiguously showed that the bisepoxyprelasalocid is an intermediate of the lasalocid biosynthesis and that Lsd19 catalyzes the sequential cyclic ether formations involving an energetically disfavored 6-endo-tet cyclization. This is the first example of the enzymatic epoxide-opening reactions leading to a polyether natural product.

  16. Effects of osmolality and calcium on renin release from superfused rat glomeruli treated with nigericin or monensin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøtt, O

    1988-01-01

    with the monovalent cation/proton ionophores monensin and nigericin to dissipate granular proton gradients. Furthermore it was tested whether NH4Cl stimulates RR by inducing waterfluxes. Pretreatment of glomeruli with 10 microM nigericin or monensin inhibited RR, and suppressed the response to calcium removal......, independently of the presence of 0.5 mM EGTA. In contrast, the stimulatory effect of a hypo-osmotic challenge (-20 mM sucrose) was unchanged after pretreatment with nigericin or monensin. The stimulation induced by 15 mM NH4Cl was prevented by addition of 20 mM sucrose. The results suggest that dissipation...

  17. The fate and effect of monensin during anaerobic digestion of dairy manure under mesophilic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is growing concern about environmental impact of residual antibiotics and feed additives in the manure of treated animals. Monensin, a polyether ionophore coccidiostat, is the only feed additive permitted for use in the U.S. for lactating dairy cows. Previous research has shown that up to 5...

  18. 75 FR 66304 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Monensin Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    ... [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0002] New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Monensin Blocks AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal... 64116, has informed FDA that it has transferred ownership of, and all rights and interest in, NADA 118...

  19. The effect of dietary lipid saturation and monensin-Na on the CLA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One diet contained no ionophore antibiotic and the other monensin-Na included at 165 g/ton. These two basal diets were supplemented, according to a 2 x 3 factorial design, with three lipid sources [i.e. 20 g/kg of either beef tallow, sunflower oil or a CLA oil concentrate] differing in saturation level and fatty acid profile.

  20. 75 FR 5887 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Ractopamine; Monensin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    .... FDA-2010-N-0002] New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Ractopamine; Monensin AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of an original new animal drug application (NADA) filed by Elanco...

  1. 75 FR 20917 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Melengestrol, Monensin, and Ractopamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    .... FDA-2010-N-0002] New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Melengestrol, Monensin, and Ractopamine... (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental abbreviated new animal drug application (ANADA) filed by Ivy Laboratories, Div. of Ivy Animal Health, Inc. The...

  2. 77 FR 4228 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Monensin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    .... FDA-2011-N-0003] New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Monensin AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental new animal drug application (NADA) filed by...

  3. 76 FR 79064 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Monensin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    .... FDA-2011-N-0003] New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Monensin AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental new animal drug application (NADA) filed by...

  4. 76 FR 65109 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Melengestrol; Monensin; Tylosin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    .... FDA-2011-N-0003] New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Melengestrol; Monensin; Tylosin AGENCY...) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental abbreviated new animal drug application (ANADA) filed by Ivy Laboratories, Division of Ivy Animal Health, Inc. The...

  5. 76 FR 60721 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Melengestrol; Monensin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    .... FDA-2011-N-0003] New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Melengestrol; Monensin AGENCY: Food and... amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental abbreviated new animal drug application (ANADA) filed by Ivy Laboratories, Division of Ivy Animal Health, Inc. The supplemental ANADA...

  6. Use of calcareous algae and monensin in Nellore cattle subjected to an abrupt change in diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Ferreira Carvalho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Additives are used in high concentrate diets to prevent metabolic disorders in cattle. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of calcium sources and monensin on the control of ruminal acidosis in Nellore cattle that were abruptly shifted to a high (92.3% concentrate diet. Eight cannulated steers were randomly assigned to two contemporary 4x4 Latin square. Treatments involved the addition of a calcium source, either limestone (LI or a product derived from calcareous algae (CA, to the basic diet with or without the presence of monensin. Calcareous alga (Lithothamnium calcareum is a natural and renewable product and a source of calcium carbonate. The quantity of added limestone, calcareous algae and monensin was 7.1g kg-1, 7.4g kg-1 and 30mg kg-1 DM, respectively. There was no effect of calcium source (P=0.607 or monensin (P=0.294 on feed intake or on the concentration of short chain fatty acids. Treatments with calcareous algae resulted in a higher mean ruminal pH (P=0.039, a shorter amount of time with the ruminal pH under 5.2 (P<0.001 and a better control of blood pH (P=0.006. Treatments with monensin also resulted in a shorter amount of time with the ruminal pH below 5.2 (P=0.023. Calcareous algae were shown to be effective in controlling adverse changes in the rumen and in blood variables for Nellore cattle that were subjected to an abrupt change to a high concentrate diet.

  7. Impact of narasin on manure composition, microbial ecology, and gas emissions from finishing pigs fed either a corn-soybean meal or a corn-soybean meal-dried distillers grains with solubles diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Brian J; Trabue, Steven L; van Weelden, Mark B; Andersen, Daniel S; Pepple, Laura M

    2018-04-14

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of feeding finishing pigs a corn-soybean (CSBM) diet or a CSBM diet supplemented with 30% dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), in combination with or without a growth-promoting ionophore (0 or 30 mg narasin/kg of diet), has on manure composition, microbial ecology, and gas emissions. Two separate groups of 24 gilts (initial BW = 145.1 kg, SD = 7.8 kg) were allotted to individual metabolism crates that allowed for total but separate collection of feces and urine during the 48-d collection period. After each of the twice-daily feedings, feces and urine from each crate was collected and added to its assigned enclosed manure storage tank. Each tank contained an individual fan system that pulled a constant stream of air over the manure surface for 2 wk prior to air (day 52) and manure sampling (day 53). After manure sampling, the manure in the tanks was dumped and the tanks cleaned for the second group of pigs. Except for total manure Ca and P output as a percent of intake and for manure methane product rate and biochemical methane potential (P ≤ 0.08), there were no interactions between diet composition and narasin supplementation. Narasin supplementation resulted in increased manure C (P = 0.05), increased manure DM, C, S, Ca, and phosphorus as a percent of animal intake (P ≤ 0.07), and increased manure volatile solids and foaming capacity (P ≤ 0.09). No effect of narasin supplementation was noted on manure VFA concentrations or any of the gas emission parameters measured (P ≥ 0.29). In contrast, feeding finishing pigs a diet containing DDGS dramatically affected manure composition as indicated by increased concentration of DM, C, ammonia, N, and total and volatile solids (P = 0.01), increased manure DM, N, and C as a percent of animal intake (P = 0.01), increased manure total VFA and phenols (P ≤ 0.05), decreased gas emissions of ammonia and volatile sulfur compounds (VSC; P = 0.01), increased

  8. Effects of amines, monensin and nigericin on the renin release from isolated superfused rat glomeruli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøtt, O

    1987-01-01

    transiently. Alkalinization of the cell interior was achieved with weak permeable bases and ionophores. At low concentrations (5 mM NH4Cl; 0.2 mM chloroquine) the weak bases caused a delayed inhibition of the RR, while at higher concentrations (15 and 30 mM NH4Cl; 10 mM methylamine) the inhibitory effect...... was overlaid with a transient stimulation. 1.5 mM NH4Cl and 10 and 20 microM chloroquine had no effect. Addition of 10 microM of the Na-H ionophore monensin also caused a transient stimulation followed by a progressive inhibition. 0.1 microM monensin had no effect. The above procedures cause increases in both...

  9. Toxic myopathy in a dog associated with the presence of monensin in dry food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J S

    1980-01-01

    This report describes a case of toxic myopathy in a two year old sheltie dog with clinical signs of profound weakness, myoglobinuria, and muscle enzyme elevations. The clinical signs were likely related to the accidental inclusion of monensin sodium in the dog's food. This food was prepared by a small feed milling company that also prepares cattle and chicken rations. A change of dog food resulted in remission of the clinical signs.

  10. Toxic Myopathy in a Dog Associated with the Presence of Monensin in Dry Food

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    This report describes a case of toxic myopathy in a two year old sheltie dog with clinical signs of profound weakness, myoglobinuria, and muscle enzyme elevations. The clinical signs were likely related to the accidental inclusion of monensin sodium in the dog's food. This food was prepared by a small feed milling company that also prepares cattle and chicken rations. A change of dog food resulted in remission of the clinical signs.

  11. The use of sodic monensin and probiotics for controlling subacute ruminal acidosis in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Schwegler

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to validate a protocol for induction of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA (Experiment 1 and test the efficiency of probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae or monensin to avoid pH ruminal drops in sheep (Experiment 2. In Experiment 1, six ewes were fasted for two days and then fed most with concentrate during four days. Ewes in this protocol had ruminal fluid pH below 6.0 and kept it for 75 consecutive hours. In Experiment 2, 18 sheep were distributed into three groups: Control (CG, n = 6, monensin (MG, n = 6 and probiotic group (PG, n = 6. SARA was induced according Experiment 1. PG had lower pH (5.7 ± 0.1 than CG (6.0 ± 0.1 (P = 0.05, while MG (5.7 ± 0.1 was similar to both during SARA induction. SARA induction reduced ruminal protozoa population (P < 0.05 and increased chloride concentrations in ruminal fluid (P < 0.01. In serum, SARA increased concentrations of phosphorus (P < 0.01, AST (P < 0.01 and GGT (P < 0.01, but reduced LDH (P < 0.01. In conclusion, the protocol used for SARA induction was able to maintain ruminal pH between 5.5-6.0 for more than 48 hours. However, monensin and probiotics supplementation was not effective in preventing changes in ruminal and serum parameters during SARA.

  12. The Determination of Six Ionophore Coccidiostats in Feed by Liquid Chromatography with Postcolumn Derivatisation and Spectrofotometric/Fluorescence Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Olejnik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of levels of anticoccidial feed additives in targeted feeds plays an important role in the assurance of efficiency of animal treatment, prevention of drug resistance, and food safety. The robust and labour-efficient method for the simultaneous determination of six ionophore coccidiostats (lasalocid, maduramicin, monensin, narasin, salinomycin, and semduramicin in targeted feed has been developed. Properly grinded and homogenized feed sample was spiked with internal standard (monesin methyl ester and extracted with methanol. The extract was analysed with reversed phase HPLC without any further purification. The separation of the analytes with conventional C18 and core-shell columns was compared. Lasalocid was analysed with fluorescence detection, whereas other ionophores were detected with UV-Vis detector after derivatisation with vanillin in the presence of sulfuric acid. Fortified samples and targeted feeds at authorized levels were used for method validation. Recovery was in the range of 85–110%, depending on the analyte. The within-laboratory reproducibility did not exceed the target value from Horwitz equation. The results of the proficiency tests (z-scores in the range of −1.0 to 1.9 confirmed the reliability of the developed protocol.

  13. A field study on the effects of dietary monensin on milk production and milk composition in dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuc, Jocelyn; DuTremblay, Denis; Baril, Jean; Bagg, Randy; Brodeur, Marcel; Duffield, Todd; DesCôteaux, Luc

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to quantify the effect of 16 ppm of dietary monensin on milk production and composition of dairy cows, and to investigate factors having a potential impact on this effect. Data were generated from a total of 3577 Holstein dairy cows (47 herds) in Quebec enrolled in a herd-level, randomized clinical trial investigating the effects of monensin supplementation. Milk production and composition data were collected from monthly dairy herd improvement (DHI) testing. Monensin increased milk production by 0.9 kg/cow/d in cows under 150 days in milk (DIM) (P < 0.05). Monensin decreased milk fat percentage by 0.18 percentage points during the whole lactation (P < 0.05). This decreasing effect was larger for component-fed cows (P < 0.05) and for cows being fed low levels of dietary physically effective particles (P < 0.05) when compared respectively to cows fed total mixed ration and cows fed high levels of dietary physically effective particles. The results of this study suggest that monensin influences milk production and milk composition of dairy cows, and that diet composition and feeding system influence those effects. PMID:20592825

  14. Efeitos da monensina no desempenho de bezerras leiteiras em crescimento Effects of monensin on growing dairy heifers performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Saladini Vieira Salles

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudado o efeito da suplementação de monensina sobre o desempenho de 32 novilhas Holandesas em crescimento, com peso médio de 84 kg, durante quatro meses . Os animais suplementados com monensina apresentaram maior peso e perímetro torácico aos 90 e 120 dias de experimentação, maior ganho de peso, mostrando um valor de 26,56% maior do que os animais controle. Não foi observada diferença no comprimento corporal e glicose sangüínea, enquanto a altura na cernelha apresentou tendência a valores mais altos nos animais suplementados. Concluiu-se que a suplementação de monensina resultou em maior desenvolvimento dos animais, podendo proporcionar precocidade reprodutiva e produtiva de novilhas leiteiras de reposição.The performance of 32 growing Holstein heifers, with average weight of 84 kg and supplemented with monensin, during four months, was studied. The animals supplemented with monensin presented higher weight and hearth girth at 90 and 120 days of experiment, higher weight gain, with value of 26.56% superior than the control animals. No difference was observed for the corporal length, plasma glucose and the height values. The animals fed monensin presented higher height values. The animals supplemented with monensin showed better development. The use of monensin provided reproductive and productive precocity for the replacement dairy heifers.

  15. Effects of Prepartum Monensin Feeding on Energy Metabolism and Reproductive Performance of Postpartum High-Producing Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Changizi Mohammadi, Abbas Rowshan Ghasrodashti1, Amin Tamadon2,3 and Mohammad Amin Behzadi4*

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the effects of monensin in preparturient diet on postpartum milk production, energy metabolism, and reproductive performance of Holstein dairy cows. Forty Holstein dairy cows on close-up period were randomly divided into monensin treated (300 mg/day in close-up ration, top dress and control groups. Body condition score (BCS was estimated three weeks before and three weeks after calving. Milk production and milk fat percentage were recorded in both groups within 3 weeks postpartum. Blood samples were collected from five randomly selected cows of each group three weeks after calving. Serum concentrations of insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I, insulin, glucose, and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA were measured. Calving to the first observed estrus interval and calving to conception interval were compared between two groups. The results of the experiment showed that loss of BCS (P=0.3, increase of milk production (P=0.9, and milk fat percentage (P>0.05 were not significantly different between two groups during the period of study. In addition, mean serum glucose concentration (P=0.001 and serum insulin concentration (P=0.01 in monensin group were significantly higher than control cows in the first week postpartum. Moreover, serum BHBA concentration did not significantly change in monensin group. Serum IGF-I concentration in monensin group was significantly higher than control group in three weeks postpartum (P<0.01. The present study indicated that monensin treatment decreased calving to the first observed estrus interval (P=0.05 and calving to conception interval (P=0.002. In conclusion, supplementing the close-up ration can increase postpartum serum IGF-I concentration and prevent the increase of serum BHBA concentration. These may result in enhancement reproductive performance of high-producing dairy cows.

  16. Validation of a liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric method to determine six polyether ionophores in raw, UHT, pasteurized and powdered milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Mararlene Ulberg; Spisso, Bernardete Ferraz; Jacob, Silvana do Couto; Monteiro, Mychelle Alves; Ferreira, Rosana Gomes; Carlos, Betânia de Souza; da Nóbrega, Armi Wanderley

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to validate a method developed for the determination of six antibiotics from the polyether ionophore class (lasalocid, maduramicin, monensin, narasin, salinomycin and semduramicin) at residue levels in raw, UHT, pasteurized and powdered milk using QuEChERS extraction and high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The validation was conducted under an in-house laboratory protocol that is primarily based on 2002/657/EC Decision, but takes in account the variability of matrix sources. Overall recoveries between 93% and 113% with relative standard deviations up to 16% were obtained under intermediate precision conditions. CCα calculated values did not exceed 20% the Maximum Residue Limit for monensin and 25% the Maximum Levels for all other substances. The method showed to be simple, fast and suitable for verifying the compliance of raw and processed milk samples regarding the limits recommended by Codex Alimentarius and those adopted in European Community for polyether ionophores. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ingestive behavior of Nellore heifers grazing receiving the supplement based on propolis or monensin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Juliano Valério Geron

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of additives the basis of propolis and monensin on ingestive behavior (grazing – GRA, rumination lying – RLY, rumination in foot – RFO, rumination – RUM; idleness lying – ILY, idleness in standing – IDS, idleness – IDL, walking – WAL, posture standing – POS, posture lying – PLY, intake of supplement and water – ISW of heifers in Tifton 85 grazing. The treatments were: no additive (NAD; propolis – PRO (33.24 mg animal-1 of total flavonoid in apigenin, and monensin – MON (100 mg animal-1. Were used five heifers treatment-1 for evaluation of ingestive behavior during 12 hours of total valuation, which was divided into three periods. Used a factorial design into 3 x 3 for evaluation of ingestive behavior as a function of the evaluation periods. Were utilized three paddocks of 2.9 acres of grass Tifton 85. The additives and mineral supplement (50 g animal-1 were provided with 200 g of corn meal to 17 hours. For all activities of the ingestive behaviors observed the effect of period on the time spent on of different activities. The activities of GRA and ISW were higher in the third period (15hours to 19hours compared to the first period (7hours at 11hours. For IDL and PLY, there was a higher time in minutes for heifers treatment with PRO in the period of 7hours at 11hours, compared to other treatments (NAD and MON. Thus, it is concluded that the use of the additive based on propolis enables sodium monensin replacement, to heifers maintained on pasture without changing eating behavior as well as providing greater idleness during the day the without affecting animal performance.

  18. Biomimetic oxidation studies of monensin A catalyzed by metalloporphyrins: identification of hydroxyl derivative product by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José N. Sousa-Junior

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Monensin A is an important commercially available natural product isolated from Streptomyces cinnamonensins that shows antibiotic and anti-parasitic activities. This molecule has a significant influence in the antibiotic market, but until now there are no studies on putative metabolite formations. Bioorganic catalysts applying metalloporphyrins and mono-oxygen donors are able to mimic the cytochrome P450 reactions. This model has been employed for natural product metabolism studies affording several new putative metabolites and in vivo experiments confirming the relevance of this procedure. In this work we evaluated the potential of 10,15,20-tetrakis (pentafluorophenyl porphyrin metal(III chloride [Fe(TFPPCl] catalyst models to afford a putative monensin A metabolite. Oxidation agents such as meta-chloroperoxy benzoic acid, iodosylbenzene, hydrogen peroxide 30 wt.% and tert-butyl hydroperoxide 70 wt.%, were used to investigate different reaction conditions, in addition to the analysis of the influence of the solvent. The quantification of total monensin A conversion and the structure of the new hydroxylated putative metabolite were proposed based on electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry analysis. The porphyrin tested, afforded moderate conversions of monensin A in all reaction conditions and the selectivity was found to be dependent on the oxidation/medium employed.

  19. LEVAMISOLE TOXICOSIS IN BROILER CHICKS SUFFERING FROM SUBACUTE TOXICOSIS OF LEAD, SELENIUM OR MONENSIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Szarek, Muhammad Zargham Khan1 and Jerzy Szenfeld2

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Broiler chicks of 2 weeks of age were grouped and fed lead (1200 mg/kg feed, selenium (15 mg/kg feed, selenium plus vitamin E (15 + 200 mg/kg feed and monensin (240 mg/kg feed to induce subacute toxicosis. One group was kept on basal feed. After four weeks the first subgroup from each group was perorally given 250 mg levamisole/kg body mass, the second subgroup was subcutaneously administered 100 mg levamisole/kg body mass and the third subgroup was given no treatment. The oral administration of levamisole did not produce any clinical signs. The subcutaneous administration of levamisole resulted in shivering, partial or complete paralysis and death in different groups. The higher number of death and severe clinical signs following levamisole subcutaneous administration were observed in birds subacutely intoxicated with lead, selenium and monensin compared with control group. This observation suggests that subacute toxicosis of these substances may alter the clinical pattern of levamisole toxicosis.

  20. Metabolism of early-lactation dairy cows as affected by dietary starch and monensin supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M M; Yasui, T; Ryan, C M; Pelton, S H; Mechor, G D; Overton, T R

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary starch content and monensin (MON) on metabolism of dairy cows during early lactation. Before parturition, primiparous (n=21) and multiparous (n=49) Holstein cows were fed a common controlled-energy close-up diet with a daily topdress of either 0 or 400mg/d monensin. From d 1 to 21 postpartum, cows were fed a high-starch (HS; 26.2% starch, 34.3% neutral detergent fiber, 22.7% acid detergent fiber, 15.5% crude protein) or low-starch (LS; 21.5% starch, 36.9% neutral detergent fiber, 25.2% acid detergent fiber, 15.4% crude protein) total mixed ration with a daily topdress of either 0mg/d monensin (CON) or 450mg/d monensin (MON), continuing with prepartum topdress assignment. From d 22 through 63 postpartum, all cows were fed HS and continued with the assigned topdress treatment until d 63. Cows fed HS had higher plasma glucose and insulin and lower nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) than cows fed LS during d 1 to 21 postpartum. Cows fed LS had elevated early-lactation β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) compared with cows fed HS. Cows fed HS had greater insulin resistance and increased plasma haptoglobin in the early lactation period. There was no effect of MON on postpartum plasma NEFA. Cows fed MON had higher plasma glucose compared with CON cows, which was driven by a MON × parity interaction in which primiparous cows fed MON had greater plasma glucose concentrations than cows fed CON. Cows fed MON had lower plasma BHBA compared with CON, which was contributed to by a MON × parity interaction in which primiparous cows fed MON had lower BHBA concentrations than CON. Starch treatment had no effect on overall liver triglyceride content. Primiparous cows fed MON had increased liver triglyceride content compared with CON primiparous cows, and multiparous cows fed MON had decreased liver triglyceride content compared with CON cows. Multiparous cows fed LS with MON had higher liver glycogen content than multiparous

  1. Effects of haylage and monensin supplementation on performance, carcass characteristics, and ruminal metabolism of feedlot cattle fed diets containing 60% dried distillers grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, T L; Loerch, S C

    2011-08-01

    The objectives of this research were to determine the interaction of monensin and haylage supplementation for steers fed 60% dried distillers grains (DDGS) on 1) mineral status, performance, and carcass characteristics, and on 2) ruminal pH, H(2)S, and short-chain fatty acid concentrations. In Exp. 1, Angus-cross steers (n=168; BW=277 ± 67 kg) were blocked by BW and allotted in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to 24 pens. Dietary treatments were 1) 0 mg of monensin/kg of diet + 0% haylage, 2) 33 mg of monensin/kg of diet + 0% haylage, 3) 0 mg of monensin/kg of diet + 10% haylage, and 4) 33 mg of monensin/kg of diet + 10% haylage. The remainder of the diet was 60% DDGS, 10% corn silage, 15% supplement, and corn (either 5 or 15%) on a DM basis. When supplemented with 0 mg of monensin/kg of diet, added haylage increased ADG by 5.7%, whereas when supplemented with 33 mg of monensin/kg of diet, added haylage increased ADG by 13% (P haylage were observed for DMI or G:F (P ≥ 0.36). Haylage inclusion increased (P 0.05) on plasma mineral concentrations were observed; however, over time, plasma Cu concentrations decreased (P Haylage inclusion increased ruminal pH from 1.5 through 12 h postfeeding, and the effects of monensin supplementation were additive (P < 0.05). From 1.5 through 9 h postfeeding, steers fed 33 mg of monensin/kg of diet tended to have reduced (P ≤ 0.10) concentrations of H(2)S when compared with steers fed 0 mg of monensin/kg of diet. Acetate:propionate ratios at 6 h postfeeding were 0.94, 0.93, 1.29, and 1.35 for diets 1 to 4, respectively (P < 0.01); total lactate was decreased regardless of treatment (range: 0.94 to 1.42 µmol/mL). Sulfuric acid in DDGS, not ruminal short-chain fatty acids, may be responsible for the low rumen pH observed and may influence the maximum inclusion of DDGS in cattle diets. Monensin supplementation decreased H(2)S concentration and may decrease the risk of polioencephalomalacia for cattle fed high-DDGS diets

  2. Supplementation of monensin and Optimase to beef cows consuming low-quality forage during late gestation and early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linneen, S K; McGee, A L; Cole, J R; Jennings, J S; Stein, D R; Horn, G W; Lalman, D L

    2015-06-01

    Two experiments were designed to investigate the effects of feeding monensin and/or slow release urea with a fibrolytic feed enzyme (Optimase; Alltech, Inc., Nicholasville, KY) on performance, milk production, calf growth performance, and blood metabolites in beef cows. Spring-calving cows and heifers were used in a completely randomized design in Exp. 1 (N = 84; 534 ± 68 kg initial BW) and Exp. 2 (N = 107; 508 ± 72 kg initial BW). Exp. 1 supplements were formulated to meet cow protein requirements and fed daily and included 1) cottonseed meal with no monensin (control); or 2) monensin added to control to supply 200 mg per head per d (MON). In Exp. 2, experimental supplements included 1) cottonseed meal/wheat middlings (CS) fed at a rate to provide adequate DIP and CP according to , 2) the CS plus soybean hulls and 61 g per cow per d Optimase (OPT), 3) the CS plus monensin to supply 200 mg per cow per d (MON2), and 4) OPT plus MON2 (Combo). Cows were fed in last trimester through early lactation in Exp. 1 and during 2nd trimester in Exp. 2. Data were analyzed using the Mixed procedure in SAS with animal as the experimental unit. In Exp. 1, treatment did not affect cow BW or BCS change (P > 0.19). Calf birth BW was not affected by dam treatment (P = 0.24); however, calves from dams consuming MON weighed more (P Milk production did not significantly differ among treatments (P > 0.41). In Exp. 2, mean cow BW and BCS were similar (P > 0.35) among treatments on d 90. However, from d 0 to 54, cows assigned to the OPT supplement gained less BCS (P = 0.02) compared with cows assigned to the CS supplement. Cumulative BCS gain was greater (P calf performance during early lactation seems to be clearer. Replacing a portion of oilseed N in the supplement with Optimase may marginally reduce cow performance. Further research is needed to determine both the effects of monensin and the implications of combining monensin with Optimase on forage intake and cow performance at

  3. Effects of cadmium and monensin on renal and cardiac functions of mice subjected to subacute cadmium intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Juliana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is a well-known nephrotoxic agent. Cd-induced renal dysfunction has been considered as one of the causes leading to the development of hypertension. The correlation between Cd concentration in blood and urine and cardiovascular diseases has been discussed in many epidemiological studies. A therapy with chelating agents is utilized for the treatment of toxic metal intoxication. Herein we present novel information indicating that monensin (applied as tetraethylammonium salt is a promising chelating agent for the treatment of Cd-induced renal and cardiac dysfunction. The study was performed using the ICR mouse model. Adult ICR male mice were divided into three groups with six animals in each group: control (received distilled water and food ad libitum for 28 days; Cd-intoxicated (treated orally with 20 mg/kg b.w. Cd(II acetate from day 1 to day 14 of the experimental protocol, and monensin treated group (intoxicated with Cd(II acetate as described for the Cd-intoxicated group followed by oral treatment with 16 mg/kg b.w. tetraethylammonium salt of monensic acid for 2 weeks. Cd intoxication of the animals resulted in an increase of the organ weight/body weight indexes. Cd elevated significantly creatinine and glucose level in serum. Monensin treatment improved the organ weight/body weight ratios. The therapy of the Cd-intoxicated animals with monensin ameliorated the creatinine and glucose level in serum and decreased the concentration of the toxic metal ions in the heart and kidneys by 54 % and 64 %, respectively

  4. Efficacy of controlled-release capsules containing monensin for the prevention of subclinical ketosis in pasture-fed dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, C W R; Young, L; McDougall, S

    2015-09-01

    To determine the effectiveness of intra-rumenal controlled release capsules (CRC) containing 32 g of monensin administered pre-calving to reduce the cumulative incidence of subclinical ketosis (SCK) in mainly pasture-fed dairy cows. Cows (n=837) due to calve in the first 6 weeks of the spring calving period were enrolled from four commercial herds in the Waikato region of New Zealand in a blinded, randomised, negative-controlled field trial. Three weeks before the start of the calving period cows were randomly allocated to receive either no treatment (control) or a single CRC containing monensin and then blood sampled on two occasions, 7 days apart within 12 days following calving for measurement of concentrations of beta hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in blood. Cows were diagnosed with SCK if the concentration of BHBA in blood in either of these samples was ≥1.2 mmol/L. Fewer treated cows were diagnosed with SCK within 12 days post-calving than control cows (144/340 (42.4%) vs. 192/336 (57.1%); p10 days prior to calving reduced the cumulative incidence of SCK of pasture-based dairy cows in commercial dairy herds within 12 days post-calving. Administration pre-calving of an intra-rumenal bolus containing monensin can be considered as one of a range of management options for the control of SCK in early lactation.

  5. Effect of safflower oil, flaxseed oil, monensin, and vitamin E on concentration of conjugated linoleic acid in bovine milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J A; Griinari, J M; Kennelly, J J

    2006-02-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) refers to a mixture of conjugated octadecadienoic acids of predominantly ruminant origin. The main isomer in bovine milk fat is the cis-9, trans-11 CLA. Interest in CLA increased after the discovery of its health-promoting properties, including potent anticarcinogenic activity. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate dietary strategies aimed at increasing the concentration of CLA in bovine milk fat. Both experiments were organized as a randomized complete block design with a repeated measures treatment structure. In Experiment 1, 28 Holstein cows received either a control diet or one of 3 treatments for a period of 2 wk. The control diet consisted of 60% forage (barley silage, alfalfa silage, and alfalfa hay) and 40% concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis, fed as a total mixed ration (TMR). The concentrate was partially replaced in the treatment groups with 24 ppm of monensin (MON), 6% of DM safflower oil (SAFF), or 6% of DM safflower oil plus 24 ppm of monensin (SAFF/M). Average cis-9, trans-11 CLA levels in milk fat after 2 wk of feeding were 0.45, 0.52, 3.36, and 5.15% of total fatty acids for control, MON, SAFF, and SAFF/M, respectively. In Experiment 2, 62 Holstein cows received either a control diet or one of 5 treatment diets for a period of 9 wk. The control diet consisted of 60% forage (barley silage, alfalfa silage, and alfalfa hay) and 40% concentrate on a DM basis, fed as a TMR. The concentrate was partially replaced in the treatment groups with 6% of DM safflower oil (SAFF), 6% of DM safflower oil plus 150 IU of vitamin E/kg of DM (SAFF/E), 6% of DM safflower oil plus 24 ppm of monensin (SAFF/M), 6% of DM safflower oil plus 24 ppm of monensin plus 150 IU of vitamin E/kg of DM (SAFF/ME), or 6% of DM flaxseed oil plus 150 IU of vitamin E/kg of DM (FLAX/E). Average cis-9, trans-11 CLA levels during the treatment period were 0.68, 4.12, 3.48, 4.55, 4.75, and 2.80% of total fatty acids for control, SAFF, SAFF/E, SAFF

  6. The effect of commonly used anticoccidials and antibiotics in a subclinical necrotic enteritis model

    OpenAIRE

    Lanckriet , Anouk; Timbermont , Leen; De Gussem , Maarten; Marien , Maja; Vancraeynest , Dieter; Haesebrouck , Freddy; Ducatelle , Richard; Van Immerseel , Filip

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Necrotic enteritis poses an important health risk to broilers. The ionophore anticoccidials lasalocid, salinomycin, maduramicin, narasin and a combination of narasin and nicarbazin were tested in feed for their prophylactic effect on the incidence of necrotic enteritis in a subclinical experimental infection model that uses coccidia as predisposing factor. In addition, drinking water medication with the antibiotics amoxicillin, tylosin and lincomycin was evaluated as curat...

  7. Relationship Between Broiler Body Weights, Eimeria maxima Gross Lesion Scores, and Microscores in Three Anticoccidial Sensitivity Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Miguel A; Da Costa, Manuel; Kimminau, Emily; Fuller, Lorraine; Clark, Steven; Pesti, Gene; Beckstead, Robert

    2017-06-01

    Anticoccidial sensitivity tests (ASTs) serve to determine the efficacy of anticoccidial drugs against Eimeria field isolates in a controlled laboratory setting. The most commonly measured parameters are body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, gross intestinal lesion scores, and mortality. Due to the difficulty in reliably scoring gross lesion scores of Eimeria maxima , microscopic analysis of intestinal scrapings (microscores) can be used in the field to indicate the presence of this particular Eimeria. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between E. maxima microscores and broiler body weights and gross E. maxima lesion scores in three ASTs. Day-old broiler chicks were raised for 12 days on a standard corn-soy diet. On Day 12, chicks were placed in Petersime batteries and treatment diets were provided. There were six birds per pen, four pens per treatment, and 12 treatments, for a total of 288 chicks per AST. The treatments were as follows: 1) nonmedicated, noninfected; 2) nonmedicated, infected; 3) lasalocid, infected; 4) salinomycin, infected; 5) diclazuril, infected; 6) monensin, infected; 7) decoquinate, infected; 8) narasin + nicarbazin, infected; 9) narasin, infected; 10) nicarbazin, infected; 11) robenidine, infected; and 12) zoalene, infected. On Day 14, chicks were challenged with an Eimeria field isolate by oral gavage. On Day 20, broilers were weighed, and gross lesion scores and microscores were classified from 0 to 4 depending on the severity of the gross lesion scores and E. maxima microscores. Data from three trials using different field isolates were statistically analyzed using a logarithmic regression model. There was no relationship (P = 0.1224) between microscores and body weight gain. There was a positive relationship between microscores and gross lesion scores (P = 0.004). However, there was also an interaction between isolate and treatment (P Eimeria or the amount of E. maxima in the inoculum.

  8. Effect of supplementing a diet with monensin sodium and Saccharomyces Cerevisiae on reproductive performance of Ghezel ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadzadeh, Leila; Hosseinkhani, Ali; Daghigh Kia, Hossein

    2018-01-01

    Effect of supplementing a diet, in an attempt to enhance reproduction, with monensin sodium and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast on reproductive performance was investigated during the breeding season using 44 Ghezel ewes (body weight 56.97±7.47kg, age 2-5 years and body condition score (BCS) 2.5) which were allocated randomly in equal numbers to the four dietary treatments as follows: 1) Basal diet plus supplemental feed (450g/ewe/d) plus monensin sodium (30mg/ewe/d) (MS); 2) Basal diet plus supplemental feed (450 g/ewe/d) plus Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (4×10 9 CFU/ewe/d) (SC); 3) Basal diet plus supplemental feed (450g/ewe/d) (FG); 4) Basal diet (only grazing on pasture, Control; G). Estrous synchronization of all ewes was done using controlled internal drug release (CIDR) and all ewes were mated with purebred Ghezel rams after CIDR removal. The results indicated that MS and SC treatments with 15 lambs had greater number of lambs than ewes of the other two treatment groups. Ewes in MS group with 50% twining rate had the greatest value followed by the FG, SC and G treatment groups (Pewes in MS and SC groups were heavier in weight than those in FG and G treatments (Pewes in MS and SC groups had greater concentrations of 17β-estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), blood urea nitrogen (Pewes of the other groups. These results indicated that using a diet for enhancing reproduction, including monensin sodium and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast in the breeding season could have beneficial effects on reproductive performance of Ghezel ewes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Behavior patterns of cows with Charolais or Nellore breed predominance fed diets with plant extract or monensin sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Rumpel Segabinazzi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the ingestive behavior of feedlot cows fed additives based on plant extracts or monensin sodium. Twenty-four Charolais and Nellore crossbred cows with age and average initial weight of 7 years and 423 kg, respectively, were used. The experimental diets were plant extracts: basal diet + 5 g/animal/day of a natural additive composed of 750 mg of essential oil of thyme (Thymus vulgaris, 150 mg of garlic (Allium sativum, 250 mg of rosemary extract (Rosmarimus officinalis, 250 mg of canola oil (Brassica napus, 250 mg extract of quillaja (Quillaja saponaria, and 3350 mg of corn starch; sodium monensin: basal diet + 300 mg/monensin/animal/day; and control: basal diet without additive. The basal diet contained sorghum silage and concentrate in a 62:38 ratio. The experimental design was completely randomized with a 3 × 2 (3 diets and 2 breed predominances factorial arrangement, and means were compared using DMS test at 5% of significance. The type of additive consumed did not alter animal feeding behavior. Cows with Charolais predominance consumed more dry matter (13.78 vs. 12.38 kg/day and neutral detergent fiber (7.81 vs. 6.89 kg/day, ruminated for longer (8.47 vs. 7.82 h, spent more time chewing (13.05 vs 12.01 h, had a greater number of chews per minute (58.88 vs 53.21 and a greater number of ruminal bolus (541.43 vs. 464.09 boluses/day; however, cows with Nellore predominance had greater idling time (11.82 vs. 10.74 h.

  10. The Effect of Monensin or Protexin on Gas Production Parameters of Alfalfa and Barley in the Ruminal Fungi Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saeid sobhanirad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Since the legislation of European Union has prohibited the use of growth-promoting antibiotics such as: monensin, there is an interest in alternatives to manipulate the rumen fermentation. The use of growth-promoting antibiotics in animal feeds is banned in Europe due to having potential risks such as the spread of antibiotic resistance genes or the contamination of milk or meat with antibiotic residues. Recently, probiotics have been increasingly evaluated to replace or facilitate reductions in the use of antibiotics. Thus, the aim of this study was investigating the comparison of antibiotic (sodium monensin and probiotic (protexin on the gas production parameters and organic matter digestibility of feedstuffs (alfalfa hay, barley grain, and alfalfa+ barley mixture Materials and Methods Experimental treatments were included control (basal feeds without additive, basal feeds supplemented with sodium monensin or protexin probiotic at levels of 500 or 1000 mg per kg of DM in a rumen fungi culture. Ruminal fluid was collected from two fistulated sheep (49.5±2.5 kg and all samples were withdrawn 2 h after the morning ration had been consumed. Collected ruminal contents were strained through four layers of cheesecloth and brought immediately to the laboratory. To have a pure ruminal fungi culture, whole ruminal fluid was centrifuged at 1000 g for 10 min and added 0.100 mg/ml antibacterial agent (streptomycin sulfate, penicillin G, and chloramphenicol (14, 35. Gas production technique was used to detect the fermentation parameters of the treatments (16.Three parallel syringes of each treatment were prepared in this experiment. To measure the total gas production (A and the rate of gas production (c, cumulative gas production, organic digestibility and metabolizable energy of treatments until 120 h. Gas production was measured directly from the volume of the syringes at 0, 3, 6, 16, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h. Statistical analysis of data

  11. The activity and compatibility of the antibiotic tiamulin with other drugs in poultry medicine--A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, K M S; Klein, U; Burch, D G S

    2009-11-01

    Tiamulin hydrogen fumarate is a semisynthetic derivative of the diterpene antibiotic pleuromutilin used in poultry medicine to treat mainly Mycoplasma- and Brachyspira-related diseases. Its use over 30 yr has not generally increased the development of resistance to these pathogens but occasionally resistant isolates are encountered. Tiamulin administered at therapeutic levels is relatively quickly absorbed, metabolized in the liver, and eliminated from the body of the bird after a withdrawal period of 72 h, and as a result, meat products can be safely consumed. A zero withdrawal period for eggs has been granted in several European Union states. When administered with different drugs, tiamulin has been shown to have an enhanced activity with the tetracyclines. There is a strong interaction, even death, with the ionophore anticoccidials monensin, narasin, and salinomycin when tiamulin is used at therapeutic levels, but this is dose-related and low doses do not interact. It is thought to be caused by the preferential metabolism of tiamulin in the liver resulting in a build up of the ionophore leading to clinical signs of overdosage. Tiamulin shows a milder interaction, such as temporary growth depression, with maduramicin and semduramicin but is compatible with lasalocid. Although tiamulin shows small benefits in improving performance in healthy animals, its main production benefit is in the face of infection, as a true therapeutic antibiotic.

  12. Magnetic solid-phase extraction based on carbon nanotubes for the determination of polyether antibiotic and s-triazine drug residues in animal food with LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoxing; Xie, Shuyu; Ni, Tengteng; Chen, Dongmei; Wang, Xu; Pan, Yuanhu; Wang, Yulian; Huang, Lingli; Cheng, Guyue; Qu, Wei; Liu, Zhenli; Tao, Yanfei; Yuan, Zonghui

    2017-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes-magnetic nanoparticles, comprising ferroferric oxide nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes, were prepared through a simple one-step synthesis method and subsequently applied to magnetic solid-phase extraction for the determination of polyether antibiotic and s-triazine drug residues in animal food coupled with liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and vibrating sample magnetometry. The components within the nanocomposites endowed the material with high extraction performance and manipulative convenience. Compared with carbon nanotubes, the as-prepared carbon nanotubes-magnetic nanoparticles showed better extraction and separation efficiencies for polyether antibiotics and s-triazine drugs thanks to the contribution of the iron-containing magnetic nanoparticles. Various experimental parameters affecting the extraction efficiency had been investigated in detail. Under the optimal conditions, the good linearity ranging from 1 to 200 μg/kg for diclazuril, toltrazuril, toltrazuril sulfone, lasalocid, monensin, salinomycin, narasin, nanchangmycin, and maduramicin, low limits of detection ranging from 1 to 5 μg/kg, and satisfactory spiked recoveries (77.1-91.2%, with the inter relative standard deviation values from 4.0 to 12.2%) were shown. It was confirmed that this novel method was an efficient pretreatment and enrichment procedure and could be successfully applied for extraction and determination of polyether and s-triazine drug residues in complex matrices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Determination of six polyether antibiotic residues in foods of animal origin by solid phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jing; Song, Ge; Ai, Lian-Feng; Li, Jian-Chen

    2016-04-01

    A new method using solid phase extraction (SPE) combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed for the determination of six polyether antibiotics, including lasalocid, salinomycin, monensin, narasin, madubamycin and nigericin residues, in foods of animal origin. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile and purified by ENVI-Carb SPE columns after comparing the impurity effect and maneuverability of several SPE cartridges. Subsequently, the analytes were separated on a Hypersil Gold column (2.1×150mm, 5μm) and analyzed by MS/MS detection. The limit of quantization (LOQ) for milk and chicken was 0.4μg/kg, and for chicken livers and eggs, it was 1μg/kg. The linearity was satisfactory with a correlation coefficient of >0.9995 at concentrations ranging from 2 to 100μg/L. The average recoveries of the analytes fortified at three levels ranged from 68.2 to 114.3%, and the relative standard deviations ranged from 4.5 to 12.1%. The method was suitable for quantitative analysis and confirmation of polyether antibiotic residues in foods of animal origin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens strains from broiler chickens to antibiotics and anticoccidials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, A; Devriese, L A; Cauwerts, K; De Gussem, K; Decostere, A; Haesebrouck, F

    2004-02-01

    Clostridium perfringens strains isolated in 2002 from the intestines of broiler chickens from 31 different farms located in Belgium were tested for susceptibility to 12 antibiotics used for therapy, growth promotion or prevention of coccidiosis. All strains were uniformly sensitive to the ionophore antibiotics monensin, lasalocid, salinomycin, maduramycin and narasin. All were sensitive to avilamycin, tylosin and amoxicillin, while flavomycin (bambermycin) showed low or no activity. Chlortetracycline and oxytetracycline were active at very low concentrations, but low-level acquired resistance was detected in 66% of the strains investigated. Fifty percent of these strains carried the tetP(B) resistance gene, while the tet(Q) gene was detected in only one strain. One strain with high-level resistance against tetracyclines carried the tet(M) gene. Sixty-three percent of the strains showed low-level resistance to lincomycin. The lnu(A) and lnu(B) genes were each only found in one strain. Compared with a similar investigation carried out in 1980, an increase was seen in resistance percentages with lincomycin (63% against 49%) and a slight decrease with tetracycline (66% against 74%).

  15. An integrated sample preparation to determine coccidiostats and emerging Fusarium-mycotoxins in various poultry tissues with LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jestoi, Marika; Rokka, Mervi; Peltonen, Kimmo

    2007-05-01

    The usefulness of an existing sample preparation technique used for ionophoric coccidiostats (lasalocid, monensin, salinomycin and narasin) was applied in the analysis of emerging Fusarium-mycotoxins beauvericin (BEA) and enniatins (ENNs) in poultry tissues (liver and meat). Also, maduramicin and liver as a new sample matrix was introduced. The developed methods were validated and applied for the determination of coccidiostats and BEA/ENNs in Finnish poultry tissues in 2004-2005. The validation parameters demonstrated that the integrated sample preparation technique is applicable to the parallel determination of these contaminants in poultry tissues. Of the samples analysed (276 meat and 43 liver), only trace levels of LAS, MON, SAL, NAR and MAD were detected in 7, 3, 5, 6 and 4% of the samples, respectively. Interestingly, for the first time, traces of BEA and ENNs could also be detected in animal tissues. BEA and ENNs A, A1, B and B1 were found in 2, 0.3, 0.6, 4 and 3% of the samples, respectively. The simultaneous presence of coccidiostats and mycotoxins was detected in three turkey samples in 2004.

  16. [The effect of monensin, tiamulin and the simultaneous administration of both substances on the microsomal mixed function oxidases and on the peroxide formation in broilers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laczay, P; Simon, F; Lehel, J

    1990-09-01

    The influence of Monensin, Tiamulin and the simultaneous administration of the two substances on the microsomal, mixed function oxidases was studied on cockerels. Monensin was seen to cause a slight depression in the amount of cytochrome P-450 and cytochrome b5 as well as in the activities of aniline-p-hydroxylase, p-nitrophenol-hydroxylase and p-nitroanisole-O-demethylase. Tiamulin induced a moderate increase in the amount of cytochrome P-450 and in the activities of aniline-p-hydroxylase, p-nitrophenol-hydroxylase and aminopyrine-N-demethylase. The combined administration of monensin and tiamulin resulted in marked induction of the microsomal enzymes; the amount of cytochrome P-450 reduced by metyrapone or carbon monoxide increased 2.5 or 2-times, respectively, and the activities of the tested microsomal hydroxylases and demethylases showed also an expressed increase. At the same time the formation of lipid peroxides also markedly increased and the GSH concentration was reduced. In conclusion, the results of the investigations indicate that the simultaneous application of monensin and tiamulin cause a marked induction of the drug-metabolizing microsomal enzymes and a significant increase in the lipid peroxide formation.

  17. Effect of monensin withdrawal on intake, digestion, and ruminal fermentation parameters by Bos taurus indicus and Bos taurus taurus steers consuming bermudagrass hay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of monensin withdrawal and cattle subspecies on the utilization of bermudagrass hay (14.3% CP, 72.3% NDF, and 36.9% ADF) were evaluated using ruminally cannulated steers (5 Bos Taurus indicus [BI] and 5 Bos taurus taurus [BT]). Subspecies were concurrently subjected to a 2-period, 2-treatme...

  18. Effect of monensin inclusion on intake, digestion, and ruminal fermentation parameters by Bos taurus indicus and Bos taurus taurus steers consuming bermudagrass hay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of monensin inclusion and cattle subspecies on utilization of bermudagrass hay (13.7% CP, 77.3% NDF, and 38.8% ADF) were evaluated using ruminally cannulated steers (5 Bos taurus indicus [BI] and 5 Bos taurus taurus [BT]; 398 kg BW). Subspecies were concurrently subjected to a 2-period, 2-t...

  19. The effects of increasing garlic powder and monensin supplementation on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth performance and blood parameters of growing calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholipour, A; Foroozandeh Shahraki, A D; Tabeidian, S A; Nasrollahi, S M; Yang, W Z

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of increasing garlic powder and monensin supplementation on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth performance and blood metabolites of growing calves. Forty Holstein calves (BW = 100 ± 11 kg) were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (n = 10) in a complete randomized design. Experimental treatments consisted of the following: (i) basal diet (control), (ii) basal diet supplemented with 0.0003% of dietary dry matter (DM) sodium monensin, (iii) low level of garlic powder (Low-GAR; 0.5% of dietary DM) and (iv) high level of garlic powder (High-GAR; 1% of dietary DM). DM intake (DMI) and DM digestibility were (p calves supplemented with Low-GAR had a similar DMI to the control calves and similar DM digestibility to the control and monensin groups. The digestibility of other nutrients were not affected by the treatments. Although supplementing monensin relative to Low-GAR increased the DMI (p calves, which were higher than the control and High-GAR groups (p feed conversion ratio was improved in the Low-GAR group versus other treatment groups (p calves fed the Low-GAR showed an improved FCR and blood metabolites without changing the DMI and nutrient digestibility. It suggests that garlic powder could be used as an alternative to monensin for growing calves under the current feeding conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Risk assessment of coccidostatics during feed cross-contamination: Animal and human health aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorne, J.L.C.M.; Fernández-Cruz, M.L.; Bertelsen, U.; Renshaw, D.W.; Peltonen, K.; Anadon, A.; Feil, A.; Sanders, P.; Wester, P.; Fink-Gremmels, J.

    2013-01-01

    Coccidiosis, an intestinal plasmodium infection, is a major infectious disease in poultry and rabbits. Eleven different coccidiostats are licensed in the EU for the prevention of coccidiosis in these animal species. According to their chemical nature and main biological activity, these compounds can be grouped as ionophoric (monensin, lasalocid sodium, salinomycin, narasin, maduramicin and semduramicin) or non-ionophoric (robenidine, decoquinate, nicarbazin, diclazuril, and halofuginone) substances. Coccidiostats are used as feed additives, mixed upon request into the compounded feed. During the technical process of commercial feed production, cross-contamination of feed batches can result in the exposure of non-target animals and induce adverse health effects in these animals due to a specific sensitivity of mammalian species as compared to poultry. Residue formation in edible tissues of non-target species may result in unexpected human exposure through the consumption of animal products. This review presents recent risk assessments performed by the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The health risk to non-target species that would result from the consumption of cross-contaminated feed with coccidostats at levels of 2, 5 or 10% was found to be negligible for most animal species with the exception of salinomycin and monensin in horses because of the particular sensitivity for which toxicity may occur when cross-contamination exceeds 2% and 5% respectively. Kinetic data and tissue analyses showed that residues of coccidiostats may occur in the liver and eggs in some cases. However, the level of residues of each coccidiostat in edible animal tissues remained sufficiently low that the aggregate exposure of consumers would not exceed the established acceptable daily intake (ADI) of each coccidiostat. It could be concluded that technical cross-contamination of animal feeds would not be expected to

  1. Risk assessment of coccidostatics during feed cross-contamination: Animal and human health aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorne, J.L.C.M., E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [European Food Safety Authority, Unit on Contaminants in the Food Chain, Parma (Italy); Fernández-Cruz, M.L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria, Madrid (Spain); Bertelsen, U. [European Food Safety Authority, Unit on Contaminants in the Food Chain, Parma (Italy); Renshaw, D.W. [Food Standards Agency, London (United Kingdom); Peltonen, K. [Finnish Food Safety Authority, EVIRA, Helsinki (Finland); Anadon, A. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Veterinaria, Madrid (Spain); Feil, A. [ForschungsinstitutFuttermitteltechnik, Braunschweig (Germany); Sanders, P. [AFSSA, LERMVD, Fougères (France); Wester, P. [RIVM, Food and Consumer Safety, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Fink-Gremmels, J. [Utrecht University, Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-08-01

    Coccidiosis, an intestinal plasmodium infection, is a major infectious disease in poultry and rabbits. Eleven different coccidiostats are licensed in the EU for the prevention of coccidiosis in these animal species. According to their chemical nature and main biological activity, these compounds can be grouped as ionophoric (monensin, lasalocid sodium, salinomycin, narasin, maduramicin and semduramicin) or non-ionophoric (robenidine, decoquinate, nicarbazin, diclazuril, and halofuginone) substances. Coccidiostats are used as feed additives, mixed upon request into the compounded feed. During the technical process of commercial feed production, cross-contamination of feed batches can result in the exposure of non-target animals and induce adverse health effects in these animals due to a specific sensitivity of mammalian species as compared to poultry. Residue formation in edible tissues of non-target species may result in unexpected human exposure through the consumption of animal products. This review presents recent risk assessments performed by the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The health risk to non-target species that would result from the consumption of cross-contaminated feed with coccidostats at levels of 2, 5 or 10% was found to be negligible for most animal species with the exception of salinomycin and monensin in horses because of the particular sensitivity for which toxicity may occur when cross-contamination exceeds 2% and 5% respectively. Kinetic data and tissue analyses showed that residues of coccidiostats may occur in the liver and eggs in some cases. However, the level of residues of each coccidiostat in edible animal tissues remained sufficiently low that the aggregate exposure of consumers would not exceed the established acceptable daily intake (ADI) of each coccidiostat. It could be concluded that technical cross-contamination of animal feeds would not be expected to

  2. The effect of nitrate and monensin on in vitro ruminal fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelari, M; Powers, W

    2017-11-01

    Two experiments evaluated the effect of calcium ammonium nitrate decahydrate (calcium nitrate [NIT]) and monensin sodium (MON) on in vitro fermentation parameters of 2 contrasting diets (100:0 and 10:90 forage-to-concentrate ratios). Diet addition of NIT (0, 1.25, and 2.5 g/100 g DM) and MON (0, 3, and 6 mg/L) were tested alone and combined (9 treatments total; 5 bottles per treatment). Mixed ruminal microorganisms were incubated in anaerobic media containing 0.5 g of substrate diet, 1 of 9 treatments, and 40 mL buffer solution. Incubations were performed in batch cultures for 48 h at 39°C. Headspace gas volume was measured and sampled at 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h, and the VFA profile was assessed at the end of the experiment. Total gas production was reduced by NIT (87.9 vs. 94.6 mL; 0.10), but molar proportions of acetate and butyrate were reduced by MON ( molar proportion was increased in both experiments by MON ( < 0.01) and further increased in Exp. 2 when the additives were combined at lower doses ( < 0.01). Compared to the control treatment, the acetate:propionate (A:P) ratio was reduced by MON in Exp. 1(1.2 vs. 2.8; < 0.01) and Exp. 2 (1.0 vs. 2.3; < 0.01). Fermentation efficiency (%) was increased by MON (81.7 vs. 73.7%; < 0.01) and further increased in Exp. 2 when the additives were combined at lower doses (87.2 vs. 76.6%; < 0.01). The combination of NIT and MON in 2 contrasting diets proved beneficial by altering fermentation products toward lower CH and more propionate; however, the addition of NIT consistently increased NO production. Negative effects of the additives on IVDMD were found only when the additives were combined at higher doses.

  3. The effect of commonly used anticoccidials and antibiotics in a subclinical necrotic enteritis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanckriet, A; Timbermont, L; De Gussem, M; Marien, M; Vancraeynest, D; Haesebrouck, F; Ducatelle, R; Van Immerseel, F

    2010-02-01

    Necrotic enteritis poses an important health risk to broilers. The ionophore anticoccidials lasalocid, salinomycin, maduramicin, narasin and a combination of narasin and nicarbazin were tested in feed for their prophylactic effect on the incidence of necrotic enteritis in a subclinical experimental infection model that uses coccidia as a predisposing factor. In addition, drinking water medication with the antibiotics amoxicillin, tylosin and lincomycin was evaluated as curative treatment in the same experimental model. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of all antibiotics and anticoccidials were determined in vitro against 51 Clostridium perfringens strains isolated from broilers. The strains examined appeared uniformly susceptible to lasalocid, maduramicin, narasin, salinomycin, amoxicillin and tylosin, whereas an extended frequency distribution range of MICs for lincomycin was seen, indicating acquired resistance in 36 isolates in the higher range of MICs. Nicarbazin did not inhibit the in vitro growth of the C. perfringens strains even at a concentration of 128 microg/ml. Supplementation of the diet from day 1 onwards with lasalocid, salinomycin, narasin or maduramicin led to a reduction in birds with necrotic enteritis lesions as compared with the non-medicated infected control group. A combination product of narasin and nicarbazin had no significant protective effect. Treatment with amoxicillin, lincomycin and tylosin completely stopped the development of necrotic lesions.

  4. Metabolic assessment of the use of probiotic or monensin in lambs kept in semi-confined conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Coitinho Tabeleão

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify probiotics and monensin effects on metabolic parameters in weaning lambs. In the experiment 1, thirty lambs divided in three groups were fed during 6 weeks. The lambs were enrolled in one of the following treatments: GC1: as a control, GB1: Bacillus cereus var. toyoi (1x106 spores/g and GS1: Saccharomyces boulardii (1x106 viable cells/g. In the experiment 2, thirty lambs divided in three groups were fed during 8 weeks. The treatments consisted in GC2: as a control, GM2: monensin (500g/t and GS2: Saccharomyces boulardii (1x106viable cells/g. In both experiments blood samples were collected weekly aiming to measure metabolic parameters as glucose, triacylglycerol (TAG, cholesterol, albumin, urea, aspartate amino transferase (AST, creatinine kinase (CK and gamma glutamil transferase (GGT. The results from experiment 1 demonstrated that GS1 had greater (P<0.05 concentrations of albumin and urea during the adaptation period. In the postadaption period the GC1 demonstrated increased (P<0.05 concentrations of cholesterol, albumin and AST activity, in contrast, reduced (P<0.05 concentrations of glucose, urea and CK in comparison to GS1. However, during experiment two throughout the adaptation period the GS2 had greater (P<0.05 concentrations for albumin and urea. The GM2 had greater (P<0.05 concentrations for TAG and lower (P<0.05 for glucose and CK activity. During the post-adaption period the GS2 showed the lowest (P<0.05 concentrations for cholesterol and GGT activity, GC2 had greater (P<0.05 levels of albumin and AST activity as well as lower concentrations for urea. The GM2 had greater levels for GGT activity and lower levels for CK activity. Therefore, it is concluded that protein metabolism in lambs has better performance when Saccharomyces boulardii is added in the ration during the adaptation period. However, during post-adaptation period, monensin is more beneficial for the protein metabolism, once it

  5. One-pot synthesis and antiproliferative activity of novel double-modified derivatives of the polyether ionophore monensin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klejborowska, Greta; Maj, Ewa; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Stefańska, Joanna; Huczyński, Adam

    2018-05-02

    Monensin A (MON) is a polyether ionophore antibiotic, which shows a wide spectrum of biological activity. New MON derivatives such as double-modified ester-carbonates and double-modified amide-carbonates were obtained by a new and efficient one-pot synthesis with triphosgene as the activating reagent and the respective alcohol or amine. All new derivatives were tested for their antiproliferative activity against two drug-sensitive (MES-SA, LoVo) and two drug-resistant (MES-SA/DX5, LoVo/DX) cancer cell lines, and were also studied for their antimicrobial activity against different Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis bacterial strains. For the first time, the activity of MON and its derivatives against MES-SA and MES-SA/DX5 were evaluated. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. The effect of diet supplemented with vegetable oils and/or monensin on the vaccenic acid production in continuous culture fermenters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Sayed A. Khattab

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that supplementing ruminant diets with vegetable oils modulated the rumen biohydrogenation and increased polyunsaturated fatty acid in their products. These positive values are often accompanied by a marginal loss of supplemented unsaturated fatty acids and rise in the concentrations of saturated fatty acids. This study were carried out mainly to investigate the effect of supplementing diets with sunflower oil, olive oil with or without monensin on the production and accumulation of vaccenic acid (VA in continuous culture fermenters as a long term in vitro rumen simulation technique. Eight dual-flow continuous culture fermenters were used in an 8 replication experiment lasted 10 days each (first 7 days for adaptation and last 3 days for samples collection. Supplementing diets with plant oils and monensin in the present experiment increased VA and conjugated linoleic acids (P > 0.05 in ruminal cultures. The results suggest that supplementing diets with both olive oil and sunflower oil and monensin increased VA accumulation compared to plant oils supplemented alone without affecting the rumen dry matter and organic matter digestibility.

  7. L’utilisation du prémélange de monensin chez les vaches laitières : un suivi simple et essentiel pour s’assurer d’une utilisation adéquate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuc, Jocelyn; Baril, Jean; DesCôteaux, Luc

    2009-01-01

    Le prémélange de monensin est utilisé fréquemment sur les fermes laitières canadiennes. L’ingrédient actif de ce produit est le monensin sodique. Bien que son utilisation chez les vaches laitières soit sécuritaire, des cas de surdose ont été rapportés à la suite de consommation de niveaux de monensin plus élevés que ceux recommandés. Un suivi hebdomadaire du pourcentage de matières grasses du réservoir de lait de la ferme devrait être fait de routine suite à la livraison d’aliment médicamenteux contenant du monensin pour détecter rapidement les situations de surdose. L’observation d’une baisse soudaine de la consommation volontaire de matière sèche et l’apparition de diarrhée dans un troupeau sont d’autres signes cliniques de surdose de monensin. Une détection rapide de ces cas permettra de corriger la situation. PMID:19721781

  8. Effect of anaerobic digestion temperature on odour, coliforms and chlortetracycline in swine manure or monensin in cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varel, V H; Wells, J E; Shelver, W L; Rice, C P; Armstrong, D L; Parker, D B

    2012-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of anaerobic digestion at 22, 38 and 55°C on odour, coliforms and chlortetracycline (CTC) in swine manure or monensin (MON) in cattle manure. Swine or cattle were fed the respective growth promotant, manure was collected, and 2-l laboratory methane digesters were established at the various temperatures and sampled over 25 or 28 days. After 21 days, the concentration of CTC in the 22, 38 and 55°C swine digester slurries decreased 7, 80 and 98%, respectively. Coliforms in the 22°C digester slurries were still viable after 25 days; however, they were not detectable in the 38 and 55°C slurries after 3 and 1 days, respectively. After 28 days, the concentration of MON in the 22, 38 and 55°C cattle digester slurries decreased 3, 8 and 27%, respectively. Coliforms in the 22°C cattle digester slurries were still viable after 28 days; however, they were not detectable in the 38 and 55°C slurries after 14 and 1 days, respectively. These studies indicate that anaerobic digestion at 38 or 55°C may be an effective treatment to reduce coliforms and CTC; however, it is not an effective treatment to reduce MON. More studies are needed to determine which pharmaceuticals are susceptible to degradation by a specific manure treatment to prevent negative environmental consequences. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Intoxicação experimental por monensina em búfalos e bovinos Experimental monensin poisoning in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis and cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela B. Rozza

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Sinais clínicos e lesões característicos de intoxicação por monensina foram induzidos em búfalos dosados (1 dia com 15, 10, 7,5 e 5mg/kg de monensina. Apenas os búfalos dosados com 2,5 (1 dia e 1 mg/kg (7 dias de monensina não morreram. Os sinais clínicos iniciaram cerca de 6 h após dosagem com monensina e incluíram apatia, anorexia, diarréia, sialorréia, fraqueza muscular, taquicardia, dificuldade locomotora, dispnéia, distensão da jugular, decúbito e morte. As dosagens de creatinina quinase (CK dos búfalos aumentaram acentuadamente após dosagem com monensina. As alterações macroscópicas foram ascite, hidrotórax, hidropericárdio, cardiomegalia, hepatomegalia e áreas pálidas focais no miocárdio e nos músculos esqueléticos. Degeneração e necrose de miofibras foram os principais achados histopatológicos. Por outro lado, nenhuma evidência de doença, nem mesmo alteração nos níveis de CK, foram observados nos bovinos dosados com as mesmas dosagens de monensina, confirmando observações preliminares que esses animais são mais resistentes à monensina que os búfalos.Monensin is widely used as a feed additive to improve performance of livestock; however accidental poisoning by this ionophore compound has been reported in a number of animal species. Typical clinical signs and lesions of monensin poisoning were induced in water buffaloes dosed with single dosages of 15, 10, 7.5, and 5mg/kg of the compound. Only buffaloes dosed with 2.5 mg/kg (1 day and 1mg/kg (7 days survived. Clinical signs initiated about 6 h post-dosing and included apathy, anorexia, diarrhea, drooling, muscular weakness, locomotion disorders, dyspnea, tachycardia, jugular distension and pulse, recumbency and death. The creatine kinase (CK levels were highly augmented in blood samples of buffaloes dosed with monensin. Most prominent gross changes were ascites, hydrothorax, hydropericardium, cardiomegaly, hepatomegaly, and focal pale areas in the

  10. 21 CFR 558.363 - Narasin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ration. Do not feed to laying hens. Do not allow adult turkeys, horses, or other equines access to.... Feed continuously as sole ration. Withdraw 5 days before slaughter. Do not feed to laying hens. Use as.... Feed continuously as sole ration. Do not feed to laying hens. Do not allow adult turkeys, horses, or...

  11. Effects of different levels of lespedeza and supplementation with monensin, coconut oil, or soybean oil on ruminal methane emission by mature Boer goat wethers after different lengths of feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mature Boer goat wethers were supplemented with 0.5% BW rolled corn and consumed pelleted alfalfa (CON), pelleted Sericea lespedeza (HSL; 6.4% condensed tannins), a 1:1 mixture of alfalfa and lespedeza (MSL), or alfalfa with monensin (ION; 22 mg/kg), coconut oil (CCO; 4%), or soybean oil (SBO; 4%). ...

  12. Monensin and a blend of castor oil and cashew nut shell liquid used in a high-concentrate diet abruptly fed to Nellore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotti, C A; Silva, A P; Carvalho, R; Marino, C T; Rodrigues, P H M; Silva, L F P; McAllister, T A; Leme, P R

    2017-09-01

    Monensin and functional oils (FO) were supplemented to a high-concentrate diet abruptly fed to 12 ruminally cannulated Zebu steers to study their effects on rumen fermentation, blood metabolites, and , , and relative population. A randomized complete block design with repeated measures over time within 2 experimental periods of 21 d each was used. Treatments were a control (CTR; with no additives), FO (included at 400 mg/kg), and monensin included at 30 mg/kg (M30) or 40 mg/kg (M40). All steers were fed the same high-concentrate basal diet, which consisted of 92.25% concentrate. The first 60 h after transition showed a treatment and hour interaction for ruminal propionate proportion ( = 0.028), and no change in acetate molar proportion ( = 0.633), rumen pH ( = 0.370), and time the rumen pH remained below 5.6 ( = 0.242) were observed. The acetate:propionate ratio decreased ( = 0.020) when monensin was fed in both concentrations (2.30 for the M30 treatment and 2.32 for the M40 treatment) compared with when the CTR was fed (2.85), without being different when the FO (2.71) treatment was fed. Only the M30 treatment did not show pH below 5.2 (P=0.047) over the 60 h after the abrupt transition. Within the entire period, DMI ( = 0.008) and mean ruminal pH ( = 0.040) as well as molar proportions of propionate ( = 0.034) and valerate ( = 0.031) had significant interactions between treatment and day. Total VFA concentration was greater ( = 0.017) for the M30 (117.36 m) and CTR treatments (115.77 m) compared with the M40 treatment (105.02 m), without being different for the FO treatment (111.55 m). Treatments did not change feed behavior parameters. Blood HCO ( = 0.006) and total carbon dioxide ( = 0.003) were greater for the M30 (27.8 and 29.3 mmol/L, respectively) and FO treatments (28.3 and 29.7 mmol/L, respectively) compared with the CTR treatment (25.7 and 26.9 mmol/L, respectively). ( protozoa genera, the greatest ( protozoa counts were observed for the CTR treatment

  13. Comparative assessment of the effects of salinomycin and monensin on the biodistribution of lead and some essential metal ions in mice, subjected to subacute lead intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Juliana; Gluhcheva, Yordanka; Dimova, Donika; Pavlova, Ekaterina; Arpadjan, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we present a comparative assessment of the effects of two polyether ionophorous antibiotics (monensin and salinomycin) on the concentrations of lead (Pb), cooper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) in the kidneys, spleen, liver and brain of Pb-intoxicated animals. Our data demonstrated that the intoxication of ICR male mice with Pb salt resulted in a significant accumulation of Pb in all studied organs of the mice compared to the untreated control animals. The biodistribution of the toxic metal was in the order kidneys>spleen>liver>brain. The treatment of the Pb-intoxicated animals with tetraethylammonium salts of monensic and salinomycinic acids significantly decreased the concentration of the toxic metal ion compared to the toxic control. The effect varied in the interval 38% (for kidneys) to 52% (for brain) compared to the toxic control group (Pb). The tetraethylammonium salt of salinomycinic acid was more effective in reducing the Pb concentration in the brain of the Pb-treated mice compared to monensin. Pb-intoxication did not affect significantly the Zn endogenous concentration compared to the normal values. The treatment of ICR male mice with Pb-salt decreased the Cu concentration in the spleen and increased the Cu concentration in the liver compared to the untreated control animals. The detoxification of the Pb-intoxicated mice with tetraethylammonium salts of salinomycinic and monensic acids restored the Cu concentration in the spleen, but did not affect the Cu levels in the liver. The Pb-intoxication of the ICR mice resulted in a significant decrease of the Fe-concentration in the spleen and liver compared to the untreated control animals. The administration of the tetraethylammonium salts of salinomycinic and monensic acids to the Pb-treated animals restored the levels of Fe in both organs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. 21 CFR 558.311 - Lasalocid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Pasture cattle (slaughter, stocker, feeder cattle, and dairy and beef replacement heifers): For increased... per day. 021930017800 (xix) 300 Pasture cattle (slaughter, stocker, feeder cattle, and dairy and beef.... Chlortetracycline 500 to 4000. Pasture cattle (slaughter, stocker, feeder cattle, and dairy and beef replacement...

  15. Conjugated linoleic acids content in M.longissimus dorsi of Hanwoo steers fed a concentrate supplemented with soybean oil, sodium bicarbonate-based monensin, fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, M K; Jin, G L; Ji, B J; Chang, S S; Jeong, J; Smith, S B; Choi, S H

    2010-06-01

    We hypothesized that increasing ruminal pH would lead to enrichment of adipose tissue with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Twenty-four Korean native (Hanwoo) steers were used to investigate the additive effects of monensin (30ppm, SO-BM) and/or fish oil (0.7%, SO-BMF) in the diets along with soybean oil (7%) and sodium bicarbonate (0.5%, SO-B) on cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLAs in adipose tissue. The steers were assigned to randomly four groups of six animals each based on body weight. The control group (CON) was fed a commercial concentrate for the late fattening stage. Supplementation of oil and sodium bicarbonate reduced feed intake and daily gain, and fish oil further decreased feed intake (P<0.001) and daily gain (P<0.087) compared to steers fed other diets. Total CLA and CLA isomers in M.longissimus dorsi were not affected when steers were fed SO-B and SO-BM diets compared with those of steers fed CON and SO-BMF diets. However, total poly unsaturated fatty acids were higher (P=0.03) in steers fed SO than in CON steers. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Perfil de ácidos graxos e qualidade da carne de vacas de descarte terminadas em confinamento recebendo dietas com ou sem adição de monensina Fatty acid profile and meat quality of cull cows feedlot finished receiving diet with or without monensin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Kuss

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados o perfil dos ácidos graxos da gordura intramuscular e a qualidade da carne de vacas de descarte terminadas em confinamento recebendo dietas sem ou com monensina sódica (200mg animal-1 dia-1. A dieta continha 12,5% de proteína bruta e 2,99Mcal de energia digestível kg-1 de matéria seca, composta de 48% de volumoso (silagem de milho e 52% de concentrado. A presença de monensina não teve efeito significativo sobre a cor, a textura e o marmoreio, apresentando valores médios de 3,55; 3,29 e 6,38 pontos, respectivamente. Quanto às características sensoriais, a carne dos animais alimentados com monensina demonstra ser menos palatável (PThe marbling fatty acid profile and the meat quality of cull cows feedlot finished receiving diets without or with sodic monensin (200mg animal-1 day-1 were evaluated. The diet contained 12.5% of crude protein and 2.99 Mcal of digestible energy kg-1 of dry matter, composed of 48% of roughage (corn silage and 52% of concentrate. The monensin presence didn’t have significant effect on the color, texture and marbling, presenting medium values of 3.55, 3.29 and 6.38 points, respectively. Concerning the sensorial characteristics, the meat of the animals fed with monensin it demonstrated to be less palatable (P<.10. The monensin inclusion caused the increase (P<.10 of the participation of saturated fatty acids and reduction of the unsaturated in the fat intramuscular of the Longissimus dorsi. Among the fatty acids saturated, the use of monensin increased heptadecanóico (17:0 proportion and, among the unsaturated group, the trans isomer (C18:1 n9t increased, and the cis isomer of oleate (C18:1 n9c decreased (P<.10. The monounsaturated fatty acids proportion was reduced by monensin inclusion (P<.10. Monensin addition decreased the meat quality by decrease its palatability of the meat of cull cows. As regards the profile of fatty acids total, the monensin provides larger participation of saturated

  17. Oxidative metabolism of monensin in rat liver microsomes and interactions with tiamulin and other chemotherapeutic agents: evidence for the involvement of cytochrome P-450 3A subfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebbia, C; Ceppa, L; Dacasto, M; Carletti, M; Nachtmann, C

    1999-09-01

    Monensin (MON) is an ionophore antibiotic widely used in veterinary practice as a coccidiostatic or a growth promoter. The aims of this study were to characterize the P-450 isoenzyme(s) involved in the biotransformation of the ionophore and to investigate how this process may be affected by tiamulin and other chemotherapeutic agents known to produce toxic interactions with MON when administered concurrently in vivo. In liver microsomes from untreated rats (UT) or from rats pretreated, respectively, with ethanol (ETOH), beta-naphthoflavone (betaNAF), phenobarbital (PB), pregnenolone 16alpha-carbonitrile (PCN), or dexamethasone (DEX), the rate of MON O-demethylation was the following: DEX > PCN > PB > UT = ETOH > betaNAF; similar results were obtained by measuring total MON metabolism. In addition, the extent of triacetyloleandomycin-mediated P-450 complexes was greatly reduced by the prior addition of 100 microM MON. In DEX-treated microsomes, MON O-demethylation was found to fit monophasic Michaelis-Menten kinetics (K(M) = 67.6 +/- 0.01 microM; V(max) = 4.75 +/- 0.76 nmol/min/mg protein). Tiamulin markedly inhibited this activity in an apparent competitive manner, with a calculated K(i) (Dixon plot) of 8.2 microM and an IC(50) of about 25 microM. At the latter concentration, only ketoconazole or metyrapone, which can bind P-450 3A, inhibited MON O-demethylase to a greater extent than tiamulin, whereas alpha-naphthoflavone, chloramphenicol, or sulphametasine was less effective. These results suggest that P-450 3A plays an important role in the oxidative metabolism of MON and that compounds capable of binding or inhibiting this isoenzyme could be expected to give rise to toxic interactions with the ionophore.

  18. Effects of sulfur and monensin concentrations on in vitro dry matter disappearance, hydrogen sulfide production, and volatile fatty acid concentrations in batch culture ruminal fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D R; Dilorenzo, N; Leibovich, J; May, M L; Quinn, M J; Homm, J W; Galyean, M L

    2010-04-01

    Effects of monensin (MON) and S on in vitro fermentation and H(2)S production were evaluated in 2 experiments. In Exp. 1, 2 ruminally cannulated steers were adapted (>14 d) to a 75% concentrate diet [steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based], and ruminal fluid was collected approximately 4 h after feeding. Substrate composed (DM basis) of 85.2% SFC, 9% alfalfa hay, 5% cottonseed meal, and 0.8% urea was added with ruminal fluid and buffer to sealed 125-mL serum bottles to allow for gas collection. A Na(2)SO(4) solution was added to yield S equivalent to 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8% of substrate DM, and MON was included at 0, 2, 4, and 6 mg/L of culture volume. Bottle head-space gas was analyzed for H(2)S. No MON (P = 0.29) or MON x S interaction (P = 0.41) effects were detected for H(2)S production. Increasing S linearly increased (P molar proportions of acetate, butyrate, and the acetate:propionate ratio (A:P), and linearly increased (P 21 d) to a 75% concentrate diet (SFC base) that contained 15% (DM basis) wet corn distillers grains plus solubles (WDGS) and MON at 22 mg/kg of DM. In vitro substrate DM was composed of 75.4% SFC, 15% WDGS, 9% alfalfa hay, and 0.6% urea, and S and MON concentrations were the same as in Exp. 1. No effects of MON (P = 0.93) or the MON x S interaction (P = 0.99) were noted for H(2)S production; however, increasing S linearly increased (P molar proportions of acetate, butyrate, and A:P and linearly increased (P molar proportions were evident with MON regardless of S concentration.

  19. Effects of an Ionophore Coccidiostat (Monensin or Salinomycin, Sodium or Potassium Bicarbonate, or Both, and Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate in Broiler Chicken Diets

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    Hooge DM

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Peterson x Arbor Acres chicks were grown on used litter to 45 or 46 days of age in three pen trials. Coccidial inoculations were given by water at 14 days of age. Sodium bicarbonate (SBC; 0.20% or potassium bicarbonate (PBC; 0.14% was added to broiler chicken diets containing monensin (MON; 110 mg/kg or salinomycin (SAL; 66 mg/kg in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, using SAL (55 mg/kg, three dietary bicarbonate treatments (SBC, 0.20%; PBC, 0.20%; or SBC + PBC 0.10% each were tested with or without BMD R (55 mg/kg. Diets differing in SAL, BMD R, and SBC levels were evaluated in Experiment 3. Beneficial interaction was found between ionophores and bicarbonates for mortality (lower when SBC or PBC and MON in Experiment 1. For main effects, in Experiment 1 PBC with MON or SAL improved body weight, feed conversion ratio and mortality. SAL improved weight, feed conversion ratio and mortality compared to MON. In Experiment 2, PBC with SAL improved weight, coccidial lesion score, feed conversion ratio and mortality across two levels of BMD R. The PBC and SBC were equally effective in Experiment 1, but PBC was about 0 to 40% as effective as SBC, depending on parameter in Experiment 2. Half levels of SBC plus PBC generally gave intermediate results between control and SBC. SBC with MON or SAL lowered mortalities, coccidial lesion scores, and feed conversion ratios (Experiments 1 and 2, and increased body weight (Experiment 2. In Experiment 3, BMD R in all feeds improved body weight and feed conversion versus in starter feed only, and SBC with SAL and BMD R improved all performance parameters.

  20. Effect of the granulometric characteristics of monensin sodium on controlling experimental coccidiosis in broiler chickens Efeito das características granulométricas da monensina sódica no controle da coccidiose experimental em frangos de corte

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    Luisa Rambozzi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of monensin sodium grain size on controlling coccidiosis in broiler chickens. Three hundred and fifty Cobb 700 chicks were infected experimentally with 8 × 10(4 sporulated oocysts of Eimeria spp. The birds were fed with diets supplemented with powdered (n = 150 or granulated (n = 150 monensin, with particle sizes of ≤100 µm and 450-650 µm, respectively. The remaining chicks (n = 50 were used as an unmedicated control group. The birds’ weights and number of oocysts per gram of litter in each group were recorded weekly. A total of 96 birds were randomly selected and culled during the trial. Their intestinal oocyst counts and lesion scores were determined. No significant differences in body weights were found between the groups at the end of the study. The percentages of infected animals, oocyst counts and lesion scores were significantly higher in the control group than in the other two groups; the two treated groups did not show any appreciable differences to each other. Enteritis was observed in 14 birds, all in the group supplemented with granulated monensin. These results suggest that powdered and granulated monensin have comparable efficacy in controlling coccidiosis in broiler chickens. However, treatments with monensin sodium of high grain size may be subject to contraindications relating to enteritis.O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar a eficácia da monensina sódica com diferentes granulometrias no controle da coccidiose em frangos de corte. Trezentos e cinquenta pintos Cobb 700 foram infectados experimentalmente, utilizando-se 8 × 10(4 oocistos esporulados de Eimeria spp. As aves foram alimentadas com dietas suplementadas com monensina em pó (n = 150 ou granulada (n = 150, com partículas de dimensão ≤100 µm e de 450-650 µm respetivamente. As aves restantes (n = 50 foram utilizadas como grupo controle não sujeito a tratamento. O peso das aves e o n

  1. Evaluation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product as an alternative to monensin on growth performance, cost of gain, and carcass characteristics of heavy-weight yearling beef steers.

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    Swyers, K L; Wagner, J J; Dorton, K L; Archibeque, S L

    2014-06-01

    Two hundred fifty-two cross-bred yearling steers (406 ± 24 kg BW) were used in a completely randomized block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments (7 pens/treatment) to evaluate the effects of dietary Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SFP) and monensin (MON) on growth performance and carcass characteristics. Dietary treatments arranged as a 2 × 2 factorial were 1) with or without SFP and 2) with or without MON. Finishing diets contained 19.7% of DM as dried distiller's grains with solubles. Both SFP and MON were added in the total mixed ration in place of an equal amount of cornmeal (DM basis; target intake = 2.8 g of SFP and 33 mg of MON/kg of dietary DM). Each treatment group was offered ad libitum access to a transition ration from d 1 to 8 and then to the finishing ration from d 9 to 125. Body weights were collected on d 0, 28, 56, 84, 110, and 125. Initial and final BW was an average of 2-d weights (d -1 and 0 and d 124 and 125, respectively). Steers were shipped for harvest on d 125. Overall ADG was decreased (P = 0.03) in steers supplemented with SFP, but final BW was similar among treatments. Feeding SFP was associated with lighter (P < 0.01) HCW and a greater (P = 0.01) number of carcasses grading USDA Choice. Twelfth rib fat thickness was not affected by SFP (P = 0.82) or MON (P = 0.35), but numerical decreases in 12th rib fat thickness among cattle receiving SFP or MON alone contributed to a tendency (P = 0.07) for greater 12 rib fat thickness when SFP and MON were provided. There was no effect of treatment on cost of gain (P ≥ 0.21). The effects of SFP in the current study may have been limited in heavy yearling steers due to consumption of a finishing diet containing 19.7% dried distiller's grains with solubles.

  2. Urea-N recycling in lactating dairy cows fed diets with 2 different levels of dietary crude protein and starch with or without monensin.

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    Recktenwald, E B; Ross, D A; Fessenden, S W; Wall, C J; Van Amburgh, M E

    2014-03-01

    Rumensin (monensin; Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN) has been shown to reduce ammonia production and microbial populations in vitro; thus, it would be assumed to reduce ruminal ammonia production and subsequent urea production and consequently affect urea recycling. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of 2 levels of dietary crude protein (CP) and 2 levels of starch, with and without Rumensin on urea-N recycling in lactating dairy cattle. Twelve lactating Holstein dairy cows (107 ± 21 d in milk, 647 kg ± 37 kg of body weight) were fed diets characterized as having high (16.7%) or low (15.3%) CP with or without Rumensin, while dietary starch levels (23 vs. 29%) were varied between 2 feeding periods with at least 7d of adaptation between measurements. Cows assigned to high or low protein and to Rumensin or no Rumensin remained on those treatments to avoid carryover effects. The diets consisted of approximately 40% corn silage, 20% alfalfa hay, and 40% concentrate mix specific to the treatment diets, with 0.5 kg of wheat straw added to the high starch diets to enhance effective fiber intake. The diets were formulated using Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (version 6.1), and the low-protein diets were formulated to be deficient for rumen ammonia to create conditions that should enhance the demand for urea recycling. The high-protein diets were formulated to be positive for both rumen ammonia and metabolizable protein. Rumen fluid, urine, feces, and milk samples were collected before and after a 72-h continuous jugular infusion of (15)N(15)N-urea. Total urine and feces were collected during the urea infusions for N balance measurements. Milk yield and dry matter intake were improved in cows fed the higher level of dietary CP and by Rumensin. Ruminal ammonia and milk and plasma urea nitrogen concentrations corresponded to dietary CP concentration. As has been shown in vitro, Rumensin reduced rumen ammonia concentration by

  3. Effects of a combination of plant bioactive lipid compounds and biotin compared with monensin on body condition, energy metabolism and milk performance in transition dairy cows

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    Hausmann, Janis; Deiner, Carolin; Patra, Amlan K.; Immig, Irmgard; Starke, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether a combination of plant bioactive lipid compounds (also termed ‘essential oils’) and biotin (PBLC+B) could decrease the mobilization of body reserves and ketosis incidence in postpartum dairy cows. We compared non-supplemented control (CON) cows with cows receiving monensin (MON) as a controlled-release capsule at d -21, and with cows receiving PBLC+B from day (d) -21 before calving until calving (Phase 1) and further until d 37 after calving (Phase 2), followed by PBLC+B discontinuation from d 38 to d 58 (Phase 3). The PBLC+B cows had higher body weight and higher back fat thickness than CON cows and lesser body weight change than MON and CON cows in Phase 3. Body condition score was not different among groups. Milk protein concentration tended to be higher on the first herd test day in PBLC+B vs. CON cows. Milk fat concentration tended to be highest in PBLC+B cows throughout Phases 2 and 3, with significantly higher values in PBLC+B vs. MON cows on the second herd test day. Yields of energy-corrected milk were higher in PBLC+B vs. CON and MON cows in Phase 2 and higher in PBLC+B and MON cows vs. CON cows in Phase 3. The incidence of subclinical ketosis was 83%, 61% and 50% in CON, PBLC+B and MON cows, respectively, with lower mean β-hydroxybutyrate values in MON than in PBLC+B cows in Phase 1 prepartum. The serum triglyceride concentration was higher in PBLC+B vs. CON cows on d 37. No differences were observed in serum glucose, urea, non-esterified fatty acids, cholesterol and bilirubin concentrations. Aspartate transaminase and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase but not glutamate dehydrogenase activities tended to be highest in MON and lowest in PBLC+B in Phase 2. We conclude that PBLC+B prevent body weight loss after parturition and are associated with similar ketosis incidence and partly higher yields of energy-corrected milk compared to MON supplementation of dairy cows. PMID:29584764

  4. Fatal rhabdomyolysis after acute sodium monensin (Rumensin® toxicity: case report Rabdomiólise fatal aguda pós-intoxicação por monensina sódica (Rumensin®: relato de caso

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    João Aris Kouyoumdjian

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Myoglobinuria or rhabdomyolysis occurs when myoglobin escapes into the blood and then into the urine after acute muscle necrosis. It can be a serious medical condition leading to renal failure and death. There are many causes including exertion, crush syndromes, ischaemia, metabolic disorders, exogenous toxins and drugs, heat stroke and hereditary disorders such as malignant hyperthermia. We report the case of a 17 year-old boy who developed myoglobinuria, renal failure and death 11 days after ingesting sodium monensin, possibly with the intention of developing muscles. Sodium monensin, the active principle of Rumensin®, is a dietary additive used as a growth promoter for confined cattle. There are no previous reports of human intoxication. Accidental or experimental sodium monensin intoxication in animals produces similar findings to those seen in this case.Mioglobinúria ou rabdomiólise refere-se a necrose muscular aguda com liberação de mioglobina na circulação e na urina podendo causar, na sua forma mais grave, insuficiência renal e óbito. A etiologia é ampla, incluindo exercício intenso, síndrome do esmagamento, isquemia, toxinas exógenas, anormalidades metabólicas, medicações, altas temperaturas, além de algumas condições herdadas como hipertermia maligna. Neste relato descreve-se o caso de um paciente jovem, do sexo masculino, que desenvolveu mioglobinúria, insuficiência renal e óbito, 11 dias após ingestão de monensina sódica, princípio ativo de Rumensin®, usado como aditivo alimentar para gado confinado; a ingestão possivelmente foi feita para desenvolvimento muscular. Não há relato na literatura de intoxicação humana e o quadro clínico nos animais com intoxicação experimental ou acidental pelo Rumensin® se assemelha àquele observado no presente caso.

  5. Atividade ovariana de vacas leiteiras em dietas com propilenoglicol ou monensina no período de transição Ovarian activity of dairy cows receiving diets with propylene glycol or monensin during the transition period

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    M.A.T. Artunduaga

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da adição de propilenoglicol ou de monensina na dieta de vacas leiteiras no período de transição sobre o retorno à atividade ovariana cíclica. Foram utilizadas 42 vacas pluríparas, da raça Holandesa, com produção de leite semelhante na lactação anterior (média de 8.000kg. Os animais, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, foram divididos em grupos que receberam dieta-controle e dietas acrescidas com 300ml de propilenoglicol ou 30ppm da matéria seca da dieta/dia de monensina. Avaliaram-se os ovários, por ultra-sonografia, entre os dias quatro e 46 pós-parto, e a concentração plasmática de progesterona, nos dias 10, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 e 45 pós-parto. A adição de propilenoglicol mostrou-se eficiente em acelerar o retorno à ciclicidade após o parto. Os animais dos grupos que receberam propilenoglicol só no pré-parto, ou no pós-parto e no período de transição apresentaram intervalos parto-primeira ovulação de 29,0, 44,0 e 27,2 dias, respectivamente. Os intervalos parto-concepção para esses mesmos grupos foram de 98,3, 90,8, e 100,0 dias. A adição de monensina não se mostrou eficiente em acelerar o retorno à atividade ovariana cíclica após o parto. As vacas dos grupos que receberam monensina só no pré-parto, ou pós-parto, ou no período de transição apresentaram intervalos parto-primeira ovulação de 43,6, 39,3 e 42,8 dias, respectivamente. Os intervalos parto-concepção para os grupos pré e pós parto foram de 173,2, e 126,1 dias, respectivamente.The influence of the addition of propylene glycol or monensin to diets of dairy cows during the transition period on return to ovarian cyclicity was evaluated. Forty two multiparous Holstein cows with an average milk production of 8,000kg were distributed in a split-plot design and were divided into groups receiving either control diets or diets increased with 30ppm of monensin or 300ml of propylene glycol during the

  6. Efeito da combinação de óleo de soja e monensina na dieta sobre o consumo de matéria seca e a digestão em vacas lactantes Effect of monensin and soybean oil combination on dry matter intake and digestibility in diets fed to lactating cows

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    Eduardo da Costa Eifert

    2005-02-01

    digestibilidade da FDN ou pelo incremento energético, não justifica a redução no consumo de matéria seca nas dietas com óleo, indicando que fatores metabólicos podem estar envolvidos.Four rumen fistulated lactating dairy cows were assigned to a Latin Square (4x4, with 21 days of experimental period, being the last three days for evaluation, to evaluate the effects of the combination of soybean oil and monensin in lactating dairy cow diets on dry matter intake, total and partial digestibility of the nutrients and ruminal fermentation and microbial synthesis. The animals were assigned to a factorial arrangement (2x2: presence (4% in total DM or absence of soybean oil and presence (33 ppm or monensin absence and were fed diets with 55% corn silage and 45% concentrate. For evaluation of the total and partial digestibility, feces samples and omasal digesta were collected, using ADFi and Cr2O3 as markers. The oil presence reduced dry matter intake, but allowed similar TND intake. The total digestibility of nutrients was not affected by treatments. The NDF ruminal digestibility was similar in the oil presence and in the monensin presence, but it was reduced in the combination of the two. The pH, the efficiency of microbial synthesis and the total of VFA of the rumen liquor were similar among the treatments. Interaction was observed between oil and monensin for N-NH3 concentration, being verified smaller value for the diets with oil only. The proportion of acetate was reduced either in the oil presence or in the monensin presence, but in different magnitudes, as well as in the combination of the two. The propionic acid concentration increased with monensin and with oil, and butyric acid decreased with oil. Acetate:propionate ratio was reduced either in the oil presence or in the monensin presence. The synthesis of microbial protein was reduced in the oil presence and still more when oil was associated to monensin. The soybean oil and monensin combination act about the same

  7. Desempenho de novilhas leiteiras sob manejo para crescimento compensatório recebendo suplementação com ionóforo Performance of dairy heifers on a compensatory growth regime supplemented with monensin

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    Patrícia Barcellos Costa

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a influência do manejo para crescimento compensatório e da suplementação com ionóforo sobre o desempenho de novilhas leiteiras. Foram utilizadas 20 novilhas Pardo-Suíças puras, com peso inicial de 200 kg e cinco meses de idade. Os tratamentos foram arranjados em um esquema fatorial (2 x 2 e os animais foram alocados aleatoriamente em cada uma das combinações. O fator 1 consistiu dos sistemas de alimentação (convencional e crescimento compensatório e o fator 2, da utilização ou não de ionóforo (200 mg de monensina/animal/dia. Os animais do sistema convencional receberam alimentação ad libitum, enquanto os do sistema de crescimento compensatório foram submetidos a um manejo nutricional com dois períodos distintos: período de restrição energética (90 dias, P1 e período de realimentação (60 dias, P2. A eficiência de conversão de MS e EM consumida em ganho de peso diário foi menor durante o período de realimentação. Não houve diferença para as variáveis relacionadas ao balanço de nitrogênio dos animais do sistema convencional e daqueles submetidos ao manejo para crescimento compensatório. A inclusão de ionóforo na dieta das novilhas resultou em menor excreção de nitrogênio (N urinário e, conseqüentemente, a retenção de N foi maior no período de restrição e menor no período de realimentação, o que refletiu na eficiência de utilização do N consumido. Não houve efeito dos sistemas, da utilização de ionóforo ou do período sobre os parâmetros morfo-estruturais estudados e sobre o peso ao final do período experimental. Novilhas em crescimento compensatório apresentaram maior ganho de peso diário ao 135º e 150º dias do período experimental, em comparação às do sistema convencional.The objective of this trial was to compare the effect of different feeding strategies with or without ionophore (monensin supplementation on performance of dairy heifers. Twenty Brown

  8. Live yeast culture and monensin in high grain diets for cattle: rumen fermentation and “in situ” degradability Leveduras vivas e monensina em dietas de alto concentrado para bovinos: parâmetros ruminais e degradabilidade "in situ"

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    José Carlos Machado Nogueira Filho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Live yeast cultures have been used as an alternative to replace antibiotics in diets for ruminants. Therefore, the aim was to evaluate the effects of adding live yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Beef Sacc®, Alltech, Inc., monensin (Rumensin®, Elanco, Inc. and the combination of both additives in high grain diets, on rumen fermentation patterns, protozoa organisms and in situ degradability of diet components. Four rumen-cannulated steers were fed a basal ration (2.8Mcal ME/kg DM, 14% CP and submitted to one of four treatments following a 4x4 Latin Square design: control (CON, no additives, yeast (YEA, 0.6g/kg of dry matter, monensin (MON, 0.3g/kg of dry matter and monensin plus yeast (MON+YEA. After 14 days of diet adaptation, the rumen fermentation parameters, the protozoa numbers and the degradation kinetics of corn (CO, soybean meal (SM and soybean hulls (SH were assessed. Feed additives did not affect rumen pH, butirate and ammonia nitrogen concentrations, but decreased total short chain fatty acids (mM. MON and MON+ YEA decreased acetate (% and acetate:propionate ratio whereas propionate was increased by MON and MON+YEA at all sampling times, and by YEA at 4 and 6h post-feeding only. YEA increased the number of protozoa whereas MON and MON+YEA inhibited those microorganisms (total organisms [x104/mL]. There were no effects of YEA and MON+YEA on in situ degradability parameters of any evaluated feed, however, MON increased NDF degradation rate of SH. Monensin effects on rumen fermentation are more significant than those observed when feeding live yeast cultures, and the combination of both additives does not improve their effects.Leveduras têm sido utilizadas para substituir antibióticos em dietas para ruminantes. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de leveduras vivas (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Beef-Sacc®, Alltech, Inc., monensina (Rumensin®, Elanco, Inc. e a combinação de ambos em dietas com alto concentrado, sobre a

  9. Perfil de ácidos graxos do leite de vacas alimentadas com óleo de soja e monensina no início da lactação Milk fatty acid profile of cows fed monensin and soybean oil in early lactation

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    Eduardo da Costa Eifert

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos da adição de monensina sódica combinada com óleo de soja na dieta de vacas lactantes sobre o perfil de ácidos graxos (AG do leite na 5ª e 15ª semanas da lactação. Foram utilizadas 16 vacas multíparas cruzadas, dispostas em delineamento em blocos casualizados, em um arranjo fatorial 2 x 2 (presença ou não de monensina e presença ou não de óleo de soja. Os tratamentos consistiram das dietas: CT (controle = sem monensina ou óleo; MN = 33 ppm de monensina; OL = 3,9% de óleo de soja; e OM = óleo e monensina. Os animais foram confinados e alimentados com 52% de silagem de milho e 48% de concentrado. Não foi verificada interação entre óleo de soja e monensina para os ácidos graxos avaliados. A monensina aumentou os AG insaturados, monoinsaturados e poliinsaturados em 9,0; 8,8; e 10,7%, respectivamente. O óleo apresentou maior impacto sobre os AG poliinsaturados, aumentando-os em 39,2; 39,3; e 24,2%, respectivamente. Também reduziu os AG de cadeias curta (43,7% e média (49,1% e aumentou os AG de cadeia longa (55,3%. Os isômeros trans-C18:1 foram aumentados tanto pelo óleo como pela monensina, indicando efeito aditivo para trans-10 C18:1, que foi negativamente correlacionado ao teor de gordura do leite. O isômero cis-9 trans-11 do ácido linoléico conjugado (CLA não foi influenciado pelos tratamentos, observando-se que o óleo reduziu a atividade da delta9-desaturase. Houve interação entre tratamentos e semana da lactação sobre os AG de cadeias curta e média, C14:0, C16:0, cis-9 C18:1 e trans-10 C18:1. Os maiores efeitos sobre o perfil de AG do leite foram registrados quando monensina e óleo foram fornecidos em conjunto na dieta de vacas lactantes.The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effects of dietary monensin and soybean oil on milk fatty acid (FA profile in the 5th and 15th week of lactation of dairy cows. Sixteen multiparous crossbred dairy cows averaging 30 days in milk were

  10. Efeitos da administração de monensina por meio de cápsulas de liberação controlada no desempenho de vacas Holandesas no início da lactação Effects of administration controlled released monensin capsules on performance of Holstein cows in the beginning of lactation

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    Renata Maria Consentino Conti

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar o efeito da monensina sobre a produção e composição de leite, a contagem de células somáticas, a condição corporal e os parâmetros sangüíneos e reprodutivos de vacas da raça Holandesa de alta produção no início de lactação, foram utilizadas 44 vacas com produção diária de 33,44 ± 4,93 litros de leite, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com dois tratamentos: um controle (C e outro com cápsulas de liberação controlada de monensina com eficácia de 100 dias (300 mg/vaca/dia. A administração individual de monensina foi realizada 30 dias antes da data provável do parto. A monensina não alterou a produção, a composição do leite e a contagem de células somáticas do leite nem a condição corporal e a concentração de glicose e BHBA (beta-hidroxibutirato no soro das vacas, no entanto, diminuiu a concentração de AGNE (ácidos graxos não-esterificados no soro das vacas com 60 dias de lactação. O período de serviço e o número de serviços por concepção não diferiram entre os tratamentos, porém, a administração de monensina diminuiu o número de animais que apresentaram retenção de placenta e laminite. A administração de monensina para vacas Holandesas de alta produção no início de lactação não modifica a produção e a composição do leite, contudo, diminui a concentração de AGNE 60 dias após o parto e a incidência de laminite e retenção de placenta nas vacas no pós-parto.The objective was to study the effect of the monensin on milk yield and milk composition, somatic cell count, body condition score, serum parameters and reproductive aspects high producing Holstein cows in early lactation. Fourty-four cows with daily milk yield of the 33.44 ± 4.93 liter of milk were assigned to a completely randomized design with two treatments: control (C and other with controlled released monesin capsule with eficacy of 100 days (300 mg/cow/day. The individual

  11. Interaction of unsaturated fat or coconut oil with monensin in lactating dairy cows fed 12 times daily. I. Protozoal abundance, nutrient digestibility, and microbial protein flow to the omasum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveneau, C; Karnati, S K R; Oelker, E R; Firkins, J L

    2012-04-01

    Monensin (tradename: Rumensin) should reduce the extent of amino acid deamination in the rumen, and supplemental fat should decrease protozoal abundance and intraruminal N recycling. Because animal-vegetable (AV) fat can be biohydrogenated in the rumen and decrease its effectiveness as an anti-protozoal agent, we included diets supplemented with coconut oil (CNO) to inhibit protozoa. In a 6 × 6 Latin square design with a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments, 6 rumen-cannulated cows were fed diets without or with Rumensin (12 g/909 kg) and either no fat (control), 5% AV fat, or 5% CNO. The log10 concentrations (cells/mL) of total protozoa were not different between control (5.97) and AV fat (5.95) but were decreased by CNO (4.79; main effect of fat source). Entodinium and Dasytricha decreased as a proportion of total cells from feeding CNO, whereas Epidinium was unchanged in total abundance and thus increased proportionately. Total volatile fatty acid concentration was not affected by diet, but the acetate:propionate ratio decreased for CNO (1.85) versus control (2.95) or AV fat (2.58). Feeding CNO (23.8%) decreased ruminal neutral detergent fiber digestibility compared with control (31.1%) and AV fat (30.5%). The total-tract digestibility of NDF was lower for CNO (45.8%) versus control (57.0%) and AV fat (54.6%), with no difference in apparent organic matter digestibility (averaging 69.8%). The omasal flows of microbial N and non-ammonia N were lower for CNO versus control and AV fat, but efficiency of microbial protein synthesis was not affected. The dry matter intake was 4.5 kg/d lower with CNO, which decreased milk production by 3.1 kg/d. Main effect means of dry matter intake and milk yield tended to decrease by 0.7 and 1.2 kg/d, respectively, when Rumensin was added. Both percentage and production of milk fat decreased for CNO (main effect of fat source). An interaction was observed such that AV decreased milk fat yield more when combined with Rumensin

  12. Interaction of unsaturated fat or coconut oil with monensin in lactating dairy cows fed 12 times daily. II. Fatty acid flow to the omasum and milk fatty acid profile.

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    Reveneau, C; Ribeiro, C V D M; Eastridge, M L; Firkins, J L

    2012-04-01

    Feeding animal-vegetable (AV) fat or medium-chain fatty acids (FA) to dairy cows can decrease ruminal protozoal counts. However, combining moderate to large amounts of AV fat with monensin (tradename: Rumensin, R) could increase the risk for milk fat depression (MFD), whereas it is not known if diets supplemented with coconut oil (CNO; rich in medium-chain FA) with R would cause MFD. In a 6 × 6 Latin square design with a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments, 6 rumen-cannulated cows were fed diets without or with R (12 g/909 kg) and either control (no fat), 5% AV fat, or 5% CNO. Diets were balanced to have 21.5% forage neutral detergent fiber, 16.8% crude protein, and 42% nonfiber carbohydrates. Omasal flows of FA were characterized by an increased percentage of trans 18:1 for AV fat and CNO diets compared with the control, a higher percentage of 12:0 and 14:0 for CNO, and higher cis 18:1 for AV fat. Milk FA composition reflected the changes observed for omasal FA digesta flow. The de novo FA synthesis in the mammary gland was decreased by the main effects of R compared without R (averaged over fat treatments) and for added fat (AV fat and CNO) versus control (averaged over R). The percentages of 6:0, 8:0, and 10:0 in milk fat were lower for R and for AV fat and CNO compared with the control. The percentage of trans 18:1 FA in milk fat also higher for AV fat and CNO compared with the control. Against our hypotheses, the feeding of CNO did not prevent MFD, and few interactions between R and fat source were detected. The feeding of CNO did compromise ruminal biohydrogenation, with accumulation of trans 18:1 in the rumen and in milk fat. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Parâmetros de fermentação e medidas morfométricas dos compartimentos ruminais de bezerros leiteiros suplementados com milho processado (Floculado vs. Laminado a vapor e monensina Ruminal fermentation parameters and metric measurements of the rumen of dairy calves fed processed corn (Steam-rolled vs. Steam-flaked and monensin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Maris Bittar Nussio

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as alterações do fornecimento de grãos processados (laminado a vapor vs. floculado e monensina em parâmetros ruminais. Dezesseis bezerros holandeses foram fistulados no rúmen com 3-5 dias de vida e agrupados em blocos ao acaso, com arranjo fatorial 2 x 2. Os animais receberam concentrado ad libitum até o consumo de 2 kg/d, 4 litros diários de leite e tiveram acesso livre à água. Após a desmama, realizada na oitava semana de vida, os animais passaram a receber 2 kg/d de concentrado e feno de coastcross picado ad libitum. Os tratamentos não afetaram o consumo de concentrado e feno, assim como o desempenho animal, os quais foram inferiores ao esperado. A concentração molar de propionato foi maior para animais recebendo grão laminado. Houve tendência de maior concentração molar de AGV total (P = 0,11 e butirato (P = 0,13 para animais recebendo grão laminado. A inclusão de monensina tendeu a reduzir as concentrações de N-NH3 ruminal (P = 0,12. O peso do retículo-rúmen (% trato total tendeu (P = 0,09 a ser maior em animais recebendo grão laminado e monensina. A capacidade do retículo-rúmen foi aumentada pelo fornecimento de grão laminado e monensina. Milho floculado resultou em maior peso do abomaso em % trato total.The objective of this study was the evaluation of the effects of grain processing (steam-rolled vs. steam-flaked and monensin on ruminal parameters. Sixteen Holstein calves were ruminally canulated with 3 to 5 days of life, and utilized on a completely randomized design block with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. The animals received concentrate ad libitum up to 2 kg/d, plus 4 L/d of milk. Calves had free access to water. After weaning at the eight weeks of life, calves received concentrate and chopped hay. Animal performance, concentrate and hay intakes were lower than expected and not affected by treatments. The molar proportion of propionate was higher for steam

  14. Productive performance and milk protein fraction composition of dairy cows supplemented with sodium monensin Desempenho produtivo e composição da fração protéica do leite em vacas sob suplementação com monensina sódica

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    Jefferson Rodrigues Gandra

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the levels of sodium monensin on lactating cows and their effects on productive performance and milk protein fraction composition. It was used 12 Holstein cows, distributed in four balanced 3 × 3 Latin squares, and fed three diets: one control without monensin, and two diets with monensin at the levels of 24 or 48 mg/kg DM added to the concentrate. Milk production was daily measured throughout the entire experimental period. The samples used for analysis of milk composition were collected on two alternated days from the two daily milking. Non-protein nitrogen, total nitrogen and non-casein nitrogen contents were directly evaluated in the milk, and casein, whey protein and true protein contents were indirectly determined. The use of monensin in the rations reduced dry matter and nutrient intake, especially when diet with 48 mg/kg of dry matter was given. The ration with 24 mg/kg of DM increased milk production, with or without correction, and also fat and lactose yield, and it improved productive efficiency. The levels of monensin in the ratios did not influence contents of milk crude protein, non-protein nitrogen, non-casein nitrogen, true protein, casein, casein/true protein ratio, whey protein, and of all those fractions expressed as percentage of crude protein. The utilization of monensin in the ratio at the dose of 24 mg/kg of DM influences positively the productive performance of lactating cows, and it does not influence the composition of milk protein fractions.Objetivou-se avaliar níveis de monensina sódica para vacas em lactação e seus efeitos no desempenho produtivo e na composição da fração protéica do leite. Foram utilizadas 12 vacas da raça Holandesa, distribuídas em quatro quadrados latinos 3 × 3 balanceados e alimentadas com três rações: uma controle sem monensina, e duas com monensima nos níveis de 24 mg/kg de matéria seca ou 48 mg/kg MS adicionada ao concentrado. A

  15. 21 CFR 558.355 - Monensin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in a component feeding system (including top dress). The Type C medicated feed must be fed in a... to chickens over 16 weeks of age. Poultry should have access to drinking water at all times. Drug... sole source of organic arsenic. Do not feed to chickens over 16 weeks of age. Poultry should have...

  16. Processamento de milho (floculado vs. laminado a vapor e adição de monensina para bezerras leiteiras, pré e pós-desmama precoce Corn processing (steam-flaked vs. steam-rolled and monensin for pre and post early weaning dairy calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Maris Bittar Nussio

    2003-02-01

    to evaluate the effects of concentrates containing processed grains (steam-flaked vs. steam-rolled, with or without monensin, on intake, weight gain and blood parameters of baby calves, before and after weaning at six weeks of life. Thirty-two female calves were utilized on a completely randomized block, with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. The animals received concentrate ad libitum up to 2 kg/d, plus 4 L of milk. Calves had free access to water. After weaning, at the sixth week of life, calves received concentrate and chopped hay. The treatments did not affect concentrate or hay intake, final live weight, average daily gain, plasma glucose and NEFA cocentration. PUN was lower on calves fed steam-rolled corn and monensin. There was a significant effect of age on glucose, PUN, and NEFA concentrations. Only glucose and NEFA were affected by time after feeding. Addition of monensin or processed grain to dairy calves diet did not result on better performance, before or after weaning.

  17. Levedura ou monensina na dieta de bovinos e bubalinos sobre a fermentação ruminal e eficiência microbiana - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i4.11264 Yeast culture or monensin in the diet of cattle and buffalos on ruminal fermentation and microbial efficiency - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i4.11264

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Juliano Valério Geron

    2011-09-01

    the utilization of purine bases as microbial indicator, respectively. The additives and species did not influence the total concentration of SCFA, acetic acids, propionic and butyric, but the addiction of yeast culture reduced the acetate/propionate ratio and the monensin reduced on a more effective and similar for the species, which were higher in the bubaline. The syntheses efficiency was higher in bovines, and reduced by the addiction of monensin. The yeast culture and monensin on ruminal fermentation changed in a positive way, and the cattle and buffaloes showed differences in the studied parameters

  18. Parâmetros ruminal, sangüíneo e urinário e digestibilidade de nutrientes em novilhas leiteiras recebendo diferentes níveis de monensina Effects of different dietary levels of monensin on nutrient digestibility and on ruminal, blood and urinary metabolites in dairy heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Morais de Oliveira

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se verificar a influência da inclusão de diferentes níveis do ionóforo monensina sódica na dieta sobre os parâmetros ruminal, sangüíneo e urinário e a digestibilidade aparente em novilhas leiteiras. Foram coletadas amostras de líquido ruminal (imediatamente antes e duas horas após a alimentação, sangue, urina e fezes de 28 novilhas da raça Holandesa mantidas em regime de confinamento por 84 dias. As dietas possuíam 32,84% de concentrado (grão de milho, farelo de soja, uréia e mistura mineral, 33,58% de silagem de milho e 33,58% de cana-de-açúcar na matéria seca. Os níveis de ionóforo avaliados foram 0, 14, 28 e 42 mg de monensina/kg de matéria seca da dieta. O experimento foi instalado conforme delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e sete repetições, realizando-se estudos de regressão e contrastes ortogonais. Antes da alimentação, a monensina não influenciou o pH ruminal e a concentração de amônia e dos ácidos acético, propiônico e butírico, mas promoveu redução da relação acetato:propionato. Duas horas após a alimentação, verificou-se redução do pH e da relação acetato:propionato; e aumento da concentração de ácido propiônico. O estudo de contrastes revelou que ocorreu diminuição da concentração de amônia antes da alimentação. Não foram verificadas mudanças significativas nas concentrações de glicose e uréia sangüínea. A monensina também não influenciou os consumos de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica, proteína bruta, extrato etéreo (EE, carboidratos totais (CHOT e fibra em detergente neutro. As digestibilidades da MS, EE e CHOT e a perda de nitrogênio urinário apresentaram respostas quadráticas.The objective of this trial was to study the effects of different dietary levels of the ionophore monensin on apparent digestibility of nutrients and on ruminal, blood, and urinary metabolites in dairy heifers. Samples of ruminal fluid (pre

  19. Efeito da monensina e extrato de própolis sobre a produção de amônia e degradabilidade in vitro da proteína bruta de diferentes fontes de nitrogênio Effect of monensin and propolis extract on ammonia production and in vitro degradability of crude protein of different nitrogen sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Silva Oliveira

    2004-04-01

    (trypticase, soybean meal and fish meal, with or without monensin or propolis extract addition. Incubations were done by using 7.2 mL of McDougall buffer, 2.0 mL of inocula, 0.2 mL of ethanolic solution with or without monensin or propolis and 84.4, 150 or 112.5 mg/10 mL of trypticase, soybean meal and fish meal, respectively, in a 3x3 factorial arranjement. The flasks were incubated anaerobically at 39ºC in water bath during 120 hours, and samples were collected from the media over time for ammonia, microbial protein, soluble protein and protein degradability determinations. Fish meal caused lesser ammonia production than trypticase and soybean meal in control treatment, due to its lower degradability. Monensin and propolis decreased ammonia production in the trypticase and soybean meal treatments, leading to accumulation of soluble protein in the media. The microbial protein synthesis was similar among the three feed sources and with presence or absence of inhibitors, except in the case of propolis that estimulated synthesis in the fish meal treatment. There was greater protein degradability of the control treatment for soybean meal (73% than fish meal (42%. Monensin reduced degradation of trypticase and soybean meal, by inhibiting ammonia production, and propolis increased degradation of fish meal, by increasing soluble protein concentration in the media. Due to the in vitro effect of propolis on fermentation activity, it is necessary to carry out researches in order to verify its effect on ruminal fermentation and animal performance.

  20. Enzymatic catalysis of anti-Baldwin ring closure in polyether biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Kinya; Chen, Xi; Paton, Robert S; Minami, Atsushi; Li, Hao; Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam; Mathews, Irimpan I; Watanabe, Kenji; Oikawa, Hideaki; Houk, Kendall N; Kim, Chu-Young

    2012-03-04

    Polycyclic polyether natural products have fascinated chemists and biologists alike owing to their useful biological activity, highly complex structure and intriguing biosynthetic mechanisms. Following the original proposal for the polyepoxide origin of lasalocid and isolasalocid and the experimental determination of the origins of the oxygen and carbon atoms of both lasalocid and monensin, a unified stereochemical model for the biosynthesis of polyether ionophore antibiotics was proposed. The model was based on a cascade of nucleophilic ring closures of postulated polyepoxide substrates generated by stereospecific oxidation of all-trans polyene polyketide intermediates. Shortly thereafter, a related model was proposed for the biogenesis of marine ladder toxins, involving a series of nominally disfavoured anti-Baldwin, endo-tet epoxide-ring-opening reactions. Recently, we identified Lsd19 from the Streptomyces lasaliensis gene cluster as the epoxide hydrolase responsible for the epoxide-opening cyclization of bisepoxyprelasalocid A to form lasalocid A. Here we report the X-ray crystal structure of Lsd19 in complex with its substrate and product analogue to provide the first atomic structure-to our knowledge-of a natural enzyme capable of catalysing the disfavoured epoxide-opening cyclic ether formation. On the basis of our structural and computational studies, we propose a general mechanism for the enzymatic catalysis of polyether natural product biosynthesis. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

  1. Sodium monensin or propolis extract in the diet of Nellore bulls finished in feedlot: chemical composition and fatty acid profile of Longissimus muscleMonensina sódica ou extrato de própolis na dieta de bovinos Nelore terminados em confinamento: composição química e perfil de ácidos graxos do músculo Longissimus

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    Carlos Alberto Fugita

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out to evaluate the chemical composition and fatty acid profile of Longissimus muscle of 33 Nellore bulls with 27 months old and initial average weight of 402 ± 7.58 kg finished in feedlot. Three treatments (Control – CON, Monensin – MON and Propolis extract – PRO were evaluated. The animals were kept in feedlot during 84 days and slaughtered with final average weight with 488 ± 24.9 kg. The addition of additives (monensin or propolis extract did not influence (P > 0.10 the chemical composition of Longissimus muscle of bulls. Saturated fatty acid (SFA did not have difference (P > 0.10 among treatments. Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA have difference (P Este trabalho foi realizado para avaliar a composição química e a composição de ácidos graxos do músculo Longissimus de 33 machos não castrados da raça Nelore com 27 meses de idade e peso médio inicial de 402 ± 7.58 kg terminados em confinamento. Foram usados três tratamentos: Controle – CON, Monensina – MON e Extrato de Própolis – PRO. Os bovinos foram mantidos confinados durante 84 dias e abatidos com peso vivo médio final de 488 ± 24.9 kg. A adição dos aditivos (monensina ou extrato de própolis não tiveram influência (P > 0,10 na composição química do músculo Longissimus dos bovinos. A composição de ácidos graxos saturados (AGS foi semelhante entre os tratamentos (P > 0,10. A composição de ácidos graxos monoinsaturados foi diferente entre os tratamentos (P < 0,01. Valor superior foi observado nos bovinos da dieta CON (47,0%. Da mesma forma, houve diferença (P < 0,01 entre tratamentos para os ácidos graxos poliinsaturados (AGPI. Bovinos do tratamento (9,92% apresentaram maior (P < 0,01 valor para os AGPI. Os bovinos dos tratamentos CON (6,74% e PRO (6,93% apresentaram menores valores (P < 0,01 para os AGPI.

  2. Fermentação da proteína de seis alimentos por microrganismos ruminais, incubados puros ou com monensina ou rumensin® Protein fermentation of six food souces by ruminal microorganisms, incubated alone or with monensin or rumensin®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Guarino Souza Barbosa

    2001-07-01

    meaddlings (WM, sorghum (SO, corn gluten feed (CG and urea (UR, incubated alone or with monensin, pure for analysis or comercial (Rumensin®. The experiment constituted of 18 experimental units (three energetic or proteic food sources × three antibiotic (control, monensin or rumensin × two duplicates, and the following fermentation parameters were analyzed: pH, ammonia production, microbial protein, soluble protein and protein degradability. The incubations were developed in 96 hours and samples were collected at 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours of fermentation. The pH was measured in glass electrode and ammonia, microbial protein and soluble protein by colorimetry. The was no pH variation along the incubations (initial = 6.94 and final = 7.03. There was no difference between the two ionophore sources, but there was interactions between antibiotic and food sources. The greater ammonia production in the proteic sources was observed with UR, followed by SM and CG, being reduced by the ionophores. The soluble protein was similar for proteic food sources and increased by the ionophores, except for UR. The microbial protein decreased for UR and SM, but increased for CG, with no ionophore effect. In the energetic sources the ionophores only decreased microbial protein of SO. Greater ammonia production in the energetic sources was observed with WM, followed by CM and SO. The soluble protein and microbial protein were similar for all three food sources. Ammonia concentration in all incubations correlated with the final pH and %CP of the food sources.

  3. Novel amide polar-embedded reversed-phase column for the fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method to determine polyether ionophores in environmental waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, P; Borrull, F; Pocurull, E; Marcé, R M

    2012-11-09

    A fast chromatographic method has been developed that takes less than 5 min per run to determine five polyether ionophores with a novel amide polar-embedded reversed-phase column coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. A comparison between Oasis HLB and Oasis MAX sorbents for the solid-phase extraction was done. Oasis HLB sorbent gave recoveries close to 90% and the repeatability (%RSD, 25-100 ng/L, n=3) of the method was less than 7% for all compounds in all matrices. The presence of polyether ionophores in environmental waters such as river water and sewage was investigated. Monensin and narasin were frequently determined in influent and effluent sewage at concentrations from 10 ng/L to 47 ng/L in influents and from 6 ng/L to 34 ng/L in effluents. In river waters, polyether ionophores were not detected in any sample. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. 21 CFR 520.1448a - Monensin blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Limitations. Block to be fed free choice to pasture cattle (slaughter, stocker, feeder, and dairy and beef.... Blocks to be fed free choice to pasture cattle (slaughter, stocker, feeder, and dairy and beef.... Blocks to be fed free choice to pasture cattle (slaughter, stocker, and feeder). Provide at least 1 block...

  5. Screening of a Drug Library Identifies Inhibitors of Cell Intoxication by CNF1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahtal, Nassim; Brewee, Clémence; Pichard, Sylvain; Visvikis, Orane; Cintrat, Jean-Christophe; Barbier, Julien; Lemichez, Emmanuel; Gillet, Daniel

    2018-04-06

    Cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1) is a toxin produced by pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli responsible for extra-intestinal infections. CNF1 deamidates Rac1, thereby triggering its permanent activation and worsening inflammatory reactions. Activated Rac1 is prone to proteasomal degradation. There is no targeted therapy against CNF1, despite its clinical relevance. In this work we developed a fluorescent cell-based immunoassay to screen for inhibitors of CNF1-induced Rac1 degradation among 1120 mostly approved drugs. Eleven compounds were found to prevent CNF1-induced Rac1 degradation, and five also showed a protective effect against CNF1-induced multinucleation. Finally, lasalocid, monensin, bepridil, and amodiaquine protected cells from both diphtheria toxin and CNF1 challenges. These data highlight the potential for drug repurposing to fight several bacterial infections and Rac1-based diseases. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Determination of regulatory ionophore coccidiostat residues in feedstuffs at carry-over levels by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramenga, Arianna; Colagrande, Maria Novella; Campana, Guido; Scortichini, Giampiero; Migliorati, Giacomo; Compagnone, Dario

    2017-01-01

    In this study samples of feedstuffs were collected from different feed mills and animal farms located in central Italy and analyzed for ionophore coccidiostat residues at carry-over levels by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Since unavoidable cross-contamination of feedstuffs may occur during their production as well as distribution and storage, the collection of samples covered all these different stages. Residues of lasalocid, monensin, salinomycin and maduramicin were detected in 32.4% of samples, both at production and storage level. The maximum content for unavoidable carry-over set by Regulation (EU) No 574/2011 was exceeded in 11.3% of samples. The variability of the results highlighted the different approach of each investigated feed business operator to avoid any cross-contamination in non-target feed. The method developed in this study can be able to detect ionophore coccidiostats at low concentrations consequent to carry-over. PMID:28792977

  7. Enhancement of the anticoccidial activity of polyether antibiotics in chickens by tiamulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meingassner, J G; Schmook, F P; Czok, R; Mieth, H

    1979-03-01

    The anticoccidial activities of monensin and lasalocid have been studied separately and in combination with tiamulin, a new pleuromutilin derivative. Combinations of constant tiamulin concentration (.0125%) in drinking water with various levels of polyether anticoccidials (6.3 to 125 ppm) in feed and conversely of constant levels of anticoccidials with various concentrations of tiamulin were used. The prophylactic efficacy of these combined treatments in battery raised broiler chickens infected with Eimeria tenella was evaluated. Assessment of the parameters mortality, weight gain, dropping scores, lesion scores, and oocyst output showed that simultaneous application of tiamulin significantly improved the anticoccidial activity of the polyethers. As tiamulin alone is without anticoccidial activity, this phenomenon was considered to result from an interaction between tiamulin and the polyethers leading to a slower metabolic degradation of the latter. Thus tissue levels adequate for maximum anticoccidial activity would be attained with lower polyether dose levels. Experiments using isolated perfused rat liver showed that elimination of monensin was reduced by 60% in the presence of tiamulin.

  8. Effects of ionophores and antibiotics on in vitro hydrogen sulfide production, dry matter disappearance, and total gas production in cultures with a steam-flaked corn-based substrate with or without added sulfur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, M J; May, M L; Hales, K E; DiLorenzo, N; Leibovich, J; Smith, D R; Galyean, M L

    2009-05-01

    Effects of 3 ionophores and 2 antibiotics on in vitro H(2)S production, IVDMD, total gas production, and VFA profile with or without added S were examined. In Exp. 1, ruminal fluid from 2 ruminally cannulated steers fed a steam-flaked corn-based diet (75% concentrate) without ionophore and antibiotics for 28 d before collection was used to inoculate in vitro cultures. Treatments were control (no ionophore or antibiotic), 3 ionophores (lasalocid sodium and monensin sodium at 5 mg/L or laidlomycin propionate at 1.65 mg/L), and 2 antibiotics (chlortetracycline hydrochloride at 5 mg/L and tylosin tartarate at 1.25 mg/L). Cultures also had 0 or 1.75 mg of S/L (from sodium sulfate). No S x ionophore-antibiotic treatment interactions were noted (P > 0.53) for IVDMD, total gas production, and H(2)S production. Hydrogen sulfide (mumol/g of fermentable DM) was increased (P production tended (P = 0.09) to be increased with additional S; however, IVDMD was not affected by added S (P = 0.90). Production of H(2)S was not affected by ionophores or antibiotics (P > 0.18). On average, IVDMD (P = 0.05) was greater for ionophores than for antibiotics, whereas total gas production was less for ionophores than for control (P antibiotics (P 0.20) in acetate, propionate, or acetate:propionate between ionophores and control (S x treatment interaction, P = 0.03). In Exp. 2, the effects of ionophore-antibiotic combinations with added S were examined using the same procedures as in Exp. 1. Treatments were control, monensin plus tylosin (MT), and lasalocid plus chlortetracycline (LCTC), with concentrations of the ionophores and antibiotics as in Exp. 1. No differences were observed among treatments for H(2)S production (P > 0.55). Treatments MT and LCTC tended (P = 0.06) to increase IVDMD and decreased (P = 0.02) gas production vs. control. Proportion of acetate (P = 0.01) and acetate:propionate (P antibiotics we evaluated did not affect production of H(2)S gas in an in vitro rumen culture

  9. In vitro effect of pH on resistance of ruminal bacteria to intracellular potassium depletion, and effect of pH and ionophores on ammonia and microbial protein production Efeito do pH in vitro sobre a resistência de bactérias do rúmen à perda de potássio intracelular e efeito do pH e de ionóforos sobre a produção de amônia e proteína microbiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Leopoldino

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Ruminal fluid from steers fed on pasture was incubated with artificial media at pH 5.5 and 7.0 in two experiments. In the first, the effect of monensin level on resistance of ruminal bacteria to potassium depletion was evaluated; in the second, effects of the ionophores monensin and lasalocid on ammonia and protein production were quantified. In experiment 1, culture media affected potassium level. The monensin concentration needed to cause half maximal potassium depletion was 2.77µM at pH 5.5 but was 0.056µM at pH 7.0, showing that bacteria incubated at pH 5.5 were more tolerant to monensin than those incubated at pH 7.0. Both ionophores as well as increased acidity caused decreased ammonia production. Both ionophores inhibited ammonia production by 56%, independently of pH. In cultures incubated at pH 5.5 compared to pH 7.0, ammonia production was decreased by 50.5%, independently of the ionophores. Therefore, effects of ionophores and acidity were additive, and the maximum inhibition occurred in the presence of an ionophore at low pH (75.2%. Microbial protein production was lowest when lasalocid was present in a low pH culture medium, causing inhibition of microbial growth.Em dois estudos, o líquido ruminal de bovinos mantidos sob pastagem foi usado para incubação in vitro em diferentes meios artificiais com valores de pH 5,5 e 7,0, para avaliar a ação de níveis crescentes de monensina na resistência à perda de potássio de bactérias do rúmen e verificar o efeito de monensina e lasalocida na produção de amônia e de proteína microbiana em pH 5,5 e 7,0. O meio utilizado para determinar a perda de potássio interferiu nos valores absolutos de potássio. A concentração de monensina necessária para causar a metade da perda máxima de potássio foi de 2,77µM em pH 5,5 e 0,056µM em pH 7,0, evidenciando que as bactérias incubadas em meios com pH 5,5 foram mais resistentes à monensina que aquelas incubadas em meios com pH 7

  10. Salinomycin, a polyether ionophoric antibiotic, inhibits adipogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szkudlarek-Mikho, Maria; Saunders, Rudel A.; Yap, Sook Fan; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Chin, Khew-Voon

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Salinomycin inhibits preadipocyte differentiation into adipocytes. ► Salinomycin inhibits transcriptional regulation of adipogenesis. ► Pharmacological effects of salinomycin suggest toxicity in cancer therapy. -- Abstract: The polyether ionophoric antibiotics including monensin, salinomycin, and narasin, are widely used in veterinary medicine and as food additives and growth promoters in animal husbandry including poultry farming. Their effects on human health, however, are not fully understood. Recent studies showed that salinomycin is a cancer stem cell inhibitor. Since poultry consumption has risen sharply in the last three decades, we asked whether the consumption of meat tainted with growth promoting antibiotics might have effects on adipose cells. We showed in this report that the ionophoric antibiotics inhibit the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. The block of differentiation is not due to the induction of apoptosis nor the inhibition of cell proliferation. In addition, salinomycin also suppresses the transcriptional activity of the CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. These results suggest that the ionophoric antibiotics can be exploited as novel anti-obesity therapeutics and as pharmacological probes for the study of adipose biology. Further, the pharmacological effects of salinomycin could be a harbinger of its toxicity on the adipose tissue and other susceptible target cells in cancer therapy.

  11. Salinomycin, a polyether ionophoric antibiotic, inhibits adipogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szkudlarek-Mikho, Maria; Saunders, Rudel A. [Department of Medicine, Biochemistry and Cancer Biology, Center for Diabetes and Endocrine Research, College of Medicine, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States); Yap, Sook Fan [Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Department of Pre-Clinical Sciences, University of Tunku Abdul Rahman (Malaysia); Ngeow, Yun Fong [Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Chin, Khew-Voon, E-mail: khew-voon.chin@utoledo.edu [Department of Medicine, Biochemistry and Cancer Biology, Center for Diabetes and Endocrine Research, College of Medicine, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salinomycin inhibits preadipocyte differentiation into adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salinomycin inhibits transcriptional regulation of adipogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pharmacological effects of salinomycin suggest toxicity in cancer therapy. -- Abstract: The polyether ionophoric antibiotics including monensin, salinomycin, and narasin, are widely used in veterinary medicine and as food additives and growth promoters in animal husbandry including poultry farming. Their effects on human health, however, are not fully understood. Recent studies showed that salinomycin is a cancer stem cell inhibitor. Since poultry consumption has risen sharply in the last three decades, we asked whether the consumption of meat tainted with growth promoting antibiotics might have effects on adipose cells. We showed in this report that the ionophoric antibiotics inhibit the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. The block of differentiation is not due to the induction of apoptosis nor the inhibition of cell proliferation. In addition, salinomycin also suppresses the transcriptional activity of the CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma}. These results suggest that the ionophoric antibiotics can be exploited as novel anti-obesity therapeutics and as pharmacological probes for the study of adipose biology. Further, the pharmacological effects of salinomycin could be a harbinger of its toxicity on the adipose tissue and other susceptible target cells in cancer therapy.

  12. Salinomycin, A Polyether Ionophoric Antibiotic, Inhibits Adipogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkudlarek-Mikho, Maria; Saunders, Rudel A.; Yap, Sook Fan; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Chin, Khew-Voon

    2012-01-01

    The polyether ionophoric antibiotics including monensin, salinomycin, and narasin, are widely used in veterinary medicine and as food additives and growth promoters in animal husbandry including poultry farming. Their effects on human health, however, are not fully understood. Recent studies showed that salinomycin is a cancer stem cell inhibitor. Since poultry consumption has risen sharply in the last three decades, we asked whether the consumption of meat tainted with growth promoting antibiotics might have effects on adipose cells. We showed in this report that the ionophoric antibiotics inhibit the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. The block of differentiation is not due to the induction of apoptosis nor the inhibition of cell proliferation. In addition, salinomycin also suppresses the transcriptional activity of the CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. These results suggest that the ionophoric antibiotics can be exploited as novel anti-obesity therapeutics and as pharmacological probes for the study of adipose biology. Further, the pharmacological effects of salinomycin could be a harbinger of its toxicity on the adipose tissue and other susceptible target cells in cancer therapy. PMID:23123626

  13. In vitro metabolism of monensin A: microbial and human liver microsomes models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rocha, B. A.; Assis, M. D.; Peti, A. P. F.; Moraes, L. A. B.; Moreira, F. L.; Lopes, N. P.; Pospíšil, Stanislav; Gates, P. J.; de Oliviera, A. R. M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 4 (2014), s. 326-335 ISSN 0049-8254 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Cytochrome P450 * LC-ESI-MS/MS * mass spectrometry Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 2.199, year: 2014

  14. The effect of monensin on milk production, milk urea nitrogen and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    compared with concentrations obtained by laboratory analysis (Table 1). ... calving, a phase when the management emphasis is on early reconception to reduce the intercalving period. ..... Lean, I.J., Parker, W.J. & Kellaway, R.C., 1996.

  15. 77 FR 60622 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor's Address; Monensin; Spinosad; Tilmicosin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... swine the sole ration for respiratory disease 21-day period, associated with beginning Actinobacillus... dairy cattle: For 14 days to provide the control of 12.5 milligrams/ bovine respiratory kilogram/head... drug residues least 10 percent of in milk. This drug the animals in the product is not group. approved...

  16. 78 FR 66263 - New Animal Drugs; Afoxolaner; Carprofen; Ceftiofur Hydrochloride; Monensin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 510, 520, 522, and 558 [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0002] New Animal Drugs; Afoxolaner; Carprofen; Ceftiofur Hydrochloride... transferred ownership of, and all rights and interest in, ANADA 200-555 for LIBREVIA (carprofen) Soft Chewable...

  17. Effects of adiCox®AP and monensin on production parameters and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monika

    2014-05-30

    May 30, 2014 ... of slow-growing Hubbard JA 957 broiler chickens .... Table 1 Dietary ingredients and nutrient composition of experimental diets ..... in litter-based, high stocking density systems for loose-housed laying hens in Sweden. Br.

  18. The effect of dietary lipid saturation and monensin-Na on the CLA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uvp

    2013-08-06

    Aug 6, 2013 ... adaptation of 10 days, the lambs received their respective treatment diets for the remaining period of 51 days. At the end of .... Diets containing high levels of linoleic acid (P <0.05) increased its .... Georgia, CAES, Dept. Anim.

  19. Circular Dichroism is Sensitive to Monovalent Cation Binding in Monensin Complexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nedzhib, A.; Kessler, Jiří; Bouř, Petr; Gyurcsik, B.; Pantcheva, I.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 5 (2016), s. 420-428 ISSN 0899-0042 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-09072S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-05935S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : monovalent polyether ionophore * metal complexes * synchrotron radiation circular dichroism * time-dependent density functional theory Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.956, year: 2016

  20. Coccidiosis in the Chukar Partridge ( Alectoris chukar ): A Survey of Coccidiosis Outbreaks and a Test of Anticoccidial Drugs Against Eimeria kofoidi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhold, R W; Fuller, A L; McDougald, L R

    2016-12-01

    Field isolates of coccidia from 20 natural outbreaks in the chukar partridge ( Alectoris chukar ) were received from gamebird farms in 10 U.S. states. These were propagated in the laboratory and identified by microscopy and PCR. Of 20 samples, 18 were Eimeria kofoidi, two were Eimeria legionensis only, and one was a mixture of the two species. One isolate of E. kofoidi also contained an unidentified species detected only by PCR, nucleotide sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. The efficacy of anticoccidial drugs against chukar coccidia was tested with experimental infections in battery cages. Isolates of E. kofoidi were used to infect 2-wk-old chukars. Anticoccidial products were given in the feed at levels approved for other poultry or for chukars. Tests were terminated at 6 days postinoculation with measurement of weight gains, fecal diarrhea scores, and necropsy to observe for lesion severity. Lasalocid (120 ppm) was moderately effective in one test. When tested against four field isolates, other ionophores (monensin, salinomycin, semduramicin) showed moderate effectiveness in reducing lesions and improving weight gains. Rofenaid (a potentiated sulfa mixture), robenidine (30 ppm), diclazuril (2 ppm), and decoquinate (80 ppm) were highly effective. In a test of nine products against a highly virulent field isolate, only diclazuril (2 ppm) and clopidol (125 ppm) reduced the severity of lesions and improved weight gain relative to infected controls, suggesting the extent to which previous drug usage had selected for drug resistance.

  1. Hops (Humulus lupulus L. Bitter Acids: Modulation of Rumen Fermentation and Potential As an Alternative Growth Promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Flythe

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics can improve ruminant growth and efficiency by altering rumen fermentation via selective inhibition of microorganisms. However, antibiotic use is increasingly restricted due to concerns about the spread of antibiotic-resistance. Plant-based antimicrobials are alternatives to antibiotics in animal production. The hops plant (Humulus lupulus L. produces a range of bioactive secondary metabolites, including antimicrobial prenylated phloroglucinols, which are commonly called alpha- and beta-acids. These latter compounds can be considered phyto-ionophores, phytochemicals with a similar antimicrobial mechanism of action to ionophore antibiotics (e.g., monensin, lasalocid. Like ionophores, the hop beta-acids inhibit rumen bacteria possessing a classical Gram-positive cell envelope. This selective inhibition causes several effects on rumen fermentation that are beneficial to finishing cattle, such as decreased proteolysis, ammonia production, acetate: propionate ratio, and methane production. This article reviews the effects of hops and hop secondary metabolites on rumen fermentation, including the physiological mechanisms on specific rumen microorganisms, and consequences for the ruminant host and ruminant production. Further, we propose that hop beta-acids are useful model natural products for ruminants because of (1 the ionophore-like mechanism of action and spectrum of activity and (2 the literature available on the plant due to its use in brewing.

  2. Anticoccidial efficacy testing: In vitro Eimeria tenella assays as replacement for animal experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabet, Ahmed; Zhang, Runhui; Alnassan, Alaa-Aldin; Daugschies, Arwid; Bangoura, Berit

    2017-01-15

    Availability of an accurate in vitro assay is a crucial demand to determine sensitivity of Eimeria spp. field strains toward anticoccidials routinely. In this study we tested in vitro models of Eimeria tenella using various polyether ionophores (monensin, salinomycin, maduramicin, and lasalocid) and toltrazuril. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC 95 , MIC 50/95 ) for the tested anticoccidials were defined based on a susceptible reference (Houghton strain), Ref-1. In vitro sporozoite invasion inhibition assay (SIA) and reproduction inhibition assay (RIA) were applied on sensitive laboratory (Ref-1 and Ref-2) and field (FS-1, FS-2, and FS-3) strains to calculate percent of inhibition under exposure of these strains to the various anticoccidials (%I SIA and%I RIA, respectively). The in vitro data were related to oocyst excretion, lesion scores, performance, and global resistance indices (GI) assessed in experimentally infected chickens. Polyether ionophores applied in the RIA were highly effective at MIC 95 against Ref-1 and Ref-2 (%I RIA ≥95%). In contrast, all tested field strains displayed reduced to low efficacy (%I RIA animal model (p89%) against all strains used in this study. However, adjusted GI (GI adj ) for toltrazuril-treated groups exhibited differences between reference and field strains which might indicate varying sensitivity. RIA is a suitable in vitro tool to detect sensitivity of E. tenella towards polyether ionophores, and may thus help to reduce, replace, or refine use of animal experimentation for in vivo sensitivity assays. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Detection and quantification of ionophore antibiotics in runoff, soil and poultry litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peizhe; Barmaz, Delphine; Cabrera, Miguel L; Pavlostathis, Spyros G; Huang, Ching-Hua

    2013-10-18

    Ionophore antibiotics (IPAs) are widely used as coccidiostats in poultry and other livestock industries to promote growth and prevent infections. Because most of the ingested IPAs are excreted in poultry litter, which is primarily applied as grassland fertilizer, a significant amount of IPAs can be released into the litter-soil-water environment. A robust analytical method has been developed to quantify IPAs (monensin (MON), salinomycin (SAL) and narasin (NAR)) in complex environmental compartments including surface runoff, soil and poultry litter, with success to minimize matrix interference. The method for water samples involves solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) post-clean up steps. The method for solid samples involves bi-solvent LLE. IPAs were detected by HPLC-MS, with optimized parameters to achieve the highest sensitivity. Nigericin (NIG), an IPA not used in livestock industry, is successfully applied and validated as a surrogate standard. The method recoveries were at 92-95% and 81-85% in runoff samples from unfertilized and litter-fertilized fields, respectively. For solids, the method recoveries were at 93-99% in soils, and 79-83% in poultry litter samples. SAL was detected at up to 22mg/kg and MON and NAR at up to 4mg/kg in broiler litter from different farms. Up to 183μg/kg of MON was detected in litter-fertilized soils. All three IPAs were detected in the rainfall runoff from litter-fertilized lands at concentrations up to 9μg/L. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk-based approach to developing a national residue sampling plan for testing under European Union regulation for veterinary medicinal products and coccidiostat feed additives in domestic animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaher, Martin; Shanahan, Conor; Butler, Francis; Evans, Rhodri; O'Sullivan, Dan; Glynn, Denise; Camon, Tim; Lawlor, Peadar; O'Keeffe, Michael

    2016-07-01

    A ranking system for veterinary medicinal products and coccidiostat feed additives has been developed as a tool to be applied in a risk-based approach to the residue testing programme for foods of animal origin in the Irish National Residue Control Plan (NRCP). Three characteristics of substances that may occur as residues in food are included in the developed risk ranking system: Potency, as measured by the acceptable daily intake assigned by the European Medicines Agency Committee for Medicinal Products for Veterinary Use, to each substance; Usage, as measured by the three factors of Number of Doses, use on Individual animals or for Group treatment, and Withdrawal Period; and Residue Occurrence, as measured by the number of Non-Compliant Samples in the NRCP. For both Number of Doses and Non-Compliant Samples, data for the 5-year period 2008-12 have been used. The risk ranking system for substances was developed for beef cattle, sheep and goats, pigs, chickens and dairy cattle using a scoring system applied to the various parameters described above to give an overall score based on the following equation: Potency × Usage (Number of Doses + Individual/Group Use + Withdrawal Period) × Residue Occurrence. Applying this risk ranking system, the following substances are ranked very highly: antimicrobials such as amoxicillin (for all species except pigs), marbofloxacillin (for beef cattle), oxytetracycline (for all species except chickens), sulfadiazine with trimethoprim (for pigs and chickens) and tilmicosin (for chickens); antiparasitic drugs, such as the benzimidazoles triclabendazole (for beef and dairy cattle), fenbendazole/oxfendazole (for sheep/goats and dairy cattle) and albendazole (for dairy cattle), the avermectin ivermectin (for beef cattle), and anti-fluke drugs closantel and rafoxanide (for sheep/goats); the anticoccidials monensin, narasin, nicarbazin and toltrazuril (for chickens). The risk ranking system described is a relatively simple system

  5. Effect of anaerobic digestion temperature on odour, coliforms and chlortetracycline in swine manure or monensin in cattle manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotics used in animal feeding operations have been detected in the environment. There is a growing concern about the impact of these pharmaceutical compounds in the manure and the effect they may have on aquatic and terrestrial organisms, and the potential development of antibiotic resistant m...

  6. Monensin Inhibits Canonical Wnt Signaling in Human Colorectal Cancer Cells and Suppresses Tumor Growth in Multiple Intestinal Neoplasia Mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tůmová, Lucie; Pombinho, António R.; Vojtěchová, Martina; Stančíková, Jitka; Gradl, D.; Krausová, Michaela; Šloncová, Eva; Horázná, Monika; Kříž, Vítězslav; Machoňová, Olga; Jindřich, Jindřich; Zdráhal, Z.; Bartůněk, Petr; Kořínek, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2014), s. 812-822 ISSN 1535-7163 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP305/12/2347; GA MPO FR-TI4/802; GA MŠk LM2011022; GA MŠk LO1220 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : bate-catenin * throughput screen * small molecule inhibitors Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.683, year: 2014

  7. Effects of a blended garlic and cinnamon essential oil extract with and without monensin sodium on the performance of grazing steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of stocker grazing experiments were conducted with the objective to determine the efficacy of supplementing growing calf diets with essential oils from garlic and cinnamon extracts (GCOE) in promoting growth on cool-season annuals in Arkansas (SWREC) and Oklahoma (SPRRS), or native rangelan...

  8. Performance, health and physiological responses of newly weaned feedlot cattle supplemented with feed-grade antibiotics or alternative feed ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, K A; Cooke, R F; Schubach, K M; Brandão, A P; Schumaher, T F; Prado, I N; Marques, R S; Bohnert, D W

    2018-03-26

    With increased regulations regarding the use of feed-grade antimicrobials in livestock systems, alternative strategies to enhance growth and immunity of feedlot cattle are warranted. Hence, this experiment compared performance, health and physiological responses of cattle supplemented with feed-grade antibiotics or alternative feed ingredients during the initial 60 days in the feedlot. Angus×Hereford calves (63 steers+42 heifers) originating from two cow-calf ranches were weaned on day -3, obtained from an auction yard on day -2 and road-transported (800 km; 12 h) to the feedlot. Upon arrival on day -1, shrunk BW was recorded. On day 0, calves were ranked by sex, source and shrunk BW, and allocated to one of 21 pens. Pens were assigned to receive (7 pens/treatment) a free-choice total mixed ration containing: (1) lasalocid (360 mg/calf daily of Bovatec; Zoetis, Florham Park, NJ, USA)+chlortetracycline (350 mg/calf of Aureomycin at cycles of 5-day inclusion and 2-day removal from diet; Zoetis) from days 0 to 32, and monensin only (360 mg/calf daily of Rumensin; Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN, USA) from days 33 to 60 (PC), (2) sodium saccharin-based sweetener (Sucram at 0.04 g/kg of diet dry matter; Pancosma SA; Geneva, Switzerland)+plant extracts containing eugenol, cinnamaldehyde and capsicum (800 mg/calf daily of XTRACT Ruminants 7065; Pancosma SA) from days 0 to 32 and XTRACT only (800 mg/calf daily) from days 33 to 60 (EG) or (3) no supplemental ingredients (CON; days 0 to 60). Calves were assessed for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) signs and dry matter intake was recorded from each pen daily. Calves were vaccinated against BRD pathogens on days 0 and 22. Shrunk BW was recorded on day 61, and blood samples collected on days 0, 6, 11, 22, 33, 43 and 60. Calf ADG was greater (P=0.04) in PC v. EG and tended (P=0.09) to be greater in PC v. CON. Feed efficiency also tended (P=0.09) to be greater in PC v. CON, although main treatment effect for this response

  9. Ocorrência de resíduos de ionóforos poliéteres em leite UHT comercializado na região metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro | Occurrence of polyether ionophore residues in UHT milk marketed in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mararlene Ulberg Pereira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Os ionóforos poliéteres são antibióticos utilizados em bovinos como promotores de crescimento, para aumentar a produção de leite em vacas em lactação e prevenir e tratar a coccidiose. Os ionóforos poliéteres autorizados como aditivos antimicrobianos no Brasil para uso na alimentação de bovinos e vacas leiteiras são a lasalocida e a monensina sódica. Entretanto, poucos são os métodos analíticos para determinação destes resíduos em leite e não há dados de monitoramento disponíveis no Brasil. Essa classe ainda não está incluída nos programas de controle de resíduos em leite implementados pela Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária e pelo Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a ocorrência de seis ionóforos poliéteres em leite UHT empregando um método analítico desenvolvido e validado no Instituto Nacional de Controle de Qualidade em Saúde. O método foi aplicado em 102 amostras de leite integral UHT comercializadas na região metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro. Nas amostras analisadas somente resíduos do antibiótico monensina foram encontrados. Esta substância foi detectada em 14% das amostras, mas as concentrações estimadas foram bem inferiores ao limite máximo de resíduo de 2 µg/kg recomendado pelo Codex Alimentarius e pela Comunidade Europeia. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Polyether ionophore antibiotics are used in cattle to promote growth, to increase milk production in lactating cows, and to prevent and treat coccidiosis. In Brazil, lasalocid and monensin are the two polyether ionophores that are allowed as antimicrobial additives in cattle and dairy cow feed. However, there are few methods for determining the residues of these additives in milk, and no monitoring data are available in Brazil. These residues are not yet included in the residue control programs in the milk matrix

  10. lammerooie op suur winterveld; (b) Naspeen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilization of monensin in protein-energy licks by lactating ewes on sour winter veld; (b) Postweaning. High (HEL) and low. (LEL) energy protein licks, with and without monensin, were fed to Oohne Merino ewes before and after weaning on Oohne sourveld during the winter. Creep feed and growth rations with and without ...

  11. 77 FR 29216 - New Animal Drugs; Ceftiofur Sodium; Lincomycin Powder; Naracin; Tylosin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ...) * * * (2) * * * (ii) Indications for use. For treatment of bovine respiratory disease (shipping fever... treatment of sheep respiratory disease (sheep pneumonia) associated with Mannheimia haemolytica and........... Environmental Health, A (narasin) Type increasing the assessment (EA)/ Division of Eli A medicated upper dose...

  12. Fate and antibacterial potency of anticoccidal drugs and their main abiotic degradation products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin; Krogh, Kristine Andersen; Brandt, Asbjørn

    2009-01-01

    )). The potency of mixtures of two of the compounds, narasin and nicarbazin, was synergistic (more than additive) with 10-fold greater antibacterial potency of the mixture than can be explained by their individual EC(50)-values. The influence of pH, temperature, oxygen concentration and light...

  13. Effects of Feeding Garlic and Juniper Berry Essential Oils on Milk Fatty Acid Composition of Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhu Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils (EOs from plant extracts have been reported to have an antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Several of the gram-positive bacteria are involved in ruminal biohydrogenation of fatty acids (FAs, thus suggesting that feeding EOs could lower biohydrogenation of FA because of a decrease in the number of bacteria involved in that process. As a result, milk FA profiles are expected to be modified. In addition, monensin was approved as an antibiotic to be fed in dairy cattle, and it was reported that dairy cows supplemented with monensin produced milk containing higher concentration of 18:1 t10 and 18:1 t11. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two EOs (garlic and juniper berry oils and monensin on FA profiles of milk fat. Four ruminally fistulated Holstein dairy cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square experiment. Cows were fed for ad libitum intake a total mixed ration without supplementation (control, or supplemented with monensin (330 mg/head per day, garlic oil (5 g/head per day, or juniper berry oil (2 g/head per day. The FA composition of saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated was not affected by supplementation of EO and monensin. However, proportion of conjugated linoleic acid trans 10, cis 12 (CLA t10, c12 was higher ( P < 0.05 for cows fed EO or monensin than for control cows. Supplementation of monensin increased ( P < 0.05 the proportion of total trans FA compared with the control. These results indicate that supplementation of the dairy cow diet with garlic or juniper berry EO or monensin had the potential to increase the proportion of CLA t10, c12 in milk fat with minimal overall effects on FA of milk fat. The results also confirm the increase of 18:1 t10 in milk fat by feeding monensin to dairy cows.

  14. The effects of an active live yeast product on the growth performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a rumen-specific, active live yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae; SC CNCM I-1077), alone or in combination with an ionophore (lasalocid-Na) in standard feedlot diets, on production performance and carcass quality of lambs. Sixty South African (S.A.) Mutton Merino lambs, ...

  15. Propolis extract in the diet of crossbred (½ Angus vs. ½ Nellore bulls finished in feedlot: animal performance, feed efficiency and carcass characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Velandia Valero

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Current research studied the replacement of monensin by propolis on performance, feed efficiency and carcass characteristic of bulls finished in feedlot. The bulls, kept in feedlot for 70 days, were allocated in three diets: Control (CON, Monensin (MON and Propolis (PRO. They were fed on corn silage, cracked corn, soybean meal, urea, limestone and mineral salt. Further, 250 mg monensin and 35 g propolis/bulls/day were included respectively in the MON and PRO diets. Animal performance and carcass characteristics were similar (P>0.05 among diets. Feed intake was higher (P0.05 urinary excretion, microbial synthesis and carcass characteristics.

  16. Effect of whey fermented by Enterococcus faeciumin consortium with Veilonella parvulaon ruminal bacteria in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higor Fábio Carvalho Bezerra

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of whey fermented by Enterococus faecium in consortium with Veilonella parvula in vitro on ruminal microorganisms in different substrates, with or without monensin. The first experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design, in a 6 × 3 factorial arrangement (six substrates × three whey levels with two replicates. In experiment two, a 2 × 3 × 4 factorial arrangement (with and without monensin, three foods and four levels of fermented whey was used, in a randomized design with four replicates, totaling 24 treatments. There was no interaction among the wheys and the substrates in the variable for pectin, starch, and carboxymethyl cellulose. There was a greater growth of amylolytic and pectinolytic microorganisms and a lower growth of proteolytic and cellulolytic microorganisms. A significant effect of optical density was found in the media without substrate and that containing trypticase and glucose due to the addition of fermented whey. There was interaction for the pH at 24 hours among whey, food and monensin. For ammonia at 24 hours there was effect for food, whey and monensin, and interaction among factors. For microbial protein at 24 hours, there was effect for food, whey, monensin and no interaction among sources of variation. The use of whey fermented by bacteria Enterococcus faeciumand Veilonella parvula improves microbial protein synthesis by ruminal bacteria in media containing different energy sources. The combination of fermented whey and monensin shows variable results in relation to microbial growth.

  17. Dietary effects of Ca-zeolite supplementation on some blood and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    smyo

    to the Al, Si, Zn, Na or K concentrations of zeolite, because these minerals have been ... The SiO2, Al2O3, H2O related to loss on ignition, and CaO are the essential ...... The effect of interaction between narasin and nicarbazin with zeolite ... Protective role of zeolite on short- and long-term lead toxicity in the teleost fish.

  18. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. Authors wish to record their grateful thanks to Prof. N. L. Singh for his interest in this work. Thanks are due to Prof. N. A. Narasin;h: In for his helpful suggestions in improviñg the manuscript. One of them (SN.R.) is thankful to C.S.I.R. (New Delhi), India, for financial support. Basolo, F. and Johnson, R.

  19. Shifts in bacterial community composition in the rumen of lactating dairy cows under milk fat-depressing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, P J; Stevenson, D M; Mertens, D R

    2010-01-01

    Eighteen ruminally cannulated dairy cattle were fed a series of diets (in 28-d periods) designed to elicit different degrees of milk fat depression (MFD) for the purpose of relating MFD to ruminal bacterial populations. Cows were fed a TMR containing 25% starch (DM basis) supplied as corn silage, a slowly fermented starch (SFS treatment, period 1), then switched to a TMR containing 27% starch, much of it supplied as ground high-moisture corn, a rapidly fermented starch (RFS treatment, period 2). In period 3, the RFS diet was amended with 13.6 mg of monensin/kg of DM (RFS/Mon treatment), and in period 4, the cows were returned to the RFS diet without monensin (RFS/Post treatment). Effect of both starch source and monensin on milk fat percentage varied by cow, and cluster analysis identified 4 pairs of cows having distinct milk fat patterns. Archived ruminal liquors and solids from the 4 pairs were processed to isolate bacterial DNA, which was subjected to automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis followed by correspondence analysis to visualize bacterial community composition (BCC). One pair of cows (S-responsive) showed MFD on RFS feeding, but displayed no additional MFD upon monensin feeding and a fat rebound upon monensin withdrawal. The second pair of cows (M-responsive) showed no MFD upon switch from the SFS diet to the RFS diet, but displayed strong MFD upon monensin feeding and no recovery after monensin withdrawal. Both groups displayed major shifts in BCC upon dietary shifts, including dietary shifts that both did and did not change milk fat production. The third pair of cows (SM-responsive) displayed reduction of milk fat on both RFS and RFS/Mon diets, and fat returned to the levels on the RFS diet upon monensin withdrawal; these cows showed a more gradual shift in BCC in response to both starch source and monensin. The fourth pair of cows (nonresponsive) did not display changes in milk fat percentage with dietary treatment and showed only minor

  20. RNase-L regulates the stability of mitochondrial DNA-encoded mRNAs in mouse embryo fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekaran, Krish; Mehrabian, Zara; Li Xiaoling; Hassel, Bret

    2004-01-01

    Accelerated decrease in the levels of mitochondrial DNA-encoded mRNA (mt-mRNA) occurs in neuronal cells exposed either to the excitatory amino acid, glutamate or to the sodium ionophore, monensin, suggesting a role of mitochondrial RNase(s) on the stability of mt-mRNAs. Here we report that in mouse embryo fibroblasts that are devoid of the interferon-regulated RNase, RNase-L, the monensin-induced decrease in the half-life of mt-mRNA was reduced. In monensin (250 nM)-treated RNase-L +/+ cells the average half-life of mt-mRNA, determined after termination of transcription with actinomycin D, was found to be 3 h, whereas in monensin-treated RNase-L -/- cells the half-life of mt-mRNA was >6 h. In contrast, the stability of nuclear DNA-encoded β-actin mRNA was unaffected. Induction of RNase-L expression in mouse 3T3 fibroblasts further decreased the monensin-induced reduction in mt-mRNA half-life to 1.5 h. The results indicate that the RNase-L-dependent decrease in mtDNA-encoded mRNA transcript levels occurs through a decrease in the half-life of mt-mRNA, and that RNase-L may play a role in the stability of mt-mRNA

  1. Na(+)/K(+) pump interacts with the h-current to control bursting activity in central pattern generator neurons of leeches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueh, Daniel; Barnett, William H; Cymbalyuk, Gennady S; Calabrese, Ronald L

    2016-09-02

    The dynamics of different ionic currents shape the bursting activity of neurons and networks that control motor output. Despite being ubiquitous in all animal cells, the contribution of the Na(+)/K(+) pump current to such bursting activity has not been well studied. We used monensin, a Na(+)/H(+) antiporter, to examine the role of the pump on the bursting activity of oscillator heart interneurons in leeches. When we stimulated the pump with monensin, the period of these neurons decreased significantly, an effect that was prevented or reversed when the h-current was blocked by Cs(+). The decreased period could also occur if the pump was inhibited with strophanthidin or K(+)-free saline. Our monensin results were reproduced in model, which explains the pump's contributions to bursting activity based on Na(+) dynamics. Our results indicate that a dynamically oscillating pump current that interacts with the h-current can regulate the bursting activity of neurons and networks.

  2. Effects of alkaloid extracts of mesquite pod on the products of in vitro rumen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus Pereira, Taiala Cristina; Pereira, Mara Lúcia Albuquerque; Moreira, Jeruzia Vitória; Azevêdo, José Augusto Gomes; Batista, Ronan; de Paula, Vanderlúcia Fonseca; Oliveira, Brena Santos; de Jesus Dos Santos, Edileusa

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of alkaloid extracts of Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) D.C. pods obtained by two extraction methods as compared with sodium monensin on the gas production kinetic, mitigation of methane, and rumen fermentation products using wheat bran or Tifton 85 hay as substrates, by the semi-automatic in vitro gas production technique. A completely randomized design was adopted, and two natural additives were tested made from mesquite pod (alkaloid extract I and alkaloid extract II) at three levels (3.9, 7.9, and 12 μg), sodium monensin 5 μM (positive control), and no inclusion of additives (negative control). The volume of gases produced by the degradation of the fibrous fraction of wheat bran was influenced by the concentration of the extract I added to the medium, and the amounts of 7.9 and 12 μg were equal to monensin at the lowest value. The degradation rate of the fibrous carbohydrates with additive extract I at 12 μg was lower in relation to monensin. When Tifton 85 hay was utilized, alkaloid extract I provided a shorter colonization time as compared with monensin at the added amounts of 7.9 and 12 μg and higher production of gases from the fibrous fraction but without interfering with the total volume of gases produced during 96 h of fermentation of carbohydrates. In the periods of 12 and 24 h of incubation, utilizing alkaloid extract I, the mean values of methane production with wheat bran and Tifton 85 hay were lower than monensin (p < 0.05) when the respective amounts of 7.9 and 12 μg were added. Alkaloid extract I has similar potential to sodium in reducing production of total gases, methane, and the acetate/propionate ratio.

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens isolated from piglets with or without diarrhea in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvarani, Felipe Masiero; Silveira Silva, Rodrigo Otávio; Pires, Prhiscylla Sadanã; da Costa Cruz Júnior, Eduardo Coulaud; Albefaro, Isabella Silva; de Carvalho Guedes, Roberto Maurício; Faria Lobato, Francisco Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for 13 antibiotics against Clostridium perfringens isolated from Brazilian piglets. The collection of isolates was performed in June to October 2010. All isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin and ceftiofur, whereas most were resistant to tetracycline and lincomycin. Avilamycin and narasin were more effective against isolates from non-diarrheic than from diarrheic piglets. The other antimicrobials were less active in need of high concentrations to inhibit the growth of the C. perfringens type A. These results suggest the need for further studies evaluating molecular factors related to the antimicrobial resistance of C. perfringens. PMID:24031924

  4. Susceptibility of Clostridium difficile Toward Antimicrobial Agents Used as Feed Additives for Food Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Tvede, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A total of 65 toxigenic Clostridium difficile strains isolated from patients with antibiotic-associated diarrhea were tested for susceptibility to avilamycin, flavomycin, monensin, and salinomycin. Except for flavomycin the substances showed in vitro efficacy comparable to reports of the currentl...

  5. Comparison of control methods for coccidiosis in native Spanish Castellana Negra chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel, J. A.; Asenjo, B.; Ciria, J.; Cacho, E. del; Calvo, J. L.

    2008-07-01

    Coccidiosis is a disease responsible for serious economic losses in the poultry industry. This paper compares the effect of coccidiosis infection in a population of experimentally infected Castellana Negra chickens previously administered the ionophores antibiotic monensin (Treatment 1), Alquernat Zyox, a herb-based product (Treatment 2), or a live vaccine based on oocysts selected for precocity (Treatment 3). Fifty birds per treatment were housed in captivity and weighed individually once every two weeks. At nine weeks they were infected with pathogenic oocysts of Eimeria tenella, E. acervulina and E. maxima. No significant differences (P<0.05) were seen in body weight between the birds in the three treatment groups after week 10. The average daily weight gain of the Alquernat Zycox-treated and vaccinated birds was similar over the entire experimental period, and more regular than that of the monensin-treated birds. The number of oocysts eliminated in the faeces and the degree of intestinal injury caused were analysed at 10, 11 and 12 weeks. The vaccine-treated birds shed a smaller number of oocysts in their faeces at 11 and 12 weeks than did those treated with monensin or Alquernat Zycox (P<0.001). At 11 and 12 weeks the vaccine- and Alquernat Zycox-treated birds showed significantly (P<0.05) less intestinal injury than the monensin-treated birds. (Author) 22 refs.

  6. Maduramicin and tiamulin compatibility in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiola, J J; Luco, D F; Perez, V; Vargas, M A; Lujan, L; Marin, J F

    1994-03-01

    A total of 480 1-day-old Hybro broiler chickens were divided into five treatment groups (A: unmedicated control, B: maduramicin, C: maduramicin + tiamulin, D: monensin + tiamulin and E: tiamulin) to study the effect on performance parameters, organ weights, blood haematology and biochemistry, and histopathology of liver and selected striated muscles, when maduramicin at 5 parts/10(6) and monensin at 100 parts/10(6) were included in feed in starter and grower periods, and tiamulin 9 in water at 270 parts/10(6) the recommended therapeutic level, from day 28 to 31. Performance parameters were significantly and negatively affected by monensin but not by maduramicin after treatment with tiamulin. Histopathological examination of striated muscles showed no incompatibility of maduramicin + tiamulin, while lesions were found in the monensin + tiamulin treated group. It is concluded that the use of tiamulin to a therapeutic level for 3 consecutive days is compatible with the simultaneous presence of maduramicin in the feed of broilers.

  7. Improving the prediction of methane production and representation of rumen fermentation for finishing beef cattle within a mechanistic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, J.L.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.; Kebreab, E.; Archibeque, S.; Benchaar, C.; Beauchemin, K.; Nkrumah, D.J.; France, J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate prediction of methane emissions from finishing beef cattle using an extant mechanistic model with pH-independent or pH-dependent VFA stoichiometries, a recent stoichiometry adjustment for the use of monensin, and adaptation of the underlying model structure,

  8. An alternative to antibiotic-based drugs in feed for enhancing performance of broilers grown on Eimeria spp.-infected litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, V G; Gray, C; Daley, M; Krueger, W F; Sefton, A E

    2004-01-01

    Three trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of lasalocid, an anticoccidial feed additive (90.7 kg/ton); bacitracin, a growth-promoter (50 g/ton); and yeast culture residue (YCR) (1 kg/ton) on the performance of broiler chicks reared to 42 d of age on recycled litter. Recycled litter consisted of pine wood shavings containing droppings from chicks infected with 3 select strains of coccidia (Eimeria tenella, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria acervulina). Response variables (BW, intestinal tract and litter coliform counts, cecal and liver relative weights, and litter moisture content) were recorded biweekly. Mean BW of chicks fed the diet supplemented with YCR was higher than that of the controls (P litter aged and moisture content increased. The mean intestinal coliform population from YCR-treated chicks was lower (P litter coliform counts increased with increased use of the litter. Cecal and liver relative weights calculated from the chicks in trial 3 showed that only the liver was significantly affected by treatments. YCR appeared to be a viable alternative to bacitracin and lasalocid medication in enhancing growth of broiler chicks reared on recycled litter.

  9. Real-Time Quantitative PCR Measurement of Ileal Lactobacillus salivarius Populations from Broiler Chickens To Determine the Influence of Farming Practices▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrow, Sally A.; Ravindran, Velmurugu; Butler, Ruth C.; Marshall, John W.; Tannock, Gerald W.

    2007-01-01

    A real-time quantitative PCR assay targeting a 16S-23S intergenic spacer region sequence was devised to measure the sizes of populations of Lactobacillus salivarius present in ileal digesta collected from broiler chickens. This species has been associated with deconjugation of bile salts in the small bowel and reduced broiler productivity. The assay was tested as a means of monitoring the sizes of L. salivarius populations from broilers fed diets with different compositions, maintained at different stocking densities, or given the antimicrobial drugs bacitracin and monensin in the feed. Stocking densities did not influence the numbers of L. salivarius cells in the ileum. A diet containing meat and bone meal reduced the size of the L. salivarius population relative to that of chickens given the control diet, as did administration of bacitracin and monensin in the feed. These changes in the target bacterial population were associated with improved broiler weight gain. PMID:17890342

  10. Effects of dietary brown propolis on nutrient intake and digestibility in feedlot lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonilson Araújo da Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study tested brown propolis in crude or extract form as a feed supplement for feedlot lambs to identify the type that most improves in vivo nutrient digestibility. Digestibility was assessed by both total fecal collection and internal markers and the results obtained by these techniques were compared. The completely randomized design was used to compare feed intake and nutrient digestibility of 24 male lambs aged seven months among four dietary treatments (crude brown propolis, propolis ethanol extract, monensin sodium, and control. Methods of feces collection were compared using a completely randomized split-plot design, with experimental diets corresponding to the main factor and the methods to estimate fecal production as the sub-factor. The diets had a roughage:concentrate ratio of 50:50, with Tifton-85 bermudagrass hay (Cynodon spp. as roughage, and ground corn, soybean meal and minerals as concentrate. The lambs fed diets with crude propolis had higher feed intake than those fed diets containing monensin sodium. The different diets did not affect dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, or acid detergent fiber digestibility, but crude propolis supplementation provided higher ether extract digestibility than monensin sodium. Nutrient digestibility, as indicated by indigestible neutral detergent fiber, indigestible acid detergent fiber and sequentially-determined indigestible acid detergent fiber, was lower than that found with the fecal collection method. The addition of brown propolis has the same effect as monensin, but neither maximized nutrient availability in the diet of feedlot lambs at 7 months of age. Digestibility assessment using the internal markers indigestible neutral detergent fiber, indigestible acid detergent fiber and sequentially-determined indigestible acid detergent fiber is not an efficient method compared with total feces collection.

  11. Na+/K+ pump interacts with the h-current to control bursting activity in central pattern generator neurons of leeches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueh, Daniel; Barnett, William H; Cymbalyuk, Gennady S; Calabrese, Ronald L

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of different ionic currents shape the bursting activity of neurons and networks that control motor output. Despite being ubiquitous in all animal cells, the contribution of the Na+/K+ pump current to such bursting activity has not been well studied. We used monensin, a Na+/H+ antiporter, to examine the role of the pump on the bursting activity of oscillator heart interneurons in leeches. When we stimulated the pump with monensin, the period of these neurons decreased significantly, an effect that was prevented or reversed when the h-current was blocked by Cs+. The decreased period could also occur if the pump was inhibited with strophanthidin or K+-free saline. Our monensin results were reproduced in model, which explains the pump’s contributions to bursting activity based on Na+ dynamics. Our results indicate that a dynamically oscillating pump current that interacts with the h-current can regulate the bursting activity of neurons and networks. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19322.001 PMID:27588351

  12. Internalization and recycling of receptor-bound gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in pituitary gonadotropes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schvartz, I.; Hazum, E.

    1987-01-01

    The fate of cell surface gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors on pituitary cells was studied utilizing lysosomotropic agents and monensin. Labeling of pituitary cells with a photoreactive GnRH derivative, [azidobenzoyl-D-Lys6]GnRH, revealed a specific band of Mr = 60,000. When photoaffinity-labeled cells were exposed to trypsin immediately after completion of the binding, the radioactivity incorporated into the Mr = 60,000 band decreased, with a concomitant appearance of a proteolytic fragment (Mr = 45,000). This fragment reflects cell surface receptors. Following GnRH binding, the hormone-receptor complexes underwent internalization, partial degradation, and recycling. The process of hormone-receptor complex degradation was substantially prevented by lysosomotropic agents, such as chloroquine and methylamine, or the proton ionophore, monensin. Chloroquine and monensin, however, did not affect receptor recycling, since the tryptic fragment of Mr = 45,000 was evident after treatment with these agents. This suggests that recycling of GnRH receptors in gonadotropes occurs whether or not the internal environment is acidic. Based on these findings, we propose a model describing the intracellular pathway of GnRH receptors

  13. Assessment of probiotics supplementation via feed or water on the growth performance, intestinal morphology and microflora of chickens after experimental infection with Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannenas, I; Tsalie, E; Triantafillou, E; Hessenberger, S; Teichmann, K; Mohnl, M; Tontis, D

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effect of probiotic supplementation via drinking water or feed on the performance of broiler chickens experimentally infected with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria acervulina (5 × 10(4)), Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella (2 × 10(4) each one) at 14 days of age was evaluated. Two hundred and forty 1-day-old Ross 308 male chicks were separated into eight equal groups with three replicates. Two of the groups, one infected with mixed Eimeria oocysts and the other not, were given a basal diet and served as controls. The remaining groups were also challenged with mixed Eimeria species and received the basal diet and either water supplemented with probiotic (three groups) or probiotic via feed (two groups); the probiotic used consisted of Enterococcus faecium #589, Bifidobacterium animalis #503 and Lactobacillus salivarius #505 at a ratio of 6:3:1. Probiotic supplementation was applied either via drinking water in different inclusion rates (groups W1, W2 and W3) or via feed using uncoated (group FN) or coated strains (group FC). The last group was given the basal diet supplemented with the anticoccidial lasalocid at 75 mg/kg. Each experimental group was given the corresponding diet or drinking water from day 1 to day 42 of age. Throughout the experimental period of 42 days, body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly and feed conversion ratios were calculated. Seven days after infection, the infected control group presented the lowest weight gain values, while probiotics supplied via feed supported growth to a comparable level with that of the lasalocid group. Probiotic groups presented lesion score values and oocyst numbers that were lower than in control infected birds but higher than in the lasalocid group. In the duodenum, jejunum and ileum, the highest villous height values were presented by probiotic groups. In conclusion, a mixture of probiotic substances gave considerable improvement in both growth performance and intestinal health in

  14. The use of tanniferous plant in the goat diet as alternative to parasite control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surama Freitas Zanini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effectiveness of pink pepper meal supplementation (PPM in the dairy goats diet as an antiparasitic agent compared with ionophore, the monensin sodium. A total of 18 female Saanen goats, were distributed in a completely randomized in groups of three treatments and six replications, consisting of the experimental groups: negative control (did not receive anticoccidial agent or PPS, group 1 (supplemented with 30% of PPM and group 2 (supplemented with anticoccidial agent – monensin sodium. There was a significant effect of treatments on voluntary feed intake on growing phases (P ? 0.05. Furthermore, the animals treated with PPM had the lowest food consumption compared with the other treatments (P ? 0.05, but without negative effect on live body weight. In general, at both phases of rearing, it was not detected significant difference between the voluntary feed intake of control group and with monensin sodium supplementation (P > 0.05, but the food consumption in the control group did not result on increase of live body weight probably due to sanitary challenges such as gastrointestinal parasites. The opposite was observed in animals treated with monensin sodium that had the highest body weight (P ? 0.05 that did not differ from animals fed with pink pepper (P > 0.05. By the way, in the growth phase our results revealed significantly effect of treatments on live body weight (P ? 0.05. Animals fed with pink pepper supplementation had a greater live body weight compared with the control (P ? 0.05 and similar to those supplemented with the monensin sodium (P > 0.05. The number of oocysts per gram of faeces was lower in animals treated with PPS that differed significantly from control (P ? 0.05. Regarding the count number of eggs per gram of faeces OPG, it was not detected significant effect of treatments (P> 0.05. It was found that the pink pepper supplementation was effective in the control of gastrointestinal parasites of

  15. The efficacy of Tiamulin hydrogen fumarat 10% in the feed to prevent chronic respiratory disease in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soeripto

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Up to presence chronic respiratory disease (CRD of chickens is still causing economic losses against poultry industries in the world. The purpose of this trial is to determine the efficacy and safety of a compatible dose of Tiamulin hydrogen fumarat 10% in combination with monensin for the control of CRD in broilers. A number of 630 day-old broilers were divided into 3 groups and each group was divided again into 7 subgroups of 30 equally sexed birds. Each subgroup was placed randomly in 2 chicken houses. Up to 3 weeks of age, chickens in Group I were fed with starter feed (SP1 containing 100 ppm monensin only without other treatment and used as control. Chickens in Group II were fed with SP1 feed containing 30 ppm Tiamulin hydrogen fumarat (3 – 6 mg/ kg BW and 110 ppm amoxicillin, this feed is called SP1+, whereas chickens in Group III were administered with SP1 feed and treated with enrofloxacin liquid formulation 10% with a dose 0.5ml/L in drinking water for the first 5 days of life. Started from 22nd day until the end of the experiment at 32 days of age, all chickens in Groups I, II and III were fed with SP2 finisher feed containing neither monensin nor Tiamulin hydrogen fumarat. The results of the experiment showed that no statistical difference in bodyweight and feed conversions among the groups at 32 days of age but feed conversion in Group II was statistically different compared to those in Groups I and III at week 2. No clinical signs of toxic interaction of monensin combined with Tiamulin were observed. Lesions of airsacculitis and ascites occurred only in dead chickens of Groups I and III but not in chickens of Group II. The incidence of pneumonia in Group I occurred in all dead birds which is statistically different to Group II that had one lesion of pneumonia. Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Escherichia coli organisms were able to be isolated from the chickens that had pneumonia and ascites in Groups I and III only. The results of

  16. Giant linear plasmids in Streptomyces: a treasure trove of antibiotic biosynthetic clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinashi, Haruyasu

    2011-01-01

    Many giant linear plasmids have been isolated from Streptomyces by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and some of them were found to carry an antibiotic biosynthetic cluster(s); SCP1 carries biosynthetic genes for methylenomycin, pSLA2-L for lankacidin and lankamycin, and pKSL for lasalocid and echinomycin. Accumulated data suggest that giant linear plasmids have played critical roles in genome evolution and horizontal transfer of secondary metabolism. In this review, I summarize typical examples of giant linear plasmids whose involvement in antibiotic production has been studied in some detail, emphasizing their finding processes and interaction with the host chromosomes. A hypothesis on horizontal transfer of secondary metabolism involving giant linear plasmids is proposed at the end.

  17. Desempenho e características de carcaça de cordeiros alimentados com dietas contendo alta proporção de concentrado adicionadas de agentes tamponantes Performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot lambs fed high grain diets with buffer compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Luis Gastaldello Junior

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar os efeitos da adição de bicarbonato de sódio ou de fontes de calcário com diferentes granulometrias na ração, associadas ou não a monensina sódica, sobre o desempenho e as características de carcaça de cordeiros confinados recebendo dietas contendo alta proporção de concentrado. Quarenta e dois cordeiros Santa Inês com peso inicial de 21 ± 3 kg e 88 ± 5 dias de idade foram distribuídos em blocos completos casualizados em arranjo fatorial 2 × 3, com seis tratamentos e sete repetições. Os animais foram alimentados com rações contendo 90% de concentrado, 10% de feno de "coastcross", uma fonte de calcário (calcário calcítico ou calcário calcítico tipo filler ou bicarbonato de sódio (NaHCO3, com ou sem adição de monensina sódica (30 mg/kg da MS. Não foi observada influência dos agentes tamponantes no consumo de matéria seca e no ganho de peso médio diário. Entretanto, a conversão alimentar dos animais alimentados com as rações contendo monensina sódica (3,32 kg MS/kg de ganho foi melhor que naqueles que consumiram as rações sem esse aditivo (3,58 kg MS/kg de ganho. Não houve efeito dos agentes tamponantes nos parâmetros de carcaça avaliados, observando-se valores médios de 50,4%; 2,4%; 13,9 cm² e 1,9 mm para o rendimento de carcaça quente, a perda por resfriamento, a área de olho-de-lombo e a espessura de gordura, respectivamente. A adição de monensina melhora a conversão alimentar e pode aumentar a rentabilidade do sistema de produção de cordeiros confinados.The objective of this study was to assess the effects of adding sodium bicarbonate or limestone sources with different particle sizes to the diet, and their interaction with sodium monensin, on the performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot lambs fed fed high grain diets. Forty two Santa Ines lambs were used with 21 ± 3 kg initial average body weight and 88 ± 5 days old in feedlot, placed a

  18. Antibiotic losses from unprotected manure stockpiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolliver, Holly A S; Gupta, Satish C

    2008-01-01

    Manure management is a major concern in livestock production systems. Although historically the primary concerns have been nutrients and pathogens, manure is also a source of emerging contaminants, such as antibiotics, to the environment. There is a growing concern that antibiotics in manure are reaching surface and ground waters and contributing to the development and spread of antibiotic resistance in the environment. One such pathway is through leaching and runoff from manure stockpiles. In this study, we quantified chlortetracycline, monensin, and tylosin losses in runoff from beef manure stockpiles during two separate but consecutive experiments representing different weather conditions (i.e., temperature and precipitation amount and form). Concentrations of chlortetracycline, monensin, and tylosin in runoff were positively correlated with initial concentrations of antibiotics in manure. The highest concentrations of chlortetracycline, monensin, and tylosin in runoff were 210, 3175, and 2544 microg L(-1), respectively. Relative antibiotic losses were primarily a function of water losses. In the experiment that had higher runoff water losses, antibiotic losses ranged from 1.2 to 1.8% of total extractable antibiotics in manure. In the experiment with lower runoff water losses, antibiotic losses varied from 0.2 to 0.6% of the total extractable antibiotics in manure. Manure analysis over time suggests that in situ degradation is an important mechanism for antibiotic losses. Degradation losses during manure stockpiling may exceed cumulative losses from runoff events. Storing manure in protected (i.e., covered) facilities could reduce the risk of aquatic contamination associated with manure stockpiling and other outdoor manure management practices.

  19. Effects of essential oil from Cordia verbenacea D.C. on in vitro rumen fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, R C; Pires, A V; Mattos, W R.S., [Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture Luiz de Queiroz, University of Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Abdalla, A L; Pecanha, M R.S.R.; Castilho, L A [Animal Nutrition Laboratory, Centre for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Foglio, M A; Rodrigues, R A.F. [Chemical, Biological and Agricultural Research Center, University of Campinas, Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Sallam, S M.A.; Nasser, M E.A. [Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt)

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of Cordia verbenacea D.C. essential oil (EO) on ruminal fermentation by using the in vitro gas production technique. Two substrates were independently assessed: i) Coastcross (Cynodon sp.) hay, and ii) 80:20 concentrate:forage diet. Treatments were defined as: Control i.e. without monensin or EO; MON i.e. monensin at 3 mM as a positive control; COR37.5 i.e. 37.5 mL of EO in 75 mL of buffered rumen fluid; and COR75 i.e. 75 mL of EO in 75 mL of buffered rumen fluid. Considering both substrates, MON reduced gas and methane (CH{sub 4}) production, increased propionate concentration, and decreased acetate:propionate ratio when compared with the Control. The most promising effect observed with EO inclusion was related to the inhibition of methanogenesis using hay as substrate. Methane produced per unit of OM{sub incubated} was reduced by 30% when COR75 was compared with Control. Although not statistically different, CH{sub 4} production expressed as mL/g OM{sub degraded} showed an intermediary value for COR75 (32.9) compared with the Control (38.9) and MON (25.8). No effects were observed with EO inclusion when the high concentrate diet was used as substrate. In this condition, the doses tested seemed too low to manipulate rumen fermentation. The results indicate that the EO from Cordia verbenacea D.C. was able to modify in vitro ruminal fermentation using hay as substrate and that doses greater than 1 mL/mL of buffered rumen fluid may decrease CH{sub 4} production as much as monensin. (author)

  20. Effects of inhibitors of protein synthesis and intracellular transport on the gamma-aminobutyric acid agonist-induced functional differentiation of cultured cerebellar granule cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belhage, B; Hansen, Gert Helge; Meier, E

    1990-01-01

    The effect of inhibitors of protein synthesis (actinomycin D, cycloheximide), proteases (leupeptin), and intracellular transport (colchicine, monensin) on the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist [4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP)]-induced changes in morphological...... an intracellular and a plasma membrane localization of the receptors. In all experiments cultures treated with THIP alone served as controls. The inhibitors of protein synthesis totally abolished the ability of THIP to induce low-affinity GABA receptors. In contrast, the inhibitors of intracellular transport...

  1. Biochemical and ultrastructural processing of [125I]epidermal growth factor in rat epidermis and hair follicles: accumulation of nuclear label

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, M R; Mycock, C; Smith, C G

    1987-01-01

    was detected over the basal cells of the epidermis and hair follicle outer root sheath, confirming previous light microscope observations. More specifically, silver grains were observed near coated and uncoated plasma membrane and coated membrane invaginations, Golgi apparatus, lysosomal structures, and nuclei......% of radioactivity following incubation at 37 degrees C was in the form of degraded [125I]EGF fragments and that inclusion of chloroquine, monensin, and iodoacetamide reduced this value to 20.8%, 8.6%, and 4.0%, respectively. In addition, chloramine T-prepared [125I]EGF was found to be covalently cross...

  2. Down-regulation of parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptors in cultured bone cells is associated with agonist-specific intracellular processing of PTH-receptor complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, A P; Silve, C M; Nyiredy, K O; Arnaud, C D

    1986-02-01

    Exposure of cultured embryonic chicken bone cells to the PTH agonists bovine (b) PTH-(1-34) and [8Nle, 18Nle, 34Tyr]bPTH-(1-34)amide [bPTH-(1-34)A] reduces the subsequent cAMP response to the hormone and decreases the specific binding of 125I-labeled PTH to these cultures. To determine whether PTH receptor down-regulation in cultured bone cells is mediated by cellular internalization of PTH-receptor complexes, we measured the uptake of [125I]bPTH-(1-34) into an acid-resistant compartment. Uptake of radioactivity into this compartment was inhibited by incubating cells at 4 C with phenylarsineoxide and unlabeled bPTH-(1-34). Tracer uptake into the acid-resistant compartment at any time was directly proportional to total cell binding at 22 C. Thus, it is likely that PTH-receptor complexes are internalized by bone cells. This mechanism may explain the loss of cell surface receptors after PTH pretreatment. To determine whether internalized PTH-receptor complexes are reinserted into the plasma membrane, we measured PTH binding and PTH stimulation of cAMP production after cells were exposed to monensin, a known inhibitor of receptor recycling. Monensin (25 microM) had no effect on PTH receptor number or affinity and did not alter PTH-stimulated cAMP accumulation. However, monensin (25 microM) incubated with cells pretreated with various concentrations of bPTH-(1-34) for 1 h potentiated the effect of the hormone to reduce subsequent [125I]bPTH-(1-34) binding and PTH-stimulated cAMP accumulation by more than 2 orders of magnitude. Chloroquine also potentiated PTH-induced down-regulation of PTH receptors. By contrast, neither agent influenced PTH binding or PTH-stimulated cAMP production in cells pretreated with the antagonist bPTH-(3-34)A. Thus, monensin potentiated PTH receptor loss only in cells pretreated with PTH agonists, indicating that antagonist-occupied receptors may be processed differently from agonist-occupied receptors in bone cells. The data further suggest

  3. Seasonal occurrence of antibiotics and a beta agonist in an agriculturally-intensive watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaimes-Correa, Juan C.; Snow, Daniel D.; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the occurrence of 12 veterinary antibiotics and a beta agonist over spatial and temporal scales in Shell Creek, an intensively agricultural watershed in Nebraska, using Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS). Twelve pharmaceuticals were detected with concentrations ranging from 0.0003 ng/L to 68 ng/L. The antibiotics measured at the highest time-weighted average concentrations were lincomycin (68 ng/L) and monensin (49 ng/L), and both compounds were detected at increased concentrations in summer months. Analysis of variance indicates that mean concentrations of detected pharmaceuticals have no significant (p > 0.01) spatial variation. However, significant temporal differences (p < 0.01) were observed. This study demonstrates the utility of passive samplers such as POCIS for monitoring ambient levels of pharmaceuticals in surface waters. - Highlights: • Passive samplers were used to evaluate veterinary pharmaceuticals in an agricultural watershed. • Monensin and lincomycin were detected at the highest TWA concentrations. • Significantly higher concentrations were detected in summer months. • Pulses of antibiotics correspond with rainfall-runoff events. - The spatial and temporal differences in the occurrence of thirteen veterinary pharmaceuticals was evaluated in an intensively agricultural watershed

  4. Role of protein glycosylation on the expression of muscarinic receptors of N4TG1 neuroblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, A.; Chiang, P.K.

    1986-01-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) are glycoproteins. Experiments were conducted to determine whether active glycosylation of proteins in N4TG1 neuroblastoma cells could affect the expression of muscarinic receptors on the cell surface. The binding of radioactive N-methylscopolamine, a membrane impermeable ligand, to intact cells was used as a measure of mAChR. In the presence of the inhibitors of glycosylation, such as tunicamycin, monensin and amphomycin, N-linked glycosylation of proteins in the N4TG1 cells was inhibited, as measured by the incorporation of radioactive glucosamine or mannose in proteins. At the concentrations of tunicamycin and monensin used, the glycosylation of proteins after 3 hours were drastically reduced, but the number of mAChR in the cells was not altered. The apparent lack of effect within a short incubation period could be attributed to the presence of preformed oligosaccharide dolichol readily available for N-glycosylation. However, after 24 hours, tunicamycin (0.05 μg/ml) caused a decrease in the number of mAChR by 17% without having any effect on protein synthesis. Therefore, de novo glycosylation of proteins may be required for the expression of mAChR receptors in the N4TG1 neuroblastoma cell surface

  5. Divergent calcium signaling in RBCs from Tropidurus torquatus (Squamata – Tropiduridae strengthen classification in lizard evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Célia RS

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously reported that a Teiid lizard red blood cells (RBCs such as Ameiva ameiva and Tupinambis merianae controls intracellular calcium levels by displaying multiple mechanisms. In these cells, calcium stores could be discharged not only by: thapsigargin, but also by the Na+/H+ ionophore monensin, K+/H+ ionophore nigericin and the H+ pump inhibitor bafilomycin as well as ionomycin. Moreover, these lizards possess a P2Y-type purinoceptors that mobilize Ca2+ from intracellular stores upon ATP addition. Results Here we report, that RBCs from the tropidurid lizard Tropidurus torquatus store Ca2+ in endoplasmic reticulum (ER pool but unlike in the referred Teiidae, these cells do not store calcium in monensin-nigericin sensitive pools. Moreover, mitochondria from T. torquatus RBCs accumulate Ca2+. Addition of ATP to a calcium-free medium does not increase the [Ca2+]c levels, however in a calcium medium we observe an increase in cytosolic calcium. This is an indication that purinergic receptors in these cells are P2X-like. Conclusion T. torquatus RBCs present different mechanisms from Teiid lizard red blood cells (RBCs, for controlling its intracellular calcium levels. At T. torquatus the ion is only stored at endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Moreover activation of purinergic receptor, P2X type, was able to induce an influx of calcium from extracelullar medium. These studies contribute to the understanding of the evolution of calcium homeostasis and signaling in nucleated RBCs.

  6. Uptake and Accumulation of Pharmaceuticals in Overhead- and Surface-Irrigated Greenhouse Lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalsod, Gemini D; Chuang, Ya-Hui; Jeon, Sangho; Gui, Wenjun; Li, Hui; Ryser, Elliot T; Guber, Andrey K; Zhang, Wei

    2018-01-31

    Understanding the uptake and accumulation of pharmaceuticals in vegetables under typical irrigation practices is critical to risk assessment of crop irrigation with reclaimed water. This study investigated the pharmaceutical residues in greenhouse lettuce under overhead and soil-surface irrigations using pharmaceutical-contaminated water. Compared to soil-surface irrigation, overhead irrigation substantially increased the pharmaceutical residues in lettuce shoots. The increased residue levels persisted even after washing for trimethoprim, monensin sodium, and tylosin, indicating their strong sorption to the shoots. The postwashing concentrations in fresh shoots varied from 0.05 ± 0.04 μg/kg for sulfadiazine to 345 ± 139 μg/kg for carbamazepine. Root concentration factors ranged from 0.04 ± 0.14 for tylosin to 19.2 ± 15.7 for sulfamethoxazole. Translocation factors in surface-irrigated lettuce were low for sulfamethoxalzole, trimethoprim, monensin sodium, and tylosin (0.07-0.15), but high for caffeine (4.28 ± 3.01) and carbamazepine (8.15 ± 2.87). Carbamazepine was persistent in soil and hyperaccumulated in shoots.

  7. Uptake and Accumulation of Pharmaceuticals in Lettuce Under Surface and Overhead Irrigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalsod, G.; Chuang, Y. H.; Jeon, S.; Gui, W.; Li, H.; Guber, A.; Zhang, W.

    2015-12-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products are being widely detected in wastewater and surface waters. As fresh water becomes scarcer, interests in using reclaimed water for crop irrigation is intensified. Since reclaimed waters often carry trace levels of pharmaceuticals, accumulation of pharmaceuticals in food crops could increase the risk of human exposure. This study aims to investigate uptake and accumulations of pharmaceuticals in greenhouse-grown lettuce under contrasting irrigation practices (i.e., overhead and surface irrigations). Lettuce was irrigated with water spiked with 11 commonly used pharmaceuticals (acetaminophen, caffeine, carbamazepine, sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxazole, carbadox, trimethoprim, lincomycin hydrochloride, oxytetracycline hydrochloride, monensin sodium, and tylosin). Weekly sampling of lettuce roots, shoots, and soils were continued for 5 weeks, and the samples were freeze dried, extracted for pharmaceuticals and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Preliminary results indicate that higher concentrations of pharmaceuticals were found in overhead irrigated lettuce compared to surface irrigated lettuce. For carbamezapine, sulfadiazine, trimethoprim, oxytetracycline, and monensin sodium, their concentrations generally increased in lettuce shoots in the overhead treatment over time. However, acetaminophen was found at higher concentrations in both shoots and roots, indicating that acetaminophen can be easily transported in the plant system. This study provides insight on developing better strategies for using reclaimed water for crop irrigations, while minimizing the potential risks of pharmaceutical contamination of vegetables.

  8. The effects of plant extracts on microbial community structure in a rumen-simulating continuous-culture system as revealed by molecular profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferme, D; Banjac, M; Calsamiglia, S; Busquet, M; Kamel, C; Avgustin, G

    2004-01-01

    An in vitro study in dual-flow continuous-culture fermentors was conducted with two different concentrations of monensin, cinnamaldehyde or garlic extract added to 1:1 forage-to-concentrate diet in order to determine their effects on selected rumen bacterial populations. Samples were subjected to total DNA extraction, restriction analysis of PCR amplified parts of 16S rRNA genes (ARDRA) and subsequent analysis of the restriction profiles by lab-on-chip technology with the Agilent's Bioanalyser 2100. Eub338-BacPre primer pair was used to select for the bacteria from the genera Bacteroides, Porphyromonas and Prevotella, especially the latter representing the dominant Gram-negative bacterial population in the rumen. Preliminary results of HaeIII restriction analysis show that the effects of monensin, cinnamaldehyde and garlic extract on the BacPre targeted ruminal bacteria are somewhat different in regard to targeted populations and to the nature of the effect. Garlic extract was found to trigger the most intensive changes in the structure of the BacPre targeted population. Comparison of the in silico restriction analysis of BacPre sequences deposited in different DNA databanks and of the results of performed amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis showed differences between the predicted and obtained HaeIII restriction profiles, and suggested the presence of novel, still unknown Prevotella populations in studied samples.

  9. Biofilm formation and antimicrobial sensitivity of lactobacilli contaminants from sugarcane-based fuel ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellias, Marina de Toledo Ferraz; Borges, Clóvis Daniel; Lopes, Mário Lúcio; da Cruz, Sandra Helena; de Amorim, Henrique Vianna; Tsai, Siu Mui

    2018-02-24

    Industrial ethanol fermentation is subject to bacterial contamination that causes significant economic losses in ethanol fuel plants. Chronic contamination has been associated with biofilms that are normally more resistant to antimicrobials and cleaning efforts than planktonic cells. In this study, contaminant species of Lactobacillus isolated from biofilms (source of sessile cells) and wine (source of planktonic cells) from industrial and pilot-scale fermentations were compared regarding their ability to form biofilms and their sensitivity to different antimicrobials. Fifty lactobacilli were isolated and the most abundant species were Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus plantarum. The majority of the isolates (87.8%) were able to produce biofilms in pure culture. The capability to form biofilms and sensitivity to virginiamycin, monensin and beta-acids from hops, showed inter- and intra-specific variability. In the pilot-scale fermentation, Lactobacillus brevis, L. casei and the majority of L. plantarum isolates were less sensitive to beta-acids than their counterparts from wine; L. brevis isolates from biofilms were also less sensitive to monensin when compared to the wine isolates. Biofilm formation and sensitivity to beta-acids showed a positive and negative correlation for L. casei and L. plantarum, respectively.

  10. Degradation of surface-labeled hepatoma membrane polypeptides: effect of inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hare, J.F.; Huston, M.

    1984-01-01

    When their membrane proteins were labeled with 125I by lactoperoxidase, dividing hepatoma cells lost radioactivity to the medium in a biphasic manner (T1/2 . 16-26 h, greater than 40 h). Lysosomotropic weak bases, chloroquine, and NH4Cl inhibited the rapid phase by 59%. More than 50% of the radioactivity which accumulates in the media from dividing cells during the first 4 h after labeling was trichloroacetic acid-soluble, and was identified as iodotyrosine. Iodotyrosine release from labeled membrane proteins was 60-71% inhibited by lysosomotropic agents chloroquine and NH4Cl as well as the sodium-proton ionophore, monensin. The inhibitory effect of NH4Cl and monensin was reversible. Inhibitors of microtubule and microfilament function and transglutamination had no effect on release of iodotyrosine to the medium, but trypsin-like protease inhibitors, p-aminobenzamidine, tosyl-L-lysine/chloromethylketone, and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, as well as the cathepsin B inhibitor, leupeptin, inhibited by 21-24%. Iodotyrosine release showed a biphasic Arrhenius plot with an activation energy of 17 kcal/mol above but 27 kcal/mol below 20 degrees C. These results indicate that cell membrane polypeptides require a temperature-limiting event as well as passage through an ion-sensitive compartment prior to their complete degradation to constituent amino acids. In contrast to other lysosomal-mediated events, however, iodinated membrane proteins of dividing cells are degraded in a manner insensitive to agents which disrupt the cytoskeleton

  11. Ultimate methane yield from beef cattle manure: effect of temperature, ration constituents, antibiotics and manure age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, A G; Varel, V H; Chen, Y R

    1981-10-01

    The effects of temperature, ration constituents, antibiotics and manure age on the ultimate methane yield (Bo, litre CH4/g volatile solids fed (VSf)) were investigated using 4-litre batch fermenters. The average Bo for fermenters maintained at 30-60 degrees Celcius (at 5 degrees Celcius intervals) was 0.328 litre CH4/g VSf. The Bo at 65 degrees Celcius averaged 0.118 litre CH4g VSf, but this low yield was attributed to unstable fermentation rather than decreased substrate availability at that temperature. These results agreed well with Bo values estimated from daily-fed fermenters. Chlortetracycline and monensin did not affect Bo; however, monensin did delay the start of active fermentation in batch fermenters. The average Bo of manure from cattle fed 91.5, 40 and 7% corn silage were 0.173, 0.232 and 0.290 litre CH4/g VSf, respectively. The average Bo for 6-8 week old manure from a dirt feedlot was 0.210 litre CH4/g VSf. (Refs. 14).

  12. Antibacterial activity of the alkaloid-enriched extract from Prosopis juliflora pods and its influence on in vitro ruminal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Edilene T; Pereira, Mara Lúcia A; da Silva, Camilla Flávia P G; Souza-Neta, Lourdes C; Geris, Regina; Martins, Dirceu; Santana, Antônio Euzébio G; Barbosa, Luiz Cláudio A; Silva, Herymá Giovane O; Freitas, Giovana C; Figueiredo, Mauro P; de Oliveira, Fernando F; Batista, Ronan

    2013-04-17

    The purpose of this study was to assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity of alkaloid-enriched extracts from Prosopis juliflora (Fabaceae) pods in order to evaluate them as feed additives for ruminants. As only the basic chloroformic extract (BCE), whose main constituents were juliprosopine (juliflorine), prosoflorine and juliprosine, showed Gram-positive antibacterial activity against Micrococcus luteus (MIC = 25 μg/mL), Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 50 μg/mL) and Streptococcus mutans (MIC = 50 μg/mL), its influence on ruminal digestion was evaluated using a semi-automated in vitro gas production technique, with monensin as the positive control. Results showed that BCE has decreased gas production as efficiently as monensin after 36 h of fermentation, revealing its positive influence on gas production during ruminal digestion. Since P. juliflora is a very affordable plant, this study points out this alkaloid enriched extract from the pods of Prosopis juliflora as a potential feed additive to decrease gas production during ruminal digestion.

  13. Fate and antibacterial potency of anticoccidial drugs and their main abiotic degradation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Martin; Krogh, Kristine A.; Brandt, Asbjorn; Christensen, Jan H.; Halling-Sorensen, Bent

    2009-01-01

    The antibacterial potency of eight anticoccidial drugs was tested in a soil bacteria bioassay (pour plate method), EC 50 -values between 2.4 and 19.6 μM were obtained; however, one compound, nicarbazin exhibited an EC 50 -value above the maximum tested concentration (21 μM, 9.1 mg L -1 ). The potency of mixtures of two of the compounds, narasin and nicarbazin, was synergistic (more than additive) with 10-fold greater antibacterial potency of the mixture than can be explained by their individual EC 50 -values. The influence of pH, temperature, oxygen concentration and light on the transformation of robenidine and salinomycin was investigated. Robenidine was transformed by photolysis (DT 50 of 4.1 days) and was unstable at low pH (DT 50 of approximately 4 days); salinomycin was merely transformed at low pH, the latter into an unknown number of products. The antibacterial potency of the mixtures of transformation products of robenidine after photolysis and at low pH was comparable with that of the parent compound. Finally five photo-transformation products of robenidine were structural elucidated by accurate mass measurements, i-FIT values (isotopic pattern fit) and MS/MS fragmentation patterns. - Five photo-transformation products of robenidine were structural elucidated. This mixture was found to have similar antibacterial potency as the parent compound

  14. Fate and antibacterial potency of anticoccidial drugs and their main abiotic degradation products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Martin [Section of Toxicology and Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 2, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)], E-mail: mah@farma.ku.dk; Krogh, Kristine A. [Section of Toxicology and Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 2, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Brandt, Asbjorn [Section of Veterinary Medicines, Danish Medicines Agency, Axel Heides Gade 1, DK-2300 Copenhagen (Denmark); Christensen, Jan H. [Section of Soil and Environmental Chemistry, Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK-1871 Frederiksberg (Denmark); Halling-Sorensen, Bent [Section of Toxicology and Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 2, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2009-02-15

    The antibacterial potency of eight anticoccidial drugs was tested in a soil bacteria bioassay (pour plate method), EC{sub 50}-values between 2.4 and 19.6 {mu}M were obtained; however, one compound, nicarbazin exhibited an EC{sub 50}-value above the maximum tested concentration (21 {mu}M, 9.1 mg L{sup -1}). The potency of mixtures of two of the compounds, narasin and nicarbazin, was synergistic (more than additive) with 10-fold greater antibacterial potency of the mixture than can be explained by their individual EC{sub 50}-values. The influence of pH, temperature, oxygen concentration and light on the transformation of robenidine and salinomycin was investigated. Robenidine was transformed by photolysis (DT{sub 50} of 4.1 days) and was unstable at low pH (DT{sub 50} of approximately 4 days); salinomycin was merely transformed at low pH, the latter into an unknown number of products. The antibacterial potency of the mixtures of transformation products of robenidine after photolysis and at low pH was comparable with that of the parent compound. Finally five photo-transformation products of robenidine were structural elucidated by accurate mass measurements, i-FIT values (isotopic pattern fit) and MS/MS fragmentation patterns. - Five photo-transformation products of robenidine were structural elucidated. This mixture was found to have similar antibacterial potency as the parent compound.

  15. Evaluation of certain veterinary drug residues in food. Eighty-first report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of residues of certain veterinary drugs in food and to recommend maximum levels for such residues in food. The first part of the report considers general principles regarding the evaluation of residues of veterinary drugs within the terms of reference of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), including MRLs for generic fish species, acute reference doses (ARfDs) for veterinary drugs, an approach for dietary exposure assessment of compounds used for multiple purposes (i.e veterinary drugs and pesticides), dietary exposure assessment for less-than-lifetime exposure, and the assessment of short-term (90-day and 12-month) studies in dogs. Summaries follow of the Committee's evaluations of toxicological and residue data on a variety of veterinary drugs: two insecticides (diflubenzuron and teflubenzuron), an antiparasitic agent (ivermectin), an ectoparasiticide (sisapronil) and a β2-adrenoceptor agonist (zilpaterol hydrochloride). In addition, the Committee considered issues raised in concern forms from the Codex Committee on Residues of Veterinary Drugs in Foods on lasalocid sodium, an antiparasitic agent. Annexed to the report is a summary of the Committee's recommendations on these drugs, including acceptable daily intakes (ADIs), ARfDs and proposed MRLs.

  16. Evaluation of certain veterinary drug residues in food. Seventy-eighth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of residues of certain veterinary drugs in food and to recommend maximum levels for such residues of food. The first part of the report considers general principles regarding the evaluation of residues of veterinary drugs within the terms of reference of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), including extrapolation of maximum residue limits (MRLs) to minor species, MRLs for veterinary drug residues in honey, MRLs relating to fish and fish species, dietary exposure assessment methodologies, the decision-tree approach to the evaluation of residues of veterinary drugs and guidance for JECFA experts. Summaries follow of the Committee's evaluations of toxicology and residue data on a variety of veterinary drugs: two anthelminthic agents (derquantel, monepantel), three antiparasitic agents (emanectin benzoate, ivermectin, lasalocid sodium), one antibacterial, antifungal and anthelminthic agent (gentian violet), a production aid (recombinant bovine somatotropins) and an adrenoceptor agonist and growth promoter (zilpaterol hydorchloride). Annexed to the report is a summary of the Committee's recommendations on these drugs, including acceptable daily intakes (ADIs)) and proposed MRLs.

  17. Calcium permeability of the T lymphocyte plasma membrane: counteraction of phorbol ester and A23187

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csermely, P.; Szamel, M.; Somogyi, J.

    1986-01-01

    The intracellular calcium concentration (Ca/sub i/) of T lymphocytes was measured using the fluorescent indicator quin2. Different ionophores effectively enhanced the Ca permeability of the plasma membrane. The effective concentration of the ionophores required for permeabilization increased in the order of ionomycin, A23187 and X537-A (lasalocid-A). 12-0-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in submicromolar concentrations did not change Ca/sub i/. The addition of TPA immediately before the A23187-permeabilization did not alter the Ca ionophoretic effect of A23187. However, prolonged incubation with TPA decreased the efficiency of A23187 permeabilizing the plasma membrane for calcium ions. This effect was concentration and time dependent, being maximal at TPA concentrations higher than 10 nM with a preincubation time of 1.5 hours. TPA induced relative A23187 insensitivity is most probably not due to a direct effect of TPA on the ionophore as it is concentration and time dependent. Moreover the fluorescence and fluorescence polarization of A23187 as well as the energy transfer between the tryptophan groups of the membrane proteins and A23187 showed no significant change during incubation with TPA. These results indicate that membrane fluidity changes or A23187 immobilization also do not play a prominent role in the explanation of the phenomenon. However the supposed intracellular heavy metal content of T lymphocyte might be a possible source of the TPA induced relative insensitization towards A23187.

  18. Ammonia production by ruminal microorganisms and enumeration, isolation, and characterization of bacteria capable of growth on peptides and amino acids from the sheep rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschenlauer, S C P; McKain, N; Walker, N D; McEwan, N R; Newbold, C J; Wallace, R J

    2002-10-01

    Excessive NH(3) production in the rumen is a major nutritional inefficiency in ruminant animals. Experiments were undertaken to compare the rates of NH(3) production from different substrates in ruminal fluid in vitro and to assess the role of asaccharolytic bacteria in NH(3) production. Ruminal fluid was taken from four rumen-fistulated sheep receiving a mixed hay-concentrate diet. The calculated rate of NH(3) production from Trypticase varied from 1.8 to 19.7 nmol mg of protein(-1) min(-1) depending on the substrate, its concentration, and the method used. Monensin (5 micro M) inhibited NH(3) production from proteins, peptides, and amino acids by an average of 28% with substrate at 2 mg/ml, compared to 48% with substrate at 20 mg/ml (P = 0.011). Of the total bacterial population, 1.4% grew on Trypticase alone, of which 93% was eliminated by 5 micro M monensin. Many fewer bacteria (0.002% of the total) grew on amino acids alone. Nineteen isolates capable of growth on Trypticase were obtained from four sheep. 16S ribosomal DNA and traditional identification methods indicated the bacteria fell into six groups. All were sensitive to monensin, and all except one group (group III, similar to Atopobium minutum), produced NH(3) at >250 nmol min(-1) mg of protein(-1), depending on the medium, as determined by a batch culture method. All isolates had exopeptidase activity, but only group III had an apparent dipeptidyl peptidase I activity. Groups I, II, and IV were most closely related to asaccharolytic ruminal and oral Clostridium and Eubacterium spp. Group V comprised one isolate, similar to Desulfomonas piger (formerly Desulfovibrio pigra). Group VI was 95% similar to Acidaminococcus fermentans. Growth of the Atopobium- and Desulfomonas-like isolates was enhanced by sugars, while growth of groups I, II, and V was significantly depressed by sugars. This study therefore demonstrates that different methodologies and different substrate concentrations provide an explanation

  19. Quantitative proteomic studies in resistance mechanisms of Eimeria tenella against polyether ionophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabet, Ahmed; Honscha, Walther; Daugschies, Arwid; Bangoura, Berit

    2017-05-01

    Polyether ionophores are widely used to treat and control coccidiosis in chickens. Widespread use of anticoccidials resulted in worldwide resistance. Mechanisms of resistance development and expansion are complex and poorly understood. Relative proteomic quantification using LC-MS/MS was used to compare sensitive reference strains (Ref-1, Ref-2) with putatively resistant and moderately sensitive field strains (FS-R, FS-mS) of Eimeria tenella after isotopic labelling with tandem mass tags (TMT). Ninety-seven proteins were identified, and 25 of them were regulated. Actin was significantly upregulated in resistant strains in comparison with their sensitive counterparts. On the other hand, microneme protein (MIC4) was downregulated in resistant strains. Optimization of labelling E. tenella sporozoites by TMT might identify further proteins that play a role in the obvious complex mechanism leading to resistance against Monensin.

  20. Fudecalone, a new anticoccidial agent produced by Penicillium sp. FO-2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, N; Tomoda, H; Masuma, R; Iwai, Y; Omura, S

    1995-01-01

    Penicillium sp. FO-2030, a soil isolate, was found to produce a new anticoccidial compound. The active compound, designated fudecalone, was isolated from the fermentation broth of the producing strain by solvent extraction, silica gel column chromatography and preparative HPLC. The structure of fudecalone was elucidated to be 3,3a,6,6a,7,8,9,10-octahydro-1-hydroxy-4,7,7-trimethyl-1H-naphtho[1,8a- c]furan-6-one mainly by spectroscopic studies including various NMR measurements. The anticoccidial activity using cell systems indicated that schizont formation of monensin-resistant Eimeria tenella was completely inhibited by fudecalone at concentrations more than 16 microM.

  1. Mechanism of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus entry into cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrow, P; Oldstone, M B

    1994-01-01

    The path that the arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) uses to enter rodent fibroblastic cell lines was dissected by infectivity and inhibition studies and immunoelectron microscopy. Lysosomotropic weak bases (chloroquine and ammonium chloride) and carboxylic ionophores (monensin and nigericin) inhibited virus entry, assessed as virus nucleoprotein expression at early times post-infection, indicating that the entry process involved a pH-dependent fusion step in intracellular vesicles. That entry occurred in vesicles rather than by direct fusion of virions with the plasma membrane was confirmed by immunoelectron microscopy. The vesicles involved were large (150-300 nm diameter), smooth-walled, and not associated with clathrin. Unlike classical phagocytosis, virus uptake in these vesicles was a microfilament-independent process, as it was not blocked by cytochalasins. LCMV entry into rodent fibroblast cell lines thus involves viropexis in large smooth-walled vesicles, followed by a pH-dependent fusion event inside the cell.

  2. Comparison of alternative beef production systems based on forage finishing or grain-forage diets with or without growth promotants: 1. Feedlot performance, carcass quality, and production costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthiaume, R; Mandell, I; Faucitano, L; Lafrenière, C

    2006-08-01

    Forty Angus-cross steers were used to evaluate 5 beef cattle management regimens for their effect on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and cost of production. A 98-d growing phase was incorporated using grass silage with or without growth promotants (trenbolone acetate + estradiol implants, and monensin in the feed) or soybean meal. Dietary treatments in the finishing phase were developed, with or without addition of the same growth promotants, based on exclusive feeding of forages with minimal supplementation or the feeding of barley-based diets. Overall, ADG for animals treated with growth promotants or fed supplemented diets (soybean meal and barley) was increased (P forage produced a heavier HCW (P forage-fed, nonimplanted beef market would need to garner a 16% premium to be economically competitive with cattle finished conventionally.

  3. Internalization, lysosomal degradation and new synthesis of surface membrane CD4 in phorbol ester-activated T-lymphocytes and U-937 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, C M; Christensen, E I; Andresen, B S

    1992-01-01

    degradation was low in resting cells. Endocytosis and/or degradation of anti-CD4 mAb was suppressed by H7, and by inhibitors of membrane traffic (Monensin) and lysosome function (methylamine, chloroquine). Immunocytochemistry localized CD4 to the surface of unstimulated T-cells. Upon PMA stimulation...... occasional labeling was seen in endosomes but whole cell CD4 decreased dramatically. However, methylamine-treated PMA blasts showed accumulation of CD4 in lysosomes and accordingly, pulse-chase experiments in biolabeled cell cultures suggested a manifest reduction of CD4 half-life in response to PMA. Despite...... in activated cells was further evidenced by metabolic labeling and Northern blot analysis demonstrating unaltered or slightly increased CD4 protein and mRNA levels resulting from PMA. Our findings demonstrate that phorbol esters downregulate the cellular CD4 pool by endocytosis and subsequent lysosomal...

  4. Tachyphylaxis of juxtaglomerular epithelioid cells to angiotensin II. Differences between the electrical membrane response and renin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bührle, C P; Hackenthal, E; Nobiling, R

    1987-01-01

    A study has been made of desensitization of the depolarizing response to angiotensin II of juxtaglomerular epithelioid and vascular smooth muscle cells in the mouse kidney afferent arteriole, of media cells from the mesenteric artery as well as of cultured smooth muscle and mesangial cells. In all...... cell types, desensitization to this effect of angiotensin II was observed. There was no cross-desensitization between angiotensin II and other depolarizing agonists. Hence, it is concluded that this desensitization is specific, i.e. of the tachyphylaxis type. Substances interfering with receptor...... recycling, such as chloroquine and monensin, did not block the recovery of the cells from desensitization after removal of the octapeptide. Desensitization to the action of angiotensin II was also observed with respect to its vasoconstrictor effect in the isolated perfused rat kidney. In contrast...

  5. Effects of Geraniol and Camphene on in Vitro Rumen Fermentation and Methane Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joch M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of geraniol and camphene at three dosages (300, 600, and 900 mg l-1 on rumen microbial fermentation and methane emission in in vitro batch culture of rumen fluid supplied with a 60 : 40 forage : concentrate substrate (16.2% crude protein, 33.1% neutral detergent fibre. The ionophore antibiotic monensin (8 mg/l was used as positive control. Compared to control, geraniol significantly (P 0.05 methane production and slightly decreased (P < 0.05 VFA production. Due to the strong antimethanogenic effect of geraniol a careful selection of dose and combination with other antimethanogenic compounds may be effective in mitigating methane emission from ruminants. However, if a reduction in total VFA production and dry matter digestibility persisted in vivo, geraniol would have a negative effect on animal productivity.

  6. Live-cell imaging of dual-labeled Golgi stacks in tobacco BY-2 cells reveals similar behaviors for different cisternae during movement and brefeldin A treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, Stephanie L; Nebenführ, Andreas

    2011-09-01

    In plant cells, the Golgi apparatus consists of numerous stacks that, in turn, are composed of several flattened cisternae with a clear cis-to-trans polarity. During normal functioning within living cells, this unusual organelle displays a wide range of dynamic behaviors such as whole stack motility, constant membrane flux through the cisternae, and Golgi enzyme recycling through the ER. In order to further investigate various aspects of Golgi stack dynamics and integrity, we co-expressed pairs of established Golgi markers in tobacco BY-2 cells to distinguish sub-compartments of the Golgi during monensin treatments, movement, and brefeldin A (BFA)-induced disassembly. A combination of cis and trans markers revealed that Golgi stacks remain intact as they move through the cytoplasm. The Golgi stack orientation during these movements showed a slight preference for the cis side moving ahead, but trans cisternae were also found at the leading edge. During BFA treatments, the different sub-compartments of about half of the observed stacks fused with the ER sequentially; however, no consistent order could be detected. In contrast, the ionophore monensin resulted in swelling of trans cisternae while medial and particularly cis cisternae were mostly unaffected. Our results thus demonstrate a remarkable equivalence of the different cisternae with respect to movement and BFA-induced fusion with the ER. In addition, we propose that a combination of dual-label fluorescence microscopy and drug treatments can provide a simple alternative approach to the determination of protein localization to specific Golgi sub-compartments.

  7. Intracellular Na(+) and metabolic modulation of Na/K pump and excitability in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Chi; Yang, Jyh-Jeen; Huang, Rong-Chi

    2012-10-01

    Na/K pump activity and metabolic rate are both higher during the day in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) that houses the circadian clock. Here we investigated the role of intracellular Na(+) and energy metabolism in regulating Na/K pump activity and neuronal excitability. Removal of extracellular K(+) to block the Na/K pump excited SCN neurons to fire at higher rates and return to normal K(+) to reactivate the pump produced rebound hyperpolarization to inhibit firing. In the presence of tetrodotoxin to block the action potentials, both zero K(+)-induced depolarization and rebound hyperpolarization were blocked by the cardiac glycoside strophanthidin. Ratiometric Na(+) imaging with a Na(+)-sensitive fluorescent dye indicated saturating accumulation of intracellular Na(+) in response to pump blockade with zero K(+). The Na(+) ionophore monensin also induced Na(+) loading and hyperpolarized the membrane potential, with the hyperpolarizing effect of monensin abolished in zero Na(+) or by pump blockade. Conversely, Na(+) depletion with Na(+)-free pipette solution depolarized membrane potential but retained residual Na/K pump activity. Cyanide inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation blocked the Na/K pump to depolarize resting potential and increase spontaneous firing in most cells, and to raise intracellular Na(+) levels in all cells. Nonetheless, the Na/K pump was incompletely blocked by cyanide but completely blocked by iodoacetate to inhibit glycolysis, indicating the involvement of both oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis in fueling the Na/K pump. Together, the results indicate the importance of intracellular Na(+) and energy metabolism in regulating Na/K pump activity as well as neuronal excitability in the SCN neurons.

  8. Effects of cinnamaldehyde and garlic oil on rumen microbial fermentation in a dual flow continuous culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquet, M; Calsamiglia, S; Ferret, A; Cardozo, P W; Kamel, C

    2005-07-01

    Eight continuous culture fermentors inoculated with ruminal liquor from heifers fed a 50:50 alfalfa hay:concentrate diet (17.6% crude protein, 28.0% neutral detergent fiber) were used in 3 replicated periods to study the effects of cinnamaldehyde (CIN) and garlic oil (GAR) on rumen microbial fermentation. Treatments were no additive (negative control); 1.25 mg/L (MON) and 12.5 mg/L (MON10) of the ionophore antibiotic monensin (positive control); 31.2 mg/L CIN (CIN) and 312 mg/L (CIN10) of CIN; and 31.2 mg/L GAR (GAR) and 312 mg/L (GAR10) of GAR (Allium sativa). The MON10 caused expected changes in microbial fermentation patterns (a decrease in fiber digestion, ammonia N concentration, and proportions of acetate and butyrate; an increase in the proportion of propionate; and a trend to increase small peptide plus AA N concentration). The CIN decreased the proportion of acetate and branch-chained volatile fatty acids (VFA) and increased the proportion of propionate; CIN10 decreased the proportion of acetate and increased the proportion of butyrate compared with the control. The GAR10 increased the proportion of propionate and butyrate and decreased the proportion of acetate and branch-chained VFA compared with the control. The GAR10 also increased the small peptide plus amino acid N concentration, although no effects were observed on large peptides or ammonia N concentrations. The CIN and GAR10 resulted in similar effects as monensin, with the exception of the effects on the molar proportion of butyrate, which suggests that they might have a different mode of action in affecting in vitro microbial fermentation.

  9. Proton accumulation and ATPase activity in Golgi apparatus-enriched vesicles from rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, H.I.; van Rossum, G.D.

    1991-01-01

    We have studied the mechanism by which liver Golgi apparatus maintains the acidity of its contents, using a subcellular fraction from rat liver highly enriched in Golgi marker enzymes. Proton accumulation (measured by quenching of acridine-orange fluorescence) and anion-dependent ATPase were characterized and compared. Maximal ATPase and proton accumulation required ATP; GTP and other nucleotides gave 10% to 30% of maximal activity. Among anions, Cl- and Br- approximately doubled the activities; others were much less effective. Half-maximal increase of ATPase and H+ uptake required 55 mmol/L and 27 mmol/L Cl-, respectively. In predominantly chloride media, SCN- and NO3- markedly inhibited H+ uptake. Nitrate competitively inhibited both the chloride-dependent ATPase (apparent Ki 6 mmol/L) and proton uptake (apparent Ki 2 mmol/L). Nitrate and SCN- also inhibited uptake of 36Cl. Replacing K+ with Na+ had no effect on the initial rate of proton uptake but somewhat reduced the steady state attained. Replacement of K+ with NH4+ and choline reduced proton uptake without affecting ATPase. The ATPase and H+ uptake were supported equally well by Mg2+ or Mn2+. The ATPase was competitively inhibited by 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyano-stilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (apparent Ki 39 mumol/L). Other agents inhibiting both H+ uptake and ATPase were N-ethylmaleimide, N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, chlorpromazine, diethylstilbestrol, Zn2+, Co2+ and Cu2+. In the Cl- medium, accumulated protons were released by ionophores at the relative rates, monensin = nigericin greater than valinomycin greater than carbonyl cyanide mchlorophenylhydrazone; the last of these also reduced ATPase activity. In the absence of Cl-, monensin and valinomycin both stimulated the ATPase. These results show a close association between ATPase activity and acidification of liver Golgi vesicles

  10. Adrenal and liver in normal and cld/cld mice synthesize and secrete hepatic lipase, but the lipase is inactive in cld/cld mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, C J; Blanchette-Mackie, E J; Scow, R O

    2000-02-01

    Combined lipase deficiency (cld) is a recessive mutation in mice that causes a severe lack of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (HL) activities, hyperlipemia, and death within 3 days after birth. Earlier studies showed that inactive LPL and HL were synthesized by cld/cld tissues and that LPL synthesized by cld/cld brown adipocytes was retained in their ER. We report here a study of HL in liver, adrenal, and plasma of normal newborn and cld/cld mice. Immunofluorescence studies showed HL was present in extracellular space, but not in cells, in liver and adrenal of both normal and cld/cld mice. When protein secretion was blocked with monensin, HL was retained intracellularly in liver cell cultures and in incubated adrenal tissues of both groups of mice. These findings demonstrated that HL was synthesized and secreted by liver and adrenal cells in normal newborn and cld/cld mice. HL activities in liver, adrenal, and plasma in cld/cld mice were very low, cld/cld cells was inactive. Livers of both normal newborn and cld/cld mice synthesized LPL, but the level of LPL activity in cld/cld liver was very low, cld/cld mice, indicating that LPL was synthesized but not secreted by cld/cld liver cells. Immunofluorescent LPL was not found in normal newborn liver cells unless the cells were treated with monensin, thus demonstrating that normal liver cells synthesized and secreted LPL. Livers of both groups of mice contained an unidentified alkaline lipase activity which accounted for 34-54% of alkaline lipase activity in normal and 65% of that in cld/cld livers. Our findings indicate that liver and adrenal cells synthesized and secreted HL in both normal newborn and cld/cld mice, but the lipase was inactive in cld/cld mice. That cld/cld liver cells secreted inactive HL while retaining inactive LPL indicates that these closely related lipases were processed differently.

  11. Biochemical and ultrastructural processing of [125I]epidermal growth factor in rat epidermis and hair follicles: accumulation of nuclear label

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.R.; Mycock, C.; Smith, C.G.; Couchman, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Although the intracellular ultrastructural processing of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptor have been described in cell culture systems, very few studies have examined this phenomenon in intact tissues. We have examined the ultrastructural and biochemical handling of [ 125 I]EGF in the epidermis and hair follicle bulb of intact, viable, 3- to 5-day-old rat skin the EGF receptor distribution of which has already been documented and in which EGF has been shown to be biologically active. After incubation of explants with 10 nM [ 125 I]EGF for 2.5 h at 25 degrees or 37 degrees C, radiolabel was detected over the basal cells of the epidermis and hair follicle outer root sheath, confirming previous light microscope observations. More specifically, silver grains were observed near coated and uncoated plasma membrane and coated membrane invaginations, Golgi apparatus, lysosomal structures, and nuclei. Sodium azide inhibited internalization of label, whereas a series of lysosomal inhibitors (chloroquine, monensin, and iodoacetamide) caused a slight increase in silver grains associated with lysosomal vesicles and a decrease in nuclear label. Biochemical analysis indicated that greater than 35% of radioactivity following incubation at 37 degrees C was in the form of degraded [ 125 I]EGF fragments and that inclusion of chloroquine, monensin, and iodoacetamide reduced this value to 20.8%, 8.6%, and 4.0%, respectively. In addition, chloramine T-prepared [ 125 I]EGF was found to be covalently cross-linked with low efficiency to a protein having the molecular weight of the EGF receptor. These data are discussed in the light of the effects of EGF on epithelial cell proliferation in skin

  12. Desensitization of parathyroid hormone receptors on cultured bone cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pun, K.K.; Ho, P.W.; Nissenson, R.A.; Arnaud, C.D.

    1990-01-01

    Administration of excessive amounts of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in the treatment of osteoporosis can reverse the beneficial effects of a low-dose, intermittent regime. To investigate the direct actions and the possible cellular mechanisms of PTH in inducing desensitization of PTH receptors, we studied the effects of desensitization on rat osteoblastic UMR-106 cells. When the osteoblasts were preincubated with bPTH-(1-34), complete refractoriness to a subsequent challenge with the hormone developed within 1 h and at hormone concentrations as low as 5 nM. When osteoblasts thus desensitized were incubated in hormone-free medium, recovery of the cAMP responses began within 2 h and reached maximum after 16 h. Cycloheximide did not affect the process of desensitization. [Nle8,Nle18,Tyr34]bPTH-(3-34)amide significantly impaired the desensitization process by PTH-(1-34) but did not have stimulatory effect on cAMP responses. No significant heterologous desensitization was obvious after preincubation with isoprenaline (50 microM), prostaglandin E1 (50 microM), or prostaglandin E2 (50 microM) for 2 h. Binding experiments with [125I]PLP-(1-36)amide after desensitization revealed that there was an approximate twofold decrease in receptor affinities as analyzed by Scatchard analysis, showing that the decrease in affinity was prominent in the process of desensitization. When the cells were treated with monensin during desensitization, PTH challenge after desensitization produced significantly lower cyclic AMP responses. Recovery after desensitization occurred over a period of 16 h. Inclusion of monensin, but not cycloheximide, impaired the recovery. The results show that homologous desensitization of rat osteoblasts to PTH is brought about by the occupancy of receptors by PTH-(1-34) but not by cAMP generation itself

  13. Parâmetros da degradação protéica ruminal de diferentes alimentos e rações estimados por técnica in vitro Parameters of ruminal protein degradation of different feeds and diets estimated by an in vitro method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P. Lana

    2007-04-01

    -elefante apresentou o menor nível de amônia e a de cepilho, o maior. As camas influenciaram o conteúdo de proteína solúvel e a DPB, que variaram de 9,0 a 14,5mg/dl e 39 a 63%, respectivamente, sem efeitos da monensina.Three experiments were carried out in order to study the parameters of ruminal protein degradation. In the first, isoproteic diets, constituted of elephant grass, ground corn and soybean meal, at five concentrate levels (0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25 e 100:0, with or without monensin (5µM, were incubated in ruminal fluid of bovines. There was a decreasing linear effect of the concentrate level on ammonia concentration and degradability of crude protein, and cubic effect in soluble protein concentration, with the largest value in the diet with 25% concentrate. Monensin decreased degradability of crude protein and soluble protein concentration with no effect on ammonia production. In the second, five different roughages (corn and elephant grass silage - Pennisetum purpureum, Brachiaria haylage - Brachiaria decumbens, ammoniated Tifton 85 hay - Cynodon sp. e Tifton 85 hay. The were incubated Brachiaria haylage and the ammoniated Tifton 85 hay showed the greatest concentrations of ammonia (8.7 and 5.3mg/dl and soluble protein (5.4 and 7.0mg/dl, due to their higher crude protein content, followed by elephant grass silage and Tifton 85 hay. The degradability of crude protein ranged from 29.6 to 80.6% for Brachiaria haylage and Tifton 85 hay, and the degradability of dry matter ranged from 40.1 to 64.3% for elephant grass silage and Brachiaria haylage, respectively. The effective degradability of crude protein showed low values due to low degradation rate of the insoluble fraction. In the third, four different poultry litter (hulls coffee, shopped dry elephant grass, corn cobs and wood shavings were incubated, with or without monensin (5µM. No difference in ammonia concentration among the poultry litter samples, was observed in the absence of monensin. However, when

  14. NUTRITIONAL ASPECTS RELATED TO THE INTERVAL BETWEEN CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. H C. Guse

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the demand for products of bovine origin increases every day in the world, and Brazil, which has the largest commercial herd of cattle on the planet, does not stay behind when it comes to raising beef cattle and milk. Despite our efforts to offer the best product, we are faced with difficult challenges in the country when it comes to climate and soil. The tropical climate, with rainy and dry seasons, ends up greatly damaging the pastures, thus offering less quality nutrients to our herds. As a domino effect, with less nutrients, there is more stress on the animal, which implies a poor reproductive efficiency, which is a crucial factor for effective production. However, there are viable outputs to improve the statistics, and one of them is reducing the interval between calving in cows relating to nutritional aspects, the important theme that the work will address. The nutritional strategy used in the experiment was the supplementation before, during and after the synchronization protocols for IATF. It consisted in the supply of 5g / kg PV / animal / day, a multiple mixture containing 82% ground corn, 8% soybean meal, 4% protected fat (Megalac®, 3% protected urea , 2% calcium carbonate, 0.06% mineral core, 0.04% Sodium Chloride and 0.01% lasalocid sodium 15% (Taurotec®. Supplement delivery started 7 days prior to protocol (D0 and lasted up to 20 after TAI, totaling 38 days. It was observed that the results showed an increase in the pregnancy rate of the primiparas that were supplemented, especially those with ECC below 3 (on the scale of 1 to 5, the percentage variation in the increment was of 2.6 ( ECC ≥3 to 7.1 (ECC = 2.75, presenting lower values in multiparous women. It is evident that, with due planning, observing the moments of nutritional deficit, it is possible to improve the interval between deliveries, thus improving production.

  15. Effect of essential oil from Cordia verbeancea on the fermentation of a high concentrate diet by using the in vitro gas production technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, R C; Pires, A V [ESALQ, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Abdalla, A.L. [CENA, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: rcanonenco@hotmail.com (and others)

    2009-07-01

    Studies with plant secondary metabolites as rumen fermentation modifiers have increased as an attempt to reproduce the effects of ionophores. Cordia verbenacea D.C. is a Brazilian bush with antimicrobial properties attributed to its essential oil (EO). The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of C. verbenacea EO on the ruminal fermentation by using an in vitro gas production system. Treatments were defined as: Control - without addition of monensin or EO; MON - addition of monensin (Sigma Aldrich Inc.) at 3 {mu}M as a positive control; COR37.5 . addition of 37.5 {mu}L of EO in 75 mL of buffered rumen fluid; COR75 - addition of 75 {mu}L of EO in 75 mL of buffered rumen fluid. A complete randomized design was utilized with six replicates for gas production (mL/g OM{sub incub}) and three replicates for all other variables. Two conditions were independently assessed: a) Coastcross (Cynodon sp.) hay (89.2% DM, 9.7% CP, 1.3% EE, 7.9% ash, 60.2% NDF, and 30.6% ADF) as substrate + inoculum of sheep on pasture; b) 80:20 concentrate:forage diet (20.0% Coastcross hay, 62.7% corn, 15.0% soybean meal, 1.0% limestone, and 1.3% mineral premix on DM basis; 91.5% DM, 15.7% CP, 3.3% EE, 4.3% ash, 20.3% NDF, and 8.8% ADF) as substrate + inoculum of sheep adapted to this diet. Two different inocula for each condition were used as source of variation. In each flask (160 mL), 0.5 g of substrate was incubated with 50 mL of incubation medium and 25 mL of rumen fluid at 39 deg C. Incubation time was 24 h for the hay and 16 h for the high-concentrate diet. Flasks without substrate (blanks) and flasks containing standard hay were also included. According to the GC-MS analysis, the major compounds of C. verbenacea EO were: transcaryophyllene (28.19%), alpha-pinene (23.58%), aloaromadendrene (6.90%), and alpha-humulene (4.54%). Considering both substrates, MON reduced gas and methane productions, increased propionate concentration, and decreased acetate:propionate ratio

  16. Short-term regulation and alternative pathways of photosynthetic electron transport in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubitsin, Boris V; Vershubskii, Alexey V; Priklonskii, Vladimir I; Tikhonov, Alexander N

    2015-11-01

    In this work, using the EPR and PAM-fluorometry methods, we have studied induction events of photosynthetic electron transport in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves. The methods used are complementary, providing efficient tools for in situ monitoring of P700 redox transients and photochemical activity of photosystem II (PSII). The induction of P700(+) in dark-adapted leaves is characterized by the multiphase kinetics with a lag-phase, which duration elongates with the dark-adaptation time. Analyzing effects of the uncoupler monensin and artificial electron carrier methylviologen (MV) on photooxidation of P700 and slow induction of chlorophyll a fluorescence (SIF), we could ascribe different phases of transient kinetics of electron transport processes in dark-adapted leaves to the following regulatory mechanisms: (i) acceleration of electron transfer on the acceptor side of PSI, (ii) pH-dependent modulation of the intersystem electron flow, and (iii) re-distribution of electron fluxes between alternative (linear, cyclic, and pseudocyclic) pathways. Monensin significantly decreases a level of P700(+) and inhibits SIF. MV, which mediates electron flow from PSI to O2 with consequent formation of H2O2, promotes a rapid photooxidation of P700 without any lag-phase peculiar to untreated leaves. MV-mediated water-water cycle (H2O→PSII→PSI→MV→O2→H2O2→H2O) is accompanied by generation of ascorbate free radicals. This suggests that the ascorbate peroxidase system of defense against reactive oxygen species is active in chloroplasts of H. rosa-sinensis leaves. In DCMU-treated chloroplasts with inhibited PSII, the contribution of cyclic electron flow is insignificant as compared to linear electron flow. For analysis of induction events, we have simulated electron transport processes within the framework of our generalized mathematical model of oxygenic photosynthesis, which takes into account pH-dependent mechanisms of electron transport control and re-distribution of

  17. Release of canine parvovirus from endocytic vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suikkanen, Sanna; Antila, Mia; Jaatinen, Anne; Vihinen-Ranta, Maija; Vuento, Matti

    2003-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a small nonenveloped virus with a single-stranded DNA genome. CPV enters cells by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and requires an acidic endosomal step for productive infection. Virion contains a potential nuclear localization signal as well as a phospholipase A 2 like domain in N-terminus of VP1. In this study we characterized the role of PLA 2 activity on CPV entry process. PLA 2 activity of CPV capsids was triggered in vitro by heat or acidic pH. PLA 2 inhibitors inhibited the viral proliferation suggesting that PLA 2 activity is needed for productive infection. The N-terminus of VP1 was exposed during the entry, suggesting that PLA 2 activity might have a role during endocytic entry. The presence of drugs modifying endocytosis (amiloride, bafilomycin A 1 , brefeldin A, and monensin) caused viral proteins to remain in endosomal/lysosomal vesicles, even though the drugs were not able to inhibit the exposure of VP1 N-terminal end. These results indicate that the exposure of N-terminus of VP1 alone is not sufficient to allow CPV to proliferate. Some other pH-dependent changes are needed for productive infection. In addition to blocking endocytic entry, amiloride was able to block some postendocytic steps. The ability of CPV to permeabilize endosomal membranes was demonstrated by feeding cells with differently sized rhodamine-conjugated dextrans together with the CPV in the presence or in the absence of amiloride, bafilomycin A 1 , brefeldin A, or monensin. Dextran with a molecular weight of 3000 was released from vesicles after 8 h of infection, while dextran with a molecular weight of 10,000 was mainly retained in vesicles. The results suggest that CPV infection does not cause disruption of endosomal vesicles. However, the permeability of endosomal membranes apparently changes during CPV infection, probably due to the PLA 2 activity of the virus. These results suggest that parvoviral PLA 2 activity is essential for productive infection and

  18. Cocaine induces a mixed lysosomal lipidosis in cultured fibroblasts, by inactivation of acid sphingomyelinase and inhibition of phospholipase A1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassogne, Marie-Cecile; Lizarraga, Chantal; N'Kuli, Francisca; Van Bambeke, Francoise; Van Binst, Roger; Wallemacq, Pierre; Tulkens, Paul M.; Mingeot-Leclercq, Marie-Paule; Levade, Thierry; Courtoy, Pierre J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports that cocaine may induce a lysosomal storage disorder. Indeed, culture of Rat-1 fibroblasts with 250-500 μM cocaine induced after 2-3 days a major accumulation in lysosomes of electron-dense lamellar structures. By subcellular fractionation, this was reflected by a selective decrease of the buoyant density of several lysosomal enzymes, indicating lysosomal lipid overload. Biochemical analysis confirmed an increased cellular content of major phospholipids and sphingomyelin, but not of cholesterol. Cocaine, a membrane-permeant weak base, is concentrated by acidotropic sequestration, because its accumulation was abrogated by the proton ionophore, monensin and the vacuolar ATPase inhibitor, bafilomycin A 1 . At its estimated lysosomal concentration, cocaine almost completely inhibited phospholipase A 1 activity on liposomes. Cell incubation with cocaine, but not with its inactive metabolite, benzoylecgonine, rapidly inactivated acid sphingomyelinase, as reflected by a 10-fold decrease in V max with identical K m . Acid sphingomyelinase inactivation was fully prevented by the thiol proteinases inhibitors, leupeptin and E64, indicating that cocaine induces selective sphingomyelinase proteolysis. Upon cocaine removal, acid sphingomyelinase activity was rapidly restored, pointing to its fast turnover. In contrast, the cellular content of several other lysosomal hydrolases was increased up to 2-fold. Together, these data show that acidotropic accumulation of cocaine in lysosomes rapidly inhibits acid phospholipase A 1 and inactivates acid sphingomyelinase, which can explain induction of a mixed lysosomal lipidosis

  19. Ion permeability of artificial membranes evaluated by diffusion potential and electrical resistance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlyonsky, Vadim

    2013-12-01

    In the present article, a novel model of artificial membranes that provides efficient assistance in teaching the origins of diffusion potentials is proposed. These membranes are made of polycarbonate filters fixed to 12-mm plastic rings and then saturated with a mixture of creosol and n-decane. The electrical resistance and potential difference across these membranes can be easily measured using a low-cost volt-ohm meter and home-made Ag/AgCl electrodes. The advantage of the model is the lack of ionic selectivity of the membrane, which can be modified by the introduction of different ionophores to the organic liquid mixture. A membrane treated with the mixture containing valinomycin generates voltages from -53 to -25 mV in the presence of a 10-fold KCl gradient (in to out) and from -79 to -53 mV in the presence of a bi-ionic KCl/NaCl gradient (in to out). This latter bi-ionic gradient potential reverses to a value from +9 to +20 mV when monensin is present in the organic liquid mixture. Thus, the model can be build stepwise, i.e., all factors leading to the development of diffusion potentials can be introduced sequentially, helping students to understand the quantitative relationships of ionic gradients and differential membrane permeability in the generation of cell electrical signals.

  20. The mode of inhibition of the Na+-K+ pump activity in mast cells by calcium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, T; Johansen, Torben

    1989-01-01

    , and hence the pump activity. This hypothesis is supported by the stimulation of pump activity produced by monensin, which is not inhibited by calcium. The enhancement of pump activity after exposure of calcium-deprived cells to EGTA might be the result of a further increase in the sodium permeability......1 The inhibition by calcium of the Na(+)-K+ pump in the plasma membrane of rat peritoneal mast cells was studied in pure populations of the cells by measuring the ouabain-sensitive uptake of the radioactive potassium analogue, 86rubidium (86Rb+). 2 Exposure of the cells to calcium induced a time......- and concentration-dependent decrease in the ouabain-sensitive K+(86Rb+)-uptake of the cells without influencing the ouabain-resistant uptake. The development of the inhibition required the presence of potassium in the medium in the millimolar range (1.5-8.0 mM), and it did not occur at a concentration of potassium...

  1. Associations between the use of antimicrobial agents for growth promotion and the occurrence of resistance among Enterococcus faecium from broilers and pigs in Denmark, Finland, and Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Kruse, H.; Tast, E.

    2000-01-01

    This study compares the susceptibility of Enterococcus faecium isolated from pigs and poultry in Denmark, Finland, and Norway to antimicrobial agents used for growth promotion. E. faecium was isolated from 211 broilers and 55 pigs in Denmark in 1997, from Norwegian 55 poultry farms (turkey and br......%) of the virginiamycin-resistant isolates from pigs in Denmark. This study indicates that the use of antimicrobial agents for growth promotion in Denmark, Finland, and Norway have selected for resistance to most of these drugs among E. faecium in food animals....... as resistant to monensin or salinomycin. In general, an association between the usage of antimicrobial agents in the respective countries and the occurrence of associated resistance was observed. Resistance to avilamycin was frequently observed among isolates from broilers in Denmark, where avilamycin has been...... used, whereas all isolates from Finland and Norway, where these drugs have not been used, were susceptible. The same phenomenon could be observed for avoparcin, bacitracin, tylosin, and virginiamycin; resistance was frequently observed among isolates from where these antimicrobials have been widely...

  2. Insulin regulation of Na/K pump activity in rat hepatoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelehrter, T.D.; Shreve, P.D.; Dilworth, V.M.

    1984-01-01

    Insulin rapidly increases Na/K pump activity in HTC rat hepatoma cells in tissue culture, as measured by the ouabain-sensitive influx of the potassium analogue 86Rb+. Increased influx is observed within minutes and is maximal (70% above control) within 1-2 h. The effect appears to be mediated by the insulin receptors, as: the concentration dependence on insulin is identical to that for insulin induction of tyrosine aminotransferase and stimulation of 2-aminoisobutyric acid transport, proinsulin is 6% as potent as insulin, and the effect is blocked by anti-receptor antibodies. The early stimulation of potassium influx is not blocked by cycloheximide and is not associated with an increased number of pump sites as measured by 3 H-ouabain binding. The insulin effect is blocked by amiloride, which blocks sodium influx, and is mimicked by the sodium ionophore monensin, which increases sodium influx and intracellular accumulation. Insulin also rapidly increases the initial rate of 22 Na+ influx, suggesting that insulin may enhance Na/K pump activity, in part, by increasing intracellular sodium concentration. Incubation of HTC cells with insulin for 24 h causes complete unresponsiveness to the insulin induction of transaminase and stimulation of amino acid transport, a phenomenon mediated by postbinding mechanisms. In contrast, similar incubation with insulin does not cause unresponsiveness to the insulin stimulation of Na/K pump activity. Therefore, the site of regulation of responsiveness to insulin must be distal to, or separate from, those events causing stimulation of ion fluxes

  3. Receptor-mediated internalization of [3H]-neurotensin in synaptosomal preparations from rat neostriatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha Minh Ky; Cahill, Catherine M; McPherson, Peter S; Beaudet, Alain

    2002-06-01

    Following its binding to somatodendritic receptors, the neuropeptide neurotensin (NT) internalizes via a clathrin-mediated process. In the present study, we investigated whether NT also internalizes presynaptically using synaptosomes from rat neostriatum, a region in which NT1 receptors are virtually all presynaptic. Binding of [(3)H]-NT to striatal synaptosomes in the presence of levocabastine to block NT2 receptors is specific, saturable, and has NT1 binding properties. A significant fraction of the bound radioactivity is resistant to hypertonic acid wash indicating that it is internalized. Internalization of [(3)H]-NT, like that of [(125)I]-transferrin, is blocked by sucrose and low temperature, consistent with endocytosis occurring via a clathrin-dependent pathway. However, contrary to what was reported at the somatodendritic level, neither [(3)H]-NT nor [(125)I]-transferrin internalization in synaptosomes is sensitive to the endocytosis inhibitor phenylarsine oxide. Moreover, treatment of synaptosomes with monensin, which prevents internalized receptors from recycling to the plasma membrane, reduces [(3)H]-NT binding and internalization, suggesting that presynaptic NT1 receptors, in contrast to somatodendritic ones, are recycled back to the plasma membrane. Taken together, these results suggest that NT internalizes in nerve terminals via an endocytic pathway that is related to, but is mechanistically distinct from that responsible for NT internalization in nerve cell bodies.

  4. Occurrence of steroid hormones and antibiotics in shallow groundwater impacted by livestock waste control facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon; Snow, Daniel D.; Damon-Powell, Teyona; Miesbach, David

    2011-04-01

    Wastewater impoundments at concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) represent a potential source of veterinary pharmaceuticals and steroid hormone contamination to shallow groundwater. This study investigates the occurrence of seventeen veterinary pharmaceuticals and thirteen steroid hormones and hormone metabolites in lagoons and adjacent groundwater at operating swine and beef cattle facilities. These sites were chosen because subsurface geology and previous monitoring of nitrate, ammonia and chloride levels in shallow ground water strongly indicated direct infiltration, and as such represent worst cases for ground water contamination by waste water. Pharmaceutical compounds detected in samples obtained from cattle facilities include sulfamerazine; sulfamethazine; erythromycin; monensin; tiamulin; and sulfathiazole. Lincomycin; ractopamine; sulfamethazine; sulfathiazole; erythromycin; tiamulin and sulfadimethoxine were detected in wastewater samples obtained from swine facilities. Steroid hormones were detected less frequently than veterinary pharmaceuticals in this study. Estrone, testosterone, 4-androstenedione, and androsterone were detected in wastewater impoundments at concentrations ranging from 30 to 3600 ng/L, while only estrone and testosterone were detected in groundwater samples at concentrations up to 390 ng/L. The co-occurrence of veterinary pharmaceutical and steroid hormone contamination in groundwater at these locations and the correlation between pharmaceutical occurrence in lagoon wastewater and hydraulically downgradient groundwater indicates that groundwater underlying some livestock wastewater impoundments is susceptible to contamination by veterinary pharmaceuticals and steroid hormones originating in wastewater lagoons.

  5. Tiamulin selectively inhibits oxidative hepatic steroid and drug metabolism in vitro in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkamp, R F; Nijmeijer, S M; Csikó, G; van Miert, A S

    1994-08-01

    The simultaneous use of the antibiotic tiamulin with certain ionophoric antibiotics (monensin, salinomycin) may give rise to a toxic interaction in pigs and poultry. In the present study, effects of tiamulin on hepatic cytochrome P450 activities in vitro were studied using pig liver microsomes. When tiamulin was added to the incubation medium the N-demethylation rate of ethylmorphine and the hydroxylation of testosterone at the 6 beta- and 11 alpha-positions was strongly inhibited. Tiamulin inhibited these activities more than SKF525A or cimetidine, but less than ketoconazole. The microsomal N-demethylation rate of erythromycin and the hydroxylation of testosterone at the 2 beta-position were inhibited to a lesser degree, whereas the ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation, aniline hydroxylation and testosterone hydroxylations at the 15 alpha- and 15 beta-positions were not affected by tiamulin. No in vitro complexation by tiamulin of cytochrome P450 resulting in a loss of CO-binding capacity could be demonstrated. Results from the present study suggest a selective inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes in pigs, probably belonging to the P4503A subfamily. The mechanism of this interaction is still unclear. However, interactions between tiamulin and those veterinary drugs or endogenous compounds which undergo oxidative metabolism by P450 enzymes must be considered. More research is needed to reveal which of the P450 enzymes are affected by tiamulin in order to improve the understanding and probably the predictability of this interaction.

  6. Improved radioimmunotherapy of hematologic malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Press, O.W.

    1992-01-01

    This research project proposes to develop novel new approaches of improving the radioimmunodetection and radioimmunotherapy of malignancies by augmenting retention of radioimmunoconjugates by tumor cells. The approaches shown to be effective in these laboratory experiments will subsequently be incorporated into out ongoing clinical trials in patients. Specific project objectives include: to study the rates of endocytosis, intracellular routing, and metabolic degradation of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies targeting tumor-associated antigens on human leukemia and lymphoma cells; To examine the effects of lysosomotropic amines (e.g. chloroquine, amantadine), carboxylic ionophores (monensin, nigericin), and thioamides (propylthiouracil), on the retention of radiolabeled MoAbs by tumor cells; to examine the impact of newer radioiodination techniques (tyramine cellobiose, paraiodobenzoyl) on the metabolic degradation of radioiodinated antibodies; to compare the endocytosis, intracellular routing, and degradation of radioimmunoconjugates prepared with different radionuclides ( 131 Iodine, 111 Indium, 90 Yttrium, 99m Technetium, 186 Rhenium); and to examine the utility of radioimmunoconjugates targeting oncogene products for the radioimmunotherapy and radioimmunoscintigraphy of cancer

  7. Occurrence of steroid hormones and antibiotics in shallow groundwater impacted by livestock waste control facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon; Snow, Daniel D; Damon-Powell, Teyona; Miesbach, David

    2011-04-25

    Wastewater impoundments at concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) represent a potential source of veterinary pharmaceuticals and steroid hormone contamination to shallow groundwater. This study investigates the occurrence of seventeen veterinary pharmaceuticals and thirteen steroid hormones and hormone metabolites in lagoons and adjacent groundwater at operating swine and beef cattle facilities. These sites were chosen because subsurface geology and previous monitoring of nitrate, ammonia and chloride levels in shallow ground water strongly indicated direct infiltration, and as such represent worst cases for ground water contamination by waste water. Pharmaceutical compounds detected in samples obtained from cattle facilities include sulfamerazine; sulfamethazine; erythromycin; monensin; tiamulin; and sulfathiazole. Lincomycin; ractopamine; sulfamethazine; sulfathiazole; erythromycin; tiamulin and sulfadimethoxine were detected in wastewater samples obtained from swine facilities. Steroid hormones were detected less frequently than veterinary pharmaceuticals in this study. Estrone, testosterone, 4-androstenedione, and androsterone were detected in wastewater impoundments at concentrations ranging from 30 to 3600ng/L, while only estrone and testosterone were detected in groundwater samples at concentrations up to 390ng/L. The co-occurrence of veterinary pharmaceutical and steroid hormone contamination in groundwater at these locations and the correlation between pharmaceutical occurrence in lagoon wastewater and hydraulically downgradient groundwater indicates that groundwater underlying some livestock wastewater impoundments is susceptible to contamination by veterinary pharmaceuticals and steroid hormones originating in wastewater lagoons. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Reaction engineering analysis of the autotrophic energy metabolism of Clostridium aceticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Alexander; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

    2017-12-01

    Acetogenesis with CO2:H2 or CO via the reductive acetyl-CoA pathway does not provide any net ATP formation in homoacetogenic bacteria. Autotrophic energy conservation is coupled to the generation of chemiosmotic H+ or Na+ gradients across the cytoplasm membrane using either a ferredoxin:NAD+ oxidoreductase (Rnf), a ferredoxin:H+ oxidoreductase (Ech) or substrate-level phosphorylation via cytochromes. The first isolated acetogenic bacterium Clostridium aceticum shows both cytochromes and Rnf complex, putting it into an outstanding position. Autotrophic batch processes with continuous gas supply were performed in fully controlled stirred-tank bioreactors to elucidate energy metabolism of C. aceticum. Varying the initial Na+ concentration in the medium showed sodium-dependent growth of C. aceticum with a growth optimum between 60 and 90 mM Na+. The addition of the Na+-selective ionophore ETH2120 or the protonophore CCCP or the H+/cation-antiporter monensin revealed that an H+ gradient is used as primary energy conservation mechanism, which strengthens the exceptional position of C. aceticum as acetogenic bacterium showing an H+-dependent energy conservation mechanism as well as Na+-dependent growth. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Proprotein Convertases Process Pmel17 during Secretion*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Ralf M.; Vigneron, Nathalie; Rahner, Christoph; Cresswell, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Pmel17 is a melanocyte/melanoma-specific protein that traffics to melanosomes where it forms a fibrillar matrix on which melanin gets deposited. Before being cleaved into smaller fibrillogenic fragments the protein undergoes processing by proprotein convertases, a class of serine proteases that typically recognize the canonical motif RX(R/K)R↓. The current model of Pmel17 maturation states that this processing step occurs in melanosomes, but in light of recent reports this issue has become controversial. We therefore addressed this question by thoroughly assessing the processing kinetics of either wild-type Pmel17 or a secreted soluble Pmel17 derivative. Our results demonstrate clearly that processing of Pmel17 occurs during secretion and that it does not require entry of the protein into the endocytic system. Strikingly, processing proceeds even in the presence of the secretion inhibitor monensin, suggesting that Pmel17 is an exceptionally good substrate. In line with this, we find that newly synthesized surface Pmel17 is already quantitatively cleaved. Moreover, we demonstrate that Pmel17 function is independent of the sequence identity of its unconventional proprotein convertase-cleavage motif that lacks arginine in P4 position. The data alter the current view of Pmel17 maturation and suggest that the multistep processing of Pmel17 begins with an early cleavage during secretion that primes the protein for later functional processing. PMID:21247888

  10. How Metabolic Diseases Impact the Use of Antimicrobials: A Formal Demonstration in the Field of Veterinary Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raboisson, Didier; Barbier, Maxime; Maigné, Elise

    2016-01-01

    Decreasing the use of antimicrobials has become a primary objective for both human and veterinary medicine in many countries. Medical prevention and good nutrition are seen as key parameters for reducing antimicrobial use. However, little consideration has been given to how metabolic diseases may influence the use of antimicrobials in humans and animals through limiting the prevalence and severity of infectious diseases. To quantify this relationship using the example of a common metabolic disease in dairy cows (subclinical ketosis, SCK), we constructed a stochastic model reporting the total quantity of curative antimicrobials for a given population with the prevalence of cows at risk for SCK. We considered the prevalence of SCK, the relative risk of the disease in cases of SCK compared to no SCK and the use of antimicrobials to treat SCK-induced infectious diseases. Reducing the percentage of cows at risk for SCK from 80% to 10% was associated with an average decrease in the use of antimicrobials of 11% (prevalence of SCK from 34% to 17%, respectively) or 25% (prevalence of SCK from 68% to 22%, respectively), depending on the relative risk to contract SCK if risk was present. For a large percentage of the cows at risk for SCK, using a preventive bolus of monensin reduced the use of curative antimicrobials to the same level that was observed when the percentage of cows at risk for SCK was low. The present work suggests similar approaches for obesity and diabetes.

  11. Multiclass determination and confirmation of antibiotic residues in honey using LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Mayda I; Pettis, Jeffery S; Smith, I Barton; Chu, Pak-Sin

    2008-03-12

    A multiclass method has been developed for the determination and confirmation in honey of tetracyclines (chlortetracycline, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline), fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, danofloxacin, difloxacin, enrofloxacin, and sarafloxacin), macrolides (tylosin), lincosamides (lincomycin), aminoglycosides (streptomycin), sulfonamides (sulfathiazole), phenicols (chloramphenicol), and fumagillin residues using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Erythromycin (a macrolide) and monensin (an ionophore) can be detected and confirmed but not quantitated. Honey samples (approximately 2 g) are dissolved in 10 mL of water and centrifuged. An aliquot of the supernatant is used to determine streptomycin. The remaining supernatant is filtered through a fine-mesh nylon fabric and cleaned up by solid phase extraction. After solvent evaporation and sample reconstitution, 15 antibiotics are assayed by LC-MS/MS using electrospray ionization (ESI) in positive ion mode. Afterward, chloramphenicol is assayed using ESI in negative ion mode. The method has been validated at the low part per billion levels for most of the drugs with accuracies between 65 and 104% and coefficients of variation less than 17%. The evaluation of matrix effects caused by honey of different floral origin is presented.

  12. Improved radioimmunotherapy of hematologic malignancies. [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Press, O.W.

    1992-03-24

    This research project proposes to develop novel new approaches of improving the radioimmunodetection and radioimmunotherapy of malignancies by augmenting retention of radioimmunoconjugates by tumor cells. The approaches shown to be effective in these laboratory experiments will subsequently be incorporated into out ongoing clinical trials in patients. Specific project objectives include: to study the rates of endocytosis, intracellular routing, and metabolic degradation of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies targeting tumor-associated antigens on human leukemia and lymphoma cells; To examine the effects of lysosomotropic amines (e.g. chloroquine, amantadine), carboxylic ionophores (monensin, nigericin), and thioamides (propylthiouracil), on the retention of radiolabeled MoAbs by tumor cells; to examine the impact of newer radioiodination techniques (tyramine cellobiose, paraiodobenzoyl) on the metabolic degradation of radioiodinated antibodies; to compare the endocytosis, intracellular routing, and degradation of radioimmunoconjugates prepared with different radionuclides ({sup 131}Iodine, {sup 111}Indium, {sup 90}Yttrium, {sup 99m}Technetium, {sup 186}Rhenium); and to examine the utility of radioimmunoconjugates targeting oncogene products for the radioimmunotherapy and radioimmunoscintigraphy of cancer.

  13. Improved radioimmunotherapy of hematologic malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Press, O.W.

    1992-03-24

    This research project proposes to develop novel new approaches of improving the radioimmunodetection and radioimmunotherapy of malignancies by augmenting retention of radioimmunoconjugates by tumor cells. The approaches shown to be effective in these laboratory experiments will subsequently be incorporated into out ongoing clinical trials in patients. Specific project objectives include: to study the rates of endocytosis, intracellular routing, and metabolic degradation of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies targeting tumor-associated antigens on human leukemia and lymphoma cells; To examine the effects of lysosomotropic amines (e.g. chloroquine, amantadine), carboxylic ionophores (monensin, nigericin), and thioamides (propylthiouracil), on the retention of radiolabeled MoAbs by tumor cells; to examine the impact of newer radioiodination techniques (tyramine cellobiose, paraiodobenzoyl) on the metabolic degradation of radioiodinated antibodies; to compare the endocytosis, intracellular routing, and degradation of radioimmunoconjugates prepared with different radionuclides ({sup 131}Iodine, {sup 111}Indium, {sup 90}Yttrium, {sup 99m}Technetium, {sup 186}Rhenium); and to examine the utility of radioimmunoconjugates targeting oncogene products for the radioimmunotherapy and radioimmunoscintigraphy of cancer.

  14. Metagenomic characterization of the effect of feed additives on the gut microbiome and antibiotic resistome of feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Milton; Webb, Megan; Ghimire, Sudeep; Blair, Amanda; Olson, Kenneth; Fenske, Gavin John; Fonder, Alex Thomas; Christopher-Hennings, Jane; Brake, Derek; Scaria, Joy

    2017-09-25

    In North America, antibiotic feed additives such as monensin and tylosin are added to the finishing diets of feedlot cattle to counter the ill-effects of feeding diets with rapidly digestible carbohydrates. While these feed additives have been proven to improve feed efficiency and reduce liver abscess incidence, how these products impact the gastrointestinal microbiota is not completely understood. In this study, we analyzed the impact of providing antibiotic feed additives to feedlot cattle using metagenome sequencing of treated and control animals. Our results indicate that use of antibiotic feed additives does not produce discernable changes at the phylum level. However, treated cattle had reduced abundance of gram-positive bacteria at the genus level. The abundance of Ruminococcus, Erysipelotrichaceae and Lachnospiraceae in the gut of treated steers was reduced. Functional analysis of the data indicates that there was only minimal impact due to the treatment in the rumen. Genes involved in detoxification were significantly increased in the rumen of AB steers. But the relative abundance of these genes was < 0.3%. However, our results did not show any correlation between the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes in the gut microbiota and the administration of antibiotic feed additives.

  15. Disruption of lysosome function promotes tumor growth and metastasis in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Congwu; Zhu, Huanhu; Han, Min; Zhuang, Yuan; Wu, Xiaohui; Xu, Tian

    2010-07-09

    Lysosome function is essential to many physiological processes. It has been suggested that deregulation of lysosome function could contribute to cancer. Through a genetic screen in Drosophila, we have discovered that mutations disrupting lysosomal degradation pathway components contribute to tumor development and progression. Loss-of-function mutations in the Class C vacuolar protein sorting (VPS) gene, deep orange (dor), dramatically promote tumor overgrowth and invasion of the Ras(V12) cells. Knocking down either of the two other components of the Class C VPS complex, carnation (car) and vps16A, also renders Ras(V12) cells capable for uncontrolled growth and metastatic behavior. Finally, chemical disruption of the lysosomal function by feeding animals with antimalarial drugs, chloroquine or monensin, leads to malignant tumor growth of the Ras(V12) cells. Taken together, our data provide evidence for a causative role of lysosome dysfunction in tumor growth and invasion and indicate that members of the Class C VPS complex behave as tumor suppressors.

  16. Total digestibility and in situ degradability of bulky diets with the inclusion of ionophores or probiotics for cattle and buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Maria Zeoula

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of ionophores (monensin and probiotic (Saccharomyces cerevisiae + selenium + chromium in diets with 80% forage were evaluated on the digestibility of nutrients. Three buffaloes, Murrah (Bubalus bubalis and three cattle, Holstein (Bos taurus, with an average weight of 520 ± 30 kg and 480 ± 182 kg, respectively, with rumen cannula, over experimental design with two 3 x 3 Latin squares in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement, with the absence or presence of additives: ionophore or probiotic and two species, were used. The internal flow indicator of fecal dry matter (DM was the acid insoluble ash. DM, crude protein (CP and neutral detergent fiber (NDF ruminal degradability of Tifton 85 hay was conducted for cattle and buffaloes. A diet containing probiotics had higher dry matter and organic matter digestibility in buffalo and cattle, indicating a good performance in bulky diets. The potential and effective dry matter degradability in diet with probiotic in buffaloes, were smaller than diet with ionophore, suggesting that there was a better digestion of nutrients in the intestine of these animals. The potential and effective degradability of neutral detergent fiber and crude protein in the diet containing ionophores were superior than diet containing probiotic. Buffaloes showed higher capacity of dry matter and fiber digestion than cattle.

  17. Transport of sterols to the plasma membrane of leek seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, P.; Hartmann, M.A.; Perret, A.M.; Sturbois-Balcerazak, B.; Cassagne, C.

    1998-01-01

    To investigate the intracellular transport of sterols in etiolated leek (Allium porrum L.) seedlings, in vivo pulse-chase experiments with [1-14C]acetate were performed. Then, endoplasmic reticulum-, Golgi-, and plasma membrane (PM)-enriched fractions were prepared and analyzed for the radioactivity incorporated into free sterols. In leek seedlings sterols are present as a mixture in which (24R)-24-ethylcholest-5-en-3beta-ol is by far the major compound (around 60%). The other sterols are represented by cholest-5-en-3beta-ol, 24-methyl-cholest-5-en-3beta-ol, (24S)-24-ethylcholesta-5,22E-dien-3beta-ol, and stigmasta-5,24(24(1))Z-dien-3Beta-ol. These compounds are shown to reside mainly in the PM. Our results clearly indicate that free sterols are actively transported from the endoplasmic reticulum to the PM during the first 60 min of chase, with kinetics very similar to that of phosphatidylserine. Such a transport was found to be decreased at low temperature (12 degrees C) and following treatment with monensin and brefeldin A. These data are consistent with a membrane-mediated process for the intracellular transport of sterols to the PM, which likely involves the Golgi apparatus

  18. Characterization of inorganic phosphate transport in the triple-negative breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo-Abrahão, Thais; Lacerda-Abreu, Marco Antônio; Gomes, Tainá; Cosentino-Gomes, Daniela; Carvalho-de-Araújo, Ayra Diandra; Rodrigues, Mariana Figueiredo; Oliveira, Ana Carolina Leal de; Rumjanek, Franklin David; Monteiro, Robson de Queiroz; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that interstitial inorganic phosphate is significantly elevated in the breast cancer microenvironment as compared to normal tissue. In addition it has been shown that breast cancer cells express high levels of the NaPi-IIb carrier (SLC34A2), suggesting that this carrier may play a role in breast cancer progression. However, the biochemical behavior of inorganic phosphate (Pi) transporter in this cancer type remains elusive. In this work, we characterize the kinetic parameters of Pi transport in the aggressive human breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, and correlated Pi transport with cell migration and adhesion. We determined the influence of sodium concentration, pH, metabolic inhibitors, as well as the affinity for inorganic phosphate in Pi transport. We observed that the inorganic phosphate is dependent on sodium transport (K0,5 value = 21.98 mM for NaCl). Furthermore, the transport is modulated by different pH values and increasing concentrations of Pi, following the Michaelis-Menten kinetics (K0,5 = 0.08 mM Pi). PFA, monensin, furosemide and ouabain inhibited Pi transport, cell migration and adhesion. Taken together, these results showed that the uptake of Pi in MDA-MB-231 cells is modulated by sodium and by regulatory mechanisms of intracellular sodium gradient. General Significance: Pi transport might be regarded as a potential target for therapy against tumor progression.

  19. Unanticipated Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex culture inhibition by immune modulators, immune suppressants, a growth enhancer, and vitamins A and D: clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstein, Robert J; Su, Liya; Shahidi, Azra; Brown, William D; Clifford, Anya; Brown, Sheldon T

    2014-09-01

    The development of novel antibiotics to treat multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis is time-consuming and expensive. Multiple immune modulators, immune suppressants, anti-inflammatories, and growth enhancers, and vitamins A and D, inhibit Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) in culture. We studied the culture inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by these agents. Biosafety level two M. tuberculosis complex (ATCC 19015 and ATCC 25177) was studied in radiometric Bactec or MGIT culture. Agents evaluated included clofazimine, methotrexate, 6-mercaptopurine, cyclosporine A, rapamycin, tacrolimus, monensin, and vitamins A and D. All the agents mentioned above caused dose-dependent inhibition of the M. tuberculosis complex. There was no inhibition by the anti-inflammatory 5-aminosalicylic acid, which causes bacteriostatic inhibition of MAP. We conclude that, at a minimum, studies with virulent M. tuberculosis are indicated with the agents mentioned above, as well as with the thioamide 5-propothiouricil, which has previously been shown to inhibit the M. tuberculosis complex in culture. Our data additionally emphasize the importance of vitamins A and D in treating mycobacterial diseases. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Transferrin-polycation-mediated introduction of DNA into human leukemic cells: Stimulation by agents that affect the survival of transfected DNA or modulate transferrin receptor levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotten, M.; Laengle-Rouault, F.; Kirlappos, H.; Wagner, E.; Mechtler, K.; Zenke, M.; Beug, H.; Birnstiel, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have subverted a receptor-mediated endocytosis event to transport genes into human leukemic cells. By coupling the natural iron-delivery protein transferrin to the DNA-binding polycations polylysine or protamine, they have created protein conjugates that bind nucleic acids and carry them into the cell during the normal transferrin cycle. They demonstrate here that this procedure is useful for a human leukemic cell line. They enhanced the rate of gene delivery by (i) increasing the transferrin receptor density through treatment of the cells with the cell permeable iron chelator desferrioxamine, (ii) interfering with the synthesis of heme with succinyl acetone treatment, or (iii) stimulating the degradation of heme with cobalt chloride treatment. Consistent with gene delivery as an endocytosis event, they show that the subsequent expression in K-562 cells of a gene included in the transported DNA depends upon the cellular presence of the lysosomotropic agent chloroquine. By contrast, monensin blocks transferrinfection, as does incubation of the cells at 18 degree C

  1. Intracellular fate of recombinant human interferon-gamma (rIFN) in U937 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finbloom, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    After IFN binds to specific receptors on macrophages, both modulation of surface molecules and induction of microbicidal and tumoricidal activity occurs 24-48 hr later. Since the intracellular events required to insure these responses are poorly defined, the fate of radiolabeled rIFN in U937 cells was examined. Endocytosis was determined by exposing cells to pH 2.5 to allow rIFN to dissociate leaving only intracellular ligand. Degradation was measured as trichloroacetic acid soluble radioactivity in the media. Of the 4-5000 molecules of rIFN that specifically and saturably (at 300 U/ml) bound at 4 0 C, 40% dissociated during 15-30 min after cells were warmed to 37 0 C. However, if cells were continuously exposed at 37 0 C to lower levels of rIFN (60-100 U/ml), 30-40% of those molecules capable of binding to the cell at that concentration were internalized. Furthermore, 60% of the molecules were degraded during 3-4 hr of additional culture. Since exposure of cells to chloroquine and monensin resulted in only partial inhibition of degradation (75% and 43%, respectively), there may also be degradation within endosomes or on the cell following binding to its receptor. Soon thereafter, degradation products are measurable. Since many biological responses require prolonged incubation with the molecule, intracellular processing of IFN may be important for expression of these effects

  2. Intracellular insulin-receptor dissociation and segregation in a rat fibroblast cell line transfected with a human insulin receptor gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, J.R.; Olefsky, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The cellular processing of insulin and insulin receptors was studied using a rat fibroblast cell line that had been transfected with a normal human insulin receptor gene, expressing approximately 500 times the normal number of native fibroblasts insulin receptors. These cells bind and internalize insulin normally. Biochemically assays based on the selective precipitation by polyethylene glycol of intact insulin-receptor complexes but not of free intracellular insulin were developed to study the time course of intracellular insulin-receptor dissociation. Fibroblasts were incubated with radiolabeled insulin at 4 0 C, and internalization of insulin-receptor complexes was initiated by warming the cells to 37 0 C. Within 2 min, 90% of the internalized radioactivity was composed of intact insulin-receptor complexes. The dissociation of insulin from internalized insulin-receptor complexes was markedly inhibited by monensin and chloroquine. Furthermore, chloroquine markedly increased the number of cross-linkable intracellular insulin-receptor complexes, as analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis autoradiography. These findings suggest that acidification of intracellular vesicles is responsible for insulin-receptor dissociation. Physical segregation of dissociated intracellular insulin from its receptor was monitored. The results are consistent with the view that segregation of insulin and receptor occurs 5-10 min after initiation of dissociation. These studies demonstrate the intracellular itinerary of insulin-receptor complexes, including internalization, dissociation of insulin from the internalized receptor within an acidified compartment, segregation of insulin from the receptor, and subsequent ligand degradation

  3. Improved radioimmunotherapy of hematologic malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Press, O.W.

    1989-01-01

    In the seven months which have elapsed since initial funding of this project, considerable progress has been made towards achieving the objectives of this research. These objectives include: to study the relative rates of metabolic degradation of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting tumor associated antigens; to examine the effects of lysomotropic amines (ammonium chloride, chloroquine, amantadine), carboxylic ionophores (monensin), and thionamides (propylthiouracil), on the retention of radiolabeled mAbs by tumor cells; to identify the subcellular site of radioimmunoconjugate degradation, and to quantify the sizes of the fragments generated by intracellular metabolism of radiolabeled mAbs; to examine the effects of lysomotropic agents on the quality of external gamma camera imaging and radiation dosimetry generated in tumor-bearing mice injected with radiolabeled mAbs; to examine the effects of lysomotropic agents on the radiotherapeutic efficacy of radiolabeled mAbs in murine tumors and human tumors xenografted to nude mice; and to compare the effects of lysomotropic agents on the degradation of radioimmunoconjugates made with different radionuclides and different conjugation methods

  4. Evidence for ligand and/or receptor-specific mechanisms of internalization and processing in cultured H35 hepatoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, R.I.; Smith, R.M.; Jarett, L.

    1987-01-01

    Total cell associated (TC) and intracellularly accumulated (IC) 125 I-labeled insulin (INS) or α-2-macroglobulin (α2M) were assessed in cultured H35 hepatoma cells which were preincubated with various agents. Cytochalasin D or sodium azide, which affect microfilament- or energy-dependent receptor internalization, had no significant effects on INS TC or IC but each decreased α2M TC and IC to 50-75% of control. Monensin and chloroquine, acidotrophic agents, each increased INS TC and IC to 150-300% of control yet decreased TC and IC of α2M to 20-50% of control. Only leupeptin, a lysosomal protease inhibitor, caused an increase in both INS and α2M TC and IC. These data suggest significant differences exist in the biochemical regulation or structural routes of INS and α2M receptors and/or receptor-ligand complexes in their (1) internalization, (2) processing in acidic organelles, (3) recycling to the cell surface or in combinations of the above. Biochemical and ultrastructural studies are being performed on the H35 hepatoma cell which will characterize the processing of INS and α2M receptors and provide an explanation for the differences observed

  5. Antibiotics in Crab Ponds of Lake Guchenghu Basin, China: Occurrence, Temporal Variations, and Ecological Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxia Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are widely used in aquaculture, however, this often results in undesirable ecological effects. To evaluate the occurrence, temporal variations, and ecological risk of antibiotics in five crab ponds of Lake Guchenghu Basin, China, 44 antibiotics from nine classes were analyzed by rapid resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS. Twelve antibiotics belonging to six classes were detected in the aqueous phase of five crab ponds, among which sulfonamides and macrolides were the predominant classes, and six compounds (sulfamonomethoxine, sulfadiazine, trimethoprim, erythromycin-H2O, monensin, and florfenicol were frequently detected at high concentrations. In general, the antibiotic levels varied between different crab ponds, with the average concentrations ranging from 122 to 1440 ng/L. The antibiotic concentrations in crab ponds exhibited obvious seasonal variations, with the highest concentration and detection frequency detected in summer. Multivariate analysis showed that antibiotic concentrations were significantly correlated with environmental variables, such as total organic carbon, phosphate, ammonia nitrogen, and pH. Sulfadiazine, clarithromycin, erythromycin-H2O, and ciprofloxacin posed a high risk to algae, while the mixture of antibiotics could pose a high risk to aquatic organisms in the crab ponds. Overall, the usage of antibiotics in farming ponds should be comprehensively investigated and controlled to preserve a healthy aquaculture ecosystem.

  6. Human renin biosynthesis and secretion in normal and ischemic kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, R.E.; Carleton, J.E.; Richie, J.P.; Heusser, C.; Dzau, V.J.

    1987-01-01

    The pathway of renin biosynthesis and secretion in normal and ischemic human kidneys has been investigated by pulse-labeling experiments. The results indicate that in normal human kidney, preprorenin is rapidly processed to 47-kDa prorenin. Microradiosequencing showed that this molecule was generated by cleavage between Gly-23 and Leu-24, yielding a 43-amino acid proregion. Analysis of prorenin secreted by the kidney tissue yielded an identical sequence, indicating that prorenin is secreted without any further proteolysis. An examination of the kinetics of processing and secretion suggested that a majority of the newly synthesized prorenin is quickly secreted, while only a small fraction is processed intracellularly to the mature renin. The differences in secretion kinetics between prorenin and mature renin and the selective inhibition of prorenin secretion by monensin suggest that they are secreted independently via two pathways: a constitutive pathway probably from the Golgi or protogranules that rapidly release prorenin and a regulated pathway that secretes mature renin from the mature granules. A comparison of the kinetics of processing between normal and ischemic tissues suggests that renal ischemia leads to an overall increase in the rate of processing or prorenin to mature renin. In addition, prolonged biosynthetic labeling of renin in the ischemic kidney yielded two smaller molecular weight immunoreactive forms suggestive of renin fragments that may be degradative products. These fragments were not detected in normal kidney tissue labeled for similar lengths of time

  7. Metal chelators and neurotoxicity: lead, mercury, and arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørklund, Geir; Mutter, Joachim; Aaseth, Jan

    2017-12-01

    This article reviews the clinical use of the metal chelators sodium 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonate (DMPS), meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and calcium disodium edetate (CaEDTA, calcium EDTA) in overexposure and poisonings with salts of lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and arsenic (As). DMSA has considerably lower toxicity than the classic heavy metal antagonist BAL (2,3-dimercaptopropanol) and is also less toxic than DMPS. Because of its adverse effects, CaEDTA should be replaced by DMSA as the antidote of choice in treating moderate Pb poisoning. Combination therapy with BAL and CaEDTA was previously recommended in cases of severe acute Pb poisoning with encephalopathy. We suggest that BAL in such cases acted as a shuttling Pb transporter from the intra- to the extracellular space. The present paper discusses if a combination of the extracellularly distributed DMSA with the ionophore, Monensin may provide a less toxic combination for Pb mobilization by increasing both the efflux of intracellularly deposited Pb and the urinary Pb excretion. Anyhow, oral therapy with DMSA should be continued with several intermittent courses. DMPS and DMSA are also promising antidotes in Hg poisoning, whereas DMPS seems to be a more efficient agent against As poisoning. However, new insight indicates that a combination of low-dosed BAL plus DMPS could be a preferred antidotal therapy to obtain mobilization of the intracerebral deposits into the circulation for subsequent rapid urinary excretion.

  8. Ammonia production by human faecal bacteria, and the enumeration, isolation and characterization of bacteria capable of growth on peptides and amino acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The products of protein breakdown in the human colon are considered to be detrimental to gut health. Amino acid catabolism leads to the formation of sulfides, phenolic compounds and amines, which are inflammatory and/or precursors to the formation of carcinogens, including N-nitroso compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the kinetics of protein breakdown and the bacterial species involved. Results Casein, pancreatic casein hydrolysate (mainly short-chain peptides or amino acids were incubated in vitro with suspensions of faecal bacteria from 3 omnivorous and 3 vegetarian human donors. Results from the two donor groups were similar. Ammonia production was highest from peptides, followed by casein and amino acids, which were similar. The amino acids metabolized most extensively were Asp, Ser, Lys and Glu. Monensin inhibited the rate of ammonia production from amino acids by 60% (P = 0.001, indicating the involvement of Gram-positive bacteria. Enrichment cultures were carried out to investigate if, by analogy with the rumen, there was a significant population of asaccharolytic, obligately amino acid-fermenting bacteria (‘hyper-ammonia-producing’ bacteria; HAP in the colon. Numbers of bacteria capable of growth on peptides or amino acids alone averaged 3.5% of the total viable count, somewhat higher than the rumen. None of these were HAP, however. The species enriched included Clostridium spp., one of which was C. perfringens, Enterococcus, Shigella and Escherichia coli. Conclusions Protein fermentation by human faecal bacteria in the absence of sugars not only leads to the formation of hazardous metabolic products, but also to the possible proliferation of harmful bacteria. The kinetics of protein metabolism were similar to the rumen, but HAP bacteria were not found.

  9. Fluorinated phenmetrazine "legal highs" act as substrates for high-affinity monoamine transporters of the SLC6 family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Felix P; Burchardt, Nadine V; Decker, Ann M; Partilla, John S; Li, Yang; McLaughlin, Gavin; Kavanagh, Pierce V; Sandtner, Walter; Blough, Bruce E; Brandt, Simon D; Baumann, Michael H; Sitte, Harald H

    2018-05-15

    A variety of new psychoactive substances (NPS) are appearing in recreational drug markets worldwide. NPS are compounds that target various receptors and transporters in the central nervous system to achieve their psychoactive effects. Chemical modifications of existing drugs can generate NPS that are not controlled by current legislation, thereby providing legal alternatives to controlled substances such as cocaine or amphetamine. Recently, 3-fluorophenmetrazine (3-FPM), a derivative of the anorectic compound phenmetrazine, appeared on the recreational drug market and adverse clinical effects have been reported. Phenmetrazine is known to elevate extracellular monoamine concentrations by an amphetamine-like mechanism. Here we tested 3-FPM and its positional isomers, 2-FPM and 4-FPM, for their abilities to interact with plasma membrane monoamine transporters for dopamine (DAT), norepinephrine (NET) and serotonin (SERT). We found that 2-, 3- and 4-FPM inhibit uptake mediated by DAT and NET in HEK293 cells with potencies comparable to cocaine (IC 50 values 80 μM). Experiments directed at identifying transporter-mediated reverse transport revealed that FPM isomers induce efflux via DAT, NET and SERT in HEK293 cells, and this effect is augmented by the Na + /H + ionophore monensin. Each FPM evoked concentration-dependent release of monoamines from rat brain synaptosomes. Hence, this study reports for the first time the mode of action for 2-, 3- and 4-FPM and identifies these NPS as monoamine releasers with marked potency at catecholamine transporters implicated in abuse and addiction. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Designer Drugs and Legal Highs.' Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. [Current animal feeds with antimicrobial activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumev, D

    1981-01-01

    following polyether ionophoric antibiotics are mentioned: monensine (rumensine, elancoban), lassalocide (avatek, lasotek), slinomycin(eustin, ustin, coxistac), lonomycin (emercide), harasine. Dosage rates and other data are given characterising the respective preparations.

  11. Removal of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes from domestic sewage by constructed wetlands: Optimization of wetland substrates and hydraulic loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Wei, Xiao-Dong; Liu, You-Sheng; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; He, Liang-Ying; Su, Hao-Chang; Hu, Li-Xin; Chen, Fan-Rong; Yang, Yong-Qiang

    2016-09-15

    This study aimed to assess removal potential of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in raw domestic wastewater by various mesocosm-scale horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (CWs) planted Cyperus alternifolius L. with different design parameters. Twelve CWs with three hydraulic loading rates (HLR 10, 20 and 30cm/day) and four substrates (oyster shell, zeolite, medical stone and ceramic) were set up in order to select the best optimized wetland. The result showed that 7 target antibiotics compounds including erythromycin-H2O, lincomycin, monensin, ofloxacin, sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine and novobiocin were detected, and all selected 18 genes (three sulfonamide resistance genes (sul1, sul2 and sul3), four tetracycline resistance genes (tetG, tetM, tetO and tetX), two macrolide resistance genes (ermB and ermC), three quinolone resistance genes (qnrB, qnrD and qnrS) and four chloramphenicol resistance genes (cmlA, fexA, fexB and floR)) and two integrase genes (int1 and int2) were positively detected in the domestic wastewaters. The aqueous removal rates of the total antibiotics ranged from17.9 to 98.5%, while those for the total ARGs varied between 50.0 and 85.8% by the mesocosm-scale CWs. After considering their aqueous removal rates in combination with their mass removals, the CW with zeolite as the substrate and HLR of 20cm/day was selected as the best choice. Combined chemical and biological analyses indicate that both microbial degradation and physical sorption processes were responsible for the fate of antibiotics and ARGs in the wetlands. The findings from this study suggest constructed wetlands could be a promising technology for the removal of emerging contaminants such as antibiotics and ARGs in domestic wastewater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Leptospira interrogans activation of peripheral blood monocyte glycolipoprotein demonstrated in whole blood by the release of IL-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dorigatti

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Glycolipoprotein (GLP from pathogenic serovars of Leptospira has been implicated in the pathogenesis of leptospirosis by its presence in tissues of experimental animals with leptospirosis, the inhibition of the Na,K-ATPase pump activity, and induced production of cytokines. The aims of the present study were to investigate the induction of IL-6 by GLP in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC and to demonstrate monocyte stimulation at the cellular level in whole blood from healthy volunteers. PBMC were stimulated with increasing concentrations (5 to 2500 ng/ml of GLP extracted from the pathogenic L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni, lipopolysaccharide (positive control or medium (negative control, and supernatants were collected after 6, 20/24, and 48 h, and kept at -80ºC until use. Whole blood was diluted 1:1 in RPMI medium and cultivated for 6 h, with medium, GLP and lipopolysaccharide as described above. Monensin was added after the first hour of culture. Supernatant cytokine levels from PBMC were measured by ELISA and intracellular IL-6 was detected in monocytes in whole blood cultures by flow-cytometry. Monocytes were identified in whole blood on the basis of forward versus side scatter parameters and positive reactions with CD45 and CD14 antibodies. GLP ( > or = 50 ng/ml-induced IL-6 levels in supernatants were detected after 6-h incubation, reaching a peak after 20/24 h. The percentage of monocytes staining for IL-6 increased with increasing GLP concentration. Thus, our findings show a GLP-induced cellular activation by demonstrating the ability of GLP to induce IL-6 and the occurrence of monocyte activation in whole blood at the cellular level.

  13. Cellular vacuoles induced by Mycoplasma pneumoniae CARDS toxin originate from Rab9-associated compartments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coreen Johnson

    Full Text Available Recently, we identified an ADP-ribosylating and vacuolating cytotoxin in Mycoplasma pneumoniae designated Community Acquired Respiratory Distress Syndrome (CARDS toxin. In this study we show that vacuoles induced by recombinant CARDS (rCARDS toxin are acidic and derive from the endocytic pathway as determined by the uptake of neutral red and the fluid-phase marker, Lucifer yellow, respectively. Also, we demonstrate that the formation of rCARDS toxin-associated cytoplasmic vacuoles is inhibited by the vacuolar ATPase inhibitor, bafilomycin A1, and the ionophore, monensin. To examine the ontogeny of these vacuoles, we analyzed the distribution of endosomal and lysosomal membrane markers during vacuole formation and observed the enrichment of the late endosomal GTPase, Rab9, around rCARDS toxin-induced vacuoles. Immunogold-labeled Rab9 and overexpression of green fluorescent-tagged Rab9 further confirmed vacuolar association. The late endosomal- and lysosomal-associated membrane proteins, LAMP1 and LAMP2, also localized to the vacuolar membranes, while the late endosomal protein, Rab7, and early endosomal markers, Rab5 and EEA1, were excluded. HeLa cells expressing dominant-negative (DN Rab9 exhibited markedly reduced vacuole formation in the presence of rCARDS toxin, in contrast to cells expressing DN-Rab7, highlighting the importance of Rab9 function in rCARDS toxin-induced vacuolation. Our findings reveal the unique Rab9-association with rCARDS toxin-induced vacuoles and its possible relationship to the characteristic histopathology that accompanies M. pneumoniae infection.

  14. Saponin determination, expression analysis and functional characterization of saponin biosynthetic genes in Chenopodium quinoa leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiallos-Jurado, Jennifer; Pollier, Jacob; Moses, Tessa; Arendt, Philipp; Barriga-Medina, Noelia; Morillo, Eduardo; Arahana, Venancio; de Lourdes Torres, Maria; Goossens, Alain; Leon-Reyes, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a highly nutritious pseudocereal with an outstanding protein, vitamin, mineral and nutraceutical content. The leaves, flowers and seed coat of quinoa contain triterpenoid saponins, which impart bitterness to the grain and make them unpalatable without postharvest removal of the saponins. In this study, we quantified saponin content in quinoa leaves from Ecuadorian sweet and bitter genotypes and assessed the expression of saponin biosynthetic genes in leaf samples elicited with methyl jasmonate. We found saponin accumulation in leaves after MeJA treatment in both ecotypes tested. As no reference genes were available to perform qPCR in quinoa, we mined publicly available RNA-Seq data for orthologs of 22 genes known to be stably expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. The quinoa ortholog of At2g28390 (Monensin Sensitivity 1, MON1) was stably expressed and chosen as a suitable reference gene for qPCR analysis. Candidate saponin biosynthesis genes were screened in the quinoa RNA-Seq data and subsequent functional characterization in yeast led to the identification of CqbAS1, CqCYP716A78 and CqCYP716A79. These genes were found to be induced by MeJA, suggesting this phytohormone might also modulate saponin biosynthesis in quinoa leaves. Knowledge of the saponin biosynthesis and its regulation in quinoa may aid the further development of sweet cultivars that do not require postharvest processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The leukocyte common antigen (CD45) on human pre-B leukemia cells: variant glycoprotein form expression during the cell exposure to phorbol ester is blocked by a nonselective protein kinase inhibitor H7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duraj, J.; Sedlak, J.; Chorvath, B.; Rauko, P.

    1997-01-01

    The human pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line REH6 was utilized for characterization of CD45 glycoprotein by monoclonal antibodies (mAb) recognizing four distinct CD45 antigen specificities, i.e. nonrestricted CD45, restricted, CD45RA, CD45RB and CD45R0. Immunoprecipitation revealed two antigen specificities on REH6 cells of m.w. 220 kDa and 190 kDa, both presenting wide range of isoelectric point pI∼6.0-7.5. Nonrestricted CD45 epitopes were not affected by the sialyl acid cleavage with sodium meta-periodate or neuraminidase, but were sensitive to both, tunicamycin, the N-glycosylation inhibitor and monensin, an inhibitor of protein transport through the Golgi compartment. O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase from Pasteurella haemolytica A1 partially cleaved CD45RA and CD45RB epitopes, while nonrestricted CD45 determinants were not affected by this enzyme. Limited proteolysis of this antigen resulted in the appearance of 160-180 kDa peptide domains which retained CD45 epitopes. Further, the treatment of cells with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) induced marked down-regulation of 220 and 190 kDa isoforms and the appearance of new 210, 180 and 170 kDa variant glycoprotein forms which were not found on parental cells. This PMA effect was not accompanied by the programmed cell death and was markedly blocked by a nonselective protein kinase (PK) inhibitor iso-quinoline sulfonamide H7. Modulation of CD45 by phorbol esters might serve as an in vitro model for an additional insight into the function of CD45 in hematopoietic cells. (author)

  16. The sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe2 (slc4a5) expressed in human renal proximal tubules shows increased apical expression under high-salt conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildea, John J; Xu, Peng; Carlson, Julia M; Gaglione, Robert T; Bigler Wang, Dora; Kemp, Brandon A; Reyes, Camellia M; McGrath, Helen E; Carey, Robert M; Jose, Pedro A; Felder, Robin A

    2015-12-01

    The electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe2) is encoded by SLC4A5, variants of which have been associated with salt sensitivity of blood pressure, which affects 25% of the adult population. NBCe2 is thought to mediate sodium bicarbonate cotransport primarily in the renal collecting duct, but NBCe2 mRNA is also found in the rodent renal proximal tubule (RPT). The protein expression or function of NBCe2 has not been demonstrated in the human RPT. We validated an NBCe2 antibody by shRNA and Western blot analysis, as well as overexpression of an epitope-tagged NBCe2 construct in both RPT cells (RPTCs) and human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. Using this validated NBCe2 antibody, we found NBCe2 protein expression in the RPT of fresh and frozen human kidney slices, RPTCs isolated from human urine, and isolated RPTC apical membrane. Under basal conditions, NBCe2 was primarily found in the Golgi, while NBCe1 was primarily found at the basolateral membrane. Following an acute short-term increase in intracellular sodium, NBCe2 expression was increased at the apical membrane in cultured slices of human kidney and polarized, immortalized RPTCs. Sodium bicarbonate transport was increased by monensin and overexpression of NBCe2, decreased by NBCe2 shRNA, but not by NBCe1 shRNA, and blocked by 2,2'-(1,2-ethenediyl)bis[5-isothiocyanato-benzenesulfonic acid]. NBCe2 could be important in apical sodium and bicarbonate cotransport under high-salt conditions; the implication of the ex vivo studies to the in vivo situation when salt intake is increased remains unclear. Therefore, future studies will examine the role of NBCe2 in mediating increased renal sodium transport in humans whose blood pressures are elevated by an increase in sodium intake. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Impaired degradation followed by enhanced recycling of epidermal growth factor receptor caused by hypo-phosphorylation of tyrosine 1045 in RBE cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gui, Anping; Kobayashi, Akira; Motoyama, Hiroaki; Kitazawa, Masato; Takeoka, Michiko; Miyagawa, Shinichi

    2012-01-01

    Since cholangiocarcinoma has a poor prognosis, several epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted therapies with antibody or small molecule inhibitor treatment have been proposed. However, their effect remains limited. The present study sought to understand the molecular genetic characteristics of cholangiocarcinoma related to EGFR, with emphasis on its degradation and recycling. We evaluated EGFR expression and colocalization by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence, cell surface EGFR expression by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), and EGFR ubiquitination and protein binding by immunoprecipitation in the human cholangiocarcinoma RBE and immortalized cholangiocyte MMNK-1 cell lines. Monensin treatment and Rab11a depletion by siRNA were adopted for inhibition of EGFR recycling. Upon stimulation with EGF, ligand-induced EGFR degradation was impaired and the expression of phospho-tyrosine 1068 and phospho-p44/42 MAPK was sustained in RBE cells as compared with MMNK-1 cells. In RBE cells, the process of EGFR sorting for lysosomal degradation was blocked at the early endosome stage, and non-degradated EGFR was recycled to the cell surface. A disrupted association between EGFR and the E3 ubiquitin ligase c-Cbl, as well as hypo-phosphorylation of EGFR at tyrosine 1045 (Tyr1045), were also observed in RBE cells. In RBE cells, up-regulation of EGFR Tyr1045 phosphorylation is a potentially useful molecular alteration in EGFR-targeted therapy. The combination of molecular-targeted therapy determined by the characteristics of individual EGFR phosphorylation events and EGFR recycling inhibition show promise in future treatments of cholangiocarcinoma

  18. Allisonella histaminiformans gen. nov., sp. nov. A novel bacterium that produces histamine, utilizes histidine as its sole energy source, and could play a role in bovine and equine laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Matthew R; Flint, Joseph F; Russell, James B

    2002-12-01

    When cattle and horses are fed large amounts of grain, histamine can accumulate in the gastrointestinal tract, and this accumulation can cause an acute inflammation of the hooves (laminitis). When ruminal fluid from dairy cattle fed grain supplements was serially diluted in anaerobic MRS medium containing histidine (50 mM), histamine was detected at dilutions as high as 10(-7). The histidine enrichments were then transferred successively in an anaerobic, carbonate-based medium (50 mM histidine) without glucose. The histamine producing bacteria could not be isolated from the rumens of cattle fed hay; however, histamine producing bacteria could be isolated the feces of cattle fed grain and the cecum of a horse. All of the histamine producing isolates had the same ovoid morphology. The cells stained Gram-negative and were resistant to the ionophore, monensin (25 microM). The doubling time was 110 min, and the yield was 1.5 mg cell protein per mmol histidine. The G+C content was 46.8%. Lysine was the only other amino acid used, but lysine did not allow growth if histidine was absent. Because carbohydrate and organic acid utilization was not detected, it appeared that the isolates used histidine decarboxylation as their sole mechanism of energy derivation. 16s rRNA gene sequencing indicated that the isolates were most closely related to low G+C Gram-positive bacteria (firmicutes), but similarities were < or = 94%. Because the most closely related bacteria (Dialister pneumonsintes, Megasphaera elsdenii and Selenomonas ruminantium) did not produce histamine from histidine, we propose that these histamine producing bacteria be assigned to a new genus, Allisonella, as Allisonella histaminiformans gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain is MR2 (ATCC BAA610, DSM 15230).

  19. Effects of artemisinin in broiler chickens challenged with Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima and E. tenella in battery trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Loredana; Györke, Adriana; Tǎbǎran, Alexandru Flaviu; Dumitrache, Mirabela Oana; Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Magdaş, Cristian; Mircean, Viorica; Zagon, Diana; Balea, Anamaria; Cozma, Vasile

    2015-12-15

    Four experiments were conceived in order to test the efficacy of artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone derived from Artemisia annua, in single experimental infection of broiler chickens with Eimeria acervulina (1 × 10(5) oocysts), Eimeria maxima (5 × 10(4) oocysts) or Eimeria tenella (1 × 10(4) oocysts), and mixed infection with all 3 species (3.2 × 10(4) Eimeria spp. oocysts). For each experiment, three different dosages of artemisinin (5, 50 and 500 ppm) were compared with a negative control (uninfected, unmedicated), a positive control (infected, unmedicated) and a classical anticoccidial (monensin). The weight gain (WG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), oocysts shedded per gram of feces (OPG), lesion score, oocysts sporulation rates and mortality rate were recorded in all groups. The dosage of 5 ppm of artemisinin improved the WG and FCR for the chickens infected with E. acervulina. The OPG was significantly decreased in all the groups medicated with artemisinin and challenged with a mixed infection (p ≤ 0.01). The lesion score of the chickens challenged with Eimeria was reduced by different concentrations of artemisinin, depending on the species involved, but this compound did not have a positive effect on the lesions caused by E. acervulina. Histopathological analysis revealed superficial erosions of the intestinal mucosa, mixt. mononuclear and heterophilic inflammatory infiltrate in the lamina propria and intralesional presence of various developmental stages of parasite in groups infected with Eimeria spp.The sporulation rate of E. acervulina and E. maxima oocysts was significantly affected by 500 ppm of artemisinin, whilst the dosage of 5 ppm affected the sporulation of E. tenella oocysts. These data suggest that artemisinin is not effective against single eimerian infections but could be used as an alternative in mixed coccidiosis, especially if its effect on the oocysts sporulation would be fully investigated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  20. Combined effect of synthetic enterocin CRL35 with cell wall, membrane-acting antibiotics and muranolytic enzymes against Listeria cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvucci, E; Hebert, E M; Sesma, F; Saavedra, L

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate the inhibition effectiveness of enterocin CRL35 in combination with cell wall, membrane-acting antibiotics and muranolytic enzymes against the foodborne pathogen Listeria. Synthetic enterocin CRL35 alone and in combination with monensin, bacitracin, gramicidin, mutanolysin and lysozyme were used in this study. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index assays were performed using Listeria innocua 7 and Listeria monocytogenes FBUNT as sensitive strains. Antibiotics showed positive interactions with the bacteriocin in both strains tested. On the other hand, when mutanolysin and enterocin CRL35 were added to resting cells in a buffer system, the lytic effect of mutanolysin was enhanced. However, the addition of mutanolysin showed no effect on the growth of L. innocua 7 cells in a culture medium. Moreover, mutanolysin allowed the overgrowth of L. innocua 7 cells to an OD similar to control cells in the presence of inhibitory concentration of enterocin CRL35. In contrast, the combination of lysozyme and enterocin CRL35 resulted in a 50% inhibition of the L. innocua 7 growth. Based on our results, we conclude that the combination of synthetic enterocin CRL35 with some antibiotics is effective against L. innocua 7 and L. monocytogenes FBUNT cells, and more importantly the amount of these agents to be used was considerably reduced. The effectiveness of the combination of synthetic enterocin CRL35 with muramidases seems to depend on complex environments, and more detailed studies need to be performed to elucidate this issue. Enterocin CRL35 represents a promising agent that not only can ensure the quality and safety of food but it can also be combined with several antimicrobial agents important in the medical field.

  1. A new type of Na(+-driven ATP synthase membrane rotor with a two-carboxylate ion-coupling motif.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Schulz

    Full Text Available The anaerobic bacterium Fusobacterium nucleatum uses glutamate decarboxylation to generate a transmembrane gradient of Na⁺. Here, we demonstrate that this ion-motive force is directly coupled to ATP synthesis, via an F₁F₀-ATP synthase with a novel Na⁺ recognition motif, shared by other human pathogens. Molecular modeling and free-energy simulations of the rotary element of the enzyme, the c-ring, indicate Na⁺ specificity in physiological settings. Consistently, activity measurements showed Na⁺ stimulation of the enzyme, either membrane-embedded or isolated, and ATP synthesis was sensitive to the Na⁺ ionophore monensin. Furthermore, Na⁺ has a protective effect against inhibitors targeting the ion-binding sites, both in the complete ATP synthase and the isolated c-ring. Definitive evidence of Na⁺ coupling is provided by two identical crystal structures of the c₁₁ ring, solved by X-ray crystallography at 2.2 and 2.6 Å resolution, at pH 5.3 and 8.7, respectively. Na⁺ ions occupy all binding sites, each coordinated by four amino acids and a water molecule. Intriguingly, two carboxylates instead of one mediate ion binding. Simulations and experiments demonstrate that this motif implies that a proton is concurrently bound to all sites, although Na⁺ alone drives the rotary mechanism. The structure thus reveals a new mode of ion coupling in ATP synthases and provides a basis for drug-design efforts against this opportunistic pathogen.

  2. Effects of vaccination against coccidiosis, with and without a specific herbal essential oil blend, on performance, oocyst excretion and serum IBD titers of broilers reared on litter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Çınar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the effects of oral administration of a live attenuated vaccine (VAC and an essential oil blend (EOB, either alone or in combination, as a novel anticoccidial strategy for broiler chickens with a mixed Eimeria spp. infection. A total of 624 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of six treatments. Two of the groups, only one of which was challenged with coccidiosis, were given a basal diet and served as controls. The other two groups, also infected, were given a basal diet supplemented with monensin sodium (MON, 100 mg/kg or the EOB (75 mg/kg. Of the remaining two groups, which were infected with coccidiosis, one was vaccinated against coccidiosis (VAC and the other was both vaccinated and fed a diet with an EOB (VAC+EOB. Birds treated with VAC and VAC+EOB had comparable live performance to MON-fed birds challenged with coccidiosis. Conversely, EOB diet supplementation had negative effects on growth, feed intake and feed conversion ratio throughout the growth period. None of the coccidial control strategies affected the overall performance of uninfected birds. There was no significant difference in mortality among treatments. All of the anticoccidial procedures kept serum infectious bursal disease titers at high levels after coccidial infection and reduced fecal oocyst excretion, with the exception of the MON-based procedure. The results indicate that vaccination against coccidiosis, with or without EOB, demonstrated the same efficacy in promoting recovery from coccidial infection and in reducing oocyst shedding as MON.

  3. A Novel Initiation Mechanism of Death in Streptococcus pneumoniae Induced by the Human Milk Protein-Lipid Complex HAMLET and Activated during Physiological Death*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementi, Emily A.; Marks, Laura R.; Duffey, Michael E.; Hakansson, Anders P.

    2012-01-01

    To cause colonization or infection, most bacteria grow in biofilms where differentiation and death of subpopulations is critical for optimal survival of the whole population. However, little is known about initiation of bacterial death under physiological conditions. Membrane depolarization has been suggested, but never shown to be involved, due to the difficulty of performing such studies in bacteria and the paucity of information that exists regarding ion transport mechanisms in prokaryotes. In this study, we performed the first extensive investigation of ion transport and membrane depolarization in a bacterial system. We found that HAMLET, a human milk protein-lipid complex, kills Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) in a manner that shares features with activation of physiological death from starvation. Addition of HAMLET to pneumococci dissipated membrane polarity, but depolarization per se was not enough to trigger death. Rather, both HAMLET- and starvation-induced death of pneumococci specifically required a sodium-dependent calcium influx, as shown using calcium and sodium transport inhibitors. This mechanism was verified under low sodium conditions, and in the presence of ionomycin or monensin, which enhanced pneumococcal sensitivity to HAMLET- and starvation-induced death. Pneumococcal death was also inhibited by kinase inhibitors, and indicated the involvement of Ser/Thr kinases in these processes. The importance of this activation mechanism was made evident, as dysregulation and manipulation of physiological death was detrimental to biofilm formation, a hallmark of bacterial colonization. Overall, our findings provide novel information on the role of ion transport during bacterial death, with the potential to uncover future antimicrobial targets. PMID:22700972

  4. A novel initiation mechanism of death in Streptococcus pneumoniae induced by the human milk protein-lipid complex HAMLET and activated during physiological death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementi, Emily A; Marks, Laura R; Duffey, Michael E; Hakansson, Anders P

    2012-08-03

    To cause colonization or infection, most bacteria grow in biofilms where differentiation and death of subpopulations is critical for optimal survival of the whole population. However, little is known about initiation of bacterial death under physiological conditions. Membrane depolarization has been suggested, but never shown to be involved, due to the difficulty of performing such studies in bacteria and the paucity of information that exists regarding ion transport mechanisms in prokaryotes. In this study, we performed the first extensive investigation of ion transport and membrane depolarization in a bacterial system. We found that HAMLET, a human milk protein-lipid complex, kills Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) in a manner that shares features with activation of physiological death from starvation. Addition of HAMLET to pneumococci dissipated membrane polarity, but depolarization per se was not enough to trigger death. Rather, both HAMLET- and starvation-induced death of pneumococci specifically required a sodium-dependent calcium influx, as shown using calcium and sodium transport inhibitors. This mechanism was verified under low sodium conditions, and in the presence of ionomycin or monensin, which enhanced pneumococcal sensitivity to HAMLET- and starvation-induced death. Pneumococcal death was also inhibited by kinase inhibitors, and indicated the involvement of Ser/Thr kinases in these processes. The importance of this activation mechanism was made evident, as dysregulation and manipulation of physiological death was detrimental to biofilm formation, a hallmark of bacterial colonization. Overall, our findings provide novel information on the role of ion transport during bacterial death, with the potential to uncover future antimicrobial targets.

  5. Down-regulation of voltage-dependent sodium channels initiated by sodium influx in developing neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dargent, B.; Couraud, F.

    1990-01-01

    To address the issue of whether regulatory feedback exists between the electrical activity of a neuron and ion-channel density, the authors investigated the effect of Na + -channel activators (scorpion α toxin, batrachotoxin, and veratridine) on the density of Na + channels in fetal rat brain neurons in vitro. A partial but rapid (t 1/2 , 15 min) disappearance of surface Na + channels was observed as measured by a decrease in the specific binding of [ 3 H]saxitoxin and 125 I-labeled scorpion β toxin and a decrease in specific 22 Na + uptake. Moreover, the increase in the number of Na + channels that normally occurs during neuronal maturation in vitro was inhibited by chronic channel activator treatment. The induced disappearance of Na + channels was abolished by tetrodotoxin, was found to be dependent on the external Na + concentration, and was prevented when either choline (a nonpermeant ion) or Li + (a permeant ion) was substituted for Na + . Amphotericin B, a Na + ionophore, and monensin were able to mimick the effect of Na + -channel activators, while a KCl depolarization failed to do this. This feedback regulation seems to be a neuronal property since Na + -channel density in cultured astrocytes was not affected by channel activator treatment or by amphotericin B. The present evidence suggests that an increase in intracellular Na + concentration, whether elicited by Na + -channel activators or mediated by a Na + ionophore, can induce a decrease in surface Na + channels and therefore is involved in down-regulation of Na + -channel density in fetal rat brain neurons in vitro

  6. Role of diacylglycerol in adrenergic-stimulated sup 86 Rb uptake by proximal tubules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baines, A.D.; Drangova, R.; Ho, P. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1990-05-01

    We used rat proximal tubule fragments purified by Percoll centrifugation to examine the role of diacylglycerol (DAG) in noradrenergic-stimulated Na+ reabsorption. Tubular DAG concentration and ouabain-inhibitable 86Rb uptake increased within 30 s after adding norepinephrine (NE) and remained elevated for at least 5 min. NE (1 microM) increased DAG content 17% and ouabain-inhibitable 86Rb uptake 23%. Cirazoline-stimulated 86Rb uptake was not inhibited by BaCl, quinidine, or bumetanide (1-10 microM) or by the omission of HCO3- or Cl- from the medium, but it was completely inhibited by ouabain and furosemide. Oleoyl-acetyl glycerol, L-alpha-1,2-dioctanoylglycerol, and L-alpha-1,2-dioleoylglycerol (DOG) increased total 86Rb uptake 8-11%. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) (5 nM) increased uptake by only 4%. Staurosporine at 5 nM inhibited DOG stimulation completely, whereas 50 nM staurosporine was required to inhibit NE stimulation completely. Sphingosine inhibited DOG stimulation by 66% but did not inhibit NE stimulation. Amiloride (1 mM) completely blocked DOG stimulation. Monensin increased 86Rb uptake 31% and completely blocked the DOG effect but reduced the NE effect by only 26% (P = 0.08). In tubules from salt-loaded rats, NE did not increase DAG concentration, but NE-stimulated 86Rb uptake was reduced by only 23% (P = 0.15). Thus DAG released by NE may stimulate Na+ entry through Na(+)-H+ exchange. NE predominantly stimulates Na(+)-K(+)-adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) by activating a protein kinase that is insensitive to DAG and TPA and is inhibited by staurosporine but not by sphingosine. NE may also stimulate K+ efflux through a BaCl-insensitive K+ channel that is inhibited by millimolar furosemide.

  7. Amniotic Fluid Soluble Myeloid Differentiation-2 (sMD-2) as Regulator of Intra-amniotic Inflammation in Infection-induced Preterm Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulay, Antonette T; Buhimschi, Catalin S; Zhao, Guomao; Oliver, Emily A; Abdel-Razeq, Sonya S; Shook, Lydia L; Bahtiyar, Mert O; Buhimschi, Irina A

    2015-06-01

    TLR4 mediates host responses to pathogens through a mechanism that involves protein myeloid differentiation-2 (MD-2) and its soluble form sMD-2. The role of sMD2 in intra-amniotic inflammation-induced preterm birth has not been previously explored. Human amniotic fluid (AF) sMD-2 was studied by Western blotting in 152 AF samples of patients who had an amniocentesis to rule-out infection (yes infection, n = 50; no infection, n = 50) or women with normal pregnancy outcome (second trimester genetic karyotyping, n = 26; third trimester lung maturity testing, n = 26). Histological localization and mRNA expression of MD2 in fetal membranes were studied by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. The ability of fetal membrane to release sMD-2 and inflammatory cytokines was studied in vitro. Human AF contains three sMD-2 proteoforms whose levels of expression were lower at term. Intra-amniotic infection upregulated sMD-2. MD-2 mRNA and immunohistochemistry findings concurred. In vitro, LPS and monensin increased, while cycloheximide decreased sMD-2 production. Recombinant sMD-2 modulated TNF-α and IL-6 levels in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. sMD2 proteoforms are constitutively present in human AF. The intensity of the intra-amniotic inflammatory response to bacteria or perhaps to other TLR4 ligands may be facilitated through synthesis and release of sMD2 by the amniochorion. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Analysis of expression and glycosylation of avian metapneumovirus attachment glycoprotein from recombinant baculoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lizhong; Nishi, Krista; MacLeod, Erin; Sabara, Marta I; Li, Yan

    2010-11-01

    Recently, we reported the expression and glycosylation of avian metapneumovirus attachment glycoprotein (AMPV/C G protein) in eukaryotic cell lines by a transient-expression method. In the present study, we investigated the biosynthesis and O-linked glycosylation of the AMPV/C G protein in a baculovirus expression system. The results showed that the insect cell-produced G protein migrated more rapidly in SDS-PAGE as compared to LLC-MK2 cell-derived G proteins owing to glycosylation differences. The fully processed, mature form of G protein migrated between 78 and 86 kDa, which is smaller than the 110 kDa mature form of G expressed in LLC-MK2 cells. In addition, several immature G gene products migrating at 40-48 and 60-70 kDa were also detected by SDS-PAGE and represented glycosylated intermediates. The addition of the antibiotic tunicamycin, which blocks early steps of glycosylation, to insect cell culture resulted in the disappearance of two glycosylated forms of the G protein and identified a 38 kDa unglycosylated precursor. The maturation of the G protein was completely blocked by monensin, suggesting that the O-linked glycosylation of G initiated in the trans-Golgi compartment. The presence of O-linked sugars on the mature protein was further confirmed by lectin Arachis hypogaea binding assay. Furthermore, antigenic features of the G protein expressed in insect cells were evaluated by ELISA. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Fontes de carboidratos e ionóforo em dietas contendo óleo vegetal para ovinos: digestibilidade, balanço de nitrogênio e fluxo portal de nutrientes Carbohydrate sources and ionophore in sheep diets with vegetal oil: digestibility, nitrogen balance and portal flux of nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Fernanda Mouro

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos neste trabalho foram avaliar a utilização de duas fontes de carboidratos (casca de soja e milho, com a utilização ou não de monensina em dietas com alta densidade lipídica, e seus efeitos sobre a digestibilidade dos nutrientes, o balanço de nitrogênio e o fluxo portal de nutrientes em ovinos. Adotou-se o método de coleta total de fezes e urina para determinação da digestibilidade e do balanço de nitrogênio. O fluxo líquido de nutrientes foi calculado pelo princípio de Fick. Foram utilizados quatro ovinos (54 kg de PV da raça Corriedale com três cateteres implantados (veia e artéria mesentérica e veia porta. A ingestão, a excreção fecal, a digestão e a digestibilidade de MS, MO e EE não foram influenciadas pelos tratamentos. A ingestão, a digestão e a digestibilidade da FDN foram maiores para as dietas com casca de soja (757,0; 531,1 g/dia e 70,2% que para aquelas com milho (392,3; 199,9 g/dia e 51,0%, enquanto a dos carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF, foram maiores para as dietas com milho (474,6, 416,8 g/dia e 87,8% que para aquelas com casca de soja (148,0; 97,8 g/dia e 66,1%. A concentração de energia expressa como NDT foi maior nas dietas com milho (80,2% que naquelas com casca de soja (76,7%. Não houve efeito da utilização da monensina nos parâmetros de digestibilidade e balanço de nitrogênio. A excreção fecal da proteína foi menor e a digestibilidade maior para as dietas com milho. A concentração portal e arterial de nitrogênio alfa amino (N alfa-amino foi menor para as dietas com monensina (3,161 e 2,922 e 3,530 e 3,218 mM, respectivamente. A concentração portal (0,419 vs 0,516 mM, a diferença venosa-arterial (0,230 vs 0,317 mM e o fluxo portal de amônia (26,119 vs 37,041 mM/h foram menores para as dietas com milho.The objectives of this trial were to evaluate the effects of two carbohydrate sources (soybean hulls and corn grain with and without monensin on digestibility, nitrogen

  10. Occupation of low-affinity cholecystokinin (CCK) receptors by CCK activates signal transduction and stimulates amylase secretion in pancreatic acinar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinayek, R; Patto, R J; Menozzi, D; Gregory, J; Mrozinski, J E; Jensen, R T; Gardner, J D

    1993-03-10

    Based on the effects of monensin on binding of 125I-CCK-8 and its lack of effect on CCK-8-stimulated amylase secretion we previously proposed that pancreatic acinar cells possess three classes of CCK receptors: high-affinity receptors, low-affinity receptors and very low-affinity receptors [1]. In the present study we treated pancreatic acini with carbachol to induce a complete loss of high-affinity CCK receptors and then examined the action of CCK-8 on inositol trisphosphate IP3(1,4,5), cytosolic calcium and amylase secretion in an effort to confirm and extend our previous hypothesis. We found that first incubating pancreatic acini with 10 mM carbachol decreased binding of 125I-CCK-8 measured during a second incubation by causing a complete loss of high-affinity CCK receptors with no change in the low-affinity CCK receptors. Carbachol treatment of acini, however, did not alter the action of CCK-8 on IP3(1,4,5), cytosolic calcium or amylase secretion or the action of CCK-JMV-180 on amylase secretion or on the supramaximal inhibition of amylase secretion caused by CCK-8. The present findings support our previous hypothesis that pancreatic acinar cells possess three classes of CCK receptors and suggest that high-affinity CCK receptors do not mediate the action of CCK-8 on enzyme secretion, that low-affinity CCK receptors may mediate the action of CCK on cytosolic calcium that does not involve IP3(1,4,5) and produce the upstroke of the dose-response curve for CCK-8-stimulated amylase secretion and that very low-affinity CCK receptors mediate the actions of CCK on IP3(1,4,5) and cytosolic calcium and produce the downstroke of the dose-response curve for CCK-8-stimulated amylase secretion. Moreover, CCK-JMV-180 is a full agonist for stimulating amylase secretion by acting at low-affinity CCK receptors and is an antagonist at very low-affinity CCK receptors.

  11. Substituição do milho por farelo de trigo ou farelo de glúten de milho na ração de bovinos de corte em terminação - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i1.251 Substitution of corn grain by wheat middlings or corn gluten feed in the finishing bulls diet - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i1.251

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Térssio Roger Ramalho

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a substituição do milho moído fino (MM por farelo de trigo (FT ou farelo de glúten de milho (FGM na ração de 36 bovinos não castrados, em terminação (14 meses; peso inicial de 382 kg durante 87 dias. A ração continha 24% de silagem de capim e 76% de concentrado, constituído por polpa cítrica, farelo de soja, uréia, minerais, bicarbonato de sódio e monensina sódica, além de uma das fontes energéticas testadas. A substituição de MM por FT aumentou a ingestão de FDN (pThe objective of this work was to evaluate the substitution of finely ground (GC corn by wheat middlings (WM or dried corn gluten feed (CGF in finishing feedlot diets. Thirty-six yearling bulls (382 kg average initial live weight; 14 months old were fed during 87 days. The diets contained 24% grass silage and 76% concentrate, formulated with dried citrus pulp, soybean meal, urea, mineral-vitamin mix, sodium bicarbonate, sodium monensin, and one of the energy sources tested. The substitution of wheat middlings for corn increased NDF intake (p<0.05. However, no effect was observed on other measured parameters. Substitution of corn gluten feed for ground corn reduced dry matter intake (p<0.05 and average daily gain (p<0.10, increased NDF intake (p<0.05, but had no effect on feed efficiency. These diets showed no differences in the observed values of net energy of maintenance or gain. The ratio observed/expected net energy for the diet differs from the other treatments. For this type of diet, GC may be completely replaced by WM or CGF with no depression on feed efficiency or on diet net energy. NRC (2001 underestimates TDN values and net energy estimates for WM and CGF.

  12. Na+,K+-pump stimulation improves contractility in isolated muscles of mice with hyperkalemic periodic paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Torben; Nielsen, Ole Bækgaard; Clausen, Johannes D; Pedersen, Thomas Holm; Hayward, Lawrence J

    2011-07-01

    In patients with hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HyperKPP), attacks of muscle weakness or paralysis are triggered by K(+) ingestion or rest after exercise. Force can be restored by muscle work or treatment with β(2)-adrenoceptor agonists. A missense substitution corresponding to a mutation in the skeletal muscle voltage-gated Na(+) channel (Na(v)1.4, Met1592Val) causing human HyperKPP was targeted into the mouse SCN4A gene (mutants). In soleus muscles prepared from these mutant mice, twitch, tetanic force, and endurance were markedly reduced compared with soleus from wild type (WT), reflecting impaired excitability. In mutant soleus, contractility was considerably more sensitive than WT soleus to inhibition by elevated [K(+)](o). In resting mutant soleus, tetrodotoxin (TTX)-suppressible (22)Na uptake and [Na(+)](i) were increased by 470 and 58%, respectively, and membrane potential was depolarized (by 16 mV, P Na(+),K(+) pump-mediated (86)Rb uptake was 83% larger than in WT. Salbutamol stimulated (86)Rb uptake and reduced [Na(+)](i) both in mutant and WT soleus. Stimulating Na(+),K(+) pumps with salbutamol restored force in mutant soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL). Increasing [Na(+)](i) with monensin also restored force in soleus. In soleus, EDL, and tibialis anterior muscles of mutant mice, the content of Na(+),K(+) pumps was 28, 62, and 33% higher than in WT, respectively, possibly reflecting the stimulating effect of elevated [Na(+)](i) on the synthesis of Na(+),K(+) pumps. The results confirm that the functional disorders of skeletal muscles in HyperKPP are secondary to increased Na(+) influx and show that contractility can be restored by acute stimulation of the Na(+),K(+) pumps. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) restored force in mutant soleus but caused no detectable increase in (86)Rb uptake. Repeated excitation and capsaicin also restored contractility, possibly because of the release of endogenous CGRP from nerve endings in the isolated

  13. Substituição do milho por farelo de trigo ou farelo de glúten de milho na ração de bovinos de corte em terminação = Substitution of corn grain by wheat middlings or corn gluten feed in the finishing bulls diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Menegueli Pereira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a substituição do milho moído fino (MM por farelo de trigo (FT ou farelo de glúten de milho (FGM na ração de 36 bovinos não castrados, em terminação (14 meses; peso inicial de 382 kg durante 87 dias. A ração continha 24% de silagem de capim e 76% de concentrado, constituído por polpa cítrica, farelo de soja, uréia, minerais, bicarbonato de sódio e monensina sódica, além de uma das fontes energéticas testadas. A substituição de MM por FT aumentou a ingestão de FDN (pThe objective of this work was to evaluate the substitution of finely ground (GC corn by wheat middlings (WM or dried corn gluten feed (CGF in finishing feedlot diets. Thirty-six yearling bulls (382 kg average initial live weight; 14 months old were fed during 87 days. The diets contained 24% grass silage and 76% concentrate, formulated with dried citrus pulp, soybean meal, urea, mineral-vitamin mix,sodium bicarbonate, sodium monensin, and one of the energy sources tested. The substitution of wheat middlings for corn increased NDF intake (p<0.05. However, no effect was observed on other measured parameters. Substitution of corn gluten feed for ground corn reduced dry matter intake (p<0.05 and average daily gain (p<0.10, increasedNDF intake (p<0.05, but had no effect on feed efficiency. These diets showed no differences in the observed values of net energy of maintenance or gain. The ratio observed/expected net energy for the diet differs from the other treatments. For this type of diet, GC may be completely replaced by WM or CGF with no depression on feed efficiency or on diet net energy. NRC (2001 underestimates TDN values and net energy estimates for WM and CGF.

  14. Effect of Dietary Antimicrobials on Immune Status in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. W. Lee

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of dietary anticoccidial drugs plus antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs on parameters of immunity in commercial broiler chickens. Day-old chicks were raised on used litter from a farm with endemic gangrenous dermatitis to simulate natural pathogen exposure and provided with diets containing decoquinate (DECX or monensin (COBN as anticoccidials plus bacitracin methylene disalicylate and roxarsone as AGPs. As a negative control, the chickens were fed with a non-supplemented diet. Immune parameters examined were concanavalin A (ConA-stimulated spleen cell proliferation, intestine intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL and spleen cell subpopulations, and cytokine/chemokine mRNA levels in IELs and spleen cells. ConA-induced proliferation was decreased at 14 d post-hatch in DECX-treated chickens, and increased at 25 and 43 d in COBN-treated animals, compared with untreated controls. In DECX-treated birds, increased percentages of MHC2+ and CD4+ IELS were detected at 14 d, but decreased percentages of these cells were seen at 43 d, compared with untreated controls, while increased TCR2+ IELs were evident at the latter time. Dietary COBN was associated with decreased fractions of MHC2+ and CD4+ IELs and reduced percentages of MHC2+, BU1+, and TCR1+ spleen cells compared with controls. The levels of transcripts for interleukin-4 (IL-4, IL-6, IL-17F, IL-13, CXCLi2, interferon-γ (IFN-γ, and transforming growth factorβ4 were elevated in IELs, and those for IL-13, IL-17D, CXCLi2, and IFN-γ were increased in spleen cells, of DECX- and/or COBN-treated chickens compared with untreated controls. By contrast, IL-2 and IL-12 mRNAs in IELs, and IL-4, IL-12, and IL-17F transcripts in spleen cells, were decreased in DECX- and/or COBN-treated chickens compared with controls. These results suggest that DECX or COBN, in combination with bacitracin and roxarsone, modulate the development of the chicken post-hatch immune system.

  15. Characterization of Leptin Intracellular Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Walum

    2009-12-01

    to engage a monensin and bafilomycin sensitive degradation process in lysosomes. Together, our results provide novel data concerning the uptake, intracellular localization and transport of leptin.

  16. Sphingosine 1-Phosphate (S1P) Carrier-dependent Regulation of Endothelial Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, Brent A.; Grass, G. Daniel; Wing, Shane B.; Argraves, W. Scott; Argraves, Kelley M.

    2012-01-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a blood-borne lysosphingolipid that acts to promote endothelial cell (EC) barrier function. In plasma, S1P is associated with both high density lipoproteins (HDL) and albumin, but it is not known whether the carriers impart different effects on S1P signaling. Here we establish that HDL-S1P sustains EC barrier longer than albumin-S1P. We showed that the sustained barrier effects of HDL-S1P are dependent on signaling by the S1P receptor, S1P1, and involve persistent activation of Akt and endothelial NOS (eNOS), as well as activity of the downstream NO target, soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC). Total S1P1 protein levels were found to be higher in response to HDL-S1P treatment as compared with albumin-S1P, and this effect was not associated with increased S1P1 mRNA or dependent on de novo protein synthesis. Several pieces of evidence indicate that long term EC barrier enhancement activity of HDL-S1P is due to specific effects on S1P1 trafficking. First, the rate of S1P1 degradation, which is proteasome-mediated, was slower in HDL-S1P-treated cells as compared with cells treated with albumin-S1P. Second, the long term barrier-promoting effects of HDL-S1P were abrogated by treatment with the recycling blocker, monensin. Finally, cell surface levels of S1P1 and levels of S1P1 in caveolin-enriched microdomains were higher after treatment with HDL-S1P as compared with albumin-S1P. Together, the findings reveal S1P carrier-specific effects on S1P1 and point to HDL as the physiological mediator of sustained S1P1-PI3K-Akt-eNOS-sGC-dependent EC barrier function. PMID:23135269

  17. Sub-cellular trafficking of phytochemicals explored using auto-fluorescent compounds in maize cells

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    Grotewold Erich

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known regarding the trafficking mechanisms of small molecules within plant cells. It remains to be established whether phytochemicals are transported by pathways similar to those used by proteins, or whether the expansion of metabolic pathways in plants was associated with the evolution of novel trafficking pathways. In this paper, we exploited the induction of green and yellow auto-fluorescent compounds in maize cultured cells by the P1 transcription factor to investigate their targeting to the cell wall and vacuole, respectively. Results We investigated the accumulation and sub-cellular localization of the green and yellow auto-fluorescent compounds in maize BMS cells expressing the P1 transcription factor from an estradiol inducible promoter. We established that the yellow fluorescent compounds accumulate inside the vacuole in YFBs that resemble AVIs. The green fluorescent compounds accumulate initially in the cytoplasm in large spherical GFBs. Cells accumulating GFBs also contain electron-dense structures that accumulate initially in the ER and which later appear to fuse with the plasma membrane. Structures resembling the GFBs were also observed in the periplasmic space of plasmolized cells. Ultimately, the green fluorescence accumulates in the cell wall, in a process that is insensitive to the Golgi-disturbing agents BFA and monensin. Conclusions Our results suggest the presence of at least two distinct trafficking pathways, one to the cell wall and the other to the vacuole, for different auto-fluorescent compounds induced by the same transcription factor in maize BMS cells. These compartments represent two of the major sites of accumulation of phenolic compounds characteristic of maize cells. The secretion of the green auto-fluorescent compounds occurs by a pathway that does not involve the TGN, suggesting that it is different from the secretion of most proteins, polysaccharides or epicuticular waxes. The

  18. Ação do extrato de própolis sobre a fermentação in vitro de diferentes alimentos pela técnica de produção de gases Effect of the propolis on the in vitro fermentation of different feedstuffs by the technique of gas production

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    Deolindo Stradiotti Júnior

    2004-08-01

    fermentation of different feeds. In the first experiment, 100 mg of ground brachiaria dry matter hay was incubated, in absence (0.2 mL of alcoholic solution at 70.0% in water or presence of 0.2 mL of propolis extract (extraction of 3 g of propolis in triturated stone for each 10 mL of alcohol at 70%, for ten days, later on diluted for 50% of the same. The propolis extract, when compared to the control treatment, reduced the final total production and the final gas production for fiber carbohydrates. The specific digestion rate for fiber carbohydrates and non fiber carbohydrates was superior when the propolis extract was used. The reduction of the total gas production could be attributed to the effect of the propolis in increasing the molar propionate concentration, with consequent decrease of the acetate:propionate ratio. In the experiment 2, the objective was to evaluate different dilutions of the propolis extract (0.0, 13.7, 33.3, and 66.7%, in analogy to sodium monensin, added to reach 5.0 µM as a final concentration in the incubation tubes. It was observed significant effect of treatment, feed and feed:treatment interaction on the gas volume from the fiber and non fiber carbohydrates. There was no effect of the smallest propolis level (13.7% on none of the evaluated diets, for final gas volume as for the fiber as non fiber carbohydrate. However, the largest level (66.7% was efficient for all diets, for both types of carbohydrates, in addition to supplanting the monensin most of the time producing the least amount of gas.

  19. ALTERNATIVAS AO USO DE ANTIBIÓTICOS COMO PROMOTORES DE CRESCIMENTO PARA FRANGOS DE CORTE: 1. PROBIÓTICOS ALTERNATIVES TO THE USE OF ANTIBIOTIC GROWTH PROMOTERS FOR BROILER CHICKENS: 1. PROBIOTICS

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    Douglas Emygdio de Faria

    2009-04-01

    forty one-day-old male chicks, Hubbard, were randomly distributed in a 3 x 3 factorial design: antibiotic in the diet (without antibiotic, virginiamicin, and avilamicin and probiotic in the diet (without probiotic, and probiotics A and B, totaling nine treatments with four replicates of 40 birds each. The probiotics were: A Streptococcus faecium, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae; B Bacillus subtilis. It was verified that the tested probiotics can be used together with sodic monensine (coccidiostatic and the avilamicin (growth promoter. However, the presence of virginiamicin can impair the probiotics viability, since the probiotics microorganisms were sensible to virginiamicin (observed in vitro. There was no significant interaction between antibiotic and probiotic for the evaluated variables. Mortality was reduced by the use of probiotics A or B, whereas the use of avilamicin increased mortality from 1 to 42 days of age. The other performance, carcass and parts yield characteristics were not influenced by the administration of probiotics, antibiotics or by the combination of such products in the diets.   

    KEY WORDS: Additives, birds, carcass yield, parts yield, performance.

  20. Desempenho produtivo e eficiência bioeconômica de bovinos Nelore e Caracu selecionados para peso aos 378 dias de idade recebendo alimentação à vontade ou restrita Production and bioeconomic efficiency of Nellore and Caracu bulls selected to weight gain and fed ad libitum or restricted

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    Antonio Gesualdi Júnior

    2006-04-01

    genetically selected Caracu with initial average weights of 404, 345 and 434 kg, respectively, were assigned to a completely randomized design with a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement (two feeding levels and three genetic groups. The dietary levels were either restricted (65 g DM/BW0.75 or ad libitum intake with animals fed twice a day. Corn silage was used as the forage portion of the diet while the concentrate contained ground corn, cottonseed meal, urea, monensin, and mineral mixture in a forage:concentrate ratio of 50:50. The slaughter criterion was four millimeters of subcutaneous fat measured by ultrasound at the 12th rib area. Bulls from the different genetic groups showed similar average daily weight gain, empty body weight gain, and carcass weight gain. However, these same variables were higher on animals fed ad libitum than on those restricted fed. No significant interaction between genetic group and feeding level was observed in this trial. Dry matter intake was affected not only by feeding level but also by genetic group and it was highest on genetically selected Caracu. Ordinary Nellore showed greater bionutritional efficiency and lower production cost compared to bulls from the other two genetic groups.

  1. Multiparameter fluorescence imaging for quantification of TH-1 and TH-2 cytokines at the single-cell level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekkar, Hakim; Benbernou, N.; Esnault, S.; Shin, H. C.; Guenounou, Moncef

    1998-04-01

    Immune responses are strongly influenced by the cytokines following antigenic stimulation. Distinct cytokine-producing T cell subsets are well known to play a major role in immune responses and to be differentially regulated during immunological disorders, although the characterization and quantification of the TH-1/TH-2 cytokine pattern in T cells remained not clearly defined. Expression of cytokines by T lymphocytes is a highly balanced process, involving stimulatory and inhibitory intracellular signaling pathways. The aim of this study was (1) to quantify the cytokine expression in T cells at the single cell level using optical imaging, (2) and to analyze the influence of cyclic AMP- dependent signal transduction pathway in the balance between the TH-1 and TH-2 cytokine profile. We attempted to study several cytokines (IL-2, IFN-(gamma) , IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Cells were prestimulated in vitro using phytohemagglutinin and phorbol ester for 36h, and then further cultured for 8h in the presence of monensin. Cells were permeabilized and then simple-, double- or triple-labeled with the corresponding specific fluorescent monoclonal antibodies. The cell phenotype was also determined by analyzing the expression of each of CD4, CD8, CD45RO and CD45RA with the cytokine expression. Conventional images of cells were recorded with a Peltier- cooled CCD camera (B/W C5985, Hamamatsu photonics) through an inverted microscope equipped with epi-fluorescence (Diaphot 300, Nikon). Images were digitalized using an acquisition video interface (Oculus TCX Coreco) in 762 by 570 pixels coded in 8 bits (256 gray levels), and analyzed thereafter in an IBM PC computer based on an intel pentium processor with an adequate software (Visilog 4, Noesis). The first image processing step is the extraction of cell areas using an edge detection and a binary thresholding method. In order to reduce the background noise of fluorescence, we performed an opening

  2. Efeitos dos níveis de substituição do milho pela polpa de citrus peletizada sobre a digestibilidade aparente em bovinos mestiços confinados Effects of substitution levels of corn by citrus pulp on apparent digestibility in feedlot bulls

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    Willian Gonçalves do Nascimento

    2000-05-01

    substitution levels (40%, 60%, 80% and 100% of corn, as energy source, by citrus pulp fed to crossbreeding bulls (F1 in feedlot. Besides corn and/or citrus pulp, as energy source, the animals were fed with corn silage, soybean meal, meat and bone meal, as protein source, and bicalcic phosphate, limestone, mineral miture and monensin. Twenty-eight crossbreeding bulls with about 20 months of age and 346 kg of live weight were alocated in a complete randomized design, with four diets (citrus pulp levels and seven replications. The animals were housed in 10m2 pens and fed ad libitum. Insoluble acid ash was utilized as internal indicator. Remainder and feces were collected from all animals in the pens with a long spoon for 7 days, after 28-day adaptation. The dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, gross energy and neutral detergent fiber digestibility apparent coefficients for diets with 40% and 100% of citrus pulp were similar and higher than the values obtained for substitution levels of 60 and 80%. Thus, the best equations to describe the apparent digestibility coefficients for substitution levels of corn by citrus pulp were the quadratic ones.

  3. Cinética ruminal da degradação de nutrientes da silagem de milho em ambiente ruminal inoculado com diferentes aditivos Ruminal degradation kinetics of corn silage in bulls inoculated with different additives in the rumen

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    Pedro Andrade Katsuki

    2006-12-01

    additive; LB - CS incubated in rumen inoculated with five grams of dehydrated and lyophilized ruminal and intestinal bacteria (Ruminobacter amylophilum: 3.0 x 10(11 ufc/kg; Fibrobacter succinogenes: 3.0 x 10(11 ufc/kg; Succinovibrio dextrinsolvens: 4.4 x 10(11 ufc/kg; Bacillus cereus: 3.5 x 10(11 ufc/kg; Lactobacillus acidophilus: 3.5 x 10(11 ufc/kg and Streptococcus faecium: 3.5 x 10(11 ufc/kg; CE - CS incubated in rumen inoculated with 15 grams of cellulolytic enzymes (xylanase; 10%; and SM - CS incubated in rumen inoculated with three milligrams of sodium monensin. The LB and CE treatments did not affect the potentially degradable "b" fraction of CS nutrients. However, the SM treatment reduced the DM "b" fraction (51.01% and the potential degradability of CS (72.33%. Use of SM resulted in the greatest NDF indigestible fraction reducing NDF disappearance after 48 hours of ruminal incubation. It can be concluded that the different additives did not improve the effective degradability of CS DM, CP, and NDF.

  4. Effect of breed type and ionophore supplementation on growth and carcass characteristic in feedlot hair lambs Efeito do grupo genético e da suplementação com ionóforos sobre o crescimento e as características de carcaça de cordeiros deslanados confinados

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    Jaime Salinas-Chavira

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of supplementing feedlot diets with ionophores and breed type were assessed on growth rate and carcass characteristics in hair lambs. Twenty four intact males, 12 Pelibuey × Dorper (PDo and 12 Pelibuey × Damara (PDa lambs, 17.9 ± 3.7 kg initial weight, were housed in individual pens for a 60-d feeding trial. The lambs were assigned randomly into four diets: control without additives (C; 25 µg/g monensin (M; 28 µg/g salinomycin (S; 28 µg/g S for 20 d, and 25 µg/g M for the next 40 d (SM. Each diet was supplied to six lambs. Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement, with four diets and two breed types of hair lambs (PDo and PDa. All diets were formulated to contain 14% CP and 2.6 Mcal ME/kg dry matter. At the end of the feeding trial carcass images were recorded in the last intercostal space (12th and 13th ribs using ultrasound equipment to measure the Longissimus dorsi muscle area and subcutaneous fat (SF. The average daily gain (ADG, daily dry matter intake, feed:gain ratio, subcutaneous fat and Longissimus dorsi area were not affected by ionophore supplementation.. The Pelibuey × Dorper group tended to show better average daily gain than Pelibuey × Damara (262 g/d and 235 g/d, respectively. Daily dry matter intake, feed:gain ratio and subcutaneous fat were not affected by breed type. The Pelibuey × Dorper lambs had greater Longissimus dorsi area (16.74 cm² than the Pelibuey × Damara (14.29 cm² lambs. The growth rate was not influenced by the inclusion of ionophores. Pelibuey × Dorper lambs showed better average daily gain and carcass characteristics than Pelibuey × Damara lambs.Avaliaram-se os efeitos da suplementação de dietas de confinamento com ionóforos e da raça do animal na taxa de crescimento e nas características de carcaça de cordeiros deslanados. Vinte e quatro machos não-castrados – 12 cordeiros Pelibuey × Dorper (PDo e 12 cordeiros Pelibuey

  5. Perfil metabólico e desenvolvimento da glândula mamária de novilhas leiteiras sob manejo para crescimento compensatório Metabolic profile and mammary gland development of dairy heifers under compensatory growth regime

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    Patrícia Barcellos Costa

    2012-02-01

    randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. The treatments were arranged in a factorial arrangement (2 × 2 and the animals were randomly allocated in each one of the combinations. The factor 1 consisted of the feeding regime (conventional and compensatory growth and the factor 2, of the use or not of ionophore (200 mg of monensin/animal/day. The animals in the conventional regime received ad libitum feeding, while those in the compensatory growth regime were submitted to a nutritional management with two different periods: period of energy restriction (90 days and realimentation period (60 days. Heifers submitted to the compensatory growth regime showed larger concentration of plasma urea nitrogen and lower DNA:RNA ratio in the mammary gland. When period was analyzed, the levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL increased in the realimentation period, while the urea N decreased. In addition to the alteration in the levels of urea N, the energy balance to which the heifers in compensatory growth were submitted increased the non-esterified fatty acids. Blood glucose levels reduced in the animals in compensatory growth during the realimentation period. Supplementation with ionophore results in lower concentration of non-esterified fatty acids during the realimentation period.