WorldWideScience

Sample records for largest size class

  1. Class size versus class composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Sam

    Raising schooling quality in low-income countries is a pressing challenge. Substantial research has considered the impact of cutting class sizes on skills acquisition. Considerably less attention has been given to the extent to which peer effects, which refer to class composition, also may affect...... bias from omitted variables, the preferred IV results indicate considerable negative effects due to larger class sizes and larger numbers of overage-for-grade peers. The latter, driven by the highly prevalent practices of grade repetition and academic redshirting, should be considered an important...

  2. Genome size analyses of Pucciniales reveal the largest fungal genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Sílvia; Ramos, Ana Paula; Pires, Ana Sofia; Azinheira, Helena G; Caldeirinha, Patrícia; Link, Tobias; Abranches, Rita; Silva, Maria do Céu; Voegele, Ralf T; Loureiro, João; Talhinhas, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Rust fungi (Basidiomycota, Pucciniales) are biotrophic plant pathogens which exhibit diverse complexities in their life cycles and host ranges. The completion of genome sequencing of a few rust fungi has revealed the occurrence of large genomes. Sequencing efforts for other rust fungi have been hampered by uncertainty concerning their genome sizes. Flow cytometry was recently applied to estimate the genome size of a few rust fungi, and confirmed the occurrence of large genomes in this order (averaging 225.3 Mbp, while the average for Basidiomycota was 49.9 Mbp and was 37.7 Mbp for all fungi). In this work, we have used an innovative and simple approach to simultaneously isolate nuclei from the rust and its host plant in order to estimate the genome size of 30 rust species by flow cytometry. Genome sizes varied over 10-fold, from 70 to 893 Mbp, with an average genome size value of 380.2 Mbp. Compared to the genome sizes of over 1800 fungi, Gymnosporangium confusum possesses the largest fungal genome ever reported (893.2 Mbp). Moreover, even the smallest rust genome determined in this study is larger than the vast majority of fungal genomes (94%). The average genome size of the Pucciniales is now of 305.5 Mbp, while the average Basidiomycota genome size has shifted to 70.4 Mbp and the average for all fungi reached 44.2 Mbp. Despite the fact that no correlation could be drawn between the genome sizes, the phylogenomics or the life cycle of rust fungi, it is interesting to note that rusts with Fabaceae hosts present genomes clearly larger than those with Poaceae hosts. Although this study comprises only a small fraction of the more than 7000 rust species described, it seems already evident that the Pucciniales represent a group where genome size expansion could be a common characteristic. This is in sharp contrast to sister taxa, placing this order in a relevant position in fungal genomics research.

  3. Do class size effects differ across grades?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nandrup, Anne Brink

    size cap that creates exogenous variation in class sizes. Significant (albeit modest) negative effects of class size increases are found for children on primary school levels. The effects on math abilities are statistically different across primary and secondary school. Larger classes do not affect......This paper contributes to the class size literature by analyzing whether short-run class size effects are constant across grade levels in compulsory school. Results are based on administrative data on all pupils enroled in Danish public schools. Identification is based on a government-imposed class...

  4. Do Class Size Effects Differ across Grades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandrup, Anne Brink

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes to the class size literature by analysing whether short-run class size effects are constant across grade levels in compulsory school. Results are based on administrative data on all pupils enrolled in Danish public schools. Identification is based on a government-imposed class size cap that creates exogenous variation in…

  5. Finite groups with three conjugacy class sizes of some elements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Conjugacy class sizes; p-nilpotent groups; finite groups. 1. Introduction. All groups ... group G has exactly two conjugacy class sizes of elements of prime power order. .... [5] Huppert B, Character Theory of Finite Groups, de Gruyter Exp. Math.

  6. The largest forest fires in Portugal: the constraints of burned area size on the comprehension of fire severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedim, Fantina; Remelgado, Ruben; Martins, João; Carvalho, Salete

    2015-01-01

    Portugal is a European country with highest forest fires density and burned area. Since beginning of official forest fires database in 1980, an increase in number of fires and burned area as well as appearance of large and catastrophic fires have characterized fire activity in Portugal. In 1980s, the largest fires were just a little bit over 10,000 ha. However, in the beginning of 21st century several fires occurred with a burned area over 20,000 ha. Some of these events can be classified as mega-fires due to their ecological and socioeconomic severity. The present study aimed to discuss the characterization of large forest fires trend, in order to understand if the largest fires that occurred in Portugal were exceptional events or evidences of a new trend, and the constraints of fire size to characterize fire effects because, usually, it is assumed that larger the fire higher the damages. Using Portuguese forest fire database and satellite imagery, the present study showed that the largest fires could be seen at the same time as exceptional events and as evidence of a new fire regime. It highlighted the importance of size and patterns of unburned patches within fire perimeter as well as heterogeneity of fire ecological severity, usually not included in fire regime description, which are critical to fire management and research. The findings of this research can be used in forest risk reduction and suppression planning.

  7. The False Promise of Class-Size Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chingos, Matthew M.

    2011-01-01

    Class-size reduction, or CSR, is enormously popular with parents, teachers, and the public in general. Many parents believe that their children will benefit from more individualized attention in a smaller class and many teachers find smaller classes easier to manage. The pupil-teacher ratio is an easy statistic for the public to monitor as a…

  8. Teachers Class Size, Job Satisfaction and Morale in Cross River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied staff class size, job satisfaction and morale in some secondary schools in Cross River State, Nigeria. The relevant variables of teacher class size and workload were used as independent variables while the dependent variables were students' academic performance, teacher satisfaction and morale. Out of the ...

  9. Class Size and Academic Achievement in Introductory Political Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towner, Terri L.

    2016-01-01

    Research on the influence of class size on student academic achievement is important for university instructors, administrators, and students. The article examines the influence of class size--a small section versus a large section--in introductory political science courses on student grades in two comparable semesters. It is expected that…

  10. The Class Size Policy Debate. Working Paper No. 121.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Alan B.; Hanushek, Eric A.

    These papers examine research on the impact of class size on student achievement. After an "Introduction," (Richard Rothstein), Part 1, "Understanding the Magnitude and Effect of Class Size on Student Achievement" (Alan B. Krueger), presents a reanalysis of Hanushek's 1997 literature review, criticizing Hanushek's vote-counting…

  11. Fluctuations in the size of the largest projectile fragment produced in 1 GeV/nucleon Au + C collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, P.; Elliott, J.B.; Gilkes, M.L.; Hauger, A.; Hirsch, A.S.

    1993-01-01

    Large fluctuations in quantities such as density are characteristic of critical phenomena in the neighborhood of the critical point. Using the EOS apparatus at the Bevalac, we have performed an exclusive experiment in which the size of the largest projectile fragment produced in 1 GeV/nucleon Au+C collisions is studied as a function of the charged multiplicity of the event. A peak in the fluctuations is expected at the critical multiplicity. The data are compared to a percolation model and a statistical multifragmentation model

  12. Globalising the Class Size Debate: Myths and Realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Watson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Public opinion reflects a 'common sense' view that smaller classes improve student academic performance. This review reveals that the 'class size' effect of increased academic performance, although significant for disadvantaged students and students in the very early years of schooling, does not necessarily transfer to other student groups. Moreover, the literature indicates there are other more cost-effective variables that enhance student learning outcomes such as those associated with teacher quality. Internationally, large-scale interventions concluded that systematic class size reductions were more resource intensive requiring more personnel, training and infrastructure. From the large quantitative studies of the 1980s to the more qualitatively focused research in the last decade, there is a now an understanding that class size reductions function to provide opportunities for more student-focused pedagogies and that these pedagogies may be the real reason for improved student academic performance. Consequently, the impact of class size reductions on student performance can only be meaningfully assessed in conjunction with other factors, such as pedagogy.

  13. Class Size Reduction: Great Hopes, Great Challenges. Policy Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WestEd, San Francisco, CA.

    This policy brief examines the benefits and the challenges that accompany class-size reduction (CSR). It suggests that when designing CSR programs, states should carefully assess specific circumstances in their schools as they adopt or modify CSR efforts to avoid the unintended consequences that some programs have experienced. Some of the…

  14. Class size, type of exam and student achievement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik

    Education as a road to growth has been on the political agenda in recent years and promoted not least by the institutions of higher education. At the same time the universities have been squeezed for resources for a long period and the average class size has increased as a result. However......, the production technology for higher education is not well known and this study highlights the relation between class size and student achievement using a large dataset of 80.000 gradings from the Aarhus School of Business. The estimations show a large negative effect of larger classes on the grade level...... of students. The type of exam also has a large and significant effect on student achievements and oral exam, take-home exam and group exam reward the student with a significantly higher grade compared with an on-site written exam....

  15. Class Size, Type of Exam and Student Achievement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer

    2011-01-01

    Education as a road to growth has been on the political agenda in recent years and promoted not least by the institutions of higher education. At the same time the universities have been squeezed for resources for a long period and the average class size has increased as a result. However......, the production technology for higher education is not well known and this study highlights the relation between class size and student achievement using a large dataset of 80.000 gradings from the Aarhus School of Business. The estimations show a large negative effect of larger classes on the grade level...... of students. The type of exam also has a large and significant effect on student achievements and oral exam, take-home exam and group exam reward the student with a significantly higher grade compared with an on-site written exam....

  16. Unimodal tree size distributions possibly result from relatively strong conservatism in intermediate size classes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Bin

    Full Text Available Tree size distributions have long been of interest to ecologists and foresters because they reflect fundamental demographic processes. Previous studies have assumed that size distributions are often associated with population trends or with the degree of shade tolerance. We tested these associations for 31 tree species in a 20 ha plot in a Dinghushan south subtropical forest in China. These species varied widely in growth form and shade-tolerance. We used 2005 and 2010 census data from that plot. We found that 23 species had reversed J shaped size distributions, and eight species had unimodal size distributions in 2005. On average, modal species had lower recruitment rates than reversed J species, while showing no significant difference in mortality rates, per capita population growth rates or shade-tolerance. We compared the observed size distributions with the equilibrium distributions projected from observed size-dependent growth and mortality. We found that observed distributions generally had the same shape as predicted equilibrium distributions in both unimodal and reversed J species, but there were statistically significant, important quantitative differences between observed and projected equilibrium size distributions in most species, suggesting that these populations are not at equilibrium and that this forest is changing over time. Almost all modal species had U-shaped size-dependent mortality and/or growth functions, with turning points of both mortality and growth at intermediate size classes close to the peak in the size distribution. These results show that modal size distributions do not necessarily indicate either population decline or shade-intolerance. Instead, the modal species in our study were characterized by a life history strategy of relatively strong conservatism in an intermediate size class, leading to very low growth and mortality in that size class, and thus to a peak in the size distribution at intermediate sizes.

  17. Class Size: Can School Districts Capitalize on the Benefits of Smaller Classes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertling, Elizabeth; Leonard, Courtney; Lumsden, Linda; Smith, Stuart C.

    2000-01-01

    This report is intended to help policymakers understand the benefits of class-size reduction (CSR). It assesses the costs of CSR, considers some research-based alternatives, and explores strategies that will help educators realize the benefits of CSR when it is implemented. It examines how CSR enhances student achievement, such as when the…

  18. Relationship between Exposureto Class Size Reductionand Student Achievementin California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian M. Stecher

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The CSR Research Consortium has been evaluating the implementation of the Class Size Reduction initiative in California since 1998. Initial reports documented the implementation of the program and its impact on the teacher workforce, the teaching of mathematics and Language Arts, parental involvement and student achievement. This study examines the relationship between student achievement and the number of years students have been exposed to CSR in grades K-3. The analysis was conducted at the grade level within schools using student achievement data collected in 1998-2001. Archival data collected by the state were used to establish CSR participation by grade for each school in the state. Most students had one of two patterns of exposure to CSR, which differed by only one year during grade K-3. The analysis found no strong association between achievement and exposure to CSR for these groups, after controlling for pre-existing differences in the groups.

  19. Comparison of Machine Learning Techniques in Inferring Phytoplankton Size Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuibo Hu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The size of phytoplankton not only influences its physiology, metabolic rates and marine food web, but also serves as an indicator of phytoplankton functional roles in ecological and biogeochemical processes. Therefore, some algorithms have been developed to infer the synoptic distribution of phytoplankton cell size, denoted as phytoplankton size classes (PSCs, in surface ocean waters, by the means of remotely sensed variables. This study, using the NASA bio-Optical Marine Algorithm Data set (NOMAD high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC database, and satellite match-ups, aimed to compare the effectiveness of modeling techniques, including partial least square (PLS, artificial neural networks (ANN, support vector machine (SVM and random forests (RF, and feature selection techniques, including genetic algorithm (GA, successive projection algorithm (SPA and recursive feature elimination based on support vector machine (SVM-RFE, for inferring PSCs from remote sensing data. Results showed that: (1 SVM-RFE worked better in selecting sensitive features; (2 RF performed better than PLS, ANN and SVM in calibrating PSCs retrieval models; (3 machine learning techniques produced better performance than the chlorophyll-a based three-component method; (4 sea surface temperature, wind stress, and spectral curvature derived from the remote sensing reflectance at 490, 510, and 555 nm were among the most sensitive features to PSCs; and (5 the combination of SVM-RFE feature selection techniques and random forests regression was recommended for inferring PSCs. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of machine learning techniques in selecting sensitive features and calibrating models for PSCs estimations with remote sensing.

  20. Class Size and Student Diversity: Two Sides of the Same Coin. Teacher Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froese-Germain, Bernie; Riel, Rick; McGahey, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Among Canadian teacher unions, discussions of class size are increasingly being informed by the importance of considering the diversity of student needs within the classroom (often referred to as class composition). For teachers, both class size and diversity matter. Teachers consistently adapt their teaching to address the individual needs of the…

  1. Class Size Reduction in California: Summary of the 1998-99 Evaluation Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecher, Brian M.; Bohrnstedt, George W.

    This report discusses the results of the third year--1998-99--of California's Class Size Reduction (CSR) program. Assessments of the program show that CSR was almost fully implemented by 1998-99, with over 92 percent of students in K-3 in classes of 20 or fewer students. Those K-3 classes that had not been reduced in size were concentrated in…

  2. Cooperative learning in industrial-sized biology classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Norris; Chang, Shu-Mei; Brickman, Marguerite

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the impact of cooperative learning activities on student achievement and attitudes in large-enrollment (>250) introductory biology classes. We found that students taught using a cooperative learning approach showed greater improvement in their knowledge of course material compared with students taught using a traditional lecture format. In addition, students viewed cooperative learning activities highly favorably. These findings suggest that encouraging students to work in small groups and improving feedback between the instructor and the students can help to improve student outcomes even in very large classes. These results should be viewed cautiously, however, until this experiment can be replicated with additional faculty. Strategies for potentially improving the impact of cooperative learning on student achievement in large courses are discussed.

  3. Effects of Class Size and Attendance Policy on University Classroom Interaction in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yin; Chang, Te-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Classroom interaction experience is one of the main parts of students' learning lives. However, surprisingly little research has investigated students' perceptions of classroom interaction with different attendance policies across different class sizes in the higher education system. To elucidate the effects of class size and attendance policy on…

  4. What We Have Learned about Class Size Reduction in California. Capstone Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrnstedt, George W., Ed.; Stecher, Brian M., Ed.

    This final report on the California Class Size Reduction (CSR) initiative summarizes findings from three earlier reports dating back to 1997. Chapter 1 recaps the history of California's CSR initiative and includes a discussion of what state leaders' expectations were when CSR was passed. The chapter also describes research on class-size reduction…

  5. The Class Size Question: A Study at Different Levels of Analysis. ACER Research Monograph No. 26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Anthony I.; Keeves, John P.

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the ways in which class size affected other facets of the educational environment of the classroom. The study focused on the commonly found positive relationship between class size and achievement. The most plausible explanation of the evidence seems to involve the effects of grouping more able…

  6. Class Size and Sorting in Market Equilibrium: Theory and Evidence. NBER Working Paper No. 13303

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquiola, Miguel; Verhoogen, Eric

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines how schools choose class size and how households sort in response to those choices. Focusing on the highly liberalized Chilean education market, we develop a model in which schools are heterogeneous in an underlying productivity parameter, class size is a component of school quality, households are heterogeneous in income and…

  7. The Cost of Class Size Reduction: Advice for Policymakers. RAND Graduate School Dissertation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichardt, Robert E.

    This dissertation provides information to state-level policymakers that will help them avoid two implementation problems seen in the past in California's class-size-reduction (CSR) reform. The first problem was that flat, per student reimbursement did not adequately cover costs in districts with larger pre-CSR class-sizes or smaller schools. The…

  8. Does Class-Size Reduction Close the Achievement Gap? Evidence from TIMSS 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Konstantopoulos, Spyros

    2017-01-01

    Policies about reducing class size have been implemented in the US and Europe in the past decades. Only a few studies have discussed the effects of class size at different levels of student achievement, and their findings have been mixed. We employ quantile regression analysis, coupled with instrumental variables, to examine the causal effects of…

  9. Optimal sizing of utility-scale photovoltaic power generation complementarily operating with hydropower: A case study of the world’s largest hydro-photovoltaic plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Wei; Huang, Qiang; Huang, Shengzhi; Yang, Jie; Meng, Erhao; Li, Yunyun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Feasibility of complementary hydro-photovoltaic operation across the world is revealed. • Three scenarios of the novel operation mode are proposed to satisfy different load demand. • A method for optimally sizing a utility-scale photovoltaic plant is developed by maximizing the net revenue during lifetime. • The influence of complementary hydro-photovoltaic operation upon water resources allocation is investigated. - Abstract: The high variability of solar energy makes utility-scale photovoltaic power generation confront huge challenges to penetrate into power system. In this paper, the complementary hydro-photovoltaic operation is explored, aiming at improving the power quality of photovoltaic and promoting the integration of photovoltaic into the system. First, solar-rich and hydro-rich regions across the world are revealed, which are suitable for implementing the complementary hydro-photovoltaic operation. Then, three practical scenarios of the novel operation mode are proposed for better satisfying different types of load demand. Moreover, a method for optimal sizing of a photovoltaic plant integrated into a hydropower plant is developed by maximizing the net revenue during lifetime. Longyangxia complementary hydro-photovoltaic project, the current world’s largest hydro-photovoltaic power plant, is selected as a case study and its optimal photovoltaic capacities of different scenarios are calculated. Results indicate that hydropower installed capacity and annual solar curtailment rate play crucial roles in the size optimization of a photovoltaic plant and complementary hydro-photovoltaic operation exerts little adverse effect upon the water resources allocation of Longyangxia reservoir. The novel operation mode not only improves the penetration of utility-scale photovoltaic power generation but also can provide a valuable reference for the large-scale utilization of other kinds of renewable energy worldwide.

  10. Differences in SOM decomposition and temperature sensitivity among soil aggregate size classes in a temperate grasslands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Wang

    Full Text Available The principle of enzyme kinetics suggests that the temperature sensitivity (Q10 of soil organic matter (SOM decomposition is inversely related to organic carbon (C quality, i.e., the C quality-temperature (CQT hypothesis. We tested this hypothesis by performing laboratory incubation experiments with bulk soil, macroaggregates (MA, 250-2000 μm, microaggregates (MI, 53-250 μm, and mineral fractions (MF, MF>bulk soil >MI(P <0.05. The Q10 values were highest for MA, followed (in decreasing order by bulk soil, MF, and MI. Similarly, the activation energies (Ea for MA, bulk soil, MF, and MI were 48.47, 33.26, 27.01, and 23.18 KJ mol-1, respectively. The observed significant negative correlations between Q10 and C quality index in bulk soil and soil aggregates (P<0.05 suggested that the CQT hypothesis is applicable to soil aggregates. Cumulative C emission differed significantly among aggregate size classes (P <0.0001, with the largest values occurring in MA (1101 μg g-1, followed by MF (976 μg g-1 and MI (879 μg g-1. These findings suggest that feedback from SOM decomposition in response to changing temperature is closely associated withsoil aggregation and highlights the complex responses of ecosystem C budgets to future warming scenarios.

  11. Do Reductions in Class Size Raise Students' Test Scores? Evidence from Population Variation in Minnesota's Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyunkuk; Glewwe, Paul; Whitler, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Many U.S. states and cities spend substantial funds to reduce class size, especially in elementary (primary) school. Estimating the impact of class size on learning is complicated, since children in small and large classes differ in many observed and unobserved ways. This paper uses a method of Hoxby (2000) to assess the impact of class size on…

  12. Big Class Size Challenges: Teaching Reading in Primary Classes in Kampala, Uganda's Central Municipality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kewaza, Samuel; Welch, Myrtle I.

    2013-01-01

    Research on reading has established that reading is a pivotal discipline and early literacy development dictates later reading success. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate challenges encountered with reading pedagogy, teaching materials, and teachers' attitudes towards teaching reading in crowded primary classes in Kampala,…

  13. Loggerhead sea turtle oral cavity morphometrics and size class from 2001 to 2004 (NCEI Accession 0164321)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains standard external morphometrics and internal oral cavity morphometrics from wild and captive reared loggerhead sea turtles in size classes...

  14. Impact of the size of the class on pupils’ psychosocial well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Birk

    Most research on class size effect focuses on pupils’ school achievement but few on pupils’ psychosocial well-being. On the other hand an increasing number of studies have showed that there is a link between pupils’ psychosocial well-being and their school achievement. 97 Danish typically...... developing 3rd grade pupils were tested. They were divided into 3 class size groups: Small (10 pupils), Medium (20 pupils), and Large (25 pupils). The average age (10 years) and the proportion of boys and girls (50%) and SES (medium) were similar in the 3 class size groups. Pupils’ psychosocial well-being...... and there was a significant link between lack of understanding of mixed emotions and lower level of self-concept and higher level of anger. These results of this research may contribute to a better understanding of the impact of the class size on pupils’ school achievement via the identification of risk factors...

  15. A Revised Pilot Study Examining the Effects of the Timing and Size of Classes on Student Performance in Introductory Accounting Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, David E., Sr.; Scott, John

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study is to examine the effects of the timing of classes and class size on student performance in introductory accounting courses. Factors affecting student success are important to all stakeholders in the academic community. Previous studies have shown mixed results regarding the effects of class size on student success…

  16. Using Telepresence to Connect and Engage Classes and the Public in the Exploration of Tamu Massif, the World's Largest Single Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanez-James, S. E.; Sager, W.

    2016-02-01

    Research published in 2013 showed that TAMU Massif, the largest mountain in the Shatsky Rise oceanic plateau, located approximately 1500 kilometers east of Japan, is the "World's Largest Single Volcano." This claim garnered widespread public interest and wonder concerning how something so big could remain so mysterious in the 21st century. This disconnect highlights the fact that oceans are still widely unexplored, especially the middle of the deep ocean. Because there is so much interest in TAMU Massif, a diverse outreach team lead by chief scientist Dr. William Sager from the University of Houston in partnership with the Texas State Aquarium and the Schmidt Ocean Institute (SOI) conducted a multifaceted ship-to-shore outreach project that included secondary school students, formal and informal educators, university students and professors, the aquarium and museum audience, and the general public. The objective was to work in conjunction with SOI and various other partners, including the Texas Regional Collaborative, the Aquarium of the Pacific, and the Houston Museum of Natural Science, to promote science and ocean literacy while inspiring future scientists - especially those from underserved and underrepresented groups - through ocean connections. Participants were connected through live ship-to-shore distance learning broadcasts of ongoing marine research and discovery of TAMU Massif aboard the R/V Falkor, allowing audiences to participate in real-time research and apply real world science to curriculum in the classrooms. These ship-to-shore presentations connected to existing curriculums and standards, lessons, and career interests of the students and educators with special teacher events and professional development workshops conducted from aboard the R/V Falkor.

  17. An Examination of the Relationship between Online Class Size and Instructor Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Sorensen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With no physical walls, the online classroom has the potential to house a large number of students. A concern by some is what happens to the quality of instruction in courses with high enrollments. The purpose of this research was to examine online class size and its relationship to, and potential influence on, an instructor’s performance. Results were mixed indicating that class size had a positive relationship with some the variables meant to measure online instructor performance and a negative relationship with others. Online class size was seen as having the most concerning relationship and potential influence on an instructor’s ability to provide quality feedback to students and for his/her expertise to be used consistently and effectively.

  18. Class Collective Efficacy and Class Size as Moderators of the Relationship between Junior Middle School Students’ Externalizing Behavior and Academic Engagement: A Multilevel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Tian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between externalizing behavior and academic engagement, and tested the possibility of class collective efficacy and class size moderating this relationship. Data were collected from 28 Chinese classrooms (N = 1034 students; grades 7, 8, and 9 with student reports. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to test all hypotheses and results revealed a negative relationship between externalizing behavior and academic engagement; class collective efficacy was also significantly related to academic engagement. Additionally, class collective efficacy and class size moderated the relationship between externalizing behavior and academic engagement: For students in a class with high collective efficacy or small size (≤30 students, the relationship between externalizing behavior and academic engagement was weaker than for those in a class with low collective efficacy or large size (≥43 students. Results are discussed considering self-regulatory mechanisms and social environment theory, with possible implications for teachers of students’ learning provided.

  19. A Plan for the Evaluation of California's Class Size Reduction Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirst, Michael; Bomstedt, George; Stecher, Brian

    In July 1996, California began its Class Size Reduction (CSR) Initiative. To gauge the effectiveness of this initiative, an analysis of its objectives and an overview of proposed strategies for evaluating CSR are presented here. An outline of the major challenges that stand between CSR and its mission are provided. These include logistical…

  20. Class Size Reduction or Rapid Formative Assessment?: A Comparison of Cost-Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Stuart S.

    2009-01-01

    The cost-effectiveness of class size reduction (CSR) was compared with the cost-effectiveness of rapid formative assessment, a promising alternative for raising student achievement. Drawing upon existing meta-analyses of the effects of student-teacher ratio, evaluations of CSR in Tennessee, California, and Wisconsin, and RAND cost estimates, CSR…

  1. Online Stable Isotope Analysis of Dissolved Organic Carbon Size Classes Using Size Exclusion Chromatography Coupled to an Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Malik, A.; Scheibe, A.; LokaBharathi, P.A.; Gleixner, G.

    size classes by coupling high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) - size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to online isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). This represents a significant methodological contribution to DOC research. The interface...

  2. Size Class Dependent Relationships between Temperature and Phytoplankton Photosynthesis-Irradiance Parameters in the Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Robinson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, a number of methods have been developed to estimate size-class primary production from either in situ phytoplankton pigment data or remotely-sensed data. In this context, the first objective of this study was to compare two methods of estimating size class specific (micro-, nano-, and pico-phytoplankton photosynthesis-irradiance (PE parameters from pigment data. The second objective was to analyse the relationship between environmental variables (temperature, nitrate and PAR and PE parameters in the different size-classes. A large dataset was used of simultaneous measurements of the PE parameters (n = 1,260 and phytoplankton pigment markers (n = 2,326, from 3 different institutes. There were no significant differences in mean PE parameters of the different size classes between the chemotaxonomic method of Uitz et al. (2008 and the pigment markers and carbon-to-Chl a ratios method of Sathyendranath et al. (2009. For both methods, mean maximum photosynthetic rates (PmB for micro-phytoplankton were significantly lower than those for pico-phytoplankton and nano-phytoplankton. The mean light limited slope (αB for nano-phytoplankton were significantly higher than for the other size taxa. For micro-phytoplankton dominated samples identified using the Sathyendranath et al. (2009 method, both PmB and αB exhibited a significant, positive linear relationship with temperature, whereas for pico-phytoplankton the correlation with temperature was negative. Nano-phytoplankton dominated samples showed a positive correlation between PmB and temperature, whereas for αB and the light saturation parameter (Ek the correlations were not significant. For the Uitz et al. (2008 method, only micro-phytoplankton PmB, pico-phytoplankton αB, nano- and pico-phytoplankton Ek exhibited significant relationships with temperature. The temperature ranges occupied by the size classes derived using these methods differed. The Uitz et al. (2008 method

  3. Automated characterization of nerve fibers labeled fluorescently: determination of size, class and spatial distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodanov, Dimiter; Feirabend, Hans K P

    2008-10-03

    Morphological classification of nerve fibers could help interpret the assessment of neural regeneration and the understanding of selectivity of nerve stimulation. Specific populations of myelinated nerve fibers can be investigated by retrograde tracing from a muscle followed by microscopic measurements of the labeled fibers at different anatomical levels. Gastrocnemius muscles of adult rats were injected with the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold. After a survival period of 3 days, cross-sections of spinal cords, ventral roots, sciatic, and tibial nerves were collected and imaged on a fluorescence microscope. Nerve fibers were classified using a variation-based criterion acting on the distribution of their equivalent diameters. The same criterion was used to classify the labeled axons using the size of the fluorescent marker. Measurements of the axons were paired to those of the entire fibers (axons+myelin sheaths) in order to establish the correspondence between so-established axonal and fiber classifications. It was found that nerve fibers in L6 ventral roots could be classified into four populations comprising two classes of Aalpha (denoted Aalpha1 and Aalpha2), Agamma, and an additional class of Agammaalpha fibers. Cut-off borders between Agamma and Agammaalpha fiber classes were estimated to be 5.00+/-0.09 microm (SEM); between Agammaalpha and Aalpha1 fiber classes to be 6.86+/-0.11 microm (SEM); and between Aalpha1 and Aalpha2 fiber classes to be 8.66+/-0.16 microm (SEM). Topographical maps of the nerve fibers that innervate the gastrocnemius muscles were constructed per fiber class for the spinal root L6. The major advantage of the presented approach consists of the combined indirect classification of nerve fiber types and the construction of topographical maps of so-identified fiber classes.

  4. Does Class Size in First Grade Relate to Children's Academic and Social Performance or Observed Classroom Processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allhusen, Virginia; Belsky, Jay; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn L.; Bradley, Robert; Brownwell, Celia A; Burchinal, Margaret; Campbell, Susan B.; Clarke-Stewart, K. Alison; Cox, Martha; Friedman, Sarah L.; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn; Houts, Renate M.; Huston, Aletha; Jaeger, Elizabeth; Johnson, Deborah J.; Kelly, Jean F.; Knoke, Bonnie; Marshall, Nancy; McCartney, Kathleen; Morrison, Frederick J.; O'Brien, Marion; Tresch Owen, Margaret; Payne, Chris; Phillips, Deborah; Pianta, Robert; Randolph, Suzanne M.; Robeson, Wendy W.; Spieker, Susan; Lowe Vandell, Deborah; Weinraub, Marsha

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the extent to which first-grade class size predicted child outcomes and observed classroom processes for 651 children (in separate classrooms). Analyses examined observed child-adult ratios and teacher-reported class sizes. Smaller classrooms showed higher quality instructional and emotional support, although children were…

  5. Social Class and Group Size as Predictors of Behavior in Male Equus kiang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prameek M. Kannan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ethograms provide a systematic approach to identify and quantify the repertoire of behaviors of an organism. This information may assist animal welfare in zoos, increase awareness of conservation needs, and help curb high-risk behaviors during human-wildlife conflict. Our primary objective was to utilize an equid ethogram to produce activity budgets for Equus kiang males, a social ungulate that is among the least-studied mammals worldwide, and unknown to the ethological literature. We recently reported the existence of three social classes of this species; Territorial males, Bachelor males and ‘Transient’ males. Therefore, our secondary objective was to compare activity budgets in each of these three groups. We found that kiang spent >70% of their time performing six behaviors: vigilance (34%, locomotion (24.2%, resting (14.2%, mixed foraging (12.5%, browsing (5.1%, and antagonism (1.1%. Over 2% of the total behavioral investment was spent on olfactory investigations (genital sniffing, sniffing proximity and flehmen. Eleven of the eighteen behaviors differed by class. Habitat selection differed strongly by each group, with Territorial males favoring mesic sites with greater vegetation abundance. Vigilance also differed according to habitat selection, but not group size. Animals in the xeric, least vegetation-rich area were far less vigilant than animals at more attractive sites. We found that the full repertoire of behaviors, and relative investments in each, differ according to social class. These findings are a reminder that researchers should make every effort to disambiguate social class among ungulates– and other taxa where behaviors are class-dependent.

  6. Largest College Endowments, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Of all endowments valued at more than $250-million, the UCLA Foundation had the highest rate of growth over the previous year, at 49 percent. This article presents a table of the largest college endowments in 2011. The table covers the "rank," "institution," "market value as of June 30, 2011," and "1-year change" of institutions participating in…

  7. Classification of video sequences into chosen generalized use classes of target size and lighting level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszczuk, Mikołaj; Dudek, Łukasz; Witkowski, Marcin

    The VQiPS (Video Quality in Public Safety) Working Group, supported by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, has been developing a user guide for public safety video applications. According to VQiPS, five parameters have particular importance influencing the ability to achieve a recognition task. They are: usage time-frame, discrimination level, target size, lighting level, and level of motion. These parameters form what are referred to as Generalized Use Classes (GUCs). The aim of our research was to develop algorithms that would automatically assist classification of input sequences into one of the GUCs. Target size and lighting level parameters were approached. The experiment described reveals the experts' ambiguity and hesitation during the manual target size determination process. However, the automatic methods developed for target size classification make it possible to determine GUC parameters with 70 % compliance to the end-users' opinion. Lighting levels of the entire sequence can be classified with an efficiency reaching 93 %. To make the algorithms available for use, a test application has been developed. It is able to process video files and display classification results, the user interface being very simple and requiring only minimal user interaction.

  8. Deriving Fuel Mass by Size Class in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Using Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd Queen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Requirements for describing coniferous forests are changing in response to wildfire concerns, bio-energy needs, and climate change interests. At the same time, technology advancements are transforming how forest properties can be measured. Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS is yielding promising results for measuring tree biomass parameters that, historically, have required costly destructive sampling and resulted in small sample sizes. Here we investigate whether TLS intensity data can be used to distinguish foliage and small branches (≤0.635 cm diameter; coincident with the one-hour timelag fuel size class from larger branchwood (>0.635 cm in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii branch specimens. We also consider the use of laser density for predicting biomass by size class. Measurements are addressed across multiple ranges and scan angles. Results show TLS capable of distinguishing fine fuels from branches at a threshold of one standard deviation above mean intensity. Additionally, the relationship between return density and biomass is linear by fuel type for fine fuels (r2 = 0.898; SE 22.7% and branchwood (r2 = 0.937; SE 28.9%, as well as for total mass (r2 = 0.940; SE 25.5%. Intensity decays predictably as scan distances increase; however, the range-intensity relationship is best described by an exponential model rather than 1/d2. Scan angle appears to have no systematic effect on fine fuel discrimination, while some differences are observed in density-mass relationships with changing angles due to shadowing.

  9. Size class structure, growth rates, and orientation of the central Andean cushion Azorella compacta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Kleier

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Azorella compacta (llareta; Apiaceae forms dense, woody, cushions and characterizes the high elevation rocky slopes of the central Andean Altiplano. Field studies of an elevational gradient of A. compacta within Lauca National Park in northern Chile found a reverse J-shape distribution of size classes of individuals with abundant small plants at all elevations. A new elevational limit for A. compacta was established at 5,250 m. A series of cushions marked 14 years earlier showed either slight shrinkage or small degrees of growth up to 2.2 cm yr−1. Despite their irregularity in growth, cushions of A. compacta show a strong orientation, centered on a north-facing aspect and angle of about 20° from horizontal. This exposure to maximize solar irradiance closely matches previous observations of a population favoring north-facing slopes at a similar angle. Populations of A. compacta appear to be stable, or even expanding, with young plants abundant.

  10. Differences in SOM decomposition and temperature sensitivity among soil aggregate size classes in a temperate grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Wang, Dan; Wen, Xuefa; Yu, Guirui; He, Nianpeng; Wang, Rongfu

    2015-01-01

    The principle of enzyme kinetics suggests that the temperature sensitivity (Q10) of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition is inversely related to organic carbon (C) quality, i.e., the C quality-temperature (CQT) hypothesis. We tested this hypothesis by performing laboratory incubation experiments with bulk soil, macroaggregates (MA, 250-2000 μm), microaggregates (MI, 53-250 μm), and mineral fractions (MF, temperature and aggregate size significantly affected on SOM decomposition, with notable interactive effects (Ptemperature in the following order: MA>MF>bulk soil >MI(P classes (P temperature is closely associated withsoil aggregation and highlights the complex responses of ecosystem C budgets to future warming scenarios.

  11. Roundup Ready soybean gene concentrations in field soil aggregate size classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Booth, David J; Gulden, Robert H; Campbell, Rachel G; Powell, Jeff R; Klironomos, John N; Pauls, K Peter; Swanton, Clarence J; Trevors, Jack T; Dunfield, Kari E

    2009-02-01

    Roundup Ready (RR) soybeans containing recombinant Agrobacterium spp. CP4 5-enol-pyruvyl-shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (cp4 epsps) genes tolerant to the herbicide glyphosate are extensively grown worldwide. The concentration of recombinant DNA from RR soybeans in soil aggregates was studied due to the possibility of genetic transformation of soil bacteria. This study used real-time PCR to examine the concentration of cp4 epsps in four field soil aggregate size classes (>2000 microm, 2000-500 microm, 500-250 microm and 2000 mum fraction contained between 66.62% and 99.18% of total gene copies, although it only accounted for about 30.00% of the sampled soil. Aggregate formation may facilitate persistence of recombinant DNA.

  12. Class size and academic results, with a focus on children from culturally, linguistically and economically disenfranchised communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Zyngier

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The question of class size continues to attract the attention of educational policymakers and researchers alike. Australian politicians and their advisers, policy makers and political commentators agree that much of Australia’s increased expenditure on education in the last 30 years has been ‘wasted’ on efforts to reduce class sizes. They conclude that funding is therefore not the problem in Australian education, arguing that extra funding has not led to improved academic results. Many scholars have found serious methodological issues with the existing reviews that make claims for the lack of educational and economic utility in reducing class sizes in schools. Significantly, the research supporting the current policy advice to both state and federal ministers of education is highly selective, and based on limited studies originating from the USA. This comprehensive review of 112 papers from 1979-2014 assesses whether these conclusions about the effect of smaller class sizes still hold. The review draws on a wider range of studies, starting with Australian research, but also includes similar education systems such as England, Canada, New Zealand and non-English speaking countries of Europe. The review assesses the different measures of class size and how they affect the results, and also whether other variables such as teaching methods are taken into account. Findings suggest that smaller class sizes in the first four years of school can have an important and lasting impact on student achievement, especially for children from culturally, linguistically and economically disenfranchised communities. This is particularly true when smaller classes are combined with appropriate teacher pedagogies suited to reduced student numbers. Suggested policy recommendations involve targeted funding for specific lessons and schools, combined with professional development of teachers. These measures may help to address the inequality of schooling and

  13. Correlation of Shape and Size of Sella Turcica With the Type of Facial Skeletal Class in an Iranian Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valizadeh, Solmaz; Shahbeig, Shahrzad; Mohseni, Sudeh; Azimi, Fateme; Bakhshandeh, Hooman

    2015-01-01

    In orthodontic science, diagnosis of facial skeletal type (class I, II, and III) is essential to make the correct treatment plan that is usually expensive and complicated. Sometimes results from analysis of lateral cephalometry radiographies are not enough to discriminate facial skeletal types. In this situation, knowledge about the relationship between the shape and size of the sella turcica and the type of facial skeletal class can help to make a more definitive decision for treatment plan. The present study was designed to investigate this relationship in patients referred to a dental school in Iran. In this descriptive-analytical study, cephalometric radiographies of 90 candidates for orthodontic treatment (44 females and 46 males) with an age range of 14 - 26 years and equal distribution in terms of class I, class II, and class III facial skeletal classification were selected. The shape, length, diameter, and depth of the sella turcica were determined on the radiographs. Linear dimensions were assessed by one-way analysis of variance while the correlation between the dimensions and age was investigated using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Sella turcica had normal morphology in 24.4% of the patients while irregularity (notching) in the posterior part of the dorsum sella was observed in 15.6%, double contour of sellar floor in 5.6%, sella turcica bridge in 23.3%, oblique anterior wall in 20% and pyramidal shape of the dorsum sella in 11.1% of the subjects. In total, 46.7% of class I patients had a normal shape of sella turcica, 23.3% of class II patients had an oblique anterior wall and a pyramidal shape of the dorsum sella, and 43.3% of class III individuals had sella turcica bridge (the greatest values). Sella turcica length was significantly greater in class III patients compared to class II and class I (P < 0.0001). However, depth and diameter of sella turcica were similar in class I, class II, and class III patients. Furthermore, age was significantly

  14. Sympathy for the Devil: Detailing the Effects of Planning-Unit Size, Thematic Resolution of Reef Classes, and Socioeconomic Costs on Spatial Priorities for Marine Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheok, Jessica; Pressey, Robert L; Weeks, Rebecca; Andréfouët, Serge; Moloney, James

    2016-01-01

    Spatial data characteristics have the potential to influence various aspects of prioritising biodiversity areas for systematic conservation planning. There has been some exploration of the combined effects of size of planning units and level of classification of physical environments on the pattern and extent of priority areas. However, these data characteristics have yet to be explicitly investigated in terms of their interaction with different socioeconomic cost data during the spatial prioritisation process. We quantify the individual and interacting effects of three factors-planning-unit size, thematic resolution of reef classes, and spatial variability of socioeconomic costs-on spatial priorities for marine conservation, in typical marine planning exercises that use reef classification maps as a proxy for biodiversity. We assess these factors by creating 20 unique prioritisation scenarios involving combinations of different levels of each factor. Because output data from these scenarios are analogous to ecological data, we applied ecological statistics to determine spatial similarities between reserve designs. All three factors influenced prioritisations to different extents, with cost variability having the largest influence, followed by planning-unit size and thematic resolution of reef classes. The effect of thematic resolution on spatial design depended on the variability of cost data used. In terms of incidental representation of conservation objectives derived from finer-resolution data, scenarios prioritised with uniform cost outperformed those prioritised with variable cost. Following our analyses, we make recommendations to help maximise the spatial and cost efficiency and potential effectiveness of future marine conservation plans in similar planning scenarios. We recommend that planners: employ the smallest planning-unit size practical; invest in data at the highest possible resolution; and, when planning across regional extents with the intention

  15. An Examination of Teachers' Perceptions and Practice when Teaching Large and Reduced-Size Classes: Do Teachers Really Teach Them in the Same Way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harfitt, Gary James

    2012-01-01

    Class size research suggests that teachers do not vary their teaching strategies when moving from large to smaller classes. This study draws on interviews and classroom observations of three experienced English language teachers working with large and reduced-size classes in Hong Kong secondary schools. Findings from the study point to subtle…

  16. 40 CFR 113.4 - Size classes and associated liability limits for fixed onshore oil storage facilities, 1,000...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Size classes and associated liability... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS LIABILITY LIMITS FOR... privity and knowledge of the owner or operator, the following limits of liability are established for...

  17. Understanding the Effect of Response Rate and Class Size Interaction on Students Evaluation of Teaching in a Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kuwaiti, Ahmed; AlQuraan, Mahmoud; Subbarayalu, Arun Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to investigate the interaction between response rate and class size and its effects on students' evaluation of instructors and the courses offered at a higher education Institution in Saudi Arabia. Study Design: A retrospective study design was chosen. Methods: One thousand four hundred and forty four different courses…

  18. Elementary physical education: A focus on fitness activities and smaller class sizes are associated with higher levels of physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Kirkham-King

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing physical activity during physical education is necessary for children to achieve daily physical activity recommendations. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among various contextual factors with accelerometer measured physical activity during elementary physical education. Data were collected during 2015–2016 from 281 students (1st–5th grade, 137 males, 144 females from a private school located in a metropolitan area of Utah in the U.S. Students wore accelerometers for 12 consecutive weeks at an accelerometer wear frequency of 3days per week during physical education. A multi-level general linear mixed effects model was employed to examine the relationship among various physical education contextual factors and percent of wear time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (%MVPA, accounting for clustering of observations within students and the clustering of students within classrooms. Explored contextual factors included grade level, lesson context, sex, and class size. Main effects and interactions among the factors were explored in the multi-level models. A two-way interaction of lesson context and class size on %MVPA was shown to be statistically significant. The greatest differences were found to be between fitness lessons using small class sizes compared to motor skill lessons using larger class sizes (β=14.8%, 95% C.I. 5.7%–23.9% p<0.001. Lessons that included a focus on fitness activities with class sizes that were <25 students associated with significantly higher %MVPA during elementary physical education. Keywords: Exercise, Physical education and training, Adolescents

  19. A Meta-Analysis of Class Sizes and Ratios in Early Childhood Education Programs: Are Thresholds of Quality Associated with Greater Impacts on Cognitive, Achievement, and Socioemotional Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowne, Jocelyn Bonnes; Magnuson, Katherine A.; Schindler, Holly S.; Duncan, Greg J.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2017-01-01

    This study uses data from a comprehensive database of U.S. early childhood education program evaluations published between 1960 and 2007 to evaluate the relationship between class size, child-teacher ratio, and program effect sizes for cognitive, achievement, and socioemotional outcomes. Both class size and child-teacher ratio showed nonlinear…

  20. A GENERALIZED CLASS OF TRANSFORMATION MATRICES FOR THE RECONSTRUCTION OF SPHERE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS FROM SECTION CIRCLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willi Pabst

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A generalized formulation of transformation matrices is given for the reconstruction of sphere diameter distributions from their section circle diameter distributions. This generalized formulation is based on a weight shift parameter that can be adjusted from 0 to 1. It includes the well-known Saltykov and Cruz-Orive transformations as special cases (for parameter values of 0 and 0.5, respectively. The physical meaning of this generalization is explained (showing, among others, that the Woodhead transformation should be bounded by the Saltykov transformation on the one side and by our transformation from the other and its numerical performance is investigated. In particular, it is shown that our generalized transformation is numerically highly unstable, i.e. introduces numerical artefacts (oscillations or even unphysical negative sphere frequencies into the reconstruction, and can lead to completely wrong results when a critical value of the parameter (usually in the range 0.7-0.9, depending on the type of distribution is exceeded. It is shown that this numerical instability is an intrinsic feature of these transformations that depends not only on the weight shift parameter value and is affected both by the type and the position of the distribution. It occurs in a natural way also for the Cruz-Orive and other transformations with finite weight shift parameter values and is not just caused by inadequate input data (e.g. as a consequence of an insufficient number of objects counted, as commonly assumed. Finally it is shown that an even more general class of transformation matrices can be defined that includes, in addition to the aformentioned transformations, also the Wicksell transformation.

  1. Comparison of Satellite-Derived Phytoplankton Size Classes Using In-Situ Measurements in the South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuibo Hu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocean colour remote sensing is used as a tool to detect phytoplankton size classes (PSCs. In this study, the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, and Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS phytoplankton size classes (PSCs products were compared with in-situ High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC data for the South China Sea (SCS, collected from August 2006 to September 2011. Four algorithms were evaluated to determine their ability to detect three phytoplankton size classes. Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a and absorption spectra of phytoplankton (aph(λ were also measured to help understand PSC’s algorithm performance. Results show that the three abundance-based approaches performed better than the inherent optical property (IOP-based approach in the SCS. The size detection of microplankton and picoplankton was generally better than that of nanoplankton. A three-component model was recommended to produce maps of surface PSCs in the SCS. For the IOP-based approach, satellite retrievals of inherent optical properties and the PSCs algorithm both have impacts on inversion accuracy. However, for abundance-based approaches, the selection of the PSCs algorithm seems to be more critical, owing to low uncertainty in satellite Chl-a input data

  2. DIVERGÊNCIA MORFOMÉTRICA EM BOVINOS NELORE EM CRESCIMENTO CLASSIFICADOS PARA DIFERENTES CLASSES DE FRAME SIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LÚCIO FLÁVIO MACEDO MOTA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the performance of Nelore cattle during growth classified for different classes of frame size regarding body weights and morphometric measures at different ages. Weights and morphometric measures Nelore bulls up to 1 year of age were monthly recorded. The characteristics evalu-ated were birth weight, 120, 205, 240 and 365 days of age, withers height and rump height, thoracic perimeter, distance between pin bones, distance between hip bones and chest width, depth of chest, space under sternal and hip length. Frame size scores classified as medium, large and extreme, were estimated using equations and tables according to Beef Improvement Federation (BIF. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and Tukey-Kramer test at 5% probability and analyses were performed by canonical variables and the grouping analyses of genotype by method of Tocher. The animals with larger class of frame size were heavier and morphometric measurements as well, when compared with animals classified for smaller class. The correlation between weight at different ages were higher. The weight correlates with body features positively, indicating that the weight gain of the animals increased their influence on the frame size. Cluster analysis resulted in three distinct genetic groups that have similar within the group and genetic divergence between them.

  3. Temporal variation and size class distribution in a hepertological assemblage from Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martori, Ricardo

    2005-05-01

    grupos etarios de cada especie cambió temporalmente debido al reclutamiento y el período de reclutamiento varió en y entre especies. Durante el primer período el índice de diversidad mayor se registró en abril 1999 (5.46, durante el segundo período de estudio el mayor índice de diversidad se registró en enero 2000. Este estudio muestra la importancia de los estudios temporalmente extensos y enfatiza la importancia de comprender la variación temporal de la fenología, diversidad y patrones de actividad de los ensambles herpetológicos. From a conservationist perspective, knowledge of the abundance, diversity, and activity patterns of a herpetological assemblage is essential to understand community dynamics and habitat utilization. We proposed four null hypotheses regarding the dynamics of an assemblage of amphibians and reptiles from Argentina: 1 The capture frequency of each species studied is similar during the two years; 2 The capture frequency of each species is similar in every month of each period; 3 The activity of each species is similar to that of every other species and 4 The proportion of each size class for each species is similar throughout the year. During the study, nineteen species were collected: ten species of Amphibia belonging to four families, and nine species of Squamata, distributed among seven families. In relatively complex habitats, with dense vegetation and very irregular herpetological activity, the pitfall method is one of the few efficient ways to evaluate terrestrial animal activity. Pitfall traps are an effective method to perform herpetological inventories, but results must be reported with caution because traps capture some species more easily than others. The main results of this study were: Hypothesis 1 was rejected for all species except Mabuya dosivittata, which showed similar frequencies during both years. Hypothesis 2 was rejected, as all species showed significant seasonal differences. The most variable species were Bufo

  4. Participation and Collaborative Learning in Large Class Sizes: Wiki, Can You Help Me?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Arriba, Raúl

    2017-01-01

    Collaborative learning has a long tradition within higher education. However, its application in classes with a large number of students is complicated, since it is a teaching method that requires a high level of participation from the students and careful monitoring of the process by the educator. This article presents an experience in…

  5. [Size of lower jaw as an early indicator of skeletal class III development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, Zdenka; Nikodijević, Angelina; Udovicić, Bozidar; Milić, Jasmina; Nikolić, Predrag

    2008-08-01

    Malocclusion of skeletal class III is a complex abnormality, with a characteristic sagital position of the lower jaw in front of the upper one. A higher level of prognatism of the lower jaw in relation to the upper one can be the consequence of its excessive length. The aim of this study was to find the differences in the length of the lower jaw in the children with skeletal class III and the children with normal sagital interjaw relation (skeletal class I) in the period of mixed dentition. After clinical and x-ray diagnostics, profile tele-x-rays of the head were analyzed in 60 examinees with mixed dentition, aged from 6 to 12 years. The examinees were divided into two groups: group 1--the children with skeletal class III and group 2--the children with skeletal class I. The length of the lower jaw, upper jaw and cranial base were measured. The proportional relations between the lengths measured within each group were established and the level of difference in the lengths measured and their proportions between the groups were estimated. No significant difference between the groups was found in the body length, ramus and the total length of the lower jaw. Proportional relation between the body length and the length of the lower jaw ramus and proportional relation between the forward cranial base and the lower jaw body were not significantly different. A significant difference was found in proportional relations of the total length of the lower jaw with the total lengths of cranial base and the upper jaw and proportional relation of the length of the lower and upper jaw body. Of all the analyzed parameters, the following were selected as the early indicators of the development of skeletal class III on the lower jaw: greater total length of the lower jaw, proportional to the total lengths of cranial base and theupper jaw, as well as greater length of the lower jaw body, proportional to the length of the upper jaw body.

  6. composition and size class structure of tree species in ihang'ana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nb

    Previous plant biodiversity studies in this ecosystem concentrated on large-sized Forest ... assess tree species composition, structure and diversity in Ihang'ana FR (2982 ha), one of the ..... Dombeya rotundifolia. (Hochst) ... Ficus lutea. Vahl.

  7. Optically-derived estimates of phytoplankton size class and taxonomic group biomass in the Eastern Subarctic Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chen; Rosengard, Sarah Z.; Burt, William; Peña, M. Angelica; Nemcek, Nina; Zeng, Tao; Arrigo, Kevin R.; Tortell, Philippe D.

    2018-06-01

    We evaluate several algorithms for the estimation of phytoplankton size class (PSC) and functional type (PFT) biomass from ship-based optical measurements in the Subarctic Northeast Pacific Ocean. Using underway measurements of particulate absorption and backscatter in surface waters, we derived estimates of PSC/PFT based on chlorophyll-a concentrations (Chl-a), particulate absorption spectra and the wavelength dependence of particulate backscatter. Optically-derived [Chl-a] and phytoplankton absorption measurements were validated against discrete calibration samples, while the derived PSC/PFT estimates were validated using size-fractionated Chl-a measurements and HPLC analysis of diagnostic photosynthetic pigments (DPA). Our results showflo that PSC/PFT algorithms based on [Chl-a] and particulate absorption spectra performed significantly better than the backscatter slope approach. These two more successful algorithms yielded estimates of phytoplankton size classes that agreed well with HPLC-derived DPA estimates (RMSE = 12.9%, and 16.6%, respectively) across a range of hydrographic and productivity regimes. Moreover, the [Chl-a] algorithm produced PSC estimates that agreed well with size-fractionated [Chl-a] measurements, and estimates of the biomass of specific phytoplankton groups that were consistent with values derived from HPLC. Based on these results, we suggest that simple [Chl-a] measurements should be more fully exploited to improve the classification of phytoplankton assemblages in the Northeast Pacific Ocean.

  8. Cultural constructions of "obesity": understanding body size, social class and gender in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batnitzky, Adina K

    2011-01-01

    This article presents data from an in-depth qualitative study of overweight and diabetic women in Morocco, a North African country experiencing a rapid increase in obesity according to national statistics. This case study explores the heterogeneous relationship among health, culture and religion in Morocco by highlighting the relationship between the intricacies of women's everyday lives and their body sizes. My findings suggest that although the Body Mass Index (BMI) of adult women has been documented to have increased in Morocco along with other macroeconomic changes (i.e., increases in urbanization, etc.), "obesity" has yet to be universally medicalized in the Moroccan context. As such women do not generally utilize a medicalized concept of obesity in reference to their larger body sizes. Rather, cultural constructions of "obesity" are understood through cultural understandings of a larger body size, religious beliefs about health and illness, and the nature of women's religious participation. This stands in contrast to dominant accounts about the region that promote an overall veneration of a larger body size for women. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The effects of fluvial transport on radionuclide concentrations on different particle size classes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, F.J.; Olley, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports on the effects of grain abrasion and disaggregation on the distribution of 137 Cs with respect to particle size and the effects this may have on the use of 137 Cs for determining the origin of recent sediment. Cs-137 is a product of above ground nuclear testing and has been deposited on the earth's surface by rainfall. On contact with soil, 137 Cs is strongly adsorbed by soil particles and there is a direct correlation between 137 Cs concentration and decreasing particle size. Rapid adsorption means that 137 Cs is preferentially concentrated in surface soils, and it's subsequent redistribution by physical processes rather than chemical has lead to 137 Cs being widely used to study soil erosion

  10. Separating the Classes of Recursively Enumerable Languages Based on Machine Size

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    van Leeuwen, J.; Wiedermann, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 6 (2015), s. 677-695 ISSN 0129-0541 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/1333 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA15-04960S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : recursively enumerable languages * RE hierarchy * finite languages * machine size * descriptional complexity * Turing machines with advice Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 0.467, year: 2015

  11. Ultrasonography-guided Fine-needle Aspiration for Solid Thyroid Nodules Less than 5 mm in the Largest Diameter: Comparison in Diagnostic Adequacy and Accuracy According to Nodule Size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jang Hee; Kim, Dong Wook; Baek, Seung Hun [Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    This study assessed the adequacy and accuracy of ultrasonography (US)-guided fine-needle aspiration (US-FNA) of solid thyroid nodules, less than 5 mm in maximum diameter. From January to December 2009, US-FNA was performed for small solid thyroid nodules in 201 patients. Each thyroid nodule was classified into group A and B according to the largest diameter (1 mm {<=} group A < 3 mm and 3 mm {<=} group B < 5 mm). The adequacy and accuracy of US-FNA in two groups were compared using the histopathological results as a reference standard. Of the 227 thyroid nodules in 201 patients, the inadequacy of US-FNA in group A and B was 24.3% (18/74) and 13.1% (20/153), respectively, showing a statistically significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.0333, chi-square test). Eighty nodules were removed surgically in 72 patients, from which papillary thyroid carcinoma (n = 52), follicular thyroid carcinoma (n = 1), nodular hyperplasia (n = 26), and pseudonodule related to thyroiditis (n = 1) were confirmed. Based on the histopathological results of the 80 surgical nodules, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of US-FNA in group A and B were 55.0% and 79.4%, 81.8% and 100%, 84.6% and 100%, 50% and 68.2%, and 64.5% and 85.7%, respectively. The adequacy and accuracy of US-FNA for solid thyroid nodules, {>=} 3 mm in the largest diameter, were higher than those of US-FNA for very small nodules, < 3 mm in the largest diameter

  12. Multiobjective optimization applied to structural sizing of low cost university-class microsatellite projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravanbakhsh, Ali; Franchini, Sebastián

    2012-10-01

    In recent years, there has been continuing interest in the participation of university research groups in space technology studies by means of their own microsatellites. The involvement in such projects has some inherent challenges, such as limited budget and facilities. Also, due to the fact that the main objective of these projects is for educational purposes, usually there are uncertainties regarding their in orbit mission and scientific payloads at the early phases of the project. On the other hand, there are predetermined limitations for their mass and volume budgets owing to the fact that most of them are launched as an auxiliary payload in which the launch cost is reduced considerably. The satellite structure subsystem is the one which is most affected by the launcher constraints. This can affect different aspects, including dimensions, strength and frequency requirements. In this paper, the main focus is on developing a structural design sizing tool containing not only the primary structures properties as variables but also the system level variables such as payload mass budget and satellite total mass and dimensions. This approach enables the design team to obtain better insight into the design in an extended design envelope. The structural design sizing tool is based on analytical structural design formulas and appropriate assumptions including both static and dynamic models of the satellite. Finally, a Genetic Algorithm (GA) multiobjective optimization is applied to the design space. The result is a Pareto-optimal based on two objectives, minimum satellite total mass and maximum payload mass budget, which gives a useful insight to the design team at the early phases of the design.

  13. Largest particle detector nearing completion

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "Construction of another part of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the worl's largest particle accelerator at CERN in Switzerland, is nearing completion. The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is oner of the LHC project's four large particle detectors. (1/2 page)

  14. Social class and family size as determinants of attributed machismo, femininity, and family planning: a field study in two South American communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicassio, P M

    1977-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine the way in which stereotypes of machismo and femininity are associated with family size and perceptions of family planning. A total of 144 adults, male and female, from a lower class and an upper middle class urban area in Colombia were asked to respond to photographs of Colombian families varying in size and state of completeness. The study illustrated the critical role of sex-role identity and sex-role organization as variables having an effect on fertility. The lower-class respondents described parents in the photographs as significantly more macho or feminine because of their children than the upper-middle-class subjects did. Future research should attempt to measure when this drive to sex-role identity is strongest, i.e., when men and women are most driven to reproduce in order to "prove" themselves. Both lower- and upper-middle-class male groups considered male dominance in marriage to be directly linked with family size. Perceptions of the use of family planning decreased linearly with family size for both social groups, although the lower-class females attributed more family planning to spouses of large families than upper-middle-class females. It is suggested that further research deal with the ways in which constructs of machismo and male dominance vary between the sexes and among socioeconomic groups and the ways in which they impact on fertility.

  15. Satellite-observed variability of phytoplankton size classes associated with a cold eddy in the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Junfang; Cao, Wenxi; Wang, Guifen; Hu, Shuibo

    2014-06-15

    Ocean-color remote sensing has been used as a tool to detect phytoplankton size classes (PSCs). In this study, a three-component model of PSC was reparameterized using seven years of pigment measurements acquired in the South China Sea (SCS). The model was then used to infer PSC in a cyclonic eddy which was observed west of Luzon Island from SeaWiFS chlorophyll-a (chla) and sea-surface height anomaly (SSHA) products. Enhanced productivity and a shift in the PSC were observed, which were likely due to upwelling of nutrient-rich water into the euphotic zone. The supply of nutrients promoted the growth of larger cells (micro- and nanoplankton), and the PSC shifted to greater sizes. However, the picoplankton were still important and contributed ∼48% to total chla concentration. In addition, PSC time series revealed a lag period of about three weeks between maximum eddy intensity and maximum chlorophyll, which may have been related to phytoplankton growth rate and duration of eddy intensity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Remote-Sensing Estimation of Phytoplankton Size Classes From GOCI Satellite Measurements in Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Deyong; Huan, Yu; Qiu, Zhongfeng; Hu, Chuanmin; Wang, Shengqiang; He, Yijun

    2017-10-01

    Phytoplankton size class (PSC), a measure of different phytoplankton functional and structural groups, is a key parameter to the understanding of many marine ecological and biogeochemical processes. In turbid waters where optical properties may be influenced by terrigenous discharge and nonphytoplankton water constituents, remote estimation of PSC is still a challenging task. Here based on measurements of phytoplankton diagnostic pigments, total chlorophyll a, and spectral reflectance in turbid waters of Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea during summer 2015, a customized model is developed and validated to estimate PSC in the two semienclosed seas. Five diagnostic pigments determined through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) measurements are first used to produce weighting factors to model phytoplankton biomass (using total chlorophyll a as a surrogate) with relatively high accuracies. Then, a common method used to calculate contributions of microphytoplankton, nanophytoplankton, and picophytoplankton to the phytoplankton assemblage (i.e., Fm, Fn, and Fp) is customized using local HPLC and other data. Exponential functions are tuned to model the size-specific chlorophyll a concentrations (Cm, Cn, and Cp for microphytoplankton, nanophytoplankton, and picophytoplankton, respectively) with remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs) and total chlorophyll a as the model inputs. Such a PSC model shows two improvements over previous models: (1) a practical strategy (i.e., model Cp and Cn first, and then derive Cm as C-Cp-Cn) with an optimized spectral band (680 nm) for Rrs as the model input; (2) local parameterization, including a local chlorophyll a algorithm. The performance of the PSC model is validated using in situ data that were not used in the model development. Application of the PSC model to GOCI (Geostationary Ocean Color Imager) data leads to spatial and temporal distribution patterns of phytoplankton size classes (PSCs) that are consistent with results reported from

  17. Recognition judgments and the performance of the recognition heuristic depend on the size of the reference class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Hoffrage

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In a series of three experiments, participants made inferences about which one of a pair of two objects scored higher on a criterion. The first experiment was designed to contrast the prediction of Probabilistic Mental Model theory (Gigerenzer, Hoffrage, and Kleinbolting, 1991 concerning sampling procedure with the hard-easy effect. The experiment failed to support the theory's prediction that a particular pair of randomly sampled item sets would differ in percentage correct; but the observation that German participants performed practically as well on comparisons between U.S. cities (many of which they did not even recognize than on comparisons between German cities (about which they knew much more ultimately led to the formulation of the recognition heuristic. Experiment 2 was a second, this time successful, attempt to unconfound item difficulty and sampling procedure. In Experiment 3, participants' knowledge and recognition of each city was elicited, and how often this could be used to make an inference was manipulated. Choices were consistent with the recognition heuristic in about 80% of the cases when it discriminated and people had no additional knowledge about the recognized city (and in about 90% when they had such knowledge. The frequency with which the heuristic could be used affected the percentage correct, mean confidence, and overconfidence as predicted. The size of the reference class, which was also manipulated, modified these effects in meaningful and theoretically important ways.

  18. Analysis of phytoplankton distribution and community structure in the German Bight with respect to the different size classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollschläger, Jochen; Wiltshire, Karen Helen; Petersen, Wilhelm; Metfies, Katja

    2015-05-01

    Investigation of phytoplankton biodiversity, ecology, and biogeography is crucial for understanding marine ecosystems. Research is often carried out on the basis of microscopic observations, but due to the limitations of this approach regarding detection and identification of picophytoplankton (0.2-2 μm) and nanophytoplankton (2-20 μm), these investigations are mainly focused on the microphytoplankton (20-200 μm). In the last decades, various methods based on optical and molecular biological approaches have evolved which enable a more rapid and convenient analysis of phytoplankton samples and a more detailed assessment of small phytoplankton. In this study, a selection of these methods (in situ fluorescence, flow cytometry, genetic fingerprinting, and DNA microarray) was placed in complement to light microscopy and HPLC-based pigment analysis to investigate both biomass distribution and community structure of phytoplankton. As far as possible, the size classes were analyzed separately. Investigations were carried out on six cruises in the German Bight in 2010 and 2011 to analyze both spatial and seasonal variability. Microphytoplankton was identified as the major contributor to biomass in all seasons, followed by the nanophytoplankton. Generally, biomass distribution was patchy, but the overall contribution of small phytoplankton was higher in offshore areas and also in areas exhibiting higher turbidity. Regarding temporal development of the community, differences between the small phytoplankton community and the microphytoplankton were found. The latter exhibited a seasonal pattern regarding number of taxa present, alpha- and beta-diversity, and community structure, while for the nano- and especially the picophytoplankton, a general shift in the community between both years was observable without seasonality. Although the reason for this shift remains unclear, the results imply a different response of large and small phytoplankton to environmental influences.

  19. The largest molecules in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    The bulk of complex molecules in the space between the stars is shown to be in the small frozen particles of interstellar dust. Each dust grain typically contains some 10 9 atoms of oxygen, carbon and nitrogen in an amorphous molecular mixture. As a result of chemical processing of the particles by ultraviolet photons over times spanning proportional10 8 -10 9 years a substantial portion of each dust grain is converted into complex organic molecules whose maximum molecular weight is limited only by the size of the grain. Laboratory studies of evolution of analog grain materials shows that molecular weights of the order of 500 are readily created and that there is an excellent probability of much more complex molecules being produced. The organic dust component constitutes about one tenth of a percent of the total mass of the Milky Way and far outweighs any estimates of the total mass of all the planets. A planet like the earth is continually accreting matter from space and there was a high probability that in the first five hundred million years after its crust formed it passed through several dark clouds and accreted from a hundred million to ten thousand million tonnes of the organic material of the interstellar dust during each passage. It is suggested that this rain of material could have provided the molecular templates for the origin of life. (orig.)

  20. Woody Floristic Composition, Size Class Distribution and spatial Pattern of a Subtropical Lowland Rainforest at Nanjen Lake, Southernmost Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Wei Fan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A permanent 2.21 ha plot of lowland subtropical rainforest was established at Nanjen Lake of the Nanjenshan Nature Reserve in southern Taiwan. All free-standing woody plants in the plot with DBH  1 cm were identified, measured, tagged, and mapped. A total of 120 tree species (21,592 stems, belonging to 44 families and 83 genera, was recorded. The community structure was characterized by a relative dominance of Castanopsis carlesii in the canopy, Illicium arborescens in the subcanopy, and Psychotria rubra in the understory. The dominant families were Fagaceae, Illiciaceae, Aquifoliaceae, Lauraceae and Theaceae. However, typical species of lowland area in Taiwan, such as members of Euphorbiaceae and Moraceae, were relatively rare. Thus, floristic composition of this area was comparable with that found in some of the subtropical rain forests or even warm-temperate rain forests of the Central Range in Taiwan. The analysis of size-class distributions of individual species showed good recruitment patterns with a rich sapling bank for each species. TWINSPAN analysis revealed four distinct groups of samples, with the ridge top and northwest streamside plant communities representing two opposite extremes of the gradient. The dominant families of the ridge group were Fagaceae, Illiciaceae, Theaceae, Aquifoliaceae and Lauraceae, whereas those dominating the streamside group were Rubiaceae, Araliceae, Lauraceae, Fagaceae, and Staphyleaceae. Most species had a patchy distribution and many were distributed randomly. Among those with a patchy distribution, Cyclobalanopsis championii and Rhododendron simsii only occurred on the ridge top, while Drypetes karapinensis and Ficus fistulosa occurred along the streamside. Illicium arborescens and Ilex cochinchinensis were commonly distributed on the intermediate slope. Species that appeared to be randomly or near-randomly distributed over the plot included Schefflera octophylla and Daphniphyllum glaucescens ssp

  1. Evolution of the Largest Mammalian Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ben J; Upham, Nathan S; Golding, Goeffrey B; Ojeda, Ricardo A; Ojeda, Agustina A

    2017-06-01

    The genome of the red vizcacha rat (Rodentia, Octodontidae, Tympanoctomys barrerae) is the largest of all mammals, and about double the size of their close relative, the mountain vizcacha rat Octomys mimax, even though the lineages that gave rise to these species diverged from each other only about 5 Ma. The mechanism for this rapid genome expansion is controversial, and hypothesized to be a consequence of whole genome duplication or accumulation of repetitive elements. To test these alternative but nonexclusive hypotheses, we gathered and evaluated evidence from whole transcriptome and whole genome sequences of T. barrerae and O. mimax. We recovered support for genome expansion due to accumulation of a diverse assemblage of repetitive elements, which represent about one half and one fifth of the genomes of T. barrerae and O. mimax, respectively, but we found no strong signal of whole genome duplication. In both species, repetitive sequences were rare in transcribed regions as compared with the rest of the genome, and mostly had no close match to annotated repetitive sequences from other rodents. These findings raise new questions about the genomic dynamics of these repetitive elements, their connection to widespread chromosomal fissions that occurred in the T. barrerae ancestor, and their fitness effects-including during the evolution of hypersaline dietary tolerance in T. barrerae. ©The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  2. The effects of overwinter flowson the spring condition of rainbow and brown trout size classes in the Green River downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam, Utah.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, A. K.; LaGory, K. E.; Hayse, J. W.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-06-25

    Flaming Gorge Dam, a hydroelectric facility operated by the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), is located on the Green River in Daggett County, northeastern Utah. Until recently, and since the early 1990s, single daily peak releases or steady flows have been the operational pattern of the dam during the winter period. However, releases from Flaming Gorge Reservoir followed a double-peak pattern (two daily flow peaks) during the winters of 2006-2007 and 2008-2009. Because there is little recent long-term history of double-peaking at Flaming Gorge Dam, the potential effects of double-peaking operations on trout body condition in the dam's tailwater are not known. A study plan was developed that identified research activities to evaluate potential effects from winter double-peaking operations (Hayse et al. 2009). Along with other tasks, the study plan identified the need to conduct a statistical analysis of historical trout condition and macroinvertebrate abundance to evaluate the potential effects of hydropower operations. The results from analyses based on the combined size classes of trout (85-630 mm) were presented in Magnusson et al. (2008). The results of this earlier analysis suggested possible relationships between trout condition and flow, but concern that some of the relationships resulted from size-based effects (e.g., apparent changes in condition may have been related to concomitant changes in size distribution, because small trout may have responded differently to flow than large trout) prompted additional analysis of within-size class relationships. This report presents the results of analyses of three different size classes of trout (small: 200-299 mm, medium: 300-399 mm, and large: {ge}400 mm body length). We analyzed historical data to (1) describe temporal patterns and relationships among flows, benthic macroinvertebrate abundance, and condition of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the tailwaters of Flaming

  3. The effects of overwinter flows on the spring condition of rainbow and brown trout size classes in the Green River downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, A.K.; LaGory, K.E.; Hayse, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    Flaming Gorge Dam, a hydroelectric facility operated by the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), is located on the Green River in Daggett County, northeastern Utah. Until recently, and since the early 1990s, single daily peak releases or steady flows have been the operational pattern of the dam during the winter period. However, releases from Flaming Gorge Reservoir followed a double-peak pattern (two daily flow peaks) during the winters of 2006-2007 and 2008-2009. Because there is little recent long-term history of double-peaking at Flaming Gorge Dam, the potential effects of double-peaking operations on trout body condition in the dam's tailwater are not known. A study plan was developed that identified research activities to evaluate potential effects from winter double-peaking operations (Hayse et al. 2009). Along with other tasks, the study plan identified the need to conduct a statistical analysis of historical trout condition and macroinvertebrate abundance to evaluate the potential effects of hydropower operations. The results from analyses based on the combined size classes of trout (85-630 mm) were presented in Magnusson et al. (2008). The results of this earlier analysis suggested possible relationships between trout condition and flow, but concern that some of the relationships resulted from size-based effects (e.g., apparent changes in condition may have been related to concomitant changes in size distribution, because small trout may have responded differently to flow than large trout) prompted additional analysis of within-size class relationships. This report presents the results of analyses of three different size classes of trout (small: 200-299 mm, medium: 300-399 mm, and large: (ge)400 mm body length). We analyzed historical data to (1) describe temporal patterns and relationships among flows, benthic macroinvertebrate abundance, and condition of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the tailwaters of Flaming

  4. Loy Yang A - Australia's largest privatisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yenckin, C.

    1997-01-01

    The recent A$4,746 million privatisation of the 2000MW Loy Yang A power station and the Loy Yang coal mine by the Victorian Government is Australia's largest privatisation and one of 1997's largest project financing deals. (author)

  5. Practice and effectiveness of web-based problem-based learning approach in a large class-size system: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yongxia; Zhang, Peili

    2018-06-12

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is an effective and highly efficient teaching approach that is extensively applied in education systems across a variety of countries. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of web-based PBL teaching pedagogies in large classes. The cluster sampling method was used to separate two college-level nursing student classes (graduating class of 2013) into two groups. The experimental group (n = 162) was taught using a web-based PBL teaching approach, while the control group (n = 166) was taught using conventional teaching methods. We subsequently assessed the satisfaction of the experimental group in relation to the web-based PBL teaching mode. This assessment was performed following comparison of teaching activity outcomes pertaining to exams and self-learning capacity between the two groups. When compared with the control group, the examination scores and self-learning capabilities were significantly higher in the experimental group (P web-based PBL teaching approach. In a large class-size teaching environment, the web-based PBL teaching approach appears to be more optimal than traditional teaching methods. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of web-based teaching technologies in problem-based learning. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Linkage disequilibrium in the insulin gene region: Size variation at the 5{prime} flanking polymorphism and bimodality among {open_quotes}Class I{close_quotes} alleles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGinnis, R.E.; Spielman, R.S. [Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The 5{prime} flanking polymorphism (5{prime}FP), a hypervariable region at the 5{prime} end of the insulin gene, has {open_quotes}class 1{close_quotes} alleles (650-900 bp long) that are in positive linkage disequilibrium with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). The authors report that precise sizing of the 5{prime}FP yields a bimodal frequency distribution of class 1 allele lengths. Class 1 alleles belonging to the lower component (650-750 bp) of the bimodal distribution were somewhat more highly associated with IDDM than were alleles from the upper component (760-900 bp), but the difference was not statistically significant. They also examined 5{prime}FP length variation in relation to allelic variation at nearby polymorphisms. At biallelic RFLPs on both sides of the 5{prime}FP, they found that one allele exhibits near-total association with the upper component of the 5FP class 1 distribution. Such associations represent a little-known but potentially wide-spread form of linkage disequilibrium. In this type of disequilibrium, a flanking allele has near-complete association with a single mode of VNTR alleles whose lengths represent consecutive numbers of tandem repeats (CNTR). Such extreme disequilibrium between a CNTR mode and flanking alleles may originate and persist because length mutations at some VNTR loci usually add or delete only one or two repeat units. 22 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Overwinter body condition, mortality and parasite infection in two size classes of 0+ year juvenile European bitterling Rhodeus amarus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Francová, Kateřina; Ondračková, Markéta

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 2 (2013), s. 555-568 ISSN 0022-1112 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : energy reserves * parasite-induced mortality * size-dependent * young-of-the-year fish Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.734, year: 2013

  8. broken magnet highlights largest collider's engineering challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    Inman, Mason

    2007-01-01

    "Even at the world's soon-to-be largest particle accelerator - a device that promises to push the boundaries of physics - scientists need to be mindful of one of the most fundamental laws in the universe: Murphy's Law. (2 pages)

  9. Chemical Characterization and Source Apportionment of Size Fractionated Atmospheric Aerosols, and, Evaluating Student Attitudes and Learning in Large Lecture General Chemistry Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Gregory Harold

    Chemical speciation and source apportionment of size fractionated atmospheric aerosols were investigated using laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LD TOF-MS) and source apportionment was carried out using carbon-14 accelerator mass spectrometry (14C AMS). Sample collection was carried out using the Davis Rotating-drum Unit for Monitoring impact analyzer in Davis, Colfax, and Yosemite, CA. Ambient atmospheric aerosols collected during the winter of 2010/11 and 2011/12 showed a significant difference in the types of compounds found in the small and large sized particles. The difference was due to the increase number of oxidized carbon species that were found in the small particles size ranges, but not in the large particles size ranges. Overall, the ambient atmospheric aerosols collected during the winter in Davis, CA had and average fraction modern of F14C = 0.753 +/- 0.006, indicating that the majority of the size fractionated particles originated from biogenic sources. Samples collected during the King Fire in Colfax, CA were used to determine the contribution of biomass burning (wildfire) aerosols. Factor analysis was used to reduce the ions found in the LD TOF-MS analysis of the King Fire samples. The final factor analysis generated a total of four factors that explained an overall 83% of the variance in the data set. Two of the factors correlated heavily with increased smoke events during the sample period. The increased smoke events produced a large number of highly oxidized organic aerosols (OOA2) and aromatic compounds that are indicative of biomass burning organic aerosols (WBOA). The signal intensities of the factors generated in the King Fire data were investigated in samples collected in Yosemite and Davis, CA to look at the impact of biomass burning on ambient atmospheric aerosols. In both comparison sample collections the OOA2 and WBOA factors both increased during biomass burning events located near the sampling sites. The correlation

  10. QTL mapping in multiple populations and development stages reveals dynamic quantitative trait loci for fruit size in cucumbers of different market classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yiqun; Colle, Marivi; Wang, Yuhui; Yang, Luming; Rubinstein, Mor; Sherman, Amir; Ophir, Ron; Grumet, Rebecca

    2015-09-01

    QTL analysis in multi-development stages with different QTL models identified 12 consensus QTLs underlying fruit elongation and radial growth presenting a dynamic view of genetic control of cucumber fruit development. Fruit size is an important quality trait in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) of different market classes. However, the genetic and molecular basis of fruit size variations in cucumber is not well understood. In this study, we conducted QTL mapping of fruit size in cucumber using F2, F2-derived F3 families and recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between two inbred lines Gy14 (North American picking cucumber) and 9930 (North China fresh market cucumber). Phenotypic data of fruit length and diameter were collected at three development stages (anthesis, immature and mature fruits) in six environments over 4 years. QTL analysis was performed with three QTL models including composite interval mapping (CIM), Bayesian interval mapping (BIM), and multiple QTL mapping (MQM). Twenty-nine consistent and distinct QTLs were detected for nine traits from multiple mapping populations and QTL models. Synthesis of information from available fruit size QTLs allowed establishment of 12 consensus QTLs underlying fruit elongation and radial growth, which presented a dynamic view of genetic control of cucumber fruit development. Results from this study highlighted the benefits of QTL analysis with multiple QTL models and different mapping populations in improving the power of QTL detection. Discussion was presented in the context of domestication and diversifying selection of fruit length and diameter, marker-assisted selection of fruit size, as well as identification of candidate genes for fruit size QTLs in cucumber.

  11. Worlds Largest Wave Energy Project 2007 in Wales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars; Friis-Madsen, Erik; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces world largest wave energy project being developed in Wales and based on one of the leading wave energy technologies. The background for the development of wave energy, the total resource ands its distribution around the world is described. In contrast to wind energy turbines...... Dragon has to be scaled in accordance with the wave climate at the deployment site, which makes the Welch demonstrator device the worlds largest WEC so far with a total width of 300 meters. The project budget, the construction methods and the deployment site are also given....... a large number of fundamentally different technologies are utilised to harvest wave energy. The Wave Dragon belongs to the wave overtopping class of converters and the paper describes the fundamentals and the technical solutions used in this wave energy converter. An offshore floating WEC like the Wave...

  12. Gasification-based energy production systems for different size classes - Potential and state of R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurkela, E.

    1997-01-01

    (Conference paper). Different energy production systems based on biomass and waste gasification are being developed in Finland. In 1986-1995 the Finnish gasification research and development activities were almost fully devoted to the development of simplified IGCC power systems suitable to large-scale power production based on pressurized fluid-bed gasification, hot gas cleaning and a combined-cycle process. In the 1990's the atmospheric-pressure gasification activities aiming for small and medium size plants were restarted in Finland. Atmospheric-pressure fixed-bed gasification of wood and peat was commercialized for small-scale district heating applications already in the 1980's. Today research and development in this field aims at developing a combined heat and power plant based on the use of cleaned product gas in internal combustion engines. Another objective is to enlarge the feedstock basis of fixed-bed gasifiers, which at present are limited to the use of piece-shaped fuels such as sod peat and wood chips. Intensive research and development is at present in progress in atmospheric-pressure circulating fluidized-bed gasification of biomass residues and wastes. This gasification technology, earlier commercialized for lime-kiln applications, will lead to co-utilization of local residues and wastes in existing pulverized coal fired boilers. The first demonstration plant is under construction in Finland and there are several projects under planning or design phase in different parts of Europe. 48 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  13. Trophic pathways of phytoplankton size classes through the zooplankton food web over the spring transition period in the north-west Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Brian P. V.; Carlotti, François; Donoso, Katty; Pagano, Marc; D'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Taillandier, Vincent; Conan, Pascal

    2017-08-01

    Knowledge of the relative contributions of phytoplankton size classes to zooplankton biomass is necessary to understand food-web functioning and response to climate change. During the Deep Water formation Experiment (DEWEX), conducted in the north-west Mediterranean Sea in winter (February) and spring (April) of 2013, we investigated phytoplankton-zooplankton trophic links in contrasting oligotrophic and eutrophic conditions. Size fractionated particulate matter (pico-POM, nano-POM, and micro-POM) and zooplankton (64 to >4000 μm) composition and carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were measured inside and outside the nutrient-rich deep convection zone in the central Liguro-Provencal basin. In winter, phytoplankton biomass was low (0.28 mg m-3) and evenly spread among picophytoplankton, nanophytoplankton, and microphytoplankton. Using an isotope mixing model, we estimated average contributions to zooplankton biomass by pico-POM, nano-POM, and micro-POM of 28, 59, and 15%, respectively. In spring, the nutrient poor region outside the convection zone had low phytoplankton biomass (0.58 mg m-3) and was dominated by pico/nanophytoplankton. Estimated average contributions to zooplankton biomass by pico-POM, nano-POM, and micro-POM were 64, 28 and 10%, respectively, although the model did not differentiate well between pico-POM and nano-POM in this region. In the deep convection zone, spring phytoplankton biomass was high (1.34 mg m-3) and dominated by micro/nano phytoplankton. Estimated average contributions to zooplankton biomass by pico-POM, nano-POM, and micro-POM were 42, 42, and 20%, respectively, indicating that a large part of the microphytoplankton biomass may have remained ungrazed.Plain Language SummaryThe grazing of zooplankton on algal phytoplankton is a critical step in the transfer of energy through all ocean food webs. Although microscopic, phytoplankton span an enormous size range. The smallest picophytoplankton are generally thought to be too

  14. CERN tests largest superconducting solenoid magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "CERN's Compacts Muon Solenoid (CMS) - the world's largest superconducting solenoid magnet - has reached full field in testing. The instrument is part of the proton-proton Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project, located in a giant subterranean chamber at Cessy on the Franco-Swiss border." (1 page)

  15. The largest Silurian vertebrate and its palaeoecological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Brian; Zhu, Min; Zhao, Wenjin; Jia, Liaotao; Zhu, You'an

    2014-01-01

    An apparent absence of Silurian fishes more than half-a-metre in length has been viewed as evidence that gnathostomes were restricted in size and diversity prior to the Devonian. Here we describe the largest pre-Devonian vertebrate (Megamastax amblyodus gen. et sp. nov.), a predatory marine osteichthyan from the Silurian Kuanti Formation (late Ludlow, ~423 million years ago) of Yunnan, China, with an estimated length of about 1 meter. The unusual dentition of the new form suggests a durophagous diet which, combined with its large size, indicates a considerable degree of trophic specialisation among early osteichthyans. The lack of large Silurian vertebrates has recently been used as constraint in palaeoatmospheric modelling, with purported lower oxygen levels imposing a physiological size limit. Regardless of the exact causal relationship between oxygen availability and evolutionary success, this finding refutes the assumption that pre-Emsian vertebrates were restricted to small body sizes. PMID:24921626

  16. Docosahexaenoic acid modifies the clustering and size of lipid rafts and the lateral organization and surface expression of MHC class I of EL4 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Saame Raza; Rockett, Benjamin Drew; Salameh, Muhammad; Carraway, Kristen

    2009-09-01

    An emerging molecular mechanism by which docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) exerts its effects is modification of lipid raft organization. The biophysical model, based on studies with liposomes, shows that DHA avoids lipid rafts because of steric incompatibility between DHA and cholesterol. The model predicts that DHA does not directly modify rafts; rather, it incorporates into nonrafts to modify the lateral organization and/or conformation of membrane proteins, such as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I. Here, we tested predictions of the model at a cellular level by incorporating oleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and DHA, compared with a bovine serum albumin (BSA) control, into the membranes of EL4 cells. Quantitative microscopy showed that DHA, but not EPA, treatment, relative to the BSA control diminished lipid raft clustering and increased their size. Approximately 30% of DHA was incorporated directly into rafts without changing the distribution of cholesterol between rafts and nonrafts. Quantification of fluorescence colocalization images showed that DHA selectively altered MHC class I lateral organization by increasing the fraction of the nonraft protein into rafts compared with BSA. Both DHA and EPA treatments increased antibody binding to MHC class I compared with BSA. Antibody titration showed that DHA and EPA did not change MHC I conformation but increased total surface levels relative to BSA. Taken together, our findings are not in agreement with the biophysical model. Therefore, we propose a model that reconciles contradictory viewpoints from biophysical and cellular studies to explain how DHA modifies lipid rafts on several length scales. Our study supports the notion that rafts are an important target of DHA's mode of action.

  17. Resource use by the facultative lepidophage Roeboides affinis (Günther, 1868: a comparison of size classes, seasons and environment types related to impoundment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam P. Albrecht

    Full Text Available We report the consumption of scales and other food resources by the facultative lepidophage Roeboides affinis in the upper Tocantins River where it was impounded by the Serra da Mesa Hydroelectric Dam. We compared the diet among size classes, between dry and wet seasons, and between sites with distinct water flow characteristics (lotic vs. lentic related to the distance from the dam and phase of reservoir development. As transparency and fish abundance increased after impoundment, we expected a higher consumption of scales in lentic sites. Likewise, habitat contraction, higher transparency and decrease in terrestrial resources availability, would promote a higher consumption of scales. Scales were consumed by 92% of individuals and represented 26% of the total volume of resources ingested by R. affinis. Diet composition varied significantly among size classes, with larger individuals consuming more scales and larger items, especially odonatans and ephemeropterans. Scale consumption was not significantly different between dry and wet seasons. Roeboides affinis incorporated some food items into the diet as a response to the impoundment, like other species. Scale consumption was higher in lotic sites, refuting our initial hypothesis, what suggests that the lepidophagous habit is related the rheophilic nature of R. affinis.Caracterizamos o consumo de escamas e outros recursos alimentares por Roeboides affinis, um lepidófago facultativo, no alto rio Tocantins, na região represada pela Usina Hidrelétrica de Serra da Mesa. A dieta foi avaliada em relação a classes de tamanho, estações chuvosa e seca, e entre locais com características distintas de fluxo d'água (lótico vs. lêntico relacionadas com a distância da barragem e fase de desenvolvimento do reservatório. Com o aumento da abundância de peixes e da transparência da água após o represamento, esperamos um maior consumo de escamas nos locais lênticos. Da mesma forma, na época seca

  18. Crash testing the largest experiment on Earth

    OpenAIRE

    Cauchi, Marija

    2015-01-01

    Under Europe lies a 27 km tunnel that is both the coldest and hottest place on Earth. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has already found out what gives mass to all the matter in the Universe. It is now trying to go even deeper into what makes up everything we see around us. Dr Marija Cauchi writes about her research that helped protect this atom smasher from itself. Photography by Jean Claude Vancell. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/crash-testing-the-largest-experiment-on-earth/

  19. Longevity in Calumma parsonii, the World's largest chameleon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessa, Giulia; Glaw, Frank; Andreone, Franco

    2017-03-01

    Large body size of ectothermic species can be correlated with high life expectancy. We assessed the longevity of the World's largest chameleon, the Parson's chameleon Calumma parsonii from Madagascar by using skeletochronology of phalanges taken from preserved specimens held in European natural history museums. Due to the high bone resorption we can provide only the minimum age of each specimen. The highest minimum age detected was nine years for a male and eight years for a female, confirming that this species is considerably long living among chameleons. Our data also show a strong correlation between snout-vent length and estimated age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Effects of Teacher Efficacy, Teacher Certification Route, Content Hours in the Sciences, Field-Based Experiences and Class Size on Middle School Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Robina

    No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) was signed into law in 2002 with the idea that all students, no matter the circumstances can learn and that highly qualified teachers should be present in every classrooms (United Stated Department of Education, 2011). The mandates of NCLB also forced states to begin measuring the progress of science proficiency beginning in 2007. The study determined the effects of teacher efficacy, the type of certification route taken by individuals, the number of content hours taken in the sciences, field-based experience and class size on middle school student achievement as measured by the 8th grade STAAR in a region located in South Texas. This data provides knowledge into the effect different teacher training methods have on secondary school science teacher efficacy in Texas and how it impacts student achievement. Additionally, the results of the study determined if traditional and alternative certification programs are equally effective in properly preparing science teachers for the classroom. The study described was a survey design comparing nonequivalent groups. The study utilized the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument (STEBI). A 25-item efficacy scale made up of two subscales, Personal Science Teaching Efficacy Belief (PSTE) and Science Teaching Outcome Expectancy (STOE) (Bayraktar, 2011). Once the survey was completed a 3-Way ANOVA, MANOVA, and Multiple Linear Regression were performed in SPSS to calculate the results. The results from the study indicated no significant difference between route of certification on student achievement, but a large effect size was reported, 17% of the variances in student achievement can be accounted for by route of certification. A MANOVA was conducted to assess the differences between number of science content hours on a linear combination of personal science teacher efficacy, science teaching outcome expectancy and total science teacher efficacy as measured by the STEBI. No significant

  1. The world's largest LNG producer's next market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, R.; Isworo Suharno; Simandjuntak, W.M.P.

    1996-01-01

    The development of the domestic gas market in Indonesia, the world's largest liquefied natural gas producing country, is described as part of the overall impact of the country's oil and gas production. The first large scale use of natural gas in Indonesia was established in 1968 when a fertiliser plant using gas as the feedstock was built. Ultimately, through increased yields, this has enabled Indonesia to be self-sufficient in rice and an exporter of fertiliser. Problems which stand in the way of further developments include: capital, though Pertamina and PGN are perceived as attractive for foreign investment; the lack of a regulatory framework for gas; geographical constraints, among them the fact that the gas deposits are remote from the largest population concentrations; lack of infrastructure. There are nevertheless plans for expansion and the provision of an integrated gas pipeline system. Pertamina, which has responsibility for all oil and gas developments, and PGN, whose primary role has been as a manufacturer and distributor of gas, are now working together in the coordination of all gas activities. (10 figures). (UK)

  2. Does lake size matter? Combining morphology and process modeling to examine the contribution of lake classes to population-scale processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, Luke A.; Read, Jordan S.; Hanson, Paul C.; Stanley, Emily H.

    2014-01-01

    With lake abundances in the thousands to millions, creating an intuitive understanding of the distribution of morphology and processes in lakes is challenging. To improve researchers’ understanding of large-scale lake processes, we developed a parsimonious mathematical model based on the Pareto distribution to describe the distribution of lake morphology (area, perimeter and volume). While debate continues over which mathematical representation best fits any one distribution of lake morphometric characteristics, we recognize the need for a simple, flexible model to advance understanding of how the interaction between morphometry and function dictates scaling across large populations of lakes. These models make clear the relative contribution of lakes to the total amount of lake surface area, volume, and perimeter. They also highlight the critical thresholds at which total perimeter, area and volume would be evenly distributed across lake size-classes have Pareto slopes of 0.63, 1 and 1.12, respectively. These models of morphology can be used in combination with models of process to create overarching “lake population” level models of process. To illustrate this potential, we combine the model of surface area distribution with a model of carbon mass accumulation rate. We found that even if smaller lakes contribute relatively less to total surface area than larger lakes, the increasing carbon accumulation rate with decreasing lake size is strong enough to bias the distribution of carbon mass accumulation towards smaller lakes. This analytical framework provides a relatively simple approach to upscaling morphology and process that is easily generalizable to other ecosystem processes.

  3. Loss of largest and oldest individuals of the Montpellier snake correlates with recent warming in the southeastern Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Calderón, Cosme; Feriche, Mónica; Alaminos, Esmeralda; Pleguezuelos, Juan M

    2017-12-01

    The effects of climate change on organisms are now being extensively studied in many different taxa. However, the variation in body size, usually shrinkage in response to increasing temperature, has received little attention regarding to reptiles. During past periods of global warming, many organisms shrank in size, and current evidence and experiments manipulating temperature have shown a biomass decrease in some organisms with increasing temperatures. Here we test whether the body size of the Montpellier snake Malpolon monspessulanus from the southeastern Iberian Peninsula is changing and correlated with the increasing temperature in this region during a 39-year period (1976-2014). We measured the snout-vent length (SVL) of vouchers in scientific collections to check for trends in adult body size at the population level in relation with temperature, while controlling for the age of the individuals (estimated by skeletochronology, n  =141). Given the great ontogenetic variation in body size of the study species, we categorized age in 3 classes: "young adults" (under 5 years old), "intermediate adults" (from 5 to 7 years old), and "old adults" (from 8 to 14 years old). By means of linear mixed models, we found a negative relationship between SVL of "old adults" and average annual temperature in the region during the lifetime of each individual. Our results indicate that largest and oldest individuals of the Montpellier Snake, that is, males because of strong sexual size dimorphism in this species, disappeared from the study population, and suggest that it occurred in response to rising environmental temperature.

  4. The Impacts of Budget Reductions on Indiana's Public Schools: The Impact of Budget Changes on Student Achievement, Personnel, and Class Size for Public School Corporations in the State of Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Del W.; Boyland, Lori G.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, economic downturn and changes to Indiana's school funding have resulted in significant financial reductions in General Fund allocations for many of Indiana's public school corporations. The main purpose of this statewide study is to examine the possible impacts of these budget reductions on class size and student achievement. This…

  5. Canada's largest co-gen project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salaff, S.

    2000-01-01

    In November 2000, the TransAlta Energy Corp. began construction on its $400 million natural gas fuelled cogeneration project in Sarnia Ontario. The Sarnia Regional Cogeneration Project (SRCP) is designed to integrate a new 440 MW cogeneration facility to be built at the Sarnia Division of Dow Chemicals Canada Inc. with nearby existing generators totaling 210 MW at Dow and Bayer Inc. At 650 MW, the new facility will rank as Canada's largest cogeneration installation. Commercial operation is scheduled for October 2002. TransAlta owns three natural gas fuelled cogeneration facilities in Ontario (in Ottawa, Mississauga and Windsor) totaling 250 MW. The cost of electric power in Ontario is currently controlled by rising natural gas prices and the supply demand imbalance. This balance will be significantly affected by the possible return to service of 2000 MW of nuclear generating capacity. The SRCP project was announced just prior to the Ontario Energy Competition Act of October 1998 which committed the province to introduce competition to the electricity sector and which created major uncertainties in the electricity market. Some of the small, 25 MW projects which survived the market uncertainty included the Toronto-based Toromont Energy Ltd. project involving gas fuelled cogeneration and methane gas generation from landfill projects in Sudbury and Waterloo. It was emphasized that cogeneration and combined heat and power projects have significant environmental advantages over large combined cycle facilities. The Ontario Energy Board is currently considering an application from TransAlta to link the SRCP facility to Ontario's Hydro One Network Inc.'s transmission grid. 1 fig

  6. Discovery of the largest orbweaving spider species: the evolution of gigantism in Nephila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntner, Matjaz; Coddington, Jonathan A

    2009-10-21

    More than 41,000 spider species are known with about 400-500 added each year, but for some well-known groups, such as the giant golden orbweavers, Nephila, the last valid described species dates from the 19(th) century. Nephila are renowned for being the largest web-spinning spiders, making the largest orb webs, and are model organisms for the study of extreme sexual size dimorphism (SSD) and sexual biology. Here, we report on the discovery of a new, giant Nephila species from Africa and Madagascar, and review size evolution and SSD in Nephilidae. We formally describe N. komaci sp. nov., the largest web spinning species known, and place the species in phylogenetic context to reconstruct the evolution of mean size (via squared change parsimony). We then test female and male mean size correlation using phylogenetically independent contrasts, and simulate nephilid body size evolution using Monte Carlo statistics. Nephila females increased in size almost monotonically to establish a mostly African clade of true giants. In contrast, Nephila male size is effectively decoupled and hovers around values roughly one fifth of female size. Although N. komaci females are the largest Nephila yet discovered, the males are also large and thus their SSD is not exceptional.

  7. Discovery of the largest orbweaving spider species: the evolution of gigantism in Nephila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaz Kuntner

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available More than 41,000 spider species are known with about 400-500 added each year, but for some well-known groups, such as the giant golden orbweavers, Nephila, the last valid described species dates from the 19(th century. Nephila are renowned for being the largest web-spinning spiders, making the largest orb webs, and are model organisms for the study of extreme sexual size dimorphism (SSD and sexual biology. Here, we report on the discovery of a new, giant Nephila species from Africa and Madagascar, and review size evolution and SSD in Nephilidae.We formally describe N. komaci sp. nov., the largest web spinning species known, and place the species in phylogenetic context to reconstruct the evolution of mean size (via squared change parsimony. We then test female and male mean size correlation using phylogenetically independent contrasts, and simulate nephilid body size evolution using Monte Carlo statistics.Nephila females increased in size almost monotonically to establish a mostly African clade of true giants. In contrast, Nephila male size is effectively decoupled and hovers around values roughly one fifth of female size. Although N. komaci females are the largest Nephila yet discovered, the males are also large and thus their SSD is not exceptional.

  8. The largest glitch observed in the Crab pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, B.; Lyne, A. G.; Stappers, B. W.; Weltevrede, P.; Bassa, C. G.; Lien, A. Y.; Mickaliger, M. B.; Breton, R. P.; Jordan, C. A.; Keith, M. J.; Krimm, H. A.

    2018-05-01

    We have observed a large glitch in the Crab pulsar (PSR B0531+21). The glitch occurred around MJD 58064 (2017 November 8) when the pulsar underwent an increase in the rotation rate of Δν = 1.530 × 10-5 Hz, corresponding to a fractional increase of Δν/ν = 0.516 × 10-6 making this event the largest glitch ever observed in this source. Due to our high-cadence and long-dwell time observations of the Crab pulsar we are able to partially resolve a fraction of the total spin-up of the star. This delayed spin-up occurred over a timescale of ˜1.7 days and is similar to the behaviour seen in the 1989 and 1996 large Crab pulsar glitches. The spin-down rate also increased at the glitch epoch by Δ \\dot{ν } / \\dot{ν } = 7 × 10^{-3}. In addition to being the largest such event observed in the Crab, the glitch occurred after the longest period of glitch inactivity since at least 1984 and we discuss a possible relationship between glitch size and waiting time. No changes to the shape of the pulse profile were observed near the glitch epoch at 610 MHz or 1520 MHz, nor did we identify any changes in the X-ray flux from the pulsar. The long-term recovery from the glitch continues to progress as \\dot{ν } slowly rises towards pre-glitch values. In line with other large Crab glitches, we expect there to be a persistent change to \\dot{ν }. We continue to monitor the long-term recovery with frequent, high quality observations.

  9. Kepler Mission: a Discovery-Class Mission Designed to Determine the Frequency of Earth-Size and Larger Planets Around Solar-Like Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borucki, William; Koch, David; Lissauer, Jack; Basri, Gibor; Caldwell, John; Cochran, William; Dunham, Edward W.; Gilliland, Ronald; Caldwell, Douglas; Kondo, Yoji; hide

    2002-01-01

    The first step in discovering the extent of life in our galaxy is to determine the number of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone (HZ). The Kepler Mission is designed around a 0.95 in aperture Schmidt-type telescope with an array of 42 CCDs designed to continuously monitor the brightness of 100,000 solar-like stars to detect the transits of Earth-size and larger planets. The photometer is scheduled to be launched into heliocentric orbit in 2007. Measurements of the depth and repetition time of transits provide the size of the planet relative to the star and its orbital period. When combined with ground-based spectroscopy of these stars to fix the stellar parameters, the true planet radius and orbit scale, hence the position relative to the HZ are determined. These spectra are also used to discover the relationships between the characteristics of planets and the stars they orbit. In particular, the association of planet size and occurrence frequency with stellar mass and metallicity will be investigated. At the end of the four year mission, hundreds of terrestrial planets should be discovered in and near the HZ of their stars if such planets are common. Extending the mission to six years doubles the expected number of Earth-size planets in the HZ. A null result would imply that terrestrial planets in the HZ occur in less than 1% of the stars and that life might be quite rare. Based on the results of the current Doppler-velocity discoveries, detection of a thousand giant planets is expected. Information on their albedos and densities of those giants showing transits will be obtained.

  10. Caracterização química e mineralógica de agregados de diferentes classes de tamanho de Latossolos Bruno e Vermelho localizados no estado do Paraná Chemical and mineralogical characterization of the different structure size classes of Red-Yellow and Dusky Red Latosols in Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vander de Freitas Melo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O teor e a forma dos minerais da fração argila são determinantes na definição da morfologia dos agregados do solo. Objetivando estudar a mineralogia da fração argila e as propriedades químicas de diferentes classes de agregados de Latossolos (Latossolo Bruno Ácrico húmico - LBd e Latossolo Vermelho Distroférrico húmico - LVdf originados de rochas basálticas no Estado do Paraná, coletaram-se amostras indeformadas em diferentes profundidades (horizontes Bw1 e Bw2 em perfis de solos localizados em duas toposseqüências (quatro perfis no LBd e três no LVdf. Após secagem e separação das amostras indeformadas em seis classes de agregados (2-4; 1-2; 0,5-1; 0,25-0,5; 0,105-0,25; The content and shap of clay minerals are important in the definition of soil structure morphology. To evaluate the clay mineralogy and chemical properties of different aggregate size-classes of Latosols (Red-Yellow - LBd and Dusky Red - LVdf derived from basalt in the state of Paraná, Brazil, soil samples of the Bw1 and Bw2 horizons were collected in four LBd and three LVdf profiles, distributed across two distinct toposequences. Dried and undisturbed soil samples were separated into six size-classes (2-4; 1-2; 0.5-1; 0.25-0.5; 0.105-0.25; < 0.105 mm and the soluble Si in 0,5 mol L-1 acetic acid and exchangeable K, Ca, Mg and Al contents were determined. The clay fraction extracted from each aggregate size-class was investigated by X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and chemical analysis. The content of exchangeable elements did not vary among the aggregate size-classes in the Bw1 and Bw2 horizons for Red-Yellow and Dusky Red Latosol profiles. In spite of the high and continuous weathering of these soils the mineralogical characteristics of the aggregate clay fraction were not homogenized. The highest variation in the mineral contents, according to the aggregate size class, was observed for the profile in the highest position of the LBd toposequence; the

  11. Dependent Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasiunas, Vaidas; Mezini, Mira; Ostermann, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    of dependent classes and a machine-checked type soundness proof in Isabelle/HOL [29], the first of this kind for a language with virtual classes and path-dependent types. [29] T.Nipkow, L.C. Poulson, and M. Wenzel. Isabelle/HOL -- A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order Logic, volume 2283 of LNCS, Springer, 2002......Virtual classes allow nested classes to be refined in subclasses. In this way nested classes can be seen as dependent abstractions of the objects of the enclosing classes. Expressing dependency via nesting, however, has two limitations: Abstractions that depend on more than one object cannot...... be modeled and a class must know all classes that depend on its objects. This paper presents dependent classes, a generalization of virtual classes that expresses similar semantics by parameterization rather than by nesting. This increases expressivity of class variations as well as the flexibility...

  12. Discovery of the Largest Orbweaving Spider Species: The Evolution of Gigantism in Nephila

    OpenAIRE

    Kuntner, Matja?; Coddington, Jonathan A.

    2009-01-01

    Background More than 41,000 spider species are known with about 400?500 added each year, but for some well-known groups, such as the giant golden orbweavers, Nephila, the last valid described species dates from the 19th century. Nephila are renowned for being the largest web-spinning spiders, making the largest orb webs, and are model organisms for the study of extreme sexual size dimorphism (SSD) and sexual biology. Here, we report on the discovery of a new, giant Nephila species from Africa...

  13. Evolution of the two-phase flow in a vertical tube-decomposition of gas fraction profiles according to bubble size classes using wire-mesh sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasser, H.M.; Krepper, E.; Lucas, D. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany)

    2002-01-01

    The wire-mesh sensor developed by the Forschungszentrum Rossendorf produces sequences of instantaneous gas fraction distributions in a cross section with a time resolution of 1200 frames per second and a spatial resolution of about 2-3 mm. At moderate flow velocities (up to 1-2 m.s{sup -1}), bubble size distributions can be obtained, since each individual bubble is mapped in several successive distributions. The method was used to study the evolution of the bubble size distribution in a vertical two-phase flow. For this purpose, the sensor was placed downstream of an air injector, the distance between air injection and sensor was varied. The bubble identification algorithm allows to select bubbles of a given range of the effective diameter and to calculate partial gas fraction profiles for this diameter range. In this way, the different behaviour of small and large bubbles in respect to the action of the lift force was observed in a mixture of small and large bubbles. (authors)

  14. Differences in extreme low salinity timing and duration differentially affect eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) size class growth and mortality in Breton Sound, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPeyre, Megan K.; Eberline, Benjamin S.; Soniat, Thomas M.; La Peyre, Jerome F.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how different life history stages are impacted by extreme or stochastic environmental variation is critical for predicting and modeling organism population dynamics. This project examined recruitment, growth, and mortality of seed (25–75 mm) and market (>75 mm) sized oysters along a salinity gradient over two years in Breton Sound, LA. In April 2010, management responses to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill resulted in extreme low salinity (25 °C) significantly and negatively impacted oyster recruitment, survival and growth in 2010, while low salinity (25 °C). With increasing management of our freshwater inputs to estuaries combined with predicted climate changes, how extreme events affect different life history stages is key to understanding variation in population demographics of commercially important species and predicting future populations.

  15. Guaranteeing uptime at worl's largest particle physics lab

    CERN Multimedia

    Brodkin, Jon

    2007-01-01

    "As the European agency CERN was gearing up to build the world's largest particle accelerator, officials there knew they could not afford to have problems in their technical infrastructure cause any downtime." (1 page)

  16. Distribution and Modeled Transport of Plastic Pollution in the Great Lakes, the World's Largest Freshwater Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel N. Cable

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Most plastic pollution originates on land. As such, freshwater bodies serve as conduits for the transport of plastic litter to the ocean. Understanding the concentrations and fluxes of plastic litter in freshwater ecosystems is critical to our understanding of the global plastic litter budget and underpins the success of future management strategies. We conducted a replicated field survey of surface plastic concentrations in four lakes in the North American Great Lakes system, the largest contiguous freshwater system on the planet. We then modeled plastic transport to resolve spatial and temporal variability of plastic distribution in one of the Great Lakes, Lake Erie. Triplicate surface samples were collected at 38 stations in mid-summer of 2014. Plastic particles >106 μm in size were quantified. Concentrations were highest near populated urban areas and their water infrastructure. In the highest concentration trawl, nearly 2 million fragments km−2 were found in the Detroit River—dwarfing previous reports of Great Lakes plastic abundances by over 4-fold. Yet, the accuracy of single trawl counts was challenged: within-station plastic abundances varied 0- to 3-fold between replicate trawls. In the smallest size class (106–1,000 μm, false positive rates of 12–24% were determined analytically for plastic vs. non-plastic, while false negative rates averaged ~18%. Though predicted to form in summer by the existing Lake Erie circulation model, our transport model did not predict a permanent surface “Lake Erie Garbage Patch” in its central basin—a trend supported by field survey data. Rather, general eastward transport with recirculation in the major basins was predicted. Further, modeled plastic residence times were drastically influenced by plastic buoyancy. Neutrally buoyant plastics—those with the same density as the ambient water—were flushed several times slower than plastics floating at the water's surface and exceeded the

  17. Running across Europe: The rise and size of one of the largest sport markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheerder, J.; Breedveld, K.

    2015-01-01

    Who is doing a run with the running boom? The growth and governance of one of Europe's most popular sport activities / Jeroen Scheerder, Koen Breedveld and Julie Borgers -- Belgium (Flanders): trends and governance in running / Julie Borgers, Steven Vos and Jeroen Scheerder -- Denmark: running for

  18. Survivorship and feeding preferences among size classes of outplanted sea urchins, Tripneustes gratilla, and possible use as biocontrol for invasive alien algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charley E. Westbrook

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the survivorship, growth and diet preferences of hatchery-raised juvenile urchins, Tripneustes gratilla, to evaluate the efficacy of their use as biocontrol agents in the efforts to reduce alien invasive algae. In flow-through tanks, we measured urchin growth rates, feeding rates and feeding preferences among diets of the most common invasive algae found in Kāneʻohe Bay, Hawaiʻi: Acanthophora spicifera, Gracilaria salicornia, Eucheuma denticulatum and Kappaphycus clade B. Post-transport survivorship of outplanted urchins was measured in paired open and closed cages in three different reef environments (lagoon, reef flat and reef slope for a month. Survivorship in closed cages was highest on the reef flat (∼75%, and intermediate in the lagoon and reef slope (∼50%. In contrast, open cages showed similar survivorship on the reef flat and in the lagoon, but only 20% of juvenile urchins survived in open cages placed on the reef slope. Urchins grew significantly faster on diets of G. salicornia (1.58 mm/week ± 0.14 SE and Kappaphycus clade B (1.69 ± 0.14 mm/wk than on E. denticulatum (0.97 ± 0.14 mm/wk, with intermediate growth when fed on A. spicifera (1.23 ± 0.11 mm/wk. Interestingly, urchins display size-specific feeding preferences. In non-choice feeding trials, small urchins (17.5–22.5 mm test diameter consumed G. salicornia fastest (6.08 g/day ± 0.19 SE, with A. spicifera (4.25 ± 0.02 g/day and Kappaphycus clade B (3.83 ± 0.02 g/day intermediate, and E. denticulatum was clearly the least consumed (2.32 ± 0.37 g/day. Medium-sized (29.8–43.8 mm urchins likewise preferentially consumed G. salicornia (12.60 ± 0.08 g/day, with less clear differences among the other species in which E. denticulatum was still consumed least (9.35 ± 0.90 g/day. In contrast, large urchins (45.0–65.0 mm showed no significant preferences among the different algae species at all (12.43–15.24 g/day. Overall consumption rates in non

  19. Cutting Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Andrew

    1976-01-01

    Provides critical reviews of three books, "The Political Economy of Social Class", "Ethnicity: Theory and Experience," and "Ethnicity in the United States," focusing on the political economy of social class and ethnicity. (Author/AM)

  20. Cheetah paradigm revisited: MHC diversity in the world's largest free-ranging population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Prieto, Aines; Wachter, Bettina; Sommer, Simone

    2011-04-01

    For more than two decades, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has been considered a paradigm of disease vulnerability associated with low genetic diversity, particularly at the immune genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Cheetahs have been used as a classic example in numerous conservation genetics textbooks as well as in many related scientific publications. However, earlier studies used methods with low resolution to quantify MHC diversity and/or small sample sizes. Furthermore, high disease susceptibility was reported only for captive cheetahs, whereas free-ranging cheetahs show no signs of infectious diseases and a good general health status. We examined whether the diversity at MHC class I and class II-DRB loci in 149 Namibian cheetahs was higher than previously reported using single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis, cloning, and sequencing. MHC genes were examined at the genomic and transcriptomic levels. We detected ten MHC class I and four class II-DRB alleles, of which nine MHC class I and all class II-DRB alleles were expressed. Phylogenetic analyses and individual genotypes suggested that the alleles belong to four MHC class I and three class II-DRB putative loci. Evidence of positive selection was detected in both MHC loci. Our study indicated that the low number of MHC class I alleles previously observed in cheetahs was due to a smaller sample size examined. On the other hand, the low number of MHC class II-DRB alleles previously observed in cheetahs was further confirmed. Compared with other mammalian species including felids, cheetahs showed low levels of MHC diversity, but this does not seem to influence the immunocompetence of free-ranging cheetahs in Namibia and contradicts the previous conclusion that the cheetah is a paradigm species of disease vulnerability.

  1. Joint Asymptotic Distributions of Smallest and Largest Insurance Claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansjörg Albrecher

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Assume that claims in a portfolio of insurance contracts are described by independent and identically distributed random variables with regularly varying tails and occur according to a near mixed Poisson process. We provide a collection of results pertaining to the joint asymptotic Laplace transforms of the normalised sums of the smallest and largest claims, when the length of the considered time interval tends to infinity. The results crucially depend on the value of the tail index of the claim distribution, as well as on the number of largest claims under consideration.

  2. Challenges with the largest commercial hydrogen station in the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charbonneau, Thomas; Gauthier, Pierre [Air Liquide Canada (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This abstract's objective is to share with the participants the story of the largest hydrogen fueling station made to this date and to kick-start the story, we will cover the challenges; first the technical ones; the operational ones; the distribution ones and; the financial ones. We will then move on to review the logistic (geographic) issues raised by the project and conclude our presentation by sharing the output values of the largest fueling station built so far in the world. (orig.)

  3. Why Does Rebalancing Class-Unbalanced Data Improve AUC for Linear Discriminant Analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jing-Hao; Hall, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Many established classifiers fail to identify the minority class when it is much smaller than the majority class. To tackle this problem, researchers often first rebalance the class sizes in the training dataset, through oversampling the minority class or undersampling the majority class, and then use the rebalanced data to train the classifiers. This leads to interesting empirical patterns. In particular, using the rebalanced training data can often improve the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for the original, unbalanced test data. The AUC is a widely-used quantitative measure of classification performance, but the property that it increases with rebalancing has, as yet, no theoretical explanation. In this note, using Gaussian-based linear discriminant analysis (LDA) as the classifier, we demonstrate that, at least for LDA, there is an intrinsic, positive relationship between the rebalancing of class sizes and the improvement of AUC. We show that the largest improvement of AUC is achieved, asymptotically, when the two classes are fully rebalanced to be of equal sizes.

  4. NAFTA: The World's Largest Trading Zone Turns 20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, Tawni Hunt; Day, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Everyone under the age of 20 who has grown up in North America has lived in the common market created by NAFTA--the North American Free Trade Agreement. In a zone linking the United States, Canada, and Mexico, most goods and investments flow freely across borders to users, consumers, and investors. In 1994, NAFTA created the largest relatively…

  5. Synchrotron Emission on the Largest Scales: Radio Detection of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Shocks and turbulence generated during large-scale structure formation are predicted to produce large-scale, low surface-brightness synchrotron emission. On the largest scales, this emission is globally correlated with the thermal baryon distribution, and constitutes the 'syn- chrotron cosmic-web'. I present the ...

  6. Building Earth's Largest Library: Driving into the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, Steve

    1999-01-01

    Examines the Amazon.com online bookstore as a blueprint for designing the world's largest library. Topics include selection; accessibility and convenience; quality of Web sites and search tools; personalized service; library collection development, including interlibrary loan; library catalogs and catalog records; a circulation system; costs;…

  7. Analysis of Human Standing Balance by Largest Lyapunov Exponent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to analyse the relationship between nonlinear dynamic character and individuals’ standing balance by the largest Lyapunov exponent, which is regarded as a metric for assessing standing balance. According to previous study, the largest Lyapunov exponent from centre of pressure time series could not well quantify the human balance ability. In this research, two improvements were made. Firstly, an external stimulus was applied to feet in the form of continuous horizontal sinusoidal motion by a moving platform. Secondly, a multiaccelerometer subsystem was adopted. Twenty healthy volunteers participated in this experiment. A new metric, coordinated largest Lyapunov exponent was proposed, which reflected the relationship of body segments by integrating multidimensional largest Lyapunov exponent values. By using this metric in actual standing performance under sinusoidal stimulus, an obvious relationship between the new metric and the actual balance ability was found in the majority of the subjects. These results show that the sinusoidal stimulus can make human balance characteristics more obvious, which is beneficial to assess balance, and balance is determined by the ability of coordinating all body segments.

  8. Worlds largest particle physics laboratory selects Proxim Wireless Mesh

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Proxim Wireless has announced that the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), the world's largest particle physics laboratory and the birthplace of the World Wide Web, is using it's ORiNOCO AP-4000 mesh access points to extend the range of the laboratory's Wi-Fi network and to provide continuous monitoring of the lab's calorimeters" (1/2 page)

  9. PNNL supercomputer to become largest computing resource on the Grid

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Hewlett Packard announced that the US DOE Pacific Northwest National Laboratory will connect a 9.3-teraflop HP supercomputer to the DOE Science Grid. This will be the largest supercomputer attached to a computer grid anywhere in the world (1 page).

  10. Toward sustainable harvesting of Africa's largest medicinal plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global demand for treating prostate disorders with Prunus africana bark extract has made P. africana Africa's largest medicinal plant export. Unsustainable harvesting practices can lead to local extirpations of this multipurpose tree. Survey research targeting P. africana harvesters in a Tanzania forest reserve revealed that ...

  11. THE CHALLENGE OF THE LARGEST STRUCTURES IN THE UNIVERSE TO COSMOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Changbom; Choi, Yun-Young; Kim, Sungsoo S.; Kim, Kap-Sung; Kim, Juhan; Gott III, J. Richard

    2012-01-01

    Large galaxy redshift surveys have long been used to constrain cosmological models and structure formation scenarios. In particular, the largest structures discovered observationally are thought to carry critical information on the amplitude of large-scale density fluctuations or homogeneity of the universe, and have often challenged the standard cosmological framework. The Sloan Great Wall (SGW) recently found in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) region casts doubt on the concordance cosmological model with a cosmological constant (i.e., the flat ΛCDM model). Here we show that the existence of the SGW is perfectly consistent with the ΛCDM model, a result that only our very large cosmological N-body simulation (the Horizon Run 2, HR2) could supply. In addition, we report on the discovery of a void complex in the SDSS much larger than the SGW, and show that such size of the largest void is also predicted in the ΛCDM paradigm. Our results demonstrate that an initially homogeneous isotropic universe with primordial Gaussian random phase density fluctuations growing in accordance with the general relativity can explain the richness and size of the observed large-scale structures in the SDSS. Using the HR2 simulation we predict that a future galaxy redshift survey about four times deeper or with 3 mag fainter limit than the SDSS should reveal a largest structure of bright galaxies about twice as big as the SGW.

  12. Temporal properties of seismicity and largest earthquakes in SE Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Byrdina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to estimate the hazard rate distribution of the largest seismic events in Vrancea, South-Eastern Carpathians, we study temporal properties of historical and instrumental catalogues of seismicity. First, on the basis of Generalized Extreme Value theory we estimate the average return period of the largest events. Then, following Bak et al. (2002 and Corral (2005a, we study scaling properties of recurrence times between earthquakes in appropriate spatial volumes. We come to the conclusion that the seismicity is temporally clustered, and that the distribution of recurrence times is significantly different from a Poisson process even for times largely exceeding corresponding periods of foreshock and aftershock activity. Modeling the recurrence times by a gamma distributed variable, we finally estimate hazard rates with respect to the time elapsed from the last large earthquake.

  13. Astronomer's new guide to the galaxy: largest map of cold dust revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    "pathfinder" for ALMA -- it is based on a prototype antenna constructed for the ALMA project, it is located on the same plateau and will find many targets that ALMA will be able to study in extreme detail. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an international astronomy facility, is a partnership of Europe, North America and East Asia in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. ESO is the European partner in ALMA. ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence, is a revolutionary telescope, comprising an array of 66 giant 12-metre and 7-metre diameter antennas observing at millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths. ALMA will start scientific observations in 2011. ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning a 42-metre European Extremely Large optical/near-infrared Telescope, the E-ELT, which will become "the world's biggest eye on the sky".

  14. Upgrade and modernization of the six largest HPPs in Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadzievska, M.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, Electric Power Company of Macedonia and the International Bank for Development and Reconstruction, started the Power System Improvement Project a part of which is the Project for rehabilitation of the six largest Hydro Power Plants (HPPs) in the Republic of Macedonia. The six largest Hydro Power Plants (HPP Vrutok, HPP Raven, HPP Globocica, HPP Tikves and HPP Spilje and HPP Vrben) represent 91% of the country's hydropower capacity. The rehabilitation program is divided in five parts (contracts) and covers the refurbishment of: turbine runners, turbine and generator bearings, governors, inlet valves; butterfly valves, including accessories and control systems; generators, excitation system and voltage regulation; control system, protection and LV auxiliaries; switch gears and control gears in 220 kV, 110 kV and 35 kV substations. At the moment, only the implementation of switch gears has started, the first phase is already finished, and 50 % of the rehabilitation works for HPP Vrutok, the largest HPP, has been finished. With the realization of this project, greater hydropower production is expected. It also expected that HPPs will become a more vital part of the Macedonian power system

  15. Kabob report. Pt. 3. Chevron plant largest in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1971-01-18

    Canada's largest fully integrated primary natural- gas processing and sulfur recovery plant is heading for physical completion by mid-summer of 1971. The Ralph M. Parsons Construction Co. of Canada Ltd., contractor for the S. Kaybob Beaverhill Lake Unit No. 3 gas-processing plant, to be operated by Chevron Standard Ltd., estimates completion by June 30. After that the $80 million complex will have tests and running in time. With any reasonable luck, it should be fully on stream by late summer. Preliminary construction on the 200-acre site started in Jan. 1969 with clearing and contouring of the main plant and sulfur storage sites. Initial rough grading started in the early summer, after spring breakup was over. Delivery of most of the big items was made by rail because the local secondary roads were inadequate for them. Concrete has been a large item. The contractor has its own batch plant on the site for the estimated 28,000 cu yd which will be needed for the whole job. Dominating the construction site from the start has been the high sulfur plant stack, first of the major items to be finished. It will serve to dispose of effluent from the largest sulfur recovery unit in Canada. It is 465 ft high, one of the largest in Alberta, and a significant contribution to pollution control and environmental protection.

  16. Word classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2007-01-01

    in grammatical descriptions of some 50 languages, which together constitute a representative sample of the world’s languages (Hengeveld et al. 2004: 529). It appears that there are both quantitative and qualitative differences between word class systems of individual languages. Whereas some languages employ...... a parts-of-speech system that includes the categories Verb, Noun, Adjective and Adverb, other languages may use only a subset of these four lexical categories. Furthermore, quite a few languages have a major word class whose members cannot be classified in terms of the categories Verb – Noun – Adjective...... – Adverb, because they have properties that are strongly associated with at least two of these four traditional word classes (e.g. Adjective and Adverb). Finally, this article discusses some of the ways in which word class distinctions interact with other grammatical domains, such as syntax and morphology....

  17. The Environmental Responsibility of the World’s Largest Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszawska Bożena

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability transition is changing the role and function of banks, specially their products and services also in relation to stakeholders. Banks are one of the main actors supporting the transition to sustainable economy. The purpose of this study is to emphasise the role of world’s largest banks in that process. Banks are slowly responding to the new demand of sustainability and responsibility, and they try to align with it. The paper is based on an overview of the world’s five largest banks that employ corporate social responsibility (CSR reporting standards, together with detailed enumeration of pro-environmental activities included in the reports. The first section of this paper presents the most popular approaches to the problem at hand, as reported in professional literature. Section two presents the characteristics of the CSR actions in banks. The third section discusses the environmental actions of the biggest banks in Global Reporting Initiative (GRI reporting the most popular standard for reporting non-financial information. And the last part of the paper presents the conclusions resulting from the article. The research was conducted using a variety of sources, such as scientific articles, statistical data, CSR reports of the world’s largest banks, as well reporting principles and standard disclosures. The basic method used in the process of writing was a critical analysis of literature and reports concerning the CSR reporting standards, environmental responsibilities of different kinds of entities, as well as own observations based on special reports of banks. In the article, also the analysis of financial market data, induction method and comparison method have been used. The main conclusions of the analysis of the CSR reports disclosed by the world’s largest banks confirm all three of the theses presented in the article. The findings suggest that the banks under study can be regarded as environmentally responsible

  18. Environmental isotope signatures of the largest freshwater lake in Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unnikrishnan Warrier, C.

    2007-01-01

    Sasthamkotta lake, the largest freshwater lake in Kerala, serves as a source for drinking water for more than half a million people. Environmental 137 Cs analysis done on undisturbed sediment core samples reveals that the recent rate of sedimentation is not uniform in the lake. The useful life of lake is estimated as about 800 years. The δD and δ 18 O values of the lake waters indicate that the lake is well mixed with a slight variation horizontally. The stable isotope studies on well waters from the catchment indicate hydraulic communication with the lake and lake groundwater system is flow-through type. Analytical model also supports this view. (author)

  19. How the largest electric and gas utility companies administer public relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogart, J.D.

    1979-04-12

    This article describes the findings of a survey conducted by the author in the second half of 1978 to determine the sizes of the public relations staffs of the nation's largest operating electric and gas utilities, their budgets, organizational differences, and specific functions. Common public relations issues and major public relations problems of the utilities are identified, as well as recent trends or changes in budgeting and organization. Some functional variations of public relations departments among utility companies were detected and described.

  20. Fishing down the largest coral reef fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, Douglas

    2014-07-15

    Studies on remote, uninhabited, near-pristine reefs have revealed surprisingly large populations of large reef fish. Locations such as the northwestern Hawaiian Islands, northern Marianas Islands, Line Islands, U.S. remote Pacific Islands, Cocos-Keeling Atoll and Chagos archipelago have much higher reef fish biomass than islands and reefs near people. Much of the high biomass of most remote reef fish communities lies in the largest species, such as sharks, bumphead parrots, giant trevally, and humphead wrasse. Some, such as sharks and giant trevally, are apex predators, but others such as bumphead parrots and humphead wrasse, are not. At many locations, decreases in large reef fish species have been attributed to fishing. Fishing is well known to remove the largest fish first, and a quantitative measure of vulnerability to fishing indicates that large reef fish species are much more vulnerable to fishing than small fish. The removal of large reef fish by fishing parallels the extinction of terrestrial megafauna by early humans. However large reef fish have great value for various ecological roles and for reef tourism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Social Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aktor, Mikael

    2018-01-01

    . Although this social structure was ideal in nature and not equally confirmed in other genres of ancient and medieval literature, it has nevertheless had an immense impact on Indian society. The chapter presents an overview of the system with its three privileged classes, the Brahmins, the Kṣatriyas......The notions of class (varṇa) and caste (jāti) run through the dharmaśāstra literature (i.e. Hindu Law Books) on all levels. They regulate marriage, economic transactions, work, punishment, penance, entitlement to rituals, identity markers like the sacred thread, and social interaction in general...

  2. Functional form for the leading correction to the distribution of the largest eigenvalue in the GUE and LUE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Peter J.; Trinh, Allan K.

    2018-05-01

    The neighbourhood of the largest eigenvalue λmax in the Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE) and Laguerre unitary ensemble (LUE) is referred to as the soft edge. It is known that there exists a particular centring and scaling such that the distribution of λmax tends to a universal form, with an error term bounded by 1/N2/3. We take up the problem of computing the exact functional form of the leading error term in a large N asymptotic expansion for both the GUE and LUE—two versions of the LUE are considered, one with the parameter a fixed and the other with a proportional to N. Both settings in the LUE case allow for an interpretation in terms of the distribution of a particular weighted path length in a model involving exponential variables on a rectangular grid, as the grid size gets large. We give operator theoretic forms of the corrections, which are corollaries of knowledge of the first two terms in the large N expansion of the scaled kernel and are readily computed using a method due to Bornemann. We also give expressions in terms of the solutions of particular systems of coupled differential equations, which provide an alternative method of computation. Both characterisations are well suited to a thinned generalisation of the original ensemble, whereby each eigenvalue is deleted independently with probability (1 - ξ). In Sec. V, we investigate using simulation the question of whether upon an appropriate centring and scaling a wider class of complex Hermitian random matrix ensembles have their leading correction to the distribution of λmax proportional to 1/N2/3.

  3. Carbon and energy fluxes from China's largest freshwater lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, G.; LIU, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon and energy fluxes between lakes and the atmosphere are important aspects of hydrology, limnology, and ecology studies. China's largest freshwater lake, the Poyang lake experiences tremendous water-land transitions periodically throughout the year, which provides natural experimental settings for the study of carbon and energy fluxes. In this study, we use the eddy covariance technique to explore the seasonal and diurnal variation patterns of sensible and latent heat fluxes of Poyang lake during its high-water and low-water periods, when the lake is covered by water and mudflat, respectively. We also determine the annual NEE of Poyang lake and the variations of NEE's components: Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (Re). Controlling factors of seasonal and diurnal variations of carbon and energy fluxes are analyzed, and land cover impacts on the variation patterns are also studied. Finally, the coupling between the carbon and energy fluxes are analyzed under different atmospheric, boundary stability and land cover conditions.

  4. SSC RIAR is the largest centre of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalygin, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    The State Scientific Centre (SSC) ''Research Institute of Atomic Reactors'' (RIAR) is situated 100 km to the south-east from Moscow, in Dimitrovgrad, the Volga Region of the Russian Federation. SSC RIAR is the largest centre of research reactors in Russia. At present there are 5 types of reactor facilities in operation, including two NPP. One of the main tasks the Centre is the investigations on safety increase for power reactors. Broad international connections are available at the Institute. On the basis of the SSC RIAR during 3 years work has been done on the development of the branch training centre (TC) for the training of operation personnel of research and pilot reactors in Russia. (author). 3 tabs

  5. BALU: Largest autoclave research facility in the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Ucan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the large-scale facilities operated at the Center for Lightweight-Production-Technology of the German Aerospace Center in Stade BALU is the world's largest research autoclave. With a loading length of 20m and a loading diameter of 5.8 m the main objective of the facility is the optimization of the curing process operated by components made of carbon fiber on an industrial scale. For this reason, a novel dynamic autoclaving control has been developed that is characterized by peripheral devices to expend the performance of the facility for differential applications, by sensing systems to detect the component state throughout the curing process and by a feedback system, which is capable to intervene into the running autoclave process.

  6. Switzerland's largest wood-pellet factory in Balsthal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stohler, F.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes how a small Swiss electricity utility has broken out of its traditional role in power generation and the distribution of electricity and gone into the production of wood pellets. The pellets, which are made from waste wood (sawdust) available from wood processing companies, are produced on a large scale in one of Europe's largest pellets production facilities. The boom in the use of wood pellets for heating purposes is discussed. The article discusses this unusual approach for a Swiss power utility, which also operates a wood-fired power station and is even involved in an incineration plant for household wastes. The markets being aimed for in Switzerland and in Europe are described, including modern low-energy-consumption housing projects. A further project is described that is to use waste wood available from a large wood processing facility planned in the utility's own region

  7. Opportunities for biodiversity gains under the world's largest reforestation programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Fangyuan; Wang, Xiaoyang; Zheng, Xinlei; Fisher, Brendan; Wang, Lin; Zhu, Jianguo; Tang, Ya; Yu, Douglas W.; Wilcove, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Reforestation is a critical means of addressing the environmental and social problems of deforestation. China's Grain-for-Green Program (GFGP) is the world's largest reforestation scheme. Here we provide the first nationwide assessment of the tree composition of GFGP forests and the first combined ecological and economic study aimed at understanding GFGP's biodiversity implications. Across China, GFGP forests are overwhelmingly monocultures or compositionally simple mixed forests. Focusing on birds and bees in Sichuan Province, we find that GFGP reforestation results in modest gains (via mixed forest) and losses (via monocultures) of bird diversity, along with major losses of bee diversity. Moreover, all current modes of GFGP reforestation fall short of restoring biodiversity to levels approximating native forests. However, even within existing modes of reforestation, GFGP can achieve greater biodiversity gains by promoting mixed forests over monocultures; doing so is unlikely to entail major opportunity costs or pose unforeseen economic risks to households. PMID:27598524

  8. SSC RIAR is the largest centre of research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalygin, V V [State Scientific Centre, Research Inst. of Atomic Reactors (Russian Federation)

    1997-10-01

    The State Scientific Centre (SSC) ``Research Institute of Atomic Reactors`` (RIAR) is situated 100 km to the south-east from Moscow, in Dimitrovgrad, the Volga Region of the Russian Federation. SSC RIAR is the largest centre of research reactors in Russia. At present there are 5 types of reactor facilities in operation, including two NPP. One of the main tasks the Centre is the investigations on safety increase for power reactors. Broad international connections are available at the Institute. On the basis of the SSC RIAR during 3 years work has been done on the development of the branch training centre (TC) for the training of operation personnel of research and pilot reactors in Russia. (author). 3 tabs.

  9. Largest US oil and gas fields, August 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Largest US Oil and Gas Fields is a technical report and part of an Energy Information Administration (EIA) series presenting distributions of US crude oil and natural gas resources, developed using field-level data collected by EIA's annual survey of oil and gas proved reserves. The series' objective is to provide useful information beyond that routinely presented in the EIA annual report on crude oil and natural gas reserves. These special reports also will provide oil and gas resource analysts with a fuller understanding of the nature of US crude oil and natural gas occurrence, both at the macro level and with respect to the specific subjects addressed. The series' approach is to integrate EIA's crude oil and natural gas survey data with related data obtained from other authoritative sources, and then to present illustrations and analyses of interest to a broad spectrum of energy information users ranging from the general public to oil and gas industry personnel

  10. Quicksort, largest bucket, and min-wise hashing with limited independence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mathias Bæk Tejs; Stöckel, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Randomized algorithms and data structures are often analyzed under the assumption of access to a perfect source of randomness. The most fundamental metric used to measure how “random” a hash function or a random number generator is, is its independence: a sequence of random variables is said...... to be k-independent if every variable is uniform and every size k subset is independent. In this paper we consider three classic algorithms under limited independence. Besides the theoretical interest in removing the unrealistic assumption of full independence, the work is motivated by lower independence...... being more practical. We provide new bounds for randomized quicksort, min-wise hashing and largest bucket size under limited independence. Our results can be summarized as follows. Randomized Quicksort. When pivot elements are computed using a 5-independent hash function, Karloff and Raghavan, J.ACM’93...

  11. Phosphorus content as a function of soil aggregate size and paddy cultivation in highly weathered soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baozhen; Ge, Tida; Xiao, Heai; Zhu, Zhenke; Li, Yong; Shibistova, Olga; Liu, Shoulong; Wu, Jinshui; Inubushi, Kazuyuki; Guggenberger, Georg

    2016-04-01

    Red soils are the major land resource in subtropical and tropical areas and are characterized by low phosphorus (P) availability. To assess the availability of P for plants and the potential stability of P in soil, two pairs of subtropical red soil samples from a paddy field and an adjacent uncultivated upland were collected from Hunan Province, China. Analysis of total P and Olsen P and sequential extraction was used to determine the inorganic and organic P fractions in different aggregate size classes. Our results showed that the soil under paddy cultivation had lower proportions of small aggregates and higher proportions of large aggregates than those from the uncultivated upland soil. The portion of >2-mm-sized aggregates increased by 31 and 20 % at Taoyuan and Guiyang, respectively. The total P and Olsen P contents were 50-150 and 50-300 % higher, respectively, in the paddy soil than those in the upland soil. Higher inorganic and organic P fractions tended to be enriched in both the smallest and largest aggregate size classes compared to the middle size class (0.02-0.2 mm). Furthermore, the proportion of P fractions was higher in smaller aggregate sizes (2 mm). In conclusion, soils under paddy cultivation displayed improved soil aggregate structure, altered distribution patterns of P fractions in different aggregate size classes, and to some extent had enhanced labile P pools.

  12. Birthing Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... management options. Breastfeeding basics. Caring for baby at home. Birthing classes are not just for new parents, though. ... midwife. Postpartum care. Caring for your baby at home, including baby first aid. Lamaze One of the most popular birthing techniques in the U.S., Lamaze has been around ...

  13. Class prediction for high-dimensional class-imbalanced data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusa Lara

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of class prediction studies is to develop rules to accurately predict the class membership of new samples. The rules are derived using the values of the variables available for each subject: the main characteristic of high-dimensional data is that the number of variables greatly exceeds the number of samples. Frequently the classifiers are developed using class-imbalanced data, i.e., data sets where the number of samples in each class is not equal. Standard classification methods used on class-imbalanced data often produce classifiers that do not accurately predict the minority class; the prediction is biased towards the majority class. In this paper we investigate if the high-dimensionality poses additional challenges when dealing with class-imbalanced prediction. We evaluate the performance of six types of classifiers on class-imbalanced data, using simulated data and a publicly available data set from a breast cancer gene-expression microarray study. We also investigate the effectiveness of some strategies that are available to overcome the effect of class imbalance. Results Our results show that the evaluated classifiers are highly sensitive to class imbalance and that variable selection introduces an additional bias towards classification into the majority class. Most new samples are assigned to the majority class from the training set, unless the difference between the classes is very large. As a consequence, the class-specific predictive accuracies differ considerably. When the class imbalance is not too severe, down-sizing and asymmetric bagging embedding variable selection work well, while over-sampling does not. Variable normalization can further worsen the performance of the classifiers. Conclusions Our results show that matching the prevalence of the classes in training and test set does not guarantee good performance of classifiers and that the problems related to classification with class

  14. Oceans of Opportunity. Harnessing Europe's largest domestic energy resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichaux, N.; Wilkes, J.

    2009-09-01

    Europe's offshore wind potential is enormous and able to power Europe seven times over. Over 100 GW of offshore wind projects are already in various stages of planning. If realised, these projects would produce 10% of the EU's electricity whilst avoiding 200 million tonnes of CO2 emissions each year. EWEA has a target of 40 GW of offshore wind in the EU by 2020, implying an average annual market growth of 28% over the coming 12 years. The EU market for onshore wind grew by an average 32% per year in the 12-year period from 1992-2004 - what the wind energy industry has achieved on land can be repeated at sea. EWEA's proposed offshore grid builds on the 11 offshore grids currently operating and 21 offshore grids currently being considered by the grid operators in the Baltic and North Seas to give Europe a truly pan-European electricity super highway. Strong political support and action from Europe's policy-makers will allow a new, multi-billion euro industry to be built. This new industry will deliver thousands of green collar jobs and a new renewable energy economy and establish Europe as world leader in offshore wind power technology. A single European electricity market with large amounts of wind power will bring affordable electricity to consumers, reduce import dependence, cut CO2 emissions and allow Europe to access its largest domestic energy source.

  15. Characterization of the largest effector gene cluster of Ustilago maydis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Brefort

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the genome of the biotrophic plant pathogen Ustilago maydis, many of the genes coding for secreted protein effectors modulating virulence are arranged in gene clusters. The vast majority of these genes encode novel proteins whose expression is coupled to plant colonization. The largest of these gene clusters, cluster 19A, encodes 24 secreted effectors. Deletion of the entire cluster results in severe attenuation of virulence. Here we present the functional analysis of this genomic region. We show that a 19A deletion mutant behaves like an endophyte, i.e. is still able to colonize plants and complete the infection cycle. However, tumors, the most conspicuous symptoms of maize smut disease, are only rarely formed and fungal biomass in infected tissue is significantly reduced. The generation and analysis of strains carrying sub-deletions identified several genes significantly contributing to tumor formation after seedling infection. Another of the effectors could be linked specifically to anthocyanin induction in the infected tissue. As the individual contributions of these genes to tumor formation were small, we studied the response of maize plants to the whole cluster mutant as well as to several individual mutants by array analysis. This revealed distinct plant responses, demonstrating that the respective effectors have discrete plant targets. We propose that the analysis of plant responses to effector mutant strains that lack a strong virulence phenotype may be a general way to visualize differences in effector function.

  16. El Paso natural gas nearing completion of system's largest expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    El Paso Natural Gas Co.'s largest expansion program in its 64-year history will be completed along its northern system this spring or early summer. According to the company, the three-tiered, $241.5 million expansion program will increase El Paso's gas-transport capacity by 835 MMcfd to 2.5 bcfd of conventional and coal-seam gas from the San Juan basin in northwestern New Mexico. That's enough natural gas, says the company, to supply the needs of a city of more than 800,000 residents. This paper reports that the expansion involves the San Juan Triangle system, the company's northern main line, and the Permian-San Juan crossover line. The company also filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) in October 1991 to construct a new $15.2 million compressor station, Rio Vista, south of Bloomfield, N.M. The station would be used to move additional gas to the main line

  17. Benchmark Testing of the Largest Titanium Aluminide Sheet Subelement Conducted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotta, Paul A.; Krause, David L.

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate wrought titanium aluminide (gamma TiAl) as a viable candidate material for the High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) exhaust nozzle, an international team led by the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field successfully fabricated and tested the largest gamma TiAl sheet structure ever manufactured. The gamma TiAl sheet structure, a 56-percent subscale divergent flap subelement, was fabricated for benchmark testing in three-point bending. Overall, the subelement was 84-cm (33-in.) long by 13-cm (5-in.) wide by 8-cm (3-in.) deep. Incorporated into the subelement were features that might be used in the fabrication of a full-scale divergent flap. These features include the use of: (1) gamma TiAl shear clips to join together sections of corrugations, (2) multiple gamma TiAl face sheets, (3) double hot-formed gamma TiAl corrugations, and (4) brazed joints. The structural integrity of the gamma TiAl sheet subelement was evaluated by conducting a room-temperature three-point static bend test.

  18. Largest US oil and gas fields, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-06

    The Largest US Oil and Gas Fields is a technical report and part of an Energy Information Administration (EIA) series presenting distributions of US crude oil and natural gas resources, developed using field-level data collected by EIA`s annual survey of oil and gas proved reserves. The series` objective is to provide useful information beyond that routinely presented in the EIA annual report on crude oil and natural gas reserves. These special reports also will provide oil and gas resource analysts with a fuller understanding of the nature of US crude oil and natural gas occurrence, both at the macro level and with respect to the specific subjects addressed. The series` approach is to integrate EIA`s crude oil and natural gas survey data with related data obtained from other authoritative sources, and then to present illustrations and analyses of interest to a broad spectrum of energy information users ranging from the general public to oil and gas industry personnel.

  19. Phosphorus Loadings to the World's Largest Lakes: Sources and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Gabriel; Alcamo, Joseph; Flörke, Martina; Reder, Klara

    2018-04-01

    Eutrophication is a major water quality issue in lakes worldwide and is principally caused by the loadings of phosphorus from catchment areas. It follows that to develop strategies to mitigate eutrophication, we must have a good understanding of the amount, sources, and trends of phosphorus pollution. This paper provides the first consistent and harmonious estimates of current phosphorus loadings to the world's largest 100 lakes, along with the sources of these loadings and their trends. These estimates provide a perspective on the extent of lake eutrophication worldwide, as well as potential input to the evaluation and management of eutrophication in these lakes. We take a modeling approach and apply the WorldQual model for these estimates. The advantage of this approach is that it allows us to fill in large gaps in observational data. From the analysis, we find that about 66 of the 100 lakes are located in developing countries and their catchments have a much larger average phosphorus yield than the lake catchments in developed countries (11.1 versus 0.7 kg TP km-2 year-1). Second, the main source of phosphorus to the examined lakes is inorganic fertilizer (47% of total). Third, between 2005-2010 and 1990-1994, phosphorus pollution increased at 50 out of 100 lakes. Sixty percent of lakes with increasing pollution are in developing countries. P pollution changed primarily due to changing P fertilizer use. In conclusion, we show that the risk of P-stimulated eutrophication is higher in developing countries.

  20. LHC : The World's Largest Vacuum Systems being commissioned at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez, J M

    2008-01-01

    When it switches on in 2008, the 26.7 km Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, will have the world's largest vacuum system operating over a wide range of pressures and employing an impressive array of vacuum technologies. This system is composed by 54 km of UHV vacuum for the circulating beams and 50 km of insulation vacuum around the cryogenic magnets and the liquid helium transfer lines. Over the 54 km of UHV beam vacuum, 48 km of this are at cryogenic temperature (1.9 K). The remaining 6 km of beam vacuum containing the insertions for "cleaning" the proton beams, radiofrequency cavities for accelerating the protons as well as beam-monitoring equipment is at ambient temperature and uses non-evaporable getter (NEG) coatings - a vacuum technology that was born and industrialized at CERN. The pumping scheme is completed using 780 ion pumps to remove noble gases and to provide pressure interlocks to the 303 vacuum safety valves. Pressure readings are provided by 170 Bayard-Alpert gauges and 1084 gauges (Pirani a...

  1. When clusters collide: constraints on antimatter on the largest scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steigman, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Observations have ruled out the presence of significant amounts of antimatter in the Universe on scales ranging from the solar system, to the Galaxy, to groups and clusters of galaxies, and even to distances comparable to the scale of the present horizon. Except for the model-dependent constraints on the largest scales, the most significant upper limits to diffuse antimatter in the Universe are those on the ∼Mpc scale of clusters of galaxies provided by the EGRET upper bounds to annihilation gamma rays from galaxy clusters whose intracluster gas is revealed through its x-ray emission. On the scale of individual clusters of galaxies the upper bounds to the fraction of mixed matter and antimatter for the 55 clusters from a flux-limited x-ray survey range from 5 × 10 −9 to −6 , strongly suggesting that individual clusters of galaxies are made entirely of matter or of antimatter. X-ray and gamma-ray observations of colliding clusters of galaxies, such as the Bullet Cluster, permit these constraints to be extended to even larger scales. If the observations of the Bullet Cluster, where the upper bound to the antimatter fraction is found to be −6 , can be generalized to other colliding clusters of galaxies, cosmologically significant amounts of antimatter will be excluded on scales of order ∼20 Mpc (M∼5×10 15 M sun )

  2. Coding Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hansbøl, Mikala

    Denne rapport rummer evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet1. Coding Class projektet blev igangsat i skoleåret 2016/2017 af IT-Branchen i samarbejde med en række medlemsvirksomheder, Københavns kommune, Vejle Kommune, Styrelsen for IT- og Læring (STIL) og den frivillige forening...... Coding Pirates2. Rapporten er forfattet af Docent i digitale læringsressourcer og forskningskoordinator for forsknings- og udviklingsmiljøet Digitalisering i Skolen (DiS), Mikala Hansbøl, fra Institut for Skole og Læring ved Professionshøjskolen Metropol; og Lektor i læringsteknologi, interaktionsdesign......, design tænkning og design-pædagogik, Stine Ejsing-Duun fra Forskningslab: It og Læringsdesign (ILD-LAB) ved Institut for kommunikation og psykologi, Aalborg Universitet i København. Vi har fulgt og gennemført evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet i perioden november 2016 til maj 2017...

  3. Percolation under noise: Detecting explosive percolation using the second-largest component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viles, Wes; Ginestet, Cedric E.; Tang, Ariana; Kramer, Mark A.; Kolaczyk, Eric D.

    2016-05-01

    We consider the problem of distinguishing between different rates of percolation under noise. A statistical model of percolation is constructed allowing for the birth and death of edges as well as the presence of noise in the observations. This graph-valued stochastic process is composed of a latent and an observed nonstationary process, where the observed graph process is corrupted by type-I and type-II errors. This produces a hidden Markov graph model. We show that for certain choices of parameters controlling the noise, the classical (Erdős-Rényi) percolation is visually indistinguishable from a more rapid form of percolation. In this setting, we compare two different criteria for discriminating between these two percolation models, based on the interquartile range (IQR) of the first component's size, and on the maximal size of the second-largest component. We show through data simulations that this second criterion outperforms the IQR of the first component's size, in terms of discriminatory power. The maximal size of the second component therefore provides a useful statistic for distinguishing between different rates of percolation, under physically motivated conditions for the birth and death of edges, and under noise. The potential application of the proposed criteria for the detection of clinically relevant percolation in the context of applied neuroscience is also discussed.

  4. Reach and messages of the world's largest ivory burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braczkowski, Alexander; Holden, Matthew H; O'Bryan, Christopher; Choi, Chi-Yeung; Gan, Xiaojing; Beesley, Nicholas; Gao, Yufang; Allan, James; Tyrrell, Peter; Stiles, Daniel; Brehony, Peadar; Meney, Revocatus; Brink, Henry; Takashina, Nao; Lin, Ming-Ching; Lin, Hsien-Yung; Rust, Niki; Salmo, Severino G; Watson, James Em; Kahumbu, Paula; Maron, Martine; Possingham, Hugh P; Biggs, Duan

    2018-03-01

    Recent increases in ivory poaching have depressed African elephant populations. Successful enforcement has led to ivory being stockpiled. Stockpile destruction is becoming increasingly popular, and most destruction has occurred in the last five years. Ivory destruction is intended to send a strong message against ivory consumption, both in promoting a taboo on ivory use and catalyzing policy change. However, there has been no effort to establish the distribution and extent of media reporting on ivory destruction events globally. We analyze media coverage across eleven important nation states of the largest ivory destruction event in history (Kenya, 30 April 2016). We used a well-accepted online media crawling tool and key language translations to search online and print newspapers. We found most online news on the ivory burn came from the US (81% of articles), while print news was dominated by Kenya (61% of articles). We subjected online articles from five key countries and territories to content analysis and found 86-97% of all online articles reported the burn as a positive conservation action, while between 4-50% discussed ivory burning as having a negative impact on elephant conservation. Most articles discussed law enforcement and trade bans as effective for elephant conservation. There was more relative search interest globally on the 2016 Kenyan ivory burn than any other in five years. Our study is the first attempt to track the spread of media around an ivory burn and is a case study in tracking the effects of a conservation-marketing event. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Equal Susceptibility and Size-selective Mobility in Aeolian Saltation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R. L.; Kok, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    Natural wind-eroded soils generally contain a mixture of particle sizes. However, models for aeolian saltation are typically derived for sediment bed surfaces containing only a single particle size. To treat natural mixed beds, models for saltation and associated dust aerosol emission have typically simplified aeolian transport either as a series of non-interacting single particle size beds or as a bed containing only the median or mean particle size. Here, we test these common assumptions underpinning aeolian transport models using measurements of size-resolved saltation fluxes at three natural field sites. We find that a wide range of sand size classes experience "equal susceptibility" to saltation at a single common threshold wind shear stress, contrary to the "selective susceptibility" expected for treatment of a mixed bed as multiple single particle size beds. Furthermore, we observe strong size-selectivity in the mobility of different particle sizes, which is not adequately accounted for in current models. At all field sites, mobility is enhanced for particles that are 0.4-0.8 times the median bed particle diameter, while mobility declines rapidly with increasing particle size above this range. We further observe that the most mobile particles also experience the largest saltation heights, which helps to explain variations in size-selective mobility. These observations refute the common simplification of saltation as a series of non-interacting single particle sizes. Sand transport and dust emission models that use this incorrect assumption can be both simplified and improved by instead using a single particle size representative of the mixed bed.

  6. GIS learning tool for world's largest earthquakes and their causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Moumita

    The objective of this thesis is to increase awareness about earthquakes among people, especially young students by showing the five largest and two most predictable earthquake locations in the world and their plate tectonic settings. This is a geographic based interactive tool which could be used for learning about the cause of great earthquakes in the past and the safest places on the earth in order to avoid direct effect of earthquakes. This approach provides an effective way of learning for the students as it is very user friendly and more aligned to the interests of the younger generation. In this tool the user can click on the various points located on the world map which will open a picture and link to the webpage for that point, showing detailed information of the earthquake history of that place including magnitude of quake, year of past quakes and the plate tectonic settings that made this place earthquake prone. Apart from knowing the earthquake related information students will also be able to customize the tool to suit their needs or interests. Students will be able to add/remove layers, measure distance between any two points on the map, select any place on the map and know more information for that place, create a layer from this set to do a detail analysis, run a query, change display settings, etc. At the end of this tool the user has to go through the earthquake safely guidelines in order to be safe during an earthquake. This tool uses Java as programming language and uses Map Objects Java Edition (MOJO) provided by ESRI. This tool is developed for educational purpose and hence its interface has been kept simple and easy to use so that students can gain maximum knowledge through it instead of having a hard time to install it. There are lots of details to explore which can help more about what a GIS based tool is capable of. Only thing needed to run this tool is latest JAVA edition installed in their machine. This approach makes study more fun and

  7. Approaching the largest ‘API’: extracting information from the Internet with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E. Germann

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the need for libraries to algorithmically access and manipulate the world’s largest API: the Internet. The billions of pages on the ‘Internet API’ (HTTP, HTML, CSS, XPath, DOM, etc. are easily accessible and manipulable. Libraries can assist in creating meaning through the datafication of information on the world wide web. Because most information is created for human consumption, some programming is required for automated extraction. Python is an easy-to-learn programming language with extensive packages and community support for web page automation. Four packages (Urllib, Selenium, BeautifulSoup, Scrapy in Python can automate almost any web page for all sized projects. An example warrant data project is explained to illustrate how well Python packages can manipulate web pages to create meaning through assembling custom datasets.

  8. What could we learn about high energy particle physics from cosmological observations at largest spatial scales ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunov Dmitry

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The very well known example of cosmology testing particle physics is the number of relativistic particles (photons and three active neutrinos within the Standard Model at primordial nucleosynthesis. These days the earliest moment we can hope to probe with present cosmological data is the early time inflation. The particle physics conditions there and now are different because of different energy scales and different values of the scalar fields, that usually prohibits a reliable connection between the particle physics parameters at the two interesting epochs. The physics at the highest energy scales may be probed with observations at the largest spatial scales (just somewhat smaller than the size of the visible Universe. However, we are not (yet ready to make the tests realistic, because of lack of a self-consistent theoretical description of the presently favorite cosmological models to be valid right after inflation.

  9. The largest deep-ocean silicic volcanic eruption of the past century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Rebecca; Soule, S Adam; Manga, Michael; White, James; McPhie, Jocelyn; Wysoczanski, Richard; Jutzeler, Martin; Tani, Kenichiro; Yoerger, Dana; Fornari, Daniel; Caratori-Tontini, Fabio; Houghton, Bruce; Mitchell, Samuel; Ikegami, Fumihiko; Conway, Chris; Murch, Arran; Fauria, Kristen; Jones, Meghan; Cahalan, Ryan; McKenzie, Warren

    2018-01-01

    The 2012 submarine eruption of Havre volcano in the Kermadec arc, New Zealand, is the largest deep-ocean eruption in history and one of very few recorded submarine eruptions involving rhyolite magma. It was recognized from a gigantic 400-km 2 pumice raft seen in satellite imagery, but the complexity of this event was concealed beneath the sea surface. Mapping, observations, and sampling by submersibles have provided an exceptionally high fidelity record of the seafloor products, which included lava sourced from 14 vents at water depths of 900 to 1220 m, and fragmental deposits including giant pumice clasts up to 9 m in diameter. Most (>75%) of the total erupted volume was partitioned into the pumice raft and transported far from the volcano. The geological record on submarine volcanic edifices in volcanic arcs does not faithfully archive eruption size or magma production.

  10. Stability of latent class segments over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Simone

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic stability, as the degree to which identified segments at a given time remain unchanged over time in terms of number, size and profile, is a desirable segment property which has received limited attention so far. This study addresses the question to what degree latent classes identified from...... logit model suggests significant changes in the price sensitivity and the utility from environmental claims between both experimental waves. A pooled scale adjusted latent class model is estimated jointly over both waves and the relative size of latent classes is compared across waves, resulting...... in significant differences in the size of two out of seven classes. These differences can largely be accounted for by the changes on the aggregated level. The relative size of latent classes is correlated at 0.52, suggesting a fair robustness. An ex-post characterisation of latent classes by behavioural...

  11. Extinction risk is most acute for the world's largest and smallest vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripple, William J; Wolf, Christopher; Newsome, Thomas M; Hoffmann, Michael; Wirsing, Aaron J; McCauley, Douglas J

    2017-10-03

    Extinction risk in vertebrates has been linked to large body size, but this putative relationship has only been explored for select taxa, with variable results. Using a newly assembled and taxonomically expansive database, we analyzed the relationships between extinction risk and body mass (27,647 species) and between extinction risk and range size (21,294 species) for vertebrates across six main classes. We found that the probability of being threatened was positively and significantly related to body mass for birds, cartilaginous fishes, and mammals. Bimodal relationships were evident for amphibians, reptiles, and bony fishes. Most importantly, a bimodal relationship was found across all vertebrates such that extinction risk changes around a body mass breakpoint of 0.035 kg, indicating that the lightest and heaviest vertebrates have elevated extinction risk. We also found range size to be an important predictor of the probability of being threatened, with strong negative relationships across nearly all taxa. A review of the drivers of extinction risk revealed that the heaviest vertebrates are most threatened by direct killing by humans. By contrast, the lightest vertebrates are most threatened by habitat loss and modification stemming especially from pollution, agricultural cropping, and logging. Our results offer insight into halting the ongoing wave of vertebrate extinctions by revealing the vulnerability of large and small taxa, and identifying size-specific threats. Moreover, they indicate that, without intervention, anthropogenic activities will soon precipitate a double truncation of the size distribution of the world's vertebrates, fundamentally reordering the structure of life on our planet.

  12. Watching the Creation of Southern California's Largest Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The new Diamond Valley Lake Reservoir near the city of Hemet in Riverside County is billed as the largest earthworks construction project in U.S.history. Construction began in 1995 and involved 31 million cubic meters of foundation excavation and 84 million cubic meters of embankment construction. This set of MISR images captures the most recent phase in the reservoir's activation. At the upper left is a natural-color view acquired by the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on March 14, 2000 (Terra orbit 1273), shortly after the Metropolitan Water District began filling the reservoir with water from the Colorado River and Northern California. Water appears darker than the surrounding land. The image at the upper right was acquired nearly one year later on March 1, 2001 (Terra orbit 6399), and shows a clear increase in the reservoir's water content. When full, the lake will hold nearly a trillion liters of water.According to the Metropolitan Water District, the 7 kilometer x 3 kilometer reservoir nearly doubles Southern California's above-groundwater storage capacity. In addition to routine water management, Diamond Valley Lake is designed to provide protection against drought and a six-month emergency supply in the event of earthquake damage to a major aqueduct. In the face of electrical power shortages, it is also expected to reduce dependence on the pumping of water from northern mountains during the high-demand summer months. An unexpected result of site excavation was the uncovering of mastodon and mammoth skeletons along with bones from extinct species not previously thought to have been indigenous to the area, such as the giant long-horned bison and North American lion. A museum and interpretive center is being built to protect these finds.The lower MISR image, from May 20, 2001 (Terra orbit 7564), is a false-color view combining data from the instrument's 26-degree forward view (displayed as blue) with data from the 26-degree backward view

  13. Drilling the Bushveld Complex- the world's largest layered mafic intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwal, L. D.; Webb, S. J.; Trumbull, R. B.

    2013-12-01

    The fact that surprising new discoveries can be made in layered mafic intrusions (e.g., subtle 100-150 m cyclicity in apparently homogeneous cumulates over 1000s of m) means that we are still in the first-order characterization phase of understanding these objects. Accordingly, we have secured funding from ICDP for a planning workshop to be held in Johannesburg in early 2014, aimed at scientific drilling of the Bushveld Complex, the world's largest layered mafic intrusion. Science objectives include, but are not limited to: 1. Magma chamber processes & melt evolution. How many melts/magmas/mushes were involved, what were their compositions and how did they interact? What, if anything, is missing from the Complex, and where did it go? Did Bushveld magmatism have an effect upon Earth's atmosphere at 2 Ga? 2. Crust-mantle interactions & origin of Bushveld granitoids. Are Bushveld granites & rhyolites crustal melts, differentiates from the mafic magmas or products of immiscibility? How can the evolved isotopic signatures in the mafic rocks (e.g., epsilon Nd to -8) be understood? 3. Origin of ore deposits. What were the relative roles of gravity settling, magma mixing, immiscibility and hydrothermal fluid transport in producing the PGE, Cr and V deposits? We have identified 3 potential drilling targets representing a total of ~12 km of drill core. Exact locations of drill sites are to be discussed at the workshop. Target A- East-Central Bushveld Complex. We propose 3 overlapping 3 km boreholes that will provide the first roof-to-floor continuous coverage of the Rustenburg Layered Suite. These boreholes will represent a curated, internationally available reference collection of Bushveld material for present and future research. Target B- Southeastern Bushveld Complex. We propose a single borehole of ~2 km depth, collared in Rooiberg felsite, and positioned to intersect the Roof Zone, Upper Zone, Main Zone and floor of the Complex. Amongst other things, this site will

  14. Final Status Survey for the Largest Decommissioning Project on Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubiel, R.W.; Miller, J.; Quayle, D.

    2006-01-01

    To assist the United States Department of Energy's (US DOE's) re-industrialization efforts at its gaseous diffusion site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, known as the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), the US DOE awarded a 6-year Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) contract to BNG America (formerly BNFL Inc.) in 1997. The ETTP 3-Building D and D Project included the removal and disposition of the materials and equipment from the K-33, K-31, and K-29 Gaseous Diffusion Plant buildings. The three buildings comprise more than 4.8 million square feet (446,000 square meters) of floor surface area and more than 350 million pounds (148 million kilograms) of hazardous and radioactively contaminated material, making it the largest nuclear D and D project in progress anywhere in the world. The logistical hurdles involved in a project of this scope and magnitude required an extensive amount of Engineering and Health Physics professionals. In order to accomplish the Final Status Survey (FSS) for a project of this scope, the speed and efficiency of automated survey equipment was essential. Surveys of floors, structural steel and ceilings up to 60 feet (18 meters) were required. The FSS had to be expanded to include additional remediation and surveys due to characterization surveys and assumptions regarding the nature and extent of contamination provided by the US DOE. Survey design and technical bases had to consider highly variable constituents; including uranium from depleted to low enrichment, variable levels of Technetium-99 and transuranic nuclides, which were introduced into the cascade during the 1960's when recycled uranium (RU) from Savannah River was re-enriched at the facility. The RU was transported to unexpected locations from leaks in the cascade by complex building ventilation patterns. The primary survey tool used for the post remediation and FSS was the Surface Contamination Monitor (SCM) and the associated Survey Information Management System (SIMS

  15. SMA observations of Class 0 Protostars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xuepeng; Arce, Héctor G.; Zhang, Qizhou

    2013-01-01

    We present high angular resolution 1.3 mm and 850 μm dust continuum data obtained with the Submillimeter Array toward 33 Class 0 protostars in nearby clouds (distance <500 pc), which represents so far the largest survey toward protostellar binary/multiple systems. The median angular resolution in...

  16. Cyanobacterial bloom in the world largest freshwater lake Baikal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namsaraev, Zorigto; Melnikova, Anna; Ivanov, Vasiliy; Komova, Anastasia; Teslyuk, Anton

    2018-02-01

    Lake Baikal is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and holds 20% of the world’s freshwater reserves. On July 26, 2016, a cyanobacterial bloom of a green colour a few kilometers in size with a bad odor was discovered by local people in the Barguzinsky Bay on the eastern shore of Lake Baikal. Our study showed very high concentration of chlorophyll a (41.7 g/m3) in the sample of bloom. We found that the bloom was dominated by a nitrogen-fixing heterocystous cyanobacteria of the genus Dolichospermum. The mass accumulation of cyanobacteria in the lake water with an extremely high chlorophyll a concentration can be explained by a combination of several factors: the discharge of biologicaly-available nutrients, including phosphorus, into the water of Lake Baikal; low wind speed and weak water mixing; buoyant cyanobacterial cells on the lake surface, which drifted towards the eastern coast, where the maximum concentration of chlorophyll a was recorded. In the center of the Barguzinsky Bay and in the open part of Lake Baikal, according to satellite data, the chlorophyll a concentration is several orders of magnitude lower than at the shoreline.

  17. Application of the largest Lyapunov exponent and non-linear fractal extrapolation algorithm to short-term load forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianzhou; Jia Ruiling; Zhao Weigang; Wu Jie; Dong Yao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The maximal predictive step size is determined by the largest Lyapunov exponent. ► A proper forecasting step size is applied to load demand forecasting. ► The improved approach is validated by the actual load demand data. ► Non-linear fractal extrapolation method is compared with three forecasting models. ► Performance of the models is evaluated by three different error measures. - Abstract: Precise short-term load forecasting (STLF) plays a key role in unit commitment, maintenance and economic dispatch problems. Employing a subjective and arbitrary predictive step size is one of the most important factors causing the low forecasting accuracy. To solve this problem, the largest Lyapunov exponent is adopted to estimate the maximal predictive step size so that the step size in the forecasting is no more than this maximal one. In addition, in this paper a seldom used forecasting model, which is based on the non-linear fractal extrapolation (NLFE) algorithm, is considered to develop the accuracy of predictions. The suitability and superiority of the two solutions are illustrated through an application to real load forecasting using New South Wales electricity load data from the Australian National Electricity Market. Meanwhile, three forecasting models: the gray model, the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average approach and the support vector machine method, which received high approval in STLF, are selected to compare with the NLFE algorithm. Comparison results also show that the NLFE model is outstanding, effective, practical and feasible.

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: America's Largest Home Runs on Biodiesel in

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina America's Largest Home Runs on Biodiesel in North Carolina to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: America's Largest Home Runs on Biodiesel in North Carolina on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: America's Largest Home Runs on Biodiesel in North

  19. Psyche's UV Reflectance Spectra: Exploring the origins of the largest exposed-core metallic asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Tracy

    2016-10-01

    (16) Psyche is the largest of the M-class asteroids, and is presumed to be the exposed core of a differentiated asteroid stripped of its mantle through hit-and-run collisions. However, other origins for Psyche have been proposed, including that it formed from a highly-reduced, metal rich material in the inner solar system or that its surface is olivine that has been space weathered. If (16) Psyche is an exposed core, then studying its properties enhances our understanding of the cores of all terrestrial planets, including the Earth's. If it accreted in the inner part of the solar system and was later injected into the asteroid belt, then Psyche sheds light on the conditions and subsequent evolution of the early solar system. Lastly, if Psyche is weathered olivine, then olivine may be more abundant in the solar system than currently measured, rectifying the so-called Great Dunite Shortage. Our program to obtain high-resolution UV spectra of Psyche with the COS G140L mode and the STIS NUV MAMA G230L mode to measure spectral signatures between 90 - 315 nm is designed to distinguish between the 3 hypothesized cases. These observations will enable identification of absorption bands, especially Fe-O charge transfer bands and will be sensitive to spectral blueing that occurs at UV wavelengths for space-weathered objects. When combined, the presence of these UV features, or not, provides a novel test of Psyche formation theories.

  20. Small Classes 1, Vouchers 0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2000-01-01

    Alan Krueger's reanalyses of Eric Hanushek's school-productivity data show that Hanushek's "money doesn't matter" conclusions (influential in several states' education-finance hearings) have no factual basis. Hanushek excluded Tennessee's student/teacher ratio study (Project STAR). Also, class size is influencing students' success in…

  1. A Virtual Class Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik; Ostermann, Klaus; Cook, William Randall

    2006-01-01

    Virtual classes are class-valued attributes of objects. Like virtual methods, virtual classes are defined in an object's class and may be redefined within subclasses. They resemble inner classes, which are also defined within a class, but virtual classes are accessed through object instances...... model for virtual classes has been a long-standing open question. This paper presents a virtual class calculus, vc, that captures the essence of virtual classes in these full-fledged programming languages. The key contributions of the paper are a formalization of the dynamic and static semantics of vc...

  2. Size structure of marine soft-bottom macrobenthic communities across natural habitat gradients: implications for productivity and ecosystem function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara A Macdonald

    Full Text Available Size distributions of biotic assemblages are important modifiers of productivity and function in marine sediments. We investigated the distribution of proportional organic biomass among logarithmic size classes (2(-6J to 2(16J in the soft-bottom macrofaunal communities of the Strait of Georgia, Salish Sea on the west coast of Canada. The study examines how size structure is influenced by 3 fundamental habitat descriptors: depth, sediment percent fines, and organic flux (modified by quality. These habitat variables are uncorrelated in this hydrographically diverse area, thus we examine their effects in combination and separately. Cluster analyses and cumulative biomass size spectra reveal clear and significant responses to each separate habitat variable. When combined, habitat factors result in three distinct assemblages: (1 communities with a high proportion of biomass in small organisms, typical of shallow areas (3 g C/m(2/yr/δ(15N from the Fraser River; and (3 communities with biomass dominated by moderately large organisms, but lacking the smallest and largest size classes, typical of deep, fine sediments experiencing low modified organic flux (<3.0 gC/m(2/yr/δ(15N. The remaining assemblages had intermediate habitat types and size structures. Sediment percent fines and flux appear to elicit threshold responses in size structure, whereas depth has the most linear influence on community size structure. The ecological implications of size structure in the Strait of Georgia relative to environmental conditions, secondary production and sediment bioturbation are discussed.

  3. On the size of edge chromatic 5-critical graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kayathri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the size of edge chromatic 5-critical graphs in several classes of 5-critical graphs. In most of the classes of 5-critical graphs in this paper, we have obtained their exact size and in the other classes of 5-critical graphs, we give new bounds on their number of major vertices and size.

  4. 49 CFR 172.446 - CLASS 9 label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the six white spaces between them. The lower half of the label must be white with the class number “9... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CLASS 9 label. 172.446 Section 172.446... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.446 CLASS 9 label. (a) Except for size and color, the “CLASS 9...

  5. Scaling relationships among drivers of aquatic respiration from the smallest to the largest freshwater ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ed K; Schoolmaster, Donald; Amado, A.M; Stets, Edward G.; Lennon, J.T.; Domaine, L.; Cotner, J.B.

    2016-01-01

    To address how various environmental parameters control or constrain planktonic respiration (PR), we used geometric scaling relationships and established biological scaling laws to derive quantitative predictions for the relationships among key drivers of PR. We then used empirical measurements of PR and environmental (soluble reactive phosphate [SRP], carbon [DOC], chlorophyll a [Chl-a)], and temperature) and landscape parameters (lake area [LA] and watershed area [WA]) from a set of 44 lakes that varied in size and trophic status to test our hypotheses. We found that landscape-level processes affected PR through direct effects on DOC and temperature and indirectly via SRP. In accordance with predictions made from known relationships and scaling laws, scale coefficients (the parameter that describes the shape of a relationship between 2 variables) were found to be negative and have an absolute value 1, others respiration from small pond catchments to the largest body of freshwater on the planet, Lake Superior, these findings should be applicable to controls of PR for the great majority of temperate aquatic ecosystems.

  6. Largest known Mesozoic multituberculate from Eurasia and implications for multituberculate evolution and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Zhang, Xingliao; Pu, Hanyong; Jia, Songhai; Zhang, Jiming; Lü, Junchang; Meng, Jin

    2015-10-22

    A new multituberculate, Yubaartar zhongyuanensis gen. and sp. nov., is reported from the Upper Cretaceous of Luanchuan County, Henan Province, China. The holotype of the new taxon is a partial skeleton with nearly complete cranium and associated lower jaws with in situ dentitions. The new species is the southern-most record of a Late Cretaceous multituberculate from outside of the Mongolian Plateau in Asia and represents the largest known Mesozoic multituberculate from Eurasia. The new specimen displays some intriguing features previously unknown in multituberculates, such as the first evidence of replacement of the ultimate upper premolar and a unique paleopathological case in Mesozoic mammals in which the animal with a severely broken right tibia could heal and survive in natural condition. The phylogenetic analysis based on craniodental characters places Yubaartar as the immediate outgroup of Taeniolabidoidea, a group consisting of a North American clade and an Asian clade. This relationship indicates at least a faunal interchange of multituberculates before the K-Pg transition. The new evidence further supports the hypothesis that disparity in dental complexity, which relates to animal diets, increased with generic richness and disparity in body size, and that an adaptive shift towards increased herbivory across the K-Pg transitional interval.

  7. Bedrock Canyons Carved by the Largest Known Floods on Earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, M. P.; Lapôtre, M. G. A.; Larsen, I. J.; Williams, R. M. E.

    2017-12-01

    The surface of Earth is a dynamic and permeable interface where the rocky crust is sculpted by ice, wind and water resulting in spectacular mountain ranges, vast depositional basins and environments that support life. These landforms and deposits contain a rich, yet incomplete, record of Earth history that we are just beginning to understand. Some of the most dramatic landforms are the huge bedrock canyons carved by catastrophic floods. On Mars, similar bedrock canyons, known as Outflow Channels, are the most important indicators of large volumes of surface water in the past. Despite their importance and now decades of observations of canyon morphology, we lack a basic understanding of how the canyons formed, which limits our ability to reconstruct flood discharge, duration and water volume. In this presentation I will summarize recent work - using mechanistic numerical models and field observations - that suggests that bedrock canyons carved by megafloods rapidly evolve to a size and shape such that boundary shear stresses just exceed that required to entrain fractured blocks of rock. The threshold shear stress constraint allows for quantitative reconstruction of the largest known floods on Earth and Mars, and implies far smaller discharges than previous methods that assume flood waters fully filled the canyons to high water marks.

  8. Drought effect on weaning weight and efficiency relative to cow size in semiarid rangeland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scasta, J D; Henderson, L; Smith, T

    2015-12-01

    Cow size has been suggested to be an important consideration for selecting cattle to match their production environment. Over the last several decades, the trend in genetic selection for maximum growth has led to gradual increases in beef cow size. An unrelated trend during this same period in the western United States has been an increase in temperature, drought frequency, and drought severity. Due to the potential influence of the increasing cow size trend on nutritional maintenance costs and production, we assessed the effect of cow size on weaning weight and efficiency in relation to drought on a semiarid high-elevation ranch in Wyoming. This study addresses a lack of empirical studies on the interaction between cow size and drought. We measured calf weaning weights of 80 Angus × Gelbvieh cows from 2011 to 2014 and assessed how drought affected weaning weights, efficiency (considered as calf weight relative to cow weight), intake requirements, and potential herd sizes relative to cow size. We stratified cows into 5 weight classes (453, 498, 544, 589, and 634 kg) as a proxy for cow size and adjusted weaning weights to a 210-d calf sex adjusted value. Cow size was a significant factor every year, with different cow sizes having advantages or disadvantages different years relative to weaning weight. However, efficiency for the smallest cows (453 kg) was always greater than efficiency for largest cows (634 kg; cows was greater in the driest year (0.41 ± 0.02) than efficiency of the largest cows in the wettest years (0.37 ± 0.01). The change in efficiency (ΔE) between wet and dry years was 0.18 for the smallest cow size and 0.02 for the largest cow size, and ΔE decreased as cow size increased. This is an indication of the ability of smaller cows to lower maintenance requirements in response to changes in the production environment but with optimal upside potential when conditions are favorable. These results indicate large cows (589 to 634 kg) do not maximize

  9. RxClass

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The RxClass Browser is a web application for exploring and navigating through the class hierarchies to find the RxNorm drug members associated with each class....

  10. Using Mobile Phone Technology in EFL Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sad, Süleyman Nihat

    2008-01-01

    Teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) who want to develop successful lessons face numerous challenges, including large class sizes and inadequate instructional materials and technological support. Another problem is unmotivated students who refuse to participate in class activities. According to Harmer (2007), uncooperative and…

  11. What Research Says about Small Classes and Their Effects. In Pursuit of Better Schools: What Research Says.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Bruce J.; Berliner, David C.

    Interest in class size is widespread today. Debates often take place about "ideal" class size. Controversial efforts to reduce class size have appeared at both the federal level and in various states around the nation. This paper reviews research on class size and discusses findings, how these findings can be explained, and policy implications.…

  12. First Experience from the World Largest fully commercial Solar Heating Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred; Furbo, Simon

    1997-01-01

    The first experience from the largest solar heating plant in the world is given. The plant is situated in Marstal and is has a total area of 8000 square m.......The first experience from the largest solar heating plant in the world is given. The plant is situated in Marstal and is has a total area of 8000 square m....

  13. Revisiting the phylogeny of Ocellularieae, the second largest tribe within Graphidaceae (lichenized Ascomycota: Ostropales)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekaphan Kraichak; Sittiporn Parnmen; Robert Lücking; Eimy Rivas Plata; Andre Aptroot; Marcela E.S. Caceres; Damien Ertz; Armin Mangold; Joel A. Mercado-Diaz; Khwanruan Papong; Dries Van der Broeck; Gothamie Weerakoon; H. Thorsten. Lumbsch; NO-VALUE

    2014-01-01

    We present an updated 3-locus molecular phylogeny of tribe Ocellularieae, the second largest tribe within subfamily Graphidoideae in the Graphidaceae. Adding 165 newly generated sequences from the mitochondrial small subunit rDNA (mtSSU), the nuclear large subunit rDNA (nuLSU), and the second largest subunit of the DNA-directed RNA polymerase II (RPB2), we currently...

  14. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Kathleen; Marriange, Tobias; Aamir, Ali; Appel, John W.; Bennett, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Brewer, Michael; Chan, Manwei; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is a four telescope array designed to characterize relic primordial gravitational waves from in ation and the optical depth to reionization through a measurement of the polarized cosmic microwave background (CMB) on the largest angular scales. The frequencies of the four CLASS telescopes, one at 38 GHz, two at 93 GHz, and one dichroic system at 145/217 GHz, are chosen to avoid spectral regions of high atmospheric emission and span the minimum of the polarized Galactic foregrounds: synchrotron emission at lower frequencies and dust emission at higher frequencies. Low-noise transition edge sensor detectors and a rapid front-end polarization modulator provide a unique combination of high sensitivity, stability, and control of systematics. The CLASS site, at 5200 m in the Chilean Atacama desert, allows for daily mapping of up to 70% of the sky and enables the characterization of CMB polarization at the largest angular scales. Using this combination of a broad frequency range, large sky coverage, control over systematics, and high sensitivity, CLASS will observe the reionization and recombination peaks of the CMB E- and B-mode power spectra. CLASS will make a cosmic variance limited measurement of the optical depth to reionization and will measure or place upper limits on the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r, down to a level of 0.01 (95% C.L.).

  15. Causes and Consequences of Ownership Concentration among Europe´s Largest Companies: Economic and Systemic Explanations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Torben; Thomsen, Steen

    1999-01-01

    The paper examines causes and effects of ownership concentration among the largest companies in 12 European countries. As a reference point the paper takes a seminal empirical study on US data by Demsetz and Lehn (1985) and examines to what extent their model is applicable in European countries....... The findings indicate that both general economic effects and system effects are significant. Ownership concentration is found to decrease with firm size and to increase with earnings volatility. But in support of the system theories advocated by Roe (1991), Laporta et al. (1996) and Shleifer and Vishny (1997......) nationality is also found to have a significant effect which is partly attributable to institutional differences between nations such as stock market size and the frequency of large banks. Finally, in line with Demsetz and Lehn (1985), ownership concentration is found to have an insignificant effect...

  16. Size-based hydroacoustic measures of within-season fish abundance in a boreal freshwater ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riley A Pollom

    Full Text Available Eleven sequential size-based hydroacoustic surveys conducted with a 200 kHz split-beam transducer during the summers of 2011 and 2012 were used to quantify seasonal declines in fish abundance in a boreal reservoir in Manitoba, Canada. Fish densities were sufficiently low to enable single target resolution and tracking. Target strengths converted to log2-based size-classes indicated that smaller fish were consistently more abundant than larger fish by a factor of approximately 3 for each halving of length. For all size classes, in both years, abundance (natural log declined linearly over the summer at rates that varied from -0.067 x day(-1 for the smallest fish to -0.016 x day(-1 for the largest (R2 = 0.24-0.97. Inter-annual comparisons of size-based abundance suggested that for larger fish (>16 cm, mean winter decline rates were an order of magnitude lower (-0.001 x day(-1 and overall survival higher (71% than in the main summer fishing season (mean loss rate -0.038 x day(-1; survival 33%. We conclude that size-based acoustic survey methods have the potential to assess within-season fish abundance dynamics, and may prove useful in long-term monitoring of productivity and hence management of boreal aquatic ecosystems.

  17. Size-based hydroacoustic measures of within-season fish abundance in a boreal freshwater ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollom, Riley A; Rose, George A

    2015-01-01

    Eleven sequential size-based hydroacoustic surveys conducted with a 200 kHz split-beam transducer during the summers of 2011 and 2012 were used to quantify seasonal declines in fish abundance in a boreal reservoir in Manitoba, Canada. Fish densities were sufficiently low to enable single target resolution and tracking. Target strengths converted to log2-based size-classes indicated that smaller fish were consistently more abundant than larger fish by a factor of approximately 3 for each halving of length. For all size classes, in both years, abundance (natural log) declined linearly over the summer at rates that varied from -0.067 x day(-1) for the smallest fish to -0.016 x day(-1) for the largest (R2 = 0.24-0.97). Inter-annual comparisons of size-based abundance suggested that for larger fish (>16 cm), mean winter decline rates were an order of magnitude lower (-0.001 x day(-1)) and overall survival higher (71%) than in the main summer fishing season (mean loss rate -0.038 x day(-1); survival 33%). We conclude that size-based acoustic survey methods have the potential to assess within-season fish abundance dynamics, and may prove useful in long-term monitoring of productivity and hence management of boreal aquatic ecosystems.

  18. Portion size

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of cards One 3-ounce (84 grams) serving of fish is a checkbook One-half cup (40 grams) ... for the smallest size. By eating a small hamburger instead of a large, you will save about 150 calories. ...

  19. Rewriting the Landform History of One of Africa's Three Largest Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The Kalahari Basin in southern Africa - one of the largest basins in Africa, along with the Congo and Chad basins - has attracted attention since David Livingstone traveled through the area in the 1840s. It is a semiarid desert with a large freshwater swampland known as the Okavango Swamp (150 km radius). This prominent megafan (a fan with radii >100 km), with its fingers of dark green forests projecting into the dun colors of the dunes of the Kalahari semi-desert, has been well photographed by astronauts over the years. The study area in the northern Kalahari basin is centered on the Okavango megafan of northwest Botswana, whose swampland has become well known as an African wildlife preserve of importance to biology and tourism alike. The Okavango River is unusual because it has deposited not one but two megafans along its course: the Okavango megafan and the Cubango megafan. The Okavango megafan is one of only three well-known megafans in Africa. Megafans on Earth were once thought to be rare, but recent research has documented 68 in Africa alone. Eleven megafans, plus three more candidates, have been documented in the area immediately surrounding the Okavango feature. These 11 megafans occupy the flattest and smoothest terrains adjacent to the neighboring upland and stand out as the darkest areas in the roughness map of the area. Megafan terrains occupy at least 200,000 sq km of the study area. The roughness map shown is based on an algorithm used first on Mars to quantify topographic roughness. Research of Earth's flattest terrains is just beginning with the aid of such maps, and it appears that these terrains are analogous to the flattest regions of Mars. Implications: 1. The variability in depositional style in each subbasin may apply Africa-wide: rift megafan length is dominated by rift width, whereas Owambo subbasin megafans are probably controlled by upland basin size; Zambezi subbasin megafans appear more like foreland basin types, with the position of

  20. Solar energy potential of the largest buildings in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wence, E. R.; Grodsky, S.; Hernandez, R. R.

    2017-12-01

    Sustainable pathways of land use for energy are necessary to mitigate climate change and limit conversion of finite land resources needed for conservation and food production. Large, commercial buildings (LCBs) are increasing in size and number throughout the United States (US) and may serve as suitable recipient environments for photovoltaic (PV) solar energy infrastructure that may support a low carbon, low land footprint energy transition. In this study, we identified, characterized, and evaluated the technical potential of the largest, commercial building rooftops (i.e., exceeding 110,000 m2) and their associated parking lots in the US for PV solar energy systems using Aurora, a cloud-based solar optimization platform. We also performed a case study of building-specific electricity generation: electricity consumption balance. Further, we quantified the environmental co-benefit of land sparing and associated avoided emissions (t-CO2-eq) conferred under the counterfactual scenario that solar development would otherwise proceed as a ground-mounted, utility-scale PV installation of equal nominal capacity. We identified and mapped 37 LCBs (by rooftop area) across 18 states in the US, spanning from as far north as the state of Minnesota to as far south as Florida. Rooftop footprints range from 427,297 to 113,689 m2 and have a cumulative surface area of 99.8 million ft2. We characterize the LCBs as either: distribution/warehouse, factory, shopping center, or administrative office/facility. Three of the 37 LCBs currently support rooftop PV and the numbers of associated, detached buildings number up to 38. This study elucidates the extent to which LCBs and their respective parking lots can serve as suitable sites for PV solar energy generation. Lastly, this study demonstrates research-based applications of the Aurora energy modeling platform and informs decision-making focused on redirecting energy development towards human-modified landscapes to prioritize land use for

  1. Invertebrate population genetics across Earth's largest habitat: The deep-sea floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M L; Roterman, C N

    2017-10-01

    Despite the deep sea being the largest habitat on Earth, there are just 77 population genetic studies of invertebrates (115 species) inhabiting non-chemosynthetic ecosystems on the deep-sea floor (below 200 m depth). We review and synthesize the results of these papers. Studies reveal levels of genetic diversity comparable to shallow-water species. Generally, populations at similar depths were well connected over 100s-1,000s km, but studies that sampled across depth ranges reveal population structure at much smaller scales (100s-1,000s m) consistent with isolation by adaptation across environmental gradients, or the existence of physical barriers to connectivity with depth. Few studies were ocean-wide (under 4%), and 48% were Atlantic-focused. There is strong emphasis on megafauna and commercial species with research into meiofauna, "ecosystem engineers" and other ecologically important species lacking. Only nine papers account for ~50% of the planet's surface (depths below 3,500 m). Just two species were studied below 5,000 m, a quarter of Earth's seafloor. Most studies used single-locus mitochondrial genes revealing a common pattern of non-neutrality, consistent with demographic instability or selective sweeps; similar to deep-sea hydrothermal vent fauna. The absence of a clear difference between vent and non-vent could signify that demographic instability is common in the deep sea, or that selective sweeps render single-locus mitochondrial studies demographically uninformative. The number of population genetics studies to date is miniscule in relation to the size of the deep sea. The paucity of studies constrains meta-analyses where broad inferences about deep-sea ecology could be made. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Dragon's paradise lost: palaeobiogeography, evolution and extinction of the largest-ever terrestrial lizards (Varanidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Hocknull

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The largest living lizard species, Varanus komodoensis Ouwens 1912, is vulnerable to extinction, being restricted to a few isolated islands in eastern Indonesia, between Java and Australia, where it is the dominant terrestrial carnivore. Understanding how large-bodied varanids responded to past environmental change underpins long-term management of V. komodoensis populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We reconstruct the palaeobiogeography of Neogene giant varanids and identify a new (unnamed species from the island of Timor. Our data reject the long-held perception that V. komodoensis became a giant because of insular evolution or as a specialist hunter of pygmy Stegodon. Phyletic giantism, coupled with a westward dispersal from mainland Australia, provides the most parsimonious explanation for the palaeodistribution of V. komodoensis and the newly identified species of giant varanid from Timor. Pliocene giant varanid fossils from Australia are morphologically referable to V. komodoensis suggesting an ultimate origin for V. komodoensis on mainland Australia (>3.8 million years ago. Varanus komodoensis body size has remained stable over the last 900,000 years (ka on Flores, a time marked by major faunal turnovers, extinction of the island's megafauna, the arrival of early hominids by 880 ka, co-existence with Homo floresiensis, and the arrival of modern humans by 10 ka. Within the last 2000 years their populations have contracted severely. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Giant varanids were once a ubiquitous part of Subcontinental Eurasian and Australasian faunas during the Neogene. Extinction played a pivotal role in the reduction of their ranges and diversity throughout the late Quaternary, leaving only V. komodoensis as an isolated long-term survivor. The events over the last two millennia now threaten its future survival.

  3. Iceland as the largest source of natural air pollution in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagsson Waldhauserova, Pavla; Meinander, Outi; Olafsson, Haraldur; Arnalds, Olafur

    2017-04-01

    Arctic aerosols are often attributed to the Arctic Haze and long-range transport tracers. There is, however, an important dust source in the Arctic/Sub-arctic region which should receive more attention. The largest desert in the Arctic as well as in the Europe is Iceland with > 40,000 km2 of desert areas. The mean dust suspension frequency was 135 dust days annually in 1949-2012 with decreasing numbers in 2013-2015. The annual dust deposition was calculated as 31-40 million tons yr-1 affecting the area of > 500,000 km2. Satelite MODIS pictures have revealed dust plumes traveling > 1000 km at times. The physical properties of Icelandic dust showed differences in mineralogy, geochemical compositions, shapes, sizes, and colour, compared to the crustal mineral dust. Icelandic dust is of volcanic origin, dark in colour with sharp-tipped shards and large bubbles. About 80% of the particulate matter is volcanic glass rich in heavy metals, such as iron and titanium. Suspended dust measured at the glacial dust source consisted of such high number of close-to-ultrafine particles as concentrations during active eruptions. Generally, about 50% of the suspended PM10 are submicron particles in Iceland. Contrarily, suspended grains > 2 mm were captured during severe dust storm after the 2010 Eyjafjallajokull eruption when the aeolian transport exceeded 11 t m-1 of materials and placed this storms among the most extreme wind erosion events recorded on Earth. Our reflectance measurements showed that Icelandic dust deposited on snow lowers the snow albedo and reduces the snow density as much as Black Carbon. Icelandic volcanic dust tends to act as a positive climate forcing agent, both directly and indirectly, which is different to what generally concluded for crustal dust in the 2013 IPCC report. The high frequency, severity and year-round activity of volcanic dust emissions suggest that Icelandic dust may contribute to Arctic warming.

  4. Scaling-Up Effective Language and Literacy Instruction: Evaluating the Importance of Scripting and Group Size Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bleses, Dorthe; Højen, Anders; Dale, Philip

    2018-01-01

    participated in a cluster-randomized evaluation of three variations of a language-literacy focused curriculum (LEAP) comprising 40 twice-weekly 30-min lessons. LEAP-LARGE and LEAP-SMALL conditions involved educators’ implementation of a scope and sequence of objectives using scripted lessons provided to whole......-class and small groups, respectively. In LEAP-OPEN, educators followed the scope and sequence but were allowed to determine the instructional activities for each of 40 lessons (i.e., they received no scripted lessons). A business-as-usual (BAU) condition served as the control. Overall, the largest effect sizes...

  5. Body Size Distribution of the Dinosaurs

    OpenAIRE

    O?Gorman, Eoin J.; Hone, David W. E.

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of species body size is critically important for determining resource use within a group or clade. It is widely known that non-avian dinosaurs were the largest creatures to roam the Earth. There is, however, little understanding of how maximum species body size was distributed among the dinosaurs. Do they share a similar distribution to modern day vertebrate groups in spite of their large size, or did they exhibit fundamentally different distributions due to unique evolutiona...

  6. A marine heatwave drives massive losses from the world’s largest seagrass carbon stocks

    KAUST Repository

    Arias-Ortiz, Ariane; Serrano, Oscar; Masqué , Pere; Lavery, P. S.; Mueller, U.; Kendrick, G. A.; Rozaimi, M.; Esteban, A.; Fourqurean, J. W.; Marbà , N.; Mateo, M. A.; Murray, K.; Rule, M. J.; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2018-01-01

    Seagrass ecosystems contain globally significant organic carbon (C) stocks. However, climate change and increasing frequency of extreme events threaten their preservation. Shark Bay, Western Australia, has the largest C stock reported for a seagrass

  7. New Chicago-Indiana computer network will handle dataflow from world's largest scientific experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "Massive quantities of data will soon begin flowing from the largest scientific instrument ever built into an international netword of computer centers, including one operated jointly by the University of Chicago and Indiana University." (1,5 page)

  8. Lagisza, world's largest CFB boiler, begins commercial operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuortimo, K. [Foster Wheeler, Varkaus (Finland)

    2010-04-15

    Early operating experience with the Lagisza circulating fluidised bed (CFB) boiler in Poland - the world's largest such boiler to date, and also the first one with supercritical steam conditions - has been positive. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Analytic approximation to the largest eigenvalue distribution of a white Wishart matrix

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vlok, JD

    2012-08-14

    Full Text Available offers largely simplified computation and provides statistics such as the mean value and region of support of the largest eigenvalue distribution. Numeric results from the literature are compared with the approximation and Monte Carlo simulation results...

  10. Sustainable Sizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinette, Kathleen M; Veitch, Daisy

    2016-08-01

    To provide a review of sustainable sizing practices that reduce waste, increase sales, and simultaneously produce safer, better fitting, accommodating products. Sustainable sizing involves a set of methods good for both the environment (sustainable environment) and business (sustainable business). Sustainable sizing methods reduce (1) materials used, (2) the number of sizes or adjustments, and (3) the amount of product unsold or marked down for sale. This reduces waste and cost. The methods can also increase sales by fitting more people in the target market and produce happier, loyal customers with better fitting products. This is a mini-review of methods that result in more sustainable sizing practices. It also reviews and contrasts current statistical and modeling practices that lead to poor fit and sizing. Fit-mapping and the use of cases are two excellent methods suited for creating sustainable sizing, when real people (vs. virtual people) are used. These methods are described and reviewed. Evidence presented supports the view that virtual fitting with simulated people and products is not yet effective. Fit-mapping and cases with real people and actual products result in good design and products that are fit for person, fit for purpose, with good accommodation and comfortable, optimized sizing. While virtual models have been shown to be ineffective for predicting or representing fit, there is an opportunity to improve them by adding fit-mapping data to the models. This will require saving fit data, product data, anthropometry, and demographics in a standardized manner. For this success to extend to the wider design community, the development of a standardized method of data collection for fit-mapping with a globally shared fit-map database is needed. It will enable the world community to build knowledge of fit and accommodation and generate effective virtual fitting for the future. A standardized method of data collection that tests products' fit methodically

  11. Size matter!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Jespersen, Andreas Maaløe; Skov, Laurits Rhoden

    2015-01-01

    trash bags according to size of plates and weighed in bulk. Results Those eating from smaller plates (n=145) left significantly less food to waste (aver. 14,8g) than participants eating from standard plates (n=75) (aver. 20g) amounting to a reduction of 25,8%. Conclusions Our field experiment tests...... the hypothesis that a decrease in the size of food plates may lead to significant reductions in food waste from buffets. It supports and extends the set of circumstances in which a recent experiment found that reduced dinner plates in a hotel chain lead to reduced quantities of leftovers....

  12. Damascus steel ledeburite class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, D. A.; Arkhangelsky, L. B.; Plotnikova, N. V.

    2017-02-01

    Discovered that some of blades Damascus steel has an unusual nature of origin of the excess cementite, which different from the redundant phases of secondary cementite, cementite of ledeburite and primary cementite in iron-carbon alloys. It is revealed that the morphological features of separate particles of cementite in Damascus steels lies in the abnormal size of excess carbides having the shape of irregular prisms. Considered three hypotheses for the formation of excess cementite in the form of faceted prismatic of excess carbides. The first hypothesis is based on thermal fission of cementite of a few isolated grains. The second hypothesis is based on the process of fragmentation cementite during deformation to the separate the pieces. The third hypothesis is based on the transformation of metastable cementite in the stable of angular eutectic carbide. It is shown that the angular carbides are formed within the original metastable colony ledeburite, so they are called “eutectic carbide”. It is established that high-purity white cast iron is converted into of Damascus steel during isothermal soaking at the annealing. It was revealed that some of blades Damascus steel ledeburite class do not contain in its microstructure of crushed ledeburite. It is shown that the pattern of carbide heterogeneity of Damascus steel consists entirely of angular eutectic carbides. Believe that Damascus steel refers to non-heat-resistant steel of ledeburite class, which have similar structural characteristics with semi-heat-resistant die steel or heat-resistant high speed steel, differing from them only in the nature of excess carbide phase.

  13. Exploring Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    "Exploring" is a magazine of science, art, and human perception that communicates ideas museum exhibits cannot demonstrate easily by using experiments and activities for the classroom. This issue concentrates on size, examining it from a variety of viewpoints. The focus allows students to investigate and discuss interconnections among…

  14. Thin-plate spline analysis of craniofacial growth in Class I and Class II subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Lorenzo; Baccetti, Tiziano; Stahl, Franka; McNamara, James A

    2007-07-01

    To compare the craniofacial growth characteristics of untreated subjects with Class II division 1 malocclusion with those of subjects with normal (Class I) occlusion from the prepubertal through the postpubertal stages of development. The Class II division 1 sample consisted of 17 subjects (11 boys and six girls). The Class I sample also consisted of 17 subjects (13 boys and four girls). Three craniofacial regions (cranial base, maxilla, and mandible) were analyzed on the lateral cephalograms of the subjects in both groups by means of thin-plate spline analysis at T1 (prepubertal) and T2 (postpubertal). Both cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons were performed on both size and shape differences between the two groups. The results showed an increased cranial base angulation as a morphological feature of Class II malocclusion at the prepubertal developmental phase. Maxillary changes in either shape or size were not significant. Subjects with Class II malocclusion exhibited a significant deficiency in the size of the mandible at the completion of active craniofacial growth as compared with Class I subjects. A significant deficiency in the size of the mandible became apparent in Class II subjects during the circumpubertal period and it was still present at the completion of active craniofacial growth.

  15. Class 1 Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A "Class 1" area is a geographic area recognized by the EPA as being of the highest environmental quality and requiring maximum protection. Class I areas are areas...

  16. PRCR Classes and Activities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — This data is specific to Parks and Recreation classes, workshops, and activities within the course catalog. It contains an entry for upcoming classes.*This data set...

  17. Class Notes for "Class-Y-News."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Judy L.

    1991-01-01

    A self-contained class of students with mild to moderate disabilities published a monthly newsletter which was distributed to students' families. Students became involved in writing, typing, drawing, folding, basic editing, and disseminating. (JDD)

  18. Classed identities in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Jay, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    peer-reviewed The central argument of this thesis is that social class remains a persistent system of inequality in education, health, life chances and opportunities. Therefore class matters. But why is it that so little attention has been paid to class in the psychological literature? Three papers are presented here which draw together theoretical advances in psychological understandings of group processes and sociological understandings of the complexity of class. As western labour marke...

  19. Size matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forst, Michael

    2012-11-01

    The shakeout in the solar cell and module industry is in full swing. While the number of companies and production locations shutting down in the Western world is increasing, the capacity expansion in the Far East seems to be unbroken. Size in combination with a good sales network has become the key to success for surviving in the current storm. The trade war with China already looming on the horizon is adding to the uncertainties. (orig.)

  20. Evaluation of world's largest social welfare scheme: An assessment using non-parametric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sanjeet

    2016-08-01

    Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) is the world's largest social welfare scheme in India for the poverty alleviation through rural employment generation. This paper aims to evaluate and rank the performance of the states in India under MGNREGA scheme. A non-parametric approach, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is used to calculate the overall technical, pure technical, and scale efficiencies of states in India. The sample data is drawn from the annual official reports published by the Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India. Based on three selected input parameters (expenditure indicators) and five output parameters (employment generation indicators), I apply both input and output oriented DEA models to estimate how well the states utilize their resources and generate outputs during the financial year 2013-14. The relative performance evaluation has been made under the assumption of constant returns and also under variable returns to scale to assess the impact of scale on performance. The results indicate that the main source of inefficiency is both technical and managerial practices adopted. 11 states are overall technically efficient and operate at the optimum scale whereas 18 states are pure technical or managerially efficient. It has been found that for some states it necessary to alter scheme size to perform at par with the best performing states. For inefficient states optimal input and output targets along with the resource savings and output gains are calculated. Analysis shows that if all inefficient states operate at optimal input and output levels, on an average 17.89% of total expenditure and a total amount of $780million could have been saved in a single year. Most of the inefficient states perform poorly when it comes to the participation of women and disadvantaged sections (SC&ST) in the scheme. In order to catch up with the performance of best performing states, inefficient states on an average need to enhance

  1. Sauropod dinosaurs evolved moderately sized genomes unrelated to body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ, Chris L; Brusatte, Stephen L; Stein, Koen

    2009-12-22

    Sauropodomorph dinosaurs include the largest land animals to have ever lived, some reaching up to 10 times the mass of an African elephant. Despite their status defining the upper range for body size in land animals, it remains unknown whether sauropodomorphs evolved larger-sized genomes than non-avian theropods, their sister taxon, or whether a relationship exists between genome size and body size in dinosaurs, two questions critical for understanding broad patterns of genome evolution in dinosaurs. Here we report inferences of genome size for 10 sauropodomorph taxa. The estimates are derived from a Bayesian phylogenetic generalized least squares approach that generates posterior distributions of regression models relating genome size to osteocyte lacunae volume in extant tetrapods. We estimate that the average genome size of sauropodomorphs was 2.02 pg (range of species means: 1.77-2.21 pg), a value in the upper range of extant birds (mean = 1.42 pg, range: 0.97-2.16 pg) and near the average for extant non-avian reptiles (mean = 2.24 pg, range: 1.05-5.44 pg). The results suggest that the variation in size and architecture of genomes in extinct dinosaurs was lower than the variation found in mammals. A substantial difference in genome size separates the two major clades within dinosaurs, Ornithischia (large genomes) and Saurischia (moderate to small genomes). We find no relationship between body size and estimated genome size in extinct dinosaurs, which suggests that neutral forces did not dominate the evolution of genome size in this group.

  2. The Multivariate Largest Lyapunov Exponent as an Age-Related Metric of Quiet Standing Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The largest Lyapunov exponent has been researched as a metric of the balance ability during human quiet standing. However, the sensitivity and accuracy of this measurement method are not good enough for clinical use. The present research proposes a metric of the human body’s standing balance ability based on the multivariate largest Lyapunov exponent which can quantify the human standing balance. The dynamic multivariate time series of ankle, knee, and hip were measured by multiple electrical goniometers. Thirty-six normal people of different ages participated in the test. With acquired data, the multivariate largest Lyapunov exponent was calculated. Finally, the results of the proposed approach were analysed and compared with the traditional method, for which the largest Lyapunov exponent and power spectral density from the centre of pressure were also calculated. The following conclusions can be obtained. The multivariate largest Lyapunov exponent has a higher degree of differentiation in differentiating balance in eyes-closed conditions. The MLLE value reflects the overall coordination between multisegment movements. Individuals of different ages can be distinguished by their MLLE values. The standing stability of human is reduced with the increment of age.

  3. Identifying the node spreading influence with largest k-core values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jian-Hong; Guo, Qiang; Dong, Wen-Zhao; Tang, Li-Ying; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2014-01-01

    Identifying the nodes with largest spreading influence of complex networks is one of the most promising domains. By taking into account the neighbors' k-core values, we present an improved neighbors' k-core (INK) method which is the sum of the neighbors' k-core values with a tunable parameter α to evaluate the node spreading influence with largest k-core values. Comparing with the Susceptible–Infected–Recovered (SIR) results for four real networks, the INK method could identify the node spreading influence with largest k-core values more accurately than the ones generated by the degree k, closeness C, betweenness B and coreness centrality method. - Highlights: • We present an improved neighbors' k-core (INK) method to evaluate the node spreading influence with largest k-core values. • The INK method could identify the node spreading influence with largest k-core values more accurately. • Kendall's tau τ of INK method with α=1 are highly identical to rank the node influence

  4. Titanogryllus n. gen., the largest Gryllinae cricket from the Neotropical Region with three new species from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Orthoptera, Grylloidea, Gryllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswara, Ranjana; Souza-Dias, Pedro G B; De Campos, Lucas Denadai; RedÜ, Darlan R; De Mello, Francisco de A G; Desutter-Grandcolas, Laure

    2018-03-29

    Titanogryllus, a new genus and three new species T. salgado n. gen. n. sp., T. oxossi n. gen. n. sp., and T. oxente n. gen. n. sp. from subfamily Gryllinae (Grylloidea, Gryllidae) are described from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. This genus is characterized by its very large size, and establishes a new record for the largest known cricket from Neotropical Region. The new taxa are characterized by their external morphology and male and female genitalia.

  5. Draft sequencing and assembly of the genome of the world's largest fish, the whale shark: Rhincodon typus Smith 1828.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Timothy D; Petit, Robert A; Joseph, Sandeep J; Alam, Md Tauqeer; Weil, M Ryan; Ahmad, Maida; Bhimani, Ravila; Vuong, Jocelyn S; Haase, Chad P; Webb, D Harry; Tan, Milton; Dove, Alistair D M

    2017-07-14

    The whale shark (Rhincodon typus) has by far the largest body size of any elasmobranch (shark or ray) species. Therefore, it is also the largest extant species of the paraphyletic assemblage commonly referred to as fishes. As both a phenotypic extreme and a member of the group Chondrichthyes - the sister group to the remaining gnathostomes, which includes all tetrapods and therefore also humans - its genome is of substantial comparative interest. Whale sharks are also listed as an endangered species on the International Union for Conservation of Nature's Red List of threatened species and are of growing popularity as both a target of ecotourism and as a charismatic conservation ambassador for the pelagic ecosystem. A genome map for this species would aid in defining effective conservation units and understanding global population structure. We characterised the nuclear genome of the whale shark using next generation sequencing (454, Illumina) and de novo assembly and annotation methods, based on material collected from the Georgia Aquarium. The data set consisted of 878,654,233 reads, which yielded a draft assembly of 1,213,200 contigs and 997,976 scaffolds. The estimated genome size was 3.44Gb. As expected, the proteome of the whale shark was most closely related to the only other complete genome of a cartilaginous fish, the holocephalan elephant shark. The whale shark contained a novel Toll-like-receptor (TLR) protein with sequence similarity to both the TLR4 and TLR13 proteins of mammals and TLR21 of teleosts. The data are publicly available on GenBank, FigShare, and from the NCBI Short Read Archive under accession number SRP044374. This represents the first shotgun elasmobranch genome and will aid studies of molecular systematics, biogeography, genetic differentiation, and conservation genetics in this and other shark species, as well as providing comparative data for studies of evolutionary biology and immunology across the jawed vertebrate lineages.

  6. Loosely coupled class families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2001-01-01

    are expressed using virtual classes seem to be very tightly coupled internally. While clients have achieved the freedom to dynamically use one or the other family, it seems that any given family contains a xed set of classes and we will need to create an entire family of its own just in order to replace one...... of the members with another class. This paper shows how to express class families in such a manner that the classes in these families can be used in many dierent combinations, still enabling family polymorphism and ensuring type safety....

  7. Astronomy for Astronomical Numbers: A Worldwide Massive Open Online Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impey, Chris D.; Wenger, Matthew C.; Austin, Carmen L.

    2015-01-01

    Astronomy: State of the Art is a massive, open, online class (MOOC) offered through Udemy by an instructional team at the University of Arizona. With nearly 24,000 enrolled as of early 2015, it is the largest astronomy MOOC available. The astronomical numbers enrolled do not translate into a similar level of engagement. The content consists of 14…

  8. Paving the Way for Small Satellite Access to Orbit: Cyclops' Deployment of SpinSat, the Largest Satellite Ever Deployed from the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, Matthew P.; Newswander, Daniel R.; Smith, James P.; Lamb, Craig R.; Ballard, Perry G.

    2015-01-01

    The Space Station Integrated Kinetic Launcher for Orbital Payload Systems (SSIKLOPS), known as "Cyclops" to the International Space Station (ISS) community, successfully deployed the largest satellite ever (SpinSat) from the ISS on November 28, 2014. Cyclops, a collaboration between the NASA ISS Program, NASA Johnson Space Center Engineering, and Department of Defense Space Test Program (DoD STP) communities, is a dedicated 10-100 kg class ISS small satellite deployment system. This paper will showcase the successful deployment of SpinSat from the ISS. It will also outline the concept of operations, interfaces, requirements, and processes for satellites to utilize the Cyclops satellite deployment system.

  9. Gait and Function in Class III Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Ling

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Walking, more specifically gait, is an essential component of daily living. Walking is a very different activity for individuals with a Body Mass Index (BMI of 40 or more (Class III obesity compared with those who are overweight or obese with a BMI between 26–35. Yet all obesity weight classes receive the same physical activity guidelines and recommendations. This observational study examined the components of function and disability in a group with Class III obesity and a group that is overweight or has Class I obesity. Significant differences were found between the groups in the areas of gait, body size, health condition, and activity capacity and participation. The Timed Up and Go test, gait velocity, hip circumference, and stance width appear to be most predictive of activity capacity as observed during gait assessment. The findings indicate that Class III-related gait is pathologic and not a normal adaptation.

  10. Determinants of differences in the activity budgets of Rhinopithecus bieti by age/sex class at Xiangguqing in the Baimaxueshan nature reserve, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yanhong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological factors are known to influence the activity budgets of Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti. However, little is known about how activity budgets vary between age/sex classes, because the species is difficult to observe in the wild. This study provides the first detailed activity budgets subdivided by age/sex classes based on observations of the largest habituated group at Xiangguqing in Baimaxueshan Nature Reserve. This study was conducted from June 2008 to May 2009. We found that adult females spent more time feeding (44.8% than adult males (39.5%, juveniles (39.1%, and infants (14.2%. Adult males allocated more time to miscellaneous activities (12.5% than did adult females (3.8%. Infants were being groomed 6.9% of the time, which was the highest proportion among all age/sex classes. Adults spent more time feeding, while immature individuals allocated more time to moving and other activities. There are several reasons activity budgets may vary by age/sex class: 1 differential reproductive investment between males and females; 2 developmental differences among the age categories; 3 social relationships between members of different age/sex classes, particularly dominance. In addition, group size and adult sex ratio may also impact activity budgets. These variations in activity budgets among the different age/sex classes may become a selective pressure that shapes the development and growth pattern in this species.

  11. Rhizosphere size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzyakov, Yakov; Razavi, Bahar

    2017-04-01

    Estimation of the soil volume affected by roots - the rhizosphere - is crucial to assess the effects of plants on properties and processes in soils and dynamics of nutrients, water, microorganisms and soil organic matter. The challenges to assess the rhizosphere size are: 1) the continuum of properties between the root surface and root-free soil, 2) differences in the distributions of various properties (carbon, microorganisms and their activities, various nutrients, enzymes, etc.) along and across the roots, 3) temporal changes of properties and processes. Thus, to describe the rhizosphere size and root effects, a holistic approach is necessary. We collected literature and own data on the rhizosphere gradients of a broad range of physico-chemical and biological properties: pH, CO2, oxygen, redox potential, water uptake, various nutrients (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn and Fe), organic compounds (glucose, carboxylic acids, amino acids), activities of enzymes of C, N, P and S cycles. The collected data were obtained based on the destructive approaches (thin layer slicing), rhizotron studies and in situ visualization techniques: optodes, zymography, sensitive gels, 14C and neutron imaging. The root effects were pronounced from less than 0.5 mm (nutrients with slow diffusion) up to more than 50 mm (for gases). However, the most common effects were between 1 - 10 mm. Sharp gradients (e.g. for P, carboxylic acids, enzyme activities) allowed to calculate clear rhizosphere boundaries and so, the soil volume affected by roots. The first analyses were done to assess the effects of soil texture and moisture as well as root system and age on these gradients. The most properties can be described by two curve types: exponential saturation and S curve, each with increasing and decreasing concentration profiles from the root surface. The gradient based distribution functions were calculated and used to extrapolate on the whole soil depending on the root density and rooting intensity. We

  12. CERN: Digital image analysis in the world's largest research center for particle physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Those interested in researching into the smallest building blocks that matter is made up of need the largest instruments. CERN, near Geneva, Switzerland is where the most powerful circular accelerator in the world is being built: the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) for proton collisions. It has a circumference of 26.7 km (4 pages)

  13. Mass balance of Greenland's three largest outlet glaciers - 2000–2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howat, I.M.; Ahn, Y.; Joughin, I.; van den Broeke, M.R.; Lenaerts, J.T.M.; Smith, B.

    2011-01-01

    Acceleration of Greenland's three largest outlet glaciers, Helheim, Kangerdlugssuaq and Jakobshavn Isbræ, accounted for a substantial portion of the ice sheet's mass loss over the past decade. Rapid changes in their discharge, however, make their cumulative mass-change uncertain. We derive monthly

  14. Key U.S.-built part fails during testing for world's largest particle collider

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Scientists are scrambling to redesign a key U.S.-built part that broke "with a loud bang and a cloud of dust" during a high-pressure test for the world's largest particle physics collider that is supposed to start up in November, officials sais Tuesday." (1,5 page)

  15. CERN, World's largest particle physics lab, selects Progress SonicMQ

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    "Progress Software Corporation (NADAQ: PRGS), a global supplier of application insfrastructure software used to develop, deploy, integrate and manage business applications, today announced that CERN the world's largest physis laboratory and particle accelerator, has chosen Progress® SonicMQ® for mission-critical message delivery." (1 page)

  16. Phase space reconstruction and estimation of the largest Lyapunov exponent for gait kinematic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josiński, Henryk [Silesian University of Technology, Akademicka 16, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Świtoński, Adam [Polish-Japanese Institute of Information Technology, Aleja Legionów 2, 41-902 Bytom (Poland); Silesian University of Technology, Akademicka 16, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Michalczuk, Agnieszka; Wojciechowski, Konrad [Polish-Japanese Institute of Information Technology, Aleja Legionów 2, 41-902 Bytom (Poland)

    2015-03-10

    The authors describe an example of application of nonlinear time series analysis directed at identifying the presence of deterministic chaos in human motion data by means of the largest Lyapunov exponent. The method was previously verified on the basis of a time series constructed from the numerical solutions of both the Lorenz and the Rössler nonlinear dynamical systems.

  17. Predicting Traffic Flow in Local Area Networks by the Largest Lyapunov Exponent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of network traffic are complex and nonlinear, and chaotic behaviors and their prediction, which play an important role in local area networks (LANs, are studied in detail, using the largest Lyapunov exponent. With the introduction of phase space reconstruction based on the time sequence, the high-dimensional traffic is projected onto the low dimension reconstructed phase space, and a reduced dynamic system is obtained from the dynamic system viewpoint. Then, a numerical method for computing the largest Lyapunov exponent of the low-dimensional dynamic system is presented. Further, the longest predictable time, which is related to chaotic behaviors in the system, is studied using the largest Lyapunov exponent, and the Wolf method is used to predict the evolution of the traffic in a local area network by both Dot and Interval predictions, and a reliable result is obtained by the presented method. As the conclusion, the results show that the largest Lyapunov exponent can be used to describe the sensitivity of the trajectory in the reconstructed phase space to the initial values. Moreover, Dot Prediction can effectively predict the flow burst. The numerical simulation also shows that the presented method is feasible and efficient for predicting the complex dynamic behaviors in LAN traffic, especially for congestion and attack in networks, which are the main two complex phenomena behaving as chaos in networks.

  18. World's third-largest producer of nuclear power. Japan in need of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Japan is the third largest oil consumer in the world behind the United States and China, and the second largest net importer of oil. Japan boasts one of the largest economies in the world. The country continues to experience a moderate economic recovery that began in 2003, following a decade of economic stagnation. Japan's real gross domestic product (GDP) grew by 2.5% in 2005 and 2.3% in 2004. The modest upturn over the last few years reflects higher business confidence in Japan, a surge in export demand led by exports to China, and robust consumer spending. Unemployment in Japan fell to 4.4% in 2005, down from an early 2003 peak of 5.5%. Japan has virtually no domestic oil or natural gas reserves, and in 2005 was the second largest net importer of crude oil in the world. Despite the country's dearth of hydrocarbon resources, Japanese companies have actively pursued upstream oil and natural gas projects overseas. Japan remains one of the major exporters of energy-sector capital equipment, and Japanese companies provide engineering, construction, and project management services for energy projects. (orig.)

  19. Distribution of the Largest Eigenvalues of the Levi-Smirnov Ensemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieczorek, W.

    2004-01-01

    We calculate the distribution of the k-th largest eigenvalue in the random matrix Levi - Smirnov Ensemble (LSE), using the spectral dualism between LSE and chiral Gaussian Unitary Ensemble (GUE). Then we reconstruct universal spectral oscillations and we investigate an asymptotic behavior of the spectral distribution. (author)

  20. Class, Culture and Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer

    2013-01-01

    Even though contemporary discussions of class have moved forward towards recognizing a multidimensional concept of class, empirical analyses tend to focus on cultural practices in a rather narrow sense, that is, as practices of cultural consumption or practices of education. As a result......, discussions within political sociology have not yet utilized the merits of a multidimensional conception of class. In light of this, the article suggests a comprehensive Bourdieusian framework for class analysis, integrating culture as both a structural phenomenon co-constitutive of class and as symbolic...... practice. Further, the article explores this theoretical framework in a multiple correspondence analysis of a Danish survey, demonstrating how class and political practices are indeed homologous. However, the analysis also points at several elements of field autonomy, and the concluding discussion...

  1. Class network routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanot, Gyan [Princeton, NJ; Blumrich, Matthias A [Ridgefield, CT; Chen, Dong [Croton On Hudson, NY; Coteus, Paul W [Yorktown Heights, NY; Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D [Mount Kisco, NY; Takken, Todd E [Mount Kisco, NY; Vranas, Pavlos M [Bedford Hills, NY

    2009-09-08

    Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.

  2. Culture and social class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yuri

    2017-12-01

    A large body of research in Western cultures has demonstrated the psychological and health effects of social class. This review outlines a cultural psychological approach to social stratification by comparing psychological and health manifestations of social class across Western and East Asian cultures. These comparisons suggest that cultural meaning systems shape how people make meaning and respond to material/structural conditions associated with social class, thereby leading to culturally divergent manifestations of social class. Specifically, unlike their counterparts in Western cultures, individuals of high social class in East Asian cultures tend to show high conformity and other-orientated psychological attributes. In addition, cultures differ in how social class impacts health (i.e. on which bases, through which pathways, and to what extent). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Semantic Analysis of Virtual Classes and Nested Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1999-01-01

    Virtual classes and nested classes are distinguishing features of BETA. Nested classes originated from Simula, but until recently they have not been part of main stream object- oriented languages. C++ has a restricted form of nested classes and they were included in Java 1.1. Virtual classes...... classes and parameterized classes have been made. Although virtual classes and nested classes have been used in BETA for more than a decade, their implementation has not been published. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of virtual classes and nested classes by presenting...

  4. Class in disguise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Stine Thidemann; Prieur, Annick

    This paper asks how class can have importance in one of the worlds’ most equal societies: Denmark. The answer is that class here appears in disguised forms. The field under study is a city, Aalborg, in the midst of transition from a stronghold of industrialism to a post industrial economy. The pa....... The paper also raises questions about how sociological discourses may contribute to the veiling of class....

  5. Middle Class Fortunes in Western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Kochhar, Rakesh

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the state of the middle classes in the U.S. and 11 countries in Western Europe and how it has changed since 1991. Among Western Europe's six largest economies, the shares of adults living in middle-income households increased in France, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom from 1991 to 2010, but shrank in Germany, Italy and Spain. France, the Netherlands and the UK also experienced notable growth in disposable household income, but incomes were either stagnant or falling...

  6. Seasonal body size reductions with warming covary with major body size gradients in arthropod species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horne, Curtis R.; Hirst, Andrew G.; Atkinson, David

    2017-01-01

    experience different developmental conditions. Yet, unlike other size patterns, these common seasonal temperature–size gradients have never been collectively analysed. We undertake the largest analysis to date of seasonal temperature-size gradients in multivoltine arthropods, including 102 aquatic...... and terrestrial species from 71 global locations. Adult size declines in warmer seasons in 86% of the species examined. Aquatic species show approximately 2.5-fold greater reduction in size per °C of warming than terrestrial species, supporting the hypothesis that greater oxygen limitation in water than in air...

  7. Prognostic value of nucleolar size and size pleomorphism in choroidal melanomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Gamel, J W; Jensen, O A

    1993-01-01

    Morphometric estimates of nucleolar size have been shown to possess a high prognostic value in patients with uveal melanomas. The authors investigated various quantitative estimators of the mean size and pleomorphism of nucleoli in choroidal melanomas from a consecutive series of 95 Danish patients...... of melanoma, and largest macroscopic tumor dimension (LTD), the following histomorphometric estimates were obtained: mean diameter of the 10 largest nucleoli (MLN), point-sampled mean nucleolar profile area (nucleolar ao) and the associated standard deviation of nucleolar ao, the volume-weighted mean...

  8. Evidence of market-driven size-selective fishing and the mediating effects of biological and institutional factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sheila M W; Wentz, Allison; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Maxey, Martin; Nagavarapu, Sriniketh; Leslie, Heather M

    2013-06-01

    Market demand is often ignored or assumed to lead uniformly to the decline of resources. Yet little is known about how market demand influences natural resources in particular contexts, or the mediating effects of biological or institutional factors. Here, we investigate this problem by examining the Pacific red snapper (Lutjanus peru) fishery around La Paz, Mexico, where medium or "plate-sized" fish are sold to restaurants at a premium price. If higher demand for plate-sized fish increases the relative abundance of the smallest (recruit size class) and largest (most fecund) fish, this may be a market mechanism to increase stocks and fishermen's revenues. We tested this hypothesis by estimating the effect of prices on the distribution of catch across size classes using daily records of prices and catch. We linked predictions from this economic choice model to a staged-based model of the fishery to estimate the effects on the stock and revenues from harvest. We found that the supply of plate-sized fish increased by 6%, while the supply of large fish decreased by 4% as a result of a 13% price premium for plate-sized fish. This market-driven size selection increased revenues (14%) but decreased total fish biomass (-3%). However, when market-driven size selection was combined with limited institutional constraints, both fish biomass (28%) and fishermen's revenue (22%) increased. These results show that the direction and magnitude of the effects of market demand on biological populations and human behavior can depend on both biological attributes and institutional constraints. Fisheries management may capitalize on these conditional effects by implementing size-based regulations when economic and institutional incentives will enhance compliance, as in the case we describe here, or by creating compliance enhancing conditions for existing regulations.

  9. Teaching Social Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tablante, Courtney B.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2015-01-01

    Discussing socioeconomic status in college classes can be challenging. Both teachers and students feel uncomfortable, yet social class matters more than ever. This is especially true, given increased income inequality in the United States and indications that higher education does not reduce this inequality as much as many people hope. Resources…

  10. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory...

  11. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  12. Differential genome-wide gene expression profiling of bovine largest and second-largest follicles: identification of genes associated with growth of dominant follicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi Toru

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine follicular development is regulated by numerous molecular mechanisms and biological pathways. In this study, we tried to identify differentially expressed genes between largest (F1 and second-largest follicles (F2, and classify them by global gene expression profiling using a combination of microarray and quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR analysis. The follicular status of F1 and F2 were further evaluated in terms of healthy and atretic conditions by investigating mRNA localization of identified genes. Methods Global gene expression profiles of F1 (10.7 +/- 0.7 mm and F2 (7.8 +/- 0.2 mm were analyzed by hierarchical cluster analysis and expression profiles of 16 representative genes were confirmed by QPCR analysis. In addition, localization of six identified transcripts was investigated in healthy and atretic follicles using in situ hybridization. The healthy or atretic condition of examined follicles was classified by progesterone and estradiol concentrations in follicular fluid. Results Hierarchical cluster analysis of microarray data classified the follicles into two clusters. Cluster A was composed of only F2 and was characterized by high expression of 31 genes including IGFBP5, whereas cluster B contained only F1 and predominantly expressed 45 genes including CYP19 and FSHR. QPCR analysis confirmed AMH, CYP19, FSHR, GPX3, PlGF, PLA2G1B, SCD and TRB2 were greater in F1 than F2, while CCL2, GADD45A, IGFBP5, PLAUR, SELP, SPP1, TIMP1 and TSP2 were greater in F2 than in F1. In situ hybridization showed that AMH and CYP19 were detected in granulosa cells (GC of healthy as well as atretic follicles. PlGF was localized in GC and in the theca layer (TL of healthy follicles. IGFBP5 was detected in both GC and TL of atretic follicles. GADD45A and TSP2 were localized in both GC and TL of atretic follicles, whereas healthy follicles expressed them only in GC. Conclusion We demonstrated that global gene expression profiling of F

  13. Classes of modules

    CERN Document Server

    Dauns, John

    2006-01-01

    Because traditional ring theory places restrictive hypotheses on all submodules of a module, its results apply only to small classes of already well understood examples. Often, modules with infinite Goldie dimension have finite-type dimension, making them amenable to use with type dimension, but not Goldie dimension. By working with natural classes and type submodules (TS), Classes of Modules develops the foundations and tools for the next generation of ring and module theory. It shows how to achieve positive results by placing restrictive hypotheses on a small subset of the complement submodules, Furthermore, it explains the existence of various direct sum decompositions merely as special cases of type direct sum decompositions. Carefully developing the foundations of the subject, the authors begin by providing background on the terminology and introducing the different module classes. The modules classes consist of torsion, torsion-free, s[M], natural, and prenatural. They expand the discussion by exploring...

  14. Hoplitolyda duolunica gen. et sp. nov. (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Praesiricidae, the Hitherto largest sawfly from the Mesozoic of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiping Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Large body size of an insect, in general, enhances its capability of predation, competition, and defense, resulting in better survivability and reproduction. Hymenopterans, most being phytophagous or parasitic, have a relatively small to medium body size, typically under 50.0 mm in body length. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Herein, we describe Hoplitolyda duolunica gen. et sp. nov., assigned to Praesiricidae, from the Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation of China. This new species is the largest fossil hymenopteran hitherto with body estimated >55.0 mm long and wing span >92.0 mm. H. duolunica is, to our knowledge, the only sawfly with Sc present in the hind wing but not in the forewing. Its Rs1 and M1 meeting each other at 145° angle represents an intermediate in the transition from "Y" to "T" shapes. Even though Hoplitolyda differs significantly from all previously described genera in two subfamilies of Praesricidae, we leave the new genus unplaced in existing subfamilies, pending discovery of material with more taxonomic structure. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Hoplitolyda has many unique and interesting characters which might have benefitted its competition, survival, and reproduction: large body size and head with robust and strong mandibles for defense and/or sexual selection, unique wing venation and setal arrangements for flight capability and mobility, dense hairs on body and legs for sensing and protection, etc. Considering the reported ferocious predators of feathered dinosaurs, pterosaurs, birds, and mammals coexisting in the same eco-system, Hoplitolyda is an interesting case of "survival of the fittest" in facing its evolutionary challenges.

  15. Analysis of Multiple Structural Changes in Financial Contagion Based on the Largest Lyapunov Exponents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A modified multiple structural changes model is built to test structural breaks of the financial system based on calculating the largest Lyapunov exponents of the financial time series. Afterwards, the Lorenz system is used as a simulation example to inspect the new model. As the Lorenz system has strong nonlinearity, the verification results show that the new model has good capability in both finding the breakpoint and revealing the changes in nonlinear characteristics of the time series. The empirical study based on the model used daily data from the S&P 500 stock index during the global financial crisis from 2005 to 2012. The results provide four breakpoints of the period, which divide the contagion into four stages: stationary, local outbreak, global outbreak, and recovery period. An additional significant result is the obvious chaos characteristic difference in the largest Lyapunov exponents and the standard deviation at various stages, particularly at the local outbreak stage.

  16. Constraining the magnitude of the largest event in a foreshock-main shock-aftershock sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, Robert; Zhuang, Jiancang; Ogata, Yosihiko

    2018-01-01

    Extreme value statistics and Bayesian methods are used to constrain the magnitudes of the largest expected earthquakes in a sequence governed by the parametric time-dependent occurrence rate and frequency-magnitude statistics. The Bayesian predictive distribution for the magnitude of the largest event in a sequence is derived. Two types of sequences are considered, that is, the classical aftershock sequences generated by large main shocks and the aftershocks generated by large foreshocks preceding a main shock. For the former sequences, the early aftershocks during a training time interval are used to constrain the magnitude of the future extreme event during the forecasting time interval. For the latter sequences, the earthquakes preceding the main shock are used to constrain the magnitudes of the subsequent extreme events including the main shock. The analysis is applied retrospectively to past prominent earthquake sequences.

  17. Investigation of Science Faculty with Education Specialties within the Largest University System in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Bush, Seth D; Pelaez, Nancy; Rudd, James A, II; Stevens, Michael T; Tanner, Kimberly D; Williams, Kathy, PhD

    2011-01-01

    Efforts to improve science education include university science departments hiring Science Faculty with Education Specialties (SFES), scientists who take on specialized roles in science education within their discipline. Although these positions have existed for decades and may be growing more common, few reports have investigated the SFES approach to improving science education. We present comprehensive data on the SFES in the California State University (CSU) system, the largest university ...

  18. Opportunities for biodiversity gains under the world’s largest reforestation programme

    OpenAIRE

    Hua, Fangyuan; Wang, Xiaoyang; Zheng, Xinlei; Fisher, Brendan; Wang, Lin; Zhu, Jianguo; Tang, Ya; Yu, Douglas W.; Wilcove, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Reforestation is a critical means of addressing the environmental and social problems of deforestation. China’s Grain-for-Green Program (GFGP) is the world’s largest reforestation scheme. Here we provide the first nationwide assessment of the tree composition of GFGP forests and the first combined ecological and economic study aimed at understanding GFGP’s biodiversity implications. Across China, GFGP forests are overwhelmingly monocultures or compositionally simple mixed forests. Focusing on...

  19. Statistics of the largest sunspot and facular areas per solar cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, D.M.; Kabasakal Tulunay, Y.

    1979-01-01

    The statistics of extreme values is used to investigate the statistical properties of the largest areas sunspots and photospheric faculae per solar cycle. The largest values of the synodic-solar-rotation mean areas of umbrae, whole spots and faculae, which have been recorded for nine solar cycles, are each shown to comply with the general form of the extreme value probability function. Empirical expressions are derived for the three extreme value populations from which the characteristic statistical parameters, namely the mode, median, mean and standard deviation, can be calculated for each population. These three extreme value populations are also used to find the expected ranges of the extreme areas in a group of solar cycles as a function of the number of cycles in the group. The extreme areas of umbrae and whole spots have a dispersion comparable to that found by Siscoe for the extreme values of sunspot number, whereas the extreme areas of faculae have a smaller dispersion which is comparable to that found by Siscoe for the largest geomagnetic storm per solar cycle. The expected range of the largest sunspot area per solar cycle for a group of one hundred cycles appears to be inconsistent with the existence of the prolonged periods of sunspot minima that have been inferred from the historical information on solar variability. This inconsistency supports the contention that there are temporal changes of solar-cycle statistics during protracted periods of sunspot minima (or maxima). Indeed, without such temporal changes, photospheric faculae should have been continually observable throughout the lifetime of the Sun. (orig.)

  20. Trend of CO2 emissions of the 30 largest power plants in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, Hauke

    2014-01-01

    The brochure on the trend of CO 2 emissions of the 30 largest power plants in Germany includes tables of the emissions of these power plants. The CO 2 emissions of these power plants in 2013 (25% of the total German greenhouse gas emissions) have increased by 5% compared to 2012. The total CO 2 emission sin Germany increased by 1.5%. The differences between brown coal and black coal fired power plants are discussed.

  1. Natural radionuclides in soil profiles surrounding the largest coal-fired power plant in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Tanić Milan N.; Janković-Mandić Ljiljana J.; Gajić Boško A.; Daković Marko Z.; Dragović Snežana D.; Bačić Goran G.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the influence of the largest Serbian coal-fired power plant on radionuclide concentrations in soil profiles up to 50 cm in depth. Thirty soil profiles were sampled from the plant surroundings (up to 10 km distance) and analyzed using standard methods for soil physicochemical properties and gamma ray spectrometry for specific activities of natural radionuclides (40K, 226Ra and 232Th). Spatial and vertical distribution of radionuclides wa...

  2. THE MASS OF (4) VESTA DERIVED FROM ITS LARGEST GRAVITATIONAL EFFECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmanoski, Mike; Novakovic, Bojan; Apostolovska, Gordana

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a recalculated value of the mass of (4) Vesta, derived from its largest gravitational perturbations on selected asteroids during their mutual close encounters. This was done by using a new method for mass determination, which is based on the linking of pre-encounter observations to the orbit determined from post-encounter ones. The estimated weighted mean of the mass of (4) Vesta is (1.300 ± 0.001) x 10 -10 M sun .

  3. Prostate Cancer Screening in Jamaica: Results of the Largest National Screening Clinic Prostate Cancer Screening in Jamaica: Results of the Largest National Screening Clinic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, B. F.; Aiken, W.; Mayhew, R.; Gordon, Y.; Reid, M.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is highly prevalent in Jamaica and is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Our aim was to evaluate the patterns of screening in the largest organized screening clinic in Jamaica at the Jamaica Cancer Society. A retrospective analysis of all men presenting for screening at the Jamaica Cancer Society from 1995 to 2005 was done. All patients had digital rectal examinations (DRE) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) tests done. Results of prostate biopsies were noted. 1117 men of mean age 59.9 ± 8.2 years presented for screening. The median documented PSA was 1.6 ng/mL (maximum of 5170 ng/mL). Most patients presented for only 1 screen. There was a gradual reduction in the mean age of presentation for screening over the period. Prostate biopsies were requested on 11% of screening visits; however, only 59% of these were done. 5.6% of all persons screened were found to have cancer. Of the cancers diagnosed, Gleason 6 adenocarcinoma was the commonest grade and median PSA was 8.9 ng/mL (range 1.5-1059 ng/mL). Older men tend to screen for prostate cancer in Jamaica. However, compliance with regular maintenance visits and requests for confirmatory biopsies are poor. Screening needs intervention in the Jamaican population.

  4. On the statistics of the largest geomagnetic storms per solar cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siscoe, G.L.

    1976-01-01

    The theory of extreme value statistics is applied to the first, second, and third largest geomagnetic storms in nine solar cycles measured by the average half-daily aa indices compiled by Mayaud. Analytic expressions giving the probability of the extremes per solar cycle as a contour function of storm magnitude are obtained by least squares fitting of the observations to the appropriate theoretical extreme value probability functions. The results are used to obtain the statistical characteristics (mode, median, mean, and standard deviation) for the extreme values. The results are applied to find the expected range of extreme values in a set as a function of the number of solar cycles in the set. We find that the expected range of the largest storm is quite narrow and is larger for the second and third largest storms. The observed range of the extreme half-daily aa index for the nine solar cycles is 354--546 γ. In a set of 100 cycles the range is expanded esentially to 311--680γ, an increase of only 39% in the range. The result supports the argument for a change in solar cycle statistics in the latter part of the Seventeenth Century (the Maunder minimum)

  5. Hospital Prices Increase in California, Especially Among Hospitals in the Largest Multi-hospital Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn A. Melnick PhD

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A surge in hospital consolidation is fueling formation of ever larger multi-hospital systems throughout the United States. This article examines hospital prices in California over time with a focus on hospitals in the largest multi-hospital systems. Our data show that hospital prices in California grew substantially (+76% per hospital admission across all hospitals and all services between 2004 and 2013 and that prices at hospitals that are members of the largest, multi-hospital systems grew substantially more (113% than prices paid to all other California hospitals (70%. Prices were similar in both groups at the start of the period (approximately $9200 per admission. By the end of the period, prices at hospitals in the largest systems exceeded prices at other California hospitals by almost $4000 per patient admission. Our study findings are potentially useful to policy makers across the country for several reasons. Our data measure actual prices for a large sample of hospitals over a long period of time in California. California experienced its wave of consolidation much earlier than the rest of the country and as such our findings may provide some insights into what may happen across the United States from hospital consolidation including growth of large, multi-hospital systems now forming in the rest of the rest of the country.

  6. Collaborative spectrum sensing based on the ratio between largest eigenvalue and Geometric mean of eigenvalues

    KAUST Repository

    Shakir, Muhammad

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new detector referred to as Geometric mean detector (GEMD) which is based on the ratio of the largest eigenvalue to the Geometric mean of the eigenvalues for collaborative spectrum sensing. The decision threshold has been derived by employing Gaussian approximation approach. In this approach, the two random variables, i.e. The largest eigenvalue and the Geometric mean of the eigenvalues are considered as independent Gaussian random variables such that their cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) are approximated by a univariate Gaussian distribution function for any number of cooperating secondary users and received samples. The approximation approach is based on the calculation of exact analytical moments of the largest eigenvalue and the Geometric mean of the eigenvalues of the received covariance matrix. The decision threshold has been calculated by exploiting the CDF of the ratio of two Gaussian distributed random variables. In this context, we exchange the analytical moments of the two random variables with the moments of the Gaussian distribution function. The performance of the detector is compared with the performance of the energy detector and eigenvalue ratio detector. Analytical and simulation results show that our newly proposed detector yields considerable performance advantage in realistic spectrum sensing scenarios. Moreover, our results based on proposed approximation approach are in perfect agreement with the empirical results. © 2011 IEEE.

  7. The global diversion of pharmaceutical drugs. India: the third largest illicit opium producer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Letizia; Greenfield, Victoria A; Charles, Molly; Reuter, Peter

    2009-03-01

    This paper explores India's role in the world illicit opiate market, particularly its role as a producer. India, a major illicit opiate consumer, is also the sole licensed exporter of raw opium: this unique status may be enabling substantial diversion to the illicit market. Participant observation and interviews were carried out at eight different sites. Information was also drawn from all standard secondary sources and the analysis of about 180 drug-related criminal proceedings reviewed by Indian High Courts and the Supreme Court from 1985 to 2001. Diversion from licit opium production takes place on such a large scale that India may be the third largest illicit opium producer after Afghanistan and Burma. With the possible exceptions of 2005 and 2006, 200-300 tons of India's opium may be diverted yearly. After estimating India's opiate consumption on the basis of UN-reported prevalence estimates, we find that diversion from licit production might have satisfied a quarter to more than a third of India's illicit opiate demand to 2004. India is not only among the world's largest consumer of illicit opiates but also one of the largest illicit opium producers. In contrast to all other illicit producers, India owes the latter distinction not to blatantly illicit cultivation but to diversion from licit cultivation. India's experience suggests the difficulty of preventing substantial leakage, even in a relatively well-governed nation.

  8. Astronomers Break Ground on Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) - World's Largest Millimeter Wavelength Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    Scientists and dignitaries from Europe, North America and Chile are breaking ground today (Thursday, November 6, 2003) on what will be the world's largest, most sensitive radio telescope operating at millimeter wavelengths . ALMA - the "Atacama Large Millimeter Array" - will be a single instrument composed of 64 high-precision antennas located in the II Region of Chile, in the District of San Pedro de Atacama, at the Chajnantor altiplano, 5,000 metres above sea level. ALMA 's primary function will be to observe and image with unprecedented clarity the enigmatic cold regions of the Universe, which are optically dark, yet shine brightly in the millimetre portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is an international astronomy facility. ALMA is an equal partnership between Europe and North America, in cooperation with the Republic of Chile, and is funded in North America by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC), and in Europe by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and Spain. ALMA construction and operations are led on behalf of North America by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), which is managed by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), and on behalf of Europe by ESO. " ALMA will be a giant leap forward for our studies of this relatively little explored spectral window towards the Universe" , said Dr. Catherine Cesarsky , Director General of ESO. "With ESO leading the European part of this ambitious and forward-looking project, the impact of ALMA will be felt in wide circles on our continent. Together with our partners in North America and Chile, we are all looking forward to the truly outstanding opportunities that will be offered by ALMA , also to young scientists and engineers" . " The U.S. National Science Foundation joins today with our North American partner, Canada, and with the European Southern Observatory, Spain, and Chile to prepare

  9. One last boom : Alberta's rapidly expanding oil mines may be the largest and messiest industrial projects in Canadian history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laird, G.

    2001-01-01

    The bitumen deposits of Alberta, 2.5 trillion barrels of oil, of which 300 billion are considered recoverable, represent the greatest single petroleum resources of the world, based on surface and subsurface calculations. Four deposits, covering an area the size of New Brunswick, are located in the area stretching from Cold Lake to Lloydminster (east of Edmonton), the upper reaches of the Athabasca River east to the Peace River. The largest by far is the Athabasca deposit in the vicinity of Fort McMurray, spread over 4.3 million hectares. The deposit is at the centre of the biggest industrial expansion witnessed by the province. Since 1996, 38 billion dollars worth of new projects have been announced. It is estimated that by 2025, the bulk of the national oil production will originate from open-pit mines and underground wells around Fort McMurray. This oil boom has economic benefits for the population, from welders to real estate agents to stakeholders. The environmental effects are not as beneficial. Huge strip mines are being carved next to the Athabasca River, with great amounts of greenhouse gases emissions. The Suncor and Syncrude oil-sands plants combined represent the fourth largest carbon dioxide emission source in Canada. The development of these projects dramatically affects global warming. The nitrogen and sulphur emissions could also acidify lakes and soil in the region. The Suncor mine resulted from the first boom to hit Fort McMurray in 1964. The Syncrude mine is the result of the second boom which took place in 1973. In 1996, Suncor installed a sulphur scrubber system that removes 95 per cent of sulphur dioxide from the electricity and steam-generation plant. Suncor also invested in various projects, such as wind-power, rainforest cultivation and biomass generation. The volume of pollution increases as the operations expand, even if operations are cleaner. If no new gains in pollution control are achieved, it is expected that by 2015, the total

  10. The value of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD MR imaging in differentiation of renal solid mass and grading of renal cell carcinoma (RCC: analysis based on the largest cross-sectional area versus the entire whole tumour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Yu Wu

    Full Text Available To study the value of assessing renal masses using different methods in parameter approaches and to determine whether BOLD MRI is helpful in differentiating RCC from benign renal masses, differentiating clear-cell RCC from renal masses other than clear-cell RCC and determining the tumour grade.Ninety-five patients with 139 renal masses (93 malignant and 46 benign who underwent abdominal BOLD MRI were enrolled. R2* values were derived from the largest cross-section (R2*largest and from the whole tumour (R2*whole. Intra-observer and inter-observer agreements were analysed based on two measurements by the same observer and the first measurement from each observer, respectively, and these agreements are reported with intra-class correlation coefficients and 95% confidence intervals. The diagnostic value of the R2* value in the evaluation was assessed with receiver-operating characteristic analysis.The intra-observer agreement was very good for R2*largest and R2*whole (all > 0.8. The inter-observer agreement of R2*whole (0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.69~0.79 was good and was significantly improved compared with the R2*largest (0.61, 95% confidence interval: 0.52~0.68, as there was no overlap in the 95% confidence interval of the intra-class correlation coefficients. The diagnostic value in differentiating renal cell carcinoma from benign lesions with R2*whole (AUC=0.79/0.78[observer1/observer2] and R2*largest (AUC=0.75[observer1] was good and significantly higher (p=0.01 for R2*largest[observer2] vs R2*whole[observer2], p 0.7 and were not significantly different (p=0.89/0.93 for R2*largest vs R2*whole[observer1/observer2], 0.96 for R2*whole[observer1] vs R2*largest[observer2] and 0.96 for R2*whole [observer2] vs R2*largest[observer1].BOLD MRI could provide a feasible parameter for differentiating renal cell carcinoma from benign renal masses and for predicting clear-cell renal cell carcinoma grading. Compared with the largest cross

  11. Distributed optimization of multi-class SVMs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Alber

    Full Text Available Training of one-vs.-rest SVMs can be parallelized over the number of classes in a straight forward way. Given enough computational resources, one-vs.-rest SVMs can thus be trained on data involving a large number of classes. The same cannot be stated, however, for the so-called all-in-one SVMs, which require solving a quadratic program of size quadratically in the number of classes. We develop distributed algorithms for two all-in-one SVM formulations (Lee et al. and Weston and Watkins that parallelize the computation evenly over the number of classes. This allows us to compare these models to one-vs.-rest SVMs on unprecedented scale. The results indicate superior accuracy on text classification data.

  12. Evidence of market-driven size-selective fishing and the mediating effects of biological and institutional factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sheila M. W.; Wentz, Allison; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Maxey, Martin; Nagavarapu, Sriniketh; Leslie, Heather M.

    2014-01-01

    Market demand is often ignored or assumed to lead uniformly to the decline of resources. Yet little is known about how market demand influences natural resources in particular contexts, or the mediating effects of biological or institutional factors. Here, we investigate this problem by examining the Pacific red snapper (Lutjanus peru) fishery around La Paz, Mexico, where medium or “plate-sized” fish are sold to restaurants at a premium price. If higher demand for plate-sized fish increases the relative abundance of the smallest (recruit size class) and largest (most fecund) fish, this may be a market mechanism to increase stocks and fishermen’s revenues. We tested this hypothesis by estimating the effect of prices on the distribution of catch across size classes using daily records of prices and catch. We linked predictions from this economic choice model to a staged-based model of the fishery to estimate the effects on the stock and revenues from harvest. We found that the supply of plate-sized fish increased by 6%, while the supply of large fish decreased by 4% as a result of a 13% price premium for plate-sized fish. This market-driven size selection increased revenues (14%) but decreased total fish biomass (−3%). However, when market-driven size selection was combined with limited institutional constraints, both fish biomass (28%) and fishermen’s revenue (22%) increased. These results show that the direction and magnitude of the effects of market demand on biological populations and human behavior can depend on both biological attributes and institutional constraints. Fisheries management may capitalize on these conditional effects by implementing size-based regulations when economic and institutional incentives will enhance compliance, as in the case we describe here, or by creating compliance enhancing conditions for existing regulations. PMID:23865225

  13. Social Class Dialogues and the Fostering of Class Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    How do critical pedagogies promote undergraduate students' awareness of social class, social class identity, and social class inequalities in education? How do undergraduate students experience class consciousness-raising in the intergroup dialogue classroom? This qualitative study explores undergraduate students' class consciousness-raising in an…

  14. Optimizing UML Class Diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergievskiy Maxim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of object-oriented development technologies rely on the use of the universal modeling language UML; class diagrams play a very important role in the design process play, used to build a software system model. Modern CASE tools, which are the basic tools for object-oriented development, can’t be used to optimize UML diagrams. In this manuscript we will explain how, based on the use of design patterns and anti-patterns, class diagrams could be verified and optimized. Certain transformations can be carried out automatically; in other cases, potential inefficiencies will be indicated and recommendations given. This study also discusses additional CASE tools for validating and optimizing of UML class diagrams. For this purpose, a plugin has been developed that analyzes an XMI file containing a description of class diagrams.

  15. Classes of Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Introduction Types of Heart Failure Classes of Heart Failure Heart Failure in Children Advanced Heart Failure • Causes and ... and Advanced HF • Tools and Resources • Personal Stories Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Use these questions ...

  16. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory foll...... follows that integral transform with kernels which are products of a Bessel and a Hankel function or which is of a certain general hypergeometric type have inverse transforms of the same structure....

  17. Nordic Walking Classes

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2015-01-01

    Four classes of one hour each are held on Tuesdays. RDV barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Spring Course 2015: 05.05/12.05/19.05/26.05 Prices 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership 5 CHF/hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Nordic%20Walking/NewForm.aspx? Hope to see you among us! fitness.club@cern.ch

  18. Modified strip packing heuristics for the rectangular variable-sized bin packing problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FG Ortmann

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Two packing problems are considered in this paper, namely the well-known strip packing problem (SPP and the variable-sized bin packing problem (VSBPP. A total of 252 strip packing heuristics (and variations thereof from the literature, as well as novel heuristics proposed by the authors, are compared statistically by means of 1170 SPP benchmark instances in order to identify the best heuristics in various classes. A combination of new heuristics with a new sorting method yields the best results. These heuristics are combined with a previous heuristic for the VSBPP by the authors to find good feasible solutions to 1357 VSBPP benchmark instances. This is the largest statistical comparison of algorithms for the SPP and the VSBPP to the best knowledge of the authors.

  19. The Opportunity Cost of Smaller Classes: A State-By-State Spending Analysis. Schools in Crisis: Making Ends Meet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roza, Marguerite; Ouijdani, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Two seemingly different threads are in play on the issue of class size. The first is manifested in media reports that tell readers that class sizes are rising to concerning levels. The second thread appears in the work of some researchers and education leaders and suggests that repurposing class-size reduction funds to pay for other reforms may…

  20. THE EVOLUTION OF THE WORLD’S LARGEST AUTOMAKERS IN THE PERIOD 2013-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin-George TOMA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The automotive industry has always represented an economic engine for many countries. It is dealing with the design, development, manufacture, marketing, and sale of the motor vehicles. Nowadays, this industry is full of intense competition between big auto groups fighting for higher profits and larger market shares. The key players in the automotive market are operating at a global scale in a highly competitive environment. In the last years, Toyota Motor and Volkswagen Group have proved to be the main competitors. The aim of our paper is to analyze the evolution of the world’s largest automakers in the period 2013-2014. The research type is literature review.

  1. Europe's largest solar thermal power plant. [200 kw thermal output supplemented by two 10-kw windmills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossel, U

    1976-03-01

    An overview is given over the solar heating plant which has recently been commissioned in the Camargue (France). This is the largest plant in Europe, with a mean heat output of about 200 kW, for the production of thermal energy from solar energy. The plant consists of 108 parabolic collectors (200 sq. metres) and 48 flat collectors (110 sq. metres). Two windmills with outputs of 10 kW each complete the system. The heat energy produced by the solar collectors is given up to 3 different stores, which in turn are connected to various consumers.

  2. OBJECT TRACKING WITH ROTATION-INVARIANT LARGEST DIFFERENCE INDEXED LOCAL TERNARY PATTERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Shajeena

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an ideal method for object tracking directly in the compressed domain in video sequences. An enhanced rotation-invariant image operator called Largest Difference Indexed Local Ternary Pattern (LDILTP has been proposed. The Local Ternary Pattern which worked very well in texture classification and face recognition is now extended for rotation invariant object tracking. Histogramming the LTP code makes the descriptor resistant to translation. The histogram intersection is used to find the similarity measure. This method is robust to noise and retain contrast details. The proposed scheme has been verified on various datasets and shows a commendable performance.

  3. Female urethral diverticulum presenting with acute urinary retention: Reporting the largest diverticulum with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas Ranjan Pradhan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Female urethral diverticulum is a rare entity with diverse spectrum of clinical manifestations. It is a very rare cause of bladder outlet obstruction and should be considered as a differential diagnosis in females presenting with acute urinary retention associated with a vaginal mass. Strong clinical suspicion combined with thorough physical examination and focused radiological investigations are vital for its diagnosis. Herein we report a case of giant urethral diverticulum presenting with acute urinary retention in a young female. It was managed by excision and urethral closure, and is the largest urethral diverticulum reported till date in the literature.

  4. WISMUT AG: Past, present and future of the largest uranium producer in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madel, J.

    1990-01-01

    The author gives a brief summary of WISMUT AG the largest uranium producer operating in Europe. The jointly owned German-Soviet company operates its production facilities in the southern part of the former German Democratic Republic. Given the new political and economic frame in Germany and the Soviet Union WISMUT AG will receive due recognition. Uranium exploration, mining, and milling activities are summarized from 1946-1989, and a summary of present activities and projections of future activities in the area of decontamination, restoration, and recultivation of present and abandoned mining and milling sites are noted. A statement of WISMUT AG's projected role in the international nuclear fuels market is made

  5. Line Balancing Using Largest Candidate Rule Algorithm In A Garment Industry: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P.Jaganathan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of fast changes in fashion has given rise to the need to shorten production cycle times in the garment industry. As effective usage of resources has a significant effect on the productivity and efficiency of production operations, garment manufacturers are urged to utilize their resources effectively in order to meet dynamic customer demand. This paper focuses specifically on line balancing and layout modification. The aim of assembly line balance in sewing lines is to assign tasks to the workstations, so that the machines of the workstation can perform the assigned tasks with a balanced loading. Largest Candidate Rule Algorithm (LCR has been deployed in this paper.

  6. Foreign exchange risk management : how are the largest non-financial companies in Norway managing their foreign exchange rate exposure?

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksen, Krister; Wedøe, Ola

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate how the largest non-financial companies in Norway manage their foreign exchange rate exposure. This is investigated through the use of a survey distributed to a sample the largest non-financial firms in Norway. According to our results, the largest non-financial companies in Norway have a predefined strategy for managing foreign exchange risk, which is defined by the board of directors or by the management in the organisation. The companies’ mai...

  7. Community structure and decadal changes in macrozoobenthic assemblages in Lake Poyang, the largest freshwater lake in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Y. J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lake Poyang is the largest freshwater lake in China and contains unique and diverse biota within the Yangtze floodplain ecosystem. However, knowledge of its macrozoobenthic assemblages remains inadequate. To characterize the current community structure of these assemblages and to portray their decadal changes, quarterly investigations were conducted at 15 sites from February to November 2012. A total of 42 taxa were recorded, and Corbicula fluminea, Limnoperna fortunei, Gammaridae sp., Nephtys polybranchia, Polypedilum scalaenum and Branchiura sowerbyi were found to dominate the community in terms of abundance. The bivalves Corbicula fluminea, Lamprotula rochechouarti, Arconaia lanceolata and Lamprotula caveata dominated the community in biomass due to their large body size. The mean abundance of the total macrozoobenthos varied from 48 to 920 ind·m-2, the mean biomass ranged from 28 to 428 g·m-2. The substrate type affected strongly the abundance, biomass, and diversity of the macrozoobenthos, with muddy sand substrates showing the highest values. Compared with historical data, remarkable changes were observed in the abundance of macrozoobenthos and the identity of the dominant species. The mean total abundance decreased from 724 ind·m-2 in 1992 to 228 ind·m-2 in 2012. The dominant species have shifted dramatically. Large unionids were dominant before 1998, whereas pollution-tolerant species (e.g., Branchiura sowerbyi increased in dominance after 2008. Our findings should have implications for the conservation of the benthic biodiversity of this large Yangtze-connected lake.

  8. Swimming strategy and body plan of the world’s largest fish: implications for foraging efficiency and thermoregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eMeekan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The largest animals in the oceans eat prey that are orders of magnitude smaller than themselves, implying strong selection for cost-effective foraging to meet their energy demands. Whale sharks (Rhincodon typus may be especially challenged by warm seas that elevate their metabolism and contain sparse prey resources. Using a combination of biologging and satellite tagging, we show that whale sharks use four strategies to save energy and improve foraging efficiency: 1 fixed, low power swimming, 2 constant low speed swimming, 3 gliding and 4 asymmetrical diving. These strategies increase foraging efficiency by 22 – 32% relative to swimming horizontally and resolve the energy-budget paradox of whale sharks. However, sharks in the open ocean must access food resources that reside in relatively cold waters (up to 20oC cooler than the surface at depths of 250-500 m during the daytime, where long, slow gliding descents, continuous ram ventilation of the gills and filter-feeding could rapidly cool the circulating blood and body tissues. We suggest that whale sharks may overcome this problem through their large size and a specialized body plan that isolates highly vascularized red muscle on the dorsal surface, allowing heat to be retained near the centre of the body within a massive core of white muscle. This could allow a warm-adapted species to maintain enhanced function of organs and sensory systems while exploiting food resources in deep, cool water.

  9. Dispersal syndromes in the largest protection area of the Atlantic Forest in the state of Paraiba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Ângelo Jerônimo Domingues

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The diaspore dispersal process is crucial for plant reproduction, since the diaspores must reach a suitable site to germinate. This paper aimed to study morphological aspects of diaspores and determine the dispersal syndromes of species occurring in the largest protection area of the Atlantic Forest in the state of Paraiba, Brazil, the Guaribas Biological Reserve. One conducted a monthly collection of fruits/seeds within the period from September 2007 to February 2009. All diaspores of the fruiting species were collected. After analyzing characteristics such as fruit and seed consistency, odor, color, size, and weight, one determined the dispersal syndrome of each species. One collected 3,080 diaspores belonging to 136 different species distributed into 27 families. Zoochory was the most abundant dispersal syndrome (58%, with 79 fruits adapted to it, followed by autochory (29%, and anemochory (13%. Throughout the study period, one found fruiting species, with a predominance of zoochoric fruits, a predictable fact in the Atlantic Forest, which provides fleshy fruits all the year round.

  10. The Effects of Largest Claim and Excess of Loss Reinsurance on a Company’s Ruin Time and Valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguang Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We compare two types of reinsurance: excess of loss (EOL and largest claim reinsurance (LCR, each of which transfers the payment of part, or all, of one or more large claims from the primary insurance company (the cedant to a reinsurer. The primary insurer’s point of view is documented in terms of assessment of risk and payment of reinsurance premium. A utility indifference rationale based on the expected future dividend stream is used to value the company with and without reinsurance. Assuming the classical compound Poisson risk model with choices of claim size distributions (classified as heavy, medium and light-tailed cases, simulations are used to illustrate the impact of the EOL and LCR treaties on the company’s ruin probability, ruin time and value as determined by the dividend discounting model. We find that LCR is at least as effective as EOL in averting ruin in comparable finite time horizon settings. In instances where the ruin probability for LCR is smaller than for EOL, the dividend discount model shows that the cedant is able to pay a larger portion of the dividend for LCR reinsurance than for EOL while still maintaining company value. Both methods reduce risk considerably as compared with no reinsurance, in a variety of situations, as measured by the standard deviation of the company value. A further interesting finding is that heaviness of tails alone is not necessarily the decisive factor in the possible ruin of a company; small and moderate sized claims can also play a significant role in this.

  11. Safety class methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donner, E.B.; Low, J.M.; Lux, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    DOE Order 6430.1A, General Design Criteria (GDC), requires that DOE facilities be evaluated with respect to ''safety class items.'' Although the GDC defines safety class items, it does not provide a methodology for selecting safety class items. The methodology described in this paper was developed to assure that Safety Class Items at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are selected in a consistent and technically defensible manner. Safety class items are those in the highest of four categories determined to be of special importance to nuclear safety and, merit appropriately higher-quality design, fabrication, and industrial test standards and codes. The identification of safety class items is approached using a cascading strategy that begins at the 'safety function' level (i.e., a cooling function, ventilation function, etc.) and proceeds down to the system, component, or structure level. Thus, the items that are required to support a safety function are SCls. The basic steps in this procedure apply to the determination of SCls for both new project activities, and for operating facilities. The GDC lists six characteristics of SCls to be considered as a starting point for safety item classification. They are as follows: 1. Those items whose failure would produce exposure consequences that would exceed the guidelines in Section 1300-1.4, ''Guidance on Limiting Exposure of the Public,'' at the site boundary or nearest point of public access 2. Those items required to maintain operating parameters within the safety limits specified in the Operational Safety Requirements during normal operations and anticipated operational occurrences. 3. Those items required for nuclear criticality safety. 4. Those items required to monitor the release of radioactive material to the environment during and after a Design Basis Accident. Those items required to achieve, and maintain the facility in a safe shutdown condition 6. Those items that control Safety Class Item listed above

  12. Revisiting the impacts of oil price increases on monetary policy implementation in the largest oil importers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurtac Yildirim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to test the impacts of oil price increases on monetary policy implementation in the largest oil importers. For that purpose, we estimate structural vector error correction (SVEC models to show the impacts of oil price increases on industrial production, consumer prices and immediate interest rates which are the elements of Taylor rule for the four largest oil importers (the USA, the EU, China and Japan. Our results indicate that oil price increases transmit to output and inflation and lead to fluctuations in industrial production, consumer prices and immediate interest rates which in turn influence the monetary policy stance in the following periods. The basic conclusion of research is that the channels through which oil prices affect output, inflation and interest rates should be identified by the monetary policy authorities of the USA, the EU, China and Japan. We also emphasize the importance of the determination of the optimal monetary policy framework to eliminate the negative consequences of oil price increases.

  13. Rehabilitation of the 6 largest hydropower plants in the Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chingoski, Vlatko; Savevski, Vasil

    2004-01-01

    In 1998, ESM (Electric Power Co. of Macedonia) received a loan from the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD - The World bank) for the cost of the Power System Improvement Project, major part of which is the partial rehabilitation of the six largest HPPs in the Republic of Macedonia. Rehabilitation and life extension of these six largest hydro power plants is given the highest priority in the whole Power System Improvement Project mainly because these HPPs are, in general, fairly old, older than most of the thermal generation capacity and because a significant part of their equipment is wearing out, or is now obsolete with spare parts difficult to obtain. Furthermore, these plants play a vital role in the Macedonian Power System, providing peaking capacity, reserve capacity and frequency control. With the realization of this project, greater hydropower production is expected. It is also expected that HPPs will become a more vital part of the Macedonian Power System, which is also beneficial from an environmental aspect, due to greater usage of renewable energy resources in the country. (Original)

  14. Ownership structure and economic and socio-environmental disclosure in the largest Brazilian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Aquino Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The disclosure of sustainable practices has become important in the search for competitive advantage, so as to meet the expectations of the various stakeholders. Thus, the study aims to investigate the relationship between the ownership structure and the economic and environmental voluntary disclosure in the largest Brazilian companies, analyzing ownership concentration and the identity of the controlling shareholder. For the analysis, we considered the economic, social and environmental perspectives, addressed both individually and jointly. The sample consists of 47 companies from the 100 largest public companies listed on BM&FBOVESPA, according to the magazine Exame Biggest and Best, edition 2013. The research is descriptive and quantitative, using Multiple Linear Regression for statistical analysis. The descriptive analysis of the prospects of (economic, social, environmental and sustainability disclosure showed lower average disclosure for the environmental aspect. The state control organizations stood out with the highest average in three of the four levels of disclosure: economic, social and sustainability. As regards the application of statistical analysis, the regression models were not statistically significant, indicating that, for the companies in the sample, the ownership structure does not influence the economic and socio-environmental disclosure.

  15. Shrinking Middle Class and Changing Income Distribution of Korea: 1995-2005

    OpenAIRE

    Joon-Woo Nahm

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the shrinking middle class hypothesis and reveals more details about recent trends in income distribution of Korea from 1995 to 2005. We find that the consensus view of a declining middle class is correct and the decline in the middle class splited equally into the lower class and the upper class in Korea. Furthermore, while the size and income share of the middle class declined, the share of the upper class increased rapidly and the share of the lower class remained s...

  16. Translation in ESL Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Imola Katalin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of translation in foreign language classes cannot be dealt with unless we attempt to make an overview of what translation meant for language teaching in different periods of language pedagogy. From the translation-oriented grammar-translation method through the complete ban on translation and mother tongue during the times of the audio-lingual approaches, we have come today to reconsider the role and status of translation in ESL classes. This article attempts to advocate for translation as a useful ESL class activity, which can completely fulfil the requirements of communicativeness. We also attempt to identify some activities and games, which rely on translation in some books published in the 1990s and the 2000s.

  17. MIDDLE CLASS MOVEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. K. Sravana Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The middle class is placed between labour and capital. It neither directly awns the means of production that pumps out the surplus generated by wage labour power, nor does it, by its own labour, produce the surplus which has use and exchange value. Broadly speaking, this class consists of the petty bourgeoisie and the white-collar workers. The former are either self-employed or involved in the distribution of commodities and the latter are non-manual office workers, supervisors and profession...

  18. Talking Class in Tehroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian; Rezakhani, Khodadad

    2016-01-01

    Persian, like any other language, is laced with references to class, both blatant and subtle. With idioms and metaphors, Iranians can identify and situate others, and thus themselves, within hierarchies of social status and privilege, both real and imagined. Some class-related terms can be traced...... back to medieval times, whereas others are of modern vintage, the linguistic legacy of television shows, pop songs, social media memes or street vernacular. Every day, it seems, an infectious set of phrases appears that make yesterday’s seem embarrassingly antiquated....

  19. Achievement Flourishes in Larger Classes: Secondary School Students in Most Countries Achieved Better Literacy in Larger Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Abeer A.; Stoet, Gijsbert

    2017-01-01

    There is no consensus among academics about whether children benefit from smaller classes. We analysed the data from the 2012 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) to test if smaller classes lead to higher performance. Advantages of using this data set are not only its size (478,120 15-year old students in 63 nations) and…

  20. Size of the great white shark (carcharodon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, J E

    1973-07-13

    The maximum length of 36.5 feet (11.1 meters) attributed to the white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) by Günther and others is a mistake. Examination of the jaws and teeth of the specimen referred to by Günther and comparison with the jaws of white sharks of known length revealed a length of about 17 feet ( approximately 5 meters). The largest white shark reliably measured was a 21-foot (6.4-meter) individual from Cuba. Bites on whale carcasses found off southern Australia suggest that white sharks as long as 25 or 26 feet (7 (1/2) or 8 meters) exist today. The size of extinct Carcharodon has also been grossly exaggerated. Based on a projection of a curve of tooth size of Recent Carcharodon carcharias, the largest fossil Carcharodon were about 43 feet ( approximately 13 meters) long.

  1. Field Note: Threatening Tonle Sap: Challenges for Southeast-Asia’s largest Freshwater Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuenzer, Claudia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Tonle Sap ecosystem in Cambodia is Southeast Asia’s largest freshwater lake; strongly impacted by the Mekong river flood pulse. The lake is home to exceptional biodiversity, and rural communities living in free floating villages on the lake and on its shores. The fragile niche ecosystems as well as the rural livelihoods of Tonle Sap are under severe threat. Overfishing, illegal wood harvesting, further resource exploitation, and water quality deterioration all impact the stability of the socio-ecological system of Tonle Sap. At the same time, expected flood pulse changes due to regulatory measures in the context of hydropower development upstream on the Mekong are a severe threat for Tonle Sap’s ecosystem stability. The area needs to shift into the focus of attention of national and international re-searchers, stakeholders, and decision makers, to find suitable pathways for a future sustainable development of this unique and pristine region.

  2. Fifteen Years of Operation at NASA's National Transonic Facility with the World's Largest Adjustable Speed Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydnor, George H.; Bhatia, Ram; Krattiger, Hansueli; Mylius, Justus; Schafer, D.

    2012-01-01

    In September 1995, a project was initiated to replace the existing drive line at NASA's most unique transonic wind tunnel, the National Transonic Facility (NTF), with a single 101 MW synchronous motor driven by a Load Commutated Inverter (LCI). This Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD) system also included a custom four-winding transformer, harmonic filter, exciter, switch gear, control system, and feeder cable. The complete system requirements and design details have previously been presented and published [1], as well as the commissioning and acceptance test results [2]. The NTF was returned to service in December 1997 with the new drive system powering the fan. Today, this installation still represents the world s largest horizontal single motor/drive combination. This paper describes some significant events that occurred with the drive system during the first 15 years of service. These noteworthy issues are analyzed and root causes presented. Improvements that have substantially increased the long term viability of the system are given.

  3. Mauna Loa--history, hazards and risk of living with the world's largest volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusdell, Frank A.

    2012-01-01

    Mauna Loa on the Island Hawaiʻi is the world’s largest volcano. People residing on its flanks face many hazards that come with living on or near an active volcano, including lava flows, explosive eruptions, volcanic smog, damaging earthquakes, and local tsunami (giant seawaves). The County of Hawaiʻi (Island of Hawaiʻi) is the fastest growing County in the State of Hawaii. Its expanding population and increasing development mean that risk from volcano hazards will continue to grow. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) closely monitor and study Mauna Loa Volcano to enable timely warning of hazardous activity and help protect lives and property.

  4. Contamination Control Assessment of the World's Largest Space Environment Simulation Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Aaron; Henry, Michael W.; Grisnik, Stanley P.; Sinclair, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    The Space Power Facility s thermal vacuum test chamber is the largest chamber in the world capable of providing an environment for space simulation. To improve performance and meet stringent requirements of a wide customer base, significant modifications were made to the vacuum chamber. These include major changes to the vacuum system and numerous enhancements to the chamber s unique polar crane, with a goal of providing high cleanliness levels. The significance of these changes and modifications are discussed in this paper. In addition, the composition and arrangement of the pumping system and its impact on molecular back-streaming are discussed in detail. Molecular contamination measurements obtained with a TQCM and witness wafers during two recent integrated system tests of the chamber are presented and discussed. Finally, a concluding remarks section is presented.

  5. The role and attributes of entrepreneurs at South Africa´s largest arts festival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Jonker

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Klein Karoo National Arts Festival (KKNK in Oudtshoorn, South Africa, is the largest arts festival in South Africa. The purpose of this research was to determine the attributes and role of the entrepreneurs at the Klein Karoo National Arts Festival. This was done by means of a questionnaire survey (N=249. After data capturing was completed, two factor analyses were conducted. The first factor analysis revealed six factors (entrepreneurial attributes, namely organisational skills, resourcefulness, self-edification, explorative, acquired skill and drive, of which resourcefulness had the highest mean value. The second factor analysis identified the role of entrepreneurs at KKNK and revealed three primary roles, namely festival promotion, product promotion and income generation, of which product promotion had the highest mean value. This is the first time that the roles of entrepreneurs at festivals were investigated in South Africa.

  6. EVALUATION OF E-RECRUITMENT LEVEL AMONG THE LARGEST COMPANIES IN POLAND - PROJECT OF RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Buchnowska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The changes taking place in the labor market cause that it is increasingly difficult to recruit employees with the right skills and competencies to companies. To reach the right candidates, they use modern IT solutions, such as ATS (Applicant Tracking System, which are supporting the processes of recruitment. Among others, they enable the publication of job offers on the Internet - on corporate websites, job portals and business social networking services - and apply for jobs online through these channels. This article pre-sents the evolution of the use of the Internet, and particularly the social media, in the recruitment process and presents a projekt of comprehensive research, which aims is to analyze and evaluate of the level of development of e-recruitment in Poland among largest companies.

  7. Damage and protection cost curves for coastal floods within the 600 largest European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahl, Boris F.; Boettle, Markus; Costa, Luís; Kropp, Jürgen P.; Rybski, Diego

    2018-01-01

    The economic assessment of the impacts of storm surges and sea-level rise in coastal cities requires high-level information on the damage and protection costs associated with varying flood heights. We provide a systematically and consistently calculated dataset of macroscale damage and protection cost curves for the 600 largest European coastal cities opening the perspective for a wide range of applications. Offering the first comprehensive dataset to include the costs of dike protection, we provide the underpinning information to run comparative assessments of costs and benefits of coastal adaptation. Aggregate cost curves for coastal flooding at the city-level are commonly regarded as by-products of impact assessments and are generally not published as a standalone dataset. Hence, our work also aims at initiating a more critical discussion on the availability and derivation of cost curves. PMID:29557944

  8. Using largest Lyapunov exponent to confirm the intrinsic stability of boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavilian-Moreno, Carlos; Espinosa-Paredes, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the study of instability state of boiling water reactors with a method based in largest Lyapunov exponents (LLEs). Detecting the presence of chaos in a dynamical system is an important problem that is solved by measuring the LLE. Lyapunov exponents quantify the exponential divergence of initially close state-space trajectories and estimate the amount of chaos in a system. This method was applied to a set of signals from several nuclear power plant (NPP) reactors under commercial operating conditions that experienced instabilities events, apparently each of a different nature. Laguna Verde and Forsmark NPPs with in-phase instabilities, and Cofrentes NPP with out-of-phases instability. This study presents the results of intrinsic instability in the boiling water reactors of three NPPs. In the analyzed cases the limit cycle was not reached, which implies that the point of equilibrium exerts influence and attraction on system evolution

  9. Using largest Lyapunov exponent to confirm the intrinsic stability of boiling water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavilian-Moreno, Carlos [Iberdrola Generacion, S.A., Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant, Project Engineering Department, Paraje le Plano S/N, Valencia (Spain); Espinosa-Paredes, Gilberto [Area de ingeniera en Recursos Energeticos, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico city (Mexico)

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this paper is the study of instability state of boiling water reactors with a method based in largest Lyapunov exponents (LLEs). Detecting the presence of chaos in a dynamical system is an important problem that is solved by measuring the LLE. Lyapunov exponents quantify the exponential divergence of initially close state-space trajectories and estimate the amount of chaos in a system. This method was applied to a set of signals from several nuclear power plant (NPP) reactors under commercial operating conditions that experienced instabilities events, apparently each of a different nature. Laguna Verde and Forsmark NPPs with in-phase instabilities, and Cofrentes NPP with out-of-phases instability. This study presents the results of intrinsic instability in the boiling water reactors of three NPPs. In the analyzed cases the limit cycle was not reached, which implies that the point of equilibrium exerts influence and attraction on system evolution.

  10. World's largest off-road tires to be recycled

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-07-01

    Suncor Energy is the first company in Canada to use a new technology designed uniquely for tire recycling at oil sand facilities. The technology is owned by CuttingEdge Tire Recycling, a partnership between Denesoline Environmental Limited Partnership and Beaver Environmental Rubber Technologies Limited. Suncor has supported the development of this Aboriginal-owned and operated business by offering land, electricity, diesel fuel and stockpiles of used truck tires from its oil sand mining activities. These tires are the largest off-road tires in the world. In this new technology, tires that are worn-out through oil sand mining are shredded in a portable shredder before being recycled for subsequent use by the Alberta Recycling Management Association. 1 fig.

  11. Enhanced natural radiation exposure enhanced by human activity: the largest contributor to the Chinese population dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Ziqiang; Liu Yanyang

    2011-01-01

    For the radiation exposure caused by human activities, the enhanced natural radiation exposure is the largest contributor to Chinese population dose. This problem has attracted social attention in recent years. Efforts have been made in several fields, such as radon indoors and in workplace, environmental problems associated with NORMs, occupational radiation hazards of non-uranium mine, and radiation dose evaluation for energy chain, but there are still many problems to be solved. In order to protect the health of workers and the public, while ensuring industrial production and economic development, it is also necessary to continue to strengthen research in all aspects above mentioned, and gradually promote the control of natural radiation exposure enhanced by human activities. (authors)

  12. A marine heatwave drives massive losses from the world’s largest seagrass carbon stocks

    KAUST Repository

    Arias-Ortiz, A.

    2018-03-29

    Seagrass ecosystems contain globally significant organic carbon (C) stocks. However, climate change and increasing frequency of extreme events threaten their preservation. Shark Bay, Western Australia, has the largest C stock reported for a seagrass ecosystem, containing up to 1.3% of the total C stored within the top metre of seagrass sediments worldwide. On the basis of field studies and satellite imagery, we estimate that 36% of Shark Bay’s seagrass meadows were damaged following a marine heatwave in 2010/2011. Assuming that 10 to 50% of the seagrass sediment C stock was exposed to oxic conditions after disturbance, between 2 and 9 Tg CO could have been released to the atmosphere during the following three years, increasing emissions from land-use change in Australia by 4–21% per annum. With heatwaves predicted to increase with further climate warming, conservation of seagrass ecosystems is essential to avoid adverse feedbacks on the climate system.

  13. Damage and protection cost curves for coastal floods within the 600 largest European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahl, Boris F.; Boettle, Markus; Costa, Luís; Kropp, Jürgen P.; Rybski, Diego

    2018-03-01

    The economic assessment of the impacts of storm surges and sea-level rise in coastal cities requires high-level information on the damage and protection costs associated with varying flood heights. We provide a systematically and consistently calculated dataset of macroscale damage and protection cost curves for the 600 largest European coastal cities opening the perspective for a wide range of applications. Offering the first comprehensive dataset to include the costs of dike protection, we provide the underpinning information to run comparative assessments of costs and benefits of coastal adaptation. Aggregate cost curves for coastal flooding at the city-level are commonly regarded as by-products of impact assessments and are generally not published as a standalone dataset. Hence, our work also aims at initiating a more critical discussion on the availability and derivation of cost curves.

  14. A general scaling law reveals why the largest animals are not the fastest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirt, Myriam R; Jetz, Walter; Rall, Björn C; Brose, Ulrich

    2017-08-01

    Speed is the fundamental constraint on animal movement, yet there is no general consensus on the determinants of maximum speed itself. Here, we provide a general scaling model of maximum speed with body mass, which holds across locomotion modes, ecosystem types and taxonomic groups. In contrast to traditional power-law scaling, we predict a hump-shaped relationship resulting from a finite acceleration time for animals, which explains why the largest animals are not the fastest. This model is strongly supported by extensive empirical data (474 species, with body masses ranging from 30 μg to 100 tonnes) from terrestrial as well as aquatic ecosystems. Our approach unravels a fundamental constraint on the upper limit of animal movement, thus enabling a better understanding of realized movement patterns in nature and their multifold ecological consequences.

  15. Largest solar installation on a hotel in Switzerland; Groesste Hotel-Solaranlage der Schweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadelmann, M.

    2008-07-01

    This article describes the solar thermal installation on the Hotel Europa in St. Moritz-Champfer, Switzerland. The installation provides heat energy for domestic hot water preparation and for the heating of the hotel's indoor swimming pool. A thirty-percent reduction of heating oil consumption has been obtained. The system, which is based on the 'low-flow' principle, provides the highest possible temperature difference while using low pumping energy. The hotel's hot-water circulation system, which ensures fast availability of hot water at the taps, is also discussed. This largest hotel solar installation is designed to meet heating and hot-water requirements during the summer season. The high requirements placed on the materials used are discussed. Schematics are provided and first operational experience is briefly discussed.

  16. Using Largest Lyapunov Exponent to Confirm the Intrinsic Stability of Boiling Water Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos J. Gavilán-Moreno

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is the study of instability state of boiling water reactors with a method based in largest Lyapunov exponents (LLEs. Detecting the presence of chaos in a dynamical system is an important problem that is solved by measuring the LLE. Lyapunov exponents quantify the exponential divergence of initially close state-space trajectories and estimate the amount of chaos in a system. This method was applied to a set of signals from several nuclear power plant (NPP reactors under commercial operating conditions that experienced instabilities events, apparently each of a different nature. Laguna Verde and Forsmark NPPs with in-phase instabilities, and Cofrentes NPP with out-of-phases instability. This study presents the results of intrinsic instability in the boiling water reactors of three NPPs. In the analyzed cases the limit cycle was not reached, which implies that the point of equilibrium exerts influence and attraction on system evolution.

  17. From Pushing Paper to Pushing Dirt - Canada's Largest LLRW Cleanup Gets Underway - 13111

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veen, Walter van; Lawrence, Dave

    2013-01-01

    The Port Hope Project is the larger of the two projects in the Port Hope Area Initiative (PHAI), Canada's largest low level radioactive waste (LLRW) cleanup. With a budget of approximately $1 billion, the Port Hope Project includes a broad and complex range of remedial elements from a state of the art water treatment plant, an engineered waste management facility, municipal solid waste removal, remediation of 18 major sites within the Municipality of Port Hope (MPH), sediment dredging and dewatering, an investigation of 4,800 properties (many of these homes) to identify LLRW and remediation of approximately 450 of these properties. This paper discusses the status of the Port Hope Project in terms of designs completed and regulatory approvals received, and sets out the scope and schedule for the remaining studies, engineering designs and remediation contracts. (authors)

  18. A marine heatwave drives massive losses from the world's largest seagrass carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Ortiz, A.; Serrano, O.; Masqué, P.; Lavery, P. S.; Mueller, U.; Kendrick, G. A.; Rozaimi, M.; Esteban, A.; Fourqurean, J. W.; Marbà, N.; Mateo, M. A.; Murray, K.; Rule, M. J.; Duarte, C. M.

    2018-04-01

    Seagrass ecosystems contain globally significant organic carbon (C) stocks. However, climate change and increasing frequency of extreme events threaten their preservation. Shark Bay, Western Australia, has the largest C stock reported for a seagrass ecosystem, containing up to 1.3% of the total C stored within the top metre of seagrass sediments worldwide. On the basis of field studies and satellite imagery, we estimate that 36% of Shark Bay's seagrass meadows were damaged following a marine heatwave in 2010/2011. Assuming that 10 to 50% of the seagrass sediment C stock was exposed to oxic conditions after disturbance, between 2 and 9 Tg CO2 could have been released to the atmosphere during the following three years, increasing emissions from land-use change in Australia by 4-21% per annum. With heatwaves predicted to increase with further climate warming, conservation of seagrass ecosystems is essential to avoid adverse feedbacks on the climate system.

  19. Mapping Biomass for REDD in the Largest Forest of Central Africa: the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Aurelie; Saatchi, Sassan

    2014-05-01

    With the support of the International Climate Initiative (ICI) of the Federal Ministry of the Environment, Conservation, and Nuclear Security, the implementation of the German Development Bank KfW, the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) Germany, the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) and local DRC partners will produce a national scale biomass map for the entire forest coverage of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) along with feasibility assessments of different forest protection measures within a framework of a REDD+ model project. The « Carbon Map and Model (CO2M&M) » project will produce a national forest biomass map for the DRC, which will enable quantitative assessments of carbon stocks and emissions in the largest forest of the Congo Basin. This effort will support the national REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation) program in DRC, which plays a major role in sustainable development and poverty alleviation. This map will be developed from field data, complemented by airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) and aerial photos, systematically sampled throughout the forests of the DRC and up-scaled to satellite images to accurately estimate carbon content in all forested areas. The second component of the project is to develop specific approaches for model REDD projects in key landscapes. This project represents the largest LiDAR-derived mapping effort in Africa, under unprecedented logistical constraints, which will provide one of the poorest nations in the world with the richest airborne and satellites derived datasets for analyzing forest structure, biomass and biodiversity.

  20. Dissolved Oxygen Dynamics in Backwaters of North America's Largest River Swamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueche, S. M.; Xu, Y. J.; Reiman, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    The Atchafalaya River (AR) is the largest distributary of the Mississippi River flowing through south-central Louisiana, creating North America's largest river swamp basin - the Atchafalaya River Basin (ARB). Prior to human settlement, the AR's main channel was highly connected to this large wetland ecosystem. However, due to constructed levee systems and other human modifications, much of the ARB is now hydrologically disconnected from the AR's main channel except during high flow events. This lack of regular inputs of fresh, oxygenated water to these wetlands, paired with high levels of organic matter decomposition in wetlands, has caused low oxygen-deprived hypoxic conditions in the ARB's back waters. In addition, due to the incredibly nutrient-rich and warm nature of the ARB, microbial decomposition in backwater areas with limited flow often results in potentially stressful, if not lethal, levels of DO for organisms during and after flood pulses. This study aims to investigate dynamics of dissolved oxygen in backwaters of the Atchafalaya River Basin, intending to answer a crucial question about hydrological and water quality connectivity between the river's mainstem and its floodplain. Specifically, the study will 1) conduct field water quality measurements, 2) collect composite water samples for chemical analysis of nutrients and carbon, 3) investigate DO dynamics over different seasons for one year, and 4) determine the major factors that affect DO dynamics in this unique swamp ecosystem. The study is currently underway; therefore, in this presentation we will share the major findings gained in the past several months and discuss backwater effects on river chemistry.

  1. Is Kasei Valles (Mars) the largest volcanic channel in the solar system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverington, David W.

    2018-02-01

    With a length of more than 2000 km and widths of up to several hundred kilometers, Kasei Valles is the largest outflow system on Mars. Superficially, the scabland-like character of Kasei Valles is evocative of terrestrial systems carved by catastrophic aqueous floods, and the system is widely interpreted as a product of outbursts from aquifers. However, as at other Martian outflow channels, clear examples of fluvial sedimentary deposits have proven difficult to identify here. Though Kasei Valles lacks several key properties expected of aqueous systems, its basic morphological and contextual properties are aligned with those of ancient volcanic channels on Venus, the Moon, Mercury, and Earth. There is abundant evidence that voluminous effusions of low-viscosity magmas occurred at the head of Kasei Valles, the channel system acted as a conduit for associated flows, and mare-style volcanic plains developed within its terminal basin. Combined mechanical and thermal incision rates of at least several meters per day are estimated to have been readily achieved at Kasei Valles by 20-m-deep magmas flowing with viscosities of 1 Pa s across low topographic slopes underlain by bedrock. If Kasei Valles formed through incision by magma, it would be the largest known volcanic channel in the solar system. The total volume of magma erupted at Kasei Valles is estimated here to have possibly reached or exceeded ∼5 × 106 km3, a volume comparable in magnitude to those that characterize individual Large Igneous Provinces on Earth. Development of other large outflow systems on Mars is expected to have similarly involved eruption of up to millions of cubic kilometers of magma.

  2. Second class weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, J.

    1978-01-01

    The definition and general properties of weak second class currents are recalled and various detection possibilities briefly reviewed. It is shown that the existing data on nuclear beta decay can be consistently analysed in terms of a phenomenological model. Their implication on the fundamental structure of weak interactions is discussed [fr

  3. World Class Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rosalita

    1998-01-01

    School communities are challenged to find ways to identify good teachers and give other teachers a chance to learn from them. The New Mexico World Class Teacher Project is encouraging teachers to pursue certification by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards. This process sharpens teachers' student assessment skills and encourages…

  4. EPA Web Training Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheduled webinars can help you better manage EPA web content. Class topics include Drupal basics, creating different types of pages in the WebCMS such as document pages and forms, using Google Analytics, and best practices for metadata and accessibility.

  5. Class Actions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with the relatively new Danish Act on Class Action (Danish: gruppesøgsmål) which was suggested by The Permanent Council on Civil procedure (Retsplejerådet) of which the article's author is a member. The operability of the new provisions is illustrated through some wellknown Danish...

  6. Coming out in Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This article shares how the author explained her trans status to her students. Everyone has been extremely supportive of her decision to come out in class and to completely mask the male secondary-sex characteristics, especially in the workplace. The department chair and the faculty in general have been willing to do whatever they can to assist…

  7. Working Together in Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pateşan Marioara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The scores obtained by the military students are very important as a lot of opportunities depend on them: the choice of the branch, selection for different in and off-campus activities, the appointment to the workplace and so on. A qualifier, regardless of its form of effective expression, can make a difference in a given context of issuing a value judgment, in relation to the student's performance assessment. In our research we tried to find out what motives students, what determines them to get actively involved in the tasks they are given and the ways we can improve their participation in classes and assignments. In order to have an educated generation we need to have not only well prepared teachers but ones that are open-minded, flexible and in pace with the methodological novelties that can improve the teaching learning process in class. Along the years we have noticed that in classes where students constituted a cohesive group with an increasing degree of interaction between members, the results were better than in a group that did not appreciate team-work. In this article we want to highlight the fact that a teacher can bring to class the appropriate methods and procedures can contribute decisively to the strengthening of the group cohesion and high scores.

  8. Adeus à classe trabalhadora?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Eley

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available No início da década de 1980, a política centrada em classes da tradição socialista estava em crise, e comentadores importantes adotaram tons apocalípticos. No final da década, a esquerda permanecia profundamente dividida entre os advogados da mudança e os defensores da fé. Em meados dos anos 1990, os primeiros tinham, de modo geral, ganhado a batalha. O artigo busca apresentar essa mudança contemporânea não como a 'morte da classe', mas como o desa­parecimento de um tipo particular de ­sociedade de classes, marcado pelo ­processo de formação da classe trabalhadora entre os anos 1880 e 1940 e pelo alinhamento político daí resultante, atingindo seu apogeu na construção social-democrata do acordo do pós-guerra. Quando mudanças de longo prazo na economia se combinaram com o ataque ao keynesianismo na política de recessão a partir de meados da década de 1970, a unidade da classe trabalhadora deixou de estar disponível da forma antiga e bastante utilizada, como o terreno natural da política de esquerda. Enquanto uma coletividade dominante da classe trabalhadora entrou em declínio, outra se corporificou de modo lento e desigual para tomar o lugar daquela. Mas a unidade operacional dessa nova agregação da classe trabalhadora ainda está, em grande parte, em formação. Para recuperar a eficácia política da tradição socialista, alguma nova visão de agência política coletiva será necessária, uma visão imaginativamente ajustada às condições emergentes da produção e acumulação capitalista no início do século XXI.

  9. A Comparative Study of the Eruptive and Non-eruptive Flares Produced by the Largest Active Region of Solar Cycle 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Ranadeep; Srivastava, Nandita

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the morphological and magnetic characteristics of solar active region (AR) NOAA 12192. AR 12192 was the largest region of Solar Cycle 24; it underwent noticeable growth and produced 6 X-class flares, 22 M-class flares, and 53 C-class flares in the course of its disc passage. However, the most peculiar fact of this AR is that it was associated with only one CME in spite of producing several X-class flares. In this work, we carry out a comparative study between the eruptive and non-eruptive flares produced by AR 12192. We find that the magnitude of abrupt and permanent changes in the horizontal magnetic field and Lorentz force are significantly smaller in the case of the confined flares compared to the eruptive one. We present the areal evolution of AR 12192 during its disc passage. We find the flare-related morphological changes to be weaker during the confined flares, whereas the eruptive flare exhibits a rapid and permanent disappearance of penumbral area away from the magnetic neutral line after the flare. Furthermore, from the extrapolated non-linear force-free magnetic field, we examine the overlying coronal magnetic environment over the eruptive and non-eruptive zones of the AR. We find that the critical decay index for the onset of torus instability was achieved at a lower height over the eruptive flaring region, than for the non-eruptive core area. These results suggest that the decay rate of the gradient of overlying magnetic-field strength may play a decisive role to determine the CME productivity of the AR. In addition, the magnitude of changes in the flare-related magnetic characteristics are found to be well correlated with the nature of solar eruptions.

  10. First Temperate Exoplanet Sized Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    , and R. Street (Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Santa Barbara, USA), H. Lammer and J. Weingrill (Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Science), and T. Mazeh and A. Shporer (Tel Aviv University, Israel). ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and VISTA, the world's largest survey telescope. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning a 42-metre European Extremely Large optical/near-infrared Telescope, the E-ELT, which will become "the world's biggest eye on the sky".

  11. Particle size distribution instrument. Topical report 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okhuysen, W.; Gassaway, J.D.

    1995-04-01

    The development of an instrument to measure the concentration of particles in gas is described in this report. An in situ instrument was designed and constructed which sizes individual particles and counts the number of occurrences for several size classes. Although this instrument was designed to detect the size distribution of slag and seed particles generated at an experimental coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic power facility, it can be used as a nonintrusive diagnostic tool for other hostile industrial processes involving the formation and growth of particulates. Two of the techniques developed are extensions of the widely used crossed beam velocimeter, providing simultaneous measurement of the size distribution and velocity of articles.

  12. What are the economic and social effects from the electric power beneficiary price of the largest consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogov, Dimitar

    2003-01-01

    In the last few years the two largest consumers of electricity 'Feni' and 'Jugohrom', were sold to the foreign strategic investor. The key issue in the negotiations with the investor was the price of electricity for these companies. The final outcome is known, they got beneficiary price. Now two questions emerge: (1) what is the exact size of the under pricing? (2) what are the economic and social effects of their activity and whether the social gain for the country is higher than the loss for the country from the under pricing of electricity. The paper is trying to give an answer on the second question. Therewith, the analyze is focused on two issues: (1) how much is the contribution of these two companies on production, export and economic growth of the Republic of Macedonia; (2) what is their impact on the living standard and social costs. Macedonian industry has very unfavorable structure with only a few export products. Restructuring of industry and widening of the array of products is a slow process. Until new products and new industries are developed, the only generator of larger export and higher economic growth is the increase of the export of existing products. 'Feni industry' and 'Silmak' are some of rare Macedonian companies that have foreign strategic investor who provide stable and unlimited market (having in mind that Macedonian production is relatively small compared to the world demand for nickel and ferro silicium). Thus, the growth of export of metals produced by 'Feni industry' and 'Silmak' could be the principal generators of the growth of Macedonian economy in the period of restructuring of the industry and development of new competitive products. (Original)

  13. Flexible Word Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    • First major publication on the phenomenon • Offers cross-linguistic, descriptive, and diverse theoretical approaches • Includes analysis of data from different language families and from lesser studied languages This book is the first major cross-linguistic study of 'flexible words', i.e. words...... that cannot be classified in terms of the traditional lexical categories Verb, Noun, Adjective or Adverb. Flexible words can - without special morphosyntactic marking - serve in functions for which other languages must employ members of two or more of the four traditional, 'specialised' word classes. Thus......, flexible words are underspecified for communicative functions like 'predicating' (verbal function), 'referring' (nominal function) or 'modifying' (a function typically associated with adjectives and e.g. manner adverbs). Even though linguists have been aware of flexible world classes for more than...

  14. Storytelling in EFL Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Bala

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Storytelling is one of the oldest ways of education and oral tradition that is continuously being used to transfer the previous nation‘s cultures, tradition and customs. It constructs a bridge between the new and the old. Storytelling in EFL classes usually provides a meaningful context, interesting atmosphere and is used as a tool to highly motivate students. Although it seems to be mostly based on speaking, it is used to promote other skills such as writing, reading, and listening. Storytelling is mainly regarded to be grounded on imitation and repetition; nevertheless many creative activities can be implemented in the classroom since this method directs learners to use their imaginations. This study discusses the importance of storytelling as a teaching method, and it outlines the advantages of storytelling in EFL classes.

  15. Queen elizabeth class battleships

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Les

    2010-01-01

    The 'ShipCraft' series provides in-depth information about building and modifying model kits of famous warship types. Lavishly illustrated, each book takes the modeller through a brief history of the subject class, highlighting differences between sister-ships and changes in their appearance over their careers. This includes paint schemes and camouflage, featuring colour profiles and highly detailed line drawings and scale plans. The modelling section reviews the strengths and weaknesses of available kits, lists commercial accessory sets for super-detailing of the ships, and provides hints on modifying and improving the basic kit. This is followed by an extensive photographic survey of selected high-quality models in a variety of scales, and the book concludes with a section on research references - books, monographs, large-scale plans and relevant websites.This volume covers the five ships of the highly successful Queen Elizabeth class, a design of fast battleship that set the benchmark for the last generati...

  16. World Class Facilities Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmstrøm, Ole Emil; Jensen, Per Anker

    2013-01-01

    Alle der med entusiasme arbejder med Facilities Management drømmer om at levere World Class. DFM drømmer om at skabe rammer og baggrund for, at vi i Danmark kan bryste os at være blandt de førende på verdensplan. Her samles op på, hvor tæt vi er på at nå drømmemålet.......Alle der med entusiasme arbejder med Facilities Management drømmer om at levere World Class. DFM drømmer om at skabe rammer og baggrund for, at vi i Danmark kan bryste os at være blandt de førende på verdensplan. Her samles op på, hvor tæt vi er på at nå drømmemålet....

  17. Storytelling in EFL Classes

    OpenAIRE

    Emine Bala

    2015-01-01

    Storytelling is one of the oldest ways of education and oral tradition that is continuously being used to transfer the previous nation‘s cultures, tradition and customs. It constructs a bridge between the new and the old. Storytelling in EFL classes usually provides a meaningful context, interesting atmosphere and is used as a tool to highly motivate students. Although it seems to be mostly based on speaking, it is used to promote other skills such as writing, reading, and listening. Storytel...

  18. Esmeraldas-Class Corvettes,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-25

    The series of ships, named after all the provinces of Ecuador , include: --CA 11 ESMERALDAS, laid down 27 September 1979, launched 11 October 1980... LOJA , laid down 25 March 1981, launched 27 February 1982; fitting out at CNR Ancona. The building program, on schedule so far, calls for the entire class...built and are still building in 16 units for foreign navies (Libya, Ecuador , Iraq) with four possible armament alternatives. In particular, they

  19. Earth's Largest Terrestrial Landslide (The Markagunt Gravity Slide of Southwest Utah): Insights from the Catastrophic Collapse of a Volcanic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, D. B.; Biek, R. F.; Rowley, P. D.

    2015-12-01

    The newly discovered Miocene Markagunt gravity slide (MGS; Utah, USA) represents the largest volcanic landslide structure on Earth. Recent geologic mapping of the MGS indicates that it was a large contiguous volcanic sheet of allochthonous andesitic mudflow breccias and lava flows, volcaniclastic rocks, and intertonguing regional ash-flow tuffs that blanketed an area of at least 5000 km2 with an estimated volume of ~3000 km3. From its breakaway zone in the Tushar and Mineral Mountains to its southern limits, the MGS is over 95 km long and at least 65 km wide. The MGS consists of four distinct structural segments: 1) a high-angle breakaway segment, 2) a bedding-plane segment, ~60 km long and ~65 km wide, typically located within the volcaniclastic Eocene-Oligocene Brian Head Formation, 3) a ramp segment ~1-2 km wide where the slide cuts upsection, and 4) a former land surface segment where the upper-plate moved at least 35 km over the Miocene landscape. The presence of basal and lateral cataclastic breccias, clastic dikes, jigsaw puzzle fracturing, internal shears, pseudotachylytes, and the overall geometry of the MGS show that it represents a single catastrophic emplacement event. The MGS represents gravitationally induced collapse of the southwest sector of the Oligocene to Miocene Marysvale volcanic field. We suggest that continuous growth of the Marysvale volcanic field, loading more volcanic rocks on a structurally weak Brian Head basement, created conditions necessary for gravity sliding. In addition, inflation of the volcanic pile due to multiple magmatic intrusions tilted the strata gently southward, inducing lateral spreading of the sub-volcanic rocks prior to failure. Although similar smaller-scale failures have been recognized from individual volcanoes, the MGS represents a new class of low frequency but high impact hazards associated with catastrophic sector collapse of large volcanic fields containing multiple volcanoes. The relationship of the MGS to

  20. ''FUR'' - one size suits all

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutland, M.; Que, L.; Hassan, I.M.

    2000-01-01

    This work used amalgamated data from previous projects in order to test the concept that when organ function is expressed in terms of tracer kinetics, the results are independent of patient size or gender. Dynamic gamma camera studies were analysed by measuring the rate of movement of tracers from the blood into various organs. These rates were expressed as a ''fractional uptake rate'' (FUR), which is the fraction of tracer in the blood taken up by the organ per unit time. As these values were small, it was convenient to express the FUR per million seconds. The FUR was calculated using the expression FUR = SLOPE (of Rutland-Patlak plot), multiplied by B(0) (the blood curve value back-extrapolated to time zero), and divided by the TOTAL amount of tracer injected. Data were used from adult patients between the ages of 20 and 49 years who had normal organ function. Organ/tracer groups studied were the skeletal uptake of 99m Tc-MDP, the renal uptake of 99m Tc-MAG3, the renal uptake of 99m Tc-MDP, the renal uptake of 99m Tc-DTPA, the hepatic uptake of 99m Tc-colloid, the splenic uptake of 99m Tc-colloid, and the hepatic uptake of 99m Tc-DISIDA. Each organ/tracer group was divided into three subgroups according to patient size (smallest, middle and largest), and also into subgroups according to gender. Comparison of these subgroups did not show any significant size- or gender-related differences in FUR values. It is concluded that for patients with normally functioning organs the FUR is independent of patient size or gender. Thus, the FUR is a valuable way of expressing organ function, particularly in patients with unusual or rapidly changing body size, such as children. (orig.)

  1. [Social classes and poverty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benach, Joan; Amable, Marcelo

    2004-05-01

    Social classes and poverty are two key social determinants fundamental to understand how disease and health inequalities are produced. During the 90's in Spain there has been a notable oscillation in the inequality and poverty levels, with an increase in the middle of the decade when new forms of social exclusion, high levels of unemployment and great difficulties in accessing the labour market, especially for those workers with less resources, emerged. Today society is still characterized by a clear social stratification and the existence of social classes with a predominance of high levels of unemployment and precarious jobs, and where poverty is an endemic social problem much worse than the EU average. To diminish health inequalities and to improve the quality of life will depend very much on the reduction of the poverty levels and the improvement of equal opportunities and quality of employment. To increase understanding of how social class and poverty affect public health, there is a need to improve the quality of both information and research, and furthermore planners and political decision makers must take into account those determinants when undertaking disease prevention and health promotion.

  2. Environmental impacts of SMEs and the effects of formal management tools : Evidence from EU's largest survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, Johan; Smid, Hugo

    Much literature on corporate social responsibility suggests that formal management tools to manage environmental impacts, such as environmental reporting or ISO14001 certification, are not suitable for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Other studies, however, argue that using some form of

  3. Popular culture and class distinctions in Slovenia: Symbolic boundaries in an egalitarian society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breda Luther

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study draws on survey data on the cultural preferences, competencies and practices of a representative sample of the population of the two largest Slovenian cities, Ljubljana and Maribor. The cultural dimensions of class and the role of cultural distinctions in the class structure of both cities are examined. The study focuses on the ways in which non-economic capital, i.e. cultural capital, works in the constitution and reproduction of social inequality The empirical results point to the existence of five separate class-cultural formations or class-specific meaning systems that significantly differ from each another and to a systematic homology between ideal-type cultural classes and four occupational classes (EseC. Tastes are particularly strongly linked to social positions at the bottom and the top of the aesthetic hierarchy. The strongest effect of gender and ethnicity on taste cultures was established at the bottom of the occupational class hierarchy.

  4. Software engineering processes for Class D missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killough, Ronnie; Rose, Debi

    2013-09-01

    Software engineering processes are often seen as anathemas; thoughts of CMMI key process areas and NPR 7150.2A compliance matrices can motivate a software developer to consider other career fields. However, with adequate definition, common-sense application, and an appropriate level of built-in flexibility, software engineering processes provide a critical framework in which to conduct a successful software development project. One problem is that current models seem to be built around an underlying assumption of "bigness," and assume that all elements of the process are applicable to all software projects regardless of size and tolerance for risk. This is best illustrated in NASA's NPR 7150.2A in which, aside from some special provisions for manned missions, the software processes are to be applied based solely on the criticality of the software to the mission, completely agnostic of the mission class itself. That is, the processes applicable to a Class A mission (high priority, very low risk tolerance, very high national significance) are precisely the same as those applicable to a Class D mission (low priority, high risk tolerance, low national significance). This paper will propose changes to NPR 7150.2A, taking mission class into consideration, and discuss how some of these changes are being piloted for a current Class D mission—the Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS).

  5. Pharmaceutical R&D performance by firm size: approval success rates and economic returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMasi, Joseph A

    2014-01-01

    The R&D productivity of pharmaceutical firms has become an increasingly significant concern of industry, regulators, and policymakers. To address an important aspect of R&D performance, public and private data sources were used to estimate clinical phase transition and clinical approval probabilities for the pipelines of the 50 largest pharmaceutical firms (by sales) by 3 firms size groups (top 10 firms, top 11-20 firms, and top 21-50 firms). For self-originated compounds, the clinical approval success rates were 14.3%, 16.4%, and 18.4% for top 10 firms, top 11-20 firms, and top 21-50 firms, respectively. The results showing higher success rates for smaller firms were largely driven by outcomes for the small-molecule drugs. Adjustments for the relatively small differences in therapeutic class distributions across the firm size groups showed that the success rate for small-molecule self-originated drugs was 6% below average for top 10 firms and 17% above average for top 21-50 firms. Although success rates for small firms were higher, this advantage was offset to some degree by lower returns on approved drugs, suggesting different strategic objectives with regard to risk and reward by firm size.

  6. Landscapes of thermal inequity: disproportionate exposure to urban heat in the three largest US cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Bruce C.; Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2015-11-01

    Heat waves are the most significant cause of mortality in the US compared to other natural hazards. Prior studies have found increased heat exposure for individuals of lower socioeconomic status in several US cities, but few comparative analyses of the social distribution of urban heat have been conducted. To address this gap, our paper examines and compares the environmental justice consequences of urban heat risk in the three largest US cities: New York City, Los Angeles, and Chicago. Risk to urban heat is estimated on the basis of three characteristics of the urban thermal landscape: land surface temperature, vegetation abundance, and structural density of the built urban environment. These variables are combined to develop an urban heat risk index, which is then statistically compared with social vulnerability indicators representing socioeconomic status, age, disability, race/ethnicity, and linguistic isolation. The results indicate a consistent and significant statistical association between lower socioeconomic and minority status and greater urban heat risk, in all three cities. Our findings support a growing body of environmental justice literature that indicates the presence of a landscape of thermal inequity in US cities and underscores the need to conduct comparative analyses of social inequities in exposure to urban heat.

  7. KEPLER-1647B: THE LARGEST AND LONGEST-PERIOD KEPLER TRANSITING CIRCUMBINARY PLANET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostov, Veselin B. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Orosz, Jerome A.; Welsh, William F.; Short, Donald R. [Department of Astronomy, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Doyle, Laurance R. [SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Principia College, IMoP, One Maybeck Place, Elsah, IL 62028 (United States); Fabrycky, Daniel C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Haghighipour, Nader [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii-Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Quarles, Billy [Department of Physics and Physical Science, The University of Nebraska at Kearney, Kearney, NE 68849 (United States); Cochran, William D.; Endl, Michael [McDonald Observatory, The University of Texas as Austin, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Ford, Eric B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 428A Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Gregorio, Joao [Atalaia Group and Crow-Observatory, Portalegre (Portugal); Hinse, Tobias C. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Advanced Astronomy and Space Science Division, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Isaacson, Howard [Department of Astronomy, University of California Berkeley, 501 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Jenkins, Jon M. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Jensen, Eric L. N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA 19081 (United States); Kane, Stephen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Kull, Ilya, E-mail: veselin.b.kostov@nasa.gov [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); and others

    2016-08-10

    We report the discovery of a new Kepler transiting circumbinary planet (CBP). This latest addition to the still-small family of CBPs defies the current trend of known short-period planets orbiting near the stability limit of binary stars. Unlike the previous discoveries, the planet revolving around the eclipsing binary system Kepler-1647 has a very long orbital period (∼1100 days) and was at conjunction only twice during the Kepler mission lifetime. Due to the singular configuration of the system, Kepler-1647b is not only the longest-period transiting CBP at the time of writing, but also one of the longest-period transiting planets. With a radius of 1.06 ± 0.01 R {sub Jup}, it is also the largest CBP to date. The planet produced three transits in the light curve of Kepler-1647 (one of them during an eclipse, creating a syzygy) and measurably perturbed the times of the stellar eclipses, allowing us to measure its mass, 1.52 ± 0.65 M {sub Jup}. The planet revolves around an 11-day period eclipsing binary consisting of two solar-mass stars on a slightly inclined, mildly eccentric ( e {sub bin} = 0.16), spin-synchronized orbit. Despite having an orbital period three times longer than Earth’s, Kepler-1647b is in the conservative habitable zone of the binary star throughout its orbit.

  8. Evidence for protection of targeted reef fish on the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina-Amargós, Fabián; González-Sansón, Gaspar; Martín-Blanco, Félix; Valdivia, Abel

    2014-01-01

    Marine reserves can restore fish abundance and diversity in areas impacted by overfishing, but the effectiveness of reserves in developing countries where resources for enforcement are limited, have seldom been evaluated. Here we assess whether the establishment in 1996 of the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean, Gardens of the Queen in Cuba, has had a positive effect on the abundance of commercially valuable reef fish species in relation to neighboring unprotected areas. We surveyed 25 sites, including two reef habitats (reef crest and reef slope), inside and outside the marine reserve, on five different months, and over a one-and-a-half year period. Densities of the ten most frequent, highly targeted, and relatively large fish species showed a significant variability across the archipelago for both reef habitats that depended on the month of survey. These ten species showed a tendency towards higher abundance inside the reserve in both reef habitats for most months during the study. Average fish densities pooled by protection level, however, showed that five out of these ten species were at least two-fold significantly higher inside than outside the reserve at one or both reef habitats. Supporting evidence from previously published studies in the area indicates that habitat complexity and major benthic communities were similar inside and outside the reserve, while fishing pressure appeared to be homogeneous across the archipelago before reserve establishment. Although poaching may occur within the reserve, especially at the boundaries, effective protection from fishing was the most plausible explanation for the patterns observed.

  9. Investigation of science faculty with education specialties within the largest university system in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Seth D; Pelaez, Nancy J; Rudd, James A; Stevens, Michael T; Tanner, Kimberly D; Williams, Kathy S

    2011-01-01

    Efforts to improve science education include university science departments hiring Science Faculty with Education Specialties (SFES), scientists who take on specialized roles in science education within their discipline. Although these positions have existed for decades and may be growing more common, few reports have investigated the SFES approach to improving science education. We present comprehensive data on the SFES in the California State University (CSU) system, the largest university system in the United States. We found that CSU SFES were engaged in three key arenas including K-12 science education, undergraduate science education, and discipline-based science education research. As such, CSU SFES appeared to be well-positioned to have an impact on science education from within science departments. However, there appeared to be a lack of clarity and agreement about the purpose of these SFES positions. In addition, formal training in science education among CSU SFES was limited. Although over 75% of CSU SFES were fulfilled by their teaching, scholarship, and service, our results revealed that almost 40% of CSU SFES were seriously considering leaving their positions. Our data suggest that science departments would likely benefit from explicit discussions about the role of SFES and strategies for supporting their professional activities.

  10. Sources and distribution of microplastics in China's largest inland lake - Qinghai Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiong; Zhang, Kai; Chen, Xianchuan; Shi, Huahong; Luo, Ze; Wu, Chenxi

    2018-04-01

    Microplastic pollution was studied in China's largest inland lake - Qinghai Lake in this work. Microplastics were detected with abundance varies from 0.05 × 10 5 to 7.58 × 10 5 items km -2 in the lake surface water, 0.03 × 10 5 to 0.31 × 10 5 items km -2 in the inflowing rivers, 50 to 1292 items m -2 in the lakeshore sediment, and 2 to 15 items per individual in the fish samples, respectively. Small microplastics (0.1-0.5 mm) dominated in the lake surface water while large microplastics (1-5 mm) are more abundant in the river samples. Microplastics were predominantly in sheet and fiber shapes in the lake and river water samples but were more diverse in the lakeshore sediment samples. Polymer types of microplastics were mainly polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) as identified using Raman Spectroscopy. Spatially, microplastic abundance was the highest in the central part of the lake, likely due to the transport of lake current. Based on the higher abundance of microplastics near the tourist access points, plastic wastes from tourism are considered as an important source of microplastics in Qinghai Lake. As an important area for wildlife conservation, better waste management practice should be implemented, and waste disposal and recycling infrastructures should be improved for the protection of Qinghai Lake. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The largest human cognitive performance dataset reveals insights into the effects of lifestyle factors and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Sternberg

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Making new breakthroughs in understanding the processes underlying human cognition may depend on the availability of very large datasets that have not historically existed in psychology and neuroscience. Lumosity is a web-based cognitive training platform that has grown to include over 600 million cognitive training task results from over 35 million individuals, comprising the largest existing dataset of human cognitive performance. As part of the Human Cognition Project, Lumosity’s collaborative research program to understand the human mind, Lumos Labs researchers and external research collaborators have begun to explore this dataset in order uncover novel insights about the correlates of cognitive performance. This paper presents two preliminary demonstrations of some of the kinds of questions that can be examined with the dataset. The first example focuses on replicating known findings relating lifestyle factors to baseline cognitive performance in a demographically diverse, healthy population at a much larger scale than has previously been available. The second example examines a question that would likely be very difficult to study in laboratory-based and existing online experimental research approaches: specifically, how learning ability for different types of cognitive tasks changes with age. We hope that these examples will provoke the imagination of researchers who are interested in collaborating to answer fundamental questions about human cognitive performance.

  12. Reconstructing the population history of the largest tribe of India: the Dravidian speaking Gond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Tamang, Rakesh; Pennarun, Erwan; Dubey, Pavan; Rai, Niraj; Upadhyay, Rakesh Kumar; Meena, Rajendra Prasad; Patel, Jayanti R; van Driem, George; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Metspalu, Mait; Villems, Richard

    2017-04-01

    The Gond comprise the largest tribal group of India with a population exceeding 12 million. Linguistically, the Gond belong to the Gondi-Manda subgroup of the South Central branch of the Dravidian language family. Ethnographers, anthropologists and linguists entertain mutually incompatible hypotheses on their origin. Genetic studies of these people have thus far suffered from the low resolution of the genetic data or the limited number of samples. Therefore, to gain a more comprehensive view on ancient ancestry and genetic affinities of the Gond with the neighbouring populations speaking Indo-European, Dravidian and Austroasiatic languages, we have studied four geographically distinct groups of Gond using high-resolution data. All the Gond groups share a common ancestry with a certain degree of isolation and differentiation. Our allele frequency and haplotype-based analyses reveal that the Gond share substantial genetic ancestry with the Indian Austroasiatic (ie, Munda) groups, rather than with the other Dravidian groups to whom they are most closely related linguistically.

  13. A study on the regionalization of tornadogenesis for the domestic largest scale of tornado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Soichiro; Nohara, Daisuke; Hirakuchi, Hiromaru

    2014-01-01

    A new regulatory guide has been issued by the Nuclear Regulation Authority of Japan since the last year. According to this guide, electric power companies have to assess the influence of tornadoes on their nuclear power plants for operation. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the likelihood of the occurrence of F3 tornadoes, which are the largest encountered in Japan, and to consider the possibility of the regionalization of the maximum wind speed. Then, mesoscale analysis with a numerical meteorological model and re-analysis data is performed along with synoptic scale analysis. Especially, tornado parameters such as SReH (Storm Relative Helicity) and CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) are used for evaluating the potential tornadogenesis of F3 tornado. Both analyses indicate that favorable meteorological condition tends to occur in the coastal zones in the Pacific side west of Ibaraki and around Kyushu island. The frequency in these zones is different from the one in the other area in the order of 1 or 2, which is large enough for regionalization. (author)

  14. Vascular access in lipoprotein apheresis: a retrospective analysis from the UK's largest lipoprotein apheresis centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Daniel J; Pottle, Alison; Malietzis, George; Hakim, Nadey; Barbir, Mahmoud; Crane, Jeremy S

    2018-01-01

    Lipoprotein apheresis (LA) has proven to be an effective, safe and life-saving therapy. Vascular access is needed to facilitate this treatment but has recognised complications. Despite consistency in treatment indication and duration there are no guidelines in place. The aim of this study is to characterise vascular access practice at the UK's largest LA centre and forward suggestions for future approaches. A retrospective analysis of vascular access strategies was undertaken in all patients who received LA treatment in the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) Apheresis Unit at Harefield Hospital (Middlesex, UK) from November 2000 to March 2016. Fifty-three former and current patients underwent 4260 LA treatments. Peripheral vein cannulation represented 79% of initial vascular access strategies with arteriovenous (AV) fistula use accounting for 15%. Last used method of vascular access was peripheral vein cannulation in 57% versus AV fistula in 32%. Total AV fistula failure rate was 37%. Peripheral vein cannulation remains the most common method to facilitate LA. Practice trends indicate a move towards AV fistula creation; the favoured approach receiving support from the expert body in this area. AV fistula failure rate is high and of great concern, therefore we suggest the implementation of upper limb ultrasound vascular mapping in all patients who meet treatment eligibility criteria. We encourage close ties between apheresis units and specialist surgical centres to facilitate patient counselling and monitoring. Further prospective data regarding fistula failure is needed in this expanding treatment field.

  15. Sistema Faro, Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico: speleogenesis of the worlds largest flank margin cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lace, M. J.; Kambesis, P. N.; Mylroie, J. E.

    2016-01-01

    Isla de Mona, a small, uplifted carbonate plateau jutting out of the waters of the Mona Passage, is an incredibly fragile and densely karstic environment. Expedition work was conducted by the Isla de Mona Project in cooperation with the Departamento Recursos Naturales y Ambientales de Puerto Rico (DRNA), including contributions from many researchers and cavers volunteering from across the U.S and Puerto Rico in the course of 12 separate expeditions, spanning a 14 year period (1998 to 2013). Over 200 caves have been documented on the island to date, the majority of this inventory is composed of flank margin caves but also includes sea caves, pit caves and talus caves. The most extensive example of cave development on the island is Sistema Faro - a sprawling maze-like series of chambers formed within the eastern point of the island with over 40 cliffside entrances overlooking the Caribbean Sea. Detailed cartography and analysis of the geomorphology and development of the Sistema Faro has helped form a complex model of carbonate island cave development as a function of tectonic uplift, lithology, sea level changes, karst hydrogeology and cliff retreat. This communication examines the roles these controls have played in the genesis of the world's largest flank margin cave. (Author)

  16. Stand Up for the Burrup: Saving the Largest Aboriginal Rock Art Precinct in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Gregory

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dampier Rock Art Precinct contains the largest and most ancient collection of Aboriginal rock art in Australia. The cultural landscape created by generations of Aboriginal people includes images of long-extinct fauna and demonstrates the response of peoples to a changing climate over thousands of years as well as the continuity of lived experience. Despite Australian national heritage listing in 2007, this cultural landscape continues to be threatened by industrial development. Rock art on the eastern side of the archipelago, on the Burrup Peninsula, was relocated following the discovery of adjacent off-shore gas reserves so that a major gas plant could be constructed. Work has now begun on the construction of a second major gas plant nearby. This article describes the rock art of the Dampier Archipelago and the troubled history of European-Aboriginal contact history, before examining the impact of industry on the region and its environment. The destruction of Aboriginal rock art to meet the needs of industry is an example of continuing indifference to Aboriginal culture. While the complex struggle to protect the cultural landscape of the Burrup, in particular, involving Indigenous people, archaeologists, historians, state and federal politicians, government bureaucrats and multi-national companies, eventually led to national heritage listing, it is not clear that the battle to save the Burrup has been won.

  17. North Andean origin and diversification of the largest ithomiine butterfly genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa De-Silva, Donna; Mota, Luísa L.; Chazot, Nicolas; Mallarino, Ricardo; Silva-Brandão, Karina L.; Piñerez, Luz Miryam Gómez; Freitas, André V.L.; Lamas, Gerardo; Joron, Mathieu; Mallet, James; Giraldo, Carlos E.; Uribe, Sandra; Särkinen, Tiina; Knapp, Sandra; Jiggins, Chris D.; Willmott, Keith R.; Elias, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    The Neotropics harbour the most diverse flora and fauna on Earth. The Andes are a major centre of diversification and source of diversity for adjacent areas in plants and vertebrates, but studies on insects remain scarce, even though they constitute the largest fraction of terrestrial biodiversity. Here, we combine molecular and morphological characters to generate a dated phylogeny of the butterfly genus Pteronymia (Nymphalidae: Danainae), which we use to infer spatial, elevational and temporal diversification patterns. We first propose six taxonomic changes that raise the generic species total to 53, making Pteronymia the most diverse genus of the tribe Ithomiini. Our biogeographic reconstruction shows that Pteronymia originated in the Northern Andes, where it diversified extensively. Some lineages colonized lowlands and adjacent montane areas, but diversification in those areas remained scarce. The recent colonization of lowland areas was reflected by an increase in the rate of evolution of species’ elevational ranges towards present. By contrast, speciation rate decelerated with time, with no extinction. The geological history of the Andes and adjacent regions have likely contributed to Pteronymia diversification by providing compartmentalized habitats and an array of biotic and abiotic conditions, and by limiting dispersal between some areas while promoting interchange across others. PMID:28387233

  18. Level of patient and operator dose in the largest cardiac centre in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsapaki, V.; Patsilinakos, S.; Voudris, V.; Magginas, A.; Pavlidis, S.; Maounis, T.; Theodorakis, G.; Koutelou, M.; Vrantza, T.; Nearchou, M.; Nikolaki, N.; Kollaros, N.; Kyrozi, E.; Kottou, S.; Karaiskos, P.; Neofotistou, E.; Cokkinos, D.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the patient and staff doses in the most frequent interventional cardiology (IC) procedures performed in Onassio, the largest Cardiac Centre in Greece. Data were collected from three digital X-ray systems for 212 coronary angiographies, 203 percutaneous transluminal coronary angio-plasties (PTCA) and 134 various electrophysiological studies. Patient skin dose was measured using suitably calibrated slow radiotherapy films and cardiologist dose using suitably calibrated thermoluminescent dosemeters placed on left arm, hand and foot. Patient median dose area product (DAP) (all examinations) ranged between 6.7 and 83.5 Gy cm 2 . Patient median skin dose in PTCA was 799 mGy (320-1660 mGy) and in RF ablation 160 mGy (35-1920 mGy). Median arm, hand and foot dose to the cardiologist were 12.6, 27 and 13 μSv, respectively, per procedure. The great range of radiation doses received by both patients and operators confirms the need for continuous monitoring of all IC techniques. (authors)

  19. DISCOVERY OF THE LARGEST KNOWN LENSED IMAGES FORMED BY A CRITICALLY CONVERGENT LENSING CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zitrin, Adi; Broadhurst, Tom

    2009-01-01

    We identify the largest known lensed images of a single spiral galaxy, lying close to the center of the distant cluster MACS J1149.5+2223 (z = 0.544). These images cover a total area of ≅150 mbox '' and are magnified ≅200 times. Unusually, there is very little image distortion, implying that the central mass distribution is almost uniform over a wide area (r ≅ 200 kpc) with a surface density equal to the critical density for lensing, corresponding to maximal lens magnification. Many fainter multiply lensed galaxies are also uncovered by our model, outlining a very large tangential critical curve, of radius r ≅ 170 kpc, posing a potential challenge for the standard LCDM cosmology. Because of the uniform central mass distribution, a particularly clean measurement of the mass of the brightest cluster galaxy is possible here, for which we infer stars contribute most of the mass within a limiting radius of ≅30 kpc, with a mass-to-light ratio of M/L B ≅ 4.5(M/L) sun . This cluster with its uniform and central mass distribution acts analogously to a regular magnifying glass, converging light without distorting the images, resulting in the most powerful lens yet discovered for accessing the faint high-z universe.

  20. Epidemiological study of hepatitis A, B and C in the largest Afro-Brazilian isolated community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Márcia A D; Reis, Nádia Rúbia S; Kozlowski, Aline G; Teles, Sheila A; Motta-Castro, Ana Rita C; Mello, Francisco C A; Gomes, Selma A; Martins, Regina M B

    2009-09-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and molecular epidemiological features of viral hepatitis A, B and C in the Kalunga population, which represents the largest Afro-Brazilian isolated community. Among 878 individuals studied, the overall prevalence of anti-hepatitis A virus antibodies was 80.9%, with a significant rise from 44.8% to near 100% between the first and fourth decade of life. Rates for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) of 1.8% and 35.4%, respectively, were found. Increasing age, male gender, illiteracy and history of multiple sexual partners were associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. An occult HBV infection rate of 1.7% (5/295) was found among anti-HBc-positive individuals. HBV genotype A (subtype Aa) was dominant in this community. Only 5/878 individuals (0.6%) were positive for anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV RNA was detected in three of them, who were infected with genotype 1 (subtype 1a). These findings point out high, intermediate and low endemicity for hepatitis A, B and C, respectively, in the Kalunga community in Brazil. Circulation of HBV genotype A (subtype Aa) in this Afro-Brazilian isolated community indicates the introduction of this virus during the slave trade from Africa to Brazil.

  1. Bubble nucleation in simple and molecular liquids via the largest spherical cavity method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Miguel A.; Abascal, José L. F.; Valeriani, Chantal; Bresme, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we propose a methodology to compute bubble nucleation free energy barriers using trajectories generated via molecular dynamics simulations. We follow the bubble nucleation process by means of a local order parameter, defined by the volume of the largest spherical cavity (LSC) formed in the nucleating trajectories. This order parameter simplifies considerably the monitoring of the nucleation events, as compared with the previous approaches which require ad hoc criteria to classify the atoms and molecules as liquid or vapor. The combination of the LSC and the mean first passage time technique can then be used to obtain the free energy curves. Upon computation of the cavity distribution function the nucleation rate and free-energy barrier can then be computed. We test our method against recent computations of bubble nucleation in simple liquids and water at negative pressures. We obtain free-energy barriers in good agreement with the previous works. The LSC method provides a versatile and computationally efficient route to estimate the volume of critical bubbles the nucleation rate and to compute bubble nucleation free-energies in both simple and molecular liquids

  2. Rise and Fall of one of World's largest deltas; the Mekong delta in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minderhoud, P. S. J.; Eslami Arab, S.; Pham, H. V.; Erkens, G.; van der Vegt, M.; Oude Essink, G.; Stouthamer, E.; Hoekstra, P.

    2017-12-01

    The Mekong delta is the third's largest delta in the world. It is home to almost 20 million people and an important region for the food security in South East Asia. As most deltas, the Mekong delta is the dynamic result of a balance of sediment supply, sea level rise and subsidence, hosting a system of fresh and salt water dynamics. Ongoing urbanization, industrialization and intensification of agricultural practices in the delta, during the past decades, resulted in growing domestic, agricultural and industrial demands, and have led to a dramatic increase of fresh water use. Since the year 2000, the amount of fresh groundwater extracted from the subsurface increased by 500%. This accelerated delta subsidence as the groundwater system compacts, with current sinking rates exceeding global sea level rise up to an order of magnitude. These high sinking rates have greatly altered the sediment budget of the delta and, with over 50% of the Mekong delta surface elevated less than 1 meter above sea level, greatly increase vulnerability to flooding and storm surges and ultimately, permanent inundation. Furthermore, as the increasingly larger extractions rapidly reduce the fresh groundwater reserves, groundwater salinization subsequently increases. On top of that, dry season low-flows by the Mekong river cause record salt water intrusion in the delta's estuarine system, creating major problems for rice irrigation. We present the work of three years research by the Dutch-Vietnamese `Rise and Fall' project on land subsidence and salinization in both groundwater and surface water in the Vietnamese Mekong delta.

  3. Mortgage loans: an analysis of the portfolios of the largest banks in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Vinícius Ramos Fernandes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Given the current macroeconomic environment experienced in Brazil, where inflation has stabilized and the basic interest rate of the economy is in one of their historical lows, demand for mortgages is increasing. In this context, the mortgage is presented with great emphasis to meet the demand for purchasing housing in addition to being a catalyst for the reduction of the high housing deficit. From a descriptive and empirical-analytic was analyzed the mortgage loan portfolio of the largest banks of the country between the years 2001 and 2010 through Quarterly Financial Information (IFT available on the Central Bank website. It was settled a comparative relationship between the data in order to check the development of mortgage portfolios over the years and the factors that influenced this evolution, and evaluate the timeliness and quality of those loans. For the evolution of the portfolio there was an economic context in which Brazil was included in the period, and observed that for most of these operations are long term the banks are more exposed to market risk. With regard to credit risk parse that, over the years, Brazilian banks are presenting a mortgage loan portfolio with lower risk, and it is found that institutions with real estate credits with higher levels of portfolio risk are subject to have higher losses on such operations in the possibility of default.

  4. Corporate social responsibility of the 100 largest Indian companies – an analysis of website communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Mulky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility has become an important concept in the business world in recent decades. CSR is important in all countries but is particularly relevant in emerging markets where the levels of human development are not high. The United Nations Development Programme has created the Human Development Index (HDI to measure the human development in countries. The present study analyzes the CSR communication on the websites of the 100 largest Indian companies. The objective was to examine the reported CSR activities and determine whether the activities address the dimensions and indicators of the HDI. The study uses content analysis to classify the CSR activities into categories corresponding to HDI parameters. The findings indicate that about two thirds of the companies are using their websites to communicate CSR. Of the companies which reported CSR, about eighty percent report support for primary education and about seventy percent undertake livelihood support activities. The level of corporate involvement in the health dimension of human development is quite low. Reduction of infant and maternal mortality does not get much corporate attention. This study will add to the literature on CSR in emerging markets and will be useful for firms in India and other emerging markets that are planning CSR activities aimed at human development parameters.

  5. Natural radionuclides in soil profiles surrounding the largest coal-fired power plant in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanić Milan N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the influence of the largest Serbian coal-fired power plant on radionuclide concentrations in soil profiles up to 50 cm in depth. Thirty soil profiles were sampled from the plant surroundings (up to 10 km distance and analyzed using standard methods for soil physicochemical properties and gamma ray spectrometry for specific activities of natural radionuclides (40K, 226Ra and 232Th. Spatial and vertical distribution of radionuclides was determined and analyzed to show the relations between the specific activities in the soil and soil properties and the most influential factors of natural radionuclide variability were identified. The radiological indices for surface soil were calculated and radiological risk assessment was performed. The measured specific activities were similar to values of background levels for Serbia. The sampling depth did not show any significant influence on specific activities of natural radionuclides. The strongest predictor of specific activities of the investigated radionuclides was soil granulometry. All parameters of radiological risk assessment were below the recommended values and adopted limits. It appears that the coal-fired power plant does not have a significant impact on the spatial and vertical distribution of natural radionuclides in the area of interest, but technologically enhanced natural radioactivity as a consequence of the plant operations was identified within the first 1.5 km from the power plant. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije br. III43009 i br. III41005

  6. Complex biogeographic scenarios revealed in the diversification of the largest woodpecker radiation in the New World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Sigüenza, Adolfo G; Vázquez-Miranda, Hernán; Hernández-Alonso, Germán; García-Trejo, Erick A; Sánchez-González, Luis A

    2017-07-01

    Phylogenetic relationships and patterns of evolution within Melanerpes, one of the most diverse groups of New World woodpeckers (22-23 lineages), have been complicated due to complex plumages and morphological adaptations. In an attempt to resolve these issues, we obtained sequence data from four nuclear introns and two mitochondrial protein-coding genes for 22 of the 24 currently recognized species in the genus. We performed phylogenetic analyses involving Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference, species-tree divergence dating, and biogeographic reconstructions. Tree topologies from the concatenated and species-tree analyses of the mtDNA and nDNA showed broadly similar patterns, with three relatively well-supported groups apparent: (a) the Sphyrapicus clade (four species); (b) the typical Melanerpes clade, which includes temperate and subtropical dry forest black-backed species; and (c) the mostly barred-backed species, here referred to as the "Centurus" clade. The phylogenetic position of Melanerpes superciliaris regarding the rest of Melanerpes is ambiguous as it is recovered as sister to the rest of Melanerpes or as sister to a group including Sphyrapicus+Melanerpes. Our species tree estimations recovered the same well-delimited highly-supported clades. Geographic range evolution (estimated in BioGeoBEARS) was best explained by a DIVALIKE+j model, which includes vicariance, founder effect speciation, and anagenetic dispersal (range expansion) as important processes involved in the diversification of the largest radiation of woodpeckers in the New World. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Carbon footprint of premium quality export bananas: case study in Ecuador, the world's largest exporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte, Alfredo; Almeida, Maria Gabriela; Villalobos, Pablo

    2014-02-15

    Nowadays, the new international market demands challenge the food producing countries to include the measurement of the environmental impact generated along the production process for their products. In order to comply with the environmentally responsible market requests the measurement of the greenhouse gas emissions of Ecuadorian agricultural goods has been promoted employing the carbon footprint concept. Ecuador is the largest exporter of bananas in the world. Within this context, this study is a first assessment of the carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian premium export banana (Musa AAA) using a considerable amount of field data. The system boundaries considered from agricultural production to delivery in a European destination port. The data collected over three years permitted identifying the hot spot stages. For the calculation, the CCaLC V3.0 software developed by the University of Manchester is used. The carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian export banana ranged from 0.45 to 1.04 kg CO2-equivalent/kg banana depending on the international overseas transport employed. The principal contributors to the carbon footprint are the on farm production and overseas transport stages. Mitigation and reduction strategies were suggested for the main emission sources in order to achieve sustainable banana production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterization of the largest relic Eurasian wild grapevine reservoir in Southern Iberian Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroyo-García, R.; Cantos, M.; Lara, M.; López, M.A.; Gallardo, A.; Ocete, C.A.; Pérez, A.; Bánáti, B.; García, J.L.; Ocete, R.

    2016-11-01

    Wild grapevine is becoming a threatened species in the Iberian Peninsula due to human impacts. The aim of this work was to carry out a holistic study for six years of the largest wild grapevine population found up to date in SW Iberian Peninsula. This population has 115 vines. Ampelographic and soil characteristics have been studied. Evaluation of its environment has also been studied by describing the main parasitic species and natural enemies of pests. The ability of this plant material for its micropropagation and storage in slow-growth conditions has been tested. Microvinification resulted in a wine with good acidity and medium color intensity, two interesting characteristics under a warm climatology. Finally, the identification of private alleles in this wild population, absent in other locations from the Northern and Southern Iberian territories, is a very valuable feature and confirms the importance of establishing conservation programs. The population here studied is genetically unique and potentially useful for commercial rootstocks and cultivars breeding that would improve viticulture and enology. (Author)

  9. State-owned companies dominate list of largest non-U.S. producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.J.; Williamson, M.

    1994-01-01

    Because state-owned oil and gas companies dominate Oil and Gas Journal's list of largest non-US producers, data aren't fully comparable with those of the OGJ300. Many state companies report only production and reserves, with little or no financial data. Companies on the OGJ100, therefore, cannot be ranked by assets or revenues. Instead, they are listed by regions, based on location of corporate headquarters. There was no change in makeup of the top 20 holders of crude oil reserves. These companies' reserves totaled 872.3 billion bbl in 1993. The top 20 non-US companies now control 87.3 % of total world crude oil reserves, according to OGJ estimates. This is up marginally from 87.2 % of total world oil reserves in 1992. The top 20 had 87.7 % of total world reserves in 1991 and 85.5 % in 1990. The table lists company name, total assets, revenues, net income, capital and exploratory expenditures, worldwide oil production, gas production, oil and gas reserves worldwide

  10. Estimation of the largest enterprises’ impact on the socio-economic development of territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Dmitrievna Razgulina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The key basic trends of modern society development are associated with the transfer of some government functions to big business. Thus, scientific and public circles argue about social partnership between government, business and employees and offer different variants of the corporate social responsibility concept. The article presents the experience to assess social responsibility of business on the example of the largest chemical enterprises located in the Vologda and Novgorod oblasts. The evaluation results have revealed a number of problems hindering the formation of socially responsible behavior of enterprises, particularly the lack of standardized reporting on corporate social responsibility; provision of formal corporate social responsibility report; business’ non-system participation in social and economic development of territories. According to the authors, the development of a special model to regulate participants’ mutual relations can increase social responsibility of Russian business. Unified interests and resources of business and government promote the development of an agreed strategy in the field of regional social-economic development

  11. Evaluation of several priority pollutants in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) in the largest Italian subalpine lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riva, Consuelo; Binelli, Andrea; Provini, Alfredo

    2008-01-01

    Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) has been used for the biomonitoring of several POPs (PCBs, DDTs, HCB and HCHs) in the largest Italian subalpine great lakes (Lake Maggiore, Garda, Como, Iseo and Lugano). Samplings were carried out in April 2003 at 15 locations selected according to industrial and anthropic levels of lakes. Results have pointed out high DDT levels in D. polymorpha specimens from Lake Maggiore (700-1400 ng/g lipids, 5-9 times higher than those measured in mussels of other Italian lakes), due to a contamination from a chemical plant located on one of the main lake inlet that occurred in 1996. On the contrary, PCB levels (400-2509 ng/g lipids) highlighted an overall pollution, with some sporadic peaks of contamination. Data showed a moderate increase trend compared to those found in a previous monitoring campaign carried out in 1996. Future monitoring is needed in order to confirm this tendency. - Significant levels of DDTs and PCBs are still present in the Italian subalpine great lakes

  12. Evaluation of several priority pollutants in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) in the largest Italian subalpine lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riva, Consuelo [Department of Biology, Ecology Section, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, 20133 Milan (Italy)], E-mail: consuelo.riva@unimi.it; Binelli, Andrea; Provini, Alfredo [Department of Biology, Ecology Section, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2008-02-15

    Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) has been used for the biomonitoring of several POPs (PCBs, DDTs, HCB and HCHs) in the largest Italian subalpine great lakes (Lake Maggiore, Garda, Como, Iseo and Lugano). Samplings were carried out in April 2003 at 15 locations selected according to industrial and anthropic levels of lakes. Results have pointed out high DDT levels in D. polymorpha specimens from Lake Maggiore (700-1400 ng/g lipids, 5-9 times higher than those measured in mussels of other Italian lakes), due to a contamination from a chemical plant located on one of the main lake inlet that occurred in 1996. On the contrary, PCB levels (400-2509 ng/g lipids) highlighted an overall pollution, with some sporadic peaks of contamination. Data showed a moderate increase trend compared to those found in a previous monitoring campaign carried out in 1996. Future monitoring is needed in order to confirm this tendency. - Significant levels of DDTs and PCBs are still present in the Italian subalpine great lakes.

  13. Monitoring coastal pollution associated with the largest oil refinery complex of Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Croquer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated pollution levels in water and sediments of Península de Paraguaná and related these levels with benthic macrofauna along a coastal area where the largest Venezuelan oil refineries have operated over the past 60 years. For this, the concentration of heavy metals, of hydrocarbon compounds and the community structure of the macrobenthos were examined at 20 sites distributed along 40 km of coastline for six consecutive years, which included windy and calm seasons. The spatial variability of organic and inorganic compounds showed considerably high coastal pollution along the study area, across both years and seasons. The southern sites, closest to the refineries, had consistently higher concentrations of heavy metals and organic compounds in water and sediments when compared to those in the north. The benthic community was dominated by polychaetes at all sites, seasons and years, and their abundance and distribution were significantly correlated with physical and chemical characteristics of the sediments. Sites close to the oil refineries were consistently dominated by families known to tolerate xenobiotics, such as Capitellidae and Spionidae. The results from this study highlight the importance of continuing long-term environmental monitoring programs to assess the impact of effluent discharge and spill events from the oil refineries that operate in the western coast of Paraguaná, Venezuela.

  14. Hydrodynamic and Inundation Modeling of China’s Largest Freshwater Lake Aided by Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available China’s largest freshwater lake, Poyang Lake, is characterized by rapid changes in its inundation area and hydrodynamics, so in this study, a hydrodynamic model of Poyang Lake was established to simulate these long-term changes. Inundation information was extracted from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS remote sensing data and used to calibrate the wetting and drying parameter by assessing the accuracy of the simulated inundation area and its boundary. The bottom friction parameter was calibrated using current velocity measurements from Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP. The results show the model is capable of predicting the inundation area dynamic through cross-validation with remotely sensed inundation data, and can reproduce the seasonal dynamics of the water level, and water discharge through a comparison with hydrological data. Based on the model results, the characteristics of the current velocities of the lake in the wet season and the dry season of the lake were explored, and the potential effect of the current dynamic on water quality patterns was discussed. The model is a promising basic tool for prediction and management of the water resource and water quality of Poyang Lake.

  15. KEPLER-1647B: THE LARGEST AND LONGEST-PERIOD KEPLER TRANSITING CIRCUMBINARY PLANET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostov, Veselin B.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Welsh, William F.; Short, Donald R.; Doyle, Laurance R.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Haghighipour, Nader; Quarles, Billy; Cochran, William D.; Endl, Michael; Ford, Eric B.; Gregorio, Joao; Hinse, Tobias C.; Isaacson, Howard; Jenkins, Jon M.; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Kane, Stephen; Kull, Ilya

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of a new Kepler transiting circumbinary planet (CBP). This latest addition to the still-small family of CBPs defies the current trend of known short-period planets orbiting near the stability limit of binary stars. Unlike the previous discoveries, the planet revolving around the eclipsing binary system Kepler-1647 has a very long orbital period (∼1100 days) and was at conjunction only twice during the Kepler mission lifetime. Due to the singular configuration of the system, Kepler-1647b is not only the longest-period transiting CBP at the time of writing, but also one of the longest-period transiting planets. With a radius of 1.06 ± 0.01 R Jup , it is also the largest CBP to date. The planet produced three transits in the light curve of Kepler-1647 (one of them during an eclipse, creating a syzygy) and measurably perturbed the times of the stellar eclipses, allowing us to measure its mass, 1.52 ± 0.65 M Jup . The planet revolves around an 11-day period eclipsing binary consisting of two solar-mass stars on a slightly inclined, mildly eccentric ( e bin = 0.16), spin-synchronized orbit. Despite having an orbital period three times longer than Earth’s, Kepler-1647b is in the conservative habitable zone of the binary star throughout its orbit.

  16. Seasonal variations of trace elements in precipitation at the largest city in Tibet, Lhasa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junming; Kang, Shichang; Huang, Jie; Zhang, Qianggong; Tripathee, Lekhendra; Sillanpää, Mika

    2015-02-01

    Precipitation samples were collected from March 2010 to August 2012 at an urban site in Lhasa, the capital and largest city of Tibet. The volume weighted mean (VWM) concentrations of 17 trace elements in precipitation were higher during the non-monsoon season than in the monsoon season, but inverse seasonal variations occurred for wet deposition fluxes of most of the trace elements. Concentrations for most of trace elements were negatively correlated with precipitation amount, indicating that below-cloud scavenging of trace elements was an important mechanism contributing to wet deposition of these elements. The elements Al, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Mn, Ni, and U displayed low crustal enrichment factors (EFs), whereas Co, Cu, Zn, As, Cd Sn, Pb, and Bi showed high EF values in precipitation, suggesting that anthropogenic activities might be important contributors of these elements at Lhasa. However, this present work indicates a much lower anthropogenic emission at Lhasa than in seriously polluted regions. Our study will not only provide insights for assessing the current status of the atmospheric environment in Lhasa but also enhance our understanding for updating the baseline for environmental protection over the Tibetan Plateau.

  17. The largest subsea hot tap (future tap flange) at Angel Field, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lad, Deepak; Drysdale, Colin [T.D. Williamson (United States); Naidoo, Sashie [T.D. Williamson (Australia)

    2008-07-01

    A subsea hot tap was conducted near the gas production platforms in Angel Field, Australia in September 2007 and verified as the largest no. 900 subsea hot tap by Australian authorities. This paper outlines the subsea tapping process, risks and safety issues in deep water environment, including the need to ensure 100% system accuracy and that the machine fluids used to operate the subsea tapping machines were environmentally friendly. The testing phase included land and water testing. In the land tests, issues relating to metal hardness, temperature, pressure and ocean currents that affected machine stability, torque and cutting rate were considered. All preliminary design and testing focused on being able to mount the tapping machine to a pre-existing hot-tap flange and conduct the tapping operation, start to finish, preferably without changing the cutter. The water depth tests took place inside a pressurized, underwater hyperbaric chamber. The equipment repeated the land testing process in conditions duplicating that of the actual project site. Timing was also measured in multiple climatic conditions (except water depth) to obtain an estimation of various scenarios. The field tapping process was conducted without problems in over six hours with a single cutter and without any stalls. (author)

  18. Dragon bridge - the world largest dragon-shaped (ARCH steel bridge as element of smart city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinh Luong Minh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dragon Bridge - The world’s largest dragon-shaped steel bridge, with an installation cost of $85 million USD, features 6 lanes for two separate directions, 666 meters of undulating steel in the shape of a dragon in the Ly Dynasty, the symbol of prosperity in Vietnamese culture. This unique and beautifully lit bridge, which also breathes fire and sprays water. It’s the purposeful integration of the lighting hardware articulates the dragon’s form, and the fire-breathing dragon head. This project transcends the notion of monumental bridge with dynamic colour-changing lighting, creating an iconic sculpture in the skyline that is both reverent and whimsical. The signature feature of the bridge was the massive undulating support structure resembling a dragon flying over the river. The dragon is prominent in Vietnamese culture as a symbol of power and nobility. Dragon Bridge stands out as a model of innovation. It has received worldwide attention in the design community and from the global media for its unique arch support system. Dragon Bridge serves as an example of how aesthetic quality of a design can serve cultural, economic and functional purposes. The article presents design solutions of the object and the evaluation of the technical condition before putting the facility into service.

  19. Variations in tooth size and arch dimensions in Malay schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Khalid W; Rajion, Zainul A; Hassan, Rozita; Noor, Siti Noor Fazliah Mohd

    2009-11-01

    To compare the mesio-distal tooth sizes and dental arch dimensions in Malay boys and girls with Class I, Class II and Class III malocclusions. The dental casts of 150 subjects (78 boys, 72 girls), between 12 and 16 years of age, with Class I, Class II and Class III malocclusions were used. Each group consisted of 50 subjects. An electronic digital caliper was used to measure the mesio-distal tooth sizes of the upper and lower permanent teeth (first molar to first molar), the intercanine and intermolar widths. The arch lengths and arch perimeters were measured with AutoCAD software (Autodesk Inc., San Rafael, CA, U.S.A.). The mesio-distal dimensions of the upper lateral incisors and canines in the Class I malocclusion group were significantly smaller than the corresponding teeth in the Class III and Class II groups, respectively. The lower canines and first molars were significantly smaller in the Class I group than the corresponding teeth in the Class II group. The lower intercanine width was significantly smaller in the Class II group as compared with the Class I group, and the upper intermolar width was significantly larger in Class III group as compared with the Class II group. There were no significant differences in the arch perimeters or arch lengths. The boys had significantly wider teeth than the girls, except for the left lower second premolar. The boys also had larger upper and lower intermolar widths and lower intercanine width than the girls. Small, but statistically significant, differences in tooth sizes are not necessarily accompanied by significant arch width, arch length or arch perimeter differences. Generally, boys have wider teeth, larger lower intercanine width and upper and lower intermolar widths than girls.

  20. Landscape object-based analysis of wetland plant functional types: the effects of spatial scale, vegetation classes and classifier methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dronova, I.; Gong, P.; Wang, L.; Clinton, N.; Fu, W.; Qi, S.

    2011-12-01

    Remote sensing-based vegetation classifications representing plant function such as photosynthesis and productivity are challenging in wetlands with complex cover and difficult field access. Recent advances in object-based image analysis (OBIA) and machine-learning algorithms offer new classification tools; however, few comparisons of different algorithms and spatial scales have been discussed to date. We applied OBIA to delineate wetland plant functional types (PFTs) for Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China and Ramsar wetland conservation site, from 30-m Landsat TM scene at the peak of spring growing season. We targeted major PFTs (C3 grasses, C3 forbs and different types of C4 grasses and aquatic vegetation) that are both key players in system's biogeochemical cycles and critical providers of waterbird habitat. Classification results were compared among: a) several object segmentation scales (with average object sizes 900-9000 m2); b) several families of statistical classifiers (including Bayesian, Logistic, Neural Network, Decision Trees and Support Vector Machines) and c) two hierarchical levels of vegetation classification, a generalized 3-class set and more detailed 6-class set. We found that classification benefited from object-based approach which allowed including object shape, texture and context descriptors in classification. While a number of classifiers achieved high accuracy at the finest pixel-equivalent segmentation scale, the highest accuracies and best agreement among algorithms occurred at coarser object scales. No single classifier was consistently superior across all scales, although selected algorithms of Neural Network, Logistic and K-Nearest Neighbors families frequently provided the best discrimination of classes at different scales. The choice of vegetation categories also affected classification accuracy. The 6-class set allowed for higher individual class accuracies but lower overall accuracies than the 3-class set because

  1. Measuring wage effects of plant size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; Arai, Mahmood; Asplund, Rita

    1998-01-01

    There are large plant size–wage effects in the Nordic countries after taking into account individual and job characteristics as well as systematical sorting of the workers into various plant-sizes. The plant size–wage elasticities we obtain are, in contrast to other dimensions of the wage distrib......–wage elasticity. Our results indicate that using size–class midpoints yields essentially the same results as using exact measures of plant size...

  2. Loneliness and Ethnic Composition of the School Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Katrine Rich; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Rubin, Mark

    2016-01-01

    not belong to the ethnic majority in the school class had increased odds for loneliness compared to adolescents that belonged to the ethnic majority. Furthermore, having more same-ethnic classmates lowered the odds for loneliness. We did not find any statistically significant association between the ethnic...... of school classes for loneliness in adolescence. The present research aimed to address this gap by exploring the association between loneliness and three dimensions of the ethnic composition in the school class: (1) membership of ethnic majority in the school class, (2) the size of own ethnic group...... in the school class, and (3) the ethnic diversity of the school class. We used data from the Danish 2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey: a nationally representative sample of 4383 (51.2 % girls) 11-15-year-olds. Multilevel logistic regression analyses revealed that adolescents who did...

  3. Evolution of ultraviolet vision in the largest avian radiation - the passerines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ödeen, Anders; Håstad, Olle; Alström, Per

    2011-10-24

    Interspecific variation in avian colour vision falls into two discrete classes: violet sensitive (VS) and ultraviolet sensitive (UVS). They are characterised by the spectral sensitivity of the most shortwave sensitive of the four single cones, the SWS1, which is seemingly under direct control of as little as one amino acid substitution in the cone opsin protein. Changes in spectral sensitivity of the SWS1 are ecologically important, as they affect the abilities of birds to accurately assess potential mates, find food and minimise visibility of social signals to predators. Still, available data have indicated that shifts between classes are rare, with only four to five independent acquisitions of UV sensitivity in avian evolution. We have classified a large sample of passeriform species as VS or UVS from genomic DNA and mapped the evolution of this character on a passerine phylogeny inferred from published molecular sequence data. Sequencing a small gene fragment has allowed us to trace the trait changing from one stable state to another through the radiation of the passeriform birds. Their ancestor is hypothesised to be UVS. In the subsequent radiation, colour vision changed between UVS and VS at least eight times. The phylogenetic distribution of SWS1 cone opsin types in Passeriformes reveals a much higher degree of complexity in avian colour vision evolution than what was previously indicated from the limited data available. Clades with variation in the colour vision system are nested among clades with a seemingly stable VS or UVS state, providing a rare opportunity to understand how an ecologically important trait under simple genetic control may co-evolve with, and be stabilised by, associated traits in a character complex.

  4. Evolution of ultraviolet vision in the largest avian radiation - the passerines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håstad Olle

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interspecific variation in avian colour vision falls into two discrete classes: violet sensitive (VS and ultraviolet sensitive (UVS. They are characterised by the spectral sensitivity of the most shortwave sensitive of the four single cones, the SWS1, which is seemingly under direct control of as little as one amino acid substitution in the cone opsin protein. Changes in spectral sensitivity of the SWS1 are ecologically important, as they affect the abilities of birds to accurately assess potential mates, find food and minimise visibility of social signals to predators. Still, available data have indicated that shifts between classes are rare, with only four to five independent acquisitions of UV sensitivity in avian evolution. Results We have classified a large sample of passeriform species as VS or UVS from genomic DNA and mapped the evolution of this character on a passerine phylogeny inferred from published molecular sequence data. Sequencing a small gene fragment has allowed us to trace the trait changing from one stable state to another through the radiation of the passeriform birds. Their ancestor is hypothesised to be UVS. In the subsequent radiation, colour vision changed between UVS and VS at least eight times. Conclusions The phylogenetic distribution of SWS1 cone opsin types in Passeriformes reveals a much higher degree of complexity in avian colour vision evolution than what was previously indicated from the limited data available. Clades with variation in the colour vision system are nested among clades with a seemingly stable VS or UVS state, providing a rare opportunity to understand how an ecologically important trait under simple genetic control may co-evolve with, and be stabilised by, associated traits in a character complex.

  5. Class impressions : Higher social class elicits lower prosociality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Doesum, Niels J.; Tybur, Joshua M.; Van Lange, Paul A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Social class predicts numerous important life outcomes and social orientations. To date, literature has mainly examined how an individual's own class shapes interactions with others. But how prosocially do people treat others they perceive as coming from lower, middle, or higher social classes?

  6. Class Action and Class Settlement in a European Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses the options for introducing common European rules on class action lawsuits with an opt-out-model in individual cases. An analysis is made of how the risks of misuse of class actions can be prevented. The article considers the Dutch rules on class settlements (the WCAM procedure...

  7. Indication and implementation of lipidapheresis, rheopheresis, or immunoadsorption (lessons learnt from Germany's largest apheresis center).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heigl, Franz; Hettich, Reinhard; Lotz, Norbert; Reeg, Harduin; Eder, Bernadette; Steckholzer-Kroth, Karin; Browatzki, Michael; Harre, Kerstin; Arendt, Rainer

    2009-12-29

    Efficient modes of extracorporeal blood purification are available today for apheresis treatment of progressive atherosclerosis, autoimmune disease, or for improving hemorheology. Advanced technology and sophisticated care render apheresis treatment selective, safe and tolerable. Our task is to constantly update indications for apheresis based on best evidence available and good clinical practice, as well as, to determine how apheresis therapy can be made available to those in need or with otherwise refractory disease. Presenting examples of lipid apheresis, rheopheresis, or immunoadsorption for treatment of hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipoproteinemia (a), acute hearing loss, refractory or exacerbating multiple sclerosis, we highlight real world obstacles for implementation of treatment, resulting in still too many patients with proven or recommended indication left untreated. Based on the experience of the largest apheresis center in Germany, with more than 3,300 treatments per year, we depict the necessary structure for identification of patients, defining indication, referral, implementation of therapy, and reimbursement. Apheresis is unfamiliar to most patients and many practitioners or consultants. Nephrologists, performing >90% of apheresis treatments in Germany, have to form a network for referral comprising all regional care-givers, general practitioners as well as the respective specialists (mainly, cardiologists, endocrinologists, diabetologists, ORL specialists, neurologists, ophthalmologists, or rheumatologists), and insurances or other cost-bearing parties for offering a scientifically approved therapeutic regimen and comprehensive care. We have realized this concept in a high volume apheresis center acting in a closely knit network characterized by an unrelenting effort at ongoing medical education. As a consequence, we include approximately 10 times more patients with appropriate diagnoses in our apheresis program as compared to the national average

  8. Evidence for protection of targeted reef fish on the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Pina-Amargós

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine reserves can restore fish abundance and diversity in areas impacted by overfishing, but the effectiveness of reserves in developing countries where resources for enforcement are limited, have seldom been evaluated. Here we assess whether the establishment in 1996 of the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean, Gardens of the Queen in Cuba, has had a positive effect on the abundance of commercially valuable reef fish species in relation to neighboring unprotected areas. We surveyed 25 sites, including two reef habitats (reef crest and reef slope, inside and outside the marine reserve, on five different months, and over a one-and-a-half year period. Densities of the ten most frequent, highly targeted, and relatively large fish species showed a significant variability across the archipelago for both reef habitats that depended on the month of survey. These ten species showed a tendency towards higher abundance inside the reserve in both reef habitats for most months during the study. Average fish densities pooled by protection level, however, showed that five out of these ten species were at least two-fold significantly higher inside than outside the reserve at one or both reef habitats. Supporting evidence from previously published studies in the area indicates that habitat complexity and major benthic communities were similar inside and outside the reserve, while fishing pressure appeared to be homogeneous across the archipelago before reserve establishment. Although poaching may occur within the reserve, especially at the boundaries, effective protection from fishing was the most plausible explanation for the patterns observed.

  9. Phylogenetics and diversification of tanagers (Passeriformes: Thraupidae), the largest radiation of Neotropical songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Kevin J; Shultz, Allison J; Title, Pascal O; Mason, Nicholas A; Barker, F Keith; Klicka, John; Lanyon, Scott M; Lovette, Irby J

    2014-06-01

    Thraupidae is the second largest family of birds and represents about 4% of all avian species and 12% of the Neotropical avifauna. Species in this family display a wide range of plumage colors and patterns, foraging behaviors, vocalizations, ecotypes, and habitat preferences. The lack of a complete phylogeny for tanagers has hindered the study of this evolutionary diversity. Here, we present a comprehensive, species-level phylogeny for tanagers using six molecular markers. Our analyses identified 13 major clades of tanagers that we designate as subfamilies. In addition, two species are recognized as distinct branches on the tanager tree. Our topologies disagree in many places with previous estimates of relationships within tanagers, and many long-recognized genera are not monophyletic in our analyses. Our trees identify several cases of convergent evolution in plumage ornaments and bill morphology, and two cases of social mimicry. The phylogeny produced by this study provides a robust framework for studying macroevolutionary patterns and character evolution. We use our new phylogeny to study diversification processes, and find that tanagers show a background model of exponentially declining diversification rates. Thus, the evolution of tanagers began with an initial burst of diversification followed by a rate slowdown. In addition to this background model, two later, clade-specific rate shifts are supported, one increase for Darwin's finches and another increase for some species of Sporophila. The rate of diversification within these two groups is exceptional, even when compared to the overall rapid rate of diversification found within tanagers. This study provides the first robust assessment of diversification rates for the Darwin's finches in the context of the larger group within which they evolved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Smart phone Acceptance among physicians: Application of structural equation modeling in Iranian largest university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nematollahi M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study aimed to determine attitudes and effective factors in the acceptance of smart phones by physicians of the largest University of Medical Sciences in the south of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM in 2014. Study participants included 200 physicians working in the hospitals of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences selected through two-stage stratified sampling, but 185 participants completed the study. The study data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire completed through a 5-point Likert scale. The content validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by a panel of experts, its construct validity by confirmatory factor analysis, and its reliability by Cronbach’s alpha of 0.802. All data analyses were performed using SPSS (version 22 and LISREL (version 8.8. Results: Results showed that most physicians had a desirable attitude towards using smart phones. Besides, the results of SEM indicated a significant relationship between attitude and compatibility, observability, personal experience, voluntariness of use and perceived usefulness. Moreover, some important fitness indices revealed appropriate fitness of the study model (p=0.26, X2 /df=1.35, RMR=0.070, GFI=0.77, AGFI=0.71, NNFI=0.93, CFI=0.94. Conclusion: The results revealed that compatibility, observability, personal experience, voluntariness of use and perceived usefulness were effective in the physicians’ attitude towards using smart phones. Thus, by preparation of the required infrastructures, policymakers in the field of health technology can enhance the utilization of smart phones in hospitals.

  11. Negotiating place and gendered violence in Canada's largest open drug scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Ryan; Shannon, Kate; Shaver, Laura; Kerr, Thomas; Small, Will

    2014-05-01

    Vancouver's Downtown Eastside is home to Canada's largest street-based drug scene and only supervised injection facility (Insite). High levels of violence among men and women have been documented in this neighbourhood. This study was undertaken to explore the role of violence in shaping the socio-spatial relations of women and 'marginal men' (i.e., those occupying subordinate positions within the drug scene) in the Downtown Eastside, including access to Insite. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 23 people who inject drugs (PWID) recruited through the Vancouver Area Network of Drug Users, a local drug user organization. Interviews included a mapping exercise. Interview transcripts and maps were analyzed thematically, with an emphasis on how gendered violence shaped participants' spatial practices. Hegemonic forms of masculinity operating within the Downtown Eastside framed the everyday violence experienced by women and marginal men. This violence shaped the spatial practices of women and marginal men, in that they avoided drug scene milieus where they had experienced violence or that they perceived to be dangerous. Some men linked their spatial restrictions to the perceived 'dope quality' of neighbourhood drug dealers to maintain claims to dominant masculinities while enacting spatial strategies to promote safety. Environmental supports provided by health and social care agencies were critical in enabling women and marginal men to negotiate place and survival within the context of drug scene violence. Access to Insite did not motivate participants to enter into "dangerous" drug scene milieus but they did venture into these areas if necessary to obtain drugs or generate income. Gendered violence is critical in restricting the geographies of men and marginal men within the street-based drug scene. There is a need to scale up existing environmental interventions, including supervised injection services, to minimize violence and potential drug

  12. NEGOTIATING PLACE AND GENDERED VIOLENCE IN CANADA’S LARGEST OPEN DRUG SCENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Ryan; Shannon, Kate; Shaver, Laura; Kerr, Thomas; Small, Will

    2014-01-01

    Background Vancouver’s Downtown Eastside is home to Canada’s largest street-based drug scene and only supervised injection facility (Insite). High levels of violence among men and women have been documented in this neighbourhood. This study was undertaken to explore the role of violence in shaping the socio-spatial relations of women and ‘marginal men’ (i.e., those occupying subordinate positions within the drug scene) in the Downtown Eastside, including access to Insite. Methods Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 23 people who inject drugs (PWID) recruited through the Vancouver Area Network of Drug Users, a local drug user organization. Interviews included a mapping exercise. Interview transcripts and maps were analyzed thematically, with an emphasis on how gendered violence shaped participants’ spatial practices. Results Hegemonic forms of masculinity operating within the Downtown Eastside framed the everyday violence experienced by women and marginal men. This violence shaped the spatial practices of women and marginal men, in that they avoided drug scene milieus where they had experienced violence or that they perceived to be dangerous. Some men linked their spatial restrictions to the perceived 'dope quality' of neighbourhood drug dealers to maintain claims to dominant masculinities while enacting spatial strategies to promote safety. Environmental supports provided by health and social care agencies were critical in enabling women and marginal men to negotiate place and survival within the context of drug scene violence. Access to Insite did not motivate participants to enter into “dangerous” drug scene milieus but they did venture into these areas if necessary to obtain drugs or generate income. Conclusion Gendered violence is critical in restricting the geographies of men and marginal men within the street-based drug scene. There is a need to scale up existing environmental interventions, including supervised injection

  13. Geochemical characterization of the largest upland lake of the Brazilian Amazonia: Impact of provenance and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Prafulla Kumar; Guimarães, José Tasso Felix; Souza-Filho, Pedro Walfir Martins; da Silva, Marcio Sousa; Nascimento, Wilson, Júnior; Powell, Mike A.; Reis, Luiza Santos; Pessenda, Luiz Carlos Ruiz; Rodrigues, Tarcísio Magevski; da Silva, Delmo Fonseca; Costa, Vladimir Eliodoro

    2017-12-01

    Lake Três Irmãs (LTI), the largest upland lake in the Brazilian Amazonia, located in Serra dos Carajás, was characterized using multi-elemental and isotope geochemistry (δ13C and δ15N) to understand the significance of organic and inorganic sources, weathering and sedimentary processes on the distribution of elements in lake bottom (surficial) sediments. Carbon and nitrogen isotopes from sedimentary organic matter suggest C3 terrestrial plants (forests > canga vegetation), macrophytes and freshwater DOC as the main sources. Sediments are depleted in most of the major oxides (except Fe2O3 and P2O5) when compared to upper continental crust (UCC) and their spatial distribution is highly influenced by catchment lithology. Principal Component Analysis revealed that most of the trace elements (Ba, Sr, Rb, Sc, Th, U, Zr, Hf, Nb, Y, V, Cr, Ga, Co, Ni) and REEs are closely correlated with Al and Ti (PC1; Group-1), so their redistribution is less influenced by post-depositional process. This is due to their relative immobility and being hosted by Al-bearing minerals during laterization. High Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA), Mafic Index of Alteration (MIA) and Index of Laterization (IOL) values indicate intense chemical weathering at source areas, but the weathering transformation was better quantified by IOL. A-CN-K plot along with elemental ratios (Al/K, Ti/K, Ti/Zr, La/Al, Cr/Th, Co/Th, La/Sm, La/Gd, Zr/Y, and Eu/Eu*) as well as chondrite-normalized REE patterns show that the detritic sediments are mainly sourced from ferruginous laterites and soils in the catchment, which may have characteristics similar to mafic rocks.

  14. Effect of noise and filtering on largest Lyapunov exponent of time series associated with human walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdizadeh, Sina; Sanjari, Mohammad Ali

    2017-11-07

    This study aimed to determine the effect of added noise, filtering and time series length on the largest Lyapunov exponent (LyE) value calculated for time series obtained from a passive dynamic walker. The simplest passive dynamic walker model comprising of two massless legs connected by a frictionless hinge joint at the hip was adopted to generate walking time series. The generated time series was used to construct a state space with the embedding dimension of 3 and time delay of 100 samples. The LyE was calculated as the exponential rate of divergence of neighboring trajectories of the state space using Rosenstein's algorithm. To determine the effect of noise on LyE values, seven levels of Gaussian white noise (SNR=55-25dB with 5dB steps) were added to the time series. In addition, the filtering was performed using a range of cutoff frequencies from 3Hz to 19Hz with 2Hz steps. The LyE was calculated for both noise-free and noisy time series with different lengths of 6, 50, 100 and 150 strides. Results demonstrated a high percent error in the presence of noise for LyE. Therefore, these observations suggest that Rosenstein's algorithm might not perform well in the presence of added experimental noise. Furthermore, findings indicated that at least 50 walking strides are required to calculate LyE to account for the effect of noise. Finally, observations support that a conservative filtering of the time series with a high cutoff frequency might be more appropriate prior to calculating LyE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The 100-C-7 Remediation Project. An Overview of One of DOE's Largest Remediation Projects - 13260

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, Thomas C.; Strom, Dean; Beulow, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (RL), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington Closure Hanford LLC (WCH) completed remediation of one of the largest waste sites in the U.S. Department of Energy complex. The waste site, 100-C-7, covers approximately 15 football fields and was excavated to a depth of 85 feet (groundwater). The project team removed a total of 2.3 million tons of clean and contaminated soil, concrete debris, and scrap metal. 100-C-7 lies in Hanford's 100 B/C Area, home to historic B and C Reactors. The waste site was excavated in two parts as 100-C-7 and 100-C-7:1. The pair of excavations appear like pit mines. Mining engineers were hired to design their tiered sides, with safety benches every 17 feet and service ramps which allowed equipment access to the bottom of the excavations. The overall cleanup project was conducted over a span of almost 10 years. A variety of site characterization, excavation, load-out and sampling methodologies were employed at various stages of remediation. Alternative technologies were screened and evaluated during the project. A new method for cost effectively treating soils was implemented - resulting in significant cost savings. Additional opportunities for minimizing waste streams and recycling were identified and effectively implemented by the project team. During the final phase of cleanup the project team applied lessons learned throughout the entire project to address the final, remaining source of chromium contamination. The C-7 cleanup now serves as a model for remediating extensive deep zone contamination sites at Hanford. (authors)

  16. HOT Faults", Fault Organization, and the Occurrence of the Largest Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, J. M.; Hillers, G.; Archuleta, R. J.

    2006-12-01

    We apply the concept of "Highly Optimized Tolerance" (HOT) for the investigation of spatio-temporal seismicity evolution, in particular mechanisms associated with largest earthquakes. HOT provides a framework for investigating both qualitative and quantitative features of complex feedback systems that are far from equilibrium and punctuated by rare, catastrophic events. In HOT, robustness trade-offs lead to complexity and power laws in systems that are coupled to evolving environments. HOT was originally inspired by biology and engineering, where systems are internally very highly structured, through biological evolution or deliberate design, and perform in an optimum manner despite fluctuations in their surroundings. Though faults and fault systems are not designed in ways comparable to biological and engineered structures, feedback processes are responsible in a conceptually comparable way for the development, evolution and maintenance of younger fault structures and primary slip surfaces of mature faults, respectively. Hence, in geophysical applications the "optimization" approach is perhaps more aptly replaced by "organization", reflecting the distinction between HOT and random, disorganized configurations, and highlighting the importance of structured interdependencies that evolve via feedback among and between different spatial and temporal scales. Expressed in the terminology of the HOT concept, mature faults represent a configuration optimally organized for the release of strain energy; whereas immature, more heterogeneous fault networks represent intermittent, suboptimal systems that are regularized towards structural simplicity and the ability to generate large earthquakes more easily. We discuss fault structure and associated seismic response pattern within the HOT concept, and outline fundamental differences between this novel interpretation to more orthodox viewpoints like the criticality concept. The discussion is flanked by numerical simulations of a

  17. Nature Appropriation and Associations with Population Health in Canada’s Largest Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Jason

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Earth is a finite system with a limited supply of resources. As the human population grows, so does the appropriation of Earth’s natural capital, thereby exacerbating environmental concerns such as biodiversity loss, increased pollution, deforestation and global warming. Such concerns will negatively impact human health although it is widely believed that improving socio-economic circumstances will help to ameliorate environmental impacts and improve health outcomes. However, this belief does not explicitly acknowledge the fact that improvements in socio-economic position are reliant on increased inputs from nature. Gains in population health, particularly through economic means, are disconnected from the appropriation of nature to create wealth so that health gains become unsustainable. The current study investigated the sustainability of human population health in Canada with regard to resource consumption or “ecological footprints” (i.e., the resources required to sustain a given population. Ecological footprints of the 20 largest Canadian cities, along with several important determinants of health such as income and education, were statistically compared with corresponding indicators of human population health outcomes. A significant positive relationship was found between ecological footprints and life expectancy, as well as a significant negative relationship between ecological footprints and the prevalence of high blood pressure. Results suggest that increased appropriation of nature is linked to improved health outcomes. To prevent environmental degradation from excessive appropriation of natural resources will require the development of health promotion strategies that are de-coupled from ever-increasing and unsustainable resource use. Efforts to promote population health should focus on health benefits achieved from a lifestyle based on significantly reduced consumption of natural resources.

  18. Solomon Islands largest hawksbill turtle rookery shows signs of recovery after 150 years of excessive exploitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Hamilton

    Full Text Available The largest rookery for hawksbill turtles in the oceanic South Pacific is the Arnavon Islands, which are located in the Manning Strait between Isabel and Choiseul Province, Solomon Islands. The history of this rookery is one of overexploitation, conflict and violence. Throughout the 1800s Roviana headhunters from New Georgia repeatedly raided the Manning Strait to collect hawksbill shell which they traded with European whalers. By the 1970s the Arnavons hawksbill population was in severe decline and the national government intervened, declaring the Arnavons a sanctuary in 1976. But this government led initiative was short lived, with traditional owners burning down the government infrastructure and resuming intensive harvesting in 1982. In 1991 routine beach monitoring and turtle tagging commenced at the Arnavons along with extensive community consultations regarding the islands' future, and in 1995 the Arnavon Community Marine Conservation Area (ACMCA was established. Around the same time national legislation banning the sale of all turtle products was passed. This paper represents the first analysis of data from 4536 beach surveys and 845 individual turtle tagging histories obtained from the Arnavons between 1991-2012. Our results and the results of others, reveal that many of the hawksbill turtles that nest at the ACMCA forage in distant Australian waters, and that nesting on the Arnavons occurs throughout the year with peak nesting activity coinciding with the austral winter. Our results also provide the first known evidence of recovery for a western pacific hawksbill rookery, with the number of nests laid at the ACMCA and the remigration rates of turtles doubling since the establishment of the ACMCA in 1995. The Arnavons case study provides an example of how changes in policy, inclusive community-based management and long term commitment can turn the tide for one of the most charismatic and endangered species on our planet.

  19. Lessons Learned in Deploying the World s Largest Scale Lustre File System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillow, David A [ORNL; Fuller, Douglas [ORNL; Wang, Feiyi [ORNL; Oral, H Sarp [ORNL; Zhang, Zhe [ORNL; Hill, Jason J [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The Spider system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF) is the world's largest scale Lustre parallel file system. Envisioned as a shared parallel file system capable of delivering both the bandwidth and capacity requirements of the OLCF's diverse computational environment, the project had a number of ambitious goals. To support the workloads of the OLCF's diverse computational platforms, the aggregate performance and storage capacity of Spider exceed that of our previously deployed systems by a factor of 6x - 240 GB/sec, and 17x - 10 Petabytes, respectively. Furthermore, Spider supports over 26,000 clients concurrently accessing the file system, which exceeds our previously deployed systems by nearly 4x. In addition to these scalability challenges, moving to a center-wide shared file system required dramatically improved resiliency and fault-tolerance mechanisms. This paper details our efforts in designing, deploying, and operating Spider. Through a phased approach of research and development, prototyping, deployment, and transition to operations, this work has resulted in a number of insights into large-scale parallel file system architectures, from both the design and the operational perspectives. We present in this paper our solutions to issues such as network congestion, performance baselining and evaluation, file system journaling overheads, and high availability in a system with tens of thousands of components. We also discuss areas of continued challenges, such as stressed metadata performance and the need for file system quality of service alongside with our efforts to address them. Finally, operational aspects of managing a system of this scale are discussed along with real-world data and observations.

  20. An "expanded" class perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steur, Luisa Johanna

    2014-01-01

    Following the police raid on the ‘Muthanga’ land occupation by Adivasi (‘indigenous’) activists in Kerala, India, in February 2003, intense public debate erupted about the fate of Adivasis in this ‘model’ development state. Most commentators saw the land occupation either as the fight...... analysis, as elaborated in Marxian anthropology, this article provides an alternative to the liberal-culturalist explanation of indigenism in Kerala, arguing instead that contemporary class processes—as experienced close to the skin by the people who decided to participate in the Muthanga struggle......—were what shaped their decision to embrace indigenism....

  1. Body size distribution of the dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eoin J O'Gorman

    Full Text Available The distribution of species body size is critically important for determining resource use within a group or clade. It is widely known that non-avian dinosaurs were the largest creatures to roam the Earth. There is, however, little understanding of how maximum species body size was distributed among the dinosaurs. Do they share a similar distribution to modern day vertebrate groups in spite of their large size, or did they exhibit fundamentally different distributions due to unique evolutionary pressures and adaptations? Here, we address this question by comparing the distribution of maximum species body size for dinosaurs to an extensive set of extant and extinct vertebrate groups. We also examine the body size distribution of dinosaurs by various sub-groups, time periods and formations. We find that dinosaurs exhibit a strong skew towards larger species, in direct contrast to modern day vertebrates. This pattern is not solely an artefact of bias in the fossil record, as demonstrated by contrasting distributions in two major extinct groups and supports the hypothesis that dinosaurs exhibited a fundamentally different life history strategy to other terrestrial vertebrates. A disparity in the size distribution of the herbivorous Ornithischia and Sauropodomorpha and the largely carnivorous Theropoda suggests that this pattern may have been a product of a divergence in evolutionary strategies: herbivorous dinosaurs rapidly evolved large size to escape predation by carnivores and maximise digestive efficiency; carnivores had sufficient resources among juvenile dinosaurs and non-dinosaurian prey to achieve optimal success at smaller body size.

  2. Genome Size Dynamics and Evolution in Monocots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilia J. Leitch

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Monocot genomic diversity includes striking variation at many levels. This paper compares various genomic characters (e.g., range of chromosome numbers and ploidy levels, occurrence of endopolyploidy, GC content, chromosome packaging and organization, genome size between monocots and the remaining angiosperms to discern just how distinctive monocot genomes are. One of the most notable features of monocots is their wide range and diversity of genome sizes, including the species with the largest genome so far reported in plants. This genomic character is analysed in greater detail, within a phylogenetic context. By surveying available genome size and chromosome data it is apparent that different monocot orders follow distinctive modes of genome size and chromosome evolution. Further insights into genome size-evolution and dynamics were obtained using statistical modelling approaches to reconstruct the ancestral genome size at key nodes across the monocot phylogenetic tree. Such approaches reveal that while the ancestral genome size of all monocots was small (1C=1.9 pg, there have been several major increases and decreases during monocot evolution. In addition, notable increases in the rates of genome size-evolution were found in Asparagales and Poales compared with other monocot lineages.

  3. Body size distribution of the dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Eoin J; Hone, David W E

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of species body size is critically important for determining resource use within a group or clade. It is widely known that non-avian dinosaurs were the largest creatures to roam the Earth. There is, however, little understanding of how maximum species body size was distributed among the dinosaurs. Do they share a similar distribution to modern day vertebrate groups in spite of their large size, or did they exhibit fundamentally different distributions due to unique evolutionary pressures and adaptations? Here, we address this question by comparing the distribution of maximum species body size for dinosaurs to an extensive set of extant and extinct vertebrate groups. We also examine the body size distribution of dinosaurs by various sub-groups, time periods and formations. We find that dinosaurs exhibit a strong skew towards larger species, in direct contrast to modern day vertebrates. This pattern is not solely an artefact of bias in the fossil record, as demonstrated by contrasting distributions in two major extinct groups and supports the hypothesis that dinosaurs exhibited a fundamentally different life history strategy to other terrestrial vertebrates. A disparity in the size distribution of the herbivorous Ornithischia and Sauropodomorpha and the largely carnivorous Theropoda suggests that this pattern may have been a product of a divergence in evolutionary strategies: herbivorous dinosaurs rapidly evolved large size to escape predation by carnivores and maximise digestive efficiency; carnivores had sufficient resources among juvenile dinosaurs and non-dinosaurian prey to achieve optimal success at smaller body size.

  4. Body Size Distribution of the Dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Gorman, Eoin J.; Hone, David W. E.

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of species body size is critically important for determining resource use within a group or clade. It is widely known that non-avian dinosaurs were the largest creatures to roam the Earth. There is, however, little understanding of how maximum species body size was distributed among the dinosaurs. Do they share a similar distribution to modern day vertebrate groups in spite of their large size, or did they exhibit fundamentally different distributions due to unique evolutionary pressures and adaptations? Here, we address this question by comparing the distribution of maximum species body size for dinosaurs to an extensive set of extant and extinct vertebrate groups. We also examine the body size distribution of dinosaurs by various sub-groups, time periods and formations. We find that dinosaurs exhibit a strong skew towards larger species, in direct contrast to modern day vertebrates. This pattern is not solely an artefact of bias in the fossil record, as demonstrated by contrasting distributions in two major extinct groups and supports the hypothesis that dinosaurs exhibited a fundamentally different life history strategy to other terrestrial vertebrates. A disparity in the size distribution of the herbivorous Ornithischia and Sauropodomorpha and the largely carnivorous Theropoda suggests that this pattern may have been a product of a divergence in evolutionary strategies: herbivorous dinosaurs rapidly evolved large size to escape predation by carnivores and maximise digestive efficiency; carnivores had sufficient resources among juvenile dinosaurs and non-dinosaurian prey to achieve optimal success at smaller body size. PMID:23284818

  5. Single Sex Mathematics Classes: A Critical Analysis of the Impact at a Secondary School

    OpenAIRE

    Seifert, Angelique; Pugalee, David K.

    2012-01-01

    Single sex classes have recently been emphasized as an effective way to promote mathematics learning. Despite their popularity, the research on the effectiveness of such programs is mixed underscoring the need for additional research and discussion. This research is set in one of the twenty-five largest public school systems in the United States, where schools have recently been allowed to begin instructional initiatives with same sex classes in mathematics. Preliminary data on the effecti...

  6. Health Insurance Premium Increases for the 5 Largest School Districts in the United States, 2004–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantillo, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Local school districts are often one of the largest, if not the largest, employers in their respective communities. Like many large employers, school districts offer health insurance to their employees. There is a lack of information about the rate of health insurance premiums in US school districts relative to other employers. Objective To assess the change in the costs of healthcare insurance in the 5 largest public school districts in the United States, between 2004 and 2008, as representative of large public employers in the country. Methods Data for this study were drawn exclusively from a survey sent to the 5 largest public school districts in the United States. The survey requested responses on 3 data elements for each benefit plan offered from 2004 through 2008; these included enrollment, employee costs, and employer costs. Results The premium growth for the 5 largest school districts has slowed down and is consistent with other purchasers—Kaiser/Health Research & Educational Trust and the Federal Employee Health Benefit Program. The average increase in health insurance premium for the schools was 5.9% in 2008, and the average annual growth rate over the study period was 7.5%. For family coverage, these schools provide the most generous employer contribution (80.8%) compared with the employer contribution reported by other employers (73.5%) for 2008. Conclusions Often the largest employers in their communities, school districts demonstrate a commitment to provide choice of benefits and affordability for employees and their families. Despite constraints typical of public employers, the 5 largest school districts in the United States have decelerated in premium growth consistent with other purchasers, albeit at a slower pace. PMID:25126311

  7. Health insurance premium increases for the 5 largest school districts in the United States, 2004-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantillo, John R

    2010-03-01

    Local school districts are often one of the largest, if not the largest, employers in their respective communities. Like many large employers, school districts offer health insurance to their employees. There is a lack of information about the rate of health insurance premiums in US school districts relative to other employers. To assess the change in the costs of healthcare insurance in the 5 largest public school districts in the United States, between 2004 and 2008, as representative of large public employers in the country. Data for this study were drawn exclusively from a survey sent to the 5 largest public school districts in the United States. The survey requested responses on 3 data elements for each benefit plan offered from 2004 through 2008; these included enrollment, employee costs, and employer costs. The premium growth for the 5 largest school districts has slowed down and is consistent with other purchasers-Kaiser/Health Research & Educational Trust and the Federal Employee Health Benefit Program. The average increase in health insurance premium for the schools was 5.9% in 2008, and the average annual growth rate over the study period was 7.5%. For family coverage, these schools provide the most generous employer contribution (80.8%) compared with the employer contribution reported by other employers (73.5%) for 2008. Often the largest employers in their communities, school districts demonstrate a commitment to provide choice of benefits and affordability for employees and their families. Despite constraints typical of public employers, the 5 largest school districts in the United States have decelerated in premium growth consistent with other purchasers, albeit at a slower pace.

  8. Teachers, Social Class and Underachievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Mairead; Gazeley, Louise

    2008-01-01

    Addressing the "the social class attainment gap" in education has become a government priority in England. Despite multiple initiatives, however, little has effectively addressed the underachievement of working-class pupils within the classroom. In order to develop clearer understandings of working-class underachievement at this level,…

  9. Mapping the Social Class Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toubøl, Jonas; Grau Larsen, Anton

    2017-01-01

    This article develops a new explorative method for deriving social class categories from patterns of occupational mobility. In line with Max Weber, our research is based on the notion that, if class boundaries do not inhibit social mobility then the class categories are of little value. Thus...

  10. How large is the world's largest fish? Measuring whale sharks Rhincodon typus with laser photogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, C A; Richardson, A J; Marshall, A D; Weeks, S J; Pierce, S J

    2011-01-01

    Laser photogrammetry was found to be a promising new cost-effective technique for measuring free-swimming whale sharks Rhincodon typus. Photogrammetric measurements were more precise than visual size estimates by experienced researchers, with results from the two methods differing by 9· 8 ± 1· 1% (mean ±s.e.). A new metric of total length and the length between the fifth gill and first dorsal fin (r² = 0· 93) is proposed to facilitate easy, accurate length measurements of whale sharks in the field. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  11. The economics of urban size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, W

    1971-01-01

    An aggregative economic approach to the theory of city size is presented along with some empirical findings which suggest that even the largest cities have not yet reached excessive sizes from the point of view of growth and productivity. Urban magnitude is no simple 1 dimensional phenomenon. Modern urban centers are surrounded by very large, diffuse zonal boundaries, within which there are marked variations in the proportion of firms and people associated with that center, and in the intensity of the association. In sum, population does not constitute a conventional, countable set. In general, population will be considered as the basic magnitude and as a conventionally definable number. Most approaches to city size have emphasized the presumed diseconomy of urban scale and have sought to establish that population at which costs per capita are least, regarding this as optimal. It is argued here that both the logic and the factual basis of this approach are faulty. The argument of minimum costs is insufficient in its own terms. Such an objective is reasonable only if output per capita is constant, but it appears that output per capita is an increasing function of urban size. In that case, a more sensible objective of public policy would deal with the relation of outputs and inputs, rather than only with inputs. In every country for which evidence was found, local product per capita (or some index for it, such as income or wages) rises with urban size, and where comparable figures on cost are available, these rise far more slowly if at all. Although all of the data desirable are not available for any single country, the overall pattern is clear. Possibly the most surprising element in the data is the marked decline with increasing density in Social Overhead Captial Stocks (SOCS) per capita. This runs counter to common belief that the bigger the city the more infrastructure per capita is needed and may be the result of such effects as the greater linear quantities of

  12. What caused the UK's largest common dolphin (Delphinus delphis mass stranding event?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D Jepson

    Full Text Available On 9 June 2008, the UK's largest mass stranding event (MSE of short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis occurred in Falmouth Bay, Cornwall. At least 26 dolphins died, and a similar number was refloated/herded back to sea. On necropsy, all dolphins were in good nutritive status with empty stomachs and no evidence of known infectious disease or acute physical injury. Auditory tissues were grossly normal (26/26 but had microscopic haemorrhages (5/5 and mild otitis media (1/5 in the freshest cases. Five lactating adult dolphins, one immature male, and one immature female tested were free of harmful algal toxins and had low chemical pollutant levels. Pathological evidence of mud/seawater inhalation (11/26, local tide cycle, and the relative lack of renal myoglobinuria (26/26 suggested MSE onset on a rising tide between 06:30 and 08∶21 hrs (9 June. Potential causes excluded or considered highly unlikely included infectious disease, gas/fat embolism, boat strike, by-catch, predator attack, foraging unusually close to shore, chemical or algal toxin exposure, abnormal weather/climatic conditions, and high-intensity acoustic inputs from seismic airgun arrays or natural sources (e.g., earthquakes. International naval exercises did occur in close proximity to the MSE with the most intense part of the exercises (including mid-frequency sonars occurring four days before the MSE and resuming with helicopter exercises on the morning of the MSE. The MSE may therefore have been a "two-stage process" where a group of normally pelagic dolphins entered Falmouth Bay and, after 3-4 days in/around the Bay, a second acoustic/disturbance event occurred causing them to strand en masse. This spatial and temporal association with the MSE, previous associations between naval activities and cetacean MSEs, and an absence of other identifiable factors known to cause cetacean MSEs, indicates naval activity to be the most probable cause of the Falmouth Bay MSE.

  13. Transcriptome Sequencing and Analysis for Culm Elongation of the World's Largest Bamboo (Dendrocalamus sinicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Cui

    Full Text Available Dendrocalamus sinicus is the world's largest bamboo species with strong woody culms, and known for its fast-growing culms. As an economic bamboo species, it was popularized for multi-functional applications including furniture, construction, and industrial paper pulp. To comprehensively elucidate the molecular processes involved in its culm elongation, Illumina paired-end sequencing was conducted. About 65.08 million high-quality reads were produced, and assembled into 81,744 unigenes with an average length of 723 bp. A total of 64,338 (79% unigenes were annotated for their functions, of which, 56,587 were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 35,262 were annotated in the Swiss-Prot database. Also, 42,508 and 21,009 annotated unigenes were allocated to gene ontology (GO categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG, respectively. By searching against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG, 33,920 unigenes were assigned to 128 KEGG pathways. Meanwhile, 8,553 simple sequence repeats (SSRs and 81,534 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs were identified, respectively. Additionally, 388 transcripts encoding lignin biosynthesis were detected, among which, 27 transcripts encoding Shikimate O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT specifically expressed in D. sinicus when compared to other bamboo species and rice. The phylogenetic relationship between D. sinicus and other plants was analyzed, suggesting functional diversity of HCT unigenes in D. sinicus. We conjectured that HCT might lead to the high lignin content and giant culm. Given that the leaves are not yet formed and culm is covered with sheaths during culm elongation, the existence of photosynthesis of bamboo culm is usually neglected. Surprisedly, 109 transcripts encoding photosynthesis were identified, including photosystem I and II, cytochrome b6/f complex, photosynthetic electron transport and F-type ATPase, and 24 transcripts were characterized

  14. Africa's largest long-lasting insecticide-treated net producer: lessons from A to Z Textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masum, Hassan; Shah, Ronak; Schroeder, Karl; Daar, Abdallah S; Singer, Peter A

    2010-12-13

    Field trials have demonstrated the efficacy of insecticide-treated nets, and the WHO has recently endorsed a shift toward Long-Lasting Insecticide Treated nets (LLINs) due to factors such as reduced distribution costs. However, the need for LLINs poses several challenges. Is it possible to manufacture LLINs in large quantities in the African continent, where malaria is most endemic? When production is located in low-income countries, what role is played by local funding and employment, scaling up manufacturing, and partnerships? What factors influence availability and pricing? A case study of A to Z Textiles was undertaken to answer the question of how large-scale production of LLINs can occur in a low income setting. One of the largest sources of bed nets for Africa, A to Z Textiles is Africa-based, and its Tanzanian operations have a production capacity of 30 million LLINs per year, along with full WHO recommendation for its nets. Our analysis is based on semi-structured interviews with key informants familiar with A to Z, site visits in Tanzania, and literature reviews.This paper discusses the history and current status of A to Z Textiles, identifies the factors that led to its success, and suggests policy considerations that could support similar initiatives in the future. Local funding, scaling up manufacturing, technology transfer, and partnerships all played important roles in A to Z's ascent, as did perceived benefits of local employment and capacity-building. Regulatory issues and procurement rules acted as barriers. A to Z cost-effectively manufactures high-quality LLINs where malaria is most endemic. With a production capacity of 30 million LLINs per year, and full WHOPES (WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme) certification, A to Z Textiles demonstrates how key health goods can be successfully produced in the low-income countries that use them. Its example may be instructive and of high interest to readers in the malaria community, especially in developing

  15. Helicobacter pylori virulence genes in the five largest islands of Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Syam, Ari Fahrial; Makmun, Dadang; Nusi, Iswan Abbas; Zein, Lukman Hakim; Zulkhairi; Akil, Fardah; Uswan, Willi Brodus; Simanjuntak, David; Uchida, Tomohisa; Adi, Pangestu; Utari, Amanda Pitarini; Rezkitha, Yudith Annisa Ayu; Subsomwong, Phawinee; Nasronudin; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    It remains unclear whether the low incidence of gastric cancer in Indonesia is due to low infection rates only or is also related to low Helicobacter pylori pathogenicity. We collected H. pylori strains from the five largest islands in Indonesia and evaluated genetic virulence factors. The genotypes of H. pylori virulence factors were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based sequencing. Histological severity of the gastric mucosa was classified into 4 grades, according to the updated Sydney system. A total of 44 strains were analyzed. Forty-three (97.7 %) were cagA-positive: 26 (60.5 %) were East-Asian-type-cagA, 9 (20.9 %) were Western-type-cagA, and 8 (18.6 %) were novel ABB-type, most of which were obtained from Papuan. EPIYT sequences were more prevalent than EPIYA sequences (P = 0.01) in the EPIYA-B motif of all types of cagA. The majority of cagA-positive strains (48.8 %, 21/43) had a 6-bp deletion in the first pre-EPIYA region. Subjects infected with East-Asian-type-cagA strains with a 6-bp deletion had significantly lower inflammation and atrophy scores in the corpus than those infected with Western-type-cagA strains (both P = 0.02). In total, 70.4 % of strains possessed the vacA s1m1 genotype and 29.5 % were m2. All strains from peptic ulcer patients were of the iceA1 genotype, which occurred at a significantly higher proportion in peptic ulcer patients than that in gastritis patients (55.3 %, P = 0.04). The double positive genotype of jhp0562/β-(1,3)galT was predominant (28/44, 63.6 %), and subjects infected with this type had significantly higher inflammation scores in the corpus than those with the jhp0562 negative/β-(1,3)galT positive genotype (mean [median]; 1.43 [1] vs. 0.83 [1], P = 0.04). There were significant differences in cagA and pre-EPIYA cagA type, oipA status, and jhp0562/β-(1,3)galT type among different ethnic groups (P dupA negative or short type dupA, and the jhp0562/β-(1,3)galT double positive genotype.

  16. Oak habitat recovery on California's largest islands: Scenarios for the role of corvid seed dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesendorfer, Mario B.; Baker, Christopher M.; Stringer, Martin; McDonald-Madden, Eve; Bode, Michael; McEachern, A. Kathryn; Morrison, Scott A.; Sillett, T. Scott

    2018-01-01

    California's second-largest island. The simulation model, extensively parameterized with field data, suggests that re-establishing the mutualism with seed-hoarding jays would accelerate the expansion of island scrub oak, which could benefit myriad species of conservation concern.

  17. What Caused the UK's Largest Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis) Mass Stranding Event?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepson, Paul D.; Deaville, Robert; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Barnett, James; Brownlow, Andrew; Brownell Jr., Robert L.; Clare, Frances C.; Davison, Nick; Law, Robin J.; Loveridge, Jan; Macgregor, Shaheed K.; Morris, Steven; Murphy, Sinéad; Penrose, Rod; Perkins, Matthew W.; Pinn, Eunice; Seibel, Henrike; Siebert, Ursula; Sierra, Eva; Simpson, Victor; Tasker, Mark L.; Tregenza, Nick; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fernández, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    On 9 June 2008, the UK's largest mass stranding event (MSE) of short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) occurred in Falmouth Bay, Cornwall. At least 26 dolphins died, and a similar number was refloated/herded back to sea. On necropsy, all dolphins were in good nutritive status with empty stomachs and no evidence of known infectious disease or acute physical injury. Auditory tissues were grossly normal (26/26) but had microscopic haemorrhages (5/5) and mild otitis media (1/5) in the freshest cases. Five lactating adult dolphins, one immature male, and one immature female tested were free of harmful algal toxins and had low chemical pollutant levels. Pathological evidence of mud/seawater inhalation (11/26), local tide cycle, and the relative lack of renal myoglobinuria (26/26) suggested MSE onset on a rising tide between 06∶30 and 08∶21 hrs (9 June). Potential causes excluded or considered highly unlikely included infectious disease, gas/fat embolism, boat strike, by-catch, predator attack, foraging unusually close to shore, chemical or algal toxin exposure, abnormal weather/climatic conditions, and high-intensity acoustic inputs from seismic airgun arrays or natural sources (e.g., earthquakes). International naval exercises did occur in close proximity to the MSE with the most intense part of the exercises (including mid-frequency sonars) occurring four days before the MSE and resuming with helicopter exercises on the morning of the MSE. The MSE may therefore have been a “two-stage process” where a group of normally pelagic dolphins entered Falmouth Bay and, after 3–4 days in/around the Bay, a second acoustic/disturbance event occurred causing them to strand en masse. This spatial and temporal association with the MSE, previous associations between naval activities and cetacean MSEs, and an absence of other identifiable factors known to cause cetacean MSEs, indicates naval activity to be the most probable cause of the Falmouth Bay MSE. PMID

  18. Transcriptome Sequencing and Analysis for Culm Elongation of the World's Largest Bamboo (Dendrocalamus sinicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Kai; Wang, Haiying; Liao, Shengxi; Tang, Qi; Li, Li; Cui, Yongzhong; He, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Dendrocalamus sinicus is the world's largest bamboo species with strong woody culms, and known for its fast-growing culms. As an economic bamboo species, it was popularized for multi-functional applications including furniture, construction, and industrial paper pulp. To comprehensively elucidate the molecular processes involved in its culm elongation, Illumina paired-end sequencing was conducted. About 65.08 million high-quality reads were produced, and assembled into 81,744 unigenes with an average length of 723 bp. A total of 64,338 (79%) unigenes were annotated for their functions, of which, 56,587 were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 35,262 were annotated in the Swiss-Prot database. Also, 42,508 and 21,009 annotated unigenes were allocated to gene ontology (GO) categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG), respectively. By searching against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG), 33,920 unigenes were assigned to 128 KEGG pathways. Meanwhile, 8,553 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 81,534 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) were identified, respectively. Additionally, 388 transcripts encoding lignin biosynthesis were detected, among which, 27 transcripts encoding Shikimate O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT) specifically expressed in D. sinicus when compared to other bamboo species and rice. The phylogenetic relationship between D. sinicus and other plants was analyzed, suggesting functional diversity of HCT unigenes in D. sinicus. We conjectured that HCT might lead to the high lignin content and giant culm. Given that the leaves are not yet formed and culm is covered with sheaths during culm elongation, the existence of photosynthesis of bamboo culm is usually neglected. Surprisedly, 109 transcripts encoding photosynthesis were identified, including photosystem I and II, cytochrome b6/f complex, photosynthetic electron transport and F-type ATPase, and 24 transcripts were characterized as antenna

  19. Africa's largest long-lasting insecticide-treated net producer: lessons from A to Z Textiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daar Abdallah S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Field trials have demonstrated the efficacy of insecticide-treated nets, and the WHO has recently endorsed a shift toward Long-Lasting Insecticide Treated nets (LLINs due to factors such as reduced distribution costs. However, the need for LLINs poses several challenges. Is it possible to manufacture LLINs in large quantities in the African continent, where malaria is most endemic? When production is located in low-income countries, what role is played by local funding and employment, scaling up manufacturing, and partnerships? What factors influence availability and pricing? Discussion A case study of A to Z Textiles was undertaken to answer the question of how large-scale production of LLINs can occur in a low income setting. One of the largest sources of bed nets for Africa, A to Z Textiles is Africa-based, and its Tanzanian operations have a production capacity of 30 million LLINs per year, along with full WHO recommendation for its nets. Our analysis is based on semi-structured interviews with key informants familiar with A to Z, site visits in Tanzania, and literature reviews. This paper discusses the history and current status of A to Z Textiles, identifies the factors that led to its success, and suggests policy considerations that could support similar initiatives in the future. Local funding, scaling up manufacturing, technology transfer, and partnerships all played important roles in A to Z’s ascent, as did perceived benefits of local employment and capacity-building. Regulatory issues and procurement rules acted as barriers. A to Z cost-effectively manufactures high-quality LLINs where malaria is most endemic. Summary With a production capacity of 30 million LLINs per year, and full WHOPES (WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme certification, A to Z Textiles demonstrates how key health goods can be successfully produced in the low-income countries that use them. Its example may be instructive and of high interest to

  20. Plasticity in sexual size dimorphism and Rensch's rule in Mediterranean blennies (Blenniidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lengkeek, W.; Didderen, K.; Cote, I. M.; van der Zee, E. M.; Snoek, R. C.; Reynolds, J. D.

    2008-01-01

    Comparative analyses of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) across species have led to the discovery of Rensch's rule. This rule states that SSD increases with body size when males are the largest sex, but decreases with increasing size when females are larger. Within-species comparisons of SSD in fish are

  1. Correlation of the Deccan and Rajahmundry Trap lavas: Are these the longest and largest lava flows on Earth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, S.; Jay, A. E.; Widdowson, M.; Keszthelyi, L. P.

    2008-05-01

    We propose that the Rajahmundry Trap lavas, found near the east coast of peninsular India , are remnants of the longest lava flows yet recognized on Earth (˜ 1000 km long). These outlying Deccan-like lavas are shown to belong to the main Deccan Traps. Several previous studies have already suggested this correlation, but have not demonstrated it categorically. The exposed Rajahmundry lavas are interpreted to be the distal parts of two very-large-volume pāhoehoe flow fields, one each from the Ambenali and Mahabaleshwar Formations of the Wai Sub-group in the Deccan Basalt Group. Eruptive conditions required to emplace such long flows are met by plausible values for cooling and eruption rates, and this is shown by applying a model for the formation of inflated pāhoehoe sheet flow lobes. The model predicts flow lobe thicknesses similar to those observed in the Rajahmundry lavas. For the last 400 km of flow, the lava flows were confined to the pre-existing Krishna valley drainage system that existed in the basement beyond the edge of the gradually expanding Deccan lava field, allowing the flows to extend across the subcontinent to the eastern margin where they were emplaced into a littoral and/or shallow marine environment. These lavas and other individual flow fields in the Wai Sub-group may exceed eruptive volumes of 5000 km 3, which would place them amongst the largest magnitude effusive eruptive units yet known. We suggest that the length of flood basalt lava flows on Earth is restricted mainly by the size of land masses and topography. In the case of the Rajahmundry lavas, the flows reached estuaries and the sea, where their advance was perhaps effectively terminated by cooling and/or disruption. However, it is only during large igneous province basaltic volcanism that such huge volumes of lava are erupted in single events, and when the magma supply rate is sufficiently high and maintained to allow the formation of very long lava flows. The Rajahmundry lava

  2. Characterization of PGL(2, p) by its order and one conjugacy class ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    validity of a conjecture of J. G. Thompson is generalized to the group PGL(2, p) by a new way. Keywords. Finite group; conjugacy class size; Thompson's ..... class size, J. Inequalities Appl. (2012) 310. [13] Conway J H, Curtis R T, Norton S P, Parker R A and Wilson R A, Atlas of Finite Groups. (1985) (Oxford: Clarendon ...

  3. Investigating respirable particulates (PM10) around the world's largest mercury mine, Almaden, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbons, W.; Jones, T. [Cardiff Univ., Cardiff, Wales (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Moreno, T.; Richards, R. [Cardiff Univ., Cardiff, Wales (United Kingdom). School of Biosciences; Higueras, P. [Almaden Univ. of Castilla-La Mancha, Almaden (Spain). Dept. of Geological Engineering

    2003-07-01

    The Almaden area in Spain has been mined for mercury since pre-Roman days. There is no evidence for significant contamination of the groundwater supply, since the lack of pyrite in the mercury deposits has prevented the formation of acid mine drainage. However, the main recognized environmental problem related to mercury mining has been the progressive poisoning of workers who are in direct contact with mercury vapours. This paper presents results of a study in which dust samples were collected from former mining and urban locations around Almaden. The samples were processed to extract their fine, respirable fraction. Mining activities have left contaminated ground, which under semi-arid conditions has created respirable mercury-bearing dusts. In some places the ground is severely contaminated with mercury as cinnabar and as schuetteite. Some of the contaminated areas are used for livestock grazing and growing plants for human consumption. A higher incidence of mercury-bearing particles is found in the finer fraction. The sizes of the mercury-bearing resuspended particles at all sites varies from inhalable dust, through respirable dust, to fine and ultrafine size capable of reaching the deepest levels of the lung alveoli. The most significant contamination is associated with old processing plants. Dust samples collected from Almaden, a town of 6,500 inhabitants, were found to contain significant amounts of respirable mercury-bearing aerosols.

  4. Ecomorphology of a size-structured tropical freshwater fish community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piet, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    Among nine species of a tropical community ecomorphological correlates were sought throughout ontogeny. Ontogenetic changes were distinguished by establishing six pre-defined size- classes. Morphometric data associated with feeding were compared by canonical correspondence analysis to dietary data.

  5. Pseudo Class III malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadia M. Al-Hummayani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of deep anterior crossbite is technically challenging due to the difficulty of placing traditional brackets with fixed appliances. This case report represents a none traditional treatment modality to treat deep anterior crossbite in an adult pseudo class III malocclusion complicated by severely retruded, supraerupted upper and lower incisors. Treatment was carried out in 2 phases. Phase I treatment was performed by removable appliance “modified Hawley appliance with inverted labial bow,” some modifications were carried out to it to suit the presented case. Positive overbite and overjet was accomplished in one month, in this phase with minimal forces exerted on the lower incisors. Whereas, phase II treatment was performed with fixed appliances (braces to align teeth and have proper over bite and overjet and to close posterior open bite, this phase was accomplished within 11 month.

  6. [Economy class syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morio, Hiroshi

    2003-10-01

    Economy class syndrome is venous thromboembolism following air travel. This syndrome was firstly reported in 1946, and many cases have been reported since 1990s. Low air pressure and low humidity in the aircraft cabin may contribute to the mechanism of this syndrome. Risk factors for venous thrombosis in the plane were old age, small height, obesity, hormonal therapy, malignancy, smoking, pregnancy or recent parturition, recent trauma or operation, chronic disease and history of venous thrombosis. In Japan, the feminine gender is also risk factor though reason was not well known. For prophylaxis, adequate fluid intake and leg exercise are recommended to all passengers. For passengers with high risk, prophylactic measures such as compression stockings, aspirin or low molecular weight heparin should be considered.

  7. Network class superposition analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl A B Pearson

    Full Text Available Networks are often used to understand a whole system by modeling the interactions among its pieces. Examples include biomolecules in a cell interacting to provide some primary function, or species in an environment forming a stable community. However, these interactions are often unknown; instead, the pieces' dynamic states are known, and network structure must be inferred. Because observed function may be explained by many different networks (e.g., ≈ 10(30 for the yeast cell cycle process, considering dynamics beyond this primary function means picking a single network or suitable sample: measuring over all networks exhibiting the primary function is computationally infeasible. We circumvent that obstacle by calculating the network class ensemble. We represent the ensemble by a stochastic matrix T, which is a transition-by-transition superposition of the system dynamics for each member of the class. We present concrete results for T derived from boolean time series dynamics on networks obeying the Strong Inhibition rule, by applying T to several traditional questions about network dynamics. We show that the distribution of the number of point attractors can be accurately estimated with T. We show how to generate Derrida plots based on T. We show that T-based Shannon entropy outperforms other methods at selecting experiments to further narrow the network structure. We also outline an experimental test of predictions based on T. We motivate all of these results in terms of a popular molecular biology boolean network model for the yeast cell cycle, but the methods and analyses we introduce are general. We conclude with open questions for T, for example, application to other models, computational considerations when scaling up to larger systems, and other potential analyses.

  8. The Largest Bio-Silica Structure on Earth: The Giant Basal Spicule from the Deep-Sea Glass Sponge Monorhaphis chuni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The depth of the ocean is plentifully populated with a highly diverse fauna and flora, from where the Challenger expedition (1873–1876 treasured up a rich collection of vitreous sponges [Hexactinellida]. They have been described by Schulze and represent the phylogenetically oldest class of siliceous sponges [phylum Porifera]; they are eye-catching because of their distinct body plan, which relies on a filigree skeleton. It is constructed by an array of morphologically determined elements, the spicules. Later, during the German Deep Sea Expedition “Valdivia” (1898-1899, Schulze could describe the largest siliceous hexactinellid sponge on Earth, the up to 3 m high Monorhaphis chuni, which develops the equally largest bio-silica structures, the giant basal spicules (3 m × 10 mm. With such spicules as a model, basic knowledge on the morphology, formation, and development of the skeletal elements could be elaborated. Spicules are formed by a proteinaceous scaffold which mediates the formation of siliceous lamellae in which the proteins are encased. Up to eight hundred 5 to 10 μm thick lamellae can be concentrically arranged around an axial canal. The silica matrix is composed of almost pure silicon and oxygen, providing it with unusual optophysical properties that are superior to those of man-made waveguides. Experiments indicated that the spicules function in vivo as a nonocular photoreception system. In addition, the spicules have exceptional mechanical properties, combining mechanical stability with strength and stiffness. Like demosponges the hexactinellids synthesize their silica enzymatically, via the enzyme silicatein. All these basic insights will surely contribute also to a further applied utilization and exploration of bio-silica in material/medical science.

  9. The largest Bio-Silica Structure on Earth: The Giant Basal Spicule from the Deep-Sea Glass Sponge Monorhaphis chuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Gan, Lu; Jochum, Klaus P; Schröder, Heinz C; Müller, Werner E G

    2011-01-01

    The depth of the ocean is plentifully populated with a highly diverse fauna and flora, from where the Challenger expedition (1873-1876) treasured up a rich collection of vitreous sponges [Hexactinellida]. They have been described by Schulze and represent the phylogenetically oldest class of siliceous sponges [phylum Porifera]; they are eye-catching because of their distinct body plan, which relies on a filigree skeleton. It is constructed by an array of morphologically determined elements, the spicules. Later, during the German Deep Sea Expedition "Valdivia" (1898-1899), Schulze could describe the largest siliceous hexactinellid sponge on Earth, the up to 3 m high Monorhaphis chuni, which develops the equally largest bio-silica structures, the giant basal spicules (3 m × 10 mm). With such spicules as a model, basic knowledge on the morphology, formation, and development of the skeletal elements could be elaborated. Spicules are formed by a proteinaceous scaffold which mediates the formation of siliceous lamellae in which the proteins are encased. Up to eight hundred 5 to 10 μm thick lamellae can be concentrically arranged around an axial canal. The silica matrix is composed of almost pure silicon and oxygen, providing it with unusual optophysical properties that are superior to those of man-made waveguides. Experiments indicated that the spicules function in vivo as a nonocular photoreception system. In addition, the spicules have exceptional mechanical properties, combining mechanical stability with strength and stiffness. Like demosponges the hexactinellids synthesize their silica enzymatically, via the enzyme silicatein. All these basic insights will surely contribute also to a further applied utilization and exploration of bio-silica in material/medical science.

  10. Understanding Class in Contemporary Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that claims about the death of class and the coming of the classless society are premature. Such claims are seldom genuinely empirical, and the theoretical argument often refers to a simple and therefore easily dismissible concept of class. By rejecting the concept of class...... altogether, sociological theory runs the risk of loosing the capacity for analysing stratification and vertical differentiation of power and freedom, which in late modernity seem to be a of continuing importance. Hence, I argue that although class analysis faces a number of serious challenges, it is possible...... to reinvent class analysis. The sociology of Pierre Bourdieu in many ways introduces an appropriate paradigm, and the paper therefore critically discusses Bourdieu's concept of class. Since the "Bourdieuan" class concept is primarily epistemological, i.e. a research strategy more than a theory, empirical...

  11. Determination of limits for smallest detectable and largest subcritical leakage cracks in piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieselt, R.; Wolf, M.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear power plant piping systems - those still in their original as-built condition as well as upgraded designs - are subject to safety analysis. In order to limit the consequences of postulated piping failures, the basic safety concept incorporating rupture preclusion criteria is applied to specific high-energy piping systems. Leak-before-break analyses are also conducted within the framework of this concept. These analyses serve to determine the potential consequences of jet and reaction forces due to maximum subcritical leakage cracks while also establishing the minimum crack sizes that would be reliably detectable by the leakage rates resulting from these cracks. The boundary conditions for these analyses are not clearly defined. Using various examples as a basis, this paper presents and discusses how the leak-before-break concept can be applied. (orig.)

  12. Lessons from the Largest Epidemic of Avian Influenza Viruses in Taiwan, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching-Fen; King, Chwan-Chuen; Wan, Cho-Hua; Chang, Yun-Cheng; Chan, Ta-Chien; David Lee, Chang-Chun; Chou, Po-Hao Borris; Li, Zheng-Rong Tiger; Li, Yao-Tsun; Tseng, Tzu-Jung; Lee, Pei-Fen; Chang, Chuan-Hsiung

    2016-05-01

    The largest epidemic of avian influenza (AI) in history attacked poultry and wild birds throughout Taiwan starting January 6, 2015. This study analyzed surveillance results, epidemiologic characteristics, and viral sequences by using government-released information, with the intention to provide recommendations to minimize future pandemic influenza. The H5 clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic AI viruses (HPAIVs) had not been detected in Taiwan before 2015. During this epidemic, four types of etiologic agents were identified: the three novel subtypes H5N2, H5N8, and H5N3 clade 2.3.4.4 HPAIVs and one endemic chicken H5N2 subtype (Mexican-like lineage) of low pathogenic AI viruses. Cocirculation of mixed subtypes also occurred, with H5N2 clade 2.3.4.4 HPAIVs accompanied by the H5N8 and H5N3 subtypes or old H5N2 viruses in the same farm. More than 90% of domestic geese died from this AI epidemic; geese were affected the most at the early outbreaks. The epidemic peaked in mid-January for all three novel H5 subtypes. Spatial epidemiology found that most affected areas were located in southwestern coastal areas. In terrestrial poultry (mostly chickens), different geographic distributions of AI virus subtypes were detected, with hot spots of H5N2 clade 2.3.4.4 vs. past-endemic old H5N2 viruses in Changhwa (P = 0.03) and Yunlin (P = 0.007) counties, respectively, of central Taiwan. Phylogenetic and sequence analyses of all the early 10 Taiwan H5 clade 2.3.4.4 isolates covering the three subtypes showed that they were very different from the HA of the past local H5 viruses from domestic ducks (75%-80%) and chickens (70%-75%). However, they had the highest sequence identity percentages (99.53%-100%), with the HA of A/crane/Kagoshima/KU13/2014(H5N8) isolated on December 7, 2014, in Japan being higher than those of recent American and Korean H5 HPAIVs [A/Northern pintail/Washington/40964/2014 (H5N2) and A/gyrfalcon/Washington/41088-6/2014 (H5N8): 99.02%-99.54% and A/Baikal teal

  13. Social Class and Income Inequality in the United States: Ownership, Authority, and Personal Income Distribution from 1980 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodtke, Geoffrey T

    2016-03-01

    This study outlines a theory of social class based on workplace ownership and authority relations, and it investigates the link between social class and growth in personal income inequality since the 1980s. Inequality trends are governed by changes in between-class income differences, changes in the relative size of different classes, and changes in within-class income dispersion. Data from the General Social Survey are used to investigate each of these changes in turn and to evaluate their impact on growth in inequality at the population level. Results indicate that between-class income differences grew by about 60% since the 1980s and that the relative size of different classes remained fairly stable. A formal decomposition analysis indicates that changes in the relative size of different social classes had a small dampening effect and that growth in between-class income differences had a large inflationary effect on trends in personal income inequality.

  14. Social Class and Income Inequality in the United States: Ownership, Authority, and Personal Income Distribution from 1980 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodtke, Geoffrey T.

    2016-01-01

    This study outlines a theory of social class based on workplace ownership and authority relations, and it investigates the link between social class and growth in personal income inequality since the 1980s. Inequality trends are governed by changes in between-class income differences, changes in the relative size of different classes, and changes in within-class income dispersion. Data from the General Social Survey are used to investigate each of these changes in turn and to evaluate their impact on growth in inequality at the population level. Results indicate that between-class income differences grew by about 60 percent since the 1980s and that the relative size of different classes remained fairly stable. A formal decomposition analysis indicates that changes in the relative size of different social classes had a small dampening effect and that growth in between-class income differences had a large inflationary effect on trends in personal income inequality. PMID:27087695

  15. Airline's choice of aircraft size-explanations and implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, P.; Givoni, M.

    2009-01-01

    When facing a growth in demand, airlines tend to respond more by means of increasing frequencies than by increasing aircraft size. At many of the world's largest airports there are fewer than 100 passengers per air transport movement, although congestion and delays are growing. Furthermore, demand

  16. Exploring social class: voices of inter-class couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Teresa; Melendez-Rhodes, Tatiana; Althusius, Erin; Hergic, Sara; Sleeman, Gillian; Ton, Nicky Kieu My; Zimpfer-Bak, A J

    2013-01-01

    Social class is not often discussed or examined in-depth in couple and family therapy research and literature even though social class shapes familial relationships and is considered an important variable in marital satisfaction. In this qualitative study, we explored the perceptions of eight couples who made lasting commitments across class lines by asking them about the impact of their social class backgrounds on their relationships. Three categories of themes emerged including: (a) differences and similarities in values and attitudes toward education, work, money, and class awareness/classism, (b) relationship issues involving families of origin, friends, and class-based couple conflict, and (c) differences in economic resources, social capital and privileges/opportunities. Implications for assessment and treatment of couples are included. © 2012 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  17. Lung segment geometry study: simulation of largest possible tumours that fit into bronchopulmonary segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welter, S; Stöcker, C; Dicken, V; Kühl, H; Krass, S; Stamatis, G

    2012-03-01

    Segmental resection in stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been well described and is considered to have similar survival rates as lobectomy but with increased rates of local tumour recurrence due to inadequate parenchymal margins. In consequence, today segmentectomy is only performed when the tumour is smaller than 2 cm. Three-dimensional reconstructions from 11 thin-slice CT scans of bronchopulmonary segments were generated, and virtual spherical tumours were placed over the segments, respecting all segmental borders. As a next step, virtual parenchymal safety margins of 2 cm and 3 cm were subtracted and the size of the remaining tumour calculated. The maximum tumour diameters with a 30-mm parenchymal safety margin ranged from 26.1 mm in right-sided segments 7 + 8 to 59.8 mm in the left apical segments 1-3. Using a three-dimensional reconstruction of lung CT scans, we demonstrated that segmentectomy or resection of segmental groups should be feasible with adequate margins, even for larger tumours in selected cases. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  18. The unexpectedly dull tadpole of Madagascar’s largest frog, Mantidactylus guttulatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Schulze

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Madagascar-endemic mantellid genus Mantidactylus contains one subclade with two described frog species characterized by very large body sizes. This subclade is classified as the subgenus Mantidactylus and is widespread in eastern and northern Madagascar, but their reproductive biology and larval stages are still unknown. We here provide a detailed description of the larvae of one species in this subgenus, M. guttulatus, on the basis of genetic assignment (16S DNA barcoding. The tadpoles were collected in the dry season from shallow waters near a stream in the Mahajanga Province in northwestern Madagascar. Their body and tail shape is remarkably generalized as typical for stream-adapted tadpoles, and the oral disc and labial keratodont row formula (4(2-4/3(1 are similar to those of other lotic mantellid frog larvae with generalized mouthparts like those in the subgenus Brygoomantis. The well-separated positions of these subgenera in the mantellid phylogeny suggest extensive homoplasy in the evolution of larval mouthpart morphology within Mantidactylus.

  19. ESO Signs Largest-Ever European Industrial Contract For Ground-Based Astronomy Project ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    ESO, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, announced today that it has signed a contract with the consortium led by Alcatel Alenia Space and composed also of European Industrial Engineering (Italy) and MT Aerospace (Germany), to supply 25 antennas for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) project, along with an option for another seven antennas. The contract, worth 147 million euros, covers the design, manufacture, transport and on-site integration of the antennas. It is the largest contract ever signed in ground-based astronomy in Europe. The ALMA antennas present difficult technical challenges, since the antenna surface accuracy must be within 25 microns, the pointing accuracy within 0.6 arc seconds, and the antennas must be able to be moved between various stations on the ALMA site. This is especially remarkable since the antennas will be located outdoor in all weather conditions, without any protection. Moreover, the ALMA antennas can be pointed directly at the Sun. ALMA will have a collecting area of more than 5,600 square meters, allowing for unprecedented measurements of extremely faint objects. The signing ceremony took place on December 6, 2005 at ESO Headquarters in Garching, Germany. "This contract represents a major milestone. It allows us to move forward, together with our American and Japanese colleagues, in this very ambitious and unique project," said ESO's Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky. "By building ALMA, we are giving European astronomers access to the world's leading submillimetre facility at the beginning of the next decade, thereby fulfilling Europe's desire to play a major role in this field of fundamental research." Pascale Sourisse, Chairman and CEO of Alcatel Alenia Space, said: "We would like to thank ESO for trusting us to take on this new challenge. We are bringing to the table not only our recognized expertise in antenna development, but also our long-standing experience in

  20. Deep, diverse and definitely different: unique attributes of the world's largest ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ramirez-Llodra

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The deep sea, the largest biome on Earth, has a series of characteristics that make this environment both distinct from other marine and land ecosystems and unique for the entire planet. This review describes these patterns and processes, from geological settings to biological processes, biodiversity and biogeographical patterns. It concludes with a brief discussion of current threats from anthropogenic activities to deep-sea habitats and their fauna.

    Investigations of deep-sea habitats and their fauna began in the late 19th century. In the intervening years, technological developments and stimulating discoveries have promoted deep-sea research and changed our way of understanding life on the planet. Nevertheless, the deep sea is still mostly unknown and current discovery rates of both habitats and species remain high. The geological, physical and geochemical settings of the deep-sea floor and the water column form a series of different habitats with unique characteristics that support specific faunal communities. Since 1840, 28 new habitats/ecosystems have been discovered from the shelf break to the deep trenches and discoveries of new habitats are still happening in the early 21st century. However, for most of these habitats the global area covered is unknown or has been only very roughly estimated; an even smaller – indeed, minimal – proportion has actually been sampled and investigated. We currently perceive most of the deep-sea ecosystems as heterotrophic, depending ultimately on the flux on organic matter produced in the overlying surface ocean through photosynthesis. The resulting strong food limitation thus shapes deep-sea biota and communities, with exceptions only in reducing ecosystems such as inter alia hydrothermal vents or cold seeps. Here, chemoautolithotrophic bacteria play the role of primary producers fuelled by chemical energy sources rather than sunlight. Other ecosystems, such as seamounts, canyons or cold

  1. Business Subsidies in Canada Comprehensive Estimates for the Government of Canada and the Four Largest Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Lester

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Business subsidies in Canada: the “winner” is Alberta; the loser is the taxpayer The federal government and the four largest provinces in Canada spend about $29 billion a year on business subsidies, delivered through program spending, the tax system, government business enterprises and direct investments by government. These subsidies represent almost half of the corporate income tax revenue collected by the five jurisdictions. Surprisingly, given its reputation as a bastion of free enterprise, Alberta is the most prolific subsidizer. In the 2014-15 fiscal year, per person subsidies were $640 in Alberta, about $100 ahead of the next most generous jurisdiction, Québec. Alberta has probably added to its “lead” through measures introduced in the October 2015 Fiscal Update and the 2016 budget. Alberta also stands out by having the least transparent public reporting of business subsidies. What motivates governments to subsidize business? Abstracting from cynical efforts to win votes, business subsidies have two broad objectives: to improve economic performance and to achieve a social objective by supporting specific firms, industries or regions. On average in the five jurisdictions, the split between the two categories is about 70-30 in favour of economic development measures. Assessing value for money from programs with a social objective is subjective, but measures intended to improve economic performance should be assessed on their ability to raise real income. Business subsidies can only raise real income if markets fail to allocate labour and capital to their best uses. The classic case is R&D. When a firm undertakes R&D, some of the knowledge created inevitably spills over to the benefit other firms. Firms are focused on their own benefits and costs when deciding how much to spend on R&D, not the benefits received by other firms, so society has an interest in encouraging additional R&D. While markets generally do a good job allocating

  2. Plant species and communities in Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang, H. F.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Studying plant species richness and composition of a wetland is essential when estimating its ecological importance and ecosystem services, especially if a particular wetland is subjected to human disturbances. Poyang Lake, located in the middle reaches of Yangtze River (central China, constitutes the largest freshwater lake of the country. It harbours high biodiversity and provides important habitat for local wildlife. A dam that will maintain the water capacity in Poyang Lake is currently being planned. However, the local biodiversity and the likely effects of this dam on the biodiversity (especially on the endemic and rare plants have not been thoroughly examined. Therefore, in order to assess the richness of plant species and plant communities in Poyang Lake, we conducted a detailed field investigation combined with a literature review. A total of 124 families, 339 genera, and 512 species (including sub-species, varieties and forms as well as eight dominant plant communities were identified, confirming the lake’s wetland as a regional hotspot of plant diversity. It is imperative to carry out further research on the impact of damming on the vegetation, particularly research focusing on protecting local biodiversity, maintaining the lake’s ecosystem services, controlling the spread of invasive species, and restoring degraded ecosystems.El estudio de la riqueza y la composición de especies vegetales de un humedal es esencial a la hora de estimar su importancia ecológica y sus servicios ecosistémicos, especialmente cuando éste está sujeto a perturbaciones humanas. El lago Poyang, situado en el curso medio del río Yangtsé (China central constituye la mayor superfície de agua dulce del país. Alberga una elevada biodiversidad y proporciona hábitats importantes para la flora y fauna locales. En la actualidad existen planes de construir una presa que mantendrá el volumen de agua del lago estable. Sin embargo, y hasta la fecha, apenas

  3. A new class of nontopological solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xinzhou; Ni Zhixiang; Zhang Jianzu

    1992-09-01

    We construct a new class of nontopological solitons with scalar self-interaction term κφ 4 . Because of the scalar self-interaction, there is a maximum size for these objects. There exists a critical value κ crit for the coupling κ. For κ > κ crit there are no stable nontopological solitons. In thin-walled limit, we show the explicit solutions of NTS with scalar self-interaction and/or gauge interaction. In the case of gauged NTS, soliton becomes a superconductor. (author). 11 refs

  4. Ownership, financing, and management strategies of the ten largest for-profit nursing home chains in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Charlene; Hauser, Clarilee; Olney, Brian; Rosenau, Pauline Vaillancourt

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the ownership, financing, and management strategies of the 10 largest for-profit nursing home chains in the United States, including the four largest chains purchased by private equity corporations. Descriptive data were collected from Internet searches, company reports, and other sources for the decade 1998-2008. Since 1998, the largest chains have made many changes in their ownership and structure, and some have converted from publicly traded companies to private ownership. This study shows the increasing complexity of corporate nursing home ownership and the lack of public information about ownership and financial status. The chains have used strategies to maximize shareholder and investor value that include increasing Medicare revenues, occupancy rates, and company diversification, establishing multiple layers of corporate ownership, developing real estate investment trusts, and creating limited liability companies. These strategies enhance shareholder and investor profits, reduce corporate taxes, and reduce liability risk. There is a need for greater transparency in ownership and financial reporting and for more government oversight of the largest for-profit chains, including those owned by private equity companies.

  5. Haven't We Been Here Before? Some Comments on Steve Coffman's Proposal for "Earth's Largest Library".

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGervey, Teresa

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the concept of Earth's Largest Library (ELL), a mega-virtual library based on the Amazon.com model. Topics include who will be included; privacy; censorship; scope of the collection; costs; legal aspects; collection development; personnel management; access; the concept of community; public service; lending policies; technical…

  6. Estimate of the largest Lyapunov characteristic exponent of a high dimensional atmospheric global circulation model: a sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrieri, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this report the largest Lyapunov characteristic exponent of a high dimensional atmospheric global circulation model of intermediate complexity has been estimated numerically. A sensitivity analysis has been carried out by varying the equator-to-pole temperature difference, the space resolution and the value of some parameters employed by the model. Chaotic and non-chaotic regimes of circulation have been found. [it

  7. Estimating the recreational value of Pakistan's largest freshwater lake to support sustainable tourism management using a travel cost model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangan, T.; Brouwer, R.; Lohano, H.; Nagraj, G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Keenjhar Lake, Pakistan's largest freshwater lake and an important Ramsar site, provides habitat for internationally important water birds. Annually, 385,000 people visit the lake. The lake is threatened by a variety of causes, including industrial and agricultural pollution. To support its

  8. German Migrant Teachers in Australia: Insights into the Largest Cohort of Non-English Speaking Background Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bense, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    The research reported in this paper investigates the situation of German migrant teachers in Australia. Although German born teachers represent the largest group of non-English speaking background teachers in Australia, there is no study of the circumstances and experiences of these teachers in Australia. This study aims to fill this gap. It…

  9. The Determinants of Bank Internationalisation in Times of Financial Globalisation: Evidence from the World's Largest Banks (1980-2007)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhuis, Gerarda; Mulder, Arjen

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the determinants of bank internationalisation, of the world's largest banks from the period 1980–2007. The purpose of the article is twofold. First, we show how a mixed-methods research design, in which we combine a variables-based research with three case studies, can

  10. Pay less, take more: the myth of quality of life at the Brazil’s largest drugstore chain counter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Maranhão de Souza Leão

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the role of cultural transformer that the brandoccupies in the contemporary and seeking to delineate the role played bymyth in this construction, we look at Pague Menos, the largest pharmacyretail network in the country, through a qualitative study based on Barthesiansemiology. Our results showed six myths, whose relationships reveal ametanarrative: the quality of life.

  11. Energy Sprawl Is the Largest Driver of Land Use Change in United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M Trainor

    Full Text Available Energy production in the United States for domestic use and export is predicted to rise 27% by 2040. We quantify projected energy sprawl (new land required for energy production in the United States through 2040. Over 200,000 km2 of additional land area will be directly impacted by energy development. When spacing requirements are included, over 800,000 km2 of additional land area will be affected by energy development, an area greater than the size of Texas. This pace of development in the United States is more than double the historic rate of urban and residential development, which has been the greatest driver of conversion in the United States since 1970, and is higher than projections for future land use change from residential development or agriculture. New technology now places 1.3 million km2 that had not previously experienced oil and gas development at risk of development for unconventional oil and gas. Renewable energy production can be sustained indefinitely on the same land base, while extractive energy must continually drill and mine new areas to sustain production. We calculated the number of years required for fossil energy production to expand to cover the same area as renewables, if both were to produce the same amount of energy each year. The land required for coal production would grow to equal or exceed that of wind, solar and geothermal energy within 2-31 years. In contrast, it would take hundreds of years for oil production to have the same energy sprawl as biofuels. Meeting energy demands while conserving nature will require increased energy conservation, in addition to distributed renewable energy and appropriate siting and mitigation.

  12. Molybdenum Carbamate Nanosheets as a New Class of Potential Phase Change Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukovskyi, Maksym; Plashnitsa, Vladimir; Petchsang, Nattasamon; Ruth, Anthony; Bajpai, Anshumaan; Vietmeyer, Felix; Wang, Yuanxing; Brennan, Michael; Pang, Yunsong; Werellapatha, Kalpani; Bunker, Bruce; Chattopadhyay, Soma; Luo, Tengfei; Janko, Boldizsar; Fay, Patrick; Kuno, Masaru

    2017-06-14

    We report for the first time the synthesis of large, free-standing, Mo 2 O 2 (μ-S) 2 (Et 2 dtc) 2 (MoDTC) nanosheets (NSs), which exhibit an electron-beam induced crystalline-to-amorphous phase transition. Both electron beam ionization and femtosecond (fs) optical excitation induce the phase transition, which is size-, morphology-, and composition-preserving. Resulting NSs are the largest, free-standing regularly shaped two-dimensional amorphous nanostructures made to date. More importantly, amorphization is accompanied by dramatic changes to the NS electrical and optical response wherein resulting amorphous species exhibit room-temperature conductivities 5 orders of magnitude larger than those of their crystalline counterparts. This enhancement likely stems from the amorphization-induced formation of sulfur vacancy-related defects and is supported by temperature-dependent transport measurements, which reveal efficient variable range hopping. MoDTC NSs represent one instance of a broader class of transition metal carbamates likely having applications because of their intriguing electrical properties as well as demonstrated ability to toggle metal oxidation states.

  13. Reconciling Virtual Classes with Genericity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2006-01-01

    is functional abstraction, yielding more precise knowledge about the outcome; the prime ex- ample is type parameterized classes. This paper argues that they should be clearly separated to work optimally. We have applied this design philosophy to a lan- guage based on an extension mechanism, namely virtual...... classes. As a result, a kind of type parameters have been introduced, but they are simple and only used where they excel. Conversely, final definitions of virtual classes have been re- moved from the language, thus making virtual classes more flexible. The result- ing language presents a clearer and more...

  14. Poverty and household size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanjouw, P.; Ravallion, M.

    1995-01-01

    The widely held view that larger families tend to be poorer in developing countries has influenced research and policy. The scope for size economies in consumption cautions against this view. The authors find that the correlation between poverty and size vanishes in Pakistan when the size elasticity

  15. Mid-size urbanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, de B.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    To speak of the project for the mid-size city is to speculate about the possibility of mid-size urbanity as a design category. An urbanism not necessarily defined by the scale of the intervention or the size of the city undergoing transformation, but by the framing of the issues at hand and the

  16. Biodistribution of Different Sized Nanodiamonds in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purtov, Konstantin; Petunin, Alexey; Inzhevatkin, Evgeny; Burov, Andrey; Ronzhin, Nikita; Puzyr, Alexey; Bondar, Vladimir

    2015-02-01

    The particle size is one of critical parameters influencing the biodistribution of detonation nanodiamonds (DND) after their administration into the body. As DNDs are prone to aggregation, the difference between their sizes in aqueous and physiological solutions has to be taken into account. Radioactive I125-BSA molecules were covalently immobilized on DNDs divided in three fractions of different average size. The DND-BSAI125 conjugates were intravenously administrated into adult mice and the particle allocation in the animal's organs and blood was evaluated based on the radioactivity distribution. We conclude that most of the conjugates were taken from the bloodstream and trapped in the liver and spleen. The short-term distribution pattern for all DNDs was similar regardless of size and practically unchanged with time. No significant clearance of the particles was observed for 4 h, but the presence of DNDs was detected in the blood. It was found that the largest particles tend to accumulate more into the liver as compared to the smaller ones. However, the size effect was not well pronounced for the studied size range.

  17. Class Counts: Education, Inequality, and the Shrinking Middle Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornstein, Allan

    2007-01-01

    Class differences and class warfare have existed since the beginning of western civilization, but the gap in income and wealth between the rich (top 10 percent) and the rest has increased steadily in the last twenty-five years. The U.S. is heading for a financial oligarchy much worse than the aristocratic old world that our Founding Fathers feared…

  18. Type Families with Class, Type Classes with Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serrano, Alejandro; Hage, Jurriaan; Bahr, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Type classes and type families are key ingredients in Haskell programming. Type classes were introduced to deal with ad-hoc polymorphism, although with the introduction of functional dependencies, their use expanded to type-level programming. Type families also allow encoding type-level functions......, now as rewrite rules. This paper looks at the interplay of type classes and type families, and how to deal with shortcomings in both of them. Furthermore, we show how to use families to simulate classes at the type level. However, type families alone are not enough for simulating a central feature...... of type classes: elaboration, that is, generating code from the derivation of a rewriting. We look at ways to solve this problem in current Haskell, and propose an extension to allow elaboration during the rewriting phase....

  19. Subaltern Classes, Class Struggles and Hegemony : a Gramscian Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivete Simionatto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article sought to revive the concept of subaltern classes and their relation with other categories, particularly the State, civil society and hegemony in the thinking of Antonio Gramsci, as a support for contemporary class struggles. It also analyzes the relations between subaltern classes, common sense and ideology, as well as the forms of “overcoming” conceptualized by Gramsci, through the culture and philosophy of praxis. The paper revives the discussion of the subaltern classes, based on the original Gramscian formulation in the realm of Marxism, through the dialectic interaction between structure and superstructure, economy and politics. In addition to the conceptual revival, it indicates some elements that can support the discussion of the forms of subalternity found in contemporary reality and the possibilities for strengthening the struggles of these class layers, above all in moments of strong demobilization of popular participation.

  20. Chromosome reshuffling in birds of prey: the karyotype of the world's largest eagle (Harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja) compared to that of the chicken (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Edivaldo H C; Habermann, Felix A; Lacerda, Oneida; Sbalqueiro, Ives J; Wienberg, Johannes; Müller, Stefan

    2005-11-01

    Like various other diurnal birds of prey, the world's largest eagle, the Harpy (Harpia harpyja), presents an atypical bird karyotype with 2n=58 chromosomes. There is little knowledge about the dramatic changes in the genomic reorganization of these species compared to other birds. Since recently, the chicken provides a "default map" for various birds including the first genomic DNA sequence of a bird species. Obviously, the gross division of the chicken genome into relatively gene-poor macrochromosomes and predominantly gene-rich microchromosomes has been conserved for more than 150 million years in most bird species. Here, we present classical features of the Harpy eagle karyotype but also chromosomal homologies between H. harpyja and the chicken by chromosome painting and comparison to the chicken genome map. We used two different sets of painting probes: (1) chicken chromosomes were divided into three size categories: (a) macrochromosomes 1-5 and Z, (b) medium-sized chromosomes 6-10, and (c) 19 microchromosomes; (2) combinatorially labeled chicken chromosome paints 1-6 and Z. Both probe sets were visualized on H. harpyja chromosomes by multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Our data show how the organization into micro- and macrochromosomes has been lost in the Harpy eagle, seemingly without any preference or constraints.

  1. Context-sensitive intra-class clustering

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Yingwei; Gutierrez-Osuna, Ricardo; Choe, Yoonsuck

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a new semi-supervised learning algorithm for intra-class clustering (ICC). ICC partitions each class into sub-classes in order to minimize overlap across clusters from different classes. This is achieved by allowing partitioning

  2. Step-wise and lineage-specific diversification of plant RNA polymerase genes and origin of the largest plant-specific subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaqiong; Ma, Hong

    2015-09-01

    Proteins often function as complexes, yet little is known about the evolution of dissimilar subunits of complexes. DNA-directed RNA polymerases (RNAPs) are multisubunit complexes, with distinct eukaryotic types for different classes of transcripts. In addition to Pol I-III, common in eukaryotes, plants have Pol IV and V for epigenetic regulation. Some RNAP subunits are specific to one type, whereas other subunits are shared by multiple types. We have conducted extensive phylogenetic and sequence analyses, and have placed RNAP gene duplication events in land plant history, thereby reconstructing the subunit compositions of the novel RNAPs during land plant evolution. We found that Pol IV/V have experienced step-wise duplication and diversification of various subunits, with increasingly distinctive subunit compositions. Also, lineage-specific duplications have further increased RNAP complexity with distinct copies in different plant families and varying divergence for subunits of different RNAPs. Further, the largest subunits of Pol IV/V probably originated from a gene fusion in the ancestral land plants. We propose a framework of plant RNAP evolution, providing an excellent model for protein complex evolution. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Rapid Increase in Genome Size as a Consequence of Transposable Element Hyperactivity in Wood-White (Leptidea) Butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talla, Venkat; Suh, Alexander; Kalsoom, Faheema; Dinca, Vlad; Vila, Roger; Friberg, Magne; Wiklund, Christer; Backström, Niclas

    2017-10-01

    Characterizing and quantifying genome size variation among organisms and understanding if genome size evolves as a consequence of adaptive or stochastic processes have been long-standing goals in evolutionary biology. Here, we investigate genome size variation and association with transposable elements (TEs) across lepidopteran lineages using a novel genome assembly of the common wood-white (Leptidea sinapis) and population re-sequencing data from both L. sinapis and the closely related L. reali and L. juvernica together with 12 previously available lepidopteran genome assemblies. A phylogenetic analysis confirms established relationships among species, but identifies previously unknown intraspecific structure within Leptidea lineages. The genome assembly of L. sinapis is one of the largest of any lepidopteran taxon so far (643 Mb) and genome size is correlated with abundance of TEs, both in Lepidoptera in general and within Leptidea where L. juvernica from Kazakhstan has considerably larger genome size than any other Leptidea population. Specific TE subclasses have been active in different Lepidoptera lineages with a pronounced expansion of predominantly LINEs, DNA elements, and unclassified TEs in the Leptidea lineage after the split from other Pieridae. The rate of genome expansion in Leptidea in general has been in the range of four Mb/Million year (My), with an increase in a particular L. juvernica population to 72 Mb/My. The considerable differences in accumulation rates of specific TE classes in different lineages indicate that TE activity plays a major role in genome size evolution in butterflies and moths. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  4. On uniqueness of characteristic classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feliu, Elisenda

    2011-01-01

    We give an axiomatic characterization of maps from algebraic K-theory. The results apply to a large class of maps from algebraic K-theory to any suitable cohomology theory or to algebraic K-theory. In particular, we obtain comparison theorems for the Chern character and Chern classes and for the ...

  5. Race and Class on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Angel B.

    2016-01-01

    Colleges and universities have a significant role to play in shaping the future of race and class relations in America. As exhibited in this year's presidential election, race and class continue to divide. Black Lives Matter movements, campus protests, and police shootings are just a few examples of the proliferation of intolerance, and higher…

  6. Propagating Class and Method Combination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    1999-01-01

    number of implicit combinations. For example, it is possible to specify separate aspects of a family of classes, and then combine several aspects into a full-fledged class family. The combination expressions would explicitly combine whole-family aspects, and by propagation implicitly combine the aspects...

  7. Social Class and the Extracurriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Will

    2012-01-01

    Social class is a powerful and often unrecognized influence on student participation in the extracurriculum. Spontaneous student-created extracurricular experiences depend on students affiliating and interacting with each other; student social class is a powerful influence on student affiliations. Students tend to exercise consciousness of kind-…

  8. Translanguaging in a Reading Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaish, Viniti; Subhan, Aidil

    2015-01-01

    Using translanguaging as a theoretical foundation, this paper analyses findings from a Grade 2 reading class for low achieving students, where Malay was used as a scaffold to teach English. Data come from one class in one school in Singapore and its Learning Support Programme (LSP), which is part of a larger research project on biliteracy. The LSP…

  9. A Touch of...Class!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netten, Joan W., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    A collection of ideas for class activities in elementary and secondary language classes includes a vocabulary review exercise and games of memory, counting, vocabulary, flashcard tic-tac-toe, dice, trashcans, questioning, and spelling. Some are designed specifically for French. (MSE)

  10. Statistical Inference on the Canadian Middle Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Davidson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional wisdom says that the middle classes in many developed countries have recently suffered losses, in terms of both the share of the total population belonging to the middle class, and also their share in total income. Here, distribution-free methods are developed for inference on these shares, by means of deriving expressions for their asymptotic variances of sample estimates, and the covariance of the estimates. Asymptotic inference can be undertaken based on asymptotic normality. Bootstrap inference can be expected to be more reliable, and appropriate bootstrap procedures are proposed. As an illustration, samples of individual earnings drawn from Canadian census data are used to test various hypotheses about the middle-class shares, and confidence intervals for them are computed. It is found that, for the earlier censuses, sample sizes are large enough for asymptotic and bootstrap inference to be almost identical, but that, in the twenty-first century, the bootstrap fails on account of a strange phenomenon whereby many presumably different incomes in the data are rounded to one and the same value. Another difference between the centuries is the appearance of heavy right-hand tails in the income distributions of both men and women.

  11. Size analyses and geochemistry of ferromanganese nodules from the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.; Khadge, N.H.

    . Morphology indicates that spheroidal and ellipsoidal nodules of rough type (Sr) belonging to classes 1 ( 2 cm) and 2 (2-4 cm) are more abundant. The concentration of Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, and Co in 84 samples varies inversely with size class and only class 1 and 2...

  12. The largest Fresco in Europe on cooling tower of nuclear power station of Cruas Meysse in Ardeche, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Mayo, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Station Cruas Meysse is on the most important communication way of France, in the Rhone Valley, between the Rhin and the Mediterranean Sea. In the South of the Rhone Valley, the Nuclear Power Plant is situated near the very important site of 'Tricastin', the largest nuclear area in France. Cruas Meysse has a very good integration to the economy, social, and cultural scheme ; that's why EDF and the Ardeche Department had enter into partnership to associate art and technology of our time, and offer a work for everybody - 'Le Verseau' is the largest fresco in Europe - It gives a gigantic signalling system to the Ardeche Department, because the Nuclear Power Station has a very interesting position, close the motor way A7, the National 7 road, and the way of high speed train (TGV) an another symbol of the high French technology

  13. One Size Fits All?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristina Vaarst; Bugge, Markus; Hansen, Høgni Kalsø

    2010-01-01

    to examine whether Florida’s theory proves fruitful in a context different from the US. Based on qualitative data, the paper analyses the role of people climate and business climate for the location of the creative class and firms in three different kinds of regions in four Nordic countries. The analyses...... demonstrate that the people climate tends to be of secondary importance to the business climate in explaining the location of the Nordic creative class. This should be seen as a result of the urban hierarchy within the Nordic countries as well as a strong welfare policy, which ensures an equal distribution...... of public provision and supports dual career households. Together, these factors diminish the role of people climate for location choices. The study also finds that the notion of people climate has different meanings in various places, and what attracts or repels the creative class depends on the life...

  14. Invasive fish species in the largest lakes of Scotland, Northern Ireland, Wales and England: the collective U.K. experience

    OpenAIRE

    Winfield, I.J.; Fletcher, J.M.; James, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    An invasive species is defined as an alien (or introduced or non-native) species whose establishment and spread threaten ecosystems, habitats or species with harm. Such threats to UK lake fish communities have long been appreciated and this review assembles case histories, including new data, from the largest lakes of Scotland, Northern Ireland, Wales and England to examine the hypothesis that at least some of these introductions have become invasive. Loch Lomond in Scotland has experienced s...

  15. Survival of Extremely Premature Infants at the Largest MOH Referral Hospital in UAE: Comparable Results to Developed Countries

    OpenAIRE

    YASEEN, Hakam; YASEEN, Hoda

    2010-01-01

    Objective: to investigate the survival rate of extreme premature infants born between 2000 and 2008 at AL Qassimi hospital that is the largest Ministry of Health (MOH) referral hospital in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).Methods: This was an institutional review board approved retrospective study of the outcomes of pregnancies in women who were in labor and delivered between 23 and 25 weeks' completed gestation at Al Qassimi Hospital in the Emirate of Sharjah between January 1,2000 and De...

  16. Mapping Dynamics of Inundation Patterns of Two Largest River-Connected Lakes in China: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Guiping Wu; Yuanbo Liu

    2016-01-01

    Poyang Lake and Dongting Lake are the two largest freshwater lakes in China. The lakes are located approximately 300 km apart on the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and are differently connected through their respective tributary systems, which will lead to different river–lake water exchanges and discharges. Thus, differences in their morphological and hydrological conditions should induce individual lake spatio-temporal inundation patterns. Quantitative comparative analyses of the dynam...

  17. Relativistic distances, sizes, lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    Such notion as light or retarded distance, field size, formation way, visible size of a body, relativistic or radar length and wave length of light from a moving atom are considered. The relation between these notions is cleared up, their classification is given. It is stressed that the formation way is defined by the field size of a moving particle. In the case of the electromagnetic field, longitudinal sizes increase proportionally γ 2 with growing charge velocity (γ is the Lorentz-factor). 18 refs

  18. Exact quasinormal modes for a special class of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva, Julio; Troncoso, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Analytic exact expressions for the quasinormal modes of scalar and electromagnetic perturbations around a special class of black holes are found in d≥3 dimensions. It is shown that the size of the black hole provides a lower bound for the angular momentum of the perturbation. Quasinormal modes appear when this bound is fulfilled; otherwise the excitations become purely damped.

  19. The State of Business Communication Classes: A National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshiri, Farrokh; Cardon, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This nationwide study of 169 business communication instructors examines the following issues: (a) ideal and actual class sizes in business communication courses, (b) delivery modes of business communication courses, (c) types of written and oral assignments, and (d) topics covered and depth of coverage. Findings suggest that business…

  20. PBL Group Autonomy in a High School Environmental Science Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, D. Mark; Belland, Brian R.

    2018-01-01

    With increasing class sizes, teachers and facilitators alike hope for learning groups where students work together in self-contained and autonomous ways requiring reduced teacher support. Yet many instructors find the idea of developing independent learning in small groups to be elusive particularly in K-12 settings (Ertmer and Simons in…

  1. The Large Introductory Class as an Exercise in Organization Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, John A., III; Van Dyne, Linn

    1999-01-01

    Four methods for large group instruction differ in control and coordination dimensions: (1) centralization with mutual adjustment; (2) centralization with standardization; (3) decentralization with standardization; and (4) decentralization with mutual adjustment. Other factors to consider include class size and interests of various constituencies:…

  2. Size, surface texture, chemical composition and mineralogy interrelations in ferromanganese nodules of central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K; Pattan, J.N.; Jauhari, P.

    Fiftyseven ferromanganese nodules, classified into 3 size class (4,4-6 and 6-8 cm diam.), from the siliceous sediments of central Indian Ocean were analysed for transition metals and representative sample from each size class for mineralogy. Smaller...

  3. Dogs Have the Most Neurons, Though Not the Largest Brain: Trade-Off between Body Mass and Number of Neurons in the Cerebral Cortex of Large Carnivoran Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Jardim-Messeder

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Carnivorans are a diverse group of mammals that includes carnivorous, omnivorous and herbivorous, domesticated and wild species, with a large range of brain sizes. Carnivory is one of several factors expected to be cognitively demanding for carnivorans due to a requirement to outsmart larger prey. On the other hand, large carnivoran species have high hunting costs and unreliable feeding patterns, which, given the high metabolic cost of brain neurons, might put them at risk of metabolic constraints regarding how many brain neurons they can afford, especially in the cerebral cortex. For a given cortical size, do carnivoran species have more cortical neurons than the herbivorous species they prey upon? We find they do not; carnivorans (cat, mongoose, dog, hyena, lion share with non-primates, including artiodactyls (the typical prey of large carnivorans, roughly the same relationship between cortical mass and number of neurons, which suggests that carnivorans are subject to the same evolutionary scaling rules as other non-primate clades. However, there are a few important exceptions. Carnivorans stand out in that the usual relationship between larger body, larger cortical mass and larger number of cortical neurons only applies to small and medium-sized species, and not beyond dogs: we find that the golden retriever dog has more cortical neurons than the striped hyena, African lion and even brown bear, even though the latter species have up to three times larger cortices than dogs. Remarkably, the brown bear cerebral cortex, the largest examined, only has as many neurons as the ten times smaller cat cerebral cortex, although it does have the expected ten times as many non-neuronal cells in the cerebral cortex compared to the cat. We also find that raccoons have dog-like numbers of neurons in their cat-sized brain, which makes them comparable to primates in neuronal density. Comparison of domestic and wild species suggests that the neuronal

  4. Time compression of soil erosion by the effect of largest daily event. A regional analysis of USLE database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Hidalgo, J. C.; Batalla, R.; Cerda, A.; de Luis, M.

    2009-04-01

    When Thornes and Brunsden wrote in 1977 "How often one hears the researcher (and no less the undergraduate) complain that after weeks of observation "nothing happened" only to learn that, the day after his departure, a flood caused unprecedent erosion and channel changes!" (Thornes and Brunsden, 1977, p. 57), they focussed on two different problems in geomorphological research: the effects of extreme events and the temporal compression of geomorphological processes. The time compression is one of the main characteristic of erosion processes. It means that an important amount of the total soil eroded is produced in very short temporal intervals, i.e. few events mostly related to extreme events. From magnitude-frequency analysis we know that few events, not necessarily extreme by magnitude, produce high amount of geomorphological work. Last but not least, extreme isolated events are a classical issue in geomorphology by their specific effects, and they are receiving permanent attention, increased at present because of scenarios of global change. Notwithstanding, the time compression of geomorphological processes could be focused not only on the analysis of extreme events and the traditional magnitude-frequency approach, but on new complementary approach based on the effects of largest events. The classical approach define extreme event as a rare event (identified by its magnitude and quantified by some deviation from central value), while we define largest events by the rank, whatever their magnitude. In a previous research on time compression of soil erosion, using USLE soil erosion database (Gonzalez-Hidalgo et al., EGU 2007), we described a relationship between the total amount of daily erosive events recorded by plot and the percentage contribution to total soil erosion of n-largest aggregated daily events. Now we offer a further refined analysis comparing different agricultural regions in USA. To do that we have analyzed data from 594 erosion plots from USLE

  5. Impact of telecommunication technologies on the middle class formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusnullova, A.; Absalyamova, S.; Sakhapov, R.; Mukhametgalieva, Ch

    2017-12-01

    The article is devoted to the study of the impact of the information economy on the formation of the middle class. The paper identifies factors contributing to the increase in the share of the middle class in the transition to the information economy. The positive synergetic influence of telecommunication technologies on the formation of the middle class is considered through a possibility of using virtual spaces for labor and educational activities, a possibility of obtaining high returns in the form of dividends on intellectual capital, a qualitative change in the structure of needs, an access to new types of information services, etc. Authors develop a complex model of research of the middle class in the information economy, differing from those available using an expanded list of criteria. In addition to such widely used criteria as income level, level of education and self-identification, the criterion "degree of involvement in the information society" was introduced. The study substantiates that the transition to the information economy made an access to information and communication technologies one of the most significant criteria for social differentiation of society. On the basis of the model, an econometric estimate of the middle class has been carried out, which makes it possible to reveal the share of the middle class in modern society, dynamics of its development, as well as multicollinearity between spending on education, the Gini coefficient, access to information and telecommunication technologies and the size of the middle class.

  6. Habitat area and climate stability determine geographical variation in plant species range sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morueta-Holme, Naia; Enquist, Brian J.; McGill, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite being a fundamental aspect of biodiversity, little is known about what controls species range sizes. This is especially the case for hyperdiverse organisms such as plants. We use the largest botanical data set assembled to date to quantify geographical variation in range size for ~85,000 ...

  7. Consumer Education in Any Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingo, Rosetta F.

    1977-01-01

    Examples are offered of how the classroom teacher can blend consumer education into typewriting, business English, business math, and other classes by intentionally focusing on principles and concepts or by including it incidentally when the opportunity arises. (TA)

  8. Ethnicity, class, and civil war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hechter, Michael Norman; Siroky, David

    2016-01-01

    of political instability. These two types of conflict result from distinct principles of group solidarity – ethnicity and class – and since each individual is simultaneously a member of an ethnic group (or many such groups) and a particular class, these two principles vary in the degree to which......Why are some countries prone to ethno-nationalist conflict, whereas others are plagued by class conflict? This is a question that has seldom been raised and rarely been examined empirically. This paper presents a social-structural theory to account for the variable incidence of these two forms......-group inequalities are high, and within-group inequalities low, ethnicity should be the dominant principle of group solidarity and serve as the primary basis of group conflict. By contrast, in countries where between-group inequalities are low, and within-group inequalities high, class is more likely to serve...

  9. Imbalanced Class Learning in Epigenetics

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, M. Muksitul; Skinner, Michael K.; Holder, Lawrence B.

    2014-01-01

    In machine learning, one of the important criteria for higher classification accuracy is a balanced dataset. Datasets with a large ratio between minority and majority classes face hindrance in learning using any classifier. Datasets having a magnitude difference in number of instances between the target concept result in an imbalanced class distribution. Such datasets can range from biological data, sensor data, medical diagnostics, or any other domain where labeling any instances of the mino...

  10. Imbalanced class learning in epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, M Muksitul; Skinner, Michael K; Holder, Lawrence B

    2014-07-01

    In machine learning, one of the important criteria for higher classification accuracy is a balanced dataset. Datasets with a large ratio between minority and majority classes face hindrance in learning using any classifier. Datasets having a magnitude difference in number of instances between the target concept result in an imbalanced class distribution. Such datasets can range from biological data, sensor data, medical diagnostics, or any other domain where labeling any instances of the minority class can be time-consuming or costly or the data may not be easily available. The current study investigates a number of imbalanced class algorithms for solving the imbalanced class distribution present in epigenetic datasets. Epigenetic (DNA methylation) datasets inherently come with few differentially DNA methylated regions (DMR) and with a higher number of non-DMR sites. For this class imbalance problem, a number of algorithms are compared, including the TAN+AdaBoost algorithm. Experiments performed on four epigenetic datasets and several known datasets show that an imbalanced dataset can have similar accuracy as a regular learner on a balanced dataset.

  11. Dental size variation in the Atapuerca-SH Middle Pleistocene hominids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez de Castro, J M; Sarmiento, S; Cunha, E; Rosas, A; Bastir, M

    2001-09-01

    The Middle Pleistocene Atapuerca-Sima de los Huesos (SH) site in Spain has yielded the largest sample of fossil hominids so far found from a single site and belonging to the same biological population. The SH dental sample includes a total of 452 permanent and deciduous teeth, representing a minimum of 27 individuals. We present a study of the dental size variation in these hominids, based on the analysis of the mandibular permanent dentition: lateral incisors, n=29; canines, n=27; third premolars, n=30; fourth premolars, n=34; first molars, n=38; second molars, n=38. We have obtained the buccolingual diameter and the crown area (measured on occlusal photographs) of these teeth, and used the bootstrap method to assess the amount of variation in the SH sample compared with the variation of a modern human sample from the Museu Antropologico of the Universidade of Coimbra (Portugal). The SH hominids have, in general terms, a dental size variation higher than that of the modern human sample. The analysis is especially conclusive for the canines. Furthermore, we have estimated the degree of sexual dimorphism of the SH sample by obtaining male and female dental subsamples by means of sexing the large sample of SH mandibular specimens. We obtained the index of sexual dimorphism (ISD=male mean/female mean) and the values were compared with those obtained from the sexed modern human sample from Coimbra, and with data found in the literature concerning several recent human populations. In all tooth classes the ISD of the SH hominids was higher than that of modern humans, but the differences were generally modest, except for the canines, thus suggesting that canine size sexual dimorphism in Homo heidelbergensis was probably greater than that of modern humans. Since the approach of sexing fossil specimens has some obvious limitations, these results should be assessed with caution. Additional data from SH and other European Middle Pleistocene sites would be necessary to test

  12. Sweden's largest Facebook study

    OpenAIRE

    Denti, Leif; Barbopoulus, Isak; Nilsson, Ida; Holmberg, Linda; Thulin, Magdalena; Wendeblad, Malin; Andén, Lisa; Davidsson, Emelie

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of the Internet has made it easier for people to socially interact than ever before. Today, the most popular channel is Facebook with over 845 million users world wide. In Sweden, the number of users amount to approximately half of the population. We had two aims with this study. First, we investigate which areas of Facebook usage that Swedish Facebook users consider more important vis-a-vis less important. We were also interested in how users convey their persona through t... m...

  13. Largest terrestrial electromagnetic pulsar

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pardy, Miroslav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 6 (2002), s. 1155-1163 ISSN 0020-7748 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A100 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : source theory, spectral formula, synchrotron radiation Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.655, year: 2002

  14. The theory of social classes Maurice Halbwachs

    OpenAIRE

    L. V. Kozlova

    2014-01-01

    The article considers the basic thesis of Maurice Halbwachs’s theory of social classes outlined in the “Social classes and morphology” (1942): the concept of class is revealed as the object of collective representation, the main characteristics of classes, the criteria for its selection and conditions for classes formation are analyzed.

  15. Sample size methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Desu, M M

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important problems in designing an experiment or a survey is sample size determination and this book presents the currently available methodology. It includes both random sampling from standard probability distributions and from finite populations. Also discussed is sample size determination for estimating parameters in a Bayesian setting by considering the posterior distribution of the parameter and specifying the necessary requirements. The determination of the sample size is considered for ranking and selection problems as well as for the design of clinical trials. Appropria

  16. Sizing up countability

    OpenAIRE

    De Belder, Marijke

    2008-01-01

    SIZING UP COUNTABILITY: TOWARDS A MORE FINE-GRAINED MASS-COUNT DISTINCTION MARIJKE DE BELDER CRISSP/CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY OF BRUSSELS/FACULTÉS UNIVERSITAIRES SAINT-LOUIS 1. Summary Borer (2005) argues that the presence of the functional projection DivP, which divides stuff into units, yields count readings in the NP and that its absence yields mass readings. I claim, however, that countability requires not only DivP (which creates units) but also SizeP (which assigns size). The head ...

  17. World's largest DC flywheel generator for the toroidal field power supply of JAERI's JFT-2M Tokamak nuclear fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Takashi; Nakanishi, Yuji; Horita, Tsuyoshi; Kawase, Chiharu; Oyabu, Isao; Kishimoto, Takeshi.

    1996-01-01

    Mitsubishi Electric has delivered the world's largest DC generator for the toroidal field coil power supply of the JFT-2M Tokamak at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The unit rotates at 225 or 460 rpm, providing a maximum rated output of 2,700 V, 19,000 A and 51.3 MW. The toroidal field is a DC field, so use of a DC generator permits a simpler design consuming less floor space than an AC drive system. The generator was manufactured following extensive studies on commutation, mechanical strength and insulation. (author)

  18. Does gender affect funding success at the peer-to-peer credit markets? Evidence from the largest German lending platform

    OpenAIRE

    Barasinska, Nataliya; Schäfer, Dorothea

    2010-01-01

    Studies of peer-to-peer lending in the USA find that female borrowers have better chances of getting funds than males. Is differential treatment of borrowers of different sexes a common feature of peer-to-peer lendingmarkets or is it subject to specific businessmodels, ways of fixing loan contracts and even national financial systems? We aim at answering this question by providing evidence on loan procurement at the largest German peer-to-peer lending platform Smava.de. Our results show that ...

  19. Global CO_2-energy emissions in 2007. China becomes the largest emitter along with the United States - June 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    China becomes the largest emitter along with the United States. Contents: 1990-2007 evolution (key figures of Yearly average evolutions); Global CO_2-energy emissions in 2007: 27,3 GtCO_2; Global CO_2-energy emissions have increased by 3,2% in 2007, largely driven by China. Since 1990, China has more than doubled its CO_2-energy emissions, to reach the same emission level as the USA in 2007. Two very contrasting tendencies appear since 1990: stabilization of emissions in Annex B countries, boom in China and India. Since 1990, more than half of CO_2-energy emissions growth is (logically) due to coal. (authors)

  20. Finishing occlusion in Class II or Class III molar relation: therapeutic Class II and III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangia, A; Darendeliler, M A

    2001-11-01

    The most frequent extraction regime consists of the removal of upper and lower premolars. Depending on anchorage requirements, camouflage treatment options, surgical intervention, or the absence of teeth in only one arch, it may become necessary to finalize the occlusion with a one-dental-unit discrepancy between the upper and lower dental arches. Guidelines are presented for finishing occlusions in Class II or Class III molar relation.