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Sample records for larrea divaricata cav

  1. Development of pH-responsive biopolymer-silica composites loaded with Larrea divaricata Cav. extract with antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Echazú, María Inés; Olivetti, Christian Ezequiel; Peralta, Ignacio; Alonso, Maria Rosario; Anesini, Claudia; Perez, Claudio Javier; Alvarez, Gisela Solange; Desimone, Martin Federico

    2018-05-07

    A detailed study of biomaterials is mandatory to comprehend their feasible biomedical applications in terms of drug delivery and tissue regeneration. Particularly, mucoadhesive biopolymers such as chitosan (chi) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) have become interesting biomaterials regards to their biocompatibility and non-toxicity for oral mucosal drug delivery. In this work, pH-responsive biopolymer-silica composites (Chi-SiO 2 , Chi-CMC-SiO 2 ) were developed. These two types of composites presented a different swelling behavior due to the environmental pH. Moreover, the nanocomposites were loaded with aqueous Larrea divaricata Cav. extract (Ld), a South American plant which presents antioxidant properties suitable for the treatment of gingivoperiodontal diseases. Chi-CMC-SiO 2 composites showed the highest incorporation and reached the 100% of extract release in almost 4 days while they preserved their antioxidant properties. In this study, thermal and swelling behavior were pointed out to show the distinct water-composite interaction and therefore to evaluate their mucoadhesivity. Furthermore, a cytotoxicity test with 3T3 fibroblasts was assessed, showing that in both composites the addition of Larrea divaricata Cav. extract increased fibroblast proliferation. Lastly, preliminary in vitro studies were performed with simulated body fluids. Indeed, SEM-EDS analysis indicated that only chi-SiO 2 composite may provide an environment for possible biomineralization while the addition of CMC to the composites discouraged calcium accumulation. In conclusion, the development of bioactive composites could promote the regeneration of periodontal tissue damaged throughout periodontal disease and the presence of silica nanoparticles could provide an environment for biomineralization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Actividad antifungica de extractos de plantas usadas en medicina popular en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Davicino

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Los hongos pueden causar enfermedades en humanos, especialmente en pacientes inmunosuprimidos. En este estudio, extractos de 10 plantas utilizadas en medicina popular en Argentina fueron ensayadas para estudiar la actividad antifúngica in vitro contra 4 cepas de hongos. De todas las plantas testeadas, solo 4 mostraron actividad antifúngica: Larrea divaricata Cav, Gnaphalium gaudichaudianum D.C, Baccharis trimera Less y Schinus terebenthifolius.

  3. Flora apícola primaveral en la región del Monte de la Provincia de La Pampa (Argentina Springtime beekeeping flora in the Monte region of La Pampa province (Argentine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofelia Naab

    Full Text Available Con el fin de evaluar la flora utilizada por Apis mellifera L. fueron analizadas muestras de miel inmadura y cargas corbiculares de dos apiarios demostradores ubicados en la Provincia Fitogeográfica del Monte, Provincia de La Pampa. Las muestras se extrajeron periódicamente durante la primavera y fueron analizadas aplicando las técnicas melisopalinológicas convencionales. La vegetación arbustiva nativa presentó la mayor abundancia y el mayor número de especies en óptima floración en noviembre. Las familias más representadas en los espectros polínicos de mieles inmaduras y de cargas corbiculares fueron: Zygophyllaceae ( Larrea divaricata Cav., Rhamnaceae ( Condalia microphylla Cav., Solanaceae ( Lycium sp., Asteraceae ( Senecio subulatus Don ex Hook. & Arn. y Verbenaceae ( Glandularia sp. - Junellia sp. - Verbena sp.. Los análisis polínicos evidenciaron que las especies nativas ofrecieron al mismo tiempo recursos nectaríferos y poliníferos sin embargo se observó una alta selección de pocos recursos florales. La oferta floral produjo mieles monoflorales de L. divaricata , C. microphylla y Lycium sp. Ambos apiarios pudieron diferenciarse teniendo en cuenta la diversidad de tipos polínicos y la presencia de ciertos taxones en las categorías de polen dominante y secundario.In order to evaluate the utilized flora by Apis mellifera L. we analized inmmature honey samples and corbicular pollen loads from two demonstrative apiaries located in the Monte Phytogeographical Province of La Pampa. The samples were periodically collected during springtime and were analyzed using the conventional melissopalynological techniques. The native flora presented the major abundance and the highest number of species at an optimum flowering level in november. The most represented families in the pollen spectrum of immature honeys and corbicular loads were: Zygophyllaceae ( Larrea divaricata Cav., Rhamnaceae ( Condalia microphylla Cav., Solanaceae

  4. Ethnobotany & ethnopharmacology of Tabernaemontana divaricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratchayasakul, Wasana; Pongchaidecha, Anchalee; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn

    2008-04-01

    Tabernaemontana divaricata a common garden plant in tropical countries has been used as a traditional medicine. However, no recent review articles of T. divaricata, particularly discussing its pharmacological properties, are available. This review presents the ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology of T. divaricata as well as its potential therapeutic benefits especially of the alkaloidal and non-alkaloidal constituents. Included, are the characteristics of 66 alkaloids isolated and identified from T. divaricata. Non-alkaloids including the enzymes, pyrolytic oil, hydrocarbons, terpenoid and phenolic acids are also documented. Chemotaxonomic aspects of each alkaloid as well as information regarding the pharmacology of crude extracts and individual alkaloids from T. divaricata have been assembled and appraised. The beneficial properties of T. divaricata are antioxidant, anti-infection, anti-tumour action, analgesia and the enhancement of cholinergic activity in both peripheral and central nervous systems. The augmentation of cholinergic function may be of therapeutic benefit for many neurodegenerative diseases, particularly myasthenia gravis and Alzheimer's disease.

  5. Synergistic mutual potentiation of antifungal activity of Zuccagnia punctata Cav. and Larrea nitida Cav. extracts in clinical isolates of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butassi, Estefanía; Svetaz, Laura A; Ivancovich, Juan J; Feresin, Gabriela E; Tapia, Alejandro; Zacchino, Susana A

    2015-06-01

    Zuccagnia punctata Cav. (Fabaceae) and Larrea nitida Cav. (Zygophyllaceae) are indistinctly or jointly used in traditional medicine for the treatment of fungal-related infections. Although their dichloromethane (DCM) extract have demonstrated moderate antifungal activities when tested on their own, antifungal properties of combinations of both plants have not been assessed previously. The aim of this study was to establish with statistical rigor whether Z. punctata (ZpE) and L. nitida DCM extract (LnE) interact synergistically against the clinically important fungi Candida albicans and Candida glabrata and to characterize the most synergistic combinations. For synergism assessment, the statistical-based Boik's design was applied. Eight ZpE-LnE fixed-ratio mixtures were prepared from four different months of 1 year and tested against Candida strains. Lϕ (Loewe index) of each mixture at different fractions affected (ϕ) allowed for the finding of the most synergistic combinations, which were characterized by HPLC fingerprint and by the quantitation of the selected marker compounds. Lϕ and confidence intervals were determined in vitro with the MixLow method, once the estimated parameters from the dose-response curves of independent extracts and mixtures, were obtained. Markers (four flavonoids for ZpE and three lignans for LnE) were quantified in each extract and their combinations, with a valid HPLC-UV method. The 3D-HPLC profiles of the most synergistic mixtures were obtained by HPLC-DAD. Three over four IC50ZpE/IC50LnE fixed-ratio mixtures displayed synergistic interactions at effect levels ϕ > 0.5 against C. albicans. The dosis of the most synergistic (Lϕ = 0.62) mixture was 65.96 µg/ml (ZpE = 28%; LnE = 72%) containing 8 and 36% of flavonoids and lignans respectively. On the other hand, one over four IC50ZpE/IC50LnE mixtures displays synergistic interactions at ϕ > 0.5 against C. glabrata. The dosis of the most synergistic (Lϕ = 0.67) mixture was 168

  6. Bioactive components of Gynura divaricata and its potential use in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioactive components of Gynura divaricata and its potential use in health, food and medicine:a mini-review. Bing-Qing Xu, Yu-Qing Zhang. Abstract. Background: G. divaricata (L.) DC belongs to genus the Gynura Cass which is a kind of perennial herb that has good health protection efficacy and is especially used widely in ...

  7. Germinação e vigor de sementes de Bauhinia divaricata L. Germination and vigor of the Bauhinia divaricata L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Ursulino Alves

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A pata-de-vaca (Bauhinia divaricata é uma espécie arbórea, amplamente distribuída no Brasil, de alto valor ornamental e econômico. Sua propagação ocorre por meio de sementes, cuja germinação tem sido pouco investigada. Dessa forma, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo definir o tipo de substrato e a temperatura mais adequados para avaliar a germinação e o vigor de sementes de Bauhinia divaricata. O experimento foi realizado no Laboratório de Análise de Sementes do CCA-UFPB, em Areia-PB, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com os tratamentos distribuídos em esquema fatorial 3 x 5, com os fatores temperaturas constantes de 25 e 30°C e alternada 20-30°C e substratos entre papel, sobre papel, rolo de papel, entre areia e entre vermiculita, em quatro repetições de 25 sementes, em câmaras tipo BOD, com fotoperíodo de oito horas. Foram analisadas as seguintes variáveis: porcentagem de germinação, primeira contagem e índice de velocidade de germinação e massa seca de plântulas. Concluiu-se que a temperatura de 25°C, juntamente com os substratos entre papel, sobre papel e rolo de papel, é adequada para condução de testes de germinação e vigor com sementes de Bauhinia divaricata. O substrato areia nas três temperaturas (20-30, 25 e 30°C foi responsável pelas menores porcentagens de germinação e níveis de vigor das sementes.The Bauhinia divaricata is an arboreal species with high ornamental and economical value and distributed throughout Brazil. It is propagated by seeds, from which germination needs more investigation. So, this study was carried out at the Seed Analysis Laboratory pertaining to CCA-UFPB - Areia, in BOD-type chambers with 8h photoperiod in order to determine the most adequate substratum and temperature for evaluating the germination and vigor of the Bauhinia divaricata seeds. The entirely randomized experimental design in the factorial scheme 3 x 5 was used. The factors were constituted by

  8. Local predators attack exotic aphid Brachycaudus divaricatae in Lithuania

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Danilov, J.; Rakauskas, R.; Havelka, Jan; Starý, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 2 (2016), s. 263-269 ISSN 1721-8861 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Prunus * Aphids * Brachycaudus divaricatae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.051, year: 2016 http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/pdfarticles/vol69-2016-263-269danilov.pdf

  9. Seasonal changes in morphophysiological traits of two native Patagonian shrubs from Argentina with different drought resistance strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, M Celeste; Reinoso, Herminda; Luna, Virginia; Cenzano, Ana M

    2018-06-01

    In semi-arid regions, plants develop various biochemical and physiological strategies to adapt to dry periods. Understanding the resistance mechanisms to dry periods under field conditions is an important topic in ecology. Larrea divaricata and Lycium chilense provide various ecological services. The aim of this work is to elucidate new morpho-histological, biochemical and hormonal traits that contribute to the drought resistance strategies of two native shrubs. Green leaves and fine roots from L. divaricata and L. chilense were collected in each season for one year, and various traits were measured. The hormone (abscisic acid, ABA-glucose ester, gibberellins A 1 and A 3 , and indole acetic acid) contents were determined by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Rainfall data and the soil water content were also measured. A multivariate analysis showed that green leaves from L. divaricata showed high values for the leaf dry weight, blade leaf thickness and ABA content in the summer compared with those from L. chilense. Fine roots from L. divaricata had high RWC and high IAA levels during the autumn-dry period compared with those from L. chilense, but both had similar levels during the winter and spring. Our results support the notion that species with different drought resistance mechanisms (avoidance or tolerance) display different responses to dry periods throughout the year. Larrea divaricata, which exhibits more xerophytic traits, modified its morphology and maintained its physiological parameters (high RWC in leaves and roots, high ABA levels in leaves during summer, high GA 3 in leaves and high IAA in roots during autumn) to tolerate dry periods, whereas Lycium chilense, which displays more mesophytic traits, uses strategies to avoid dry periods (loss of leaves during autumn and winter, high RWC in leaves, high ABA-GE and GA 3 in leaves during summer, high GA 1 and GA 3 in roots during summer, and high IAA in roots during autumn and summer) and

  10. Fingerprinting analysis of Saposhnikovia divaricata using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yue-Yang; Deng, An-Jun; Du, Guan-Hua; Zhang, Jin-Lan; Qin, Hai-Lin

    2010-09-01

    The (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) fingerprints of fractionated non-polar and polar extracts (control substance for plant drug [CSPD] A and B) from the roots of 12 specimens of Saposhnikovia divaricata (Turcz.) Schischk were achieved with Fourier Transform (FT)-NMR spectrometer and assigned by comparison to each other and to the (1)H NMR spectra of the isolated individual compounds. These fingerprints were found to be uniform in terms of the specificity for the implication of all 12 specimens being systematically of the same origin. The uniformity was further affirmed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), which also revealed exactly identical specificity for the identified S. divaricata species with the (1)H NMR appearances of corresponding CSPD on the part of the composition of characteristic constituents when comparing to corresponding individual compounds. This investigation unambiguously shows that the specific signals from the chemotaxonomically significant compounds of chromones and coumarins in S. divaricata are exhibited distinctively in the composite features of both (1)H NMR fingerprints and HPLC profiles. The (1)H NMR and HPLC profiles established can successfully be used as reference for the authentication of the origin of S. divaricata species as well as for chemotaxonomic studies.

  11. Juan Larrea Holguín y su visión de la universidad

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Riofrío Martínez-Villalba

    2015-01-01

    La investigación muestra la visión teórica y práctica que Larrea te- nía de la universidad. Para ello revisa tanto sus escritos, como varias anécdotas de su vida, bajo una metodología histórico-deductiva que compara la teoría con la práctica. El estudio inicia con la visión genérica de la labor académica, para luego abordar el tema vivencial. Como con- clusión se obtienen varios valores universitarios que Larrea supo vivir: el amor y confianza en la verdad, la actitud magnánima ante l...

  12. Analgesic and cytotoxic activity of Acorus calamus L., Kigelia pinnata L., Mangifera indica L. and Tabernaemontana divaricata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Ahad Ali; Islam, Mohammad Torequl

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate analgesic and cytotoxic activity of Acorus calamus L., Kigelia pinnata L., Mangifera indica L., Tabernaemontana divaricata L. extracts by using acetic acid-induced writhing method in mice and brine shrimp lethality assay. The ethanolic extracts of the plants were obtained by simple maceration method and were subjected to standardization by using pharmacognostical and phytochemical screening methods, which were followed by acetic acid writhing and brine shrimp lethality test methods. Dose selection was made on the basis of acute oral toxicity study (10-1000 mg/kg body weight). In analgesic test, M. indica L. extract produced 28.16% and 22.02% writhing protection at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight in mice, respectively. While the T. divaricata L. extract produced 22.02% and 33.93%, K. pinnata L. extract produced 11.55% and 47.29% and A. calamus L. extract produced 15.16% and 54.51% of writhing protection at the same doses. The percent mortality (mean ± SD) was found to be 58.7 ± 25.22, 56.25 ± 22.88, 52.50 ± 24.37, and 61.25 ± 26.66 with M. indica L., T. divaricata L., K. pinnata L., and A. calamus L., respectively. And the LC(50) and LC(90) values were found to be 100 and 300 μg/mL for M. indica L. and that were (200 and 350 μg/mL), (100 and 350 μg/mL) and (50 and 300 μg/mL) for T. divaricata L., K. pinnata L., and A. calamus L., respectively. Thus it can be concluded that bark of M. indica L., leaves of T. divaricata L., bark of K. pinnata L., and roots of A. calamus L. have significant analgesic and cytotoxic activity and can be preferred in the treatment of pain and tumor.

  13. Analgesic and cytotoxic activity of Acorus calamus L., Kigelia pinnata L., Mangifera indica L. and Tabernaemontana divaricata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ahad Ali Khan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate analgesic and cytotoxic activity of Acorus calamus L., Kigelia pinnata L., Mangifera indica L., Tabernaemontana divaricata L. extracts by using acetic acid-induced writhing method in mice and brine shrimp lethality assay. Materials and Methods: The ethanolic extracts of the plants were obtained by simple maceration method and were subjected to standardization by using pharmacognostical and phytochemical screening methods, which were followed by acetic acid writhing and brine shrimp lethality test methods. Dose selection was made on the basis of acute oral toxicity study (10-1000 mg/kg body weight. Results and Conclusion: In analgesic test, M. indica L. extract produced 28.16% and 22.02% writhing protection at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight in mice, respectively. While the T. divaricata L. extract produced 22.02% and 33.93%, K. pinnata L. extract produced 11.55% and 47.29% and A. calamus L. extract produced 15.16% and 54.51% of writhing protection at the same doses. The percent mortality (mean ± SD was found to be 58.7 ± 25.22, 56.25 ± 22.88, 52.50 ± 24.37, and 61.25 ± 26.66 with M. indica L., T. divaricata L., K. pinnata L., and A. calamus L., respectively. And the LC 50 and LC 90 values were found to be 100 and 300 μg/mL for M. indica L. and that were (200 and 350 μg/mL, (100 and 350 μg/mL and (50 and 300 μg/mL for T. divaricata L., K. pinnata L., and A. calamus L., respectively. Thus it can be concluded that bark of M. indica L., leaves of T. divaricata L., bark of K. pinnata L., and roots of A. calamus L. have significant analgesic and cytotoxic activity and can be preferred in the treatment of pain and tumor.

  14. Energioptimering VAV eller CAV?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Barky, Tarek; Andersen, Dan Bomholt

    2008-01-01

    Når et HVAC-anlæg projekteres, vælges der oftest mellem fortrængnings- og opblandingsventilation. Herefter vælges hvorvidt luftfl owet skal være variabelt eller konstant – det vil sige, om der skal vælges. VAV eller CAV. Dette valg mellem VAV eller CAV bør foretages på baggrund af en vurdering af...

  15. Immunity to canine adenovirus respiratory disease: a comparison of attenuated CAV-1 and CAV-2 vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, H J; Koptopoulos, G; Thompson, H; McCandlish, I A; Wright, N G

    1982-01-09

    Four litters of puppies were divided into three groups. One group was vaccinated with a live CAV-1 vaccine and another with a live CAV-2 vaccine. Throat swabs were collected from two dogs in each of these groups to monitor the possible excretion of vaccine virus, but none was found. Both groups, together with the third group of unvaccinated controls, were challenged 17 days later with an aerosol of virulent CAV-2. One dog from each group was killed on the third, fourth, seventh, ninth, 11th and 14th days after challenge. The unvaccinated dogs developed a clinical disease characterised by anorexia, dullness, coughing and tachypnoea. The lungs were consolidated and histological examination revealed the main lesion to be a severe necrotising bronchiolitis. Large amounts of virus were present in the respiratory tissues of these dogs and high titres of virus were isolated from throat swabs. In contrast, both groups of vaccinated dogs remained clinically almost normal with minimal lesions, present for a much shorter period of time. Virus was found on day 4 in the respiratory tissues of one dog vaccinated with CAV-1 but the other vaccinated animals contained little or no virus. In general, the degree of protection afforded by CAV-1 vaccine seemed similar to that provided by CAV-2 vaccine.

  16. Ácido indolbutírico em diferentes diâmetros na estaquia de Luehea divaricata Indolbutyric acid in different diameters on the vegetative propagation of Luehea divaricata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jardel Pizzatto Pacheco

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Luehea divaricata Mart. é uma árvore de porte médio com madeira resistente e de grande flexibilidade, características que a qualificam como matéria-prima na fabricação de móveis vergados. Devido à relevância desta espécie em indústrias de base florestal, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do ácido indolbutírico e do diâmetro da estaca como subsídio à produção de matrizes adequadas ao uso comercial. Foram utilizadas estacas com 20cm de comprimento, coletadas de matrizes com aproximadamente dez anos de idade. Os tratamentos consistiram na combinação entre estacas com três classes de diâmetro: finas (0,4-0,8cm, médias (0,9-1,4cm, grossas (1,5-2,6cm e dois níveis de solução de ácido indolbutírico (0; 5000mg L-1. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, consistindo de 12 unidades experimentais por repetição e cinco repetições por tratamento. Aos 90 dias após a implantação do experimento, foram avaliadas as variáveis: sobrevivência, enraizamento, número e comprimento radicial. Estacas médias e grossas imersas em 5000mg L-1 de solução hidroalcoólica de IBA são indicadas na estaquia de Luehea divaricata.Luehea divaricata Mart. is a medium-sized-tree of a resistent wood and great flexibility, characteristics which qualify it as raw material in the manufacture of furniture. Due to the relevance of this species to the forest based industry the project was conducted in order to investigate the indolbutyric acid and the diameter of the stem cuttings as a subsidy for the production of matrices adequate for comercial use. Stem cuttings of 20cm of length taken from matrices of approximately ten years of age were used. The treatments consisted of the combination between stem cuttings of three classes of diameter: fine (0.4-0.8cm, medium (0.9-1.4cm and thick (1.5-2.6cm and two levels of solution IBA (0, 5000mg L-1. A completely randomized experimental design was used and consisted of

  17. Deletion of T-type calcium channels Cav3.1 or Cav3.2 attenuates endothelial dysfunction in aging mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Anne D; Andersen, Kenneth; Lyngsø, Kristina S

    2018-01-01

    Impairment of endothelial function with aging is accompanied by reduced nitric oxide (NO) production. T-type Cav3.1 channels augment nitric oxide and co-localize with eNOS. Therefore, the hypothesis was that T-type channels contribute to the endothelial dysfunction of aging. Endothelial function...... was determined in mesenteric arteries (perfusion) and aortae (isometric contraction) of young and old wild-type (WT), Cav3.1, and Cav3.2 knockout mice. NO production was measured by fluorescence imaging in mesenteric arteries. With age, endothelium-dependent subsequent dilatation (following depolarization...... significantly reduced in mesenteric arteries of old compared to young WT mice. In Cav3.1(-/-) and Cav3.2(-/-) preparations, NO levels increased significantly with age. Relaxations to acetylcholine were significantly smaller in the aortae of old compared to young WT mice, while such responses were comparable...

  18. The Effects of Davallic Acid from Davallia divaricata Blume on Apoptosis Induction in A549 Lung Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsu-Liang Chang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional or folk medicinal herbs continue to be prescribed in the treatment of various diseases and conditions in many cultures. Recent scientific efforts have focused on the potential roles of extracts of traditional herbs as alternative and complementary medications for cancer treatment. In Taiwan, Davallia divaricata Blume has been traditionally employed in folk medicine for therapy of lung cancer, davallic acid being the major active compound of D. divaricata Blume. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory activity of davallic acid on the proliferation of A549 lung cancer cells. Davallic acid was extracted from D. divaricata Blume, and its effects on cell viability, cell cycle distribution, ROS level, and apoptotic protein expression in A549 cells were determined. Davallic acid significantly induced reactive oxygen species (ROS generation as well as caspase-3, -8, and -9 activation, thereby repressing A549 cell growth and elevating apoptotic activity. Since lung cancer has a high incidence of recurrence, these results indicate that davallic acid may have the potential to be a natural anti-lung cancer compound, and may provide a basis for further study of its use in combating cancer.

  19. In-vitro Anticancer and Antioxidant Activity of Gold Nanoparticles Conjugate with Tabernaemontana divaricata flower SMs Against MCF -7 Breast Cancer Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preetam, Raj J. P.; Purushothaman, M; Khusro, Ameer; Panicker, Shirly George

    2016-01-01

    Biologically stabilized gold nanoparticles were synthesized from the flower aqueous extract of T. divaricata. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer, Zeta sizer, FTIR and TEM analysis. T. divaricata reduced gold nanoparticles having particle size and potential of 106.532 nm and -10.2 mV, respectively, with a characteristic peak of 550 nm in UV-visible spectrophotometer. FTIR graph after comparison between the crude flower extract and gold nanoparticles showed three major shifts in the functional groups. The morphology and size of the gold nanoparticles were examined by HRTEM analysis, which showed that most of the nanoparticles were nearly spherical with size of 100 nm. The gold nanoparticles synthesized demonstrated potent anticancer activity against MCF-7 cell line. The findings conclude that the antioxidant molecule present in T. divaricata may be responsible for both reduction and capping of gold nanoparticles which possess potential applications in medicine and pharmaceutical fields

  20. In-vitro Anticancer and Antioxidant Activity of Gold Nanoparticles Conjugate with Tabernaemontana divaricata flower SMs Against MCF -7 Breast Cancer Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preetam, Raj J. P.; Purushothaman, M; Khusro, Ameer; Panicker, Shirly George [PG Biotechnology, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-02-15

    Biologically stabilized gold nanoparticles were synthesized from the flower aqueous extract of T. divaricata. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer, Zeta sizer, FTIR and TEM analysis. T. divaricata reduced gold nanoparticles having particle size and potential of 106.532 nm and -10.2 mV, respectively, with a characteristic peak of 550 nm in UV-visible spectrophotometer. FTIR graph after comparison between the crude flower extract and gold nanoparticles showed three major shifts in the functional groups. The morphology and size of the gold nanoparticles were examined by HRTEM analysis, which showed that most of the nanoparticles were nearly spherical with size of 100 nm. The gold nanoparticles synthesized demonstrated potent anticancer activity against MCF-7 cell line. The findings conclude that the antioxidant molecule present in T. divaricata may be responsible for both reduction and capping of gold nanoparticles which possess potential applications in medicine and pharmaceutical fields.

  1. Determination of Botanical Origin of Propolis from Monte Region of Argentina by Histological and Chemical Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salasa, Ana; Mercadoc, María I; Zampini, Iris C; Ponessa, Graciela I; Isla, María I

    2016-05-01

    Propolis production by honey bees is the result of a selective harvest of exudates from plants in the neighborhood of the hive. This product is used in Argentina as a food supplement and alternative medicine. The aim of this study was to determine the botanical origin of propolis from the arid regions of Monte of Argentina using rapid histochemical techniques and by comparison of TLC and HPLC-DAD chromatographic profiles with extract profiles obtained from Zuccagnia punctata, Larrea divaricata and Larrea cuneifolia, plant species that grow in the study area as a natural community named "jarillal". Microscopical analysis revealed the presence of several Z. punctata structures, such as multicellular trichomes, leaflets, stems and young leaves. Remarkable was the richness of the propolis in two bioactive chalcones, also present in Z. punctata resin; these compounds can be regarded as possible markers for propolis identification and justify its use as a dietary supplement, functional food and medicinal product. This study indicates that the source of resin used by honey bees to produce propolis in the Monte region of Argentina is only Z. punctata, a native shrub widespread in this phytogeographical region, while other more abundant species (L. divaricata and L. cuneifolia) in the region were not found, indicating that this propolis could be defined as a mono-resin, type-Zuccagnia.

  2. New information on the invasive to Europe aphid species Brachycaudus divaricatae Shaposhnikov, 1956 (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bašilova, J.; Havelka, Jan; Rakauskas, R.; Starý, Petr; Turčinavičiene, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 5 (2012), s. 959-965 ISSN 0006-3088 Grant - others:Research Council of Lithuania(LT) LEK-07/2010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Brachycaudus divaricatae * morphometric analysis * mitochondrial DNA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.506, year: 2012

  3. The Contribution of L-Type Cav1.3 Channels to Retinal Light Responses

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    Liheng Shi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (LTCCs regulate tonic neurotransmitter release from sensory neurons including retinal photoreceptors. There are three types of LTCCs (Cav1.2, Cav1.3, and Cav1.4 expressed in the retina. While Cav1.2 is expressed in all retinal cells including the Müller glia and neurons, Cav1.3 and Cav1.4 are expressed in the retinal neurons with Cav1.4 exclusively expressed in the photoreceptor synaptic terminals. Mutations in the gene encoding Cav1.4 cause incomplete X-linked congenital stationary night blindness in humans. Even though Cav1.3 is present in the photoreceptor inner segments and the synaptic terminals in various vertebrate species, its role in vision is unclear, since genetic alterations in Cav1.3 are not associated with severe vision impairment in humans or in Cav1.3-null (Cav1.3−/− mice. However, a failure to regulate Cav1.3 was found in a mouse model of Usher syndrome, the most common cause of combined deafness and blindness in humans, indicating that Cav1.3 may contribute to retinal function. In this report, we combined physiological and morphological data to demonstrate the role of Cav1.3 in retinal physiology and function that has been undervalued thus far. Through ex vivo and in vivo electroretinogram (ERG recordings and immunohistochemical staining, we found that Cav1.3 plays a role in retinal light responses and synaptic plasticity. Pharmacological inhibition of Cav1.3 decreased ex vivo ERG a- and b-wave amplitudes. In Cav1.3−/− mice, their dark-adapted ERG a-, b-wave, and oscillatory potential amplitudes were significantly dampened, and implicit times were delayed compared to the wild type (WT. Furthermore, the density of ribbon synapses was reduced in the outer plexiform layer of Cav1.3−/− mice retinas. Hence, Cav1.3 plays a more prominent role in retinal physiology and function than previously reported.

  4. High prevalence of antibodies against canine adenovirus (CAV) type 2 in domestic dog populations in South Africa precludes the use of CAV-based recombinant rabies vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, N; Jackson, F R; Niezgoda, M; Ellison, J A; Rupprecht, C E; Nel, L H

    2013-08-28

    Rabies in dogs can be controlled through mass vaccination. Oral vaccination of domestic dogs would be useful in the developing world, where greater vaccination coverage is needed especially in inaccessible areas or places with large numbers of free-roaming dogs. From this perspective, recent research has focused on development of new recombinant vaccines that can be administered orally in a bait to be used as adjunct for parenteral vaccination. One such candidate, a recombinant canine adenovirus type 2 vaccine expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (CAV2-RG), is considered a promising option for dogs, given host specificity and safety. To assess the potential use of this vaccine in domestic dog populations, we investigated the prevalence of antibodies against canine adenovirus type 2 in South African dogs. Blood was collected from 241 dogs from the Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal provinces. Sampled dogs had not previously been vaccinated against canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV1) or canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV2). Animals from both provinces had a high percentage of seropositivity (45% and 62%), suggesting that CAV2 circulates extensively among domestic dog populations in South Africa. Given this finding, we evaluated the effect of pre-existing CAV-specific antibodies on the efficacy of the CAV2-RG vaccine delivered via the oral route in dogs. Purpose-bred Beagle dogs, which received prior vaccination against canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and CAV, were immunized by oral administration of CAV2-RG. After rabies virus (RABV) infection all animals, except one vaccinated dog, developed rabies. This study demonstrated that pre-existing antibodies against CAV, such as naturally occurs in South African dogs, inhibits the development of neutralizing antibodies against RABV when immunized with a CAV-based rabies recombinant vaccine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The role of CAV3 in long-QT syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedley, Paula L; Kanters, Jørgen K.; Dembic, Maja

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in CAV3, coding for caveolin-3, the major constituent scaffolding protein of cardiac caveolae, have been associated with skeletal muscle disease, cardiomyopathy, and most recently long-QT syndrome (LQTS) and sudden infant death syndrome. We examined the occurrence of CAV3 mutations...

  6. Zebrafish CaV2.1 Calcium Channels Are Tailored for Fast Synchronous Neuromuscular Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, David; Wen, Hua; Brehm, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The CaV2.2 (N-type) and CaV2.1 (P/Q-type) voltage-dependent calcium channels are prevalent throughout the nervous system where they mediate synaptic transmission, but the basis for the selective presence at individual synapses still remains an open question. The CaV2.1 channels have been proposed to respond more effectively to brief action potentials (APs), an idea supported by computational modeling. However, the side-by-side comparison of CaV2.1 and CaV2.2 kinetics in intact neurons failed to reveal differences. As an alternative means for direct functional comparison we expressed zebrafish CaV2.1 and CaV2.2 α-subunits, along with their accessory subunits, in HEK293 cells. HEK cells lack calcium currents, thereby circumventing the need for pharmacological inhibition of mixed calcium channel isoforms present in neurons. HEK cells also have a simplified morphology compared to neurons, which improves voltage control. Our measurements revealed faster kinetics and shallower voltage-dependence of activation and deactivation for CaV2.1. Additionally, recordings of calcium current in response to a command waveform based on the motorneuron AP show, directly, more effective activation of CaV2.1. Analysis of calcium currents associated with the AP waveform indicate an approximately fourfold greater open probability (PO) for CaV2.1. The efficient activation of CaV2.1 channels during APs may contribute to the highly reliable transmission at zebrafish neuromuscular junctions. PMID:25650925

  7. Characterization and in vitro permeation study of microemulsions and liquid crystalline systems containing the anticholinesterase alkaloidal extract from Tabernaemontana divaricata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaiyana, Wantida; Rades, Thomas; Okonogi, Siriporn

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to characterize the microstructure and study the skin permeation enhancement of formulations containing the alkaloidal extract from Tabernaemontana divaricata. The extract was loaded in the formulations composed of Zingiber cassumunar oil, Triton X-114, ethanol ...

  8. Tabernaemontana divaricata leaves extract exacerbate burying behavior in mice

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    Raj Chanchal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Tabernaemontana divaricata (TD from Apocynaceae family offers the traditional folklore medicinal benefits such as an anti-epileptic, anti-mania, brain tonic, and anti-oxidant. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of TD leaves on burying behavior in mice. Materials and Methods:Mice were treated with oral administration (p.o. of ethanolic extract of TD (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg. Fluoxetine (FLX, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor was used as a reference drug. Obsessive-compulsive behavior was evaluated using marble-burying apparatus. Results:TD at doses of 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg dose-dependently inhibited the obsessive and compulsive behavior. The similar results were obtained from 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg of FLX. TD and FLX did not affect motor activity. Conclusion: The results indicated that TD and FLX produced similar inhibitory effects on marble-burying behavior.

  9. Calmodulin overexpression does not alter Cav1.2 function or oligomerization state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeisen, Felix; Tolia, Alexandra; Arant, Ryan; Kim, Eun Young; Isacoff, Ehud; Minor, Daniel L

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between calmodulin (CaM) and voltage-gated calcium channels (Ca(v)s) are crucial for Ca(v) activity-dependent feedback modulation. We recently reported an X-ray structure that shows two Ca(2+)/CaM molecules bound to the Ca(v)1.2 C terminal tail, one at the PreIQ region and one at the IQ domain. Surprisingly, the asymmetric unit of the crystal showed a dimer in which Ca(2+)/CaM bridged two PreIQ helixes to form a 4:2 Ca(2+)/CaM:Ca(v) C-terminal tail assembly. Contrary to previous proposals based on a similar crystallographic dimer, extensive biochemical analysis together with subunit counting experiments of full-length channels in live cell membranes failed to find evidence for multimers that would be compatible with the 4:2 crossbridged complex. Here, we examine this possibility further. We find that CaM over-expression has no functional effect on Ca(v)1.2 inactivation or on the stoichiometry of full-length Ca(v)1.2. These data provide further support for the monomeric Ca(v)1.2 stoichiometry. Analysis of the electrostatic surfaces of the 2:1 Ca(2+)/CaM:Ca(V) C-terminal tail assembly reveals notable patches of electronegativity. These could influence various forms of channel modulation by interacting with positively charged elements from other intracellular channel domains.

  10. The CaV2.3 R-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channel in mouse sleep architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwek, Magdalena Elisabeth; Müller, Ralf; Henseler, Christina; Broich, Karl; Papazoglou, Anna; Weiergräber, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs) are key elements in mediating thalamocortical rhythmicity. Low-voltage activated (LVA) CaV 3 T-type Ca(2+) channels have been related to thalamic rebound burst firing and to generation of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. High-voltage activated (HVA) CaV 1 L-type Ca(2+) channels, on the opposite, favor the tonic mode of action associated with higher levels of vigilance. However, the role of the HVA Non-L-type CaV2.3 Ca(2+) channels, which are predominantly expressed in the reticular thalamic nucleus (RTN), still remains unclear. Recently, CaV2.3(-/-) mice were reported to exhibit altered spike-wave discharge (SWD)/absence seizure susceptibility supported by the observation that CaV2.3 mediated Ca(2+) influx into RTN neurons can trigger small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+)-channel type 2 (SK2) currents capable of maintaining thalamic burst activity. Based on these studies we investigated the role of CaV2.3 R-type Ca(2+) channels in rodent sleep. The role of CaV2.3 Ca(2+) channels was analyzed in CaV2.3(-/-) mice and controls in both spontaneous and artificial urethane-induced sleep, using implantable video-EEG radiotelemetry. Data were analyzed for alterations in sleep architecture using sleep staging software and time-frequency analysis. CaV2.3 deficient mice exhibited reduced wake duration and increased slow-wave sleep (SWS). Whereas mean sleep stage durations remained unchanged, the total number of SWS epochs was increased in CaV2.3(-/-) mice. Additional changes were observed for sleep stage transitions and EEG amplitudes. Furthermore, urethane-induced SWS mimicked spontaneous sleep results obtained from CaV2.3 deficient mice. Quantitative Real-time PCR did not reveal changes in thalamic CaV3 T-type Ca(2+) channel expression. The detailed mechanisms of SWS increase in CaV2.3(-/-) mice remain to be determined. Low-voltage activated CaV2.3 R-type Ca(2+) channels in the thalamocortical loop and extra

  11. PREFACE: 9th International Symposium on Cavitation (CAV2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, M.; Müller, A.

    2015-12-01

    It is our pleasure and privilege to welcome all the participants of the 9th International Symposium on Cavitation (CAV2015) to Lausanne. Since its initiation in 1986 in Sendai, Japan, the CAV symposium has grown to become the world's foremost event dedicated to cavitation. Hosted by EPFL (Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne) and staged at the SwissTech Convention Center, CAV2015 is a unique opportunity to exchange with leading scientists and industry experts about the latest advances in theoretical modelling, numerical simulation and experimentation related to cavitation phenomena with a special emphasis on practical applications. The topics covered by CAV2015 include cavitation in ¬fluid machinery and fuel systems, bubble dynamics, cavitation erosion, advanced numerical simulation, sonochemistery, biomedicine and experimental techniques. CAV2015 will also host an exhibition of leading providers of state of the art measurement equipment, including high-speed imaging systems, non-intrusive velocimetry, pressure sensors, as well as numerical solvers. We have accepted over 190 papers, which will be presented in four parallel sessions. The proceedings will appear in the open access Journal of Physics: Conference Series (JPCS), which is part of the IOP Conference Series. All published papers are fully citable and upon publication will be free to download in perpetuity. We would like to thank all the reviewers for their great help during the selection process. We will also propose six plenary speakers to highlight cavitation issues in different fields. Finally, we would like to warmly thank our sponsors for their valuable support and the local Organizing Committee for the efforts in setting up this important event. We look forward to seeing you in Lausanne!

  12. Identifying multiple timescale rainfall controls on Mojave Desert ecohydrology using an integrated data and modeling approach for Larrea tridentata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Gene-Hua Crystal; Bedford, David R.; Miller, David M.

    2015-01-01

    The perennial shrub Larrea tridentata is widely successful in North American warm deserts but is also susceptible to climatic perturbations. Understanding its response to rainfall variability requires consideration of multiple timescales. We examine intra-annual to multi-year relationships using model simulations of soil moisture and vegetation growth over 50 years in the Mojave National Preserve in southeastern California (USA). Ecohydrological model parameters are conditioned on field and remote sensing data using an ensemble Kalman filter. Although no specific periodicities were detected in the rainfall record, simulated leaf-area-index exhibits multi-year dynamics that are driven by multi-year (∼3-years) rains, but with up to a 1-year delay in peak response. Within a multi-year period, Larrea tridentata is more sensitive to winter rains than summer. In the most active part of the root zone (above ∼80 cm), >1-year average soil moisture drives vegetation growth, but monthly average soil moisture is controlled by root uptake. Moisture inputs reach the lower part of the root zone (below ∼80 cm) infrequently, but once there they can persist over a year to help sustain plant growth. Parameter estimates highlight efficient plant physiological properties facilitating persistent growth and high soil hydraulic conductivity allowing deep soil moisture stores. We show that soil moisture as an ecological indicator is complicated by bidirectional interactions with vegetation that depend on timescale and depth. Under changing climate, Larrea tridentata will likely be relatively resilient to shorter-term moisture variability but will exhibit higher sensitivity to shifts in seasonal to multi-year moisture inputs.

  13. Larrea interspecific hybrids revisited (Zygophyllaceae

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    Juan H. Hunziker

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudios moleculares recientes nos han inducido a realizar una reinterpretación de las relaciones genómicas entre Larrea ameghinoi y las otras especies sudamericanas del género. Se hicieron nuevos intentos para estudiar el apareamiento de los cromosomas del híbrido L. ameghinoi x L. cuneifolia (2n = 3x = 39. El promedio de bivalentes y univalentes fue de 9.8 y 19.4, respectivamente. Dado que el número básico x es 13 la interpretación más razonable es que L. ameghinoi (2n = 2x = 26 (AA y L. cuneifolia (2n = 4x = 52 (DDCC comparten genomas parcialmente homeólogos (A y C que forman la mayoría de los bivalentes y eso explicaría la producción de semillas (15-19.4 % de estos híbridos triploides. El genoma de L. ameghinoi (A podría haber retenido varias partes de un genoma ancestral que hace posible algún apareamiento con aquellos de las otras especies y que lo capacitaría para funcionar como un genoma pivote que permite alguna fertilidad (desde parcial a completa en todas las posibles combinaciones híbridas con sus tres congéneres sudamericanos. Se incluye un apéndice con las leyendas completas del capítulo 2 del libro de Mabry et al. (1977 que fueran omitidas por error en el proceso editorial y de impresión

  14. Phytochemical Study of Condalia microphylla Cav.

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    M. A. Frontera

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available From the petroleum ether extract of the aereal part of Condalia microphylla Cav, hydrocarbons, sterols, alcohols, and fatty acids were isolated. From fruits of the same plant anthocyanins were also isolated and characterized by chromatographic and spectroscopic methods.

  15. Eco-friendly preparation of zinc oxide nanoparticles using Tabernaemontana divaricata and its photocatalytic and antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, A; Ashokkumar, S; Pavithra Marthandam, R; Jayachandiran, J; Khatiwada, Chandra Prasad; Kaviyarasu, K; Ganapathi Raman, R; Swaminathan, M

    2018-04-01

    The present work reports the green synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using aqueous Tabernaemontana divaricata green leaf extract. ZnO NPs have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Ultra Violet-Visible (UV-Vis) studies, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Fourier Transform-Infra Red (FT-IR) analysis. XRD pattern analysis confirms the presence of pure hexagonal wurtzite crystalline structure of ZnO. The TEM images reveal the formation of spherical shape ZnO NPs with the sizes ranging from 20 to 50 nm. The FT-IR analysis suggests that the obtained ZnO NPs have been stabilized through the interactions of steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, phenyl propanoids, phenolic acids and enzymes present in the leaf extract. Mechanism for the formation of ZnO NPs using Tabernaemontana divaricata as bioactive compound is proposed. As prepared ZnO NPs reveals antibacterial activity against three bacterial strains, Salmonella paratyphi, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The ZnO NPs shows higher antibacterial activity against S. aureus and E. coli and lesser antibacterial activity against S. paratyphi compared to the standard pharmaceutical formulation. Photocatalytic activity of synthesized ZnO NPs was analyzed for methylene blue (MB) dye degradation with sunlight. Almost complete degradation of dye occurred in 90 min. This nano-ZnO, prepared by eco-friendly method will be much useful for dye removal and bacterial decontamination. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Inhibitory Effects of Urginea maritima (L. Baker, Zhumeria majdae Rech. F. and Wendelbo and Physalis divaricata D. Don Ethanolic Extracts on Mushroom Tyrosinase

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    Foroogh Namjoyan, Alireza Jahangiri, Mohammad Ebrahim Azemi, Hamideh Mousavi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tyrosinase is a key enzyme in melanin synthesis from tyrosine. To prevent or treat pigmentation disorders, tyrosinase inhibitors have been used increasingly for medicinal and cosmetic products. The aim of this study is to evaluate inhibitory effects of Urginea maritima (L. Baker, Zhumeria majdae Rech.f. & Wendelbo and Physalis divaricata D.Don on mushroom tyrosinase. Methods: The inhibitory activities of the hydroalcoholic extracts of plants against oxidation of L-DOPA (as a substrate by mushroom tyrosinase were investigated. The amount of formed DOPAchrome was determined at 475 nm as optical density. Results: The extracts showed anti-tyrosinase activity weaker than positive control (Kojic acid. The inhibitory activity of tested plants: U.maritima, Z.majdae and P.divaricata against mushroom tyrosinase were 38.61, 29.70 and 25.74 % at 1.67 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: The most tyrosinase inhibitory activity was seen for U.maritima. However more investigations on human tyrosinase, toxicological and clinical studies are needed to confirm its activity.

  17. CaV3.1 is a tremor rhythm pacemaker in the inferior olive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Gyun; Park, Hye-Yeon; Lee, C. Justin; Choi, Soonwook; Jo, Seonmi; Choi, Hansol; Kim, Yang-Hann; Shin, Hee-Sup; Llinas, Rodolfo R.; Kim, Daesoo

    2010-01-01

    The rhythmic motor pathway activation by pacemaker neurons or circuits in the brain has been proposed as the mechanism for the timing of motor coordination, and the abnormal potentiation of this mechanism may lead to a pathological tremor. Here, we show that the potentiation of CaV3.1 T-type Ca2+ channels in the inferior olive contributes to the onset of the tremor in a pharmacological model of essential tremor. After administration of harmaline, 4- to 10-Hz synchronous neuronal activities arose from the IO and then propagated to cerebellar motor circuits in wild-type mice, but those rhythmic activities were absent in mice lacking CaV3.1 gene. Intracellular recordings in brain-stem slices revealed that the CaV3.1-deficient inferior olive neurons lacked the subthreshold oscillation of membrane potentials and failed to trigger 4- to 10-Hz rhythmic burst discharges in the presence of harmaline. In addition, the selective knockdown of CaV3.1 gene in the inferior olive by shRNA efficiently suppressed the harmaline-induced tremor in wild-type mice. A mathematical model constructed based on data obtained from patch-clamping experiments indicated that harmaline could efficiently potentiate CaV3.1 channels by changing voltage-dependent responsiveness in the hyperpolarizing direction. Thus, CaV3.1 is a molecular pacemaker substrate for intrinsic neuronal oscillations of inferior olive neurons, and the potentiation of this mechanism can be considered as a pathological cause of essential tremor. PMID:20498062

  18. Functional Properties of a Newly Identified C-terminal Splice Variant of Cav1.3 L-type Ca2+ Channels*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Gabriella; Gebhart, Mathias; Scharinger, Anja; Jangsangthong, Wanchana; Busquet, Perrine; Poggiani, Chiara; Sartori, Simone; Mangoni, Matteo E.; Sinnegger-Brauns, Martina J.; Herzig, Stefan; Striessnig, Jörg; Koschak, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    An intramolecular interaction between a distal (DCRD) and a proximal regulatory domain (PCRD) within the C terminus of long Cav1.3 L-type Ca2+ channels (Cav1.3L) is a major determinant of their voltage- and Ca2+-dependent gating kinetics. Removal of these regulatory domains by alternative splicing generates Cav1.342A channels that activate at a more negative voltage range and exhibit more pronounced Ca2+-dependent inactivation. Here we describe the discovery of a novel short splice variant (Cav1.343S) that is expressed at high levels in the brain but not in the heart. It lacks the DCRD but, in contrast to Cav1.342A, still contains PCRD. When expressed together with α2δ1 and β3 subunits in tsA-201 cells, Cav1.343S also activated at more negative voltages like Cav1.342A but Ca2+-dependent inactivation was less pronounced. Single channel recordings revealed much higher channel open probabilities for both short splice variants as compared with Cav1.3L. The presence of the proximal C terminus in Cav1.343S channels preserved their modulation by distal C terminus-containing Cav1.3- and Cav1.2-derived C-terminal peptides. Removal of the C-terminal modulation by alternative splicing also induced a faster decay of Ca2+ influx during electrical activities mimicking trains of neuronal action potentials. Our findings extend the spectrum of functionally diverse Cav1.3 L-type channels produced by tissue-specific alternative splicing. This diversity may help to fine tune Ca2+ channel signaling and, in the case of short variants lacking a functional C-terminal modulation, prevent excessive Ca2+ accumulation during burst firing in neurons. This may be especially important in neurons that are affected by Ca2+-induced neurodegenerative processes. PMID:21998310

  19. A novel CaV2.2 channel inhibition by piracetam in peripheral and central neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Martínez, Jorge; Arenas, Isabel; Vivas, Oscar; Rebolledo-Antúnez, Santiago; Vázquez-García, Mario; Larrazolo, Arturo; García, David E

    2012-10-01

    No mechanistic actions for piracetam have been documented to support its nootropic effects. Voltage-gated calcium channels have been proposed as a promising pharmacological target of nootropic drugs. In this study, we investigated the effect of piracetam on Ca(V)2.2 channels in peripheral neurons, using patch-clamp recordings from cultured superior cervical ganglion neurons. In addition, we tested if Ca(V)2.2 channel inhibition could be related with the effects of piracetam on central neurons. We found that piracetam inhibited native Ca(V)2.2 channels in superior cervical ganglion neurons in a dose-dependent manner, with an IC(50) of 3.4 μmol/L and a Hill coefficient of 1.1. GDPβS dialysis did not prevent piracetam-induced inhibition of Ca(V)2.2 channels and G-protein-coupled receptor activation by noradrenaline did not occlude the piracetam effect. Piracetam altered the biophysical characteristics of Ca(V)2.2 channel such as facilitation ratio. In hippocampal slices, piracetam and ω-conotoxin GVIA diminished the frequency of excitatory postsynaptic potentials and action potentials. Our results provide evidence of piracetam's actions on Ca(V)2.2 channels in peripheral neurons, which might explain some of its nootropic effects in central neurons.

  20. C-terminal modulatory domain controls coupling of voltage-sensing to pore opening in Cav1.3 L-type Ca(2+) channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieb, Andreas; Ortner, Nadine; Striessnig, Jörg

    2014-04-01

    Activity of voltage-gated Cav1.3 L-type Ca(2+) channels is required for proper hearing as well as sinoatrial node and brain function. This critically depends on their negative activation voltage range, which is further fine-tuned by alternative splicing. Shorter variants miss a C-terminal regulatory domain (CTM), which allows them to activate at even more negative potentials than C-terminally long-splice variants. It is at present unclear whether this is due to an increased voltage sensitivity of the Cav1.3 voltage-sensing domain, or an enhanced coupling of voltage-sensor conformational changes to the subsequent opening of the activation gate. We studied the voltage-dependence of voltage-sensor charge movement (QON-V) and of current activation (ICa-V) of the long (Cav1.3L) and a short Cav1.3 splice variant (Cav1.342A) expressed in tsA-201 cells using whole cell patch-clamp. Charge movement (QON) of Cav1.3L displayed a much steeper voltage-dependence and a more negative half-maximal activation voltage than Cav1.2 and Cav3.1. However, a significantly higher fraction of the total charge had to move for activation of Cav1.3 half-maximal conductance (Cav1.3: 68%; Cav1.2: 52%; Cav3.1: 22%). This indicated a weaker coupling of Cav1.3 voltage-sensor charge movement to pore opening. However, the coupling efficiency was strengthened in the absence of the CTM in Cav1.342A, thereby shifting ICa-V by 7.2 mV to potentials that were more negative without changing QON-V. We independently show that the presence of intracellular organic cations (such as n-methyl-D-glucamine) induces a pronounced negative shift of QON-V and a more negative activation of ICa-V of all three channels. These findings illustrate that the voltage sensors of Cav1.3 channels respond more sensitively to depolarization than those of Cav1.2 or Cav3.1. Weak coupling of voltage sensing to pore opening is enhanced in the absence of the CTM, allowing short Cav1.342A splice variants to activate at lower voltages

  1. Adjuvants and the vaccine response to the DS-Cav1-stabilized fusion glycoprotein of respiratory syncytial virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallika Sastry

    Full Text Available Appropriate adjuvant selection may be essential to optimize the potency and to tailor the immune response of subunit vaccines. To induce protective responses against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV-a highly prevalent childhood pathogen without a licensed vaccine-we previously engineered a pre-fusion-stabilized trimeric RSV F (pre-F "DS-Cav1" immunogen, which induced high titer RSV-neutralizing antibodies, in mice and non-human primates, when formulated with adjuvants Poly (I:C and Poly (IC:LC, respectively. To assess the impact of different adjuvants, here we formulated RSV F DS-Cav1 with multiple adjuvants and assessed immune responses. Very high RSV-neutralizing antibody responses (19,006 EC50 were observed in naïve mice immunized with 2 doses of DS-Cav1 adjuvanted with Sigma adjuvant system (SAS, an oil-in-water adjuvant, plus Carbopol; high responses (3658-7108 were observed with DS-Cav1 adjuvanted with Alum, SAS alone, Adjuplex, Poly (I:C and Poly (IC:LC; and moderate responses (1251-2129 were observed with DS-Cav1 adjuvanted with the TLR4 agonist MPLA, Alum plus MPLA or AddaVax. In contrast, DS-Cav1 without adjuvant induced low-level responses (6. A balanced IgG1 and IgG2a (Th2/Th1 immune response was elicited in most of the high to very high response groups (all but Alum and Adjuplex. We also tested the immune response induced by DS-Cav1 in elderly mice with pre-existing DS-Cav1 immunity; we observed that DS-Cav1 adjuvanted with SAS plus Carbopol boosted the response 2-3-fold, whereas DS-Cav1 adjuvanted with alum boosted the response 5-fold. Finally, we tested whether a mixture of ISA 71 VG and Carbopol would enhanced the antibody response in DS-Cav1 immunized calves. While pre-F-stabilized bovine RSV F induced very high titers in mice when adjuvanted with SAS plus Carbopol, the addition of Carbopol to ISA 71 VG did not enhance immune responses in calves. The vaccine response to pre-F-stabilized RSV F is augmented by adjuvant, but the

  2. Progress in the structural understanding of voltage-gated calcium channel (CaV) function and modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Daniel L; Findeisen, Felix

    2010-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels (CaVs) are large, transmembrane multiprotein complexes that couple membrane depolarization to cellular calcium entry. These channels are central to cardiac action potential propagation, neurotransmitter and hormone release, muscle contraction, and calcium-dependent gene transcription. Over the past six years, the advent of high-resolution structural studies of CaV components from different isoforms and CaV modulators has begun to reveal the architecture that underlies the exceptionally rich feedback modulation that controls CaV action. These descriptions of CaV molecular anatomy have provided new, structure-based insights into the mechanisms by which particular channel elements affect voltage-dependent inactivation (VDI), calcium‑dependent inactivation (CDI), and calcium‑dependent facilitation (CDF). The initial successes have been achieved through structural studies of soluble channel domains and modulator proteins and have proven most powerful when paired with biochemical and functional studies that validate ideas inspired by the structures. Here, we review the progress in this growing area and highlight some key open challenges for future efforts.

  3. Ablation of CaV2.1 Voltage-Gated Ca2+ Channels in Mouse Forebrain Generates Multiple Cognitive Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallmann, Robert Theodor; Elgueta, Claudio; Sleman, Faten; Castonguay, Jan; Wilmes, Thomas; van den Maagdenberg, Arn; Klugbauer, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    Voltage-gated CaV2.1 (P/Q-type) Ca2+ channels located at the presynaptic membrane are known to control a multitude of Ca2+-dependent cellular processes such as neurotransmitter release and synaptic plasticity. Our knowledge about their contributions to complex cognitive functions, however, is restricted by the limited adequacy of existing transgenic CaV2.1 mouse models. Global CaV2.1 knock-out mice lacking the α1 subunit Cacna1a gene product exhibit early postnatal lethality which makes them unsuitable to analyse the relevance of CaV2.1 Ca2+ channels for complex behaviour in adult mice. Consequently we established a forebrain specific CaV2.1 knock-out model by crossing mice with a floxed Cacna1a gene with mice expressing Cre-recombinase under the control of the NEX promoter. This novel mouse model enabled us to investigate the contribution of CaV2.1 to complex cognitive functions, particularly learning and memory. Electrophysiological analysis allowed us to test the specificity of our conditional knock-out model and revealed an impaired synaptic transmission at hippocampal glutamatergic synapses. At the behavioural level, the forebrain-specific CaV2.1 knock-out resulted in deficits in spatial learning and reference memory, reduced recognition memory, increased exploratory behaviour and a strong attenuation of circadian rhythmicity. In summary, we present a novel conditional CaV2.1 knock-out model that is most suitable for analysing the in vivo functions of CaV2.1 in the adult murine forebrain. PMID:24205277

  4. Functional properties of a newly identified C-terminal splice variant of Cav1.3 L-type Ca2+ channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Gabriella; Gebhart, Mathias; Scharinger, Anja; Jangsangthong, Wanchana; Busquet, Perrine; Poggiani, Chiara; Sartori, Simone; Mangoni, Matteo E; Sinnegger-Brauns, Martina J; Herzig, Stefan; Striessnig, Jörg; Koschak, Alexandra

    2011-12-09

    An intramolecular interaction between a distal (DCRD) and a proximal regulatory domain (PCRD) within the C terminus of long Ca(v)1.3 L-type Ca(2+) channels (Ca(v)1.3(L)) is a major determinant of their voltage- and Ca(2+)-dependent gating kinetics. Removal of these regulatory domains by alternative splicing generates Ca(v)1.3(42A) channels that activate at a more negative voltage range and exhibit more pronounced Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation. Here we describe the discovery of a novel short splice variant (Ca(v)1.3(43S)) that is expressed at high levels in the brain but not in the heart. It lacks the DCRD but, in contrast to Ca(v)1.3(42A), still contains PCRD. When expressed together with α2δ1 and β3 subunits in tsA-201 cells, Ca(v)1.3(43S) also activated at more negative voltages like Ca(v)1.3(42A) but Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation was less pronounced. Single channel recordings revealed much higher channel open probabilities for both short splice variants as compared with Ca(v)1.3(L). The presence of the proximal C terminus in Ca(v)1.3(43S) channels preserved their modulation by distal C terminus-containing Ca(v)1.3- and Ca(v)1.2-derived C-terminal peptides. Removal of the C-terminal modulation by alternative splicing also induced a faster decay of Ca(2+) influx during electrical activities mimicking trains of neuronal action potentials. Our findings extend the spectrum of functionally diverse Ca(v)1.3 L-type channels produced by tissue-specific alternative splicing. This diversity may help to fine tune Ca(2+) channel signaling and, in the case of short variants lacking a functional C-terminal modulation, prevent excessive Ca(2+) accumulation during burst firing in neurons. This may be especially important in neurons that are affected by Ca(2+)-induced neurodegenerative processes.

  5. Altered thalamocortical rhythmicity and connectivity in mice lacking CaV3.1 T-type Ca2+ channels in unconsciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soonwook; Yu, Eunah; Lee, Seongwon; Llinás, Rodolfo R.

    2015-01-01

    In unconscious status (e.g., deep sleep and anesthetic unconsciousness) where cognitive functions are not generated there is still a significant level of brain activity present. Indeed, the electrophysiology of the unconscious brain is characterized by well-defined thalamocortical rhythmicity. Here we address the ionic basis for such thalamocortical rhythms during unconsciousness. In particular, we address the role of CaV3.1 T-type Ca2+ channels, which are richly expressed in thalamic neurons. Toward this aim, we examined the electrophysiological and behavioral phenotypes of mice lacking CaV3.1 channels (CaV3.1 knockout) during unconsciousness induced by ketamine or ethanol administration. Our findings indicate that CaV3.1 KO mice displayed attenuated low-frequency oscillations in thalamocortical loops, especially in the 1- to 4-Hz delta band, compared with control mice (CaV3.1 WT). Intriguingly, we also found that CaV3.1 KO mice exhibited augmented high-frequency oscillations during unconsciousness. In a behavioral measure of unconsciousness dynamics, CaV3.1 KO mice took longer to fall into the unconscious state than controls. In addition, such unconscious events had a shorter duration than those of control mice. The thalamocortical interaction level between mediodorsal thalamus and frontal cortex in CaV3.1 KO mice was significantly lower, especially for delta band oscillations, compared with that of CaV3.1 WT mice, during unconsciousness. These results suggest that the CaV3.1 channel is required for the generation of a given set of thalamocortical rhythms during unconsciousness. Further, that thalamocortical resonant neuronal activity supported by this channel is important for the control of vigilance states. PMID:26056284

  6. CaV1.3 L-type Ca2+ channels modulate depression-like behaviour in mice independent of deaf phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquet, Perrine; Nguyen, Ngoc Khoi; Schmid, Eduard; Tanimoto, Naoyuki; Seeliger, Mathias W; Ben-Yosef, Tamar; Mizuno, Fengxia; Akopian, Abram; Striessnig, Jörg; Singewald, Nicolas

    2010-05-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that voltage-gated L-type Ca2+ channels can modulate affective behaviour. We therefore explored the role of CaV1.3 L-type Ca2+ channels in depression- and anxiety-like behaviours using CaV1.3-deficient mice (CaV1.3-/-). We showed that CaV1.3-/- mice displayed less immobility in the forced swim test as well as in the tail suspension test, indicating an antidepressant-like phenotype. Locomotor activity in the home cage or a novel open-field test was not influenced. In the elevated plus maze (EPM), CaV1.3-/- mice entered the open arms more frequently and spent more time there indicating an anxiolytic-like phenotype which was, however, not supported in the stress-induced hyperthermia test. By performing parallel experiments in Claudin 14 knockout mice (Cldn14-/-), which like CaV1.3-/- mice are congenitally deaf, an influence of deafness on the antidepressant-like phenotype could be ruled out. On the other hand, a similar EPM behaviour indicative of an anxiolytic phenotype was also found in the Cldn14-/- animals. Using electroretinography and visual behavioural tasks we demonstrated that at least in mice, CaV1.3 channels do not significantly contribute to visual function. However, marked morphological changes were revealed in synaptic ribbons in the outer plexiform layer of CaV1.3-/- retinas by immunohistochemistry suggesting a possible role of this channel type in structural plasticity at the ribbon synapse. Taken together, our findings indicate that CaV1.3 L-type Ca2+ channels modulate depression-like behaviour but are not essential for visual function. The findings raise the possibility that selective modulation of CaV1.3 channels could be a promising new therapeutic concept for the treatment of mood disorders.

  7. Dysregulation of Ca(v)1.4 channels disrupts the maturation of photoreceptor synaptic ribbons in congenital stationary night blindness type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoni; Kerov, Vasily; Haeseleer, Françoise; Majumder, Anurima; Artemyev, Nikolai; Baker, Sheila A; Lee, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding Cav 1.4, CACNA1F, are associated with visual disorders including X-linked incomplete congenital stationary night blindness type 2 (CSNB2). In mice lacking Cav 1.4 channels, there are defects in the development of "ribbon" synapses formed between photoreceptors (PRs) and second-order neurons. However, many CSNB2 mutations disrupt the function rather than expression of Cav 1.4 channels. Whether defects in PR synapse development due to altered Cav 1.4 function are common features contributing to the pathogenesis of CSNB2 is unknown. To resolve this issue, we profiled changes in the subcellular distribution of Cav 1.4 channels and synapse morphology during development in wild-type (WT) mice and mouse models of CSNB2. Using Cav 1.4-selective antibodies, we found that Cav 1.4 channels associate with ribbon precursors early in development and are concentrated at both rod and cone PR synapses in the mature retina. In mouse models of CSNB2 in which the voltage-dependence of Cav 1.4 activation is either enhanced (Cav 1.4I756T) or inhibited (CaBP4 KO), the initial stages of PR synaptic ribbon formation are largely unaffected. However, after postnatal day 13, many PR ribbons retain the immature morphology. This synaptic abnormality corresponds in severity to the defect in synaptic transmission in the adult mutant mice, suggesting that lack of sufficient mature synapses contributes to vision impairment in Cav 1.4I756T and CaBP4 KO mice. Our results demonstrate the importance of proper Cav 1.4 function for efficient PR synapse maturation, and that dysregulation of Cav 1.4 channels in CSNB2 may have synaptopathic consequences.

  8. TRANSCRIPTIONAL UPREGULATION OF α2δ-1 ELEVATES ARTERIAL SMOOTH MUSCLE CELL CAV1.2 CHANNEL SURFACE EXPRESSION AND CEREBROVASCULAR CONSTRICTION IN GENETIC HYPERTENSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannister, John P.; Bulley, Simon; Narayanan, Damodaran; Thomas-Gatewood, Candice; Luzny, Patrik; Pachuau, Judith; Jaggar, Jonathan H.

    2012-01-01

    A hallmark of hypertension is an increase in arterial myocyte voltage-dependent Ca2+ (CaV1.2) currents that induces pathological vasoconstriction. CaV1.2 channels are heteromeric complexes comprising a pore forming CaV1.2α1 with auxiliary α2δ and β subunits. Molecular mechanisms that elevate CaV1.2 currents during hypertension and the potential contribution of CaV1.2 auxiliary subunits are unclear. Here, we investigated the pathological significance of α2δ subunits in vasoconstriction associated with hypertension. Age-dependent development of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) was associated with an unequal elevation in α2δ-1 and CaV1.2α1 mRNA and protein in cerebral artery myocytes, with α2δ-1 increasing more than CaV1.2α1. Other α2δ isoforms did not emerge in hypertension. Myocytes and arteries of hypertensive SHR displayed higher surface-localized α2δ-1 and CaV1.2α1 proteins, surface α2δ-1 to CaV1.2α1 ratio (α2δ-1:CaV1.2α1), CaV1.2 current-density and non-inactivating current, and pressure- and - depolarization-induced vasoconstriction than those of Wistar-Kyoto controls. Pregabalin, an α2δ-1 ligand, did not alter α2δ-1 or CaV1.2α1 total protein, but normalized α2δ-1 and CaV1.2α1 surface expression, surface α2δ-1:CaV1.2α1, CaV1.2 current-density and inactivation, and vasoconstriction in myocytes and arteries of hypertensive rats to control levels. Genetic hypertension is associated with an elevation in α2δ-1 expression that promotes surface trafficking of CaV1.2 channels in cerebral artery myocytes. This leads to an increase in CaV1.2 current-density and a reduction in current inactivation that induces vasoconstriction. Data also suggest that α2δ-1 targeting is a novel strategy that may be used to reverse pathological CaV1.2 channel trafficking to induce cerebrovascular dilation in hypertension. PMID:22949532

  9. Ablation of Ca(V)2.1 voltage-gated Ca²⁺ channels in mouse forebrain generates multiple cognitive impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallmann, Robert Theodor; Elgueta, Claudio; Sleman, Faten; Castonguay, Jan; Wilmes, Thomas; van den Maagdenberg, Arn; Klugbauer, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    Voltage-gated Ca(V)2.1 (P/Q-type) Ca²⁺ channels located at the presynaptic membrane are known to control a multitude of Ca²⁺-dependent cellular processes such as neurotransmitter release and synaptic plasticity. Our knowledge about their contributions to complex cognitive functions, however, is restricted by the limited adequacy of existing transgenic Ca(V)2.1 mouse models. Global Ca(V)2.1 knock-out mice lacking the α1 subunit Cacna1a gene product exhibit early postnatal lethality which makes them unsuitable to analyse the relevance of Ca(V)2.1 Ca²⁺ channels for complex behaviour in adult mice. Consequently we established a forebrain specific Ca(V)2.1 knock-out model by crossing mice with a floxed Cacna1a gene with mice expressing Cre-recombinase under the control of the NEX promoter. This novel mouse model enabled us to investigate the contribution of Ca(V)2.1 to complex cognitive functions, particularly learning and memory. Electrophysiological analysis allowed us to test the specificity of our conditional knock-out model and revealed an impaired synaptic transmission at hippocampal glutamatergic synapses. At the behavioural level, the forebrain-specific Ca(V)2.1 knock-out resulted in deficits in spatial learning and reference memory, reduced recognition memory, increased exploratory behaviour and a strong attenuation of circadian rhythmicity. In summary, we present a novel conditional Ca(V)2.1 knock-out model that is most suitable for analysing the in vivo functions of Ca(V)2.1 in the adult murine forebrain.

  10. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit e controls intracellular calcium homeostasis by regulation of cav1.2 surface expression.

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    Pawel Buda

    Full Text Available Inappropriate surface expression of voltage-gated Ca(2+channels (CaV in pancreatic ß-cells may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. First, failure to increase intracellular Ca(2+ concentrations at the sites of exocytosis impedes insulin release. Furthermore, excessive Ca(2+ influx may trigger cytotoxic effects. The regulation of surface expression of CaV channels in the pancreatic β-cells remains unknown. Here, we used real-time 3D confocal and TIRFM imaging, immunocytochemistry, cellular fractionation, immunoprecipitation and electrophysiology to study trafficking of L-type CaV1.2 channels upon β-cell stimulation. We found decreased surface expression of CaV1.2 and a corresponding reduction in L-type whole-cell Ca(2+ currents in insulin-secreting INS-1 832/13 cells upon protracted (15-30 min stimulation. This internalization occurs by clathrin-dependent endocytosis and could be prevented by microtubule or dynamin inhibitors. eIF3e (Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit E is part of the protein translation initiation complex, but its effect on translation are modest and effects in ion channel trafficking have been suggested. The factor interacted with CaV1.2 and regulated CaV1.2 traffic bidirectionally. eIF3e silencing impaired CaV1.2 internalization, which resulted in an increased intracellular Ca(2+ load upon stimulation. These findings provide a mechanism for regulation of L-type CaV channel surface expression with consequences for β-cell calcium homeostasis, which will affect pancreatic β-cell function and insulin production.

  11. Ablation of Ca(V2.1 voltage-gated Ca²⁺ channels in mouse forebrain generates multiple cognitive impairments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Theodor Mallmann

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated Ca(V2.1 (P/Q-type Ca²⁺ channels located at the presynaptic membrane are known to control a multitude of Ca²⁺-dependent cellular processes such as neurotransmitter release and synaptic plasticity. Our knowledge about their contributions to complex cognitive functions, however, is restricted by the limited adequacy of existing transgenic Ca(V2.1 mouse models. Global Ca(V2.1 knock-out mice lacking the α1 subunit Cacna1a gene product exhibit early postnatal lethality which makes them unsuitable to analyse the relevance of Ca(V2.1 Ca²⁺ channels for complex behaviour in adult mice. Consequently we established a forebrain specific Ca(V2.1 knock-out model by crossing mice with a floxed Cacna1a gene with mice expressing Cre-recombinase under the control of the NEX promoter. This novel mouse model enabled us to investigate the contribution of Ca(V2.1 to complex cognitive functions, particularly learning and memory. Electrophysiological analysis allowed us to test the specificity of our conditional knock-out model and revealed an impaired synaptic transmission at hippocampal glutamatergic synapses. At the behavioural level, the forebrain-specific Ca(V2.1 knock-out resulted in deficits in spatial learning and reference memory, reduced recognition memory, increased exploratory behaviour and a strong attenuation of circadian rhythmicity. In summary, we present a novel conditional Ca(V2.1 knock-out model that is most suitable for analysing the in vivo functions of Ca(V2.1 in the adult murine forebrain.

  12. Distribution of calcium channel Ca(V)1.3 immunoreactivity in the rat spinal cord and brain stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukiasyan, N; Hultborn, H; Zhang, M

    2009-03-03

    The function of local networks in the CNS depends upon both the connectivity between neurons and their intrinsic properties. An intrinsic property of spinal motoneurons is the presence of persistent inward currents (PICs), which are mediated by non-inactivating calcium (mainly Ca(V)1.3) and/or sodium channels and serve to amplify neuronal input signals. It is of fundamental importance for the prediction of network function to determine the distribution of neurons possessing the ion channels that produce PICs. Although the distribution pattern of Ca(V)1.3 immunoreactivity (Ca(V)1.3-IR) has been studied in some specific central nervous regions in some species, so far no systematic investigations have been performed in both the rat spinal cord and brain stem. In the present study this issue was investigated by immunohistochemistry. The results indicated that the Ca(V)1.3-IR neurons were widely distributed across different parts of the spinal cord and the brain stem although with variable labeling intensities. In the spinal gray matter large neurons in the ventral horn (presumably motoneurons) tended to display higher levels of immunoreactivity than smaller neurons in the dorsal horn. In the white matter, a subset of glial cells labeled by an oligodendrocyte marker was also Ca(V)1.3-positive. In the brain stem, neurons in the motor nuclei appeared to have higher levels of immunoreactivity than those in the sensory nuclei. Moreover, a number of nuclei containing monoaminergic cells, for example the locus coeruleus, were also strongly immunoreactive. Ca(V)1.3-IR was consistently detected in the neuronal perikarya regardless of the neuronal type. However, in the large neurons in the spinal ventral horn and the cranial motor nuclei the Ca(V)1.3-IR was clearly detectable in first and second order dendrites. These results indicate that in the rat spinal cord and brain stem Ca(V)1.3 is probably a common calcium channel used by many kinds of neurons to facilitate the neuronal

  13. Conotoxins as Tools to Understand the Physiological Function of Voltage-Gated Calcium (CaV Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ramírez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated calcium (CaV channels are widely expressed and are essential for the completion of multiple physiological processes. Close regulation of their activity by specific inhibitors and agonists become fundamental to understand their role in cellular homeostasis as well as in human tissues and organs. CaV channels are divided into two groups depending on the membrane potential required to activate them: High-voltage activated (HVA, CaV1.1–1.4; CaV2.1–2.3 and Low-voltage activated (LVA, CaV3.1–3.3. HVA channels are highly expressed in brain (neurons, heart, and adrenal medulla (chromaffin cells, among others, and are also classified into subtypes which can be distinguished using pharmacological approaches. Cone snails are marine gastropods that capture their prey by injecting venom, “conopeptides”, which cause paralysis in a few seconds. A subset of conopeptides called conotoxins are relatively small polypeptides, rich in disulfide bonds, that target ion channels, transporters and receptors localized at the neuromuscular system of the animal target. In this review, we describe the structure and properties of conotoxins that selectively block HVA calcium channels. We compare their potency on several HVA channel subtypes, emphasizing neuronal calcium channels. Lastly, we analyze recent advances in the therapeutic use of conotoxins for medical treatments.

  14. Guioa cav. (Sapindaceae): Taxonomy, phylogeny, and historical biogeography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welzen, van P.C.

    1989-01-01

    A monograph of the genus Guioa Cav. (Sapindaceae) is presented. 64 species are recognized; one species, Guioa subfalcata, is regarded as a dubious species. A general key and several regional keys provide access to the species. One species, Guioa glauca, is subdivided into two varieties. The

  15. Detection and Toxicity Evaluation of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Medicinal Plants Gynura bicolor and Gynura divaricata Collected from Different Chinese Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Lü, Han; Fang, Lian-Xiang; Li, Wei-Lin; Verschaeve, Luc; Wang, Zheng-Tao; De Kimpe, Norbert; Mangelinckx, Sven

    2017-02-01

    Two edible plants in Southeast Asia, Gynura bicolor and G. divaricata, are not only known to be nutritive but also useful as medicinal herbs. Previous phytochemical investigation of Gynura species showed the presence of hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), indicating the toxic risk of using these two plants. The present study was designed to analyze the distribution of PA components and tried to evaluate the preliminary toxicity of these two Gynura species. Eight samples of G. bicolor and G. divaricata from five different Chinese locations were collected and their specific PAs were qualitatively characterized by applying an UPLC/MS/MS spectrometry method. Using a pre-column derivatization HPLC method, the total retronecine ester-type PAs in their alkaloids extracts were quantitatively estimated as well. Finally, their genotoxicity was investigated with an effective high-throughput screening method referred to as Vitotox™ test and their potential cytotoxicity was tested on HepG2 cells. It was found that different types of PAs were widely present in Gynura species collected from south of China. Among them, no significant genotoxic effects were detected with serial concentrations through the present in vitro assay. However, the cytotoxicity assay of Gynura plants collected from Jiangsu displayed weak activity at the concentration of 100 mg/ml. It is important to note that this research validates in part the indication that the use of Gynura species requires caution. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  16. Variação anatômica radial do lenho de açoita-cavalo (Luehea divaricata) e sua influência na densidade aparente. Radial variation of wood anatomy in açoita-cavalo (Luehea divaricata) and its influence on the specific gravity.

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Luiz LONGUI; Israel Luiz de LIMA; Sandra Monteiro Borges FLORSHEIM; Alaor BUFOLO

    2009-01-01

    Variações entre as dimensões e frequênciasdas células da madeira existem entre espéciesdiferentes, entre indivíduos da mesma espécie ouainda dentro da mesma árvore nas direções radial eaxial. Essa variação influencia diretamente nadensidade aparente e consequentemente no uso dasdiferentes madeiras. O presente estudo determinoua variação anatômica radial e sua influência nadensidade aparente no lenho de árvores de Luehea divaricata, a partir de amostras coletadas no DAP,por meio de método dest...

  17. MARCADORES POLÍNICOS EN MIELES DEL NOROESTE DE LA PROVINCIA DE CÓRDOBA, ARGENTINA

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    María C. Costa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el estudio melisopalinológico de 49 muestras de miel provenientes del noroeste de la provincia de Córdoba. Prosopis spp., Larrea divaricata , Schinopsis spp., Condalia microphylla , Sarcomphalus mistol , Cercidium praecox , Geoffroea decorticans , Capparis atamisquea , Aloysia gratissima , Mimosa spp. y Schinus spp. fueron los tipos polínicos de mayor importancia y frecuencia de aparición, todos representantes de la flora nativa. Cuatro grupos de mieles se diferenciaron por análisis discriminante: Traslasierra, Perisalina, Chaco Árido y Chaco Serrano; algunas especies permitieron diferenciarlos entre sí: Schinus areira , Maytenus vitis-idaea , Cantinoa mutabilis y Schinopsis spp., respectivamente. Los tipos polínicos con mayor índice de importancia de especie y frecuencia se proponen como marcadores útiles para la Denominación de Origen.

  18. Distal C terminus of CaV1.2 channels plays a crucial role in the neural differentiation of dental pulp stem cells.

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    Jianping Ge

    Full Text Available L-type voltage-dependent CaV1.2 channels play an important role in the maintenance of intracellular calcium homeostasis, and influence multiple cellular processes. C-terminal cleavage of CaV1.2 channels was reported in several types of excitable cells, but its expression and possible roles in non-excitable cells is still not clear. The aim of this study was to determine whether distal C-terminal fragment of CaV1.2 channels is present in rat dental pulp stem cells and its possible role in the neural differentiation of rat dental pulp stem cells. We generated stable CaV1.2 knockdown cells via short hairpin RNA (shRNA. Rat dental pulp stem cells with deleted distal C-terminal of CaV1.2 channels lost the potential of differentiation to neural cells. Re-expression of distal C-terminal of CaV1.2 rescued the effect of knocking down the endogenous CaV1.2 on the neural differentiation of rat dental pulp stem cells, indicating that the distal C-terminal of CaV1.2 is required for neural differentiation of rat dental pulp stem cells. These results provide new insights into the role of voltage-gated Ca(2+ channels in stem cells during differentiation.

  19. Heterozygous CAV1 frameshift mutations (MIM 601047 in patients with atypical partial lipodystrophy and hypertriglyceridemia

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    Alston Lindsay

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mice with a deleted Cav1 gene encoding caveolin-1 develop adipocyte abnormalities and insulin resistance. From genomic DNA of patients with atypical lipodystrophy and hypertriglyceridemia who had no mutations in any known lipodystrophy gene, we used DNA sequence analysis to screen the coding regions of human CAV1 (MIM 601047. Results We found a heterozygous frameshift mutation in CAV1, designated I134fsdelA-X137, in a female patient who had atypical partial lipodystrophy, with subcutaneous fat loss affecting the upper part of her body and face, but sparing her legs, gluteal region and visceral fat stores. She had severe type 5 hyperlipoproteinemia, with recurrent pancreatitis. In addition, she had some atypical features, including congenital cataracts and neurological findings. Her father was also heterozygous for this mutation, and had a similar pattern of fat redistribution, hypertriglyceridemia and congenital cataracts, with milder neurological involvement. An unrelated patient had a different heterozygous frameshift mutation in the CAV1 gene, designated -88delC. He also had a partial lipodystrophy phenotype, with subcutaneous fat loss affecting the arms, legs and gluteal region, but sparing his face, neck and visceral fat stores. He also had severe type 5 hyperlipoproteinemia, with recurrent pancreatitis; however he had no clinically apparent neurological manifestations. The mutations were absent from the genomes of 1063 healthy individuals. Conclusion Thus, very rare CAV1 frameshift mutations appear to be associated with atypical lipodystrophy and hypertriglyceridemia.

  20. Thermomechanical repository and shaft response analyses using the CAVS [Cracking And Void Strain] jointed rock model: Draft final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dial, B.W.; Maxwell, D.E.

    1986-12-01

    Numerical studies of the far-field repository and near-field shaft response for a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt have been performed with the STEALTH computer code using the CAVS model for jointed rock. CAVS is a constitutive model that can simulate the slip and dilatancy of fracture planes in a jointed rock mass. The initiation and/or propagation of fractures can also be modeled when stress intensity criteria are met. The CAVS models are based on the joint models proposed with appropriate modifications for numerical simulations. The STEALTH/CAVS model has been previously used to model (1) explosive fracturing of a wellbore, (2) earthquake effects on tunnels in a generic nuclear waste repository, (3) horizontal emplacement for a nuclear waste repository in jointed granite, and (4) tunnel response in jointed rock. The use of CAVS to model far-field repository and near-field shaft response was different from previous approaches because it represented a spatially oriented approach to rock response and failure, rather than the traditional stress invariant formulation for yielding. In addition, CAVS tracked the response of the joint apertures to the time-dependent stress changes in the far-field repository and near-field shaft regions. 28 refs., 21 figs., 11 tabs

  1. A retrospective investigation of canine adenovirus (CAV infection in adult dogs in Turkey : article

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    S. Gur

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Canine adenovirus (CAV type 1 and 2, respectively, cause infectious canine hepatitis and infectious canine laryngotracheitis in members of the families Canidae and Ursidae worldwide. Both of these infections are acute diseases, especially in young dogs. The aim of this study was to conduct a serological investigation of canine adenovirus infection. For this purpose, serumsamples were collected from native pure-bred Kangal (n = 11, and Akbash dogs (n = 17 and Turkish Greyhounds (n=15 in Eskisehir and Konya provinces. None ofthe dogs were previously vaccinated against CAV types. Indirect ELISA detected 88.2 %, 93.3 % and 100 % prevalences in Akbash, Greyhound and Kangal dogs, respectively. The remainder of the samples (n = 51 were collected at the Afyonkarahisar Municipality Shelter. Fourty-two of these dogs (82.3 % were detected as seropositive. In total, 82 of 94 dogs (87.2 % were found to be positive for CAV serum antibodies.

  2. Protein Kinase Cα and P-Type Ca2+ Channel CaV2.1 in Red Blood Cell Calcium Signalling

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    Lisa Wagner-Britz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Protein kinase Cα (PKCα is activated by an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ in red blood cells (RBCs. Previous work has suggested that PKCα directly stimulates the CaV2.1 channel, whereas other studies revealed that CaV2.1 is insensitive to activation by PKC. The aim of this study was to resolve this discrepancy. Methods: We performed experiments based on a single cell read-out of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in terms of Fluo-4 fluorescence intensity and phosphatidylserine exposure to the external membrane leaflet. Measurement modalities included flow cytometry and live cell imaging. Results: Treatment of RBCs with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA led to two distinct populations of cells with an increase in intracellular Ca2+: a weak-responding and a strong-responding population. The EC50 of PMA for the number of cells with Ca2+ elevation was 2.7±1.2 µM; for phosphatidylserine exposure to the external membrane surface, it was 2.8±0.5 µM; and for RBC haemolysis, it was 2.9±0.5 µM. Using pharmacological manipulation with the CaV2.1 inhibitor ω-agatoxin TK and the broad protein kinase C inhibitor Gö6983, we are able to show that there are two independent PMA-activated Ca2+ entry processes: the first is independent of CaV2.1 and directly PKCα-activated, while the second is associated with a likely indirect activation of CaV2.1. Further studies using lysophosphatidic acid (LPA as a stimulation agent have provided additional evidence that PKCα and CaV2.1 are not directly interconnected in a signalling chain. Conclusion: Although we provide evidence for a lack of interaction between PKCα and CaV2.1 in RBCs, further studies are required to decipher the signalling relationship between LPA, PKCα and CaV2.1.

  3. Cav2.3 (R-Type Calcium Channels are Critical for Mediating Anticonvulsive and Neuroprotective Properties of Lamotrigine In Vivo

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    Maxine Dibué-Adjei

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Lamotrigine (LTG is a popular modern antiepileptic drug (AED, however, its mechanism of action has yet to be fully understood, as it is known to modulate many members of several ion channel families. In heterologous systems, LTG inhibits Cav2.3 (R-type calcium currents, which contribute to kainic-acid- (KA induced epilepsy in vivo. To gain insight into the role of R-type currents in LTG drug action in vivo, we compared the effects of LTG to topiramate and lacosamide in Cav2.3-deficient mice and controls on KA-induced seizures. Methods: Behavioral seizure rating and quantitative electrocorticography were performed after injection of 20 mg/kg [and 30 mg/kg] KA. One hour before KA injection, mice were pretreated with either 30 mg/kg LTG, 50 mg/kg topiramate (TPM or 30 mg/kg lacosamide (LSM. Results: Ablation of Cav2.3 reduced total seizure scores by 28.6% (p=0.0012 and pretreatment with LTG reduced seizure activity of control mice by 23.2% (p=0.02. In Cav2.3-deficient mice LTG pretreatment increased seizure activity by 22.1% (p=0.018 and increased the percentage of degenerated CA1 pyramidal neurons (p=0.02. All three tested AEDs reduced seizure activity in control mice, however only the non-calcium channel modulating AED, LSM had an anticonvulsive effect in Cav2.3-deficient mice. Furthermore LTG altered electrocorticographic parameters differently in the two genotypes, decreasing relative power of ictal spikes in control mice compared to Cav2.3-defcient mice. Conclusion: These findings give first in vivo evidence for an essential role for Cav2.3 in LTG pharmacology and shed light on a paradoxical effect of LTG in their absence. Furthermore, LTG appears to promote ictal activity in Cav2.3-deficient mice resulting in increased neurotoxicity in the CA1 region. This paradoxical mechanism, possibly reflecting rebound hyperexcitation of pyramidal CA1 neurons after increased inhibition, may be key in understanding LTG-induced seizure

  4. Divergent biophysical properties, gating mechanisms, and possible functions of the two skeletal muscle Ca(V)1.1 calcium channel splice variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuluc, Petronel; Flucher, Bernhard E

    2011-12-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels are multi-subunit protein complexes that specifically allow calcium ions to enter the cell in response to membrane depolarization. But, for many years it seemed that the skeletal muscle calcium channel Ca(V)1.1 is the exception. The classical splice variant Ca(V)1.1a activates slowly, has a very small current amplitude and poor voltage sensitivity. In fact adult muscle fibers work perfectly well even in the absence of calcium influx. Recently a new splice variant of the skeletal muscle calcium channel Ca(V)1.1e has been characterized. The lack of the 19 amino acid exon 29 in this splice variant results in a rapidly activating calcium channel with high current amplitude and good voltage sensitivity. Ca(V)1.1e is the dominant channel in embryonic muscle, where the expression of this high calcium-conducting Ca(V)1.1 isoform readily explains developmental processes depending on L-type calcium currents. Moreover, the availability of these two structurally similar but functionally distinct channel variants facilitates the analysis of the molecular mechanisms underlying the unique current properties of the classical Ca(V)1.1a channel.

  5. Reduction of Cav1.3 channels in dorsal hippocampus impairs the development of dentate gyrus newborn neurons and hippocampal-dependent memory tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Hyun Kim

    Full Text Available Cav1.3 has been suggested to mediate hippocampal neurogenesis of adult mice and contribute to hippocampal-dependent learning and memory processes. However, the mechanism of Cav1.3 contribution in these processes is unclear. Here, roles of Cav1.3 of mouse dorsal hippocampus during newborn cell development were examined. We find that knock-out (KO of Cav1.3 resulted in the reduction of survival of newborn neurons at 28 days old after mitosis. The retroviral eGFP expression showed that both dendritic complexity and the number and length of mossy fiber bouton (MFB filopodia of newborn neurons at ≥ 14 days old were significantly reduced in KO mice. Both contextual fear conditioning (CFC and object-location recognition tasks were impaired in recent (1 day memory test while passive avoidance task was impaired only in remote (≥ 20 days memory in KO mice. Results using adeno-associated virus (AAV-mediated Cav1.3 knock-down (KD or retrovirus-mediated KD in dorsal hippocampal DG area showed that the recent memory of CFC was impaired in both KD mice but the remote memory was impaired only in AAV KD mice, suggesting that Cav1.3 of mature neurons play important roles in both recent and remote CFC memory while Cav1.3 in newborn neurons is selectively involved in the recent CFC memory process. Meanwhile, AAV KD of Cav1.3 in ventral hippocampal area has no effect on the recent CFC memory. In conclusion, the results suggest that Cav1.3 in newborn neurons of dorsal hippocampus is involved in the survival of newborn neurons while mediating developments of dendritic and axonal processes of newborn cells and plays a role in the memory process differentially depending on the stage of maturation and the type of learning task.

  6. Reduction of Cav1.3 channels in dorsal hippocampus impairs the development of dentate gyrus newborn neurons and hippocampal-dependent memory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-Hyun; Park, Ye-Ryoung; Lee, Boyoung; Choi, Byungil; Kim, Hyun; Kim, Chong-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Cav1.3 has been suggested to mediate hippocampal neurogenesis of adult mice and contribute to hippocampal-dependent learning and memory processes. However, the mechanism of Cav1.3 contribution in these processes is unclear. Here, roles of Cav1.3 of mouse dorsal hippocampus during newborn cell development were examined. We find that knock-out (KO) of Cav1.3 resulted in the reduction of survival of newborn neurons at 28 days old after mitosis. The retroviral eGFP expression showed that both dendritic complexity and the number and length of mossy fiber bouton (MFB) filopodia of newborn neurons at ≥ 14 days old were significantly reduced in KO mice. Both contextual fear conditioning (CFC) and object-location recognition tasks were impaired in recent (1 day) memory test while passive avoidance task was impaired only in remote (≥ 20 days) memory in KO mice. Results using adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated Cav1.3 knock-down (KD) or retrovirus-mediated KD in dorsal hippocampal DG area showed that the recent memory of CFC was impaired in both KD mice but the remote memory was impaired only in AAV KD mice, suggesting that Cav1.3 of mature neurons play important roles in both recent and remote CFC memory while Cav1.3 in newborn neurons is selectively involved in the recent CFC memory process. Meanwhile, AAV KD of Cav1.3 in ventral hippocampal area has no effect on the recent CFC memory. In conclusion, the results suggest that Cav1.3 in newborn neurons of dorsal hippocampus is involved in the survival of newborn neurons while mediating developments of dendritic and axonal processes of newborn cells and plays a role in the memory process differentially depending on the stage of maturation and the type of learning task.

  7. Phenolic compounds as indicators of drought resistance in shrubs from Patagonian shrublands (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, M Celeste; Arslan, Idris; Reginato, Mariana A; Cenzano, Ana M; Luna, M Virginia

    2016-07-01

    Plants exposed to drought stress, as usually occurs in Patagonian shrublands, have developed different strategies to avoid or tolerate the lack of water during their development. Production of phenolic compounds (or polyphenols) is one of the strategies used by some native species of adverse environments to avoid the oxidative damage caused by drought. In the present study the relationship between phenolic compounds content, water availability and oxidative damage were evaluated in two native shrubs: Larrea divaricata (evergreen) and Lycium chilense (deciduous) of Patagonian shrublands by their means and/or by multivariate analysis. Samples of both species were collected during the 4 seasons for the term of 1 year. Soil water content, relative water content, total phenols, flavonoids, flavonols, tartaric acid esters, flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins, antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation were measured. According to statistical univariate analysis, L. divaricata showed high production of polyphenols along the year, with a phenolic compound synthesis enhanced during autumn (season of greatest drought), while L. chilense has lower production of these compounds without variation between seasons. The variation in total phenols along the seasons is proportional to the antioxidant capacity and inversely proportional to lipid peroxidation. Multivariate analysis showed that, regardless their mechanism to face drought (avoidance or tolerance), both shrubs are well adapted to semi-arid regions and the phenolic compounds production is a strategy used by these species living in extreme environments. The identification of polyphenol compounds showed that L. divaricata produces different types of flavonoids, particularly bond with sugars, while L. chilense produces high amount of non-flavonoids compounds. These results suggest that flavonoid production and accumulation could be a useful indicator of drought tolerance in native species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson

  8. Structural organization of Cobeae scandens Cav. nectaries

    OpenAIRE

    Mashkovska S.; Likhanov A.; Kliuvadenko A.

    2012-01-01

    It has ascertained, that Cobea scandens Cav., which introducted in the National botanic garden of M.M. Grishka NAN of Ukraine, has secretory tissues, which develop and function normally. In anatomical structure of C. scandens nectaries five structure- functional areas were founded. In the cells of secretory area a lot of RNA and proteins were detected. Intrastaminal nectaries have many common morpho-anatomical features with stamens. It is support of M. Dawson opinion (see Takhtajan 1966) abou...

  9. Significance of CaV3.2 T-type Ca2+ channels for pressure- and flow-dependent vasomotor responses in rat and mouse mesenteric small arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Jørn; Björling, K.; Hansen, Pernille B. Lærkegaard

    RNA was similar in WT vs. CaV3.2-/- mice. CONCLUSION: FMVD responses appear to rely on an endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization in rat small mesenteric arteries. CaV3.2 channels are negative feedback modulators of myogenic tone in small mesenteric artery in young mice. The age-dependent decline in CaV3...... in young CaV3.2-/- mice (8-15 weeks) vs. age-matched WT mice (Pyoung WT mice, the CaV3.2 blocker NiCl2 (30 µM) significantly enhanced myogenic tone (P... was not seen (N=4). In young and old CaV3.2-/- mice no effects of NiCl2 were observed. The FMVD response in rat mesenteric arteries was not blocked by L-NAME, but was almost abolished by the SKCa/IKCa channel blockers apamin/TRAM-34 (50 nM/1 µM) (P

  10. Transcriptional Response of Human Neurospheres to Helper-Dependent CAV-2 Vectors Involves the Modulation of DNA Damage Response, Microtubule and Centromere Gene Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Piersanti

    Full Text Available Brain gene transfer using viral vectors will likely become a therapeutic option for several disorders. Helper-dependent (HD canine adenovirus type 2 vectors (CAV-2 are well suited for this goal. These vectors are poorly immunogenic, efficiently transduce neurons, are retrogradely transported to afferent structures in the brain and lead to long-term transgene expression. CAV-2 vectors are being exploited to unravel behavior, cognition, neural networks, axonal transport and therapy for orphan diseases. With the goal of better understanding and characterizing HD-CAV-2 for brain therapy, we analyzed the transcriptomic modulation induced by HD-CAV-2 in human differentiated neurospheres derived from midbrain progenitors. This 3D model system mimics several aspects of the dynamic nature of human brain. We found that differentiated neurospheres are readily transduced by HD-CAV-2 and that transduction generates two main transcriptional responses: a DNA damage response and alteration of centromeric and microtubule probes. Future investigations on the biochemistry of processes highlighted by probe modulations will help defining the implication of HD-CAV-2 and CAR receptor binding in enchaining these functional pathways. We suggest here that the modulation of DNA damage genes is related to viral DNA, while the alteration of centromeric and microtubule probes is possibly enchained by the interaction of the HD-CAV-2 fibre with CAR.

  11. Cav1.2 channels mediate persistent chronic stress-induced behavioral deficits that are associated with prefrontal cortex activation of the p25/Cdk5-glucocorticoid receptor pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte C. Bavley

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic stress is known to precipitate and exacerbate neuropsychiatric symptoms, and exposure to stress is particularly pathological in individuals with certain genetic predispositions. Recent genome wide association studies have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the gene CACNA1C, which codes for the Cav1.2 subunit of the L-type calcium channel (LTCC, as a common risk variant for multiple neuropsychiatric conditions. Cav1.2 channels mediate experience-dependent changes in gene expression and long-term synaptic plasticity through activation of downstream calcium signaling pathways. Previous studies have found an association between stress and altered Cav1.2 expression in the brain, however the contribution of Cav1.2 channels to chronic stress-induced behaviors, and the precise Cav1.2 signaling mechanisms activated are currently unknown. Here we report that chronic stress leads to a delayed increase in Cav1.2 expression selectively within the prefrontal cortex (PFC, but not in other stress-sensitive brain regions such as the hippocampus or amygdala. Further, we demonstrate that while Cav1.2 heterozygous (Cav1.2+/− mice show chronic stress-induced depressive-like behavior, anxiety-like behavior, and deficits in working memory 1–2 days following stress, they are resilient to the effects of chronic stress when tested 5–7 days later. Lastly, molecular studies find a delayed upregulation of the p25/Cdk5-glucocorticoid receptor (GR pathway in the PFC when examined 8 days post-stress that is absent in Cav1.2+/− mice. Our findings reveal a novel Cav1.2-mediated molecular mechanism associated with the persistent behavioral effects of chronic stress and provide new insight into potential Cav1.2 channel mechanisms that may contribute to CACNA1C-linked neuropsychiatric phenotypes.

  12. Structural organization of Cobeae scandens Cav. nectaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Likhanov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available It has ascertained, that Cobea scandens Cav., which introducted in the National botanic garden of M.M. Grishka NAN of Ukraine, has secretory tissues, which develop and function normally. In anatomical structure of C. scandens nectaries five structure- functional areas were founded. In the cells of secretory area a lot of RNA and proteins were detected. Intrastaminal nectaries have many common morpho-anatomical features with stamens. It is support of M. Dawson opinion (see Takhtajan 1966 about staminal origin of C. scandens nectaries.

  13. Structural basis for the differential effects of CaBP1 and calmodulin on CaV1.2 calcium-dependent inactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeisen, Felix; Minor, Daniel L.

    2010-01-01

    Calcium-binding protein 1 (CaBP1), a calmodulin (CaM) homolog, endows certain voltage-gated calcium channels (CaVs) with unusual properties. CaBP1 inhibits CaV1.2 calcium-dependent inactivation (CDI) and introduces calcium-dependent facilitation (CDF). Here, we show that the ability of CaBP1 to inhibit CaV1.2 CDI and induce CDF arises from interaction between the CaBP1 N-lobe and interlobe linker residue Glu94. Unlike CaM, where functional EF hands are essential for channel modulation, CDI inhibition does not require functional CaBP1 EF-hands. Furthermore, CaBP1-mediated CDF has different molecular requirements than CaM-mediated CDF. Overall, the data show that CaBP1 comprises two structural modules having separate functions: similar to CaM, the CaBP1 C-lobe serves as a high-affinity anchor that binds the CaV1.2 IQ domain at a site that overlaps with the Ca2+/CaM C-lobe site, whereas the N-lobe/linker module houses the elements required for channel modulation. Discovery of this division provides the framework for understanding how CaBP1 regulates CaVs. PMID:21134641

  14. Structural basis for the differential effects of CaBP1 and calmodulin on Ca(V)1.2 calcium-dependent inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeisen, Felix; Minor, Daniel L

    2010-12-08

    Calcium-binding protein 1 (CaBP1), a calmodulin (CaM) homolog, endows certain voltage-gated calcium channels (Ca(V)s) with unusual properties. CaBP1 inhibits Ca(V)1.2 calcium-dependent inactivation (CDI) and introduces calcium-dependent facilitation (CDF). Here, we show that the ability of CaBP1 to inhibit Ca(V)1.2 CDI and induce CDF arises from interaction between the CaBP1 N-lobe and interlobe linker residue Glu94. Unlike CaM, where functional EF hands are essential for channel modulation, CDI inhibition does not require functional CaBP1 EF hands. Furthermore, CaBP1-mediated CDF has different molecular requirements than CaM-mediated CDF. Overall, the data show that CaBP1 comprises two structural modules having separate functions: similar to CaM, the CaBP1 C-lobe serves as a high-affinity anchor that binds the Ca(V)1.2 IQ domain at a site that overlaps with the Ca²+/CaM C-lobe site, whereas the N-lobe/linker module houses the elements required for channel modulation. Discovery of this division provides the framework for understanding how CaBP1 regulates Ca(V)s. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Subthreshold pharmacological and genetic approaches to analyzing CaV2.1-mediated NMDA receptor signaling in short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Eiki; Niimi, Kimie; Itakura, Chitoshi

    2010-10-25

    Ca(V)2.1 is highly expressed in the nervous system and plays an essential role in the presynaptic modulation of neurotransmitter release machinery. Recently, the antiepileptic drug levetiracetam was reported to inhibit presynaptic Ca(V)2.1 functions, reducing glutamate release in the hippocampus, although the precise physiological role of Ca(V)2.1-regulated synaptic functions in cognitive performance at the system level remains unknown. This study examined whether Ca(V)2.1 mediates hippocampus-dependent spatial short-term memory using the object location and Y-maze tests, and perirhinal cortex-dependent nonspatial short-term memory using the object recognition test, via a combined pharmacological and genetic approach. Heterozygous rolling Nagoya (rol/+) mice carrying the Ca(V)2.1alpha(1) mutation had normal spatial and nonspatial short-term memory. A 100mg/kg dose of levetiracetam, which is ineffective in wild-type controls, blocked spatial short-term memory in rol/+ mice. At 5mg/kg, the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blocker (+/-)-3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP), which is ineffective in wild-type controls, also blocked the spatial short-term memory in rol/+ mice. Furthermore, a combination of subthreshold doses of levetiracetam (25 mg/kg) and CPP (2.5mg/kg) triggered a spatial short-term memory deficit in rol/+ mice, but not in wild-type controls. Similar patterns of nonspatial short-term memory were observed in wild-type and rol/+ mice when injected with levetiracetam (0-300 mg/kg). These results indicate that Ca(V)2.1-mediated NMDA receptor signaling is critical in hippocampus-dependent spatial short-term memory and differs in various regions. The combination subthreshold pharmacological and genetic approach presented here is easily performed and can be used to study functional signaling pathways in neuronal circuits. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. IP3 Receptor-Dependent Cytoplasmic Ca2+ Signals Are Tightly Controlled by Cavβ3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouar Belkacemi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated calcium channels (Cavs are major Ca2+ entry pathways in excitable cells. Their β subunits facilitate membrane trafficking of the channel’s ion-conducting α1 pore and modulate its gating properties. We report that one β subunit, β3, reduces Ca2+ release following stimulation of phospholipase C-coupled receptors and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3 formation. This effect requires the SH3-HOOK domain of Cavβ3, includes physical β3/IP3 receptor interaction, and prevails when agonist-induced IP3 formation is bypassed by photolysis of caged IP3. In agreement with β3 acting as a brake on Ca2+ release, fibroblast migration is enhanced in vitro, and in vivo, closure of skin wounds is accelerated in the absence of β3. To mediate specific physiological responses and to prevent Ca2+ toxicity, cytoplasmic Ca2+ signals must be tightly controlled. The described function of β3, unrelated to its function as a Cav subunit, adds to this tight control.

  17. Variação anatômica radial do lenho de açoita-cavalo (Luehea divaricata e sua influência na densidade aparente. Radial variation of wood anatomy in açoita-cavalo (Luehea divaricata and its influence on the specific gravity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Luiz LONGUI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Variações entre as dimensões e frequênciasdas células da madeira existem entre espéciesdiferentes, entre indivíduos da mesma espécie ouainda dentro da mesma árvore nas direções radial eaxial. Essa variação influencia diretamente nadensidade aparente e consequentemente no uso dasdiferentes madeiras. O presente estudo determinoua variação anatômica radial e sua influência nadensidade aparente no lenho de árvores de Luehea divaricata, a partir de amostras coletadas no DAP,por meio de método destrutivo. Para a avaliaçãoanatômica e da densidade aparente foram empregadastécnicas usuais em anatomia e propriedades físicasda madeira e os dados tratados estatisticamente.Os resultados revelaram que o diâmetro dos vasos,espessura da parede das fibras e a densidadeaparente foram significativamente menores na regiãoda medula, já o lume das fibras foi significativamentemaior nesta região, que também apresentou raiosmais volumosos. Sugere-se que fibras com paredesmais finas e raios com maior volume na região damedula contribuíram de forma determinante paraos menores valores de densidade aparente.Variations between the size and frequencyof the wood cells occur among differentspecies, trees of the same species or even withinthe same tree in the radial and axial directions.These variations affect directly the specific gravityand consequently the use of different woods.This study determined the radial anatomicalvariation and its influence on specific gravity ofthe wood of Luehea divaricata trees, from samplescollected on DBH by using destructive method.For the evaluation of anatomical characteristicsand specific gravity were employed standardtechniques in anatomy and physical propertiesof wood and the data analyzed statistically.The results revealed significantly lower vesseldiameter, fiber wall thickness and specific gravityin pith, fiber lumen was significantly higher inthis region, which also showed very large rays.It is suggested

  18. Multiple C-terminal tail Ca(2+)/CaMs regulate Ca(V)1.2 function but do not mediate channel dimerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Young; Rumpf, Christine H; Van Petegem, Filip; Arant, Ryan J; Findeisen, Felix; Cooley, Elizabeth S; Isacoff, Ehud Y; Minor, Daniel L

    2010-12-01

    Interactions between voltage-gated calcium channels (Ca(V)s) and calmodulin (CaM) modulate Ca(V) function. In this study, we report the structure of a Ca(2+)/CaM Ca(V)1.2 C-terminal tail complex that contains two PreIQ helices bridged by two Ca(2+)/CaMs and two Ca(2+)/CaM-IQ domain complexes. Sedimentation equilibrium experiments establish that the complex has a 2:1 Ca(2+)/CaM:C-terminal tail stoichiometry and does not form higher order assemblies. Moreover, subunit-counting experiments demonstrate that in live cell membranes Ca(V)1.2s are monomers. Thus, contrary to previous proposals, the crystallographic dimer lacks physiological relevance. Isothermal titration calorimetry and biochemical experiments show that the two Ca(2+)/CaMs in the complex have different properties. Ca(2+)/CaM bound to the PreIQ C-region is labile, whereas Ca(2+)/CaM bound to the IQ domain is not. Furthermore, neither of lobes of apo-CaM interacts strongly with the PreIQ domain. Electrophysiological studies indicate that the PreIQ C-region has a role in calcium-dependent facilitation. Together, the data show that two Ca(2+)/CaMs can bind the Ca(V)1.2 tail simultaneously and indicate a functional role for Ca(2+)/CaM at the C-region site.

  19. The first disease connection for Ca(v)2.2 channels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weiss, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 3 (2015), s. 217-219 ISSN 0231-5882 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-13556S; GA MŠk 7AMB15FR015 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : calcium channel * Ca(v)2.2 channel * channelopathies * myoclonus-dystonia syndrome Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 0.892, year: 2015

  20. Distinct transcriptomic changes in E14.5 mouse skeletal muscle lacking RYR1 or Cav1.1 converge at E18.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Margit; Rotshteyn, Tamara; Brunn, Anna; Carstov, Mariana; Deckert, Martina; Hescheler, Jürgen; Sachinidis, Agapios; Pfitzer, Gabriele

    2018-01-01

    In skeletal muscle the coordinated actions of two mechanically coupled Ca2+ channels—the 1,4-dihydropyridine receptor (Cav1.1) and the type 1 ryanodine receptor (RYR1)–underlie the molecular mechanism of rapid cytosolic [Ca2+] increase leading to contraction. While both [Ca2+]i and contractile activity have been implicated in the regulation of myogenesis, less is known about potential specific roles of Cav1.1 and RYR1 in skeletal muscle development. In this study, we analyzed the histology and the transcriptomic changes occurring at E14.5 –the end of primary myogenesis and around the onset of intrauterine limb movement, and at E18.5 –the end of secondary myogenesis, in WT, RYR1-/-, and Cav1.1-/- murine limb skeletal muscle. At E14.5 the muscle histology of both mutants exhibited initial alterations, which became much more severe at E18.5. Immunohistological analysis also revealed higher levels of activated caspase-3 in the Cav1.1-/- muscles at E14.5, indicating an increase in apoptosis. With WT littermates as controls, microarray analyses identified 61 and 97 differentially regulated genes (DEGs) at E14.5, and 493 and 1047 DEGs at E18.5, in RYR1-/- and Cav1.1-/- samples, respectively. Gene enrichment analysis detected no overlap in the affected biological processes and pathways in the two mutants at E14.5, whereas at E18.5 there was a significant overlap of DEGs in both mutants, affecting predominantly processes linked to muscle contraction. Moreover, the E18.5 vs. E14.5 comparison revealed multiple genotype-specific DEGs involved in contraction, cell cycle and miRNA-mediated signaling in WT, neuronal and bone development in RYR1-/-, and lipid metabolism in Cav1.1-/- samples. Taken together, our study reveals discrete changes in the global transcriptome occurring in limb skeletal muscle from E14.5 to E18.5 in WT, RYR1-/- and Cav1.1-/- mice. Our results suggest distinct functional roles for RYR1 and Cav1.1 in skeletal primary and secondary myogenesis. PMID

  1. Two distinct voltage-sensing domains control voltage sensitivity and kinetics of current activation in CaV1.1 calcium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuluc, Petronel; Benedetti, Bruno; Coste de Bagneaux, Pierre; Grabner, Manfred; Flucher, Bernhard E

    2016-06-01

    Alternative splicing of the skeletal muscle CaV1.1 voltage-gated calcium channel gives rise to two channel variants with very different gating properties. The currents of both channels activate slowly; however, insertion of exon 29 in the adult splice variant CaV1.1a causes an ∼30-mV right shift in the voltage dependence of activation. Existing evidence suggests that the S3-S4 linker in repeat IV (containing exon 29) regulates voltage sensitivity in this voltage-sensing domain (VSD) by modulating interactions between the adjacent transmembrane segments IVS3 and IVS4. However, activation kinetics are thought to be determined by corresponding structures in repeat I. Here, we use patch-clamp analysis of dysgenic (CaV1.1 null) myotubes reconstituted with CaV1.1 mutants and chimeras to identify the specific roles of these regions in regulating channel gating properties. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we demonstrate that the structure and/or hydrophobicity of the IVS3-S4 linker is critical for regulating voltage sensitivity in the IV VSD, but by itself cannot modulate voltage sensitivity in the I VSD. Swapping sequence domains between the I and the IV VSDs reveals that IVS4 plus the IVS3-S4 linker is sufficient to confer CaV1.1a-like voltage dependence to the I VSD and that the IS3-S4 linker plus IS4 is sufficient to transfer CaV1.1e-like voltage dependence to the IV VSD. Any mismatch of transmembrane helices S3 and S4 from the I and IV VSDs causes a right shift of voltage sensitivity, indicating that regulation of voltage sensitivity by the IVS3-S4 linker requires specific interaction of IVS4 with its corresponding IVS3 segment. In contrast, slow current kinetics are perturbed by any heterologous sequences inserted into the I VSD and cannot be transferred by moving VSD I sequences to VSD IV. Thus, CaV1.1 calcium channels are organized in a modular manner, and control of voltage sensitivity and activation kinetics is accomplished by specific molecular mechanisms

  2. CaV 3.1 and CaV 3.3 account for T-type Ca2+ current in GH3 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Mudado

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available T-type Ca2+ channels are important for cell signaling by a variety of cells. We report here the electrophysiological and molecular characteristics of the whole-cell Ca2+ current in GH3 clonal pituitary cells. The current inactivation at 0 mV was described by a single exponential function with a time constant of 18.32 ± 1.87 ms (N = 16. The I-V relationship measured with Ca2+ as a charge carrier was shifted to the left when we applied a conditioning pre-pulse of up to -120 mV, indicating that a low voltage-activated current may be present in GH3 cells. Transient currents were first activated at -50 mV and peaked around -20 mV. The half-maximal voltage activation and the slope factors for the two conditions are -35.02 ± 2.4 and 6.7 ± 0.3 mV (pre-pulse of -120 mV, N = 15, and -27.0 ± 0.97 and 7.5 ± 0.7 mV (pre-pulse of -40 mV, N = 9. The 8-mV shift in the activation mid-point was statistically significant (P < 0.05. The tail currents decayed bi-exponentially suggesting two different T-type Ca2+ channel populations. RT-PCR revealed the presence of a1G (CaV3.1 and a1I (CaV3.3 T-type Ca2+ channel mRNA transcripts.

  3. Chemical composition and evaluation of antinociceptive activity of the essential oil of Stevia serrata Cav. from Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis Simas, Daniel Luiz; Mérida-Reyes, Max Samuel; Muñoz-Wug, Manuel Alejandro; Cordeiro, Millena Santos; Giorno, Thais Biondino Sardella; Taracena, Edwin Adolfo; Oliva-Hernández, Bessie Evelyn; Martínez-Arévalo, José Vicente; Fernandes, Patricia Dias; Pérez-Sabino, Juan Francisco; Jorge Ribeiro da Silva, Antonio

    2017-11-13

    The composition and the antinociceptive activity of the essential oil of Stevia serrata Cav. from a population located in the west highlands of Guatemala were evaluated. A yield of 0.2% (w/w) of essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation of the dried aerial parts of the plant. The essential oil analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS showed a high content of sesquiterpenoids, with chamazulene (60.1%) as the major component and 91.5% of the essential oil composition was identified. To evaluate antinociceptive activity in mice, the essential oil of S. serrata Cav. was administered as gavage, using three different doses. In the formalin test, the animals were pre-treated with oral doses of the essential oil before the administration of formalin. Oral administration of S. serrata Cav. essential oil produced a marked antinociceptive activity. Therefore, the plant could be domesticated as a source of essential oil rich in chamazulene for developing medicinal products.

  4. Contribution of S4 segments and S4-S5 linkers to the low-voltage activation properties of T-type CaV3.3 channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Laura Sanchez-Sandoval

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated calcium channels contain four highly conserved transmembrane helices known as S4 segments that exhibit a positively charged residue every third position, and play the role of voltage sensing. Nonetheless, the activation range between high-voltage (HVA and low-voltage (LVA activated calcium channels is around 30-40 mV apart, despite the high level of amino acid similarity within their S4 segments. To investigate the contribution of S4 voltage sensors for the low-voltage activation characteristics of CaV3.3 channels we constructed chimeras by swapping S4 segments between this LVA channel and the HVA CaV1.2 channel. The substitution of S4 segment of Domain II in CaV3.3 by that of CaV1.2 (chimera IIS4C induced a ~35 mV shift in the voltage-dependence of activation towards positive potentials, showing an I-V curve that almost overlaps with that of CaV1.2 channel. This HVA behavior induced by IIS4C chimera was accompanied by a 2-fold decrease in the voltage-dependence of channel gating. The IVS4 segment had also a strong effect in the voltage sensing of activation, while substitution of segments IS4 and IIIS4 moved the activation curve of CaV3.3 to more negative potentials. Swapping of IIS4 voltage sensor influenced additional properties of this channel such as steady-state inactivation, current decay, and deactivation. Notably, Domain I voltage sensor played a major role in preventing CaV3.3 channels to inactivate from closed states at extreme hyperpolarized potentials. Finally, site-directed mutagenesis in the CaV3.3 channel revealed a partial contribution of the S4-S5 linker of Domain II to LVA behavior, with synergic effects observed in double and triple mutations. These findings indicate that IIS4 and, to a lesser degree IVS4, voltage sensors are crucial in determining the LVA properties of CaV3.3 channels, although the accomplishment of this function involves the participation of other structural elements like S4-S5 linkers.

  5. Contribution of S4 segments and S4-S5 linkers to the low-voltage activation properties of T-type CaV3.3 channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Sandoval, Ana Laura; Herrera Carrillo, Zazil; Díaz Velásquez, Clara Estela; Delgadillo, Dulce María; Rivera, Heriberto Manuel

    2018-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels contain four highly conserved transmembrane helices known as S4 segments that exhibit a positively charged residue every third position, and play the role of voltage sensing. Nonetheless, the activation range between high-voltage (HVA) and low-voltage (LVA) activated calcium channels is around 30–40 mV apart, despite the high level of amino acid similarity within their S4 segments. To investigate the contribution of S4 voltage sensors for the low-voltage activation characteristics of CaV3.3 channels we constructed chimeras by swapping S4 segments between this LVA channel and the HVA CaV1.2 channel. The substitution of S4 segment of Domain II in CaV3.3 by that of CaV1.2 (chimera IIS4C) induced a ~35 mV shift in the voltage-dependence of activation towards positive potentials, showing an I-V curve that almost overlaps with that of CaV1.2 channel. This HVA behavior induced by IIS4C chimera was accompanied by a 2-fold decrease in the voltage-dependence of channel gating. The IVS4 segment had also a strong effect in the voltage sensing of activation, while substitution of segments IS4 and IIIS4 moved the activation curve of CaV3.3 to more negative potentials. Swapping of IIS4 voltage sensor influenced additional properties of this channel such as steady-state inactivation, current decay, and deactivation. Notably, Domain I voltage sensor played a major role in preventing CaV3.3 channels to inactivate from closed states at extreme hyperpolarized potentials. Finally, site-directed mutagenesis in the CaV3.3 channel revealed a partial contribution of the S4-S5 linker of Domain II to LVA behavior, with synergic effects observed in double and triple mutations. These findings indicate that IIS4 and, to a lesser degree IVS4, voltage sensors are crucial in determining the LVA properties of CaV3.3 channels, although the accomplishment of this function involves the participation of other structural elements like S4-S5 linkers. PMID:29474447

  6. Contribution of S4 segments and S4-S5 linkers to the low-voltage activation properties of T-type CaV3.3 channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Sandoval, Ana Laura; Herrera Carrillo, Zazil; Díaz Velásquez, Clara Estela; Delgadillo, Dulce María; Rivera, Heriberto Manuel; Gomora, Juan Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels contain four highly conserved transmembrane helices known as S4 segments that exhibit a positively charged residue every third position, and play the role of voltage sensing. Nonetheless, the activation range between high-voltage (HVA) and low-voltage (LVA) activated calcium channels is around 30-40 mV apart, despite the high level of amino acid similarity within their S4 segments. To investigate the contribution of S4 voltage sensors for the low-voltage activation characteristics of CaV3.3 channels we constructed chimeras by swapping S4 segments between this LVA channel and the HVA CaV1.2 channel. The substitution of S4 segment of Domain II in CaV3.3 by that of CaV1.2 (chimera IIS4C) induced a ~35 mV shift in the voltage-dependence of activation towards positive potentials, showing an I-V curve that almost overlaps with that of CaV1.2 channel. This HVA behavior induced by IIS4C chimera was accompanied by a 2-fold decrease in the voltage-dependence of channel gating. The IVS4 segment had also a strong effect in the voltage sensing of activation, while substitution of segments IS4 and IIIS4 moved the activation curve of CaV3.3 to more negative potentials. Swapping of IIS4 voltage sensor influenced additional properties of this channel such as steady-state inactivation, current decay, and deactivation. Notably, Domain I voltage sensor played a major role in preventing CaV3.3 channels to inactivate from closed states at extreme hyperpolarized potentials. Finally, site-directed mutagenesis in the CaV3.3 channel revealed a partial contribution of the S4-S5 linker of Domain II to LVA behavior, with synergic effects observed in double and triple mutations. These findings indicate that IIS4 and, to a lesser degree IVS4, voltage sensors are crucial in determining the LVA properties of CaV3.3 channels, although the accomplishment of this function involves the participation of other structural elements like S4-S5 linkers.

  7. A CACNA1C variant associated with reduced voltage-dependent inactivation, increased CaV1.2 channel window current, and arrhythmogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A Hennessey

    Full Text Available Mutations in CACNA1C that increase current through the CaV1.2 L-type Ca2+ channel underlie rare forms of long QT syndrome (LQTS, and Timothy syndrome (TS. We identified a variant in CACNA1C in a male child of Filipino descent with arrhythmias and extracardiac features by candidate gene sequencing and performed functional expression studies to electrophysiologically characterize the effects of the variant on CaV1.2 channels. As a baby, the subject developed seizures and displayed developmental delays at 30 months of age. At age 5 years, he displayed a QTc of 520 ms and experienced recurrent VT. Physical exam at 17 years of age was notable for microcephaly, short stature, lower extremity weakness and atrophy with hyperreflexia, spastic diplegia, multiple dental caries and episodes of rhabdomyolysis. Candidate gene sequencing identified a G>C transversion at position 5731 of CACNA1C (rs374528680 predicting a glycine>arginine substitution at residue 1911 (p.G1911R of CaV1.2. The allele frequency of this variant is 0.01 in Malays, but absent in 984 Caucasian alleles and in the 1000 genomes project. In electrophysiological analyses, the variant decreased voltage-dependent inactivation, thus causing a gain of function of CaV1.2. We also observed a negative shift of V1/2 of activation and positive shift of V1/2 of channel inactivation, resulting in an increase of the window current. Together, these suggest a gain-of-function effect on CaV1.2 and suggest increased susceptibility for arrhythmias in certain clinical settings. The p.G1911R variant was also identified in a case of sudden unexplained infant death (SUID, for which an increasing number of clinical observations have demonstrated can be associated with arrhythmogenic mutations in cardiac ion channels. In summary, the combined effects of the CACNA1C variant to diminish voltage-dependent inactivation of CaV1.2 and increase window current expand our appreciation of mechanisms by which a gain of

  8. CAV3 mutations causing exercise intolerance, myalgia and rhabdomyolysis: Expanding the phenotypic spectrum of caveolinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalco, Renata Siciliani; Gardiner, Alice R; Pitceathly, Robert D S; Hilton-Jones, David; Schapira, Anthony H; Turner, Chris; Parton, Matt; Desikan, Mahalekshmi; Barresi, Rita; Marsh, Julie; Manzur, Adnan Y; Childs, Anne-Marie; Feng, Lucy; Murphy, Elaine; Lamont, Phillipa J; Ravenscroft, Gianina; Wallefeld, William; Davis, Mark R; Laing, Nigel G; Holton, Janice L; Fialho, Doreen; Bushby, Kate; Hanna, Michael G; Phadke, Rahul; Jungbluth, Heinz; Houlden, Henry; Quinlivan, Ros

    2016-08-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is often due to a combination of environmental trigger(s) and genetic predisposition; however, the underlying genetic cause remains elusive in many cases. Mutations in CAV3 lead to various neuromuscular phenotypes with partial overlap, including limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 1C (LGMD1C), rippling muscle disease, distal myopathy and isolated hyperCKemia. Here we present a series of eight patients from seven families presenting with exercise intolerance and rhabdomyolysis caused by mutations in CAV3 diagnosed by next generation sequencing (NGS) (n = 6). Symptoms included myalgia (n = 7), exercise intolerance (n = 7) and episodes of rhabdomyolysis (n = 2). Percussion-induced rapid muscle contractions (PIRCs) were seen in five out of six patients examined. A previously reported heterozygous mutation in CAV3 (p.T78M) and three novel variants (p.V14I, p.F41S, p.F54V) were identified. Caveolin-3 immunolabeling in muscle was normal in 3/4 patients; however, immunoblotting showed more than 50% reduction of caveolin-3 in five patients compared with controls. This case series demonstrates that exercise intolerance, myalgia and rhabdomyolysis may be caused by CAV3 mutations and broadens the phenotypic spectrum of caveolinopathies. In our series, immunoblotting was a more sensitive method to detect reduced caveolin-3 levels than immunohistochemistry in skeletal muscle. Patients presenting with muscle pain, exercise intolerance and rhabdomyolysis should be routinely tested for PIRCs as this may be an important clinical clue for caveolinopathies, even in the absence of other "typical" features. The use of NGS may expand current knowledge concerning inherited diseases, and unexpected/atypical phenotypes may be attributed to well-known human disease genes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. IN VITRO BIOACTIVITY OF CREOSOTE BUSH EXTRACTS (LARREA TRIDENTATA ON THE INHIBITION OF POSTHARVEST FUNGI: PENICILLIUM POLONICUM, ASPERGILLUS NIGER, RHIZOPUS ORYZAE Y ALTERNARIA TENUISSIMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Peñuelas-Rubio

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se evaluó la eficiencia de extractos vegetales deLarrea tridentataobtenidos con diclorometano, etanol, metanol y agua, sobre el crecimiento radial in vitro de cuatro hongos fitopatógenos, los cuales primeramente fueron identificados en género y especie empleando claves taxonómicas y técnicas moleculares. Para los bioensayosin vitrose aplicaron diseños completamente al azar con cuatro tratamientos y tres repeticiones en cada hongo, utilizando las concentraciones: 0, 250, 500 y 750 ppm paraAlternaria sp.; 0, 2000, 2500 y 3000 paraAspergillus sp.; 0, 1500, 1750 y 2000 paraPenicillium sp. y 0, 150, 200 y 250 ppm paraRhizopus sp. Cada tratamiento tuvo tres repeticiones. El análisis molecular determinó la especie tenuissima paraAlternaria,nigerparaApergillus,polonicumparaPenicilliumyoryzaeparaRhizopus. En cuanto a las pruebasin vitro, se determinaron inhibiciones del 100% para tres de los hongos en estudio:Alternaria tenuissimacon extracto EtOH a 750 ppm;Aspergillus nigercon extracto DCM a 3000 ppm yRhizopus oryzaea partir de 150 ppm y 250 ppm de los extractos DCM y EtOH respectivamente. Se presentó una inhibición del 82% a 2000 ppm paraPenicillium polonicum. Se concluye que a pesar de las diferencias en susceptibilidad entre las especies fúngicas, los extractos deLarrea tridentataobtenidos con etanol y dicloromentano son efectivos para el control de los hongos fitopatógenos bajo estudioin vitro.

  10. Heparin/heparan sulfates bind to and modulate neuronal L-type (Cav1.2) voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garau, Gianpiero; Magotti, Paola; Heine, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies revealed that L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (Cav1.2 L-VDCCs) are modulated by the neural extracellular matrix backbone, polyanionic glycan hyaluronic acid. Here we used isothermal titration calorimetry and screened a set of peptides derived from the extracellular......M), integrating their enthalpic and entropic binding contributions. Interaction between heparin and recombinant as well as native full-length neuronal Cav1.2α1 channels was confirmed using the heparin–agarose pull down assay. Whole cell patch clamp recordings in HEK293 cells transfected with neuronal Cav1.......2 channels revealed that enzymatic digestion of highly sulfated heparan sulfates with heparinase 1 affects neither voltage-dependence of channel activation nor the level of steady state inactivation, but did speed up channel inactivation. Treatment of hippocampal cultures with heparinase 1 reduced the firing...

  11. NMR evidence of a gapless chiral phase in the S=1 zigzag antiferromagnet CaV2O4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Hikomitsu; Chiba, Meiro; Fujii, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki; Hori, Hidenobu

    2002-01-01

    We have performed magnetic susceptibility and 51 V NMR experiments with CaV 2 O 4 , a model substance for a frustrated S=1 spin chain with competing nearest neighbor (NN) and next-nearest neighbor (NNN) antiferromagnetic interactions. We report on the analysis of the magnetic susceptibility and the 51 V NMR experiments suggesting a gapless nature of CaV 2 O 4 . The absence of a spin gap is in clear contrast to the case of a non-frustrated spin chains which usually have a Haldane gap. (author)

  12. Cav1.3 channels control D2-autoreceptor responses via NCS-1 in substantia nigra dopamine neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragicevic, Elena; Poetschke, Christina; Duda, Johanna; Schlaudraff, Falk; Lammel, Stephan; Schiemann, Julia; Fauler, Michael; Hetzel, Andrea; Watanabe, Masahiko; Lujan, Rafael; Malenka, Robert C.; Striessnig, Joerg

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine midbrain neurons within the substantia nigra are particularly prone to degeneration in Parkinson’s disease. Their selective loss causes the major motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease, but the causes for the high vulnerability of SN DA neurons, compared to neighbouring, more resistant ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons, are still unclear. Consequently, there is still no cure available for Parkinson’s disease. Current therapies compensate the progressive loss of dopamine by administering its precursor l-DOPA and/or dopamine D2-receptor agonists. D2-autoreceptors and Cav1.3-containing L-type Ca2+ channels both contribute to Parkinson’s disease pathology. L-type Ca2+ channel blockers protect SN DA neurons from degeneration in Parkinson’s disease and its mouse models, and they are in clinical trials for neuroprotective Parkinson’s disease therapy. However, their physiological functions in SN DA neurons remain unclear. D2-autoreceptors tune firing rates and dopamine release of SN DA neurons in a negative feedback loop through activation of G-protein coupled potassium channels (GIRK2, or KCNJ6). Mature SN DA neurons display prominent, non-desensitizing somatodendritic D2-autoreceptor responses that show pronounced desensitization in PARK-gene Parkinson’s disease mouse models. We analysed surviving human SN DA neurons from patients with Parkinson’s disease and from controls, and detected elevated messenger RNA levels of D2-autoreceptors and GIRK2 in Parkinson’s disease. By electrophysiological analysis of postnatal juvenile and adult mouse SN DA neurons in in vitro brain-slices, we observed that D2-autoreceptor desensitization is reduced with postnatal maturation. Furthermore, a transient high-dopamine state in vivo, caused by one injection of either l-DOPA or cocaine, induced adult-like, non-desensitizing D2-autoreceptor responses, selectively in juvenile SN DA neurons, but not ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons. With pharmacological

  13. Bi-phasic regulation of glycogen content in astrocytes via Cav-1/PTEN/PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β pathway by fluoxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Qiufang; Song, Dan; Gu, Li; Verkhratsky, Alexei; Peng, Liang

    2017-04-01

    Here, we present the data indicating that chronic treatment with fluoxetine regulates Cav-1/PTEN/PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β signalling pathway and glycogen content in primary cultures of astrocytes with bi-phasic concentration dependence. At lower concentrations, fluoxetine downregulates gene expression of Cav-1, decreases membrane content of PTEN, increases activity of PI3K/AKT, and elevates GSK-3β phosphorylation thus suppressing its activity. At higher concentrations, fluoxetine acts in an inverse fashion. As expected, fluoxetine at lower concentrations increased while at higher concentrations decreased glycogen content in astrocytes. Our findings indicate that bi-phasic regulation of glycogen content via Cav-1/PTEN/PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β pathway by fluoxetine may be responsible for both therapeutic and side effects of the drug.

  14. Channeling Vision: CaV1.4—A Critical Link in Retinal Signal Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Waldner

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC are key to many biological functions. Entry of Ca2+ into cells is essential for initiating or modulating important processes such as secretion, cell motility, and gene transcription. In the retina and other neural tissues, one of the major roles of Ca2+-entry is to stimulate or regulate exocytosis of synaptic vesicles, without which synaptic transmission is impaired. This review will address the special properties of one L-type VGCC, CaV1.4, with particular emphasis on its role in transmission of visual signals from rod and cone photoreceptors (hereafter called “photoreceptors,” to the exclusion of intrinsically photoreceptive retinal ganglion cells to the second-order retinal neurons, and the pathological effects of mutations in the CACNA1F gene which codes for the pore-forming α1F subunit of CaV1.4.

  15. Chemical characterization of bioactive compounds from the endophytic fungus Diaporthe helianthi isolated from Luehea divaricata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Specian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic microorganisms, defined as fungi or bacteria that colonize the interior of plants without causing any immediate negative effects or damages, have reciprocal relationships with host plants. In some cases their presence is beneficial to the host due to the synthesis of bioactive compounds, among which several alcohols, esters, ketones and others that may react with other compounds and may be lethal to pathogenic microorganisms. Diaporthe helianthi (Phomopsis helianthi in its anamorphic phase is available worldwide, especially in Europe, Asia and America. Isolated in Europe as an agent of the sunflower stem cancer, it has also been endophytically isolated from tropical and temperate plants. A D. helianthi strain isolated from Luehea divaricata has been employed in current research. An investigation of the secondary metabolite from D. helianthi by CC and NMR of ¹H and 13C yielded the separation of 10 fractions and the identification of the phenolic compound 2(-4 hydroxyphenyl-ethanol (Tyrosol. Its antimicrobial reaction was tested and the ensuing antagonistic effects on the human pathogenic bacteria Enterococcus hirae, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, phytopathogenic Xanthomonas asc. phaseoli and phytopathogenic fungi were demonstrated. Results show that bioactive compounds and Tyrosol produced by D. helianthi have a biotechnological potential.

  16. Anion-sensitive regions of L-type CaV1.2 calcium channels expressed in HEK293 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Babai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available L-type calcium currents (I(Ca are influenced by changes in extracellular chloride, but sites of anion effects have not been identified. Our experiments showed that CaV1.2 currents expressed in HEK293 cells are strongly inhibited by replacing extracellular chloride with gluconate or perchlorate. Variance-mean analysis of I(Ca and cell-attached patch single channel recordings indicate that gluconate-induced inhibition is due to intracellular anion effects on Ca(2+ channel open probability, not conductance. Inhibition of CaV1.2 currents produced by replacing chloride with gluconate was reduced from approximately 75%-80% to approximately 50% by omitting beta subunits but unaffected by omitting alpha(2delta subunits. Similarly, gluconate inhibition was reduced to approximately 50% by deleting an alpha1 subunit N-terminal region of 15 residues critical for beta subunit interactions regulating open probability. Omitting beta subunits with this mutant alpha1 subunit did not further diminish inhibition. Gluconate inhibition was unchanged with expression of different beta subunits. Truncating the C terminus at AA1665 reduced gluconate inhibition from approximately 75%-80% to approximately 50% whereas truncating it at AA1700 had no effect. Neutralizing arginines at AA1696 and 1697 by replacement with glutamines reduced gluconate inhibition to approximately 60% indicating these residues are particularly important for anion effects. Expressing CaV1.2 channels that lacked both N and C termini reduced gluconate inhibition to approximately 25% consistent with additive interactions between the two tail regions. Our results suggest that modest changes in intracellular anion concentration can produce significant effects on CaV1.2 currents mediated by changes in channel open probability involving beta subunit interactions with the N terminus and a short C terminal region.

  17. Volatile organic compound emissions from Larrea tridentata (creosotebush

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Guenther

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We present results from the CREosote ATmosphere Interactions through Volatile Emissions (CREATIVE 2009 field study in southern Arizona aimed at quantifying emission rates of VOCs from creosotebush (Larrea tridentata during the summer 2009 monsoon season. This species was chosen because of its vast distribution in North and South American deserts and because its resins have been reported to contain a rich set of volatile organic compounds (VOC. While a variety of ecosystems have been investigated for VOC emissions, deserts remain essentially unstudied, partially because of their low biomass densities and water limitations. However, during the North American monsoon, a pronounced increase in rainfall from an extremely dry June (80 mm occurs over large areas of the Sonoran desert in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. We observed a strong diurnal pattern of branch emissions and ambient concentrations of an extensive suite of VOCs with maxima in early afternoon. These include VOCs typically observed in forest sites (oxygenated VOCs and volatile isoprenoids as well as a large number of other compounds, some of which have not been previously described from any plant including 1-chloro-2-methoxy-benzene and isobutyronitrile. Although generally considered to be derived from anthropogenic sources, we observed emissions of aromatic compounds including benzene, and a broad range of phenolics. Dimethyl sulfide emissions from creosotebush were higher than reported from any previously studied plant suggesting that terrestrial ecosystems should be reconsidered as an important source of this climatically important gas. We also present direct, primary emission measurements of isoprene and its apparent oxidation products methyl vinyl ketone, methacrolein, and 3-methyl furan (the later three compounds are typically assumed to form from secondary reactions within the atmosphere, as well as a group of compounds considered to be fatty acid

  18. L-type calcium channel CaV 1.2 in transgenic mice overexpressing human AbetaPP751 with the London (V717I) and Swedish (K670M/N671L) mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Michael; Kaufmann, Walter A; Wietzorrek, Georg; Hutter-Paier, Birgit; Moosmang, Sven; Humpel, Christian; Hofmann, Franz; Windisch, Manfred; Knaus, Hans-Günther; Marksteiner, Josef

    2010-01-01

    Cumulative evidence indicates that amyloid-beta peptides exert some of their neurodegenerative effects through modulation of L-type voltage gated calcium channels, which play key roles in a diverse range of CNS functions. In this study we examined the expression of CaV1.2 L-type voltage gated calcium channels in transgenic mice overexpressing human AbetaPP751 with the London (V717I) and Swedish (K670M/N671L) mutations by immunohistochemistry in light and electron microscopy. In hippocampal layers of wild type and transgenic mice, CaV1.2 channels were predominantly localized to somato-dendritic domains of neurons, and to astrocytic profiles with an age-dependent increase in labeling density. In transgenic animals, CaV1.2-like immunoreactive clusters were found in neuronal profiles in association with amyloid-beta plaques. Both the number and density of these clusters depended upon age of animals and number of plaques. The most striking difference between wild type and transgenic mice was the age-dependent expression of CaV1.2 channels in reactive astrocytes. At the age of 6 month, CaV1.2 channels were rarely detected in reactive astrocytes of transgenic mice, but an incremental number of CaV1.2 expressing reactive astrocytes was found with increasing age of animals and number of amyloid-beta plaques. This study demonstrates that CaV1.2 channels are highly expressed in reactive astrocytes of 12-months of age transgenic mice, which might be a consequence of the increasing amyloid burden. Further studies should clarify which functional implications are associated with the higher availability of CaV1.2 channels in late stage Alzheimer's disease.

  19. Electrophysiological evidence for voltage-gated calcium channel 2 (Cav2) modulation of mechano- and thermosensitive spinal neuronal responses in a rat model of osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, W; Patel, R; Dickenson, A H

    2015-10-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) remains one of the greatest healthcare burdens in western society, with chronic debilitating pain-dominating clinical presentation yet therapeutic strategies are inadequate in many patients. Development of better analgesics is contingent on improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms mediating OA pain. Voltage-gated calcium channels 2.2 (Cav2.2) play a critical role in spinal nociceptive transmission, therefore blocking Cav2.2 activity represents an attractive opportunity for OA pain treatment, but the only available licensed Cav2.2 antagonist ziconitide (PrilatTM) is of limited use. TROX-1 is an orally available, use dependent and state-selective Cav2 antagonist, exerting its analgesic effect primarily via Cav2.2 blockade, with an improved therapeutic window compared with ziconitide. Using a rat model of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA), 2 mg, induced OA we used in vivo electrophysiology to assess the effects of spinal or systemic administration of TROX-1 on the evoked activity of wide dynamic range spinal dorsal horn neurons in response to electrical, natural mechanical (dynamic brush and von Frey 2, 8, 26 and 6 g) and thermal (40, 45 and 45 °C) stimuli applied to the peripheral receptive field. MIA injection into the knee joint resulted in mechanical hypersensitivity of the ipsilateral hind paw and weight-bearing asymmetry. Spinal administration of TROX-1 (0.1 and 1 μg/50 μl) produced a significant dose-related inhibition of dynamic brush, mechanical (von Frey filament (vF) 8, 26 and 60 g) and noxious thermal-(45 and 48 °C) evoked neuronal responses in MIA rats only. Systemic administration of TROX-1 produced a significant inhibition of the mechanical-(vF 8, 26 and 60 g) evoked neuronal responses in MIA rats. TROX-1 did not produce any significant effect on any neuronal measure in Sham controls. Our in vivo electrophysiological results demonstrate a pathological state-dependent effect of TROX-1, which suggests an increased functional

  20. Mechanism underlying unaltered cortical inhibitory synaptic transmission in contrast with enhanced excitatory transmission in CaV2.1 knockin migraine mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchia, Dania; Tottene, Angelita; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M.J.M.; Pietrobon, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1), a monogenic subtype of migraine with aura, is caused by gain-of-function mutations in CaV2.1 (P/Q-type) calcium channels. In FHM1 knockin mice, excitatory neurotransmission at cortical pyramidal cell synapses is enhanced, but inhibitory neurotransmission at connected pairs of fast-spiking (FS) interneurons and pyramidal cells is unaltered, despite being initiated by CaV2.1 channels. The mechanism underlying the unaltered GABA release at cortical FS interneuron synapses remains unknown. Here, we show that the FHM1 R192Q mutation does not affect inhibitory transmission at autapses of cortical FS and other types of multipolar interneurons in microculture from R192Q knockin mice, and investigate the underlying mechanism. Lowering the extracellular [Ca2+] did not reveal gain-of-function of evoked transmission neither in control nor after prolongation of the action potential (AP) with tetraethylammonium, indicating unaltered AP-evoked presynaptic calcium influx at inhibitory autapses in FHM1 KI mice. Neither saturation of the presynaptic calcium sensor nor short duration of the AP can explain the unaltered inhibitory transmission in the mutant mice. Recordings of the P/Q-type calcium current in multipolar interneurons in microculture revealed that the current density and the gating properties of the CaV2.1 channels expressed in these interneurons are barely affected by the FHM1 mutation, in contrast with the enhanced current density and left-shifted activation gating of mutant CaV2.1 channels in cortical pyramidal cells. Our findings suggest that expression of specific CaV2.1 channels differentially sensitive to modulation by FHM1 mutations in inhibitory and excitatory cortical neurons underlies the gain-of-function of excitatory but unaltered inhibitory synaptic transmission and the likely consequent dysregulation of the cortical excitatory–inhibitory balance in FHM1. PMID:24907493

  1. Genotypic frequency of Caveolin-1 (CAV1 T29107A polymorphism in the Iranian patients with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hamta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Caveolin-1 (Cav-1 is a scaffolding protein found in special structures of plasma membrane, known as Caveolae. Cav-1 can regulate many intracellular processes, including signal transmission and cholesterol metabolism. This protein plays an important role in the growth and differentiation of breast tissue and acts as a tumor suppressor gene as well. The aim of this study was to determine the genotypic frequency of Cav-1 T29107A (rs7804372 polymorphism and its association with susceptibility to breast cancer among the female population in Kermanshah, Iran. Methods: A total of 120 patients with breast cancer and an equal number of non-cancer individuals (control group, matched for age and gender with the patients, were selected in this study. The paraffin tissues of the patients from 2006 to 2013 were collected from Imam Reza hospital, Kermanshah, and 2.5 cc blood sample was taken from non-cancer individuals. The genomic DNA was extracted from paraffin tissues and blood by salting out method. The genotype of samples was determined by RFLP-PCR method, and Sau3A1 enzyme was used for RFLP analysis. Results: The distribution of Cav-1 T29107A genotype was found to be significantly different between breast cancer patients and control group (p=0.004. Among the patients, 84 (70% samples had genotype TT, 29 (24.78% genotype AT and 7 (5.83% genotype AA. As for the control group, however, 59 (49.17% samples had genotype TT, 49 (40.83% genotype AT and 12 (10% genotype AA. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that genotype TT is associated with an increased risk of susceptibility to breast cancer.

  2. Anticorpos Para o Vírus da Anemia das Galinhas (CAV em Matrizes de Corte no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brentano L

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Apesar do diagnóstico da anemia infecciosa e mais evidências recentes de infecção em campo (Brentano & Ottati, 1999, não havia até hoje dados disponíveis da prevalência do vírus da anemia das galinhas (CAV no Brasil. Uma vez que o conhecimento da prevalência do vírus e da distribuição de anticorpos nos lotes de matrizes é essencial para o delineamento de estratégias de controle da doença, realizamos um levantamento em 5 Estados com produção comercial intensiva de linhas de corte, abrangendo lotes de aves com diferentes idades. De 2.355 soros testados por ELISA, 89% foram positivos, indicando a alta prevalência do CAV no Brasil, em todos os Estados testados. A análise do soro de aves das 6 até as 70 semanas de idade demonstrou que lotes de 6 a 18 semanas apresentam desuniformidade na imunidade ao CAV, caracterizada por títulos de anticorpos abaixo dos níveis considerados protetores e aves ainda negativas para o CAV. A desuniformidade nos títulos de anticorpos e a ausência dos mesmos são evidentes ainda, mas em menor proporção também até as 24 semanas, enquanto que apenas partir das 25 semanas há 100% de soroconversão, acompanhada de significativa redução da desuniformidade no título de anticorpos das matrizes para menos de 2,5% das aves. Esses resultados fornecem evidência de uma progressiva disseminação do vírus em matrizes de corte, mas com riscos da presença de aves ainda susceptíveis à transmissão vertical e inadequada transferência de imunidade passiva no início do período de postura, que podem culminar em surtos da doença na progênie.

  3. Role of PKC and CaV1.2 in detrusor overactivity in a model of obesity associated with insulin resistance in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz O Leiria

    Full Text Available Obesity/metabolic syndrome are common risk factors for overactive bladder. This study aimed to investigate the functional and molecular changes of detrusor smooth muscle (DSM in high-fat insulin resistant obese mice, focusing on the role of protein kinase C (PKC and Ca(v1.2 in causing bladder dysfunction. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed with high-fat diet for 10 weeks. In vitro functional responses and cystometry, as well as PKC and Ca(v1.2 expression in bladder were evaluated. Obese mice exhibited higher body weight, epididymal fat mass, fasting glucose and insulin resistance. Carbachol (0.001-100 µM, α,β-methylene ATP (1-10 µM, KCl (1-300 mM, extracellular Ca(2+ (0.01-100 mM and phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu; 0.001-3 µM all produced greater DSM contractions in obese mice, which were fully reversed by the Ca(v1.2 blocker amlodipine. Cystometry evidenced augmented frequency, non-void contractions and post-void pressure in obese mice that were also prevented by amlodipine. Metformin treatment improved the insulin sensitivity, and normalized the in vitro bladder hypercontractility and cystometric dysfunction in obese mice. The PKC inhibitor GF109203X (1 µM also reduced the carbachol induced contractions. PKC protein expression was markedly higher in bladder tissues from obese mice, which was normalized by metformin treatment. The Ca(v1.2 channel protein expression was not modified in any experimental group. Our findings show that Ca(v1.2 blockade and improvement of insulin sensitization restores the enhanced PKC protein expression in bladder tissues and normalizes the overactive detrusor. It is likely that insulin resistance importantly contributes for the pathophysiology of this urological disorder in obese mice.

  4. Cerebellar ataxia by enhanced Cav2.1 currents is alleviated by Ca2+-dependent K-channel activators in Cacna1aS218l mutant mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Gao (Zhenyu); B. Todorov (Boyan); C.F. Barrett (Curtis); S. van Dorp (Stijn); M.D. Ferrari (Michel); M. Dichgans (Martin); C.I. de Zeeuw (Chris); F.E. Hoebeek (Freek)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractMutations in the CACNA1A gene are associated with neurological disorders, such as ataxia, hemiplegic migraine, and epilepsy. These mutations affect the pore-forming α1A-subunit of CaV2.1 channels and thereby either decrease or increase neuronal Ca2+ influx. A decreased CaV2.1-mediated

  5. Biofilm inhibition activity of traditional medicinal plants from Northwestern Argentina against native pathogen and environmental microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia Mariana Romero

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Plants have been commonly used in popular medicine of most cultures for the treatment of disease. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of certain Argentine plants used in traditional medicine has been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial, anti-biofilm, and anti-cell adherence activities of native plants (Larrea divaricata, Tagetes minuta, Tessaria absinthioides, Lycium chilense, and Schinus fasciculatus collected in northwestern Argentina. METHODS: The activities of the five plant species were evaluated in Bacillus strains and clinical strains of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus isolated from northwestern Argentina and identified by 16S rDNA. RESULT: Lycium chilense and Schinus fasciculatus were the most effective antimicrobial plant extracts (15.62µg/ml and 62.50µg/ml for Staphylococcus sp. Mcr1 and Bacillus sp. Mcn4, respectively. The highest (66% anti-biofilm activity against Bacillus sp. Mcn4 was observed with T. absinthioides and L. divaricate extracts. The highest (68% anti-biofilm activity against Staphylococcus sp. Mcr1 was observed with L. chilense extract. T. minuta, T. absinthioides, and L. divaricata showed percentages of anti-biofilm activity of between 55% and 62%. The anti-adherence effects of T. minuta and L. chilense observed in Bacillus sp. Mcn4 reflected a difference of only 22% and 10%, respectively, between anti-adherence and biofilm inhibition. Thus, the inhibition of biofilm could be related to cell adherence. In Staphylococcus sp. Mcr1, all plant extracts produced low anti-adherence percentages. CONCLUSION: These five species may represent a source of alternative drugs derived from plant extracts, based on ethnobotanical knowledge from northwest Argentina.

  6. Determinismo, analogia e preveggenza in Pierre Mabille. Basi per un raffronto con Juan Larrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D’Urso

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available ENThis text is a brief commentary on Pierre Mabille’s Del nuevo mundo, published in Mexico in 1943 and that we give here in our translation, which is perhaps absolutely the first in Italy concerning one of the writings of this important Surrealist, who is little studied by the French criticism even.Within the limits of the themes of this article and of the space granted here, we preferred to illustrate the implicit – and yet so evident – relations between Mabille’s thought and Dialectical Materialism, particularly by showing those passages of his text which seem to refer to some (even minor Marx and Engels’ works, rather than delay in a bio-bibliographical reconstruction and examine thoroughly the influence of materialist Monism, alchemical Hermetism and revolutionary Freemasonry on the “stylistic” construction of this brief essay.Around the themes of determinism, analogy and clairvoyance, Mabille’s original reading of fundamental thesis of Hegelian Dialectics and Marxist Materialism in their possible synthesis with the principles of cosmic Monism will be put in relief. This is an interpretation which permits to face such matters from inside a fully Surrealist point of view, rather than from outside it (and a little more metaphysically as Juan Larrea pretended to, thus allowing to put the basis for a possible comparison between him and his friend Mabille, who both never failed to influence each other.Keywords: Monism; Surrealism; Materialism; Engels; Marxism.ITQuesto testo è un breve commento dell’articolo Del nuevo mundo di Pierre Mabille, apparso in Messico nel 1943 e che qui forniamo nella nostra traduzione, probabilmente la prima in assoluto in Italia di uno scritto di quest’importante surrealista, poco studiato anche dalla critica francese.Nei limiti dello spazio disponibile e delle tematiche del testo in questione abbiamo preferito esporre le rela¬zioni implicite – eppure così evidenti – del pensiero di Mabille

  7. Brown-headed Cowbird parasitism of the Black-throated Sparrow in central Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M.J.; van Riper, Charles

    2004-01-01

    From 1994-1996 we investigated effects of Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism on Black-throated Sparrow (Amphispiza bilineata) nesting success in the Verde Valley of central Arizona. Of 56 Black-throated Sparrow nests, 52% were parasitized. Black-throated Sparrows appear to respond to natural parasitism by accepting the cowbird egg, deserting the nest, or burying the cowbird egg. Removal and damage of host eggs by female cowbirds effectively reduced clutch size from an average of 3.4 to 1.9 eggs. Because of this reduced clutch size, Black-throated Sparrow reproductive success was significantly lower in parasitized nests (0.2 young fledged/ nest) as compared to nonparasitized nests (1.6 young fledged/nest). When comparing cowbird parasitism between two habitat types, we found significantly higher parasitism frequencies in crucifixion-thorn (Canotia holacantha) versus creosote-bush (Larrea divaricata) habitat. We argue that this difference in parasitism is due to the greater number of tall perches (e.g., shrubs >4 m) available in crucifixion-thorn habitat, providing vantage points for female cowbirds to better find Black-throated Sparrow nests.

  8. Abiotic factors affect the recruitment and biomass of perennial grass and evergreen shrub seedlings in denuded areas of Patagonian Monte rangelands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Tomás; Bertiller, Mónica Beatriz; Carrera, Analía Lorena

    2018-07-15

    Assessing the ability of key species to cope with environmental stresses in disturbed areas is an important issue for recovery of degraded arid ecosystem. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of soil moisture, exposure to UV radiation, and presence/absence of litter with different chemistry on soil N, recruitment and biomass of seedlings of perennial grass (Poa ligularis and Nassella tenuis) and evergreen shrub species (Atriplex lampa and Larrea divaricata) in denuded areas. We carried out a microcosm experiment with soil blocks (28 cm depth) sowed with seeds of the target species, subjected to different levels of litter type (perennial grass-evergreen shrub mixture, evergreen shrub mixture, and no litter), UV radiation (near ambient and reduced UV), and soil water (high: 15-25% and low 5-15%). Periodically, during 6 months, we assessed soil-N (total and inorganic) at two depths and species seedling recruitment at microcosms. Additionally, emerged seedlings of each species were transplanted to individual pots containing soil and subjected to the same previous factors during 12 months. Then, all plants were harvested and biomass assessed. Only inorganic soil-N at the upper soil varied among treatments increasing with the presence of evergreen shrub litter, exposure to ambient UV, and high soil water. Inorganic soil-N, promoted by near ambient UV and high soil water, had a positive effect on recruitment of perennial grasses and A. lampa. Both litter types promoted the recruitment of perennial grasses. Evergreen shrub litter and high soil water promoted the recruitment of L. divaricata. Seedling biomass of perennial grasses increased with high soil water and reduced UV. Ambient UV had positive or null effects on biomass of evergreen shrub seedlings. High soil water increased biomass of L. divaricata seedlings. We concluded that soil water appeared as the most limiting factor for seedling recruitment of all species whereas inorganic soil N limited the

  9. A Study on OBE Exceedance Criteria Using the CAV Concept for NPPs in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Se Moon; Cho, Sung Il; Yun, Kwan Hee

    2009-01-01

    NPPs in Korea have so far complied with the US Regulatory Guide 1.12 Rev.1 (1974) for the seismic monitoring systems. However, researchers in Korea have been considering attempting to comply with Regulatory Guide 1.12 rev.2 (1997) when implementing all future seismic monitoring systems. To comply with the new regulations, Operating Basis Earthquake (OBE) Exceedance Criteria applied with the Cumulative Absolute Velocity (CAV) has to be developed for local use. The CAV was developed in the USA as one reasonable OBE exceedance criterion for NPPs; however, it has not been widely used outside the USA, not-withstanding its solid technical basis. It is, however, expected that the worldwide NPP construction boom will necessitate development and more frequent use of reasonable OBE exceedance criteria. As multi-units (four or more) are situated in one site in Korea, prevention of simultaneous shutdown of multi-unit caused by non damaging earthquakes is very important; otherwise, a serious economic loss could occur, and there could also be a great impact on the stability of the power grid that would arise due to the unnecessary shutdown. Actually, we have had the experience of observing a Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA)-value greater than 0.1g (the current OBE level for Korean NPPs) due to an M=4.8 earthquake (20 th Jan. '07) that did not even cause any damage to the poorly-designed structures nearby. This experience gave a motivation to the KHNP should concern the needs of study on OBE exceedance criteria in view of application of the CAV to Korean seismic situation, which will be more practical. The present paper is intended to show the intermediate result of the research on Operating Basis Earthquake (OBE) exceedance criteria in Korea

  10. Development and characterization of 26 novel microsatellite loci for the trochid gastropod Gibbula divaricata (Linnaeus, 1758, using Illumina MiSeq next generation sequencing technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta López-Márquez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we used the high-throughput sequencing technology Illumina MiSeq to develop 26 polymorphic microsatellite loci for the marine snail Gibbula divaricata. Four to 32 alleles were detected per locus across 30 samples analyzed. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.130 to 0.933 and from 0.294 to 0.956, respectively. No significant linkage disequilibrium existed. Seven loci deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium that could not totally be explained by the presence of null alleles. Sympatric distribution with other species of the genus Gibbula, as G. rarilineata and G. varia, lead us to test the cross utility of the developed markers in these two species, which could be useful to test common biogeographic patterns or potential hybridization phenomena, since morphological intermediate specimens were found.

  11. Elementary properties of CaV1.3 Ca2+ channels expressed in mouse cochlear inner hair cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampini, Valeria; Johnson, Stuart L; Franz, Christoph; Lawrence, Neil D; Münkner, Stefan; Engel, Jutta; Knipper, Marlies; Magistretti, Jacopo; Masetto, Sergio; Marcotti, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian cochlear inner hair cells (IHCs) are specialized to process developmental signals during immature stages and sound stimuli in adult animals. These signals are conveyed onto auditory afferent nerve fibres. Neurotransmitter release at IHC ribbon synapses is controlled by L-type CaV1.3 Ca2+ channels, the biophysics of which are still unknown in native mammalian cells. We have investigated the localization and elementary properties of Ca2+ channels in immature mouse IHCs under near-physiological recording conditions. CaV1.3 Ca2+ channels at the cell pre-synaptic site co-localize with about half of the total number of ribbons present in immature IHCs. These channels activated at about −70 mV, showed a relatively short first latency and weak inactivation, which would allow IHCs to generate and accurately encode spontaneous Ca2+ action potential activity characteristic of these immature cells. The CaV1.3 Ca2+ channels showed a very low open probability (about 0.15 at −20 mV: near the peak of an action potential). Comparison of elementary and macroscopic Ca2+ currents indicated that very few Ca2+ channels are associated with each docked vesicle at IHC ribbon synapses. Finally, we found that the open probability of Ca2+ channels, but not their opening time, was voltage dependent. This finding provides a possible correlation between presynaptic Ca2+ channel properties and the characteristic frequency/amplitude of EPSCs in auditory afferent fibres. PMID:19917569

  12. Elementary properties of CaV1.3 Ca(2+) channels expressed in mouse cochlear inner hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampini, Valeria; Johnson, Stuart L; Franz, Christoph; Lawrence, Neil D; Münkner, Stefan; Engel, Jutta; Knipper, Marlies; Magistretti, Jacopo; Masetto, Sergio; Marcotti, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian cochlear inner hair cells (IHCs) are specialized to process developmental signals during immature stages and sound stimuli in adult animals. These signals are conveyed onto auditory afferent nerve fibres. Neurotransmitter release at IHC ribbon synapses is controlled by L-type Ca(V)1.3 Ca(2+) channels, the biophysics of which are still unknown in native mammalian cells. We have investigated the localization and elementary properties of Ca(2+) channels in immature mouse IHCs under near-physiological recording conditions. Ca(V)1.3 Ca(2+) channels at the cell pre-synaptic site co-localize with about half of the total number of ribbons present in immature IHCs. These channels activated at about 70 mV, showed a relatively short first latency and weak inactivation, which would allow IHCs to generate and accurately encode spontaneous Ca(2+) action potential activity characteristic of these immature cells. The Ca(V)1.3 Ca(2+) channels showed a very low open probability (about 0.15 at 20 mV: near the peak of an action potential). Comparison of elementary and macroscopic Ca(2+) currents indicated that very few Ca(2+) channels are associated with each docked vesicle at IHC ribbon synapses. Finally, we found that the open probability of Ca(2+) channels, but not their opening time, was voltage dependent. This finding provides a possible correlation between presynaptic Ca(2+) channel properties and the characteristic frequency/amplitude of EPSCs in auditory afferent fibres.

  13. Generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (EURACi001-A, EURACi002-A, EURACi003-A from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of three patients carrying mutations in the CAV3 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Meraviglia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Caveolinopathies are a heterogeneous family of genetic pathologies arising from alterations of the caveolin-3 gene (CAV3, encoding for the isoform specifically constituting muscle caveolae. Here, by reprogramming peripheral blood mononuclear cells, we report the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs from three patients carrying the ΔYTT deletion, T78K and W101C missense mutations in caveolin-3. iPSCs displayed normal karyotypes and all the features of pluripotent stem cells in terms of morphology, specific marker expression and ability to differentiate in vitro into the three germ layers. These lines thus represent a human cellular model to study the molecular basis of caveolinopathies.Resource tableImage 1Unique stem cell lines identifierEURACi001-AEURACi002-AEURACi003-AAlternative names of stem cell linesB2CAV3 (EURACi001-AL1CAV3 (EURACi002-AN1CAV3 (EURACi003-AInstitutionInstitute for Biomedicine, Eurac ResearchContact information of distributorAlessandra Rossini (alessandra.rossini@eurac.eduType of cell linesiPSCsOriginHumanCell sourcePeripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCsMethod of reprogrammingElectroporation of episomal vectors (pCXLE hOCT3/4-shp53-F, pCXLE-hSK, and pCXLE-hULMultiline rationaleNon-isogenic cell lines obtained from patients with mutations in the same gene (CAV3Gene modificationNOType of modificationSpontaneous mutationsAssociated diseaseCaveolinopathiesGene/locusHeterozygous CAV3 c.Δ184–192 (EURACi001-AHeterozygous CAV3 c.303 TGG > TGC (EURACi002-AHeterozygous CAV3 c.233 ACG > AAG (EURACi003-AMethod of modificationN/AName of transgene or resistanceN/AInducible/constitutive systemN/ADate archived/stock dateJanuary 2016 (EURACi001-ASeptember 2016 (EURACi002-AMay 2016 (EURACi003-ACell line repository/bankN/AEthical approvalPeripheral blood was collected from patients after signing the informed consent provided by Cell Line and DNA Biobank from Patients Affected by Genetic Diseases, member of the

  14. A Restructuring of the CAV and FDI Package for the MIDAS Computer Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. H.; Kim, D. H.; Cho, S. W.

    2006-01-01

    As one of the processes for a localized severe accident analysis code, KAERI is developing a severe accident code MIDAS. The MIDAS code is being developed based on MELCOR. The existing data saving method of MELCOR uses pointer variables for a fix-sized storage management, and it deteriorates the readability, maintainability and portability of the code. As a most important process for a localized severe accident analysis code, it is needed convenient method for data handling. So, it has been used the new features in FORTRAN90 such as a dynamic allocation for the restructuring. The restructuring of the data saving and transferring method of the existing code makes it easy to understand the code. Before an entire restructuring of the code, a restructuring template for a simple package was developed and tested. The target for the restructuring in this paper was the CAV and FDI packages. The CAV(cavity) package is responsible for modeling the attack on the basement concrete by hot core materials. The FDI(Fuel Dispersal Interactions) package is responsible for modeling both low and high pressure molten fuel ejection from the RPV into the reactor cavity, control volumes and surfaces. The verification was done through comparing the results before and after the restructuring

  15. Activity of Larrea tridentata (D.C. Coville L. extracts and chitosan against fungi that affect horticultural crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Lira-Saldivar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La actividad antifúngica de extracto de resina hidrosoluble de gobernadora [Larrea tridentata (D.C. Coville (L] y soluciones de quitosán (Ch, solos y combinados fueron investigados in vitro por su actividad antifúngica contra Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum coccodes y Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici que fueron aislados de rosas de invernadero y de lotes comerciales de papa y tomate, respectivamente, mismos que posteriormente fueron purificados. Ambos bioproductos manifestaron su efecto funguicida a 1,000 y 2,000 ì l·litro-1, sin embargo, cuando fueron combinados mostraron una actividad fungicida sinérgica. Estos resultados preliminares indican que el extracto hidrosoluble de L. tridentata o la combinación L-Ch pudiesen ser considerados como agroquímicos potenciales de bajo impacto ambiental para ser usados como fungicidas orgánicos, pero se requiere más trabajo de investigación antes de que esto tenga una aplicación comercial. Hasta lo mejor de nuestro conocimiento esta es la primera vez que se reporta a la mezcla L. tridentata y quitosán actuando como un compuesto antifúngico

  16. Transcriptional and electrophysiological consequences of KChIP2-mediated regulation of CaV1.2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten B; Foster, Erika; Nguyen, Katherine H

    2009-01-01

    previous finding. Using gene-chip and real-time PCR techniques, we find that KChIP2(-/-) mice have an increased transcriptional activity of the calcium channel beta(2) subunit, CACNB2, whereas the expression of Ca(V)1.2 is preserved. Although I(to,f) is absent and I(Ca,L) is decreased in myocytes from KCh...

  17. Modulation of Ca(v)3.2 T-type calcium channel permeability by asparagine-linked glycosylation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ondáčová, K.; Karmažínová, M.; Lazniewska, Joanna; Weiss, Norbert; Lacinová, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 3 (2016), s. 175-184 ISSN 1933-6950 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-13556S; GA MŠk 7AMB15FR015 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : calcium channel * Ca(v)3.2 * gating * glycosylation * T-type channel Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.042, year: 2016

  18. Enhanced basal contractility but reduced excitation-contraction coupling efficiency and beta-adrenergic reserve of hearts with increased Cav1.2 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mingxin; Zhang, Xiaoying; Li, Yingxin; Guan, Yinzheng; Ai, Xiaojie; Szeto, Christopher; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Zhang, Hongyu; Ge, Shuping; Molkentin, Jeffery D; Houser, Steven R; Chen, Xiongwen

    2010-08-01

    Cardiac remodeling during heart failure development induces a significant increase in the activity of the L-type Ca(2+) channel (Cav1.2). However, the effects of enhanced Cav1.2 activity on myocyte excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling, cardiac contractility, and its regulation by the beta-adrenergic system are not clear. To recapitulate the increased Cav1.2 activity, a double transgenic (DTG) mouse model overexpressing the Cavbeta2a subunit in a cardiac-specific and inducible manner was established. We studied cardiac (in vivo) and myocyte (in vitro) contractility at baseline and upon beta-adrenergic stimulation. E-C coupling efficiency was evaluated in isolated myocytes as well. The following results were found: 1) in DTG myocytes, L-type Ca(2+) current (I(Ca,L)) density, myocyte fractional shortening (FS), peak Ca(2+) transients, and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) content (caffeine-induced Ca(2+) transient peak) were significantly increased (by 100.8%, 48.8%, 49.8%, and 46.8%, respectively); and 2) cardiac contractility evaluated with echocardiography [ejection fraction (EF) and (FS)] and invasive intra-left ventricular pressure (maximum dP/dt and -dP/dt) measurements were significantly greater in DTG mice than in control mice. However, 1) the cardiac contractility (EF, FS, dP/dt, and -dP/dt)-enhancing effect of the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol (2 microg/g body wt ip) was significantly reduced in DTG mice, which could be attributed to the loss of beta-adrenergic stimulation on contraction, Ca(2+) transients, I(Ca,L), and SR Ca(2+) content in DTG myocytes; and 2) E-C couplng efficiency was significantly lower in DTG myocytes. In conclusion, increasing Cav1.2 activity by promoting its high-activity mode enhances cardiac contractility but decreases E-C coupling efficiency and the adrenergic reserve of the heart.

  19. The calmodulin-binding, short linear motif, NSCaTE is conserved in L-type channel ancestors of vertebrate Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Taiakina

    Full Text Available NSCaTE is a short linear motif of (xWxxx(I or Lxxxx, composed of residues with a high helix-forming propensity within a mostly disordered N-terminus that is conserved in L-type calcium channels from protostome invertebrates to humans. NSCaTE is an optional, lower affinity and calcium-sensitive binding site for calmodulin (CaM which competes for CaM binding with a more ancient, C-terminal IQ domain on L-type channels. CaM bound to N- and C- terminal tails serve as dual detectors to changing intracellular Ca(2+ concentrations, promoting calcium-dependent inactivation of L-type calcium channels. NSCaTE is absent in some arthropod species, and is also lacking in vertebrate L-type isoforms, Cav1.1 and Cav1.4 channels. The pervasiveness of a methionine just downstream from NSCaTE suggests that L-type channels could generate alternative N-termini lacking NSCaTE through the choice of translational start sites. Long N-terminus with an NSCaTE motif in L-type calcium channel homolog LCav1 from pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis has a faster calcium-dependent inactivation than a shortened N-termini lacking NSCaTE. NSCaTE effects are present in low concentrations of internal buffer (0.5 mM EGTA, but disappears in high buffer conditions (10 mM EGTA. Snail and mammalian NSCaTE have an alpha-helical propensity upon binding Ca(2+-CaM and can saturate both CaM N-terminal and C-terminal domains in the absence of a competing IQ motif. NSCaTE evolved in ancestors of the first animals with internal organs for promoting a more rapid, calcium-sensitive inactivation of L-type channels.

  20. "Slow" Voltage-Dependent Inactivation of CaV2.2 Calcium Channels Is Modulated by the PKC Activator Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate (PMA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhu

    Full Text Available CaV2.2 (N-type voltage-gated calcium channels (Ca2+ channels play key roles in neurons and neuroendocrine cells including the control of cellular excitability, neurotransmitter / hormone secretion, and gene expression. Calcium entry is precisely controlled by channel gating properties including multiple forms of inactivation. "Fast" voltage-dependent inactivation is relatively well-characterized and occurs over the tens-to- hundreds of milliseconds timeframe. Superimposed on this is the molecularly distinct, but poorly understood process of "slow" voltage-dependent inactivation, which develops / recovers over seconds-to-minutes. Protein kinases can modulate "slow" inactivation of sodium channels, but little is known about if/how second messengers control "slow" inactivation of Ca2+ channels. We investigated this using recombinant CaV2.2 channels expressed in HEK293 cells and native CaV2 channels endogenously expressed in adrenal chromaffin cells. The PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA dramatically prolonged recovery from "slow" inactivation, but an inactive control (4α-PMA had no effect. This effect of PMA was prevented by calphostin C, which targets the C1-domain on PKC, but only partially reduced by inhibitors that target the catalytic domain of PKC. The subtype of the channel β-subunit altered the kinetics of inactivation but not the magnitude of slowing produced by PMA. Intracellular GDP-β-S reduced the effect of PMA suggesting a role for G proteins in modulating "slow" inactivation. We postulate that the kinetics of recovery from "slow" inactivation could provide a molecular memory of recent cellular activity and help control CaV2 channel availability, electrical excitability, and neurotransmission in the seconds-to-minutes timeframe.

  1. Natural Compounds from Mexican Medicinal Plants as Potential Drug Leads for Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROCIO GÓMEZ-CANSINO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In Mexican Traditional Medicine 187 plant species are used in the treatment of respiratory conditions that may be associated with tuberculosis. In this contribution, we review the ethnobotany, chemistry and pharmacology of 63 species whose extracts have been assayed for antimycobacterial activity in vitro. Among these, the most potent is Aristolochia brevipes (MIC= 12.5 µg/mL, followed by Aristolochia taliscana, Citrus sinensis, Chrysactinia mexicana, Persea americana, and Olea europaea (MIC 95%, 50 µg/mL include: Amphipterygium adstringens, Larrea divaricata, and Phoradendron robinsoni. Several active compounds have been identified, the most potent are: Licarin A (isolated from A. taliscana, and 9-amino-9-methoxy-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[h]-chromen-2-one (transformation product of 9-methoxytariacuripyrone isolated from Aristolochia brevipes, both with MIC= 3.125 µg/mL, that is 8-fold less potent than the reference drug Rifampicin (MIC= 0.5 µg/mL. Any of the compounds or extracts here reviewed has been studied in clinical trials or with animal models; however, these should be accomplished since several are active against strains resistant to common drugs.

  2. Glycosylation of alpha(2)delta(1) subunit: a sweet talk with Ca(v)1.2 channels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lazniewska, Joanna; Weiss, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 3 (2016), s. 239-242 ISSN 0231-5882 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-13556S; GA MŠk 7AMB15FR015 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : calcium channel * Ca(v)1.2 channel * ancillary subunit * alpha(2)delta(1) subunit * glycosylation * trafficking Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.170, year: 2016

  3. Morphological and molecular diversity in a collection of the Andean tree tomato (Solanum betaceum Cav.)

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta-Quezada, P.G.; Martinez-Laborde, J.B.; Vilanova Navarro, Santiago; Prohens Tomás, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agrarias y Agroalimentarias (RF2008-00008-00-00) Acosta-Quezada, P.; Martinez-Laborde, J.; Vilanova Navarro, S.; Prohens Tomás, J. (2011). Morphological and molecular diversity in a collection of the Andean tree tomato (Solanum betaceum Cav.). Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Horticulture. 68(1):500-501. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/63083 Senia 500 501 68 1

  4. Experimental oral immunization of ferret badgers (Melogale moschata) with a recombinant canine adenovirus vaccine CAV-2-E3Δ-RGP and an attenuated rabies virus SRV9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jinghui; Liu, Ye; Zhang, Shoufeng; Fang, Lijun; Zhang, Fei; Hu, Rongliang

    2014-04-01

    Ferret badgers (Melogale moschata) are a major reservoir of rabies virus in southeastern China. Oral immunization has been shown to be a practical method for wildlife rabies management in Europe and North America. Two groups of 20 ferret badgers were given a single oral dose of a recombinant canine adenovirus-rabies vaccine, CAV-2-E3Δ-RGP, or an experimental attenuated rabies virus vaccine, SRV9. At 21 days, all ferret badgers had seroconverted, with serum virus-neutralizing antibodies ranging from 0.1 to 4.5 IU/mL. Titers were >0.50 IU/mL (an acceptable level) in 17/20 and 16/20 animals receiving CAV-2-E3Δ-RGP or SRV9, respectively. The serologic results indicate that the recombinant CAV-2-E3Δ-RGP is at least as effective as the attenuated rabies virus vaccine. Both may be considered for additional research as oral rabies vaccine candidates for ferret badgers.

  5. Apo-states of calmodulin and CaBP1 control CaV1 voltage-gated calcium channel function through direct competition for the IQ domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeisen, Felix; Rumpf, Christine; Minor, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    In neurons, binding of calmodulin (CaM) or calcium-binding protein 1 (CaBP1) to the CaV1 (L-type) voltage-gated calcium channel IQ domain endows the channel with diametrically opposed properties. CaM causes calcium-dependent inactivation (CDI) and limits calcium entry, whereas CaBP1 blocks CDI and allows sustained calcium influx. Here, we combine isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) with cell-based functional measurements and mathematical modeling to show that these calcium sensors behave in a competitive manner that is explained quantitatively by their apo-state binding affinities for the IQ domain. This competition can be completely blocked by covalent tethering of CaM to the channel. Further, we show that Ca2+/CaM has a sub-picomolar affinity for the IQ domain that is achieved without drastic alteration of calcium binding properties. The observation that the apo-forms of CaM and CaBP1 compete with each other demonstrates a simple mechanism for direct modulation of CaV1 function and suggests a means by which excitable cells may dynamically tune CaV activity. PMID:23811053

  6. Apo states of calmodulin and CaBP1 control CaV1 voltage-gated calcium channel function through direct competition for the IQ domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeisen, Felix; Rumpf, Christine H; Minor, Daniel L

    2013-09-09

    In neurons, binding of calmodulin (CaM) or calcium-binding protein 1 (CaBP1) to the CaV1 (L-type) voltage-gated calcium channel IQ domain endows the channel with diametrically opposed properties. CaM causes calcium-dependent inactivation and limits calcium entry, whereas CaBP1 blocks calcium-dependent inactivation (CDI) and allows sustained calcium influx. Here, we combine isothermal titration calorimetry with cell-based functional measurements and mathematical modeling to show that these calcium sensors behave in a competitive manner that is explained quantitatively by their apo-state binding affinities for the IQ domain. This competition can be completely blocked by covalent tethering of CaM to the channel. Further, we show that Ca(2+)/CaM has a sub-picomolar affinity for the IQ domain that is achieved without drastic alteration of calcium-binding properties. The observation that the apo forms of CaM and CaBP1 compete with each other demonstrates a simple mechanism for direct modulation of CaV1 function and suggests a means by which excitable cells may dynamically tune CaV activity. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Qualidade fisiológica e sanitária de sementes de açoita-cavalo (Luehea divaricata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caciara Gonzatto Maciel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com esse trabalho caracterizar dois lotes de sementes de Luehea divaricata, quanto à sua qualidade fisiológica e sanitária. As sementes foram coletadas nos municípios de Santa Maria (SM e Restinga Seca (RES – região central do Rio Grande do Sul. Foi utilizado o substrato comercial Carolina Soil® para a caracterização fisiológica e o teste de transmissão de fungos via sementes. As variáveis determinadas foram índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG, emergência (%, plântulas sintomáticas (% e sementes mortas (%. Para a detecção dos fungos, foram utilizados os testes em BDA e substrato papel-filtro (PF. Para cada teste foram utilizadas quatro repetições de 25 sementes. Determinou-se ainda a sanidade dos frutos, através do blotter test. O IVG e o percentual de emergência variaram entre 6,7 e 8,7; 51 e 63%, para os lotes RES e SM, respectivamente. Os fungos identificados associados às sementes, independente do método foram: Fusarium sp., Alternaria sp., Rhizoctonia sp., Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., Pestalotiopsis sp., Phoma sp. e Cladosporium sp. Destes, os gêneros Fusarium e Alternaria, podem estar associados aos sintomas observados nas plântulas no teste transmissão. Os fungos identificados presentes nos frutos foram: Fusarium sp., Aspergilus sp., Penicillium sp., Cladosporium sp. e Alternaria sp.

  8. The changeability of Pyricularia oryzae Cav. 1. The action of some mutagenous factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voinova, T.M.; Terekhova, V.A.; D'yakov, Yu.T.

    1983-01-01

    The lethal and mutagenous actions of UV rays, nitrozomethylurea, and nitrosoguanidine in respect to Conidia of rice Pyricularia oryzae Cav. agent have been investigated. It has been found out that low doses of UV-radiation, which are not lethal for a three-cell conidia, increase the intensity of two-cell vegetation. All the investigated mutagens cause a formation of mutants which are deficient according to pigment synthesis white and pink colonies and differ by their reduced growth. Auxotrophic mutants were mainly obtained under the action of nitroso compounds

  9. Coexpression of voltage-dependent calcium channels Cav1.2, 2.1a, and 2.1b in vascular myocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Ditte; Friis, Ulla G; Uhrenholt, Torben R

    2006-01-01

    Voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels Cav1.2 (L type) and Cav2.1 (P/Q type) are expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and are important for the contraction of renal resistance vessels. In the present study we examined whether native renal VSMCs coexpress L-, P-, and Q-type Ca2+ currents...... microscopy revealed expression of both channels in all of the smooth muscle cells. Whole-cell patch clamp on single preglomerular VSMCs from mice showed L-, P-, and Q-type currents. Blockade of the L-type currents by calciseptine (20 nmol/L) inhibited 35.6+/-3.9% of the voltage-dependent Ca2+ current......-type and P-type channels inhibited 58.0+/-11.8%, and simultaneous inhibition of L-, P-, and Q-type channels led to blockade (88.7+/-5.6%) of the Ca2+ current. We conclude that aortic and renal preglomerular smooth muscle cells express L-, P-, and Q-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels in the rat and mouse....

  10. Larrea tridentata: A novel source for anti-parasitic agents active against Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Naegleria fowleri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Bashyal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Protozoan parasites infect and kill millions of people worldwide every year, particularly in developing countries where access to clean fresh water is limited. Among the most common are intestinal parasites, including Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica. These parasites wreak havoc on the epithelium lining the small intestines (G. lamblia and colon (E. histolytica causing giardiasis and amebiasis, respectively. In addition, there are less common but far more deadly pathogens such as Naegleria fowleri that thrive in warm waters and infect the central nervous systems of their victims via the nasal passages. Despite their prevalence and associated high mortality rates, there remains an unmet need to identify more effective therapeutics for people infected with these opportunistic parasites. To address this unmet need, we have surveyed plants and traditional herbal medicines known throughout the world to identify novel antiparasitic agents with activity against G. lamblia, E. histolytica, and N. fowleri. Herein, we report Larrea tridentata, known as creosote bush, as a novel source for secondary metabolites that display antiparasitic activity against all three pathogens. This report also characterizes the lignan compound classes, nordihydroguairetic acid and demethoxyisoguaiacin, as novel antiparasitic lead agents to further develop more effective drug therapy options for millions of people worldwide.

  11. Larrea tridentata: A novel source for anti-parasitic agents active against Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Naegleria fowleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashyal, Bharat; Li, Linfeng; Bains, Trpta; Debnath, Anjan; LaBarbera, Daniel V

    2017-08-01

    Protozoan parasites infect and kill millions of people worldwide every year, particularly in developing countries where access to clean fresh water is limited. Among the most common are intestinal parasites, including Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica. These parasites wreak havoc on the epithelium lining the small intestines (G. lamblia) and colon (E. histolytica) causing giardiasis and amebiasis, respectively. In addition, there are less common but far more deadly pathogens such as Naegleria fowleri that thrive in warm waters and infect the central nervous systems of their victims via the nasal passages. Despite their prevalence and associated high mortality rates, there remains an unmet need to identify more effective therapeutics for people infected with these opportunistic parasites. To address this unmet need, we have surveyed plants and traditional herbal medicines known throughout the world to identify novel antiparasitic agents with activity against G. lamblia, E. histolytica, and N. fowleri. Herein, we report Larrea tridentata, known as creosote bush, as a novel source for secondary metabolites that display antiparasitic activity against all three pathogens. This report also characterizes the lignan compound classes, nordihydroguairetic acid and demethoxyisoguaiacin, as novel antiparasitic lead agents to further develop more effective drug therapy options for millions of people worldwide.

  12. The PDZ motif of the α1C subunit is not required for surface trafficking and adrenergic modulation of CaV1.2 channel in the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Katchman, Alexander; Weinberg, Richard L; Abrams, Jeffrey; Samad, Tahmina; Wan, Elaine; Pitt, Geoffrey S; Marx, Steven O

    2015-01-23

    Voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels play a key role in initiating muscle excitation-contraction coupling, neurotransmitter release, gene expression, and hormone secretion. The association of CaV1.2 with a supramolecular complex impacts trafficking, localization, turnover, and, most importantly, multifaceted regulation of its function in the heart. Several studies hint at an important role for the C terminus of the α1C subunit as a hub for multidimensional regulation of CaV1.2 channel trafficking and function. Recent studies have demonstrated an important role for the four-residue PDZ binding motif at the C terminus of α1C in interacting with scaffold proteins containing PDZ domains, in the subcellular localization of CaV1.2 in neurons, and in the efficient signaling to cAMP-response element-binding protein in neurons. However, the role of the α1C PDZ ligand domain in the heart is not known. To determine whether the α1C PDZ motif is critical for CaV1.2 trafficking and function in cardiomyocytes, we generated transgenic mice with inducible expression of an N-terminal FLAG epitope-tagged dihydropyridine-resistant α1C with the PDZ motif deleted (ΔPDZ). These mice were crossed with α-myosin heavy chain reverse transcriptional transactivator transgenic mice, and the double-transgenic mice were fed doxycycline. The ΔPDZ channels expressed, trafficked to the membrane, and supported robust excitation-contraction coupling in the presence of nisoldipine, a dihydropyridine Ca(2+) channel blocker, providing functional evidence that they appropriately target to dyads. The ΔPDZ Ca(2+) channels were appropriately regulated by isoproterenol and forskolin. These data indicate that the α1C PDZ motif is not required for surface trafficking, localization to the dyad, or adrenergic stimulation of CaV1.2 in adult cardiomyocytes. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Electrophysiological characterization of activation state-dependent Ca(v)2 channel antagonist TROX-1 in spinal nerve injured rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, R; Rutten, K; Valdor, M; Schiene, K; Wigge, S; Schunk, S; Damann, N; Christoph, T; Dickenson, A H

    2015-06-25

    Prialt, a synthetic version of Ca(v)2.2 antagonist ω-conotoxin MVIIA derived from Conus magus, is the first clinically approved voltage-gated calcium channel blocker for refractory chronic pain. However, due to the narrow therapeutic window and considerable side effects associated with systemic dosing, Prialt is only administered intrathecally. N-triazole oxindole (TROX-1) is a novel use-dependent and activation state-selective small-molecule inhibitor of Ca(v)2.1, 2.2 and 2.3 calcium channels designed to overcome the limitations of Prialt. We have examined the neurophysiological and behavioral effects of blocking calcium channels with TROX-1. In vitro, TROX-1, in contrast to state-independent antagonist Prialt, preferentially inhibits Ca(v)2.2 currents in rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons under depolarized conditions. In vivo electrophysiology was performed to record from deep dorsal horn lamina V/VI wide dynamic range neurons in non-sentient spinal nerve-ligated (SNL) and sham-operated rats. In SNL rats, spinal neurons exhibited reduced responses to innocuous and noxious punctate mechanical stimulation of the receptive field following subcutaneous administration of TROX-1, an effect that was absent in sham-operated animals. No effect was observed on neuronal responses evoked by dynamic brushing, heat or cold stimulation in SNL or sham rats. The wind-up response of spinal neurons following repeated electrical stimulation of the receptive field was also unaffected. Spinally applied TROX-1 dose dependently inhibited mechanically evoked neuronal responses in SNL but not sham-operated rats, consistent with behavioral observations. This study confirms the pathological state-dependent actions of TROX-1 through a likely spinal mechanism and reveals a modality selective change in calcium channel function following nerve injury. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy study of CaV1-xMoxO3-δ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyakov, S. A.; Kuznetsov, M. V.; Shkerin, S. N.

    2018-06-01

    An investigation was carried out on perovskite-based derivatives of CaV1-xMoxO3-δ using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). According to the XRD pattern, the area of homogeneity covers the region from x = 0 to x = 0.6. Wide XPS-peaks of Ca, V, Mo and O are observed, signalling that elements are presented in multiple states. A model for explaining the large chemical shifts of XPS peaks due to different charging effects on different parts of the sample surface is proposed.

  15. A Ca(v)3.2/Stac1 molecular complex controls T-type channel expression at the plasma membrane

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rzhepetskyy, Yuriy; Lazniewska, Joanna; Proft, Juliane; Campiglio, M.; Flucher, B. E.; Weiss, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 5 (2016), s. 346-354 ISSN 1933-6950 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-13556S; GA MŠk 7AMB15FR015 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Ca(v)3 * 2 channel * Stac adaptor protein * trafficking * T-type calcium channel Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.042, year: 2016

  16. The Aqueous Extract of Gynura divaricata (L. DC. Improves Glucose and Lipid Metabolism and Ameliorates Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinnan Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a chronic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia caused by impaired insulin secretion and resistance of the peripheral tissues. A major pathogenesis of T2DM is obesity-associated insulin resistance. Gynura divaricata (L. DC. (GD is a natural plant and has been reported to have numerous health-promoting effects on both animals and humans. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the regulatory mechanism of GD improving glucose and lipid metabolism in an obesity animal model induced by high-fat and high-sugar diet in combination with low dose of streptozocin and an insulin-resistant HepG2 cell model induced by dexamethasone. The study showed that the water extract of GD (GD extract A could significantly reduce fasting serum glucose, reverse dyslipidemia and pancreatic damage, and regulate the body weight of mice. We also found that GD extract A had low toxicity in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, GD extract A may increase glucose consumption in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells, markedly inhibit NF-κB activation, and decrease the impairment in signaling molecules of insulin pathway, such as IRS-1, AKT, and GLUT1. Overall, the results indicate that GD extract A is a promising candidate for the prevention and treatment of T2DM.

  17. Técnicas De Comprensión Lectora En El Área De Lengua Y Literatura, Y Su Influencia En Los Procesos De Aprendizaje De Los Estudiantes De Educación Básica Elemental En La Escuela Dr. Oswaldo Hurtado Larrea Del Cantón Milagro

    OpenAIRE

    Astudillo Erazo, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    This research is a didactic-pedagogical compendium prepared to implement in the learning process of students SCHOOL DR. OSWALDO HURTADO LARREA CANTON MIRACLE, confident that the implementation of these strategies will develop significant learning basic skills specified in the Upgrading and Strengthening Curriculum of General Basic Education, and thinking that it is inscribed within the broader criterion of recreational endeavor Good Live. The methodological strategies are teaching guidel...

  18. Interaction between amiodarone and hepatitis-C virus nucleotide inhibitors in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and HEK-293 Cav1.2 over-expressing cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagrutta, Armando; Zeng, Haoyu; Imredy, John; Balasubramanian, Bharathi; Dech, Spencer; Lis, Edward; Wang, Jixin; Zhai, Jin; DeGeorge, Joseph; Sannajust, Frederick

    2016-10-01

    Several clinical cases of severe bradyarrhythmias have been reported upon co-administration of the Hepatitis-C NS5B Nucleotide Polymerase Inhibitor (HCV-NI) direct-acting antiviral agent, sofosbuvir (SOF), and the Class-III anti-arrhythmic amiodarone (AMIO). We model the cardiac drug-drug interaction (DDI) between AMIO and SOF, and between AMIO and a closely-related SOF analog, MNI-1 (Merck Nucleotide Inhibitor #1), in functional assays of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs), to provide mechanistic insights into recently reported clinical cases. AMIO co-applied with SOF or MNI-1 increased beating rate or field potential (FP) rate and decreased impedance (IMP) and Ca(2+) transient amplitudes in hiPSC-CM syncytia. This action resembled that of Ca(2+) channel blockers (CCBs) in the model, but CCBs did not substitute for AMIO in the DDI. AMIO analog dronedarone (DRON) did not substitute for, but competed with AMIO in the DDI. Ryanodine and thapsigargin, decreasing intracellular Ca(2+) stores, and SEA-0400, a Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger-1 (NCX1) inhibitor, partially antagonized or suppressed DDI effects. Other agents affecting FP rate only exerted additive or subtractive effects, commensurate with their individual effects. We also describe an interaction between AMIO and MNI-1 on Cav1.2 ion channels in an over-expressing HEK-293 cell line. MNI-1 enhanced Cav1.2 channel inhibition by AMIO, but did not affect inhibition of Cav1.2 by DRON, verapamil, nifedipine, or diltiazem. Our data in hiPSC-CMs indicate that HCV-NI agents such as SOF and MNI-1 interact with key intracellular Ca(2+)-handling mechanisms. Additional study in a Cav1.2 HEK-293 cell-line suggests that HCV-NIs potentiate the inhibitory action of AMIO on L-type Ca(2+) channels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical Evidence of Increase in Hair Growth and Decrease in Hair Loss without Adverse Reactions Promoted by the Commercial Lotion ECOHAIR®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, María Rosario; Anesini, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Hair exerts protection, sensory functions, thermoregulation, and sexual attractiveness. Hair loss (alopecia) is caused by several diseases, drug intake, hormone imbalance, stress, and infections (Malassesia furfur). Drugs usually used in alopecia produce irreversible systemic and local side effects. An association of extracts of Coffea arabica and Larrea divaricata (ECOHAIR®) is successfully being commercialized in Argentina for hair growth. The aim of this study was to provide scientific support for the efficacy and innocuousness of ECOHAIR® in patients with noncicatricial alopecia during a 3-month treatment. The efficacy was determined through the assessment of an increase in hair volume, improvement in hair looks, growth of new hair, and a decrease in hair loss by the test of hair count and hair traction. The capacity to decrease the amount of dandruff was also evaluated as well as the adverse local effects caused by the treatment. ECOHAIR® spray improved the overall hair volume and appearance; it increased its thickness, induced hair growth, and decreased hair loss. Besides, no adverse local reactions were observed upon treatment with the product. This study provides scientific support for the clinical use of ECOHAIR® as a treatment to be used in noncicatricial alopecia. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Integrating Emerging Data Sources into Operational Practice: Capabilities and Limitations of Devices to Collect, Compile, Save, and Share Messages from CAVs and Connected Travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    Connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) and connected travelers will be providing substantially increased levels of data which will be available for agencies to consider using to improve the management and operation of the surface transportation syst...

  1. Milla biflora Cav.-seeds, harvest and germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał W. Borys

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Milla biflora Cav. is one of six species of this genus reported to be present in Mexico. To determine the present and potential seed production of this plant, the following characteristics were studied: the number of flowers per scape, the frequencies of scape with defined number of flower per scape, the conversion of flowers into capsules, the capsule size, seed numbers, average seed size per capsule. Samplings were taken from the natural stands and evaluation of the respective attributes was done in plants growing in germplasm colIection belonging to the University UPAEP. The number of flowers ranged from 1 to 10 per scape, with 90,6% of scapes giving from 1 to 6 flowers. The capsules were formed from flowers in the following proportions: in scapes with one flower - 13,64%, in scapes with 3 flowers - 48,21%, in scapes with four or more flowers - 60%; 67,80 of capsules gave from 60 to 140 seeds; 45% of seeds had the average size from 1,81 to 2,20 mg. The mean weight of 1000 seeds was 1937.2 mg. The seeds germinated during 7 days in water, in 88 to 100%. The plant emergence from soil sown seeds ranged from 41,4 to lOO %. The seeds have not lost the germination ability after 2 years of storage at room conditions.

  2. Reversal of Neuropathic Pain in Diabetes by Targeting Glycosylation of Cav3.2 T-Type Calcium Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Orestes, Peihan; Osuru, Hari Prasad; McIntire, William E.; Jacus, Megan O.; Salajegheh, Reza; Jagodic, Miljen M.; Choe, WonJoo; Lee, JeongHan; Lee, Sang-Soo; Rose, Kirstin E.; Poiro, Nathan; DiGruccio, Michael R.; Krishnan, Katiresan; Covey, Douglas F.; Lee, Jung-Ha

    2013-01-01

    It has been established that CaV3.2 T-type voltage-gated calcium channels (T-channels) play a key role in the sensitized (hyperexcitable) state of nociceptive sensory neurons (nociceptors) in response to hyperglycemia associated with diabetes, which in turn can be a basis for painful symptoms of peripheral diabetic neuropathy (PDN). Unfortunately, current treatment for painful PDN has been limited by nonspecific systemic drugs with significant side effects or potential for abuse. We studied i...

  3. Modulation of CaV1.2 calcium channel by neuropeptide W regulates vascular myogenic tone via G protein-coupled receptor 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Li; Zhu, Huayuan; Chen, Hong; Fan, Wenyong; Chen, Junjie; Chen, Jing; Zhu, Guoqing; Wang, Juejin

    2015-12-01

    Neuropeptide W (NPW), an endogenous ligand for the G protein-coupled receptor 7 (GPR7), was first found to make important roles in central nerve system. In periphery, NPW was also present and regulated intracellular calcium homeostasis by L-type calcium channels. This study was designed to discover the effects of NPW-GPR7 on the function of CaV1.2 calcium channels in the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and vasotone of arterial vessels. By whole-cell patch clamp, we studied the effects of NPW-23, the active form of NPW, on the CaV1.2 channels in the heterologously transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells and VSMCs isolated from rat. Living system was used to explore the physiological function of NPW-23 in arterial myogenic tone. To investigate the pathological relevance, NPW mRNA level of mesenteric arteries was measured in the hypertensive and normotensive rats. NPW's receptor GPR7 was coexpressed with CaV1.2 channels in arterial smooth muscle. NPW-23 increased the ICa,L in transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells and VSMCs via GPR7, which could be abrogated by phospholipase C (PLC)/protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors, not protein kinase A or protein kinase G inhibitor. After NPW-23 application, the expression of pan phospho-PKC was increased; moreover, intracellular diacylglycerol level, the second messenger catalyzed by PLC, was increased 1.5-2-fold. Application with NPW-23 increased pressure-induced vasotone of the rat mesenteric arteries. Importantly, the expression of NPW was decreased in the hypertensive rats. NPW-23 regulates ICa,L via GPR7, which is mediated by PLC/PKC signaling, and such a mechanism plays a role in modulating vascular myogenic tone, which may involve in the development of vascular hypertension.

  4. Tolerância à inundação: aspectos da anatomia ecológica e do desenvolvimento de Sesbania virgata (Cav. Pers. (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane M. Davanso-Fabro

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de Sebania virgata (Cav. Pers. (Fabaceae cultivadas em casa de vegetação foram alagadas por 40 dias. Plantas alagadas apresentaram aumento do peso da matéria seca e comprimento, acentuadas rachaduras corticais e intumescimento cortical esponjoso em caules e raízes, raízes superficiais e raízes adventícias. É possível que a plasticidade morfo-anatômica apresentada por esta espécie esteja contribuindo para o seu estabelecimento em solos hipóxicos.Twenty days seedlings of Sesbania virgata (Cav. Pers. (Fabaceae cultivated in green house were flooded by forty days. Flooded plants presented increasing of dry weight and lenght, evident cortical fissures and spongy cortical swelling on the stem basis and root, superficial roots on the soil and adventitious roots. It is possible that the morpho-anatomic plasticity presented by this specie is contribuiting for its hipoxic soils stablishment.

  5. DIFFERENT SUBSTRATA EFFECTS IN THE GERMINATION OF Ochroma pyramidale (CAV. EX LAM. URB. (BOMBACACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrízia de Oliveira Alvino

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to analyze the effect of different substrata in the germination of Ochroma pyramidale (Cav. ex Lam. Urb. (Bombacaceae. The experiment was conducted in delineation randomized with three treatments (substratum and four repetitions of 25 seeds. The following substrata had been tested: sand + vermiculite (1:1; vermiculite and, sand + shavings (1:1. The effect of substrata through the percentage of germination of the seeds, average time of germination and index of germination speed (IGS were evaluated. There had been significant difference between the treatments in of all the observed variable. The seeds, when conditioned in vermiculite, had presented the biggest tax of germination, greatest speed and lowest germination time.

  6. Cortical synaptic transmission in CaV2.1 knockin mice with the S218L missense mutation which causes a severe familial hemiplegic migraine syndrome in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dania eVecchia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1 is caused by gain-of-function mutations in CaV2.1 (P/Q-type Ca2+ channels. Knockin (KI mice carrying the FHM1 R192Q missense mutation show enhanced cortical excitatory synaptic transmission at pyramidal cell synapses but unaltered cortical inhibitory neurotransmission at fast-spiking interneuron synapses. Enhanced cortical glutamate release was shown to cause the facilitation of cortical spreading depression (CSD in R192Q KI mice. It, however, remains unknown how other FHM1 mutations affect cortical synaptic transmission. Here, we studied neurotransmission in cortical neurons in microculture from KI mice carrying the S218L mutation, which causes a severe FHM syndrome in humans and an allele-dosage dependent facilitation of experimental CSD in KI mice, which is larger than that caused by the R192Q mutation. We show gain-of-function of excitatory neurotransmission, due to increased action-potential evoked Ca2+ influx and increased probability of glutamate release at pyramidal cell synapses, but unaltered inhibitory neurotransmission at multipolar interneuron synapses in S218L KI mice. In contrast with the larger gain-of-function of neuronal CaV2.1 current in homozygous than heterozygous S218L KI mice, the gain-of-function of evoked glutamate release, the paired-pulse ratio and the Ca2+ dependence of the EPSC were all similar in homozygous and heterozygous S218L KI mice, suggesting compensatory changes in the homozygous mice. Furthermore, we reveal a unique feature of S218L KI cortical synapses which is the presence of a fraction of mutant CaV2.1 channels being open at resting potential. Our data suggest that, while the gain-of-function of evoked glutamate release may explain the facilitation of CSD in heterozygous S218L KI mice, the further facilitation of CSD in homozygous S218L KI mice is due to other CaV2.1-dependent mechanisms, that likely include Ca2+ influx at voltages sub-threshold for action

  7. Abnormal cortical synaptic transmission in CaV2.1 knockin mice with the S218L missense mutation which causes a severe familial hemiplegic migraine syndrome in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchia, Dania; Tottene, Angelita; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M.J.M.; Pietrobon, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1) is caused by gain-of-function mutations in CaV2.1 (P/Q-type) Ca2+ channels. Knockin (KI) mice carrying the FHM1 R192Q missense mutation show enhanced cortical excitatory synaptic transmission at pyramidal cell synapses but unaltered cortical inhibitory neurotransmission at fast-spiking interneuron synapses. Enhanced cortical glutamate release was shown to cause the facilitation of cortical spreading depression (CSD) in R192Q KI mice. It, however, remains unknown how other FHM1 mutations affect cortical synaptic transmission. Here, we studied neurotransmission in cortical neurons in microculture from KI mice carrying the S218L mutation, which causes a severe FHM syndrome in humans and an allele-dosage dependent facilitation of experimental CSD in KI mice, which is larger than that caused by the R192Q mutation. We show gain-of-function of excitatory neurotransmission, due to increased action-potential evoked Ca2+ influx and increased probability of glutamate release at pyramidal cell synapses, but unaltered inhibitory neurotransmission at multipolar interneuron synapses in S218L KI mice. In contrast with the larger gain-of-function of neuronal CaV2.1 current in homozygous than heterozygous S218L KI mice, the gain-of-function of evoked glutamate release, the paired-pulse ratio and the Ca2+ dependence of the excitatory postsynaptic current were similar in homozygous and heterozygous S218L KI mice, suggesting compensatory changes in the homozygous mice. Furthermore, we reveal a unique feature of S218L KI cortical synapses which is the presence of a fraction of mutant CaV2.1 channels being open at resting potential. Our data suggest that, while the gain-of-function of evoked glutamate release may explain the facilitation of CSD in heterozygous S218L KI mice, the further facilitation of CSD in homozygous S218L KI mice is due to other CaV2.1-dependent mechanisms, that likely include Ca2+ influx at voltages sub-threshold for action

  8. Performance measurement evaluation framework and co-benefit / tradeoff analysis for connected and automated vehicles (CAV) applications : a survey : a research report from the National Center for Sustainable Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    A number of Connected and/or Automated Vehicle (CAV) applications have recently been designed to improve the performance of our transportation system. Safety, mobility and environmental sustainability are three cornerstone performance metrics when ev...

  9. Ciclo de vida de Pellaea ternifolia (Cav. Link subsp. ternifolia (Pteridaceae-Polypodiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Huerta-Zavala

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el ciclo de vida dePellaea ternifolia(Cav. Link subsp.ternifolia. Los especímenes fueron recolectados en un bosque dePinusperturbado en San Miguel de los Alcanfores, municipio de Tlaxco, Tlaxcala, México. Las esporas fueron sembradas en vasos de unicel de 262 ml con cerámica (barro molido, piedra de río, tela de mosquitero y tres soportes de cultivo (tierra, maquique y musgo, todo previamente esterilizado y cerrado con plástico y alambre de cobre. El ciclo fue isospórico con desarrollo del protalo tipoAdiantum. En la fase cordada se apreciaron gametófitos con anteridios y arquegonio en una proporción cercana al 70% y el otro 30% fueron gametófitos apogámicos. Los esporófitos jóvenes se obtuvieron a partir de los 63 días.

  10. [Temporal diversity dynamics of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi of Larrea tridentata (Sesse & Mocino ex DC) Coville in a semi-arid ecosystem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Zamudio, Genoveva; Sáenz-Mata, Jorge; Moreno-Reséndez, Alejandro; Castañeda-Gaytán, Gamaliel; Ogaz, Alfredo; Carballar-Hernández, Santos; Hernández-Cuevas, Laura

    2017-12-06

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) of arid and semiarid ecosystems are important for the development of plants that grow under biotic stress in wild or in agro-ecosystems. There is little information on the temporal diversity of these organisms in perennial plants from arid ecosystems in northern Mexico. On this study, the mycorrhizal colonization and the temporal diversity of AMF in the rhizosphere of Larrea tridentata, perennial plant abundant in the Chihuahuan Desert region were explored. Samples of the rhizosphere and roots of fifteen plants in each of the three sampling dates during the 2015 year were obtained. A total of 17 species of HMA belonging to 12 genera and 7 families within the phylum Glomeromycota in all three sampling dates were found. Funneliformis geosporum was the dominant species belonging to the family Glomeraceae which possess the highest genera number on L. tridentata. The highest mycorrhization percentage was in February with 83.22, followed by September and May with 75.27 and 65.27%, respectively. A maximum of 16 AM fungal species were isolated and identified from L. tridentata rhizosphere in February, 15 species in May and 12 species in September. Statistical analysis showed significant differences between sampling dates in the spores number. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) resin increases water demands and reduces energy availability in desert woodrats (Neotoma lepida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangione, Antonio M; Dearing, M Denise; Karasov, William H

    2004-07-01

    Although many plant secondary compounds are known to have serious consequences for herbivores, the costs of processing them are generally unknown. Two potential costs of ingestion and detoxification of secondary compounds are elevation of the minimum drinking water requirement and excretion of energetically expensive metabolites (i.e., glucuronides) in the urine. To address these impacts, we studied the costs of ingestion of resin from creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) on desert woodrats (Neotoma lepida). The following hypotheses were tested: ingestion of creosote resin by woodrats (1) increases minimum water requirement and (2) reduces energy available by increasing fecal and urinary energy losses. We tested the first hypothesis, by measuring the minimum water requirement of woodrats fed a control diet with and without creosote resin. Drinking water was given in decreasing amounts until woodrats could no longer maintain constant body mass. In two separate experiments, the minimum drinking water requirement of woodrats fed resin was higher than that of controls by 18-30% (about 1-1.7 ml/d). We tested several potential mechanisms of increased water loss associated with the increase in water requirement. The rate of fecal water loss was higher in woodrats consuming resin. Neither urinary water nor evaporative water loss was affected by ingestion of resin. Hypothesis 2 was tested by measuring energy fluxes of woodrats consuming control vs. resin-treated diets. Woodrats on a resin diet had higher urinary energy losses and, thus, metabolized a lower proportion of the dietary energy than did woodrats on control diet. Fecal energy excretion was not affected by resin. The excretion of glucuronic acid represented almost half of the energy lost as a consequence of resin ingestion. The increased water requirement and energy losses of woodrats consuming a diet with resin could have notable ecological consequences.

  12. Ploidy race distributions since the Last Glacial Maximum in the North American desert shrub, Larrea tridentata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, K.L.; Betancourt, J.L.; Riddle, B.R.; Van Devender, T. R.; Cole, K.L.; Geoffrey, Spaulding W.

    2000-01-01

    1 A classic biogeographic pattern is the alignment of diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid races of creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) across the Chihuahuan, Sonoran and Mohave Deserts of western North America. We used statistically robust differences in guard cell size of modern plants and fossil leaves from packrat middens to map current and past distributions of these ploidy races since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). 2 Glacial/early Holocene (26-10 14C kyr BP or thousands of radiocarbon years before present) populations included diploids along the lower Rio Grande of west Texas, 650 km removed from sympatric diploids and tetraploids in the lower Colorado River Basin of south-eastern California/south-western Arizona. Diploids migrated slowly from lower Rio Grande refugia with expansion into the northern Chihuahuan Desert sites forestalled until after ???4.0 14C kyr BP. Tetraploids expanded from the lower Colorado River Basin into the northern limits of the Sonoran Desert in central Arizona by 6.4 14C kyr BP. Hexaploids appeared by 8.5 14C kyr BP in the lower Colorado River Basin, reaching their northernmost limits (???37??N) in the Mohave Desert between 5.6 and 3.9 14C kyr BP. 3 Modern diploid isolates may have resulted from both vicariant and dispersal events. In central Baja California and the lower Colorado River Basin, modern diploids probably originated from relict populations near glacial refugia. Founder events in the middle and late Holocene established diploid outposts on isolated limestone outcrops in areas of central and southern Arizona dominated by tetraploid populations. 4 Geographic alignment of the three ploidy races along the modern gradient of increasingly drier and hotter summers is clearly a postglacial phenomenon, but evolution of both higher ploidy races must have happened before the Holocene. The exact timing and mechanism of polyploidy evolution in creosote bush remains a matter of conjecture. ?? 2001 Blackwell Science Ltd.

  13. Initial impacts and field validation of host range for Boreioglycaspis melaleucae Moore (Hemiptera: Psyllidae),a biological control agent of the invasive tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) Blake (Myrtales: Myrtaceae: Leptosp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasion of south Florida wetlands by the Australian paperbark tree (“melaleuca”), Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T. Blake (melaleuca) has caused adverse economic and environmental impacts. The tree’s biological attributes along with favorable ambient biophysical conditions combine to complicate ...

  14. CACNA1H missense mutations associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis alter Ca(v)3.2 T-type calcium channel activity and reticular thalamic neuron firing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rzhepetskyy, Yuriy; Lazniewska, Joanna; Blesneac, I.; Pamphlett, R.; Weiss, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 6 (2016), s. 466-477 ISSN 1933-6950 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-13556S; GA MŠk 7AMB15FR015 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : ALS * amyotrophic lateral sclerosis * biophysics * CACNA1H * Ca(v)3 * 2 channel Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.042, year: 2016

  15. Interaction between amiodarone and hepatitis-C virus nucleotide inhibitors in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and HEK-293 Cav{sub 1.2} over-expressing cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagrutta, Armando, E-mail: armando_lagrutta@merck.com; Zeng, Haoyu; Imredy, John; Balasubramanian, Bharathi; Dech, Spencer; Lis, Edward; Wang, Jixin; Zhai, Jin; DeGeorge, Joseph; Sannajust, Frederick

    2016-10-01

    Several clinical cases of severe bradyarrhythmias have been reported upon co-administration of the Hepatitis-C NS5B Nucleotide Polymerase Inhibitor (HCV-NI) direct-acting antiviral agent, sofosbuvir (SOF), and the Class-III anti-arrhythmic amiodarone (AMIO). We model the cardiac drug-drug interaction (DDI) between AMIO and SOF, and between AMIO and a closely-related SOF analog, MNI-1 (Merck Nucleotide Inhibitor #1), in functional assays of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs), to provide mechanistic insights into recently reported clinical cases. AMIO co-applied with SOF or MNI-1 increased beating rate or field potential (FP) rate and decreased impedance (IMP) and Ca{sup 2+} transient amplitudes in hiPSC-CM syncytia. This action resembled that of Ca{sup 2+} channel blockers (CCBs) in the model, but CCBs did not substitute for AMIO in the DDI. AMIO analog dronedarone (DRON) did not substitute for, but competed with AMIO in the DDI. Ryanodine and thapsigargin, decreasing intracellular Ca{sup 2+} stores, and SEA-0400, a Na{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+} exchanger-1 (NCX1) inhibitor, partially antagonized or suppressed DDI effects. Other agents affecting FP rate only exerted additive or subtractive effects, commensurate with their individual effects. We also describe an interaction between AMIO and MNI-1 on Cav{sub 1.2} ion channels in an over-expressing HEK-293 cell line. MNI-1 enhanced Cav{sub 1.2} channel inhibition by AMIO, but did not affect inhibition of Cav{sub 1.2} by DRON, verapamil, nifedipine, or diltiazem. Our data in hiPSC-CMs indicate that HCV-NI agents such as SOF and MNI-1 interact with key intracellular Ca{sup 2+}-handling mechanisms. Additional study in a Cav{sub 1.2} HEK-293 cell-line suggests that HCV-NIs potentiate the inhibitory action of AMIO on L-type Ca{sup 2+} channels. - Highlights: • Adverse clinical interaction between amiodarone and HCV-NI drugs is captured by in vitro models. • Human iPSC-derived cardiomyocyte

  16. The development of a droplet-vitrification method to conserve Vitis collections in the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System and UDESC-CAV Santa Catarina State University in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both the United States and Brazil maintain vast collections of grape genetic resources. We share a common interest in using cryopreservation methods for the secure, long-term back-up of accessions within these field collections of the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System and UDESC-CAV Santa Cata...

  17. Risks and benefits of commonly used herbal medicines in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Burchiel, Scott W; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; Torres, Eliseo

    2008-02-15

    In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicines that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological, and toxicological properties of the following plant species: nopal (Opuntia ficus), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chaparral (Larrea divaricata), dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), chamomile (Matricaria recutita), nettle or stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), passionflower (Passiflora incarnata), linden flower (Tilia europea), and aloe (Aloe vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified.

  18. Risks and Benefits of Commonly used Herbal Medicines in México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Burchiel, Scott; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; Torres, Eliseo

    2008-01-01

    In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicine that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological and toxicological properties of the following following plant species: Nopal (Opuntia ficus), Peppermint (Mentha piperita), Chaparral (Larrea divaricata), Dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), Mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), Chamomile (Matricaria recutita), Nettle or Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica), Passionflower (Passiflora incarmata), Linden Flower (Tilia europea), and Aloa (Aloa vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified. PMID:18037151

  19. Risks and benefits of commonly used herbal medicines in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Burchiel, Scott W.; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; Torres, Eliseo

    2008-01-01

    In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicines that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological, and toxicological properties of the following plant species: nopal (Opuntia ficus), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chaparral (Larrea divaricata), dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), chamomile (Matricaria recutita), nettle or stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), passionflower (Passiflora incarnata), linden flower (Tilia europea), and aloe (Aloe vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified

  20. Selección preliminar de plantas de arroz con resistencia vertical A pyricularia oryzae Cav por inducción de mutaciones (ING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Cruz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of rice Oryza sativa L. cv. CR-1113 susceptible to blast disease Pyricularia oryzae Cav. Were subjected to gamma radiation with 60Co using doses of 15 and 20 krads to obtain and select mutant plants with vertical resistance to blast. A total of 80.000 rice plants per treatment were individually evaluated in the second mutant generation (M2 at tillering and panicle emergence. Vertical resistance was observed in 47 and 8 plants from the 15 and 20 krads treatments respectively.

  1. Plants and ventifacts delineate late Holocene wind vectors in the Coachella Valley, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, P.G.; Webb, R.H.; Fisher, M.; Muth, Allan

    2009-01-01

    Strong westerly winds that emanate from San Gorgonio Pass, the lowest point between Palm Springs and Los Angeles, California, dominate aeolian transport in the Coachella Valley of the western Sonoran Desert. These winds deposit sand in coppice dunes that are critical habitat for several species, including the state and federally listed threatened species Uma inornata, a lizard. Although wind directions are generally defined in this valley, the wind field has complex interactions with local topography and becomes more variable with distance from the pass. Local, dominant wind directions are preserved by growth patterns of Larrea tridentata (creosote bush), a shrub characteristic of the hot North American deserts, and ventifacts. Exceptionally long-lived, Larrea has the potential to preserve wind direction over centuries to millennia, shaped by the abrasive pruning of windward branches and the persistent training of leeward branches. Wind direction preserved in Larrea individuals and clones was mapped at 192 locations. Compared with wind data from three weather stations, Larrea vectors effectively reflect annual prevailing winds. Ventifacts measured at 24 locations record winds 10° more westerly than Larrea and appear to reflect the direction of the most erosive winds. Based on detailed mapping of local wind directions as preserved in Larrea, only the northern half of the Mission-Morongo Creek floodplain is likely to supply sand to protected U. inornata habitat in the Willow Hole ecological reserve.

  2. Desiccation tolerance of seeds of Bunchosia armenica (Cav. DC.Tolerância à dessecação em sementes de Bunchosia armenica (Cav. DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson de Almeida Cardoso

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The seeds have different behaviors and tolerance to moisture loss. In order to determine desiccation tolerance in seeds of Bunchosia armenia (Cav. DC. (Ameixa-do-Pará was collected a lot of fruits of this species in Areia-PB. After the manual pulping the seeds were exposed to dry on paper towel, under laboratory conditions (22°C and 85% RH and greenhouse (24°C and 80% RH. Treatments consisted of sampling for the determination of water content and seedling emergence tests at baseline and after 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours. The water content was measured by the oven method at 105 ± 3°C for 24 hours using four replicates of 10 seeds for each treatment. The seedling emergence test was conducted in a greenhouse with four replications of 25 seeds. The count of emergence has beenheld every two days, for a period of 35th day and calculated the IVE, length and dry mass of seedlings. The drying of the seeds of B.armenica, in both environments is viable for up to 24 hours; After 24 hours of drying the water content of seeds is reduced from 62.6% to 57%, a level considered critical to the desiccation of the seeds of Ameixa-do-Pará in both environments; Ameixa-do-Pará seeds nuts are dispersed with very high water content, and small reduction in physiological quality compromises their value, allowing the seeds to characterize this species as recalcitrant.As sementes têm comportamentos diferenciados quanto à tolerância à perda de umidade. Com o objetivo de determinar a tolerância à dessecação em sementes de Bunchosia armenica (Cav. DC. (ameixa-dopará foi coletado um lote de frutos desta espécie no município de Areia-PB. Após o despolpamento manual as sementes foram expostas para a secagem, sobre papel toalha, em condições de laboratório (22 ºC e 85% UR e casa de vegetação (24 ºC e 80% UR. Os tratamentos consistiram na amostragem para a determinação do teor de água e testes de emergência de plântulas no início do experimento e ap

  3. EFEITO DE DIFERENTES SUBSTRATOS NA GERMINAÇÃO DE Ochroma pyramidale (CAV. EX LAM. URB. (BOMBACACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Pinto Rayol

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar o efeito de diferentes substratos na germinação de Ochroma pyramidale (Cav. ex Lam. Urb. (Bombacaceae. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos (substratos e quatro repetições de 25 sementes. Foram testados os seguintes substratos: areia + vermiculita (1:1; vermiculita e, areia + serragem (1:1. Foi avaliado o efeito dos substratos pelo percentual de germinação das sementes, tempo médio de germinação e índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG. Houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos em todas as variáveis observadas. As sementes, quando acondicionadas em vermiculita, apresentaram a maior taxa de germinação, maior velocidade e menor tempo de germinação.

  4. GERMINAÇÃO DE SEMENTES E EMERGÊNCIA DE PLÂNTULAS DE Luehea divaricata Mart. et. Zucc. EM DIFERENTES SUBSTRATOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Falcão Dutra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate different substrates on seed germination and seedling emergence of Luehea divaricata . The study was conducted at the Viveiro Florestal, DCFL, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, RS. The fruits were collected from eight mother trees in the Morro Cerrito, Santa Maria, in July 2010. After processing, the seeds were stored in cold storage in paper bags for 4 months for the study of emergence, and 7 months for the evaluation of seed germination. Five substrates were evaluated for germination (T1: Roll paper, T2: On blotting paper, T3: Between blotting paper, T4: On sand: T5: On vermiculite with four replications and four treatments for emergency (T1 : 100% peat, T2: 80% peat and 20% carbonized rice husk, T3: 60% peat and 40% carbonized rice husk, T4: 40% peat and 60% carbonized rice husk with five replicates. We used a randomized experimental design. Analyzed variables were: germination (G, germination speed index (GSI and mean time to germination (TMG in the laboratory, and emergence was analyzed by the percentage of emergency (E, speed of emergence index (SEI and mean emergence time (TME in the nursery. The onset of germination occurred on the 6th day, the first count could be performed at 18 days, and assessments closed 35 days after the experiment. Moreover, the substrate over vermiculite (T5 had the highest percentage of G and IVG, corresponding to 42% and 0,678, respectively, while that T2 had the lowest TMG (14.80 days. The seedling emergence began at 21 days after sowing, being terminated at 70 days. The T1 and T2 showed the highest values of E, 84.37%, 91.87%, respectively, differing from T3 and T4. Furthermore, treatment T2 also showed the higher values of IVE (0.98 and TME (33.54 days. Therefore, the substrate vermiculite is indicated for seeds germination, and for seedling emergence, the substrates 100% peat and the mixture of 80% peat and 20% carbonized rice husk.

  5. CAV-OX (trade name) Cavitation Oxidation Process Magnum Water Technology, Inc. applications analysis report. Report for November 1992-November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stacy, G.L.

    1994-05-01

    The CAV-OX process was developed by magnum Water Technology to destroy organic contaminants in water. The process uses hydrodynamic cavitation, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and hydrogen peroxide to oxidize organic compounds present in water at or below milligrams per liter levels. This treatment technology produces no air emissions and generated no sludge or spent media that requires further processing, handling, or disposal. Ideally, the end products are water, carbon dioxide, halides, and in some cases, organic acids. The process uses mercury vapor lamps to generate UV radiation. The principal oxidants in the process, hydroxyl radicals, are produced by hydrodynamic cavitation and direct photolysis of hydrogen peroxide at UV wavelengths.

  6. Upper canopy pollinators of Eucryphia cordifolia Cav., a tree of South American temperate rain forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Smith-Ramírez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ecological processes in the upper canopy of temperate forests have been seldom studied because of the limited accessibility. Here, we present the results of the first survey of the pollinator assemblage and the frequency of insect visits to flowers in the upper branches of ulmo, Eucryphia cordifolia Cav., an emergent 30-40 m-tall tree in rainforests of Chiloé Island, Chile. We compared these findings with a survey of flower visitors restricted to lower branches of E. cordifolia 1- in the forest understory, 2- in lower branches in an agroforestry area. We found 10 species of pollinators in canopy, and eight, 12 and 15 species in understory, depending of tree locations. The main pollinators of E. cordifolia in the upper canopy differed significantly from the pollinator assemblage recorded in lower tree branches. We conclude that the pollinator assemblages of the temperate forest canopy and interior are still unknown.

  7. Analysis of Volatile Compounds from Solanumbetaceum Cav. Fruits from Panama by Head-Space Micro Extraction

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    Armando A. Durant

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of the volatile compounds of two varieties of Solanum betaceum Cav. by means of headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ( GC-MS i s presented. The HS-SPME method for extraction of the volatiles compounds was optimized by using a 2 3 central composite design. Maximum extraction of volatile compounds was achieved by using a divinylbenzene-carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber, extraction temperature 76° C, incubation time 44 min, and extraction time of 46 min. The main types of compounds detected in both varieties are terpenoids, followed by aromatics, esters, and aldehydes. Golden-yellow cultivars contained higher levels of esters and terpenes, while the reddish-purple variety contained a significant amount of aromatic compounds. The data structure of the chemical information obtained as well as the relationship between variables was evaluated by means of principal component analysis and cluster analysis.

  8. Neo-clerodane and abietane diterpenoids with neurotrophic activities from the aerial parts of Salvia leucantha Cav.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lai-Wei; Qi, Yan-Yan; Liu, Shi-Xi; Wu, Xing-De; Zhao, Qin-Shi

    2018-04-04

    Four new neoclerodane diterpenoids, leucansalvialins FI (1-4), and one rare 18(4 → 3)-abeo-abietane diterpenoid, leucansalvialin J (5), were isolated from the aerial part of Salvia leucantha Cav., along with 14 known analogues. Leucansalvialin F (1) represents the first rearranged salvigenane type clerodane-17,12:18,6-diolide. Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data analysis, and the absolute configurations of 1, 2, 3, and 5 were determinded by X-ray diffraction crystal analysis and the ECD technique. All of the isolated components were evaluated for their neurotrophic activities on PC12 cells and all new compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against five human cancer cell lines (HL-60, A-549, SMMC-7721, MCF-7, and SW480). Compounds 2 and 5 showed moderate neuroprotective effects in an in vitro assay. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. A Viral Receptor Complementation Strategy to Overcome CAV-2 Tropism for Efficient Retrograde Targeting of Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Jing; Vaughan, Alexander; Sturgill, James Fitzhugh; Kepecs, Adam

    2018-06-06

    Retrogradely transported neurotropic viruses enable genetic access to neurons based on their long-range projections and have become indispensable tools for linking neural connectivity with function. A major limitation of viral techniques is that they rely on cell-type-specific molecules for uptake and transport. Consequently, viruses fail to infect variable subsets of neurons depending on the complement of surface receptors expressed (viral tropism). We report a receptor complementation strategy to overcome this by potentiating neurons for the infection of the virus of interest-in this case, canine adenovirus type-2 (CAV-2). We designed AAV vectors for expressing the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) throughout candidate projection neurons. CAR expression greatly increased retrograde-labeling rates, which we demonstrate for several long-range projections, including some resistant to other retrograde-labeling techniques. Our results demonstrate a receptor complementation strategy to abrogate endogenous viral tropism and thereby facilitate efficient retrograde targeting for functional analysis of neural circuits. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Burst activity and ultrafast activation kinetics of CaV1.3 Ca²⁺ channels support presynaptic activity in adult gerbil hair cell ribbon synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampini, Valeria; Johnson, Stuart L; Franz, Christoph; Knipper, Marlies; Holley, Matthew C; Magistretti, Jacopo; Masetto, Sergio; Marcotti, Walter

    2013-08-15

    Auditory information transfer to afferent neurons relies on precise triggering of neurotransmitter release at the inner hair cell (IHC) ribbon synapses by Ca²⁺ entry through CaV1.3 Ca²⁺ channels. Despite the crucial role of CaV1.3 Ca²⁺ channels in governing synaptic vesicle fusion, their elementary properties in adult mammals remain unknown. Using near-physiological recording conditions we investigated Ca²⁺ channel activity in adult gerbil IHCs. We found that Ca²⁺ channels are partially active at the IHC resting membrane potential (-60 mV). At -20 mV, the large majority (>70%) of Ca²⁺ channel first openings occurred with an estimated delay of about 50 μs in physiological conditions, with a mean open time of 0.5 ms. Similar to other ribbon synapses, Ca²⁺ channels in IHCs showed a low mean open probability (0.21 at -20 mV), but this increased significantly (up to 0.91) when Ca²⁺ channel activity switched to a bursting modality. We propose that IHC Ca²⁺ channels are sufficiently rapid to transmit fast signals of sound onset and support phase-locking. Short-latency Ca²⁺ channel opening coupled to multivesicular release would ensure precise and reliable signal transmission at the IHC ribbon synapse.

  11. A Recurrent Mutation in CACNA1G Alters Cav3.1 T-Type Calcium-Channel Conduction and Causes Autosomal-Dominant Cerebellar Ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutelier, Marie; Blesneac, Iulia; Monteil, Arnaud; Monin, Marie-Lorraine; Ando, Kunie; Mundwiller, Emeline; Brusco, Alfredo; Le Ber, Isabelle; Anheim, Mathieu; Castrioto, Anna; Duyckaerts, Charles; Brice, Alexis; Durr, Alexandra; Lory, Philippe; Stevanin, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary cerebellar ataxias (CAs) are neurodegenerative disorders clinically characterized by a cerebellar syndrome, often accompanied by other neurological or non-neurological signs. All transmission modes have been described. In autosomal-dominant CA (ADCA), mutations in more than 30 genes are implicated, but the molecular diagnosis remains unknown in about 40% of cases. Implication of ion channels has long been an ongoing topic in the genetics of CA, and mutations in several channel genes have been recently connected to ADCA. In a large family affected by ADCA and mild pyramidal signs, we searched for the causative variant by combining linkage analysis and whole-exome sequencing. In CACNA1G, we identified a c.5144G>A mutation, causing an arginine-to-histidine (p.Arg1715His) change in the voltage sensor S4 segment of the T-type channel protein Cav3.1. Two out of 479 index subjects screened subsequently harbored the same mutation. We performed electrophysiological experiments in HEK293T cells to compare the properties of the p.Arg1715His and wild-type Cav3.1 channels. The current-voltage and the steady-state activation curves of the p.Arg1715His channel were shifted positively, whereas the inactivation curve had a higher slope factor. Computer modeling in deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN) neurons suggested that the mutation results in decreased neuronal excitability. Taken together, these data establish CACNA1G, which is highly expressed in the cerebellum, as a gene whose mutations can cause ADCA. This is consistent with the neuropathological examination, which showed severe Purkinje cell loss. Our study further extends our knowledge of the link between calcium channelopathies and CAs. PMID:26456284

  12. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of the essential oils of Lavandula pedunculata (Miller) Cav.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuzarte, Monica; Gonçalves, Maria J; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Dinis, Augusto M; Canhoto, Jorge M; Salgueiro, Lígia R

    2009-08-01

    The chemical composition and antifungal activity of the essential oils of Lavandula pedunculata (Miller) Cav., harvested in North and Central Portugal, were investigated. The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The minimal-inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal-lethal concentration (MLC) of the essential oils and of their major constituents were used to evaluate the antifungal activity against different strains of fungi involved in candidosis, dematophytosis, and aspergillosis. The oils were characterized by a high percentage of oxygenated monoterpenes, the main compounds being 1,8-cineole (2.4-55.5%), fenchone (1.3-59.7%), and camphor (3.6-48.0%). Statistical analysis differentiated the essential oils into two main types, one characterized by the predominance of fenchone and the other one by the predominance of 1,8-cineole. Within the 1,8-cineole chemotype, two subgroups were well-defined taking into account the percentages of camphor. A significant antifungal activity of the oils was found against dermatophyte strains. The essential oil with the highest content of camphor was the most active with MIC and MLC values ranging from 0.32-0.64 microl/ml.

  13. Optimalisation de l'extraction d'ADN génomique de la morelle jaune (Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav., une plante invasive des milieux cultivés en région méditerranéenne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ripoll, J.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of the genomic DNA extraction method of silverleaf nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav., an invasive plant in the cultivated areas within the Mediterranean region. The geographical origin of an invasive plant in the cultivated area within the Mediterranean region, silverleaf nightshade, Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. (Solanaceae should be identified through the analysis of genetic similarities between native and introduced populations using microsatellite markers. Beforehand, an effective and less costly method for extracting genomic DNA from dehydrated and polysaccharide-rich leaves was investigated. The original Doyle's protocol based on the use of a cationic detergent, CTAB, was successfully optimized in order to extract high quality DNA (A260/280 ratio of 1.8; A260/230 ratio of 1.7 to 2. The DNA yields obtained with this new protocol were higher than those obtained with a commercial kit, although quality of the DNA extracted was comparable. The improvement of the protocol was further proven by the amplification of several microsatellite loci first developed in eggplant, Solanum melongena L.

  14. Tagetes lucida Cav.: Ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of its tranquilizing properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ortega, G; González-Trujano, M E; Ángeles-López, G E; Brindis, F; Vibrans, H; Reyes-Chilpa, R

    2016-04-02

    Morelos State is one of the most important regions of Mexico where several plant species are used in traditional medicine to influence central nervous system (CNS) activity; for example Tagetes lucida Cav. To investigate the ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of the tranquilizing properties of T. lucida aerial parts. Data on the medicinal uses of T. lucida were explored by interviewing healers and merchants of local markets in different regions of Morelos State by using a questionnaire. Anxiolytic and/or sedative-like responses of the T. lucida were investigated in experimental models in mice such as: open-field, exploration cylinder, hole-board, plus-maze, and the barbituric-induced hypnosis potentiation. The possible mechanism of action was explored in the presence of WAY100635 (0.32mg/kg, i.p.) and flumazenil (10mg/kg, i.p.) antagonists. A feasible active compound was isolated and identified by using conventional chromatography, including UHPLC and MS (DART) [M+H]+ techniques. Interviews of healers and merchants from ten local regions of Morelos State showed that they recommended T. lucida as infusion and as tincture for several culture-bound syndromes associated with the CNS. Anxiolytic and sedative-like activities of polar extracts were corroborated in the experimental models; these effects were inhibited in the presence of 5-HT1A and GABA/BDZ receptor antagonists. Dimethylfraxetin was identified as one possible active compound. The results support the anxiolytic and sedative-like properties of T. lucida in traditional medicine by involving serotonergic and GABAergic neurotransmission and coumarinic constituents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A role for CaV1 and calcineurin signaling in depolarization-induced changes in neuronal DNA methylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eilis Hannon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Direct manipulations of neuronal activity have been shown to induce changes in DNA methylation (DNAm, although little is known about the cellular signaling pathways involved. Using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing, we identify DNAm changes associated with moderate chronic depolarization in dissociated rat hippocampal cultures. Consistent with previous findings, these changes occurred primarily in the vicinity of loci implicated in neuronal function, being enriched in intergenic regions and underrepresented in CpG-rich promoter regulatory regions. We subsequently used 2 pharmacological interventions (nifedipine and FK-506 to test whether the identified changes depended on 2 interrelated signaling pathways known to mediate multiple forms of neuronal plasticity. Both pharmacological manipulations had notable effects on the extent and magnitude of depolarization-induced DNAm changes indicating that a high proportion of activity-induced changes are likely to be mediated by calcium entry through L-type CaV1 channels and/or downstream signaling via the calcium-dependent phosphatase calcineurin.

  16. Manejo y síndromes de domesticación del capulín (Prunus serotina Ehrh ssp. capuli (Cav.) Mc Vaugh) en comunidades del estado de Tlaxcala

    OpenAIRE

    Avendaño-Gómez, Aidé; Lira-Saade, Rafael; Madrigal-Calle, Beatriz; García-Moya, Edmundo; Soto-Hernández, Marcos; Romo de Vivar-Romo, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Existen alrededor de 5000 a 7000 especies de plantas en México en estados evolutivos tempranos e intermedios hasta llegar a los domesticados y un ejemplo es el capulín (Prunus serótina Ehrh ssp. capuli (Cav.) Mc Vaugh) clasificado como domesticado, pero sin estudios sobre los mecanismos de selección e intervención que lo llevaron a este grado de manejo. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este estudio fue describir aspectos etnobotánicos relacionados con el uso, reconocimiento de la variación y el m...

  17. Mutated CaV2.1 channels dysregulate CASK/P2X3 signaling in mouse trigeminal sensory neurons of R192Q Cacna1a knock-in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanasekaran, Aswini; Bele, Tanja; Hullugundi, Swathi; Simonetti, Manuela; Ferrari, Michael D; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M; Nistri, Andrea; Fabbretti, Elsa

    2013-12-02

    ATP-gated P2X3 receptors of sensory ganglion neurons are important transducers of pain as they adapt their expression and function in response to acute and chronic nociceptive signals. The present study investigated the role of calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK) in controlling P2X3 receptor expression and function in trigeminal ganglia from Cacna1a R192Q-mutated knock-in (KI) mice, a genetic model for familial hemiplegic migraine type-1. KI ganglion neurons showed more abundant CASK/P2X3 receptor complex at membrane level, a result that likely originated from gain-of-function effects of R192Q-mutated CaV2.1 channels and downstream enhanced CaMKII activity. The selective CaV2.1 channel blocker ω-Agatoxin IVA and the CaMKII inhibitor KN-93 were sufficient to return CASK/P2X3 co-expression to WT levels. After CASK silencing, P2X3 receptor expression was decreased in both WT and KI ganglia, supporting the role of CASK in P2X3 receptor stabilization. This process was functionally observed as reduced P2X3 receptor currents. We propose that, in trigeminal sensory neurons, the CASK/P2X3 complex has a dynamic nature depending on intracellular calcium and related signaling, that are enhanced in a transgenic mouse model of genetic hemiplegic migraine.

  18. Cytoplasmic location of α1A voltage-gated calcium channel C-terminal fragment (Cav2.1-CTF aggregate is sufficient to cause cell death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Takahashi

    Full Text Available The human α1A voltage-dependent calcium channel (Cav2.1 is a pore-forming essential subunit embedded in the plasma membrane. Its cytoplasmic carboxyl(C-tail contains a small poly-glutamine (Q tract, whose length is normally 4∼19 Q, but when expanded up to 20∼33Q, the tract causes an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder, spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6. A recent study has shown that a 75-kDa C-terminal fragment (CTF containing the polyQ tract remains soluble in normal brains, but becomes insoluble mainly in the cytoplasm with additional localization to the nuclei of human SCA6 Purkinje cells. However, the mechanism by which the CTF aggregation leads to neurodegeneration is completely elusive, particularly whether the CTF exerts more toxicity in the nucleus or in the cytoplasm. We tagged recombinant (rCTF with either nuclear-localization or nuclear-export signal, created doxycyclin-inducible rat pheochromocytoma (PC12 cell lines, and found that the CTF is more toxic in the cytoplasm than in the nucleus, the observations being more obvious with Q28 (disease range than with Q13 (normal-length. Surprisingly, the CTF aggregates co-localized both with cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB and phosphorylated-CREB (p-CREB in the cytoplasm, and Western blot analysis showed that the quantity of CREB and p-CREB were both decreased in the nucleus when the rCTF formed aggregates in the cytoplasm. In human brains, polyQ aggregates also co-localized with CREB in the cytoplasm of SCA6 Purkinje cells, but not in other conditions. Collectively, the cytoplasmic Cav2.1-CTF aggregates are sufficient to cause cell death, and one of the pathogenic mechanisms may be abnormal CREB trafficking in the cytoplasm and reduced CREB and p-CREB levels in the nuclei.

  19. Cytoplasmic Location of α1A Voltage-Gated Calcium Channel C-Terminal Fragment (Cav2.1-CTF) Aggregate Is Sufficient to Cause Cell Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Obayashi, Masato; Ishiguro, Taro; Sato, Nozomu; Niimi, Yusuke; Ozaki, Kokoro; Mogushi, Kaoru; Mahmut, Yasen; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Tsuruta, Fuminori; Dolmetsch, Ricardo; Yamada, Mitsunori; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Kato, Takeo; Mori, Osamu; Eishi, Yoshinobu; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Ishikawa, Kinya

    2013-01-01

    The human α1A voltage-dependent calcium channel (Cav2.1) is a pore-forming essential subunit embedded in the plasma membrane. Its cytoplasmic carboxyl(C)-tail contains a small poly-glutamine (Q) tract, whose length is normally 4∼19 Q, but when expanded up to 20∼33Q, the tract causes an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder, spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6). A recent study has shown that a 75-kDa C-terminal fragment (CTF) containing the polyQ tract remains soluble in normal brains, but becomes insoluble mainly in the cytoplasm with additional localization to the nuclei of human SCA6 Purkinje cells. However, the mechanism by which the CTF aggregation leads to neurodegeneration is completely elusive, particularly whether the CTF exerts more toxicity in the nucleus or in the cytoplasm. We tagged recombinant (r)CTF with either nuclear-localization or nuclear-export signal, created doxycyclin-inducible rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell lines, and found that the CTF is more toxic in the cytoplasm than in the nucleus, the observations being more obvious with Q28 (disease range) than with Q13 (normal-length). Surprisingly, the CTF aggregates co-localized both with cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and phosphorylated-CREB (p-CREB) in the cytoplasm, and Western blot analysis showed that the quantity of CREB and p-CREB were both decreased in the nucleus when the rCTF formed aggregates in the cytoplasm. In human brains, polyQ aggregates also co-localized with CREB in the cytoplasm of SCA6 Purkinje cells, but not in other conditions. Collectively, the cytoplasmic Cav2.1-CTF aggregates are sufficient to cause cell death, and one of the pathogenic mechanisms may be abnormal CREB trafficking in the cytoplasm and reduced CREB and p-CREB levels in the nuclei. PMID:23505410

  20. Functional and Preliminary Characterisation of Hydrocolloid from Tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav. Puree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharidah Muhammad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocolloid from tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav. puree was extracted using water and characterised for the first time. Proximate compositions of the extracted hydrocolloid were also determined. Functional characteristics such as water-holding capacity, oil-holding capacity, emulsifying activity, emulsion stability, foaming capacity and stability of the hydrocolloid were evaluated in comparison to that of commercial hydrocolloids. Its functional groups and degree of esterification were determined using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy. Monosaccharide profiling was done using reverse-phase high pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC. Screening of various fruits for high hydrocolloid yield after water extraction resulted in tamarillo giving the highest yield. The yield on dry weight basis was 8.30%. The hydrocolloid constituted of 0.83% starch, 21.18% protein and 66.48% dietary fibre with 49.47% degree of esterification and the monosaccharides identified were mannose, ribose, rhamnose, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, xylose and arabinose. Higher oil-holding capacity, emulsifying activity and emulsion stability compared to commercial hydrocolloids propose its possible application as a food emulsifier and bile acid binder. Foaming capacity of 32.19% and good foam stabilisation (79.36% of initial foam volume after 2 h of foam formation suggest its promising application in frothy beverages and other foam based food products. These findings suggest that water-extracted tamarillo hydrocolloid can be utilised as an alternative to low methoxyl pectin.

  1. Fine Tuning of CaV1.3 Ca2+ channel properties in adult inner hair cells positioned in the most sensitive region of the Gerbil Cochlea.

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    Valeria Zampini

    Full Text Available Hearing relies on faithful signal transmission by cochlear inner hair cells (IHCs onto auditory fibres over a wide frequency and intensity range. Exocytosis at IHC ribbon synapses is triggered by Ca(2+ inflow through Ca(V1.3 (L-type Ca(2+ channels. We investigated the macroscopic (whole-cell and elementary (cell-attached properties of Ca(2+ currents in IHCs positioned at the middle turn (frequency ∼ 2 kHz of the adult gerbil cochlea, which is their most sensitive hearing region. Using near physiological recordings conditions (body temperature and a Na(+ based extracellular solution, we found that the macroscopic Ca(2+ current activates and deactivates very rapidly (time constant below 1 ms and inactivates slowly and only partially. Single-channel recordings showed an elementary conductance of 15 pS, a sub-ms latency to first opening, and a very low steady-state open probability (Po: 0.024 in response to 500-ms depolarizing steps at ∼-18 mV. The value of Po was significantly larger (0.06 in the first 40 ms of membrane depolarization, which corresponds to the time when most Ca(2+ channel openings occurred clustered in bursts (mean burst duration: 19 ms. Both the Po and the mean burst duration were smaller than those previously reported in high-frequency basal IHCs. Finally, we found that middle turn IHCs are likely to express about 4 times more Ca(2+ channels per ribbon than basal cells. We propose that middle-turn IHCs finely-tune Ca(V1.3 Ca(2+ channel gating in order to provide reliable information upon timing and intensity of lower-frequency sounds.

  2. Fine Tuning of CaV1.3 Ca2+ channel properties in adult inner hair cells positioned in the most sensitive region of the Gerbil Cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampini, Valeria; Johnson, Stuart L; Franz, Christoph; Knipper, Marlies; Holley, Matthew C; Magistretti, Jacopo; Russo, Giancarlo; Marcotti, Walter; Masetto, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Hearing relies on faithful signal transmission by cochlear inner hair cells (IHCs) onto auditory fibres over a wide frequency and intensity range. Exocytosis at IHC ribbon synapses is triggered by Ca(2+) inflow through Ca(V)1.3 (L-type) Ca(2+) channels. We investigated the macroscopic (whole-cell) and elementary (cell-attached) properties of Ca(2+) currents in IHCs positioned at the middle turn (frequency ∼ 2 kHz) of the adult gerbil cochlea, which is their most sensitive hearing region. Using near physiological recordings conditions (body temperature and a Na(+) based extracellular solution), we found that the macroscopic Ca(2+) current activates and deactivates very rapidly (time constant below 1 ms) and inactivates slowly and only partially. Single-channel recordings showed an elementary conductance of 15 pS, a sub-ms latency to first opening, and a very low steady-state open probability (Po: 0.024 in response to 500-ms depolarizing steps at ∼-18 mV). The value of Po was significantly larger (0.06) in the first 40 ms of membrane depolarization, which corresponds to the time when most Ca(2+) channel openings occurred clustered in bursts (mean burst duration: 19 ms). Both the Po and the mean burst duration were smaller than those previously reported in high-frequency basal IHCs. Finally, we found that middle turn IHCs are likely to express about 4 times more Ca(2+) channels per ribbon than basal cells. We propose that middle-turn IHCs finely-tune Ca(V)1.3 Ca(2+) channel gating in order to provide reliable information upon timing and intensity of lower-frequency sounds.

  3. Genotoxicity of plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera M. F. Vargas

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extracts of seven species used in Brazilian popular medicine (Achyrocline satureoides, Iodina rhombifolia, Desmodium incanum, Baccharis anomala, Tibouchina asperior, Luehea divaricata, Maytenus ilicifolia were screened to the presence of mutagenic activity in the Ames test (Salmonella/microsome. Positive results were obtained for A. satureoides, B anomala and L. divaricata with microsomal activation. As shown elsewhere (Vargas et al., 1990 the metabolites of A. satureoides extract also show the capacity to induce prophage and/or SOS response in microscreen phage induction assay and SOS spot chromotest.

  4. Overexpression of caveolin-1 in lymphoblastoid TK6 cells enhances proliferation after irradiation with clinically relevant doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzan, David; Maier, Patrick; Wenz, Frederik; Herskind, Carsten; Zeller, W. Jens

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The transmembrane protein caveolin-1 (CAV1) is an essential component of caveolae, small membrane invaginations involved in vesicle formation. CAV1 plays a role in signal transduction, tumor suppression and oncogene transformation. Previous studies with CAV1 knockout mice and CAV1 knockdown in pancreatic tumor cells implicated CAV1 in mediating radioresistance. The aim of this work was to test the effect of CAV1 overexpression after irradiation in human cells lacking endogenous CAV1 expression. Material and Methods: Human CAV1 was overexpressed in lymphoblastoid TK6 cells (TK6-wt) using a eukaryotic expression plasmid, pCI-CAV1, or a lentiviral SIN (self-inactivating) vector, HR'SIN-CAV1. CAV1 expression was verified in TK6 cells with Western blot analysis or intracellular FACS (fluorescence-activated cell sorting) staining. The effect of CAV1 on proliferation kinetics after irradiation of TK6 cells was measured with a growth assay. Results: TK6-wt showed no detectable endogenous CAV1 expression. Lentivirally mediated transduction with HR'SIN-CAV1 (TK6-CAV1) resulted in a considerably stronger CAV1 expression in comparison to TK6 cells electroporated with pCI-CAV1. Intracellular FACS analysis showed that 90% of transduced cells expressed CAV1. CAV1 enhanced early proliferation of TK6 cells after irradiation with a dose of 2 Gy, whereas proliferation of unirradiated cells was not affected. CAV1 also protected cells after irradiation with 4 Gy. This radioprotective effect was supported by a reduction of radiation-induced apoptosis. Conclusion: A model system for expression of exogenous CAV1 by stable lentiviral transduction of TK6 cells was established. Functional assays demonstrated enhanced early proliferation by CAV1 expression in TK6 cells after irradiation with clinically relevant doses supporting the role of CAV1 as a prosurvival factor. (orig.)

  5. Use of sewage sludge and organic residues in the growth of seedlings Sesbania virgata (Cav. Pers. = Uso de lodo de esgoto e resíduos orgânicos no crescimento de mudas de Sesbania virgata (Cav. Pers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Macedo Delarmelina

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available During the production of seedlings, the substrate has a significant influence on plant growth, which can be used in an original or combined form. This has made necessary studies to obtain substrates able to ensure adequate growth of the seedlings grown in nurseries. With to contribute to the knowledge of the specie Sesbania virgata (Cav. Pers, this study determined the best ratio of the components for the formation of a suitable growth medium for theses seedlings. The treatments were formulated using sewage sludge (LE, organic compost (CO, coffee straw (PC in natura, and the commercial substrate (SC. Seedlings were grown in plastic pots with a capacity of 120 cm3. The experiment consisted of fourteen treatments withthree replicates of five seedlings each. After 150 days old the following variables were measured: plant height, stem diameter,ratio between plant height and stem diameter, dry mass of shoot, dry mass of root system, total dry mass, dry mass ratio of shoot/root dry mass, and Dickson quality index. The results indicated that the treatments containing sewage sludge and organic compost in its composition, especially the treatment T7 (40% LE + 60% CO provided the demonstrated the best morphological characteristics of Sesbania virgata seedlings. = Na fase de produção de mudas, o substrato exerce influência significativa no crescimento das plantas, e sua utilizaçãopode ser feita de forma original ou combinados, tornando necessário, estudos voltados para obtenção de substratos capazes de garantir adequado crescimento e qualidade das mudas produzidas em viveiro. Visando contribuir para o conhecimento da espécie Sesbania virgata (Cav. Pers, objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a melhor proporção entre componentes para formação de substrato para mudas. Os tratamentos foram formulados utilizando lodo de esgoto (LE, palha de café in natura (PC in natura, composto orgânico (CO e o substrato comercial (SC em diferentes propor

  6. Overexpression of caveolin-1 in lymphoblastoid TK6 cells enhances proliferation after irradiation with clinically relevant doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barzan, David; Maier, Patrick; Wenz, Frederik; Herskind, Carsten [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. Medical Center Mannheim, Univ. of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); Zeller, W. Jens [Pharmacology of Cancer Treatment, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    Background and Purpose: The transmembrane protein caveolin-1 (CAV1) is an essential component of caveolae, small membrane invaginations involved in vesicle formation. CAV1 plays a role in signal transduction, tumor suppression and oncogene transformation. Previous studies with CAV1 knockout mice and CAV1 knockdown in pancreatic tumor cells implicated CAV1 in mediating radioresistance. The aim of this work was to test the effect of CAV1 overexpression after irradiation in human cells lacking endogenous CAV1 expression. Material and Methods: Human CAV1 was overexpressed in lymphoblastoid TK6 cells (TK6-wt) using a eukaryotic expression plasmid, pCI-CAV1, or a lentiviral SIN (self-inactivating) vector, HR'SIN-CAV1. CAV1 expression was verified in TK6 cells with Western blot analysis or intracellular FACS (fluorescence-activated cell sorting) staining. The effect of CAV1 on proliferation kinetics after irradiation of TK6 cells was measured with a growth assay. Results: TK6-wt showed no detectable endogenous CAV1 expression. Lentivirally mediated transduction with HR'SIN-CAV1 (TK6-CAV1) resulted in a considerably stronger CAV1 expression in comparison to TK6 cells electroporated with pCI-CAV1. Intracellular FACS analysis showed that 90% of transduced cells expressed CAV1. CAV1 enhanced early proliferation of TK6 cells after irradiation with a dose of 2 Gy, whereas proliferation of unirradiated cells was not affected. CAV1 also protected cells after irradiation with 4 Gy. This radioprotective effect was supported by a reduction of radiation-induced apoptosis. Conclusion: A model system for expression of exogenous CAV1 by stable lentiviral transduction of TK6 cells was established. Functional assays demonstrated enhanced early proliferation by CAV1 expression in TK6 cells after irradiation with clinically relevant doses supporting the role of CAV1 as a prosurvival factor. (orig.)

  7. Spreaders, igniters, and burning shrubs: plant flammability explains novel fire dynamics in grass-invaded deserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Ramirez, Andres; Veldman, Joseph W; Holzapfel, Claus; Moloney, Kirk A

    2016-10-01

    Novel fire regimes are an important cause and consequence of global environmental change that involve interactions among biotic, climatic, and human components of ecosystems. Plant flammability is key to these interactions, yet few studies directly measure flammability or consider how multiple species with different flammabilities interact to produce novel fire regimes. Deserts of the southwestern United States are an ideal system for exploring how novel fire regimes can emerge when fire-promoting species invade ecosystems comprised of species that did not evolve with fire. In these deserts, exotic annual grasses provide fuel continuity across landscapes that did not historically burn. These fires often ignite a keystone desert shrub, the fire-intolerant creosote bush, Larrea tridentata (DC.) Coville. Ignition of Larrea is likely catalyzed by fuels produced by native plants that grow beneath the shrubs. We hypothesize that invasive and native species exhibit distinct flammability characteristics that in combination determine spatial patterns of fire spread and intensity. We measured flammability metrics of Larrea, two invasive grasses, Schismus arabicus and Bromus madritensis, and two native plants, the sub-shrub Ambrosia dumosa and the annual herb Amsinckia menziesii. Results of laboratory experiments show that the grasses carry fire quickly (1.32 cm/s), but burn for short duration (0.5 min) at low temperatures. In contrast, native plants spread fire slowly (0.12 cm/s), but burn up to eight times longer (4 min) and produced hotter fires. Additional experiments on the ignition requirements of Larrea suggest that native plants burn with sufficient temperature and duration to ignite dead Larrea branches (time to ignition, 2 min; temperature at ignition 692°C). Once burning, these dead branches ignite living branches in the upper portions of the shrub. Our study provides support for a conceptual model in which exotic grasses are "spreaders" of fire and native

  8. A Cytotoxic and Anti-inflammatory Campesterol Derivative from Genetically Transformed Hairy Roots of Lopezia racemosa Cav. (Onagraceae

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    Norma Elizabeth Moreno-Anzúrez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetically transformed hairy root line LRT 7.31 obtained by infecting leaf explants of Lopezia racemosa Cav with the Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain ATCC15834/pTDT, was evaluated to identify the anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic compounds reported previously for the wild plant. After several subcultures of the LRT 7.31 line, the bio-guided fractionation of the dichloromethane–methanol (1:1 extract obtained from dry biomass afforded a fraction that showed important in vivo anti-inflammatory, and in vitro cytotoxic activities. Chemical separation of the active fraction allowed us to identify the triterpenes ursolic (1 and oleanolic (2 acids, and (23R-2α,3β,23,28-tetrahydroxy-14,15-dehydrocampesterol (3 as the anti-inflammatory principles of the active fraction. A new molecule 3 was characterized by spectroscopic analysis of its tetraacetate derivative 3a. This compound was not described in previous reports of callus cultures, in vitro germinated seedlings and wild plant extracts of whole L. racemosa plants. The anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities displayed by the fraction are associated to the presence of compounds 1–3. The present study reports the obtaining of the transformed hairy roots, the bioguided isolation of the new molecule 3, and its structure characterization.

  9. FRUIT AND SEED BIOMETRY AND DETERMINATION OF THE WATER ABSORPTION CURVE OF SESBANIA VIRGATA (CAV. PERS.

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    S Acchile

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The species Sesbania virgata (Cav. Pers., Fabaceae popularly known as Sesbania or Feijão do Mato, presents potential in the use in areas of afforestation and reforestation forests riparian and degraded areas. The aim of this study was to characterize the biometric of fruits and seeds and determine the germination pattern of the sesbânia seeds. The biometry of the seeds and fruits were established through the characterization of 250 fruits and 500 seeds, which were distributed in frequency classes through position, dispersion and normality measurements. The weight of one thousand seeds (PMS was determined using eight sub samples of the 100 seeds. For to study of the water absorption curve of the seeds were used two replicates of 100 seeds, it weighed in 32 intervals. In this sense, the biometric fruits aspects of S. virgata presented average values for length, width, thickness, weight and number of seeds per fruit of 5.87 cm, 0.78 cm, 0.58 cm, 0.85 g and 5 units, respectively. In relation to the seeds, the average length, width, thickness and seed weight were 0.623 cm; 0.439 cm; 0.316 cm and 0.075 g, respectively. The water absorption of S. virgata seed imbibition presented triphasic pattern, resembling several species of the same family.

  10. Composición química y efecto antibacteriano in vitro de extractos de larrea tridentata, origanum vulgare, artemisa ludoviciana y ruta graveolens

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    Lucía Delgadillo Ruíz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción . Los extractos de algunas plantas han demostrado tener propiedades antimicr o bianas relacionadas a ciertos compuestos químicos como son el timol, carvacrol, limoneno, linalol y terpineno. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la concentración de estos compue s tos en los extractos de Larrea tridentata , Origanum vulgare , Artemisa ludoviciana y Ruta graveolens ; así como evaluar su efecto antimicrobiano en Escherichia coli , Acinetoba c ter baumanii , Pseudomona sp y Staphyloc o ccus aureus . Método . Los extractos se obtuvieron por destilación simple empleando alcohol etílico como solvente, la composición química se evaluó mediante cromatografía de gases. La actividad antimicrobia na de cada uno de los extractos de plantas se realizó por los métodos difusión en pozo y difusión en disco. Resultados . Las bacterias mostraron diferentes grados de sensibilidad a los extractos, prese n tando inhibición de crecimiento S. aureus con el extra cto de O. vulgare y R. graveolens , mientras que la bacteria Pseudomona sp. , con los extracto s de A. ludoviciana, L. tridentata y O. vulgare . Discusión . La mayor concentración de timol y carvacrol se encontró en los extractos de O. vulgare y L. tridentata . El compuesto linalol se encontró en una proporción mayor en O. vulgare y en menor proporción en A. ludoviciana . Limoneno se encontró en los extractos de O. vulgare y R. graveolens . De las cuatro plantas evaluadas, el extracto de L. tridentata fue mejor , de bido a que presenta la mayor inhibición en comparación con los otros extractos; y con un efecto similar a los aceites empleados como control. La técnica de dif u sión en disco, permitió observar mejor los efectos inhibitorios de los extra c tos y los aceites s obre cada una de las bacterias empleadas en comparación con el método de difusión en pozo.

  11. In vitro antioxidant, lipoxygenase and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of fractions from Cienfuegosia digitata Cav., Sida alba L. and Sida acuta Burn f. (Malvaceae).

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    Konaté, K; Souza, A; Coulibaly, A Y; Meda, N T R; Kiendrebeogo, M; Lamien-Meda, A; Millogo-Rasolodimby, J; Lamidi, M; Nacoulma, O G

    2010-11-15

    In this study polyphenol content, antioxidant activity, lipoxygenase (LOX) and Xanthine Oxidase (XO) inhibitory effects of n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of aqueous acetone extracts from S. alba L., S. acuta Burn f and Cienfuegosia digitata Cav. were investigated. The total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and total tannins were determined by spectrophotometric methods using Folin-ciocalteu, AlCl3 reagents and tannic acid, respectively. The antioxidant potential was evaluated using three methods: inhibition of free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydramzyl (DPPH), ABTS radical cation decolorization assay and Iron (III) to iron (II) reduction activity (FRAP). For enzymatic activity, lipoxygenase and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities were used. This study shows a relationship between polyphenol contents, antioxidant and enzymatic activities. Present results showed that ethyl acetate and dichloromethane fractions elicit the highest polyphenol content, antioxidant and enzymatic activities.

  12. Developmental pathway from leaves to galls induced by a sap-feeding insect on Schinus polygamus (Cav.) Cabrera (Anacardiaceae).

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    Dias, Graciela G; Ferreira, Bruno G; Moreira, Gilson R P; Isaias, Rosy M S

    2013-03-01

    Galling sap-feeding insects are presumed to cause only minor changes in host plant tissues, because they usually do not require development of nutritive tissues for their own use. This premise was examined through comparison of the histometry, cytometry and anatomical development of non-galled leaves and galls of Calophya duvauae (Scott) (Hemiptera: Calophyidae) on Schinus polygamus (Cav.) Cabrera (Anacardiaceae). Cell fates changed from non-galled leaves to galls during the course of tissue differentiation. C. duvauae caused changes in dermal, ground, and vascular systems of the leaves of S. polygamus. Its feeding activity induced the homogenization of the parenchyma, and the neoformation of vascular bundles and trichomes. The histometric and cytometric data revealed compensatory effects of hyperplasia and cell hypertrophy in the epidermis, with hyperplasia predominating in the adaxial epidermis. There was a balance between these processes in the other tissues. Thus, we found major differences between the developmental pathways of non-galled leaves and galls. These changes were associated with phenotypic alterations related to shelter and appropriate microenvironmental conditions for the gall inducer. The nondifferentiation of a typical nutritive tissue in this case was compared to other non-phylogenetically related arthropod gall systems, and is suggested to result from convergence associated with the piercing feeding apparatus of the corresponding gall-inducer.

  13. Chemical Studies of Yellow Tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav. Fruit Flavor by Using a Molecular Sensory Approach

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    Juliana María García

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The odor-active volatile compounds of yellow tamarillo fruit (S. betaceum Cav. were identified and quantified by using a sensomics approach, combining a gentle volatile extraction (solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, and sensory analyses (gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA. The medium-term purpose of this work is to evaluate the change of odor-active volatiles during processing. Thus, (Z-3-hexenal, hexanal, and ethyl butanoate were identified as key aroma compounds of yellow tamarillo. The C6-aliphatic compounds, aliphatic esters, and terpenols were characterized as the volatiles responsible for the herbal-green, fruity, and fresh-mint odor notes of this variety, respectively. Additionally, one non-volatile compound contributing to the residual bitter taste of this fruit was isolated by a bioguided (taste sensory analyses fractionation. The freeze-dried fruit was sequentially liquid-liquid partitioned with solvents of different polarity, and then the ethyl acetate fraction was submitted to size exclusion chromatography. Then, its structure was elucidated as rosmarinic acid, by using common spectroscopic methods (mass spectrometry (MS and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. The amount of rosmarinic acid was quantified as 46.17 ± 1.20 mg/100 g of dried fruit, by the external standard method. Its bitter taste threshold value was determined by using the 3AFC (alternative forced choice method to be 37.00 ± 1.25 mg/L.

  14. Maintenance of C sinks sustains enhanced C assimilation during long-term exposure to elevated [CO2] in Mojave Desert shrubs.

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    Aranjuelo, Iker; Ebbets, Allison L; Evans, R Dave; Tissue, David T; Nogués, Salvador; van Gestel, Natasja; Payton, Paxton; Ebbert, Volker; Adams, Williams W; Nowak, Robert S; Smith, Stanley D

    2011-10-01

    During the first few years of elevated atmospheric [CO(2)] treatment at the Nevada Desert FACE Facility, photosynthetic downregulation was observed in desert shrubs grown under elevated [CO(2)], especially under relatively wet environmental conditions. Nonetheless, those plants maintained increased A (sat) (photosynthetic performance at saturating light and treatment [CO(2)]) under wet conditions, but to a much lesser extent under dry conditions. To determine if plants continued to downregulate during long-term exposure to elevated [CO(2)], responses of photosynthesis to elevated [CO(2)] were examined in two dominant Mojave Desert shrubs, the evergreen Larrea tridentata and the drought-deciduous Ambrosia dumosa, during the eighth full growing season of elevated [CO(2)] treatment at the NDFF. A comprehensive suite of physiological processes were collected. Furthermore, we used C labeling of air to assess carbon allocation and partitioning as measures of C sink activity. Results show that elevated [CO(2)] enhanced photosynthetic performance and plant water status in Larrea, especially during periods of environmental stress, but not in Ambrosia. δ(13)C analyses indicate that Larrea under elevated [CO(2)] allocated a greater proportion of newly assimilated C to C sinks than Ambrosia. Maintenance by Larrea of C sinks during the dry season partially explained the reduced [CO(2)] effect on leaf carbohydrate content during summer, which in turn lessened carbohydrate build-up and feedback inhibition of photosynthesis. δ(13)C results also showed that in a year when plant growth reached the highest rates in 5 years, 4% (Larrea) and 7% (Ambrosia) of C in newly emerging organs were remobilized from C that was assimilated and stored for at least 2 years prior to the current study. Thus, after 8 years of continuous exposure to elevated [CO(2)], both desert perennials maintained their photosynthetic capacities under elevated [CO(2)]. We conclude that C storage, remobilization

  15. Modeling connected and autonomous vehicles in heterogeneous traffic flow

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    Ye, Lanhang; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a heterogeneous traffic-flow model to study the possible impact of connected and autonomous vehicles (CAVs) on the traffic flow. Based on a recently proposed two-state safe-speed model (TSM), a two-lane cellular automaton (CA) model was developed, wherein both the CAVs and conventional vehicles were incorporated in the heterogeneous traffic flow. In particular, operation rules for CAVs are established considering the new characteristics of this emerging technology, including autonomous driving through the adaptive cruise control and inter-vehicle connection via short-range communication. Simulations were conducted under various CAV-penetration rates in the heterogeneous flow. The impact of CAVs on the road capacity was numerically investigated. The simulation results indicate that the road capacity increases with an increase in the CAV-penetration rate within the heterogeneous flow. Up to a CAV-penetration rate of 30%, the road capacity increases gradually; the effect of the difference in the CAV capability on the growth rate is insignificant. When the CAV-penetration rate exceeds 30%, the growth rate is largely decided by the capability of the CAV. The greater the capability, the higher the road-capacity growth rate. The relationship between the CAV-penetration rate and the road capacity is numerically analyzed, providing some insights into the possible impact of the CAVs on traffic systems.

  16. Pathological and immunohistochemical studies of subclinical infection of chicken anemia virus in 4-week-old chickens.

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    Haridy, Mohie; Sasaki, Jun; Ikezawa, Mitsutaka; Okada, Kosuke; Goryo, Masanobu

    2012-06-01

    Subclinical infection of chicken anemia virus (CAV) at 4 to 6 weeks of age, after maternal antibodies have waned, is implicated in several field problems in broiler flocks. In order to understand the pathogenesis of subclinical infection with CAV, an immunopathological study of CAV-inoculated 4-week-old SPF chickens was performed. Sixty 4-week-old SPF chickens were equally divided into CAV and control groups. The CAV group was inoculated intramuscularly with the MSB1-TK5803 strain of CAV. Neither mortality nor anemia was detected in the CAV and control groups. In the CAV group, no signs were observed, except that some chickens were grossly smaller compared with the control group. Sporadic thymus lobes appeared to be reddening and atrophied. Within the first two weeks p.i. of CAV, there was a mild to moderate depletion of lymphocytes in the thymus cortex and spleen in some chickens. Moreover, lymphoid depletion of the bursa of Fabricius, proventriculus and cecal tonsils was observed. Hyperplastic lymphoid foci were observed in the liver, lungs, kidneys and heart at the 4th week p.i. of CAV. Immunohistochemically, a moderate lymphoid depletion of CD4(+)and CD8(+) T cells in the thymus cortex and spleen was observed in some chickens within two weeks p.i. of CAV. CAV inclusions and antigens were detected infrequently in the thymus cortex and spleen. It could be concluded that the immunosuppression in subclinical infection with CAV occurs as a result of reduction of cellular immunity.

  17. Transcriptional upregulation of α2δ-1 elevates arterial smooth muscle cell voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel surface expression and cerebrovascular constriction in genetic hypertension.

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    Bannister, John P; Bulley, Simon; Narayanan, Damodaran; Thomas-Gatewood, Candice; Luzny, Patrik; Pachuau, Judith; Jaggar, Jonathan H

    2012-10-01

    A hallmark of hypertension is an increase in arterial myocyte voltage-dependent Ca2+ (CaV1.2) currents that induces pathological vasoconstriction. CaV1.2 channels are heteromeric complexes composed of a pore-forming CaV1.2α1 with auxiliary α2δ and β subunits. Molecular mechanisms that elevate CaV1.2 currents during hypertension and the potential contribution of CaV1.2 auxiliary subunits are unclear. Here, we investigated the pathological significance of α2δ subunits in vasoconstriction associated with hypertension. Age-dependent development of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats was associated with an unequal elevation in α2δ-1 and CaV1.2α1 mRNA and protein in cerebral artery myocytes, with α2δ-1 increasing more than CaV1.2α1. Other α2δ isoforms did not emerge in hypertension. Myocytes and arteries of hypertensive spontaneously hypertensive rats displayed higher surface-localized α2δ-1 and CaV1.2α1 proteins, surface α2δ-1:CaV1.2α1 ratio, CaV1.2 current density and noninactivating current, and pressure- and depolarization-induced vasoconstriction than those of Wistar-Kyoto controls. Pregabalin, an α2δ-1 ligand, did not alter α2δ-1 or CaV1.2α1 total protein but normalized α2δ-1 and CaV1.2α1 surface expression, surface α2δ-1:CaV1.2α1, CaV1.2 current density and inactivation, and vasoconstriction in myocytes and arteries of hypertensive rats to control levels. Genetic hypertension is associated with an elevation in α2δ-1 expression that promotes surface trafficking of CaV1.2 channels in cerebral artery myocytes. This leads to an increase in CaV1.2 current-density and a reduction in current inactivation that induces vasoconstriction. Data also suggest that α2δ-1 targeting is a novel strategy that may be used to reverse pathological CaV1.2 channel trafficking to induce cerebrovascular dilation in hypertension.

  18. A disease-associated frameshift mutation in caveolin-1 disrupts caveolae formation and function through introduction of a de novo ER retention signal.

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    Copeland, Courtney A; Han, Bing; Tiwari, Ajit; Austin, Eric D; Loyd, James E; West, James D; Kenworthy, Anne K

    2017-11-01

    Caveolin-1 (CAV1) is an essential component of caveolae and is implicated in numerous physiological processes. Recent studies have identified heterozygous mutations in the CAV1 gene in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), but the mechanisms by which these mutations impact caveolae assembly and contribute to disease remain unclear. To address this question, we examined the consequences of a familial PAH-associated frameshift mutation in CAV1 , P158PfsX22, on caveolae assembly and function. We show that C-terminus of the CAV1 P158 protein contains a functional ER-retention signal that inhibits ER exit and caveolae formation and accelerates CAV1 turnover in Cav1 -/- MEFs. Moreover, when coexpressed with wild-type (WT) CAV1 in Cav1 -/- MEFs, CAV1-P158 functions as a dominant negative by partially disrupting WT CAV1 trafficking. In patient skin fibroblasts, CAV1 and caveolar accessory protein levels are reduced, fewer caveolae are observed, and CAV1 complexes exhibit biochemical abnormalities. Patient fibroblasts also exhibit decreased resistance to a hypo-osmotic challenge, suggesting the function of caveolae as membrane reservoir is compromised. We conclude that the P158PfsX22 frameshift introduces a gain of function that gives rise to a dominant negative form of CAV1, defining a new mechanism by which disease-associated mutations in CAV1 impair caveolae assembly. © 2017 Copeland, Han, et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  19. Caveolin-1 protects B6129 mice against Helicobacter pylori gastritis.

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    Ivana Hitkova

    Full Text Available Caveolin-1 (Cav1 is a scaffold protein and pathogen receptor in the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. Chronic infection of gastric epithelial cells by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is a major risk factor for human gastric cancer (GC where Cav1 is frequently down-regulated. However, the function of Cav1 in H. pylori infection and pathogenesis of GC remained unknown. We show here that Cav1-deficient mice, infected for 11 months with the CagA-delivery deficient H. pylori strain SS1, developed more severe gastritis and tissue damage, including loss of parietal cells and foveolar hyperplasia, and displayed lower colonisation of the gastric mucosa than wild-type B6129 littermates. Cav1-null mice showed enhanced infiltration of macrophages and B-cells and secretion of chemokines (RANTES but had reduced levels of CD25+ regulatory T-cells. Cav1-deficient human GC cells (AGS, infected with the CagA-delivery proficient H. pylori strain G27, were more sensitive to CagA-related cytoskeletal stress morphologies ("humming bird" compared to AGS cells stably transfected with Cav1 (AGS/Cav1. Infection of AGS/Cav1 cells triggered the recruitment of p120 RhoGTPase-activating protein/deleted in liver cancer-1 (p120RhoGAP/DLC1 to Cav1 and counteracted CagA-induced cytoskeletal rearrangements. In human GC cell lines (MKN45, N87 and mouse stomach tissue, H. pylori down-regulated endogenous expression of Cav1 independently of CagA. Mechanistically, H. pylori activated sterol-responsive element-binding protein-1 (SREBP1 to repress transcription of the human Cav1 gene from sterol-responsive elements (SREs in the proximal Cav1 promoter. These data suggested a protective role of Cav1 against H. pylori-induced inflammation and tissue damage. We propose that H. pylori exploits down-regulation of Cav1 to subvert the host's immune response and to promote signalling of its virulence factors in host cells.

  20. Functional expression of T-type Ca2+ channels in spinal motoneurons of the adult turtle.

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    Martha Canto-Bustos

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated Ca2+ (CaV channels are transmembrane proteins comprising three subfamilies named CaV1, CaV2 and CaV3. The CaV3 channel subfamily groups the low-voltage activated Ca2+ channels (LVA or T-type a significant role in regulating neuronal excitability. CaV3 channel activity may lead to the generation of complex patterns of action potential firing such as the postinhibitory rebound (PIR. In the adult spinal cord, these channels have been found in dorsal horn interneurons where they control physiological events near the resting potential and participate in determining excitability. In motoneurons, CaV3 channels have been found during development, but their functional expression has not yet been reported in adult animals. Here, we show evidence for the presence of CaV3 channel-mediated PIR in motoneurons of the adult turtle spinal cord. Our results indicate that Ni2+ and NNC55-0396, two antagonists of CaV3 channel activity, inhibited PIR in the adult turtle spinal cord. Molecular biology and biochemical assays revealed the expression of the CaV3.1 channel isotype and its localization in motoneurons. Together, these results provide evidence for the expression of CaV3.1 channels in the spinal cord of adult animals and show also that these channels may contribute to determine the excitability of motoneurons.

  1. Caveolin-1 sensitizes cisplatin-induced lung cancer cell apoptosis via superoxide anion-dependent mechanism.

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    Pongjit, Kanittha; Chanvorachote, Pithi

    2011-12-01

    Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) expression frequently found in lung cancer was linked with disease prognosis and progression. This study reveals for the first time that Cav-1 sensitizes cisplatin-induced lung carcinoma cell death by the mechanism involving oxidative stress modulation. We established stable Cav-1 overexpressed (H460/Cav-1) cells and investigated their cisplatin susceptibility in comparison with control-transfected cells and found that Cav-1 expression significantly enhanced cisplatin-mediated cell death. Results indicated that the different response to cisplatin between these cells was resulted from different level of superoxide anion induced by cisplatin. Inhibitory study revealed that superoxide anion inhibitor MnTBAP could inhibit cisplatin-mediated toxicity only in H460/Cav-1 cells while had no effect on H460 cells. Further, superoxide anion detected by DHE probe indicated that H460/Cav-1 cells generated significantly higher superoxide anion level in response to cisplatin than that of control cells. The role of Cav-1 in regulating cisplatin sensitivity was confirmed in shRNA-mediated Cav-1 down-regulated (H460/shCav-1) cells and the cells exhibited decreased cisplatin susceptibility and superoxide generation. In summary, these findings reveal novel aspects regarding role of Cav-1 in modulating oxidative stress induced by cisplatin, possibly providing new insights for cancer biology and cisplatin-based chemotherapy.

  2. Estimation of fruit quality parameters for tree tomato (Solanum betaceum Cav. interspecific segregating in response to Antracnose (Colletotrichum acutatum J.H. Simmonds resistance

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    William Fernando Viera Arroyo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The tree tomato (Solanum betaceum Cav. in Ecuador, performs a severe reduction in yield and production of tree tomato and it is mostly attributed to the attack of anthracnose disease (Colletotrichum acutatum J.H. Simmonds. We assessed an improved tree tomato genotypes, derived from the crossing [(S. betaceum unilobum x x S. betaceum] x S. betaceum, showing some degree of resistance to generate an alternative of sustainable management to this disease on a site with a high degree of infection in commercial ecotypes (Pelileo- Province of Tungurahua, Ecuador. Significantly differences among the analyzed groups were found in fruit and flesh color, as well as in quantitative variables such as yield. Two groups (G1 and G5 were noted for their low incidence of anthracnose, although they showed less progress in terms of productive variables. A selection index based on z-scores, allowed identifying superior individuals in terms of resistance to the disease and fruit quality. The genetic component of phenotypic variables showed that most of the observed variability is due to the genotypes and not to the environmental variability.

  3. Caveolin-1 expression level in cancer associated fibroblasts predicts outcome in gastric cancer.

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    Xianda Zhao

    Full Text Available AIMS: Altered expression of epithelial or stromal caveolin-1 (Cav-1 is observed in various types of human cancers. However, the clinical significance of Cav-1 expression in gastric cancer (GC remains largely unknown. The present study aims to explore the clinicopathological significance and prognostic value of both tumor cells and cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs Cav-1 in GC. METHODS AND RESULTS: Quantum dots immunofluorescence histochemistry was performed to examine the expression of Cav-1 in 20 cases of gastritis without intestinal metaplasia (IM, 20 cases of gastritis with IM and 286 cases of GC. Positive rates of epithelial Cav-1 in gastritis without IM, gastritis with IM and GC showed a decreasing trend (P = 0.012. Low expression of Cav-1 in CAFs but not in tumor cells was an independent predictor of poor prognosis in GC patients (P = 0.034 and 0.005 respectively in disease free survival and overall survival. Cav-1 level in tumor cells and CAFs showed no significant correlation with classic clinicopathological features. CONCLUSIONS: Loss of epithelial Cav-1 may promote malignant progression and low CAFs Cav-1 level herald worse outcome of GC patient, suggesting CAFs Cav-1 may be a candidate therapeutic target and a useful prognostic marker of GC.

  4. Investigating the role of caveolin-2 in prostate cancer cell line

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    Jin-Yih Low

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is a worldwide problem. While the role of caveolin-1 has been extensively studied, little is known about the role of caveolin-2 (CAV2 in prostate cancer. Up-regulation of CAV2 in androgen independent PC3 cells compared to normal prostate cell line and androgen dependent prostate cancer cell lines has been observed. Recent studies suggest that up-regulation of CAV2 plays an important role in androgen independent prostate cancer. This study investigates whether CAV2 is important in mediating the aggressive phenotypes seen in androgen independent prostate cancer cells. The androgen independent prostate cancer cell line, PC3 was used that has been shown to express CAV2, and CAV2 knock down was performed using siRNA system. Changes to cell number, migration and invasion were assessed after knocking down CAV2. Our results showed that down-regulating CAV2 resulted in reduced cell numbers, migration and invasion in PC3 cells. This preliminary study suggests that CAV2 may act to promote malignant behavior in an androgen independent prostate cancer cell line. Further studies are required to fully elucidate the role of CAV2 in androgen independent prostate cancer.

  5. Expression profiles and functional associations of endogenous androgen receptor and caveolin-1 in prostate cancer cell lines.

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    Bennett, Nigel C; Hooper, John D; Johnson, David W; Gobe, Glenda C

    2014-05-01

    In prostate cancer (PCa) patients, the protein target for androgen deprivation and blockade therapies is androgen receptor (AR). AR interacts with many proteins that function to either co-activate or co-repress its activity. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is not found in normal prostatic epithelium, but is found in PCa, and may be an AR co-regulator protein. We investigated cell line-specific signatures and associations of endogenous AR and Cav-1 in six PCa cell lines of known androgen sensitivity: LNCaP (androgen sensitive); 22Rv1 (androgen responsive); PC3, DU145, and ALVA41 (androgen non-reliant); and RWPE1 (non-malignant). Protein and mRNA expression profiles were compared and electron microscopy used to identify cells with caveolar structures. For cell lines expressing both AR and Cav-1, knockdown techniques using small interfering RNA against AR or Cav-1 were used to test whether diminished expression of one affected the other. Co-sedimentation of AR and Cav-1 was used to test their association. A reporter assay for AR genomic activity was utilized following Cav-1 knockdown. AR-expressing LNCaP and 22Rv1 cells had low endogenous Cav-1 mRNA and protein. Cell lines that expressed little or no AR (DU145, PC3, ALVA41, and RWPE1) expressed high endogenous levels of Cav-1. AR knockdown in LNCaP cells had little effect on Cav-1, but Cav-1 knockdown inhibited AR expression and genomic activity. These data show endogenous AR and Cav-1 mRNA and protein expression is inversely related in PCa cells, with Cav-1 acting on the androgen/AR signaling axis possibly as an AR co-activator, demonstrated by diminished AR genomic activity following Cav-1 knockdown. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Role of L-type Ca2+ channel isoforms in the extinction of conditioned fear.

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    Busquet, Perrine; Hetzenauer, Alfred; Sinnegger-Brauns, Martina J; Striessnig, Jörg; Singewald, Nicolas

    2008-05-01

    Dihydropyridine (DHP) L-type Ca(2+) channel (LTCC) antagonists, such as nifedipine, have been reported to impair the extinction of conditioned fear without interfering with its acquisition. Identification of the LTCC isoforms mediating this DHP effect is an essential basis to reveal their role as potential drug targets for the treatment of specific anxiety disorders. Ca(V)1.2 and Ca(V)1.3 are the predominant LTCCs in the mammalian brain. However, since no isoform-selective DHP blockers are available, their individual contribution to fear memory extinction is unknown. We used a novel mouse model expressing DHP-insensitive Ca(V)1.2 LTCCs (Ca(V)1.2DHP(-/-) mice) to address this question. In line with previous studies, wild-type (WT) mice treated with systemic nifedipine displayed markedly impaired fear extinction. This DHP effect was completely abolished in Ca(V)1.2DHP(-/-) mice, indicating that it is mediated by Ca(V)1.2, but not by Ca(V)1.3 LTCCs. Supporting this conclusion, Ca(V)1.3-deficient mice (Ca(V)1.3(-/-)) showed extinction identical to the respective WT mice. The inhibition of fear extinction was not observed after intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) application of different doses of nifedipine, suggesting that this effect is secondary to inhibition of peripheral Ca(V)1.2 channels. The LTCC activator BayK, which lacks neurotoxic effects in Ca(V)1.2DHP(-/-) mice, did not influence the extinction time course. In summary, we demonstrate that LTCC signaling through the Ca(V)1.2 isoform of LTCCs interferes with fear memory extinction, presumably via a peripherally mediated mechanism. Activation of other LTCC isoforms (predominantly Ca(V)1.3) is not sufficient to accelerate extinction of conditioned fear in mice.

  7. Generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (EURACi001-A, EURACi002-A, EURACi003-A) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of three patients carrying mutations in the CAV3 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meraviglia, Viviana; Benzoni, Patrizia; Landi, Sara; Murano, Carmen; Langione, Marianna; Motta, Benedetta M; Baratto, Serena; Silipigni, Rosamaria; Di Segni, Marina; Pramstaller, Peter P; DiFrancesco, Dario; Gazzerro, Elisabetta; Barbuti, Andrea; Rossini, Alessandra

    2018-03-01

    Caveolinopathies are a heterogeneous family of genetic pathologies arising from alterations of the caveolin-3 gene (CAV3), encoding for the isoform specifically constituting muscle caveolae. Here, by reprogramming peripheral blood mononuclear cells, we report the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from three patients carrying the ΔYTT deletion, T78K and W101C missense mutations in caveolin-3. iPSCs displayed normal karyotypes and all the features of pluripotent stem cells in terms of morphology, specific marker expression and ability to differentiate in vitro into the three germ layers. These lines thus represent a human cellular model to study the molecular basis of caveolinopathies. Resource table. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. New developments for the detection and treatment of cardiac vasculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Kevin J; Ali, Ziad A; Mancini, Donna M

    2017-02-15

    Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is a major limitation to long-term survival after heart transplantation. Innovative new techniques to diagnose CAV have been applied to detect disease. This review will examine the current diagnostic and treatment options available to clinicians for CAV. Diagnostic modalities addressing the pathophysiology underlying CAV (arterial wall thickening and decreased coronary blood flow) improve diagnostic sensitivity when compared to traditional (angiography and dobutamine stress echocardiography) techniques. Limited options are available to prevent and treat CAV; however, progress has been made in making an earlier and more accurate diagnosis. Future research is needed to identify the optimal time to modify immunosuppression and investigate novel treatments for CAV.

  9. Stromal and Epithelial Caveolin-1 Both Confer a Protective Effect Against Mammary Hyperplasia and Tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Terence M.; Sotgia, Federica; Lee, Hyangkyu; Hassan, Ghada; Di Vizio, Dolores; Bonuccelli, Gloria; Capozza, Franco; Mercier, Isabelle; Rui, Hallgeir; Pestell, Richard G.; Lisanti, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    Here, we investigate the role of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) in breast cancer onset and progression, with a focus on epithelial-stromal interactions, ie, the tumor microenvironment. Cav-1 is highly expressed in adipocytes and is abundant in mammary fat pads (stroma), but it remains unknown whether loss of Cav-1 within mammary stromal cells affects the differentiated state of mammary epithelia via paracrine signaling. To address this issue, we characterized the development of the mammary ductal system in Cav-1−/− mice and performed a series of mammary transplant studies, using both wild-type and Cav-1−/− mammary fat pads. Cav-1−/− mammary epithelia were hyperproliferative in vivo, with dramatic increases in terminal end bud area and mammary ductal thickness as well as increases in bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 hyperactivation, and up-regulation of STAT5a and cyclin D1. Consistent with these findings, loss of Cav-1 dramatically exacerbated mammary lobulo-alveolar hyperplasia in cyclin D1 Tg mice, whereas overexpression of Cav-1 caused reversion of this phenotype. Most importantly, Cav-1−/− mammary stromal cells (fat pads) promoted the growth of both normal mammary ductal epithelia and mammary tumor cells. Thus, Cav-1 expression in both epithelial and stromal cells provides a protective effect against mammary hyperplasia as well as mammary tumorigenesis. PMID:17071600

  10. Caveolin-1-mediated apolipoprotein A-I membrane binding sites are not required for cholesterol efflux.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soazig Le Lay

    Full Text Available Caveolin-1 (Cav1, a structural protein required for the formation of invaginated membrane domains known as caveolae, has been implicated in cholesterol trafficking and homeostasis. Here we investigated the contribution of Cav1 to apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I cell surface binding and intracellular processing using mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs derived from wild type (WT or Cav1-deficient (Cav1(-/- animals. We found that cells expressing Cav1 have 2.6-fold more apoA-I binding sites than Cav1(-/- cells although these additional binding sites are not associated with detergent-free lipid rafts. Further, Cav1-mediated binding targets apoA-I for internalization and degradation and these processes are not correlated to cholesterol efflux. Despite lower apoA-I binding, cholesterol efflux from Cav1(-/- MEFs is 1.7-fold higher than from WT MEFs. Stimulation of ABCA1 expression with an LXR agonist enhances cholesterol efflux from both WT and Cav1(-/- cells without increasing apoA-I surface binding or affecting apoA-I processing. Our results indicate that there are at least two independent lipid binding sites for apoA-I; Cav1-mediated apoA-I surface binding and uptake is not linked to cholesterol efflux, indicating that membrane domains other than caveolae regulate ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux.

  11. Phospholipase C-dependent hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate underlies agmatine-induced suppression of N-type Ca2+ channel in rat celiac ganglion neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Hwan; Jeong, Ji-Hyun; Ahn, Duck-Sun; Chung, Seungsoo

    2017-03-04

    Agmatine suppresses peripheral sympathetic tone by modulating Cav2.2 channels in peripheral sympathetic neurons. However, the detailed cellular signaling mechanism underlying the agmatine-induced Cav2.2 inhibition remains unclear. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the electrophysiological mechanism for the agmatine-induced inhibition of Cav2.2 current (I Cav2.2 ) in rat celiac ganglion (CG) neurons. Consistent with previous reports, agmatine inhibited I Cav2.2 in a VI manner. The agmatine-induced inhibition of the I Cav2.2 current was also almost completely hindered by the blockade of the imidazoline I 2 receptor (IR 2 ), and an IR 2 agonist mimicked the inhibitory effect of agmatine on I Cav2.2 , implying involvement of IR 2 . The agmatine-induced I Cav2.2 inhibition was significantly hampered by the blockade of G protein or phospholipase C (PLC), but not by the pretreatment with pertussis toxin. In addition, diC8-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP 2 ) dialysis nearly completely hampered agmatine-induced inhibition, which became irreversible when PIP 2 resynthesis was blocked. These results suggest that in rat peripheral sympathetic neurons, agmatine-induced IR 2 activation suppresses Cav2.2 channel voltage-independently, and that the PLC-dependent PIP 2 hydrolysis is responsible for the agmatine-induced suppression of the Cav2.2 channel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pre-treating Seed to Enhance Germination of Desert Shrubs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. K. Ostler; D. C. Anderson; D. J. Hansen

    2002-06-01

    Creosotebush [Larrea tridentata (D.C.) Cav.] and white bursage [Ambrosia dumosa (A. Gray) W.W. Payne] seeds were subjected to pre-treatments of rinsing and soaking in water and thiourea to enhance germination in laboratory experiments. The effects of darkness, temperature, seed source, and soil moisture were also evaluated in the laboratory. The best pre-treatment from the laboratory experiments, rinsing with water for 36 hours followed by drying, was field-tested at Fort Irwin, California. Two sites and two seeding dates (early March and mid April) were determined for each site. Five mulch treatments (no mulch, straw, gravel, chemical stabilizer, and plastic) were evaluated in combination with the seed pre-treatments. Field emergence was greatly enhanced with the seed pre-treatment for white bursage during the March (18-42% increase in germination) and April seedings (16-23% increase in germination). Creosotebush showed poor germination during March (2-5%) when soil temperatures averaged 15 C, but germination increased during the April trials (6-43%) when soil temperatures averaged 23 C. The seed pre-treatment during the April trials increased germination from 16-23%. The plastic mulch treatment increased germination dramatically during both the March and April trials. The plastic mulch increased soil temperatures (8-10 C)and maintained high humidity during germination. Both the chemical stabilizer and the gravel mulches improved germination over the control while the straw mulch decreased germination. These results suggest that seed pre-treatments combined with irrigation and mulch are effective techniques to establish these two dominant Mojave Desert species from seed.

  13. Coronary Allograft Vasculopathy after Cardiac Transplantation: Prevalence, Prognostic and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, André; Prieto, David; Pinto, Carlos; Branco, Carlos; Correia, Pedro; Batista, Manuel; Antunes, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Coronary allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is still a serious long-term complication after cardiac transplantation. To evaluate the prevalence of CAV in a single institution, its impact on survival and to explore associated risk factors. From November-2003 through June-2016, 316 patients were submitted to cardiac transplantation. After excluding those with paediatric age (n=8), those with previous renal or hepatic transplantation (n=2) and those who didn't survive the first year after cardiac transplantation (n=40), the study population resulted in 266 patients. Forty two patients (15.8%) with CAV, diagnosed by a new >50% coronary artery stenosis in any vessel during follow-up, were compared with a non-CAV group. Both groups share de same median age (54+10years). Recipient male sex predominated in the CAV group (93% vs. 74%), as did ischemic etiology (52% vs. 37%). Although not reaching statistical significance, CAV patients also had more dyslipidemia (60% vs. 50%), history of smoking (52% vs. 44%) and peripheral vascular disease (45% vs. 29%). The incidence of celular acute rejection 1R is more frequent in CAV group (69% vs. 60%) such as 2R or 3R (29% vs. 27%). Prolonged use of inotropic support and mechanical assistance after cardiac transplantation were comparable between both groups. The survival of this patients, who were submitted to cardiac transplantation and had lived at least 1 year, between CAV and non-CAV group was comparable at 5-year (91% vs. 85%), but tended to be lower for CAV patients in 10-year interval (52% vs. 73%). This data confirms CAV as a common long-term complication following cardiac transplantation. Although short to mid-term survival seems not to be affected by CAV, long-term survival appears lower, hence a longer follow-up is needed.

  14. Fragile X mental retardation protein controls synaptic vesicle exocytosis by modulating N-type calcium channel density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferron, Laurent; Nieto-Rostro, Manuela; Cassidy, John S.; Dolphin, Annette C.

    2014-04-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common heritable form of mental retardation, is characterized by synaptic dysfunction. Synaptic transmission depends critically on presynaptic calcium entry via voltage-gated calcium (CaV) channels. Here we show that the functional expression of neuronal N-type CaV channels (CaV2.2) is regulated by fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). We find that FMRP knockdown in dorsal root ganglion neurons increases CaV channel density in somata and in presynaptic terminals. We then show that FMRP controls CaV2.2 surface expression by targeting the channels to the proteasome for degradation. The interaction between FMRP and CaV2.2 occurs between the carboxy-terminal domain of FMRP and domains of CaV2.2 known to interact with the neurotransmitter release machinery. Finally, we show that FMRP controls synaptic exocytosis via CaV2.2 channels. Our data indicate that FMRP is a potent regulator of presynaptic activity, and its loss is likely to contribute to synaptic dysfunction in FXS.

  15. Reciprocal activating crosstalk between c-Met and caveolin 1 promotes invasive phenotype in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhan, Peyda; Erdal, Esra; Kandemiş, Emine; Cokaklı, Murat; Nart, Deniz; Yılmaz, Funda; Can, Alp; Atabey, Neşe

    2014-01-01

    c-Met, the receptor for Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF), overexpressed and deregulated in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC). Caveolin 1 (CAV1), a plasma membrane protein that modulates signal transduction molecules, is also overexpressed in HCC. The aim of this study was to investigate biological and clinical significance of co-expression and activation of c-Met and CAV1 in HCC. We showed that c-Met and CAV1 were co-localized in HCC cells and HGF treatment increased this association. HGF-triggered c-Met activation caused a concurrent rise in both phosphorylation and expression of CAV1. Ectopic expression of CAV1 accelerated c-Met signaling, resulted in enhanced migration, invasion, and branching-morphogenesis. Silencing of CAV1 downregulated c-Met signaling, and decreased migratory/invasive capability of cells and attenuated branching morphogenesis. In addition, activation and co-localization of c-Met and CAV1 were elevated during hepatocarcinogenesis. In conclusion reciprocal activating crosstalk between c-Met and CAV1 promoted oncogenic signaling of c-Met contributed to the initiation and progression of HCC.

  16. Reciprocal activating crosstalk between c-Met and caveolin 1 promotes invasive phenotype in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyda Korhan

    Full Text Available c-Met, the receptor for Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF, overexpressed and deregulated in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC. Caveolin 1 (CAV1, a plasma membrane protein that modulates signal transduction molecules, is also overexpressed in HCC. The aim of this study was to investigate biological and clinical significance of co-expression and activation of c-Met and CAV1 in HCC. We showed that c-Met and CAV1 were co-localized in HCC cells and HGF treatment increased this association. HGF-triggered c-Met activation caused a concurrent rise in both phosphorylation and expression of CAV1. Ectopic expression of CAV1 accelerated c-Met signaling, resulted in enhanced migration, invasion, and branching-morphogenesis. Silencing of CAV1 downregulated c-Met signaling, and decreased migratory/invasive capability of cells and attenuated branching morphogenesis. In addition, activation and co-localization of c-Met and CAV1 were elevated during hepatocarcinogenesis. In conclusion reciprocal activating crosstalk between c-Met and CAV1 promoted oncogenic signaling of c-Met contributed to the initiation and progression of HCC.

  17. IGF-IR internalizes with Caveolin-1 and PTRF/Cavin in HaCat cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Salani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR is a tyrosine kinase receptor (RTK associated with caveolae, invaginations of the plasma membrane that regulate vesicular transport, endocytosis and intracellular signaling. IGF-IR internalization represents a key mechanism of down-modulation of receptors number on plasma membrane. IGF-IR interacts directly with Caveolin-1 (Cav-1, the most relevant protein of caveolae. Recently it has been demonstrated that the Polymerase I and Transcript Release Factor I (PTRF/Cavin is required for caveolae biogenesis and function. The role of Cav-1 and PTRF/Cavin in IGF-IR internalization is still to be clarified. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have investigated the interaction of IGF-IR with Cav-1 and PTRF/Cavin in the presence of IGF1in human Hacat cells. We show that IGF-IR internalization triggers Cav-1 and PTRF/Cavin translocation from plasma membrane to cytosol and increases IGF-IR interaction with these proteins. In fact, Cav-1 and PTRF/Cavin co-immunoprecipitate with IGF-IR during receptor internalization. We found a different time course of co-immunoprecipitation between IGF-IR and Cav-1 compared to IGF-IR and PTRF/Cavin. Cav-1 and PTRF/Cavin silencing by siRNA differently affect surface IGF-IR levels following IGF1 treatment: Cav-1 and PTRF/Cavin silencing significantly affect IGF-IR rate of internalization, while PTRF/Cavin silencing also decreases IGF-IR plasma membrane recovery. Since Cav-1 phosphorylation could have a role in IGF-IR internalization, the mutant Cav-1Y14F lacking Tyr14 was transfected. Cav-1Y14F transfected cells showed a reduced internalization of IGF-IR compared with cells expressing wild type Cav-1. Receptor internalization was not impaired by Clathrin silencing. These findings support a critical role of caveolae in IGF-IR intracellular traveling. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data indicate that Caveolae play a role in IGF-IR internalization. Based on these findings

  18. Caveolin-1 influences vascular protease activity and is a potential stabilizing factor in human atherosclerotic disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A Rodriguez-Feo

    Full Text Available Caveolin-1 (Cav-1 is a regulatory protein of the arterial wall, but its role in human atherosclerosis remains unknown. We have studied the relationships between Cav-1 abundance, atherosclerotic plaque characteristics and clinical manisfestations of atherosclerotic disease.We determined Cav-1 expression by western blotting in atherosclerotic plaques harvested from 378 subjects that underwent carotid endarterectomy. Cav-1 levels were significantly lower in carotid plaques than non-atherosclerotic vascular specimens. Low Cav-1 expression was associated with features of plaque instability such as large lipid core, thrombus formation, macrophage infiltration, high IL-6, IL-8 levels and elevated MMP-9 activity. Clinically, a down-regulation of Cav-1 was observed in plaques obtained from men, patients with a history of myocardial infarction and restenotic lesions. Cav-1 levels above the median were associated with absence of new vascular events within 30 days after surgery [0% vs. 4%] and a trend towards lower incidence of new cardiovascular events during longer follow-up. Consistent with these clinical data, Cav-1 null mice revealed elevated intimal hyperplasia response following arterial injury that was significantly attenuated after MMP inhibition. Recombinant peptides mimicking Cav-1 scaffolding domain (Cavtratin reduced gelatinase activity in cultured porcine arteries and impaired MMP-9 activity and COX-2 in LPS-challenged macrophages. Administration of Cavtratin strongly impaired flow-induced expansive remodeling in mice. This is the first study that identifies Cav-1 as a novel potential stabilizing factor in human atherosclerosis. Our findings support the hypothesis that local down-regulation of Cav-1 in atherosclerotic lesions contributes to plaque formation and/or instability accelerating the occurrence of adverse clinical outcomes. Therefore, given the large number of patients studied, we believe that Cav-1 may be considered as a novel target

  19. LRRK2 regulates voltage-gated calcium channel function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cade eBedford

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated Ca2+ (CaV channels enable Ca2+ influx in response to membrane depolarization. CaV2.1 channels are localized to the presynaptic membrane of many types of neurons where they are involved in triggering neurotransmitter release. Several signaling proteins have been identified as important CaV2.1 regulators including protein kinases, G-proteins and Ca2+ binding proteins. Recently, we discovered that leucine rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2, a protein associated with inherited Parkinson’s disease, interacts with specific synaptic proteins and influences synaptic transmission. Since synaptic proteins functionally interact with CaV2.1 channels and synaptic transmission is triggered by Ca2+ entry via CaV2.1, we investigated whether LRRK2 could impact CaV2.1 channel function. CaV2.1 channel properties were measured using whole cell patch clamp electrophysiology in HEK293 cells transfected with CaV2.1 subunits and various LRRK2 constructs. Our results demonstrate that both wild type LRRK2 and the G2019S LRRK2 mutant caused a significant increase in whole cell Ca2+ current density compared to cells expressing only the CaV2.1 channel complex. In addition, LRRK2 expression caused a significant hyperpolarizing shift in voltage-dependent activation while having no significant effect on inactivation properties. These functional changes in CaV2.1 activity are likely due to a direct action of LRRK2 as we detected a physical interaction between LRRK2 and the β3 CaV channel subunit via coimmunoprecipitation. Furthermore, effects on CaV2.1 channel function are dependent on LRRK2 kinase activity as these could be reversed via treatment with a LRRK2 inhibitor. Interestingly, LRRK2 also augmented endogenous voltage-gated Ca2+ channel function in PC12 cells suggesting other CaV channels could also be regulated by LRRK2. Overall, our findings support a novel physiological role for LRRK2 in regulating CaV2.1 function that could have implications for how

  20. Differential effect of T-type voltage-gated calcium channel disruption on renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Anne D; Andersen, Henrik; Cardel, Majken

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels (Cav) play an essential role in regulation of renal blood flow and GFR. Because T-type Cavs are differentially expressed in pre- and postglomerular vessels it was hypothesized that they impact renal blood flow and GFR differentially. The question was addressed by use...... of two T-type Cav knock-out mice strains. Continuous recordings of blood pressure and heart rate, and para-aminohippurate clearance (renal plasma flow) and inulin clearance (GFR) were performed in conscious, chronically catheterized, wild type and Cav 3.1-/- and Cav 3.2-/- mice. Contractility of afferent...... and efferent arterioles was determined in isolated perfused blood vessels. Efferent arterioles from Cav 3.2-/- mice constricted significantly more in response to a depolarization compared to Wt mice. GFR was increased in Cav 3.2-/- mice with no significant changes in renal plasma flow, heart rate and blood...

  1. Neuron-specific caveolin-1 overexpression improves motor function and preserves memory in mice subjected to brain trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egawa, Junji; Schilling, Jan M; Cui, Weihua; Posadas, Edmund; Sawada, Atsushi; Alas, Basheer; Zemljic-Harpf, Alice E; Fannon-Pavlich, McKenzie J; Mandyam, Chitra D; Roth, David M; Patel, Hemal H; Patel, Piyush M; Head, Brian P

    2017-08-01

    Studies in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that membrane/lipid rafts and caveolin (Cav) organize progrowth receptors, and, when overexpressed specifically in neurons, Cav-1 augments neuronal signaling and growth and improves cognitive function in adult and aged mice; however, whether neuronal Cav-1 overexpression can preserve motor and cognitive function in the brain trauma setting is unknown. Here, we generated a neuron-targeted Cav-1-overexpressing transgenic (Tg) mouse [synapsin-driven Cav-1 (SynCav1 Tg)] and subjected it to a controlled cortical impact model of brain trauma and measured biochemical, anatomic, and behavioral changes. SynCav1 Tg mice exhibited increased hippocampal expression of Cav-1 and membrane/lipid raft localization of postsynaptic density protein 95, NMDA receptor, and tropomyosin receptor kinase B. When subjected to a controlled cortical impact, SynCav1 Tg mice demonstrated preserved hippocampus-dependent fear learning and memory, improved motor function recovery, and decreased brain lesion volume compared with wild-type controls. Neuron-targeted overexpression of Cav-1 in the adult brain prevents hippocampus-dependent learning and memory deficits, restores motor function after brain trauma, and decreases brain lesion size induced by trauma. Our findings demonstrate that neuron-targeted Cav-1 can be used as a novel therapeutic strategy to restore brain function and prevent trauma-associated maladaptive plasticity.-Egawa, J., Schilling, J. M., Cui, W., Posadas, E., Sawada, A., Alas, B., Zemljic-Harpf, A. E., Fannon-Pavlich, M. J., Mandyam, C. D., Roth, D. M., Patel, H. H., Patel, P. M., Head, B. P. Neuron-specific caveolin-1 overexpression improves motor function and preserves memory in mice subjected to brain trauma. © FASEB.

  2. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.O. Oluwayelu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6 % and 4 % nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2 % amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/Cl-8 and NGR/Cl-9 were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary.

  3. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwayelu, D O; Todd, D; Olaleye, O D

    2008-12-01

    This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV) in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6% and 4% nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2% amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/CI-8 and NGR/CI-9) were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary.

  4. Anatomical and phenological implications of the relationship between Schinus polygama (Cav.) (Cabrera) and the galling insect Calophya rubra (Blanchard).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, L M; Aguilera, N; Ferreira, B G; Becerra, J; Hernández, V; Isaias, R M S

    2018-05-01

    The success of galling insects could be determined by synchronisation with host plant phenology and climate conditions, ensuring suitable oviposition sites for gall induction and food resources for their survival. The anatomical, histochemical and phenological synchronisation strategies between Calophya rubra (Blanchard) (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) and its host, the evergreen plant Schinus polygama (Cav.) (Cabrera) (Anacardiaceae), in the Mediterranean climate of southern Chile was evaluated and compared to that of the congeneric C. cf. duvauae (Scott) from Brazil and closely related host plant S. engleri in a subtropical climate. Anatomical, histometric, histochemical and vegetative phenology studies of the stem and galls were conducted from June 2015 to December 2016. Based on the anatomical, histometric and histochemical analysis, the conical stem gall traits imply gains over the non-galled stem toward the galling insect survival, but the maintenance of phellem, secretory ducts and pith indicate conservative developmental traits that cannot be manipulated by C. rubra. Our results indicate that the conditions of the Mediterranean climate zone limit C. rubra immature activity during unfavourable periods, probably determining a diapause period and a univoltine life cycle, which are peculiarities of the S. polygama- C. rubra system. The synchronisation between development and seasonality confers peculiarities to the S. polygama- C. rubra system in the Mediterranean climate zone. © 2018 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  5. Composting Phragmites australis Cav. plant material and compost effects on soil and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumpeli, Anna; Pavlatou-Ve, Athina K; Kostopoulou, Sofia K; Mamolos, Andreas P; Siomos, Anastasios S; Kalburtji, Kiriaki L

    2013-10-15

    Composting organic residues is a friendly to the environment alternative to producing fertilizer. This research was carried out to study the process of composting Phragmites australis Cav. plant material alone or with animal manure on a pilot-scale, to evaluate firstly the quality of the composts produced and secondly, using a pot experiment, the effects of their application on soil physicochemical characteristics and tomato plants development. For the compost production a randomized complete block design was used with five treatments (five compost types) and four replications. For the pot experiment, a completely randomized design was used with 17 treatments (plain soil, soil with synthetic fertilizer and the application of five compost types, at three rates each) and five replications. Compost N increased with composting time, while C/N ratio decreased significantly and by the end it ranged from 43.3 for CM to 22.6 for CY. Compost pH became almost neutral, ranging from 6.73 for CY to 7.21 for CM3Y3AM4 by the end. Compost combinations CY7AM3 and CM7AM3 had a more positive influence on the soil physicochemical characteristics than the others. Soil N, P, Ca and Mg concentrations and the reduction of clay dispersion were the highest when CM7AM3 compost was added. The macro-aggregate stability was the highest for CY7AM3, which also sustained plant growth. The latter compost combination improved most of the soil physicochemical characteristics and plant growth especially, when the application rate was 4% (w/w), which equals to 156 Mg ha(-1). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Caveolin-1 mediated radioresistance of 3D grown pancreatic cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hehlgans, Stephanie; Eke, Iris; Storch, Katja; Haase, Michael; Baretton, Gustavo B.; Cordes, Nils

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Resistance of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) to chemo- and radiotherapy is a major obstacle. The integral membrane protein Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) has been suggested as a potent target in human pancreatic carcinoma cells. Materials and methods: Human pancreatic tumor cells were examined in a three-dimensional (3D) cell culture model with regard to clonogenic survival, apoptosis, radiogenic DNA-double strand breaks and protein expression and phosphorylation under siRNA-mediated knockdown of Cav-1 without and in combination with irradiation (X-rays, 0-6 Gy). Immunohistochemistry was used to assess Cav-1 expression in biopsies from patients with PDAC. Results: Tumor cells in PDAC showed significantly higher Cav-1 expression relative to tumor stroma. Cav-1 knockdown significantly reduced β1 integrin expression and Akt phosphorylation, induced Caspase 3- and Caspase 8-dependent apoptosis and enhanced the radiosensitivity of 3D cell cultures. While cell cycling and Cav-1 promoter activity remained stable, Cav-1 knockdown-induced radiosensitization correlated with elevated numbers of residual DNA-double strand breaks. Conclusions: Our data strongly support the concept of Cav-1 as a potent target in pancreatic carcinoma cells due to radiosensitization and Cav-1 overexpression in tumor cells of PDAC. 3D cell cultures are powerful and useful tools for the testing of novel targeting strategies to optimize conventional radio- and chemotherapy regimes for PDAC.

  7. Summary of current research on Central Asian vortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Mei YANG

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Central Asian vortex (CAV is an important synoptic-scale system that causes rainstorms, short-term heavy precipitation, hail, and sustained low temperatures in Xinjiang. This paper summarizes the current research conducted on the CAV since the 1960s. The objective definition of the CAV has been revised and a deep and shallow CAV classification proposed. Two high-frequency areas of deep CAV activity are the Kazakhstan hills (Sayan mountains and the eastern area of the Aral Sea (Tashkent; events mostly occur in summer and 40% cause strong rainfall. In addition, two high-frequency activity areas of the shallow CAV are located in the west and south of the Pamirs Plateau and mostly occur in spring; 23.2% of occurrences cause strong rainfall. The western and eastern water vapor transport relates to westerlies and a strong low-level easterly jet stream (LLEJ extending from Gansu to Xinjiang, respectively, and water vapor over the Tibetan Plateau transports even more northwards and enters Xinjiang. The deep CAV has an obvious cold core structure down to 300 hPa. The conversion terms from eddy available potential energy (AE to eddy kinetic energy (KE and eddy kinetic energy inflow (BKE from the open atmospheric region boundaries are the main sources of KE which cause rapid development of the CAV. The anomalous anti-cyclone center over the northeast Atlantic is the fountain of Rossby wave energy dispersion; Rossby waves propagate from the northeast Atlantic to eastern Europe (Urals (EEU, and then continuously propagate to Central Asia causing development of the CAV. The CAV requires further study to characterize the meso-scale system structure and evolution characteristics. In addition, physical modeling of the severe convective weather occurring under the CAV is required to determine the critical impacts of this severe convective weather and enable forecasting and early-warning indexes.

  8. Detection of chicken anemia virus in the gonads and in the progeny of broiler breeder hens with high neutralizing antibody titers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentano, L; Lazzarin, S; Bassi, S S; Klein, T A P; Schat, K A

    2005-01-05

    Previous evidence for the presence of chicken anemia virus (CAV) in the gonads of immune specific-pathogen-free chickens raised the question whether this occurs also in commercial breeders. The presence of CAV was investigated by nested PCR in the gonads and spleens of hens from two 55- and 59-week-old, CAV-vaccinated (flocks 2 and 3), and two 48- and 31-week-old non-vaccinated broiler breeder flocks (flocks 1 and 4). In addition, lymphoid tissues of 20-day-old embryos from these hens were also investigated for the presence of CAV. CAV was detected in the gonads and of 5/6 and 11/22 of the vaccinated hens and in some hens also in the spleen alone. Embryos from 7/8 and 5/18 of these hens were positive. In the non-vaccinated flocks, CAV was detected in the gonads of 11/34 and 10/10 hens in flocks 1 and 4, respectively. In addition, 11 birds in flock 1 had positive spleens. CAV DNA was detected in 3/11 and 2/10 of their embryos. CAV-positive gonads and embryos were detected in samples from hens with moderate as well as high VN antibody titers. Vaccinated chickens positive for CAV in the gonads and in their embryos had VN titers ranging from >1:512 to gonads of hens in commercial broiler breeder flocks even in the presence of high neutralizing antibody titers that have been associated with protection against CAV vertical transmission. It also suggests that transmission to the progeny may occur irrespectively of the level of the humoral immune response in the hens.

  9. Caveolae-Mediated Endocytosis Is Critical for Albumin Cellular Uptake and Response to Albumin-Bound Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Moumita; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Robb, Ryan; Vedaie, Marall; Seum, Star; Thirumoorthy, Krishnan; Palanichamy, Kamalakannan; Harbrecht, Matthew; Chakravarti, Arnab; Williams, Terence M

    2017-11-01

    Nab-paclitaxel, a nanoparticle conjugate of paclitaxel to human albumin, exhibits efficacy in pancreatic cancer, non-small cell lung cancer and breast cancer. However, there is a lack of predictive biomarkers to identify patients who might benefit most from its administration. This study addresses this gap in knowledge by identifying that caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is a candidate mechanism-based biomarker. Caveolae are small membrane invaginations important for transendothelial albumin uptake. Cav-1, the principal structural component of caveolae, is overexpressed in the cancers noted above that respond to nab-paclitaxel. Thus, we hypothesized that Cav-1 may be critical for albumin uptake in tumors and perhaps determine their response to this drug. Cav-1 protein levels correlated positively with nab-paclitaxel sensitivity. RNAi-mediated attenuation of Cav-1 expression reduced uptake of albumin and nab-paclitaxel in cancer cells and rendered them resistant to nab-paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. Conversely, Cav-1 overexpression enhanced sensitivity to nab-paclitaxel. Selection for cellular resistance to nab-paclitaxel in cell culture correlated with a loss of Cav-1 expression. In mouse xenograft models, cancer cells, where Cav-1 was attenuated, exhibited resistance to the antitumor effects of nab-paclitaxel therapy. Overall, our findings suggest Cav-1 as a predictive biomarker for the response to nab-paclitaxel and other albumin-based cancer therapeutic drugs. Cancer Res; 77(21); 5925-37. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Alternative translation initiation of Caveolin-2 desensitizes insulin signaling through dephosphorylation of insulin receptor by PTP1B and causes insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hayeong; Jang, Donghwan; Choi, Moonjeong; Lee, Jaewoong; Jeong, Kyuho; Pak, Yunbae

    2018-06-01

    Insulin resistance, defined as attenuated sensitivity responding to insulin, impairs insulin action. Direct causes and molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance have thus far remained elusive. Here we show that alternative translation initiation (ATI) of Caveolin-2 (Cav-2) regulates insulin sensitivity. Cav-2β isoform yielded by ATI desensitizes insulin receptor (IR) via dephosphorylation by protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), and subsequent endocytosis and lysosomal degradation of IR, causing insulin resistance. Blockage of Cav-2 ATI protects against insulin resistance by preventing Cav-2β-PTP1B-directed IR desensitization, thereby normalizing insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake. Our findings show that Cav-2β is a negative regulator of IR signaling, and identify a mechanism causing insulin resistance through control of insulin sensitivity via Cav-2 ATI. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Phytotoxicity and cytogenotoxicity of hydroalcoholic extracts from Solanum muricatum Ait. and Solanum betaceum Cav. (Solanaceae) in the plant model Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Fabio Eduardo; Carvalho, Marcos Schleiden Sousa; Silveira, Graciele Lurdes; Correa, Felipe Folgaroli; Cardoso, Maria das Graças; Andrade-Vieira, Larissa Fonseca; Vilela, Luciane Resende

    2018-03-05

    Plants are rich in biologically active compounds. They can be explored for the production of bioherbicides. In this context, the present work aimed to evaluate the allelopathic effect of hydroalcoholic extracts from two Solanaceae species: Solanum muricatum Ait. and Solanum betaceum Cav. For this end, we conducted phytochemical screening and biological assays, determining the effects of the extracts on germination, early development, cell cycle, and DNA fragmentation in plantlets and meristematic cells of the plant model Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce). The percentage of seeds germinated under effect of S. muricatum extract did not differ from the control, but plantlet growth was reduced at the highest concentrations. For S. betaceum extract, dose dependence was observed for both germination and plantlet development, with the highest concentrations inhibiting germination. The growth curves revealed the concentrations of 2.06 and 1.93 g/L for S. muricatum and S. betaceum extracts, respectively, as those reducing 50% of root growth (RG). At these concentrations, both extracts presented mitodepressive effect, besides inducing significant increase in the frequency of condensed nuclei, associated to DNA fragmentation and cytoplasmic shrinkage. The frequency of chromosome alterations was not significant. We further discuss the mechanisms of action related to the chemical composition of the extracts, which presented organic acids, reducing sugars, proteins, amino acids, and tannins, besides catechins and flavonoids, only found in the extract of S. betaceum.

  12. Crescimento de plantas jovens de açoita-cavalo em quatro diferentes substratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Grave

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The species Luehea divaricata Mart. & Zucc., from the Malvaceae family, has its wood used mainly in the manufacturing of curved furniture. Due to the wood quality interest, it is observed, as main result, the species deforestation. The purpose of this study was evaluate the growth of Luehea divaricata seedlings coming from seeds in four substrates. Four seeds were put in the tested substracts: Plant Max®, black peat (mineralized, carbonizated rice hulls and Mec Plant®. After 25 days, the seedlings were transplanted inside each treatment and, after 50 days, the seedlings were pruned. It was used the completely randomized experimental, the data underwent the variety analysis, and the averages were compared to Duncan is Test. The following parameters were considered: the percentage of seeds germination, dry weights of the root (g, dry weights of the stem (g, the stem diameter (cm, the height of stem (cm and number of leaves. The cultivated plants in the Plant Max® substract showed four times more root dry mass and aerial part on the 180 th day. Black peat and carbonizated rice hulls were less effective in the growing of the seedlings in the all analyzed parameters. The propagation of Luehea divaricata from seeds is technically viable, it is one alternative for seedlings production of the species and the substract Plant Max® and Mec Plant® was the best growth.

  13. Caveolin-1 down-regulation is required for Wnt5a-Frizzled 2 signalling in Ha-RasV12 -induced cell transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiu-Kuan; Lin, Hsi-Hui; Chiou, Yu-Wei; Wu, Ching-Lung; Chiu, Wen-Tai; Tang, Ming-Jer

    2018-05-01

    Caveolin-1 (Cav1) is down-regulated during MK4 (MDCK cells harbouring inducible Ha-Ras V12 gene) transformation by Ha-Ras V12 . Cav1 overexpression abrogates the Ha-Ras V12 -driven transformation of MK4 cells; however, the targeted down-regulation of Cav1 is not sufficient to mimic this transformation. Cav1-silenced cells, including MK4/shCav1 cells and MDCK/shCav1 cells, showed an increased cell area and discontinuous junction-related proteins staining. Cellular and mechanical transformations were completed when MDCK/shCav1 cells were treated with medium conditioned by MK4 cells treated with IPTG (MK4+I-CM) but not with medium conditioned by MK4 cells. Nanoparticle tracking analysis showed that Ha-Ras V12 -inducing MK4 cells increased exosome-like microvesicles release compared with their normal counterparts. The cellular and mechanical transformation activities of MK4+I-CM were abolished after heat treatment and exosome depletion and were copied by exosomes derived from MK4+I-CM (MK4+I-EXs). Wnt5a, a downstream product of Ha-Ras V12 , was markedly secreted by MK4+I-CM and MK4+I-EXs. Suppression of Wnt5a expression and secretion using the porcupine inhibitor C59 or Wnt5a siRNA inhibited the Ha-Ras V12 - and MK4+I-CM-induced transformation of MK4 cells and MDCK/shCav1 cells, respectively. Cav1 down-regulation, either by Ha-Ras V12 or targeted shRNA, increased frizzled-2 (Fzd2) protein levels without affecting its mRNA levels, suggesting a novel role of Cav1 in negatively regulating Fzd2 expression. Additionally, silencing Cav1 facilitated the internalization of MK4+I-EXs in MDCK cells. These data suggest that Cav1-dependent repression of Fzd2 and exosome uptake is potentially relevant to its antitransformation activity, which hinders the activation of Ha-Ras V12 -Wnt5a-Stat3 pathway. Altogether, these results suggest that both decreasing Cav1 and increasing exosomal Wnt5a must be implemented during Ha-Ras V12 -driven cell transformation. © 2018 The Authors

  14. Enhanced caveolin-1 expression increases migration, anchorage-independent growth and invasion of endometrial adenocarcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Valdivia, Natalia; Bravo, Denisse; Huerta, Hernán; Henriquez, Soledad; Gabler, Fernando; Vega, Margarita; Romero, Carmen; Calderon, Claudia; Owen, Gareth I.; Leyton, Lisette; Quest, Andrew F. G.

    2015-01-01

    Caveolin-1 (CAV1) has been implicated both in tumor suppression and progression, whereby the specific role appears to be context dependent. Endometrial cancer is one of the most common malignancies of the female genital tract; however, little is known about the role of CAV1 in this disease. Here, we first determined by immunohistochemistry CAV1 protein levels in normal proliferative human endometrium and endometrial tumor samples. Then using two endometrial cancer cell lines (ECC: Ishikawa and Hec-1A) we evaluated mRNA and protein levels of CAV1 by real time qPCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. The role of CAV1 expression in ECC malignancy was further studied by either inducing its expression in endometrial cancer cells with the tumor promotor 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (4β-TPA) or decreasing expression using short-hairpin RNA constructs, and then evaluating the effects of these changes on ECC proliferation, transmigration, matrigel invasion, and colony formation in soft agar. Immunohistochemical analysis of endometrial epithelia revealed that substantially higher levels of CAV1 were present in endometrial tumors than the normal proliferative epithelium. Also, in Ishikawa and Hec-1A endometrial cancer cells CAV1 expression was readily detectable. Upon treatment with 4β-TPA CAV1 levels increased and coincided with augmented cell transmigration, matrigel invasion, as well as colony formation in soft agar. Reduction of CAV1 expression using short-hairpin RNA constructs ablated these effects in both cell types whether treated or not with 4β-TPA. Alternatively, CAV1 expression appeared not to modulate significantly proliferation of these cells. Our study shows that elevated CAV1, observed in patients with endometrial cancer, is linked to enhanced malignancy of endometrial cancer cells, as evidenced by increased migration, invasion and anchorage-independent growth. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1477-5) contains

  15. Prevention of inclusion body hepatitis/hydropericardium syndrome in progeny chickens by vaccination of breeders with fowl adenovirus and chicken anemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, H; González, C; Cerda, L; Morales, M A; Dooner, P; Salamero, M

    2002-01-01

    The hypothesis that an effective protection of progeny chickens against inclusion body hepatitis/hydropericardium syndrome (IBH/HP) can be achieved by dual vaccination of breeders with fowl adenovirus (FAV) serotype 4 and chicken anemia virus (CAV) was tested. Thus, 17-wk-old brown leghorn pullet groups were vaccinated by different schemes including single FAV (inactivated), single CAV (attenuated), FAV and CAV dually, or were not vaccinated (controls). Subsequent progenies of these breeders were challenged with the virulent strains FAV-341 and CAV-10343 following three strategies: 1) FAV-341 intramuscularly (i.m.) at day 10 of age (only FAV-vaccinated and control progenies); 2) FAV + CAV i.m. simultaneously at day 10 of age (all progenies); 3) CAV i.m. at day 1 and FAV orally at day 10 of age (all progenies). The induction of IBH/HP in these progenies was evaluated throughout a 10-day period. Both breeder groups vaccinated against FAV and those vaccinated against CAV increased virus neutralizing specific antibodies. Challenge strategy 1 showed 26.6% mortality in control progeny chickens and 13.3% in the progeny of FAV-vaccinated breeders. Presence of lesions in the liver of these groups showed no significant differences (P > 0.05), suggesting a discreet protective effect of the vaccine. Challenge strategy 2 showed 29.4% mortality in controls and 94% of chickens showed hepatic inclusion bodies (HIB). Single CAV vaccination of breeders did not demonstrate a beneficial effect, with both mortality and liver lesions resembling the nonvaccinated controls. FAV vaccination of breeders significantly reduced both mortality (7.4%) and liver lesions (26% HIB) (P vaccination of breeders with FAV and CAV proved to be necessary to achieve maximum protection of the progeny (no mortality and 7% HIB). Challenge strategy 3 produced no mortality but consistent liver damage in controls (96% HIB). In this case, both CAV and FAV + CAV-vaccinated breeders showed best protection results

  16. AKAP localizes in a specific subset of TRPV1 and CaV1.2 positive nociceptive rat DRG neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandao, Katherine E.; Dell’Acqua, Mark L.; Levinson, Simon R.

    2016-01-01

    Modulation of phosphorylation states of ion channels is a critical step in the development of hyperalgesia during inflammation. Modulatory enhancement of channel activity may increase neuronal excitability and affect downstream targets such as gene transcription. The specificity required for such regulation of ion channels quickly occurs via targeting of protein kinases and phosphatases by the scaffolding A-kinase anchoring protein 79/150 (AKAP79/150). AKAP79/150 has been implicated in inflammatory pain by targeting PKA and PKC to the TRPV1 channel in peripheral sensory neurons, thus lowering threshold for activation by multiple inflammatory reagents. However, the expression pattern of AKAP79/150 in peripheral sensory neurons is unknown. In this study we use immunofluorescence microscopy to identify in DRG sections the peripheral neuron subtypes that express the rodent isoform AKAP150, as well as the subcellular distribution of AKAP150 and its potential target ion channels. We found that AKAP150 is predominantly expressed in a subset of small DRG sensory neurons where it is localized at the plasma membrane of the soma, axon initial segment and small fibers. The majority of these neurons is peripherin positive and produces c-fibers, though a small portion produces Aδ-fibers. Furthermore, we demonstrate that AKAP79/150 colocalizes with TRPV1 and CaV1.2 in the soma and axon initial segment. Thus AKAP150 is expressed in small, nociceptive DRG neurons where it is targeted to membrane regions and where it may play a role in the modulation of ion channel phosphorylation states required for hyperalgesia. PMID:21674494

  17. Quantum Dots-Based Immunofluorescent Imaging of Stromal Fibroblasts Caveolin-1 and Light Chain 3B Expression and Identification of Their Clinical Significance in Human Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglei Chen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Caveolin-1 (Cav-1 expression deficiency and autophagy in tumor stromal fibroblasts (hereafter fibroblasts are involved in tumor proliferation and progression, particularly in breast and prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to detect the expression of fibroblastic Cav-1 and LC3B, markers of autophagy, in gastric cancer (GC and to analyze their clinical significances. Furthermore, because Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-associated GC (EBVaGC is a unique subtype of GC; we compared the differential expression of fibroblastic Cav-1 and LC3B in EBVaGC and non-EBVaGC. Quantum dots (QDs-based immunofluorescence histochemistry was used to examine the expression of fibroblastic Cav-1 and LC3B in 118 cases of GC with adequate stroma. QDs-based double immunofluorescence labeling was performed to detect the coexpression of Cav-1 and LC3B proteins. EBV-encoded small RNA was detected by QDs-based fluorescence in situ hybridization to identify EBVaGC. Multivariate analysis indicated that low fibroblastic Cav-1 level was an independent prognosticator (p = 0.029 that predicted poorer survival of GC patients. Positive fibroblastic LC3B was correlated with lower invasion (p = 0.032 and was positively associated with Cav-1 expression (r = 0.432, p < 0.001. EBV infection did not affect fibroblastic Cav-1 and LC3B expression. In conclusion, positive fibroblastic LC3B correlates with lower invasion, and low expression of fibroblastic Cav-1 is a novel predictor of poor GC prognosis.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL-REGULATION OF DEVELOPMENT, LIFE-HISTORY AND BIOGEOGRAPHY OF HELMINTHORA-STACKHOUSEI (RHODOPHYTA) BY DAYLENGTH AND TEMPERATURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CUNNINGHAM, EM; GUIRY, MD; BREEMAN, AM

    1993-01-01

    The marine red alga Helminthora stackhousei (Clemente) Cremades et Perez-Cirera [ = H. divaricata (C. Agardh) J. Agardh] from the west coast of Ireland has a heteromorphic life history in culture. Tetrasporangia are formed on uniseriate, filamentous tetrasporophytes, mainly under short-day

  19. Standardization of the cumulative absolute velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, T.F.; Jacobson, J.P.

    1991-12-01

    EPRI NP-5930, ''A Criterion for Determining Exceedance of the Operating Basis Earthquake,'' was published in July 1988. As defined in that report, the Operating Basis Earthquake (OBE) is exceeded when both a response spectrum parameter and a second damage parameter, referred to as the Cumulative Absolute Velocity (CAV), are exceeded. In the review process of the above report, it was noted that the calculation of CAV could be confounded by time history records of long duration containing low (nondamaging) acceleration. Therefore, it is necessary to standardize the method of calculating CAV to account for record length. This standardized methodology allows consistent comparisons between future CAV calculations and the adjusted CAV threshold value based upon applying the standardized methodology to the data set presented in EPRI NP-5930. The recommended method to standardize the CAV calculation is to window its calculation on a second-by-second basis for a given time history. If the absolute acceleration exceeds 0.025g at any time during each one second interval, the earthquake records used in EPRI NP-5930 have been reanalyzed and the adjusted threshold of damage for CAV was found to be 0.16g-set

  20. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-diabetic effects of Zhuoduqing formula, a Chinese herbal decoction, ... Bioactive components of Gynura divaricata and its potential use in health, ... Whole-body vibration exercise improves functional parameters in patients ... Survey of dental students' attitude regarding oriental medicine/complementary and alternative ...

  1. Pharmacological activities and pharmacokinetic study of hyperoside ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on its pharmacokinetic (PK) properties revealed that it is a stable compound ... attention in drug discovery and food supplement research ... neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cAMP response element ... antidepressant effect of hyperoside is mediated through .... Saposhnikovia divaricata by high performance counter-.

  2. Root-Securing and Brain-Fortifying Liquid Upregulates Caveolin-1 in Cell Model with Alzheimer’s Disease through Inhibiting Tau Phosphorylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Depei Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore the effect of root-securing and brain-fortifying Liquid- (RSBFL- mediated caveolin-1 (CAV-1 on phosphorylation of Tau protein and to uncover underlying mechanisms of RSBFL for the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, hippocampal neurons isolated from neonatal SD rats and cultured in DMEM-F12 medium were induced by exogenous Aβ1–42 to establish a cell model with AD. Meanwhile, pEGFP-C1-CAV1 and CAV1-shRNA plasmids were transfected into hippocampal neurons for CAV-1 overexpression and silence, respectively. The serum containing RSBFL was prepared for the intervention of AD model cells. The expression of CAV-1, GSK-3β, and p-Tau in normal hippocampal neurons and AD model cells in the presence of serum containing RSBFL was evaluated. The model hippocampal neurons with AD induced by Aβ1–42 revealed an obvious CAV-1 inhibition, enhanced GSK-3β activity, and abnormal Tau phosphorylation. In contrast, the treatment with serum containing RSBFL could upregulate CAV-1 in AD hippocampal neurons (P<0.05 with improved p-GSK-3βSer9 and reduced p-GSK-3βTyr216 (P<0.01, as well as suppressed abnormal phosphorylation of Tau protein. Therefore, RSBFL has an excellent protective effect on hippocampal neurons through increasing CAV-1 expression, inhibiting GSK-3β activity, and reducing excessive abnormal phosphorylation of Tau protein.

  3. Caveolin-1 expression in oral lichen planus, dysplastic lesions and squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Aslani, Ehsan

    2017-07-01

    Caveolin-1(Cav-1), the main part of caveolae structure, is supposed to play a role in pathogenesis of many human tumors. Since oral lichen planus (OLP) is considered as a potential premalignant disease, this study evaluated Cav-1 expression in OLP in comparison with benign hyperkeratosis, dysplastic epithelium and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), to investigate its possible role in pathogenesis and malignant transformation of OLP. In this cross-sectional retrospective study, immunohistochemical expression of Cav-1 in the epithelial component and stroma was evaluated in 81 samples, including 12 cases of hyperkeratosis, 24 OLP, 22 epithelial dysplasia, and 23 OSCC samples. Correlations between Cav-1 expression and clinicopathological variables were evaluated statistically. Positive Cav-1 staining was found in 58% of OLP, 91% of hyperkeratosis, 100% of epithelial dysplasia, and 95% of OSCC samples. OSCC showed the highest Cav-1 expression and OLP had the lowest (P=0.001). The intensity of staining was significantly increased in stepwise manner from OLP to OSCC (P=0.001). Expression of Cav-1 was related to the grade of samples in OSCC and dysplastic samples (P=0.04). Based on the findings, it was concluded that Cav-1 may play a role in the pathogenesis of OLP and carcinogenesis of SCC, but its role in malignant transformation of OLP is not confirmed. Further studies are needed to evaluate its potential therapeutic function in OLP and SCC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of cadmium salts on some growth and metabolic activities of selected fungi from the rhizosphere of Glycine max and Zea mays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naguib, M.I.; Ali, M.I.; Haikal, N.Z.; Sharaf, E.F. (Cairo Univ. (Egypt))

    1986-12-01

    Six fungi, isolated from the rhizosphere of Glycine max and Zea Mays, were selected for their variable resistance to soil application of cadmium nitrate and cadmium sulfate, at the range of 100-1000 ppm concentration. These were (a) Aspergillus terreus and Rhizopus oryzae; (b) Paecilomyces divaricata, Curvularia tetramera; (c) Fusarium oxysporum and (d) Cladosporium herbarum. Fifty ppm cadmium salts exerted no effect on spore germination of R. oryzae, F. oxysporum or C. tetramera, stimulated A. terreus and P. divaricata and suppressed C. herbarum. 100 ppm dose exerted variable effects dependent on the organism and/or accompanying anion. 1000 ppm cadmium arrested spore germination of all the tested fungi except F. oxysporum where marked suppression were observed. Cadmium arrested growth of C. herbarum and P. divaricata at 50 ppm, initiated that of A. terreus, C. tetramera and F. oxysporum but seemed without effect on R. oryzae. Larger doses seemed to be inhibitory to all organisms, R. oryzae being least affected. Results show that nitrogen secretion was not a function of tolerance of the fungi to cadmium applied to the soil but was largely controlled by the effect of cadmium on the permeability of the cells of each individual fungus. Cadmium seemed to stimulate nitrogen metabolism of Aspergillus and Fusarium, had little or no effect on that of Rhizopus but suppressed that of Curvularia. Most accumulated nitrogen was in the form of amino and other soluble nitrogen. Cadmium inhibited the incorporation of absorbed phosphorus into energy-rich compounds. This was concomitant with the failure of amino acid incorporation into proteins.

  5. Canine adenovirus type 2 vector generation via I-Sce1-mediated intracellular genome release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy Ibanes

    Full Text Available When canine adenovirus type 2 (CAdV-2, or also commonly referred to as CAV-2 vectors are injected into the brain parenchyma they preferentially transduce neurons, are capable of efficient axonal transport to afferent regions, and allow transgene expression for at last >1 yr. Yet, translating these data into a user-friendly vector platform has been limited because CAV-2 vector generation is challenging. Generation of E1-deleted adenovirus vectors often requires transfection of linear DNA fragments of >30 kb containing the vector genome into an E1-transcomplementing cell line. In contrast to human adenovirus type 5 vector generation, CAV-2 vector generation is less efficient due, in part, to a reduced ability to initiate replication and poor transfectibility of canine cells with large, linear DNA fragments. To improve CAV-2 vector generation, we generated an E1-transcomplementing cell line expressing the estrogen receptor (ER fused to I-SceI, a yeast meganuclease, and plasmids containing the I-SceI recognition sites flanking the CAV-2 vector genome. Using transfection of supercoiled plasmid and intracellular genome release via 4-OH-tamoxifen-induced nuclear translocation of I-SceI, we improved CAV-2 vector titers 1,000 fold, and in turn increased the efficacy of CAV-2 vector generation.

  6. Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vector Generation via I-Sce1-Mediated Intracellular Genome Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanes, Sandy; Kremer, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    When canine adenovirus type 2 (CAdV-2, or also commonly referred to as CAV-2) vectors are injected into the brain parenchyma they preferentially transduce neurons, are capable of efficient axonal transport to afferent regions, and allow transgene expression for at last >1 yr. Yet, translating these data into a user-friendly vector platform has been limited because CAV-2 vector generation is challenging. Generation of E1-deleted adenovirus vectors often requires transfection of linear DNA fragments of >30 kb containing the vector genome into an E1-transcomplementing cell line. In contrast to human adenovirus type 5 vector generation, CAV-2 vector generation is less efficient due, in part, to a reduced ability to initiate replication and poor transfectibility of canine cells with large, linear DNA fragments. To improve CAV-2 vector generation, we generated an E1-transcomplementing cell line expressing the estrogen receptor (ER) fused to I-SceI, a yeast meganuclease, and plasmids containing the I-SceI recognition sites flanking the CAV-2 vector genome. Using transfection of supercoiled plasmid and intracellular genome release via 4-OH-tamoxifen-induced nuclear translocation of I-SceI, we improved CAV-2 vector titers 1,000 fold, and in turn increased the efficacy of CAV-2 vector generation. PMID:23936483

  7. Caveolae regulation of mechanosensitive channel function in myotubes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixia Huang

    Full Text Available Mutations that lead to muscular dystrophy often create deficiencies in cytoskeletal support of the muscle sarcolemma causing hyperactive mechanosensitive cation channel (MSC activity and elevated intracellular Ca(2+. Caveolae are cholesterol-rich microdomains that form mechanically deformable invaginations of the sarcolemma. Mutations to caveolin-3, the main scaffolding protein of caveolae in muscle, cause Limbe-Girdle muscular dystrophy. Using genetic and acute chemical perturbations of developing myotubes we investigated whether caveolae are functionally linked to MSCs. MSC sensitivity was assayed using suction application to patches and probe-induced indentation during whole-cell recordings. Membrane mechanical stress in patches was monitored using patch capacitance/impedance. Cholesterol depletion disrupted caveolae and caused a large increase in MSC current. It also decreased the membrane mechanical relaxation time, likely reflecting cytoskeleton dissociation from the bilayer. Reduction of Cav3 expression with miRNA also increased MSC current and decreased patch relaxation time. In contrast Cav3 overexpression produced a small decrease in MSC currents. To acutely and specifically inhibit Cav3 interactions, we made a chimeric peptide containing the antennapedia membrane translocation domain and the Cav3 scaffolding domain (A-CSD3. A-CSD3 action was time dependent initially producing a mild Ca(2+ leak and increased MSC current, while longer exposures decreased MSC currents coinciding with increased patch stiffening. Images of GFP labeled Cav3 in patches showed that Cav3 doesn't enter the pipette, showing patch composition differed from the cell surface. However, disruption via cholesterol depletion caused Cav3 to become uniformly distributed over the sarcolemma and Cav3 appearance in the patch dome. The whole-cell indentation currents elicited under the different caveolae modifying conditions mirror the patch response supporting the role of

  8. Genetic diversity of chicken anemia virus following cell culture passaging in MSB-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasmah, M S; Omar, A R; Wan, K F; Hair-Bejo, M; Aini, I

    2004-01-01

    It has been shown that a chicken anemia virus (CAV) isolates which had undergone 60 passages in MSB-1 cells (SMSC-1/P60, 3-1/P60) acquired 33-66 nucleotide substitutions at the coding region resulting in 13-16 amino acid changes as compared to the CAV isolates passaged only 5 times in MSB-1 cells (SMSC-1 and 3-1) (Chowdhury et al., Arch. Virol. 148, 2437-2448, 2003). In this study we found that a low CAV (BL-5) and a high CAV passage (BL-5/P90) differed by only 15 nucleotide substitutions resulting in 11 amino acid changes. Phylogenetic analysis based on VP1 also revealed that both isolates were close to each other but not to other CAV isolates from Malaysia, namely SMSC-1 and 3-1.

  9. Bergwind fires and the location pattern of forest patches in the southern cape landscape, South-Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Geldenhuys, CJ

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available to indicate the likelihood of forest persistence in topographic positions in relation to berg wind direction. The study also related under-storey differences and the presence of seed of the legume tree Virgilia divaricata Adamson, and of charcoal in the litter...

  10. Functional role of voltage gated Ca2+ channels in heart automaticity

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    Pietro eMesirca

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pacemaker activity of automatic cardiac myocytes controls the heartbeat in everyday life. Cardiac automaticity is under the control of several neurotransmitters and hormones and is constantly regulated by the autonomic nervous system to match the physiological needs of the organism. Several classes of ion channels and proteins involved in intracellular Ca2+ dynamics contribute to pacemaker activity. The functional role of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs in heart automaticity and impulse conduction has been matter of debate for 30 years. However, growing evidence shows that VGCCs are important regulators of the pacemaker mechanisms and play also a major role in atrio-ventricular impulse conduction. Incidentally, studies performed in genetically modified mice lacking L-type Cav1.3 (Cav1.3-/- or T-type Cav3.1 (Cav3.1-/- channels show that genetic inactivation of these channels strongly impacts pacemaking. In cardiac pacemaker cells, VGCCs activate at negative voltages at the beginning of the diastolic depolarization and importantly contribute to this phase by supplying inward current. Loss-of-function of these channels also impairs atrio-ventricular conduction. Furthermore, inactivation of Cav1.3 channels promotes also atrial fibrillation and flutter in knockout mice suggesting that these channels can play a role in stabilizing atrial rhythm. Genomic analysis demonstrated that Cav1.3 and Cav3.1 channels are widely expressed in pacemaker tissue of mice, rabbits and humans. Importantly, human diseases of pacemaker activity such as congenital bradycardia and heart block have been attributed to loss-of-function of Cav1.3 and Cav3.1 channels. In this article, we will review the current knowledge on the role of VGCCs in the generation and regulation of heart rate and rhythm. We will discuss also how loss of Ca2+ entry through VGCCs could influence intracellular Ca2+ handling and promote atrial arrhythmias.

  11. Sex-dependent expression of caveolin 1 in response to sex steroid hormones is closely associated with development of obesity in rats.

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    Rajib Mukherjee

    Full Text Available Caveolin-1 (CAV1 is a conserved group of structural membrane proteins that form special cholesterol and sphingolipid-rich compartments, especially in adipocytes. Recently, it has been reported that CAV1 is an important target protein in sex hormone-dependent regulation of various metabolic pathways, particularly in cancer and diabetes. To clarify distinct roles of CAV1 in sex-dependent obesity development, we investigated the effects of high fat diet (HFD and sex steroid hormones on CAV1 expression in adipose tissues of male and female rats. Results of animal experiments revealed that estrogen (17-β-estradiol, E2 and androgen (dihydrotestosterone, DHT had opposite effects on body weight gain as well as on the regulation of CAV1, hormone sensitive lipase (HSL and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 in adipose tissues. Furthermore, sex hormone receptors and aromatase were differentially expressed in a sex-dependent manner in response to E2 and DHT treatments. In vivo data were confirmed using 3T3-L1 and HIB1B cell lines, where Cav1 knock down stimulated lipogenesis but suppressed sex hormone receptor signaling proteins. Most importantly, co-immunoprecipitation enabled the identification of previously unrecognized CAV1-interacting mitochondrial or lipid oxidative pathway proteins in adipose tissues. Taken together, current data showed that CAV1 may play important preventive role in the development of obesity, with more prominent effects in females, and proved to be an important target protein for the hormonal regulation of adipose tissue metabolism by manipulating sex hormone receptors and mitochondrial oxidative pathways. Therefore, we can report, for the first time, the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of sex steroid hormones in the sex-dimorphic regulation of CAV1.

  12. Inadequate increase in the volume of major epicardial coronary arteries compared with that in left ventricular mass. Novel concept for characterization of coronary arteries using 64-slice computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehara, Shoichi; Okuyama, Takuhiro; Shirai, Nobuyuki; Sugioka, Kenichi; Oe, Hiroki; Itoh, Toshihide; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Ikura, Yoshihiro; Ueda, Makiko; Naruko, Takahiko; Hozumi, Takeshi; Yoshiyama, Minoru

    2009-08-01

    Previous studies have shown a correlation between coronary artery cross-sectional diameter and left ventricular (LV) mass. However, no studies have examined the correlation between actual coronary artery volume (CAV) and LV mass. In the present study, measurements of CAV by 64-multislice computed tomography (MSCT) were validated and the relationship between CAV and LV mass was investigated. First, coronary artery phantoms consisting of syringes filled with solutions of contrast medium moving at simulated heart rates were scanned by 64-MSCT. Display window settings permitting accurate calculation of small volumes were optimized by evaluating volume-rendered images of the segmented contrast medium at different window settings. Next, 61 patients without significant coronary artery stenosis were scanned by 64-MSCT with the same protocol as for the phantoms. Coronary arteries were segmented on a workstation and the same window settings were applied to the volume-rendered images to calculate total CAV. Significant correlations between total CAV and LV mass (r=0.660, Pconcept of "CAV" for the characterization of coronary arteries may prove useful for future research, particularly on the causes of LV hypertrophy.

  13. Age-dependent impact of CaV3.2 T-type calcium channel deletion on myogenic tone and flow-mediated vasodilatation in small arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Miriam F.; Björling, Karl; Jensen, Lars Jørn

    2016-01-01

    , structural remodeling, and mRNA + protein expression in small mesenteric arteries from CaV3.2 knock-out vs. wild-type mice at young vs. mature adult age. In young mice, only, deletion of CaV3.2 led to enhanced myogenic response and ∼50 % reduction of flow-mediated vasodilatation. Ni(2+) had both CaV3...

  14. Subthreshold membrane potential oscillations in inferior olive neurons are dynamically regulated by P/Q- and T-type calcium channels: a study in mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soonwook; Yu, Eunah; Kim, Daesoo; Urbano, Francisco J; Makarenko, Vladimir; Shin, Hee-Sup; Llinás, Rodolfo R

    2010-08-15

    The role of P/Q- and T-type calcium channels in the rhythmic oscillatory behaviour of inferior olive (IO) neurons was investigated in mutant mice. Mice lacking either the CaV2.1 gene of the pore-forming alpha1A subunit for P/Q-type calcium channel, or the CaV3.1 gene of the pore-forming alpha1G subunit for T-type calcium channel were used. In vitro intracellular recording from IO neurons reveals that the amplitude and frequency of sinusoidal subthreshold oscillations (SSTOs) were reduced in the CaV2.1-/- mice. In the CaV3.1-/- mice, IO neurons also showed altered patterns of SSTOs and the probability of SSTO generation was significantly lower (15%, 5 of 34 neurons) than that of wild-type (78%, 31 of 40 neurons) or CaV2.1-/- mice (73%, 22 of 30 neurons). In addition, the low-threshold calcium spike and the sustained endogenous oscillation following rebound potentials were absent in IO neurons from CaV3.1-/- mice. Moreover, the phase-reset dynamics of oscillatory properties of single neurons and neuronal clusters in IO were remarkably altered in both CaV2.1-/- and CaV3.1-/- mice. These results suggest that both alpha1A P/Q- and alpha1G T-type calcium channels are required for the dynamic control of neuronal oscillations in the IO. These findings were supported by results from a mathematical IO neuronal model that incorporated T and P/Q channel kinetics.

  15. Consequences of a novel caveolin-3 mutation in a large German family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Dirk; Schroers, Anja; Blümcke, Ingmar; Urbach, Horst; Zerres, Klaus; Mortier, Wilhelm; Vorgerd, Matthias; Schröder, Rolf

    2003-02-01

    Mutations in the human caveolin-3 gene (cav-3) on chromosome 3p25 have been described in limb girdle muscular dystrophy, rippling muscle disease, hyperCKemia, and distal myopathy. Here, we describe the genetic, myopathological, and clinical findings in a large German family harboring a novel heterozygous mutation (GAC-->GAA) in codon 27 of the cav-3 gene. This missense mutation causes an amino acid change from asparagine to glutamate (Asp27Glu) in the N-terminal region of the Cav-3 protein, which leads to a drastic decrease of Cav-3 protein expression in skeletal muscle tissue. In keeping with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, this novel cav-3 mutation was found to cosegregate with neuromuscular involvement in the reported family. Ultrastructural analysis of Cav-3-deficient muscle showed an abnormal folding of the plasma membrane as well as multiple vesicular structures in the subsarcolemmal region. Neurological examination of all nine subjects from three generations harboring the novel cav-3 mutation showed clear evidence of rippling muscle disease. However, only two of these nine patients showed isolated signs of rippling muscle disease without muscle weakness or atrophy, whereas five had additional signs of a distal myopathy and two fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of a coexisting limb girdle muscular dystrophy. These findings indicate that mutations in the human cav-3 gene can lead to different and overlapping clinical phenotypes even within the same family. Different clinical phenotypes in caveolinopathies may be attributed to so far unidentified modifying factors/genes in the individual genetic background of affected patients.

  16. Lower Serum Caveolin-1 Is Associated with Cerebral Microbleeds in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

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    Jun Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Caveolin-1 (Cav-1 plays pivotal roles in the endothelial damage following stroke. The present study aimed to investigate whether serum Cav-1 level is associated with the presence of cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD in patients with acute ischemic stroke. To this end, 156 patients were consecutively enrolled. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging was analyzed to determine the surrogates of cSVD, including cerebral microbleeds (CMBs, silent lacunar infarcts (SLIs, and white matter hyperintensities (WMHs. After adjusting for potential confounders, patients with low Cav-1 level had a higher risk of CMBs than patients with high Cav-1 level (OR: 4.05, 95% CI: 1.77–9.30. However, there was no relationship between Cav-1 and the presence of SLIs or WMHs. When CMBs were stratified by location and number, a similar association was found in patients with deep or infratentorial CMBs (OR: 4.04, 95% CI: 1.59–10.25 and with multiple CMBs (OR: 3.18, 95% CI: 1.16–8.72. These results suggest lower serum Cav-1 levels may be associated with CMBs, especially those that are multiple and located in deep brain or infratentorial structures, in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Cav-1 may be involved in the pathophysiology of CMBs, and may act as a potential target for treating cSVD.

  17. Tumor cells induce the cancer associated fibroblast phenotype via caveolin-1 degradation: implications for breast cancer and DCIS therapy with autophagy inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Pavlides, Stephanos; Whitaker-Menezes, Diana; Daumer, Kristin M; Milliman, Janet N; Chiavarina, Barbara; Migneco, Gemma; Witkiewicz, Agnieszka K; Martinez-Cantarin, Maria P; Flomenberg, Neal; Howell, Anthony; Pestell, Richard G; Lisanti, Michael P; Sotgia, Federica

    2010-06-15

    Loss of stromal caveolin 1 (Cav-1) is a novel biomarker for cancer-associated fibroblasts that predicts poor clinical outcome in breast cancer and DCIS patients. We hypothesized that epithelial cancer cells may have the ability to drive Cav-1 downregulation in adjacent normal fibroblasts, thereby promoting the cancer associated fibroblast phenotype. To test this hypothesis directly, here we developed a novel co-culture model employing (i) human breast cancer cells (MCF7), and (ii) immortalized fibroblasts (hTERT-BJ1), which are grown under defined experimental conditions. Importantly, we show that co-culture of immortalized human fibroblasts with MCF7 breast cancer cells leads to Cav-1 downregulation in fibroblasts. These results were also validated using primary cultures of normal human mammary fibroblasts co-cultured with MCF7 cells. In this system, we show that Cav-1 downregulation is mediated by autophagic/lysosomal degradation, as pre-treatment with lysosome-specific inhibitors rescues Cav-1 expression. Functionally, we demonstrate that fibroblasts co-cultured with MCF7 breast cancer cells acquire a cancer associated fibroblast phenotype, characterized by Cav-1 downregulation, increased expression of myofibroblast markers and extracellular matrix proteins, and constitutive activation of TGFβ/Smad2 signaling. siRNA-mediated Cav-1 downregulation mimics several key changes that occur in co-cultured fibroblasts, clearly indicating that a loss of Cav-1 is a critical initiating factor, driving stromal fibroblast activation during tumorigenesis. As such, this co-culture system can now be used as an experimental model for generating "synthetic" cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs). More specifically, these "synthetic" CAFs could be used for drug screening to identify novel therapeutics that selectively target the Cav-1-negative tumor micro-environment. Our findings also suggest that chloroquine, or other autophagy/lysosome inhibitors, may be useful as anti

  18. Differential expression of caveolin-1 in human myometrial and uterine leiomyoma smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Ren, Yuanyuan; Cui, Lihua; Li, Zongjin; Zhu, Yingjun; Lin, Wanjun; Wang, Yuebing

    2014-11-01

    Uterine leiomyomas, the most common neoplasms of the female genital tract, are benign tumors of the uterus arising from the smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of the myometrium with an involvement of estrogen. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1), a major protein component in caveolae membrane lipid rafts, is down-regulated in several estrogen-related cancer cells, and overexpression of Cav-1 inhibits proliferation of cancer cells and vascular SMCs as well. Therefore, we hypothesize that Cav-1 is down-regulated in human uterine leiomyoma. Western blot using tissues from clinical patients showed that Cav-1 expression was significantly lower or undetectable in uterine leiomyoma compared with their matched myometrium (P leiomyomas was also significantly lower as detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis (P = .001). To further study the underlying mechanism, we performed primary cell culture, and found that the expression of Cav-1 remained low in cultured leiomyoma SMCs (P = .009). Serum withdrawal did not change Cav-1 expression in leiomyoma SMCs, but increased expression in myometrial SMCs (P = .006). 17-β estradiol inhibited the expression of Cav-1 protein (P = .047) and mRNA (P = .007) in leiomyoma SMCs, whereas it stimulated expression in myometrial SMCs (P = .043). 17-β estradiol, although activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in both SMCs, did not stimulate their proliferation. We conclude that human uterine leiomyomas in vitro express low levels of Cav-1, which may result from estrogen inhibition. This effect of estrogen may contribute to the pathogenesis of uterine leiomyoma. Further studies in vivo are needed to verify these results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence of polyreactive innate clones among graft--infiltrating B cells in human cardiac allograft vasculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Debanjana; Moore, Carolina; Gao, Baoshan; Clerkin, Kevin J; See, Sarah B; Shaked, David; Rogers, Kortney; Nunez, Sarah; Veras, Yokarla; Addonizio, Linda; Givertz, Michael M; Naka, Yoshifumi; Mancini, Donna; Vasilescu, Rodica; Marboe, Charles; Restaino, Susan; Madsen, Joren C; Zorn, Emmanuel

    2018-03-01

    Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) has been associated with graft-infiltrating B cells, although their characteristics are still unclear. In this study we examined the frequency, localization and reactivity profile of graft-infiltrating B cells to determine their contribution to the pathophysiology of CAV. B cells, plasma cells and macrophages were examined by immunohistochemistry in 56 allografts with CAV, 49 native failed hearts and 25 autopsy specimens. A total of 102 B-cell clones were immortalized directly from the infiltrates of 3 fresh cardiac samples with CAV. Their secreted antibodies were assessed using enzyme-linked immunoassay and flow cytometry. B-cell infiltration was observed around coronary arteries in 93% of allograft explants with CAV. Comparatively, intragraft B cells were less frequent and less dense in the intraventricular myocardium from where routine biopsies are obtained. Plasma cells and macrophages were also detected in 85% and 95% of explants, respectively. Remarkably, B-cell infiltrates were not associated with circulating donor-specific antibodies (DSA) or prior episodes of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). Among all B-cell clones generated from 3 explants with CAV, a majority secreted natural antibodies reactive to multiple autoantigens and apoptotic cells, a characteristic of innate B cells. Our study reveals a high frequency of infiltrating B cells around the coronary arteries of allografts with CAV, independent of DSA or AMR. These cells are enriched for innate B cells with a polyreactive profile. The findings shift the focus from conventional DSA-producing B cells to the potentially pathogenic polyreactive B cells in the development of clinical CAV. Copyright © 2018 International Society for the Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Caveolin-1 enhances resveratrol-mediated cytotoxicity and transport in a hepatocellular carcinoma model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hui-ling

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resveratrol (RES, an estrogen analog, is considered as a potential cancer chemo-preventive agent. However, it remains unclear how RES is transported into cells. In this study, we observed that Caveolin-1(CAV1 expression can increase the cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic activity of RES in a dose- and time-dependent manner both in vitro and in vivo in a Hepatocellular Carcinoma animal model. Methods High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC demonstrated that RES intra-cellular concentration is increased about 2-fold in cells stably expressing CAV1 or CAVM1 (a scaffolding domain (81-101AA-defective CAV1 mutant compared to the untransduced human Hepatoblastoma cell line (HepG2 or after transduction with the green fluorescent protein (GFP control vector. The increased intra-cellular transport of RES was abolished in cells stably expressing CAVM2 (a cholesterol shuttle domain (143-156AA-defective CAV1 mutant or CAVRNAi. In order to further characterize CAV1-dependent RES transport, we synthesized RES-dansyl chloride derivatives as fluorescent probes to visualize the transport process, which demonstrated a distribution consistent with that of CAV1 in HepG2 cells. Results In addition, RES endocytosis was not mediated by estrogen receptor (ER α and β, as suggested by lack of competitive inhibition by estrogen or Tamoxifen. Pathway analysis showed that RES can up-regulate the expression of endogenous CAV1; this activates further the MAPK pathway and caspase-3 expression. Discussion This study provides novel insights about the role played by CAV1 in modulating cellular sensitivity to RES through enhancement of its internalization and trafficking.

  1. Persistence of chicken anemia virus antigen and inclusions in spontaneous cases of Marek's disease visceral lymphomas in broiler chickens at slaughterhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohamed Sabry; Ono, Hiroki; Sasaki, Jun; Ochiai, Kenji; Goryo, Masanobu

    2016-06-01

    The chicken anemia virus (CAV) and Marek's disease virus (MDV) infect chickens worldwide; a single or dual infection by these viruses has a great impact on poultry production. In the present study, we examined the existence of CAV antigen and its inclusions in Marek's disease (MD) lymphomas in chickens in the slaughterhouses of Iwate prefecture, Japan. Forty-nine spleens and 13 livers with different degrees of nodular lesions were histopathologically examined at our laboratory. Grossly, the tested organs showed various sizes and anatomical architectures. Based on the cellular morphology and the infiltrative nature of the neoplastic lymphocytes, MD was confirmed in 76% (37/49) of the spleens and 92% (12/13) of the livers. The lesions of MD, according to the pattern of lymphocytic accumulation in the affected organs, were divided into multifocal, coalesced and diffuse. CAV intranuclear inclusion bodies were detected within the small and the large bizarre lymphocytes of the MD lymphomas in 2 livers and 9 spleens, and the immunostaining test for CAV confirmed the persistence of CAV antigens and inclusions in the neoplastic cells. This study demonstrated the persistence of CAV infection within the neoplastic cells of naturally occurring MD lymphomas in chickens.

  2. Life Cycle Assessment of Connected and Automated Vehicles: Sensing and Computing Subsystem and Vehicle Level Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawron, James H; Keoleian, Gregory A; De Kleine, Robert D; Wallington, Timothy J; Kim, Hyung Chul

    2018-03-06

    Although recent studies of connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) have begun to explore the potential energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission impacts from an operational perspective, little is known about how the full life cycle of the vehicle will be impacted. We report the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of Level 4 CAV sensing and computing subsystems integrated into internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) and battery electric vehicle (BEV) platforms. The results indicate that CAV subsystems could increase vehicle primary energy use and GHG emissions by 3-20% due to increases in power consumption, weight, drag, and data transmission. However, when potential operational effects of CAVs are included (e.g., eco-driving, platooning, and intersection connectivity), the net result is up to a 9% reduction in energy and GHG emissions in the base case. Overall, this study highlights opportunities where CAVs can improve net energy and environmental performance.

  3. Expression of voltage-activated calcium channels in the early zebrafish embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhueza, Dayán; Montoya, Andro; Sierralta, Jimena; Kukuljan, Manuel

    2009-05-01

    Increases in cytosolic calcium concentrations regulate many cellular processes, including aspects of early development. Calcium release from intracellular stores and calcium entry through non-voltage-gated channels account for signalling in non-excitable cells, whereas voltage-gated calcium channels (CaV) are important in excitable cells. We report the expression of multiple transcripts of CaV, identified by its homology to other species, in the early embryo of the zebrafish, Danio rerio, at stages prior to the differentiation of excitable cells. CaV mRNAs and proteins were detected as early as the 2-cell stages, which indicate that they arise from both maternal and zygotic transcription. Exposure of embryos to pharmacological blockers of CaV does not perturb early development significantly, although late effects are appreciable. These results suggest that CaV may have a role in calcium homeostasis and control of cellular process during early embryonic development.

  4. Feeding and development of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis, on Australian native plant species and implications for Australian biosecurity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A Rathé

    Full Text Available In any insect invasion the presence or absence of suitable food and oviposition hosts in the invaded range is a key factor determining establishment success. The glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis, is an important insect vector of the xylem-limited bacterial plant pathogen, Xylella fastidiosa, which causes disease in numerous host plants including food and feedstock crops, ornamentals and weeds. Both the pathogen and the vector are native to the Americas and are considered to be highly invasive. Neither has been detected in Australia. Twelve Australian native plant species present in the USA were observed over two years for suitability as H. vitripennis feeding, oviposition and nymph development hosts. Hosts providing evidence of adult or nymph presence were Leptospermum laevigatum, Acacia cowleana, Eremophila divaricata, Eucalyptus wandoo, Hakea laurina, Melaleuca laterita and Swainsona galegifolia. An oviposition-suitability field study was conducted with citrus, a favoured oviposition host, as a positive control. Citrus and L. laevigatum, A. cowleana, B. ericifolia×B. spinulosa, C. pulchella, E. divaricata, E. wandoo, H. laurina, and S. galegifolia were found to be oviposition hosts. Egg parasitism by the mymarid parasitoid Gonatocerus ashmeadi was observed on all Australian plants. A number of Australian plants that may facilitate H. vitripennis invasion have been identified and categorised as 'high risk' due to their ability to support all three life stages (egg, nymph and adult of the insect in the field (L. laevigatum, A. cowleana, E. divaricata, H. laurina, and S. galegifolia. The implications of these host status and natural enemy research findings are discussed and placed in an Australian invasion context.

  5. Stac3 has a direct role in skeletal muscle-type excitation-contraction coupling that is disrupted by a myopathy-causing mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polster, Alexander; Nelson, Benjamin R; Olson, Eric N; Beam, Kurt G

    2016-09-27

    In skeletal muscle, conformational coupling between CaV1.1 in the plasma membrane and type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1) in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is thought to underlie both excitation-contraction (EC) coupling Ca(2+) release from the SR and retrograde coupling by which RyR1 increases the magnitude of the Ca(2+) current via CaV1.1. Recent work has shown that EC coupling fails in muscle from mice and fish null for the protein Stac3 (SH3 and cysteine-rich domain 3) but did not establish the functional role of Stac3 in the CaV1.1-RyR1 interaction. We investigated this using both tsA201 cells and Stac3 KO myotubes. While confirming in tsA201 cells that Stac3 could support surface expression of CaV1.1 (coexpressed with its auxiliary β1a and α2-δ1 subunits) and the generation of large Ca(2+) currents, we found that without Stac3 the auxiliary γ1 subunit also supported membrane expression of CaV1.1/β1a/α2-δ1, but that this combination generated only tiny Ca(2+) currents. In Stac3 KO myotubes, there was reduced, but still substantial CaV1.1 in the plasma membrane. However, the CaV1.1 remaining in Stac3 KO myotubes did not generate appreciable Ca(2+) currents or EC coupling Ca(2+) release. Expression of WT Stac3 in Stac3 KO myotubes fully restored Ca(2+) currents and EC coupling Ca(2+) release, whereas expression of Stac3W280S (containing the Native American myopathy mutation) partially restored Ca(2+) currents but only marginally restored EC coupling. We conclude that membrane trafficking of CaV1.1 is facilitated by, but does not require, Stac3, and that Stac3 is directly involved in conformational coupling between CaV1.1 and RyR1.

  6. Evaluation of helper-dependent canine adenovirus vectors in a 3D human CNS model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simão, Daniel; Pinto, Catarina; Fernandes, Paulo; Peddie, Christopher J.; Piersanti, Stefania; Collinson, Lucy M.; Salinas, Sara; Saggio, Isabella; Schiavo, Giampietro; Kremer, Eric J.; Brito, Catarina; Alves, Paula M.

    2017-01-01

    Gene therapy is a promising approach with enormous potential for treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Viral vectors derived from canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) present attractive features for gene delivery strategies in the human brain, by preferentially transducing neurons, are capable of efficient axonal transport to afferent brain structures, have a 30-kb cloning capacity and have low innate and induced immunogenicity in pre-clinical tests. For clinical translation, in-depth pre-clinical evaluation of efficacy and safety in a human setting is primordial. Stem cell-derived human neural cells have a great potential as complementary tools by bridging the gap between animal models, which often diverge considerably from human phenotype, and clinical trials. Herein, we explore helper-dependent CAV-2 (hd-CAV-2) efficacy and safety for gene delivery in a human stem cell-derived 3D neural in vitro model. Assessment of hd-CAV-2 vector efficacy was performed at different multiplicities of infection, by evaluating transgene expression and impact on cell viability, ultrastructural cellular organization and neuronal gene expression. Under optimized conditions, hd-CAV-2 transduction led to stable long-term transgene expression with minimal toxicity. hd-CAV-2 preferentially transduced neurons, while human adenovirus type 5 (HAdV5) showed increased tropism towards glial cells. This work demonstrates, in a physiologically relevant 3D model, that hd-CAV-2 vectors are efficient tools for gene delivery to human neurons, with stable long-term transgene expression and minimal cytotoxicity. PMID:26181626

  7. Epidemiology and molecular characterization of chicken anaemia virus from commercial and native chickens in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, S-C; Lin, H-L; Liu, P-C; Huang, H-J; Lee, M-S; Lien, Y-Y; Tsai, Y-L

    2018-04-25

    Chicken infectious anaemia (CIA) is a disease with a highly economic impact in the poultry industry. The infected chickens are characterized by aplastic anaemia and extreme immunosuppression, followed by the increased susceptibility to secondary infectious pathogens and suboptimal immune responses for vaccination. Commercially available CIA vaccines are routinely used in the breeders in Taiwan to protect their progeny with maternal-derived antibodies. However, CIA cases still occur in the field and little is known about the genetic characteristics of Taiwanese chicken anaemia viruses (CAVs). In this study, CAV DNA was detected in 72 of 137 flocks collected during 2010-2015. Among the PCR-positive samples, the coding regions of 51 CAVs were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 gene revealed that, although most of Taiwanese CAVs belonged to genotypes II and III, some isolates were clustered into a novel genotype (genotype IV). Moreover, a Taiwanese isolate in this novel genotype IV appeared to be derived from a recombination event between genotypes II and III viruses. Five Taiwanese CAV isolates were highly similar to the vaccine strains, 26P4 or Del-Ros. Taken together, these results indicate that the sequences of CAVs in Taiwan are variable, and inter-genotypic recombination had occurred between viruses of different genotypes. Moreover, vaccine-like strains might induce clinical signs of CIA in chickens. Our findings could be useful for understanding the evolution of CAVs and development of a better control strategy for CIA. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Caveolin-1 interacts with the Gag precursor of murine leukaemia virus and modulates virus production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koester Mario

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retroviral Gag determines virus assembly at the plasma membrane and the formation of virus-like particles in intracellular multivesicular bodies. Thereby, retroviruses exploit by interaction with cellular partners the cellular machineries for vesicular transport in various ways. Results The retroviral Gag precursor protein drives assembly of murine leukaemia viruses (MLV at the plasma membrane (PM and the formation of virus like particles in multivesicular bodies (MVBs. In our study we show that caveolin-1 (Cav-1, a multifunctional membrane-associated protein, co-localizes with Gag in a punctate pattern at the PM of infected NIH 3T3 cells. We provide evidence that Cav-1 interacts with the matrix protein (MA of the Gag precursor. This interaction is mediated by a Cav-1 binding domain (CBD within the N-terminus of MA. Interestingly, the CBD motif identified within MA is highly conserved among most other γ-retroviruses. Furthermore, Cav-1 is incorporated into MLV released from NIH 3T3 cells. Overexpression of a GFP fusion protein containing the putative CBD of the retroviral MA resulted in a considerable decrease in production of infectious retrovirus. Moreover, expression of a dominant-negative Cav-1 mutant affected retroviral titres significantly. Conclusion This study demonstrates that Cav-1 interacts with MLV Gag, co-localizes with Gag at the PM and affects the production of infectious virus. The results strongly suggest a role for Cav-1 in the process of virus assembly.

  9. Simulating the productivity of desert woody shrubs in southwestern Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the southwestern U.S., many rangelands have converted from native grasslands to woody shrublands dominated by creosotebush (Larrea tridentate) and honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), threatening ecosystem health. Both creosotebush and mesquite have well-developed long root systems that allow t...

  10. Lipid raft microdomains: key sites for Coxsackievirus A9 infectious cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triantafilou, Kathy; Triantafilou, Martha

    2003-01-01

    Lipid rafts have an important property to preferentially concentrate some proteins, while excluding others. Lipid rafts can also act as functional platforms for multiple signalling and trafficking processes. Several reports have shown that lipid rafts play a crucial role in the assembly of several enveloped viruses and possibly their cell entry. In this study we investigated the importance of lipid raft formation in Coxsackievirus A9 (CAV-9) entry and cell infection. Here by using a variety of biochemical and biophysical methods, we report that receptor molecules integrin αvβ3 and GRP78, which are implicated in CAV-9 infection as well as accessory molecules such as MHC class I, are accumulated in increased concentrations in lipid rafts following CAV-9 infection. In addition our studies revealed that raft integrity is essential for this virus since CAV-9 activates the Raf/MAPK signalling pathway within the raft and raft-disrupting drugs such as nystatin and MCD can successfully inhibit CAV-9 infection

  11. Notes on Three Newly Naturalized Plants in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Huei Chen

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Chloris divaricata R. Br. var. cynodontoides (Bal. Lazarides, Boerhavia coccinea Mill., and Hyptis pectinata (L. Poit. are recently found naturalized in Taiwan. The present study gives the taxonomic description and line drawings of the three species. In addition, their distribution and notes on ecology and taxonomy are provided.

  12. Het geslacht Chloris in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooststroom, van S.J.; Reichgelt, Th.J.

    1962-01-01

    The genus Chloris Sw. is represented in the Netherlands by 4 adventitious species, viz. C. virgata Sw., C. truncata R. Br., C. divaricata R. Br., and C. pycnothrix Trin. Descriptions of these species and figures of their florets are given. The four species may be distinguished with the aid of the

  13. Sarcolemmal cholesterol and caveolin-3 dependence of cardiac function, ischemic tolerance, and opioidergic cardioprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    See Hoe, Louise E.; Schilling, Jan M.; Tarbit, Emiri; Kiessling, Can J.; Busija, Anna R.; Niesman, Ingrid R.; Du Toit, Eugene; Ashton, Kevin J.; Roth, David M.; Headrick, John P.; Patel, Hemal H.

    2014-01-01

    Cholesterol-rich caveolar microdomains and associated caveolins influence sarcolemmal ion channel and receptor function and protective stress signaling. However, the importance of membrane cholesterol content to cardiovascular function and myocardial responses to ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) and cardioprotective stimuli are unclear. We assessed the effects of graded cholesterol depletion with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) and lifelong knockout (KO) or overexpression (OE) of caveolin-3 (Cav-3) on cardiac function, I/R tolerance, and opioid receptor (OR)-mediated protection. Langendorff-perfused hearts from young male C57Bl/6 mice were untreated or treated with 0.02–1.0 mM MβCD for 25 min to deplete membrane cholesterol and disrupt caveolae. Hearts were subjected to 25-min ischemia/45-min reperfusion, and the cardioprotective effects of morphine applied either acutely or chronically [sustained ligand-activated preconditioning (SLP)] were assessed. MβCD concentration dependently reduced normoxic contractile function and postischemic outcomes in association with graded (10–30%) reductions in sarcolemmal cholesterol. Cardioprotection with acute morphine was abolished with ≥20 μM MβCD, whereas SLP was more robust and only inhibited with ≥200 μM MβCD. Deletion of Cav-3 also reduced, whereas Cav-3 OE improved, myocardial I/R tolerance. Protection via SLP remained equally effective in Cav-3 KO mice and was additive with innate protection arising with Cav-3 OE. These data reveal the membrane cholesterol dependence of normoxic myocardial and coronary function, I/R tolerance, and OR-mediated cardioprotection in murine hearts (all declining with cholesterol depletion). In contrast, baseline function appears insensitive to Cav-3, whereas cardiac I/R tolerance parallels Cav-3 expression. Novel SLP appears unique, being less sensitive to cholesterol depletion than acute OR protection and arising independently of Cav-3 expression. PMID:25063791

  14. Early aspirin use and the development of cardiac allograft vasculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Miae; Bergmark, Brian A; Zelniker, Thomas A; Mehra, Mandeep R; Stewart, Garrick C; Page, Deborah S; Woodcome, Erica L; Smallwood, Jennifer A; Gabardi, Steven; Givertz, Michael M

    2017-12-01

    Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality after orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT). Little is known about the influence of aspirin on clinical expression of CAV. We followed 120 patients with OHT at a single center for a median of 7 years and categorized them by the presence or absence of early aspirin therapy post-transplant (aspirin treatment ≥6 months in the first year). The association between aspirin use and time to the primary end-point of angiographic moderate or severe CAV (International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation grade ≥2) was investigated. Propensity scores for aspirin treatment were estimated using boosting models and applied by inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW). Despite a preponderance of risk factors for CAV among patients receiving aspirin (male sex, ischemic heart disease as the etiology of heart failure, and smoking), aspirin therapy was associated with a lower rate of moderate or severe CAV at 5 years. Event-free survival was 95.9% for patients exposed to aspirin compared with 79.6% for patients without aspirin exposure (log-rank p = 0.005). IPTW-weighted Cox regression revealed a powerful inverse association between aspirin use and moderate to severe CAV (adjusted hazard ratio 0.13; 95% confidence interval 0.03-0.59), which was directionally consistent for CAV of any severity (adjusted hazard ratio 0.50; 95% confidence interval 0.23-1.08). This propensity score-based comparative observational analysis suggests that early aspirin exposure may be associated with a reduced risk of development of moderate to severe CAV. These findings warrant prospective validation in controlled investigations. Copyright © 2017 International Society for the Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The coiled-coil domain of MURC/cavin-4 is involved in membrane trafficking of caveolin-3 in cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Daisuke; Ogata, Takehiro; Hamaoka, Tetsuro; Nakanishi, Naohiko; Miyagawa, Kotaro; Maruyama, Naoki; Kasahara, Takeru; Taniguchi, Takuya; Nishi, Masahiro; Matoba, Satoaki; Ueyama, Tomomi

    2015-12-15

    Muscle-restricted coiled-coil protein (MURC), also referred to as cavin-4, is a member of the cavin family that works cooperatively with caveolins in caveola formation and function. Cavins are cytoplasmic proteins with coiled-coil domains and form heteromeric complexes, which are recruited to caveolae in cells expressing caveolins. Among caveolins, caveolin-3 (Cav3) is exclusively expressed in muscle cells, similar to MURC/cavin-4. In the heart, Cav3 overexpression contributes to cardiac protection, and its deficiency leads to progressive cardiomyopathy. Mutations in the MURC/cavin-4 gene have been identified in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. In the present study, we show the role of MURC/cavin-4 as a caveolar component in the heart. In H9c2 cells, MURC/cavin-4 was localized at the plasma membrane, whereas a MURC/cavin-4 mutant lacking the coiled-coil domain (ΔCC) was primarily localized to the cytoplasm. ΔCC bound to Cav3 and impaired membrane localization of Cav3 in cardiomyocytes. Additionally, although ΔCC did not alter Cav3 mRNA expression, ΔCC decreased the Cav3 protein level. MURC/cavin-4 and ΔCC similarly induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy; however, ΔCC showed higher hypertrophy-related fetal gene expression than MURC/cavin-4. ΔCC induced ERK activation in cardiomyocytes. Transgenic mice expressing ΔCC in the heart (ΔCC-Tg mice) showed impaired cardiac function accompanied by cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and marked interstitial fibrosis. Hearts from ΔCC-Tg mice showed a reduction of the Cav3 protein level and activation of ERK. These results suggest that MURC/cavin-4 requires its coiled-coil domain to target the plasma membrane and to stabilize Cav3 at the plasma membrane of cardiomyocytes and that MURC/cavin-4 functions as a crucial caveolar component to regulate cardiac function. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Bothrops fonsecai snake venom activities and cross-reactivity with commercial bothropic venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collaço, Rita de Cássia O; Randazzo-Moura, Priscila; Tamascia, Mariana L; da Silva, Igor Rapp F; Rocha, Thalita; Cogo, José C; Hyslop, Stephen; Sanny, Charles G; Rodrigues-Simioni, Léa

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we examined some biochemical and biological activities of Bothrops fonsecai venom, a pitviper endemic to southeastern Brazil, and assessed their neutralization by commercial bothropic antivenom (CAv). Cross-reactivity of venom with CAv was also assessed by immunoblotting and size-exclusion high performance chromatography (SE-HPLC). Bothrops fonsecai venom had PLA 2 , proteolytic and esterase activities that were neutralized to varying extents by venom:antivenom ratios of 5:1 and 5:2 (PLA 2 and esterase activities) or not significantly by either venom:antivenom ratio (proteolytic activity). The minimum hemorrhagic dose (69.2μg) was totally neutralized by both ratios. Clotting time in rat citrated plasma was 33±10.5s (mean±SD; n=5) and was completely neutralized by a 5:2 ratio. Edema formation was dose-dependent (1-30μg/site) and significantly inhibited by both ratios. Venom (10-300μg/mL) caused neuromuscular blockade in extensor digitorum longus preparations; this blockade was inhibited best by a 5:2 ratio. Venom caused myonecrosis and creatine kinase release in vivo (gastrocnemius muscle) and in vitro (extensor digitorum longus) that was effectively neutralized by both venom:antivenom ratios. Immunoblotting showed that venom components of ~25-100kDa interacted with CAv. SE-HPLC profiles for venom incubated with CAv or specific anti-B. fonsecai antivenom raised in rabbits (SAv) indicated that CAv had a higher binding capacity than SAv, whereas SAv had higher affinity than CAv. These findings indicate that B. fonsecai venom contains various activities that are neutralized to different extents by CAv and suggest that CAv could be used to treat envenoming by B. fonsecai. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Is two better than one? Limb Activation Treatment combined with Contralesional Arm Vibration to ameliorate signs of left neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco ePitteri

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we evaluated the effects of the Limb Activation Treatment (LAT alone and in combination with the Contralateral Arm Vibration (CAV on left neglect (LN rehabilitation. We conceived them as techniques that both prompt the activation of the lesioned right hemisphere because of the activation (with the LAT as an active technique and the stimulation (with the CAV as a passive technique of the left hemibody. To test the effect of the simultaneous use of these two techniques (i.e., LAT and CAV on visuo-spatial aspects of LN, we described the case of a LN patient (GR, who showed high intra-individual variability (IIV in performance. Given the high IIV of GR, we used an ABAB repeated-measures design to better define the effectiveness of the combined application of LAT and CAV, as a function of time. The results showed an improvement of GR’s performance on the Bells test following the combined application of LAT and CAV, with respect to the application of LAT alone. We did not find, however, significant effects of treatment on two other LN tests (i.e., Line bisection and Picture scanning. We propose that the combined application of LAT and CAV can be beneficial for some aspects of LN.

  18. Expression and characterization of highly antigenic domains of chicken anemia virus viral VP2 and VP3 subunit proteins in a recombinant E. coli for sero-diagnostic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Chicken anemia virus (CAV) is an important viral pathogen that causes anemia and severe immunodeficiency syndrome in chickens worldwide. Generally, CAV infection occurs via vertical transmission in young chicks that are less than two weeks old, which are very susceptible to the disease. Therefore, epidemiological investigations of CAV infection and/or the evaluation of the immunization status of chickens is necessary for disease control. Up to the present, systematically assessing viral protein antigenicity and/or determining the immunorelevant domain(s) of viral proteins during serological testing for CAV infection has never been performed. The expression, production and antigenic characterization of CAV viral proteins such as VP1, VP2 and VP3, and their use in the development of diagnostic kit would be useful for CAV infection prevention. Results Three CAV viral proteins VP1, VP2 and VP3 was separately cloned and expressed in recombinant E. coli. The purified recombinant CAV VP1, VP2 and VP3 proteins were then used as antigens in order to evaluate their reactivity against chicken sera using indirect ELISA. The results indicated that VP2 and VP3 show good immunoreactivity with CAV-positive chicken sera, whereas VP1 was found to show less immunoreactivity than VP2 and VP3. To carry out the further antigenic characterization of the immunorelevant domains of the VP2 and VP3 proteins, five recombinant VP2 subunit proteins (VP2-435N, VP2-396N, VP2-345N, VP2-171C and VP2-318C) and three recombinant VP3 subunit proteins (VP3-123N, VP3-246M, VP3-366C), spanning the defined regions of VP2 and VP3 were separately produced by an E. coli expression system. These peptides were then used as antigens in indirect ELISAs against chicken sera. The results of these ELISAs using truncated recombinant VP2 and VP3 subunit proteins as coating antigen showed that VP2-345N, VP2-396N and VP3-246M gave good immunoreactivity with CAV-positive chicken sera compared to the other

  19. SEVERIDAD DE LA QUEMAZÓN (Pyricularia oryzae Cav. EN GERMOPLASMA DE ARROZ F1 EN LA ZONA CENTRAL DEL LITORAL ECUATORIANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Rafael Garcés Fiallos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen En el Ecuador, el cultivo de arroz (Oriza sativa L. es la principal fuente alimenticia, principalmente formando parte de la dieta básica de los habitantes de la costa ecuatoriana. Entre los factores bióticos adversos al cultivo, está la enfermedad denominada piricularia o quemado del arroz, producida por Pyricularia oryzae Cav., la misma que puede causar daños desde el 59.6% hasta el 100%. El objetivo de esta investigación, fue cuantificar la severidad (número de lesiones por hoja en 39 materiales (líneas y variedades de arroz de pequeño y mediano porte, divididos en dos experimentos establecidos en la zona central del litoral ecuatoriano. La severidad de piricularia se evaluó en hojas de los estratos inferior, medio y superior de las plantas de arroz, una vez por semana totalizando ocho ocasiones. Se empleó un diseño experimental de Bloques Completos al Azar (DBCA con 3 repeticiones. Los valores obtenidos fueron integralizados en el Área abajo la curva de progreso de la quemazón del arroz (AACPQA. Para la comparación entre las medias de los tratamientos se empleó la prueba de T al 5% de probabilidad de error. Existió comportamiento sanitario diferenciado entre los genotipos evaluados en los dos experimentos. Los materiales sobresalientes fueron la variedad INIAP-16 (9.9, y la línea INIAP-14-7 (11.2 en el primer experimento; mientras que en el segundo fueron la variedad Caluma (17.4 y la línea CC-05-27 (18.8, por haber obtenido una menor AACPQA.

  20. Uptake of radionuclides by a common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.) grown in the vicinity of the former uranium mine at Zirovski vrh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerne, Marko, E-mail: marko.cerne@ijs.s [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Smodis, Borut, E-mail: borut.smodis@ijs.s [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Strok, Marko, E-mail: marko.strok@ijs.s [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2011-04-15

    From uranium mining areas, in particular, the radionuclides are usually discharged to the environment during the mining and milling process. At the former uranium mine Zirovski vrh, Slovenia, mine waste and mill tailings were deposited at the Jazbec site and the Borst site, respectively. Plants grown in soils contaminated with the seepage waters from tailings may represent radiological concern if radionuclides from the uranium decay chain are transferred into the food chain. Uranium is usually accumulated in the roots and translocated to the shoots in limited amounts. Uranium plant accumulators are usually plants from Brassicaceae and Poaceae families. A common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.), a tall perennial grass, growing in a wetland habitats, accumulates metals in the above-ground parts. It may be used for phytoremediation of uranium-contaminated soils, because of high biomass production and high metal-accumulation potential. Preliminary results of radionuclide contents measured in such plants, growing on the deposit tailings are presented. A common reed, that was grown on the Borst tailings pile accumulated 8.6 {+-} 8 mBq/g dry weight (d.w.) and 2.4 {+-} 2 mBq/g dry weight (d.w.) of {sup 238}U in leaves and stems, respectively. In the paper, activity concentrations of other nuclides, i.e. {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 40}K are also shown and discussed.

  1. Fuel Economy and Emission Testing for Connected and Automated Vehicles Using Real-world Driving Datasets

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Yan; Yang, Weiqing; Zhao, Ding

    2018-01-01

    By using the onboard sensing and external connectivity technology, connected and automated vehicles (CAV) could lead to improved energy efficiency, better routing, and lower traffic congestion. With the rapid development of the technology and adaptation of CAV, it is more critical to develop the new evaluation method and standard which could evaluate the impacts on energy consumption and environmental pollution of CAV fairly, especially under the various traffic conditions. In this paper, we ...

  2. Effect of TNF-Alpha on Caveolin-1 Expression and Insulin Signaling During Adipocyte Differentiation and in Mature Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Palacios-Ortega

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α-mediated chronic low-grade inflammation of adipose tissue is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1 is the central component of adipocyte caveolae and has an essential role in the regulation of insulin signaling. The effects of TNF-α on Cav-1 expression and insulin signaling during adipocyte differentiation and in mature adipocytes were studied. Methods: 3T3-L1 cells were differentiated (21 days in the presence TNF-α (10 ng/mL and mature adipocytes were also treated with TNF-α for 48 hours. Cav-1 and insulin receptor (IR gene methylation were determined as well as Cav-1, IR, PKB/AKT-2 and Glut-4 expression and activation by real time RT-PCR and western blot. Baseline and insulin-induced glucose uptake was measured by the 2-[C14]-deoxyglucose uptake assay. Results: TNF-α slowed down the differentiation program, hindering the expression of some insulin signaling intermediates without fully eliminating insulin-mediated glucose uptake. In mature adipocytes, TNF-α did not compromise lipid-storage capacity, but downregulated the expression of the insulin signaling intermediates, totally blocking insulin-mediated glucose uptake. Insulin sensitivity correlated with the level of activated phospho-Cav-1 in both situations, strongly suggesting the direct contribution of Cav-1 to the maintenance of this physiological response. Conclusion: Cav-1 activation by phosphorylation seems to be essential for the maintenance of an active and insulin-sensitive glucose uptake.

  3. Role of T-type calcium channels in myogenic tone of skeletal muscle resistance arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    VanBavel, Ed; Sorop, Oana; Andreasen, Ditte

    2002-01-01

    T-type calcium channels may be involved in the maintenance of myogenic tone. We tested their role in isolated rat cremaster arterioles obtained after CO(2) anesthesia and decapitation. Total RNA was analyzed by RT-PCR and Southern blotting for calcium channel expression. We observed expression...... of voltage-operated calcium (Ca(V)) channels Ca(V)3.1 (T-type), Ca(V)3.2 (T-type), and Ca(V)1.2 (L-type) in cremaster arterioles (n = 3 rats). Amplification products were observed only in the presence of reverse transcriptase and cDNA. Concentration-response curves of the relatively specific L-type blocker......); K(+) -5.4 +/- 0.3 (n = 4); all log(IC(50)) P maintenance of myogenic tone in rat cremaster muscle arterioles....

  4. Rem uncouples excitation–contraction coupling in adult skeletal muscle fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beqollari, Donald; Romberg, Christin F.; Filipova, Dilyana; Meza, Ulises; Papadopoulos, Symeon

    2015-01-01

    In skeletal muscle, excitation–contraction (EC) coupling requires depolarization-induced conformational rearrangements in L-type Ca2+ channel (CaV1.1) to be communicated to the type 1 ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ release channel (RYR1) of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) via transient protein–protein interactions. Although the molecular mechanism that underlies conformational coupling between CaV1.1 and RYR1 has been investigated intensely for more than 25 years, the question of whether such signaling occurs via a direct interaction between the principal, voltage-sensing α1S subunit of CaV1.1 and RYR1 or through an intermediary protein persists. A substantial body of evidence supports the idea that the auxiliary β1a subunit of CaV1.1 is a conduit for this intermolecular communication. However, a direct role for β1a has been difficult to test because β1a serves two other functions that are prerequisite for conformational coupling between CaV1.1 and RYR1. Specifically, β1a promotes efficient membrane expression of CaV1.1 and facilitates the tetradic ultrastructural arrangement of CaV1.1 channels within plasma membrane–SR junctions. In this paper, we demonstrate that overexpression of the RGK protein Rem, an established β subunit–interacting protein, in adult mouse flexor digitorum brevis fibers markedly reduces voltage-induced myoplasmic Ca2+ transients without greatly affecting CaV1.1 targeting, intramembrane gating charge movement, or releasable SR Ca2+ store content. In contrast, a β1a-binding–deficient Rem triple mutant (R200A/L227A/H229A) has little effect on myoplasmic Ca2+ release in response to membrane depolarization. Thus, Rem effectively uncouples the voltage sensors of CaV1.1 from RYR1-mediated SR Ca2+ release via its ability to interact with β1a. Our findings reveal Rem-expressing adult muscle as an experimental system that may prove useful in the definition of the precise role of the β1a subunit in skeletal-type EC coupling. PMID:26078055

  5. 78 FR 57922 - American Energy Production, Inc., Best Energy Services, Inc., Community Central Bank Corporation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] American Energy Production, Inc., Best Energy Services, Inc., Community Central Bank Corporation, Explortex Energy, Inc., HemoBioTech, Inc., Larrea... concerning the securities of Community Central Bank Corporation because it has not filed any periodic reports...

  6. BMDO Raptor/Talon Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    has been graded and covered with gravel. Vegetation adjacent to and surrounding the tower consists of low growing desert shrubs (creosote bush (Larrea...lucida) White Sands wood rat (Neotoma micropus leucophaeus) Plants Mosquito plant (Agastache cana) Supreme sage (Sälvia summa) Dune unicorn plant

  7. Estrutura fitossociológica da vegetação arbórea do Parque Natural Municipal de Santo Ângelo, Santo Ângelo, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Hüller

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado no Parque Natural Municipal de Santo Ângelo (RS, pertencente à Prefeitura Municipal de Santo Ângelo, com o objetivo de avaliar a composição florística e estrutura fitossociológica da floresta, em uma área de 13 hectares. Para tanto, foram utilizadas 12 parcelas de tamanho 10 x 20 m distribuídas sistematicamente na área, nas quais foram medidos e identificados todos os indivíduos com DAP maior ou igual a 10 cm. Os resultados obtidos foram analisados e processados com o uso do programa FITOANÁLISE, calculando-se os parâmetros fitossociológicos de densidade, dominância, frequência, valor de importância, valor de cobertura, índice de diversidade de Shannon H' e índice de Morisita. Foram encontradas 35 espécies, pertencentes a 30 gêneros e 21 famílias, das quais branquilho (Sebastiania commersoniana (Baill. L. B. Sm. & Downs, açoita-cavalo (Luhea divaricata Mart, maria-preta (Diatenopterix sorbifolia Radlk e canela-preta (Nectandra megapotamica Spreng. foram as que apresentaram maior representatividade nos parâmetros fitossociológicos do componente arbóreo desta floresta. As espécies com maior Valor de Importância (VI foram açoita-cavalo (Luhea divaricata Mart com 50,53; branquilho (Sebastiania commersoniana (Baill. com 46,24; maria-preta (Diatenopterix sorbifolia Radlk com 26,93; canela-preta (Nectandra megapotamica Spreng. com 20 e farinha-seca (Machaerium stipitatum Vogel com 16,64. Já na estrutura vertical da floresta, Luehea divaricata apresentou maiores valores no estrato superior e Sebastiania commersoniana Baill. nos estratos médio e inferior.

  8. Comparative trial of the canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and canine adenovirus type 2 fractions of two commercially available modified live vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, J G H E; Muniz, M; Sutton, D; Fensome, R; Ling, F; Paul, G

    2006-11-25

    The results of vaccinating two groups of puppies with commercial vaccines, both of which claimed to provide adequate protection with a final vaccination at 10 weeks of age, were compared. Groups of 19 and 20 puppies with similar titres of maternally derived antibodies against canine parvovirus (cpv), canine distemper virus (cdv) and canine adenovirus type 2 (cav-2) at four weeks of age were vaccinated at six and 10 weeks of age and their responses to each vaccination were measured by comparing the titres against cpv, cdv and cav-2 in the serum samples taken immediately before the vaccination and four weeks later. After the vaccination at six weeks of age, all 19 of the puppies in group 1 had responded to cpv and cdv, and 14 had responded to cav-2; in group 2, 17 of the 20 had responded to cpv, 19 to cdv and 15 to cav-2. In both groups the puppies that did not respond to the first vaccination had responded serologically to cpv, cdv and cav-2 at 10 weeks of age.

  9. New Conotoxin SO-3 Targeting N-type Voltage-Sensitive Calcium Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wen

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Selective blockers of the N-type voltage-sensitive calcium (CaV channels are useful in the management of severe chronic pain. Here, the structure and function characteristics of a novel N-type CaV channel blocker, SO-3, are reviewed. SO-3 is a 25-amino acid conopeptide originally derived from the venom of Conus striatus, and contains the same 4-loop, 6-cysteine framework (C-C-CC-C-C as O-superfamily conotoxins. The synthetic SO-3 has high analgesic activity similar to ω-conotoxin MVIIA (MVIIA, a selective N-type CaV channel blocker approved in the USA and Europe for the alleviation of persistent pain states. In electrophysiological studies, SO-3 shows more selectivity towards the N-type CaV channels than MVIIA. The dissimilarity between SO-3 and MVIIA in the primary and tertiary structures is further discussed in an attempt to illustrate the difference in selectivity of SO-3 and MVIIA towards N-type CaV channels.

  10. Annual coral bleaching and the long-term recovery capacity of coral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoepf, Verena; Grottoli, Andréa G.; Levas, Stephen J.; Aschaffenburg, Matthew D.; Baumann, Justin H.; Matsui, Yohei; Warner, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Mass bleaching events are predicted to occur annually later this century. Nevertheless, it remains unknown whether corals will be able to recover between annual bleaching events. Using a combined tank and field experiment, we simulated annual bleaching by exposing three Caribbean coral species (Porites divaricata, Porites astreoides and Orbicella faveolata) to elevated temperatures for 2.5 weeks in 2 consecutive years. The impact of annual bleaching stress on chlorophyll a, energy reserves, calcification, and tissue C and N isotopes was assessed immediately after the second bleaching and after both short- and long-term recovery on the reef (1.5 and 11 months, respectively). While P. divaricata and O. faveolata were able to recover from repeat bleaching within 1 year, P. astreoides experienced cumulative damage that prevented full recovery within this time frame, suggesting that repeat bleaching had diminished its recovery capacity. Specifically, P. astreoides was not able to recover protein and carbohydrate concentrations. As energy reserves promote bleaching resistance, failure to recover from annual bleaching within 1 year will likely result in the future demise of heat-sensitive coral species. PMID:26582020

  11. El género Bauhinia (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae, Cercideae en la península de Yucatán (México, Belice y Guatemala The genus Bauhinia (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae, Cercideae in Yucatán Peninsula (Mexico, Belice and Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Torres-Colín

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta información del género Bauhinia, tribu Cercideae en la provincia biótica de la península de Yucatán. Se reconocen 5 especies nativas: Bauhinia divaricata L., B. erythrocalyx Wunderlin, B. jenningsii P. Wilson, B. herrerae (Britton et Rose Standl. et Steyerm. y B. ungulata L., así como 2 introducidas: B. monandra Kurz y B. variegata L. Se presenta una clave para identificación, descripciones morfológicas, mapas de distribución, fotografías de las especies e información de los nombres comunes y uso en la región.General information about the genus Bauhinia in the Yucatán Peninsula Biotic Province is presented. Five native species, B. divaricata L, B. erythrocalyx Wunderlin, B. jenningsii P. Wilson, B. herrerae (Britton et Rose Standl. et Steyerm., B. ungulata L. and 2 exotic species, B. monandra Kurz and B. variegata L., are recognized. Species identification key, morphological descriptions, distribution maps, and photographs are presented. Additional information of common names and uses in the region is included.

  12. MURC/cavin-4 Is Co-Expressed with Caveolin-3 in Rhabdomyosarcoma Tumors and Its Silencing Prevents Myogenic Differentiation in the Human Embryonal RD Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggi, Fiorella; Codenotti, Silvia; Poliani, Pietro Luigi; Cominelli, Manuela; Chiarelli, Nicola; Colombi, Marina; Vezzoli, Marika; Monti, Eugenio; Bono, Federica; Tulipano, Giovanni; Fiorentini, Chiara; Zanola, Alessandra; Lo, Harriet P; Parton, Robert G; Keller, Charles; Fanzani, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether MURC/cavin-4, a plasma membrane and Z-line associated protein exhibiting an overlapping distribution with Caveolin-3 (Cav-3) in heart and muscle tissues, may be expressed and play a role in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), an aggressive myogenic tumor affecting childhood. We found MURC/cavin-4 to be expressed, often concurrently with Cav-3, in mouse and human RMS, as demonstrated through in silico analysis of gene datasets and immunohistochemical analysis of tumor samples. In vitro expression studies carried out using human cell lines and primary mouse tumor cultures showed that expression levels of both MURC/cavin-4 and Cav-3, while being low or undetectable during cell proliferation, became robustly increased during myogenic differentiation, as detected via semi-quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting analysis. Furthermore, confocal microscopy analysis performed on human RD and RH30 cell lines confirmed that MURC/cavin-4 mostly marks differentiated cell elements, colocalizing at the cell surface with Cav-3 and labeling myosin heavy chain (MHC) expressing cells. Finally, MURC/cavin-4 silencing prevented the differentiation in the RD cell line, leading to morphological cell impairment characterized by depletion of myogenin, Cav-3 and MHC protein levels. Overall, our data suggest that MURC/cavin-4, especially in combination with Cav-3, may play a consistent role in the differentiation process of RMS.

  13. MURC/cavin-4 Is Co-Expressed with Caveolin-3 in Rhabdomyosarcoma Tumors and Its Silencing Prevents Myogenic Differentiation in the Human Embryonal RD Cell Line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorella Faggi

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate whether MURC/cavin-4, a plasma membrane and Z-line associated protein exhibiting an overlapping distribution with Caveolin-3 (Cav-3 in heart and muscle tissues, may be expressed and play a role in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS, an aggressive myogenic tumor affecting childhood. We found MURC/cavin-4 to be expressed, often concurrently with Cav-3, in mouse and human RMS, as demonstrated through in silico analysis of gene datasets and immunohistochemical analysis of tumor samples. In vitro expression studies carried out using human cell lines and primary mouse tumor cultures showed that expression levels of both MURC/cavin-4 and Cav-3, while being low or undetectable during cell proliferation, became robustly increased during myogenic differentiation, as detected via semi-quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting analysis. Furthermore, confocal microscopy analysis performed on human RD and RH30 cell lines confirmed that MURC/cavin-4 mostly marks differentiated cell elements, colocalizing at the cell surface with Cav-3 and labeling myosin heavy chain (MHC expressing cells. Finally, MURC/cavin-4 silencing prevented the differentiation in the RD cell line, leading to morphological cell impairment characterized by depletion of myogenin, Cav-3 and MHC protein levels. Overall, our data suggest that MURC/cavin-4, especially in combination with Cav-3, may play a consistent role in the differentiation process of RMS.

  14. Caveolin-1 and glucose transporter 4 involved in the regulation of glucose-deprivation stress in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi-Qi; Huang, Liang; Han, Chao; Guan, Xin; Wang, Ya-Jun; Liu, Jing; Wan, Jing-Hua; Zou, Wei

    2015-08-25

    Recent evidence suggests that caveolin-1 (Cav-1), the major protein constituent of caveolae, plays a prominent role in neuronal nutritional availability with cellular fate regulation besides in several cellular processes such as cholesterol homeostasis, regulation of signal transduction, integrin signaling and cell growth. Here, we aimed to investigate the function of Cav-1 and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) upon glucose deprivation (GD) in PC12 cells. The results demonstrated firstly that both Cav-1 and GLUT4 were up-regulated by glucose withdrawal in PC12 cells by using Western blot and laser confocal technology. Also, we found that the cell death rate, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) were also respectively changed followed the GD stress tested by CCK8 and flow cytometry. After knocking down of Cav-1 in the cells by siRNA, the level of [Ca(2+)]i was increased, and MMP was reduced further in GD-treated PC12 cells. Knockdown of Cav-1 or methylated-β-Cyclodextrin (M-β-CD) treatment inhibited the expression of GLUT4 protein upon GD. Additionally, we found that GLUT4 could translocate from cytoplasm to cell membrane upon GD. These findings might suggest a neuroprotective role for Cav-1, through coordination of GLUT4 in GD.

  15. Immune function surveillance: association with rejection, infection and cardiac allograft vasculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikal, N M; Bader, F M; Martins, T B; Pavlov, I Y; Wilson, A R; Barakat, M; Stehlik, J; Kfoury, A G; Gilbert, E M; Delgado, J C; Hill, H R

    2013-01-01

    Rejection, cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV), and infection are significant causes of mortality in heart transplantation recipients. Assessing the immune status of a particular patient remains challenging. Although endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) and angiography are effective for the identification of rejection and CAV, respectively, these are expensive, invasive, and may have numerous complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immune function and assess its utility in predicting rejection, CAV, and infection in heart transplantation recipients. We prospectively obtained samples at the time of routine EMB and when clinically indicated for measurement of the ImmuKnow assay (IM), 12 cytokines and soluble CD30 (sCD30). EMB specimens were evaluated for acute cellular rejection, and antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). CAV was diagnosed by the development of angiographic coronary artery disease. Infectious episodes occurring during the next 30 days after testing were identified by the presence of positive bacterial or fungal cultures and/or viremia that prompted treatment with antimicrobials. We collected 162 samples from 56 cardiac transplant recipients. There were 31 infection episodes, 7 AMR, and 4 CAV cases. The average IM value was significantly lower during infection, (P = .04). Soluble CD30 concentrations showed significantly positive correlation with infection episodes, (P = .001). Significant positive correlation was observed between interleukin-5(IL-5) and AMR episodes (P = .008). Tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-8 showed significant positive correlation with CAV (P = .001). Immune function monitoring appears promising in predicting rejection, CAV, and infection in cardiac transplantation recipients. This approach may help in more individualized immunosuppression and it may also minimize unnecessary EMBs and cardiac angiographies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Stroke-Like Episodes and Cerebellar Syndrome in Phosphomannomutase Deficiency (PMM2-CDG): Evidence for Hypoglycosylation-Driven Channelopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo-Serra, Mercè; Martínez-Monseny, Antonio F.; López, Laura; Carrillo-García, Julia; Edo, Albert; Ortigoza-Escobar, Juan Darío; García, Óscar; Carrasco-Marina, M Llanos; Gutiérrez-Solana, Luis G.; Muchart, Jordi; Montero, Raquel; Artuch, Rafael; Pérez-Cerdá, Celia; Pérez, Belén; Pérez-Dueñas, Belén; Macaya, Alfons

    2018-01-01

    Stroke-like episodes (SLE) occur in phosphomannomutase deficiency (PMM2-CDG), and may complicate the course of channelopathies related to Familial Hemiplegic Migraine (FHM) caused by mutations in CACNA1A (encoding CaV2.1 channel). The underlying pathomechanisms are unknown. We analyze clinical variables to detect risk factors for SLE in a series of 43 PMM2-CDG patients. We explore the hypothesis of abnormal CaV2.1 function due to aberrant N-glycosylation as a potential novel pathomechanism of SLE and ataxia in PMM2-CDG by using whole-cell patch-clamp, N-glycosylation blockade and mutagenesis. Nine SLE were identified. Neuroimages showed no signs of stroke. Comparison of characteristics between SLE positive versus negative patients’ group showed no differences. Acute and chronic phenotypes of patients with PMM2-CDG or CACNA1A channelopathies show similarities. Hypoglycosylation of both CaV2.1 subunits (α1A and α2α) induced gain-of-function effects on channel gating that mirrored those reported for pathogenic CACNA1A mutations linked to FHM and ataxia. Unoccupied N-glycosylation site N283 at α1A contributes to a gain-of-function by lessening CaV2.1 inactivation. Hypoglycosylation of the α2δ subunit also participates in the gain-of-function effect by promoting voltage-dependent opening of the CaV2.1 channel. CaV2.1 hypoglycosylation may cause ataxia and SLEs in PMM2-CDG patients. Aberrant CaV2.1 N-glycosylation as a novel pathomechanism in PMM2-CDG opens new therapeutic possibilities. PMID:29470411

  17. Direct interaction between two viral proteins, the nonstructural protein 2C and the capsid protein VP3, is required for enterovirus morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In spite of decades-long studies, the mechanism of morphogenesis of plus-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the genus Enterovirus of Picornaviridae, including poliovirus (PV, is not understood. Numerous attempts to identify an RNA encapsidation signal have failed. Genetic studies, however, have implicated a role of the non-structural protein 2C(ATPase in the formation of poliovirus particles. Here we report a novel mechanism in which protein-protein interaction is sufficient to explain the specificity in PV encapsidation. Making use of a novel "reporter virus", we show that a quasi-infectious chimera consisting of the capsid precursor of C-cluster coxsackie virus 20 (C-CAV20 and the nonstructural proteins of the closely related PV translated and replicated its genome with wild type kinetics, whereas encapsidation was blocked. On blind passages, encapsidation of the chimera was rescued by a single mutation either in capsid protein VP3 of CAV20 or in 2C(ATPase of PV. Whereas each of the single-mutation variants expressed severe proliferation phenotypes, engineering both mutations into the chimera yielded a virus encapsidating with wild type kinetics. Biochemical analyses provided strong evidence for a direct interaction between 2C(ATPase and VP3 of PV and CAV20. Chimeras of other C-CAVs (CAV20/CAV21 or CAV18/CAV20 were blocked in encapsidation (no virus after blind passages but could be rescued if the capsid and 2C(ATPase coding regions originated from the same virus. Our novel mechanism explains the specificity of encapsidation without apparent involvement of an RNA signal by considering that (i genome replication is known to be stringently linked to translation, (ii morphogenesis is known to be stringently linked to genome replication, (iii newly synthesized 2C(ATPase is an essential component of the replication complex, and (iv 2C(ATPase has specific affinity to capsid protein(s. These conditions lead to morphogenesis at the site where newly

  18. Enhanced pre-synaptic glutamate release in deep-dorsal horn contributes to calcium channel alpha-2-delta-1 protein-mediated spinal sensitization and behavioral hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickenson Anthony H

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nerve injury-induced expression of the spinal calcium channel alpha-2-delta-1 subunit (Cavα2δ1 has been shown to mediate behavioral hypersensitivity through a yet identified mechanism. We examined if this neuroplasticity modulates behavioral hypersensitivity by regulating spinal glutamatergic neurotransmission in injury-free transgenic mice overexpressing the Cavα2δ1 proteins in neuronal tissues. The transgenic mice exhibited hypersensitivity to mechanical stimulation (allodynia similar to the spinal nerve ligation injury model. Intrathecally delivered antagonists for N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA and α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA/kainate receptors, but not for the metabotropic glutamate receptors, caused a dose-dependent allodynia reversal in the transgenic mice without changing the behavioral sensitivity in wild-type mice. This suggests that elevated spinal Cavα2δ1 mediates allodynia through a pathway involving activation of selective glutamate receptors. To determine if this is mediated by enhanced spinal neuronal excitability or pre-synaptic glutamate release in deep-dorsal horn, we examined wide-dynamic-range (WDR neuron excitability with extracellular recording and glutamate-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents with whole-cell patch recording in deep-dorsal horn of the Cavα2δ1 transgenic mice. Our data indicated that overexpression of Cavα2δ1 in neuronal tissues led to increased frequency, but not amplitude, of miniature excitatory post synaptic currents mediated mainly by AMPA/kainate receptors at physiological membrane potentials, and also by NMDA receptors upon depolarization, without changing the excitability of WDR neurons to high intensity stimulation. Together, these findings support a mechanism of Cavα2δ1-mediated spinal sensitization in which elevated Cavα2δ1 causes increased pre-synaptic glutamate release that leads to reduced excitation thresholds of post-synaptic dorsal

  19. Enhanced pre-synaptic glutamate release in deep-dorsal horn contributes to calcium channel alpha-2-delta-1 protein-mediated spinal sensitization and behavioral hypersensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, David; Deng, Ping; Matthews, Elizabeth A; Kim, Doo-Sik; Feng, Guoping; Dickenson, Anthony H; Xu, Zao C; Luo, Z David

    2009-01-01

    Nerve injury-induced expression of the spinal calcium channel alpha-2-delta-1 subunit (Cavα2δ1) has been shown to mediate behavioral hypersensitivity through a yet identified mechanism. We examined if this neuroplasticity modulates behavioral hypersensitivity by regulating spinal glutamatergic neurotransmission in injury-free transgenic mice overexpressing the Cavα2δ1 proteins in neuronal tissues. The transgenic mice exhibited hypersensitivity to mechanical stimulation (allodynia) similar to the spinal nerve ligation injury model. Intrathecally delivered antagonists for N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA)/kainate receptors, but not for the metabotropic glutamate receptors, caused a dose-dependent allodynia reversal in the transgenic mice without changing the behavioral sensitivity in wild-type mice. This suggests that elevated spinal Cavα2δ1 mediates allodynia through a pathway involving activation of selective glutamate receptors. To determine if this is mediated by enhanced spinal neuronal excitability or pre-synaptic glutamate release in deep-dorsal horn, we examined wide-dynamic-range (WDR) neuron excitability with extracellular recording and glutamate-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents with whole-cell patch recording in deep-dorsal horn of the Cavα2δ1 transgenic mice. Our data indicated that overexpression of Cavα2δ1 in neuronal tissues led to increased frequency, but not amplitude, of miniature excitatory post synaptic currents mediated mainly by AMPA/kainate receptors at physiological membrane potentials, and also by NMDA receptors upon depolarization, without changing the excitability of WDR neurons to high intensity stimulation. Together, these findings support a mechanism of Cavα2δ1-mediated spinal sensitization in which elevated Cavα2δ1 causes increased pre-synaptic glutamate release that leads to reduced excitation thresholds of post-synaptic dorsal horn neurons to innocuous

  20. Distribution of voltage-dependent and intracellular Ca2+ channels in submucosal neurons from rat distal colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehn, Matthias; Bader, Sandra; Bell, Anna; Diener, Martin

    2013-09-01

    We recently observed a bradykinin-induced increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration in submucosal neurons of rat colon, an increase inhibited by blockers of voltage-dependent Ca2+ (Ca(v)) channels. As the types of Ca(v) channels used by this part of the enteric nervous system are unknown, the expression of various Ca(v) subunits has been investigated in whole-mount submucosal preparations by immunohistochemistry. Submucosal neurons, identified by a neuronal marker (microtubule-associated protein 2), are immunoreactive for Ca(v)1.2, Ca(v)1.3 and Ca(v)2.2, expression being confirmed by reverse transcription plus the polymerase chain reaction. These data agree with previous observations that the inhibition of L- and N-type Ca2+ currents strongly inhibits the response to bradykinin. However, whole-cell patch-clamp experiments have revealed that bradykinin does not enhance Ca2+ inward currents under voltage-clamp conditions. Consequently, bradykinin does not directly interact with Ca(v) channels. Instead, the kinin-induced Ca2+ influx is caused indirectly by the membrane depolarization evoked by this peptide. As intracellular Ca2+ channels on Ca(2+)-storing organelles can also contribute to Ca2+ signaling, their expression has been investigated by imaging experiments and immunohistochemistry. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors (IP3R) have been functionally demonstrated in submucosal neurons loaded with the Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent dye, fura-2. Histamine, a typical agonist coupled to the phospholipase C pathway, induces an increase in the fura-2 signal ratio, which is suppressed by 2-aminophenylborate, a blocker of IP3 receptors. The expression of IP3R1 has been confirmed by immunohistochemistry. In contrast, ryanodine, tested over a wide concentration range, evokes no increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration nor is there immunohistochemical evidence for the expression of ryanodine receptors in these neurons. Thus, rat submucosal neurons are equipped

  1. TRPC3 Overexpression Promotes the Progression of Inflammation-Induced Preterm Labor and Inhibits T Cell Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Chen; Dongming, Zheng; Hong, Cui; Quan, Na; Sishi, Liu; Caixia, Liu

    2018-01-01

    To detect the expression of the TRPC3 channel protein in the tissues of women experiencing preterm labor and investigate its interaction with T lymphocytes, providing a theoretical basis for the clinical prevention of threatened preterm labor and the development of drug-targeted therapy. Forty-seven women experiencing preterm labor and 47 women experiencing normal full-term labor were included in this study. All included women underwent delivery via cesarean section; uterine samples were obtained at delivery. The expression of TRPC3 in uterine tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry, real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, and western blot assay. Activation of T lymphocytes in peripheral blood and uterine tissue were detected by flow cytometry. A TRPC3-/- mouse model of inflammation-induced preterm labor was established; expression of TRPC3, Cav3.1, and Cav3.2 were analyzed in mouse uterine tissue. Activation of T lymphocytes in female mouse and human peripheral blood samples was determined using flow cytometry. In women experiencing preterm labor, expression of TRPC3 and the Cav3.1 and Cav3.2 proteins was significantly increased; in addition, the percentage of CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood was significantly decreased. TRPC3 knockout significantly delayed the occurrence of preterm labor in mice. The muscle tension of ex vivo uterine strips was lower, Cav3.1 and Cav3.2 protein expression was lower, and the percentage of CD8+ T lymphocytes was significantly increased in wild-type mice subjected to an inflammation-induced preterm labor than in wild-type mice experiencing normal full-term labor. TRPC3 is closely related to the initiation of labor. TRPC3 relies on Cav3.1 and Cav3.2 proteins to inhibit inflammation-induced preterm labor by inhibiting the activation of T cells, in particular CD8+ T lymphocytes. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. PCB 126 toxicity is modulated by cross-talk between caveolae and Nrf2 signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petriello, Michael C. [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); University of Kentucky Superfund Research Center, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Han, Sung Gu [University of Kentucky Superfund Research Center, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, College of Animal Bioscience and Technology, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Newsome, Bradley J. [University of Kentucky Superfund Research Center, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Chemistry, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Hennig, Bernhard [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); University of Kentucky Superfund Research Center, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Animal and Food Sciences, College of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Kentucky, KY 40506 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Environmental toxicants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been implicated in the promotion of multiple inflammatory disorders including cardiovascular disease, but information regarding mechanisms of toxicity and cross-talk between relevant cell signaling pathways is lacking. To examine the hypothesis that cross-talk between membrane domains called caveolae and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) pathways alters PCB-induced inflammation, caveolin-1 was silenced in vascular endothelial cells, resulting in a decreased PCB-induced inflammatory response. Cav-1 silencing (siRNA treatment) also increased levels of Nrf2-ARE transcriptional binding, resulting in higher mRNA levels of the antioxidant genes glutathione s-transferase and NADPH dehydrogenase quinone-1 in both vehicle and PCB-treated systems. Along with this upregulated antioxidant response, Cav-1 siRNA treated cells exhibited decreased mRNA levels of the Nrf2 inhibitory protein Keap1 in both vehicle and PCB-treated samples. Silencing Cav-1 also decreased protein levels of Nrf2 inhibitory proteins Keap1 and Fyn kinase, especially in PCB-treated cells. Further, endothelial cells from wildtype and Cav-1 −/− mice were isolated and treated with PCB to better elucidate the role of functional caveolae in PCB-induced endothelial inflammation. Cav-1 −/− endothelial cells were protected from PCB-induced cellular dysfunction as evidenced by decreased vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) protein induction. Compared to wildtype cells, Cav-1 −/− endothelial cells also allowed for a more effective antioxidant response, as observed by higher levels of the antioxidant genes. These data demonstrate novel cross-talk mechanisms between Cav-1 and Nrf2 and implicate the reduction of Cav-1 as a protective mechanism for PCB-induced cellular dysfunction and inflammation. - Highlights: • Reduction of caveolin-1 protein protects against polychlorinated biphenyl toxicity. • Decreasing

  3. The effects of pesticides on morphology, viability, and germination of Blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth.) and Tree tomato (Solanum betaceum Cav.) pollen grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Flavio; Soria, Norman; Oleas, Abrahan; Rueda, Darwin; Manjunatha, Bangeppagari; Kundapur, Rajesh R; Maddela, Naga Raju; Rajeswari, Bugude

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of application of pesticides on morphology, viability, and germination of pollen grains of Blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth.) and Tree tomato (Solanum betaceum Cav.). The study was performed at Patate, Tungurahua province, Ecuador and was divided into two phases. Phase one dedicated to the study of morphology, viability, and identification of nutrient solution for better germination of pollen grains and phase two for the analysis of the effect of conventional, organic, and biological pesticides on pollen grain germination and pollen tube length. To study pollen morphology, pollens were extracted by hand pressure and was analyzed by optical and electron microscopy. The viable pollen grains were identified by staining with 1% acetocarmine. Even though Tree tomato and Blackberry pollen grains are morphologically similar, their exine shapes differ. We observed four times increase in pollen germination rate when suspended in nutrient solution (Sucrose with Boric acid) than control (water). Pollen grains under nutrient solution were subjected to different groups of pesticides for the period of 2, 4, and 6 h. With respect to pesticide affect, the Blackberry pollen grain germination followed the following order: Lecaniceb > Beauveb > Metazeb => Myceb > Control. However, the effect on Tree tomato pollen grains was as follows: Lecaniceb > Myceb > Cantus > Bacillus thuringiensis > Kripton > Control. As per as pollen grain germination is concerned, we observed that the chemical pesticides are more harmful than other pesticides. So, it is necessary to perform screening test for different pesticides and their effect on pollen grain germination before applying to the fields.

  4. The floral hosts and distribution of a supposed creosote bush specialist, Colletes stepheni Timberlake (Hymenoptera: Colletidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colletes stepheni Timberlake, previously thought to be a narrow oligolege of Larrea (creosote bush) of limited distribution in the Sonoran Desert, is found to be a much more widely distributed psammophile of the Sonoran, Mojave and Great Basin Deserts that utilizes two unrelated plant pollen sources...

  5. A Framework for Evaluating Energy and Emissions of Connected and Automated Vehicles through Traffic Microsimulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-07

    Connected and automated vehicles (CAV) are poised to transform surface transportation systems in the United States. Near-term CAV technologies like cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) have the potential to deliver energy efficiency and air qua...

  6. Beta-Estradiol Regulates Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels and Estrogen Receptors in Telocytes from Human Myometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Banciu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated calcium channels and estrogen receptors are essential players in uterine physiology, and their association with different calcium signaling pathways contributes to healthy and pathological conditions of the uterine myometrium. Among the properties of the various cell subtypes present in human uterine myometrium, there is increasing evidence that calcium oscillations in telocytes (TCs contribute to contractile activity and pregnancy. Our study aimed to evaluate the effects of beta-estradiol on voltage-gated calcium channels and estrogen receptors in TCs from human uterine myometrium and to understand their role in pregnancy. For this purpose, we employed patch-clamp recordings, ratiometric Fura-2-based calcium imaging analysis, and qRT-PCR techniques for the analysis of cultured human myometrial TCs derived from pregnant and non-pregnant uterine samples. In human myometrial TCs from both non-pregnant and pregnant uterus, we evidenced by qRT-PCR the presence of genes encoding for voltage-gated calcium channels (Cav3.1, Ca3.2, Cav3.3, Cav2.1, estrogen receptors (ESR1, ESR2, GPR30, and nuclear receptor coactivator 3 (NCOA3. Pregnancy significantly upregulated Cav3.1 and downregulated Cav3.2, Cav3.3, ESR1, ESR2, and NCOA3, compared to the non-pregnant condition. Beta-estradiol treatment (24 h, 10, 100, 1000 nM downregulated Cav3.2, Cav3.3, Cav1.2, ESR1, ESR2, GRP30, and NCOA3 in TCs from human pregnant uterine myometrium. We also confirmed the functional expression of voltage-gated calcium channels by patch-clamp recordings and calcium imaging analysis of TCs from pregnant human myometrium by perfusing with BAY K8644, which induced calcium influx through these channels. Additionally, we demonstrated that beta-estradiol (1000 nM antagonized the effect of BAY K8644 (2.5 or 5 µM in the same preparations. In conclusion, we evidenced the presence of voltage-gated calcium channels and estrogen receptors in TCs from non-pregnant and pregnant

  7. Beta-Estradiol Regulates Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels and Estrogen Receptors in Telocytes from Human Myometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banciu, Adela; Banciu, Daniel Dumitru; Mustaciosu, Cosmin Catalin; Radu, Mihai; Cretoiu, Dragos; Xiao, Junjie; Cretoiu, Sanda Maria; Suciu, Nicolae; Radu, Beatrice Mihaela

    2018-05-09

    Voltage-gated calcium channels and estrogen receptors are essential players in uterine physiology, and their association with different calcium signaling pathways contributes to healthy and pathological conditions of the uterine myometrium. Among the properties of the various cell subtypes present in human uterine myometrium, there is increasing evidence that calcium oscillations in telocytes (TCs) contribute to contractile activity and pregnancy. Our study aimed to evaluate the effects of beta-estradiol on voltage-gated calcium channels and estrogen receptors in TCs from human uterine myometrium and to understand their role in pregnancy. For this purpose, we employed patch-clamp recordings, ratiometric Fura-2-based calcium imaging analysis, and qRT-PCR techniques for the analysis of cultured human myometrial TCs derived from pregnant and non-pregnant uterine samples. In human myometrial TCs from both non-pregnant and pregnant uterus, we evidenced by qRT-PCR the presence of genes encoding for voltage-gated calcium channels (Cav3.1, Ca3.2, Cav3.3, Cav2.1), estrogen receptors (ESR1, ESR2, GPR30), and nuclear receptor coactivator 3 (NCOA3). Pregnancy significantly upregulated Cav3.1 and downregulated Cav3.2, Cav3.3, ESR1, ESR2, and NCOA3, compared to the non-pregnant condition. Beta-estradiol treatment (24 h, 10, 100, 1000 nM) downregulated Cav3.2, Cav3.3, Cav1.2, ESR1, ESR2, GRP30, and NCOA3 in TCs from human pregnant uterine myometrium. We also confirmed the functional expression of voltage-gated calcium channels by patch-clamp recordings and calcium imaging analysis of TCs from pregnant human myometrium by perfusing with BAY K8644, which induced calcium influx through these channels. Additionally, we demonstrated that beta-estradiol (1000 nM) antagonized the effect of BAY K8644 (2.5 or 5 µM) in the same preparations. In conclusion, we evidenced the presence of voltage-gated calcium channels and estrogen receptors in TCs from non-pregnant and pregnant human uterine

  8. Reduced caveolin-1 promotes hyper-inflammation due to abnormal heme oxygenase-1 localizationin LPS challenged macrophages with dysfunctional CFTR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping-Xia; Murray, Thomas S.; Villella, Valeria Rachela; Ferrari, Eleonora; Esposito, Speranza; D'Souza, Anthony; Raia, Valeria; Maiuri, Luigi; Krause, Diane S.; Egan, Marie E.; Bruscia, Emanuela M.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously reported that TLR4 signaling is increased in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -stimulated Cystic Fibrosis (CF) macrophages (MΦs), contributing to the robust production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The heme oxygenase (HO-1)/carbon monoxide (CO) pathway modulates cellular redox status, inflammatory responses, and cell survival. The HO-1 enzyme, together with the scaffold protein caveolin 1 (CAV-1), also acts as a negative regulator of TLR4 signaling in MΦs. Here, we demonstrate that in LPS-challenged CF MΦs, HO-1 does not compartmentalize normally to the cell surface and instead accumulates intracellularly. The abnormal HO-1 localization in CF MΦs in response to LPS is due to decreased CAV-1 expression, which is controlled by the cellular oxidative state, and is required for HO-1 delivery to the cell surface. Overexpression of HO-1 or stimulating the pathway with CO-releasing molecules (CORM2)enhancesCAV-1 expression in CF MΦs, suggesting a positive-feed forward loop between HO-1/CO induction and CAV-1 expression. These manipulations reestablished HO-1 and CAV-1 cell surface localization in CF MΦ's. Consistent with restoration of HO-1/CAV-1 negative regulation of TLR4 signaling, genetic or pharmacological (CORM2)-induced enhancement of this pathway decreased the inflammatory response of CF MΦs and CF mice treated with LPS. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the counter-regulatory HO-1/CO pathway, which is critical in balancing and limiting the inflammatory response, is defective in CF MΦs through a CAV-1-dependent mechanism, exacerbating the CF MΦ's response to LPS. This pathway could be a potential target for therapeutic intervention for CF lung disease. PMID:23606537

  9. Jaundice as a prognostic factor in patients undergoing radical treatment for carcinomas of the ampulla of Vater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianguo; Zhang, Qian; Li, Peng; Shan, Yi; Zhao, Dongbing; Cai, Jianqiang

    2014-01-01

    Carcinomas of the ampulla of Vater (CAV) is a relatively rare malignant gastrointestinal tumor, and its postoperative prognostic factors have been well studied. However, as its first symptom, the impact of jaundice on the prognosis of CAV is not so clear. This study aims to explore the role of jaundice as a prognostic factor in patients undergoing radical treatment for CAV. The clinical data of 195 patients with CAV who were treated in the Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, from January 1989 to January 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Among them, 170 patients with pathologically confirmed CAV entered the statistical analysis. Jaundice was defined as a total bilirubin serum concentration of ≥ 3 mg/dl. Result Of these 170 patients, 99 (58.20%) had jaundice at presentation. Jaundice showed significant correlations with tumor differentiation (P = 0.002), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.016), pancreatic invasion (P = 0.000), elevated preoperative CA199 (P = 0.000), depth of invasion (P = 0.000), and tumor stage (P = 0.000). There were more patients with pancreatic invasion in the jaundice group than in the non-jaundice group. Also, lymph node metastasis was more common in the jaundice group (n = 26) than in the non-jaundice group (n = 8). The non-jaundice group had significant better overall 5-year disease-free survival (72.6%) than the jaundice group (41.2%, P = 0.013). Jaundice was not significantly correlated with the postoperative bleeding (P = 0.050). Jaundice in patients with CAV often predicts more advanced stages and poorer prognoses. Pancreatic invasion and lymph node metastasis are more common in CAV patients with jaundice. Jaundice is not a risk factor for postoperative bleeding and preoperative biliary drainage cannot reduce the incidence of postoperative complications.

  10. Pioglitazone, a PPARγ Agonist, Upregulates the Expression of Caveolin-1 and Catalase, Essential for Thyroid Cell Homeostasis: A Clue to the Pathogenesis of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werion, Alexis; Joris, Virginie; Hepp, Michael; Papasokrati, Lida; Marique, Lancelot; de Ville de Goyet, Christine; Van Regemorter, Victoria; Mourad, Michel; Lengelé, Benoit; Daumerie, Chantal; Marbaix, Etienne; Brichard, Sonia; Many, Marie-Christine; Craps, Julie

    2016-09-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a transcription factor that regulates the expression of multiple target genes involved in several metabolic pathways as well as in inflammation. The expression and cell localization of caveolin-1 (Cav-1), thyroperoxidase (TPO), and dual oxidase (DUOX), involved in extracellular iodination, is modulated by Th1 cytokines in human normal thyroid cells and in Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). The objectives of this study were (i) to analyze the PPARγ protein and mRNA expression at the follicular level in HT versus controls in correlation with the one of Cav-1; (ii) to study the effects of Th1 cytokines on PPARγ and catalase expression in human thyrocyte primary cultures; and (iii) to study the effects of pioglitazone, a PPARγ agonist, on thyroxisome components (Cav-1, TPO, DUOX) and on catalase, involved in antioxidant defense. Although the global expression of PPARγ in the whole gland of patients with HT was not modified compared with controls, there was great heterogeneity among glands and among follicles within the same thyroid. Besides normal (type 1) follicles, there were around inflammatory zones, hyperactive (type 2) follicles with high PPARγ and Cav-1 expression, and inactive (type 3) follicles which were unable to form thyroxine and did not express PPARγ or Cav-1. In human thyrocytes in primary culture, Th1 cytokines decreased PPARγ and catalase expression; pioglitazone increased Cav-1, TPO, and catalase expression. PPARγ may play a central role in normal thyroid physiology by upregulating Cav-1, essential for the organization of the thyroxisome and extracellular iodination. By upregulating catalase, PPARγ may also contribute to cell homeostasis. The inhibitory effect of Th1 cytokines on PPARγ expression may be considered as a new pathogenetic mechanism for HT, and the use of PPARγ agonists could open a new therapeutic approach.

  11. Caveolin-1 influences human influenza A virus (H1N1 multiplication in cell culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemgård Gun-Viol

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The threat of recurring influenza pandemics caused by new viral strains and the occurrence of escape mutants necessitate the search for potent therapeutic targets. The dependence of viruses on cellular factors provides a weak-spot in the viral multiplication strategy and a means to interfere with viral multiplication. Results Using a motif-based search strategy for antiviral targets we identified caveolin-1 (Cav-1 as a putative cellular interaction partner of human influenza A viruses, including the pandemic influenza A virus (H1N1 strains of swine origin circulating from spring 2009 on. The influence of Cav-1 on human influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1 virus replication was determined in inhibition and competition experiments. RNAi-mediated Cav-1 knock-down as well as transfection of a dominant-negative Cav-1 mutant results in a decrease in virus titre in infected Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCK, a cell line commonly used in basic influenza research as well as in virus vaccine production. To understand the molecular basis of the phenomenon we focussed on the putative caveolin-1 binding domain (CBD located in the lumenal, juxtamembranal portion of the M2 matrix protein which has been identified in the motif-based search. Pull-down assays and co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed that caveolin-1 binds to M2. The data suggest, that Cav-1 modulates influenza virus A replication presumably based on M2/Cav-1 interaction. Conclusion As Cav-1 is involved in the human influenza A virus life cycle, the multifunctional protein and its interaction with M2 protein of human influenza A viruses represent a promising starting point for the search for antiviral agents.

  12. Lipid rafts are required for signal transduction by angiotensin II receptor type 1 in neonatal glomerular mesangial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adebiyi, Adebowale, E-mail: aadebiyi@uthsc.edu; Soni, Hitesh; John, Theresa A.; Yang, Fen

    2014-05-15

    Angiotensin II (ANG-II) receptors (AGTRs) contribute to renal physiology and pathophysiology, but the underlying mechanisms that regulate AGTR function in glomerular mesangium are poorly understood. Here, we show that AGTR1 is the functional AGTR subtype expressed in neonatal pig glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs). Cyclodextrin (CDX)-mediated cholesterol depletion attenuated cell surface AGTR1 protein expression and ANG-II-induced intracellular Ca{sup 2+} ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) elevation in the cells. The COOH-terminus of porcine AGTR1 contains a caveolin (CAV)-binding motif. However, neonatal GMCs express CAV-1, but not CAV-2 and CAV-3. Colocalization and in situ proximity ligation assay detected an association between endogenous AGTR1 and CAV-1 in the cells. A synthetic peptide corresponding to the CAV-1 scaffolding domain (CSD) sequence also reduced ANG-II-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} elevation in the cells. Real-time imaging of cell growth revealed that ANG-II stimulates neonatal GMC proliferation. ANG-II-induced GMC growth was attenuated by EMD 66684, an AGTR1 antagonist; BAPTA, a [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} chelator; KN-93, a Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor; CDX; and a CSD peptide, but not PD 123319, a selective AGTR2 antagonist. Collectively, our data demonstrate [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}-dependent proliferative effect of ANG-II and highlight a critical role for lipid raft microdomains in AGTR1-mediated signal transduction in neonatal GMCs. - Highlights: • AGTR1 is the functional AGTR subtype expressed in neonatal mesangial cells. • Endogenous AGTR1 associates with CAV-1 in neonatal mesangial cells. • Lipid raft disruption attenuates cell surface AGTR1 protein expression. • Lipid raft disruption reduces ANG-II-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} elevation in neonatal mesangial cells. • Lipid raft disruption inhibits ANG-II-induced neonatal mesangial cell growth.

  13. Curcumin ameliorates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of podocytes in vivo and in vitro via regulating caveolin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-na; Chen, Zhi-xin; Liu, Xiang-chun; Liu, Hai-ying; Guan, Guang-ju; Liu, Gang

    2014-10-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is recognized to play a key role in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Curcumin, the main active component of turmeric extracted from the roots of the Curcuma longa plant, has been reported for its anti-fibrotic effects in kidney fibrosis. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of curcumin in reversing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of podocytes in vivo and in vitro. In vivo streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats received vehicle or curcumin, and podocytes were treated with high glucose (HG) in the presence or absence of curcumin in vitro. And we investigated the effect of curcumin on HG-induced phosphorylation of cav-1 on the stability cav-1 and β-catenin using immunoprecipitation and fluorescence microscopy analysis. Curcumin treatment dramatically ameliorated metabolic parameters, renal function, morphological parameters in diabetic rats. We found that HG treatment led to significant down-regulation of p-cadherin and synaptopodin, as well as remarkable up-regulation of α-SMA and FSP-1 in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, curcumin inhibited HG-induced caveolin-1 (cav-1) Tyr(14) phosphorylation associating with the suppression of stabilization of cav-1 and β-catenin. In summary, these findings suggest that curcumin prevents EMT of podocytes, proteinuria, and kidney injury in DN by suppressing the phosphorylation of cav-1, and increasing stabilization of cav-1 and β-catenin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Estimation of Cumulative Absolute Velocity using Empirical Green's Function Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Dong Hee; Yun, Kwan Hee; Chang, Chun Joong; Park, Se Moon

    2009-01-01

    In recognition of the needs to develop a new criterion for determining when the OBE (Operating Basis Earthquake) has been exceeded at nuclear power plants, Cumulative Absolute Velocity (CAV) was introduced by EPRI. The concept of CAV is the area accumulation with the values more than 0.025g occurred during every one second. The equation of the CAV is as follows. CAV = ∫ 0 max |a(t)|dt (1) t max = duration of record, a(t) = acceleration (>0.025g) Currently, the OBE exceedance criteria in Korea is Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA, PGA>0.1g). When Odesan earthquake (M L =4.8, January 20th, 2007) and Gyeongju earthquake (M L =3.4, June 2nd, 1999) were occurred, we have had already experiences of PGA greater than 0.1g that did not even cause any damage to the poorly-designed structures nearby. This moderate earthquake has motivated Korea to begin the use of the CAV for OBE exceedance criteria for NPPs. Because the present OBE level has proved itself to be a poor indicator for small-to-moderate earthquakes, for which the low OBE level can cause an inappropriate shut down the plant. A more serious possibility is that this scenario will become a reality at a very high level. Empirical Green's Function method was a simulation technique which can estimate the CAV value and it is hereby introduced

  15. Caveolin-1 overexpression in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad; Nazhvani, Ali Dehghani; Azizi, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    Caveolin-1, a tyrosine-phosphorylated protein, is supposed to have different regulatory roles as promoter or suppressor in many human cancers. However, no published study concerned its expression in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the expression of Cav-1 in the most common benign and malignant salivary gland tumors and evaluate its correlation with proliferation activity. In this cross-sectional retrospective study, immunohistochemical expression of caveolin-1 and Ki67 were evaluated in 49 samples, including 11 normal salivary glands, 15 cases of pleomorphic adenoma (PA), 13 adenoid cystic carcinomas (AdCC), and 10 mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC). The expression of Cav-1 was seen in 18 % of normal salivary glands and 85 % of tumors. The immunoreaction in the tumors was significantly higher than normal tissues (P = 0.001), but the difference between benign and malignant tumors was not significant (P = 0.07). Expression of Cav-1 was correlated with Ki67 labeling index in PAs, but not in malignant tumors. Cav-1 expression was not in association with tumor size and stage. Overexpression of Cav-1 was found in salivary gland tumors in comparison with normal tissues, but no significant difference was observed between benign and malignant tumors. Cav-1 was inversely correlated with proliferation in PA. Therefore, this marker may participate in tumorigenesis of salivary gland tumors and may be a potential biomarker for cancer treatments.

  16. Prevalence and characterization of enterovirus infections among pediatric patients with hand foot mouth disease, herpangina and influenza like illness in Thailand, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puenpa, Jiratchaya; Mauleekoonphairoj, John; Linsuwanon, Piyada; Suwannakarn, Kamol; Chieochansin, Thaweesak; Korkong, Sumeth; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Poovorawan, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and herpangina are common infectious diseases caused by several genotypes of human enterovirus species A and frequently occurring in young children. This study was aimed at analyzing enteroviruses from patients with these diseases in Thailand in 2012. Detection and genotype determination of enteroviruses were accomplished by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the VP1 region. Enterovirus-positive samples were differentiated into 17 genotypes (coxsackievirus A4 (CAV4), A5, A6, A8, A9, A10, A12, A16, A21, B1, B2, B4, B5, echovirus 7, 16, 25 and Enterovirus 71). The result showed CAV6 (33.5%), followed by CAV16 (9.4%) and EV71 (8.8%) as the most frequent genotypes in HFMD, CAV8 (19.3%) in herpangina and CAV6 (1.5%) in influenza like illness. Enterovirus infections were most prevalent during July with 34.4% in HFMD, 39.8% in herpangina and 1.6% in ILI. The higher enterovirus infection associated with HFMD and herpangina occurred in infants over one year-old. This represents the first report describing the circulation of multiple enteroviruses in Thailand.

  17. A single immunization with a recombinant canine adenovirus expressing the rabies virus G protein confers protective immunity against rabies in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianwei; Faber, Milosz; Papaneri, Amy; Faber, Marie-Luise; McGettigan, James P.; Schnell, Matthias J.; Dietzschold, Bernhard

    2006-01-01

    Rabies vaccines based on live attenuated rabies viruses or recombinant pox viruses expressing the rabies virus (RV) glycoprotein (G) hold the greatest promise of safety and efficacy, particularly for oral immunization of wildlife. However, while these vaccines induce protective immunity in foxes, they are less effective in other animals, and safety concerns have been raised for some of these vaccines. Because canine adenovirus 2 (CAV2) is licensed for use as a live vaccine for dogs and has an excellent efficacy and safety record, we used this virus as an expression vector for the RVG. The recombinant CAV2-RV G produces virus titers similar to those produced by wild-type CAV2, indicating that the RVG gene does not affect virus replication. Comparison of RVG expressed by CAV2-RV G with that of vaccinia-RV G recombinant virus (V-RG) revealed similar amounts of RV G on the cell surface. A single intramuscular or intranasal immunization of mice with CAV2-RVG induced protective immunity in a dose-dependent manner, with no clinical signs or discomfort from the virus infection regardless of the route of administration or the amount of virus

  18. Modeling the Energy Use of a Connected and Automated Transportation System (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.; Brown, A.

    2014-07-01

    Early research points to large potential impacts of connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) on transportation energy use - dramatic savings, increased use, or anything in between. Due to a lack of suitable data and integrated modeling tools to explore these complex future systems, analyses to date have relied on simple combinations of isolated effects. This poster proposes a framework for modeling the potential energy implications from increasing penetration of CAV technologies and for assessing technology and policy options to steer them toward favorable energy outcomes. Current CAV modeling challenges include estimating behavior change, understanding potential vehicle-to-vehicle interactions, and assessing traffic flow and vehicle use under different automation scenarios. To bridge these gaps and develop a picture of potential future automated systems, NREL is integrating existing modeling capabilities with additional tools and data inputs to create a more fully integrated CAV assessment toolkit.

  19. Effects of drought on shrub survival and longevity in the northern Sonoran Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Janice E.

    2005-01-01

    Permanent vegetation plots in the northern Sonoran Desert, USA, provided an opportunity to assess the effects of recent drought on desert shrubs and to examine survival in relation to rainfall variability during the past 76 years. Survival and maximum longevity of six species were determined for eight intercensus periods between 1928 and 2004. Average annual survival was Ambrosia deltoidea, 0.9167 ?? 0.0415; Encelia farinosa, 0.7952 ?? 0.0926; Janusia gracilis, 0.9334 ?? 0.0247; Krameria grayi, 0.9702 ?? 0.0270; Larrea tridentata, 0.9861 ?? 0.0174; and Lycium berlandieri, 0.9910 ?? 0.0077. The longest-lived species were Larrea, Lycium, and Krameria, with average maximum life spans of 330, 211, and 184 years. Janusia, Ambrosia, and Encelia were much shorter lived, with average maximum longevity of 53, 40, and 16 years. Winter rain equalled or exceeded 90% of the long-term average accumulation except during 1948 to 1959 (65% of average) and from 2001 to 2003 (49% of average). Summer rain did not drop below 90% of the average accumulation in any period. The 1950s drought caused modest declines in survival of Ambrosia, Encelia, Janusia, Krameria, and Lycium. The effects of the recent drought were much more pronounced, resulting in sharp declines in survival and maximum longevity of Ambrosia, Encelia, Krameria, and Larrea, and modest declines for Lycium. Despite heightened mortality during the recent severe drought, 72% of the deaths observed between 1928 and 2004 occurred during periods of average or better-than-average rain, providing support for the idea that demography of shrubs in arid regions is influenced by continuous as well as episodic processes.

  20. Blockade of CD26-mediated T cell costimulation with soluble caveolin-1-Ig fusion protein induces anergy in CD4{sup +}T cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnuma, Kei [Department of Rheumatology and Allergy, Research Hospital, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1, Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Division of Clinical Immunology, The Advanced Clinical Research Center, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1, Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Uchiyama, Masahiko [Department of Rheumatology and Allergy, Research Hospital, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1, Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Department of Computational Intelligence and System Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan); Hatano, Ryo; Takasawa, Wataru; Endo, Yuko [Department of Rheumatology and Allergy, Research Hospital, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1, Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Dang, Nam H. [Department of Hematologic Malignancies, Nevada Cancer Institute, Las Vegas, NV 89135 (United States); Morimoto, Chikao, E-mail: morimoto@ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Rheumatology and Allergy, Research Hospital, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1, Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Division of Clinical Immunology, The Advanced Clinical Research Center, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1, Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan)

    2009-08-21

    CD26 binds to caveolin-1 in antigen-presenting cells (APC), and that ligation of CD26 by caveolin-1 induces T cell proliferation in a TCR/CD3-dependent manner. We report herein the effects of CD26-caveolin-1 costimulatory blockade by fusion protein caveolin-1-Ig (Cav-Ig). Soluble Cav-Ig inhibits T cell proliferation and cytokine production in response to recall antigen, or allogeneic APC. Our data hence suggest that blocking of CD26-associated signaling by soluble Cav-Ig may be an effective approach as immunosuppressive therapy.

  1. Functional Importance of L- and P/Q-Type Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels in Human Renal Vasculature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pernille B; Poulsen, Christian B; Walter, Steen

    2011-01-01

    Calcium channel blockers are widely used for treatment of hypertension, because they decrease peripheral vascular resistance through inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channels. Animal studies of renal vasculature have shown expression of several types of calcium channels that are involved......-type subtype (Ca(v) 3.1 and Ca(v) 3.2) voltage-gated calcium channels (Ca(v)s), and quantitative PCR showed highest expression of L-type channels in renal arteries and variable expression between patients of subtypes of calcium channels in intrarenal vessels. Immunohistochemical labeling of kidney sections...

  2. Mecanismos de acción de la anticoncepción de emergencia : evaluación hormonal y patrón de secreción intrauterina de glicodelina durante la fase ovulatoria del ciclo en mujeres tratadas con levonorgestrel a las dosis utilizadas en anticoncepción de emergencia /

    OpenAIRE

    Durand Carbajal, Marta Margarita

    2011-01-01

     tesis que para obtener el grado de Doctor en Ciencias Biomédicas, presenta Marta Margarita Durand Carbajal ; asesor Fernando Larrea Gallo, Elena Zambrano González, Horacio Merchant Larios. 59 páginas : diagramas. Doctorado en Ciencias Biomédicas UNAM, Facultad de Medicina, 2011

  3. Lectotypification of three Iberian endemic species belonging to monotypic genera described by Cosson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buira, Antoni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three lectotypes are here designated for Euzomodendron bourgaeanum Coss., Guiraoa arvensis Coss. and Laserpitium scabrum Cav. (Guillonea scabra (Cav. Coss., whose genera are monospecific and endemic to the Iberian Peninsula. The selected types of the two former species are kept at P and belong to Cosson’s personal herbarium, whilst the last one is kept at MA and belongs to the historical herbarium of Cavanilles.Se designan los lectótipos de Euzomodendron bourgaeanum Coss., Guiraoa arvensis Coss. y Laserpitium scabrum Cav. (Guillonea scabra (Cav. Coss., cuyos géneros son monoespecíficos y endémicos de la Península Ibérica. Los tipos seleccionados para las dos primeras especies se encuentran en P y pertenecen al herbario personal de Cosson, mientras que el de la última se encuentra en MA y pertenece al herbario histórico de Cavanilles.

  4. Realistic Bomber Training Initiative. Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    arizonica Bitterweed Hymenoxys odorata Black grama Bouteloua eriopoda Broadleaf milkweed Ascelpias latifolia Broomweed Amphiachyris spp. and...Larrea tridentata Douglas fir Pseudotsuga menziesii Fragrant ash Fraxinus cuspidata Galleta grass Hilaria jamesii Gambel (=shin) oak Quercus gambelii...Guajillo Acacia berlandieri Juniper Juniperus spp. Little bluestem Schizachyrium scoparium Live oak Quercus turbinella Mesquite Prosopis spp. Mexican

  5. Canine parvovirus infection, canine distemper and infectious canine hepatitis: inclination to vaccinate and antibody response in the Swedish dog population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, P; Hedhammar, A; Klingeborn, B

    1996-01-01

    The inclination of dog owners to vaccinate was investigated by sending a questionnaire to randomly selected Swedish dog-owning households. According to the owners (n = 538), 86.7% of the dogs had been vaccinated against CPV and 95.8% had been vaccinated against CD/ICH. The inclination to vaccinate mixed breeds was significantly lower than the inclination to vaccinate pure-bred dogs. In a second study titres of CPV, CD and CAV-1 virus antibodies were measured in 176 randomly selected dogs with known vaccination histories. CPV antibody titres > or = 1:80 were detected in 70.9% of the CPV vaccinated dogs. There was a significant difference in the fraction of dogs with CPV titre > or = 1:80 between the group last vaccinated with live attenuated vaccine and the group last vaccinated with inactivated vaccine. Titres of CD and CAV-1 virus antibodies > or = 1:16 were found in 86.1% and 91.6% of the vaccinated dogs respectively. The fraction of dogs with CAV-1 antibody titres > or = 1:16 was significantly greater in the group that received inactivated CAV-1 vaccine than in the group vaccinated with attenuated live CAV-2 vaccine. Approximately 50% of the dogs were booster vaccinated against all 3 diseases at one year of age.

  6. Prevalence and Characterization of Enterovirus Infections among Pediatric Patients with Hand Foot Mouth Disease, Herpangina and Influenza Like Illness in Thailand, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puenpa, Jiratchaya; Mauleekoonphairoj, John; Linsuwanon, Piyada; Suwannakarn, Kamol; Chieochansin, Thaweesak; Korkong, Sumeth; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Poovorawan, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and herpangina are common infectious diseases caused by several genotypes of human enterovirus species A and frequently occurring in young children. This study was aimed at analyzing enteroviruses from patients with these diseases in Thailand in 2012. Detection and genotype determination of enteroviruses were accomplished by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the VP1 region. Enterovirus-positive samples were differentiated into 17 genotypes (coxsackievirus A4 (CAV4), A5, A6, A8, A9, A10, A12, A16, A21, B1, B2, B4, B5, echovirus 7, 16, 25 and Enterovirus 71). The result showed CAV6 (33.5%), followed by CAV16 (9.4%) and EV71 (8.8%) as the most frequent genotypes in HFMD, CAV8 (19.3%) in herpangina and CAV6 (1.5%) in influenza like illness. Enterovirus infections were most prevalent during July with 34.4% in HFMD, 39.8% in herpangina and 1.6% in ILI. The higher enterovirus infection associated with HFMD and herpangina occurred in infants over one year-old. This represents the first report describing the circulation of multiple enteroviruses in Thailand. PMID:24887237

  7. Annual coral bleaching and the long-term recovery capacity of coral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoepf, Verena; Grottoli, Andréa G; Levas, Stephen J; Aschaffenburg, Matthew D; Baumann, Justin H; Matsui, Yohei; Warner, Mark E

    2015-11-22

    Mass bleaching events are predicted to occur annually later this century. Nevertheless, it remains unknown whether corals will be able to recover between annual bleaching events. Using a combined tank and field experiment, we simulated annual bleaching by exposing three Caribbean coral species (Porites divaricata, Porites astreoides and Orbicella faveolata) to elevated temperatures for 2.5 weeks in 2 consecutive years. The impact of annual bleaching stress on chlorophyll a, energy reserves, calcification, and tissue C and N isotopes was assessed immediately after the second bleaching and after both short- and long-term recovery on the reef (1.5 and 11 months, respectively). While P. divaricata and O. faveolata were able to recover from repeat bleaching within 1 year, P. astreoides experienced cumulative damage that prevented full recovery within this time frame, suggesting that repeat bleaching had diminished its recovery capacity. Specifically, P. astreoides was not able to recover protein and carbohydrate concentrations. As energy reserves promote bleaching resistance, failure to recover from annual bleaching within 1 year will likely result in the future demise of heat-sensitive coral species. © 2015 The Author(s).

  8. Efectividad biológica delazoxystrobin para el control de pyricularia oryzae cav. y cercospora oryzae miyake. en arroz de temporal en Veracruz, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Becerra

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El estado de Veracruz, México, siembra anualmente 22000 ha de arroz de temporal con un rendimiento medio de 3,5 t/ha, debido principalmente a problemas de sequía lo cual favorece la presencia de hongos como Pyricularia oryzae Cav. (quema del arroz y Cercospora oryzae Miyake. (Mancha angosta. Con el objeto de conocer el comportamiento de nuevos fungicidas se evaluó la eficacia del Azoxystrobin en el control de estos hongos. El experimento se estableció en el municipio de Tres Valles, Veracruz, durante el temporal de 1999, con semilla de Milagro Filipino Depurado. El diseño estadístico utilizado fue bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Los tratamientos evaluados fueron: Azoxystrobin a 0,2, 0,4 y 0,6 l/ha vs Tecto60 a 0,5 kg/ha y un testigo sin aplicación. Estos fueron aplicados al presentarse los primeros síntomas de las enfermedades. Se evaluó la incidencia, número de lesiones en 20 plantas, índice de intensidad, el rendimiento de grano y fitotoxicidad. Se encontró que el Azoxystrobin obtuvo mejores resultados que el Tecto 60 y éste a su vez que el testigo no tratado. El mejor control para P. oryzae y C. oryzae y el mayor rendimiento de grano (4432 kg/ha se logró cuando se aplicó Azoxystrobin en dosis de 0,6 l/ha, aunque con 0,2 y 0,4 l/ha de este fungicida tuvo un buen control de estas enfermedades. Ninguno de los fungicidas causó toxicidad al arroz

  9. T-type channels: release a brake, engage a gear

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weiss, Norbert; Lacinová, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2016), s. 78-80 ISSN 1933-6950 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : gating brake * pore opening * Ca(V)3.3 * channel gating * Ca(V)3.1 * low-voltage activated calcium channels Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.042, year: 2016

  10. Three-year serologic immunity against canine parvovirus type 2 and canine adenovirus type 2 in dogs vaccinated with a canine combination vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, L J; Schultz, R D

    2007-01-01

    A group of client-owned dogs and a group of dogs at a commercial kennel were evaluated for duration of antibody responses against canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) and canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1) after receiving a combination vaccine containing recombinant canarypox-vectored canine distemper virus (CDV) and modified-live CPV-2, CAV-2, and canine parainfluenza virus, with (C6) or without (C4) two serovars of Leptospira (Recombitek C4 or C6, Merial). Duration of antibody, which correlates with protective immunity, was found to be at least 36 months in both groups. Recombitek combination vaccines can confidently be given every 3 years with assurance of protection in immunocompetent dogs against CPV-2 and CAV-1 as well as CDV. This allows this combination vaccine, like other, similar modified- live virus combination products containing CDV, CAV-2, and CPV-2, to be administered in accordance with the recommendations of the American Animal Hospital Association Canine Vaccine Task Force.

  11. Three-year duration of immunity in dogs following vaccination against canine adenovirus type-1, canine parvovirus, and canine distemper virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Thomas C; Lakshmanan, Nallakannu; Duncan, Karen L; Coyne, Michael J; Lum, Melissa A; Sterner, Frank J

    2005-01-01

    A challenge-of-immunity study was conducted to demonstrate immunity in dogs 3 years after their second vaccination with a new multivalent, modified-live vaccine containing canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), canine parvovirus (CPV), and canine distemper virus (CDV). Twenty-three seronegative pups were vaccinated at 7 and 11 weeks of age. Eighteen seronegative pups, randomized into groups of six dogs, served as challenge controls. Dogs were kept in strict isolation for 3 years following the vaccination and then challenged sequentially with virulent canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1), CPV, and CDV. For each viral challenge, a separate group of six control dogs was also challenged. Clinical signs of CAV-1, CPV, and CDV infections were prevented in 100% of vaccinated dogs, demonstrating that the multivalent, modified-live test vaccine provided protection against virulent CAV-1, CPV, and CDV challenge in dogs 7 weeks of age or older for a minimum of 3 years following second vaccination.

  12. Cellular Prion Protein and Caveolin-1 Interaction in a Neuronal Cell Line Precedes Fyn/Erk 1/2 Signal Transduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Toni

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that cellular prion protein (PrPc is enriched in caveolae or caveolae-like domains with caveolin-1 (Cav-1 participating to signal transduction events by Fyn kinase recruitment. By using the Glutathione-S-transferase (GST-fusion proteins assay, we observed that PrPc strongly interacts in vitro with Cav-1. Thus, we ascertained the PrPc caveolar localization in a hypothalamic neuronal cell line (GN11, by confocal microscopy analysis, flotation on density gradient, and coimmunoprecipitation experiments. Following the anti-PrPc antibody-mediated stimulation of live GN11 cells, we observed that PrPc clustered on plasma membrane domains rich in Cav-1 in which Fyn kinase converged to be activated. After these events, a signaling cascade through p42/44 MAP kinase (Erk 1/2 was triggered, suggesting that following translocations from rafts to caveolae or caveolae-like domains PrPc could interact with Cav-1 and induce signal transduction events.

  13. MURC deficiency in smooth muscle attenuates pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Naohiko; Ogata, Takehiro; Naito, Daisuke; Miyagawa, Kotaro; Taniguchi, Takuya; Hamaoka, Tetsuro; Maruyama, Naoki; Kasahara, Takeru; Nishi, Masahiro; Matoba, Satoaki; Ueyama, Tomomi

    2016-08-22

    Emerging evidence suggests that caveolin-1 (Cav1) is associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension. MURC (also called Cavin-4) is a member of the cavin family, which regulates caveolar formation and functions together with caveolins. Here, we show that hypoxia increased Murc mRNA expression in the mouse lung, and that Murc-null mice exhibited attenuation of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH) accompanied by reduced ROCK activity in the lung. Conditional knockout mice lacking Murc in smooth muscle also resist hypoxia-induced PH. MURC regulates the proliferation and migration of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) through Rho/ROCK signalling. Cav1 suppresses RhoA activity in PASMCs, which is reversed by MURC. MURC binds to Cav1 and inhibits the association of Cav1 with the active form of Gα13, resulting in the facilitated association of the active form of Gα13 with p115RhoGEF. These results reveal that MURC has a function in the development of PH through modulating Rho/ROCK signalling.

  14. CACNA1H Mutations Are Associated With Different Forms of Primary Aldosteronism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Daniil

    2016-11-01

    Four different heterozygous germline CACNA1H variants were identified. A de novo Cav3.2 p.Met1549Ile variant was found in early onset PA and multiplex developmental disorder. Cav3.2 p.Ser196Leu and p.Pro2083Leu were found in two patients with FH, and p.Val1951Glu was identified in one patient with APA. Electrophysiological analysis of mutant Cav3.2 channels revealed significant changes in the Ca2+ current properties for all mutants, suggesting a gain of function phenotype. Transfections of mutant Cav3.2 in H295R-S2 cells led to increased aldosterone production and/or expression of genes coding for steroidogenic enzymes after K+ stimulation. Identification of CACNA1H mutations associated with early onset PA, FH, and APA suggests that CACNA1H might be a susceptibility gene predisposing to PA with different phenotypic presentations, opening new perspectives for genetic diagnosis and management of patients with PA.

  15. Role of voltage-gated L-type Ca2+ channel isoforms for brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striessnig, J; Koschak, A; Sinnegger-Brauns, M J; Hetzenauer, A; Nguyen, N K; Busquet, P; Pelster, G; Singewald, N

    2006-11-01

    Voltage-gated LTCCs (L-type Ca2+ channels) are established drug targets for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. LTCCs are also expressed outside the cardiovascular system. In the brain, LTCCs control synaptic plasticity in neurons, and DHP (dihydropyridine) LTCC blockers such as nifedipine modulate brain function (such as fear memory extinction and depression-like behaviour). Voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels Cav1 .2 and Cav1.3 are the predominant brain LTCCs. As DHPs and other classes of organic LTCC blockers inhibit both isoforms, their pharmacological distinction is impossible and their individual contributions to defined brain functions remain largely unknown. Here, we summarize our recent experiments with two genetically modified mouse strains, which we generated to explore the individual biophysical features of Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 LTCCs and to determine their relative contributions to various physiological peripheral and neuronal functions. The results described here also allow predictions about the pharmacotherapeutic potential of isoform-selective LTCC modulators.

  16. Environmental Impact Assessment Sandia Laboratories, New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-01

    awn (Aristida divaricata) 45. Arizona three-awn (Aristida arizonica ) 46. Purple three-awn (Aristida purpurea) 47. Wright’s three-awn (Aristida wrightii...californica) Willow Family *102. Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii) Beech Family *103. Gambel oak ( Quercus gambelii) *104. Gray oak ( Quercus grisea...105. Shrub live oak ( Quercus turbinella) Elm Family *106. Siberian elm or Chinese elm (Ulmus pumila) 107. Netlead hackberry (Celtis reticulata) Nist

  17. Role of T-type channels in vasomotor function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuo, Ivana Y-T; Howitt, Lauren; Sandow, Shaun L

    2014-01-01

    Low-voltage-activated T-type calcium channels play an important role in regulating cellular excitability and are implicated in conditions, such as epilepsy and neuropathic pain. T-type channels, especially Cav3.1 and Cav3.2, are also expressed in the vasculature, although patch clamp studies of i...

  18. Modulación de los canales de calcio presinápticos por variantes de receptores acoplados a proteína G humanos: "el receptor opioide mu y el receptor de ghrelina"

    OpenAIRE

    López Soto, Eduardo Javier

    2015-01-01

    Los canales de calcio activados por voltaje pre-sinápticos (CaV2) son proteínas de transmembrana altamente especializadas en la transducción de señales eléctricas en señales químicas. Dado que, en las terminales axonales, la entrada de Ca2+ a través de los CaV2 es condición necesaria para la liberación de neurotransmisores, su modulación constituye un blanco regulatorio de alta efectividad de la actividad neuronal. Dentro de los mecanismos que regulan la actividad de los CaV2 en las membranas...

  19. Promotion of human mesenchymal stem cell osteogenesis by PI3-kinase/Akt signaling, and the influence of caveolin-1/cholesterol homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Natasha; Sohn, Jihee; Tuan, Rocky S

    2015-12-01

    Stem cells are considered an important resource for tissue repair and regeneration. Their utilization in regenerative medicine will be aided by mechanistic insight into their responsiveness to external stimuli. It is likely that, similar to all other cells, an initial determinant of stem cell responsiveness to external stimuli is the organization of signaling molecules in cell membrane rafts. The clustering of signaling molecules in these cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains can affect the activity, specificity, cross-talk and amplification of cell signaling. Membrane rafts fall into two broad categories, non-caveolar and caveolar, based on the absence or presence, respectively, of caveolin scaffolding proteins. We have recently demonstrated that caveolin-1 (Cav-1) expression increases during, and knockdown of Cav-1 expression enhances, osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The increase in Cav-1 expression observed during osteogenesis is likely a negative feedback mechanism. We hypothesize that focal adhesion signaling pathways such as PI3K/Akt signaling may be negatively regulated by Cav-1 during human MSC osteogenesis. Human bone marrow MSCs were isolated from femoral heads obtained after total hip arthroplasty. MSCs were incubated in standard growth medium alone or induced to osteogenically differentiate by the addition of supplements (β-glycerophosphate, ascorbic acid, dexamethasone, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3). The activation of and requirement for PI3K/Akt signaling in MSC osteogenesis were assessed by immunoblotting for phosphorylated Akt, and treatment with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and Akt siRNA, respectively. The influences of Cav-1 and cholesterol membrane rafts on PI3K/Akt signaling were investigated by treatment with Cav-1 siRNA, methyl-β-cyclodextrin, or cholesterol oxidase, followed by cellular sub-fractionation and/or immunoblotting for phosphorylated Akt. LY294002 and Akt siRNA inhibited MSC

  20. T-type Ca(2+) channels facilitate NO-formation, vasodilatation and NO-mediated modulation of blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Per; Andersen, Kenneth; Thuesen, Anne D

    2014-01-01

    nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in arteries from wild type mice. Nitric oxide release measured as DAF fluorescence and cGMP levels were significantly lower in depolarized Cav3.1(-/-) compared to wild type arteries. In summary, the absence of T-type Cav3.1 channels attenuates NO-dependent dilatation...

  1. Analysis of the Effects of Connected–Automated Vehicle Technologies on Travel Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auld, Joshua [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439; Sokolov, Vadim [Department of Systems Engineering and Operations Research, Volgenau School of Engineering, George Mason University, MS 4A6, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030; Stephens, Thomas S. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439

    2017-01-01

    Connected–automated vehicle (CAV) technologies are likely to have significant effects not only on how vehicles operate in the transportation system, but also on how individuals behave and use their vehicles. While many CAV technologies—such as connected adaptive cruise control and ecosignals—have the potential to increase network throughput and efficiency, many of these same technologies have a secondary effect of reducing driver burden, which can drive changes in travel behavior. Such changes in travel behavior—in effect, lowering the cost of driving—have the potential to increase greatly the utilization of the transportation system with concurrent negative externalities, such as congestion, energy use, and emissions, working against the positive effects on the transportation system resulting from increased capacity. To date, few studies have analyzed the potential effects on CAV technologies from a systems perspective; studies often focus on gains and losses to an individual vehicle, at a single intersection, or along a corridor. However, travel demand and traffic flow constitute a complex, adaptive, nonlinear system. Therefore, in this study, an advanced transportation systems simulation model—POLARIS—was used. POLARIS includes cosimulation of travel behavior and traffic flow to study the potential effects of several CAV technologies at the regional level. Various technology penetration levels and changes in travel time sensitivity have been analyzed to determine a potential range of effects on vehicle miles traveled from various CAV technologies.

  2. Production and purification of non replicative canine adenovirus type 2 derived vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelechowski, Marion; Bergeron, Corinne; Gonzalez-Dunia, Daniel; Klonjkowski, Bernard

    2013-12-03

    Adenovirus (Ad) derived vectors have been widely used for short or long-term gene transfer, both for gene therapy and vaccine applications. Because of the frequent pre-existing immunity against the classically used human adenovirus type 5, canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV2) has been proposed as an alternative vector for human gene transfer. The well-characterized biology of CAV2, together with its ease of genetic manipulation, offer major advantages, notably for gene transfer into the central nervous system, or for inducing a wide range of protective immune responses, from humoral to cellular immunity. Nowadays, CAV2 represents one of the most appealing nonhuman adenovirus for use as a vaccine vector. This protocol describes a simple method to construct, produce and titer recombinant CAV2 vectors. After cloning the expression cassette of the gene of interest into a shuttle plasmid, the recombinant genomic plasmid is obtained by homologous recombination in the E. coli BJ5183 bacterial strain. The resulting genomic plasmid is then transfected into canine kidney cells expressing the complementing CAV2-E1 genes (DK-E1). A viral amplification enables the production of a large viral stock, which is purified by ultracentrifugation through cesium chloride gradients and desalted by dialysis. The resulting viral suspension routinely has a titer of over 10(10) infectious particles per ml and can be directly administrated in vivo.

  3. Overexpression of Aquaporin-1 and Caveolin-1 in the Rat Urinary Bladder Urothelium Following Bladder Outlet Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Ouck Kim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose This study was designed to investigate the effect of detrusor overactivity induced by partial bladder outlet obstruction (BOO on the expression of aquaporin 1 (AQP1 and caveolin 1 (CAV1 in the rat urinary bladder, and to determine the role of these molecules in detrusor overactivity. Methods Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control (n=30 and experimental (n=30 groups. The BOO group underwent partial BOO, and the control group underwent a sham operation. After 4 weeks, an urodynamic study was performed to measure the contraction interval and contraction pressure. The expression and cellular localization of AQP1 and CAV1 were determined by western blot and immunofluorescence experiments in the rat urinary bladder. Results In cystometrograms, the contraction interval was significantly lower in the BOO group (2.9±1.5 minutes than in the control group (6.7±1.0 minutes (P<0.05. Conversely, the average contraction pressure was significantly higher in the BOO group (21.2±3.3 mmHg than in the control group (13.0±2.5 mmHg (P<0.05. AQP1 and CAV1 were coexpressed in the capillaries, arterioles, and venules of the suburothelial layer. AQP1 and CAV1 protein expression was significantly increased in the BOO rats compared to the control rats (P<0.05. Conclusions Detrusor overactivity induced by BOO causes a significant increase in the expression of AQP1 and CAV1, which were coexpressed in the suburothelial microvasculature. This finding suggests that AQP1 and CAV1 might be closely related to bladder signal activity and may have a functional role in BOO-associated detrusor overactivity.

  4. Effects and mechanisms of pirfenidone, prednisone and acetylcysteine on pulmonary fibrosis in rat idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wencheng; Guo, Fang; Song, Xiaoxia

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies have reported that caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is associated with lung fibrosis. However, the role of Cav-1 expression in pirfenidone-treated idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is unknown. This study investigated Cav-1 expression in pirfenidone-treated IPF, and compared the effects of pirfenidone with acetylcysteine and prednisone on IPF. Rat IPF model was established by endotracheal injection of 5 mg/kg bleomycin A5 into the specific pathogen-free Wistar male rats. Pirfenidone (P, 100 mg/kg once daily), prednisone (H, 5 mg/kg once daily) and acetylcysteine (N, 4 mg/kg 3 times per day) were used to treat the rat model by intragastric administration for 45 consecutive days, respectively. The normal rats without IPF were used as the controls. After 15, 30 and 45 days of drug treatment, lung histopathology was assessed. The expression of Cav-1 was determined using real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot; the expression of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. After 15, 30 and 45 days of drug treatment, comparison of the three drug-treated groups with the model group showed significantly lower (p fibrosis scores of lung tissues, as well as expression of TGF-β1, TNF-α and PDGF, but the expression of Cav-1 was higher (p fibrosis score was significantly lower and the protein expression of Cav-1 was significantly higher in the P group (p fibrosis scores (r = -0.506, p pulmonary fibrosis in rat IPF models, which may be related with enhanced caveolin-1, reduced TNF-α, TGF-β1, PDGF.

  5. Low voltage-activated calcium channels gate transmitter release at the dorsal root ganglion sandwich synapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanski, Gabriela M; Nath, Arup R; Adams, Michael E; Stanley, Elise F

    2013-11-15

    A subpopulation of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons are intimately attached in pairs and separated solely by thin satellite glial cell membrane septa. Stimulation of one neuron leads to transglial activation of its pair by a bi-, purinergic/glutamatergic synaptic pathway, a transmission mechanism that we term sandwich synapse (SS) transmission. Release of ATP from the stimulated neuron can be attributed to a classical mechanism involving Ca(2+) entry via voltage-gated calcium channels (CaV) but via an unknown channel type. Specific blockers and toxins ruled out CaV1, 2.1 and 2.2. Transmission was, however, blocked by a moderate depolarization (-50 mV) or low-concentration Ni(2+) (0.1 mM). Transmission persisted using a voltage pulse to -40 mV from a holding potential of -80 mV, confirming the involvement of a low voltage-activated channel type and limiting the candidate channel type to either CaV3.2 or a subpopulation of inactivation- and Ni(2+)-sensitive CaV2.3 channels. Resistance of the neuron calcium current and SS transmission to SNX482 argue against the latter. Hence, we conclude that inter-somatic transmission at the DRG SS is gated by CaV3.2 type calcium channels. The use of CaV3 family channels to gate transmission has important implications for the biological function of the DRG SS as information transfer would be predicted to occur not only in response to action potentials but also to sub-threshold membrane voltage oscillations. Thus, the SS synapse may serve as a homeostatic signalling mechanism between select neurons in the DRG and could play a role in abnormal sensation such as neuropathic pain.

  6. Anti-Epileptic Drugs Delay Age-Related Loss of Spiral Ganglion Neurons via T-type Calcium Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Debin; Gao, Xia; Perez, Philip; Ohlemiller, Kevin K; Chen, Chien-Chang; Campbell, Kevin P.; Hood, Aizhen Yang; Bao, Jianxin

    2011-01-01

    Loss of spiral ganglion neurons is a major cause of age-related hearing loss (presbycusis). Despite being the third most prevalent condition afflicting elderly persons, there are no known medications to prevent presbycusis. Because calcium signaling has long been implicated in age-related neuronal death, we investigated T-type calcium channels. This family is comprised of three members (Cav3.1, Cav3.2, and Cav3.3), based on their respective main pore-forming alpha subunits: α1G, α1H, and α1I. In the present study, we report a significant delay of age-related loss of cochlear function and preservation of spiral ganglion neurons in α1H null and heterozygous mice, clearly demonstrating an important role for Cav3.2 in age-related neuronal loss. Furthermore, we show that anticonvulsant drugs from a family of T-type calcium channel blockers can significantly preserve spiral ganglion neurons during aging. To our knowledge, this is the first report of drugs capable of diminishing age-related loss of spiral ganglion neurons. PMID:21640179

  7. C-Arm Computed Tomography-Assisted Adrenal Venous Sampling Improved Right Adrenal Vein Cannulation and Sampling Quality in Primary Aldosteronism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chung Hyun; Hong, Namki; Han, Kichang; Kang, Sang Wook; Lee, Cho Rok; Park, Sungha; Rhee, Yumie

    2018-05-04

    Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) is a gold standard for subtype classification of primary aldosteronism (PA). However, this procedure has a high failure rate because of the anatomical difficulties in accessing the right adrenal vein. We investigated whether C-arm computed tomography-assisted AVS (C-AVS) could improve the success rate of adrenal sampling. A total of 156 patients, diagnosed with PA who underwent AVS from May 2004 through April 2017, were included. Based on the medical records, we retrospectively compared the overall, left, and right catheterization success rates of adrenal veins during the periods without C-AVS (2004 to 2010, n=32) and with C-AVS (2011 to 2016, n=134). The primary outcome was adequate bilateral sampling defined as a selectivity index (SI) >5. With C-AVS, the rates of adequate bilateral AVS increased from 40.6% to 88.7% (PAVS was an independent predictor of adequate bilateral sampling in the multivariate model (odds ratio, 9.01; PAVS improved the overall success rate of AVS, possibly as a result of better catheterization of right adrenal vein. Copyright © 2018 Korean Endocrine Society.

  8. The administration of a single dose of a multivalent (DHPPiL4R vaccine prevents clinical signs and mortality following virulent challenge with canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus or canine parvovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Wilson

    2014-01-01

    In conclusion, we demonstrated that a single administration of a minimum titre, multivalent vaccine to dogs of six weeks of age is efficacious and prevents clinical signs and mortality caused by CAV-1 and CDV; prevents clinical signs and significantly reduces virus shedding caused by CAV-2; and prevents clinical signs, leucopoenia and viral excretion caused by CPV.

  9. Na+-K+ pump location and translocation during muscle contraction  in rat skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Michael; Rasmussen, Martin Krøyer; Juel, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    the translocation. Electrical stimulation and biotin labeling of rat muscle revealed a 40% and 18% increase in the amounts of the Na+-K+ pump a2 subunit and caveolin-3 (Cav-3), respectively, in the sarcolemma. Exercise induced a 36% and 19% increase in the relative amounts of the a2 subunit and Cav-3, respectively...

  10. A new candidate of calcium channel blocker in silico from Tectona grandis for treatment of gestational hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizah, A.; Suselo, Y. H.; Muthmainah, M.; Indarto, D.

    2018-05-01

    Gestational Hypertension is one of the three main causes of maternal mortality in Indonesia. Nifedipine which blockes the Cav1.2 calcium channel has frequently been used to treat gestational hypertension. However the efficacy of nifedipine has not been established yet and the prevalence of gestational hypertension is still high (27.1 %). Indonesian herbal plants have potential to be developed as natural drugs. Molecular docking, a computational method, is very often used to depict interaction between molecules and target receptor This study was therefore to identify Indonesian herbal plants that could inhibit the calcium channel in silico. This was a bioinformatics study with molecular docking approach. Three-dimensional structure of human calcium channel Cav1.2 was determined by modelling with rabbit calcium channel (ID:5GJW) as template and using the SWISS MODEL software. Nifedipine was used as a standard ligand and obtained from ZINC database with the access code ZINC19594578. Active compounds of Indonesian herbal plants were registered in HerbalDB database and their molecular structure was obtained from PubChem. Binding affinity of human Cav1.2 model-ligand complexes were assesed using AutoDock Vina 1.1.2 software and visualization of molecular conformation used Chimera 1.10 and PyMol 1.3 softwares. The Lipinsky’s rules of five were used to determine active compounds which fullfilled drug criteria. The human Cav1-2 model had 72.35% sequence identity with rabbit Cav1.1. Nifedipine bound to the human Cav1.2 model with -2.1 kcal/mol binding affinity and had binding sites at Gln1060, Phe1129, Ser1132, and Ile1173 residues. A lower binding affinity was observed in 8 phytochemicals but only obtusifolin 2-glucoside (-2.2 kcal/mol) had similar binding sites as nifedipin did. In addition, obtusifolin 2-glucoside met the Lipinsky criteria and the molecule conformation was similar with nifedipine. From the HerbalDB database, obtusifolin 2-glucoside is found in Tectona

  11. Lizard community structure across a grassland - creosote bush ecotone in the Chihuahuan Desert

    OpenAIRE

    Menke, Sean B

    2003-01-01

    I investigated the distribution and abundance of lizard species (Aspidoscelis inornatus, Aspidoscelis tesselatus, Aspidoscelis tigris, Aspidoscelis uniparens, Cophosaurus texanus, Crotaphytus collaris, Eumeces obsoletus, Gambelia wislizenii, Holbrookia maculata, Phrynosoma cornutum, Sceloporus magister, and Uta stansburiana) across a desert grassland - creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) ecotone in Dona Ana County, New Mexico. The ecotonal area in the Jomada del Muerto basin has increased drama...

  12. Calcium channel-dependent molecular maturation of photoreceptor synapses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal Zabouri

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown the importance of calcium channels in the development and/or maturation of synapses. The Ca(V1.4(α(1F knockout mouse is a unique model to study the role of calcium channels in photoreceptor synapse formation. It features abnormal ribbon synapses and aberrant cone morphology. We investigated the expression and targeting of several key elements of ribbon synapses and analyzed the cone morphology in the Ca(V1.4(α(1F knockout retina. Our data demonstrate that most abnormalities occur after eye opening. Indeed, scaffolding proteins such as Bassoon and RIM2 are properly targeted at first, but their expression and localization are not maintained in adulthood. This indicates that either calcium or the Ca(V1.4 channel, or both are necessary for the maintenance of their normal expression and distribution in photoreceptors. Other proteins, such as Veli3 and PSD-95, also display abnormal expression in rods prior to eye opening. Conversely, vesicle related proteins appear normal. Our data demonstrate that the Ca(V1.4 channel is important for maintaining scaffolding proteins in the ribbon synapse but less vital for proteins related to vesicular release. This study also confirms that in adult retinae, cones show developmental features such as sprouting and synaptogenesis. Overall we present evidence that in the absence of the Ca(V1.4 channel, photoreceptor synapses remain immature and are unable to stabilize.

  13. Calcium channel-dependent molecular maturation of photoreceptor synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabouri, Nawal; Haverkamp, Silke

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have shown the importance of calcium channels in the development and/or maturation of synapses. The Ca(V)1.4(α(1F)) knockout mouse is a unique model to study the role of calcium channels in photoreceptor synapse formation. It features abnormal ribbon synapses and aberrant cone morphology. We investigated the expression and targeting of several key elements of ribbon synapses and analyzed the cone morphology in the Ca(V)1.4(α(1F)) knockout retina. Our data demonstrate that most abnormalities occur after eye opening. Indeed, scaffolding proteins such as Bassoon and RIM2 are properly targeted at first, but their expression and localization are not maintained in adulthood. This indicates that either calcium or the Ca(V)1.4 channel, or both are necessary for the maintenance of their normal expression and distribution in photoreceptors. Other proteins, such as Veli3 and PSD-95, also display abnormal expression in rods prior to eye opening. Conversely, vesicle related proteins appear normal. Our data demonstrate that the Ca(V)1.4 channel is important for maintaining scaffolding proteins in the ribbon synapse but less vital for proteins related to vesicular release. This study also confirms that in adult retinae, cones show developmental features such as sprouting and synaptogenesis. Overall we present evidence that in the absence of the Ca(V)1.4 channel, photoreceptor synapses remain immature and are unable to stabilize.

  14. Volumetry of Artificial Pulmonary Nodules in Ex Vivo Porcine Lungs: Comparison of Semi-automated Volumetry and Radiologists' Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ju Hyeon; Kim, Jin Hwan; Kim, Song Soo [Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Ho Sang [Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun Ju [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Noh Hyuck [Kwandong University College of Medicine, Myungji Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Gyu Seong [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    With the advent of MSCT, the detection rate of small pulmonary nodules is markedly greater. However, there is no definite diagnostic clue to differentiate between malignant and benign nodules, except for the interval growth in small nodule less than 1 cm in diameter. We evaluated the accuracy of computer aided volumetry (CAV) and compared it with 4 radiologists' measurement. Fifteen artificial nodules that were embedded in the ex vivo porcine lung were scanned by MSCT. The diameters and volumes of nodules were independently measured three times, at 5-day intervals, and by four radiologists as well as by CAV. We evaluated the accuracy of the measurements on the basis of the true diameter and volume of the nodules. Using a paired t-test and a Bland-Altman plot, we evaluated whether there was a statistically significant difference between the radiologists' measurements and the CAV. The accuracy of the manual measurements by radiologists revealed a statistically significant difference from the true diameter and volume of the artificial nodules (p<0.01). Conversely, the accuracy of CAV did not show a statistically significant difference with the true nodule diameter and volume (p>0.01) The results of this study suggest that CAV is an accurate and useful tool to evaluate the volume of pulmonary nodules and can eventually be used to differentiate malignant and benign nodules as well as evaluate the therapeutic response of lung cancer.

  15. Oviposition inhibitor in umbelliferous medicinal plants for the common yellow swallowtail (Papilio machaon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morino, Chisato; Morita, Yusuke; Minami, Kazuki; Nishidono, Yuto; Nakashima, Yoshitaka; Ozawa, Rika; Takabayashi, Junji; Ono, Naoaki; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Tamura, Takayuki; Tezuka, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Ken

    2018-01-01

    Umbelliferous medicinal plants, such as Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa and Angelica dahurica Bentham et Hooker filius ex Franchet et Savatier, account for a large percentage of crude drug consumption in Japan. The most serious problem in the cultivation of umbelliferous medicinal plants is the feeding damage caused by the common yellow swallowtail (Papilio machaon hippocrates C. & R. Felder, 1864). When we compared the numbers of eggs laid by P. machaon on six umbelliferous medicinal plants, the eggs on A. acutiloba, A. dahurica, and Glehnia littoralis Fr. Schmidt ex Miquel were the most numerous, those on Saposhnikovia divaricata Schischkin and Cnidium officinale Makino were rare, and Bupleurum falcatum Linné was not oviposited at all. To identify oviposition inhibitors for P. machaon in B. falcatum, S. divaricata, and C. officinale, the volatile chemical constituents of these umbelliferous medicinal plants were compared with GC-MS. We carried out multivariate analysis of gas chromatographic data and concluded that germacrene D, α-humulene, and trans-caryophyllene play important roles in protecting plants from oviposition by P. machaon. Their oviposition repellent activity was confirmed by the fact that the number of eggs laid on the leaves around a repellent device containing a mixture of germacrene D, α-humulene, and trans-caryophyllene was reduced by 40% compared to a control.

  16. Soroprevalência das infecções por parvovírus, adenovírus, coronavírus canino e pelo vírus da cinomose em cães de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Seroprevalence of parvovirus, adenovirus, coronavirus and canine distemper virus infections in dogs of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dezengrini

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available As infecções pelo vírus da cinomose (CDV, por parvovírus (CPV, adenovírus (CAV e coronavírus (CCoV são importantes causas de morbidade e de mortalidade em cães de todo o mundo, porém pouco se sabe sobre a sua incidência e prevalência no Brasil. Para determinar-se a prevalência dessas infecções na população canina de Santa Maria, RS, Brasil, amostras de sangue foram coletadas de 817 cães não-vacinados de 14 bairros do município e testadas para a presença de anticorpos específicos. Anticorpos contra o CDV foram detectados em 27,3% (223/817 das amostras, contra o CPV em 68,7% (561/817, contra o CAV em 43% (353/817 e contra o CCoV em 50,4% (412/817 dos cães. Observou-se um aumento gradativo da prevalência de anticorpos de acordo com a idade para o CDV, o CAV e o CCoV. Os índices de positividade para o CPV, o CAV e o CCoV foram um pouco superiores entre machos, e semelhantes entre os sexos para o CDV. Os animais que convivem com outros cães em casa ou na rua apresentaram prevalência maior de anticorpos para o CDV e o CCoV do que cães sem contato ou convívio, enquanto que, para o CPV e o CAV, não houve diferença. Esses resultados demonstram que esses vírus estão difundidos na população canina dos bairros da cidade. Por outro lado, demonstram também que uma parte considerável da população é soronegativa e, portanto, está desprotegida frente a esses agentes, indicando a necessidade de se ampliar a cobertura vacinal.Canine distemper virus (CDV, parvovirus (CPV, adenovirus (CAV and coronavirus (CCoV infections have been associated with significant morbidity and mortality among dogs worldwide yet very little is known about these infections in Brazil. As to determine the prevalence of these infections in the canine population of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, 817 blood samples were collected from non-vaccinated dogs of 14 neighborhoods and tested for specific antibodies. Antibodies to CDV were detected in 27.3% (223/817 of

  17. Antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2, canine distemper virus, and canine adenovirus type-1 in adult household dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Orito, Kensuke; Lynch, Jonathan; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2011-09-01

    Serum antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine adenovirus type-1 (CAV-1) were investigated in 1031 healthy adult household dogs (2 to 18 years old) given an annual inoculation in the previous 11 to 13 months. The number of dogs retaining significant titers of antibodies against CPV-2, CDV, and CAV-1 were 888 (86%), 744 (72%), and 732 (71%), respectively. There were no differences between males and females in antibody titers against the 3 viruses. Antibody titer for CPV-2 was significantly higher in younger dogs than in older dogs, CDV antibody was significantly higher in older dogs than in younger dogs, and CAV titer was not associated with age.

  18. LOGWAR 15: Analysis Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Brigade Support Bn 2 x Cav Sqdrn 1 x Attack Recon Sqdrn (AH-64D) 3 x Avn Bn (24 x AH-64D, 38 x UH-60, 12 x CH-47, 15 x HH-60) 2 x Arty Bn 2 x ADA...Bn 101st Airborne Division 9 x Inf Bn 3 x Cav Sqdrn 3 x Arty Bn 3 x Brigade Eng Bn 4 x Avn Bn (42 x OH-58D, 38 x UH-60, 12 x CH-47, 15 x HH-60... Avn Bn (8 x UH-60, 12 x CH-47, 15 x HH-60) 1st Cavalry Division 3 x Cav Sqdrn 9 x Combined Arms Bn 3 x Brigade Eng Bn 4 x Arty Bn 4 x Avn Bn

  19. CAVEOLINA-1 implicaciones fisiológicas y patológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Pereira-Prado

    Full Text Available Las caveolas son invaginaciones de la membrana plasmática conformada por proteínas denominadas caveolinas. De las tres isoformas de caveolina la más estudiada en el transcurso de los años es caveolina-1 (cav-1, quien juega un papel importante en la señalización celular y su gen CAV-1 corresponde a la familia de genes supresores tumorales. Debido a su rol dependiente del contexto en el cual se encuentra, la función y participación de cav-1 a nivel tumoral es compleja y aún permanece controvertida. Cav-1 interactúa con una serie de moléculas-receptores que regulan inicialmente los pasos de la transformación celular a la malignidad, participando a su vez en el ciclo celular, la angiogénesis, la remodelación de la matriz extracelular, la proliferación celular, entre otras. El estudio de esta molécula adquiere importancia en función a su utilidad como biomarcador asociado a diagnóstico, pronóstico y posible blanco terapéutico en procesos patológicos.

  20. Duration of serological response to canine parvovirus-type 2, canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus type 1 and canine parainfluenza virus in client-owned dogs in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, S A; Zwijnenberg, R J; Huang, J; Hodge, A; Day, M J

    2012-12-01

    To determine whether client-owned dogs in Australia, last vaccinated with Canvac(®) vaccines containing canine parvovirus-type 2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV), canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) ± canine parainfluenza virus (CPiV) at least 18 months ago, were seropositive or responded serologically to revaccination. A total of 235 dogs were recruited from 23 veterinary clinics, representing a variety of breeds, ages and time since last vaccination (TSLV: range 1.5-9 years, mean 2.8 years). Dogs had a blood sample taken and were revaccinated on day 0. A second blood sample was taken 7-14 days later. Blood samples were assessed for antibody titres to CPV-2 (by haemagglutination inhibition) and CDV, CAV type 1 (CAV-1) and CPiV (by virus neutralisation). Dogs with a day 0 titre >10 or a four-fold increase in titre following revaccination were considered to be serological responders. The overall percentage of dogs classified as serological responders was 98.7% for CPV-2, 96.6% for CDV, 99.6% for CAV-1 and 90.3% for CPiV. These results suggest that the duration of serological response induced by modified-live vaccines against CPV-2, CDV, CAV-1 and CPiV, including Canvac(®) vaccines, is beyond 18 months and may extend up to 9 years. Accordingly, these vaccines may be considered for use in extended revaccination interval protocols as recommended by current canine vaccine guidelines. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2012 Australian Veterinary Association.

  1. Bicuspid Aortic Valve Stenosis and the Effect of Vitamin K2 on Calcification Using 18F-Sodium Fluoride Positron Emission Tomography/Magnetic Resonance: The BASIK2 Rationale and Trial Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Frederique E C M; van Mourik, Manouk J W; Meex, Steven J R; Bucerius, Jan; Schalla, Simon M; Gerretsen, Suzanne C; Mihl, Casper; Dweck, Marc R; Schurgers, Leon J; Wildberger, Joachim E; Crijns, Harry J G M; Kietselaer, Bas L J H

    2018-03-21

    BASIK2 is a prospective, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial investigating the effect of vitamin K2 (menaquinone-7;MK7) on imaging measurements of calcification in the bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS). BAV is associated with early development of CAVS. Pathophysiologic mechanisms are incompletely defined, and the only treatment available is valve replacement upon progression to severe symptomatic stenosis. Matrix Gla protein (MGP) inactivity is suggested to be involved in progression. Being a vitamin K dependent protein, supplementation with MK7 is a pharmacological option for activating MGP and intervening in the progression of CAVS. Forty-four subjects with BAV and mild-moderate CAVS will be included in the study, and baseline 18 F-sodiumfluoride ( 18 F-NaF) positron emission tomography (PET)/ magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) assessments will be performed. Thereafter, subjects will be randomized (1:1) to MK7 (360 mcg/day) or placebo. During an 18-month follow-up period, subjects will visit the hospital every 6 months, undergoing a second 18 F-NaF PET/MR after 6 months and CT after 6 and 18 months. The primary endpoint is the change in PET/MR 18 F-NaF uptake (6 months minus baseline) compared to this delta change in the placebo arm. The main secondary endpoints are changes in calcium score (CT), progression of the left ventricularremodeling response and CAVS severity (echocardiography). We will also examine the association between early calcification activity (PET) and later changes in calcium score (CT).

  2. Endogenous testosterone increases L-type Ca2+ channel expression in porcine coronary smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, D K; Maddali, K K; Ganjam, V K; Rubin, L J; Tharp, D L; Turk, J R; Heaps, C L

    2004-11-01

    Evidence indicates that gender and sex hormonal status influence cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology. We recently demonstrated increased L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ current (ICa,L) in coronary arterial smooth muscle (CASM) of male compared with female swine. The promoter region of the L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channel (VGCC) (Cav1.2) gene contains a hormone response element that is activated by testosterone. Thus the purpose of the present study was to determine whether endogenous testosterone regulates CASM ICa,L through regulation of VGCC expression and activity. Sexually mature male and female Yucatan swine (7-8 mo; 35-45 kg) were obtained from the breeder. Males were left intact (IM, n=8), castrated (CM, n=8), or castrated with testosterone replacement (CMT, n=8; 10 mg/day Androgel). Females remained gonad intact (n=8). In right coronary arteries, both Cav1.2 mRNA and protein were greater in IM compared with intact females. Cav1.2 mRNA and protein were reduced in CM compared with IM and restored in CMT. In isolated CASM, both peak and steady-state ICa were reduced in CM compared with IM and restored in CMT. In males, a linear relationship was found between serum testosterone levels and ICa. In vitro, both testosterone and the nonaromatizable androgen, dihydrotestosterone, increased Cav1.2 expression. Furthermore, this effect was blocked by the androgen receptor antagonist cyproterone. We conclude that endogenous testosterone is a primary regulator of Cav1.2 expression and activity in coronary arteries of males.

  3. MicroRNA-199a-5p Regulates the Proliferation of Pulmonary Microvascular Endothelial Cells in Hepatopulmonary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zeng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell (PMVEC proliferation and angiogenesis contribute to the development of hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS. MicroRNA-199a-5p (miR-199a-5p has emerged as a potent regulator of angiogenesis, and its expression levels significantly decrease in the serum of patients with hepatopathy. However, it has not been reported about whether miR-199a-5p might control PMVEC proliferation. Here, we described the miR-199a-5p governing PMVEC proliferation in HPS. Methods: PMVECs were treated with rat serum from common bile duct ligation (CBDL or sham. MiR-199a-5p mimic or inhibitor was used to change the miR-199a-5p expression. Knockdown of caveolin-1 (Cav-1 was performed using siRNA. NSC-23766 was used to inhibit Rac1 activity. Gene and protein expressions were quantified by qRT-PCR and western blot. Cell proliferation was analyzed by 3H-TdR incorporation and CCK-8 assays. Stress fibers were detected by immunofluorescence. Results: CBDL rat serum induced the down-regulation of miR-199a-5p. Delivery of miR-199a-5p suppressed the CBDL rat serum-induced PMVEC proliferation whereas knockdown of miR-199a-5p promoted PMVEC proliferation. This was accompanied by a decrease and an increase in Cav-1 expression, respectively. Cav-1 siRNA abolished the enhancement of PMVEC proliferation induced by the miR-199a-5p inhibition. Although stress fibers were disrupted in Cav-1 deficient cells, NSC-23766 increased stress fibers and contributed to cell proliferation. Conclusions: CBDL rat serum induced down-regulation of miR-199a-5p in PMVECs, which led to an increase of Cav-1 gene expression. Increased Cav-1 expression, by inhibiting Rac1 activity, led to the formation of stress fibers, which contribute to PMVEC proliferation and thus the pathogenesis of HPS.

  4. Synthesis Study on Transitions in Signal Infrastructure and Control Algorithms for Connected and Automated Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, H. M. Abdul [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Hong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Young, Stan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sperling, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beck, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Documenting existing state of practice is an initial step in developing future control infrastructure to be co-deployed for heterogeneous mix of connected and automated vehicles with human drivers while leveraging benefits to safety, congestion, and energy. With advances in information technology and extensive deployment of connected and automated vehicle technology anticipated over the coming decades, cities globally are making efforts to plan and prepare for these transitions. CAVs not only offer opportunities to improve transportation systems through enhanced safety and efficient operations of vehicles. There are also significant needs in terms of exploring how best to leverage vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) technology, vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) technology and vehicle-to-everything (V2X) technology. Both Connected Vehicle (CV) and Connected and Automated Vehicle (CAV) paradigms feature bi-directional connectivity and share similar applications in terms of signal control algorithm and infrastructure implementation. The discussion in our synthesis study assumes the CAV/CV context where connectivity exists with or without automated vehicles. Our synthesis study explores the current state of signal control algorithms and infrastructure, reports the completed and newly proposed CV/CAV deployment studies regarding signal control schemes, reviews the deployment costs for CAV/AV signal infrastructure, and concludes with a discussion on the opportunities such as detector free signal control schemes and dynamic performance management for intersections, and challenges such as dependency on market adaptation and the need to build a fault-tolerant signal system deployment in a CAV/CV environment. The study will serve as an initial critical assessment of existing signal control infrastructure (devices, control instruments, and firmware) and control schemes (actuated, adaptive, and coordinated-green wave). Also, the report will help to identify the future needs for the signal

  5. ACTIVIDAD ANTIMICROBIANA Y COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA DE LOS ACEITES ESENCIALES DE Malvaviscus arboreus Cav, Pimenta dioica (L. Merr., Byrsonima crassifolia (L. Kunth Y Psidium guajava L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Vázquez Cahuich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Los aceites esenciales de las hojas de Malvaviscus arboreus Cav., Pimenta dioica (L. Merr., Byrsonima crassifolia (L. Kunth y Psidium guajava L., obtenidos por hidrodeltilación, fueron evaluados como antimicrobianos potenciales contra Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923, Salmonella typhimurium (ATCC 4028 y Bacillus cereus (ATCC 11778. Para la evaluación de la actividad antimicrobiana se emplearon los métodos de difusión en disco, bioautografía y microdilución, subsecuentemente cada extracto fue analizado por cromatografía de gases/masas (CG-MS para la obtención del perfil químico. Los aceites esenciales de las cuatro especies presentaron actividad antimicrobiana por el método de difusión en agar contra las tres cepas de microorganismos. En cuanto a la bioautografía, se detectó que la fracción 4 en el aceite esencial de P. dioica, con una referencia frontal (Rf de 0.42 cm, inhibió el crecimiento de B. cereus, S. typhimurium y S. aureus. En la microdilución se determinó que B. cereus fue el microorganismo más susceptible a la presencia de los aceites esenciales de M. arboreus, P. dioica, B. crassifolia y P. guajava. El eugenol fue el principal componente de P. dioica y P. guajava con porcentajes de abundancia de 94.86% y 33.84% respectivamente, determinado por CG-MS.

  6. Effect of everolimus initiation and early calcineurin inhibitor withdrawal on myocardial FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in heart transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirza, Kiran; Gustafsson, Finn; Gullestad, Lars

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Through immunosuppression CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T-cells (Tregs) play an indispensable role in allograft rejection. Post-HTx treatment with everolimus is associated with slower progression of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) - chronic rejection - than CNI based therapy. We hypothes......BACKGROUND: Through immunosuppression CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T-cells (Tregs) play an indispensable role in allograft rejection. Post-HTx treatment with everolimus is associated with slower progression of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) - chronic rejection - than CNI based therapy. We...... hypothesized treatment with everolimus reduced the risk of CAV by modulating myocardial FoxP3 levels. METHODS: 15 patients from the Schedule trial comparing everolimus, MMF, steroid and early CNI (Everolimus, n=8) withdrawal to conventional CNI based immunosuppression (Controls, n=7) after de novo HTx were...

  7. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculum produced on-farm and phosphorus on growth and nutrition of native woody plant species from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Claudio Goetten

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycorrhizal fungus inoculum produced on-farm can be used during production of woody plant seedlings to reduce costs associated with purchase of commercial inoculant and fertilization. This study aimed to test the efficiency of a mycorrhizal inoculant produced on-farm to promote growth and nutrition of woody species in combination with different levels of phosphorus. Plants were submitted to different treatments of phosphorus (0, 40 and 80 mg P/dm3 and mycorrhizal inoculation (uninoculated, and inoculation with Rhizophagus clarus [Rc] or Claroideoglomus etunicatum [Ce]. Species included were Luehea divaricata, Centrolobium robustum, Schinus terebinthifolius, Garcinia gardneriana, Cedrella fissilis, and Lafoensia pacari. The inoculum was produced using the on-farm methodology. Mycorrhizal colonization of plants inoculated with Rc and Ce ranged from 44.8 to 74.8%, except forGarcinia gardneriana. Inoculation treatment increased plant height and stem diameter of Luehea divaricata, Centrolobium robustum and Cedrella fissilis while phosphorus, inoculation and the interaction affected these parameters for G. gardneriana and Lafoensia pacari. Shoot biomass increased significantly with inoculation treatment in four species. For most species, mycorrhizal fungus inoculation and the addition of phosphorus increased the shoot phosphorus content. Mycorrhizal fungus inoculum produced on-farm successfully colonized tree seedlings and improved growth and/or nutrition under nursery conditions, producing seedlings useful for revegetation of degraded lands.

  8. Heart failure-induced changes of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and cell excitability in rat cardiac postganglionic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Huiyin; Liu, Jinxu; Zhang, Dongze; Zheng, Hong; Patel, Kaushik P; Cornish, Kurtis G; Wang, Wei-Zhong; Muelleman, Robert L; Li, Yu-Long

    2014-01-15

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) is characterized by decreased cardiac parasympathetic and increased cardiac sympathetic nerve activity. This autonomic imbalance increases the risk of arrhythmias and sudden death in patients with CHF. We hypothesized that the molecular and cellular alterations of cardiac postganglionic parasympathetic (CPP) neurons located in the intracardiac ganglia and sympathetic (CPS) neurons located in the stellate ganglia (SG) possibly link to the cardiac autonomic imbalance in CHF. Rat CHF was induced by left coronary artery ligation. Single-cell real-time PCR and immunofluorescent data showed that L (Ca(v)1.2 and Ca(v)1.3), P/Q (Ca(v)2.1), N (Ca(v)2.2), and R (Ca(v)2.3) types of Ca2+ channels were expressed in CPP and CPS neurons, but CHF decreased the mRNA and protein expression of only the N-type Ca2+ channels in CPP neurons, and it did not affect mRNA and protein expression of all Ca2+ channel subtypes in the CPS neurons. Patch-clamp recording confirmed that CHF reduced N-type Ca2+ currents and cell excitability in the CPP neurons and enhanced N-type Ca2+ currents and cell excitability in the CPS neurons. N-type Ca2+ channel blocker (1 μM ω-conotoxin GVIA) lowered Ca2+ currents and cell excitability in the CPP and CPS neurons from sham-operated and CHF rats. These results suggest that CHF reduces the N-type Ca2+ channel currents and cell excitability in the CPP neurons and enhances the N-type Ca2+ currents and cell excitability in the CPS neurons, which may contribute to the cardiac autonomic imbalance in CHF.

  9. A retrospective PCR investigation of avian Orthoreovirus, chicken infectious anemia and fowl Aviadenovirus genomes contamination in commercial poultry vaccines in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.R. Barrios

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Vacinas avícolas vivas comerciais produzidas entre 1991 e 2005 foram examinadas para a presença de genomas dos vírus da anemia infecciosa das galinhas (Gyrovirus CAV, da hepatite por corpúsculo de inclusão (Aviadenovirus FAdV e da artrite viral/síndrome da má absorção (Orthoreovirus aviário ARV. Vinte e seis partidas de vacinas vivas liofilizadas de oito fabricantes com lacre original foram examinadas. As extrações de DNA e PCR de CAV e FAdV, e de RNA e RT-PCR para ARV, foram descritas previamente. Contaminações triplas de ARV, CAV e FAdV foram detectadas em vacinas de mesmo fabricante, produzidas em 1991 e 1992 contra a doença de Newcastle (DN, e para a encefalomielite aviária, produzida em 1994. ARV e CAV em co-infecção foram encontrados em vacinas contra a doença de Marek liofilizadas produzidas em 1996 por dois fabricantes diferentes. Genoma de ARV foi detectado em vacinas contra a bronquite infecciosa de setembro e dezembro de 1998, doença infecciosa bursal, de dezembro de 1998 e DN de janeiro de 1998. Três dos oito fabricantes apresentaram vacinas com contaminação e cinco nunca apresentaram vacinas contaminadas. Nenhuma vacina produzida a partir de 2001 apresentou contaminação. Cogita-se um papel epidemiológico para vacinas vivas, como fonte de infecção para ARV, CAV e FAdV e, potencialmente determinante da atual alta disseminação destes.

  10. Exercise-Induced Changes in Caveolin-1, Depletion of Mitochondrial Cholesterol, and the Inhibition of Mitochondrial Swelling in Rat Skeletal Muscle but Not in the Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Jozef Flis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The reduction in cholesterol in mitochondria, observed after exercise, is related to the inhibition of mitochondrial swelling. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1 plays an essential role in the regulation of cellular cholesterol metabolism and is required by various signalling pathways. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of prolonged swimming on the mitochondrial Cav-1 concentration; additionally, we identified the results of these changes as they relate to the induction of changes in the mitochondrial swelling and cholesterol in rat skeletal muscle and liver. Male Wistar rats were divided into a sedentary control group and an exercise group. The exercised rats swam for 3 hours and were burdened with an additional 3% of their body weight. After the cessation of exercise, their quadriceps femoris muscles and livers were immediately removed for experimentation. The exercise protocol caused an increase in the Cav-1 concentration in crude muscle mitochondria; this was related to a reduction in the cholesterol level and an inhibition of mitochondrial swelling. There were no changes in rat livers, with the exception of increased markers of oxidative stress in mitochondria. These data indicate the possible role of Cav-1 in the adaptive change in the rat muscle mitochondria following exercise.

  11. Volumetry of Artificial Pulmonary Nodules in Ex Vivo Porcine Lungs: Comparison of Semi-automated Volumetry and Radiologists' Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Ju Hyeon; Kim, Jin Hwan; Kim, Song Soo; Jeon, Ho Sang; Lee, Hyun Ju; Park, Noh Hyuck; Cho, Gyu Seong

    2010-01-01

    With the advent of MSCT, the detection rate of small pulmonary nodules is markedly greater. However, there is no definite diagnostic clue to differentiate between malignant and benign nodules, except for the interval growth in small nodule less than 1 cm in diameter. We evaluated the accuracy of computer aided volumetry (CAV) and compared it with 4 radiologists' measurement. Fifteen artificial nodules that were embedded in the ex vivo porcine lung were scanned by MSCT. The diameters and volumes of nodules were independently measured three times, at 5-day intervals, and by four radiologists as well as by CAV. We evaluated the accuracy of the measurements on the basis of the true diameter and volume of the nodules. Using a paired t-test and a Bland-Altman plot, we evaluated whether there was a statistically significant difference between the radiologists' measurements and the CAV. The accuracy of the manual measurements by radiologists revealed a statistically significant difference from the true diameter and volume of the artificial nodules (p 0.01) The results of this study suggest that CAV is an accurate and useful tool to evaluate the volume of pulmonary nodules and can eventually be used to differentiate malignant and benign nodules as well as evaluate the therapeutic response of lung cancer

  12. Prognostic value of gasometric parameters of carbon dioxide in resuscitation of septic patients. A bibliography review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsfus-Prieto, J Á; de Castro-Fernández, R; Hernández-García, A M; Marcano-Rodriguez, G

    2016-04-01

    The anaerobic metabolism is the cornerstone in physiopathology of septic shock. Nowadays we have both the central or mixed venous oxygen saturation and lactate levels to monitoring the metabolism in septic patients. Some studies have shown that normalization of systemic hemodynamic and oxygen metabolism variables not prevent progression to multiorgan damage and death. Recently has been proposed the venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide difference (ΔpvaCO2) as an alternative marker of tissue hypoperfusion, like Cardiac Index. High ΔpvaCO2 predicts adverse outcomes. Also has been proposed both, the ratio between the ΔpvaCO2 and arterial-to-venous oxygen content difference (ΔCavO2): ΔpvaCO2/ΔCavO2; and, the ratio between venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide difference (ΔCvaCO2) and ΔCavO2: ΔCvaCO2/ΔCavO2, as markers of anaerobic metabolism. Both of high ratios are related to high levels of lactate and worse prognosis. Therefore in patients with sepsis the combination of markers of resuscitation could be important to improve the outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Energy Saving by Novel Bed-Integrated Local Exhaust Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bivolarova, Mariya Petrova; Kehayova, Nushka; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2016-01-01

    High quality indoor environment in hospitals is important for patients’ healing and performance of the personnel. A novel method for minimizing spread of bio-effluents generated from hospitalized patients lying in bed was developed. The method consists of ventilated mattress (VM) which is able...... respectively with 55%, 71.1% and 85.9% and in the double room with 39.3%, 60.0%, and 80.4%. The use of the VM with reduced background CAV ventilation is an effective energy saving strategy for both double and single patient hospital rooms.......-bed hospital patient room (1.3 air changes per hour (ACH)) and double-bed patient room (1.6 ACH) was assessed by means of dynamic computer simulations. The estimated annual energy consumption for the rooms using the VM combined with CAV was compared to the annual energy consumption when the CAV ventilation...

  14. Leaf anatomy of medicinal shrubs and trees from Misiones forest of the Paranaense Province (Argentina: Part 2 Anatomía foliar de arbustos y árboles medicinales de la Selva Misionera de la provincia Paranaense (Argentina: Parte 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Arambarri

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper contains the study of the second part of medicinal shrubs and trees from Paranaense province. Forty five species of shrubs and trees belonging to 29 families inhabiting Misiones forest of the Paranaense biogeographic province (Argentina have been cited with medicinal properties. The work provides illustrations of diagnostic characters and conclusions of the main botanical differential traits, such as the presence of crystaliferous epidermis (e.g. Trixis divaricata subsp. divaricata; stomata and trichomes types (e. g. ciclocytic stomata in Pilocarpus pennatifolius and scale peltate trichomes in Tabebuia heptaphylla; midvein transection outlines (e.g. midvein convex and keel-shaped on the adaxial side in Schinus weinmanniifolia; presence and types of crystals (e.g. crystal sand in Cordia ecalyculata, raphides in Psychotria carthagenensis. This paper also gives an ecological interpretation of the species studied which shows predominantly a combination of mesomorphic (e.g. hypostomatic leaves, dorsiventral mesophyll and xeromorphic leaf traits (e.g. thick cuticle, abundant sclerenchyma, multilayered epidermis, mesophyll formed exclusively by palisade parenchyma, multilayered hypodermis, presence of sclereids. Only two species (Ilex paraguariensis and Manihot grahamii have mesomorphic (e.g. hypostomatic leaves, dorsiventral mesophyll and hygromorphic leaf characters (e.g. epidermis glabrous. Finally, the work provides a key to distinguish 107 medicinal shrubs and trees from the Paranaense biogeographic province (Part 1: Gallery forests and Part 2: Misiones forest that permit identified species using anatomy leaf characteristics.El presente trabajo corresponde a la segunda entrega del estudio de arbustos y árboles medicinales de la provincia biogeografica Paranaense. En esta parte, se analizaron 45 especies contenidas en 29 familias que habitan la Selva Misionera y han sido citadas con propiedades medicinales. El trabajo se acompa

  15. Estimated Bounds and Important Factors for Fuel Use and Consumer Costs of Connected and Automated Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, T. S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gonder, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chen, Yuche [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lin, Z. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liu, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gohlke, D. [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This report details a study of the potential effects of connected and automated vehicle (CAV) technologies on vehicle miles traveled (VMT), vehicle fuel efficiency, and consumer costs. Related analyses focused on a range of light-duty CAV technologies in conventional powertrain vehicles -- from partial automation to full automation, with and without ridesharing -- compared to today's base-case scenario. Analysis results revealed widely disparate upper- and lower-bound estimates for fuel use and VMT, ranging from a tripling of fuel use to decreasing light-duty fuel use to below 40% of today's level. This wide range reflects uncertainties in the ways that CAV technologies can influence vehicle efficiency and use through changes in vehicle designs, driving habits, and travel behavior. The report further identifies the most significant potential impacting factors, the largest areas of uncertainty, and where further research is particularly needed.

  16. Complete protection of cats against feline panleukopenia virus challenge by a recombinant canine adenovirus type 2 expressing VP2 from FPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu; Qiao, Jun; Liu, Quan; Chang, Shuang; Xie, Zhijing; Ju, Huiyan; Zou, Xiaohuan; Gao, Yuwei

    2008-03-10

    Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) is an important infectious pathogen of all members of the family Felidae. Here, we describe construction of a replication-competent recombinant canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) expressing the VP2 protein of FPV (CAV-2-VP2) by transfection of MDCK cells with recombinant CAV-2 genome carrying a VP2 expression cassette. Ten 3-month-old cats were vaccinated with the recombinant virus with two boosters at 15-day intervals. All cats developed neutralizing antibodies of titers 1:16-1:32 by day 15 post-primary vaccination, increasing to 1:64-1:128 by day 45. Examination for clinical signs and viral presence, and total white blood cell counts in peripheral blood following FPV challenge, showed that all were completely protected. This recombinant virus appears to provide an effective alternative to attenuated and inactivated vaccines in immunizing cats against feline panleukopenia.

  17. Demonstration of 1-year duration of immunity for attenuated Bordetella bronchiseptica vaccines in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehar, Craig; Jayappa, Huchappa; Erskine, Jason; Brown, Alicia; Sweeney, Diane; Wassmoen, Terri

    2008-01-01

    Three groups of healthy dogs with low antibody titers to Bordetella bronchiseptica (Bb), canine parainfluenza virus (CPI), and canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) were used in this study. One group was vaccinated with a single dose of monovalent attenuated Bb vaccine and one group with a trivalent vaccine containing attenuated Bb, CPI, and CAV-2; dogs were vaccinated intranasally with a single dose of the respective vaccines. The third group served as unvaccinated controls. All vaccinated dogs subsequently developed serum antibody titers to Bb that persisted for at least 1 year. Following Bb challenge 1 year after vaccination, all vaccinated dogs, regardless of group, showed significantly fewer clinical signs and shed significantly fewer challenge organisms than unvaccinated controls. These results demonstrate that intranasal administration of a single dose of monovalent attenuated Bb vaccine or trivalent vaccine containing attenuated Bb, CPI, and CAV-2 provides 1 year of protection against Bb.

  18. Electroconvulsive stimulations prevent chronic stress-induced increases in L-type calcium channel mRNAs in the hippocampus and basolateral amygdala

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maigaard, Katrine; Pedersen, Ida Hageman; Jørgensen, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Although affective disorders have high prevalence, morbidity and mortality, we do not fully understand disease etiopathology, nor have we determined the exact mechanisms by which treatment works. Recent research indicates that intracellular calcium ion dysfunction might be involved. Here we use...... the chronic restraint stress model of affective disorder (6 h restraint per day for 21 days) in combination with electroconvulsive stimulations to examine the effects of stress and an effective antidepressive treatment modality on L-type voltage gated calcium channel subunit mRNA expression patterns...... in the brain. We find that stress tended to upregulate Ca(v)1.2 and Ca(v)1.3 channels in a brain region specific manner, while ECS tended to normalise this effect. This was more pronounced for Ca(v)1.2 channels, where stress clearly increased expression in both the basolateral amygdala, dentate gyrus and CA3...

  19. Stimulation of ICa by basal PKA activity is facilitated by caveolin-3 in cardiac ventricular myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Simon; Kimura, Tomomi E; Kong, Cherrie H T; Watson, Judy J; Chase, Anabelle; Suleiman, M Saadeh; James, Andrew F; Orchard, Clive H

    2014-03-01

    L-type Ca channels (LTCC), which play a key role in cardiac excitation-contraction coupling, are located predominantly at the transverse (t-) tubules in ventricular myocytes. Caveolae and the protein caveolin-3 (Cav-3) are also present at the t-tubules and have been implicated in localizing a number of signaling molecules, including protein kinase A (PKA) and β2-adrenoceptors. The present study investigated whether disruption of Cav-3 binding to its endogenous binding partners influenced LTCC activity. Ventricular myocytes were isolated from male Wistar rats and LTCC current (ICa) recorded using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Incubation of myocytes with a membrane-permeable peptide representing the scaffolding domain of Cav-3 (C3SD) reduced basal ICa amplitude in intact, but not detubulated, myocytes, and attenuated the stimulatory effects of the β2-adrenergic agonist zinterol on ICa. The PKA inhibitor H-89 also reduced basal ICa; however, the inhibitory effects of C3SD and H-89 on basal ICa amplitude were not summative. Under control conditions, myocytes stained with antibody against phosphorylated LTCC (pLTCC) displayed a striated pattern, presumably reflecting localization at the t-tubules. Both C3SD and H-89 reduced pLTCC staining at the z-lines but did not affect staining of total LTCC or Cav-3. These data are consistent with the idea that the effects of C3SD and H-89 share a common pathway, which involves PKA and is maximally inhibited by H-89, and suggest that Cav-3 plays an important role in mediating stimulation of ICa at the t-tubules via PKA-induced phosphorylation under basal conditions, and in response to β2-adrenoceptor stimulation. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. High yield expression in a recombinant E. coli of a codon optimized chicken anemia virus capsid protein VP1 useful for vaccine development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Bang-Jau

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chicken anemia virus (CAV, the causative agent chicken anemia, is the only member of the genus Gyrovirus of the Circoviridae family. CAV is an immune suppressive virus and causes anemia, lymph organ atrophy and immunodeficiency. The production and biochemical characterization of VP1 protein and its use in a subunit vaccine or as part of a diagnostic kit would be useful to CAV infection prevention. Results Significantly increased expression of the recombinant full-length VP1 capsid protein from chicken anemia virus was demonstrated using an E. coli expression system. The VP1 gene was cloned into various different expression vectors and then these were expressed in a number of different E. coli strains. The expression of CAV VP1 in E. coli was significantly increased when VP1 was fused with GST protein rather than a His-tag. By optimizing the various rare amino acid codons within the N-terminus of the VP1 protein, the expression level of the VP1 protein in E. coli BL21(DE3-pLysS was further increased significantly. The highest protein expression level obtained was 17.5 g/L per liter of bacterial culture after induction with 0.1 mM IPTG for 2 h. After purification by GST affinity chromatography, the purified full-length VP1 protein produced in this way was demonstrated to have good antigenicity and was able to be recognized by CAV-positive chicken serum in an ELISA assay. Conclusions Purified recombinant VP1 protein with the gene's codons optimized in the N-terminal region has potential as chimeric protein that, when expressed in E. coli, may be useful in the future for the development of subunit vaccines and diagnostic tests.

  1. Identification of capillary rarefaction using intracoronary wave intensity analysis with resultant prognostic implications for cardiac allograft patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyd, Christopher J; Hernández-Pérez, Francisco; Segovia, Javier; Echavarría-Pinto, Mauro; Quirós-Carretero, Alicia; Salas, Clara; Gonzalo, Nieves; Jiménez-Quevedo, Pilar; Nombela-Franco, Luis; Salinas, Pablo; Núñez-Gil, Ivan; Del Trigo, Maria; Goicolea, Javier; Alonso-Pulpón, Luis; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Parker, Kim; Hughes, Alun; Mayet, Jamil; Davies, Justin; Escaned, Javier

    2018-05-21

    Techniques for identifying specific microcirculatory structural changes are desirable. As such, capillary rarefaction constitutes one of the earliest changes of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) in cardiac allograft recipients, but its identification with coronary flow reserve (CFR) or intracoronary resistance measurements is hampered because of non-selective interrogation of the capillary bed. We therefore investigated the potential of wave intensity analysis (WIA) to assess capillary rarefaction and thereby predict CAV. Fifty-two allograft patients with unobstructed coronary arteries and normal left ventricular (LV) function were assessed. Adequate aortic pressure and left anterior descending artery flow measurements at rest and with intracoronary adenosine were obtained in 46 of which 2 were lost to follow-up. In a subgroup of 15 patients, simultaneous RV biopsies were obtained and analysed for capillary density. Patients were followed up with 1-3 yearly screening angiography. A significant relationship with capillary density was noted with CFR (r = 0.52, P = 0.048) and the backward decompression wave (BDW) (r = -0.65, P < 0.01). Over a mean follow-up of 9.3 ± 5.2 years patients with a smaller BDW had an increased risk of developing angiographic CAV (hazard ratio 2.89, 95% CI 1.12-7.39; P = 0.03). Additionally, the index BDW was lower in those who went on to have a clinical CAV-events (P = 0.04) as well as more severe disease (P = 0.01). Within cardiac transplant patients, WIA is able to quantify the earliest histological changes of CAV and can predict clinical and angiographic outcomes. This proof-of-concept for WIA also lends weight to its use in the assessment of other disease processes in which capillary rarefaction is involved.

  2. The draft genome sequence and annotation of the desert woodrat Neotoma lepida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Campbell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the de novo draft genome sequence for a vertebrate mammalian herbivore, the desert woodrat (Neotoma lepida. This species is of ecological and evolutionary interest with respect to ingestion, microbial detoxification and hepatic metabolism of toxic plant secondary compounds from the highly toxic creosote bush (Larrea tridentata and the juniper shrub (Juniperus monosperma. The draft genome sequence and annotation have been deposited at GenBank under the accession LZPO01000000.

  3. Basic Simulation Environment for Highly Customized Connected and Autonomous Vehicle Kinematic Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Linguo; Cai, Baigen; ShangGuan, Wei; Wang, Jian; Wang, Huashen

    2017-08-23

    To enhance the reality of Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (CAVs) kinematic simulation scenarios and to guarantee the accuracy and reliability of the verification, a four-layer CAVs kinematic simulation framework, which is composed with road network layer, vehicle operating layer, uncertainties modelling layer and demonstrating layer, is proposed in this paper. Properties of the intersections are defined to describe the road network. A target position based vehicle position updating method is designed to simulate such vehicle behaviors as lane changing and turning. Vehicle kinematic models are implemented to maintain the status of the vehicles when they are moving towards the target position. Priorities for individual vehicle control are authorized for different layers. Operation mechanisms of CAVs uncertainties, which are defined as position error and communication delay in this paper, are implemented in the simulation to enhance the reality of the simulation. A simulation platform is developed based on the proposed methodology. A comparison of simulated and theoretical vehicle delay has been analyzed to prove the validity and the creditability of the platform. The scenario of rear-end collision avoidance is conducted to verify the uncertainties operating mechanisms, and a slot-based intersections (SIs) control strategy is realized and verified in the simulation platform to show the supports of the platform to CAVs kinematic simulation and verification.

  4. Blockade of T-type calcium channels prevents tonic-clonic seizures in a maximal electroshock seizure model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakkaki, Sophie; Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Lerat, Benoit; Françon, Dominique; Forichon, Luc; Chemin, Jean; Valjent, Emmanuel; Lerner-Natoli, Mireille; Lory, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    T-type (Cav3) calcium channels play important roles in neuronal excitability, both in normal and pathological activities of the brain. In particular, they contribute to hyper-excitability disorders such as epilepsy. Here we have characterized the anticonvulsant properties of TTA-A2, a selective T-type channel blocker, in mouse. Using the maximal electroshock seizure (MES) as a model of tonic-clonic generalized seizures, we report that mice treated with TTA-A2 (0.3 mg/kg and higher doses) were significantly protected against tonic seizures. Although no major change in Local Field Potential (LFP) pattern was observed during the MES seizure, analysis of the late post-ictal period revealed a significant increase in the delta frequency power in animals treated with TTA-A2. Similar results were obtained for Cav3.1-/- mice, which were less prone to develop tonic seizures in the MES test, but not for Cav3.2-/- mice. Analysis of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK) phosphorylation and c-Fos expression revealed a rapid and elevated neuronal activation in the hippocampus following MES clonic seizures, which was unchanged in TTA-A2 treated animals. Overall, our data indicate that TTA-A2 is a potent anticonvulsant and that the Cav3.1 isoform plays a prominent role in mediating TTA-A2 tonic seizure protection. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Chihuahuan desert flora of La Calera, Municipio de Agua Prieta, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ana Lilia Reina-Guerrero; Thomas R. Van Devender

    2013-01-01

    A total of 555 plant collections were made on 20 trips in 2002-2008 to La Calera area in the Sierra Anibácachi, Municipio de Agua Prieta, 11.3 km south of the Arizona border (31°13’59”N 109°37’53”W, elevation range from 1220 m to 1539 m) in northeastern Sonora. Chihuahuan desertscrub on limestone substrates is dominated by creosotebush (Larrrea divaricata), Chihuahuan...

  6. The role of Caveolin-1 in Lipid Droplets and their Biogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pezeshkian, Weria; Chevrot, Guillaume; Khandelia, Himanshu

    2018-01-01

    the effects of a curvature-inducing protein, caveolin-1, on the formation and structure of a spontaneously aggregated triolein (TO) lipid lens in a flat lipid bilayer using Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. A truncated form of Caveolin-1 (Cav1) localises on the interface between the spontaneously formed...... TO aggregate and the bulk bilayer, and thins the bilayer at the edge of the aggregate, which may contribute to lowering the energy barrier for pinching off the aggregate from the host bilayer. Simulations of fully mature LDs do not conclusively establish the optimal localisation of Cav1 in LDs, but when Cav1...... is in the LD core, the distribution of both neutral lipids in the LD core, and of phospholipids on the engulfing monolayer are altered significantly. Our simulations provide an unprecedented molecular description of the distribution and dynamics of various lipid species in both mature LDs and in the nascent LD...

  7. Circulating endothelial progenitor cell numbers are not associated with donor organ age or allograft vasculopathy in cardiac transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, H E; Parry, G; Dark, J H; Arthur, H M; Keavney, B D

    2009-02-01

    Increasing age is associated with reduced numbers of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). It is unclear whether this relates to depletion or impairment of bone marrow progenitors, or to deficient mobilization signals from aging tissues. In cardiac transplant patients, one previous study has reported an association between circulating EPCs and the risk of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV). We investigated whether increased donor heart age, a strong risk factor for CAV, was associated with reduced circulating EPC numbers in a group of cardiac transplant recipients matched for factors which influence EPC numbers, but with maximally discordant donor heart ages. We identified 32 patient pairs, matched for factors known to influence EPC numbers, but who had discordant donor heart ages by at least 20 years. EPCs were quantified using flow cytometry for absolute counts of cells expressing all the combinations of CD45, CD34, CD133 and the kinase domain receptor (KDR). There were no significant differences in the numbers of circulating EPCs between patients with old or young donor heart age. There was no association between the presence of CAV and circulating EPC numbers. We suggest that the increased susceptibility to CAV of older donor hearts is not mediated via circulating EPCs. Our results are consistent with the theory that the normal age-related decline in EPC numbers relates to bone marrow aging rather than failure of target tissues to induce EPC mobilization.

  8. Differentiated neuroprogenitor cells incubated with human or canine adenovirus, or lentiviral vectors have distinct transcriptome profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Piersanti

    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated the potential for vector-mediated gene transfer to the brain. Helper-dependent (HD human (HAd and canine (CAV-2 adenovirus, and VSV-G-pseudotyped self-inactivating HIV-1 vectors (LV effectively transduce human brain cells and their toxicity has been partly analysed. However, their effect on the brain homeostasis is far from fully defined, especially because of the complexity of the central nervous system (CNS. With the goal of dissecting the toxicogenomic signatures of the three vectors for human neurons, we transduced a bona fide human neuronal system with HD-HAd, HD-CAV-2 and LV. We analysed the transcriptional response of more than 47,000 transcripts using gene chips. Chip data showed that HD-CAV-2 and LV vectors activated the innate arm of the immune response, including Toll-like receptors and hyaluronan circuits. LV vector also induced an IFN response. Moreover, HD-CAV-2 and LV vectors affected DNA damage pathways--but in opposite directions--suggesting a differential response of the p53 and ATM pathways to the vector genomes. As a general response to the vectors, human neurons activated pro-survival genes and neuron morphogenesis, presumably with the goal of re-establishing homeostasis. These data are complementary to in vivo studies on brain vector toxicity and allow a better understanding of the impact of viral vectors on human neurons, and mechanistic approaches to improve the therapeutic impact of brain-directed gene transfer.

  9. PREDICTIVE SIGNIFICANCE OF ANTI-HLA AUTOANTIBODIES IN HEART TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Shevchenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was to define the role of preformed anti-HLA antibodies (anti-HLA in antibody-mediated rejection (AMR and cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV after heart transplantation. Materials and Methods. 140 heart transplant recipients were followed after heart transplantation performed for 106 dilated and 34 – ischemic cardiomyopathy. Anti-HLA was determined before transplantation by ELISA. Results. Recipients were divided into 2 groups: anti-HLA positive (n = 45, 32,1% and anti-HLA negative (n = 95, 67,9%. The incidence of AMR in anti-HLA positive group was 12 (26,67% and 11 (11,58% in anti-HLA negative group. Risk of AMR was significantly higher in anti-HLA positive recipients (RR 2,3: 95% CI 1,02–4,81, р = 0,03. During first three years after transplantation CAV was diagnosed in 9 (20% of anti-HLA positive recipients and in 7 (6,8% of patients without anti-HLA. (RR 2,7: 95% CI 1,08–6,82, р = 0,03. Survival in freedom from CAV in anti-HLA negative recipients was much higher than in anti-HLA positive recipients (0,89 ± 0,07, 0,72 ± 0,06, resp. (p = 0,02.Conclusions. The presence of preformed anti-HLA antibodies in candidates for heart transplantation increase the risk of AMR and CAV post transplantation in 2,3 and 2,7 times, respectively. 

  10. Cytogeography of Larrea tridentata at the Chihuahuan-Sonoran Desert ecotone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Laport; Robert L.. Minckley

    2013-01-01

    The long separation of the Chihuahuan and Sonoran Deserts is reflected in the high species richness and endemism of their floras. Although many endemic species from both deserts reach their distributional limits where the Sierra Madre Occidental massif fragments into smaller mountain complexes in northern Mexico and adjoining areas of the United States, indicator...

  11. Methamphetamine and HIV-Tat alter murine cardiac DNA methylation and gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koczor, Christopher A., E-mail: ckoczor@emory.edu; Fields, Earl; Jedrzejczak, Mark J.; Jiao, Zhe; Ludaway, Tomika; Russ, Rodney; Shang, Joan; Torres, Rebecca A.; Lewis, William

    2015-11-01

    This study addresses the individual and combined effects of HIV-1 and methamphetamine (N-methyl-1-phenylpropan-2-amine, METH) on cardiac dysfunction in a transgenic mouse model of HIV/AIDS. METH is abused epidemically and is frequently associated with acquisition of HIV-1 infection or AIDS. We employed microarrays to identify mRNA differences in cardiac left ventricle (LV) gene expression following METH administration (10 d, 3 mg/kg/d, subcutaneously) in C57Bl/6 wild-type littermates (WT) and Tat-expressing transgenic (TG) mice. Arrays identified 880 differentially expressed genes (expression fold change > 1.5, p < 0.05) following METH exposure, Tat expression, or both. Using pathway enrichment analysis, mRNAs encoding polypeptides for calcium signaling and contractility were altered in the LV samples. Correlative DNA methylation analysis revealed significant LV DNA methylation changes following METH exposure and Tat expression. By combining these data sets, 38 gene promoters (27 related to METH, 11 related to Tat) exhibited differences by both methods of analysis. Among those, only the promoter for CACNA1C that encodes L-type calcium channel Cav1.2 displayed DNA methylation changes concordant with its gene expression change. Quantitative PCR verified that Cav1.2 LV mRNA abundance doubled following METH. Correlative immunoblots specific for Cav1.2 revealed a 3.5-fold increase in protein abundance in METH LVs. Data implicate Cav1.2 in calcium dysregulation and hypercontractility in the murine LV exposed to METH. They suggest a pathogenetic role for METH exposure to promote LV dysfunction that outweighs Tat-induced effects. - Highlights: • HIV-1 Tat and methamphetamine (METH) alter cardiac gene expression and epigenetics. • METH impacts gene expression or epigenetics more significantly than Tat expression. • METH alters cardiac mitochondrial function and calcium signaling independent of Tat. • METH alters DNA methylation, expression, and protein abundance of

  12. Methamphetamine and HIV-Tat alter murine cardiac DNA methylation and gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koczor, Christopher A.; Fields, Earl; Jedrzejczak, Mark J.; Jiao, Zhe; Ludaway, Tomika; Russ, Rodney; Shang, Joan; Torres, Rebecca A.; Lewis, William

    2015-01-01

    This study addresses the individual and combined effects of HIV-1 and methamphetamine (N-methyl-1-phenylpropan-2-amine, METH) on cardiac dysfunction in a transgenic mouse model of HIV/AIDS. METH is abused epidemically and is frequently associated with acquisition of HIV-1 infection or AIDS. We employed microarrays to identify mRNA differences in cardiac left ventricle (LV) gene expression following METH administration (10 d, 3 mg/kg/d, subcutaneously) in C57Bl/6 wild-type littermates (WT) and Tat-expressing transgenic (TG) mice. Arrays identified 880 differentially expressed genes (expression fold change > 1.5, p < 0.05) following METH exposure, Tat expression, or both. Using pathway enrichment analysis, mRNAs encoding polypeptides for calcium signaling and contractility were altered in the LV samples. Correlative DNA methylation analysis revealed significant LV DNA methylation changes following METH exposure and Tat expression. By combining these data sets, 38 gene promoters (27 related to METH, 11 related to Tat) exhibited differences by both methods of analysis. Among those, only the promoter for CACNA1C that encodes L-type calcium channel Cav1.2 displayed DNA methylation changes concordant with its gene expression change. Quantitative PCR verified that Cav1.2 LV mRNA abundance doubled following METH. Correlative immunoblots specific for Cav1.2 revealed a 3.5-fold increase in protein abundance in METH LVs. Data implicate Cav1.2 in calcium dysregulation and hypercontractility in the murine LV exposed to METH. They suggest a pathogenetic role for METH exposure to promote LV dysfunction that outweighs Tat-induced effects. - Highlights: • HIV-1 Tat and methamphetamine (METH) alter cardiac gene expression and epigenetics. • METH impacts gene expression or epigenetics more significantly than Tat expression. • METH alters cardiac mitochondrial function and calcium signaling independent of Tat. • METH alters DNA methylation, expression, and protein abundance of

  13. The calcium-binding protein parvalbumin modulates the firing 1 properties of the reticular thalamic nucleus bursting neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albéri, Lavinia; Lintas, Alessandra; Kretz, Robert; Schwaller, Beat; Villa, Alessandro E P

    2013-06-01

    The reticular thalamic nucleus (RTN) of the mouse is characterized by an overwhelming majority of GABAergic neurons receiving afferences from both the thalamus and the cerebral cortex and sending projections mainly on thalamocortical neurons. The RTN neurons express high levels of the "slow Ca(2+) buffer" parvalbumin (PV) and are characterized by low-threshold Ca(2+) currents, I(T). We performed extracellular recordings in ketamine/xylazine anesthetized mice in the rostromedial portion of the RTN. In the RTN of wild-type and PV knockout (PVKO) mice we distinguished four types of neurons characterized on the basis of their firing pattern: irregular firing (type I), medium bursting (type II), long bursting (type III), and tonically firing (type IV). Compared with wild-type mice, we observed in the PVKOs the medium bursting (type II) more frequently than the long bursting type and longer interspike intervals within the burst without affecting the number of spikes. This suggests that PV may affect the firing properties of RTN neurons via a mechanism associated with the kinetics of burst discharges. Ca(v)3.2 channels, which mediate the I(T) currents, were more localized to the somatic plasma membrane of RTN neurons in PVKO mice, whereas Ca(v)3.3 expression was similar in both genotypes. The immunoelectron microscopy analysis showed that Ca(v)3.2 channels were localized at active axosomatic synapses, thus suggesting that the differential localization of Ca(v)3.2 in the PVKOs may affect bursting dynamics. Cross-correlation analysis of simultaneously recorded neurons from the same electrode tip showed that about one-third of the cell pairs tended to fire synchronously in both genotypes, independent of PV expression. In summary, PV deficiency does not affect the functional connectivity between RTN neurons but affects the distribution of Ca(v)3.2 channels and the dynamics of burst discharges of RTN cells, which in turn regulate the activity in the thalamocortical circuit.

  14. Structure-Based Design of Head-Only Fusion Glycoprotein Immunogens for Respiratory Syncytial Virus.

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    Jeffrey C Boyington

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is a significant cause of severe respiratory illness worldwide, particularly in infants, young children, and the elderly. Although no licensed vaccine is currently available, an engineered version of the metastable RSV fusion (F surface glycoprotein-stabilized in the pre-fusion (pre-F conformation by "DS-Cav1" mutations-elicits high titer RSV-neutralizing responses. Moreover, pre-F-specific antibodies, often against the neutralization-sensitive antigenic site Ø in the membrane-distal head region of trimeric F glycoprotein, comprise a substantial portion of the human response to natural RSV infection. To focus the vaccine-elicited response to antigenic site Ø, we designed a series of RSV F immunogens that comprised the membrane-distal head of the F glycoprotein in its pre-F conformation. These "head-only" immunogens formed monomers, dimers, and trimers. Antigenic analysis revealed that a majority of the 70 engineered head-only immunogens displayed reactivity to site Ø-targeting antibodies, which was similar to that of the parent RSV F DS-Cav1 trimers, often with increased thermostability. We evaluated four of these head-only immunogens in detail, probing their recognition by antibodies, their physical stability, structure, and immunogenicity. When tested in naïve mice, a head-only trimer, half the size of the parent RSV F trimer, induced RSV titers, which were statistically comparable to those induced by DS-Cav1. When used to boost DS-Cav1-primed mice, two head-only RSV F immunogens, a dimer and a trimer, boosted RSV-neutralizing titers to levels that were comparable to those boosted by DS-Cav1, although with higher site Ø-directed responses. Our results provide proof-of-concept for the ability of the smaller head-only RSV F immunogens to focus the vaccine-elicited response to antigenic site Ø. Decent primary immunogenicity, enhanced physical stability, potential ease of manufacture, and potent

  15. Involvement of proinflammatory S100A9/A8 in the atherocalcinosis of aortic valves

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    R. А. Moskalenko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available According to the results of the Euro-Heart Survey on Vascular Heart Disease the most common pathology is nonrheumatic aortic stenosis, it is also called as calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS, as in its pathogenesis the process of biomineralization of valve cusps and ring plays the main role. The aim of the work is the immunohistochemical study of mineralized tissue of aortic heart valves, which are affected by atherocalcinosis. Materials and methods. 30 samples of mineralized aortic valves (I group and 10 samples of aortic valve without evidence of biomineralization (II group -– control were studied. Immunohistochemical study of expression of collagen (Collagen I, CD68, myeloperoxidase (MPO, calgranulin A (S100A8, calgranulin B (S100A9, caspase 3 (Casp 3 and osteopontin (OPN was conducted in AV tissue of both groups. Results. In CAV tissues the fibrillar component (collagen I growths was found, but the quantitative and qualitative compositions of CD68+ circulating inflammatory cells are not significantly different from the control group. CAVs contain much more MPO+ -cells (p <0.001 in comparison to the group of AVs without biomineralization. Our data show a significant increase of the S100A9 and OPN expression in the mineralized tissue of AVs (p < 0.01. Also, a higher expression level of Casp3 and MPO was found in CAVs (p < 0.05. Comparing the first and the second groups of AVs connection between the expression of S100A8 was not determined. Conclusion. High Casp 3 expression confirms the increased level of cell elimination in the CAVs tissue, which is obviously connected with the impact of high local concentrations of S100A9. These facts can contribute to the development of pathological biomineralization of AV. Since osteopontin inhibits the hydroxyapatite formation by binding to the surface of the crystals, its hyperproduction is a counteracting factor against biomineralization in AV tissue.

  16. Bibliografía

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    Revista Chasqui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodistas y fuentes informativas, Herbert Strentz.- Buenos Aires: Ed. Marymar (colección periodismo; Perfiles de Proyectos: encuesta sobre Proyectos Innovadores de América Latina y el Caribe que usan tecnología educacional (1980 – 1981; Teoría de los medios masivos de comunicación, Erich Feldman. Buenos Aires; Ed. Kapelusz; Ética y colegiación del periodista, Lincoln Larrea Benalcázar, Fondo Editorial del Colegio de Periodistas de Pichincha, Quito 1984.

  17. Quantitation of Marek's disease and chicken anemia viruses in organs of experimentally infected chickens and commercial chickens by multiplex real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Irit; Raibshtein, I; Al-Touri, A

    2013-06-01

    The worldwide distribution of chicken anemia virus (CAV) and Marek's disease virus (MDV) is well documented. In addition to their economic significance in single- or dual-virus infections, the two viruses can often accompany various other pathogens and affect poultry health either directly, by causing tumors, anemia, and delayed growth, or indirectly, by aggravating other diseases, as a result of their immunosuppressive effects. After a decade of employing the molecular diagnosis of those viruses, which replaced conventional virus isolation, we present the development of a real-time multiplex PCR for the simultaneous detection of both viruses. The real-time PCRs for MDV and for CAV alone are more sensitive than the respective end-point PCRs. In addition, the multiplex real-time shows a similar sensitivity when compared to the single real-time PCR for each virus. The newly developed real-time multiplex PCR is of importance in terms of the diagnosis and detection of low copies of each virus, MDV and CAV in single- and in multiple-virus infections, and its applicability will be further evaluated.

  18. Growth suppression of MCF-7 cancer cell-derived xenografts in nude mice by caveolin-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Ping; Wang Xiaohui; Li Fei; Qi Baoju; Zhu Hua; Liu Shuang; Cui Yeqing; Chen Jianwen

    2008-01-01

    Caveolin-1 is an essential structural constituent of caveolae membrane domains that has been implicated in mitogenic signaling and oncogenesis. However, the exact functional role of caveolin-1 still remains controversial. In this report, utilizing MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells stably transfected with caveolin-1 (MCF-7/cav-1 cells), we demonstrate that caveolin-1 expression dramatically inhibits invasion and migration of these cells. Importantly, in vivo experiments employing xenograft tumor models demonstrated that expression of caveolin-1 results in significant growth inhibition of breast tumors. Moreover, a dramatic delay in tumor progression was observed in MCF-7/cav-1 cells as compared with MCF-7 cells. Histological analysis of tumor sections demonstrated a marked decrease in the percentage of proliferating tumor cells (Ki-67 assay) along with an increase in apoptotic tumor cells (TUNEL assay) in MCF-7/cav-1-treated animals. Our current findings provide for the first time in vivo evidence that caveolin-1 can indeed function as a tumor suppressor in human breast adenocarcinoma derived from MCF-7 cells rather than as a tumor promoter

  19. Avaliação do Ciclo de Aprendizagem Vivencial em uma Cooperativa Agropecuária

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    William Moreira Alves

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o intuito de avaliar a aplicação de jogos de empresa e a utilização da metodologia do CAV- Ciclo de Aprendizagem vivencial, junto aos cooperados e funcionários da COOCAFÉ - Cooperativa dos Cafeicultores da Região de Lajinha-MG. Na interpretação dos resultados foi utilizado o método DSC -Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo, que permitiu sintetizar as informações dos participantes referentes à prática dos jogos de empresas e do CAV ao transmitir as concepções das atividades realizadas por meio de discursos. O CAV possibilitou aos integrantes compartilhar o conhecimento adquirido com a aplicação do jogo de empresas e de demonstrarem seus diferentes pontos de vistas e sentimentos sobre as atividades realizadas. Inseridos em um ambiente de interação e espontaneidade os participantes puderam expor suas opiniões, desenvolver conhecimentos compartilhados e por fim enriquecer o curso através de um aprendizado coletivo.

  20. Recombinant canine adenovirus type-2 expressing TgROP16 provides partial protection against acute Toxoplasma gondii infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu-Zhen; Lv, Lin; Zhang, Xu; Anchang, Kenneth Yongabi; Abdullahi, Auwalu Yusuf; Tu, Liqing; Wang, Xiaohu; Xia, Lijun; Zhang, Xiu-Xiang; Feng, Weili; Lu, Chunxia; Li, Shoujun; Yuan, Zi-Guo

    2016-11-01

    We previously demonstrated that the survival time of BALB/c mice challenged with Toxoplasma gondii RH strain was prolonged by immunising the mice with a eukaryotic vector expressing the protein ROP16 of T. gondii. Building upon previous findings, we are exploring improved vaccination strategies to enhance protection. In this work, a novel recombinant canine adenovirus type 2 expressing ROP16 (CAV-2-ROP16) of T. gondii was constructed and identified to express ROP16 in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCK) cells by western blot (WB) and indirect immunofluorescence (IFA) assays. Intramuscular immunisation of BALB/c mice with CAV-2-ROP16 was performed to evaluate the humoral and cellular immune responses. This vaccination triggered significant humoral and cellular responses, including ROP16-stimulated lymphoproliferation (P0.05), revealing that a predominant Th1-type response had developed. The cell-mediated cytotoxic activity with high levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α was significantly increased in both CD4 + and CD8 + T-cell compartments in the mice immunised with CAV-2-ROP16 (Pdays post infection compared with control mice that all died within seven days (Pvaccination until now. Our work presents the successful use of recombinant virus CAV-2-ROP16 in vaccination protocols to protect against intraperitoneal challenge with the virulent RH strain of T. gondii. This system was shown to be extremely efficient in eliciting humoral and cellular immune responses that led to a significant improvement in survival time in mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Is there a role for segmental adrenal venous sampling and adrenal sparing surgery in patients with primary aldosteronism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Fumitoshi; Morimoto, Ryo; Seiji, Kazumasa; Satani, Nozomi; Ota, Hideki; Iwakura, Yoshitsugu; Ono, Yoshikiyo; Kudo, Masataka; Nezu, Masahiro; Omata, Kei; Tezuka, Yuta; Kawasaki, Yoshihide; Ishidoya, Shigeto; Arai, Yoichi; Takase, Kei; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; McNamara, Keely; Sasano, Hironobu; Ito, Sadayoshi

    2015-10-01

    Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) is critical to determine the subtype of primary aldosteronism (PA). Central AVS (C-AVS)--that is, the collection of effluents from bilateral adrenal central veins (CV)--sometimes does not allow differentiation between bilateral aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA) and idiopathic hyperaldosteronism. To establish the best treatment course, we have developed segmental AVS (S-AVS); that is, we collect effluents from the tributaries of CV to determine the intra-adrenal sources of aldosterone overproduction. We then evaluated the clinical utility of this novel approach in the diagnosis and treatment of PA. We performed C-AVS and/or S-AVS in 297 PA patients and assessed the accuracy of diagnosis based on the results of C-AVS (n=138, 46.5%) and S-AVS (n=159, 53.5%) by comparison with those of clinicopathological evaluation of resected specimens. S-AVS demonstrated both elevated and attenuated secretion of aldosterone from APA and non-tumorous segments, respectively, in patients with bilateral APA and recurrent APA. These findings were completely confirmed by detailed histopathological examination after surgery. S-AVS, but not C-AVS, also served to identify APA located distal from the CV. Compared to C-AVS, S-AVS served to identify APA in some patients, and its use should expand the pool of patients eligible for adrenal sparing surgery through the identification of unaffected segments, despite the fact that S-AVS requires more expertise and time. Especially, this new technique could enormously benefit patients with bilateral or recurrent APA because of the preservation of non-tumorous glandular tissue. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  2. Demand controlled ventilation in a bathroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Dorthe Kragsig; Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Topp, Claus

    2008-01-01

    consumption during periods where the demand for ventilation is low and poor indoor climate during periods where the demand for ventilation is high. Controlling the ventilation rate by demand can improve the energy performance of the ventilation system and the indoor climate. This paper compares the indoor...... climate and energy consumption of a Constant Air Volume (CAV) system and a Demand Controlled Ventilation (DCV) system for two different bathroom designs. The air change rate of the CAV system corresponded to 0.5h-1. The ventilation rate of the DCV system was controlled by occupancy and by the relative...

  3. Research progress on related genes for primary open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailijiang·Aierken

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary open angle glaucoma(POAGis the main cause of blindness with visual field damage and optic nerve degeneration. In recent years, a lot of researches have been done, showing that genetic factors and gene mutation play an important role in POAG. There are more than 20 related POAG genes. Now we will review the related genes of POAG, especially the well known causative genes of MYOC, OPTN, WDR36, and CAV1/CAV2, in terms of their locations, structures, research progress, et al, and provide a reference for genetic research in primary open-angle glaucoma.

  4. Expression of calcium channel CaV1.3 in cat spinal cord: light and electron microscopic immunohistochemical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Mengliang; Møller, Morten; Broman, Jonas

    2008-01-01

    in the cat spinal cord by light and electron microscopic immunohistochemistry. The results show that Ca(V)1.3-like immunoreactivity is widely distributed in all segments of the spinal cord but that the distribution in the different laminae of the spinal gray matter varies, with the highest density of labeled...... enlargements and the phrenic nucleus in cervical, Clarke's nucleus in lower thoracic and upper lumbar, and Onuf's nucleus in upper sacral segments. At the ultrastructural level, Ca(V)1.3-immunoreactive products were found in neuronal somata and dendrites of different sizes. In the soma, they were predominantly...

  5. Potassium Channel Interacting Protein 2 (KChIP2) is not a transcriptional regulator of cardiac electrical remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Sine V; Tuomainen, Tomi; Borup, Rehannah

    2016-01-01

    The heart-failure relevant Potassium Channel Interacting Protein 2 (KChIP2) augments CaV1.2 and KV4.3. KChIP3 represses CaV1.2 transcription in cardiomyocytes via interaction with regulatory DNA elements. Hence, we tested nuclear presence of KChIP2 and if KChIP2 translocates into the nucleus...... intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. Neither increasing nor decreasing intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations caused translocation of KChIP2. Microarray analysis did not identify relief of transcriptional repression in murine KChIP2(-/-) heart samples. We conclude that although there is a baseline presence of KCh...

  6. Tumor microenvironment and metabolic synergy in breast cancers: critical importance of mitochondrial fuels and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P

    2014-04-01

    Metabolic synergy or metabolic coupling between glycolytic stromal cells (Warburg effect) and oxidative cancer cells occurs in human breast cancers and promotes tumor growth. The Warburg effect or aerobic glycolysis is the catabolism of glucose to lactate to obtain adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This review summarizes the main findings on this stromal metabolic phenotype, and the associated signaling pathways, as well as the critical role of oxidative stress and autophagy, all of which promote carcinoma cell mitochondrial metabolism and tumor growth. Loss of Caveolin 1 (Cav-1) and the upregulation of monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4) in stromal cells are novel markers of the Warburg effect and metabolic synergy between stromal and carcinoma cells. MCT4 and Cav-1 are also breast cancer prognostic biomarkers. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key mediators of the stromal Warburg effect. High ROS also favors cancer cell mitochondrial metabolism and tumorigenesis, and anti-oxidants can reverse this altered stromal and carcinoma metabolism. A pseudo-hypoxic state with glycolysis and low mitochondrial metabolism in the absence of hypoxia is a common feature in breast cancer. High ROS induces loss of Cav-1 in stromal cells and is sufficient to generate a pseudo-hypoxic state. Loss of Cav-1 in the stroma drives glycolysis and lactate extrusion via HIF-1α stabilization and the upregulation of MCT4. Stromal cells with loss of Cav-1 and/or high expression of MCT4 also show a catabolic phenotype, with enhanced macroautophagy. This catabolic state in stromal cells is driven by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, nuclear factor κB (NFκB), and JNK activation and high ROS generation. A feed-forward loop in stromal cells regulates pseudo-hypoxia and metabolic synergy, with Cav-1, MCT4, HIF-1α, NFκB, and ROS as its key elements. Metabolic synergy also may occur between cancer cells and cells in distant organs from the tumor. Cancer cachexia, which is due to severe organismal

  7. Caveolin-1 contributes to realgar nanoparticle therapy in human chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi D

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dan Shi,1,* Yan Liu,1,* Ronggang Xi,1 Wei Zou,2 Lijun Wu,3 Zhiran Zhang,1 Zhongyang Liu,1 Chao Qu,1 Baoli Xu,1 Xiaobo Wang1 1Department of Pharmacy, The 210th Hospital of People’s Liberation Army, 2College of Life Science, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian, Liaoning, 3Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML is characterized by the t(9;22 (q34;q11-associated Bcr-Abl fusion gene, which is an essential element of clinical diagnosis. As a traditional Chinese medicine, realgar has been widely used for the treatment of various diseases for >1,500 years. Inspired by nano-drug, realgar nanoparticles (NPs have been prepared with an average particle size of <100 nm in a previous work. Compared with coarse realgar, the realgar NPs have higher bioavailability. As a principal constituent protein of caveolae, caveolin-1 (Cav-1 participates in regulating various cellular physiological and pathological processes including tumorigenesis and tumor development. In previous studies, it was found that realgar NPs can inhibit several types of tumor cell proliferation. However, the therapeutic effect of realgar NPs on CML has not been fully elucidated. In the present paper, it was demonstrated that realgar NPs can inhibit the proliferation of K562 cells and degrade Bcr-Abl fusion protein effectively. Both apoptosis and autophagy were activated in a dose-dependent manner in realgar NPs treated cells, and the induction of autophagy was associated with class I phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. Morphological analysis indicated that realgar NPs induced differentiation effectively in CML cells. Furthermore, it was identified that Cav-1 might play a crucial role in realgar NP therapy. In order to study the effects of Cav-1 on K562 cells during

  8. Calcium current homeostasis and synaptic deficits in hippocampal neurons from Kelch-like 1 knockout mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Patricia Perissinotti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kelch-like 1 (KLHL1 is a neuronal actin-binding protein that modulates voltage-gated CaV2.1 (P/Q-type and CaV3.2 (α1H T-type calcium channels; KLHL1 knockdown experiments (KD cause down-regulation of both channel types and altered synaptic properties in cultured rat hippocampal neurons (Perissinotti et al., 2014. Here, we studied the effect of ablation of KLHL1 on calcium channel function and synaptic properties in cultured hippocampal neurons from KLHL1 knockout (KO mice. Western blot data showed the P/Q-type channel α1A subunit was less abundant in KO hippocampus compared to wildtype (WT; and PQ-type calcium currents were smaller in KO neurons than WT during early days in vitro, although this decrease was compensated for at late stages by increases in L-type calcium current. In contrast, T-type currents did not change in culture. However, biophysical properties and western blot analysis revealed a differential contribution of T-type channel isoforms in the KO, with CaV3.2 α1H subunit being down-regulated and CaV3.1 α1G up-regulated. Synapsin I levels were reduced in the KO hippocampus; cultured neurons displayed a concomitant reduction in synapsin I puncta and decreased miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC frequency. In summary, genetic ablation of the calcium channel modulator resulted in compensatory mechanisms to maintain calcium current homeostasis in hippocampal KO neurons; however, synaptic alterations resulted in a reduction of excitatory synapse number, causing an imbalance of the excitatory-inhibitory synaptic input ratio favoring inhibition.

  9. Metabolic flux profiling of MDCK cells during growth and canine adenovirus vector production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carinhas, Nuno; Pais, Daniel A M; Koshkin, Alexey; Fernandes, Paulo; Coroadinha, Ana S; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Alves, Paula M; Teixeira, Ana P

    2016-03-23

    Canine adenovirus vector type 2 (CAV2) represents an alternative to human adenovirus vectors for certain gene therapy applications, particularly neurodegenerative diseases. However, more efficient production processes, assisted by a greater understanding of the effect of infection on producer cells, are required. Combining [1,2-(13)C]glucose and [U-(13)C]glutamine, we apply for the first time (13)C-Metabolic flux analysis ((13)C-MFA) to study E1-transformed Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells metabolism during growth and CAV2 production. MDCK cells displayed a marked glycolytic and ammoniagenic metabolism, and (13)C data revealed a large fraction of glutamine-derived labelling in TCA cycle intermediates, emphasizing the role of glutamine anaplerosis. (13)C-MFA demonstrated the importance of pyruvate cycling in balancing glycolytic and TCA cycle activities, as well as occurrence of reductive alphaketoglutarate (AKG) carboxylation. By turn, CAV2 infection significantly upregulated fluxes through most central metabolism, including glycolysis, pentose-phosphate pathway, glutamine anaplerosis and, more prominently, reductive AKG carboxylation and cytosolic acetyl-coenzyme A formation, suggestive of increased lipogenesis. Based on these results, we suggest culture supplementation strategies to stimulate nucleic acid and lipid biosynthesis for improved canine adenoviral vector production.

  10. An Update on Canine Adenovirus Type 2 and Its Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bru, Thierry; Salinas, Sara; Kremer, Eric J.

    2010-01-01

    Adenovirus vectors have significant potential for long- or short-term gene transfer. Preclinical and clinical studies using human derived adenoviruses (HAd) have demonstrated the feasibility of flexible hybrid vector designs, robust expression and induction of protective immunity. However, clinical use of HAd vectors can, under some conditions, be limited by pre-existing vector immunity. Pre-existing humoral and cellular anti-capsid immunity limits the efficacy and duration of transgene expression and is poorly circumvented by injections of larger doses and immuno-suppressing drugs. This review updates canine adenovirus serotype 2 (CAV-2, also known as CAdV-2) biology and gives an overview of the generation of early region 1 (E1)-deleted to helper-dependent (HD) CAV-2 vectors. We also summarize the essential characteristics concerning their interaction with the anti-HAd memory immune responses in humans, the preferential transduction of neurons, and its high level of retrograde axonal transport in the central and peripheral nervous system. CAV-2 vectors are particularly interesting tools to study the pathophysiology and potential treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, as anti-tumoral and anti-viral vaccines, tracer of synaptic junctions, oncolytic virus and as a platform to generate chimeric vectors. PMID:21994722

  11. Identification of the interaction and interaction domains of chicken anemia virus VP2 and VP3 proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fenfen; Pan, Wei; Gao, Honglei; Qi, Xiaole; Qin, Liting; Wang, Yongqiang; Gao, Yulong; Wang, Xiaomei

    2018-01-01

    Chicken anemia virus (CAV) is a small, single-stranded DNA virus of Anelloviridae family. Its genome segments encode three proteins, VP1, VP2, and VP3. This study identified an interaction between VP2 and VP3 and mapped the interaction domains. Through the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system, VP2 was found to interact with VP3. The presence of the VP2-VP3 complex in CAV-infected chicken cells was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation. Confocal microscopy showed that VP2 and VP3 were expressed in the cytoplasm in cotransfected Vero cells. In the Y2H system, the interaction domains were identified as being within the N-terminal aa 1-30 and C-terminal aa 17-60 for VP2 and the N-terminal aa 46-60 and C-terminal aa 1-7 for VP3. This study showed the interaction between VP2 and VP3 of CAV and identified multiple independent interactive domains within the two proteins. This provides novel information for investigating the biological functions of these proteins. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Peculiarities of dehydration of calcium dodeca- and hexavanadates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koryakova, O.V.; Perelyaeva, L.A.; Zabolotskaya, E.V.; Medvedeva, N.I.; Ivakin, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopic, electron paramagentic resonance, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric methods were used to study the process and dehydration products of CaV 12 O 31 x12H 2 O and CaV 6 O 16 x6H 2 O calcium dodeca-and hexavanadates. The dependence of chemical composition on dehydration temperature was established. It was revealed that investigated polyvanadates contain two types of water crystallization and coordinationally linked-one. Complete dehydration (300-400 deg C) leads to irreversible structural changes and formation of oxide vanadium bronze. The ''final'' product (t > 500 deg C) is the mixture of vanadium pentaoxide and calcium metavanadate

  13. Experimental Study of Air Vessel Behavior for Energy Storage or System Protection in Water Hammer Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Besharat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental assessment of an air pocket (AP, confined in a compressed air vessel (CAV, has been investigated under several different water hammer (WH events to better define the use of protection devices or compressed air energy storage (CAES systems. This research focuses on the size of an AP within an air vessel and tries to describe how it affects important parameters of the system, i.e., the pressure in the pipe, stored pressure, flow velocity, displaced volume of water and water level in the CAV. Results present a specific range of air pockets based on a dimensionless parameter extractable for other real systems.

  14. Virtual histology assessment of cardiac allograft vasculopathy following introduction of everolimus--results of a multicenter trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arora, Stina Jørgensen; Erikstad, I; Ueland, T

    2012-01-01

    of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV). Parallel measurement of a range of inflammatory markers was also performed. A similar rate of quantitative CAV progression was observed in the everolimus (n = 30) and standard CNI group (n = 48) (plaque index 1.9 ± 3.8% and 1.6 ± 3.9%, respectively; p = 0.65). However...... with time since HTx >5.1 years and was accompanied by a significant increase in levels of von Willebrand (vWF) factor (p = 0.04) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM) (p = 0.03). Conversion to everolimus and reduced CNI is associated with a significant increase in calcified and necrotic intimal...

  15. Genes encoding chavicol/eugenol synthase from the creosote bush Larrea tridentata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Norman G.; Davin, Laurence B.; Kim, Sung -Jin; Vassao, Daniel Giddings; Patten, Ann M.; Eichinger, Dietmar

    2015-09-15

    Particular aspects provide novel methods for redirecting carbon allocation in plants or cell culture from lignification to inherently more useful and tractable materials, and to facilitate the generation of, e.g., biofuels from the remaining plant ro culture biomass. Particular aspects provided novel methods for converting monolignols into allyl/propenyl phenols, and for chavicol/eugenol formation or production. Additional aspects relate to the discovery of novel chavicol/eugenol synthases that convert p-coumaryl/coniferyl alcohol esters into chavicol/eugenol, and to novel compositions (e.g., novel proteins and nucleic acids encoding same), and novel methods using same for producing or forming chavicol/eugenol and other derivatives in cell culture and/or genetically modified plants, and for re-engineering the composition of plant biomass. Particular aspects provide novel methods for generation in culture or in planta of liquid/combustible allyl/propenyl phenols, and these phenolic products are utilized for (non-ethanol) biofuel/bioenergy purposes, while the remaining plant biomass facilitates the generation of other biofuels.

  16. Elucidating the mechanism of action of pregabalin: α(2)δ as a therapeutic target in anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micó, Juan-Antonio; Prieto, Rita

    2012-08-01

    This review provides a brief summary of what is known about the anxiolytic mechanism of action of pregabalin, a highly selective, high-affinity ligand of the P/Q type of voltage-gated calcium channel (CaV). Evidence from in vivo models of neuronal hyperexcitability suggests that pregabalin reduces synaptic release of neurotransmitters in selected CNS regions including the cortex, olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, cerebellum and dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Release of neurotransmitters from the synaptic vesicle, and propagation of neurotransmission, requires the vesicle to fuse with the presynaptic membrane. Pregabalin binding to the α(2)δ type 1 protein of the P/Q type CaV reduces the availability of Ca2+ required for membrane fusion and exocytosis of neurotransmitters. Evidence that the anxiolytic mechanism of action of pregabalin is mediated by binding to the α(2)δ type 1 protein comes from animal models, which have demonstrated a structure-activity relationship between the affinity of ligands for the α(2)δ type 1 protein and their potency in models of anxiety such as the Vogel conflict test. Furthermore, the anxiolytic activity of pregabalin is lost in transgenic mice with specific point mutations in the CaV α(2)δ type 1 protein. Pregabalin-mediated reduction in calcium currents has also been shown to result in a significant inhibition of the release of neurotransmitters implicated in pathological anxiety such as glutamate and monoamine neurotransmitters. However, further research is needed to confirm that these effects contribute to the anxiolytic mechanism of action of pregabalin. Finally, pregabalin may also act by inhibiting synaptogenesis of excitatory neurons formed in response to chronic stress or anxiety, or more acutely inhibit the trafficking of CaV to the plasma membrane.

  17. A Robust Longitudinal Control Strategy of Platoons under Model Uncertainties and Time Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Automated vehicles are designed to free drivers from driving tasks and are expected to improve traffic safety and efficiency when connected via vehicle-to-vehicle communication, that is, connected automated vehicles (CAVs. The time delays and model uncertainties in vehicle control systems pose challenges for automated driving in real world. Ignoring them may render the performance of cooperative driving systems unsatisfactory or even unstable. This paper aims to design a robust and flexible platooning control strategy for CAVs. A centralized control method is presented, where the leader of a CAV platoon collects information from followers, computes the desired accelerations of all controlled vehicles, and broadcasts the desired accelerations to followers. The robust platooning is formulated as a Min-Max Model Predictive Control (MM-MPC problem, where optimal accelerations are generated to minimize the cost function under the worst case, where the worst case is taken over the possible models. The proposed method is flexible in such a way that it can be applied to both homogeneous platoon and heterogeneous platoon with mixed human-driven and automated controlled vehicles. A third-order linear vehicle model with fixed feedback delay and stochastic actuator lag is used to predict the platoon behavior. Actuator lag is assumed to vary randomly with unknown distributions but a known upper bound. The controller regulates platoon accelerations over a time horizon to minimize a cost function representing driving safety, efficiency, and ride comfort, subject to speed limits, plausible acceleration range, and minimal net spacing. The designed strategy is tested by simulating homogeneous and heterogeneous platoons in a number of typical and extreme scenarios to assess the system stability and performance. The test results demonstrate that the designed control strategy for CAV can ensure the robustness of stability and performance against model uncertainties

  18. The Impact of Timing and Graft Dysfunction on Survival and Cardiac Allograft Vasculopathy in Antibody Mediated Rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Kevin J.; Restaino, Susan W.; Zorn, Emmanuel; Vasilescu, Elena R.; Marboe, Charles C.; Mancini, Donna M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Antibody mediated rejection (AMR) has been associated with increased mortality and cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV). Early studies suggested that late AMR was rarely associated with graft dysfunction while recent reports have demonstrated an association with increased mortality. We sought to investigate the timing of AMR and its association with graft dysfunction, mortality, and CAV. Methods This retrospective cohort study identified all adult heart transplant recipients at Columbia University Medical Center from 2004–2013 (689 patients). There were 68 primary cases of AMR, which were stratified by early (1-year post-OHT) AMR. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and modeling was performed with multivariable logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards regression. Results From January 1, 2004 through October 1, 2015 43 patients had early AMR (median 23 days post-OHT) and 25 had late AMR (median 1084 days post-OHT). Graft dysfunction was less common with early compared with late AMR (25.6% vs. 56%, p=0.01). Patients with late AMR had decreased post-AMR survival compared with early AMR (1-year 80% vs. 93%, 5-year 51% vs. 73%, p<0.05). When stratified by graft dysfunction, only those with late AMR and graft dysfunction had worse survival (30-day 79%, 1-year 64%, and 5-year 36%, p<0.006). The association remained irrespective of age, sex, DSA, LVAD use, reason for OHT, and recovery of graft function. Similarly, those with late AMR and graft dysfunction had accelerated development of de-novo CAV (50% at 1 year, HR 5.42, p=0.009), while all other groups were all similar to the general transplant population. Conclusion Late AMR is frequently associated with graft dysfunction. When graft dysfunction is present in late AMR there is an early and sustained increased risk of mortality and rapid development of de-novo CAV despite aggressive treatment. PMID:27423693

  19. The genetic basis of Brugada syndrome: a mutation update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedley, Paula L; Jørgensen, Poul; Schlamowitz, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    of inheritance with an average prevalence of 5:10,000 worldwide. Currently, more than 100 mutations in seven genes have been associated with BrS. Loss-of-function mutations in SCN5A, which encodes the alpha-subunit of the Na(v)1.5 sodium ion channel conducting the depolarizing I(Na) current, causes 15-20% of Br......S cases. A few mutations have been described in GPD1L, which encodes glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-1 like protein; CACNA1C, which encodes the alpha-subunit of the Ca(v)1.2 ion channel conducting the depolarizing I(L,Ca) current; CACNB2, which encodes the stimulating beta2-subunit of the Ca(v)1.2 ion...

  20. Exosome uptake depends on ERK1/2-heat shock protein 27 signaling and lipid Raft-mediated endocytosis negatively regulated by caveolin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Katrin J; Christianson, Helena C; Wittrup, Anders; Bourseau-Guilmain, Erika; Lindqvist, Eva; Svensson, Lena M; Mörgelin, Matthias; Belting, Mattias

    2013-06-14

    The role of exosomes in cancer can be inferred from the observation that they transfer tumor cell derived genetic material and signaling proteins, resulting in e.g. increased tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. However, the membrane transport mechanisms and the signaling events involved in the uptake of these virus-like particles remain ill-defined. We now report that internalization of exosomes derived from glioblastoma (GBM) cells involves nonclassical, lipid raft-dependent endocytosis. Importantly, we show that the lipid raft-associated protein caveolin-1 (CAV1), in analogy with its previously described role in virus uptake, negatively regulates the uptake of exosomes. We find that exosomes induce the phosphorylation of several downstream targets known to associate with lipid rafts as signaling and sorting platforms, such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2) and heat shock protein 27 (HSP27). Interestingly, exosome uptake appears dependent on unperturbed ERK1/2-HSP27 signaling, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation is under negative influence by CAV1 during internalization of exosomes. These findings significantly advance our general understanding of exosome-mediated uptake and offer potential strategies for how this pathway may be targeted through modulation of CAV1 expression and ERK1/2 signaling.

  1. In-vivo and ex-vivo assessment of the accuracy of the computer-aided volumetry of porcine kidney in CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, W.; Harris, G.; Holalkere, N.; Sahani, D.; Yoshida, H. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Measurement of kidney volume by computed tomography (CT), called renal volumetry, is indispensable for diagnosis and treatment of kidney-related diseases. Computer-aided volumetry (CAV) of kidney relies on an efficient and accurate segmentation method of the kidney. The purpose of this study is to assess the accuracy of our CAV of kidney scheme using dynamic-threshold (DT) level set method, based on in-vivo and ex-vivo reference standards. Eight Yorkshire breed anesthetized pigs were scanned on a 64-slice multi-detector CT scanner (Sensation 64, Siemens) after an injection of iodinated (300 mgl/ml) contrast agent through an IV cannula. The kidneys of the pigs were then surgically resected and scanned on CT in the same manner. Both in-vivo and ex-vivo CT images were subjected to our volumetry scheme. The resulting volumes of the kidneys were compared with the in-vivo and ex-vivo reference standards: the former was established by manual contouring of the kidneys on the CT images by an experienced radiologist, and the latter was established as the water displacement volume of the resected kidney. Our CAV of kidney scheme demonstrated accurate in-vivo and ex-vivo measurement of kidney volume, despite a large difference between the two reference standards. (orig.)

  2. In-vivo and ex-vivo assessment of the accuracy of the computer-aided volumetry of porcine kidney in CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, W.; Harris, G.; Holalkere, N.; Sahani, D.; Yoshida, H.

    2007-01-01

    Measurement of kidney volume by computed tomography (CT), called renal volumetry, is indispensable for diagnosis and treatment of kidney-related diseases. Computer-aided volumetry (CAV) of kidney relies on an efficient and accurate segmentation method of the kidney. The purpose of this study is to assess the accuracy of our CAV of kidney scheme using dynamic-threshold (DT) level set method, based on in-vivo and ex-vivo reference standards. Eight Yorkshire breed anesthetized pigs were scanned on a 64-slice multi-detector CT scanner (Sensation 64, Siemens) after an injection of iodinated (300 mgl/ml) contrast agent through an IV cannula. The kidneys of the pigs were then surgically resected and scanned on CT in the same manner. Both in-vivo and ex-vivo CT images were subjected to our volumetry scheme. The resulting volumes of the kidneys were compared with the in-vivo and ex-vivo reference standards: the former was established by manual contouring of the kidneys on the CT images by an experienced radiologist, and the latter was established as the water displacement volume of the resected kidney. Our CAV of kidney scheme demonstrated accurate in-vivo and ex-vivo measurement of kidney volume, despite a large difference between the two reference standards. (orig.)

  3. The chicken TH1 response: potential therapeutic applications of ChIFN-γ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Pengju; Thomas, Jesse D; Bruce, Matthew P; Hinton, Tracey M; Bean, Andrew G D; Lowenthal, John W

    2013-11-01

    The outcomes of viral infections are costly in terms of human and animal health and welfare worldwide. The observed increase in the virulence of some viruses and failure of many vaccines to stop these infections has lead to the apparent need to develop new anti-viral strategies. One approach to dealing with viral infection may be to employ the therapeutic administration of recombinant cytokines to act as 'immune boosters' to assist in augmenting the host response to virus. With this in mind, a greater understanding of the immune response, particularly cell mediated T-helper-1 (TH1) type responses, is imperative to the development of new anti-viral and vaccination strategies. Following the release of the chicken genome, a number of TH1-type cytokines have been identified, including chicken interleukin-12 (ChIL-12), ChIL-18 and interferon-γ ChIFN-γ), highlighting the nature of the TH1-type response in this non-mammalian vertebrate. To date a detailed analysis of the in vivo biological function of these cytokines has been somewhat hampered by access to large scale production techniques. This review describes the role of TH-1 cytokines in immune responses to viruses and explores their potential use in enhancing anti-viral treatment strategies in chickens. Furthermore, this review focuses on the example of ChIFN-γ treatment of Chicken Anemia Virus (CAV) infection. CAV causes amongst other things thymocyte depletion and thymus atrophy, as well as immunosuppression in chickens. However, due to vaccination, clinical disease appears less often, nevertheless, the subclinical form of the disease is often associated with secondary complicating infections due to an immunocompromised state. Since CAV-induced immunosuppression can cause a marked decrease in the immune response against other pathogens, understanding this aspect of the disease is critically important, as well as providing insights into developing new control approaches. With increasing emphasis on developing

  4. A meta-analysis of medicinal plants to assess the evidence for toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sarah; Vieira, Amandio

    2010-06-01

    Toxicity of phytochemicals, plant-based extracts and dietary supplements, and medicinal plants in general, is of medical importance and must be considered in phytotherapy and other plant uses. We show in this report how general database analyses can provide a quantitative assessment of research and evidence related to toxicity of medicinal plants or specific phytochemicals. As examples, several medicinal plants are analyzed for their relation to nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. The results of analyses in different databases are similar, and reveal the two best-established toxic effects among the group of plants that were examined: nephrotoxicity of Aristolochia fangchi and hepatotoxicity of Larrea tridentata.

  5. Reseña Comunicación Política en Latinoamérica, de Larrea, J.J. / Book review Political Communication in Latin America, by Larrea, J.J.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra P. Orjuela Córdoba

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available “Comunicación Política en Latinoamérica: Gestión, Campañas y TICs”, constituye la segunda apuesta a nivel de libros del Grupo DIRCOM, que desde la República Argentina ha emprendido un proyecto editorial que se aproxima al centenar de Revista DIRCOM, con presencia en varios países de Latinoamérica.

  6. Duplex PCR assay for the detection of avian adeno virus and chicken anemia virus prevalent in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Aqib

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Avian Adeno viruses and Chicken Anemia Viruses cause serious economic losses to the poultry industry of Pakistan each year. Timely and efficient diagnosis of the viruses is needed in order to practice prevention and control strategies. In the first part of this study, we investigated broilers, breeder and Layer stocks for morbidity and mortality rates due to AAV and CAV infections and any co-infections by examining signs and symptoms typical of their infestation or post mortem examination. In the second part of the study, we developed a duplex PCR assay for the detection of AAV and CAV which is capable to simultaneously detect both the viral types prevalent in Pakistan with high sensitivity and 100% specificity.

  7. Chemotaxonomy of New Zealand red algae in the family Gigartinaceae (Rhodophyta) based on galactan structures from the tetrasporophyte life-stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falshaw, Ruth; Furneaux, Richard H

    2009-01-26

    The identification of the polysaccharides from tetrasporophytic plants of nine endemic New Zealand species belonging to the Gigartinaceae, 'Gigartina' ancistroclada, 'G.' grandifida, Gigartina dilatata, G. divaricata, G. macrocarpa, G. marginifera, G. pachymenioides, G. sp. 'Lindauer 164' and Sarcothalia livida using infra-red spectroscopy in conjunction with constituent sugar and glycosyl linkage/substitution analysis is reported. All nine species contain galactans with structures consistent with lambda-type carrageenans. Differences in the structures of the galactans in these and a further six previously studied species indicate chemotaxonomically distinct groupings that correspond to Sarcothalia, 'Sarcothalia' and Gigartina genera plus some outliers. These distinct, chemotaxonomic groupings are aligned to those determined by rbcL sequence analysis reported in the literature.

  8. Computer-Assisted Visual Search/Decision Aids as a Training Tool for Mammography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nodine, Calvin

    1999-01-01

    The primary goal of the project is to develop a computer-assisted visual search (CAVS) mammography training tool that will improve the perceptual and cognitive skills of trainees leading to mammographic expertise...

  9. Computer-Assisted Visual Search/Decision Aids as a Training Tool for Mammography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nodine, Calvin

    1998-01-01

    The primary goal of the project is to develop a computer-assisted visual search (CAVS) mammography training tool that will improve the perceptual and cognitive skills of trainees leading to mammographic expertise...

  10. Computer-Assisted Visual Search/Decision Aids as a Training Tool for Mammography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nodine, Calvin

    2000-01-01

    The primary goal of the project is to develop a computer-assisted visual search (CAVS) mammography training tool that will improve the perceptual and cognitive skills of trainees leading to mammographic expertise...

  11. Evaluation of protective efficacy of three novel H3N2 canine influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Liqing; Zhou, Pei; Li, Lutao; Li, Xiuzhen; Hu, Renjun; Jia, Kun; Sun, Lingshuang; Yuan, Ziguo; Li, Shoujun

    2017-11-17

    Canine influenza virus (CIV) has the potential risk to spread in different areas and dog types. Thus, there is a growing need to develop an effective vaccine to control CIV disease. Here, we developed three vaccine candidates: 1) a recombinant pVAX1 vector expressing H3N2 CIV hemagglutinin (pVAX1-HA); 2) a live attenuated canine adenovirus type 2 expressing H3N2 CIV hemagglutinin (rCAV2-HA); and 3) an inactivated H3N2 CIV (A/canine/Guangdong/01/2006 (H3N2)). Mice received an initial intramuscular immunization that followed two booster injections at 2 and 4 weeks post-vaccination (wpv). The splenic lymphocytes were collected to assess the immune responses at 6 wpv. The protective efficacy was evaluated by challenging H3N2 CIV after vaccination (at 6 wpv). Our results demonstrated that all three vaccine candidates elicited cytokine and antibody responses in mice. The rCAV2-HA vaccine and the inactivated vaccine generated efficient protective efficacy in mice, whereas limited protection was provided by the pVAX1-HA DNA vaccine. Therefore, both the rCAV2-HA live recombinant virus and the inactivated CIV could be used as potential novel vaccines against H3N2CIV. This study provides guidance for choosing the most appropriate vaccine for the prevention and control of CIV disease.

  12. Caveolae, caveolin-1 and cavin-1: Emerging roles in pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chettimada, Sukrutha; Yang, Jincheng; Moon, Hyung-Geun; Jin, Yang

    2015-07-28

    Caveolae are flask-shaped invaginations of cell membrane that play a significant structural and functional role. Caveolae harbor a variety of signaling molecules and serve to receive, concentrate and transmit extracellular signals across the membrane. Caveolins are the main structural proteins residing in the caveolae. Caveolins and another category of newly identified caveolae regulatory proteins, named cavins, are not only responsible for caveolae formation, but also interact with signaling complexes in the caveolae and regulate transmission of signals across the membrane. In the lung, two of the three caveolin isoforms, i.e ., cav-1 and -2, are expressed ubiquitously. Cavin protein family is composed of four proteins, named cavin-1 (or PTRF for polymerase Ⅰ and transcript release factor), cavin-2 (or SDPR for serum deprivation protein response), cavin-3 (or SRBC for sdr-related gene product that binds to-c-kinase) and cavin-4 (or MURC for muscle restricted coiled-coiled protein or cavin-4). All the caveolin and cavin proteins are essential regulators for caveolae dynamics. Recently, emerging evidence suggest that caveolae and its associated proteins play crucial roles in development and progression of pulmonary hypertension. The focus of this review is to outline and discuss the contrast in alteration of cav-1 (cav-1),-2 and cavin-1 (PTRF) expression and downstream signaling mechanisms between human and experimental models of pulmonary hypertension.

  13. Modulation of T-type Ca2+ channels by Lavender and Rosemary extracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaymae El Alaoui

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants represent a significant reservoir of unexplored substances for early-stage drug discovery. Of interest, two flowering Mediterranean plants have been used for thousands of years for their beneficial effects on nervous disorders, including anxiety and mood. However, the therapeutic potential of these plants regarding their ability to target ion channels and neuronal excitability remains largely unknown. Towards this goal, we have investigated the ability of Lavender and Rosemary to modulate T-type calcium channels (TTCCs. TTCCs play important roles in neuronal excitability, neuroprotection, sensory processes and sleep. These channels are also involved in epilepsy and pain. Using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we have characterized how Lavender and Rosemary extracts, as well as their major active compounds Linalool and Rosmarinic acid, modulate the electrophysiological properties of recombinant TTCCs (CaV3.2 expressed in HEK-293T cells. Both the methanolic and essential oil extracts as well as the active compounds of these plants inhibit Cav3.2 current in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, these products also induce a negative shift of the steady-state inactivation of CaV3.2 current with no change in the activation properties. Taken together, our findings reveal that TTCCs are a molecular target of the Lavender and Rosemary compounds, suggesting that inhibition of TTCCs could contribute to the anxiolytic and the neuroprotective effects of these plants.

  14. DNA and protein co-administration induces tolerogenic dendritic cells through DC-SIGN mediated negative signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinyao; Geng, Shuang; Liu, Xiuping; Liu, Hu; Jin, Huali; Liu, Chang-Gong; Wang, Bin

    2013-10-01

    We previously demonstrated that DNA and protein co-administration induced differentiation of immature dendritic cells (iDCs) into CD11c(+)CD40(low)IL-10(+) regulatory DCs (DCregs) via the caveolin-1 (Cav-1) -mediated signal pathway. Here, we demonstrate that production of IL-10 and the low expression of CD40 play a critical role in the subsequent induction of regulatory T cells (Tregs) by the DCregs. We observed that DNA and protein were co-localized with DC-SIGN in caveolae and early lysosomes in the treated DCs, as indicated by co-localization with Cav-1 and EEA-1 compartment markers. DNA and protein also co-localized with LAMP-2. Gene-array analysis of gene expression showed that more than a thousand genes were significantly changed by the DC co-treatment with DNA + protein compared with controls. Notably, the level of DC-SIGN expression was dramatically upregulated in pOVA + OVA co-treated DCs. The expression levels of Rho and Rho GNEF, the down-stream molecules of DC-SIGN mediated signal pathway, were also greatly upregulated. Further, the level of TLR9, the traditional DNA receptor, was significantly downregulated. These results suggest that DC-SIGN as the potential receptor for DNA and protein might trigger the negative pathway to contribute the induction of DCreg combining with Cav-1 mediated negative signal pathway.

  15. Disruption of the IS6-AID linker affects voltage-gated calcium channel inactivation and facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeisen, Felix; Minor, Daniel L

    2009-03-01

    Two processes dominate voltage-gated calcium channel (Ca(V)) inactivation: voltage-dependent inactivation (VDI) and calcium-dependent inactivation (CDI). The Ca(V)beta/Ca(V)alpha(1)-I-II loop and Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)/Ca(V)alpha(1)-C-terminal tail complexes have been shown to modulate each, respectively. Nevertheless, how each complex couples to the pore and whether each affects inactivation independently have remained unresolved. Here, we demonstrate that the IS6-alpha-interaction domain (AID) linker provides a rigid connection between the pore and Ca(V)beta/I-II loop complex by showing that IS6-AID linker polyglycine mutations accelerate Ca(V)1.2 (L-type) and Ca(V)2.1 (P/Q-type) VDI. Remarkably, mutations that either break the rigid IS6-AID linker connection or disrupt Ca(V)beta/I-II association sharply decelerate CDI and reduce a second Ca(2+)/CaM/Ca(V)alpha(1)-C-terminal-mediated process known as calcium-dependent facilitation. Collectively, the data strongly suggest that components traditionally associated solely with VDI, Ca(V)beta and the IS6-AID linker, are essential for calcium-dependent modulation, and that both Ca(V)beta-dependent and CaM-dependent components couple to the pore by a common mechanism requiring Ca(V)beta and an intact IS6-AID linker.

  16. Potential Energy and Emission Benefits of Vehicle Automation and Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Driving behavior greatly impacts vehicle tailpipe emissions. Connected and automated vehicle (CAV) technologies are designed to smooth driving and relieve traffic congestion and are therefore expected to reduce fuel consumption and tailpipe emissions...

  17. Connected vehicle impacts on transportation planning technical memorandum #6: skills and expertise required to incorporate connected vehicles into transportation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-08

    Professional development and training are essential to the incorporation of connected/automated vehicles (C/AV) into the : transportation planning process. In order to guarantee a successful deployment, transportation planning agencies and their : st...

  18. Cholesterol and phytosterols differentially regulate the expression of caveolin 1 and a downstream prostate cell growth-suppressor gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifere, Godwin O.; Equan, Anita; Gordon, Kereen; Nagappan, Peri; Igietseme, Joseph U.; Ananaba, Godwin A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The purpose of our study was to show the distinction between the apoptotic and anti-proliferative signaling of phytosterols and cholesterol enrichment in prostate cancer cell lines, mediated by the differential transcription of caveolin-1, and N-myc downstream regulated gene1 (NDRG1), a pro-apoptotic androgen-regulated tumor suppressor. Methods PC-3 and DU145 cells were treated with sterols (cholesterol and phytosterols) for 72 h, followed by trypan blue dye exclusion measurement of necrosis and cell growth measured with a Coulter counter. Sterol induction of cell growth-suppressor gene expression was evaluated by mRNA transcription using RT-PCR, while cell cycle analysis was performed by FACS analysis. Altered expression of Ndrg1 protein was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Apoptosis was evaluated by real time RT-PCR amplification of P53, Bcl-2 gene and its related pro- and anti-apoptotic family members. Results Physiological doses (16 µM) of cholesterol and phytosterols were not cytotoxic in these cells. Cholesterol enrichment promoted cell growth (Pphytosterols significantly induced growth-suppression (Pphytosterols decreased mitotic subpopulations. We demonstrated for the first time that cholesterols concertedly attenuated the expression of caveolin-1(cav-1) and NDRG1 genes in both prostate cancer cell lines. Phytosterols had the opposite effect by inducing overexpression of cav-1, a known mediator of androgen-dependent signals that presumably control cell growth or apoptosis. Conclusions Cholesterol and phytosterol treatment differentially regulated the growth of prostate cancer cells and the expression of p53 and cav-1, a gene that regulates androgen-regulated signals. These sterols also differentially regulated cell cycle arrest, downstream pro-apoptotic androgen-regulated tumor-suppressor, NDRG1 suggesting that cav-1 may mediate pro-apoptotic NDRG1 signals. Elucidation of the mechanism for sterol modulation of growth and apoptosis signaling

  19. The effect of timing and graft dysfunction on survival and cardiac allograft vasculopathy in antibody-mediated rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Kevin J; Restaino, Susan W; Zorn, Emmanuel; Vasilescu, Elena R; Marboe, Charles C; Mancini, Donna M

    2016-09-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) has been associated with increased death and cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV). Early studies suggested that late AMR was rarely associated with graft dysfunction, whereas recent reports have demonstrated an association with increased mortality. We investigated the timing of AMR and its association with graft dysfunction, death, and CAV. This retrospective cohort study identified all adult orthotopic heart transplant (OHT) recipients (N = 689) at Columbia University Medical Center from 2004 to 2013. There were 68 primary cases of AMR, which were stratified by early ( 1 year post-OHT) AMR. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and modeling was performed with multivariable logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards regression. From January 1, 2004, through October 1, 2015, early AMR (median 23 days post-OHT) occurred in 43 patients and late AMR (median 1,084 days post-OHT) occurred in 25. Graft dysfunction was less common with early compared with late AMR (25.6% vs 56%, p = 0.01). Patients with late AMR had decreased post-AMR survival compared with early AMR (1 year: 80% vs 93%, 5 years: 51% vs 73%, p < 0.05). When stratified by graft dysfunction, only those with late AMR and graft dysfunction had worse survival (30 days: 79%, 1 year: 64%, 5 years: 36%; p < 0.006). The association remained irrespective of age, sex, donor-specific antibodies, left ventricular assist device use, reason for OHT, and recovery of graft function. Similarly, those with late AMR and graft dysfunction had accelerated development of de novo CAV (50% at 1 year; hazard ratio, 5.42; p = 0.009), whereas all other groups were all similar to the general transplant population. Late AMR is frequently associated with graft dysfunction. When graft dysfunction is present in late AMR, there is an early and sustained increased risk of death and rapid development of de novo CAV despite aggressive treatment. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Heart and Lung

  20. Endocytic crosstalk: cavins, caveolins, and caveolae regulate clathrin-independent endocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Chaudhary

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have suggested crosstalk between different clathrin-independent endocytic pathways. However, the molecular mechanisms and functional relevance of these interactions are unclear. Caveolins and cavins are crucial components of caveolae, specialized microdomains that also constitute an endocytic route. Here we show that specific caveolar proteins are independently acting negative regulators of clathrin-independent endocytosis. Cavin-1 and Cavin-3, but not Cavin-2 or Cavin-4, are potent inhibitors of the clathrin-independent carriers/GPI-AP enriched early endosomal compartment (CLIC/GEEC endocytic pathway, in a process independent of caveola formation. Caveolin-1 (CAV1 and CAV3 also inhibit the CLIC/GEEC pathway upon over-expression. Expression of caveolar protein leads to reduction in formation of early CLIC/GEEC carriers, as detected by quantitative electron microscopy analysis. Furthermore, the CLIC/GEEC pathway is upregulated in cells lacking CAV1/Cavin-1 or with reduced expression of Cavin-1 and Cavin-3. Inhibition by caveolins can be mimicked by the isolated caveolin scaffolding domain and is associated with perturbed diffusion of lipid microdomain components, as revealed by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP studies. In the absence of cavins (and caveolae CAV1 is itself endocytosed preferentially through the CLIC/GEEC pathway, but the pathway loses polarization and sorting attributes with consequences for membrane dynamics and endocytic polarization in migrating cells and adult muscle tissue. We also found that noncaveolar Cavin-1 can act as a modulator for the activity of the key regulator of the CLIC/GEEC pathway, Cdc42. This work provides new insights into the regulation of noncaveolar clathrin-independent endocytosis by specific caveolar proteins, illustrating multiple levels of crosstalk between these pathways. We show for the first time a role for specific cavins in regulating the CLIC/GEEC pathway, provide

  1. γ-Oryzanol reduces caveolin-1 and PCGEM1 expression, markers of aggressiveness in prostate cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Gabriela E; Parisi, Mariana M; Martins, Leo A M; Andrade, Claudia M B; Barbé-Tuana, Florencia M; Guma, Fátima T C R

    2015-06-01

    Prostate cancer is a leading cause of death among men due to the limited number of treatment strategies available for advanced disease. γ-oryzanol is a component of rice bran, rich in phytosterols, known for its antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic and endocrinological effects. It is known that γ-oryzanol may affect prostate cancer cells through the down regulation of the antioxidant genes and that phytosterols have anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects. There are evidences showing that some of the components of γ-oryzanol can modulate genes involved in the development and progression of prostate cancer, as caveolin-1 (Cav-1) and prostate specific androgen-regulated gene (PCGEM1). To determine the effects of γ-oryzanol on prostate cancer cell survival we evaluated the cell viability and biomass by MTT and sulforhodamine B assays, respectively. Cell death, cell cycle and pERK1/2 activity were assessed by flow cytometry. The changes in gene expression involved in the survival and progression of prostate cancer cav-1 and PCGEM1 genes were evaluated by quantitative real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and cav-1 protein by immunofluorescence followed by confocal microscopy analysis. We found that γ-oryzanol decreases cell viability and culture biomass by apoptosis and/or necrosis death in androgen unresponsive (PC3 and DU145) and responsive (LNCaP) cell lines, and signals through pERK1/2 in LNCaP and DU145 cells. γ-oryzanol also appears to block cell cycle progression at the G2/M in PC3 and LNCaP cells and at G0/G1 in DU145 cells. These effects were accompanied by a down regulation in the expression of the cav-1 in both androgen unresponsive cell lines and PCGEM1 gene in DU145 and LNCaP cells. In summary, we used biochemical and genetics approaches to demonstrate that γ-oryzanol show a promising adjuvant role in the treatment of prostate cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Increasing T-type calcium channel activity by β-adrenergic stimulation contributes to β-adrenergic regulation of heart rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingxin; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Chen; Zhang, Xiaoying; Li, Ying; Qi, Zhao; Szeto, Christopher; Tang, Mingxin; Peng, Yizhi; Molkentin, Jeffery D; Houser, Steven R; Xie, Mingxing; Chen, Xiongwen

    2018-04-01

    Cav3.1 T-type Ca 2+ channel current (I Ca-T ) contributes to heart rate genesis but is not known to contribute to heart rate regulation by the sympathetic/β-adrenergic system (SAS). We show that the loss of Cav3.1 makes the beating rates of the heart in vivo and perfused hearts ex vivo, as well as sinoatrial node cells, less sensitive to β-adrenergic stimulation; it also renders less conduction acceleration through the atrioventricular node by β-adrenergic stimulation. Increasing Cav3.1 in cardiomyocytes has the opposite effects. I Ca-T in sinoatrial nodal cells can be upregulated by β-adrenergic stimulation. The results of the present study add a new contribution to heart rate regulation by the SAS system and provide potential new mechanisms for the dysregulation of heart rate and conduction by the SAS in the heart. T-type Ca 2+ channel can be a target for heart disease treatments that aim to slow down the heart rate ABSTRACT: Cav3.1 (α 1G ) T-type Ca 2+ channel (TTCC) is expressed in mouse sinoatrial node cells (SANCs) and atrioventricular (AV) nodal cells and contributes to heart rate (HR) genesis and AV conduction. However, its role in HR regulation and AV conduction acceleration by the β-adrenergic system (SAS) is unclear. In the present study, L- (I Ca-L ) and T-type (I Ca-T ) Ca 2+ currents were recorded in SANCs from Cav3.1 transgenic (TG) and knockout (KO), and control mice. I Ca-T was absent in KO SANCs but enhanced in TG SANCs. In anaesthetized animals, different doses of isoproterenol (ISO) were infused via the jugular vein and the HR was recorded. The EC 50 of the HR response to ISO was lower in TG mice but higher in KO mice, and the maximal percentage of HR increase by ISO was greater in TG mice but less in KO mice. In Langendorff-perfused hearts, ISO increased HR and shortened PR intervals to a greater extent in TG but to a less extent in KO hearts. KO SANCs had significantly slower spontaneous beating rates than control SANCs before and after

  3. MDCT for computerized volumetry of pneumothoraces in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wenli; Lee, Edward Y; Vij, Abhinav; Mahmood, Soran A; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2011-03-01

    Our purpose in this study was to develop an automated computer-aided volumetry (CAV) scheme for quantifying pneumothorax in multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) images for pediatric patients and to investigate the imaging parameters that may affect its accuracy. Fifty-eight consecutive pediatric patients (mean age 12 ± 6 years) with pneumothorax who underwent MDCT for evaluation were collected retrospectively for this study. All cases were imaged by a 16- or 64-MDCT scanner with weight-based kilovoltage, low-dose tube current, 1.0-1.5 pitch, 0.6-5.0 mm slice thickness, and a B70f (sharp) or B31f (soft) reconstruction kernel. Sixty-three pneumothoraces ≥1 mL were visually identified in the left (n = 30) and right (n = 33) lungs. Each identified pneumothorax was contoured manually on an Amira workstation V4.1.1 (Mercury Computer Systems, Chelmsford, MA) by two radiologists in consensus. The computerized volumes of the pneumothoraces were determined by application of our CAV scheme. The accuracy of our automated CAV scheme was evaluated by comparison between computerized volumetry and manual volumetry, for the total volume of pneumothoraces in the left and right lungs. The mean difference between the computerized volumetry and the manual volumetry for all 63 pneumothoraces ≥1 mL was 8.2%. For pneumothoraces ≥10 mL, ≥50 mL, and ≥200 mL, the mean differences were 7.7% (n = 57), 7.3% (n = 33), and 6.4% (n = 13), respectively. The correlation coefficient was 0.99 between the computerized volume and the manual volume of pneumothoraces. Bland-Altman analysis showed that computerized volumetry has a mean difference of -5.1% compared to manual volumetry. For all pneumothoraces ≥10 mL, the mean differences for slice thickness ≤1.25 mm, = 1.5 mm, and = 5.0 mm were 6.1% (n = 28), 3.5% (n = 10), and 12.2% (n = 19), respectively. For the two reconstruction kernels, B70f and B31f, the mean differences were 6.3% (n = 42, B70f) and 11.7% (n = 15, B31f

  4. Bridging the myoplasmic gap II: more recent advances in skeletal muscle excitation-contraction coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannister, Roger A

    2016-01-01

    In skeletal muscle, excitation-contraction (EC) coupling relies on the transmission of an intermolecular signal from the voltage-sensing regions of the L-type Ca(2+) channel (Ca(V)1.1) in the plasma membrane to the channel pore of the type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1) nearly 10 nm away in the membrane of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Even though the roles of Ca(V)1.1 and RyR1 as voltage sensor and SR Ca(2+) release channel, respectively, have been established for nearly 25 years, the mechanism underlying communication between these two channels remains undefined. In the course of this article, I will review current viewpoints on this topic with particular emphasis on recent studies. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. An improved procedure for determining grain boundary diffusion coefficients from averaged concentration profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryaznov, D.; Fleig, J.; Maier, J.

    2008-03-01

    Whipple's solution of the problem of grain boundary diffusion and Le Claire's relation, which is often used to determine grain boundary diffusion coefficients, are examined for a broad range of ratios of grain boundary to bulk diffusivities Δ and diffusion times t. Different reasons leading to errors in determining the grain boundary diffusivity (DGB) when using Le Claire's relation are discussed. It is shown that nonlinearities of the diffusion profiles in lnCav-y6/5 plots and deviations from "Le Claire's constant" (-0.78) are the major error sources (Cav=averaged concentration, y =coordinate in diffusion direction). An improved relation (replacing Le Claire's constant) is suggested for analyzing diffusion profiles particularly suited for small diffusion lengths (short times) as often required in diffusion experiments on nanocrystalline materials.

  6. Activity of some Mexican medicinal plant extracts on carrageenan-induced rat paw edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckes, M; David-Rivera, A D; Nava-Aguilar, V; Jimenez, A

    2004-07-01

    The extracts obtained from 14 plants of the Mexican medicinal flora were assessed for anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model. The i.p. administration of the extracts at a dose of 400 mg/kg produced a high reduction of edema with 70% of the plant extracts. Oenothera rosea methanol extract, Sphaeralcea angustifolia chloroform extract, Acaciafarnesiana, Larrea tridentata and Rubus coriifolius methanol extracts as well as the aqueous extract of Chamaedora tepejilote were demonstrated to be particularly active against the induced hind-paw edema. Moderate inhibition of edema formation was also demonstrated with the methanol extracts of Astianthus viminalis, Brickellia paniculata, C. tepejilote and Justicia spicigera.

  7. Penicillium pedernalense sp. nov., isolated from whiteleg shrimp heads waste compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laich, Federico; Andrade, Jacinto

    2016-11-01

    Novel Penicillium-like strains were isolated during the characterization of the mycobiota community dynamics associated with shrimp waste composting. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial β-tubulin (BenA) gene and the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) sequences revealed that the novel strains were members of section Lanata-Divaricata and were closely related to Penicillium infrabuccalum DAOMC 250537T. On the basis of morphological and physiological characterization, and phylogenetic analysis, a novel Penicillium species, Penicillium pedernalense sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is F01-11T (=CBS 140770T=CECT 20949T), which was isolated from whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) heads waste compost in the Pedernales region (Manabí province, Ecuador).

  8. MDCT quantification is the dominant parameter in decision–making regarding chest tube drainage for stable patients with traumatic pneumothorax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wenli; Lee, June-Goo; Fikry, Karim; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Novelline, Robert; de Moya, Marc

    2013-01-01

    It is commonly believed that the size of a pneumothorax is an important determinant of treatment decision, in particular regarding whether chest tube drainage (CTD) is required. However, the volumetric quantification of pneumothoraces has not routinely been performed in clinics. In this paper, we introduced an automated computer-aided volumetry (CAV) scheme for quantification of volume of pneumothoraces in chest multi-detect CT (MDCT) images. Moreover, we investigated the impact of accurate volume of pneumothoraces in the improvement of the performance in decision-making regarding CTD in the management of traumatic pneumothoraces. For this purpose, an occurrence frequency map was calculated for quantitative analysis of the importance of each clinical parameter in the decision-making regarding CTD by a computer simulation of decision-making using a genetic algorithm (GA) and a support vector machine (SVM). A total of 14 clinical parameters, including volume of pneumothorax calculated by our CAV scheme, was collected as parameters available for decision-making. The results showed that volume was the dominant parameter in decision-making regarding CTD, with an occurrence frequency value of 1.00. The results also indicated that the inclusion of volume provided the best performance that was statistically significant compared to the other tests in which volume was excluded from the clinical parameters. This study provides the scientific evidence for the application of CAV scheme in MDCT volumetric quantification of pneumothoraces in the management of clinically stable chest trauma patients with traumatic pneumothorax. PMID:22560899

  9. The occurrence of Orthoreovirus, Rotavirus and chicken anemia virus in chickens of the poultry industry in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L. Rios

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-four fecal samples taken from broiler chickens from 1 to 45 days of age, and of pullets from 10 to 13 weeks of age, original from eight different poultry regions in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were collected from March 2008 to January 2010 for avian Orthoreovirus (ARV and avian Rotavirus (AvRV analyses. For the assay of ARV, RNA was immediately extracted (Trizolâ and transcribed into cDNA for assaying in a nested-PCR with ARV-specific primers. For AvRV, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE was performed with RNA extracts obtained by phenol-chloroform extraction. CAV was additionally investigated through a nested-PCR of thymus and spleen. Results found 5.55% positive for ARV and 9.25% for AvRV. Also, CAV and ARV genomes were detected in co-infection, in a highly prostrated and claudicating chicken flock. No ARV or AvRV infections were detected in pullets. Material of a clinically affected flock was inoculated into SPF embryos, resulting in embryonic hemorrhage, whitish foci in the chorio-allantoic membrane and death. Sequencing of ARV amplicons and isolate cDNA grouped local strains with the ARV S1133 strain, historically used in live vaccines, suggesting the continued circulation of this vaccine virus strain in intensive poultry regions. Detection rates for ARV and AvRV, as well as the presence of CAV, were additionally indicative of failing biosecurity strategies for the intensive poultry regions examined.

  10. Cholesterol modulates the cellular localization of Orai1 channels and its disposition among membrane domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohórquez-Hernández, A; Gratton, Enrico; Pacheco, Jonathan; Asanov, Alexander; Vaca, Luis

    2017-12-01

    Store Operated Calcium Entry (SOCE) is one of the most important mechanisms for calcium mobilization in to the cell. Two main proteins sustain SOCE: STIM1 that acts as the calcium sensor in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Orai1 responsible for calcium influx upon depletion of ER. There are many studies indicating that SOCE is modulated by the cholesterol content of the plasma membrane (PM). However, a myriad of questions remain unanswered concerning the precise molecular mechanism by which cholesterol modulates SOCE. In the present study we found that reducing PM cholesterol results in the internalization of Orai1 channels, which can be prevented by overexpressing caveolin 1 (Cav1). Furthermore, Cav1 and Orai1 associate upon SOCE activation as revealed by FRET and coimmunoprecipitation assays. The effects of reducing cholesterol were not limited to an increased rate of Orai1 internalization, but also, affects the lateral movement of Orai1, inducing movement in a linear pattern (unobstructed diffusion) opposite to basal cholesterol conditions were most of Orai1 channels moves in a confined space, as assessed by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy, Cav1 overexpression inhibited these alterations maintaining Orai1 into a confined and partially confined movement. These results not only highlight the complex effect of cholesterol regulation on SOCE, but also indicate a direct regulatory effect on Orai1 localization and compartmentalization by this lipid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of maternally-derived antibodies in 6-week old dogs for the efficacy of a new vaccine to protect dogs against virulent challenge with canine distemper virus, adenovirus or parvovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Wilson

    2014-01-01

    In conclusion, two doses of the DHPPi/L4R vaccine administered to dogs from six weeks of age in the presence of maternal antibodies aided in the protection against virulent challenge with CDV, CAV-1 or CPV.

  12. Chronic deficit in nitric oxide elicits oxidative stress and augments T-type calcium-channel contribution to vascular tone of rodent arteries and arterioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howitt, Lauren; Kuo, Ivana Y; Ellis, Anthie

    2013-01-01

    arteries in vitro and skeletal muscle arterioles in vivo to study the contribution of L-type (1 µmol/L nifedipine) and T-type (1 µmol/L mibefradil, 3 µmol/L NNC 55-0396) calcium channels to vascular tone, following acute or chronic inhibition of nitric oxide. Acute inhibition with l-NAME (10 µmol...... was reversed by acute scavenging of superoxide with tempol (1 mmol/L), or inhibition of NADPH oxidase with apocynin (500 µmol/L) or DPI (5 µmol/L). CONCLUSION: We conclude that nitric oxide deficit produces a significant increase in the contribution of Cav3.1 and Cav3.2 T-type calcium channels to vascular tone......, by regulating the bioavailability of reactive oxygen species produced by NADPH oxidase. Our data provide evidence for a novel causal link between nitric oxide deficit, oxidative stress, and T-type calcium channel function....

  13. 78 FR 12136 - Fifty Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 186, Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    .... Issued in Washington, DC, on February 19, 2013. Paige Williams, Management Analyst, Business Operations... Trajectory Management Other? Other Business. None Identified Review Action Items/Work Programs. Adjourn...) [ssquf] Flight-deck Interval Management (FIM) [ssquf] CAVS and CDTI Assisted Pilot Procedures (CAPP...

  14. VibroCav : Hydrodynamic Vibration and Cavitation Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, T.W.

    2012-01-01

    Vibration and cavitation can be generated in many ways and serve many useful purposes. This study describes physical aspects of useful vibration and cavitation for a broad spectrum of applications at atmospheric or elevated pressures. After a review of available devices, hydrodynamic

  15. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Batallán

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to analyze the larvicidal activity of different crude extracts of Larrea cuneifolia and its most abundant lignan, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA, against Culex quinquefasciatus. METHODS: Chloroform, methanol, and aqueous extracts from L. cuneifolia and NDGA were tested against larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions. RESULTS: The chloroform extract showed the highest larvicidal effect, with an estimated LC50 of 0.062 mg/ml. NDGA also demonstrated significant larvicidal activity with an estimated LC50 of 0.092 mg/ml. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that the chloroform extract of L. cuneifolia and NDGA are promising insecticides of botanical origin that could be useful for controlling Cx. quinquefasciatus.

  16. [Distribution diversity of integrins and calcium channels on major human and mouse host cells of Leptospira species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-xue; Zhao, Xin; Qian, Jing; Yan, Jie

    2012-07-01

    To determine the distribution of integrins and calcium channels on major human and mouse host cells of Leptospira species. The expression of β1, β2 and β3 integrins was detected with immunofluorescence assay on the surface of human monocyte line THP-1, mouse mononuclear-macrophage-like cell line J774A.1, human vascular endothelial cell line HUVEC, mouse vascular endothelial cell EOMA, human hepatocyte line L-02, mouse hepatocyte line Hepa1-6, human renal tubular epithelial cell line HEK-293, mouse glomerular membrane epithelial cell line SV40-MES13, mouse collagen blast line NIH/3T3, human and mouse platelets. The distribution of voltage gate control calcium channels Cav3.1, Cav3.2, Cav3.3 and Cav2.3, and receptor gate calcium channels P(2)X(1), P(2)2X(2), P(2)X(3), P(2)X(4), P(2)X(5), P(2)X(6) and P(2)X(7) were determined with Western blot assay. β1 integrin proteins were positively expressed on the membrane surface of J774A.1, THP-1, HUVEC, EOMA, L-02, Hepa1-6 and HEK-239 cells as well as human and mouse platelets. β2 integrin proteins were expressed on the membrane surface of J774A.1, THP-1, HUVEC, EOMA, and NIH/3T3 cells. β3 integrin proteins were expressed on the membrane surface of J774A.1, THP-1, HUVEC, EOMA, Hepa1-6, HEK-239 and NIH/3T3 cells as well as human and mouse platelets. P(2)X(1) receptor gate calcium channel was expressed on the membrane surface of human and mouse platelets, while P(2)X(5) receptor gate calcium channel was expressed on the membrane surface of J774A.1, THP-1, L-02, Hepa1-6, HEK-239 and HUVEC cells. However, the other calcium channels were not detected on the tested cell lines or platelets. There is a large distribution diversity of integrins and calcium channel proteins on the major human and mouse host cells of Leptospira species, which may be associated with the differences of leptospira-induced injury in different host cells.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: spinocerebellar ataxia type 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CaV2.1 channels play an essential role in communication between neurons in the brain. The CACNA1A gene mutations that ... calcium channels in the cell membrane impairs cell communication between neurons in the brain. Diminished cell communication leads to ...

  18. A Robust Longitudinal Control Strategy of Platoons under Model Uncertainties and Time Delays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, N.; Wang, M.; Alkim, Tom; van Arem, B.

    2018-01-01

    Automated vehicles are designed to free drivers from driving tasks and are expected to improve traffic safety and efficiency when connected via vehicle-to-vehicle communication, that is, connected automated vehicles (CAVs). The time delays and model uncertainties in vehicle control systems pose

  19. Composition and physical properties of arugula, shepherd's purse, and upland cress oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fatty acid, tocopherol and phytosterol profiles of arugula [AO; Eruca vesicaria (L.) Cav. subsp. sativa (Mill.) Thell.], upland cress [UCO; Barbarea verna (Mill.) Asch.], and shepherd's purse [SPO; Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik.] oils are reported, along with their physical properties. The...

  20. Estimating Energy Efficiency of Connected and Autonomous Vehicles in a Mixed Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-01

    Jing Dong (orcid.org/0000-0002-7304-8430); Liang Hu (orcid.org/0000-0001-6351-8542); Chaoru Lu (orcid.org/0000-0001-8418-7658); Connected and autonomous vehicle (CAV) technologies are likely to be gradually implemented over time and in a traffic envi...

  1. No apparent role for T-type Ca2+ channels in renal autoregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Rasmus Hassing; Salomonsson, Max; Hansen, Pernille B. Lærkegaard

    2016-01-01

    -type and CaV3.1 knockout mice were assessed. Autoregulation of renal blood flow was examined during acute increases in RPP in normo- and hypertensive rats under pharmacological blockade of T- and L-type calcium channels using mibefradil (0.1 μM) and nifedipine (1 μM). In contrast to the results from previous......Renal autoregulation protects glomerular capillaries against increases in renal perfusion pressure (RPP). In the mesentery, both L- and T-type calcium channels are involved in autoregulation. L-type calcium channels participate in renal autoregulation, but the role of T-type channels is not fully...... pharmacological studies, genetic deletion of T-type channels CaV3.1 did not affect renal autoregulation. Pharmacological blockade of T-type channels using concentrations of mibefradil which specifically blocks T-type channels also had no effect in wild-type or knockout mice. Blockade of L-type channels...

  2. Neonatal hyperthyroidism on rat heart: interrelation with nitric oxide and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, L; Detomaso, F; Braga, P; Prendes, M; Perosi, F; Cernadas, G; Balaszczuk, A; Fellet, A

    2015-06-01

    To clarify the mechanism mediating the effect of hyperthyroidism on cardiac function during the second month of life in rats. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to a control or to a triiodothyronine (T3)-treated group. Treatment of each group was started on the third day after birth. Control rats (Eut) received 0.9 NaCl [0.1 ml/100 g body weight (BW)] every second day during 60 days and T3-treated rats (Hyper) received subcutaneous (SC) T3 injections every second day during 60 days. Hyperthyroidism decreased left ventricle volume only in male rats. Female euthyroid rats presented higher atrial nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity than male rats and hormonal treatment decreased this enzyme's activity in both sexes. Euthyroid male and female rats had similar atrial NOS protein levels, but females had higher caveolin (cav) 3 protein levels. T3 treatment increased this protein only in males. Female rats had lower ventricular NOS activity than male rats; hyperthyroidism increased NOS activity in both sexes but this effect was associated with lower cav 3 protein levels. Hyperthyroidism did not change cav 1 protein levels in both male and female rats. The results of this study demonstrating clinically relevant sex-related differences in the pathophysiology of the hyperthyroid heart have raised new questions regarding the mechanisms responsible for the observed differences. This study suggests that sex-related intrinsic factors such as nitric oxide may modulate the response to hyperthyroidism that leads to cardiovascular dysfunction.

  3. Pattern and density of vascularization in mammalian testes, ovaries, and ovotestes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupiáñez, Darío G; Real, Francisca M; Dadhich, Rajesh K; Carmona, Francisco D; Burgos, Miguel; Barrionuevo, Francisco J; Jiménez, Rafael

    2012-05-01

    According to the classical paradigm, the vasculature of the embryonic testis is more dense and complex than that of the ovary, but recent studies based on whole-mount detection of Caveolin-1 (CAV1) as an endothelial cell marker, have suggested that the level of ovarian vascularization is higher than previously assumed. However, this new hypothesis has been neither tested using alternative methodology nor investigated in other mammalian species. In this paper, we have studied the vascularization process in the gonads of males and females of two mammalian species, the mouse (Mus musculus) and the Iberian mole (Talpa occidentalis). Our results show that the pattern of testis vascularization is very well conserved among mammals, including both pre- and postnatal stages of development and, at least in the mole, it is conserved irrespectively of whether the testicular tissue is XY or XX. We have shown that CAV1 is present not only in endothelial cells but also in prefollicular oocytes and in an ovarian population of somatic cortical cells. These data clearly establish that: (1) according to the classical hypothesis, the degree of vascularization of the developing ovary is lower than that of the testis, (2) ovarian vascularization is also evolutionarily conserved as it occurs similarly both in moles and in mice, and (3) that the degree of vascular development of the mammalian ovary is age-dependent increasing significatively at puberty. The expression of CAV1 in the ovary of most animal taxa, from nematodes to mammals, strongly suggests a role for this gene in the female meiosis. © 2012 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  4. Retransplantation in 7,290 primary transplant patients: a 10-year multi-institutional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovancevic, Branislav; McGiffin, David C; Kobashigawa, Jon A; Cintron, Guillermo B; Mullen, G Martin; Pitts, Douglas E; O'Donnell, Jacqueline; Thomas, Cindi; Bourge, Robert C; Naftel, David C

    2003-08-01

    Cardiac retransplantation is a controversial procedure due to the disparity between donor heart demand and supply. Of 7,290 patients undergoing primary cardiac transplantation between January 1990 and December 1999 at 42 institutions contributing to the Cardiac Transplant Research Database (CTRD), 106 patients later underwent a second and 1 patient a third cardiac transplant procedure. The actuarial freedom from retransplantation was 99.2% and 96.8% at 1 and 10 years, respectively. Reasons for retransplantation included early graft failure (n = 34), acute cardiac rejection (n = 15), coronary allograft vasculopathy (CAV, n = 39), non-specific graft failure (n = 7), and miscellaneous (n = 10). The only risk factor associated with retransplantation was younger age, reflecting the policy of preferential retransplantation of younger patients. Survival after retransplantation was inferior to that after primary transplantation (56% and 38% at 1 and 5 years, respectively). Risk factors associated with death after retransplantation included retransplantation for acute rejection (p = 0.0005), retransplantation for early graft failure (p = 0.03), and use of a female donor (p = 0.005). Survival after retransplantation for acute rejection was poorest (32% and 8% at 1 and 5 years, respectively) followed by retransplantation for early graft failure (50% and 39% at 1 and 5 years, respectively). Survival after retransplantation for CAV has steadily improved with successive eras. The results of retransplantation for acute rejection and early graft failure are poor enough to suggest that this option is not advisable. However, retransplantation for CAV is currently associated with satisfactory survival and should continue to be offered to selected patients.

  5. MDCT quantification is the dominant parameter in decision-making regarding chest tube drainage for stable patients with traumatic pneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wenli; Lee, June-Goo; Fikry, Karim; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Novelline, Robert; de Moya, Marc

    2012-07-01

    It is commonly believed that the size of a pneumothorax is an important determinant of treatment decision, in particular regarding whether chest tube drainage (CTD) is required. However, the volumetric quantification of pneumothoraces has not routinely been performed in clinics. In this paper, we introduced an automated computer-aided volumetry (CAV) scheme for quantification of volume of pneumothoraces in chest multi-detect CT (MDCT) images. Moreover, we investigated the impact of accurate volume of pneumothoraces in the improvement of the performance in decision-making regarding CTD in the management of traumatic pneumothoraces. For this purpose, an occurrence frequency map was calculated for quantitative analysis of the importance of each clinical parameter in the decision-making regarding CTD by a computer simulation of decision-making using a genetic algorithm (GA) and a support vector machine (SVM). A total of 14 clinical parameters, including volume of pneumothorax calculated by our CAV scheme, was collected as parameters available for decision-making. The results showed that volume was the dominant parameter in decision-making regarding CTD, with an occurrence frequency value of 1.00. The results also indicated that the inclusion of volume provided the best performance that was statistically significant compared to the other tests in which volume was excluded from the clinical parameters. This study provides the scientific evidence for the application of CAV scheme in MDCT volumetric quantification of pneumothoraces in the management of clinically stable chest trauma patients with traumatic pneumothorax. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Thrombin stimulates albumin transcytosis in lung microvascular endothelial cells via activation of acid sphingomyelinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuebler, Wolfgang M; Wittenberg, Claudia; Lee, Warren L; Reppien, Eike; Goldenberg, Neil M; Lindner, Karsten; Gao, Yizhuo; Winoto-Morbach, Supandi; Drab, Marek; Mühlfeld, Christian; Dombrowsky, Heike; Ochs, Matthias; Schütze, Stefan; Uhlig, Stefan

    2016-04-15

    Transcellular albumin transport occurs via caveolae that are abundant in lung microvascular endothelial cells. Stimulation of albumin transcytosis by proinflammatory mediators may contribute to alveolar protein leak in lung injury, yet the regulation of albumin transport and its underlying molecular mechanisms are so far incompletely understood. Here we tested the hypothesis that thrombin may stimulate transcellular albumin transport across lung microvascular endothelial cells in an acid-sphingomyelinase dependent manner. Thrombin increased the transport of fluorescently labeled albumin across confluent human lung microvascular endothelial cell (HMVEC-L) monolayers to an extent that markedly exceeds the rate of passive diffusion. Thrombin activated acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) and increased ceramide production in HMVEC-L, but not in bovine pulmonary artery cells, which showed little albumin transport in response to thrombin. Thrombin increased total caveolin-1 (cav-1) content in both whole cell lysates and lipid rafts from HMVEC-L, and this effect was blocked by inhibition of ASM or de novo protein biosynthesis. Thrombin-induced uptake of albumin into lung microvascular endothelial cells was confirmed in isolated-perfused lungs by real-time fluorescence imaging and electron microscopy of gold-labeled albumin. Inhibition of ASM attenuated thrombin-induced albumin transport both in confluent HMVEC-L and in intact lungs, whereas HMVEC-L treatment with exogenous ASM increased albumin transport and enriched lipid rafts in cav-1. Our findings indicate that thrombin stimulates transcellular albumin transport in an acid sphingomyelinase-dependent manner by inducing de novo synthesis of cav-1 and its recruitment to membrane lipid rafts. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Stac gets the skeletal L-type calcium channel unstuck

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weiss, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 2 (2015), s. 101-103 ISSN 0231-5882 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : calcium channel * L-type calcium channel * Ca(v)1.1 channel * Stac adaptor protein * excitation- contraction coupling * trafficking Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 0.892, year: 2015

  8. The effects of litter on growth and plasticity of Phragmites australis clones originating from infertile, fertile or eutrophicated habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clevering, O.A.

    1999-01-01

    In many European countries a strong decline of Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. Ex Steudel (common reed) has been observed. In some instances this decline has been related to the accumulation of litter. A greenhouse experiment was conducted with P. australis cuttings from different stable and

  9. Diseases of the nervous system associated with calcium channelopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todorov, Boyan Bogdanov

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to investigate how abnormal CaV2.1 channel function can cause disease, in particular motor coordination dysfunction. The chapters illustrate how various neuronal cell types in the periphery (peripheral nervous system) and the central nervous system

  10. CHARACTERIZATION QUALITATIVE OF SOEL FOR A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    15 janv. 2015 ... ABSTRACT. The main objective of this study was to qualitatively characterize biomass of Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. (or SOEL) to highlight the essential alternatives its valorization. At first, we studied the potential of composting biomass of this plant. The physico-chemical characterization of biomass ...

  11. G Protein Regulation of Neuronal Calcium Channels: Back to the Future

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Proft, Juliane; Weiss, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 6 (2015), s. 890-906 ISSN 0026-895X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-13556S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : voltage gated calcium channels Cav * G proteins * GPCR Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.931, year: 2015

  12. The Role of L-type Calcium Channels in Olfactory Learning and Its Modulation by Norepinephrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinaba Ghosh

    2017-12-01</