WorldWideScience

Sample records for largest potential source

  1. Phosphorus Loadings to the World's Largest Lakes: Sources and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Gabriel; Alcamo, Joseph; Flörke, Martina; Reder, Klara

    2018-04-01

    Eutrophication is a major water quality issue in lakes worldwide and is principally caused by the loadings of phosphorus from catchment areas. It follows that to develop strategies to mitigate eutrophication, we must have a good understanding of the amount, sources, and trends of phosphorus pollution. This paper provides the first consistent and harmonious estimates of current phosphorus loadings to the world's largest 100 lakes, along with the sources of these loadings and their trends. These estimates provide a perspective on the extent of lake eutrophication worldwide, as well as potential input to the evaluation and management of eutrophication in these lakes. We take a modeling approach and apply the WorldQual model for these estimates. The advantage of this approach is that it allows us to fill in large gaps in observational data. From the analysis, we find that about 66 of the 100 lakes are located in developing countries and their catchments have a much larger average phosphorus yield than the lake catchments in developed countries (11.1 versus 0.7 kg TP km-2 year-1). Second, the main source of phosphorus to the examined lakes is inorganic fertilizer (47% of total). Third, between 2005-2010 and 1990-1994, phosphorus pollution increased at 50 out of 100 lakes. Sixty percent of lakes with increasing pollution are in developing countries. P pollution changed primarily due to changing P fertilizer use. In conclusion, we show that the risk of P-stimulated eutrophication is higher in developing countries.

  2. Littoral lichens as a novel source of potentially bioactive Actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrot, Delphine; Antony-Babu, Sanjay; Intertaglia, Laurent; Grube, Martin; Tomasi, Sophie; Suzuki, Marcelino T

    2015-10-30

    Cultivable Actinobacteria are the largest source of microbially derived bioactive molecules. The high demand for novel antibiotics highlights the need for exploring novel sources of these bacteria. Microbial symbioses with sessile macro-organisms, known to contain bioactive compounds likely of bacterial origin, represent an interesting and underexplored source of Actinobacteria. We studied the diversity and potential for bioactive-metabolite production of Actinobacteria associated with two marine lichens (Lichina confinis and L. pygmaea; from intertidal and subtidal zones) and one littoral lichen (Roccella fuciformis; from supratidal zone) from the Brittany coast (France), as well as the terrestrial lichen Collema auriforme (from a riparian zone, Austria). A total of 247 bacterial strains were isolated using two selective media. Isolates were identified and clustered into 101 OTUs (98% identity) including 51 actinobacterial OTUs. The actinobacterial families observed were: Brevibacteriaceae, Cellulomonadaceae, Gordoniaceae, Micrococcaceae, Mycobacteriaceae, Nocardioidaceae, Promicromonosporaceae, Pseudonocardiaceae, Sanguibacteraceae and Streptomycetaceae. Interestingly, the diversity was most influenced by the selective media rather than lichen species or the level of lichen thallus association. The potential for bioactive-metabolite biosynthesis of the isolates was confirmed by screening genes coding for polyketide synthases types I and II. These results show that littoral lichens are a source of diverse potentially bioactive Actinobacteria.

  3. Banking Umbilical Cord Blood (UCB) Stem Cells: Awareness, Attitude and Expectations of Potential Donors from One of the Largest Potential Repository (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Deeksha; Kaur, Simar; Kamath, Asha

    2016-01-01

    The concept of Umbilical Cord blood (UCB) stem cells is emerging as a non-invasive, efficacious alternative source of hematopoietic stem cells to treat a variety of blood and bone marrow diseases, blood cancers, metabolic disorders and immune deficiencies. Aim of the present study was to determine the level of awareness about banking UCB among pregnant women in India. We also assessed patient perception for banking of UCB and explored the patient expectations of banking UCB in future. This is the first study to assess current attitudes, in a sample population of potential donors from one of the largest potential UCB repository (India). Obtaining this information may help optimize recruitment efforts and improve patient education. Present explorative questionnaire based survey included 254 pregnant women in the final analysis. We established only 26.5% pregnant women in our study population knew what exactly is meant by UCB. A large proportion (55.1%) was undecided on whether they want to bank UCB or not. Women were more aware of the more advertised private cord blood banking compared to public banking. More than half of the pregnant women expected their obstetrician to inform them regarding UCB. One-third of the women in our population had undue expectations from banking of the UCB. Obstetricians should play a more active role in explaining the patients regarding pros and cons of UCB banking.

  4. Banking Umbilical Cord Blood (UCB Stem Cells: Awareness, Attitude and Expectations of Potential Donors from One of the Largest Potential Repository (India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeksha Pandey

    Full Text Available The concept of Umbilical Cord blood (UCB stem cells is emerging as a non-invasive, efficacious alternative source of hematopoietic stem cells to treat a variety of blood and bone marrow diseases, blood cancers, metabolic disorders and immune deficiencies. Aim of the present study was to determine the level of awareness about banking UCB among pregnant women in India. We also assessed patient perception for banking of UCB and explored the patient expectations of banking UCB in future. This is the first study to assess current attitudes, in a sample population of potential donors from one of the largest potential UCB repository (India. Obtaining this information may help optimize recruitment efforts and improve patient education.Present explorative questionnaire based survey included 254 pregnant women in the final analysis.We established only 26.5% pregnant women in our study population knew what exactly is meant by UCB. A large proportion (55.1% was undecided on whether they want to bank UCB or not. Women were more aware of the more advertised private cord blood banking compared to public banking. More than half of the pregnant women expected their obstetrician to inform them regarding UCB. One-third of the women in our population had undue expectations from banking of the UCB.Obstetricians should play a more active role in explaining the patients regarding pros and cons of UCB banking.

  5. The potential of the Malaysian oil palm biomass as a renewable energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loh, Soh Kheang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An energy resource data for oil palm biomass is generated. • The data encompasses crucial fuel and physicochemical characteristics. • These characteristics guide on biomass behaviors and technology selection. • Oil palm biomass is advantageous in today’s energy competitive markets. • Overall, it is a green alternative for biorefinery establishment. - Abstract: The scarcity of conventional energy such as fossil fuels (which will lead to eventual depletion) and the ever-increasing demand for new energy sources have resulted in the world moving into an era of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency. The Malaysian oil palm industry has been one of the largest contributor of lignocellulosic biomass, with more than 90% of the country’s total biomass deriving from 5.4 million ha of oil palms. Recent concerns on accelerating replanting activity, improving oil extraction rate, expanding mill capacity, etc. are expected to further increase the total oil palm biomass availability in Malaysia. This situation has presented a huge opportunity for the utilization of oil palm biomass in various applications including RE. This paper characterizes the various forms of oil palm biomass for their important fuel and other physicochemical properties, and assesses this resource data in totality – concerning energy potential, the related biomass conversion technologies and possible combustion-related problems. Overall, oil palm biomass possesses huge potential as one of the largest alternative energy sources for commercial exploitation.

  6. Hidden sources of grapefruit in beverages: potential interactions with immunosuppressant medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auten, Ashley A; Beauchamp, Lauren N; Joshua Taylor; Hardinger, Karen L

    2013-06-01

    The interaction between grapefruit-containing beverages and immunosuppressants is not well defined in the literature. This study was conducted to investigate possible sources of grapefruit juice or grapefruit extract in common US-manufactured beverages. The goal was to identify those products that might serve as hidden sources of dietary grapefruit intake, increasing a transplant patient's risk for drug interactions. A careful review of the ingredients of the 3 largest US beverage manufacturer's product lines was conducted through manufacturer correspondence, product labeling examination, and online nutrition database research. Focus was placed on citrus-flavored soft drinks, teas, and juice products and their impact on a patient's immunosuppressant regimens. Twenty-three beverages were identified that contained grapefruit. Five did not contain the word "grapefruit" in the product name. In addition to the confirmed grapefruit-containing products, 17 products were identified as possibly containing grapefruit juice or grapefruit extract. A greater emphasis should be placed upon properly educating patients regarding hidden sources of grapefruit in popular US beverages and the potential for food-drug interactions.

  7. Iceland as the largest source of natural air pollution in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagsson Waldhauserova, Pavla; Meinander, Outi; Olafsson, Haraldur; Arnalds, Olafur

    2017-04-01

    Arctic aerosols are often attributed to the Arctic Haze and long-range transport tracers. There is, however, an important dust source in the Arctic/Sub-arctic region which should receive more attention. The largest desert in the Arctic as well as in the Europe is Iceland with > 40,000 km2 of desert areas. The mean dust suspension frequency was 135 dust days annually in 1949-2012 with decreasing numbers in 2013-2015. The annual dust deposition was calculated as 31-40 million tons yr-1 affecting the area of > 500,000 km2. Satelite MODIS pictures have revealed dust plumes traveling > 1000 km at times. The physical properties of Icelandic dust showed differences in mineralogy, geochemical compositions, shapes, sizes, and colour, compared to the crustal mineral dust. Icelandic dust is of volcanic origin, dark in colour with sharp-tipped shards and large bubbles. About 80% of the particulate matter is volcanic glass rich in heavy metals, such as iron and titanium. Suspended dust measured at the glacial dust source consisted of such high number of close-to-ultrafine particles as concentrations during active eruptions. Generally, about 50% of the suspended PM10 are submicron particles in Iceland. Contrarily, suspended grains > 2 mm were captured during severe dust storm after the 2010 Eyjafjallajokull eruption when the aeolian transport exceeded 11 t m-1 of materials and placed this storms among the most extreme wind erosion events recorded on Earth. Our reflectance measurements showed that Icelandic dust deposited on snow lowers the snow albedo and reduces the snow density as much as Black Carbon. Icelandic volcanic dust tends to act as a positive climate forcing agent, both directly and indirectly, which is different to what generally concluded for crustal dust in the 2013 IPCC report. The high frequency, severity and year-round activity of volcanic dust emissions suggest that Icelandic dust may contribute to Arctic warming.

  8. Sources and distribution of microplastics in China's largest inland lake - Qinghai Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiong; Zhang, Kai; Chen, Xianchuan; Shi, Huahong; Luo, Ze; Wu, Chenxi

    2018-04-01

    Microplastic pollution was studied in China's largest inland lake - Qinghai Lake in this work. Microplastics were detected with abundance varies from 0.05 × 10 5 to 7.58 × 10 5 items km -2 in the lake surface water, 0.03 × 10 5 to 0.31 × 10 5 items km -2 in the inflowing rivers, 50 to 1292 items m -2 in the lakeshore sediment, and 2 to 15 items per individual in the fish samples, respectively. Small microplastics (0.1-0.5 mm) dominated in the lake surface water while large microplastics (1-5 mm) are more abundant in the river samples. Microplastics were predominantly in sheet and fiber shapes in the lake and river water samples but were more diverse in the lakeshore sediment samples. Polymer types of microplastics were mainly polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) as identified using Raman Spectroscopy. Spatially, microplastic abundance was the highest in the central part of the lake, likely due to the transport of lake current. Based on the higher abundance of microplastics near the tourist access points, plastic wastes from tourism are considered as an important source of microplastics in Qinghai Lake. As an important area for wildlife conservation, better waste management practice should be implemented, and waste disposal and recycling infrastructures should be improved for the protection of Qinghai Lake. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Potential of renewable and alternative energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalov, V.; Pogharnitskaya, O.; Rostovshchikova, A.; Matveenko, I.

    2015-11-01

    The article deals with application potential of clean alternative renewable energy sources. By means of system analysis the forecast for consumption of electrical energy in Tomsk Oblast as well as main energy sources of existing energy system have been studied up to 2018. Engineering potential of renewable and alternative energy sources is evaluated. Besides, ranking in the order of their efficiency descending is performed. It is concluded that Tomsk Oblast has high potential of alternative and renewable energy sources, among which the most promising development perspective is implementation of gasification stations to save fuel consumed by diesel power stations as well as building wind-power plants.

  10. Assessing the Underwater Acoustics of the World's Largest Vibration Hammer (OCTA-KONG) and Its Potential Effects on the Indo-Pacific Humpbacked Dolphin (Sousa chinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhitao; Wu, Yuping; Duan, Guoqin; Cao, Hanjiang; Liu, Jianchang; Wang, Kexiong; Wang, Ding

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise in aquatic environments is a worldwide concern due to its potential adverse effects on the environment and aquatic life. The Hongkong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge is currently under construction in the Pearl River Estuary, a hot spot for the Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in China. The OCTA-KONG, the world's largest vibration hammer, is being used during this construction project to drive or extract steel shell piles 22 m in diameter. This activity poses a substantial threat to marine mammals, and an environmental assessment is critically needed. The underwater acoustic properties of the OCTA-KONG were analyzed, and the potential impacts of the underwater acoustic energy on Sousa, including auditory masking and physiological impacts, were assessed. The fundamental frequency of the OCTA-KONG vibration ranged from 15 Hz to 16 Hz, and the noise increments were below 20 kHz, with a dominant frequency and energy below 10 kHz. The resulting sounds are most likely detectable by Sousa over distances of up to 3.5 km from the source. Although Sousa clicks do not appear to be adversely affected, Sousa whistles are susceptible to auditory masking, which may negatively impact this species' social life. Therefore, a safety zone with a radius of 500 m is proposed. Although the zero-to-peak source level (SL) of the OCTA-KONG was lower than the physiological damage level, the maximum root-mean-square SL exceeded the cetacean safety exposure level on several occasions. Moreover, the majority of the unweighted cumulative source sound exposure levels (SSELs) and the cetacean auditory weighted cumulative SSELs exceeded the acoustic threshold levels for the onset of temporary threshold shift, a type of potentially recoverable auditory damage resulting from prolonged sound exposure. These findings may aid in the identification and design of appropriate mitigation methods, such as the use of air bubble curtains, “soft start” and “power down

  11. Assessing the underwater acoustics of the world's largest vibration hammer (OCTA-KONG and its potential effects on the Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphin (Sousa chinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhitao Wang

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic noise in aquatic environments is a worldwide concern due to its potential adverse effects on the environment and aquatic life. The Hongkong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge is currently under construction in the Pearl River Estuary, a hot spot for the Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphin (Sousa chinensis in China. The OCTA-KONG, the world's largest vibration hammer, is being used during this construction project to drive or extract steel shell piles 22 m in diameter. This activity poses a substantial threat to marine mammals, and an environmental assessment is critically needed. The underwater acoustic properties of the OCTA-KONG were analyzed, and the potential impacts of the underwater acoustic energy on Sousa, including auditory masking and physiological impacts, were assessed. The fundamental frequency of the OCTA-KONG vibration ranged from 15 Hz to 16 Hz, and the noise increments were below 20 kHz, with a dominant frequency and energy below 10 kHz. The resulting sounds are most likely detectable by Sousa over distances of up to 3.5 km from the source. Although Sousa clicks do not appear to be adversely affected, Sousa whistles are susceptible to auditory masking, which may negatively impact this species' social life. Therefore, a safety zone with a radius of 500 m is proposed. Although the zero-to-peak source level (SL of the OCTA-KONG was lower than the physiological damage level, the maximum root-mean-square SL exceeded the cetacean safety exposure level on several occasions. Moreover, the majority of the unweighted cumulative source sound exposure levels (SSELs and the cetacean auditory weighted cumulative SSELs exceeded the acoustic threshold levels for the onset of temporary threshold shift, a type of potentially recoverable auditory damage resulting from prolonged sound exposure. These findings may aid in the identification and design of appropriate mitigation methods, such as the use of air bubble curtains, "soft start" and "power down

  12. Potential radiation exposure in emergencies involving neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marathe, P.K.; Bisht, J.S.; Massand, O.P.; Venkataraman, G.; Nandakumar, A.N.

    1996-01-01

    Incidents involving neutron sources, particularly in the field of oil well logging, may involve potential hazards by way of source lost above ground, lost under water at a depth or source damaged and spread over an area. While every effort should be made for retrieving a lost source or contain the contamination, there could be occasions when abandonment of the source may be preferable to retrieval. However, the decision to abandon the source needs to be guided primarily by considerations of potential exposure and the cost of retrieval. This report briefly discusses these aspects of such emergencies. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Geothermal source potential and utilization for alcohol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin, J.C.

    1981-11-01

    A study was conducted to assess the technical and economic feasibility of using a potential geothermal source to drive a fuel grade alcohol plant. Test data from the well at the site indicated that the water temperature at approximately 8500 feet should approach 275/sup 0/F. However, no flow data was available, and so the volume of hot water that can be expected from a well at this site is unknown. Using the available data, numerous fuel alcohol production processes and various heat utilization schemes were investigated to determine the most cost effective system for using the geothermal resource. The study found the direct application of hot water for alcohol production based on atmospheric processes using low pressure steam to be most cost effective. The geothermal flow rates were determined for various sizes of alcohol production facility using 275/sup 0/F water, 235/sup 0/F maximum processing temperature, 31,000 and 53,000 Btu per gallon energy requirements, and appropriate process approach temperatures. It was determined that a 3 million gpy alcohol plant is the largest facility that can practically be powered by the flow from one large geothermal well. An order-of-magnitude cost estimate was prepared, operating costs were calculated, the economic feasibility of the propsed project was examined, and a sensitivity analysis was performed.

  14. Solar energy potential of the largest buildings in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wence, E. R.; Grodsky, S.; Hernandez, R. R.

    2017-12-01

    Sustainable pathways of land use for energy are necessary to mitigate climate change and limit conversion of finite land resources needed for conservation and food production. Large, commercial buildings (LCBs) are increasing in size and number throughout the United States (US) and may serve as suitable recipient environments for photovoltaic (PV) solar energy infrastructure that may support a low carbon, low land footprint energy transition. In this study, we identified, characterized, and evaluated the technical potential of the largest, commercial building rooftops (i.e., exceeding 110,000 m2) and their associated parking lots in the US for PV solar energy systems using Aurora, a cloud-based solar optimization platform. We also performed a case study of building-specific electricity generation: electricity consumption balance. Further, we quantified the environmental co-benefit of land sparing and associated avoided emissions (t-CO2-eq) conferred under the counterfactual scenario that solar development would otherwise proceed as a ground-mounted, utility-scale PV installation of equal nominal capacity. We identified and mapped 37 LCBs (by rooftop area) across 18 states in the US, spanning from as far north as the state of Minnesota to as far south as Florida. Rooftop footprints range from 427,297 to 113,689 m2 and have a cumulative surface area of 99.8 million ft2. We characterize the LCBs as either: distribution/warehouse, factory, shopping center, or administrative office/facility. Three of the 37 LCBs currently support rooftop PV and the numbers of associated, detached buildings number up to 38. This study elucidates the extent to which LCBs and their respective parking lots can serve as suitable sites for PV solar energy generation. Lastly, this study demonstrates research-based applications of the Aurora energy modeling platform and informs decision-making focused on redirecting energy development towards human-modified landscapes to prioritize land use for

  15. Potential sources for the radiation treatment of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sande, W.E.; Libby, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The present, near-term, and potential (through year 2000) supply of radiation sources for large-scale radiosterilization applications is discussed. Principal sources considered are 60 Co produced in nuclear power reactors, 137 Cs presently available from ERDA encapsulation operations, and a mixture of 134 Cs- 137 Cs potentially available from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. Some consideration is also given to electron accelerators

  16. Printed paper and board food contact materials as a potential source of food contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bossuyt, Melissa; Van Hoeck, Els; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera; Mertens, Birgit

    2016-11-01

    Food contact materials (FCM) are estimated to be the largest source of food contamination. Apart from plastics, the most commonly used FCM are made of printed paper and board. Unlike their plastic counterparts, these are not covered by a specific European regulation. Several contamination issues have raised concerns towards potential adverse health effects caused by exposure to substances migrating from printed paper and board FCM. In the current study, an inventory combining the substances which may be used in printed paper and board FCM, was created. More than 6000 unique compounds were identified, the majority (77%) considered non-evaluated in terms of potential toxicity. Based on a preliminary study of their physicochemical properties, it is estimated that most of the non-evaluated single substances have the potential to migrate into the food and become bioavailable after oral intake. Almost all are included in the FACET tool, indicating that their use in primary food packaging has been confirmed by industry. Importantly, 19 substances are also present in one of the lists with substances of concern compiled by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). To ensure consumer safety, the actual use of these substances in printed paper and board FCM should be investigated urgently. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Unused energy sources inducing minimal pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, A [Inst. fur Reaktorentwicklung, Kernforschungsanlage Julich GmbH, German Federal Republic

    1974-01-01

    The contribution of hydroelectricity to the growing worldwide energy demand is not expected to exceed 6%. As the largest amount of hydroelectric potential is located in developing nations, it will find its greatest development outside the currently industrialized sphere. The potential of 60 GW ascribed to tidal and geothermal energy is a negligible quantity. Solar energy represents an essentially inexhaustible source, but technological problems will preclude any major contribution from it during this century. The environmental problems caused by these 'new' energy sources are different from those engendered by fossil and nuclear power plants, but they are not negligible. It is irresponsible and misleading to describe them as pollution-free.

  18. UHE point source survey at Cygnus experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, X.; Yodh, G.B.; Alexandreas, D.E.; Allen, R.C.; Berley, D.; Biller, S.D.; Burman, R.L.; Cady, R.; Chang, C.Y.; Dingus, B.L.; Dion, G.M.; Ellsworth, R.W.; Gilra, M.K.; Goodman, J.A.; Haines, T.J.; Hoffman, C.M.; Kwok, P.; Lloyd-Evans, J.; Nagle, D.E.; Potter, M.E.; Sandberg, V.D.; Stark, M.J.; Talaga, R.L.; Vishwanath, P.R.; Zhang, W.

    1991-01-01

    A new method of searching for UHE point source has been developed. With a data sample of 150 million events, we have surveyed the sky for point sources over 3314 locations (1.4 degree <δ<70.4 degree). It was found that their distribution is consistent with a random fluctuation. In addition, fifty two known potential sources, including pulsars and binary x-ray sources, were studied. The source with the largest positive excess is the Crab Nebula. An excess of 2.5 sigma above the background is observed in a bin of 2.3 degree by 2.5 degree in declination and right ascension respectively

  19. Loy Yang A - Australia's largest privatisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yenckin, C.

    1997-01-01

    The recent A$4,746 million privatisation of the 2000MW Loy Yang A power station and the Loy Yang coal mine by the Victorian Government is Australia's largest privatisation and one of 1997's largest project financing deals. (author)

  20. Potential GTCC LLW sealed radiation source recycle initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, D.

    1992-04-01

    This report suggests 11 actions that have the potential to facilitate the recycling (reuse or radionuclide) of surplus commercial sealed radiation sources that would otherwise be disposed of as greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste. The suggestions serve as a basis for further investigation and discussion between the Department of Energy, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Agreement States, and the commercial sector. Information is also given that describes sealed sources, how they are used, and problems associated with recycling, including legal concerns. To illustrate the nationwide recycling potential, Appendix A gives the estimated quantity and application information for sealed sources that would qualify for disposal in commercial facilities if not recycle. The report recommends that the Department of Energy initiate the organization of a forum to explore the suggested actions and other recycling possibilities

  1. Quantifying the potential for reservoirs to secure future surface water yields in the world’s largest river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Parkinson, Simon; Gidden, Matthew; Byers, Edward; Satoh, Yusuke; Riahi, Keywan; Forman, Barton

    2018-04-01

    Surface water reservoirs provide us with reliable water supply, hydropower generation, flood control and recreation services. Yet reservoirs also cause flow fragmentation in rivers and lead to flooding of upstream areas, thereby displacing existing land-use activities and ecosystems. Anticipated population growth and development coupled with climate change in many regions of the globe suggests a critical need to assess the potential for future reservoir capacity to help balance rising water demands with long-term water availability. Here, we assess the potential of large-scale reservoirs to provide reliable surface water yields while also considering environmental flows within 235 of the world’s largest river basins. Maps of existing cropland and habitat conservation zones are integrated with spatially-explicit population and urbanization projections from the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways to identify regions unsuitable for increasing water supply by exploiting new reservoir storage. Results show that even when maximizing the global reservoir storage to its potential limit (∼4.3–4.8 times the current capacity), firm yields would only increase by about 50% over current levels. However, there exist large disparities across different basins. The majority of river basins in North America are found to gain relatively little firm yield by increasing storage capacity, whereas basins in Southeast Asia display greater potential for expansion as well as proportional gains in firm yield under multiple uncertainties. Parts of Europe, the United States and South America show relatively low reliability of maintaining current firm yields under future climate change, whereas most of Asia and higher latitude regions display comparatively high reliability. Findings from this study highlight the importance of incorporating different factors, including human development, land-use activities, and climate change, over a time span of multiple decades and across a range of different

  2. Leptospirosis risk around a potential source of infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loaiza-Echeverry, Erica; Hincapié-Palacio, Doracelly; Ochoa Acosta, Jesús; Ospina Giraldo, Juan

    2015-05-01

    Leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonosis with world distribution and multiform clinical spectrum in men and animals. The etiology of this disease is the pathogenic species of Leptospira, which cause diverse manifestations of the disease, from mild to serious, such as the Weil disease and the lung hemorrhagic syndrome with lethal proportions of 10% - 50%. This is an emerging problem of urban health due to the growth of marginal neighborhoods without basic sanitary conditions and an increased number of rodents. The presence of rodents and the probability of having contact with their urine determine the likelihood for humans to get infected. In this paper, we simulate the spatial distribution of risk infection of human leptospirosis according to the proximity to rodent burrows considered as potential source of infection. The Bessel function K0 with an r distance from the potential point source, and the scale parameter α in meters was used. Simulation inputs were published data of leptospirosis incidence rate (range of 5 to 79 x 10 000), and a distance of 100 to 5000 meters from the source of infection. We obtained an adequate adjustment between the function and the simulated data. The risk of infection increases with the proximity of the potential source. This estimation can become a guide to propose effective measures of control and prevention.

  3. The tokamak as a neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendel, H.W.; Jassby, D.L.

    1989-11-01

    This paper describes the tokamak in its role as a neutron source, with emphasis on experimental results for D-D neutron production. The sections summarize tokamak operation, sources of fusion and non-fusion neutrons, principal neutron detection methods and their calibration, neutron energy spectra and fluxes outside the tokamak plasma chamber, history of neutron production in tokamaks, neutron emission and fusion power gain from JET and TFTR (the largest present-day tokamaks), and D-T neutron production from burnup of D-D tritons. This paper also discusses the prospects for future tokamak neutron production and potential applications of tokamak neutron sources. 100 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Potential for unconventional energy sources for the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leighton, L H; Wright, J K; Syrett, J J

    1977-01-01

    The unconventional sources considered are solar energy, wind power, wave and tidal power, and geothermal heat. Their potential contribution to energy supply in the UK is being assessed as part of a wider exercise aimed at formulating a national energy R and D strategy sufficiently robust to be valid for a wide range of possible future conditions. For each of the sources considered, the present state of knowledge of the magnitude of the potential resource base is outlined and the inherent characteristics of each are discussed in terms of environmental impact and of estimated cost relative to conventional technology. With respect to the latter, attention is drawn to the inherent variability of most of the sources, which imposes upon them a cost penalty for back-up plant and/or large scale storage is firm power is to be assured. The progress that has been made in drawing up, for each of the sources, a national R and D program compatible with the assessment of development potential is outlined, and a tentative estimate is made of the maximum credible contribution the sources could make to energy supply in the UK by the end of the century. The concluding paragraphs deal with the prospects for the next century and indicate that the long-term uncertainties on energy supply justify a determined effort to convert the most promising of the unconventional sources into the well-researched technological options that may be needed.

  5. [Animals as a potential source of human fungal infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworecka-Kaszak, Bozena

    2008-01-01

    Changing environment is a reason, that many saprotrophic fungi became opportunists and in the end also maybe a pathogenic. Host specific adaptation is not so strong among fungi, so there are many common fungal pathogens for people and for animals. Animals suffering from dermatomycosis are well recognize as source of human superficial mycoses. Breeding of different exotic animals such as parrots, various Reptiles and Amphibians, miniature Rodents and keeping them as a pets in the peoples houses, have become more and more popular in the recent years. This article is shortly presenting which animals maybe a potential source of fungal infections for humans. Looking for the other mycoses as systemic mycoses, especially candidiasis or aspergilosis there are no data, which allow excluding sick animals as a source of infection for human, even if those deep mycoses have endogenic reactivation mechanism. Immunocompromised people are in high-risk group when they take care of animals. Another important source of potentially pathogenic, mostly air-born fungi may be animal use in experimental laboratory work. During the experiments is possible that laboratory workers maybe hurt and these animals and their environment, food and house boxes could be the possible source of microorganisms, pathogenic for humans or other animals. Unusual way to inoculate these potentially pathogens into the skin of laboratory personnel may cause granulomatous, local lesions on their hands.

  6. Open Source Information in Support of Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopher, G.

    2015-01-01

    Open source techniques are an increasingly important tool for in safeguards. From social networking sites, such as Linkedin, to B2B portals like Alibaba, there are large open source databases that touch all aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle, from goods to scientists. This is in addition to the wealth of more traditional open source tools such as search engines. In this paper we focus on the potential of B2B sites to provide dual use goods for use in the nuclear fuel cycle. We will discuss the availability of these items as well as the frequency and content of tenders. As many of the largest sites—by traffic and content—are in Asia we will examine the potential of these sites to provide goods used in the nuclear fuel cycle. (author)

  7. The potential of new renewable energy sources in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, P.; Kaiser, T.; Wokaun, A.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents and discusses the results of an evaluation made by the so-called 'Swiss Energy Trialogue' ETS on the potential offered by new renewable energy sources in Switzerland. The evaluation forecasts an important contribution to Swiss energy supply by renewable energy sources by the year 2050. The authors are of the opinion that, in spite of a considerable increase in the offers of renewable energy and the full use of energy saving potential, a discrepancy will exist between estimates of energy needs and the actual energy available from renewable resources if large-scale power generation facilities are not built. Activities proposed by the Swiss government are discussed and analysed. In particular, possible contributions to be made by renewable energy sources are examined. Suggestions made by ETS concerning possible courses of action are discussed

  8. Neutron sources: Present practice and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cierjacks, S.; Smith, A.B.

    1988-01-01

    The present capability and future potential of accelerator-based monoenergetic and white neutron sources are outlined in the context of fundamental and applied neutron-nuclear research. The neutron energy range extends from thermal to 500 MeV, and the time domain from steady-state to pico-second pulsed sources. Accelerator technology is summarized, including the production of intense light-ion, heavy-ion and electron beams. Target capabilities are discussed with attention to neutron-producing efficiency and power-handling capabilities. The status of underlying neutron-producing reactions is summarized. The present and future use of neutron sources in: fundamental neutron-nuclear research, nuclear data acquisition, materials damage studies, engineering tests, and biomedical applications are discussed. Emphasis is given to current status, near-term advances well within current technology, and to long-range projections. 90 refs., 4 figs

  9. The Environmental Responsibility of the World’s Largest Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszawska Bożena

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability transition is changing the role and function of banks, specially their products and services also in relation to stakeholders. Banks are one of the main actors supporting the transition to sustainable economy. The purpose of this study is to emphasise the role of world’s largest banks in that process. Banks are slowly responding to the new demand of sustainability and responsibility, and they try to align with it. The paper is based on an overview of the world’s five largest banks that employ corporate social responsibility (CSR reporting standards, together with detailed enumeration of pro-environmental activities included in the reports. The first section of this paper presents the most popular approaches to the problem at hand, as reported in professional literature. Section two presents the characteristics of the CSR actions in banks. The third section discusses the environmental actions of the biggest banks in Global Reporting Initiative (GRI reporting the most popular standard for reporting non-financial information. And the last part of the paper presents the conclusions resulting from the article. The research was conducted using a variety of sources, such as scientific articles, statistical data, CSR reports of the world’s largest banks, as well reporting principles and standard disclosures. The basic method used in the process of writing was a critical analysis of literature and reports concerning the CSR reporting standards, environmental responsibilities of different kinds of entities, as well as own observations based on special reports of banks. In the article, also the analysis of financial market data, induction method and comparison method have been used. The main conclusions of the analysis of the CSR reports disclosed by the world’s largest banks confirm all three of the theses presented in the article. The findings suggest that the banks under study can be regarded as environmentally responsible

  10. Australia's CO2 geological storage potential and matching of emission sources to potential sinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradshaw, J.; Bradshaw, B.E.; Wilson, P.; Spencer, L.; Allinson, G.; Nguyen, V.

    2004-01-01

    Within the GEODISC program of the Australian Petroleum Cooperative Research Centre (APCRC), Geoscience Australia (GA) and the University of New South Wales (UNSW) have completed an analysis of the potential for the geological storage of CO 2 . The geological analysis assessed over 100 potential environmentally sustainable sites for CO 2 injection (ESSCIs) by applying a deterministic risk assessment based on the five factors of: storage capacity, injectivity potential, site details, containment and natural resources. Utilising a risked storage capacity suggests that at a regional scale Australia has a CO 2 storage potential in excess of 1600 years of current annual total net emissions. Whilst this estimate does give an idea of the enormous magnitude of the geological storage potential of CO 2 in Australia, it does not account for various factors that are evident in source to sink matching. If preferences due to source to sink matching are incorporated, and an assumption is made that some economic imperative will apply to encourage geological storage of CO 2 , then a more realistic analysis can be derived. In such a case, Australia may have the potential to store a maximum of 25% of our total annual net emissions, or approximately 100-115 Mt CO 2 per year. (author)

  11. Plasma potentials and performance of the advanced electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.Q.; Lyneis, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    The mean plasma potential was measured on the LBL advanced electron cyclotron resonance (AECR) ion source for a variety of conditions. The mean potentials for plasmas of oxygen, argon, and argon mixed with oxygen in the AECR were determined. These plasma potentials are positive with respect to the plasma chamber wall and are on the order of tens of volts. Electrons injected into the plasma by an electron gun or from an aluminum oxide wall coating with a very high secondary electron emission reduce the plasma potential as does gas mixing. A lower plasma potential in the AECR source coincides with enhanced production of high charged state ions indicating longer ion confinement times. The effect of the extra electrons from external injection or wall coatings is to lower the average plasma potential and to increase the n e τ i of the ECR plasma. With sufficient extra electrons, the need for gas mixing can be eliminated or reduced to a lower level, so the source can operate at lower neutral pressures. A reduction of the neutral pressure decreases charge exchange between ions and neutrals and enhances the production of high charge state ions. An aluminum oxide coating results in the lowest plasma potential among the three methods discussed and the best source performance

  12. Potential Sources of Polarized Light from a Plant Canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Vern; Daughtry, Craig; Dahlgren, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Field measurements have demonstrated that sunlight polarized during a first surface reflection by shiny leaves dominates the optical polarization of the light reflected by shiny-leafed plant canopies having approximately spherical leaf angle probability density functions ("Leaf Angle Distributions" - LAD). Yet for other canopies - specifically those without shiny leaves and/or spherical LADs - potential sources of optically polarized light may not always be obvious. Here we identify possible sources of polarized light within those other canopies and speculate on the ecologically important information polarization measurements of those sources might contain.

  13. Oceans of Opportunity. Harnessing Europe's largest domestic energy resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichaux, N.; Wilkes, J.

    2009-09-01

    Europe's offshore wind potential is enormous and able to power Europe seven times over. Over 100 GW of offshore wind projects are already in various stages of planning. If realised, these projects would produce 10% of the EU's electricity whilst avoiding 200 million tonnes of CO2 emissions each year. EWEA has a target of 40 GW of offshore wind in the EU by 2020, implying an average annual market growth of 28% over the coming 12 years. The EU market for onshore wind grew by an average 32% per year in the 12-year period from 1992-2004 - what the wind energy industry has achieved on land can be repeated at sea. EWEA's proposed offshore grid builds on the 11 offshore grids currently operating and 21 offshore grids currently being considered by the grid operators in the Baltic and North Seas to give Europe a truly pan-European electricity super highway. Strong political support and action from Europe's policy-makers will allow a new, multi-billion euro industry to be built. This new industry will deliver thousands of green collar jobs and a new renewable energy economy and establish Europe as world leader in offshore wind power technology. A single European electricity market with large amounts of wind power will bring affordable electricity to consumers, reduce import dependence, cut CO2 emissions and allow Europe to access its largest domestic energy source.

  14. Environmental isotope signatures of the largest freshwater lake in Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unnikrishnan Warrier, C.

    2007-01-01

    Sasthamkotta lake, the largest freshwater lake in Kerala, serves as a source for drinking water for more than half a million people. Environmental 137 Cs analysis done on undisturbed sediment core samples reveals that the recent rate of sedimentation is not uniform in the lake. The useful life of lake is estimated as about 800 years. The δD and δ 18 O values of the lake waters indicate that the lake is well mixed with a slight variation horizontally. The stable isotope studies on well waters from the catchment indicate hydraulic communication with the lake and lake groundwater system is flow-through type. Analytical model also supports this view. (author)

  15. Largest College Endowments, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Of all endowments valued at more than $250-million, the UCLA Foundation had the highest rate of growth over the previous year, at 49 percent. This article presents a table of the largest college endowments in 2011. The table covers the "rank," "institution," "market value as of June 30, 2011," and "1-year change" of institutions participating in…

  16. Volatile chemical products emerging as largest petrochemical source of urban organic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Brian C.; de Gouw, Joost A.; Gilman, Jessica B.; Jathar, Shantanu H.; Akherati, Ali; Cappa, Christopher D.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Lee-Taylor, Julia; Hayes, Patrick L.; McKeen, Stuart A.; Cui, Yu Yan; Kim, Si-Wan; Gentner, Drew R.; Isaacman-VanWertz, Gabriel; Goldstein, Allen H.; Harley, Robert A.; Frost, Gregory J.; Roberts, James M.; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Trainer, Michael

    2018-02-01

    A gap in emission inventories of urban volatile organic compound (VOC) sources, which contribute to regional ozone and aerosol burdens, has increased as transportation emissions in the United States and Europe have declined rapidly. A detailed mass balance demonstrates that the use of volatile chemical products (VCPs)—including pesticides, coatings, printing inks, adhesives, cleaning agents, and personal care products—now constitutes half of fossil fuel VOC emissions in industrialized cities. The high fraction of VCP emissions is consistent with observed urban outdoor and indoor air measurements. We show that human exposure to carbonaceous aerosols of fossil origin is transitioning away from transportation-related sources and toward VCPs. Existing U.S. regulations on VCPs emphasize mitigating ozone and air toxics, but they currently exempt many chemicals that lead to secondary organic aerosols.

  17. The versatile biopolymer chitosan: potential sources, evaluation of extraction methods and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Surinder; Dhillon, Gurpreet Singh

    2014-05-01

    Among the biopolymers, chitin and its derivative chitosan (CTS) have been receiving increasing attention. Both are composed of randomly distributed β-(1-4)-linked d-glucosamine and N-acetyl glucosamine units. On commercial scale, CTS is mainly obtained from the crustacean shells. The chemical methods employed for extraction of CTS from crustacean shells are laden with many disadvantages. Waste fungal biomass represents a potential biological source of CTS, in fact with superior physico-chemical properties, such as high degree of deacetylation, low molecular weight, devoid of protein contamination and high bioactivity. Researchers around the globe are attempting to commercialize CTS production and extraction from fungal sources. Fungi are promising and environmentally benign source of CTS and they have the potential to completely replace crustacean-derived CTS. Waste fungal biomass resulting from various pharmaceutical and biotechnological industries is grown on inexpensive agro-industrial wastes and its by-products are a rich and inexpensive source of CTS. CTS is emerging as an important natural polymer having broad range of applications in different fields. In this context, the present review discusses the potential sources of CTS and their advantages and disadvantages. This review also deals with potential applications of CTS in different fields. Finally, the various attributes of CTS sought in different applications are discussed.

  18. Biotechnological route for sustainable succinate production utilizing oil palm frond and kenaf as potential carbon sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthfi, Abdullah Amru Indera; Manaf, Shareena Fairuz Abdul; Illias, Rosli Md; Harun, Shuhaida; Mohammad, Abdul Wahab; Jahim, Jamaliah Md

    2017-04-01

    Due to the world's dwindling energy supplies, greater thrust has been placed on the utilization of renewable resources for global succinate production. Exploration of such biotechnological route could be seen as an act of counterbalance to the continued fossil fuel dominance. Malaysia being a tropical country stands out among many other nations for its plenty of resources in the form of lignocellulosic biomass. To date, oil palm frond (OPF) contributes to the largest fraction of agricultural residues in Malaysia, while kenaf, a newly introduced fiber crop with relatively high growth rate, holds great potential for developing sustainable succinate production, apart from OPF. Utilization of non-food, inexhaustible, and low-cost derived biomass in the form of OPF and kenaf for bio-based succinate production remains largely untapped. Owing to the richness of carbohydrates in OPF and kenaf, bio-succinate commercialization using these sources appears as an attractive proposition for future sustainable developments. The aim of this paper was to review some research efforts in developing a biorefinery system based on OPF and kenaf as processing inputs. It presents the importance of the current progress in bio-succinate commercialization, in addition to describing the potential use of different succinate production hosts and various pretreatments-saccharifications under development for OPF and kenaf. Evaluations on the feasibility of OPF and kenaf as fermentation substrates are also discussed.

  19. Sediment sources in a small agricultural catchment: A composite fingerprinting approach based on the selection of potential sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huiping; Chang, Weina; Zhang, Longjiang

    2016-08-01

    Fingerprinting techniques have been widely used as a reasonable and reliable means for investigating sediment sources, especially in relatively large catchments in which there are significant differences in surface materials. However, the discrimination power of fingerprint properties for small catchments, in which the surface materials are relatively homogeneous and human interference is marked, may be affected by fragmentary or confused source information. Using fingerprinting techniques can be difficult, and there is still a need for further studies to verify the effectiveness of such techniques in these small catchments. A composite fingerprinting approach was used in this study to investigate the main sources of sediment output, as well as their relative contributions, from a small catchment (30 km2) with high levels of farming and mining activities. The impact of the selection of different potential sediment sources on the derivation of composite fingerprints and its discrimination power were also investigated by comparing the results from different combinations of potential source types. The initial source types and several samples that could cause confusion were adjusted. These adjustments improved the discrimination power of the composite fingerprints. The results showed that the composite fingerprinting approach used in this study had a discriminatory efficiency of 89.2% for different sediment sources and that the model had a mean goodness of fit of 0.90. Cultivated lands were the main sediment source. The sediment contribution of the studied cultivated lands ranged from 39.9% to 87.8%, with a mean of 76.6%, for multiple deposited sediment samples. The mean contribution of woodlands was 21.7%. Overall, the sediment contribution from mining and road areas was relatively low. The selection of potential sources is an important factor in the application of fingerprinting techniques and warrants more attention in future studies, as is the case with other

  20. Largest particle detector nearing completion

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "Construction of another part of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the worl's largest particle accelerator at CERN in Switzerland, is nearing completion. The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is oner of the LHC project's four large particle detectors. (1/2 page)

  1. Potential Sources for Lipid Soluble Food Colorants from Selected Malaysian Traditional Vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashidi Othman; Fatimah Azzahra Mohd Zaifuddin; Norazian Mohd Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Colour is one important characteristic to food products as it dictates consumers first perception on the foods flavour and quality. In the current food industry, most of the colorants used were derived from synthetic sources. However, due to negative health impacts of the synthetic colorants, the urgency to find natural colorants and impose it to food products is of great importance. In this study, a group of plant pigments which are potentially introduced as natural food colorants were quantified from 24 species of local traditional vegetables (ulam), characterized as neoxanthin, violaxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthine, α-carotene and β-carotene by using HPLC. It was shown that Sauropus androgynous contained the highest amount of neoxanthin, violaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthine at 142.40±3.57, 28.06±0.65 and 0.07±0.00 mg/ g dry weight (DW), respectively. In contrast, highest content of lutein and α-carotene were observed in Centella asiatica at 16.53±0.97 and 2.14±0.12 mg/ g DW, accordingly. Meanwhile, Piper sarmentosum contained the highest zeaxanthin level (123.45±12.3 mg/ g DW) and Oenanthe javanica has the largest amount of β-carotene (3.09±0.06 mg/ g DW). The extracted yellow-to-red lipid soluble pigments can be further developed into commercial food colorant to replace the synthetic colorants in the market thus improving social awareness towards natural products as well as strengthening the national economy. (author)

  2. Ownership, financing, and management strategies of the ten largest for-profit nursing home chains in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Charlene; Hauser, Clarilee; Olney, Brian; Rosenau, Pauline Vaillancourt

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the ownership, financing, and management strategies of the 10 largest for-profit nursing home chains in the United States, including the four largest chains purchased by private equity corporations. Descriptive data were collected from Internet searches, company reports, and other sources for the decade 1998-2008. Since 1998, the largest chains have made many changes in their ownership and structure, and some have converted from publicly traded companies to private ownership. This study shows the increasing complexity of corporate nursing home ownership and the lack of public information about ownership and financial status. The chains have used strategies to maximize shareholder and investor value that include increasing Medicare revenues, occupancy rates, and company diversification, establishing multiple layers of corporate ownership, developing real estate investment trusts, and creating limited liability companies. These strategies enhance shareholder and investor profits, reduce corporate taxes, and reduce liability risk. There is a need for greater transparency in ownership and financial reporting and for more government oversight of the largest for-profit chains, including those owned by private equity companies.

  3. Valuing the Potential Benefits of Water Quality Improvements in Watersheds Affected by Non-Point Source Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Alvarez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nonpoint source (NPS pollution has been identified by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA as “the nation’s largest water quality problem”. Urban development, septic systems, and agricultural operations have been identified as the major sources of diffuse pollution in surface and ground water bodies. In recent decades, urban and agricultural Best Management Practices (BMP have been developed in several states to address agricultural water quality and water use impacts, including the reduction of nutrient loads to help meet water quality standards. Compliance with BMPs is associated with some costs to local governments, homeowners, and agricultural operations, but the improvements in water quality associated with BMP adoption are expected to yield significant benefits to society in the form of improved recreational opportunities, navigation, flood control, and ecosystem health. The development of sound policies and decision making processes require balancing the costs of BMP adoption to the agricultural operations with the social benefits to be derived from the improved water quality. In this paper we develop a benefits transfer model to provide estimates of the economic benefits of properly implemented and effective Best Management Practices (BMP throughout the state of Florida. These benefit estimates can be used in a cost-benefit framework to determine the optimal level of BMP adoption throughout the state of Florida and provide a framework for other regions to estimate the potential benefits of BMP-mediated water quality improvements.

  4. The largest glitch observed in the Crab pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, B.; Lyne, A. G.; Stappers, B. W.; Weltevrede, P.; Bassa, C. G.; Lien, A. Y.; Mickaliger, M. B.; Breton, R. P.; Jordan, C. A.; Keith, M. J.; Krimm, H. A.

    2018-05-01

    We have observed a large glitch in the Crab pulsar (PSR B0531+21). The glitch occurred around MJD 58064 (2017 November 8) when the pulsar underwent an increase in the rotation rate of Δν = 1.530 × 10-5 Hz, corresponding to a fractional increase of Δν/ν = 0.516 × 10-6 making this event the largest glitch ever observed in this source. Due to our high-cadence and long-dwell time observations of the Crab pulsar we are able to partially resolve a fraction of the total spin-up of the star. This delayed spin-up occurred over a timescale of ˜1.7 days and is similar to the behaviour seen in the 1989 and 1996 large Crab pulsar glitches. The spin-down rate also increased at the glitch epoch by Δ \\dot{ν } / \\dot{ν } = 7 × 10^{-3}. In addition to being the largest such event observed in the Crab, the glitch occurred after the longest period of glitch inactivity since at least 1984 and we discuss a possible relationship between glitch size and waiting time. No changes to the shape of the pulse profile were observed near the glitch epoch at 610 MHz or 1520 MHz, nor did we identify any changes in the X-ray flux from the pulsar. The long-term recovery from the glitch continues to progress as \\dot{ν } slowly rises towards pre-glitch values. In line with other large Crab glitches, we expect there to be a persistent change to \\dot{ν }. We continue to monitor the long-term recovery with frequent, high quality observations.

  5. The global diversion of pharmaceutical drugs. India: the third largest illicit opium producer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Letizia; Greenfield, Victoria A; Charles, Molly; Reuter, Peter

    2009-03-01

    This paper explores India's role in the world illicit opiate market, particularly its role as a producer. India, a major illicit opiate consumer, is also the sole licensed exporter of raw opium: this unique status may be enabling substantial diversion to the illicit market. Participant observation and interviews were carried out at eight different sites. Information was also drawn from all standard secondary sources and the analysis of about 180 drug-related criminal proceedings reviewed by Indian High Courts and the Supreme Court from 1985 to 2001. Diversion from licit opium production takes place on such a large scale that India may be the third largest illicit opium producer after Afghanistan and Burma. With the possible exceptions of 2005 and 2006, 200-300 tons of India's opium may be diverted yearly. After estimating India's opiate consumption on the basis of UN-reported prevalence estimates, we find that diversion from licit production might have satisfied a quarter to more than a third of India's illicit opiate demand to 2004. India is not only among the world's largest consumer of illicit opiates but also one of the largest illicit opium producers. In contrast to all other illicit producers, India owes the latter distinction not to blatantly illicit cultivation but to diversion from licit cultivation. India's experience suggests the difficulty of preventing substantial leakage, even in a relatively well-governed nation.

  6. Estimating and Testing the Sources of Evoked Potentials in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizenga, Hilde M.; Molenaar, Peter C. M.

    1994-01-01

    The source of an event-related brain potential (ERP) is estimated from multivariate measures of ERP on the head under several mathematical and physical constraints on the parameters of the source model. Statistical aspects of estimation are discussed, and new tests are proposed. (SLD)

  7. Largest US oil and gas fields, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-06

    The Largest US Oil and Gas Fields is a technical report and part of an Energy Information Administration (EIA) series presenting distributions of US crude oil and natural gas resources, developed using field-level data collected by EIA`s annual survey of oil and gas proved reserves. The series` objective is to provide useful information beyond that routinely presented in the EIA annual report on crude oil and natural gas reserves. These special reports also will provide oil and gas resource analysts with a fuller understanding of the nature of US crude oil and natural gas occurrence, both at the macro level and with respect to the specific subjects addressed. The series` approach is to integrate EIA`s crude oil and natural gas survey data with related data obtained from other authoritative sources, and then to present illustrations and analyses of interest to a broad spectrum of energy information users ranging from the general public to oil and gas industry personnel.

  8. Largest US oil and gas fields, August 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Largest US Oil and Gas Fields is a technical report and part of an Energy Information Administration (EIA) series presenting distributions of US crude oil and natural gas resources, developed using field-level data collected by EIA's annual survey of oil and gas proved reserves. The series' objective is to provide useful information beyond that routinely presented in the EIA annual report on crude oil and natural gas reserves. These special reports also will provide oil and gas resource analysts with a fuller understanding of the nature of US crude oil and natural gas occurrence, both at the macro level and with respect to the specific subjects addressed. The series' approach is to integrate EIA's crude oil and natural gas survey data with related data obtained from other authoritative sources, and then to present illustrations and analyses of interest to a broad spectrum of energy information users ranging from the general public to oil and gas industry personnel

  9. Hydrocarbon source rock potential evaluation of the Late Paleocene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    63

    research is available on its source rock potential evaluation at Nammal Gorge Section in the Salt. Range, Potwar Basin .... methods of Tucker (2003) and Assaad (2008) have been followed. A total of fifteen ..... Business Media. Baker D M, Lillie ...

  10. Distinguishing potential sources of genotoxic exposure via HPRT mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molholt, B.; Finette, B.A.

    2000-01-01

    T-cell HPRT (hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase) mutations were used to monitor to environmental mutagens in children who have developed cancer at a persistently high rate in Toms River, New Jersey, USA. A preliminary epidemiological study has found a statistically-significant association between drinking public water (by pregnant mother or infant) and subsequent risk for childhood cancer. Three potential sources of mutagenic exposures in Toms River may have increased the rate of carcinogenic initiation significantly in children: 1. Benzidine-based, other azo-dye and anthraquinone dye wastes released by Ciba-Geigy enterprise; 2. Plastic wastes of Union Carbide enterprise; 3. Radium-224, present in unusually high concentrations in the Cohansey aquifer. Specific patterns of HPRT mutations are utilized to distinguish these various potential sources of carcinogenic exposures in the drinking water of families with childhood cancer and to differentiate chemically or radiologically induced cancers from those which occur spontaneously [ru

  11. The potential of renewable sources of energy in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faninger, G.

    1991-11-01

    Besides hydropower and biomass, solar energy and biomass are candidates for renewable sources of energy. The demand for biomass, solar energy and ambient heat has been rising in all spheres: from 6.8% in 1983 to about 10% in 1990. The development of the market for solar and heat pump systems is continuing its positive tendency. It is expected, that solar as well as heat pump technologies could provide substantial contribution to the energy supply in Austria. The technical usable potential of renewable sources of energy in Austria is analysed. (author)

  12. Hydrocarbon Source Rock Potential of the Sinamar Formation, Muara Bungo, Jambi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Heri Hermiyanto Zajuli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v1i1.175The Oligocene Sinamar Formation consists of shale, claystone, mudstone, sandstone, conglomeratic sandstone, and intercalation of coal seams. The objective of study was to identify the hydrocarbon source rock potential of the Sinamar Formation based on geochemichal characteristics. The analyses were focused on fine sediments of the Sinamar Formation comprising shale, claystone, and mudstone. Primary data collected from the Sinamar Formation well and outcrops were analyzed according to TOC, pyrolisis analysis, and gas chromatography - mass spectometry of normal alkanes that include isoprenoids and sterane. The TOC value indicates a very well category. Based on TOC versus Pyrolysis Yields (PY diagram, the shales of Sinamar Formation are included into oil prone source rock potential with good to excellent categories. Fine sediments of the Sinamar Formation tend to produce oil and gas originated from kerogen types I and III. The shales tend to generate oil than claystone and mudstone and therefore they are included into a potential source rock. 

  13. Proximal potentially seismogenic sources for Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    Recent geologic and geophysical investigations within the Albuquerque Basin have shed light on the potentially seismogenic sources that might affect Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM), a multi-disciplinary research and engineering facility of the US Department of Energy (DOE). This paper presents a summary of potentially seismogenic sources for SNL/NM, emphasizing those sources within approximately 8 kilometers (km) of the site. Several significant faults of the central Rio Grande rift transect SNL/NM. Although progress has been made on understanding the geometry and interactions of these faults, little is known of the timing of most recent movement or on recurrent intervals for these faults. Therefore, whether particular faults or fault sections have been active during the Holocene or even the late Pleistocene is undocumented. Although the overall subdued surface expression of many of these faults suggests that they have low to moderate slip rates, the proximity of these faults to critical (e.g., nuclear) and non-critical (e.g., high-occupancy, multistory office/light lab) facilities at SNL/NM requires their careful examination for evaluation of potential seismic hazard

  14. Protection from potential exposures: application to selected radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This ICRP Report begins with the general principles of radiation protection in the case of potential exposures, followed by special issues in application and compliance with regulatory aims. The rest of the report uses event trees or fault trees to derive the logical structure of six scenarios of potential exposure, i.e. two irradiators, a large research accelerator, an accelerator for industrial isotope production, an industrial radiography device using a mobile source of radiation, and finally a medical gamma radiotherapy device. (UK)

  15. Subsurface occurrence and potential source areas of chlorinated ethenes identified using concentrations and concentration ratios, Air Force Plant 4 and Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field, Fort Worth, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, C. Amanda

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force Aeronautical Systems Center, Environmental Management Directorate, conducted a study during 2003-05 to characterize the subsurface occurrence and identify potential source areas of the volatile organic compounds classified as chlorinated ethenes at U.S. Air Force Plant 4 (AFP4) and adjacent Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field (NAS-JRB) at Fort Worth, Texas. The solubilized chlorinated ethenes detected in the alluvial aquifer originated as either released solvents (tetrachloroethene [PCE], trichloroethene [TCE], and trans-1,2-dichloroethene [trans-DCE]) or degradation products of the released solvents (TCE, cis-1,2-dichloroethene [cis-DCE], and trans-DCE). The combined influences of topographic- and bedrock-surface configurations result in a water table that generally slopes away from a ground-water divide approximately coincident with bedrock highs and the 1-mile-long aircraft assembly building at AFP4. Highest TCE concentrations (10,000 to 920,000 micrograms per liter) occur near Building 181, west of Building 12, and at landfill 3. Highest PCE concentrations (500 to 920 micrograms per liter) occur near Buildings 4 and 5. Highest cis-DCE concentrations (5,000 to 710,000 micrograms per liter) occur at landfill 3. Highest trans-DCE concentrations (1,000 to 1,700 micrograms per liter) occur just south of Building 181 and at landfill 3. Ratios of parent-compound to daughter-product concentrations that increase in relatively short distances (tens to 100s of feet) along downgradient ground-water flow paths can indicate a contributing source in the vicinity of the increase. Largest increases in ratio of PCE to TCE concentrations are three orders of magnitude from 0.01 to 2.7 and 7.1 between nearby wells in the northeastern part of NAS-JRB. In the northern part of NAS-JRB, the largest increases in TCE to total DCE concentration ratios relative to ratios at upgradient wells are from 17 to

  16. Utilization of leaf litter as a potential feed source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proximate analysis and In-situ nylon bag ruminal dry matter degradation of fall dropped Liriodendron tulipifera (tulip poplar) and Quercus alba (white oak) leaves were used to determine their potential use as a feed source for ruminant livestock animals. Ash content was 8.24 and 4.69 ...

  17. Spatial and frequency domain ring source models for the single muscle fiber action potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, Kaj-åge; R., Plonsey

    1994-01-01

    In the paper, single-fibre models for the extracellular action potential are developed that will allow the potential to the evaluated at an arbitrary field point in the extracellular space. Fourier-domain models are restricted in that they evaluate potentials at equidistant points along a line...... parallel to the fibre axis. Consequently, they cannot easily evaluate the potential at the boundary nodes of a boundary-element electrode model. The Fourier-domain models employ axial-symmetric ring source models, and thereby provide higher accuracy that the line source model, where the source is lumped...... including anisotropy show that the spatial models require extreme care in the integration procedure owing to the singularity in the weighting functions. With adequate sampling, the spatial models can evaluate extracellular potentials with high accuracy....

  18. Analysis of the Potential of Low-Temperature Heat Pump Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Neuberger

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with an analysis of temperatures of ground masses in the proximities of linear and slinky-type HGHE (horizontal ground heat exchanger. It evaluates and compares the potentials of HGHEs and ambient air. The reason and aim of the verification was to gain knowledge of the temperature course of the monitored low-temperature heat pump energy sources during heating periods and periods of stagnation and to analyse the knowledge in terms of the potential to use those sources for heat pumps. The study was conducted in the years 2012–2015 during three heating periods and three periods of HGHEs stagnation. The results revealed that linear HGHE had the highest temperature potential of the observed low-temperature heat pump energy sources. The average daily temperatures of the ground mass surrounding the linear HGHE were the highest ranging from 7.08 °C to 9.20 °C during the heating periods, and having the lowest temperature variation range of 12.62–15.14 K, the relative frequency of the average daily temperatures of the ground mass being the highest at 22.64% in the temperature range containing the mode of all monitored temperatures in a recorded interval of [4.10, 6.00] °C. Ambient air had lower temperature potential than the monitored HGHEs.

  19. Contribution of PAHs from coal-tar pavement sealcoat and other sources to 40 U.S. lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Mahler, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    Contamination of urban lakes and streams by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has increased in the United States during the past 40 years. We evaluated sources of PAHs in post-1990 sediments in cores from 40 lakes in urban areas across the United States using a contaminant mass-balance receptor model and including as a potential source coal-tar-based (CT) sealcoat, a recently recognized source of urban PAH. Other PAH sources considered included several coal- and vehicle-related sources, wood combustion, and fuel-oil combustion. The four best modeling scenarios all indicate CT sealcoat is the largest PAH source when averaged across all 40 lakes, contributing about one-half of PAH in sediment, followed by vehicle-related sources and coal combustion. PAH concentrations in the lakes were highly correlated with PAH loading from CT sealcoat (Spearman's rho=0.98), and the mean proportional PAH profile for the 40 lakes was highly correlated with the PAH profile for dust from CT-sealed pavement (r=0.95). PAH concentrations and mass and fractional loading from CT sealcoat were significantly greater in the central and eastern United States than in the western United States, reflecting regional differences in use of different sealcoat product types. The model was used to calculate temporal trends in PAH source contributions during the last 40 to 100 years to eight of the 40 lakes. In seven of the lakes, CT sealcoat has been the largest source of PAHs since the 1960s, and in six of those lakes PAH trends are upward. Traffic is the largest source to the eighth lake, located in southern California where use of CT sealcoat is rare.

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: America's Largest Home Runs on Biodiesel in

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina America's Largest Home Runs on Biodiesel in North Carolina to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: America's Largest Home Runs on Biodiesel in North Carolina on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: America's Largest Home Runs on Biodiesel in North

  1. Potential sources of hydrocarbons and their microbial degradation in sediments from the deep geothermal Lusi site, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Martin; Mazzini, Adriano; Scheeder, Georg; Blumenberg, Martin

    2017-04-01

    The Lusi eruption represents one of the largest ongoing sedimentary hosted geothermal systems, which started in 2006 following an earthquake on Java Island. Since then it has been continuously producing hot and hydrocarbon rich mud from a central crater with peaks reaching 180.000 m3 per day. Numerous investigations focused on the study of microbial communities which thrive at offshore methane and oil seeps and mud volcanoes, however very little has been done on onshore seeping structures. Lusi represents a unique opportunity to complete a comprehensive study of onshore microbial communities fed by the seepage of CH4 as well as of liquid hydrocarbons originating from one or more km below the surface. While the source of the methane at Lusi is unambiuous, the origin of the seeping oil is still discussed. Both, source and maturity estimates from biomarkers, are in favor of a type II/III organic matter source. Likely the oils were formed from the studied black shales (deeper Ngimbang Fm.) which contained a Type III component in the Type II predominated organic matter. In all samples large numbers of active microorganisms were present. Rates for aerobic methane oxidation were high, as was the potential of the microbial communities to degrade different hydrocarbons. The data suggests a transition of microbial populations from an anaerobic, hydrocarbon-driven metabolism in fresher samples from center or from small seeps to more generalistic, aerobic microbial communities in older, more consolidated sediments. Ongoing microbial activity in crater sediment samples under high temperatures (80-95C) indicate a deep origin of the involved microorganisms. First results of molecular analyses of the microbial community compositions confirm the above findings. This study represents an initial step to better understand onshore seepage systems and provides an ideal analogue for comparison with the better investigated offshore structures.

  2. Identifying the node spreading influence with largest k-core values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jian-Hong; Guo, Qiang; Dong, Wen-Zhao; Tang, Li-Ying; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2014-01-01

    Identifying the nodes with largest spreading influence of complex networks is one of the most promising domains. By taking into account the neighbors' k-core values, we present an improved neighbors' k-core (INK) method which is the sum of the neighbors' k-core values with a tunable parameter α to evaluate the node spreading influence with largest k-core values. Comparing with the Susceptible–Infected–Recovered (SIR) results for four real networks, the INK method could identify the node spreading influence with largest k-core values more accurately than the ones generated by the degree k, closeness C, betweenness B and coreness centrality method. - Highlights: • We present an improved neighbors' k-core (INK) method to evaluate the node spreading influence with largest k-core values. • The INK method could identify the node spreading influence with largest k-core values more accurately. • Kendall's tau τ of INK method with α=1 are highly identical to rank the node influence

  3. Quicksort, largest bucket, and min-wise hashing with limited independence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mathias Bæk Tejs; Stöckel, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Randomized algorithms and data structures are often analyzed under the assumption of access to a perfect source of randomness. The most fundamental metric used to measure how “random” a hash function or a random number generator is, is its independence: a sequence of random variables is said...... to be k-independent if every variable is uniform and every size k subset is independent. In this paper we consider three classic algorithms under limited independence. Besides the theoretical interest in removing the unrealistic assumption of full independence, the work is motivated by lower independence...... being more practical. We provide new bounds for randomized quicksort, min-wise hashing and largest bucket size under limited independence. Our results can be summarized as follows. Randomized Quicksort. When pivot elements are computed using a 5-independent hash function, Karloff and Raghavan, J.ACM’93...

  4. Laser wakefield accelerator based light sources: potential applications and requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). NIF and Photon Sciences; Thomas, A. G. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences; Mangles, S. P.D. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Blackett Lab.; Banerjee, S. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Corde, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Flacco, A. [ENSTA, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Litos, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Neely, D. [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Oxford (United Kingdom). Rutherford Appleton Lab. (RAL). Central Laser Facility; Viera, J. [Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal). GoLP-Inst. de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear-Lab. Associado; Najmudin, Z. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Blackett Lab.; Bingham, R. [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Oxford (United Kingdom). Rutherford Appleton Lab. (RAL). Central Laser Facility; Joshi, C. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Katsouleas, T. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Platt School of Engineering

    2015-01-15

    In this article we review the prospects of laser wakefield accelerators as next generation light sources for applications. This work arose as a result of discussions held at the 2013 Laser Plasma Accelerators Workshop. X-ray phase contrast imaging, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and nuclear resonance fluorescence are highlighted as potential applications for laser-plasma based light sources. We discuss ongoing and future efforts to improve the properties of radiation from plasma betatron emission and Compton scattering using laser wakefield accelerators for these specific applications.

  5. Biogas as a potential renewable energy source: A Ghanaian case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, Richard; Baidoo, Martina Francisca; Antwi, Edward

    2011-01-01

    The associated harmful environmental, health and social effects with the use of traditional biomass and fossil fuel has enhanced the growing interest in the search for alternate cleaner source of energy globally. Ghana, a developing country depends heavy on woodfuel as a source of fuel contributing about 72% of the primary energy supply with crude oil and hydro making up the rest. Biogas generation has simply been seen as a by-product of anaerobic digestion of organic waste. Having proven to be a practicable and promising technology, it has been very successful and a very reliable and clean source of energy when proper management programmes are followed. There are vast biomass resources including organic waste in Ghana that have the potential for use as feedstock for biogas production to reduce the over reliance of woodfuel and fossil fuel, and to help reduce the it would reduce greenhouse gas emissions which may be affecting climate change. Ghana having the technical potential of constructing about 278,000 biogas plants, only a little over 100 biogas plants has so far been established. This paper presents the energy situation and the status of the biogas technology and utilization in Ghana. It also presents the potential benefits, prospects and challenges of the biogas technology. (author)

  6. Biogas as a potential renewable energy source: A Ghanaian case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Richard; Baidoo, Martina Francisca [Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Koforidua Polytechnic, Koforidua, Box KF 981, Koforidua (Ghana); Antwi, Edward [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kumasi Polytechnic, Box 854, Kumasi (Ghana)

    2011-05-15

    The associated harmful environmental, health and social effects with the use of traditional biomass and fossil fuel has enhanced the growing interest in the search for alternate cleaner source of energy globally. Ghana, a developing country depends heavy on woodfuel as a source of fuel contributing about 72% of the primary energy supply with crude oil and hydro making up the rest. Biogas generation has simply been seen as a by-product of anaerobic digestion of organic waste. Having proven to be a practicable and promising technology, it has been very successful and a very reliable and clean source of energy when proper management programmes are followed. There are vast biomass resources including organic waste in Ghana that have the potential for use as feedstock for biogas production to reduce the over reliance of woodfuel and fossil fuel, and to help reduce the it would reduce greenhouse gas emissions which may be affecting climate change. Ghana having the technical potential of constructing about 278,000 biogas plants, only a little over 100 biogas plants has so far been established. This paper presents the energy situation and the status of the biogas technology and utilization in Ghana. It also presents the potential benefits, prospects and challenges of the biogas technology. (author)

  7. Potential feedstock sources for ethanol production in Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmani, Mohammad [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Hodges, Alan [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This study presents information on the potential feedstock sources that may be used for ethanol production in Florida. Several potential feedstocks for fuel ethanol production in Florida are discussed, such as, sugarcane, corn, citrus byproducts and sweet sorghum. Other probable impacts need to be analyzed for sugarcane to ethanol production as alternative uses of sugarcane may affect the quantity of sugar production in Florida. While citrus molasses is converted to ethanol as an established process, the cost of ethanol is higher, and the total amount of citrus molasses per year is insignificant. Sorghum cultivars have the potential for ethanol production. However, the agricultural practices for growing sweet sorghum for ethanol have not been established, and the conversion process must be tested and developed at a more expanded level. So far, only corn shipped from other states to Florida has been considered for ethanol production on a commercial scale. The economic feasibility of each of these crops requires further data and technical analysis.

  8. CERN tests largest superconducting solenoid magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "CERN's Compacts Muon Solenoid (CMS) - the world's largest superconducting solenoid magnet - has reached full field in testing. The instrument is part of the proton-proton Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project, located in a giant subterranean chamber at Cessy on the Franco-Swiss border." (1 page)

  9. "Helios Dynamics" A Potential Future Power Source for the Greek Islands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deligiannidis, Ioannis; Angelis, Ioannis

    2007-01-01

    .... Environmental concerns, economic benefits but most of all the potential exhaustion of the current sources of energy, such as fossil fuels, have alarmed the international community and gave incentives...

  10. Coal: an economic source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, I.; Ali, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    Coal, in spite its abundance availability in Pakistan, is a neglected source of energy. Its role as fuel is not more than five percent for the last four decades. Some of the coal, mined, in used as space heating in cold areas of Pakistan but more than 90% is being used in brick kilns. There are 185 billion tonnes of coal reserves in the country and hardly 3 million tonnes of coal is, annually, mined. Lakhra coal field is, presently, major source of coal and is considered the largest productive/operative coal field of Pakistan. It is cheaper coal compared to other coals available in Pakistan. As an average analysis of colas of the country, it shows that most of the coals are lignitic in nature with high ash and sulfur content. The energy potential is roughly the same but the cost/ton of coal is quite different. It may be due to methods of mining. There should be some criteria for fixing the cost of the coal. It should be based on energy potential of unit mass of coal. (author)

  11. Analysis of Human Standing Balance by Largest Lyapunov Exponent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to analyse the relationship between nonlinear dynamic character and individuals’ standing balance by the largest Lyapunov exponent, which is regarded as a metric for assessing standing balance. According to previous study, the largest Lyapunov exponent from centre of pressure time series could not well quantify the human balance ability. In this research, two improvements were made. Firstly, an external stimulus was applied to feet in the form of continuous horizontal sinusoidal motion by a moving platform. Secondly, a multiaccelerometer subsystem was adopted. Twenty healthy volunteers participated in this experiment. A new metric, coordinated largest Lyapunov exponent was proposed, which reflected the relationship of body segments by integrating multidimensional largest Lyapunov exponent values. By using this metric in actual standing performance under sinusoidal stimulus, an obvious relationship between the new metric and the actual balance ability was found in the majority of the subjects. These results show that the sinusoidal stimulus can make human balance characteristics more obvious, which is beneficial to assess balance, and balance is determined by the ability of coordinating all body segments.

  12. MHODE: a local-homogeneity theory for improved source-parameter estimation of potential fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedi, Maurizio; Florio, Giovanni; Paoletti, Valeria

    2015-08-01

    We describe a multihomogeneity theory for source-parameter estimation of potential fields. Similar to what happens for random source models, where the monofractal scaling-law has been generalized into a multifractal law, we propose to generalize the homogeneity law into a multihomogeneity law. This allows a theoretically correct approach to study real-world potential fields, which are inhomogeneous and so do not show scale invariance, except in the asymptotic regions (very near to or very far from their sources). Since the scaling properties of inhomogeneous fields change with the scale of observation, we show that they may be better studied at a set of scales than at a single scale and that a multihomogeneous model is needed to explain its complex scaling behaviour. In order to perform this task, we first introduce fractional-degree homogeneous fields, to show that: (i) homogeneous potential fields may have fractional or integer degree; (ii) the source-distributions for a fractional-degree are not confined in a bounded region, similarly to some integer-degree models, such as the infinite line mass and (iii) differently from the integer-degree case, the fractional-degree source distributions are no longer uniform density functions. Using this enlarged set of homogeneous fields, real-world anomaly fields are studied at different scales, by a simple search, at any local window W, for the best homogeneous field of either integer or fractional-degree, this yielding a multiscale set of local homogeneity-degrees and depth estimations which we call multihomogeneous model. It is so defined a new technique of source parameter estimation (Multi-HOmogeneity Depth Estimation, MHODE), permitting retrieval of the source parameters of complex sources. We test the method with inhomogeneous fields of finite sources, such as faults or cylinders, and show its effectiveness also in a real-case example. These applications show the usefulness of the new concepts, multihomogeneity and

  13. Economic aspects and potentials of renewable energy sources in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannsbart, W.; Reichert, J.

    1992-01-01

    While there is a high theoretical potential for renewable energy sources in Germany, assessing theoretical potentials is more or less like playing with numbers; severe technical shortcomings and economic factors prevent then from being fully achieved. Unsuitable azimuth and slope of roofs, shading, absence of central hot water systems limit the application of collectors. The present storage technology is not suitable for a solar share higher than 50%. Individual space heating is not feasible under local climatic conditions. The broad application of biomass fuels fails because of limited resources. Feeding high amounts of fluctuating electricity generated by wind and photovoltaic systems into utility grids causes stability and storage problems. Insufficient training of installation personnel, lack of incentives for multi-family housing owners and high investment costs hinder the market penetration of renewable energy sources. Drastic cost reductions can only be expected from mass production. Therefore, appropriate policy measures - raised energy prices, as well as, subsidies or tax reliefs are necessary for market breakthrough

  14. Development of negative heavy ion sources for plasma potential measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasao, M.; Okabe, Y.; Fujisawa, A.; Iguchi, H.; Fujita, J.; Yamaoka, H.; Wada, M.

    1991-10-01

    A plasma sputter negative ion source was studied for its applicability to the potential measurement of a fusion plasma. Both the beam current density and the beam energy spread are key issues. Energy spectra of a self extracted Au - beam from the source were measured under the condition of a constant work function of the production surface. The full width of half maximum (FWHM) increases from 3 eV to 9 eV monotonically as the target voltage increases from 50 V to 300 V, independently from the target surface work function of 2.2 - 3 eV. (author)

  15. Source apportionment of trace metals in river sediments: A comparison of three methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Haiyang; Teng, Yanguo; Li, Jiao; Wu, Jin; Wang, Jinsheng

    2016-01-01

    Increasing trace metal pollution in river sediment poses a significant threat to watershed ecosystem health. Identifying potential sources of sediment metals and apportioning their contributions are of key importance for proposing prevention and control strategies of river pollution. In this study, three advanced multivariate receptor models, factor analysis with nonnegative constraints (FA-NNC), positive matrix factorization (PMF), and multivariate curve resolution weighted-alternating least-squares (MCR-WALS), were comparatively employed for source apportionment of trace metals in river sediments and applied to the Le'an River, a main tributary of Poyang Lake which is the largest freshwater lake in China. The pollution assessment with contamination factor and geoaccumulation index suggested that the river sediments in Le'an River were contaminated severely by trace metals due to human activities. With the three apportionment tools, similar source profiles of trace metals in sediments were extracted. Especially, the MCR-WALS and PMF models produced essentially the same results. Comparatively speaking, the weighted schemes might give better solutions than the unweighted FA-NNC because the uncertainty information of environmental data was considered by PMF and MCR-WALS. Anthropogenic sources were apportioned as the most important pollution sources influencing the sediment metals in Le'an River with contributions of about 90%. Among them, copper tailings occupied the largest contribution (38.4–42.2%), followed by mining wastewater (29.0–33.5%), and agricultural activities (18.2–18.7%). To protect the ecosystem of Le'an River and Poyang Lake, special attention should be paid to the discharges of mining wastewater and the leachates of copper tailing ponds in that region. - Highlights: • Three advanced receptor models were comparatively employed for source apportionment. • The MCR-WALS and PMF models produce essentially same source profiles. • Copper

  16. Mahua (Madhuca Indica oil: A potential source for biodiesel production in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkarsh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The economic development of a country is highly dependent on the supply of fossil fuels which are constrained by its limited availability and pollution characteristics. India is among the world’s fourth-largest petroleum consumer due to which the vehicular emissions increased eight times over the last two decades. Due to the environmental awareness and depletion of fossil fuel reserves, attention has been given to find an alternative energy source. Among the alternatives existing, Biodiesel is the one which is less polluting and eco-friendly. So it can be used in industrial, commercial, agricultural and other sectors as a substitute for diesel. Biodiesel can be produced from crude vegetable oil, non-edible oil, frying oils (waste, animal tallow and algae by a process of chemical reaction called Transesterification. Biodiesel is also known as methyl or ethyl esters of the feedstock from which it is produced. It is miscible with diesel oil which allows the use of blends of petro diesel and biodiesel in any percentage. The C.I. engines fuelled with biodiesel perform more or less in the same fashion as that with the conventional fuel. Comparative to diesel, biodiesel has high Cetane number and lower compressibility. Additionally, the heat release rate of biodiesel is slightly lower than diesel owing to low calorific value, low volatility and high viscosity. The problem of high viscosity can be eradicated by transesterification process and by adding additives which help us to store the biodiesel for a longer duration of time without any decay. Exhaust emissions are significantly reduced with the use of biodiesel or its blends. The present paper investigates the potential of Mahua (Madhuca Indica oil for biodiesel production as it can be extracted from seeds of Mahua tree which are indigenous to India. It can grow even in dry regions and are found abundantly in several parts of India

  17. Potential of arid zone vegetation as a source of substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassham, J.A.

    1977-11-01

    Three aspects of the potential of vegetation in arid zones as a source of substrates are discussed. The first includes the limitations on efficiency of conversion of solar energy to the stored chemical energy of biomass in green plants, and the subsequent biochemical pathways of carbon dioxide fixation and biosynthesis. Second is the potential of plants endogenous to arid zones. Finally, the use of covered agriculture or controlled environmental agriculture (CEA) is considered both in its present form and in terms of possible extenion to the large scale production of stable crops. (JGB)

  18. The Potential for Electrofuels Production in Sweden Utilizing Fossil and Biogenic CO2 Point Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansson, Julia; Hackl, Roman; Taljegard, Maria; Brynolf, Selma; Grahn, Maria

    2017-01-01

    This paper maps, categorizes, and quantifies all major point sources of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from industrial and combustion processes in Sweden. The paper also estimates the Swedish technical potential for electrofuels (power-to-gas/fuels) based on carbon capture and utilization. With our bottom-up approach using European databases, we find that Sweden emits approximately 50 million metric tons of CO 2 per year from different types of point sources, with 65% (or about 32 million tons) from biogenic sources. The major sources are the pulp and paper industry (46%), heat and power production (23%), and waste treatment and incineration (8%). Most of the CO 2 is emitted at low concentrations (<15%) from sources in the southern part of Sweden where power demand generally exceeds in-region supply. The potentially recoverable emissions from all the included point sources amount to 45 million tons. If all the recoverable CO 2 were used to produce electrofuels, the yield would correspond to 2–3 times the current Swedish demand for transportation fuels. The electricity required would correspond to about 3 times the current Swedish electricity supply. The current relatively few emission sources with high concentrations of CO 2 (>90%, biofuel operations) would yield electrofuels corresponding to approximately 2% of the current demand for transportation fuels (corresponding to 1.5–2 TWh/year). In a 2030 scenario with large-scale biofuels operations based on lignocellulosic feedstocks, the potential for electrofuels production from high-concentration sources increases to 8–11 TWh/year. Finally, renewable electricity and production costs, rather than CO 2 supply, limit the potential for production of electrofuels in Sweden.

  19. Characteristics of Ampel bamboo as a biomass energy source potential in Bali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucipta, M.; Putra Negara, D. N. K.; Tirta Nindhia, T. G.; Surata, I. W.

    2017-05-01

    Currently, non-renewable fossil energy dominates utilization of the world energy need for many applications. Efforts has been developed to find alternative renewable energy sources, due to fossil energy availability is diminishing. And one of renewable energy source is from biomass. The aim of this research is to determine characteristics of the Ampel bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) as an energy potential of biomass. The Ampel bamboo’s characteristics possessed are evaluated based on its chemical composition; moisture, volatile, ash, and fixed carbon through proximate analysis; and also carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen content through ultimate analysis. From the Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) indicates that Ampel bamboo contains of about 18.10% hemicelluloses, 47.75% cellulose and 18.86% lignin. While from the ultimate analysis results in the content of carbon, hydrogen, and Nitrogen of Ampel bamboo are 39.75%, 5.75% and 0% respectively. With such characteristics, it indicates that Ampel bamboo has an attractive potential as a renewable energy source.

  20. The largest deep-ocean silicic volcanic eruption of the past century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Rebecca; Soule, S Adam; Manga, Michael; White, James; McPhie, Jocelyn; Wysoczanski, Richard; Jutzeler, Martin; Tani, Kenichiro; Yoerger, Dana; Fornari, Daniel; Caratori-Tontini, Fabio; Houghton, Bruce; Mitchell, Samuel; Ikegami, Fumihiko; Conway, Chris; Murch, Arran; Fauria, Kristen; Jones, Meghan; Cahalan, Ryan; McKenzie, Warren

    2018-01-01

    The 2012 submarine eruption of Havre volcano in the Kermadec arc, New Zealand, is the largest deep-ocean eruption in history and one of very few recorded submarine eruptions involving rhyolite magma. It was recognized from a gigantic 400-km 2 pumice raft seen in satellite imagery, but the complexity of this event was concealed beneath the sea surface. Mapping, observations, and sampling by submersibles have provided an exceptionally high fidelity record of the seafloor products, which included lava sourced from 14 vents at water depths of 900 to 1220 m, and fragmental deposits including giant pumice clasts up to 9 m in diameter. Most (>75%) of the total erupted volume was partitioned into the pumice raft and transported far from the volcano. The geological record on submarine volcanic edifices in volcanic arcs does not faithfully archive eruption size or magma production.

  1. Event-related potential evidence of accessing gender stereotypes to aid source monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leynes, P Andrew; Crawford, Jarret T; Radebaugh, Anne M; Taranto, Elizabeth

    2013-01-23

    Source memory for the speaker's voice (male or female) was investigated when semantic knowledge (gender stereotypes) could and could not inform the episodic source judgment while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Source accuracy was greater and response times were faster when stereotypes could predict the speaker's voice at test. Recollection supported source judgments in both conditions as indicated by significant parietal "old/new" ERP effects (500-800ms). Prototypical late ERP effects (the right frontal "old/new" effect and the late posterior negativity, LPN) were evident when source judgment was based solely on episodic memory. However, these two late ERP effects were diminished and a novel, frontal-negative ERP with left-central topography was observed when stereotypes aided source judgments. This pattern of ERP activity likely reflects activation of left frontal or left temporal lobes when semantic knowledge, in the form of a gender stereotype, is accessed to inform the episodic source judgment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of source moment tensor recovered by diffraction stacking migration and source time reversal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Zhang, W.

    2017-12-01

    Diffraction stacking migration is an automatic location methods and widely used in microseismic monitoring of the hydraulic fracturing. It utilizes the stacking of thousands waveform to enhance signal-to-noise ratio of weak events. For surface monitoring, the diffraction stacking method is suffered from polarity reverse among receivers due to radiation pattern of moment source. Joint determination of location and source mechanism has been proposed to overcome the polarity problem but needs significantly increased computational calculations. As an effective method to recover source moment tensor, time reversal imaging based on wave equation can locate microseismic event by using interferometry on the image to extract source position. However, the time reversal imaging is very time consuming compared to the diffraction stacking location because of wave-equation simulation.In this study, we compare the image from diffraction stacking and time reversal imaging to check if the diffraction stacking can obtain similar moment tensor as time reversal imaging. We found that image produced by taking the largest imaging value at each point along time axis does not exhibit the radiation pattern, while with the same level of calculation efficiency, the image produced for each trial origin time can generate radiation pattern similar to time reversal imaging procedure. Thus it is potential to locate the source position by the diffraction stacking method for general moment tensor sources.

  3. broken magnet highlights largest collider's engineering challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    Inman, Mason

    2007-01-01

    "Even at the world's soon-to-be largest particle accelerator - a device that promises to push the boundaries of physics - scientists need to be mindful of one of the most fundamental laws in the universe: Murphy's Law. (2 pages)

  4. The potential role of open source software in overcoming digital poverty

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kinyondo, J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Developing countries, such as Tanzania, are characterized by digital poverty and a lack of information and communication technology (ICT) acceptance. The use of open source software (OSS) has been proposed as a potential strategy for addressing ICT...

  5. Potential utilization of renewable energy sources and the related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, I.; Selg, V.

    1996-01-01

    Estonia's most promising resource of renewable energy is the natural biomass. In 1994 the use of wood and waste wood formed about 4.9% of the primary energy supply, the available resource will provide for a much higher share of biomass in the future primary energy supply, reaching 9-14%. Along with the biomass, wind energy can be considered the largest resource. On the western and northern coast of Estonia, in particular, on the islands, over several years, the average wind speed has been 5 m/s. Based on the assumption that the wind speed exceeds 6 m/s in the area that forms ca 1.5% of the Estonian territory (the total area of Estonia is about 45,000 km 2 ) and is 5 - 6 m/s on about 15% of the total area, using 0.5 MW/km 2 for the installation density, very approximate estimates permit to state that the maximum hypothetical installed capacity could be 3750 MW. It might be useful to make use of the current maximum 50 MW, which could enable the generation of approximately 70 - 100 GW h of energy per year. Although the solar energy currently has no practical use in Estonia and the resource of hydro power is also insignificant (only ca 1% of the electricity consumption), these two resources of renewable energy hold future promise in view of the use of local resources and that of environmental protection. It is not reasonable to regard renewable energy sources as a substitute for the traditional oil shale-based power engineering in Estonia. But, to some extent, local energy demand can be covered by renewable energy sources. Thus, they can contribute to the reduction of the greenhouse gases emissions in Estonia

  6. Hospital Prices Increase in California, Especially Among Hospitals in the Largest Multi-hospital Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn A. Melnick PhD

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A surge in hospital consolidation is fueling formation of ever larger multi-hospital systems throughout the United States. This article examines hospital prices in California over time with a focus on hospitals in the largest multi-hospital systems. Our data show that hospital prices in California grew substantially (+76% per hospital admission across all hospitals and all services between 2004 and 2013 and that prices at hospitals that are members of the largest, multi-hospital systems grew substantially more (113% than prices paid to all other California hospitals (70%. Prices were similar in both groups at the start of the period (approximately $9200 per admission. By the end of the period, prices at hospitals in the largest systems exceeded prices at other California hospitals by almost $4000 per patient admission. Our study findings are potentially useful to policy makers across the country for several reasons. Our data measure actual prices for a large sample of hospitals over a long period of time in California. California experienced its wave of consolidation much earlier than the rest of the country and as such our findings may provide some insights into what may happen across the United States from hospital consolidation including growth of large, multi-hospital systems now forming in the rest of the rest of the country.

  7. Innovative Basis of Research of Energy-Efficient Potential and Effectiveness of Renewable Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Hasanov Seymur Latif oglu; Hasanov Elnur Latif oglu

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, countries of the world have been trying to attract new energy sources (wind, sun, biogas, waves, drainage, non-conventional energy sources such as hydroelectric power of small rivers) in their fuel-energy balance. Azerbaijan has renewable natural resources, favorable for its energy-efficient potential, according to the amount of sunny and windy days. In this article was given total information about renewable energy potential of Azerbaijan Republic. In this article we use inf...

  8. BLACK Carbon Emissions from Diesel Sources in the Largest Arctic City: Case Study of Murmansk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M.; Kholod, N.; Malyshev, V.; Tretyakova, S.; Gusev, E.; Yu, S.; Barinov, A.

    2014-12-01

    Russia has very little data on its black carbon (BC) emissions. Because Russia makes up such a large share of the Arctic, understanding Russian emissions will improve our understanding of overall BC levels, BC in the Arctic and the link between BC and climate change. This paper provides a detailed, bottom-up inventory of BC emissions from diesel sources in Murmansk, Russia, along with uncertainty estimates associated with these emissions. The research team developed a detailed data collection methodology. The methodology involves assessing the vehicle fleet and activity in Murmansk using traffic, parking lot and driver surveys combined with an existing database from a vehicle inspection station and statistical data. The team also assessed the most appropriate emission factors, drawing from both Russian and international inventory methodologies. The researchers also compared fuel consumption using statistical data and bottom-up fuel calculations. They then calculated emissions for on-road transportation, off-road transportation (including mines), diesel generators, fishing and other sources. The article also provides a preliminary assessment of Russia-wide emissions of black carbon from diesel sources.

  9. Are research papers reporting results from nutrigenetics clinical research a potential source of biohype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenne, R; Hurlimann, T; Godard, Béatrice

    2012-01-01

    Nutrigenetics is a promising field, but the achievability of expected benefits is challenged by the methodological limitations that are associated with clinical research in that field. The mere existence of these limitations suggests that promises about potential outcomes may be premature. Thus, benefits claimed in scientific journal articles in which these limitations are not acknowledged might stimulate biohype. This article aims to examine whether nutrigenetics clinical research articles are a potential source of biohype. Of the 173 articles identified, 16 contained claims in which clinical applications were extrapolated from study results. The methodological limitations being incompletely acknowledged, these articles could potentially be a source of biohype.

  10. A Langmuir probe system for high power RF-driven negative ion sources on high potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeely, P; Christ-Koch, S; Fantz, U; Dudin, S V

    2009-01-01

    A fully automated Langmuir probe system capable of operating simultaneously with beam extraction has been developed and commissioned for the negative hydrogen ion source testbeds at IPP Garching. It allows the measurement of temporal and spatial distributions of the plasma parameters within a single plasma pulse ( 10 18 m -3 ) and hot (T e > 10 eV) plasma with bi-Maxwellian electron energy distribution at low pressures. The plasma found near the plasma grid is very different being of low density (≤10 17 m -3 ) and very cold (T e < 2 eV). This plasma is also strongly influenced by the presence of caesium, the potential of the plasma grid, and if an ion beam is extracted from the source. Caesium strongly reduces the plasma potential of the source and enhances the negative ion density near the plasma grid. Extracting an ion beam is observed to reduce the electron density and increase the potential near the plasma grid. Applying a potential greater than the plasma potential to the plasma grid is found to significantly decrease the electron density near the plasma grid.

  11. OTEC Potential of East Nusa Tenggara Province in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyartono, M.; Rahmadian, R.

    2018-04-01

    Indonesia is the largest archipelago country in the world, located between Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean. Indonesia has more than 17000 islands with 70 per cent of the region is ocean. The Growth of the economic and population in Indonesia increasing the demand of the electricity annually, in 2015 alone electricity consumption in Indonesia reaching 200 TWh and will continue increasing every year. However, East Nusa Tenggara Province electrification ratio only around 58.64%, this is the second lowest ratio in Indonesia. This electrification ratio describes the level of availability of electrical energy for the community. Power Plant with renewable source placement in East Nusa Tenggara Province or smaller district need to be prioritise to cope with the low electrification ratio. Renewable sources for power plant have a good potential to work with, in example wind power, solar power, geothermal, or biomass. In addition, another renewable source that not yet known is from the ocean itself. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) is one of the renewable source method from ocean. This paper will uncover the potential of OTEC in East Nusa Tenggara province so it will bring possibility to build an OTEC power plant in the future.

  12. Joint Asymptotic Distributions of Smallest and Largest Insurance Claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansjörg Albrecher

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Assume that claims in a portfolio of insurance contracts are described by independent and identically distributed random variables with regularly varying tails and occur according to a near mixed Poisson process. We provide a collection of results pertaining to the joint asymptotic Laplace transforms of the normalised sums of the smallest and largest claims, when the length of the considered time interval tends to infinity. The results crucially depend on the value of the tail index of the claim distribution, as well as on the number of largest claims under consideration.

  13. Tracing Sources of Total Gaseous Mercury to Yongheung Island off the Coast of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang S. Lee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, total gaseous mercury (TGM concentrations were measured on Yongheung Island off the coast of Korea between mainland Korea and Eastern China in 2013. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively evaluate the impact of local mainland Korean sources and regional Chinese sources on local TGM concentrations using multiple tools including the relationship with other pollutants, meteorological data, conditional probability function, backward trajectories, and potential source contribution function (PSCF receptor modeling. Among the five sampling campaigns, two sampling periods were affected by both mainland Korean and regional sources, one was caused by mainland vehicle emissions, another one was significantly impacted by regional sources, and, in the remaining period, Hg volatilization from oceans was determined to be a significant source and responsible for the increase in TGM concentration. PSCF identified potential source areas located in metropolitan areas, western coal-fired power plant locations, and the southeastern industrial area of Korea as well as the Liaoning province, the largest Hg emitting province in China. In general, TGM concentrations generally showed morning peaks (07:00~12:00 and was significantly correlated with solar radiation during all sampling periods.

  14. Mobilization of radionuclides from sediments. Potential sources to Arctic waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oughton, D.H.; Boerretzen, P.; Mathisen, B.; Salbu, B.; Tronstad, E.

    1995-01-01

    Contaminated soils and sediments can act as secondary sources of radionuclides to Arctic waters. In cases where the original source of contamination has ceased or been greatly reduced (e.g., weapons' testing, waste discharges from Mayak and Sellafield) remobilization of radionuclides from preciously contaminated sediments increases in importance. With respect to Arctic waters, potential secondary sources include sediments contaminated by weapons' testing, by discharges from nuclear installations to seawater, e.g., the Irish Sea, or by leakages from dumped waste containers. The major land-based source is run-off from soils and transport from sediments in the catchment areas of the Ob and Yenisey rivers, including those contaminated by Mayak discharges. Remobilization of radionuclides is often described as a secondary source of contamination. Whereas primary sources of man-made radionuclides tend to be point sources, secondary sources are usually more diffuse. Experiments were carried out on marine (Kara Sea, Irish Sea, Stepovogo and Abrosimov Fjords), estuarine (Ob-Yenisey) and dirty ice sediments. Total 137 Cs and 90 Sr concentrations were determined using standard radiochemical techniques. Tracer studies using 134 Cs and 85 Sr were used to investigate the kinetics of radionuclide adsorption and desorption. It is concluded that 90 Sr is much less strongly bound to marine sediments than 137 Cs, and can be chemically mobilized through ion exchange with elements is seawater. Radiocaesium is strongly and rapidly fixed to sediments. Discharges of 137 Cs to surface sediments (i.e., from dumped containers) would be expected to be retained in sediments to a greater extent than discharges to sea-waters. Physical mobilization of sediments, for example resuspension, may be of more importance for transport of 137 Cs than for 90 Sr. 7 refs., 4 figs

  15. Brane solutions sourced by a scalar with vanishing potential and classification of scalar branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadoni, Mariano [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Cagliari,Cittadella Universitaria, 09042 Monserrato (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Cagliari,Cagliari (Italy); Franzin, Edgardo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Cagliari,Cittadella Universitaria, 09042 Monserrato (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Cagliari,Cagliari (Italy); CENTRA, Departamento de Física, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa,Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049 Lisboa (Portugal); Serra, Matteo [Dipartimento di Matematica, Sapienza Università di Roma,Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2016-01-20

    We derive exact brane solutions of minimally coupled Einstein-Maxwell-scalar gravity in d+2 dimensions with a vanishing scalar potential and we show that these solutions are conformal to the Lifshitz spacetime whose dual QFT is characterized by hyperscaling violation. These solutions, together with the AdS brane and the domain wall sourced by an exponential potential, give the complete list of scalar branes sourced by a generic potential having simple (scale-covariant) scaling symmetries not involving Galilean boosts. This allows us to give a classification of both simple and interpolating brane solution of minimally coupled Einstein-Maxwell-scalar gravity having no Schrödinger isometries, which may be very useful for holographic applications.

  16. The Potential for Electrofuels Production in Sweden Utilizing Fossil and Biogenic CO{sub 2} Point Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Julia, E-mail: julia.hansson@ivl.se [Climate and Sustainable Cities, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Division of Physical Resource Theory, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg (Sweden); Hackl, Roman [Climate and Sustainable Cities, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Taljegard, Maria [Division of Energy Technology, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg (Sweden); Brynolf, Selma; Grahn, Maria [Division of Physical Resource Theory, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg (Sweden)

    2017-03-13

    This paper maps, categorizes, and quantifies all major point sources of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions from industrial and combustion processes in Sweden. The paper also estimates the Swedish technical potential for electrofuels (power-to-gas/fuels) based on carbon capture and utilization. With our bottom-up approach using European databases, we find that Sweden emits approximately 50 million metric tons of CO{sub 2} per year from different types of point sources, with 65% (or about 32 million tons) from biogenic sources. The major sources are the pulp and paper industry (46%), heat and power production (23%), and waste treatment and incineration (8%). Most of the CO{sub 2} is emitted at low concentrations (<15%) from sources in the southern part of Sweden where power demand generally exceeds in-region supply. The potentially recoverable emissions from all the included point sources amount to 45 million tons. If all the recoverable CO{sub 2} were used to produce electrofuels, the yield would correspond to 2–3 times the current Swedish demand for transportation fuels. The electricity required would correspond to about 3 times the current Swedish electricity supply. The current relatively few emission sources with high concentrations of CO{sub 2} (>90%, biofuel operations) would yield electrofuels corresponding to approximately 2% of the current demand for transportation fuels (corresponding to 1.5–2 TWh/year). In a 2030 scenario with large-scale biofuels operations based on lignocellulosic feedstocks, the potential for electrofuels production from high-concentration sources increases to 8–11 TWh/year. Finally, renewable electricity and production costs, rather than CO{sub 2} supply, limit the potential for production of electrofuels in Sweden.

  17. Guaranteeing uptime at worl's largest particle physics lab

    CERN Multimedia

    Brodkin, Jon

    2007-01-01

    "As the European agency CERN was gearing up to build the world's largest particle accelerator, officials there knew they could not afford to have problems in their technical infrastructure cause any downtime." (1 page)

  18. The world's largest LNG producer's next market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, R.; Isworo Suharno; Simandjuntak, W.M.P.

    1996-01-01

    The development of the domestic gas market in Indonesia, the world's largest liquefied natural gas producing country, is described as part of the overall impact of the country's oil and gas production. The first large scale use of natural gas in Indonesia was established in 1968 when a fertiliser plant using gas as the feedstock was built. Ultimately, through increased yields, this has enabled Indonesia to be self-sufficient in rice and an exporter of fertiliser. Problems which stand in the way of further developments include: capital, though Pertamina and PGN are perceived as attractive for foreign investment; the lack of a regulatory framework for gas; geographical constraints, among them the fact that the gas deposits are remote from the largest population concentrations; lack of infrastructure. There are nevertheless plans for expansion and the provision of an integrated gas pipeline system. Pertamina, which has responsibility for all oil and gas developments, and PGN, whose primary role has been as a manufacturer and distributor of gas, are now working together in the coordination of all gas activities. (10 figures). (UK)

  19. Uptake and accumulation of potentially toxic elements in colonized plant species around the world's largest antimony mine area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jiumei; Tan, Di; Deng, Sihan; Lei, Ming

    2018-04-11

    To provide information on reclamation of multi-heavy metal polluted soils with conception of phytostabilization, a field survey on the uptake and accumulation of potentially toxic elements such as antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) in colonized plant species around the world's largest antimony mine area, China, was conducted. Samples including leaves and shoots (including roots and stems) of colonized plants as well as rhizospheric soils were collected from eight sampling zones in the studied area. The results showed that the contents of Cu, Zn, and Pb in rhizospheric soils below plants were comparable to the corresponding background values of Hunan province, otherwise Sb, Cd, and As contents were extremely high (17-106, 17-87, and 3-7 times of the corresponding background values). The highest concentration of Sb was found in Aster subulatus (410 mg kg -1 ); Cd, As, and Zn were in Herba bidentis bipinnatae (10.9, 264, and 265 mg kg -1 , respectively); and Cu was in Artemisia lavandulaefolia (27.1 mg kg -1 ). It also exhibited that all the contents of As in leaves were several times of those in shoots of plants, Cd and other heavy metals showed in a similar pattern in several studied species, implying that the uptake route of these heavy metals via foliar might contribute to the accumulation. With high bioconcentration factors of heavy metals (more than 1, except for Zn), together with the growth abundance, Herba bidentis bipinnatae was considered as the most suitable colonized species for phytostabilization of the multi-heavy metal pollution in soils on this antimony mine area.

  20. The Potential of Renewable Energy Sources in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakipova S.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses some aspects of the use of renewable energy sources in the climatic conditions prevailing in most of the territory of Latvia, with relatively low wind speeds and a small number of sunny days a year. The paper gives a brief description of the measurement equipment and technology to determine the parameters of the outer air; the results of the measurements are also analysed. On the basis of the data obtained during the last two years at the meteorological station at the Botanical Garden of the University of Latvia, the energy potential of solar radiation and wind was estimated. The values of the possible and the actual amount of produced energy were determined.

  1. Boson-mediated interactions between static sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolsterli, M.

    1983-01-01

    The techniques are now available for doing accurate computations of static potentials arising from the exchange of virtual mesons. Such computations must take account of the fact that different approximation methods must be used in the regions where R is large and where R is small. In the asymptotic region, the distorted-field approximation provides an appropriate starting-point, but it must be improved before trustworthy results are obtained for all but the largest values of R. In the region of small R, accurate strong-coupling methods are based on the use of states with coherent meson pairs. For small R, it is also important to take account of the possibility of meson emission or near-emission. Current work is aimed at applying the techniques described to the case of static sources interacting via pion field. In particular, it will be interesting to see how sensitive the potential is to the value of the cutoff Λ. Other areas of application are the study of the effects of nonlinearity and models of quark-quark and quark-antiquark potentials. 17 references

  2. Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom Products as a Potential Source of Vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernas, Emilia; Jaworska, Grażyna

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of vitamin D deficiency has increased in recent years, mainly in Europe. The consumption of processed mushrooms may play an important role in preventing diseases associated with vitamin D deficiency. We determined the effects of 2 kinds of freezing (blast, cryogenic), canning (mild and strong brine), and drying (air-drying, freeze-drying) on the retention of vitamin D2 and ergosterol in Agaricus bisporus. Fresh and processed A. bisporus mushrooms can be a good dietary source of vitamin D2. After 12 months of storage, canned mushrooms retained the largest amount of vitamin D2 and ergosterol, whereas the smallest amount was retained in dried mushrooms. Cryogenic freezing resulted in higher levels of vitamin D2, whereas ergosterol levels were higher using air-blast freezing. The drying method had a significant effect only on ergosterol levels, which were higher in the case of freeze-drying. Room temperature gave the best results for storing dried mushrooms. In canned mushrooms, the type of brine had an effect only on levels of vitamin D2; retention was higher using the strong brine. Retention of vitamin D2 was higher at cool temperatures, whereas room temperature resulted in higher retention of ergosterol in the canned products.

  3. Worlds Largest Wave Energy Project 2007 in Wales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars; Friis-Madsen, Erik; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces world largest wave energy project being developed in Wales and based on one of the leading wave energy technologies. The background for the development of wave energy, the total resource ands its distribution around the world is described. In contrast to wind energy turbines...... Dragon has to be scaled in accordance with the wave climate at the deployment site, which makes the Welch demonstrator device the worlds largest WEC so far with a total width of 300 meters. The project budget, the construction methods and the deployment site are also given....... a large number of fundamentally different technologies are utilised to harvest wave energy. The Wave Dragon belongs to the wave overtopping class of converters and the paper describes the fundamentals and the technical solutions used in this wave energy converter. An offshore floating WEC like the Wave...

  4. First Experience from the World Largest fully commercial Solar Heating Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred; Furbo, Simon

    1997-01-01

    The first experience from the largest solar heating plant in the world is given. The plant is situated in Marstal and is has a total area of 8000 square m.......The first experience from the largest solar heating plant in the world is given. The plant is situated in Marstal and is has a total area of 8000 square m....

  5. The David R. Tillinghast Lecture - What's Source Got to Do with it - Source Rules and U.S. International Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Shay, Stephen E.; Fleming, J. Clifton, Jr.; Peroni, Robet J.

    2002-01-01

    Arguably, the largest problem in international income taxation is the proper treatment of income that is subject to the legitimate taxing claims of two or more countries. A source country's jurisdiction to tax foreign persons is limited to income earned within the source country's borders. Under current international norms, however, the taxpayer's residence country is required to accommodate the source country's taxing right by employing a foreign tax credit or by exempting foreign source inc...

  6. Challenges with the largest commercial hydrogen station in the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charbonneau, Thomas; Gauthier, Pierre [Air Liquide Canada (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This abstract's objective is to share with the participants the story of the largest hydrogen fueling station made to this date and to kick-start the story, we will cover the challenges; first the technical ones; the operational ones; the distribution ones and; the financial ones. We will then move on to review the logistic (geographic) issues raised by the project and conclude our presentation by sharing the output values of the largest fueling station built so far in the world. (orig.)

  7. Contamination of community water sources by potentially pathogenic vibrios following sea water inundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanungo, Reba; Shashikala; Karunasagar, I; Srinivasan, S; Sheela, Devi; Venkatesh, K; Anitha, P

    2007-12-01

    Potentially pathogenic members of the Vibrionaceae family including Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahemolyticus were isolated from domestic sources of drinking water in coastal villages following sea water inundation during the tsunami in Southern India. Phenotypic and genotypic studies were done to confirm the identity and detection of toxins. Vibrio-gyr (gyrase B gene) was detected in all sixteen vibrio isolates. Toxin regulating genes i.e.: ctx gene, tdh gene, and trh gene, however were not detected in any of the strains, thereby ruling out presence of toxins which could endanger human life. Other potentially pathogenic bacteria Aeromonas and Plesiomonas were also isolated from hand pumps and wells, in a few localities. There was no immediate danger in the form of an outbreak or sporadic gastroenteritis at the time of the study. Timely chlorination and restoration of potable water supply to the flood affected population by governmental and nongovernmental agencies averted waterborne gastroenteritis. Assessment of quality of water and detection of potential virulent organisms is an important public health activity following natural disasters. This work highlights the importance of screening water sources for potentially pathogenic microorganisms after natural disasters to avert outbreaks of gastroenteritis and other infectious diseases.

  8. Channel Width Change as a Potential Sediment Source, Minnesota River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, J. W.; Echterling, C.; Lenhart, C. F.; Rausch, R.; Belmont, P.

    2017-12-01

    Turbidity and suspended sediment are important management considerations along the Minnesota River. The system has experience large and relatively consistent increases in both discharge and channel width over the past century. Here we consider the potential role of channel cross section enlargement as a sediment source. Reach-average channel width was digitized from aerial images dated between 1937 and 2015 along multiple sub-reaches of the Minnesota River and its major tributaries. Many of the sub-reaches include several actively migrating bends. The analysis shows relatively consistent increases in width over time, with average increase rates of 0.4 percent per year. Extrapolation to the river network using a regional relationship for cross-sectional area vs. drainage area indicates that large tributaries and main-stem reaches account for most of the bankfull cross-sectional volume in the basin. Larger tributaries and the main stem thus appear more important for widening related sediment production than small tributaries. On a basin-wide basis, widening could be responsible for a gross supply of more sediment than has been gaged at several main-stem sites, indicating that there may be important sinks for both sand and silt/clay size material distributed throughout the system. Sediment storage is probably largest along the lowest-slope reaches of the main stem. While channel width appears to have adjusted relatively quickly in response to discharge and other hydraulic modifications, net storage of sediment in floodplains probably occurs sufficiently slowly that depth adjustment will lag width adjustment significantly. Detailed analysis of the lower Minnesota River using a river segmenting approach allows for a more detailed assessment of reach-scale processes. Away from channel cutoffs, elongation of the channel at eroding bends is consistent with rates observed on other actively migrating rivers. However, the sinuosity increase has been more than compensated by

  9. An inventory of potential PCDD and PCDF emission sources in the mainland of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Jun; Xiaoyan, Tang [Peking Univ., Beijing (China); Peng, Hao [Central Univ. for Nationalities, Beijing (China)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) are widespread environmental pollutants. A number of countries have developed national inventories of PCDD/F emission, such as USA, EU Nations and Japan. However, due to the lack of PCDD/F data measured in China and the uncertain nature of the documentation available on emission factors, the report on inventories of dioxin emission is absent. With the municipal population growth, economic development and living-standard improvement, China faces many severe environment issues including potential problems related to PCDD/F. The country is aware of potential dioxin sources such as: incineration, iron and steel industry, chemical industry, fires, coal power plant, foundries, PCB in capacitors and transformers, sintering, traffic emission. In 2001, China signed the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants in Stockholm. Therefore, there is a need for information regarding dioxin emission from these sources for taking actions to reduce and/or eliminate the release of dioxins in China, and reduce human exposure. In this study, we identify those potential PCDD/F emission sources and work out the first inventory on PCDD/F emission into the environment in China.

  10. The potentiality of hydrocarbon generation of the Jurassic source rocks in Salam-3x well,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. El Nady

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the identification of the potential and generating capability of oil generation in the Jurassic source rocks in the Salam-3x well. This depending on the organo-geochemical analyses of cutting samples representative of Masajid, Khatatba and Ras Qattara formations, as well as, representative extract samples of the Khatatba and Ras Qattara formations. The geochemical analysis suggested the potential source intervals within the encountered rock units as follows: Masajid Formation bears mature source rocks and have poor to fair generating capability for generating gas (type III kerogen. Khatatba Formation bears mature source rock, and has poor to good generating capability for both oil and gas. Ras Qattara Formation constituting mature source rock has good to very good generating capability for both oil and gas. The burial history modeling shows that the Masajid Formation lies within oil and gas windows; Khatatba and Ras Qattara formations lie within the gas window. From the biomarker characteristics of source rocks it appears that the extract is genetically related as the majority of them were derived from marine organic matters sources (mainly algae deposited under reducing environment and take the direction of increasing maturity and far away from the direction of biodegradation. Therefore, Masajid Formation is considered as effective source rocks for generating hydrocarbons, while Khatatba and Ras Qattara formations are the main source rocks for hydrocarbon accumulations in the Salam-3x well.

  11. An expose of bioenergy and its potential and utilization in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogdu, Erkan

    2008-01-01

    Turkey is heavily dependent on expensive imported energy resources (oil, gas and coal) that place a big burden on the economy. Air pollution is also becoming a great environmental concern in the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for clean and sustainable energy development in Turkey. Turkey's renewable sources are the second largest source for energy production after coal. About two-thirds of the renewable energy produced is obtained from bioenergy, which is used to meet a variety of energy needs, including generating electricity, heating homes, fueling vehicles and providing process heat for industrial facilities. The amount of usable bioenergy potential of Turkey is approximately 17 Mtoe. This article not only presents a review of the potential and utilization of the bioenergy in Turkey but also provides some guidelines for policy makers

  12. Mineral Carbonation Potential of CO2 from Natural and Industrial-based Alkalinity Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, J.; Kirchofer, A.

    2014-12-01

    Mineral carbonation is a Carbon Capture and Storage (CSS) technology where gaseous CO2 is reacted with alkaline materials (such as silicate minerals and alkaline industrial wastes) and converted into stable and environmentally benign carbonate minerals (Metz et al., 2005). Here, we present a holistic, transparent life cycle assessment model of aqueous mineral carbonation built using a hybrid process model and economic input-output life cycle assessment approach. We compared the energy efficiency and the net CO2 storage potential of various mineral carbonation processes based on different feedstock material and process schemes on a consistent basis by determining the energy and material balance of each implementation (Kirchofer et al., 2011). In particular, we evaluated the net CO2 storage potential of aqueous mineral carbonation for serpentine, olivine, cement kiln dust, fly ash, and steel slag across a range of reaction conditions and process parameters. A preliminary systematic investigation of the tradeoffs inherent in mineral carbonation processes was conducted and guidelines for the optimization of the life-cycle energy efficiency are provided. The life-cycle assessment of aqueous mineral carbonation suggests that a variety of alkalinity sources and process configurations are capable of net CO2 reductions. The maximum carbonation efficiency, defined as mass percent of CO2 mitigated per CO2 input, was 83% for CKD at ambient temperature and pressure conditions. In order of decreasing efficiency, the maximum carbonation efficiencies for the other alkalinity sources investigated were: olivine, 66%; SS, 64%; FA, 36%; and serpentine, 13%. For natural alkalinity sources, availability is estimated based on U.S. production rates of a) lime (18 Mt/yr) or b) sand and gravel (760 Mt/yr) (USGS, 2011). The low estimate assumes the maximum sequestration efficiency of the alkalinity source obtained in the current work and the high estimate assumes a sequestration efficiency

  13. Partially hydrolyzed guar gum as a potential prebiotic source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta; Patel, Ami; Shah, Nihir

    2018-06-01

    Guar galactomannan was enzymatically hydrolyzed to obtain partially hydrolyzed guar gum which can be utilized as prebiotic source. In present study, growth of probiotics (Lactic Acid Bacteria strains) were studied with glucose, partially hydrolyzed guar gum and native guar gum. All the six strains were galactose &/or mannose positive using the API CHl 50 test. Almost all these strains showed an ability to assimilate partially hydrolyzed guar gum with respect to increase in optical density and viable cell count with concomitant decrease in the pH of the growth medium. Streptococcus thermophilus MD2 exhibited higher growth (7.78 log cfu/ml) while P. parvulus AI1 showed comparatively less growth (7.24 log cfu/ml) as compared to used lactobacillus and Weissella strains. Outcomes of the current study suggest that partially hydrolyzed guar can be considered as potential prebiotic compound that may further stimulate the growth of potentially probiotic bacteria or native gut microflora. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessing the potential hydrological impact of the Gibe III Dam on Lake Turkana water level using multi-source satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velpuri, N. M.; Senay, G. B.

    2012-10-01

    Lake Turkana, the largest desert lake in the world, is fed by ungauged or poorly gauged river systems. To meet the demand of electricity in the East African region, Ethiopia is currently building the Gibe III hydroelectric dam on the Omo River, which supplies more than 80% of the inflows to Lake Turkana. On completion, the Gibe III dam will be the tallest dam in Africa with a height of 241 m. However, the nature of interactions and potential impacts of regulated inflows to Lake Turkana are not well understood due to its remote location and unavailability of reliable in situ datasets. In this study, we used 12 yr (1998-2009) of existing multi-source satellite and model-assimilated global weather data. We used a calibrated multi-source satellite data-driven water balance model for Lake Turkana that takes into account model routed runoff, lake/reservoir evapotranspiration, direct rain on lakes/reservoirs and releases from the dam to compute lake water levels. The model evaluates the impact of the Gibe III dam using three different approaches - a historical approach, a rainfall based approach, and a statistical approach to generate rainfall-runoff scenarios. All the approaches provided comparable and consistent results. Model results indicated that the hydrological impact of the Gibe III dam on Lake Turkana would vary with the magnitude and distribution of rainfall post-dam commencement. On average, the reservoir would take up to 8-10 months, after commencement, to reach a minimum operation level of 201 m depth of water. During the dam filling period, the lake level would drop up to 1-2 m (95% confidence) compared to the lake level modeled without the dam. The lake level variability caused by regulated inflows after the dam commissioning were found to be within the natural variability of the lake of 4.8 m. Moreover, modeling results indicated that the hydrological impact of the Gibe III dam would depend on the initial lake level at the time of dam commencement. Areas

  15. Surface-water nutrient conditions and sources in the United States Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, D.R.; Johnson, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    The SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model was used to perform an assessment of surface-water nutrient conditions and to identify important nutrient sources in watersheds of the Pacific Northwest region of the United States (U.S.) for the year 2002. Our models included variables representing nutrient sources as well as landscape characteristics that affect nutrient delivery to streams. Annual nutrient yields were higher in watersheds on the wetter, west side of the Cascade Range compared to watersheds on the drier, east side. High nutrient enrichment (relative to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's recommended nutrient criteria) was estimated in watersheds throughout the region. Forest land was generally the largest source of total nitrogen stream load and geologic material was generally the largest source of total phosphorus stream load generated within the 12,039 modeled watersheds. These results reflected the prevalence of these two natural sources and the low input from other nutrient sources across the region. However, the combined input from agriculture, point sources, and developed land, rather than natural nutrient sources, was responsible for most of the nutrient load discharged from many of the largest watersheds. Our results provided an understanding of the regional patterns in surface-water nutrient conditions and should be useful to environmental managers in future water-quality planning efforts.

  16. Potentials and economic viability of small grain residue use as a source of energy in Serbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zekic, Vladislav; Rodic, Vesna; Jovanovic, Milenko [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology, Trg Dositeja Obradovica 8, 21000 Novi Sad, Vojvodina (RS)

    2010-12-15

    One of the numerous challenges awaiting Serbia in the process of European integration is the increase in use of renewable sources of energy. The reason for such an increase is not merely a formal acceptance of European goals but the high energy import dependence, a relatively developed agricultural sector, with insufficiently exploited potentials of biomass, accompanied by an ever-growing awareness of the need for establishing long-lasting sustainable development. Serbia has a relatively undeveloped livestock sector which can absorb a limited portion of the biomass produced. Additionally, insufficient awareness on the part of farmers and the preconception of the low cost-effectiveness of biomass utilisation for the purpose of energy production are factors which, unsurprisingly, contribute to the current practice of burning the largest portion of the biomass produced on site, which is economically and ecologically unacceptable. This paper analyses the amounts of biomass available in Serbia and the prospects of its economically viable utilisation. The cost analysis conducted indicates that the energy obtained from small rectangular straw bales (the most widespread way of utilisation), is less costly by 28%, than the energy obtained from coal, whereas the energy obtained from round bales is cheaper by 34%. Sensitivity analysis has shown that the results obtained are relatively resistant to price changes in the most important inputs. The sensitivity is higher towards the efficiency of the machinery used; therefore, insistent efforts should be made for creating conditions where the introduction of more up-to-date technical solutions, already existing in developed countries, will become feasible. (author)

  17. Dissolved Oxygen Dynamics in Backwaters of North America's Largest River Swamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueche, S. M.; Xu, Y. J.; Reiman, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    The Atchafalaya River (AR) is the largest distributary of the Mississippi River flowing through south-central Louisiana, creating North America's largest river swamp basin - the Atchafalaya River Basin (ARB). Prior to human settlement, the AR's main channel was highly connected to this large wetland ecosystem. However, due to constructed levee systems and other human modifications, much of the ARB is now hydrologically disconnected from the AR's main channel except during high flow events. This lack of regular inputs of fresh, oxygenated water to these wetlands, paired with high levels of organic matter decomposition in wetlands, has caused low oxygen-deprived hypoxic conditions in the ARB's back waters. In addition, due to the incredibly nutrient-rich and warm nature of the ARB, microbial decomposition in backwater areas with limited flow often results in potentially stressful, if not lethal, levels of DO for organisms during and after flood pulses. This study aims to investigate dynamics of dissolved oxygen in backwaters of the Atchafalaya River Basin, intending to answer a crucial question about hydrological and water quality connectivity between the river's mainstem and its floodplain. Specifically, the study will 1) conduct field water quality measurements, 2) collect composite water samples for chemical analysis of nutrients and carbon, 3) investigate DO dynamics over different seasons for one year, and 4) determine the major factors that affect DO dynamics in this unique swamp ecosystem. The study is currently underway; therefore, in this presentation we will share the major findings gained in the past several months and discuss backwater effects on river chemistry.

  18. Building Earth's Largest Library: Driving into the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, Steve

    1999-01-01

    Examines the Amazon.com online bookstore as a blueprint for designing the world's largest library. Topics include selection; accessibility and convenience; quality of Web sites and search tools; personalized service; library collection development, including interlibrary loan; library catalogs and catalog records; a circulation system; costs;…

  19. Toward sustainable harvesting of Africa's largest medicinal plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global demand for treating prostate disorders with Prunus africana bark extract has made P. africana Africa's largest medicinal plant export. Unsustainable harvesting practices can lead to local extirpations of this multipurpose tree. Survey research targeting P. africana harvesters in a Tanzania forest reserve revealed that ...

  20. Potential Sources and Formations of the PM2.5 Pollution in Urban Hangzhou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Continuous measurements of meteorological parameters, gaseous pollutants, particulate matters, and the major chemical species in PM2.5 were conducted in urban Hangzhou from 1 September to 30 November 2013 to study the potential sources and formations of PM2.5 pollution. The average PM2.5 concentration was 69 µg·m−3, ~97% higher than the annual concentration limit in the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS of China. Relative humidity (RH and wind speed (WS were two important factors responsible for the increase of PM2.5 concentration, with the highest value observed under RH of 70%–90%. PM2.5 was in good correlation with both NO2 and CO, but not with SO2, and the potential source contribution function (PSCF results displayed that local emissions were important potential sources contributing to the elevated PM2.5 and NO2 in Hangzhou. Thus, local vehicle emission was suggested as a major contribution to the PM2.5 pollution. Concentrations of NO2 and CO significantly increased in pollution episodes, while the SO2 concentration even decreased, implying local emission rather than region transport was the major source contributing to the formation of pollution episodes. The sum of SO42−, NO3−, and NH4+ accounted for ~50% of PM2.5 in mass in pollution episodes and the NO3−/EC ratios were significantly elevated, revealing that the formation of secondary inorganic species, particularly NO3−, was an important contributor to the PM2.5 pollution in Hangzhou. This study highlights that controlling local pollution emissions was essential to reduce the PM2.5 pollution in Hangzhou, and the control of vehicle emission in particular should be further promoted in the future.

  1. Time Series Analysis of Monte Carlo Fission Sources - I: Dominance Ratio Computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueki, Taro; Brown, Forrest B.; Parsons, D. Kent; Warsa, James S.

    2004-01-01

    In the nuclear engineering community, the error propagation of the Monte Carlo fission source distribution through cycles is known to be a linear Markov process when the number of histories per cycle is sufficiently large. In the statistics community, linear Markov processes with linear observation functions are known to have an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) representation of orders p and p - 1. Therefore, one can perform ARMA fitting of the binned Monte Carlo fission source in order to compute physical and statistical quantities relevant to nuclear criticality analysis. In this work, the ARMA fitting of a binary Monte Carlo fission source has been successfully developed as a method to compute the dominance ratio, i.e., the ratio of the second-largest to the largest eigenvalues. The method is free of binning mesh refinement and does not require the alteration of the basic source iteration cycle algorithm. Numerical results are presented for problems with one-group isotropic, two-group linearly anisotropic, and continuous-energy cross sections. Also, a strategy for the analysis of eigenmodes higher than the second-largest eigenvalue is demonstrated numerically

  2. Kabob report. Pt. 3. Chevron plant largest in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1971-01-18

    Canada's largest fully integrated primary natural- gas processing and sulfur recovery plant is heading for physical completion by mid-summer of 1971. The Ralph M. Parsons Construction Co. of Canada Ltd., contractor for the S. Kaybob Beaverhill Lake Unit No. 3 gas-processing plant, to be operated by Chevron Standard Ltd., estimates completion by June 30. After that the $80 million complex will have tests and running in time. With any reasonable luck, it should be fully on stream by late summer. Preliminary construction on the 200-acre site started in Jan. 1969 with clearing and contouring of the main plant and sulfur storage sites. Initial rough grading started in the early summer, after spring breakup was over. Delivery of most of the big items was made by rail because the local secondary roads were inadequate for them. Concrete has been a large item. The contractor has its own batch plant on the site for the estimated 28,000 cu yd which will be needed for the whole job. Dominating the construction site from the start has been the high sulfur plant stack, first of the major items to be finished. It will serve to dispose of effluent from the largest sulfur recovery unit in Canada. It is 465 ft high, one of the largest in Alberta, and a significant contribution to pollution control and environmental protection.

  3. Stray dogs and cats as potential sources of soil contamination with zoonotic parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Szwabe

    2017-03-01

    Cat faeces represent a more important potential source of environmental contamination with zoonotic parasites than dog faeces. Among the detected parasites of stray dogs and cats, Toxocara present an important zoonotic risk for the local human population, especially children.

  4. HUMAN POTENTIAL AS A SOURCE OF ECONOMICAL DEVELOPMENT IN BEIUŞ LAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu FILIMON

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available : The present study that focuses on the human potential in Beiuş Land, seen as a source of economical development, aims at highlighting the human resource existing in this area. It constitutes the engine or the dynamic element of the economical development. Such an endeavour is necesssary and needs accomplishment, in order to support some territorial development policies, regardless of the scale they are set on. Its analysis of Beiuş Land highlighted the existence of several drawbacks of the human potential, triggered by the demographic aging process, but also by the possibilities this area offers. Depending on its evolution, it is necessary to achieve a certain level of development which should ensure its welfare status.

  5. A study of potential sources of linguistic ambiguity in written work instructions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzen, Laura E.

    2009-11-01

    This report describes the results of a small experimental study that investigated potential sources of ambiguity in written work instructions (WIs). The English language can be highly ambiguous because words with different meanings can share the same spelling. Previous studies in the nuclear weapons complex have shown that ambiguous WIs can lead to human error, which is a major cause for concern. To study possible sources of ambiguity in WIs, we determined which of the recommended action verbs in the DOE and BWXT writer's manuals have numerous meanings to their intended audience, making them potentially ambiguous. We used cognitive psychology techniques to conduct a survey in which technicians who use WIs in their jobs indicated the first meaning that came to mind for each of the words. Although the findings of this study are limited by the small number of respondents, we identified words that had many different meanings even within this limited sample. WI writers should pay particular attention to these words and to their most frequent meanings so that they can avoid ambiguity in their writing.

  6. Upgrade and modernization of the six largest HPPs in Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadzievska, M.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, Electric Power Company of Macedonia and the International Bank for Development and Reconstruction, started the Power System Improvement Project a part of which is the Project for rehabilitation of the six largest Hydro Power Plants (HPPs) in the Republic of Macedonia. The six largest Hydro Power Plants (HPP Vrutok, HPP Raven, HPP Globocica, HPP Tikves and HPP Spilje and HPP Vrben) represent 91% of the country's hydropower capacity. The rehabilitation program is divided in five parts (contracts) and covers the refurbishment of: turbine runners, turbine and generator bearings, governors, inlet valves; butterfly valves, including accessories and control systems; generators, excitation system and voltage regulation; control system, protection and LV auxiliaries; switch gears and control gears in 220 kV, 110 kV and 35 kV substations. At the moment, only the implementation of switch gears has started, the first phase is already finished, and 50 % of the rehabilitation works for HPP Vrutok, the largest HPP, has been finished. With the realization of this project, greater hydropower production is expected. It also expected that HPPs will become a more vital part of the Macedonian power system

  7. Fermented fruits and vegetables of Asia: a potential source of probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Manas Ranjan; Anandharaj, Marimuthu; Ray, Ramesh Chandra; Parveen Rani, Rizwana

    2014-01-01

    As world population increases, lactic acid fermentation is expected to become an important role in preserving fresh vegetables, fruits, and other food items for feeding humanity in developing countries. However, several fermented fruits and vegetables products (Sauerkraut, Kimchi, Gundruk, Khalpi, Sinki, etc.) have a long history in human nutrition from ancient ages and are associated with the several social aspects of different communities. Among the food items, fruits and vegetables are easily perishable commodities due to their high water activity and nutritive values. These conditions are more critical in tropical and subtropical countries which favour the growth of spoilage causing microorganisms. Lactic acid fermentation increases shelf life of fruits and vegetables and also enhances several beneficial properties, including nutritive value and flavours, and reduces toxicity. Fermented fruits and vegetables can be used as a potential source of probiotics as they harbour several lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus plantarum, L. pentosus, L. brevis, L. acidophilus, L. fermentum, Leuconostoc fallax, and L. mesenteroides. As a whole, the traditionally fermented fruits and vegetables not only serve as food supplements but also attribute towards health benefits. This review aims to describe some important Asian fermented fruits and vegetables and their significance as a potential source of probiotics.

  8. Reduction of emissions from Brazilian cattle raising and the generation of energy: Intensification and confinement potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palermo, Giuseppe Cernicchiaro; D'Avignon, Alexandre Louis de Almeida; Freitas, Marcos Aurélio Vasconcelos

    2014-01-01

    The identification of the main sources of anthropic greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) associated with the mitigation and removal of these emissions has become an important instrument in the attenuation of the climatic changes predicted by the IPCC. The largest emission source in Brazil is forest conversion. This land use change has always had a strong relationship with the expansion of agriculture, an activity of great importance in the country, which has the largest commercial cattle herd in the planet. Following the considerable reduction in emissions from deforestation, agriculture has been since 2010 the most important source (MCTI (Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação), 2013. Brasília: Ministério daCiência, Tecnologia e Inovação, Brasil). Seeking to discover the possibilities of altering the emissions profile in the agricultural sector, four scenarios were developed related to how this is dealt with in the beef cattle sector, calculating the potential removal of carbon from the atmosphere through natural regeneration of biomes. The results suggest that picketing and rotation scenario has the greatest potential, with a carbon reduction of 17.7 Gt CO 2 eq, while the shared raising with grain legumes scenario has the lowest calculated reduction potential of 7.1 Gt CO 2 eq was calculated. The animal confinement scenario had an intermediary reduction potential of 8.3 Gt CO 2 eq. The mosaic of methods scenario, in which it is attempted to simulate the parallel adoption of the measures proposed in all other scenarios, had a reduction potential of 13.1 Gt CO 2 eq. In the scenarios where animal confinement occurs, the treatment of waste with biodigestion allows the generation of biogas and biofertilizers, contributing to an increase in the potential carbon reduction. - Highlights: • We identify one main source of anthropic GHG in Brazil after forest conversion (deforestation), the beef cattle raising. • Four scenarios to mitigate emissions from cattle

  9. Measurements of strongly localized potential well profiles in an inertial electrostatic fusion neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, K.; Takiyama, K.; Koyama, T.

    2001-01-01

    Direct measurements of localized electric fields are made by the laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) method by use of the Stark effects in the central cathode core region of an Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement Fusion (IECF) neutron (proton) source, which is expected for various applications, such as luggage security inspection, non-destructive testing, land mine detector, or positron emitter production for cancer detection, currently producing continuously about 10 7 n/sec D-D neutrons. Since 1967 when the first fusion reaction was successfully proved experimentally in a very compact IECF device, potential well formation due to space charge associated with spherically converging ion beams has been a central key issue to be clarified in the beam-beam colliding fusion, which is the major mechanism of the IECF neutron source. Many experiments, but indirect, were made so far to clarify the potential well, but none of them produced definitive evidence, however. Results by the present LIF method show a double well potential profile with a slight concave for ion beams with relatively larger angular momenta, whereas for ions with smaller angular momenta, potential but much steeper peak to develop. (author)

  10. Determination of potential sources of PCBs and PBDEs in sediments of the Niagara River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samara, Fatin [Department of Chemistry, 611 Natural Science Complex, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260-3000 (United States); Tsai, Christina W. [Department of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, 233 Jarvis Hall, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260-4400 (United States); Aga, Diana S. [Department of Chemistry, 611 Natural Science Complex, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260-3000 (United States)]. E-mail: dianaaga@buffalo.edu

    2006-02-15

    Sediments from Niagara River, an important waterway connecting two of the Great Lakes (Lake Erie to Lake Ontario), were analyzed for 14 congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 9 congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) using accelerated solvent extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Total concentrations of PCBs ranged from 1.7 to 124.6 ng/g were PCBs 138 and 153 were found in all samples. All sites but one showed PBDE in sediments with total concentrations as high as 148 ng/g, suggesting that PBDE is becoming an important class of POP. A land-use and coverage map was used to trace potential localized sources of PCB and PBDE contamination. Results indicate that the highest levels of PCBs and PBDEs were found in sediments collected from areas closest to the discharge locations of municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and local industries. This is the first study that suggests the importance of WWTP discharges as a potential source of PBDE contamination in the Great Lakes. - Wastewater treatment plant discharges are a main source of PCBs and PBDEs to Niagara River sediments.

  11. A potential of utilizing renewable energy sources and the state support in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Bodonská

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The renewable energy sources are domestic sources of energy that help to enhance the safety of energy supplies and the diversification of energy sources. The utilization of such sources complies with the environmental acceptability requirement and leads to a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The renewable energy is proved to be commercially viable for a growing list of consumers and uses. The renewable energy technologies provide many benefits that go well beyond the energy alone. More and more, the renewable energies contribute to the three pillars of the sustainable development in the economy, environment and the society.Several renewable energy technologies are established in world markets, building global industries and infrastructures. Other renewables become competitive in growing markets, and some are widely recognised as the lowest cost option for stand-alone and offgrid applications. An increased utilization of renewable energy sources in the heat and electricity generation is one of priority tasks of the Slovak Republic to boost the use of domestic energy potential and thus to decrease the Slovakia’s dependence on imported fossil fuels.

  12. China's Military Potential

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wortzel, Larry

    1998-01-01

    The People's Republic of China (PRC) is seen by many as an economic powerhouse with the world's largest standing military that has the potential to translate economic power into the military sphere...

  13. World's third-largest producer of nuclear power. Japan in need of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Japan is the third largest oil consumer in the world behind the United States and China, and the second largest net importer of oil. Japan boasts one of the largest economies in the world. The country continues to experience a moderate economic recovery that began in 2003, following a decade of economic stagnation. Japan's real gross domestic product (GDP) grew by 2.5% in 2005 and 2.3% in 2004. The modest upturn over the last few years reflects higher business confidence in Japan, a surge in export demand led by exports to China, and robust consumer spending. Unemployment in Japan fell to 4.4% in 2005, down from an early 2003 peak of 5.5%. Japan has virtually no domestic oil or natural gas reserves, and in 2005 was the second largest net importer of crude oil in the world. Despite the country's dearth of hydrocarbon resources, Japanese companies have actively pursued upstream oil and natural gas projects overseas. Japan remains one of the major exporters of energy-sector capital equipment, and Japanese companies provide engineering, construction, and project management services for energy projects. (orig.)

  14. Concentration, ozone formation potential and source analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a thermal power station centralized area: A study in Shuozhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yulong; Peng, Lin; Li, Rumei; Li, Yinghui; Li, Lijuan; Bai, Huiling

    2017-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from two sampling sites (HB and XB) in a power station centralized area, in Shuozhou city, China, were sampled by stainless steel canisters and measured by gas chromatography-mass selective detection/flame ionization detection (GC-MSD/FID) in the spring and autumn of 2014. The concentration of VOCs was higher in the autumn (HB, 96.87 μg/m 3 ; XB, 58.94 μg/m 3 ) than in the spring (HB, 41.49 μg/m 3 ; XB, 43.46 μg/m 3 ), as lower wind speed in the autumn could lead to pollutant accumulation, especially at HB, which is a new urban area surrounded by residential areas and a transportation hub. Alkanes were the dominant group at both HB and XB in both sampling periods, but the contribution of aromatic pollutants at HB in the autumn was much higher than that of the other alkanes (11.16-19.55%). Compared to other cities, BTEX pollution in Shuozhou was among the lowest levels in the world. Because of the high levels of aromatic pollutants, the ozone formation potential increased significantly at HB in the autumn. Using the ratio analyses to identify the age of the air masses and analyze the sources, the results showed that the atmospheric VOCs at XB were strongly influenced by the remote sources of coal combustion, while at HB in the spring and autumn were affected by the remote sources of coal combustion and local sources of vehicle emission, respectively. Source analysis conducted using the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model at Shuozhou showed that coal combustion and vehicle emissions made the two largest contributions (29.98% and 21.25%, respectively) to atmospheric VOCs. With further economic restructuring, the influence of vehicle emissions on the air quality should become more significant, indicating that controlling vehicle emissions is key to reducing the air pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Natural plant sugar sources of Anopheles mosquitoes strongly impact malaria transmission potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Gu

    Full Text Available An improved knowledge of mosquito life history could strengthen malaria vector control efforts that primarily focus on killing mosquitoes indoors using insecticide treated nets and indoor residual spraying. Natural sugar sources, usually floral nectars of plants, are a primary energy resource for adult mosquitoes but their role in regulating the dynamics of mosquito populations is unclear. To determine how the sugar availability impacts Anopheles sergentii populations, mark-release-recapture studies were conducted in two oases in Israel with either absence or presence of the local primary sugar source, flowering Acacia raddiana trees. Compared with population estimates from the sugar-rich oasis, An. sergentii in the sugar-poor oasis showed smaller population size (37,494 vs. 85,595, lower survival rates (0.72 vs. 0.93, and prolonged gonotrophic cycles (3.33 vs. 2.36 days. The estimated number of females older than the extrinsic incubation period of malaria (10 days in the sugar rich site was 4 times greater than in the sugar poor site. Sugar feeding detected in mosquito guts in the sugar-rich site was significantly higher (73% than in the sugar-poor site (48%. In contrast, plant tissue feeding (poor quality sugar source in the sugar-rich habitat was much less (0.3% than in the sugar-poor site (30%. More important, the estimated vectorial capacity, a standard measure of malaria transmission potential, was more than 250-fold higher in the sugar-rich oasis than that in the sugar-poor site. Our results convincingly show that the availability of sugar sources in the local environment is a major determinant regulating the dynamics of mosquito populations and their vector potential, suggesting that control interventions targeting sugar-feeding mosquitoes pose a promising tactic for combating transmission of malaria parasites and other pathogens.

  16. NAFTA: The World's Largest Trading Zone Turns 20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, Tawni Hunt; Day, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Everyone under the age of 20 who has grown up in North America has lived in the common market created by NAFTA--the North American Free Trade Agreement. In a zone linking the United States, Canada, and Mexico, most goods and investments flow freely across borders to users, consumers, and investors. In 1994, NAFTA created the largest relatively…

  17. Chemical characteristics and methane potentials of source-separated and pre-treated organic municipal solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine Lund; Svärd, Å; Angelidaki, Irini

    2003-01-01

    A research project has investigated the biogas potential of pre-screened source-separated organic waste. Wastes from five Danish cities have been pre-treated by three methods: screw press; disc screen; and shredder and magnet. This paper outlines the sampling procedure used, the chemical...... composition of the wastes and the estimated methane potentials....

  18. The potential of macroalgae as a source of carbohydrates for use in bioethanol fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nwachukwu, A.N. [School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Chukwu, M.A. [Department of Sustainable Chemical Engineering, University of Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Fossil fuel which is the global energy source gives rise to land contamination, air pollution, climate change, fuel crises, hike of price of petroleum products, crises in oil producing nations, dependency on oil producing countries and high risk associated with oil exploitation has led to a search for sustainable and efficient energy sources. Several types and sources of biofuels have been recently studied as potential source of energy to replace the environmentally unfriendly fossil fuels. Bioethanol produced from terrestrial plants have attracted the attention of the global society, though numerous controversies and debates were associated with the technology; such as the issue of food versus fuel competition, which further encouraged more research work on a sustainable renewable bioethanol source. This study aims at determining total carbohydrates from macroalgal specie (Laminaria digitata) for use in bioethanol fermentation, also using wet and analytical chemistry to extract and spectrophotometrically analyse the sample in respect to glucose and sucrose standards. The samples were lyophilized and the resulting powder extracted in a water bath at 100oC in 15minutes. The analysis was performed using anthrone (colorimetric) method and the analyte read in a UV-visible spectrophotometer at 620nm. The result showed that carbohydrates were present in the samples, indicated by green and yellow, colourless pigments. Glucose and sucrose were the main identified sugars from the standards analysed. The concentration of sugars varied with time; months and seasons of the year. Result of the samples showed highest level of sugar concentration in May 2010 and lowest sugar concentration in November 2010. It was observed that the mass of sugars (glucose and sucrose) deposited as a result of photosynthesis, significantly contributed to the weight of biomass. The implication of the result indicated that: the smaller the biomass, the most likely it is to have lower mass of sugars

  19. Long-period Ground Motion Characteristics Inside and Outside of the Osaka Basin during the 2011 Great Tohoku Earthquake and Its Largest Aftershock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K.; Iwata, T.; Asano, K.; Kubo, H.; Aoi, S.

    2013-12-01

    The 2011 great Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) occurred on March 11, 2011, and the largest aftershock (Mw 7.7) at the region adjacent to south boundary of the mainshock's source region. Long-period ground motions (1-10s) of large amplitude were observed in the Osaka sedimentary basin about 550-800km away from the source regions during both events. We studied propagation and site characteristics of these ground motions, and found some common features between these two events in the Osaka basin. (1) The amplitude of horizontal components of the ground motion at the site-specific period is amplified at each sedimentary station. The predominant period is around 7s in the bayside area where the largest pSv were observed. (2) The velocity Fourier spectra have their peak values around 7s at the bedrock sites surrounding the Osaka basin. (3) Two remarkable wave packets separated by 30s propagating from stations around the Nobi plain to the bedrock sites near the Osaka basin were seen in the pasted-up velocity waveforms from the source regions to the Osaka basin for both events (Sato et al., 2012). Therefore, large long-period ground motions in the Osaka basin are generated by the combination of propagation-path and basin effects. Firstly, we simulate ground motions due to the largest aftershock using three-dimensional FDM (GMS; Aoi and Fujiwara, 1999). The reason we focus on the largest aftershock is that this event has a relatively small rupture area and simple rupture process compared to the mainshock. The source model is based on the model estimated by Kubo et al. (2013). The velocity structure model is a three-dimensional velocity structure based on the Japan Integrated Velocity Structure Model (Koketsu et al., 2012) and the layer of Vs 350m/s in this model is replaced with one of Vs 500m/s. The minimum effective period in this computation is 3s. Then, we compare synthetic waveforms with observed ones. At CHBH14, the nearest station to the source and 60km away from the

  20. Map of decentralised energy potential based on renewable energy sources in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, D. R.; Ban, M.; Duic, N.; Bogdan, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Although the Republic of Croatia is almost completely electrified there are still regions where electricity network is not in place or network capacity is insufficient. These regions usually include areas of special state care (underdeveloped, war-affected or depopulated areas), islands, and mountainous areas. However, they often have good renewable energy potential. Decentralised energy generation based on renewable energy sources (wind power, hydropower, solar energy, biomass) has potential to ensure energy supply to users in remote and often isolated rural areas (off-grid applications). Such applications will primarily be related to tourism business in mountainous, rural and island/coastal regions. Also, agriculture, wood-processing and food-processing industries will potentially be interested in application of decentralised energy generation systems, most likely those using biomass as fuel (for example cogeneration facilities, connected on-grid).(author)

  1. Lignicolous fungi as potential natural sources of antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaman Maja A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of an interest in natural derived metabolites around the world higher fungi (Basidiomycotina have taken on great importance in biochemical investigations. A large number of structurally divergent compounds - both cellular components and secondary metabolites - have been extracted and found to possess significant biological activity, such as an immunomodulative effect on the human body. Effects of fungal biomolecules as potential natural antioxidants have not been examined so far. Biochemical analysis have included in vitro testing of the influence of different extracts (water methanol, chloroform of selected fungal sporocarps on Fe2+/ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation (LP in a lecithin liposome system by TBA assay, as well as various other procedures. Qualitative analysis by TLC revealed a distinction both between different extracts of the same fungal species and between similar extracts of different species. The results obtained on antioxidative activities (LP inhibition and "scavenging" activity indicate that MeOH extracts manifested a degree of activity higher than that of CHCl3 extracts with respect to antioxidative activity, the extracts can be ranged in the following declining order: Ganoderma lucidum, Ganoderma applanatum Meripilus giganteus, and Flammulina velutipes. The obtained results suggest that the analyzed fungi are of potential interest as sources of strong natural antioxidants in the food and cosmetics industries, whereas synthetic ones have proved to be carcinogenic.

  2. Potential Impacts of Food Production on Freshwater Availability Considering Water Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinjiro Yano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We quantify the potential impacts of global food production on freshwater availability (water scarcity footprint; WSF by applying the water unavailability factor (fwua as a characterization factor and a global water resource model based on life cycle impact assessment (LCIA. Each water source, including rainfall, surface water, and groundwater, has a distinct fwua that is estimated based on the renewability rate of each geographical water cycle. The aggregated consumptive water use level for food production (water footprint inventory; WI was found to be 4344 km3/year, and the calculated global total WSF was 18,031 km3 H2Oeq/year, when considering the difference in water sources. According to the fwua concept, which is based on the land area required to obtain a unit volume of water from each source, the calculated annual impact can also be represented as 98.5 × 106 km2. This value implies that current agricultural activities requires a land area that is over six times larger than global total cropland. We also present the net import of the WI and WSF, highlighting the importance of quantitative assessments for utilizing global water resources to achieve sustainable water use globally.

  3. Potential profile near singularity point in kinetic Tonks-Langmuir discharges as a function of the ion sources temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, L.; Tskhakaya, D. D.; Jelić, N.

    2011-05-01

    A plasma-sheath transition analysis requires a reliable mathematical expression for the plasma potential profile Φ(x) near the sheath edge xs in the limit ɛ ≡λD/ℓ =0 (where λD is the Debye length and ℓ is a proper characteristic length of the discharge). Such expressions have been explicitly calculated for the fluid model and the singular (cold ion source) kinetic model, where exact analytic solutions for plasma equation (ɛ =0) are known, but not for the regular (warm ion source) kinetic model, where no analytic solution of the plasma equation has ever been obtained. For the latter case, Riemann [J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 24, 493 (1991)] only predicted a general formula assuming relatively high ion-source temperatures, i.e., much higher than the plasma-sheath potential drop. Riemann's formula, however, according to him, never was confirmed in explicit solutions of particular models (e.g., that of Bissell and Johnson [Phys. Fluids 30, 779 (1987)] and Scheuer and Emmert [Phys. Fluids 31, 3645 (1988)]) since "the accuracy of the classical solutions is not sufficient to analyze the sheath vicinity" [Riemann, in Proceedings of the 62nd Annual Gaseous Electronic Conference, APS Meeting Abstracts, Vol. 54 (APS, 2009)]. Therefore, for many years, there has been a need for explicit calculation that might confirm the Riemann's general formula regarding the potential profile at the sheath edge in the cases of regular very warm ion sources. Fortunately, now we are able to achieve a very high accuracy of results [see, e.g., Kos et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 093503 (2009)]. We perform this task by using both the analytic and the numerical method with explicit Maxwellian and "water-bag" ion source velocity distributions. We find the potential profile near the plasma-sheath edge in the whole range of ion source temperatures of general interest to plasma physics, from zero to "practical infinity." While within limits of "very low" and "relatively high" ion source temperatures

  4. The Characteristics and Potential Source Area Analysis of PM2.5 Concentration for Zhengzhou during 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.; Liu, J.; Li, S.; Wang, C.; Zhou, S.

    2018-04-01

    This study used the HYSPLIT-4 model combined with cluster analysis, potential source pollution contribution functions and other methods to analyse the ground air pollution monitoring data and meteorological data in Zhengzhou during 2016. The results showed that: 1) the level of PM2.5 reached the low value in summer. The PM2.5 concentration reached the highest level in December and reached the lowest level in August. The daily variation characteristics of PM2.5 concentration in different seasons were roughly the same, and it had an obviously "double-peak" structure. 2) The annual PM2.5 concentration was positively correlated with atmospheric pressure and relative humidity. The annual PM2.5 concentration was negatively correlated with temperature, visibility, precipitation, and wind speed. 3) In winter, the air mass trajectory that through the northern Sichuan - Gansu - Shaanxi - Hubei was polluted seriously, and the level of PM2.5 was the highest which reached to 202.13 μg/m3. In summer, the air mass trajectory that came from Hubei was the lowest level with the value is 40.17 μg/m3. 4) The potential source areas located in northwest of Zhengzhou, Gansu, Hubei and Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region in spring. The surrounding of Zhengzhou contributed to the pollution of Zhengzhou. The potential source areas appeared in Shaanxi, Sichuan, and Qinghai, the border between Ningxia and Inner Mongolia in autumn. In winter the potential source areas located in Jiangsu, Hubei, Henan, eastern of Shanxi, southern of Shanxi, Ningxia and the area of Yellow Sea, etc.

  5. Self-consistent field theory of collisions: Orbital equations with asymptotic sources and self-averaged potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Y.K., E-mail: ykhahn22@verizon.net

    2014-12-15

    The self-consistent field theory of collisions is formulated, incorporating the unique dynamics generated by the self-averaged potentials. The bound state Hartree–Fock approach is extended for the first time to scattering states, by properly resolving the principal difficulties of non-integrable continuum orbitals and imposing complex asymptotic conditions. The recently developed asymptotic source theory provides the natural theoretical basis, as the asymptotic conditions are completely transferred to the source terms and the new scattering function is made fullyintegrable. The scattering solutions can then be directly expressed in terms of bound state HF configurations, establishing the relationship between the bound and scattering state solutions. Alternatively, the integrable spin orbitals are generated by constructing the individual orbital equations that contain asymptotic sources and self-averaged potentials. However, the orbital energies are not determined by the equations, and a special channel energy fixing procedure is developed to secure the solutions. It is also shown that the variational construction of the orbital equations has intrinsic ambiguities that are generally associated with the self-consistent approach. On the other hand, when a small subset of open channels is included in the source term, the solutions are only partiallyintegrable, but the individual open channels can then be treated more simply by properly selecting the orbital energies. The configuration mixing and channel coupling are then necessary to complete the solution. The new theory improves the earlier continuum HF model. - Highlights: • First extension of HF to scattering states, with proper asymptotic conditions. • Orbital equations with asymptotic sources and integrable orbital solutions. • Construction of self-averaged potentials, and orbital energy fixing. • Channel coupling and configuration mixing, involving the new orbitals. • Critical evaluation of the

  6. The potential of carbon and nitrogen isotopes to conservatively discriminate between subsoil sediment sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laceby, J. Patrick; Olley, Jon

    2013-04-01

    Moreton Bay, in South East Queensland, Australia, is a Ramsar wetland of international significance. A decline of the bay's ecosystem health has been primarily attributed to sediments and nutrients from catchment sources. Sediment budgets for three catchments indicated gully erosion dominates the supply of sediment in Knapp Creek and the Upper Bremer River whereas erosion from cultivated soils is the primary sediment source in Blackfellow Creek. Sediment tracing with fallout-radionuclides confirmed subsoil erosion processes dominate the supply of sediment in Knapp Creek and the Upper Bremer River whereas in Blackfellow Creek cultivated and subsoil sources contribute >90% of sediments. Other sediment properties are required to determine the relative sediment contributions of channel bank, gully and cultivated sources in these catchments. The potential of total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), and carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N) to conservatively discriminate between subsoil sediment sources is presented. The conservativeness of these sediment properties was examined through evaluating particle size variations in depth core soil samples and investigating whether they remain constant in source soils over two sampling occasions. Varying conservative behavior and source discrimination was observed. TN in the

  7. Mapping of potential heat sources for heat pumps for district heating in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Rasmus; Persson, Urban

    2016-01-01

    The ambitious policy in Denmark on having a 100% renewable energy supply in 2050 requires radical changes to the energy systems to avoid an extensive and unsustainable use of biomass resources. Currently, wind power is being expanded and the increasing supply of electricity is slowly pushing the CHP (combined heat and power) plants out of operation, reducing the energy efficiency of the DH (district heating) supply. Here, large heat pumps for district heating is a frequently mentioned solution as a flexible demand for electricity and an energy efficient heat producer. The idea is to make heat pump use a low temperature waste or ambient heat source, but it has so far been very unclear which heat sources are actually available for this purpose. In this study eight categories of heat sources are analysed for the case of Denmark and included in a detailed spatial analysis where the identified heat sources are put in relation to the district heating areas and the corresponding demands. The analysis shows that potential heat sources are present near almost all district heating areas and that sea water most likely will have to play a substantial role as a heat source in future energy systems in Denmark. - Highlights: • The availability of heat sources for heat pumps in Denmark are mapped and quantified. • A novel methodology for assessment of low temperature industrial excess heat is presented. • There are heat sources available for 99% of district heating networks in Denmark. • The concentration of heat sources is generally bigger around bigger cities than smaller. • Ambient temperature heat sources will be more needed in district heating of big cities.

  8. [Inventory and environmental impact of VOCs emission from the typical anthropogenic sources in Sichuan province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Li; Wang, Xing-Rui; He, Min; Guo, Wei-Guang

    2013-12-01

    Based on Sichuan province environmental statistical survey data and other relevant activity data, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions from typical anthropogenic sources in Sichuan province were calculated for the year of 2011 by applying the emission factor method. Besides, ozone and secondary organic aerosol formation potentials of these typical anthropogenic sources were discussed. The total VOC emission from these sources was about 482 kt in Sichuan province, biomass burning, solvent utilization, industrial processes, storage and distribution of fuel, and fossil fuel combustion contributed 174 kt, 153 kt, 121 kt, 21 kt and 13 kt, respectively; architecture wall painting, furniture coating, wood decoration painting and artificial board were the major emission sectors of the solvent utilization; while for the industrial processes, 19.4% of VOCs emission was from the wine industry. Chengdu was the largest contributor compared to the other cities in Sichuan, whose VOCs emission from these typical anthropogenic sources in 2011 was 112 kt. OFP of these sources was 1,930 kt altogether. Solvent utilization contributed 50.5% of the total SOA formation potentials, biomass burning and industrial processes both contributed about 23% , with storage and distribution of fuel and fossil fuel combustion accounting for 1% and 1.4%, respectively.

  9. Statistics of the largest sunspot and facular areas per solar cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, D.M.; Kabasakal Tulunay, Y.

    1979-01-01

    The statistics of extreme values is used to investigate the statistical properties of the largest areas sunspots and photospheric faculae per solar cycle. The largest values of the synodic-solar-rotation mean areas of umbrae, whole spots and faculae, which have been recorded for nine solar cycles, are each shown to comply with the general form of the extreme value probability function. Empirical expressions are derived for the three extreme value populations from which the characteristic statistical parameters, namely the mode, median, mean and standard deviation, can be calculated for each population. These three extreme value populations are also used to find the expected ranges of the extreme areas in a group of solar cycles as a function of the number of cycles in the group. The extreme areas of umbrae and whole spots have a dispersion comparable to that found by Siscoe for the extreme values of sunspot number, whereas the extreme areas of faculae have a smaller dispersion which is comparable to that found by Siscoe for the largest geomagnetic storm per solar cycle. The expected range of the largest sunspot area per solar cycle for a group of one hundred cycles appears to be inconsistent with the existence of the prolonged periods of sunspot minima that have been inferred from the historical information on solar variability. This inconsistency supports the contention that there are temporal changes of solar-cycle statistics during protracted periods of sunspot minima (or maxima). Indeed, without such temporal changes, photospheric faculae should have been continually observable throughout the lifetime of the Sun. (orig.)

  10. Fishing down the largest coral reef fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, Douglas

    2014-07-15

    Studies on remote, uninhabited, near-pristine reefs have revealed surprisingly large populations of large reef fish. Locations such as the northwestern Hawaiian Islands, northern Marianas Islands, Line Islands, U.S. remote Pacific Islands, Cocos-Keeling Atoll and Chagos archipelago have much higher reef fish biomass than islands and reefs near people. Much of the high biomass of most remote reef fish communities lies in the largest species, such as sharks, bumphead parrots, giant trevally, and humphead wrasse. Some, such as sharks and giant trevally, are apex predators, but others such as bumphead parrots and humphead wrasse, are not. At many locations, decreases in large reef fish species have been attributed to fishing. Fishing is well known to remove the largest fish first, and a quantitative measure of vulnerability to fishing indicates that large reef fish species are much more vulnerable to fishing than small fish. The removal of large reef fish by fishing parallels the extinction of terrestrial megafauna by early humans. However large reef fish have great value for various ecological roles and for reef tourism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Multivariate Largest Lyapunov Exponent as an Age-Related Metric of Quiet Standing Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The largest Lyapunov exponent has been researched as a metric of the balance ability during human quiet standing. However, the sensitivity and accuracy of this measurement method are not good enough for clinical use. The present research proposes a metric of the human body’s standing balance ability based on the multivariate largest Lyapunov exponent which can quantify the human standing balance. The dynamic multivariate time series of ankle, knee, and hip were measured by multiple electrical goniometers. Thirty-six normal people of different ages participated in the test. With acquired data, the multivariate largest Lyapunov exponent was calculated. Finally, the results of the proposed approach were analysed and compared with the traditional method, for which the largest Lyapunov exponent and power spectral density from the centre of pressure were also calculated. The following conclusions can be obtained. The multivariate largest Lyapunov exponent has a higher degree of differentiation in differentiating balance in eyes-closed conditions. The MLLE value reflects the overall coordination between multisegment movements. Individuals of different ages can be distinguished by their MLLE values. The standing stability of human is reduced with the increment of age.

  12. Crash testing the largest experiment on Earth

    OpenAIRE

    Cauchi, Marija

    2015-01-01

    Under Europe lies a 27 km tunnel that is both the coldest and hottest place on Earth. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has already found out what gives mass to all the matter in the Universe. It is now trying to go even deeper into what makes up everything we see around us. Dr Marija Cauchi writes about her research that helped protect this atom smasher from itself. Photography by Jean Claude Vancell. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/crash-testing-the-largest-experiment-on-earth/

  13. Potential of chicken by-products as sources of useful biological resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasekan, Adeseye; Abu Bakar, Fatimah; Hashim, Dzulkifly

    2013-01-01

    By-products from different animal sources are currently being utilised for beneficial purposes. Chicken processing plants all over the world generate large amount of solid by-products in form of heads, legs, bones, viscera and feather. These wastes are often processed into livestock feed, fertilizers and pet foods or totally discarded. Inappropriate disposal of these wastes causes environmental pollution, diseases and loss of useful biological resources like protein, enzymes and lipids. Utilisation methods that make use of these biological components for producing value added products rather than the direct use of the actual waste material might be another viable option for dealing with these wastes. This line of thought has consequently led to researches on these wastes as sources of protein hydrolysates, enzymes and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Due to the multi-applications of protein hydrolysates in various branches of science and industry, and the large body of literature reporting the conversion of animal wastes to hydrolysates, a large section of this review was devoted to this subject. Thus, this review reports the known functional and bioactive properties of hydrolysates derived from chicken by-products as well their utilisation as source of peptone in microbiological media. Methods of producing these hydrolysates including their microbiological safety are discussed. Based on the few references available in the literature, the potential of some chicken by-product as sources of proteases and polyunsaturated fatty acids are pointed out along with some other future applications

  14. Potential of chicken by-products as sources of useful biological resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasekan, Adeseye [Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Abu Bakar, Fatimah, E-mail: fatim@putra.upm.edu.my [Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Hashim, Dzulkifly [Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-03-15

    By-products from different animal sources are currently being utilised for beneficial purposes. Chicken processing plants all over the world generate large amount of solid by-products in form of heads, legs, bones, viscera and feather. These wastes are often processed into livestock feed, fertilizers and pet foods or totally discarded. Inappropriate disposal of these wastes causes environmental pollution, diseases and loss of useful biological resources like protein, enzymes and lipids. Utilisation methods that make use of these biological components for producing value added products rather than the direct use of the actual waste material might be another viable option for dealing with these wastes. This line of thought has consequently led to researches on these wastes as sources of protein hydrolysates, enzymes and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Due to the multi-applications of protein hydrolysates in various branches of science and industry, and the large body of literature reporting the conversion of animal wastes to hydrolysates, a large section of this review was devoted to this subject. Thus, this review reports the known functional and bioactive properties of hydrolysates derived from chicken by-products as well their utilisation as source of peptone in microbiological media. Methods of producing these hydrolysates including their microbiological safety are discussed. Based on the few references available in the literature, the potential of some chicken by-product as sources of proteases and polyunsaturated fatty acids are pointed out along with some other future applications.

  15. Technical and Economic Potential of Distributed Energy Storages for the Integration of Renewable Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinbjörnsson, Dadi Þorsteinn; Trier, Daniel; Hansen, Kenneth

    Very high penetration of fluctuating renewable energy sources can lead to new challenges in balancing energy supply and demand in future energy systems. This work, carried out as a part of Annex 28 of the IEA ECES programme, addresses this. The aim of the study is to identify which role decentral...... indicate that sector coupling along with an intelligent choice of distributed energy storage technologies can enable the integration of large shares of fluctuating renewable energy in an energy efficient and cost-effective way.......Very high penetration of fluctuating renewable energy sources can lead to new challenges in balancing energy supply and demand in future energy systems. This work, carried out as a part of Annex 28 of the IEA ECES programme, addresses this. The aim of the study is to identify which role...... decentralised energy storages (DES) should play in integrating fluctuating renewable energy sources. The technical and economic potential for DES solutions is quantified using energy system modelling, and it is identified which DES technologies have the largest total (technical and economic) potential. For this...

  16. Shale characterization in mass transport complex as a potential source rock: An example from onshore West Java Basin, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, A. M. S.; Widiarti, R.; Kusumah, E. P.

    2017-12-01

    This study describes a deep-water slump facies shale of the Early Miocene Jatiluhur/Cibulakan Formation to understand its potential as a source rock in an active tectonic region, the onshore West Java. The formation is equivalent with the Gumai Formation, which has been well-known as another prolific source rock besides the Oligocene Talang Akar Formation in North West Java Basin, Indonesia. The equivalent shale formation is expected to have same potential source rock towards the onshore of Central Java. The shale samples were taken onshore, 150 km away from the basin. The shale must be rich of organic matter, have good quality of kerogen, and thermally matured to be categorized as a potential source rock. Investigations from petrography, X-Ray diffractions (XRD), and backscattered electron show heterogeneous mineralogy in the shales. The mineralogy consists of clay minerals, minor quartz, muscovite, calcite, chlorite, clinopyroxene, and other weathered minerals. This composition makes the shale more brittle. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis indicate secondary porosities and microstructures. Total Organic Carbon (TOC) shows 0.8-1.1 wt%, compared to the basinal shale 1.5-8 wt%. The shale properties from this outcropped formation indicate a good potential source rock that can be found in the subsurface area with better quality and maturity.

  17. Exploitation of endophytic fungus as a potential source of biofuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawed Anjum

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel demand is unquestionable in order to reduce greenhouse gaseous emission which can lead to climatic changes and global warming effect. Finding sufficient supply of clean energy for the upcoming is one of the society’s most daunting challenges and is directly linked with global stability, economic prosperity and quality of life. Endophytic microbes reside in the healthy part of the plant without causing any symptoms of disease. It is well known that the endophytic microbes produces wide variety of bioactive compound having, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antitumor, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, immunosuppressive drugs, and volatile organic compounds having similarity with conventional diesel fuel. Now the endophytic fungi, have also been known to possess a suitable lipid matrix at high concentrations and volatile organic compounds having similarity with conventional diesel fuel that make them promising sources for next generation biofuels. This would be more efficient and having lesser number of biosynthetic steps in production, can be brought to immediate use in the existing internal combustion engines without taking about any major modification in automobile design. The present article therefore aims to review the current status of research in the field of alternative source of energy emphasizing endophytic fungi as a source of biofuel precursor, in order to encourage and generate interest among research groups across India and the world for initiating and undertaking more enthusiastic and intensive research activity on endophytic fungi from the Indian subcontinent having the potential to make fuel-related hydrocarbons.

  18. Source rock potential of middle cretaceous rocks in Southwestern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyman, T.S.; Palacas, J.G.; Tysdal, R.G.; Perry, W.J.; Pawlewicz, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The middle Cretaceous in southwestern Montana is composed of a marine and nonmarine succession of predominantly clastic rocks that were deposited along the western margin of the Western Interior Seaway. In places, middle Cretaceous rocks contain appreciable total organic carbon (TOC), such as 5.59% for the Mowry Shale and 8.11% for the Frontier Formation in the Madison Range. Most samples, however, exhibit less than 1.0% TOC. The genetic or hydrocarbon potential (S1+S2) of all the samples analyzed, except one, yield less than 1 mg HC/g rock, strongly indicating poor potential for generating commercial amounts of hydrocarbons. Out of 51 samples analyzed, only one (a Thermopolis Shale sample from the Snowcrest Range) showed a moderate petroleum potential of 3.1 mg HC/g rock. Most of the middle Cretaceous samples are thermally immature to marginally mature, with vitrinite reflectance ranging from about 0.4 to 0.6% Ro. Maturity is high in the Pioneer Mountains, where vitrinite reflectance averages 3.4% Ro, and at Big Sky Montana, where vitrinite reflectance averages 2.5% Ro. At both localities, high Ro values are due to local heat sources, such as the Pioneer batholith in the Pioneer Mountains.

  19. Predicting Traffic Flow in Local Area Networks by the Largest Lyapunov Exponent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of network traffic are complex and nonlinear, and chaotic behaviors and their prediction, which play an important role in local area networks (LANs, are studied in detail, using the largest Lyapunov exponent. With the introduction of phase space reconstruction based on the time sequence, the high-dimensional traffic is projected onto the low dimension reconstructed phase space, and a reduced dynamic system is obtained from the dynamic system viewpoint. Then, a numerical method for computing the largest Lyapunov exponent of the low-dimensional dynamic system is presented. Further, the longest predictable time, which is related to chaotic behaviors in the system, is studied using the largest Lyapunov exponent, and the Wolf method is used to predict the evolution of the traffic in a local area network by both Dot and Interval predictions, and a reliable result is obtained by the presented method. As the conclusion, the results show that the largest Lyapunov exponent can be used to describe the sensitivity of the trajectory in the reconstructed phase space to the initial values. Moreover, Dot Prediction can effectively predict the flow burst. The numerical simulation also shows that the presented method is feasible and efficient for predicting the complex dynamic behaviors in LAN traffic, especially for congestion and attack in networks, which are the main two complex phenomena behaving as chaos in networks.

  20. Potential Sources for Financing Environmental Protection Projects – Focusing on Energy Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Počuča

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper elaborates financial mechanisms for financing energy efficiency with particular emphasis on the resources from financial institutions and equity funds and capital from the companies themselves. By conducting relevant academic research of literature and data from print and electronic sources (statistical reports, laws and regulations, statements of companies and financial institutions, as well as from the practical experience of some countries, it has been observed that the poor representation of adapted financial mechanisms is a major constraint to the emergence of a culture of energy efficiency in most countries, including Serbia. Even where they exist they are not necessarily known to make use of successful experiences. By conducting an analysis of the relevant academic literature and an analysis of practical experiences in the domain of energy efficiency and renewable energy sources it was concluded that energy efficiency is a significant potential for growth of the economic strength of Serbia, and therefore incentives should nfluence a greater use of renewable energy and a reduction in use of the fossil fuels as an energy source.

  1. The Use of Original Sources and Its Potential Relation to the Recruitment Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankvist, Uffe Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Based on a study about using original sources with Danish upper secondary students, the paper addresses the potential outcome of such an approach in regard to the so-called recruitment problem to the mathematical sciences. 24 students were exposed to questionnaire questions and 16 of these to follow-up interviews, which form the basis for both a…

  2. Source apportionment of ambient volatile organic compounds in the Pearl River Delta, China: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Shao, Min; Lu, Sihua; Chang, Chih-Chung; Wang, Jia-Lin; Fu, Linlin

    The chemical mass balance receptor model was applied to the source apportionment of 58 hydrocarbons measured at seven sites in a field campaign that examined regional air quality in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in the fall of 2004. A total of 12 volatile organic compound (VOC) emission sources were considered, including gasoline- and diesel-powered vehicle exhausts, headspace vapors of gasoline and diesel fuel, vehicle evaporative emissions, liquid petroleum gas (LPG) leakage, paint vapors, asphalt emissions from paved roads, biomass combustion, coal combustion, the chemical industry, and petroleum refineries. Vehicle exhaust was the largest source of VOCs, contributing to >50% of ambient VOCs at the three urban sites (Guangzhou, Foshan, and Zhongshan). LPG leakage played an important role, representing 8-16% of emissions at most sites in the PRD. Solvent usage was the biggest emitter of VOCs at Dongguan, an industrial site, contributing 33% of ambient VOCs. Similarly, at Xinken, a non-urban site, the evaporation of solvents and coatings was the largest emission source, accounting for 31% of emissions, probably because it was downwind of Dongguan. Local biomass combustion was a noticeable source of VOCs at Xinken; although its contribution was estimated at 14.3%, biomass combustion was the third largest VOC source at this site.

  3. Dipolar sources of the early scalp somatosensory evoked potentials to upper limb stimulation. Effect of increasing stimulus rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeriani, M; Restuccia, D; Di Lazzaro, V; Le Pera, D; Barba, C; Tonali, P; Mauguiere, F

    1998-06-01

    Brain electrical source analysis (BESA) of the scalp electroencephalographic activity is well adapted to distinguish neighbouring cerebral generators precisely. Therefore, we performed dipolar source modelling in scalp medium nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) recorded at 1.5-Hz stimulation rate, where all the early components should be identifiable. We built a four-dipole model, which was issued from the grand average, and applied it also to recordings from single individuals. Our model included a dipole at the base of the skull and three other perirolandic dipoles. The first of the latter dipoles was tangentially oriented and was active at the same latencies as the N20/P20 potential and, with opposite polarity, the P24/N24 response. The second perirolandic dipole showed an initial peak of activity slightly earlier than that of the N20/P20 dipolar source and, later, it was active at the same latency as the central P22 potential. Lastly, the third perirolandic dipole explaining the fronto-central N30 potential scalp distribution was constantly more posterior than the first one. In order to evaluate the effect of an increasing repetition frequency on the activity of SEP dipolar sources, we applied the model built from 1.5-Hz SEPs to traces recorded at 3-Hz and 10-Hz repetition rates. We found that the 10-Hz stimulus frequency reduced selectively the later of the two activity phases of the first perirolandic dipole. The decrement in strength of this dipolar source can be explained if we assume that: (a) the later activity of the first perirolandic dipole can represent the inhibitory phase of a "primary response"; (b) two different clusters of cells generate the opposite activities of the tangential perirolandic dipole. An additional finding in our model was that two different perirolandic dipoles contribute to the centro-parietal N20 potential generation.

  4. Economics of Water Quality Protection from Nonpoint Sources: Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Ribaudo, Marc; Horan, Richard D.; Smith, Mark E.

    1999-01-01

    Water quality is a major environmental issue. Pollution from nonpoint sources is the single largest remaining source of water quality impairments in the United States. Agriculture is a major source of several nonpoint-source pollutants, including nutrients, sediment, pesticides, and salts. Agricultural nonpoint pollution reduction policies can be designed to induce producers to change their production practices in ways that improve the environmental and related economic consequences of produc...

  5. Improved estimates of filtered total mercury loadings and total mercury concentrations of solids from potential sources to Sinclair Inlet, Kitsap County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Anthony J.; Conn, Kathleen E.; DeWild, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Previous investigations examined sources and sinks of mercury to Sinclair Inlet based on historic and new data. This included an evaluation of mercury concentrations from various sources and mercury loadings from industrial discharges and groundwater flowing from the Bremerton naval complex to Sinclair Inlet. This report provides new data from four potential sources of mercury to Sinclair Inlet: (1) filtered and particulate total mercury concentrations of creek water during the wet season, (2) filtered and particulate total mercury releases from the Navy steam plant following changes in the water softening process and discharge operations, (3) release of mercury from soils to groundwater in two landfill areas at the Bremerton naval complex, and (4) total mercury concentrations of solids in dry dock sumps that were not affected by bias from sequential sampling. The previous estimate of the loading of filtered total mercury from Sinclair Inlet creeks was based solely on dry season samples. Concentrations of filtered total mercury in creek samples collected during wet weather were significantly higher than dry weather concentrations, which increased the estimated loading of filtered total mercury from creek basins from 27.1 to 78.1 grams per year. Changes in the concentrations and loading of filtered and particulate total mercury in the effluent of the steam plant were investigated after the water softening process was changed from ion-exchange to reverse osmosis and the discharge of stack blow-down wash began to be diverted to the municipal water-treatment plant. These changes reduced the concentrations of filtered and particulate total mercury from the steam plant of the Bremerton naval complex, which resulted in reduced loadings of filtered total mercury from 5.9 to 0.15 grams per year. Previous investigations identified three fill areas on the Bremerton naval complex, of which the western fill area is thought to be the largest source of mercury on the base

  6. Lagisza, world's largest CFB boiler, begins commercial operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuortimo, K. [Foster Wheeler, Varkaus (Finland)

    2010-04-15

    Early operating experience with the Lagisza circulating fluidised bed (CFB) boiler in Poland - the world's largest such boiler to date, and also the first one with supercritical steam conditions - has been positive. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Temporal properties of seismicity and largest earthquakes in SE Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Byrdina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to estimate the hazard rate distribution of the largest seismic events in Vrancea, South-Eastern Carpathians, we study temporal properties of historical and instrumental catalogues of seismicity. First, on the basis of Generalized Extreme Value theory we estimate the average return period of the largest events. Then, following Bak et al. (2002 and Corral (2005a, we study scaling properties of recurrence times between earthquakes in appropriate spatial volumes. We come to the conclusion that the seismicity is temporally clustered, and that the distribution of recurrence times is significantly different from a Poisson process even for times largely exceeding corresponding periods of foreshock and aftershock activity. Modeling the recurrence times by a gamma distributed variable, we finally estimate hazard rates with respect to the time elapsed from the last large earthquake.

  8. What caused the UK's largest common dolphin (Delphinus delphis mass stranding event?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D Jepson

    Full Text Available On 9 June 2008, the UK's largest mass stranding event (MSE of short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis occurred in Falmouth Bay, Cornwall. At least 26 dolphins died, and a similar number was refloated/herded back to sea. On necropsy, all dolphins were in good nutritive status with empty stomachs and no evidence of known infectious disease or acute physical injury. Auditory tissues were grossly normal (26/26 but had microscopic haemorrhages (5/5 and mild otitis media (1/5 in the freshest cases. Five lactating adult dolphins, one immature male, and one immature female tested were free of harmful algal toxins and had low chemical pollutant levels. Pathological evidence of mud/seawater inhalation (11/26, local tide cycle, and the relative lack of renal myoglobinuria (26/26 suggested MSE onset on a rising tide between 06:30 and 08∶21 hrs (9 June. Potential causes excluded or considered highly unlikely included infectious disease, gas/fat embolism, boat strike, by-catch, predator attack, foraging unusually close to shore, chemical or algal toxin exposure, abnormal weather/climatic conditions, and high-intensity acoustic inputs from seismic airgun arrays or natural sources (e.g., earthquakes. International naval exercises did occur in close proximity to the MSE with the most intense part of the exercises (including mid-frequency sonars occurring four days before the MSE and resuming with helicopter exercises on the morning of the MSE. The MSE may therefore have been a "two-stage process" where a group of normally pelagic dolphins entered Falmouth Bay and, after 3-4 days in/around the Bay, a second acoustic/disturbance event occurred causing them to strand en masse. This spatial and temporal association with the MSE, previous associations between naval activities and cetacean MSEs, and an absence of other identifiable factors known to cause cetacean MSEs, indicates naval activity to be the most probable cause of the Falmouth Bay MSE.

  9. What Caused the UK's Largest Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis) Mass Stranding Event?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepson, Paul D.; Deaville, Robert; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Barnett, James; Brownlow, Andrew; Brownell Jr., Robert L.; Clare, Frances C.; Davison, Nick; Law, Robin J.; Loveridge, Jan; Macgregor, Shaheed K.; Morris, Steven; Murphy, Sinéad; Penrose, Rod; Perkins, Matthew W.; Pinn, Eunice; Seibel, Henrike; Siebert, Ursula; Sierra, Eva; Simpson, Victor; Tasker, Mark L.; Tregenza, Nick; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fernández, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    On 9 June 2008, the UK's largest mass stranding event (MSE) of short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) occurred in Falmouth Bay, Cornwall. At least 26 dolphins died, and a similar number was refloated/herded back to sea. On necropsy, all dolphins were in good nutritive status with empty stomachs and no evidence of known infectious disease or acute physical injury. Auditory tissues were grossly normal (26/26) but had microscopic haemorrhages (5/5) and mild otitis media (1/5) in the freshest cases. Five lactating adult dolphins, one immature male, and one immature female tested were free of harmful algal toxins and had low chemical pollutant levels. Pathological evidence of mud/seawater inhalation (11/26), local tide cycle, and the relative lack of renal myoglobinuria (26/26) suggested MSE onset on a rising tide between 06∶30 and 08∶21 hrs (9 June). Potential causes excluded or considered highly unlikely included infectious disease, gas/fat embolism, boat strike, by-catch, predator attack, foraging unusually close to shore, chemical or algal toxin exposure, abnormal weather/climatic conditions, and high-intensity acoustic inputs from seismic airgun arrays or natural sources (e.g., earthquakes). International naval exercises did occur in close proximity to the MSE with the most intense part of the exercises (including mid-frequency sonars) occurring four days before the MSE and resuming with helicopter exercises on the morning of the MSE. The MSE may therefore have been a “two-stage process” where a group of normally pelagic dolphins entered Falmouth Bay and, after 3–4 days in/around the Bay, a second acoustic/disturbance event occurred causing them to strand en masse. This spatial and temporal association with the MSE, previous associations between naval activities and cetacean MSEs, and an absence of other identifiable factors known to cause cetacean MSEs, indicates naval activity to be the most probable cause of the Falmouth Bay MSE. PMID

  10. Exploring REACH as a potential data source for characterizing ecotoxicity in life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Nienke; de Zwart, Dick; Hauschild, Michael; Kijko, Gaël; Fantke, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Toxicity models in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) currently only characterize a small fraction of marketed substances, mostly because of limitations in the underlying ecotoxicity data. One approach to improve the current data situation in LCIA is to identify new data sources, such as the European Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation, and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) database. The present study explored REACH as a potential data source for LCIA based on matching reported ecotoxicity data for substances that are currently also included in the United Nations Environment Programme/Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (UNEP/SETAC) scientific consensus model USEtox for characterizing toxicity impacts. Data are evaluated with respect to number of data points, reported reliability, and test duration, and are compared with data listed in USEtox at the level of hazardous concentration for 50% of the covered species per substance. The results emphasize differences between data available via REACH and in USEtox. The comparison of ecotoxicity data from REACH and USEtox shows potential for using REACH ecotoxicity data in LCIA toxicity characterization, but also highlights issues related to compliance of submitted data with REACH requirements as well as different assumptions underlying regulatory risk assessment under REACH versus data needed for LCIA. Thus, further research is required to address data quality, pre-processing, and applicability, before considering data submitted under REACH as a data source for use in LCIA, and also to explore additionally available data sources, published studies, and reports. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:492-500. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  11. The Potential of Solar as Alternative Energy Source for Socio-Economic Wellbeing in Rural Areas, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Rashidah Zainal; Siwar, Chamhuri; Ludin, Norasikin Ahmad

    Malaysia's energy sector is highly dependent on fossil fuels as a primary energy source. Economic growth and socio-economic wellbeing also rely on the utilization of energy in daily life routine. Nevertheless, the increasing cost for electricity and declining fossil fuels resources causes various negative impacts to the people and environment especially in rural areas. This prompted Malaysia to shift towards alternative energy sources such as solar energy to ensure social, economic and environmental benefits. The solar energy is one of the potential renewable energy sources in tropical countries particularly in Malaysia. The paper attempts to analyze the benefits and advantages related to energy efficiency of solar for sustainable energy use and socio economic wellbeing in rural areas, Malaysia. The paper uses secondary sources of data such as policies, regulations and research reports from relevant ministries and agencies to attain the objectives. As a signatory country to the UN Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, Malaysia has taken initiatives for decreasing energy dependence on oil to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) for sustainable development. The paper shows solar energy becomes one of the promising alternative energy sources to alleviate energy poverty in Malaysia for rural areas. Finally, solar energy has increased socio-economic wellbeing and develops green potential and toward achieving energy efficiency in energy sector of Malaysia by preserving environment as well as reducing carbon emission.

  12. PNNL supercomputer to become largest computing resource on the Grid

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Hewlett Packard announced that the US DOE Pacific Northwest National Laboratory will connect a 9.3-teraflop HP supercomputer to the DOE Science Grid. This will be the largest supercomputer attached to a computer grid anywhere in the world (1 page).

  13. Evaluation of the quality, thermal maturity and distribution of potential source rocks in the Danish part of the Norwegian–Danish Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristensen, Lars

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The quality, thermal maturity and distribution of potential source rocks within the Palaeozoic–Mesozoic succession of the Danish part of the Norwegian–Danish Basin have been evaluated on the basis of screening data from over 4000 samples from the pre-Upper Cretaceous succession in 33 wells. The Lower Palaeozoic in the basin is overmature and the Upper Cretaceous – Cenozoic strata have no petroleum generation potential, but the Toarcian marine shales of the Lower Jurassic Fjerritslev Formation (F-III, F-IV members and the uppermost Jurassic – lowermost Cretaceous shales of the Frederikshavn Formation may qualify as potential source rocks in parts of the basin. Neither of these potential source rocks has a basinwide distribution; the present occurrence of the Lower Jurassic shales was primarily determined by regional early Middle Jurassic uplift and erosion. The generation potential of these source rocks is highly variable. The F-III and F-IV members show significant lateral changes in generation capacity, the best-developed source rocks occurring in the basin centre. The combined F-III andF-IV members in the Haldager-1, Kvols-1 and Rønde-1 wells contain ‘net source-rock’ thicknesses (cumulative thickness of intervals with Hydrogen Index (HI >200 mg HC/g TOC of 40 m, 83 m, and 92 m, respectively, displaying average HI values of 294, 369 and 404 mg HC/g TOC. The Mors-1 well contains 123 m of ‘net source rock’ with an average HI of 221 mg HC/g TOC. Parts of the Frederikshavn Formation possess a petroleum generation potential in the Hyllebjerg-1, Skagen-2, Voldum-1 and Terne-1 wells, the latter well containing a c.160 m thick highly oil-prone interval with an average HI of 478 mg HC/g TOC and maximum HI values >500 mg HC/g TOC. The source-rock evaluation suggests that a Mesozoic petroleum system is the most likely in the study area. Two primary plays are possible: (1 the Upper Triassic – lowermost Jurassic Gassum play, and (2the

  14. Worlds largest particle physics laboratory selects Proxim Wireless Mesh

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Proxim Wireless has announced that the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), the world's largest particle physics laboratory and the birthplace of the World Wide Web, is using it's ORiNOCO AP-4000 mesh access points to extend the range of the laboratory's Wi-Fi network and to provide continuous monitoring of the lab's calorimeters" (1/2 page)

  15. North Andean origin and diversification of the largest ithomiine butterfly genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa De-Silva, Donna; Mota, Luísa L.; Chazot, Nicolas; Mallarino, Ricardo; Silva-Brandão, Karina L.; Piñerez, Luz Miryam Gómez; Freitas, André V.L.; Lamas, Gerardo; Joron, Mathieu; Mallet, James; Giraldo, Carlos E.; Uribe, Sandra; Särkinen, Tiina; Knapp, Sandra; Jiggins, Chris D.; Willmott, Keith R.; Elias, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    The Neotropics harbour the most diverse flora and fauna on Earth. The Andes are a major centre of diversification and source of diversity for adjacent areas in plants and vertebrates, but studies on insects remain scarce, even though they constitute the largest fraction of terrestrial biodiversity. Here, we combine molecular and morphological characters to generate a dated phylogeny of the butterfly genus Pteronymia (Nymphalidae: Danainae), which we use to infer spatial, elevational and temporal diversification patterns. We first propose six taxonomic changes that raise the generic species total to 53, making Pteronymia the most diverse genus of the tribe Ithomiini. Our biogeographic reconstruction shows that Pteronymia originated in the Northern Andes, where it diversified extensively. Some lineages colonized lowlands and adjacent montane areas, but diversification in those areas remained scarce. The recent colonization of lowland areas was reflected by an increase in the rate of evolution of species’ elevational ranges towards present. By contrast, speciation rate decelerated with time, with no extinction. The geological history of the Andes and adjacent regions have likely contributed to Pteronymia diversification by providing compartmentalized habitats and an array of biotic and abiotic conditions, and by limiting dispersal between some areas while promoting interchange across others. PMID:28387233

  16. Discovery of the largest orbweaving spider species: the evolution of gigantism in Nephila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntner, Matjaz; Coddington, Jonathan A

    2009-10-21

    More than 41,000 spider species are known with about 400-500 added each year, but for some well-known groups, such as the giant golden orbweavers, Nephila, the last valid described species dates from the 19(th) century. Nephila are renowned for being the largest web-spinning spiders, making the largest orb webs, and are model organisms for the study of extreme sexual size dimorphism (SSD) and sexual biology. Here, we report on the discovery of a new, giant Nephila species from Africa and Madagascar, and review size evolution and SSD in Nephilidae. We formally describe N. komaci sp. nov., the largest web spinning species known, and place the species in phylogenetic context to reconstruct the evolution of mean size (via squared change parsimony). We then test female and male mean size correlation using phylogenetically independent contrasts, and simulate nephilid body size evolution using Monte Carlo statistics. Nephila females increased in size almost monotonically to establish a mostly African clade of true giants. In contrast, Nephila male size is effectively decoupled and hovers around values roughly one fifth of female size. Although N. komaci females are the largest Nephila yet discovered, the males are also large and thus their SSD is not exceptional.

  17. Discovery of the largest orbweaving spider species: the evolution of gigantism in Nephila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaz Kuntner

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available More than 41,000 spider species are known with about 400-500 added each year, but for some well-known groups, such as the giant golden orbweavers, Nephila, the last valid described species dates from the 19(th century. Nephila are renowned for being the largest web-spinning spiders, making the largest orb webs, and are model organisms for the study of extreme sexual size dimorphism (SSD and sexual biology. Here, we report on the discovery of a new, giant Nephila species from Africa and Madagascar, and review size evolution and SSD in Nephilidae.We formally describe N. komaci sp. nov., the largest web spinning species known, and place the species in phylogenetic context to reconstruct the evolution of mean size (via squared change parsimony. We then test female and male mean size correlation using phylogenetically independent contrasts, and simulate nephilid body size evolution using Monte Carlo statistics.Nephila females increased in size almost monotonically to establish a mostly African clade of true giants. In contrast, Nephila male size is effectively decoupled and hovers around values roughly one fifth of female size. Although N. komaci females are the largest Nephila yet discovered, the males are also large and thus their SSD is not exceptional.

  18. On the statistics of the largest geomagnetic storms per solar cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siscoe, G.L.

    1976-01-01

    The theory of extreme value statistics is applied to the first, second, and third largest geomagnetic storms in nine solar cycles measured by the average half-daily aa indices compiled by Mayaud. Analytic expressions giving the probability of the extremes per solar cycle as a contour function of storm magnitude are obtained by least squares fitting of the observations to the appropriate theoretical extreme value probability functions. The results are used to obtain the statistical characteristics (mode, median, mean, and standard deviation) for the extreme values. The results are applied to find the expected range of extreme values in a set as a function of the number of solar cycles in the set. We find that the expected range of the largest storm is quite narrow and is larger for the second and third largest storms. The observed range of the extreme half-daily aa index for the nine solar cycles is 354--546 γ. In a set of 100 cycles the range is expanded esentially to 311--680γ, an increase of only 39% in the range. The result supports the argument for a change in solar cycle statistics in the latter part of the Seventeenth Century (the Maunder minimum)

  19. World's largest air shower array now on track of super-high-energy cosmic-rays Pierre Auger Observatory seeks source of highest-energy extraterrestrial particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "With the completion of its hundredth surface detector, the Pierre Auger Observatory, under construction in Argentina, this week became the largest cosmic-ray air shower array in the world. Managed by scientists at the Department of Energy's Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, the Pierre Auger project so far encompasses a 70-square-mile array of detectors that are tracking the most violent-and perhaps most puzzling- processes in the entire universe" (1 page).

  20. The Potential and Utilization of Unused Energy Sources for Large-Scale Horticulture Facility Applications under Korean Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Tak Hyun

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As the use of fossil fuel has increased, not only in construction, but also in agriculture due to the drastic industrial development in recent times, the problems of heating costs and global warming are getting worse. Therefore, introduction of more reliable and environmentally-friendly alternative energy sources has become urgent and the same trend is found in large-scale horticulture facilities. In this study, among many alternative energy sources, we investigated the reserves and the potential of various different unused energy sources which have infinite potential, but are nowadays wasted due to limitations in their utilization. In addition, we utilized available unused energy as a heat source for a heat pump in a large-scale horticulture facility and analyzed its feasibility through EnergyPlus simulation modeling. Accordingly, the discharge flow rate from the Fan Coil Unit (FCU in the horticulture facility, the discharge air temperature, and the return temperature were analyzed. The performance and heat consumption of each heat source were compared with those of conventional boilers. The result showed that the power load of the heat pump was decreased and thus the heat efficiency was increased as the temperature of the heat source was increased. Among the analyzed heat sources, power plant waste heat which had the highest heat source temperature consumed the least electric energy and showed the highest efficiency.

  1. Burst of virus infection and a possibly largest epidemic threshold of non-Markovian susceptible-infected-susceptible processes on networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Van Mieghem, Piet

    2018-02-01

    Since a real epidemic process is not necessarily Markovian, the epidemic threshold obtained under the Markovian assumption may be not realistic. To understand general non-Markovian epidemic processes on networks, we study the Weibullian susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) process in which the infection process is a renewal process with a Weibull time distribution. We find that, if the infection rate exceeds 1 /ln(λ1+1 ) , where λ1 is the largest eigenvalue of the network's adjacency matrix, then the infection will persist on the network under the mean-field approximation. Thus, 1 /ln(λ1+1 ) is possibly the largest epidemic threshold for a general non-Markovian SIS process with a Poisson curing process under the mean-field approximation. Furthermore, non-Markovian SIS processes may result in a multimodal prevalence. As a byproduct, we show that a limiting Weibullian SIS process has the potential to model bursts of a synchronized infection.

  2. Application of positive matrix factorization to identify potential sources of PAHs in soil of Dalian, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Degao; Tian Fulin; Yang Meng; Liu Chenlin; Li Yifan

    2009-01-01

    Soil derived sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the region of Dalian, China were investigated using positive matrix factorization (PMF). Three factors were separated based on PMF for the statistical investigation of the datasets both in summer and winter. These factors were dominated by the pattern of single sources or groups of similar sources, showing seasonal and regional variations. The main sources of PAHs in Dalian soil in summer were the emissions from coal combustion average (46%), diesel engine (30%), and gasoline engine (24%). In winter, the main sources were the emissions from coal-fired boiler (72%), traffic average (20%), and gasoline engine (8%). These factors with strong seasonality indicated that coal combustion in winter and traffic exhaust in summer dominated the sources of PAHs in soil. These results suggested that PMF model was a proper approach to identify the sources of PAHs in soil. - PMF model is a proper approach to identify potential sources of PAHs in soil based on the PAH profiles measured in the field and those published in the literature.

  3. Inventory of drainage wells and potential sources of contaminants to drainage-well inflow in Southwest Orlando, Orange County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, George Fred

    1993-01-01

    Potential sources of contaminants that could pose a threat to drainage-well inflow and to water in the Floridan aquifer system in southwest Orlando, Florida, were studied between October and December 1990. Drainage wells and public-supply wells were inventoried in a 14-square-mile area, and available data on land use and activities within each drainage well basin were tabulated. Three public-supply wells (tapping the Lower Floridan aquifer) and 38 drainage wells (open to the Upper Floridan aquifer) were located in 17 drainage basins within the study area. The primary sources of drainage-well inflow are lake overflow, street runoff, seepage from the surficial aquifer system, and process-wastewater disposal. Drainage-well inflow from a variety of ares, including resi- dential, commercial, undeveloped, paved, and industrial areas, are potential sources of con- taminants. The four general types of possible contaminants to drainage-well inflow are inorganic chemicals, organic compounds, turbidity, and microbiological contaminants. Potential contami- nant sources include plant nurseries, citrus groves, parking lots, plating companies, auto- motive repair shops, and most commonly, lake- overflow water. Drainage wells provide a pathway for contaminants to enter the Upper Floridan aquifer and there is a potential for contaminants to move downward from the Upper Floridan to the Lower Floridan aquifer.

  4. A study on the regionalization of tornadogenesis for the domestic largest scale of tornado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Soichiro; Nohara, Daisuke; Hirakuchi, Hiromaru

    2014-01-01

    A new regulatory guide has been issued by the Nuclear Regulation Authority of Japan since the last year. According to this guide, electric power companies have to assess the influence of tornadoes on their nuclear power plants for operation. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the likelihood of the occurrence of F3 tornadoes, which are the largest encountered in Japan, and to consider the possibility of the regionalization of the maximum wind speed. Then, mesoscale analysis with a numerical meteorological model and re-analysis data is performed along with synoptic scale analysis. Especially, tornado parameters such as SReH (Storm Relative Helicity) and CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) are used for evaluating the potential tornadogenesis of F3 tornado. Both analyses indicate that favorable meteorological condition tends to occur in the coastal zones in the Pacific side west of Ibaraki and around Kyushu island. The frequency in these zones is different from the one in the other area in the order of 1 or 2, which is large enough for regionalization. (author)

  5. Revisiting the phylogeny of Ocellularieae, the second largest tribe within Graphidaceae (lichenized Ascomycota: Ostropales)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekaphan Kraichak; Sittiporn Parnmen; Robert Lücking; Eimy Rivas Plata; Andre Aptroot; Marcela E.S. Caceres; Damien Ertz; Armin Mangold; Joel A. Mercado-Diaz; Khwanruan Papong; Dries Van der Broeck; Gothamie Weerakoon; H. Thorsten. Lumbsch; NO-VALUE

    2014-01-01

    We present an updated 3-locus molecular phylogeny of tribe Ocellularieae, the second largest tribe within subfamily Graphidoideae in the Graphidaceae. Adding 165 newly generated sequences from the mitochondrial small subunit rDNA (mtSSU), the nuclear large subunit rDNA (nuLSU), and the second largest subunit of the DNA-directed RNA polymerase II (RPB2), we currently...

  6. Marine Algae as a Potential Source for Anti-Obesity Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Wan-Loy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major epidemic that poses a worldwide threat to human health, as it is also associated with metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Therapeutic intervention through weight loss drugs, accompanied by diet and exercise, is one of the options for the treatment and management of obesity. However, the only approved anti-obesity drug currently available in the market is orlistat, a synthetic inhibitor of pancreatic lipase. Other anti-obesity drugs are still being evaluated at different stages of clinical trials, while some have been withdrawn due to their severe adverse effects. Thus, there is a need to look for new anti-obesity agents, especially from biological sources. Marine algae, especially seaweeds are a promising source of anti-obesity agents. Four major bioactive compounds from seaweeds which have the potential as anti-obesity agents are fucoxanthin, alginates, fucoidans and phlorotannins. The anti-obesity effects of such compounds are due to several mechanisms, which include the inhibition of lipid absorption and metabolism (e.g., fucoxanthin and fucoidans, effect on satiety feeling (e.g., alginates, and inhibition of adipocyte differentiation (e.g., fucoxanthin. Further studies, especially testing bioactive compounds in long-term human trials are required before any new anti-obesity drugs based on algal products can be developed.

  7. Substrates of Peltigera Lichens as a Potential Source of Cyanobionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga, Catalina; Leiva, Diego; Carú, Margarita; Orlando, Julieta

    2017-10-01

    Photobiont availability is one of the main factors determining the success of the lichenization process. Although multiple sources of photobionts have been proposed, there is no substantial evidence confirming that the substrates on which lichens grow are one of them. In this work, we obtained cyanobacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences from the substrates underlying 186 terricolous Peltigera cyanolichens from localities in Southern Chile and maritime Antarctica and compared them with the sequences of the cyanobionts of these lichens, in order to determine if cyanobacteria potentially available for lichenization were present in the substrates. A phylogenetic analysis of the sequences showed that Nostoc phylotypes dominated the cyanobacterial communities of the substrates in all sites. Among them, an overlap was observed between the phylotypes of the lichen cyanobionts and those of the cyanobacteria present in their substrates, suggesting that they could be a possible source of lichen photobionts. Also, in most cases, higher Nostoc diversity was observed in the lichens than in the substrates from each site. A better understanding of cyanobacterial diversity in lichen substrates and their relatives in the lichens would bring insights into mycobiont selection and the distribution patterns of lichens, providing a background for hypothesis testing and theory development for future studies of the lichenization process.

  8. Maize—A potential source of human nutrition and health: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajamul Rouf Shah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Maize or corn (Zea mays L. is an important cereal crop of the world. It is a source of nutrition as well as phytochemical compounds. Phytochemicals play an important role in preventing chronic diseases. It contains various major phytochemicals such as carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and phytosterols. It is believed to have potential anti-HIV activity due to the presence of Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA lectin or GNA-maize. A tablespoon of maize oil satisfies the requirements for essential fatty acids for a healthy child or adult. Decoction of maize silk, roots, leaves, and cob are used for bladder problems, nausea, vomiting, and stomach complaints. Zein an alcohol-soluble prolamine found in maize endosperm has unique novel applications in pharmaceutical and nutraceutical areas. Resistant starch (RS from maize reduces the risk of cecal cancer, atherosclerosis, and obesity-related complications. This review presents a detailed view on the nutritional and potential health benefits of maize.

  9. Ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Calgary, Alberta: Sources and screening health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Md Aynul; Kindzierski, Warren B

    2018-08-01

    Exposure to ambient volatile organic compound (VOCs) in urban areas is of interest because of their potential chronic and acute adverse effects to public health. Limited information is available about VOC sources in urban areas in Canada. An investigation of ambient VOCs levels, their potential sources and associated risks to public health was undertaken for the urban core of Alberta's largest city (downtown Calgary) for the period 2010-2015. Twenty-four hour arithmetic and geometric mean concentrations of total VOCs were 42μg/m 3 and 39μg/m 3 , respectively and ranged from 16 to 160μg/m 3 , with winter levels about two-fold higher than summer. Alkanes (58%) were the most dominant compounds followed by halogenated VOCs (22%) and aromatics (11%). Mean and maximum 24h ambient concentrations of selected VOCs of public health concern were below chronic and acute health risk screening criteria of the United States regulatory agencies and a cancer screening benchmark used in Alberta equivalent to 1 in 100,000 lifetime risk. The Positive matrix factorization (PMF) model revealed nine VOC sources at downtown Calgary, where oil/natural gas extraction/combustion (26%), fuel combustion (20%), traffic sources including gasoline exhaust, diesel exhaust, mixed fugitive emissions (10-15%), and industrial coatings/solvents (12%) were predominant. Other sources included dry cleaning (3.3%), biogenic (3.5%) and a background source (18%). Source-specific health risk values were also estimated. Estimated cancer risks for all sources were below the Alberta cancer screening benchmark, and estimated non-cancer risks for all sources were well below a safe level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of a technical guide for the identification of radiological sources of potential exposure and/or contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, R.; Scott, A.; Falo, G.; Collins, J.; Szrom, F.; Collins, D.

    1999-01-01

    Radiological assessment of sites with radioactive residues starts with the identification of potential sources. The US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine (USACHPPM) has developed a technical guide that summarizes sources of potential radiological exposures of both civilian and military origin. These sources include those found in the natural environment, in the nuclear fuel cycle, in medical and industrial settings, in the transportation of radioactive materials, in US Army commodities and foreign materiel, and in the use and storage of nuclear weapons. This technical guide is intended to foster awareness of radiological hazards and to provide the reader with the knowledge necessary to take the first step in radiological health risk assessment: recognition of the hazard. Furthermore, this guide can be used in conjunction with other technical guides for performing radiological surveys and field dose assessments in war or peacetime operations. (author)

  11. A review on potential use of low-temperature water in the urban environment as a thermal-energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laanearu, J.; Borodinecs, A.; Rimeika, M.; Palm, B.

    2017-10-01

    The thermal-energy potential of urban water sources is largely unused to accomplish the up-to-date requirements of the buildings energy demands in the cities of Baltic Sea Region. A reason is that the natural and excess-heat water sources have a low temperature and heat that should be upgraded before usage. The demand for space cooling should increase in near future with thermal insulation of buildings. There are a number of options to recover heat also from wastewater. It is proposed that a network of heat extraction and insertion including the thermal-energy recovery schemes has potential to be broadly implemented in the region with seasonally alternating temperature. The mapping of local conditions is essential in finding the suitable regions (hot spots) for future application of a heat recovery schemes by combining information about demands with information about available sources. The low-temperature water in the urban environment is viewed as a potential thermal-energy source. To recover thermal energy efficiently, it is also essential to ensure that it is used locally, and adverse effects on environment and industrial processes are avoided. Some characteristics reflecting the energy usage are discussed in respect of possible improvements of energy efficiency.

  12. Source localization in electromyography using the inverse potential problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Doel, Kees; Ascher, Uri M.; Pai, Dinesh K.

    2011-02-01

    We describe an efficient method for reconstructing the activity in human muscles from an array of voltage sensors on the skin surface. MRI is used to obtain morphometric data which are segmented into muscle tissue, fat, bone and skin, from which a finite element model for volume conduction is constructed. The inverse problem of finding the current sources in the muscles is solved using a careful regularization technique which adds a priori information, yielding physically reasonable solutions from among those that satisfy the basic potential problem. Several regularization functionals are considered and numerical experiments on a 2D test model are performed to determine which performs best. The resulting scheme leads to numerical difficulties when applied to large-scale 3D problems. We clarify the nature of these difficulties and provide a method to overcome them, which is shown to perform well in the large-scale problem setting.

  13. Source localization in electromyography using the inverse potential problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Doel, Kees; Ascher, Uri M; Pai, Dinesh K

    2011-01-01

    We describe an efficient method for reconstructing the activity in human muscles from an array of voltage sensors on the skin surface. MRI is used to obtain morphometric data which are segmented into muscle tissue, fat, bone and skin, from which a finite element model for volume conduction is constructed. The inverse problem of finding the current sources in the muscles is solved using a careful regularization technique which adds a priori information, yielding physically reasonable solutions from among those that satisfy the basic potential problem. Several regularization functionals are considered and numerical experiments on a 2D test model are performed to determine which performs best. The resulting scheme leads to numerical difficulties when applied to large-scale 3D problems. We clarify the nature of these difficulties and provide a method to overcome them, which is shown to perform well in the large-scale problem setting

  14. World Spatiotemporal Analytics and Mapping Project (WSTAMP): Discovering, Exploring, and Mapping Spatiotemporal Patterns across the World s Largest Open Source Geographic Data Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Robert N [ORNL; Piburn, Jesse O [ORNL; Sorokine, Alexandre [ORNL; Myers, Aaron T [ORNL; White, Devin A [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The application of spatiotemporal (ST) analytics to integrated data from major sources such as the World Bank, United Nations, and dozens of others holds tremendous potential for shedding new light on the evolution of cultural, health, economic, and geopolitical landscapes on a global level. Realizing this potential first requires an ST data model that addresses challenges in properly merging data from multiple authors, with evolving ontological perspectives, semantical differences, and changing attributes, as well as content that is textual, numeric, categorical, and hierarchical. Equally challenging is the development of analytical and visualization approaches that provide a serious exploration of this integrated data while remaining accessible to practitioners with varied backgrounds. The WSTAMP project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has yielded two major results in addressing these challenges: 1) development of the WSTAMP database, a significant advance in ST data modeling that integrates 10,000+ attributes covering over 200 nation states spanning over 50 years from over 30 major sources and 2) a novel online ST exploratory and analysis tool providing an array of modern statistical and visualization techniques for analyzing these data temporally, spatially, and spatiotemporally under a standard analytic workflow. We discuss the status of this work and report on major findings. Acknowledgment Prepared by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6285, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC for the U. S. Department of Energy under contract no. DEAC05-00OR22725. Copyright This manuscript has been authored by employees of UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy. Accordingly, the United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or

  15. The potential of global solar radiation in the Silesia region as a renewable source of energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waniek Katarzyna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Historically, Silesia has been at the centre of the Polish coal industry for many years and thus has experienced poorer air quality compared to other voivodeships. However, in recent years strong economic transformation in the area has led to a considerable reduction in coal production. This study aimed to assess the variability of global solar radiation at selected stations within the Silesian voivodeship, in order to re-evaluate the resources of renewable solar energy during the period 1994–2013. The theoretical potential of solar radiation was calculated based on a three-dimensional terrain model. The data on global solar radiation from 13 stations within the Silesia region, covering the period 1994–2013, were obtained from the Regional Inspectorate of Environmental Protection in Katowice. The most favourable conditions for the use of solar energy were found at the cities Sosnowiec and Cieszyn. The largest increase in global radiation over the research period was observed in Zabrze. The average annual global radiation ranged between 600–1300 kWh·m−2. Digital Elevation Models (DEM for selected districts of the Silesia region were used to calculate the theoretical potential of global solar radiation. The highest theoretical potential of global radiation was found in the district of Cieszyn, located at the highest altitude.

  16. Sources and characteristics of lead pollution in the urban environment of Guangzhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duzgoren-Aydin, Nurdan S.

    2007-01-01

    Guangzhou, the capital of the southeastern province of Guangdong, is one of the largest and most rapidly developing industrial cities in China. In recent years its rapid economic development has brought great prosperity to the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, but has also given rise to a wide variety of environmental problems. The current level of lead (Pb) contamination (75-926 mg/kg) in the surface environment of Guangzhou remains a major concern, even though the use of leaded petrol in the city was banned in 1997. The Pb isotope ratios ( 206 Pb/ 207 Pb min-max : 1.1612-1.1961 and 208 Pb/ 207 Pb min-max : 2.4495-2.4838) of the urban dusts from unconfined (road dusts and gully sediments) and relatively confined (vehicular tunnel) settings in Guangzhou remains in a relatively narrow range, comparable with those of the regional natural and anthropogenic sources. This study highlights the inherent shortcomings of the Pb isotope fingerprinting technique for provenancing Pb sources, as both the target media (urban dusts) and potential sources have similar and highly radiogenic Pb isotope values. This could not only lead to an overestimation of the effectiveness of phasing-out of leaded petrol, but also an underestimation of the ever-increasing relative contributions from other potential sources of pollution, including coal combustion, industrial emissions of local Pb-ores and non-additive Pb contents of crude oils. Re-suspended Pb-bearing particulates deposited from early vehicular exhaust emission of leaded petrol with distinctly low Pb isotope compositions are still an important source of Pb pollution in the region

  17. CERN, World's largest particle physics lab, selects Progress SonicMQ

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    "Progress Software Corporation (NADAQ: PRGS), a global supplier of application insfrastructure software used to develop, deploy, integrate and manage business applications, today announced that CERN the world's largest physis laboratory and particle accelerator, has chosen Progress® SonicMQ® for mission-critical message delivery." (1 page)

  18. Synchrotron Emission on the Largest Scales: Radio Detection of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Shocks and turbulence generated during large-scale structure formation are predicted to produce large-scale, low surface-brightness synchrotron emission. On the largest scales, this emission is globally correlated with the thermal baryon distribution, and constitutes the 'syn- chrotron cosmic-web'. I present the ...

  19. Distribution of the Largest Eigenvalues of the Levi-Smirnov Ensemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieczorek, W.

    2004-01-01

    We calculate the distribution of the k-th largest eigenvalue in the random matrix Levi - Smirnov Ensemble (LSE), using the spectral dualism between LSE and chiral Gaussian Unitary Ensemble (GUE). Then we reconstruct universal spectral oscillations and we investigate an asymptotic behavior of the spectral distribution. (author)

  20. Assessment of the energetic potential of methanization sources in Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-03-01

    This publication reports a study of assessment of the potential production of methanization sources in the Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur region. Different organic materials have been considered: agri-industrial wastes, agricultural wastes, and wastes from local communities. In order to perform the assessment, various technical, financial, social and environmental parameters and criteria have been taken into account. After a synthetic presentation of results, and a description of the adopted methodology, the document reports the detailed assessments for the three addressed sources with distinctions of the different origins for each of them

  1. The End of Monterey Submarine Canyon Incision and Potential River Source Areas-Os, Nd, and Pb Isotope Constraints from Hydrogenetic Fe-Mn Crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, T. A.; Nielsen, S.; Ehrenbrink, B. P. E.; Blusztajn, J.; Hein, J. R.; Paytan, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Monterey Canyon off central California is the largest submarine canyon off North America and is comparable in scale to the Grand Canyon. The age and history of the Monterey Canyon are poorly constrained due to thick sediment cover and sediment disruption from turbidity currents. To address this deficit we analyzed isotopic proxies (Os, Pb, Nd) from hydrogenetic ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts, which grow over millions of years on elevated rock surfaces by precipitation of metals from seawater. Fe-Mn crusts were studied from Davidson Seamount near the base of the Monterey submarine fan, the Taney Seamount Chain, and from Hoss Seamount, which serves as a regional control (Fig.). Fe-Mn crusts were dated using Os isotope ratios compared to those that define the Cenozoic Os isotope seawater curve. Four Fe-Mn crust samples from Davidson and Taney Seamounts deviate from the Os isotopic seawater curve towards radiogenic values after 4.5±1 Ma. Osmium is well mixed in the global ocean and is not subject to significant diffusive reequilibration in Fe-Mn crusts. We therefore attribute deviations from the Os isotope seawater curve to large-scale terrestrial input that ended about 4.5±1 Ma. The two Davidson samples also show more radiogenic Nd isotope values from about 4.5±1 Ma. Lead isotopes in one Davidson Seamount crust, measured by LA-ICPMS, deviate from regional values after 4.5±1 Ma for about 500 ka towards terrestrial sources. The Taney Seamount Fe-Mn crust does not deviate from regional Nd nor Pb isotope values due to its greater distance from Monterey Canyon and the shorter marine residence times of Nd and Pb. Isotope plots of our crust data and compiled data for potential source rocks indicate that the river that carved Monterey Canyon carried sediment with values closer to the Sierra Nevada than to a Colorado Plateau source, with cessation of major riverine input occurring approximately 4.5±1 Ma, an age that we interpret as the end of the Monterey Canyon

  2. Geochemical characterization of the largest upland lake of the Brazilian Amazonia: Impact of provenance and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Prafulla Kumar; Guimarães, José Tasso Felix; Souza-Filho, Pedro Walfir Martins; da Silva, Marcio Sousa; Nascimento, Wilson, Júnior; Powell, Mike A.; Reis, Luiza Santos; Pessenda, Luiz Carlos Ruiz; Rodrigues, Tarcísio Magevski; da Silva, Delmo Fonseca; Costa, Vladimir Eliodoro

    2017-12-01

    Lake Três Irmãs (LTI), the largest upland lake in the Brazilian Amazonia, located in Serra dos Carajás, was characterized using multi-elemental and isotope geochemistry (δ13C and δ15N) to understand the significance of organic and inorganic sources, weathering and sedimentary processes on the distribution of elements in lake bottom (surficial) sediments. Carbon and nitrogen isotopes from sedimentary organic matter suggest C3 terrestrial plants (forests > canga vegetation), macrophytes and freshwater DOC as the main sources. Sediments are depleted in most of the major oxides (except Fe2O3 and P2O5) when compared to upper continental crust (UCC) and their spatial distribution is highly influenced by catchment lithology. Principal Component Analysis revealed that most of the trace elements (Ba, Sr, Rb, Sc, Th, U, Zr, Hf, Nb, Y, V, Cr, Ga, Co, Ni) and REEs are closely correlated with Al and Ti (PC1; Group-1), so their redistribution is less influenced by post-depositional process. This is due to their relative immobility and being hosted by Al-bearing minerals during laterization. High Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA), Mafic Index of Alteration (MIA) and Index of Laterization (IOL) values indicate intense chemical weathering at source areas, but the weathering transformation was better quantified by IOL. A-CN-K plot along with elemental ratios (Al/K, Ti/K, Ti/Zr, La/Al, Cr/Th, Co/Th, La/Sm, La/Gd, Zr/Y, and Eu/Eu*) as well as chondrite-normalized REE patterns show that the detritic sediments are mainly sourced from ferruginous laterites and soils in the catchment, which may have characteristics similar to mafic rocks.

  3. Landscape planning for agricultural nonpoint source pollution reduction III: Assessing phosphorus and sediment reduction potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebel, M.W.; Maxted, J.T.; Robertson, Dale M.; Han, S.; Vander Zanden, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Riparian buffers have the potential to improve stream water quality in agricultural landscapes. This potential may vary in response to landscape characteristics such as soils, topography, land use, and human activities, including legacies of historical land management. We built a predictive model to estimate the sediment and phosphorus load reduction that should be achievable following the implementation of riparian buffers; then we estimated load reduction potential for a set of 1598 watersheds (average 54 km2) in Wisconsin. Our results indicate that land cover is generally the most important driver of constituent loads in Wisconsin streams, but its influence varies among pollutants and according to the scale at which it is measured. Physiographic (drainage density) variation also influenced sediment and phosphorus loads. The effect of historical land use on present-day channel erosion and variation in soil texture are the most important sources of phosphorus and sediment that riparian buffers cannot attenuate. However, in most watersheds, a large proportion (approximately 70%) of these pollutants can be eliminated from streams with buffers. Cumulative frequency distributions of load reduction potential indicate that targeting pollution reduction in the highest 10% of Wisconsin watersheds would reduce total phosphorus and sediment loads in the entire state by approximately 20%. These results support our approach of geographically targeting nonpoint source pollution reduction at multiple scales, including the watershed scale. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  4. Health insurance premium increases for the 5 largest school districts in the United States, 2004-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantillo, John R

    2010-03-01

    Local school districts are often one of the largest, if not the largest, employers in their respective communities. Like many large employers, school districts offer health insurance to their employees. There is a lack of information about the rate of health insurance premiums in US school districts relative to other employers. To assess the change in the costs of healthcare insurance in the 5 largest public school districts in the United States, between 2004 and 2008, as representative of large public employers in the country. Data for this study were drawn exclusively from a survey sent to the 5 largest public school districts in the United States. The survey requested responses on 3 data elements for each benefit plan offered from 2004 through 2008; these included enrollment, employee costs, and employer costs. The premium growth for the 5 largest school districts has slowed down and is consistent with other purchasers-Kaiser/Health Research & Educational Trust and the Federal Employee Health Benefit Program. The average increase in health insurance premium for the schools was 5.9% in 2008, and the average annual growth rate over the study period was 7.5%. For family coverage, these schools provide the most generous employer contribution (80.8%) compared with the employer contribution reported by other employers (73.5%) for 2008. Often the largest employers in their communities, school districts demonstrate a commitment to provide choice of benefits and affordability for employees and their families. Despite constraints typical of public employers, the 5 largest school districts in the United States have decelerated in premium growth consistent with other purchasers, albeit at a slower pace.

  5. Healthcare Databases in Thailand and Japan: Potential Sources for Health Technology Assessment Research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surasak Saokaew

    Full Text Available Health technology assessment (HTA has been continuously used for value-based healthcare decisions over the last decade. Healthcare databases represent an important source of information for HTA, which has seen a surge in use in Western countries. Although HTA agencies have been established in Asia-Pacific region, application and understanding of healthcare databases for HTA is rather limited. Thus, we reviewed existing databases to assess their potential for HTA in Thailand where HTA has been used officially and Japan where HTA is going to be officially introduced.Existing healthcare databases in Thailand and Japan were compiled and reviewed. Databases' characteristics e.g. name of database, host, scope/objective, time/sample size, design, data collection method, population/sample, and variables were described. Databases were assessed for its potential HTA use in terms of safety/efficacy/effectiveness, social/ethical, organization/professional, economic, and epidemiological domains. Request route for each database was also provided.Forty databases- 20 from Thailand and 20 from Japan-were included. These comprised of national censuses, surveys, registries, administrative data, and claimed databases. All databases were potentially used for epidemiological studies. In addition, data on mortality, morbidity, disability, adverse events, quality of life, service/technology utilization, length of stay, and economics were also found in some databases. However, access to patient-level data was limited since information about the databases was not available on public sources.Our findings have shown that existing databases provided valuable information for HTA research with limitation on accessibility. Mutual dialogue on healthcare database development and usage for HTA among Asia-Pacific region is needed.

  6. Healthcare Databases in Thailand and Japan: Potential Sources for Health Technology Assessment Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saokaew, Surasak; Sugimoto, Takashi; Kamae, Isao; Pratoomsoot, Chayanin; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2015-01-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) has been continuously used for value-based healthcare decisions over the last decade. Healthcare databases represent an important source of information for HTA, which has seen a surge in use in Western countries. Although HTA agencies have been established in Asia-Pacific region, application and understanding of healthcare databases for HTA is rather limited. Thus, we reviewed existing databases to assess their potential for HTA in Thailand where HTA has been used officially and Japan where HTA is going to be officially introduced. Existing healthcare databases in Thailand and Japan were compiled and reviewed. Databases' characteristics e.g. name of database, host, scope/objective, time/sample size, design, data collection method, population/sample, and variables were described. Databases were assessed for its potential HTA use in terms of safety/efficacy/effectiveness, social/ethical, organization/professional, economic, and epidemiological domains. Request route for each database was also provided. Forty databases- 20 from Thailand and 20 from Japan-were included. These comprised of national censuses, surveys, registries, administrative data, and claimed databases. All databases were potentially used for epidemiological studies. In addition, data on mortality, morbidity, disability, adverse events, quality of life, service/technology utilization, length of stay, and economics were also found in some databases. However, access to patient-level data was limited since information about the databases was not available on public sources. Our findings have shown that existing databases provided valuable information for HTA research with limitation on accessibility. Mutual dialogue on healthcare database development and usage for HTA among Asia-Pacific region is needed.

  7. Preliminary Assessment of Health Risks of Potentially Toxic Elements in Settled Dust over Beijing Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejun Wan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To examine levels, health risks, sources, and spatial distributions of potentially toxic elements in settled dust over Beijing urban area, 62 samples were collected mostly from residential building outdoor surfaces, and their <63 μm fractions were measured for 12 potentially toxic elements. The results show that V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, and Ba in dust are from predominantly natural sources, whereas Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, and Pb mostly originate from anthropogenic sources. Exposure to these elements in dust has significant non-cancer risks to children but insignificant to adults. Cancer risks of Cr, Co, Ni, As, and Cd via inhalation and dermal contact are below the threshold of 10−6–10−4 but As via dust ingestion shows a tolerable risk. The non-cancer risks to children are contributed mainly (75% by As, Pb, and Sb, and dominantly (92% via dust ingestion, with relatively higher risks mainly occurring in the eastern and northeastern Beijing urban areas. Although Cd, Zn, and Cu in dust are heavily affected by anthropogenic sources, their health risks are insignificant. Source appointments suggest that coal burning emissions, the dominant source of As, are likely the largest contributors to the health risk, and traffic-related and industrial emissions are also important because they contribute most of the Pb and Sb in dust.

  8. The human umbilical cord blood: a potential source for osteoblast progenitor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Cecilia Rosada; Melsvik, Dorte; Ebbesen, Peter

    2003-01-01

    -density mononuclear cells isolated from hUCB formed few adherent colonies with fibroblast-like morphology after a few days in culture. At confluence, the polyclonal cell populations were characterized. Using FACS analysis and immunocytochemistry, the cells were found to express HLA-ABC, CD9, vimentin, the b subunit...... visualized by Alizarin red staining. In the presence of normal horse serum and dexamethasone (10(-7) M), the cells formed foci of adipocytes. When the cells were implanted mixed with hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate powder in the subcutis of immunocompromised mice for 8 weeks, they formed osteogenic...... tissue and a myelosupportive microenviroment that enclosed hematopoietic cells and adipocytes. Our results demonstrate the presence of circulating stem cells with osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential in hUCB and may encourage the use of hUCB as a potential source for stem cells...

  9. Insect proteins as a potential source of antimicrobial peptides in livestock production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Józefiak, A; Engberg, Ricarda Margarete

    2017-01-01

    in the nutrition of different livestock. The great potential for the use of AMPs in animal production is primarily associated with the growing problem of antibiotics resistance, which has triggered the search for alternatives to antibiotics in livestock production. The review presents the current knowledge...... been identified in different organisms, including plants, fungi, bacteria and animals. Insects are a primary source of AMPs which are considered as not resulting in the development of natural bacterial resistance. In general, they are characterized as heat-stable with no adverse effects on eukaryotic...... cells. These characteristics contribute to the potential use of these proteins in human and veterinary medicine and in animal nutrition. Depending on their mode of action, insect AMPs may be applied as single peptides, as a complex of different AMPs and as an active fraction of insect proteins...

  10. Source apportionment and heavy metal health risk (HMHR) quantification from sources in a southern city in China, using an ME2-HMHR model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xing; Shi, GuoLiang; Liu, GuiRong; Xu, Jiao; Tian, YingZe; Zhang, YuFen; Feng, YinChang; Russell, Armistead G

    2017-02-01

    Heavy metals (Cr, Co, Ni, As, Cd, and Pb) can be bound to PM adversely affecting human health. Quantifying the source impacts on heavy metals can provide source-specific estimates of the heavy metal health risk (HMHR) to guide effective development of strategies to reduce such risks from exposure to heavy metals in PM 2.5 (particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 μm). In this study, a method combining Multilinear Engine 2 (ME2) and a risk assessment model is developed to more effectively quantify source contributions to HMHR, including heavy metal non-cancer risk (non-HMCR) and cancer risk (HMCR). The combined model (called ME2-HMHR) has two steps: step1, source contributions to heavy metals are estimated by employing the ME2 model; step2, the source contributions in step 1 are introduced into the risk assessment model to calculate the source contributions to HMHR. The approach was applied to Huzou, China and five significant sources were identified. Soil dust is the largest source of non-HMCR. For HMCR, the source contributions of soil dust, coal combustion, cement dust, vehicle, and secondary sources are 1.0 × 10 -4 , 3.7 × 10 -5 , 2.7 × 10 -6 , 1.6 × 10 -6 and 1.9 × 10 -9 , respectively. The soil dust is the largest contributor to HMCR, being driven by the high impact of soil dust on PM 2.5 and the abundance of heavy metals in soil dust. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Discovery of the Largest Orbweaving Spider Species: The Evolution of Gigantism in Nephila

    OpenAIRE

    Kuntner, Matja?; Coddington, Jonathan A.

    2009-01-01

    Background More than 41,000 spider species are known with about 400?500 added each year, but for some well-known groups, such as the giant golden orbweavers, Nephila, the last valid described species dates from the 19th century. Nephila are renowned for being the largest web-spinning spiders, making the largest orb webs, and are model organisms for the study of extreme sexual size dimorphism (SSD) and sexual biology. Here, we report on the discovery of a new, giant Nephila species from Africa...

  12. Source Water Protection Contaminant Sources

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Simplified aggregation of potential contaminant sources used for Source Water Assessment and Protection. The data is derived from IDNR, IDALS, and US EPA program...

  13. Healthcare Engagement as a Potential Source of Psychological Distress among People without Religious Beliefs: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Samuel R; Lomax, James W; Pargament, Kenneth I

    2017-04-05

    Research into religion and mental health is increasing, but nonbelievers in terms of religion are often overlooked. Research has shown that nonbelievers experience various forms of psychological distress and that the negative perception of nonbelievers by others is a potential source of distress. This review builds on that research by identifying another potential source of psychological distress for nonbelievers: engagement with the healthcare system. Poor understanding of nonbelievers by healthcare professionals may lead to impaired communication in the healthcare setting, resulting in distress. Attempts by nonbelievers to avoid distress may result in different patterns of healthcare utilization. Awareness of these concerns may help healthcare providers to minimize distress among their nonbelieving patients.

  14. Healthcare Engagement as a Potential Source of Psychological Distress among People without Religious Beliefs: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel R. Weber

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Research into religion and mental health is increasing, but nonbelievers in terms of religion are often overlooked. Research has shown that nonbelievers experience various forms of psychological distress and that the negative perception of nonbelievers by others is a potential source of distress. This review builds on that research by identifying another potential source of psychological distress for nonbelievers: engagement with the healthcare system. Poor understanding of nonbelievers by healthcare professionals may lead to impaired communication in the healthcare setting, resulting in distress. Attempts by nonbelievers to avoid distress may result in different patterns of healthcare utilization. Awareness of these concerns may help healthcare providers to minimize distress among their nonbelieving patients.

  15. Significant human impact on the flux and δ(34)S of sulfate from the largest river in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, Bryan A; Bao, Huiming

    2015-04-21

    Riverine dissolved sulfate (SO4(2-)) flux and sulfur stable isotope composition (δ(34)S) yield information on the sources and processes affecting sulfur cycling on different spatial and temporal scales. However, because pristine preindustrial natural baselines of riverine SO4(2-) flux and δ(34)S cannot be directly measured, anthropogenic impact remains largely unconstrained. Here we quantify natural and anthropogenic SO4(2-) flux and δ(34)S for North America's largest river, the Mississippi, by means of an exhaustive source compilation and multiyear monitoring. Our data and analysis show that, since before industrialization to the present, Mississippi River SO4(2-) has increased in flux from 7.0 to 27.8 Tg SO4(2-) yr(-1), and in mean δ(34)S from -5.0‰, within 95% confidence limits of -14.8‰ to 4.1‰ (assuming normal distribution for mixing model input parameters), to -2.7 ± 1.6‰, reflecting an impressive footprint of bedrocks particular to this river basin and human activities. Our first-order modern Mississippi River sulfate partition is 25 ± 6% natural and 75% ± 6% anthropogenic sources. Furthermore, anthropogenic coal usage is implicated as the dominant source of modern Mississippi River sulfate, with an estimated 47 ± 5% and 13% of total Mississippi River sulfate due to coal mining and burning, respectively.

  16. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from different cell sources and their potential for regenerative and personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtrichman, R; Germanguz, I; Itskovitz-Eldor, J

    2013-06-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have great potential as a robust source of progenitors for regenerative medicine. The novel technology also enables the derivation of patient-specific cells for applications to personalized medicine, such as for personal drug screening and toxicology. However, the biological characteristics of iPSCs are not yet fully understood and their similarity to human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is still unresolved. Variations among iPSCs, resulting from their original tissue or cell source, and from the experimental protocols used for their derivation, significantly affect epigenetic properties and differentiation potential. Here we review the potential of iPSCs for regenerative and personalized medicine, and assess their expression pattern, epigenetic memory and differentiation capabilities in relation to their parental tissue source. We also summarize the patient-specific iPSCs that have been derived for applications in biological research and drug discovery; and review risks that must be overcome in order to use iPSC technology for clinical applications.

  17. Environmental source of arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jin-Yong; Yu, Seung-Do; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2014-09-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that may be a significant risk factor for cancer after exposure to contaminated drinking water, cigarettes, foods, industry, occupational environment, and air. Among the various routes of arsenic exposure, drinking water is the largest source of arsenic poisoning worldwide. Arsenic exposure from ingested foods usually comes from food crops grown in arsenic-contaminated soil and/or irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water. According to a recent World Health Organization report, arsenic from contaminated water can be quickly and easily absorbed and depending on its metabolic form, may adversely affect human health. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration regulations for metals found in cosmetics to protect consumers against contaminations deemed deleterious to health; some cosmetics were found to contain a variety of chemicals including heavy metals, which are sometimes used as preservatives. Moreover, developing countries tend to have a growing number of industrial factories that unfortunately, harm the environment, especially in cities where industrial and vehicle emissions, as well as household activities, cause serious air pollution. Air is also an important source of arsenic exposure in areas with industrial activity. The presence of arsenic in airborne particulate matter is considered a risk for certain diseases. Taken together, various potential pathways of arsenic exposure seem to affect humans adversely, and future efforts to reduce arsenic exposure caused by environmental factors should be made.

  18. Environmental Source of Arsenic Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Yong Chung

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that may be a significant risk factor for cancer after exposure to contaminated drinking water, cigarettes, foods, industry, occupational environment, and air. Among the various routes of arsenic exposure, drinking water is the largest source of arsenic poisoning worldwide. Arsenic exposure from ingested foods usually comes from food crops grown in arsenic-contaminated soil and/or irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water. According to a recent World Health Organization report, arsenic from contaminated water can be quickly and easily absorbed and depending on its metabolic form, may adversely affect human health. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration regulations for metals found in cosmetics to protect consumers against contaminations deemed deleterious to health; some cosmetics were found to contain a variety of chemicals including heavy metals, which are sometimes used as preservatives. Moreover, developing countries tend to have a growing number of industrial factories that unfortunately, harm the environment, especially in cities where industrial and vehicle emissions, as well as household activities, cause serious air pollution. Air is also an important source of arsenic exposure in areas with industrial activity. The presence of arsenic in airborne particulate matter is considered a risk for certain diseases. Taken together, various potential pathways of arsenic exposure seem to affect humans adversely, and future efforts to reduce arsenic exposure caused by environmental factors should be made.

  19. Evaluation of potential sources and transport mechanisms of fecal indicator bacteria to beach water, Murphy Park Beach, Door County, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.; Corsi, Steven R.; McDermott, Colleen; Kleinheinz, Gregory; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Johnson, Heather E.

    2013-01-01

    Fecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB) concentrations in beach water have been used for many years as a criterion for closing beaches due to potential health concerns. Yet, current understanding of sources and transport mechanisms that drive FIB occurrence remains insufficient for accurate prediction of closures at many beaches. Murphy Park Beach, a relatively pristine beach on Green Bay in Door County, Wis., was selected for a study to evaluate FIB sources and transport mechanisms. Although the relatively pristine nature of the beach yielded no detection of pathogenic bacterial genes and relatively low FIB concentrations during the study period compared with other Great Lakes Beaches, its selection limited the number of confounding FIB sources and associated transport mechanisms. The primary sources of FIB appear to be internal to the beach rather than external sources such as rivers, storm sewer outfalls, and industrial discharges. Three potential FIB sources were identified: sand, swash-zone groundwater, and Cladophora mats. Modest correlations between FIB concentrations in these potential source reservoirs and FIB concentrations at the beach from the same day illustrate the importance of understanding transport mechanisms between FIB sources and the water column. One likely mechanism for transport and dispersion of FIB from sand and Cladophora sources appears to be agitation of Cladophora mats and erosion of beach sand due to storm activity, as inferred from storm indicators including turbidity, wave height, current speed, wind speed, sky visibility, 24-hour precipitation, and suspended particulate concentration. FIB concentrations in beach water had a statistically significant relation (p-value ‹0.05) with the magnitude of these storm indicators. In addition, transport of FIB in swash-zone groundwater into beach water appears to be driven by groundwater recharge associated with multiday precipitation and corresponding increased swash-zone groundwater discharge at

  20. Development of a high brightness ultrafast Transmission Electron Microscope based on a laser-driven cold field emission source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdellier, F; Caruso, G M; Weber, S; Kociak, M; Arbouet, A

    2018-03-01

    We report on the development of an ultrafast Transmission Electron Microscope based on a cold field emission source which can operate in either DC or ultrafast mode. Electron emission from a tungsten nanotip is triggered by femtosecond laser pulses which are tightly focused by optical components integrated inside a cold field emission source close to the cathode. The properties of the electron probe (brightness, angular current density, stability) are quantitatively determined. The measured brightness is the largest reported so far for UTEMs. Examples of imaging, diffraction and spectroscopy using ultrashort electron pulses are given. Finally, the potential of this instrument is illustrated by performing electron holography in the off-axis configuration using ultrashort electron pulses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Environmental Source of Arsenic Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Jin-Yong; Yu, Seung-Do; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that may be a significant risk factor for cancer after exposure to contaminated drinking water, cigarettes, foods, industry, occupational environment, and air. Among the various routes of arsenic exposure, drinking water is the largest source of arsenic poisoning worldwide. Arsenic exposure from ingested foods usually comes from food crops grown in arsenic-contaminated soil and/or irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water. According to a ...

  2. The sources of radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, B.G.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation protection of workers and of members of the public requires an assessment of the various sources of exposure, their variations in time or under specific conditions or circumstances, and the possibilities for control or limitation. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has evaluated the various components of natural and man-made sources in some detail. Natural exposures form the largest component of radiation exposure of man. Variability in exposures depends on elevation, the concentrations of radionuclides in soil, food and water, the composition of building materials and the susceptibility of indoor spaces to radon build-up. Man-made sources have included exposures to fallout from atmospheric nuclear testing and discharged from nuclear fuel cycle installations in routine operations or in accidents. The other main source of radiation exposures of individuals is in medical diagnostic examinations and therapeutic treatments. (author)

  3. Source rock potential of the organic rich Turonian - Upper Campanian carbonates of northern Lebanon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daher, S. Bou; Littke, R. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Energy and Mineral Resources Group (EMR); Nader, F.H. [IFP Energies nouvelles, Paris (France). Dept. of Sedimentology-Stratigraphy

    2013-08-01

    Upper Cretaceous chalks, marls, and shales are arguably the most prolific petroleum source rocks in the eastern Mediterranean region. 209 core samples from the Turonian - Upper Campanian rock succession in north Lebanon were collected and analyzed for their organic matter (OM) content, quality, and maturity. The total organic carbon (TOC) measurements revealed a very good source rock potential for a 150 m interval within the Upper Santonian - Upper Campanian, with an average of 2% TOC. High HI values (average 707 mg/g TOC) characterize these source rocks as type I kerogen and reflect a very good preservation of the organic matter. T{sub max} values (average 421 C) match the other maturity parameters such as vitrinite reflectance (average 0.35%), and all point towards immature organic matter. The equivalent Upper Cretaceous in the offshore Levant basin has enough overburden to have reached maturity. However, the accurate extrapolation of the organic matter quality and quantity to the offshore is yet a challenge with the data at hand. (orig.)

  4. Identifying potential sources of Sudan I contamination in Capsicum fruits over its growth period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Naiying; Gao, Wei; Zhou, Li; Lian, Yunhe; Li, Fengfei; Han, Wenjie

    2015-04-15

    Sudan dyes in spices are often assumed to arise from cross-contamination or malicious addition. Here, experiments were carried out to identify the potential source of Sudan I-IV in Capsicum fruits through investigation of their contents in native Capsicum tissues, soils and associated agronomic materials. Sudan II-IV was not detected in any of the tested samples. Sudan I was found in almost all samples except for the mulching film. Sudan I concentrations decreased from stems to leaves and then to fruits or roots. Sudan I levels in soils were significantly elevated by vegetation treatment. These results exclude the possibility of soil as the main source for Sudan I contamination in Capsicum fruits. Further study found out pesticide and fertilizer constitutes the major source of Sudan I contamination. This work represents a preliminary step for a detailed Sudan I assessment to support Capsicum management and protection in the studied region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. THE CHALLENGE OF THE LARGEST STRUCTURES IN THE UNIVERSE TO COSMOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Changbom; Choi, Yun-Young; Kim, Sungsoo S.; Kim, Kap-Sung; Kim, Juhan; Gott III, J. Richard

    2012-01-01

    Large galaxy redshift surveys have long been used to constrain cosmological models and structure formation scenarios. In particular, the largest structures discovered observationally are thought to carry critical information on the amplitude of large-scale density fluctuations or homogeneity of the universe, and have often challenged the standard cosmological framework. The Sloan Great Wall (SGW) recently found in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) region casts doubt on the concordance cosmological model with a cosmological constant (i.e., the flat ΛCDM model). Here we show that the existence of the SGW is perfectly consistent with the ΛCDM model, a result that only our very large cosmological N-body simulation (the Horizon Run 2, HR2) could supply. In addition, we report on the discovery of a void complex in the SDSS much larger than the SGW, and show that such size of the largest void is also predicted in the ΛCDM paradigm. Our results demonstrate that an initially homogeneous isotropic universe with primordial Gaussian random phase density fluctuations growing in accordance with the general relativity can explain the richness and size of the observed large-scale structures in the SDSS. Using the HR2 simulation we predict that a future galaxy redshift survey about four times deeper or with 3 mag fainter limit than the SDSS should reveal a largest structure of bright galaxies about twice as big as the SGW.

  6. BIOMASS UTILIZATION AS A RENEVABLE ENERGY SOURCE IN POLISH POWER INDUSTRY – CURRENT STATUS AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Gołuchowska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The depletion of the conventional energy sources, as well as the degradation and pollution of the environment by the exploitation of fossil fuels caused the development of renewable energy sources (RES, including biomass. In Poland, biomass is the most popular renewable energy source, which is closely related to the obligations associated with the membership in the EU. Biomass is the oldest renewable energy source, and its potential, diversity and polymorphism place it over other sources. Besides, the improvement in its parameters, including an increase in its calorific value, resulted in increasing use of biomass as energy source. In the electric power industry biomass is applied in the process of co-combustion with coal. This process may contribute, inter alia, to the reduction in the emissions of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur oxides. The article presents the characteristics of the biomass burned in power boilers of one of the largest Polish power plants, located in Opole Province (Southern Poland. Besides, the impact of biomass on the installation of co-combustion, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the co-combustion process not only in technological, but also environmental, economic and social aspects were described.

  7. Largest terrestrial electromagnetic pulsar

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pardy, Miroslav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 6 (2002), s. 1155-1163 ISSN 0020-7748 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A100 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : source theory, spectral formula, synchrotron radiation Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.655, year: 2002

  8. Potential applications for energy from renewable sources in the railway sector; Anwendungsmoeglichkeiten erneuerbarer Energiequellen im Bahnsektor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldenberg, Philipp; Goldenberg, Vladimir; Reppich, Marcus [Hochschule Augsburg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Making use of energy from renewable sources has strategic and security-policy relevance. Since DB AG is a major energy consumer, the use of energy from renewable sources in railway operations will make economic sense in the long run. The railways depend on a very high security of energy supply nationwide. Efficient energy management can help enhance the security of supply to the railways. In addition, there are large potential energy savings to be made in railway operations. Major efforts are required to reach this objective. Using energy from renewable sources and increasing energy efficiency are two indispensable prerequisites for a sustainable energy supply to the railways as well as for increasing their attractiveness. (orig.)

  9. Marine sponge-associated bacteria as a potential source for polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiyanarayanan, Ganesan; Saibaba, Ganesan; Kiran, George Seghal; Yang, Yung-Hun; Selvin, Joseph

    2017-05-01

    Marine sponges are filter feeding porous animals and usually harbor a remarkable array of microorganisms in their mesohyl tissues as transient and resident endosymbionts. The marine sponge-microbial interactions are highly complex and, in some cases, the relationships are thought to be truly symbiotic or mutualistic rather than temporary associations resulting from sponge filter-feeding activity. The marine sponge-associated bacteria are fascinating source for various biomolecules that are of potential interest to several biotechnological industries. In recent times, a particular attention has been devoted to bacterial biopolymer (polyesters) such as intracellular polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) produced by sponge-associated bacteria. Bacterial PHAs act as an internal reserve for carbon and energy and also are a tremendous alternative for fossil fuel-based polymers mainly due to their eco-friendliness. In addition, PHAs are produced when the microorganisms are under stressful conditions and this biopolymer synthesis might be exhibited as one of the survival mechanisms of sponge-associated or endosymbiotic bacteria which exist in a highly competitive and stressful sponge-mesohyl microenvironment. In this review, we have emphasized the industrial prospects of marine bacteria for the commercial production of PHAs and special importance has been given to marine sponge-associated bacteria as a potential resource for PHAs.

  10. Potential of Livestock Generated Biomass: Untapped Energy Source in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagandeep Kaur

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern economies run on the backbone of electricity as one of major factors behind industrial development. India is endowed with plenty of natural resources and the majority of electricity within the country is generated from thermal and hydro-electric plants. A few nuclear plants assist in meeting the national requirements for electricity but still many rural areas remain uncovered. As India is primarily a rural agrarian economy, providing electricity to the remote, undeveloped regions of the country remains a top priority of the government. A vital, untapped source is livestock generated biomass which to some extent has been utilized to generate electricity in small scale biogas based plants under the government's thrust on rural development. This study is a preliminary attempt to correlate developments in this arena in the Asian region, as well as the developed world, to explore the possibilities of harnessing this resource in a better manner. The current potential of 2600 million tons of livestock dung generated per year, capable of yielding 263,702 million m3 of biogas is exploited. Our estimates suggest that if this resource is utilized judiciously, it possesses the potential of generating 477 TWh (Terawatt hour of electrical energy per annum.

  11. Potential for nutrient recovery and biogas production from blackwater, food waste and greywater in urban source control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjerstadius, H; Haghighatafshar, S; Davidsson, Å

    2015-01-01

    In the last decades, the focus on waste and wastewater treatment systems has shifted towards increased recovery of energy and nutrients. Separation of urban food waste (FW) and domestic wastewaters using source control systems could aid this increase; however, their effect on overall sustainability is unknown. To obtain indicators for sustainability assessments, five urban systems for collection, transport, treatment and nutrient recovery from blackwater, greywater and FW were investigated using data from implementations in Sweden or northern Europe. The systems were evaluated against their potential for biogas production and nutrient recovery by the use of mass balances for organic material, nutrients and metals over the system components. The resulting indicators are presented in units suitable for use in future sustainability studies or life-cycle assessment of urban waste and wastewater systems. The indicators show that source control systems have the potential to increase biogas production by more than 70% compared with a conventional system and give a high recovery of phosphorus and nitrogen as biofertilizer. The total potential increase in gross energy equivalence for source control systems was 20-100%; the greatest increase shown is for vacuum-based systems.

  12. Depositional environments and oil potential of Jurassic/Cretaceous source rocks within the Seychelles microcontinent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plummer, P.S.; Joseph, P.R.; Samson, P.J. [Seychelles National Oil Co., Mahe (Seychelles)

    1998-12-31

    The Seychelles microcontinent became isolated between the Somali, Mascarene and Arabian basins of the Indian Ocean as a result of the Mesozoic fragmentation of Gondwana. Major rifting events occurred during the Triassic-Middle Jurassic and Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian-Santonian and Maastrichtian) during which shaly source rock facies accumulated in principally marginal marine/deltaic environments. Between these times, post-rift passive margin deposition within restricted to open marine environments produced shaly source rocks during late Middle Jurasic-Early Cretaceous, Campanian-Maastrichtian and Paleocene times. Recent geochemical analysis of cuttings from the Seagull Shoals-1 well has identified an oil-prone liptinitic (Type II) coaly shale within early Middle Jurassic abandoned deltaic deposits. This coaly source rock is regionally developed, having also been identified in the Majunja and Morondava basins of Madagascar. Oil-prone Type II organic matter has also been identified in the Owen Bank A-1 well within restricted marine shales of late Middle Jurassic age. These shales are part of a thick post-rift source rock sequence that extends into the Early Cretaceous and is in part correlative with the proven Late Jurassic Uarandab Shale of Somalia. Analysis of Campanian marine shales from Reith Bank-1 well identified significant dilution of total organic carbon content in composite, compared to picked, well cuttings samples. This finding supports a published inference that these post-rift shales have source rock potential. (author)

  13. Automobile windshield washer fluid: A potential source of transmission for Legionella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwake, David Otto; Alum, Absar; Abbaszadegan, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggesting driving cars to be a risk factor for legionellosis has prompted public health studies to investigate vehicle windshield washer fluid as a novel transmission source of this disease. The goal of the current study was to investigate whether or not windshield washer fluid could serve as a potential source of transmission for Legionella. A wide variation in the survival of L. pneumophila was observed when incubated in different washer fluids at 25 and 37 °C, however, one brand tested supported Legionella survival similar to or greater than sterilized deionized water. In addition, 1 L of tap water contained in a washer fluid reservoir was able to support population growth and survival of Legionella for several months. In a field study examining the windshield washer fluid of 12 elementary school buses, Legionella were detected from 84% of samples at a high concentration of 8.1 × 10 4 CFU/mL. Culturable cells were also detected in aerosolized washer fluid during washer fluid spray. By demonstrating survival in certain windshield washer fluids, growth within washer fluid reservoirs, and the presence of viable cells in bus washer fluid spray, we have provided evidence suggesting the potential for a novel route of Legionella exposure. - Highlights: • L. pneumophila survival in one brand of washer fluid and sterilized deionized water were similar. • Legionella population was maintained in tap water for several months. • Culturable Legionella were detected in 10 of 12 school bus washer fluid reservoirs sampled. • Legionella concentrations up to 8.1 × 104 CFU/mL were detected in school bus washer fluid. • L. pneumophila was detected in washer fluid reservoirs and aerosolized washer fluid

  14. Automobile windshield washer fluid: A potential source of transmission for Legionella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwake, David Otto [School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 875306, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Alum, Absar [School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 875306, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Abbaszadegan, Morteza, E-mail: abbaszadegan@asu.edu [School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 875306, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggesting driving cars to be a risk factor for legionellosis has prompted public health studies to investigate vehicle windshield washer fluid as a novel transmission source of this disease. The goal of the current study was to investigate whether or not windshield washer fluid could serve as a potential source of transmission for Legionella. A wide variation in the survival of L. pneumophila was observed when incubated in different washer fluids at 25 and 37 °C, however, one brand tested supported Legionella survival similar to or greater than sterilized deionized water. In addition, 1 L of tap water contained in a washer fluid reservoir was able to support population growth and survival of Legionella for several months. In a field study examining the windshield washer fluid of 12 elementary school buses, Legionella were detected from 84% of samples at a high concentration of 8.1 × 10{sup 4} CFU/mL. Culturable cells were also detected in aerosolized washer fluid during washer fluid spray. By demonstrating survival in certain windshield washer fluids, growth within washer fluid reservoirs, and the presence of viable cells in bus washer fluid spray, we have provided evidence suggesting the potential for a novel route of Legionella exposure. - Highlights: • L. pneumophila survival in one brand of washer fluid and sterilized deionized water were similar. • Legionella population was maintained in tap water for several months. • Culturable Legionella were detected in 10 of 12 school bus washer fluid reservoirs sampled. • Legionella concentrations up to 8.1 × 104 CFU/mL were detected in school bus washer fluid. • L. pneumophila was detected in washer fluid reservoirs and aerosolized washer fluid.

  15. Cd isotopes as a potential source tracer of metal pollution in river sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Bo; Zhou, Haidong; Liang, Xirong; Tu, Xianglin

    2013-01-01

    Tracing the sources of heavy metals in water environment is key important for our understanding of their pollution behavior. In this present study, Cd concentrations and Cd isotopic compositions in sediments were determined to effectively identify possible Cd sources. Results showed that elevated concentrations and high enrichment factor for Cd were found in all sediments, suggesting anthropogenic Cd origin. Cd isotopic compositions in sediments yielded relative variations ranged from −0.35‰ to 0.07‰ in term of δ 114/110 Cd (the mean: −0.08‰). Large fractionated Cd was found in sediments collected from a smelter and an E-waste town. Cd isotopic compositions and Cd concentrations measured in sediments allowed the identification of three main origins (dust from metal refining (δ 114/110 Cd 114/110 Cd > 0), and those δ 114/110 Cd = 0, such as background and mining activity). According to the actual precision obtained, Cd isotopes could be a potential tool for tracing metal pollution sources in water environment. -- The information and application of Cd isotopic compositions will provide a new direction in tracing metal pollution in water environment

  16. Transport and Retention of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Carbon in North America’s Largest River Swamp Basin, the Atchafalaya River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Jun Xu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Floodplains and river corridor wetlands may be effectively managed for reducing nutrients and carbon. However, our understanding is limited to the reduction potential of these natural riverine systems. This study utilized the long-term (1978–2004 river discharge and water quality records from an upriver and a downriver location of the Atchafalaya River to quantify the inflow, outflow, and inflow–outflow mass balance of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN = organic nitrogen + ammonia nitrogen, nitrate + nitrite nitrogen (NO3 + NO2, total phosphorous (TP, and total organic carbon (TOC through the largest river swamp basin in North America. The study found that, over the past 27 years, the Atchafalaya River Basin (ARB acted as a significant sink for TKN (annual retention: 24%, TP (41%, and TOC (12%, but a source for NO3 + NO2 nitrogen (6%. On an annual basis, ARB retained 48,500 t TKN, 16,900 t TP, and 167,100 t TOC from the river water. The retention rates were closely and positively related to the river discharge with highs during the winter and spring and lows in the late summer. The higher NO3 + NO2 mass outflow occurred throughout spring and summer, indicating an active role of biological processes on nitrogen as water and air temperatures in the basin rise.

  17. Earthquake source studies and seismic imaging in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tape, C.; Silwal, V.

    2015-12-01

    Alaska is one of the world's most seismically and tectonically active regions. Its enhanced seismicity, including slab seismicity down to 180 km, provides opportunities (1) to characterize pervasive crustal faulting and slab deformation through the estimation of moment tensors and (2) to image subsurface structures to help understand the tectonic evolution of Alaska. Most previous studies of earthquakes and seismic imaging in Alaska have emphasized earthquake locations and body-wave travel-time tomography. In the past decade, catalogs of seismic moment tensors have been established, while seismic surface waves, active-source data, and potential field data have been used to improve models of seismic structure. We have developed moment tensor catalogs in the regions of two of the largest sedimentary basins in Alaska: Cook Inlet forearc basin, west of Anchorage, and Nenana basin, west of Fairbanks. Our moment tensor solutions near Nenana basin suggest a transtensional tectonic setting, with the basin developing in a stepover of a left-lateral strike-slip fault system. We explore the effects of seismic wave propagation from point-source and finite-source earthquake models by performing three-dimensional wavefield simulations using seismic velocity models that include major sedimentary basins. We will use our catalog of moment tensors within an adjoint-based, iterative inversion to improve the three-dimensional tomographic model of Alaska.

  18. Methods for evaluating potential sources of chloride in surface waters and groundwaters of the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Gregory E.; DeSimone, Leslie A.; Barbaro, Jeffrey R.; Jeznach, Lillian C.

    2015-09-04

    Chloride exists as a major ion in most natural waters, but many anthropogenic sources are increasing concentrations of chloride in many receiving waters. Although natural concentrations in continental waters can be as high as 200,000 milligrams per liter, chloride concentrations that are suitable for freshwater ecology, human consumption, and agricultural and industrial water uses commonly are on the order of 10 to 1,000 milligrams per liter. “Road salt” frequently is identified as the sole source of anthropogenic chloride, but only about 30 percent of the salt consumed and released to the environment is used for deicing. Furthermore, several studies in Southern States where the use of deicing salt is minimal also show anthropogenic chloride in rising concentrations and in strong correlation to imperviousness and road density. This is because imperviousness and road density also are strongly correlated to population density. The term “road salt” is a misnomer because deicers applied to parking lots, sidewalks, and driveways can be a substantial source of chloride in some catchments because these land covers are comparable to roadways as a percentage of the total impervious area and commonly receive higher salt application rates than some roadways. Other sources of anthropogenic chloride include wastewater, dust control on unpaved roads, fertilizer, animal waste, irrigation, aquaculture, energy production wastes, and landfill leachates. The assumption that rising chloride concentrations in surface water or groundwater is indicative of contamination by deicing chemicals rather than one or more other potential sources may preclude the identification of toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or endocrine-disrupting contaminants that are associated with many sources of elevated chloride concentrations. Once the sources of anthropogenic chloride in an area of interest have been identified and measured, water and solute budgets can be estimated to guide decisionmakers to

  19. Mass balance of Greenland's three largest outlet glaciers - 2000–2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howat, I.M.; Ahn, Y.; Joughin, I.; van den Broeke, M.R.; Lenaerts, J.T.M.; Smith, B.

    2011-01-01

    Acceleration of Greenland's three largest outlet glaciers, Helheim, Kangerdlugssuaq and Jakobshavn Isbræ, accounted for a substantial portion of the ice sheet's mass loss over the past decade. Rapid changes in their discharge, however, make their cumulative mass-change uncertain. We derive monthly

  20. Insects - a natural nutrient source for poultry - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Józefiak, D; Josefiak, A; Kieronczyk, B

    2016-01-01

    , such as fishmeal. With estimated 1.5 to 3 million species, the class of insects harbours the largest species variety in the world including species providing a high protein and sulphur amino acids content, which can be successfully exploited as feed for poultry. The aim of this paper is to review the present state...... of knowledge concerning the use of insect protein in poultry nutrition and the possibilities of mass production of insects for the feed industry. There is no doubt that insects have an enormous potential as a source of nutrients (protein) and active substances (polyunsaturated fatty acids, antimicrobial...... peptides) for poultry. It can be concluded, based on many experimental results, that meals from insects being members of the orders Diptera (black soldier fly, housefly), Coleoptera (mealworms) and Orthoptera (grasshoppers, locust, crickets and katylids), may be successfully used as feed material...

  1. Evaluating the composition and processing potential of novel sources of Brazilian biomass for sustainable biorenewables production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Marisa A; Gomez, Leonardo D; Steele-King, Clare G; Simister, Rachael; Bernardinelli, Oigres D; Carvalho, Marcelo A; Rezende, Camila A; Labate, Carlos A; Deazevedo, Eduardo R; McQueen-Mason, Simon J; Polikarpov, Igor

    2014-01-18

    The search for promising and renewable sources of carbohydrates for the production of biofuels and other biorenewables has been stimulated by an increase in global energy demand in the face of growing concern over greenhouse gas emissions and fuel security. In particular, interest has focused on non-food lignocellulosic biomass as a potential source of abundant and sustainable feedstock for biorefineries. Here we investigate the potential of three Brazilian grasses (Panicum maximum, Pennisetum purpureum and Brachiaria brizantha), as well as bark residues from the harvesting of two commercial Eucalyptus clones (E. grandis and E. grandis x urophylla) for biofuel production, and compare these to sugarcane bagasse. The effects of hot water, acid, alkaline and sulfite pretreatments (at increasing temperatures) on the chemical composition, morphology and saccharification yields of these different biomass types were evaluated. The average yield (per hectare), availability and general composition of all five biomasses were compared. Compositional analyses indicate a high level of hemicellulose and lignin removal in all grass varieties (including sugarcane bagasse) after acid and alkaline pretreatment with increasing temperatures, whilst the biomasses pretreated with hot water or sulfite showed little variation from the control. For all biomasses, higher cellulose enrichment resulted from treatment with sodium hydroxide at 130°C. At 180°C, a decrease in cellulose content was observed, which is associated with high amorphous cellulose removal and 5-hydroxymethyl-furaldehyde production. Morphological analysis showed the effects of different pretreatments on the biomass surface, revealing a high production of microfibrillated cellulose on grass surfaces, after treatment with 1% sodium hydroxide at 130°C for 30 minutes. This may explain the higher hydrolysis yields resulting from these pretreatments, since these cellulosic nanoparticles can be easily accessed and cleaved by

  2. BSDWormer; an Open Source Implementation of a Poisson Wavelet Multiscale Analysis for Potential Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, F. G.; Gaede, O.

    2014-12-01

    Wavelet multiscale edge analysis of potential fields (a.k.a. "worms") has been known since Moreau et al. (1997) and was independently derived by Hornby et al. (1999). The technique is useful for producing a scale-explicit overview of the structures beneath a gravity or magnetic survey, including establishing the location and estimating the attitude of surface features, as well as incorporating information about the geometric class (point, line, surface, volume, fractal) of the underlying sources — in a fashion much like traditional structural indices from Euler solutions albeit with better areal coverage. Hornby et al. (2002) show that worms form the locally highest concentration of horizontal edges of a given strike — which in conjunction with the results from Mallat and Zhong (1992) induces a (non-unique!) inversion where the worms are physically interpretable as lateral boundaries in a source distribution that produces a close approximation of the observed potential field. The technique has enjoyed widespread adoption and success in the Australian mineral exploration community — including "ground truth" via successfully drilling structures indicated by the worms. Unfortunately, to our knowledge, all implementations of the code to calculate the worms/multiscale edges (including Horowitz' original research code) are either part of commercial software packages, or have copyright restrictions that impede the use of the technique by the wider community. The technique is completely described mathematically in Hornby et al. (1999) along with some later publications. This enables us to re-implement from scratch the code required to calculate and visualize the worms. We are freely releasing the results under an (open source) BSD two-clause software license. A git repository is available at . We will give an overview of the technique, show code snippets using the codebase, and present visualization results for example datasets (including the Surat basin of Australia

  3. Bioaccessibility and Speciation of Potential Toxicants in Some Geogenic Sources of Atmospheric Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morman, S. A.; Wolf, R. E.; Plumlee, G.; Reynolds, R. L.

    2008-12-01

    The correlation of exposure to particulate matter (PM) and increased morbidity and mortality was established in the 1970's. Research focused on elucidating mechanisms of action (i.e. particle size, composition, and biodurability), has generally examined anthropogenic sources such as solid or liquid combustion byproducts of fossil fuels, byproducts from the smelting of metal ores, and commercial/industrial mineral dusts (asbestos, crystalline silica. metal dusts). While many studies exist on agricultural exposures to inorganic dust, far fewer have examined health issues related to particulate matter contributions from rural, non-agricultural dusts or other geogenic sources. Geogenic PM (produced by natural processes such as volcanic ash, volcanic fog (vog), dusts from dry lakes or glacial deposits, smoke and windborne ash from wildfires, and dusts containing various soil pathogens) and geoanthropogenic PM (produced from natural sources by processes that are modified or enhanced by human activities such as dusts from lakebeds dried by human removal of water, dusts produced from areas that have undergone desertification as a result of human practices etc.) are increasingly recognized as potential agents of toxicity and disease, via both environmental and occupational exposures. Surface sediment on some dry lake beds may contribute significant amounts of mineral dusts to the atmospheric load. For example, Owens Lake (a dry lake in southern California) has been a major source of PM10 (particulate matter less than 10 micrometers) dust in the United States. Dusts from dry and drying saline lakes may contain high concentrations of metals, such as arsenic, with known human health toxicity. Wildfires, consuming over nine million acres in 2007, also contribute significant amounts of particulate matter in addition to their other hazards. Designed to estimate the bioaccessibility of metals in soils, dusts and other environmental materials by measuring the reactivity of the

  4. Sulfate Aerosol in the Arctic: Source Attribution and Radiative Forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yang [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Wang, Hailong [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Smith, Steven J. [Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, College Park MD USA; Easter, Richard C. [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Rasch, Philip J. [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA

    2018-02-08

    Source attributions of Arctic sulfate and its direct radiative effect for 2010–2014 are quantified in this study using the Community Earth System Model (CESM) equipped with an explicit sulfur source-tagging technique. Regions that have high emissions and/or are near/within the Arctic present relatively large contributions to Arctic sulfate burden, with the largest contribution from sources in East Asia (27%). East Asia and South Asia together have the largest contributions to Arctic sulfate concentrations at 9–12 km, whereas sources within or near the Arctic account largely below 2 km. For remote sources with strong emissions, their contributions to Arctic sulfate burden are primarily driven by meteorology, while contributions of sources within or near the Arctic are dominated by their emission strength. The sulfate direct radiative effect (DRE) is –0.080 W m-2 at the Arctic surface, offsetting the net warming effect from the combination of in-snow heating and DRE cooling from black carbon. East Asia, Arctic local and Russia/Belarus/Ukraine sources contribute –0.017, –0.016 and –0.014 W m-2, respectively, to Arctic sulfate DRE. A 20% reduction in anthropogenic SO2 emissions leads to a net increase of +0.013 W m-2 forcing at the Arctic surface. These results indicate that a joint reduction in BC emissions could prevent possible Arctic warming from future reductions in SO2 emissions. Sulfate DRE efficiency calculations suggest that short transport pathways together with meteorology favoring long sulfate lifetimes make certain sources more efficient in influencing the Arctic sulfate DRE.

  5. Reservoir Characterization for Unconventional Resource Potential, Pitsanulok Basin, Onshore Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonyasatphan, Prat

    The Pitsanulok Basin is the largest onshore basin in Thailand. Located within the basin is the largest oil field in Thailand, the Sirikit field. As conventional oil production has plateaued and EOR is not yet underway, an unconventional play has emerged as a promising alternative to help supply the energy needs. Source rocks in the basin are from the Oligocene lacustrine shale of the Chum Saeng Formation. This study aims to quantify and characterize the potential of shale gas/oil development in the Chum Saeng Formation using advanced reservoir characterization techniques. The study starts with rock physics analysis to determine the relationship between geophysical, lithological, and geomechanical properties of rocks. Simultaneous seismic inversion is later performed. Seismic inversion provides spatial variation of geophysical properties, i.e. P-impedance, S-impedance, and density. With results from rock physics analysis and from seismic inversion, the reservoir is characterized by applying analyses from wells to the inverted seismic data. And a 3D lithofacies cube is generated. TOC is computed from inverted AI. Static moduli are calculated. A seismic derived brittleness cube is calculated from Poisson's ratio and Young's modulus. The reservoir characterization shows a spatial variation in rock facies and shale reservoir properties, including TOC, brittleness, and elastic moduli. From analysis, the most suitable location for shale gas/oil pilot exploration and development are identified. The southern area of the survey near the MD-1 well with an approximate depth around 650-850 m has the highest shale reservoir potential. The shale formation is thick, with intermediate brittleness and high TOC. These properties make it as a potential sweet spot for a future shale reservoir exploration and development.

  6. CO2 emissions and mitigation potential in China's ammonia industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Wenji; Zhu Bing; Li Qiang; Ma Tieju; Hu Shanying; Griffy-Brown, Charla

    2010-01-01

    Significant pressure from increasing CO 2 emissions and energy consumption in China's industrialization process has highlighted a need to understand and mitigate the sources of these emissions. Ammonia production, as one of the most important fundamental industries in China, represents those heavy industries that contribute largely to this sharp increasing trend. In the country with the largest population in the world, ammonia output has undergone fast growth spurred by increasing demand for fertilizer of food production since 1950s. However, various types of technologies implemented in the industry make ammonia plants in China operate with huge differences in both energy consumption and CO 2 emissions. With consideration of these unique features, this paper attempts to estimate the amount of CO 2 emission from China's ammonia production, and analyze the potential for carbon mitigation in the industry. Based on the estimation, related policy implications and measures required to realize the potential for mitigation are also discussed.

  7. Source apportionment of the carcinogenic potential of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) associated to airborne PM10 by a PMF model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callén, M S; Iturmendi, A; López, J M; Mastral, A M

    2014-02-01

    In order to perform a study of the carcinogenic potential of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), benzo(a)pyrene equivalent (BaP-eq) concentration was calculated and modelled by a receptor model based on positive matrix factorization (PMF). Nineteen PAH associated to airborne PM10 of Zaragoza, Spain, were quantified during the sampling period 2001-2009 and used as potential variables by the PMF model. Afterwards, multiple linear regression analysis was used to quantify the potential sources of BaP-eq. Five sources were obtained as the optimal solution and vehicular emission was identified as the main carcinogenic source (35 %) followed by heavy-duty vehicles (28 %), light-oil combustion (18 %), natural gas (10 %) and coal combustion (9 %). Two of the most prevailing directions contributing to this carcinogenic character were the NE and N directions associated with a highway, industrial parks and a paper factory. The lifetime lung cancer risk exceeded the unit risk of 8.7 x 10(-5) per ng/m(3) BaP in both winter and autumn seasons and the most contributing source was the vehicular emission factor becoming an important issue in control strategies.

  8. From the Kirsch-Kress potential method via the range test to the singular sources method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potthast, R; Schulz, J

    2005-01-01

    We review three reconstruction methods for inverse obstacle scattering problems. We will analyse the relation between the Kirsch-Kress potential method 1986, the range test of Kusiak, Potthast and Sylvester (2003) and the singular sources method of Potthast (2000). In particular, we show that the range test is a logical extension of the Kirsch-Kress method into the category of sampling methods employing the tool of domain sampling. Then we will show how a multi-wave version of the range test can be set up and we will work out its relation to the singular sources method. Numerical examples and demonstrations will be provided

  9. Particulate matter (PM 10 ) in Istanbul: Origin, source areas and potential impact on surrounding regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçak, M.; Theodosi, C.; Zarmpas, P.; Im, U.; Bougiatioti, A.; Yenigun, O.; Mihalopoulos, N.

    2011-12-01

    Water-soluble ions (Cl -, NO3-, SO42-, CO4-, Na +, NH4+, K +, Mg 2+,Ca 2+), water soluble organic carbon (WSOC), organic and elemental carbon (OC, EC) and trace metals (Al, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) were measured in aerosol PM 10 samples above the megacity of Istanbul between November 2007 and June 2009. Source apportionment analysis using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) indicates that approximately 80% of the PM 10 is anthropogenic in origin (secondary, refuse incineration, fuel oil and solid fuel combustion and traffic). Crustal and sea salt account for 10.2 and 7.5% of the observed mass, respectively. In general, anthropogenic (except secondary) aerosol shows higher concentrations and contributions in winter. Mean concentration and contribution of crustal source is found to be more important during the transitional period due to mineral dust transport from North Africa. During the sampling period, 42 events exceeding the limit value of 50 μg m -3 are identified. A significant percentage (91%; n = 38) of these exceedances is attributed to anthropogenic sources. Potential Source Contribution Function analysis highlights that Istanbul is affected from distant sources from Balkans and Western Europe during winter and from Eastern Europe during summer. On the other hand, Istanbul sources influence western Black Sea and Eastern Europe during winter and Aegean and Levantine Sea during summer.

  10. Health Insurance Premium Increases for the 5 Largest School Districts in the United States, 2004–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantillo, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Local school districts are often one of the largest, if not the largest, employers in their respective communities. Like many large employers, school districts offer health insurance to their employees. There is a lack of information about the rate of health insurance premiums in US school districts relative to other employers. Objective To assess the change in the costs of healthcare insurance in the 5 largest public school districts in the United States, between 2004 and 2008, as representative of large public employers in the country. Methods Data for this study were drawn exclusively from a survey sent to the 5 largest public school districts in the United States. The survey requested responses on 3 data elements for each benefit plan offered from 2004 through 2008; these included enrollment, employee costs, and employer costs. Results The premium growth for the 5 largest school districts has slowed down and is consistent with other purchasers—Kaiser/Health Research & Educational Trust and the Federal Employee Health Benefit Program. The average increase in health insurance premium for the schools was 5.9% in 2008, and the average annual growth rate over the study period was 7.5%. For family coverage, these schools provide the most generous employer contribution (80.8%) compared with the employer contribution reported by other employers (73.5%) for 2008. Conclusions Often the largest employers in their communities, school districts demonstrate a commitment to provide choice of benefits and affordability for employees and their families. Despite constraints typical of public employers, the 5 largest school districts in the United States have decelerated in premium growth consistent with other purchasers, albeit at a slower pace. PMID:25126311

  11. Hydrodynamic analysis of potential groundwater extraction capacity increase: case study of 'Nelt' groundwater source at Dobanovci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajić Dragoljub I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive hydrodynamic analysis of the groundwater regime undertaken to assess the potential for expanding the 'Nelt' groundwater source at Dobanovci, or developing a new groundwater source for a future baby food factory, including the quantification of the impact on the production wells of the nearby 'Pepsi' groundwater source, is presented in the paper. The existing Nelt source is comprised of three active production wells that tap a subartesian aquifer formed in sands and gravelly sands; however, the analysis considers only the two nearest wells. A long-term group pumping test was con-ducted of production wells N-1 and N2 (Nelt source and production wells B-1 and B-2 (Pepsi source, while the piezometric head in the vicinity of these wells was monitored at observation well P-1, which is located in the area considered for Nelt source expansion. Data were collected at maximum pumping capacity of all the production wells. A hydrodynamic model of groundwater flow in the extended area of the Nelt source was generated for the purposes of the comprehensive hydrodynamic analysis. Hydrodynamic prognostic calculations addressed two solution alternatives for the capacity increase over a period of ten years. Licensed Visual MODFLOW Pro software, deemed to be at the very top in this field, was used for the calculations.

  12. Using the “Footprint” Approach to Examine the Potentials and Impacts of Renewable Energy Sources in the European Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hastik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of renewable energies is regarded as a key way to mitigate global climate change and to ensure the provision of energy in the long term. However, conflicts between these goals and local nature conservation goals are likely to increase because of the additional space required for renewable energies. This is particularly true for mountainous areas with biodiversity-rich ecosystems. Little effort has been undertaken to systematically compare different renewable energy sources and to examine their environmental impacts using an interdisciplinary approach. This study adapted the concept of the “ecological footprint” to examine the impact on ecosystem services of land use changes involved in exploiting renewable energy sources. This innovative approach made it possible to assess and communicate the potentials of those energy sources in light of both space consumption and sustainability. The European Alps are an ideal test area because of their high energy potentials and biodiversity-rich ecosystems and the high demand for multiple ecosystem services. Our results demonstrate that energy consumption in the Alps could not be covered with the available renewable energy potentials, despite the utilization of large parts of the Alpine land area and the majority of larger rivers. Therefore, considerable effort must be invested in resolving conflicting priorities between expanding renewable energies and nature conservation, but also in realizing energy-saving measures. To this end, the approach presented here can support decision-making by revealing the energy potentials, space requirements, and environmental impacts of different renewable energy sources.

  13. Critical evaluation of the use of bioinformatics as a theoretical tool to find high-potential sources of ACE inhibitory peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vercruysse, L.; Smagghe, G.; Bent, van der A.; Amerongen, van A.; Ongenaert, M.; Camp, van J.

    2009-01-01

    A bioinformatics analysis to screen for high-potential sources of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides was conducted in the area of insect muscle proteins. Vertebrate muscle proteins are reported as good sources of ACE inhibitory peptides, while the research on invertebrate muscle

  14. RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AND THEIR POTENTIAL ROLE IN MITIGATION OF CLIMATE CHANGES AND AS A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT DRIVER IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar M Gvero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bosnia and Herzegovina have significant physical potential regarding to renewable energy sources. Hydro, biomass, geothermal, wind, and solar potential can play important role in the whole state economy. Bosnia and Herzegovina is Non-Annex I country according to UNFCCC and according to that it is obligated to participate in the global efforts in order to reduce green house gases emission. This paper gives some analysis of the physical, technological, economic, and market potential of renewable energy sources in Bosnia and Herzegovina and their potential role in mitigation of climate changes. Paper also gives the analysis of the potential connections between renewable energy sources and sustainable development of the economy, taking in to consideration specific political structure of the state. Bosnia and Herzegovina is consisting from two entities: Republic of Srpska and Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Brcko District; energy sector and climate changes mitigation measures are under their jurisdiction. According to that some of this paper results can be useful for the improvement of entity and state strategies with the final aim to place renewable energy sources on the right position, as some of the major economy drivers, not only in Bosnia and Herzegovina, but in whole region.

  15. Exploring REACH as a potential data source for characterizing ecotoxicity in life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Nienke; de Zwart, Dick; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2017-01-01

    Toxicity models in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) currently only characterize a small fraction of marketed substances, mostly because of limitations in the underlying ecotoxicity data. One approach to improve the current data situation in LCIA is to identify new data sources, such as the Eur......Toxicity models in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) currently only characterize a small fraction of marketed substances, mostly because of limitations in the underlying ecotoxicity data. One approach to improve the current data situation in LCIA is to identify new data sources......, such as the European Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation, and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) database. The present study explored REACH as a potential data source for LCIA based on matching reported ecotoxicity data for substances that are currently also included in the United Nations Environment Programme....../Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (UNEP/SETAC) scientific consensus model USEtox for characterizing toxicity impacts. Data are evaluated with respect to number of data points, reported reliability, and test duration, and are compared with data listed in USEtox at the level of hazardous concentration for 50...

  16. Multiple-source tracking: Investigating sources of pathogens, nutrients, and sediment in the Upper Little River Basin, Kentucky, water years 2013–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Angela S.; Cherry, Mac A.; Williamson, Tanja N.; Bunch, Aubrey R.

    2017-09-20

    The South Fork Little River (SFLR) and the North Fork Little River (NFLR) are two major headwater tributaries that flow into the Little River just south of Hopkinsville, Kentucky. Both tributaries are included in those water bodies in Kentucky and across the Nation that have been reported with declining water quality. Each tributary has been listed by the Kentucky Energy and Environment Cabinet—Kentucky Division of Water in the 303(d) List of Waters for Kentucky Report to Congress as impaired by nutrients, pathogens, and sediment for contact recreation from point and nonpoint sources since 2002. In 2009, the Kentucky Energy and Environment Cabinet—Kentucky Division of Water developed a pathogen total maximum daily load (TMDL) for the Little River Basin including the SFLR and NFLR Basins. Future nutrient and suspended-sediment TMDLs are planned once nutrient criteria and suspended-sediment protocols have been developed for Kentucky. In this study, different approaches were used to identify potential sources of fecal-indicator bacteria (FIB), nitrate, and suspended sediment; to inform the TMDL process; and to aid in the implementation of effective watershed-management activities. The main focus of source identification was in the SFLR Basin.To begin understanding the potential sources of fecal contamination, samples were collected at 19 sites for densities of FIB (E. coli) in water and fluvial sediment and at 11 sites for Bacteroidales genetic markers (General AllBac, human HF183, ruminant BoBac, canid BacCan, and waterfowl GFD) during the recreational season (May through October) in 2013 and 2014. Results indicated 34 percent of all E. coli water samples (n=227 samples) did not meet the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2012 recommended national criteria for primary recreational waters. No criterion currently exists for E. coli in fluvial sediment. By use of the Spearman’s rank correlation test, densities of FIB in fluvial sediments were observed to have a

  17. A simple method for estimating potential source term bypass fractions from confinement structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinich, D.A.; Paddleford, D.F.

    1997-01-01

    Confinement structures house many of the operating processes at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Under normal operating conditions, a confinement structure in conjunction with its associated ventilation systems prevents the release of radiological material to the environment. However, under potential accident conditions, the performance of the ventilation systems and integrity of the structure may be challenged. In order to calculate the radiological consequences associated with a potential accident (e.g. fires, explosion, spills, etc.), it is necessary to determine the fraction of the source term initially generated by the accident that escapes from the confinement structure to the environment. While it would be desirable to estimate the potential bypass fraction using sophisticated control-volume/flow path computer codes (e.g. CONTAIN, MELCOR, etc.) in order to take as much credit as possible for the mitigative effects of the confinement structure, there are many instances where using such codes is not tractable due to limits on the level-of-effort allotted to perform the analysis. Moreover, the current review environment, with its emphasis on deterministic/bounding-versus probabilistic/best-estimate-analysis discourages using analytical techniques that require the consideration of a large number of parameters. Discussed herein is a simplified control-volume/flow path approach for calculating source term bypass fraction that is amenable to solution in a spreadsheet or with a commercial mathematical solver (e.g. MathCad or Mathematica). It considers the effects of wind and fire pressure gradients on the structure, ventilation system operation, and Halon discharges. Simple models are used to characterize the engineered and non-engineered flow paths. By making judicious choices for the limited set of problem parameters, the results from this approach can be defended as bounding and conservative

  18. Use of Oil Palm Waste as a Renewable Energy Source and Its Impact on Reduction of Air Pollution in Context of Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, Shahida; Kumaran P; Jayakumar M

    2013-01-01

    One of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy supply to supplement the increasing energy demand and reducing environment pollution is renewable energy resources. Malaysia is currently the world's second largest producer and exporter of palm oil and 47% of the world's supply of palm oil is produced by this country. Nearly 80 million tonnes of Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) are processed annually in 406 palm oil mills and are generating approximately 54 million tonnes of palm oil mill effluent (POME), known to generate biogas consisting of methane – a Green House Gas (GHG) identifiable to cause global warming. This is 21 times more potent GHG than CO 2 . These two major oil palm wastes are a viable renewable energy (RE) source for production of electricity. If the two sources are used in harnessing the renewable energy potential the pollution intensity from usage of non-renewable sources can also be reduced significantly. This study focused on the pollution mitigation potential of biogas as biogas is a renewable energy. Utilization of this renewable source for the production of electricity is believed to reduce GHG emissions to the atmosphere.

  19. Use of Oil Palm Waste as a Renewable Energy Source and Its Impact on Reduction of Air Pollution in Context of Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Shahida; P, Kumaran; M, Jayakumar

    2013-06-01

    One of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy supply to supplement the increasing energy demand and reducing environment pollution is renewable energy resources. Malaysia is currently the world's second largest producer and exporter of palm oil and 47% of the world's supply of palm oil is produced by this country. Nearly 80 million tonnes of Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) are processed annually in 406 palm oil mills and are generating approximately 54 million tonnes of palm oil mill effluent (POME), known to generate biogas consisting of methane - a Green House Gas (GHG) identifiable to cause global warming. This is 21 times more potent GHG than CO2. These two major oil palm wastes are a viable renewable energy (RE) source for production of electricity. If the two sources are used in harnessing the renewable energy potential the pollution intensity from usage of non-renewable sources can also be reduced significantly. This study focused on the pollution mitigation potential of biogas as biogas is a renewable energy. Utilization of this renewable source for the production of electricity is believed to reduce GHG emissions to the atmosphere.

  20. Longevity in Calumma parsonii, the World's largest chameleon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessa, Giulia; Glaw, Frank; Andreone, Franco

    2017-03-01

    Large body size of ectothermic species can be correlated with high life expectancy. We assessed the longevity of the World's largest chameleon, the Parson's chameleon Calumma parsonii from Madagascar by using skeletochronology of phalanges taken from preserved specimens held in European natural history museums. Due to the high bone resorption we can provide only the minimum age of each specimen. The highest minimum age detected was nine years for a male and eight years for a female, confirming that this species is considerably long living among chameleons. Our data also show a strong correlation between snout-vent length and estimated age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Potential of Electronic Plastic Waste as a Source of Raw Material and Energy Recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norazli Othman; Nor Ezlin Ahmad Basri; Lariyah Mohd Sidek

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, the production of electronic equipment is one of the fastest growing industrial activities in this world. The increase use of plastic in this sector resulted in an increase of electronic plastic waste. Basically, electronic plastic material contains various chemical elements which act as a flame retardant when electronic equipment is operated. In general, the concept of recycling electronic plastic waste should be considered in order to protect the environment. For this purpose, research has been conducted to different resins of electronic plastic waste to identify the potential of electronic plastic waste as a source of raw material and energy recovery. This study was divided into two part for example determination of physical and chemical characteristics of plastic resins and calculation of heating value for plastic resins based on Dulong formula. Results of this research show that the average calorific value of electronic waste is 30,872.42 kJ/ kg (7,375 kcal/ kg). The emission factor analysis showed that the concentration of emission value that might occur during waste management activities is below the standard set by the Environment Quality Act 1974. Basically, this research shows that electronic plastic waste has the potential to become the source of raw material and energy recovery. (author)

  2. Animals living in polluted environments are potential source of antimicrobials against infectious agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Simon; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    The antimicrobials crisis is a ticking time bomb which could lead to millions of people dying from untreatable infections. With the worsening trends of antimicrobial resistance, we are heading towards a pre-antibiotic era. Thus, there is a need for newer and more powerful antibiotic agents. The search for new antibiotic compounds originating from natural resources is a promising research area. Animals living in germ-infested environments are a potent source of antimicrobials. Under polluted milieus, organisms such as cockroaches encounter different types of bacteria, including superbugs. Such creatures survive the onslaught of superbugs and are able to ward off disease by producing antimicrobial substances which show potent activity in the nervous system. We hope that the discovery of antimicrobial activity in the cockroach brain will stimulate research in finding antimicrobials from unusual sources, and has potential for the development of novel antibiotics. Nevertheless, intensive research in the next few years will be required to approach or realize these expectations. PMID:23265422

  3. Identification of potential sources of airborne Olea pollen in the southwest Iberian Peninsula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Rodriguez, S.; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Tormo Molina, R.

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to determine the potential origin of Olea pollen recorded in Badajoz in the Southwest of the Iberian Peninsula during 2009–2011. This was achieved using a combination of daily average and diurnal (hourly) airborne Olea pollen counts recorded at Badajoz (south-western Spain...... be outdoors during this time due to climate and lifestyle. Such studies that examine sources and the atmospheric transport of pollen are valuable for allergy sufferers and health care professionals because the information can be incorporated into forecasts, the outputs of which are used for avoiding exposure...

  4. Sources, potentials and fields in Lorenz and Coulomb gauge: Cancellation of instantaneous interactions for moving point charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wundt, B.J.; Jentschura, U.D.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the coupling of the electromagnetic sources (charge and current densities) to the scalar and vector potentials in classical electrodynamics, using Green function techniques. As is well known, the scalar potential shows an action-at-a-distance behavior in Coulomb gauge. The conundrum generated by the instantaneous interaction has intrigued physicists for a long time. Starting from the differential equations that couple the sources to the potentials, we here show in a concise derivation, using the retarded Green function, how the instantaneous interaction cancels in the calculation of the electric field. The time derivative of a specific additional term in the vector potential, present only in Coulomb gauge, yields a supplementary contribution to the electric field which cancels the gradient of the instantaneous Coulomb gauge scalar potential, as required by gauge invariance. This completely eliminates the contribution of the instantaneous interaction from the electric field. It turns out that a careful formulation of the retarded Green function, inspired by field theory, is required in order to correctly treat boundary terms in partial integrations. Finally, compact integral representations are derived for the Liénard–Wiechert potentials (scalar and vector) in Coulomb gauge which manifestly contain two compensating action-at-a-distance terms. - Highlights: ► We investigate action-at-a-distance effects in electrodynamics in detail. ► We calculate the instantaneous interactions for scalar and vector potentials. ► The cancellation mechanism involves the retarded Green function. ► The mechanism is confirmed on the example of moving point charges. ► The Green function has to be treated with care for nontrivial boundary terms.

  5. Highlights from e-EPS: Coordinated Access to Light sources

    CERN Multimedia

    e-EPS News

    2014-01-01

    The CALIPSO project, which runs until May 2015, will contribute to the effective exploitation of European synchrotrons and free electron lasers. CALIPSO (Coordinated Access to Light sources to Promote Standards and Optimisation) includes 20 partners forming one of the largest Research Networks in the world.   e-EPS interviewed M. Bertolo, CALIPSO project manager and his assistant C. Blasetti. Which challenges are addressed by CALIPSO? CALIPSO’s goal is to optimize the exploitation of the European synchrotrons and Free Electron Lasers. With respect to previous projects funded by the European Commission, it foresees significant improvements in integration, innovation and user-friendliness in all three areas of networking, transnational access and instrumentation. The Transnational Access program potentially benefits a community of 25,000 estimated users offering free open access to 12 synchrotrons and 5 free electron lasers solely based on scientific merit. In ad...

  6. Pyrometallurgical slags as a potential source of selected metals recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nowińska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Complex analysis of concentration and form of occurrence such metals as Zn, Pb, Fe and Cu in slags formed during a current zinc production in the Imperial Smelting Process (ISP is a possible basis for development of optimal recovery technology. For this purpose studies of slags from the current production of the Shaft Furnace Unit and of the Lead Refining of the “Miasteczko Śląskie” Zinc Smelting Plant were carried out. The studies results show that slags includes high concentrations of: Zn from 0,064 % to 1,680 %, Pb from 10,56 % to 50,71 %, Fe from 0,015 % to 2,576 %, Cu from 7,48 % to 64,95 %, and change in a broad range. This slags show significant heterogeneity, caused by intermetallic phases (Zn - Pb, Cu - Zn, Cu - Pb formed on the surface thereof. It is so possible that slag can be a potential source of this metals recovery.

  7. Projected Source Terms for Potential Sabotage Events Related to Spent Fuel Shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, R.E.; Neuhauser, K.S.; Vigil, M.G.

    1999-01-01

    Two major studies, one sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the other by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, were conducted in the late 1970s and early 1980s to provide information and source terms for an optimally successful act of sabotage on spent fuel casks typical of those available for use. This report applies the results of those studies and additional analysis to derive potential source terms for certain classes of sabotage events on spent fuel casks and spent fuel typical of those which could be shipped in the early decades of the 21st century. In addition to updating the cask and spent fuel characteristics used in the analysis, two release mechanisms not included in the earlier works were identified and evaluated. As would be expected, inclusion of these additional release mechanisms resulted in a somewhat higher total release from the postulated sabotage events. Although health effects from estimated releases were addressed in the earlier study conducted for U.S. Department of Energy, they have not been addressed in this report. The results from this report maybe used to estimate health effects

  8. Analytic approximation to the largest eigenvalue distribution of a white Wishart matrix

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vlok, JD

    2012-08-14

    Full Text Available offers largely simplified computation and provides statistics such as the mean value and region of support of the largest eigenvalue distribution. Numeric results from the literature are compared with the approximation and Monte Carlo simulation results...

  9. Lessons Learned from OMI Observations of Point Source SO2 Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotkov, N.; Fioletov, V.; McLinden, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on NASA Aura satellite makes global daily measurements of the total column of sulfur dioxide (SO2), a short-lived trace gas produced by fossil fuel combustion, smelting, and volcanoes. Although anthropogenic SO2 signals may not be detectable in a single OMI pixel, it is possible to see the source and determine its exact location by averaging a large number of individual measurements. We describe new techniques for spatial and temporal averaging that have been applied to the OMI SO2 data to determine the spatial distributions or "fingerprints" of SO2 burdens from top 100 pollution sources in North America. The technique requires averaging of several years of OMI daily measurements to observe SO2 pollution from typical anthropogenic sources. We found that the largest point sources of SO2 in the U.S. produce elevated SO2 values over a relatively small area - within 20-30 km radius. Therefore, one needs higher than OMI spatial resolution to monitor typical SO2 sources. TROPOMI instrument on the ESA Sentinel 5 precursor mission will have improved ground resolution (approximately 7 km at nadir), but is limited to once a day measurement. A pointable geostationary UVB spectrometer with variable spatial resolution and flexible sampling frequency could potentially achieve the goal of daily monitoring of SO2 point sources and resolve downwind plumes. This concept of taking the measurements at high frequency to enhance weak signals needs to be demonstrated with a GEOCAPE precursor mission before 2020, which will help formulating GEOCAPE measurement requirements.

  10. Antideuterons in cosmic rays: sources and discovery potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herms, Johannes; Ibarra, Alejandro; Vittino, Andrea; Wild, Sebastian, E-mail: johannes.herms@tum.de, E-mail: ibarra@tum.de, E-mail: andrea.vittino@tum.de, E-mail: sebastian.wild@ph.tum.de [Physik-Department T30d, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Straße 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2017-02-01

    Antibaryons are produced in our Galaxy in collisions of high energy cosmic rays with the interstellar medium and in old supernova remnants, and possibly, in exotic sources such as primordial black hole evaporation or dark matter annihilations and decays. The search for signals from exotic sources in antiproton data is hampered by large backgrounds from spallation which, within theoretical errors, can solely account for the current data. Due to the higher energy threshold for antideuteron production, which translates into a suppression of the low energy flux from spallations, antideuteron searches have been proposed as a probe for exotic sources. We perform in this paper a comprehensive analysis of the antideuteron fluxes at the Earth expected from known and hypothetical sources in our Galaxy, and we calculate their maximal values consistent with current antiproton data from AMS-02. We find that supernova remnants generate a negligible flux, whereas primordial black hole evaporation and dark matter annihilations or decays may dominate the total flux at low energies. On the other hand, we find that the (detection of cosmic antideuterons) would require, for the scenarios studied in this paper and assuming optimistic values of the coalescence momentum and solar modulation, an increase of the experimental sensitivity compared to ongoing and planned instruments by at least a factor of 2. Finally, we briefly comment on the prospects for antihelium-3 detection.

  11. Characterization of the largest relic Eurasian wild grapevine reservoir in Southern Iberian Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroyo-García, R.; Cantos, M.; Lara, M.; López, M.A.; Gallardo, A.; Ocete, C.A.; Pérez, A.; Bánáti, B.; García, J.L.; Ocete, R.

    2016-11-01

    Wild grapevine is becoming a threatened species in the Iberian Peninsula due to human impacts. The aim of this work was to carry out a holistic study for six years of the largest wild grapevine population found up to date in SW Iberian Peninsula. This population has 115 vines. Ampelographic and soil characteristics have been studied. Evaluation of its environment has also been studied by describing the main parasitic species and natural enemies of pests. The ability of this plant material for its micropropagation and storage in slow-growth conditions has been tested. Microvinification resulted in a wine with good acidity and medium color intensity, two interesting characteristics under a warm climatology. Finally, the identification of private alleles in this wild population, absent in other locations from the Northern and Southern Iberian territories, is a very valuable feature and confirms the importance of establishing conservation programs. The population here studied is genetically unique and potentially useful for commercial rootstocks and cultivars breeding that would improve viticulture and enology. (Author)

  12. Identification of potential regional sources of atmospheric total gaseous mercury in Windsor, Ontario, Canada using hybrid receptor modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Xu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Windsor (Ontario, Canada experiences trans-boundary air pollution as it is located on the border immediately downwind of industrialized regions of the United States of America. A study was conducted in 2007 to identify the potential regional sources of total gaseous mercury (TGM and investigate the effects of regional sources and other factors on seasonal variability of TGM concentrations in Windsor.

    TGM concentration was measured at the University of Windsor campus using a Tekran® 2537A Hg vapour analyzer. An annual mean of 2.02±1.63 ng/m3 was observed in 2007. The average TGM concentration was high in the summer (2.48±2.68 ng/m3 and winter (2.17±2.01 ng/m3, compared to spring (1.88±0.78 ng/m3 and fall (1.76±0.58 ng/m3. Hybrid receptor modeling potential source contribution function (PSCF was used by incorporating 72-h backward trajectories and measurements of TGM in Windsor. The results of PSCF were analyzed in conjunction with the Hg emissions inventory of North America (by state/province to identify regions affecting Windsor. In addition to annual modeling, seasonal PSCF modeling was also conducted. The potential source region was identified between 24–61° N and 51–143° W. Annual PSCF modeling identified major sources southwest of Windsor, stretching from Ohio to Texas. The emissions inventory also supported the findings, as Hg emissions were high in those regions. Results of seasonal PSCF modeling were analyzed to find the combined effects of regional sources, meteorological conditions, and surface re-emissions, on seasonal variability of Hg concentrations. It was found that the summer and winter highs of atmospheric Hg can be attributed to areas where large numbers of coal fired power plants are located in the USA. Weak atmospheric dispersion due to low winds and high re-emission from surfaces due to higher temperatures also contributed to high concentrations in

  13. Switzerland's largest wood-pellet factory in Balsthal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stohler, F.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes how a small Swiss electricity utility has broken out of its traditional role in power generation and the distribution of electricity and gone into the production of wood pellets. The pellets, which are made from waste wood (sawdust) available from wood processing companies, are produced on a large scale in one of Europe's largest pellets production facilities. The boom in the use of wood pellets for heating purposes is discussed. The article discusses this unusual approach for a Swiss power utility, which also operates a wood-fired power station and is even involved in an incineration plant for household wastes. The markets being aimed for in Switzerland and in Europe are described, including modern low-energy-consumption housing projects. A further project is described that is to use waste wood available from a large wood processing facility planned in the utility's own region

  14. Scenarios for potential radionuclide release from marine reactors dumped in the Kara Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, N.; Mount, M.; Gussgard, K.

    1995-01-01

    The largest inventory of radioactive materials dumped in the Kara Sea by the former Soviet Union comes from the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of seven marine reactors, the current (1994) inventory of which makes a total of approximately 4.7x10 15 Bq. In progressing its work for the International Arctic Seas Assessment Project, under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Source Term Working Group has analysed the Source Term and subsequently developed a number of model scenarios for the potential release patterns of radionuclides into the Kara Sea from the SNF and activated components dumped within the marine reactors.These models are based on the present and future conditions of the barrier materials and their configuration within the dumped objects. They account for progressive corrosion of the outer and inner steel barriers, breakdown of the organic fillers, and degradation and leaching from the SNFs. Annual release rates are predicted to four thousand years into the future. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  15. Seed Dispersal Potential of Asian Elephants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harich, Franziska K.; Treydte, Anna Christina; Ogutu, Joseph Ochieng

    2016-01-01

    Elephants, the largest terrestrial mega-herbivores, play an important ecological role in maintaining forest ecosystem diversity. While several plant species strongly rely on African elephants (Loxodonta africana; L. cyclotis) as seed dispersers, little is known about the dispersal potential of As...

  16. ARCHITECTURE AND FUNCTIONALITY OF INTEGRATED INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR ANALYSIS OF POTENTIAL OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Tonkonogov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was the development of the original architecture of an integrated information system for analysis of the potential of renewable energy sources. The required functionality of system has led to the solution of a number of problems in the development of appropriate software modules that implement methods, models and algorithms for assessing the energy potential and economic efficiency of the use of renewable energy sources (RES. This required the solution of the following problems: adaptation of existing and development of new methods for analyzing the potential of RES at various territorial levels using modern technologies of geographic information systems and computer technologies were accomplished; models for the assessment and calculation of the potential of renewable energy resources were developed; techniques for assessing of the economic effectiveness of decisions made for using of RES were adapted; architecture of the information system was developed and the choice of technologies and means for its implementation was made; algorithms of software modules and their interaction as a parts of the information system were developed. A distinctive feature of the architecture were flexibility and openness for the expansion and implementation of additional functionality, in particular the development of special algorithms and software modules for interacting with the database and a graphical Web-based user interface that provides the ability to work with cartographic information. The development and implementation of this system is a modern up-to-date scientific and practical task, the solution of which will create conditions for increased use of RES in RB and improving the country’s energy security. The results of conducted researches and completed developments can be used in the system of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection of RB, in particular for maintaining of the state cadastre of RES and making

  17. Tank farm potential ignition sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaief, C.C. III.

    1996-01-01

    This document identifies equipment, instrumentation, and sensors that are located in-tank as well as ex-tank in areas that may have communication paths with the tank vapor space. For each item, and attempt is made to identify the potential for ignition of flammable vapors using a graded approach. The scope includes all 177 underground storage tanks

  18. Salmonellosis outbreaks in the United States due to fresh produce: sources and potential intervention measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanning, Irene B; Nutt, J D; Ricke, Steven C

    2009-01-01

    Foodborne Salmonella spp. is a leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States each year. Traditionally, most cases of salmonellosis were thought to originate from meat and poultry products. However, an increasing number of salmonellosis outbreaks are occurring as a result of contaminated produce. Several produce items specifically have been identified in outbreaks, and the ability of Salmonella to attach or internalize into vegetables and fruits may be factors that make these produce items more likely to be sources of Salmonella. In addition, environmental factors including contaminated water sources used to irrigate and wash produce crops have been implicated in a large number of outbreaks. Salmonella is carried by both domesticated and wild animals and can contaminate freshwater by direct or indirect contact. In some cases, direct contact of produce or seeds with contaminated manure or animal wastes can lead to contaminated crops. This review examines outbreaks of Salmonella due to contaminated produce, the potential sources of Salmonella, and possible control measures to prevent contamination of produce.

  19. Anaerobic biodegradability of Category 2 animal by-products: methane potential and inoculum source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozdniakova, Tatiana A; Costa, José C; Santos, Ricardo J; Alves, M M; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2012-11-01

    Category 2 animal by-products that need to be sterilized with steam pressure according Regulation (EC) 1774/2002 are studied. In this work, 2 sets of experiments were performed in mesophilic conditions: (i) biomethane potential determination testing 0.5%, 2.0% and 5.0% total solids (TS), using sludge from the anaerobic digester of a wastewater treatment plant as inoculum; (ii) biodegradability tests at a constant TS concentration of 2.0% and different inoculum sources (digested sludge from a wastewater treatment plant; granular sludge from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor; leachate from a municipal solid waste landfill; and sludge from the slaughterhouse wastewater treatment anaerobic lagoon) to select the more adapted inoculum to the substrate in study. The higher specific methane production was of 317 mL CH(4)g(-1) VS(substrate) for 2.0% TS. The digested sludge from the wastewater treatment plant led to the lowest lag-phase period and higher methane potential rate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Potential biodiversity benefits from international programs to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siikamäki, Juha; Newbold, Stephen C

    2012-01-01

    Deforestation is the second largest anthropogenic source of carbon dioxide emissions and options for its reduction are integral to climate policy. In addition to providing potentially low cost and near-term options for reducing global carbon emissions, reducing deforestation also could support biodiversity conservation. However, current understanding of the potential benefits to biodiversity from forest carbon offset programs is limited. We compile spatial data on global forest carbon, biodiversity, deforestation rates, and the opportunity cost of land to examine biodiversity conservation benefits from an international program to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation. Our results indicate limited geographic overlap between the least-cost areas for retaining forest carbon and protecting biodiversity. Therefore, carbon-focused policies will likely generate substantially lower benefits to biodiversity than a more biodiversity-focused policy could achieve. These results highlight the need to systematically consider co-benefits, such as biodiversity in the design and implementation of forest conservation programs to support international climate policy.

  1. Natural and technologically enhanced sources of radon-222

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, C.C.; Watson, A.P.; McDowell-Boyer, L.M.; Cotter, S.J.; Randolph, M.L.; Fields, D.E.

    1979-01-01

    An assessment of 222 Rn releases (curies/year) from major natural and technologically enhanced sources in the United States is presented. The resulting inhalation population dose commitments to the bronchial epithelium of the lung (lung-rem) are also estimated. The sources of radon considered are natural soil, evapotranspiration, potable water supplies, building materials, natural gas, uranium mining and milling, coal and phosphate mining, phosphate fertilizer, liquefied petroleum gas, geothermal power facilities, coal-fired power plants, and gas and oil wells. The most important natural source of 222 Rn is decay of 226 Ra in the soil and rocks of the earth's crust. This source results in approximately 40% of the total population dose from all sources of radon. The largest technoligcally enhanced contributor to population dose is airborne 222 Rn in building interiors, which is estimated to contribute 55% to the total population exposure to 222 Rn. Each of the other sources is estimated to contribute less than 3% to the total

  2. To the question of studying the source base potential from the history of the USSR’s Swedes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudrytska, T. L.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the analyze of the potential sources of information on the history of Swedish USSR. Available sources were divided into legislative acts (record keeping records, materials law enforcement cases, statistical sources, materials of personal origin (memoirs, letters, reports visitors to the village and publications on the pages of local and Swedish media. Using the criteria of reasonable sufficiency, summarized that generated source base study is representative for the study of many aspects of the history of Swedish USSR. It is proved that an official office documents submitted by regulatory and accounting and control documentation have enormous information potential for the reconstruction process of the establishment of Soviet power in rural areas and stages of socio-cultural transformation of the population of the Gammmalsvenksby. It was reflected in a public reaction on the government national policy which was implemented. Based on forensic investigation files it is possible to reconstruct events Stalin’s purges and World War II that took place among Swedes, to follow national specific repression, learn about relationships within the Swedish national minority and their relationships with individual representatives of other nationalities. One of the most important features of this documents their role in the reconstruction of physical and psychological portrait of the defendants, their strategies of behavior in extreme situations. Information capacity of the A. Annas memories provides opportunities to study the history of Soviet Swedes in interwar period, their daily life, economy, behavior strategies in extreme situations, relations with the Soviet authorities and others. Attracting messages travelers helps to trace the mechanism of image formation of the Russian Swedes in their homeland and determine its impact on attitudes to re-emigrants. In process of analysis of complex source it was shown that in most cases one

  3. BALU: Largest autoclave research facility in the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Ucan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the large-scale facilities operated at the Center for Lightweight-Production-Technology of the German Aerospace Center in Stade BALU is the world's largest research autoclave. With a loading length of 20m and a loading diameter of 5.8 m the main objective of the facility is the optimization of the curing process operated by components made of carbon fiber on an industrial scale. For this reason, a novel dynamic autoclaving control has been developed that is characterized by peripheral devices to expend the performance of the facility for differential applications, by sensing systems to detect the component state throughout the curing process and by a feedback system, which is capable to intervene into the running autoclave process.

  4. Using an Explicit Emission Tagging Method in Global Modeling of Source-Receptor Relationships for Black Carbon in the Arctic: Variations, Sources and Transport Pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hailong; Rasch, Philip J.; Easter, Richard C.; Singh, Balwinder; Zhang, Rudong; Ma, Po-Lun; Qian, Yun; Ghan, Steven J.; Beagley, Nathaniel

    2014-11-27

    We introduce an explicit emission tagging technique in the Community Atmosphere Model to quantify source-region-resolved characteristics of black carbon (BC), focusing on the Arctic. Explicit tagging of BC source regions without perturbing the emissions makes it straightforward to establish source-receptor relationships and transport pathways, providing a physically consistent and computationally efficient approach to produce a detailed characterization of the destiny of regional BC emissions and the potential for mitigation actions. Our analysis shows that the contributions of major source regions to the global BC burden are not proportional to the respective emissions due to strong region-dependent removal rates and lifetimes, while the contributions to BC direct radiative forcing show a near-linear dependence on their respective contributions to the burden. Distant sources contribute to BC in remote regions mostly in the mid- and upper troposphere, having much less impact on lower-level concentrations (and deposition) than on burden. Arctic BC concentrations, deposition and source contributions all have strong seasonal variations. Eastern Asia contributes the most to the wintertime Arctic burden. Northern Europe emissions are more important to both surface concentration and deposition in winter than in summer. The largest contribution to Arctic BC in the summer is from Northern Asia. Although local emissions contribute less than 10% to the annual mean BC burden and deposition within the Arctic, the per-emission efficiency is much higher than for major non-Arctic sources. The interannual variability (1996-2005) due to meteorology is small in annual mean BC burden and radiative forcing but is significant in yearly seasonal means over the Arctic. When a slow aging treatment of BC is introduced, the increase of BC lifetime and burden is source-dependent. Global BC forcing-per-burden efficiency also increases primarily due to changes in BC vertical distributions. The

  5. Potential of hydrogen from oil palm biomass as a source of renewable energy worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly-Yong, Tau Len; Lee, Keat Teong; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Bhatia, Subhash

    2007-01-01

    Various catastrophes related to extreme weather events such as floods, hurricanes, droughts and heat waves occurring on the Earth in the recent times are definitely a clear warning sign from nature questioning our ability to protect the environment and ultimately the Earth itself. Progressive release of greenhouse gases (GHG) such as CO 2 and CH 4 from development of various energy-intensive industries has ultimately caused human civilization to pay its debt. Realizing the urgency of reducing emissions and yet simultaneously catering to needs of industries, researches and scientists conclude that renewable energy is the perfect candidate to fulfill both parties requirement. Renewable energy provides an effective option for the provision of energy services from the technical point of view. In this context, biomass appears as one important renewable source of energy. Biomass has been a major source of energy in the world until before industrialization when fossil fuels become dominant and researches have proven from time to time its viability for large-scale production. Although there has been some successful industrial-scale production of renewable energy from biomass, generally this industry still faces a lot of challenges including the availability of economically viable technology, sophisticated and sustainable natural resources management, and proper market strategies under competitive energy markets. Amidst these challenges, the development and implementation of suitable policies by the local policy-makers is still the single and most important factor that can determine a successful utilization of renewable energy in a particular country. Ultimately, the race to the end line must begin with the proof of biomass ability to sustain in a long run as a sustainable and reliable source of renewable energy. Thus, the aim of this paper is to present the potential availability of oil palm biomass that can be converted to hydrogen (leading candidate positioned as the

  6. A two dimensional analytical modeling of surface potential in triple metal gate (TMG) fully-depleted Recessed-Source/Drain (Re-S/D) SOI MOSFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, Anjali; Mishra, Ram Awadh

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, analytical modeling of surface potential is proposed for new Triple Metal Gate (TMG) fully depleted Recessed-Source/Dain Silicon On Insulator (SOI) Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET). The metal with the highest work function is arranged near the source region and the lowest one near the drain. Since Recessed-Source/Drain SOI MOSFET has higher drain current as compared to conventional SOI MOSFET due to large source and drain region. The surface potential model developed by 2D Poisson's equation is verified by comparison to the simulation result of 2-dimensional ATLAS simulator. The model is compared with DMG and SMG devices and analysed for different device parameters. The ratio of metal gate length is varied to optimize the result.

  7. Performance analysis of low temperature heat source of organic Rankine cycle for geothermal application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintoro, A.; Ambarita, H.; Nur, T. B.; Napitupulu, F. H.

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia has a high potential energy resources from geothermal activities. Base on the report of Asian Development Bank and World Bank, the estimated of Indonesian hydrothermal geothermal resource considered to be the largest among the world. If it’s can be utilized to produce the electric power, it’s can contribute to increasing the electrification rates in Indonesia. In this study, an experimental studied of electric power generation, utilizing the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system to convert the low level heat of hydrothermal as an energy source. The temperature of hydrothermal was modelled as hot water from water boiler which has a temperature range from 60 °C - 100 °C to heat up the organic working fluid of ORC system. The system can generated 1,337.7 watts of electricity when operated using R134A with hot water inlet temperature of 100 °C. Changing system working fluid to R245fa, the net power obtained increase to 1,908.9 watts with the same heat source condition. This study showed that the ORC system can be implemented to utilize low temperature heat source of hydrothermal in Indonesia.

  8. Reeds as potential sources of alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodh, A B; Rao, P R

    1964-01-01

    Five species of reeds, Erianthus ravennae, Saccharum munja S. procerum, Phragmites communis, and Neyraudia reynaudiana yielded 25.02, 19.5, 24.11, 26.1, and 21.6% reducing sugars, repectively., when digested with 1% H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ under 15lb/square inch for 3 hours. Fermentable sugars from hydrolyzates of the above reeds were 70.0, 34.5, 65.0, 28.0, and 67.5% respectively. This source can become important only in case of an acute demand for fermentation alcohol.

  9. Confirmed and Potential Sources of Legionella Reviewed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heijnsbergen, Eri; Schalk, Johanna A C; Euser, Sjoerd M; Brandsema, Petra S; den Boer, Jeroen W; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/139498281

    2015-01-01

    Legionella bacteria are ubiquitous in natural matrices and man-made systems. However, it is not always clear if these reservoirs can act as source of infection resulting in cases of Legionnaires' disease. This review provides an overview of reservoirs of Legionella reported in the literature, other

  10. ERPLAB: An Open-Source Toolbox for the Analysis of Event-Related Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier eLopez-Calderon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available ERPLAB Toolbox is a freely available, open-source toolbox for processing and analyzing event-related potential (ERP data in the MATLAB environment. ERPLAB is closely integrated with EEGLAB, a popular open-source toolbox that provides many EEG preprocessing steps and an excellent user interface design. ERPLAB adds to EEGLAB’s EEG processing functions, providing additional tools for filtering, artifact detection, re-referencing, and sorting of events, among others. ERPLAB also provides robust tools for averaging EEG segments together to create averaged ERPs, for creating difference waves and other recombinations of ERP waveforms through algebraic expressions, for filtering and re-referencing the averaged ERPs, for plotting ERP waveforms and scalp maps, and for quantifying several types of amplitudes and latencies. ERPLAB’s tools can be accessed either from an easy-to-learn graphical user interface or from MATLAB scripts, and a command history function makes it easy for users with no programming experience to write scripts. Consequently, ERPLAB provides both ease of use and virtually unlimited power and flexibility, making it appropriate for the analysis of both simple and complex ERP experiments. Several forms of documentation are available, including a detailed user’s guide, a step-by-step tutorial, a scripting guide, and a set of video-based demonstrations.

  11. Percolation under noise: Detecting explosive percolation using the second-largest component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viles, Wes; Ginestet, Cedric E.; Tang, Ariana; Kramer, Mark A.; Kolaczyk, Eric D.

    2016-05-01

    We consider the problem of distinguishing between different rates of percolation under noise. A statistical model of percolation is constructed allowing for the birth and death of edges as well as the presence of noise in the observations. This graph-valued stochastic process is composed of a latent and an observed nonstationary process, where the observed graph process is corrupted by type-I and type-II errors. This produces a hidden Markov graph model. We show that for certain choices of parameters controlling the noise, the classical (Erdős-Rényi) percolation is visually indistinguishable from a more rapid form of percolation. In this setting, we compare two different criteria for discriminating between these two percolation models, based on the interquartile range (IQR) of the first component's size, and on the maximal size of the second-largest component. We show through data simulations that this second criterion outperforms the IQR of the first component's size, in terms of discriminatory power. The maximal size of the second component therefore provides a useful statistic for distinguishing between different rates of percolation, under physically motivated conditions for the birth and death of edges, and under noise. The potential application of the proposed criteria for the detection of clinically relevant percolation in the context of applied neuroscience is also discussed.

  12. Xenogeneic chimera-Generated by blastocyst complementation-As a potential unlimited source of recipient-tailored organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldani, Graziano; Peloso, Andrea; Lacotte, Stéphanie; Meier, Raphael; Toso, Christian

    2017-07-01

    Blastocyst complementation refers to the injection of cells into a blastocyst. The technology allows for the creation of chimeric animals, which have the potential to be used as an unlimited source of organ donors. Pluripotent stem cells could be generated from a patient in need of a transplantation and injected into a large animal blastocyst (potentially of a pig), leading to the creation of organ(s) allowing immunosuppression-free transplantation. Various chimera combinations have already been generated, but one of the most recent steps leads to the creation of human-pig chimeras, which could be studied at an embryo stage. Although still far from clinical reality, the potential application is almost unlimited. The present review illustrates the historical steps of intra- and interspecific blastocyst complementation in rodents and large animals, specifically looking at its potential for generation of organ grafts. We also speculate on how it could change transplant indications, on its economic impact, and on the linked ethical concerns. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Aquaculture: a rapidly growing and significant source of sustainable food? Status, transitions and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, D C; Newton, R W; Beveridge, M C M

    2016-08-01

    The status and potential of aquaculture is considered as part of a broader food landscape of wild aquatic and terrestrial food sources. The rationale and resource base required for the development of aquaculture are considered in the context of broader societal development, cultural preferences and human needs. Attention is drawn to the uneven development and current importance of aquaculture globally as well as its considerable heterogeneity of form and function compared with established terrestrial livestock production. The recent drivers of growth in demand and production are examined and the persistent linkages between exploitation of wild stocks, full life cycle culture and the various intermediate forms explored. An emergent trend for sourcing aquaculture feeds from alternatives to marine ingredients is described and the implications for the sector with rapidly growing feed needs discussed. The rise of non-conventional and innovative feed ingredients, often shared with terrestrial livestock, are considered, including aquaculture itself becoming a major source of marine ingredients. The implications for the continued expected growth of aquaculture are set in the context of sustainable intensification, with the challenges that conventional intensification and emergent integration within, and between, value chains explored. The review concludes with a consideration of the implications for dependent livelihoods and projections for various futures based on limited resources but growing demand.

  14. Wastewater treatment plant effluent as a source of microplastics: review of the fate, chemical interactions and potential risks to aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziajahromi, Shima; Neale, Peta A; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2016-11-01

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent has been identified as a potential source of microplastics in the aquatic environment. Microplastics have recently been detected in wastewater effluent in Western Europe, Russia and the USA. As there are only a handful of studies on microplastics in wastewater, it is difficult to accurately determine the contribution of wastewater effluent as a source of microplastics. However, even the small amounts of microplastics detected in wastewater effluent may be a remarkable source given the large volumes of wastewater treatment effluent discharged to the aquatic environment annually. Further, there is strong evidence that microplastics can interact with wastewater-associated contaminants, which has the potential to transport chemicals to aquatic organisms after exposure to contaminated microplastics. In this review we apply lessons learned from the literature on microplastics in the aquatic environment and knowledge on current wastewater treatment technologies, with the aim of identifying the research gaps in terms of (i) the fate of microplastics in WWTPs, (ii) the potential interaction of wastewater-based microplastics with trace organic contaminants and metals, and (iii) the risk for aquatic organisms.

  15. Oxidative Stress in COPD: Sources, Markers, and Potential Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam John Anthony McGuinness

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Markers of oxidative stress are increased in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and reactive oxygen species (ROS are able to alter biological molecules, signaling pathways and antioxidant molecule function, many of which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD. However, the involvement of ROS in the development and progression of COPD is not proven. Here, we discuss the sources of ROS, and the defences that have evolved to protect against their harmful effects. We address the role that ROS may have in the development and progression of COPD, as well as current therapeutic attempts at limiting the damage they cause. Evidence has indicated that the function of several key cells appears altered in COPD patients, and expression levels of important oxidant and antioxidant molecules may be abnormal. Therapeutic trials attempting to restore equilibrium to these molecules have not impacted upon all facets of disease and whilst the theory behind ROS influence in COPD appears sound, current models testing relevant pathways to tissue damage are limited. The heterogeneity seen in COPD patients presents a challenge to our understanding, and further research is essential to identify potential targets and stratified COPD patient populations where ROS therapies may be maximally efficacious.

  16. Potential utilization of Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides waste as a novel source of pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korish, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    The Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides is an ancestor type of watermelon. It was investigated as a new source of pectin. It was cultivated in Egypt for seeds only, while the remaining fruits are discarded as waste. Effect of different extraction conditions such as pH, solid: liquid ratio, temperature and extraction time on pectin yield of Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides waste was investigated in the present study. The highest yield (19.75 % w/w) was achieved at pH 2, solid: liquid ratio1:15 and 85 °C, for 60 min. Methylation degree and galacturonic acid content of extracted pectin were 55.25 %, w/w and 76.84 %, w/w. The main neutral sugars were galactose followed by arabinose and rhamnose. In addition, glucose, xylose and mannose existed as constituents in the pectin hydrolysate. The results indicated that Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoide waste is a potential new source of pectin.

  17. Surma eye cosmetic in Afghanistan: a potential source of lead toxicity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, J R; Stoff, B K

    2018-02-01

    Surma is a traditional eye cosmetic used as an eyeliner for infants in Afghanistan, as well as in many other countries in Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. Surma has been reported to contain lead and to be a potential source of lead toxicity in children, which can lead to permanent damage to multiple organ systems. To our knowledge, assessment for lead in surma found in Afghanistan has not been performed. We determined the quantitative lead content of a convenience sample of 10 surma products acquired in Afghanistan. Analysis revealed that 70% of surma samples contained high levels of lead (range 35-83%). The remaining samples contained low levels of lead (range 0.04-0.17%). The majority of surma samples contained very high levels of lead, a troubling finding that could potentially correlate with lead toxicity in Afghan children. Making available lead-free surma alternatives and providing health education, for both healthcare professionals and the general population, in locations where surma use is prevalent and for those involved in care of refugees and immigrants from Afghanistan, may be strategies to prevent lead poisoning in children. What is Known: • Surma is a traditional cosmetic used as an eyeliner for infants in Afghanistan as well as in many countries in Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. • Surma has been reported to contain lead and to be a source of lead toxicity in children. What is New: • Assessment for lead content in surma found in Afghanistan has not been performed. • In this convenience sample of 10 surma products acquired in Afghanistan, 70% contained very high levels of lead.

  18. Effects of nonpoint and selected point contaminant sources on stream-water quality and relation to land use in Johnson County, northeastern Kansas, October 2002 through June 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Casey J.; Mau, D.P.; Rasmussen, T.J.

    2005-01-01

    from WWTFs with trickling-filter secondary treatment processes had the largest concentrations of many potential contaminants during base-flow conditions. Samples from two of three trickling-filter WWTFs exceeded Kansas Department of Health and Environment pH- and temperature-dependent chronic aquatic-life criteria for ammonia when early-life stages of fish are present. Discharge from trickling-filter facilities generally had the most detections and largest concentrations of many organic wastewater-indicator compounds in Johnson County stream-water samples. Caffeine (stimulant), nonylphenol-diethoxylate (detergent surfactant), and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (floor polish, flame retardant, and plasticizer) were found at concentrations larger than maximum concentrations in comparable studies. Land use and seasonality affected the occurrence and magnitude of many potential water-quality contaminants originating from nonpoint sources. Base-flow samples from urban sites located upstream from WWTF discharges had larger indicator bacteria densities and wastewater-indicator compound concentrations than did base-flow samples from sites in nonurban areas. Dissolved-solids concentrations were the largest in winter stormflow samples from urban sites and likely were due to runoff from road-salt application. One sample from an urban watershed had a chloride concentration of 1,000 milligrams per liter, which exceeded the Kansas Department of Health and Environment's acute aquatic-life use criterion (860 milligrams per liter) likely due to effects from road-salt application. Pesticide concentrations were the largest in spring stormflow samples collected in nonurban watersheds. Although most wastewater-indicator compounds were found at the largest concentrations in samples from WWTF discharges, the compounds 9-10, anthraquinone (bird repellent), caffeine (stimulant), carbazole (component of coal tar, petroleum products), nonylphenol-diethoxylate (detergent surfactant),

  19. Canada's largest co-gen project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salaff, S.

    2000-01-01

    In November 2000, the TransAlta Energy Corp. began construction on its $400 million natural gas fuelled cogeneration project in Sarnia Ontario. The Sarnia Regional Cogeneration Project (SRCP) is designed to integrate a new 440 MW cogeneration facility to be built at the Sarnia Division of Dow Chemicals Canada Inc. with nearby existing generators totaling 210 MW at Dow and Bayer Inc. At 650 MW, the new facility will rank as Canada's largest cogeneration installation. Commercial operation is scheduled for October 2002. TransAlta owns three natural gas fuelled cogeneration facilities in Ontario (in Ottawa, Mississauga and Windsor) totaling 250 MW. The cost of electric power in Ontario is currently controlled by rising natural gas prices and the supply demand imbalance. This balance will be significantly affected by the possible return to service of 2000 MW of nuclear generating capacity. The SRCP project was announced just prior to the Ontario Energy Competition Act of October 1998 which committed the province to introduce competition to the electricity sector and which created major uncertainties in the electricity market. Some of the small, 25 MW projects which survived the market uncertainty included the Toronto-based Toromont Energy Ltd. project involving gas fuelled cogeneration and methane gas generation from landfill projects in Sudbury and Waterloo. It was emphasized that cogeneration and combined heat and power projects have significant environmental advantages over large combined cycle facilities. The Ontario Energy Board is currently considering an application from TransAlta to link the SRCP facility to Ontario's Hydro One Network Inc.'s transmission grid. 1 fig

  20. Possible uranium sources of Streltsovsky uranium ore field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lisheng

    2005-01-01

    The uranium deposit of the Late Jurassic Streltsovaky caldera in Transbaikalia of Russia is the largest uranium field associated with volcanics in the world, its uranium reserves are 280 000 t U, and it is the largest uranium resources in Russia. About one third of the caldera stratigraphic pile consists of strongly-altered rhyolites. Uranium resources of the Streltsovsky caldera are much larger than any other volcanic-related uranium districts in the world. Besides, the efficiency of hydrothermal alteration, uranium resources appear to result from the juxtaposition of two major uranium sources; highly fractionated peralkaline rhyolites of Jurassic age in the caldera, and U-rich subalkaline granites of Variscan age in the basement in which the major uranium-bearing accessory minerals were metamict at the time of the hydrothermal ore formation. (authors)

  1. Foreign exchange risk management : how are the largest non-financial companies in Norway managing their foreign exchange rate exposure?

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksen, Krister; Wedøe, Ola

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate how the largest non-financial companies in Norway manage their foreign exchange rate exposure. This is investigated through the use of a survey distributed to a sample the largest non-financial firms in Norway. According to our results, the largest non-financial companies in Norway have a predefined strategy for managing foreign exchange risk, which is defined by the board of directors or by the management in the organisation. The companies’ mai...

  2. New Chicago-Indiana computer network will handle dataflow from world's largest scientific experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "Massive quantities of data will soon begin flowing from the largest scientific instrument ever built into an international netword of computer centers, including one operated jointly by the University of Chicago and Indiana University." (1,5 page)

  3. Comparison of sources of exit fluence variation for IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, Joseph K; Gordon, J James; Wang Song; Siebers, Jeffrey V; Clews, Luke; Greer, Peter B

    2009-01-01

    The fluence exiting a patient during beam delivery can be used as treatment delivery quality assurance, either by direct comparison with expected exit fluences or by backprojection to reconstruct the patient dose. Multiple possible sources of measured exit fluence deviations exist, including changes in the beam delivery and changes in the patient anatomy. The purpose of this work is to compare the deviations caused by these sources. Machine delivery-related variability is measured by acquiring multiple dosimetric portal images (DPIs) of several test fields without a patient/phantom in the field over a time period of 2 months. Patient anatomy-related sources of fluence variability are simulated by computing transmission DPIs for a prostate patient using the same incident fluence for 11 different computed tomography (CT) images of the patient anatomy. The standard deviation (SD) and maximum deviation of the exit fluence, averaged over 5 mm x 5 mm square areas, is calculated for each test set. Machine delivery fluence SDs as large as 1% are observed for a sample patient field and as large as 2.5% for a picket-fence dMLC test field. Simulations indicate that day-to-day patient anatomy variations induce exit fluence SDs as large as 3.5%. The largest observed machine delivery deviations are 4% for the sample patient field and 7% for the picket-fence field, while the largest difference for the patient anatomy-related source is 8.5%. Since daily changes in patient anatomy can result in substantial exit fluence deviations, care should be taken when applying fluence back-projection to ensure that such deviations are properly attributed to their source. (note)

  4. IceCube point source searches using through-going muon tracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coenders, Stefan [TU Muenchen, Physik-Department, Excellence Cluster Universe, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The IceCube neutrino observatory located at the South Pole is the current largest neutrino telescope. Using through-going muon tracks, IceCube records approximately 130,000 events per year with reconstruction accuracy as low as 0.7 deg for energies of 10 TeV. Having analysed an integrated time-scale of 4 years, no sources of neutrinos have yet been observed. This talk deals with the current progress in point-source searches, adding another two years of data recorded in the years 2012 and 2013. In a combined search with starting events, sources of hard and soft spectra with- and with-out cut-offs are characterised.

  5. A new DG nanoscale TFET based on MOSFETs by using source gate electrode: 2D simulation and an analytical potential model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Zeinab; Orouji, Ali A.

    2017-08-01

    This paper suggests and investigates a double-gate (DG) MOSFET, which emulates tunnel field effect transistors (M-TFET). We have combined this novel concept into a double-gate MOSFET, which behaves as a tunneling field effect transistor by work function engineering. In the proposed structure, in addition to the main gate, we utilize another gate over the source region with zero applied voltage and a proper work function to convert the source region from N+ to P+. We check the impact obtained by varying the source gate work function and source doping on the device parameters. The simulation results of the M-TFET indicate that it is a suitable case for a switching performance. Also, we present a two-dimensional analytic potential model of the proposed structure by solving the Poisson's equation in x and y directions and by derivatives from the potential profile; thus, the electric field is achieved. To validate our present model, we use the SILVACO ATLAS device simulator. The analytical results have been compared with it.

  6. 318-MHz variability of complete samples of extragalactic radio sources. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennison, B.; Broderick, J.J.; Ledden, J.E.; O'Dell, S.L.; Condon, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    We report the remainder of two- and three-epoch 318-MHz observations of extragalactic sources in samples complete to 3 Jy at 1400 MHz and 1 Jy at 5000 MHz. From analysis of this low-frequency variability survey, we find that steep-spectrum (α> or =0.5) sources do not appear to vary, but about 40% of all flat-spectrum (α<0.5) sources exhibit low-frequency variability exceeding 8% over approx.5 yr. Among the flat-spectrum sources, those with inverted spectra show the largest fractional variations. We also find that the incidence of low-frequency variability is strongly correlated with the determination that a source is an optically violent variable. These statistical properties are consistent with models invoking relativistic beaming of radio and optical emission

  7. Leaky vessels as a potential source of stromal acidification in tumours

    KAUST Repository

    Martin, Natasha K.

    2010-12-01

    Malignant tumours are characterised by higher rates of acid production and a lower extracellular pH than normal tissues. Previous mathematical modelling has indicated that the tumour-derived production of acid leads to a gradient of low pH in the interior of the tumour extending to a normal pH in the peritumoural tissue. This paper uses mathematical modelling to examine the potential of leaky vessels as an additional source of stromal acidification in tumours. We explore whether and to what extent increasing vascular permeability in vessels can lead to the breakdown of the acid gradient from the core of the tumour to the normal tissue, and a progressive acidification of the peritumoural stroma. We compare our mathematical simulations to experimental results found in vivo with a tumour implanted in the mammary fat pad of a mouse in a window chamber construct. We find that leaky vasculature can cause a net acidification of the normal tissue away from the tumour boundary, though not a progressive acidification over time as seen in the experiments. Only through progressively increasing the leakiness can the model qualitatively reproduce the experimental results. Furthermore, the extent of the acidification predicted by the mathematical model is less than as seen in the window chamber, indicating that although vessel leakiness might be acting as a source of acid, it is not the only factor contributing to this phenomenon. Nevertheless, tumour destruction of vasculature could result in enhanced stromal acidification and invasion, hence current therapies aimed at buffering tumour pH should also examine the possibility of preventing vessel disruption.

  8. Opportunities for biodiversity gains under the world’s largest reforestation programme

    OpenAIRE

    Hua, Fangyuan; Wang, Xiaoyang; Zheng, Xinlei; Fisher, Brendan; Wang, Lin; Zhu, Jianguo; Tang, Ya; Yu, Douglas W.; Wilcove, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Reforestation is a critical means of addressing the environmental and social problems of deforestation. China’s Grain-for-Green Program (GFGP) is the world’s largest reforestation scheme. Here we provide the first nationwide assessment of the tree composition of GFGP forests and the first combined ecological and economic study aimed at understanding GFGP’s biodiversity implications. Across China, GFGP forests are overwhelmingly monocultures or compositionally simple mixed forests. Focusing on...

  9. Water Use in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS): Geology of U.S. Stimulation Projects, Water Costs, and Alternative Water Source Policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harto, C. B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Schroeder, J. N. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Horner, R. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Patton, T. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Durham, L. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Murphy, D. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Clark, C. E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-10-01

    According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), geothermal energy generation in the United States is projected to more than triple by 2040 (EIA 2013). This addition, which translates to more than 5 GW of generation capacity, is anticipated because of technological advances and an increase in available sources through the continued development of enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs) and low-temperature resources (EIA 2013). Studies have shown that air emissions, water consumption, and land use for geothermal electricity generation have less of an impact than traditional fossil fuel–based electricity generation; however, the long-term sustainability of geothermal power plants can be affected by insufficient replacement of aboveground or belowground operational fluid losses resulting from normal operations (Schroeder et al. 2014). Thus, access to water is therefore critical for increased deployment of EGS technologies and, therefore, growth of the geothermal sector. This paper examines water issues relating to EGS development from a variety of perspectives. It starts by exploring the relationship between EGS site geology, stimulation protocols, and below ground water loss, which is one of the largest drivers of water consumption for EGS projects. It then examines the relative costs of different potential traditional and alternative water sources for EGS. Finally it summarizes specific state policies relevant to the use of alternative water sources for EGS, and finally explores the relationship between EGS site geology, stimulation protocols, and below ground water loss, which is one of the largest drivers of water consumption for EGS projects.

  10. Largest heat project in Almere Poort, Netherlands. Waste heat as a heat source; Almere Poort heeft grootste warmteproject van Nederland. Restwarmte als bron van warmte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harms, P. [Marketing en Communicatie, NUON, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-09-15

    With about 46,000 connected dwellings and nearly 700 large users, Almere has the largest heating project in the Netherlands. To enable the connection of over 11,000 new dwellings from the new housing district Almere Poort, Nuon is conducting an extensive project. Next to installing the longest underwater heat distribution grid, a new energy plant is also being realised. [Dutch] Met ongeveer 46.000 aangesloten woningen en bijna zevenhonderd grootverbruikers heeft Almere het grootste warmteproject van Nederland. Om ook de ruim elfduizend aansluitingen in nieuwbouwwijk Almere Poort op stadswarmte aan te sluiten voert energiebedrijf Nuon een omvangrijk project uit. Naast de aanleg van de langste warmtetransportleiding onder water, realiseert het een nieuwe energiecentrale.

  11. Atmospheric carbon tetrachloride in rural background and industry surrounded urban areas in Northern Iberian Peninsula: Mixing ratios, trends, and potential sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blas, Maite de; Uria-Tellaetxe, Iratxe; Gomez, Maria Carmen; Navazo, Marino; Alonso, Lucio; García, Jose Antonio; Durana, Nieves; Iza, Jon; Ramón, Jarol Derley

    2016-01-01

    Latest investigations on atmospheric carbon tetrachloride (CTC) are focused on its ozone depleting potential, adverse effects on the human health, and radiative efficiency and Global Warming Potential as a greenhouse gas. CTC mixing ratios have been thoroughly studied since its restriction under the Montreal Protocol, mostly in remote areas with the aim of reporting long-term trends after its banning. The observed decrease of the CTC background mixing ratio, however, was not as strong as expected. In order to explain this behavior CTC lifetime should be adjusted by estimating the relative significance of its sinks and by identifying ongoing potential sources. Looking for possible sources, CTC was measured with high-time resolution in two sites in Northern Spain, using auto-GC systems and specifically developed acquisition and processing methodologies. The first site, Bilbao, is an urban area influenced by the surrounding industry, where measurements were performed with GC–MSD for a one-year period (2007–2008). The second site, at Valderejo Natural Park (VNP), is a rural background area where measurements were carried out with GC-FID and covering CTC data a nonsuccessive five-year period (2003–2005, 2010–2011, and 2014–2015 years). Median yearly CTC mixing ratios were slightly higher in the urban area (120 pptv) than in VNP (80–100 pptv). CTC was reported to be well mixed in the atmosphere and no sources were noticed to impact the rural site. The observed long-term trend in VNP was in agreement with the estimated global CTC emissions. In the urban site, apart from industrial and commercial CTC sources, chlorine-bleach products used as cleaning agents were reported as promotors of indoor sources. - Highlights: • A methodology was developed to measure CTC using GC-MSD and GC-FID. • CTC ongoing sources were noticed in an industry surrounded urban area. • No noticeable nearby CTC sources impacted the rural site. • Long-term CTC trend in agreement

  12. Atmospheric carbon tetrachloride in rural background and industry surrounded urban areas in Northern Iberian Peninsula: Mixing ratios, trends, and potential sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blas, Maite de, E-mail: maite.deblas@ehu.eus [School of Engineering of Bilbao, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU (Spain); Uria-Tellaetxe, Iratxe; Gomez, Maria Carmen [School of Engineering of Bilbao, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU (Spain); Navazo, Marino [University College of Engineering of Vitoria-Gasteiz, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU (Spain); Alonso, Lucio; García, Jose Antonio; Durana, Nieves; Iza, Jon; Ramón, Jarol Derley [School of Engineering of Bilbao, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU (Spain)

    2016-08-15

    Latest investigations on atmospheric carbon tetrachloride (CTC) are focused on its ozone depleting potential, adverse effects on the human health, and radiative efficiency and Global Warming Potential as a greenhouse gas. CTC mixing ratios have been thoroughly studied since its restriction under the Montreal Protocol, mostly in remote areas with the aim of reporting long-term trends after its banning. The observed decrease of the CTC background mixing ratio, however, was not as strong as expected. In order to explain this behavior CTC lifetime should be adjusted by estimating the relative significance of its sinks and by identifying ongoing potential sources. Looking for possible sources, CTC was measured with high-time resolution in two sites in Northern Spain, using auto-GC systems and specifically developed acquisition and processing methodologies. The first site, Bilbao, is an urban area influenced by the surrounding industry, where measurements were performed with GC–MSD for a one-year period (2007–2008). The second site, at Valderejo Natural Park (VNP), is a rural background area where measurements were carried out with GC-FID and covering CTC data a nonsuccessive five-year period (2003–2005, 2010–2011, and 2014–2015 years). Median yearly CTC mixing ratios were slightly higher in the urban area (120 pptv) than in VNP (80–100 pptv). CTC was reported to be well mixed in the atmosphere and no sources were noticed to impact the rural site. The observed long-term trend in VNP was in agreement with the estimated global CTC emissions. In the urban site, apart from industrial and commercial CTC sources, chlorine-bleach products used as cleaning agents were reported as promotors of indoor sources. - Highlights: • A methodology was developed to measure CTC using GC-MSD and GC-FID. • CTC ongoing sources were noticed in an industry surrounded urban area. • No noticeable nearby CTC sources impacted the rural site. • Long-term CTC trend in agreement

  13. The Anthropogenic Effects of Hydrocarbon Inputs to Coastal Seas: Are There Potential Biogeochemical Impacts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, M. R.; Rivkin, R. B.

    2016-02-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon discharges related to fossil fuel exploitation have the potential to alter microbial processes in the upper ocean. While the ecotoxicological effects of such inputs are commonly evaluated, the potential for eutrophication from the constituent organic and inorganic nutrients has been largely ignored. Hydrocarbons from natural seeps and anthropogenic sources represent a measurable source of organic carbon for surface waters. The most recent (1989-1997) estimate of average world-wide input of hydrocarbons to the sea is 1.250 x 1012 g/yr ≈ 1.0 x 1012g C/year. Produced water from offshore platforms is the largest waste stream from oil and gas exploitation and contributes significant quantities of inorganic nutrients such as N, P and Fe. In coastal areas where such inputs are a significant source of these nutrients, model studies show the potential to shift production toward smaller cells and net heterotrophy. The consequences of these nutrient sources for coastal systems and semi enclosed seas are complex and difficult to predict, because (1) there is a lack of comprehensive data on inputs and in situ concentrations and (2) the is no conceptual or quantitative framework to consider their effects on ocean biogeochemical processes. Here we use examples from the North Sea (produced water discharges 1% total riverine input and NH4 3% of the annual riverine nitrogen load), the South China Sea (total petroleum hydrocarbons = 10-1750 μg/l in offshore waters), and the Gulf of Mexico (seeps = 76-106 x 109 gC/yr, Macondo blowout 545 x 109 gC) to demonstrate how hydrocarbon and produced water inputs can influence basin scale biogeochemical and ecosystem processes and to propose a framework to consider these effects on larger scales.

  14. Hydrocarbon potential of Ordovician and Silurian rocks. Siljan Region (Sweden)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berner, U. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany); Lehnert, O. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany); Meinhold, G. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    Hydrocarbon exploration in the vicinity of Europe's largest impact structure (Siljan, Central Sweden) focused for years on abiogenic concepts and largely neglected state of the art knowledge on hydrocarbon generation via thermal decomposition of organic matter. In our study we use sedimentary rocks obtained from three drill sites (Mora001, Stumsnaes 1 and Solberga 1) within the ring structure around the central uplift to investigate the hydrocarbon potential of Ordovician and Silurian strata of the region and also for comparison with the shale oil and gas potential of age equivalent rocks of the Baltic Sea. Elemental analyses provided information on concentrations of carbonate and organic carbon, total sulfur as well as on the composition of major and minor elements of the sediments. The data has been used to evaluate the depositional environment and possible diagenetic alterations of the organic matter. RockEval pyrolysis and solvent hydrocarbon extraction gave insight into the hydrocarbon generation potential and the type and thermal maturity of the sediments. From the geochemistry data of the studied wells it is obvious that changes of depositional environments (lacustrine - marine) have occurred during Ordovician and Silurian times. Although, the quality of the organic matter has been influenced in marine and brackish environments through sulfate reduction, we observe for a number of marine and lacustrine sediments a good to excellent preservation of the biological precursors which qualify the sediments as hydrocarbon source rocks (Type II kerogens). Lacustrine source rocks show a higher remaining hydrocarbon potential (up to {proportional_to}550 mg HC per g C{sub org}) than those of marine or brackish environments. Our investigations indicate that the thermal maturity of organic matter of the drill sites has reached the initial stage of oil generation. However, at Mora001 some of the sediments were stained with oil indicating that hydrocarbons have

  15. A dominant mutation in mediator of paramutation2, one of three second-largest subunits of a plant-specific RNA polymerase, disrupts multiple siRNA silencing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorenko, Lyudmila; Dorweiler, Jane E; Cigan, A Mark; Arteaga-Vazquez, Mario; Vyas, Meenal; Kermicle, Jerry; Jurcin, Diane; Brzeski, Jan; Cai, Yu; Chandler, Vicki L

    2009-11-01

    Paramutation involves homologous sequence communication that leads to meiotically heritable transcriptional silencing. We demonstrate that mop2 (mediator of paramutation2), which alters paramutation at multiple loci, encodes a gene similar to Arabidopsis NRPD2/E2, the second-largest subunit of plant-specific RNA polymerases IV and V. In Arabidopsis, Pol-IV and Pol-V play major roles in RNA-mediated silencing and a single second-largest subunit is shared between Pol-IV and Pol-V. Maize encodes three second-largest subunit genes: all three genes potentially encode full length proteins with highly conserved polymerase domains, and each are expressed in multiple overlapping tissues. The isolation of a recessive paramutation mutation in mop2 from a forward genetic screen suggests limited or no functional redundancy of these three genes. Potential alternative Pol-IV/Pol-V-like complexes could provide maize with a greater diversification of RNA-mediated transcriptional silencing machinery relative to Arabidopsis. Mop2-1 disrupts paramutation at multiple loci when heterozygous, whereas previously silenced alleles are only up-regulated when Mop2-1 is homozygous. The dramatic reduction in b1 tandem repeat siRNAs, but no disruption of silencing in Mop2-1 heterozygotes, suggests the major role for tandem repeat siRNAs is not to maintain silencing. Instead, we hypothesize the tandem repeat siRNAs mediate the establishment of the heritable silent state-a process fully disrupted in Mop2-1 heterozygotes. The dominant Mop2-1 mutation, which has a single nucleotide change in a domain highly conserved among all polymerases (E. coli to eukaryotes), disrupts both siRNA biogenesis (Pol-IV-like) and potentially processes downstream (Pol-V-like). These results suggest either the wild-type protein is a subunit in both complexes or the dominant mutant protein disrupts both complexes. Dominant mutations in the same domain in E. coli RNA polymerase suggest a model for Mop2-1 dominance

  16. Potential wildlife sources of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis for farmed deer (Cervus elaphus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackintosh, C G; Henderson, T

    1984-12-01

    During 1982 and 1983 15 serotype I, 6 serotype II, 1 serotype III and 3 untyped strains of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis were isolated from 675 apparently normal small mammals and birds from the Invermay farm and nearby rubbish tip with the following prevalence rates: feral cats 27.8%, Norway rats 8.6%, mice 5.5%, hares 3.8% rabbits 1.9% ducks 5.3%, sparrows 2.3%, seagulls 2.3% and starlings 1.7%. For rabbits a significantly higher prevalence of infection was found in the autumn/winter period (4.8%) than the spring/summer period (0%). Insufficient numbers of other mammals were obtained to demonstrate any seasonal difference in prevalence. All bird isolations were obtained between March and July (8/158) compared with none from August to October (0/144). It appears that a number of free-living species of small mammal and birds may be reservoir hosts for Y. pseudotuberculosis and potential sources of infection for red deer on the Invermay farm.

  17. Rehabilitation of the 6 largest hydropower plants in the Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chingoski, Vlatko; Savevski, Vasil

    2004-01-01

    In 1998, ESM (Electric Power Co. of Macedonia) received a loan from the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD - The World bank) for the cost of the Power System Improvement Project, major part of which is the partial rehabilitation of the six largest HPPs in the Republic of Macedonia. Rehabilitation and life extension of these six largest hydro power plants is given the highest priority in the whole Power System Improvement Project mainly because these HPPs are, in general, fairly old, older than most of the thermal generation capacity and because a significant part of their equipment is wearing out, or is now obsolete with spare parts difficult to obtain. Furthermore, these plants play a vital role in the Macedonian Power System, providing peaking capacity, reserve capacity and frequency control. With the realization of this project, greater hydropower production is expected. It is also expected that HPPs will become a more vital part of the Macedonian Power System, which is also beneficial from an environmental aspect, due to greater usage of renewable energy resources in the country. (Original)

  18. Variations in amounts and potential sources of volatile organic chemicals in new cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, Y.-C.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines inter-brand, intra-brand and intra-model variations in volatile organic chemical (VOC) levels inside new cars. The effect of temperature on interior VOC levels was examined using model automobiles with and without the air-conditioning running. Potential sources of VOC were assessed by comparing VOC levels with two interior trims (leather and fabric) and by analyzing VOC emissions from various interior components. Five brands of new car, both domestic and imported, were tested. Twelve targeted VOCs were collected on solid sorbents and analyzed using thermal desorption and GC/FID. VOCs from interior parts and adhesives were identified using solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) coupled with GC/MS. The VOC concentrations varied markedly among brands and within models, and individual VOC levels ranged from below the detection limit (a few μg per cubic meter) to thousands of μg per cubic meter. The intra-model variability (mean, 47%) in the VOC levels was approximately 50% that within each brand (mean, 95%). Although interior trim levels affected VOC levels, the effects differed among brands. Reduction of the cabin temperature reduced most VOC levels, but the impact was not statistically significant. Screening tests for VOCs from interior parts revealed that butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), a common anti-oxidant, was the most common chemical. Long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons, particularly C14-C17, were identified in most grease (lubricant) samples, and toluene and xylenes were ubiquitously present in adhesive samples. Process-related compounds, such as plasticizer, were also identified in interior parts. In-cabin VOC levels varied significantly among makes/models and interior trims. Concerned consumers should purchase older new cars from manufacturers since VOC levels inside car cabins normally declines over time. Improved processes or materials with lower VOC emission potential should be used to minimize in-cabin VOC sources for new cars

  19. Evaluation of the nature, origin and potentiality of the subsurface Middle Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous source rocks in Melleiha G-1x well, North Western Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. El Nady

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to evaluate the nature and origin of the source rock potentiality of subsurface Middle Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous source rocks in Melleiha G-1x well. This target was achieved throughout the evaluation of total organic carbon, rock Eval pyrolysis and vitrinite reflectance for fifteen cutting samples and three extract samples collected from Khatatba, Alam El Bueib and Kharita formations in the studied well. The result revealed that the main hydrocarbon of source rocks, for the Middle Jurassic (Khatatba Fm. is mainly mature, and has good capability of producing oil and minor gas. Lower Cretaceous source rocks (Alam El Bueib Fm. are mature, derived from mixed organic sources and have fair to good capability to generate gas and oil. Kharita Formation of immature source rocks originated from terrestrial origin and has poor to fair potential to produce gas. This indicates that Khatatba and Alam El Bueib formations take the direction of increasing maturity far away from the direction of biodegradation and can be considered as effective source potential in the Melleiha G-1x well.

  20. Selenium Accumulating Leafy Vegetables Are a Potential Source of Functional Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petro E. Mabeyo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium deficiency in humans has been associated with various diseases, the risks of which can be reduced through dietary supplementation. Selenium accumulating plants may provide a beneficial nutrient for avoiding such illnesses. Thus, leafy vegetables such as Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus sp., Cucurbita maxima, Ipomoea batatas, Solanum villosum, Solanum scabrum, and Vigna unguiculata were explored for their capabilities to accumulate selenium when grown on selenium enriched soil and for use as a potential source of selenium enriched functional foods. Their selenium contents were determined by spectrophotometry using the complex of 3,3′-diaminobenzidine hydrochloride (DABH as a chromogen. The mean concentrations in the leaves were found to range from 7.90±0.40 to 1.95±0.12 μg/g dry weight (DW, with C. maxima accumulating the most selenium. In stems, the accumulated selenium content ranged from 1.12±0.10 μg/g in Amaranthus sp. to 5.35±0.78 μg/g DW in C. maxima and was hence significantly different (P<0.01. The cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 was used in cytotoxicity assays to determine the anticancer potential of these extracts. With exception of S. scabrum and S. villosum, no cytotoxicity was detected for the selenium enriched vegetable extracts up to 100 μg/mL concentration. Hence, following careful evaluation the studied vegetables may be considered as selenium enriched functional foods.

  1. SSC RIAR is the largest centre of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalygin, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    The State Scientific Centre (SSC) ''Research Institute of Atomic Reactors'' (RIAR) is situated 100 km to the south-east from Moscow, in Dimitrovgrad, the Volga Region of the Russian Federation. SSC RIAR is the largest centre of research reactors in Russia. At present there are 5 types of reactor facilities in operation, including two NPP. One of the main tasks the Centre is the investigations on safety increase for power reactors. Broad international connections are available at the Institute. On the basis of the SSC RIAR during 3 years work has been done on the development of the branch training centre (TC) for the training of operation personnel of research and pilot reactors in Russia. (author). 3 tabs

  2. SSC RIAR is the largest centre of research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalygin, V V [State Scientific Centre, Research Inst. of Atomic Reactors (Russian Federation)

    1997-10-01

    The State Scientific Centre (SSC) ``Research Institute of Atomic Reactors`` (RIAR) is situated 100 km to the south-east from Moscow, in Dimitrovgrad, the Volga Region of the Russian Federation. SSC RIAR is the largest centre of research reactors in Russia. At present there are 5 types of reactor facilities in operation, including two NPP. One of the main tasks the Centre is the investigations on safety increase for power reactors. Broad international connections are available at the Institute. On the basis of the SSC RIAR during 3 years work has been done on the development of the branch training centre (TC) for the training of operation personnel of research and pilot reactors in Russia. (author). 3 tabs.

  3. Using E-PRTR data on point source emissions to air and water—First steps towards a national chemical footprint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sörme, L.; Palm, V.; Finnveden, G.

    2016-01-01

    There is a great need for indicators to monitor the use and potential impacts of hazardous chemicals. Today there is a huge lack of data, methods and results and method development and studies should be given urgent priority. The aim of this paper was to develop and test an approach to calculate the potential environmental impacts of chemicals for a whole country using the E-PRTR (European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register) as a database and Sweden as an example. Swedish data from 2008 on emissions to air and water for 54 substances from point sources were retrieved from an open database. The data were transformed and aggregated using USEtox, a life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) method for calculating potential human toxicity and ecotoxicity, both from industrial emissions directly and after input–output analysis (IO analysis) to reallocate emissions to product categories. Zinc to air and water contributed most to human toxicity followed by mercury to air. The largest contribution by industry to potential human toxicity came from the metal industry, followed by the paper and paper product industry. For potential ecotoxicity, zinc, fluoranthene and copper contributed the most. The largest contributions by industry came from the paper and paper products manufacturing sector, followed by the basic metals manufacturing sector. The approach used here can be seen as the first step towards a chemical footprint for nations. By adding data from other countries and other sources, a more complete picture can be gained in line with other footprint calculations. Furthermore, diffuse emissions from, for example, transport or emissions of pesticides could also be added for a more holistic assessment. Since the area of chemicals is complicated, it is probably necessary to develop and use several indicators that complement each other. It is suggested that the approach outlined here could be useful in developing a method for establishing a national chemical footprint

  4. Using E-PRTR data on point source emissions to air and water—First steps towards a national chemical footprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sörme, L., E-mail: louise.sorme@scb.se [Statistics Sweden, Box 24300, SE-104 51 Sweden (Sweden); Palm, V. [Statistics Sweden, Box 24300, SE-104 51 Sweden (Sweden); KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Environmental Strategies Research, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Finnveden, G. [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Environmental Strategies Research, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-01-15

    There is a great need for indicators to monitor the use and potential impacts of hazardous chemicals. Today there is a huge lack of data, methods and results and method development and studies should be given urgent priority. The aim of this paper was to develop and test an approach to calculate the potential environmental impacts of chemicals for a whole country using the E-PRTR (European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register) as a database and Sweden as an example. Swedish data from 2008 on emissions to air and water for 54 substances from point sources were retrieved from an open database. The data were transformed and aggregated using USEtox, a life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) method for calculating potential human toxicity and ecotoxicity, both from industrial emissions directly and after input–output analysis (IO analysis) to reallocate emissions to product categories. Zinc to air and water contributed most to human toxicity followed by mercury to air. The largest contribution by industry to potential human toxicity came from the metal industry, followed by the paper and paper product industry. For potential ecotoxicity, zinc, fluoranthene and copper contributed the most. The largest contributions by industry came from the paper and paper products manufacturing sector, followed by the basic metals manufacturing sector. The approach used here can be seen as the first step towards a chemical footprint for nations. By adding data from other countries and other sources, a more complete picture can be gained in line with other footprint calculations. Furthermore, diffuse emissions from, for example, transport or emissions of pesticides could also be added for a more holistic assessment. Since the area of chemicals is complicated, it is probably necessary to develop and use several indicators that complement each other. It is suggested that the approach outlined here could be useful in developing a method for establishing a national chemical footprint

  5. Fabrication of three 2500-watt (thermal) strontium-90 heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVore, J.R.; Haff, K.W.; Tompkins, J.A.

    1986-08-01

    Three 2500-watt (thermal) heat sources were fabricated by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the purpose of fueling a 500-watt (electric) thermoelectric generator as part of the US Department of Energy's Byproducts Utilization Program (BUP). Each of the sources, which are the largest ever assembled, consist of hot-pressed pellets of 90 Sr fluoride, doubly encapsulated in three Haynes-25 inner capsules and in a Hastelloy-S outer capsule. The total 90 Sr inventory of all three sources is 1.12 million curies. The sources were fabricated at the ORNL Fission Product Development Laboratory (FPDL), which is a facility that is capable of processing multi-megacurie quantities of radioactive materials, chiefly 137 Cs and 90 Sr. The source was tested to determine compliance with all of the IAEA Safety Series No. 33 requirements. The source fabrication, assembly, and testing are described in the presentation

  6. Speciated atmospheric mercury and its potential source in Guiyang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xuewu; Feng, Xinbin; Qiu, Guangle; Shang, Lihai; Zhang, Hui

    2011-08-01

    Speciated atmospheric mercury (Hg) including gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), particulate Hg (PHg), and reactive gaseous Hg (RGM) were continuously measured at an urban site in Guiyang city, southwest China from August to December 2009. The averaged concentrations for GEM, PHg, and RGM were 9.72 ± 10.2 ng m -3, 368 ± 676 pg m -3, and 35.7 ± 43.9 pg m -3, respectively, which were all highly elevated compared to observations at urban sites in Europe and North America. GEM and PHg were characterized by similar monthly and diurnal patterns, with elevated levels in cold months and nighttime, respectively. In contrast, RGM did not exhibit clear monthly and diurnal variations. The variations of GEM, PHg, and RGM indicate the sampling site was significantly impacted by sources in the city municipal area. Sources identification implied that both residential coal burning and large point sources were responsible to the elevated GEM and PHg concentrations; whereas point sources were the major contributors to elevated RGM concentrations. Point sources played a different role in regulating GEM, PHg, and RGM concentrations. Aside from residential emissions, PHg levels was mostly affected by small-scale coal combustion boilers situated to the east of the sampling site, which were scarcely equipped or lacking particulate control devices; whereas point sources situated to the east, southeast, and southwest of the sampling played an important role on the distribution of atmospheric GEM and RGM.

  7. Methodology for and uses of a radiological source term assessment for potential impacts to stormwater and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teare, A.; Hansen, K.; DeWilde, J.; Yu, L.; Killey, D.

    2001-01-01

    A Radiological Source Term Assessment (RSTA) was conducted by Ontario Power Generation Inc. (OPG) at the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station (PNGS). Tritium had been identified in the groundwater at several locations under the station, and OPG initiated the RSTA as part of its ongoing efforts to improve operations and to identify potential sources of radionuclide impact to groundwater and stormwater at the station. The RSTA provides a systematic approach to collecting information and assessing environmental risk for radioactive contaminants based on a ranking system developed for the purpose. This paper provides an overview of the RSTA focusing on the investigative approach and how it was applied. This approach can find application at other generating stations. (author)

  8. Pollution characteristics and source identification of trace metals in riparian soils of Miyun Reservoir, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lanfang; Gao, Bo; Lu, Jin; Zhou, Yang; Xu, Dongyu; Gao, Li; Sun, Ke

    2017-10-01

    The South-to-North Water Diversion Project, one of China's largest water diversion projects, has aroused widespread concerns about its potential ecological impacts, especially the potential release of trace metals from shoreline soils into Miyun Reservoir (MYR). Here, riparian soil samples from three elevations and four types of land use were collected. Soil particle size distributions, contents and chemical fractionations of trace metals and lead (Pb) isotopic compositions were analyzed. Results showed that soil texture was basically similar in four types of land use, being mainly composed of sand, with minor portions of clay and silt, while recreational land contained more abundant chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd), suggesting a possible anthropogenic source for this soil pollution. The potential ecological risk assessment revealed considerable contamination of recreational land, with Cd being the predominant contaminant. Chemical fractionations showed that Cu, arsenic (As), Pb and Cd had potential release risks. Additionally, the 206 Pb/ 207 Pb and 208 Pb/ 207 Pb values of soils were similar to those of coal combustion. By combining principal component analysis (PCA) with Pb isotopic results, coal combustion was identified as the major anthropogenic source of Zn, Cr, Cu, Cd and Pb. Moreover, isotope ratios of Pb fell in the scope of aerosols, indicating that atmospheric deposition may be the primary input pathway of anthropogenic Zn, Cr, Cu, Cd and Pb. Therefore, controlling coal combustion should be a priority to reduce effectively the introduction of additional Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb to the area in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Planck 2015 results: XXVII. The second Planck catalogue of Sunyaev-Zeldovich sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.

    2016-01-01

    We present the all-sky Planck catalogue of Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) sources detected from the 29 month full-mission data. The catalogue (PSZ2) is the largest SZ-selected sample of galaxy clusters yet produced and the deepest systematic all-sky surveyof galaxy clusters. It contains 1653 detections, ...

  10. A marine heatwave drives massive losses from the world’s largest seagrass carbon stocks

    KAUST Repository

    Arias-Ortiz, Ariane; Serrano, Oscar; Masqué , Pere; Lavery, P. S.; Mueller, U.; Kendrick, G. A.; Rozaimi, M.; Esteban, A.; Fourqurean, J. W.; Marbà , N.; Mateo, M. A.; Murray, K.; Rule, M. J.; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2018-01-01

    Seagrass ecosystems contain globally significant organic carbon (C) stocks. However, climate change and increasing frequency of extreme events threaten their preservation. Shark Bay, Western Australia, has the largest C stock reported for a seagrass

  11. Pre-Messinian (Sub-Salt Source-Rock Potential on Back-Stop Basins of the Hellenic Trench System (Messara Basin, Central Crete, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maravelis A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Greek part of the Mediterranean Ridge suggests, in terms of its hydrocarbon potential, further frontier exploration. The geological similarities between its prolific portions, within the Cyprus and Egyptian Exclusive Economic Zones, indicate possible recoverable natural gas reserves in its Greek portion. Nevertheless it lacks of systematic frontier exploration although direct petroleum indicators occur. Active mud volcanoes on the Mediterranean Ridge, still emitting concurrently gas and gas hydrates, have not been yet assessed even though are strongly related to hydrocarbon occurrence worldwide (Caspian Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Western African Basin, Trinidad-Tobago, the Nile Cone. For this reason, the source rock potential of the Late Miocene lacustrine deposits on a backstop basin of the Hellenic Trench System (Messara Basin, Crete, Greece, was studied. The obtained pyrolysis data indicate that the containing organic matter is present in sufficient abundance and with good enough quality to be regarded as potential source rocks. The observed type III kerogen suggests gas generation potential. Although indications of higher thermal evolution occur the studied rocks suggest low maturation levels. The biogenic gas seeps in the studied research well further demonstrate the regional gas generation potential.

  12. [Sources, pollution statue and potential ecological risk of heavy metals in surface sediments of Aibi Lake, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao-Yong; Abuduwaili, Jilili; Jiang, Feng-Qing

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, the surface sediment samples were harvested from Aibi Lake, and total contents of 8 heavy metals ( Cu, Pb, Zn, As, Hg, Cr, Ni and Cd) were determined. Then the sources, pollution statue, and potential ecological risk were analyzed by using multiple analysis methods. The results show that: (1) The order of the skewness for these 8 heavy metals is: Hg > Cd > Pb > Zn > As > Cu > Cr > Ni. (2) Multivariate statistical analysis shows that 8 heavy metals can be classified to 2 principle components, among which PC1 ( Cd, Pb, Hg and Zn) is man-made source factor and mainly came from all kinds of waste of agriculture; PC2 ( Cu, Ni, Cr and As) is natural source and was mainly controlled by the background of the natural geography of this area. (3) Accumulation of index evaluation results show that the order of pollution degree values of 8 heavy metals in surface sediments of Aibi Lake is: Cd > Hg > Pb > Zn > As > Cu > Ni > Cr. In all samples, heavy metals Hg, Cd and Pb all belong to low and partial moderate pollution statue, while Zn, As, Cr, Ni and Cu belong to no pollution statue in majority samples. (4) Potential ecological risk assessment results show that the potential ecological risk of heavy metals in surface sediments of Aibi Lake mainly caused by Cd, Hg and Pb, and they accounting for 42.6%, 28.6% and 24.0% of the total amount, respectively, among which Cd is the main ecological risk factor, followed by Hg and Pb. In all samples, the potential ecological risk index values (RI) of 8 heavy metals are all lower than 150, and they are all at low ecological risk levels. However, this research also shows that there have high content of Cd and Pb in the sediment. Therefore, we should make long-term monitoring of the lake environment.

  13. The largest Silurian vertebrate and its palaeoecological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Brian; Zhu, Min; Zhao, Wenjin; Jia, Liaotao; Zhu, You'an

    2014-01-01

    An apparent absence of Silurian fishes more than half-a-metre in length has been viewed as evidence that gnathostomes were restricted in size and diversity prior to the Devonian. Here we describe the largest pre-Devonian vertebrate (Megamastax amblyodus gen. et sp. nov.), a predatory marine osteichthyan from the Silurian Kuanti Formation (late Ludlow, ~423 million years ago) of Yunnan, China, with an estimated length of about 1 meter. The unusual dentition of the new form suggests a durophagous diet which, combined with its large size, indicates a considerable degree of trophic specialisation among early osteichthyans. The lack of large Silurian vertebrates has recently been used as constraint in palaeoatmospheric modelling, with purported lower oxygen levels imposing a physiological size limit. Regardless of the exact causal relationship between oxygen availability and evolutionary success, this finding refutes the assumption that pre-Emsian vertebrates were restricted to small body sizes. PMID:24921626

  14. THE MASS OF (4) VESTA DERIVED FROM ITS LARGEST GRAVITATIONAL EFFECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmanoski, Mike; Novakovic, Bojan; Apostolovska, Gordana

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a recalculated value of the mass of (4) Vesta, derived from its largest gravitational perturbations on selected asteroids during their mutual close encounters. This was done by using a new method for mass determination, which is based on the linking of pre-encounter observations to the orbit determined from post-encounter ones. The estimated weighted mean of the mass of (4) Vesta is (1.300 ± 0.001) x 10 -10 M sun .

  15. Biofuels Potential for Transportation Fuels in Vietnam: A Status Quo and SWOT Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Tu Anh; Phuong Linh Le, Thi

    2018-04-01

    Petroleum consumption for road transportation is well-known as the largest source of CO2 emissions. Worldwide, biofuel is becoming more attractive as substitute for crude oil owing to the increasing demand for environmentally friendly energy and its contribution towards petro dependency reduction and climate change mitigation. This paper reviews the facts and prospects of biofuel production in Vietnam. A SWOT model is adopted to study the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of biofuels production. The conclusion is drawn that with advantages of weather conditions, soil conditions, the availability of biomass and commitment from government, the country has potential to develop biobuels for domestic consumption. However, threats to production are posed by social acceptance, land use, and technology. Thus, biofuels production still need more supports from government through robust policies, regulations, and institutional framework.

  16. Rewriting the Landform History of One of Africa's Three Largest Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Justin

    2014-01-01

    the trunk river controlling size. 2. These perspectives were successfully applied to identify the largest megafan in the group (Cubango), a fan that was sufficiently overprinted by dunes and dry lakelets not to be detectable remotely. Such undertsanding can probably be applied on Mars, where Earth experience suggests megafans ought to exist. 3. Sweep angles of rivers on megafans drastically change the hydrology in some subbasins: when the Cubango and Kunene rivers were oriented to the Etosha Pan, it was probably a permanent water body. Now that the rivers are oriented away from the basin, 93 percent of the discharge area from the pan's northerly (main) source area is gone. 4. Biotic contact between major river systems was probably controlled by megafans situated on divides: various fish species that originated in the Congo basin are now found in the Upper Zambezi R., and vice versa, apparently because of river switching behavior on the Cassai megafan that has mediated migrations both to the south and the north.

  17. Potential sources of stem cells as a regenerative therapy for Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abir Oueida El-Sadik

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abir Oueida El-SadikDepartment of Anatomy and Embryology, Scientific Research Unit, Female Health Science College, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Stem cells are believed to hold enormous promise as potential replacement therapy in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD. Stem cells were investigated to be the alternative therapeutic source capable of differentiating into dopamine (DA neurons. Multiple important signaling factors were recorded for the induction of DA neuronal traits from mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs such as fibroblast growth factor 8, sonic hedgehog, and Wnt 1. Recent protocols were described for the differentiation of human ESCs into DA neurons, achieving high efficiency of DA neuronal derivation. Despite that, the use of human ESCs is still ethically controversial. The transcription factors necessary for DA neuron development from adult neural stem cells (NSCs, such as Pitx3, Nurr1, En-1, En-2, Lmx1a, Lmx1b, Msx1, and Ngn2, were investigated. In addition to replacement of lost DA neurons, adult NSCs were recorded to provide neuroprotective and neurogenic factors for the mesencephalon. In addition, induced pluripotent stem cells and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells represent reliable stem cell sources of DA neurons. Future studies are recommended to provide further insight into the regenerative capacity of stem cells needed for the treatment of PD.Keywords: dopamine, embryonic stem cells, neural stem cells, Parkinson's disease, induced pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells

  18. Methane mitigation potential of phyto-sources from Northeast India and their effect on rumen fermentation characteristics and protozoa in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luna Baruah

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to explore the anti-methanogenic potential of phyto-sources from Northeast region of the country and assess the effect on rumen fermentation characteristics and protozoa for their likely inclusion in animal diet to reduce methane emission. Materials and Methods: Twenty phyto-sources were collected from Northeast state, Assam, during March to April 2014. Phyto-sources were analyzed for their tannin content followed by screening for methane mitigation potential using in vitro system. The effect of tannin on methane production and other fermentation parameters was confirmed by attenuating the effect of tannin with polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000 addition. About 200 mg dried phyto-source samples were incubated for 24 h in vitro, and volume of gas produced was recorded. The gas sample was analyzed on gas chromatograph for the proportion of methane in the sample. The effect of phyto-sources on rumen fermentation characteristics and protozoal population was determined using standard methodologies. Results: Results from studies demonstrated that Litchi chinensis, Melastoma malabathricum, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Terminalia chebula, and Syzygium cumini produced comparatively less methane, while Christella parasitica, Leucas linifolia, Citrus grandis, and Aquilaria malaccensis produced relatively more methane during in vitro incubation. An increase (p<0.05 in gas and methane production from the phyto-sources was observed when incubated with PEG-6000. Entodinimorphs were prominent ciliates irrespective of the phyto-sources, while holotrichs represented only small fraction of protozoa. An increase (p<0.05 in total protozoa, entodinimorphs, and holotrichs was noted when PEG-6000 added to the basal substrate. Our study confirmed variable impact of phyto-sources on total volatile fatty acid production and ammonia-N. Conclusion: It may be concluded that L. chinensis, M. malabathricum, L. speciosa, S. cumini, and T. chebula are having

  19. Key U.S.-built part fails during testing for world's largest particle collider

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Scientists are scrambling to redesign a key U.S.-built part that broke "with a loud bang and a cloud of dust" during a high-pressure test for the world's largest particle physics collider that is supposed to start up in November, officials sais Tuesday." (1,5 page)

  20. The psisub(IPS)-LAS relation for extragalactic radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banhatti, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    Metre-wavelength interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations give the overall angular sizes psi of scintillating compact structures in radio sources. From 326.5-MHz IPS data for a sample of faint (Ooty) radio sources, log psi versus log (largest angular size) is seen, on average, to have a slope 0.2, significantly less than one. A similar trend is seen from 81.5-MHz IPS data for a sample of strong, powerful (3CR) double sources, although the slope is 0.4 and the mean psi about four times larger. The difference in slopes is due mainly to the large spread in the redshifts of the 3CR sources compared to the expected narrow range for the Ooty sources, while the difference in mean psi values is due to the different methods of determining psi for the two samples, the different frequencies used for the IPS observations and the different mean LAS values. (author)

  1. Potential of natural energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, J D; Glanville, R; Gliddon, B J; Harrison, P L; Hotchkiss, R C; Hughes, E M; Swift-Hook, D T; Wright, J K

    1976-01-01

    Apart from fossil fuels and nuclear energy, five main alternative sources of power for electricity generation are: the sun, the wind, the waves, the tides, and the heat inside the earth. Each has been examined for its relevance to the energy situation in Britain and in particular to the CEGB's requirements as an electrical utility. None emerges from the analysis as directly competitive with nuclear power, provided that nuclear fulfills present expectations. As an insurance against unforeseen delays in the nuclear program, however, one or two of the options may well be worth closer consideration, particularly wave power, for which Britain is favorably placed. The best immediate prospect for using solar energy falls outside the province of the CEGB, in the area of domestic water heating. Wind power, despite the windiness of the British Isles, suffers in practice from a low load factor, which would greatly inflate the capital cost. Geothermal power in Britain, geologically one of the most stable parts of the world, appears to be available only at depths too great to be presently attractive for electricity generation. Finally, tidal power, although technically available in limited amounts, again suffers from high capital costs. (auth)

  2. Disentangling the major source areas for an intense aerosol advection in the Central Mediterranean on the basis of Potential Source Contribution Function modeling of chemical and size distribution measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroselli, Chiara; Crocchianti, Stefano; Moroni, Beatrice; Castellini, Silvia; Selvaggi, Roberta; Nava, Silvia; Calzolai, Giulia; Lucarelli, Franco; Cappelletti, David

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we combined a Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) analysis of daily chemical aerosol composition data with hourly aerosol size distributions with the aim to disentangle the major source areas during a complex and fast modulating advection event impacting on Central Italy in 2013. Chemical data include an ample set of metals obtained by Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), main soluble ions from ionic chromatography and elemental and organic carbon (EC, OC) obtained by thermo-optical measurements. Size distributions have been recorded with an optical particle counter for eight calibrated size classes in the 0.27-10 μm range. We demonstrated the usefulness of the approach by the positive identification of two very different source areas impacting during the transport event. In particular, biomass burning from Eastern Europe and desert dust from Sahara sources have been discriminated based on both chemistry and size distribution time evolution. Hourly BT provided the best results in comparison to 6 h or 24 h based calculations.

  3. The potential contribution of the natural products from Brazilian biodiversity to bioeconomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli, Marilia; Russo, Helena M; Bolzani, Vanderlan S

    2018-01-01

    The development of our society has been based on the use of biodiversity, especially for medicines and nutrition. Brazil is the nation with the largest biodiversity in the world accounting for more than 15% of all living species. The devastation of biodiversity in Brazil is critical and may not only cause the loss of species and genes that encode enzymes involved in the complex metabolism of organisms, but also the loss of a rich chemical diversity, which is a potential source for bioeconomy based on natural products and new synthetic derivatives. Bioeconomy focus on the use of bio-based products, instead of fossil-based ones and could address some of the important challenges faced by society. Considering the chemical and biological diversity of Brazil, this review highlights the Brazilian natural products that were successfully used to develop new products and the value of secondary metabolites from Brazilian biodiversity with potential application for new products and technologies. Additionally, we would like to address the importance of new technologies and scientific programs to support preservation policies, bioeconomy and strategies for the sustainable use of biodiversity.

  4. The development of control processes supporting source memory discrimination as revealed by event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chastelaine, Marianne; Friedman, David; Cycowicz, Yael M

    2007-08-01

    Improvement in source memory performance throughout childhood is thought to be mediated by the development of executive control. As postretrieval control processes may be better time-locked to the recognition response rather than the retrieval cue, the development of processes underlying source memory was investigated with both stimulus- and response-locked event-related potentials (ERPs). These were recorded in children, adolescents, and adults during a recognition memory exclusion task. Green- and red-outlined pictures were studied, but were tested in black outline. The test requirement was to endorse old items shown in one study color ("targets") and to reject new items along with old items shown in the alternative study color ("nontargets"). Source memory improved with age. All age groups retrieved target and nontarget memories as reflected by reliable parietal episodic memory (EM) effects, a stimulus-locked ERP correlate of recollection. Response-locked ERPs to targets and nontargets diverged in all groups prior to the response, although this occurred at an increasingly earlier time point with age. We suggest these findings reflect the implementation of attentional control mechanisms to enhance target memories and facilitate response selection with the greatest and least success, respectively, in adults and children. In adults only, response-locked ERPs revealed an early-onsetting parietal negativity for nontargets, but not for targets. This was suggested to reflect adults' ability to consistently inhibit prepotent target responses for nontargets. The findings support the notion that the development of source memory relies on the maturation of control processes that serve to enhance accurate selection of task-relevant memories.

  5. Petroleum source-rock potentials of the cretaceous transgressive-regressive sedimentary sequences of the Cauvery Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Kuldeep; Philip, P. C.; Sridharan, P.; Chopra, V. S.; Rao, Brahmaji; Saha, P. K.

    The present work is an attempt to contribute to knowledge on the petroleum source-rock potentials of the marine claystones and shales of basins associated with passive continental margins where the source-rock developments are known to have been associated with the anoxic events in the Mesozoic era. Data on three key exploratory wells from three major depressions Ariyallur-Pondicherry, Thanjavur and Nagapattinam of the Cauvery Basin are described and discussed. The average total organic carbon contents of the transgressive Pre-Albian-Cinomanian and Coniacian/Santonian claystones/shales range from 1.44 and 1.16%, respectively. The transgressive/regressive Campanian/Maastrichtian claystones contain average total organic carbon varying from 0.62 to 1.19%. The kerogens in all the studied stratigraphic sequences are classified as type-III with Rock-Eval hydrogen indices varying from 30 to 275. The nearness of land masses to the depositional basin and the mainly clastic sedimentation resulted in accumulation and preservation of dominantly type-III kerogens. The Pre-Albian to Cinomanian sequences of peak transgressive zone deposited in deep marine environments have kerogens with a relatively greater proportion of type-II components with likely greater contribution of planktonic organic matters. The global anoxic event associated with the Albian-Cinomanian marine transgression, like in many other parts of the world, has pervaded the Cauvery Basin and favoured development of good source-rocks with type-III kerogens. The Coniacian-Campanian-Maastrichtian transgressive/regressive phase is identified to be relatively of lesser significance for development of good quality source-rocks.

  6. Carbon footprint of premium quality export bananas: case study in Ecuador, the world's largest exporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte, Alfredo; Almeida, Maria Gabriela; Villalobos, Pablo

    2014-02-15

    Nowadays, the new international market demands challenge the food producing countries to include the measurement of the environmental impact generated along the production process for their products. In order to comply with the environmentally responsible market requests the measurement of the greenhouse gas emissions of Ecuadorian agricultural goods has been promoted employing the carbon footprint concept. Ecuador is the largest exporter of bananas in the world. Within this context, this study is a first assessment of the carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian premium export banana (Musa AAA) using a considerable amount of field data. The system boundaries considered from agricultural production to delivery in a European destination port. The data collected over three years permitted identifying the hot spot stages. For the calculation, the CCaLC V3.0 software developed by the University of Manchester is used. The carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian export banana ranged from 0.45 to 1.04 kg CO2-equivalent/kg banana depending on the international overseas transport employed. The principal contributors to the carbon footprint are the on farm production and overseas transport stages. Mitigation and reduction strategies were suggested for the main emission sources in order to achieve sustainable banana production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Sources and proxy potential of long chain alkyl diols in lacustrine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampen, Sebastiaan W.; Datema, Mariska; Rodrigo-Gámiz, Marta; Schouten, Stefan; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2014-11-01

    Long chain 1,13- and 1,15-alkyl diols form the base of a number of recently proposed proxies used for climate reconstruction. However, the sources of these lipids and environmental controls on their distribution are still poorly constrained. We have analyzed the long chain alkyl diol (LCD) composition of cultures of ten eustigmatophyte species, with three species from different families grown at various temperatures, to identify the effect of species composition and growth temperature on the LCD distribution. The results were compared with the LCD distribution of sixty-two lake surface sediments, and with previously reported LCD distributions from marine environments. The different families within the Eustigmatophyceae show distinct LCD patterns, with the freshwater family Eustigmataceae most closely resembling LCD distributions in both marine and lake environments. Unlike the other two eustigmatophyte families analyzed (Monodopsidaceae and Goniochloridaceae), C28 and C30 1,13-alkyl diols and C30 and C32 1,15-alkyl diols are all relatively abundant in the family Eustigmataceae, while the mono-unsaturated C32 1,15-alkyl diol was below detection limit. In contrast to the marine environment, LCD distributions in lakes did not show a clear relationship with temperature. The Long chain Diol Index (LDI), a proxy previously proposed for sea surface temperature reconstruction, showed a relatively weak correlation (R2 = 0.33) with mean annual air temperature used as an approximation for annual mean surface temperature of the lakes. A much-improved correlation (R2 = 0.74, p-value cultures of the family Eustigmataceae, suggesting that algae belonging to this family have an important role as a source for LCDs in lacustrine environments, or, alternatively, that the main sources of LCDs are similarly affected by temperature as the Eustigmataceae. The results suggest that LCDs may have the potential to be applicable as a palaeotemperature proxy for lacustrine environments

  8. Spelling Errors of Iranian School-Level EFL Learners: Potential Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Saeidi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of examining the sources of spelling errors of Iranian school level EFL learners, the present researchers analyzed the dictation samples of 51 Iranian senior and junior high school male and female students majoring at an Iranian school in Baku, Azerbaijan. The content analysis of the data revealed three main sources (intralingual, interlingual, and unique with seven patterns of errors. The frequency of intralingual errors far outnumbers that of interlingual errors. Unique errors were even less. Therefore, in-service training programs may include some instruction on raising the teachers’ awareness of the different sources of errors to focus on during the teaching program.

  9. Constraining the magnitude of the largest event in a foreshock-main shock-aftershock sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, Robert; Zhuang, Jiancang; Ogata, Yosihiko

    2018-01-01

    Extreme value statistics and Bayesian methods are used to constrain the magnitudes of the largest expected earthquakes in a sequence governed by the parametric time-dependent occurrence rate and frequency-magnitude statistics. The Bayesian predictive distribution for the magnitude of the largest event in a sequence is derived. Two types of sequences are considered, that is, the classical aftershock sequences generated by large main shocks and the aftershocks generated by large foreshocks preceding a main shock. For the former sequences, the early aftershocks during a training time interval are used to constrain the magnitude of the future extreme event during the forecasting time interval. For the latter sequences, the earthquakes preceding the main shock are used to constrain the magnitudes of the subsequent extreme events including the main shock. The analysis is applied retrospectively to past prominent earthquake sequences.

  10. Car indoor air pollution - analysis of potential sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Daniel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The population of industrialized countries such as the United States or of countries from the European Union spends approximately more than one hour each day in vehicles. In this respect, numerous studies have so far addressed outdoor air pollution that arises from traffic. By contrast, only little is known about indoor air quality in vehicles and influences by non-vehicle sources. Therefore the present article aims to summarize recent studies that address i.e. particulate matter exposure. It can be stated that although there is a large amount of data present for outdoor air pollution, research in the area of indoor air quality in vehicles is still limited. Especially, knowledge on non-vehicular sources is missing. In this respect, an understanding of the effects and interactions of i.e. tobacco smoke under realistic automobile conditions should be achieved in future.

  11. Evolution of the Largest Mammalian Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ben J; Upham, Nathan S; Golding, Goeffrey B; Ojeda, Ricardo A; Ojeda, Agustina A

    2017-06-01

    The genome of the red vizcacha rat (Rodentia, Octodontidae, Tympanoctomys barrerae) is the largest of all mammals, and about double the size of their close relative, the mountain vizcacha rat Octomys mimax, even though the lineages that gave rise to these species diverged from each other only about 5 Ma. The mechanism for this rapid genome expansion is controversial, and hypothesized to be a consequence of whole genome duplication or accumulation of repetitive elements. To test these alternative but nonexclusive hypotheses, we gathered and evaluated evidence from whole transcriptome and whole genome sequences of T. barrerae and O. mimax. We recovered support for genome expansion due to accumulation of a diverse assemblage of repetitive elements, which represent about one half and one fifth of the genomes of T. barrerae and O. mimax, respectively, but we found no strong signal of whole genome duplication. In both species, repetitive sequences were rare in transcribed regions as compared with the rest of the genome, and mostly had no close match to annotated repetitive sequences from other rodents. These findings raise new questions about the genomic dynamics of these repetitive elements, their connection to widespread chromosomal fissions that occurred in the T. barrerae ancestor, and their fitness effects-including during the evolution of hypersaline dietary tolerance in T. barrerae. ©The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  12. [Estimate of the formation potential of secondary organic aerosol in Beijing summertime].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Zi-Feng; Hao, Ji-Ming; Duan, Jing-Chun; Li, Jun-Hua

    2009-04-15

    Fractional aerosol coefficients (FAC) are used in conjunction with measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC) during ozone episodes to estimate the formation potential of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the summertime of Beijing. The estimation is based on the actual atmospheric conditions of Beijing, and benzene and isoprene are considered as the precursors of SOA. The results show that 31 out of 70 measured VOC species are SOA precursors, and the total potential SOA formation is predicted to be 8.48 microg/m3, which accounts for 30% of fine organic particle matter. Toluene, xylene, pinene, ethylbenzene and n-undecane are the 5 largest contributors to SOA production and account for 20%, 22%, 14%, 9% and 4% of total SOA production, respectively. The anthropogenic aromatic compounds, which yield 76% of the calculated SOA, are the major source of SOA. The biogenic alkenes, alkanes and carbonyls produce 16%, 7% and 1% of SOA formation, respectively. The major components of produced SOA are expected to be aromatic compounds, aliphatic acids, carbonyls and aliphatic nitrates, which contribute to 72%, 14%, 11% and 3% of SOA mass, respectively. The SOA precursors have relatively low atmospheric concentrations and low ozone formation potential. Hence, SOA formation potential of VOC species, in addition to their atmospheric concentrations and ozone formation potential, should be considered in policy making process of VOCs control.

  13. SPARROW models used to understand nutrient sources in the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Dale M.; Saad, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loading from the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River Basin (MARB) has been linked to hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. To describe where and from what sources those loads originate, SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) models were constructed for the MARB using geospatial datasets for 2002, including inputs from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and calibration sites throughout the MARB. Previous studies found that highest N and P yields were from the north-central part of the MARB (Corn Belt). Based on the MARB SPARROW models, highest N yields were still from the Corn Belt but centered over Iowa and Indiana, and highest P yields were widely distributed throughout the center of the MARB. Similar to that found in other studies, agricultural inputs were found to be the largest N and P sources throughout most of the MARB: farm fertilizers were the largest N source, whereas farm fertilizers, manure, and urban inputs were dominant P sources. The MARB models enable individual N and P sources to be defined at scales ranging from SPARROW catchments (∼50 km2) to the entire area of the MARB. Inputs of P from WWTPs and urban areas were more important than found in most other studies. Information from this study will help to reduce nutrient loading from the MARB by providing managers with a description of where each of the sources of N and P are most important, thus providing a basis for prioritizing management actions and ultimately reducing the extent of Gulf hypoxia.

  14. Vasorelaxant activity of extracts obtained from Apium graveolens:Possible source for vasorelaxant molecules isolation with potential antihypertensive effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vergara-Galicia Jorge; Jimenez-Ramirez Luis ngel; Tun-Suarez Adrin; Aguirre-Crespo Francisco; Salazar-Gmez Anuar; Estrada-Soto Samuel; Sierra-Ovando ngel; Hernandez-Nuez Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the vasorelaxant effect of organic extracts from Apium graveolens (A. graveolens) which is a part of a group of plants subjected to pharmacological and phytochemical study with the purpose of offering it as an ideal source for obtaining lead compounds for designing new therapeutic agents with potential vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. Methods:An ex vivo method was employed to assess the vasorelaxant activity. This consisted of using rat aortic rings with and without endothelium precontracted with norepinephrine. Results:All extracts caused concentration-dependent relaxation in precontracted aortic rings with and without endothelium;the most active extracts were Dichloromethane and Ethyl Acetate extracts from A. graveolens. These results suggested that secondary metabolites responsible for the vasorelaxant activity belong to a group of compounds of medium polarity. Also, our evidence showed that effect induced by dichloromethane and ethyl acetate extracts from A. graveolens is mediated probably by calcium antagonism. Conclusions: A. graveolens represents an ideal source for obtaining lead compounds for designing new therapeutic agents with potential vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects.

  15. Thai jute seed oil: a potential polyunsaturated fatty acid source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitree Suttajit

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined lipid and fatty acid compositions of different varieties of jute (Po-kra-jao, Corchorus olitorius L. seed grown in Thailand. Four different jute seeds (Nonn-Soong, Keaw-Yai, Cuba and Khonkaen harvested from northeastern Thailand were ground, their lipid was extracted with chloroform: methanol (2:1, v/v, and lipid composition was determined by Iatroscan (TLC/FID. Fatty acid composition was analyzed using GLC with standard methods. Triacylglycerol was a predominant lipid in jute seed oil, ranging from 70% to 74%, and other two minor components were phytosterol (12% to 28% and diacylglycerol (0% to 9%. The ratio of saturates: monounsaturates: polyunsaturates, was approximately 2: 3: 4. Most predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA was linoleic acid (18:2n-6, accounting for 40-67% of total fatty acid. Nonn-Soong had the highest amount of PUFA (67.7%, followed by Khonkaen (44.53%, Keaw-Yai (41.14%, and Cuba (40.19%. Another PUFA found was α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3, accounting for about 1% of total fatty acid. The results indicated that jute seed oil was a potential edible PUFA source. The oils obtained from different kinds of jute seeds had significantly different lipid and fatty acid compositions.

  16. Advanced LIGO: sources and astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creighton, Teviet

    2003-01-01

    Second-generation detectors in LIGO will take us from the discovery phase of gravitational-wave observations to the phase of true gravitational-wave astrophysics, with hundreds or thousands of potential sources. This paper surveys the most likely and interesting potential sources for Advanced LIGO, and the astrophysical processes that each one will probe. I conclude that binary inspiral signals are expected, while continuous signals from pulsars are plausible but not guaranteed. Other sources, such as core-collapse bursts, cosmic strings and primordial stochastic backgrounds, are speculative sources for Advanced LIGO, but also potentially the most interesting, since they push the limits of our theoretical knowledge

  17. Marine Fungi: A Source of Potential Anticancer Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil K. Deshmukh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolites from marine fungi have hogged the limelight in drug discovery because of their promise as therapeutic agents. A number of metabolites related to marine fungi have been discovered from various sources which are known to possess a range of activities as antibacterial, antiviral and anticancer agents. Although, over a thousand marine fungi based metabolites have already been reported, none of them have reached the market yet which could partly be related to non-comprehensive screening approaches and lack of sustained lead optimization. The origin of these marine fungal metabolites is varied as their habitats have been reported from various sources such as sponge, algae, mangrove derived fungi, and fungi from bottom sediments. The importance of these natural compounds is based on their cytotoxicity and related activities that emanate from the diversity in their chemical structures and functional groups present on them. This review covers the majority of anticancer compounds isolated from marine fungi during 2012–2016 against specific cancer cell lines.

  18. Future water availability in the largest freshwater Mediterranean lake is at great risk as evidenced from simulations with the SWAT model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucak, Tuba; Trolle, Dennis; Andersen, Hans Estrup; Thodsen, Hans; Erdoğan, Şeyda; Levi, Eti E; Filiz, Nur; Jeppesen, Erik; Beklioğlu, Meryem

    2017-03-01

    Inter- and intra-annual water level fluctuations and changes in water flow regime are intrinsic characteristics of Mediterranean lakes. Additionally, considering climate change projections for the water-limited Mediterranean region, increased air temperatures and decreased precipitation are anticipated, leading to dramatic declines in lake water levels as well as severe water scarcity problems. The study site, Lake Beyşehir, the largest freshwater lake in the Mediterranean basin, is - like other Mediterranean lakes - threatened by climatic changes and over-abstraction of water for irrigated crop farming. Therefore, implementation of strict water level management policies is required. In this study, an integrated modeling approach was used to predict the future water levels of Lake Beyşehir in response to potential future changes in climate and land use. Water level estimation was performed by linking the catchment model Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) with a Support Vector Regression model (ε-SVR). The projected increase in temperature and decrease in precipitation based on the climate change models led to an enhanced potential evapotranspiration and reduced total runoff. On the other hand, the effects of various land use scenarios within the catchment appeared to be comparatively insignificant. According to the ε-SVR model results, changes in hydrological processes caused a water level reduction for all scenarios. Moreover, the MPI-ESM-MR General Circulation Model outputs produced the most dramatic results by predicting that Lake Beyşehir may dry out by the 2040s with the current outflow regime. The results indicate that shallow Mediterranean lakes may face a severe risk of drying out and losing their ecosystem values in the near future if the current intensity of water abstraction is not reduced. In addition, the results also demonstrate that outflow management and sustainable use of water sources are vital to sustain lake ecosystems in water

  19. How the largest electric and gas utility companies administer public relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogart, J.D.

    1979-04-12

    This article describes the findings of a survey conducted by the author in the second half of 1978 to determine the sizes of the public relations staffs of the nation's largest operating electric and gas utilities, their budgets, organizational differences, and specific functions. Common public relations issues and major public relations problems of the utilities are identified, as well as recent trends or changes in budgeting and organization. Some functional variations of public relations departments among utility companies were detected and described.

  20. Operation of a TFTR ion source with a ground potential gas feed into the neutralizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Dudek, L.E.; Grisham, L.R.; Newman, R.A.; O'Connor, T.E.; Stevenson, T.N.; von Halle, A.; Williams, M.D.; Wright, K.E.

    1991-01-01

    TFTR long pulse ion sources have been operated with gas fed only into the neutralizer. Gas for the plasma generator entered through the accelerator rather than directly into the arc chamber. This modification has been proposed for tritium beam operation to locate control electronics at ground potential and to simplify tritium plumbing. Source operation with this configuration and with the nominal gas system that feeds gas into both the ion source and the center of the neutralizer are compared. Comparison is based upon accelerator grid currents, beam composition, and neutral power delivered to the calorimeter. Charge exchange in the accelerator can be a significant loss mechanism in both systems at high throughput. A suitable operating point with the proposed system was found that requires 30% less gas than used presently. The extracted D + , D + 2 , and D + 3 fractions of the beam were found to be a function of the gas throughput; at similar throughputs, the two gas feed systems produced similar extracted ion fractions. Operation at the proposed gas efficient point results in a small reduction (relative to the old high throughput mode) in the extracted D + fraction of the beam from 77% to 71%, with concomitant changes in the D + 2 fraction from 18% to 26%, and 6% to 3% for D + 3 . The injected power is unchanged, ∼2.2 MW at 95 kV

  1. CERN: Digital image analysis in the world's largest research center for particle physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Those interested in researching into the smallest building blocks that matter is made up of need the largest instruments. CERN, near Geneva, Switzerland is where the most powerful circular accelerator in the world is being built: the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) for proton collisions. It has a circumference of 26.7 km (4 pages)

  2. Stem Cells Derived from Amniotic Fluid: A Potential Pluripotent-Like Cell Source for Cellular Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Thamil Selvee; Velaithan, Vithya; Yeow, Yelena; Sarkar, Fazlul H

    2018-01-01

    Regenerative medicine aims to provide therapeutic treatment for disease or injury, and cell-based therapy is a newer therapeutic approach different from conventional medicine. Ethical issues that rose by the utilisation of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and the limited capacity of adult stem cells, however, hinder the application of these stem cells in regenerative medicine. Recently, isolation and characterisation of c-kit positive cells from human amniotic fluid, which possess intermediate characteristics between hESCs and adult stem cells, provided a new approach towards realising their promise for fetal and adult regenerative medicine. Despite the number of studies that have been initiated to characterize their molecular signature, research on developing approaches to maintain and enhance their regenerative potential is urgently needed and must be developed. Thus, this review is focused on understanding their potential uses and factors influencing their pluripotent status in vitro. In short, this cell source could be an ideal cellular resource for pluripotent cells for potential applications in allogeneic cellular replacement therapies, fetal tissue engineering, pharmaceutical screening, and in disease modelling. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Forecasting the potential of Danish biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Mikkel; Skov-Petersen, Hans; Gylling, Morten

    , except for those farms which are in the largest state class. Regional differences in development trends were documented. The strategic objective of the model is to provide data for the spatial assessment of the potential of biogas production which can form the basis for a location analysis for future...... biogas plants....

  4. Potential sea salt aerosol sources from frost flowers in the pan-Arctic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Li [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla California USA; Now at Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine California USA; Russell, Lynn M. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla California USA; Burrows, Susannah M. [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA

    2016-09-23

    In order to better represent observed wintertime aerosol concentrations at Barrow, Alaska, we implemented an observationally-based parameterization for estimating sea salt production from frost flowers in the Community Earth System Model (CESM). In this work, we evaluate the potential influence of this sea salt source on the pan-Arctic (60ºN-90ºN) climate. Results show that frost flower salt emissions substantially increase the modeled surface sea salt aerosol concentration in the winter months when new sea ice and frost flowers are present. The parameterization reproduces both the magnitude and seasonal variation of the observed submicron sea salt aerosol concentration at surface in Barrow during winter much better than the standard CESM simulation without a frost-flower salt particle source. Adding these frost flower salt particle emissions increases aerosol optical depth by 10% and results in a small cooling at surface. The increase in salt particle mass concentrations of a factor of 8 provides nearly two times the cloud condensation nuclei concentration, as well as 10% increases in cloud droplet number and 40% increases in liquid water content near coastal regions adjacent to continents. These cloud changes reduce longwave cloud forcing by 3% and cause a small surface warming, increasing the downward longwave flux at the surface by 2 W m-2 in the pan-Arctic under the present-day climate.

  5. Source Parameters from Full Moment Tensor Inversions of Potentially Induced Earthquakes in Western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Gu, Y. J.; Schultz, R.; Kim, A.; Chen, Y.

    2015-12-01

    During the past four years, the number of earthquakes with magnitudes greater than three has substantially increased in the southern section of Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB). While some of these events are likely associated with tectonic forces, especially along the foothills of the Canadian Rockies, a significant fraction occurred in previously quiescent regions and has been linked to waste water disposal or hydraulic fracturing. A proper assessment of the origin and source properties of these 'induced earthquakes' requires careful analyses and modeling of regional broadband data, which steadily improved during the past 8 years due to recent establishments of regional broadband seismic networks such as CRANE, RAVEN and TD. Several earthquakes, especially those close to fracking activities (e.g. Fox creek town, Alberta) are analyzed. Our preliminary full moment tensor inversion results show maximum horizontal compressional orientations (P-axis) along the northeast-southwest orientation, which agree with the regional stress directions from borehole breakout data and the P-axis of historical events. The decomposition of those moment tensors shows evidence of strike-slip mechanism with near vertical fault plane solutions, which are comparable to the focal mechanisms of injection induced earthquakes in Oklahoma. Minimal isotropic components have been observed, while a modest percentage of compensated-linear-vector-dipole (CLVD) components, which have been linked to fluid migraition, may be required to match the waveforms. To further evaluate the non-double-couple components, we compare the outcomes of full, deviatoric and pure double couple (DC) inversions using multiple frequency ranges and phases. Improved location and depth information from a novel grid search greatly assists the identification and classification of earthquakes in potential connection with fluid injection or extraction. Overall, a systematic comparison of the source attributes of

  6. Potential sources of methylmercury in tree foliage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabatchnick, Melissa D.; Nogaro, Géraldine; Hammerschmidt, Chad R.

    2012-01-01

    Litterfall is a major source of mercury (Hg) and toxic methylmercury (MeHg) to forest soils and influences exposures of wildlife in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. However, the origin of MeHg associated with tree foliage is largely unknown. We tested the hypothesis that leaf MeHg is influenced by root uptake and thereby related to MeHg levels in soils. Concentrations of MeHg and total Hg in deciduous and coniferous foliage were unrelated to those in soil at 30 urban and rural forested locations in southwest Ohio. In contrast, tree genera and trunk diameter were significant variables influencing Hg in leaves. The fraction of total Hg as MeHg averaged 0.4% and did not differ among tree genera. Given that uptake of atmospheric Hg 0 appears to be the dominant source of total Hg in foliage, we infer that MeHg is formed by in vivo transformation of Hg in proportion to the amount accumulated. - Highlights: ► Levels of methylmercury and total Hg in foliage were unrelated to those in soil. ► Methylmercury:total Hg ratio in leaves did not differ among nine tree genera. ► Hg in foliage varied inversely with trunk diameter, a proxy for respiration. ► Methylmercury in leaves may result from in vivo methylation of atmospheric Hg. - Methylmercury in tree foliage appears to result from in vivo methylation of mercury accumulated from the atmosphere.

  7. Evaluation of the Possible Sources and Controlling Factors of Toxic Metals/Metalloids in the Florida Everglades and Their Potential Risk of Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanbin; Duan, Zhiwei; Liu, Guangliang; Kalla, Peter; Scheidt, Daniel; Cai, Yong

    2015-08-18

    The Florida Everglades is an environmentally sensitive wetland ecosystem with a number of threatened and endangered fauna species susceptible to the deterioration of water quality. Several potential toxic metal sources exist in the Everglades, including farming, atmospheric deposition, and human activities in urban areas, causing concerns of potential metal exposure risks. However, little is known about the pollution status of toxic metals/metalloids of potential concern, except for Hg. In this study, eight toxic metals/metalloids (Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, and Hg) in Everglades soils were investigated in both dry and wet seasons. Pb, Cr, As, Cu, Cd, and Ni were identified to be above Florida SQGs (sediment quality guidelines) at a number of sampling sites, particularly Pb, which had a level of potential risk to organisms similar to that of Hg. In addition, a method was developed for quantitative source identification and controlling factor elucidation of toxic metals/metalloids by introducing an index, enrichment factor (EF), in the conventional multiple regression analysis. EFs represent the effects of anthropogenic sources on metals/metalloids in soils. Multiple regression analysis showed that Cr and Ni were mainly controlled by anthropogenic loading, whereas soil characteristics, in particular natural organic matter (NOM), played a more important role for Hg, As, Cd, and Zn. NOM may control the distribution of these toxic metals/metalloids by affecting their mobility in soils. For Cu and Pb, the effects of EFs and environmental factors are comparable, suggesting combined effects of loading and soil characteristics. This study is the first comprehensive research with a vast amount of sampling sites on the distribution and potential risks of toxic metals/metalloids in the Everglades. The finding suggests that in addition to Hg other metals/metalloids could also potentially be an environmental problem in this wetland ecosystem.

  8. Collaborative spectrum sensing based on the ratio between largest eigenvalue and Geometric mean of eigenvalues

    KAUST Repository

    Shakir, Muhammad

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new detector referred to as Geometric mean detector (GEMD) which is based on the ratio of the largest eigenvalue to the Geometric mean of the eigenvalues for collaborative spectrum sensing. The decision threshold has been derived by employing Gaussian approximation approach. In this approach, the two random variables, i.e. The largest eigenvalue and the Geometric mean of the eigenvalues are considered as independent Gaussian random variables such that their cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) are approximated by a univariate Gaussian distribution function for any number of cooperating secondary users and received samples. The approximation approach is based on the calculation of exact analytical moments of the largest eigenvalue and the Geometric mean of the eigenvalues of the received covariance matrix. The decision threshold has been calculated by exploiting the CDF of the ratio of two Gaussian distributed random variables. In this context, we exchange the analytical moments of the two random variables with the moments of the Gaussian distribution function. The performance of the detector is compared with the performance of the energy detector and eigenvalue ratio detector. Analytical and simulation results show that our newly proposed detector yields considerable performance advantage in realistic spectrum sensing scenarios. Moreover, our results based on proposed approximation approach are in perfect agreement with the empirical results. © 2011 IEEE.

  9. Short-period atmospheric gravity waves - A study of their statistical properties and source mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedzelman, S. D.

    1983-01-01

    Gravity waves for the one year period beginning 19 October 1976 around Palisades, New York, are investigated to determine their statistical properties and sources. The waves have typical periods of 10 min, pressure amplitudes of 3 Pa and velocities of 30 m/s. In general, the largest, amplitude waves occur during late fall and early winter when the upper tropospheric winds directly overhead are fastest and the static stability of the lower troposphere is greatest. Mean wave amplitudes correlate highly with the product of the mean maximum wind speed and the mean low level stratification directly aloft. A distinct diurnal variation of wave amplitudes with the largest waves occurring in the pre-dawn hours is also observed as a result of the increased static stability then. The majority of waves are generated by shear instability; however, a number of waves are generated by distant sources such as nuclear detonations or large thunderstorms. The waves with distant sources can be distinguished on the basis of their generally much higher coherency across the grid and velocities that depart markedly from the wind velocity at any point in the sounding.

  10. The Feasibility of Onsite Electrolysis as Primary and Clean Production Source of Fuel Hydrogen in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COSTA, Andre R

    2006-01-01

    In accordance with the International Monetary Fund Brazil is currently the world's 12. largest and Latin America's largest economy, with a nominal GPD in the amount of US dollars 732,078 millions. Despite the fact that energy production is still heavily based on hydrocarbons, such as oil, natural gas and coal, the country is often indicated as one of the worldwide leaders in implementing renewable energy sources, primarily due to the spread utilization of bio-ethanol in transportation and the electricity production from hydropower. The purpose of this study is to assess the feasibility of onsite electrolysis as primary and clean source of fuel hydrogen in Brazil, indicating the main advantages of this production method. A perspective of the most significant challenges and actions to be taken regarding the accomplishment of a clean Brazilian hydrogen economy will be presented herein. (author)

  11. Fibrous Agricultural Biomass as a Potential Source for Bioconversion to Vanillic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Ling Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the potential of six fibrous agricultural residues, namely, oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (OPEFBF, coconut coir fiber (CCF, pineapple peel (PP, pineapple crown leaves (PCL, kenaf bast fiber (KBF, and kenaf core fiber (KCF, as a source of ferulic acid and phenolic compounds for bioconversion into vanillic acid. The raw samples were pretreated with organosolv (NaOH-glycerol and alkaline treatment (NaOH, to produce phenol-rich black liquor. The finding showed that the highest amount of phenolic compounds and ferulic acid was produced from CCF and PP, respectively. This study also found that organosolv treatment was the superior method for phenolic compound extraction, whereas alkaline treatment was the selective method for lignin extraction. Vanillic acid production by Aspergillus niger I-1472 was only observed when the fermentation broth was fed with liquors from PP and PCL, possibly due to the higher levels of ferulic acid in those samples.

  12. Some wild-growing plant species from Serbia and Montenegro as the potential sources of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljancić, I S; Vajs, V E; Tesević, V V; Milosavljević, S M

    2008-01-01

    The results of phytochemical investigation, over the last decade, of some wild-growing plant species from Serbia and Montenegro belonging to the families Asteraceae, Guttiferae and Gentianaceae are reported. Most of the investigated species are endemites and the emphasis in this report is on those exhibiting biological activities that could be regarded as the potential sources of drugs. This review comprises 154 compounds, e.g. sesquiterpene lactones and flavonoids (Asteraceae), xanthones, secoiridoids and C-glucoflavonoids (Gentanaceae) and prenylated phloroglucinols (Guttiferae) as well as some other secondary metabolites, produced by the above families, which could be of pharmacological interest.

  13. Tropical biodiversity: has it been a potential source of secondary metabolites useful for medicinal chemistry?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valli, Marilia; Pivatto, Marcos; Danuello, Amanda; Castro-Gamboa, Ian; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Araujo, Angela Regina; Furlan, Maysa; Lopes, Marcia Nasser; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva, E-mail: bolzaniv@iq.unesp.br [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica

    2012-07-01

    The use of natural products has definitely been the most successful strategy in the discovery of novel medicines. Secondary metabolites from terrestrial and marine organisms have found considerable use in the treatment of numerous diseases and have been considered lead molecules both in their natural form and as templates for medicinal chemistry. This paper seeks to show the great value of secondary metabolites and emphasize the rich chemical diversity of Brazilian biodiversity. This natural chemical library remains understudied, but can be a useful source of new secondary metabolites with potential application as templates for drug discovery. (author)

  14. Tropical biodiversity: has it been a potential source of secondary metabolites useful for medicinal chemistry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia Valli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of natural products has definitely been the most successful strategy in the discovery of novel medicines. Secondary metabolites from terrestrial and marine organisms have found considerable use in the treatment of numerous diseases and have been considered lead molecules both in their natural form and as templates for medicinal chemistry. This paper seeks to show the great value of secondary metabolites and emphasize the rich chemical diversity of Brazilian biodiversity. This natural chemical library remains understudied, but can be a useful source of new secondary metabolites with potential application as templates for drug discovery.

  15. Tropical biodiversity: has it been a potential source of secondary metabolites useful for medicinal chemistry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valli, Marilia; Pivatto, Marcos; Danuello, Amanda; Castro-Gamboa, Ian; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Araujo, Angela Regina; Furlan, Maysa; Lopes, Marcia Nasser; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva

    2012-01-01

    The use of natural products has definitely been the most successful strategy in the discovery of novel medicines. Secondary metabolites from terrestrial and marine organisms have found considerable use in the treatment of numerous diseases and have been considered lead molecules both in their natural form and as templates for medicinal chemistry. This paper seeks to show the great value of secondary metabolites and emphasize the rich chemical diversity of Brazilian biodiversity. This natural chemical library remains understudied, but can be a useful source of new secondary metabolites with potential application as templates for drug discovery. (author)

  16. Antibiotic susceptibility profiling and virulence potential of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from different sources in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Fariha Masood; Akram, Muhammad; Noureen, Nighat; Noreen, Zobia; Bokhari, Habib

    2015-03-01

    To determine antibiotic resistance patterns and virulence potential of Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) isolates from clinical human diarrheal infections, cattle and healthy broilers. Antibiotic sensitivity patterns of C. jejuni isolates were determined by Kirby Bauer Disc Diffusion assay. These isolates were then subjected to virulence profiling for the detection of mapA (membrane-associated protein), cadF (fibronectin binding protein), wlaN (beta-l,3-galactosyltransferase) and neuAB (sialic acid biosynthesis gene). Further C. jejuni isolates were grouped by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiling. A total of 436 samples from poultry (n=88), cattle (n=216) and humans (n=132) from different locations were collected. Results revealed percentage of C. jejuni isolates were 35.2% (31/88), 25.0% (54/216) and 11.3% (15/132) among poultry, cattle and clinical human samples respectively. Antibiotic susceptibility results showed that similar resistance patterns to cephalothin was ie. 87.0%, 87.1% and 89%among humans, poultry and cattle respectively, followed by sulfamethoxazole+trimethoprim 40.0%, 38.7% and 31.0% in humans, poultry and cattle and Ampicillin 40%, 32% and 20% in humans, poultry and cattle respectively. Beta-lactamase activity was detected in 40.00% humans, 20.37% cattle and 32.25% in poultry C. jejuni isolates. CadF and mapA were present in all poultry, cattle and human C. jejuni isolates, wlaN was not detected in any isolate and neuAB was found in 9/31 (36%) poultry isolates. RAPD profiling results suggested high diversity of C. jejuni isolates. Detection of multidrug resistant C. jejuni strains from poultry and cattle is alarming as they can be potential hazard to humans. Moreover, predominant association of virulence factors, cadF and mapA (100% each) in C. jejuni isolates from all sources and neuAB (36%) with poultry isolates suggest the potential source of transmission of diverse types of C. jejuni to humans. Copyright © 2015 Hainan

  17. [Source identification and potential ecological hazards assessment of trace metalloid/heavy metals in the soil of Tianshan Mountains, Xinjiang, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao-Yong; Jilili, Abuduwailil; Jiang, Feng-Qing

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the contents of ten metalloid/heavy metals (As, Pb, Ni, Cd, Co, Hg, Cu, Mn, Zn and Cr) in soil samples collected from three sections including the central Urumqi-Akesu, eastern Blikun-Yiwu and western Zhaosu-Tekesi in Tianshan Mountains were determined, and their sources were identified by using typical statistical and multivariate statistical methods. The potential ecological risks of these heavy metals were assessed by employing pollution index method, potential ecological risk index and the background values of Tianshan Mountains, and Xinjiang, and also the Second National Standard of the Soil Qualities of China. The results showed that the contents of the heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cd, Co, Hg, Cu, Mn Zn and Cr) and metalloid As were all higher than the soil background values of the Tianshan Mountain or Xinjiang, and their variation co- efficients belonged to the medium variation. In general, the contents of the ten metalloid/heavy metals in the soil of Tianshan Mountains were low. Principal component analysis showed that the ten metalloid/heavy metals could be identified as two principal components, among which PC1 (Cd, Pb, Hg, Mn and Zn) could be seen as 'human influence sources factor', PC2 (Cu, Ni, Cr, Co and As) as 'natural sources factor'. Mn and As had larger loads both in PC1 and PC2, and they could be co-influenced by human and natural sources. The pollution assessment showed that Hg and Cd in central Urumuqi-Akesu section and As in western Zhaosu-Tekesi section were all at alert level, while the other heavy metals in other sections were all at security level. From the comprehensive pollution indices (P(z)) of heavy metals, it was found that the ten metalloid/heavy metals in the soils of central Urumqi-Akesu section were at low pollution level, but those in the other two sections were at clean level. The potential ecological risk assessment showed that the potential ecological risk coefficient (E(i)r) and the ecological damage index (RI) of Hg

  18. Advanced Laser-Compton Gamma-Ray Sources for Nuclear Materials Detection, Assay and Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barty, C. P. J.

    2015-10-01

    Highly-collimated, polarized, mono-energetic beams of tunable gamma-rays may be created via the optimized Compton scattering of pulsed lasers off of ultra-bright, relativistic electron beams. Above 2 MeV, the peak brilliance of such sources can exceed that of the world's largest synchrotrons by more than 15 orders of magnitude and can enable for the first time the efficient pursuit of nuclear science and applications with photon beams, i.e. Nuclear Photonics. Potential applications are numerous and include isotope-specific nuclear materials management, element-specific medical radiography and radiology, non-destructive, isotope-specific, material assay and imaging, precision spectroscopy of nuclear resonances and photon-induced fission. This review covers activities at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory related to the design and optimization of mono-energetic, laser-Compton gamma-ray systems and introduces isotope-specific nuclear materials detection and assay applications enabled by them.

  19. Stellar-mass black holes and ultraluminous x-ray sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fender, Rob; Belloni, Tomaso

    2012-08-03

    We review the likely population, observational properties, and broad implications of stellar-mass black holes and ultraluminous x-ray sources. We focus on the clear empirical rules connecting accretion and outflow that have been established for stellar-mass black holes in binary systems in the past decade and a half. These patterns of behavior are probably the keys that will allow us to understand black hole feedback on the largest scales over cosmological time scales.

  20. REVIEW: HOME AT THE SOURCE OF THREE RIVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Nyangchakja (Snying lcags rgyal སྙིང་ལྕགས་རྒྱལ། Niang Jijia 娘吉加

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Established in 2000, The Three Rivers Source National Nature Reserve (hereafter TRSNNR comprises 152,300 square kilometers of the general region of Three Rivers' Source, which encompasses 363,000 square kilometers in the south of Qinghai Province (SNNR 2018. "The Three Rivers" refer to the Yangtze (Changjiang, Yellow, and Lancang (Mekong. The region of the Three Rivers' Source, which has an area greater than that of Germany, has the country's highest altitude wetlands and supports globally important biodiversity. Known as "China's Water Tower," the area has key ecological value for China and our world. Global warming and glacial melting have direct impact on the wetlands, lakes, wildlife, and the entire ecosystem in the TRSNNR, which is China's second largest nature reserve. Rare wildlife protected in the nature reserve include snow leopards, Tibetan antelopes, wild yaks, wild ass, and black-necked cranes. .........

  1. Determination of the potential for fundamental- and adjoint-representation sources in SU(2) in three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mawhinney, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    Pure SU(2) lattice gauge theory in three dimensions is studied by Monte Carlo simulation with a determination of the potential between fundamental- and adjoint-representation sources as a major goal. A 32 3 lattice is used and Wilson loops up to 16 by 16 are measured using a modification to the standard multihit variance reduction which improves the statistics by at least a factor of 3 at β=6.0. The integrated autocorrelation times measured for the loops show a peak for loops of size β by β. The fundamental- and adjoint-representation potentials are seen to have the same functional form to very high accuracy and their numerical values are in the ratio of their Casimir operators. The string tension is extracted and scaling is seen to within a few percent over a range of couplings which correspond to a factor of 2 change in the glueball mass. Correlated errors have been taken into account in the extraction of the potentials from the Wilson-loop values

  2. The Chandra Source Catalog : Automated Source Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hain, Roger; Evans, I. N.; Evans, J. D.; Glotfelty, K. J.; Anderson, C. S.; Bonaventura, N. R.; Chen, J. C.; Davis, J. E.; Doe, S. M.; Fabbiano, G.; Galle, E.; Gibbs, D. G.; Grier, J. D.; Hall, D. M.; Harbo, P. N.; He, X.; Houck, J. C.; Karovska, M.; Lauer, J.; McCollough, M. L.; McDowell, J. C.; Miller, J. B.; Mitschang, A. W.; Morgan, D. L.; Nichols, J. S.; Nowak, M. A.; Plummer, D. A.; Primini, F. A.; Refsdal, B. L.; Rots, A. H.; Siemiginowska, A. L.; Sundheim, B. A.; Tibbetts, M. S.; Van Stone, D. W.; Winkelman, S. L.; Zografou, P.

    2009-01-01

    Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) master source pipeline processing seeks to automatically detect sources and compute their properties. Since Chandra is a pointed mission and not a sky survey, different sky regions are observed for a different number of times at varying orientations, resolutions, and other heterogeneous conditions. While this provides an opportunity to collect data from a potentially large number of observing passes, it also creates challenges in determining the best way to combine different detection results for the most accurate characterization of the detected sources. The CSC master source pipeline correlates data from multiple observations by updating existing cataloged source information with new data from the same sky region as they become available. This process sometimes leads to relatively straightforward conclusions, such as when single sources from two observations are similar in size and position. Other observation results require more logic to combine, such as one observation finding a single, large source and another identifying multiple, smaller sources at the same position. We present examples of different overlapping source detections processed in the current version of the CSC master source pipeline. We explain how they are resolved into entries in the master source database, and examine the challenges of computing source properties for the same source detected multiple times. Future enhancements are also discussed. This work is supported by NASA contract NAS8-03060 (CXC).

  3. Source apportionment of fine (PM1.8) and ultrafine (PM0.1) airborne particulate matter during a severe winter pollution episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleeman, Michael J; Riddle, Sarah G; Robert, Michael A; Jakober, Chris A; Fine, Phillip M; Hays, Michael D; Schauer, James J; Hannigan, Michael P

    2009-01-15

    Size-resolved samples of airborne particulate matter (PM) collected during a severe winter pollution episode at three sites in the San Joaquin Valley of California were extracted with organic solvents and analyzed for detailed organic compounds using GC-MS. Six particle size fractions were characterized with diameter (Dp) < 1.8 microm; the smallest size fraction was 0.056 < Dp < 0.1 microm which accounts for the majority of the mass in the ultrafine (PM0.1) size range. Source profiles for ultrafine particles developed during previous studies were applied to the measurements at each sampling site to calculate source contributions to organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations. Ultrafine EC concentrations ranged from 0.03 microg m(-3) during the daytime to 0.18 microg m(-3) during the nighttime. Gasoline fuel, diesel fuel, and lubricating oil combustion products accounted for the majority of the ultrafine EC concentrations, with relatively minor contributions from biomass combustion and meat cooking. Ultrafine OC concentrations ranged from 0.2 microg m(-3) during the daytime to 0.8 microg m(-3) during the nighttime. Wood combustion was found to be the largest source of ultrafine OC. Meat cooking was also identified as a significant potential source of PM0.1 mass but further study is required to verify the contributions from this source. Gasoline fuel, diesel fuel, and lubricating oil combustion products made minor contributions to PM0.1 OC mass. Total ultrafine particulate matter concentrations were dominated by contributions from wood combustion and meat cooking during the current study. Future inhalation exposure studies may wish to target these sources as potential causes of adverse health effects.

  4. 137Cs - Brachytherapy sources : a technology scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, R.N.

    2001-01-01

    Cancer has emerged as one of the major cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world. India houses world's second largest population and registers 4-5 lakhs new cancer cases every year. Cancer of cervix is most common form of malignancy among Indian women. Radiation therapy, especially intracavity brachytherapy in conjunction with other modalities like surgery, chemotherapy has been found to be highly effective for the management and control of cervical carcinoma at all stages. A technology has been developed indigenously for the fabrication of 137 Cs sources for brachytherapy applications

  5. Analysis of Multiple Structural Changes in Financial Contagion Based on the Largest Lyapunov Exponents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A modified multiple structural changes model is built to test structural breaks of the financial system based on calculating the largest Lyapunov exponents of the financial time series. Afterwards, the Lorenz system is used as a simulation example to inspect the new model. As the Lorenz system has strong nonlinearity, the verification results show that the new model has good capability in both finding the breakpoint and revealing the changes in nonlinear characteristics of the time series. The empirical study based on the model used daily data from the S&P 500 stock index during the global financial crisis from 2005 to 2012. The results provide four breakpoints of the period, which divide the contagion into four stages: stationary, local outbreak, global outbreak, and recovery period. An additional significant result is the obvious chaos characteristic difference in the largest Lyapunov exponents and the standard deviation at various stages, particularly at the local outbreak stage.

  6. World's largest off-road tires to be recycled

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-07-01

    Suncor Energy is the first company in Canada to use a new technology designed uniquely for tire recycling at oil sand facilities. The technology is owned by CuttingEdge Tire Recycling, a partnership between Denesoline Environmental Limited Partnership and Beaver Environmental Rubber Technologies Limited. Suncor has supported the development of this Aboriginal-owned and operated business by offering land, electricity, diesel fuel and stockpiles of used truck tires from its oil sand mining activities. These tires are the largest off-road tires in the world. In this new technology, tires that are worn-out through oil sand mining are shredded in a portable shredder before being recycled for subsequent use by the Alberta Recycling Management Association. 1 fig.

  7. Phytochemical Properties and Nutrigenomic Implications of Yacon as a Potential Source of Prebiotic: Current Evidence and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yang; Zhang, Hongxia; Jin, Yifan; Zhang, Yihe; Hayford, Frank

    2018-01-01

    The human gut is densely populated with diverse microbial communities that are essential to health. Prebiotics and fiber have been shown to possess the ability to modulate the gut microbiota. One of the plants being considered as a potential source of prebiotic is yacon. Yacon is an underutilized plant consumed as a traditional root-based fruit in South America. Yacon mainly contains fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and inulin. Therefore, it has bifidogenic benefits for gut health, because FOS are not easily broken down by digestive enzymes. Bioactive chemical compounds and extracts isolated from yacon have been studied for their various nutrigenomic properties, including as a prebiotic for intestinal health and their antimicrobial and antioxidant effects. This article reviewed scientific studies regarding the bioactive chemical compounds and nutrigenomic properties of extracts and isolated compounds from yacon. These findings may help in further research to investigate yacon-based nutritional products. Yacon can be considered a potential prebiotic source and a novel functional food. However, more detailed epidemiological, animal, and human clinical studies, particularly mechanism-based and phytopharmacological studies, are lacking for the development of evidence-based functional food products. PMID:29649123

  8. Phytochemical Properties and Nutrigenomic Implications of Yacon as a Potential Source of Prebiotic: Current Evidence and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Cao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The human gut is densely populated with diverse microbial communities that are essential to health. Prebiotics and fiber have been shown to possess the ability to modulate the gut microbiota. One of the plants being considered as a potential source of prebiotic is yacon. Yacon is an underutilized plant consumed as a traditional root-based fruit in South America. Yacon mainly contains fructooligosaccharides (FOS and inulin. Therefore, it has bifidogenic benefits for gut health, because FOS are not easily broken down by digestive enzymes. Bioactive chemical compounds and extracts isolated from yacon have been studied for their various nutrigenomic properties, including as a prebiotic for intestinal health and their antimicrobial and antioxidant effects. This article reviewed scientific studies regarding the bioactive chemical compounds and nutrigenomic properties of extracts and isolated compounds from yacon. These findings may help in further research to investigate yacon-based nutritional products. Yacon can be considered a potential prebiotic source and a novel functional food. However, more detailed epidemiological, animal, and human clinical studies, particularly mechanism-based and phytopharmacological studies, are lacking for the development of evidence-based functional food products.

  9. Phytochemical Properties and Nutrigenomic Implications of Yacon as a Potential Source of Prebiotic: Current Evidence and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yang; Ma, Zheng Feei; Zhang, Hongxia; Jin, Yifan; Zhang, Yihe; Hayford, Frank

    2018-04-12

    The human gut is densely populated with diverse microbial communities that are essential to health. Prebiotics and fiber have been shown to possess the ability to modulate the gut microbiota. One of the plants being considered as a potential source of prebiotic is yacon. Yacon is an underutilized plant consumed as a traditional root-based fruit in South America. Yacon mainly contains fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and inulin. Therefore, it has bifidogenic benefits for gut health, because FOS are not easily broken down by digestive enzymes. Bioactive chemical compounds and extracts isolated from yacon have been studied for their various nutrigenomic properties, including as a prebiotic for intestinal health and their antimicrobial and antioxidant effects. This article reviewed scientific studies regarding the bioactive chemical compounds and nutrigenomic properties of extracts and isolated compounds from yacon. These findings may help in further research to investigate yacon-based nutritional products. Yacon can be considered a potential prebiotic source and a novel functional food. However, more detailed epidemiological, animal, and human clinical studies, particularly mechanism-based and phytopharmacological studies, are lacking for the development of evidence-based functional food products.

  10. Ion acceleration in the plasma source sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birdsall, C.K.

    1986-01-01

    This note is a calculation of the potential drop for a planar plasma source, across the source sheath, into a uniform plasma region defined by vector E = 0 and/or perhaps ∂ 2 PHI/∂ x 2 = 0. The calculation complements that of Bohm who obtained the potential drop at the other end of a plasma, at a planar collector sheath. The result is a relation between the source ion flux and the source sheath potential drop and the accompanying ion acceleration. This planar source sheath ion acceleration mechanism (or that from a distributed source) can provide the pre-collector-sheath ion acceleration as found necessary by Bohm. 3 refs

  11. Influence of Bloodmeal Source on Reproductive Output of the Potential West Nile Vector, Culex theileri (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Berna; Durmaz, Esra; Alten, Bulent

    2014-11-01

    Culex theileri Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae) has a wide Afrotropical, southern Palaearctic, northern Oriental, and European distribution. It is mainly considered as a mammophilic mosquito and also feeds on birds and serves as a vector for various zoonotic diseases including West Nile virus. Despite its broad distribution and evidence indicating that Cx. theileri is a competent vector of human and domestic animal pathogens, basic biological and ecological features of this species have not been well investigated. We evaluated the impact of bloodmeal source (human, chicken, cow, and a double bloodmeal such as human and cow or chicken and cow and mixed bloodmeals [cow, chicken, and human] via artificial feeding) on fecundity, hatching rates, developmental times, and viability from egg to adult for laboratory colonized Cx. theileri. Fecundity in mosquitoes that took a chicken bloodmeal, a double bloodmeal and mixed bloodmeals was significantly higher than in females fed on a single cow or single human blood. This is the first study about the bloodmeal sources effect on laboratory-reared Cx. theileri populations and these findings contribute to our understanding of the impact of bloodmeal source on reproduction in Cx. theileri. As it is known that Cx. theileri is a vector for West Nile virus, the potential impacts of bloodmeal source on virus transmission are discussed. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  12. Fine particles from Independence Day fireworks events: chemical characterization and source apportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Lance, S.; Freedman, J. M.; Yele, S.; Crandall, B.; Wei, X.; Schwab, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    To study the impact of fireworks (FW) events on air quality, aerosol particles from FW displays were measured using a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and collocated instruments during the Independence Day holiday 2017 in Albany, NY. Three FW events were identified through potassium ion (K+) signals in the mass spectra. The largest FW event signal measured at two different locations was the Independence Day celebration in Albany, with maximum aerosol concentrations of about 55 ug/m3 at the downtown site and 35 ug/m3 at the uptown site. The aerosol concentration peaked at the uptown site about 2 hours later than at the downtown site. FW events resulted in significant increases in both organic and inorganic (K+, sulfate, chloride) compounds. Among the organics, Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) identified one special FW organic aerosol factor (FW-OA), which was highly oxidized. The intense emission of FW particles from the Independence Day celebration contributed 76% of total PM1 at the uptown site. The aerosol and wind LiDAR measurements showed two distinct pollution sources, one from the Independence Day FW event in Albany, and another aerosol source transported from other areas, potentially associated with other town's FW events.

  13. From potential to reality. Yeasts derived from ethanol production for animal nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, E.A.N.; Trevizam, A.B.; Nepomuceno, N.; Amorim, H.V.

    1998-01-01

    The high costs of cereals and vegetable protein supplements used for animal nutrition have directed much attention toward non-conventional alternative protein sources. Brazil has a significant potential to provide such material, since it is the world's largest producer of ethanol (13 billion liters per year) derived from fermentation by yeasts (sugar cane being the basic raw material). Distilleries are recovering surplus yeast to produce dry yeast for use in animal food formulations. With regard to the yeast biomass elemental composition, INAA analyses performed on a pool of samples from various different fermentations have shown the presence of various trace elements, e.g. As, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Na, Rb, Sc, Sm, Th, and Zn. This reinforces the need for additional studies concerning the suitability of yeast in terms of maximum tolerable levels of these elements in formulations for domestic animals. (author)

  14. Potential formation in a collisionless plasma produced in an open magnetic field in presence of volume negative ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phukan, Ananya; Goswami, K. S.; Bhuyan, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    The electric potential near a wall for a multi-species plasma with volume produced negative ions in presence of axially varying magnetic field is studied following an analytical-numerical approach. A constant negative ion source is assumed throughout the plasma volume, along with finite temperature positive ions and Boltzmann electrons. The particles are assumed to be guided by an open magnetic field that has its maximum at the centre, and field strength decreasing towards the walls. The one dimensional (1D) Poisson equation is derived using an analytical approach, and then solved numerically to study the potential profiles. Effect of (a) negative ion production rate, (b) magnetic field profile, and (c) negative ion temperature on the potential profile has been investigated. A potential peak appears near the wall when the negative ion temperature and density are sufficiently high. Also, the presence of negative ions further decreases the potential in the plasma region for a finite Debye Length (λ D )

  15. The potential role of open source software in overcoming digital poverty

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kinyondo, J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available literature analysis, document analysis as well as observations of open source community activities were conducted to identify the ICT acceptance challenges and to formulate questions for a survey instrument and for interviews. Four open source communities...

  16. Petals of Crocus sativus L. as a potential source of the antioxidants crocin and kaempferol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeka, Keti; Ruparelia, Ketan C; Continenza, Maria A; Stagos, Dimitrios; Vegliò, Francesco; Arroo, Randolph R J

    2015-12-01

    Saffron from the province of L'Aquila, in the Abruzzo region of Italy, is highly prized and has been awarded a formal recognition by the European Union with EU Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) status. Despite this, the saffron regions are abandoned by the younger generations because the traditional cultivation of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is labour intensive and yields only one crop of valuable saffron stamens per year. Petals of the saffron Crocus have had additional uses in traditional medicine and may add value to the crops for local farmers. This is especially important because the plant only flowers between October and November, and farmers will need to make the best use of the flowers harvested in this period. Recently, the petals of C. sativus L., which are considered a waste material in the production of saffron spice, were identified as a potential source of natural antioxidants. The antioxidants crocin and kaempferol were purified by flash column chromatography, and identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC), HPLC-DAD, infrared (IR), and nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H &(13)C NMR) spectroscopy. The antioxidant activity was determined with the ABTS and DPPH tests. The antioxidant activities are mainly attributed to carotenoid and flavonoid compounds, notably glycosides of crocin and kaempferol. We found in dried petals 0.6% (w/w) and 12.6 (w/w) of crocin and kaempferol, respectively. Petals of C. sativus L. have commercial potential as a source for kaempferol and crocetin glycosides, natural compounds with antioxidant activity that are considered to be the active ingredients in saffron-based herbal medicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Intense fusion neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-01-01

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 10 15 -10 21 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 10 20 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  18. Intense fusion neutron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-04-01

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015-1021 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 1020 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  19. Anthropogenic nutrient sources rival natural sources on small scales in the coastal waters of the Southern California Bight

    KAUST Repository

    Howard, Meredith D. A.; Sutula, Martha; Caron, David A.; Chao, Yi; Farrara, John D.; Frenzel, Hartmut; Jones, Burton; Robertson, George; McLaughlin, Karen; Sengupta, Ashmita

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic nutrients have been shown to provide significant sources of nitrogen (N) that have been linked to increased primary production and harmful algal blooms worldwide. There is a general perception that in upwelling regions, the flux of anthropogenic nutrient inputs is small relative to upwelling flux, and therefore anthropogenic inputs have relatively little effect on the productivity of coastal waters. To test the hypothesis that natural sources (e.g., upwelling) greatly exceed anthropogenic nutrient sources to the Southern California Bight (SCB), this study compared the source contributions of N from four major nutrient sources: (1) upwelling, (2) treated wastewater effluent discharged to ocean outfalls, (3) riverine runoff, and (4) atmospheric deposition. This comparison was made using large regional data sets combined with modeling on both regional and local scales. At the regional bight-wide spatial scale, upwelling was the largest source of N by an order of magnitude to effluent and two orders of magnitude to riverine runoff. However, at smaller spatial scales, more relevant to algal bloom development, natural and anthropogenic contributions were equivalent. In particular, wastewater effluent and upwelling contributed the same quantity of N in several subregions of the SCB. These findings contradict the currently held perception that in upwelling-dominated regions anthropogenic nutrient inputs are negligible, and suggest that anthropogenic nutrients, mainly wastewater effluent, can provide a significant source of nitrogen for nearshore productivity in Southern California coastal waters.

  20. Anthropogenic nutrient sources rival natural sources on small scales in the coastal waters of the Southern California Bight

    KAUST Repository

    Howard, Meredith D. A.

    2014-01-26

    Anthropogenic nutrients have been shown to provide significant sources of nitrogen (N) that have been linked to increased primary production and harmful algal blooms worldwide. There is a general perception that in upwelling regions, the flux of anthropogenic nutrient inputs is small relative to upwelling flux, and therefore anthropogenic inputs have relatively little effect on the productivity of coastal waters. To test the hypothesis that natural sources (e.g., upwelling) greatly exceed anthropogenic nutrient sources to the Southern California Bight (SCB), this study compared the source contributions of N from four major nutrient sources: (1) upwelling, (2) treated wastewater effluent discharged to ocean outfalls, (3) riverine runoff, and (4) atmospheric deposition. This comparison was made using large regional data sets combined with modeling on both regional and local scales. At the regional bight-wide spatial scale, upwelling was the largest source of N by an order of magnitude to effluent and two orders of magnitude to riverine runoff. However, at smaller spatial scales, more relevant to algal bloom development, natural and anthropogenic contributions were equivalent. In particular, wastewater effluent and upwelling contributed the same quantity of N in several subregions of the SCB. These findings contradict the currently held perception that in upwelling-dominated regions anthropogenic nutrient inputs are negligible, and suggest that anthropogenic nutrients, mainly wastewater effluent, can provide a significant source of nitrogen for nearshore productivity in Southern California coastal waters.

  1. Towards open collaborative health informatics - The Role of free/libre open source principles. Contribution of the IMIA Open Source Health Informatics Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karopka, T; Schmuhl, H; Marcelo, A; Molin, J Dal; Wright, G

    2011-01-01

    : To analyze the contribution of Free/Libre Open Source Software in health care (FLOSS-HC) and to give perspectives for future developments. The paper summarizes FLOSS-related trends in health care as anticipated by members of the IMIA Open Source Working Group. Data were obtained through literature review and personal experience and observations of the authors in the last two decades. A status quo is given by a frequency analysis of the database of Medfloss.org, one of the world's largest platforms dedicated to FLOSS-HC. The authors discuss current problems in the field of health care and finally give a prospective roadmap, a projection of the potential influences of FLOSS in health care. FLOSS-HC already exists for more than 2 decades. Several projects have shown that FLOSS may produce highly competitive alternatives to proprietary solutions that are at least equivalent in usability and have a better total cost of ownership ratio. The Medfloss.org database currently lists 221 projects of diverse application types. FLOSS principles hold a great potential for addressing several of the most critical problems in health care IT. The authors argue that an ecosystem perspective is relevant and that FLOSS principles are best suited to create health IT systems that are able to evolve over time as medical knowledge, technologies, insights, workflows etc. continuously change. All these factors that inherently influence the development of health IT systems are changing at an ever growing pace. Traditional models of software engineering are not able to follow these changes and provide up-to-date systems for an acceptable cost/value ratio. To allow FLOSS to positively influence Health IT in the future a "FLOSS-friendly" environment has to be provided. Policy makers should resolve uncertainties in the legal framework that disfavor FLOSS. Certification procedures should be specified in a way that they do not raise additional barriers for FLOSS.

  2. Ownership structure and economic and socio-environmental disclosure in the largest Brazilian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Aquino Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The disclosure of sustainable practices has become important in the search for competitive advantage, so as to meet the expectations of the various stakeholders. Thus, the study aims to investigate the relationship between the ownership structure and the economic and environmental voluntary disclosure in the largest Brazilian companies, analyzing ownership concentration and the identity of the controlling shareholder. For the analysis, we considered the economic, social and environmental perspectives, addressed both individually and jointly. The sample consists of 47 companies from the 100 largest public companies listed on BM&FBOVESPA, according to the magazine Exame Biggest and Best, edition 2013. The research is descriptive and quantitative, using Multiple Linear Regression for statistical analysis. The descriptive analysis of the prospects of (economic, social, environmental and sustainability disclosure showed lower average disclosure for the environmental aspect. The state control organizations stood out with the highest average in three of the four levels of disclosure: economic, social and sustainability. As regards the application of statistical analysis, the regression models were not statistically significant, indicating that, for the companies in the sample, the ownership structure does not influence the economic and socio-environmental disclosure.

  3. ObsPy: Establishing and maintaining an open-source community package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krischer, L.; Megies, T.; Barsch, R.

    2017-12-01

    Python's ecosystem evolved into one of the most powerful and productive research environment across disciplines. ObsPy (https://obspy.org) is a fully community driven, open-source project dedicated to provide a bridge for seismology into that ecosystem. It does so by offering Read and write support for essentially every commonly used data format in seismology, Integrated access to the largest data centers, web services, and real-time data streams, A powerful signal processing toolbox tuned to the specific needs of seismologists, and Utility functionality like travel time calculations, geodetic functions, and data visualizations. ObsPy has been in constant unfunded development for more than eight years and is developed and used by scientists around the world with successful applications in all branches of seismology. By now around 70 people directly contributed code to ObsPy and we aim to make it a self-sustaining community project.This contributions focusses on several meta aspects of open-source software in science, in particular how we experienced them. During the panel we would like to discuss obvious questions like long-term sustainability with very limited to no funding, insufficient computer science training in many sciences, and gaining hard scientific credits for software development, but also the following questions: How to best deal with the fact that a lot of scientific software is very specialized thus usually solves a complex problem but at the same time can only ever reach a limited pool of developers and users by virtue of it being so specialized? Therefore the "many eyes on the code" approach to develop and improve open-source software only applies in a limited fashion. An initial publication for a significant new scientific software package is fairly straightforward. How to on-board and motivate potential new contributors when they can no longer be lured by a potential co-authorship? When is spending significant time and effort on reusable

  4. Relationship between THMs/NDMA formation potential and molecular weight of organic compounds for source and treated water in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Dong; Gu, Bin; Sun, Sainan; Zhang, Han; Chen, Yanan; Zhu, Huifeng; Shi, Jian; Tong, Jun

    2017-12-15

    Molecular weight (MW) distributions in source and treated water in Shanghai, China were investigated to understand the relationship between trihalomethanes formation potential/N-nitrosodimethylamine formation potential (THMFP/NDMAFP) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) for different MW ranges (30KDa). The result of MW distributions in source water indicated a relationship between THMFP/NDMAFP and DOC such that DOC for 30KDa THMFP was totally removed whereas NDMA according to the results for treated water between DOC and NDMAFP (R 2 =0.94 and 0.93 for sand and GAC filtration, respectively). The results may provide researchers with targeted treatment strategies to destroy, remove, or reduce the occurrence of THMs and NDMA precursors. The findings presented in this study will be of great value in future work for selecting suitable drinking water treatment processes to minimize the formation of disinfection by-products using chlorine or chloramine disinfection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Ultrasound scan as a potential source of nosocomial and cross-infection: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Hadyme Miyague

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe authors review the main concepts regarding the importance of cleaning/disinfection of ultrasonography probes, aiming a better comprehension by practitioners and thus enabling strategies to establish a safe practice without compromising the quality of the examination and the operator productivity. In the context of biosafety, it is imperative to assume that contact with blood or body fluids represents a potential source of infection. Thus, in order to implement cleaning/disinfection practice, it is necessary to understand the principles of infection control, to consider the cost/benefit ratio of the measures to be implemented, and most importantly, to comprehend that such measures will not only benefit the health professional and the patient, but the society as a whole.

  6. Climate change mitigation: the potential of agriculture as a renewable energy source in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elum, Z A; Modise, D M; Nhamo, G

    2017-02-01

    Energy is pivotal to the economic development of every nation. However, its production and utilization leads to undesirable carbon emissions that aggravate global warming which results in climate change. The agriculture sector is a significant user of energy. However, it has the potential to be a major contributor to Nigeria's energy supply mix in meeting its energy deficit. More so, in the light of current and impending adverse effects of climate change, there is a need to contain GHG's emissions. This paper focuses on bioenergy utilization as a climate change mitigation strategy and one that can, through effective waste management, enhance sustainable economic development in Nigeria. The paper employed a critical discourse analysis to examine the potential of the agricultural sector to provide biofuels from energy crops and other biomass sources. We conclude that Nigeria can reduce its GHG emissions and greatly contribute to global climate change mitigation while also alleviating its energy supply deficit if the agricultural and municipal wastes readily available in its towns and cities are converted to bioenergy. Such engagements will not only promote a clean and healthy environment but also create jobs for economic empowerment and a better standard of living for the people.

  7. Exploring the Potential of Predictive Analytics and Big Data in Emergency Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Alexander T; Overbeek, Daniel L; Kocher, Keith E; Levy, Phillip D

    2016-02-01

    Clinical research often focuses on resource-intensive causal inference, whereas the potential of predictive analytics with constantly increasing big data sources remains largely unexplored. Basic prediction, divorced from causal inference, is much easier with big data. Emergency care may benefit from this simpler application of big data. Historically, predictive analytics have played an important role in emergency care as simple heuristics for risk stratification. These tools generally follow a standard approach: parsimonious criteria, easy computability, and independent validation with distinct populations. Simplicity in a prediction tool is valuable, but technological advances make it no longer a necessity. Emergency care could benefit from clinical predictions built using data science tools with abundant potential input variables available in electronic medical records. Patients' risks could be stratified more precisely with large pools of data and lower resource requirements for comparing each clinical encounter to those that came before it, benefiting clinical decisionmaking and health systems operations. The largest value of predictive analytics comes early in the clinical encounter, in which diagnostic and prognostic uncertainty are high and resource-committing decisions need to be made. We propose an agenda for widening the application of predictive analytics in emergency care. Throughout, we express cautious optimism because there are myriad challenges related to database infrastructure, practitioner uptake, and patient acceptance. The quality of routinely compiled clinical data will remain an important limitation. Complementing big data sources with prospective data may be necessary if predictive analytics are to achieve their full potential to improve care quality in the emergency department. Copyright © 2015 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. DISCOVERY OF THE LARGEST KNOWN LENSED IMAGES FORMED BY A CRITICALLY CONVERGENT LENSING CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zitrin, Adi; Broadhurst, Tom

    2009-01-01

    We identify the largest known lensed images of a single spiral galaxy, lying close to the center of the distant cluster MACS J1149.5+2223 (z = 0.544). These images cover a total area of ≅150 mbox '' and are magnified ≅200 times. Unusually, there is very little image distortion, implying that the central mass distribution is almost uniform over a wide area (r ≅ 200 kpc) with a surface density equal to the critical density for lensing, corresponding to maximal lens magnification. Many fainter multiply lensed galaxies are also uncovered by our model, outlining a very large tangential critical curve, of radius r ≅ 170 kpc, posing a potential challenge for the standard LCDM cosmology. Because of the uniform central mass distribution, a particularly clean measurement of the mass of the brightest cluster galaxy is possible here, for which we infer stars contribute most of the mass within a limiting radius of ≅30 kpc, with a mass-to-light ratio of M/L B ≅ 4.5(M/L) sun . This cluster with its uniform and central mass distribution acts analogously to a regular magnifying glass, converging light without distorting the images, resulting in the most powerful lens yet discovered for accessing the faint high-z universe.

  9. Projection of needs for gamma radiation sources and other radioisotopes and assessment of alternatives for providing radiation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, W.A.; Jensen, G.A.; Clark, L.L.; Eakin, D.E.; Jarrett, J.H.; Katayama, Y.B.; McKee, R.W.; Morgan, L.G.; Nealey, S.M.; Platt, A.M.; Tingey, G.L.

    1989-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed the projected uses and demands for a variety of nuclear byproducts. Because the major large-scale near-term demand is for gamma irradiation sources, this report concentrates on the needs for gamma sources and evaluates the options for providing the needed material. Projections of possible growth in the irradiation treatment industry indicate that there will be a need for 180 to 320 MCi of /sup 60/Co (including /sup 137/Cs equivalent) in service in the year 2000. The largest current and projected use of gamma irradiation is for the sterilization of medical devices and disposable medical supplies. Currently, 40% of US disposable medical products are treated by irradiation, and within 10 years it is expected that 90% will be treated in this manner. Irradiation treatment of food for destruction of pathogens or parasites, disinfestation, or extension of allowable storage periods is estimated to require an active inventory of 75 MCi of /sup 60/Co-equivalent gamma source in about a decade. 90 refs., 7 figs., 25 tabs.

  10. Projection of needs for gamma radiation sources and other radioisotopes and assessment of alternatives for providing radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.A.; Jensen, G.A.; Clark, L.L.

    1989-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed the projected uses and demands for a variety of nuclear byproducts. Because the major large-scale near-term demand is for gamma irradiation sources, this report concentrates on the needs for gamma sources and evaluates the options for providing the needed material. Projections of possible growth in the irradiation treatment industry indicate that there will be a need for 180 to 320 MCi of 60 Co (including 137 Cs equivalent) in service in the year 2000. The largest current and projected use of gamma irradiation is for the sterilization of medical devices and disposable medical supplies. Currently, 40% of US disposable medical products are treated by irradiation, and within 10 years it is expected that 90% will be treated in this manner. Irradiation treatment of food for destruction of pathogens or parasites, disinfestation, or extension of allowable storage periods is estimated to require an active inventory of 75 MCi of 60 Co-equivalent gamma source in about a decade. 90 refs., 7 figs., 25 tabs

  11. Source impacts by volatile organic compounds in an industrial city of southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pao-Wen Grace; Yao, Yung-Chen; Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Hsu, Yi-Chyun; Chang, Li-Peng; Chang, Ken-Hui

    2008-07-15

    This study investigates source impacts by airborne volatile organic compounds (VOC) at two sites designated for traffic and industry, in the largest industrial area Kaohsiung, southern Taiwan. The samples were collected at the two sites simultaneously during rush and non-rush hours in summer and autumn seasons. Same pattern of VOC groups were found at both sites: most abundant aromatics (78-95%) followed by alkanes (2-16%) and alkenes (0-6%). The BTEX concentration measured at the two sites ranged from 69 to 301 ppbC. Toluene, isopentane, ethylbenzene, and benzene were found to be the most abundant species. Speciation of VOCs was characterized with several skills including principal component factor analysis and BTEX characteristic ratios. Each of the resulted principal factors at the two sites explained over 80% of the VOCs data variance, and indicated that both of the sampling sites were influenced by both traffic and industrial sources with separately different levels. The remarkable patterns of the first two factors described not only the similarity but also the discrepancy at the two sampling sites, in terms of the source impacts. The high T/B ratios (7.56-14.25) observed at the industrial site implied the important impact from mobile emissions. The indicators, m,p-xylene/benzene and o-xylene/benzene, also confirmed the potential source of motor vehicles at both of the sampling sites. Air age assessment showed that more than half of the total observations located in the domain of fresh air. Low X/E ratios implied somewhat aged air mass transported to the sampling sites. The industrial site might not only encounter emissions from the industry sources, but also under unavoidable impact from the traffic sources.

  12. OBJECT TRACKING WITH ROTATION-INVARIANT LARGEST DIFFERENCE INDEXED LOCAL TERNARY PATTERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Shajeena

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an ideal method for object tracking directly in the compressed domain in video sequences. An enhanced rotation-invariant image operator called Largest Difference Indexed Local Ternary Pattern (LDILTP has been proposed. The Local Ternary Pattern which worked very well in texture classification and face recognition is now extended for rotation invariant object tracking. Histogramming the LTP code makes the descriptor resistant to translation. The histogram intersection is used to find the similarity measure. This method is robust to noise and retain contrast details. The proposed scheme has been verified on various datasets and shows a commendable performance.

  13. Hydrodynamic and Inundation Modeling of China’s Largest Freshwater Lake Aided by Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available China’s largest freshwater lake, Poyang Lake, is characterized by rapid changes in its inundation area and hydrodynamics, so in this study, a hydrodynamic model of Poyang Lake was established to simulate these long-term changes. Inundation information was extracted from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS remote sensing data and used to calibrate the wetting and drying parameter by assessing the accuracy of the simulated inundation area and its boundary. The bottom friction parameter was calibrated using current velocity measurements from Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP. The results show the model is capable of predicting the inundation area dynamic through cross-validation with remotely sensed inundation data, and can reproduce the seasonal dynamics of the water level, and water discharge through a comparison with hydrological data. Based on the model results, the characteristics of the current velocities of the lake in the wet season and the dry season of the lake were explored, and the potential effect of the current dynamic on water quality patterns was discussed. The model is a promising basic tool for prediction and management of the water resource and water quality of Poyang Lake.

  14. The largest subunit of RNA polymerase II from the Glaucocystophyta: functional constraint and short-branch exclusion in deep eukaryotic phylogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stiller John W

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolutionary analyses of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB1 have yielded important and at times provocative results. One particularly troublesome outcome is the consistent inference of independent origins of red algae and green plants, at odds with the more widely accepted view of a monophyletic Plantae comprising all eukaryotes with primary plastids. If the hypothesis of a broader kingdom Plantae is correct, then RPB1 trees likely reflect a persistent phylogenetic artifact. To gain a better understanding of RNAP II evolution, and the presumed artifact relating to green plants and red algae, we isolated and analyzed RPB1 from representatives of Glaucocystophyta, the third eukaryotic group with primary plastids. Results Phylogenetic analyses incorporating glaucocystophytes do not recover a monophyletic Plantae; rather they result in additional conflicts with the most widely held views on eukaryotic relationships. In particular, glaucocystophytes are recovered as sister to several amoebozoans with strong support. A detailed investigation shows that this clade can be explained by what we call "short-branch exclusion," a phylogenetic artifact integrally associated with "long-branch attraction." Other systematic discrepancies observed in RPB1 trees can be explained as phylogenetic artifacts; however, these apparent artifacts also appear in regions of the tree that support widely held views of eukaryotic evolution. In fact, most of the RPB1 tree is consistent with artifacts of rate variation among sequences and co-variation due to functional constraints related to C-terminal domain based RNAP II transcription. Conclusion Our results reveal how subtle and easily overlooked biases can dominate the overall results of molecular phylogenetic analyses of ancient eukaryotic relationships. Sources of potential phylogenetic artifact should be investigated routinely, not just when obvious "long-branch attraction" is encountered.

  15. Polarized point sources in the LOFAR Two-meter Sky Survey: A preliminary catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eck, C. L.; Haverkorn, M.; Alves, M. I. R.; Beck, R.; Best, P.; Carretti, E.; Chyży, K. T.; Farnes, J. S.; Ferrière, K.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Heald, G.; Horellou, C.; Iacobelli, M.; Jelić, V.; Mulcahy, D. D.; O'Sullivan, S. P.; Polderman, I. M.; Reich, W.; Riseley, C. J.; Röttgering, H.; Schnitzeler, D. H. F. M.; Shimwell, T. W.; Vacca, V.; Vink, J.; White, G. J.

    2018-06-01

    The polarization properties of radio sources at very low frequencies (right ascension, 45°-57° declination, 570 square degrees). We have produced a catalog of 92 polarized radio sources at 150 MHz at 4.'3 resolution and 1 mJy rms sensitivity, which is the largest catalog of polarized sources at such low frequencies. We estimate a lower limit to the polarized source surface density at 150 MHz, with our resolution and sensitivity, of 1 source per 6.2 square degrees. We find that our Faraday depth measurements are in agreement with previous measurements and have significantly smaller errors. Most of our sources show significant depolarization compared to 1.4 GHz, but there is a small population of sources with low depolarization indicating that their polarized emission is highly localized in Faraday depth. We predict that an extension of this work to the full LOTSS data would detect at least 3400 polarized sources using the same methods, and probably considerably more with improved data processing.

  16. Potential sources of bacteriological pollution for two bays with marinas in Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Ann Bullock

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Welcome Bay and Chaguaramas Bay in the northwest peninsula of Trinidad contain large marinas and smaller sections of bathing beaches.Bacteriological surveys were conducted at both bays to assess water quality and to determine potential sources of pollution.These surveys were conducted during the wet season of 1996 and the dry season of 1997.Eleven sample stations were established at Welcome Bay and 12 at Chaguaramas Bay.Freshwater samples were collected from rivers and drains within the survey area.Marine water samples were collected from marinas,bathing beaches and inshore and outer areas at both bays.Five water samples were collected from each sampling station during the wet season of 1996 and six during the dry season of 1997.The membrane filter technique was used to determine faecal coliform and Escherichia coli levels in all samples. There was a seasonal effect on water quality,with significantly higher faecal coliform levels in the wet season, when water quality was not in compliance with international standards.This represents a potential health risk in bathing areas.Water quality was better at the outer area of both bays.Water quality at the inner bay areas was most likely adversely affected by land-based sources of pollution identified in this study.These sources include three drains and two rivers,which discharged into the bays.Yachts were apparently not a source of sewage pollution:there was no significant relationship between yacht number and faecal coliform levels.Las bahías Welcome y Chaguaramas en la península noroeste de Trinidad tienen grandes marinas y secciones pequeñas de playas para bañistas.Se realizaron sondeos bacteriológicos en ambas bahías para determinar la calidad del agua y para señalar fuentes potenciales de contaminación.Estos sondeos fueron realizados durante la época lluviosa de 1996 y la seca de 1997.Once estaciones de muestreo se establecieron en Bahía Welcome y doce en Bahía Chaguaramas.Muestras de

  17. A study of photochemical againg of ambient air using Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) chamber under the different sources and types of emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T.; Son, J.; Kim, J.; Kim, S.; Sung, K.; Park, G.; Link, M.; Park, T.; Kim, K.; Kang, S.; Ban, J.; Kim, D. S.

    2016-12-01

    Recent research proposed that Secondary Aerosol (SA) is important class of predicting future climate change scenarios, health effect, and a general air quality. However, there has been lack of studies to investigate SA formation all over the world. This study tried to focus on understanding potential secondary aerosol formation and its local impact by the photochemical aging of inorganic and organic aerosols in the ambient air using the Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) chamber under the different sources and types of emissions. PAM chamber manufactured by Aerodyne make an oxidizing environment that simulates oxidation processes on timescales of 12-15 hrs in the atmosphere. Chemical compositions of ambient aerosol and aerosol that was aged in the PAM chamber were alternately measured every 2-minutes using the High Resolution-Time of Flight-Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). HR-ToF-AMS provides non-refractory aerosol mass concentrations including nitrate, sulfate, hydrocarbon-like and oxygenated organic aerosol in real time. This study includes a residence area of mixture of sources, a forest site of dominant source of biogenic VOCs, an underground parking lot of dominant vehicle emission, and laboratory experiment of vehicle emissions under different fuels and speeds using the chassis dynamometer. As a result, it was revealed that gasoline and LPG vehicle relatively made more potential SA than diesel vehicle.

  18. Factors affecting the repeatability of gamma camera calibration for quantitative imaging applications using a sealed source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anizan, N; Wahl, R L; Frey, E C; Wang, H; Zhou, X C

    2015-01-01

    Several applications in nuclear medicine require absolute activity quantification of single photon emission computed tomography images. Obtaining a repeatable calibration factor that converts voxel values to activity units is essential for these applications. Because source preparation and measurement of the source activity using a radionuclide activity meter are potential sources of variability, this work investigated instrumentation and acquisition factors affecting repeatability using planar acquisition of sealed sources. The calibration factor was calculated for different acquisition and geometry conditions to evaluate the effect of the source size, lateral position of the source in the camera field-of-view (FOV), source-to-camera distance (SCD), and variability over time using sealed Ba-133 sources. A small region of interest (ROI) based on the source dimensions and collimator resolution was investigated to decrease the background effect. A statistical analysis with a mixed-effects model was used to evaluate quantitatively the effect of each variable on the global calibration factor variability. A variation of 1 cm in the measurement of the SCD from the assumed distance of 17 cm led to a variation of 1–2% in the calibration factor measurement using a small disc source (0.4 cm diameter) and less than 1% with a larger rod source (2.9 cm diameter). The lateral position of the source in the FOV and the variability over time had small impacts on calibration factor variability. The residual error component was well estimated by Poisson noise. Repeatability of better than 1% in a calibration factor measurement using a planar acquisition of a sealed source can be reasonably achieved. The best reproducibility was obtained with the largest source with a count rate much higher than the average background in the ROI, and when the SCD was positioned within 5 mm of the desired position. In this case, calibration source variability was limited by the quantum

  19. Estimating national crop yield potential and the relevance of weather data sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wart, Justin

    2011-12-01

    To determine where, when, and how to increase yields, researchers often analyze the yield gap (Yg), the difference between actual current farm yields and crop yield potential. Crop yield potential (Yp) is the yield of a crop cultivar grown under specific management limited only by temperature and solar radiation and also by precipitation for water limited yield potential (Yw). Yp and Yw are critical components of Yg estimations, but are very difficult to quantify, especially at larger scales because management data and especially daily weather data are scarce. A protocol was developed to estimate Yp and Yw at national scales using site-specific weather, soils and management data. Protocol procedures and inputs were evaluated to determine how to improve accuracy of Yp, Yw and Yg estimates. The protocol was also used to evaluate raw, site-specific and gridded weather database sources for use in simulations of Yp or Yw. The protocol was applied to estimate crop Yp in US irrigated maize and Chinese irrigated rice and Yw in US rainfed maize and German rainfed wheat. These crops and countries account for >20% of global cereal production. The results have significant implications for past and future studies of Yp, Yw and Yg. Accuracy of national long-term average Yp and Yw estimates was significantly improved if (i) > 7 years of simulations were performed for irrigated and > 15 years for rainfed sites, (ii) > 40% of nationally harvested area was within 100 km of all simulation sites, (iii) observed weather data coupled with satellite derived solar radiation data were used in simulations, and (iv) planting and harvesting dates were specified within +/- 7 days of farmers actual practices. These are much higher standards than have been applied in national estimates of Yp and Yw and this protocol is a substantial step in making such estimates more transparent, robust, and straightforward. Finally, this protocol may be a useful tool for understanding yield trends and directing

  20. Targeting allergenic fungi in agricultural environments aids the identification of major sources and potential risks for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weikl, F; Radl, V; Munch, J C; Pritsch, K

    2015-10-01

    Fungi are, after pollen, the second most important producers of outdoor airborne allergens. To identify sources of airborne fungal allergens, a workflow for qPCR quantification from environmental samples was developed, thoroughly tested, and finally applied. We concentrated on determining the levels of allergenic fungi belonging to Alternaria, Cladosporium, Fusarium, and Trichoderma in plant and soil samples from agricultural fields in which cereals were grown. Our aims were to identify the major sources of allergenic fungi and factors potentially influencing their occurrence. Plant materials were the main source of the tested fungi at and after harvest. Amounts of A. alternata and C. cladosporioides varied significantly in fields under different management conditions, but absolute levels were very high in all cases. This finding suggests that high numbers of allergenic fungi may be an inevitable side effect of farming in several crops. Applied in large-scale studies, the concept described here may help to explain the high number of sensitization to airborne fungal allergens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Global source attribution of sulfate concentration and direct and indirect radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Wang, Hailong; Smith, Steven J.; Easter, Richard; Ma, Po-Lun; Qian, Yun; Yu, Hongbin; Li, Can; Rasch, Philip J.

    2017-07-01

    The global source-receptor relationships of sulfate concentrations, and direct and indirect radiative forcing (DRF and IRF) from 16 regions/sectors for years 2010-2014 are examined in this study through utilizing a sulfur source-tagging capability implemented in the Community Earth System Model (CESM) with winds nudged to reanalysis data. Sulfate concentrations are mostly contributed by local emissions in regions with high emissions, while over regions with relatively low SO2 emissions, the near-surface sulfate concentrations are primarily attributed to non-local sources from long-range transport. Regional source efficiencies of sulfate concentrations are higher over regions with dry atmospheric conditions and less export, suggesting that lifetime of aerosols, together with regional export, is important in determining regional air quality. The simulated global total sulfate DRF is -0.42 W m-2, with -0.31 W m-2 contributed by anthropogenic sulfate and -0.11 W m-2 contributed by natural sulfate, relative to a state with no sulfur emissions. In the Southern Hemisphere tropics, dimethyl sulfide (DMS) contributes 17-84 % to the total DRF. East Asia has the largest contribution of 20-30 % over the Northern Hemisphere mid- and high latitudes. A 20 % perturbation of sulfate and its precursor emissions gives a sulfate incremental IRF of -0.44 W m-2. DMS has the largest contribution, explaining -0.23 W m-2 of the global sulfate incremental IRF. Incremental IRF over regions in the Southern Hemisphere with low background aerosols is more sensitive to emission perturbation than that over the polluted Northern Hemisphere.

  2. Source apportionment of submicron organic aerosol collected from Atlanta, Georgia, during 2014-2015 using the aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanavaraha, Weruka; Canagaratna, Manjula R.; Budisulistiorini, Sri Hapsari; Croteau, Philip L.; Baumann, Karsten; Canonaco, Francesco; Prevot, Andre S. H.; Edgerton, Eric S.; Zhang, Zhenfa; Jayne, John T.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Gold, Avram; Shaw, Stephanie L.; Surratt, Jason D.

    2017-10-01

    The Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) was redeployed at the Jefferson Street (JST) site in downtown Atlanta, Georgia (GA) for 1 year (March 20, 2014-February 08, 2015) to chemically characterize non-refractory submicron particulate matter (NR-PM1) in near real-time and to assess whether organic aerosol (OA) types and amounts change from year-to-year. Submicron organic aerosol (OA) mass spectra were analyzed by season using multilinear engine (ME-2) to apportion OA subtypes to potential sources and chemical processes. A suite of real-time collocated measurements from the Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH) network was compared with ME-2 factor solutions to aid in the interpretation of OA subtypes during each season. OA tracers measured from high-volume filter samples using gas chromatography interfaced with electron ionization-mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS) also aided in identifying OA sources. The initial application of ME-2 to the yearlong ACSM dataset revealed that OA source apportionment by season was required to better resolve sporadic OA types. Spring and fall OA mass spectral datasets were separated into finer periods to capture potential OA sources resulting from non-homogeneous emissions during transitioning periods. NR-PM1 was highest in summer (16.7 ± 8.4 μg m-3) and lowest in winter (8.0 ± 5.7 μg m-3), consistent with prior studies. OA dominated NR-PM1 mass (56-74% on average) in all seasons. Hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) from primary emissions was observed in all seasons, averaging 5-22% of total OA mass. Strong correlations of HOA with carbon monoxide (CO) (R = 0.71-0.88) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) (R = 0.55-0.79) indicated that vehicular traffic was the likely source. Biomass burning OA (BBOA) was observed in all seasons, with lower contributions (2%) in summer and higher in colder seasons (averaging 8-20% of total OA mass). BBOA correlated strongly with levoglucosan (R = 0.78-0.95) during colder seasons

  3. Automobile tires--a potential source of highly carcinogenic dibenzopyrenes to the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiktsis, Ioannis; Bergvall, Christoffer; Johansson, Christer; Westerholm, Roger

    2012-03-20

    Eight tires were analyzed for 15 high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), using pressurized fluid extraction. The variability of the PAH concentrations determined between different tires was large; a factor of 22.6 between the lowest and the highest. The relative abundance of the analytes was quite similar regardless of tire. Almost all (92.3%) of the total extractable PAH content was attributed to five PAHs: benzo[ghi]perylene, coronene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, benzo[e]pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene. The difference in the measured PAH content between summer and winter tires varied substantially across manufacturers, making estimates of total vehicle fleet emissions very uncertain. However, when comparing different types of tires from the same manufacturer they had significantly (p = 0.05) different PAH content. Previously, there have been no data available for carcinogenic dibenzopyrene isomers in automobile tires. In this study, the four dibenzopyrene isomers dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, dibenzo[a,e]pyrene, dibenzo[a,i]pyrene, and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene constituted tires may be a potential previously unknown source of carcinogenic dibenzopyrenes to the environment.

  4. Advanced neutron imaging methods with a potential to benefit from pulsed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobl, M.; Kardjilov, N.; Hilger, A.; Penumadu, D.; Manke, I.

    2011-01-01

    During the last decade neutron imaging has seen significant improvements in instrumentation, detection and spatial resolution. Additionally, a variety of new applications and methods have been explored. As a consequence of an outstanding development nowadays various techniques of neutron imaging go far beyond a two- and three-dimensional mapping of the attenuation coefficients for a broad range of samples. Neutron imaging has become sensitive to neutron scattering in the small angle scattering range as well as with respect to Bragg scattering. Corresponding methods potentially provide spatially resolved and volumetric data revealing microstructural inhomogeneities, texture variations, crystalline phase distributions and even strains in bulk samples. Other techniques allow for the detection of refractive index distribution through phase sensitive measurements and the utilization of polarized neutrons enables radiographic and tomographic investigations of magnetic fields and properties as well as electrical currents within massive samples. All these advanced methods utilize or depend on wavelength dependent signals, and are hence suited to profit significantly from pulsed neutron sources as will be discussed.

  5. Differential genome-wide gene expression profiling of bovine largest and second-largest follicles: identification of genes associated with growth of dominant follicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi Toru

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine follicular development is regulated by numerous molecular mechanisms and biological pathways. In this study, we tried to identify differentially expressed genes between largest (F1 and second-largest follicles (F2, and classify them by global gene expression profiling using a combination of microarray and quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR analysis. The follicular status of F1 and F2 were further evaluated in terms of healthy and atretic conditions by investigating mRNA localization of identified genes. Methods Global gene expression profiles of F1 (10.7 +/- 0.7 mm and F2 (7.8 +/- 0.2 mm were analyzed by hierarchical cluster analysis and expression profiles of 16 representative genes were confirmed by QPCR analysis. In addition, localization of six identified transcripts was investigated in healthy and atretic follicles using in situ hybridization. The healthy or atretic condition of examined follicles was classified by progesterone and estradiol concentrations in follicular fluid. Results Hierarchical cluster analysis of microarray data classified the follicles into two clusters. Cluster A was composed of only F2 and was characterized by high expression of 31 genes including IGFBP5, whereas cluster B contained only F1 and predominantly expressed 45 genes including CYP19 and FSHR. QPCR analysis confirmed AMH, CYP19, FSHR, GPX3, PlGF, PLA2G1B, SCD and TRB2 were greater in F1 than F2, while CCL2, GADD45A, IGFBP5, PLAUR, SELP, SPP1, TIMP1 and TSP2 were greater in F2 than in F1. In situ hybridization showed that AMH and CYP19 were detected in granulosa cells (GC of healthy as well as atretic follicles. PlGF was localized in GC and in the theca layer (TL of healthy follicles. IGFBP5 was detected in both GC and TL of atretic follicles. GADD45A and TSP2 were localized in both GC and TL of atretic follicles, whereas healthy follicles expressed them only in GC. Conclusion We demonstrated that global gene expression profiling of F

  6. The potential contribution of the natural products from Brazilian biodiversity to bioeconomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARILIA VALLI

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The development of our society has been based on the use of biodiversity, especially for medicines and nutrition. Brazil is the nation with the largest biodiversity in the world accounting for more than 15% of all living species. The devastation of biodiversity in Brazil is critical and may not only cause the loss of species and genes that encode enzymes involved in the complex metabolism of organisms, but also the loss of a rich chemical diversity, which is a potential source for bioeconomy based on natural products and new synthetic derivatives. Bioeconomy focus on the use of bio-based products, instead of fossil-based ones and could address some of the important challenges faced by society. Considering the chemical and biological diversity of Brazil, this review highlights the Brazilian natural products that were successfully used to develop new products and the value of secondary metabolites from Brazilian biodiversity with potential application for new products and technologies. Additionally, we would like to address the importance of new technologies and scientific programs to support preservation policies, bioeconomy and strategies for the sustainable use of biodiversity.

  7. Advanced ceramic materials and their potential impact on the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laren, M.G.M.

    1989-01-01

    This article reviews the types of advanced ceramic materials that are being used today and their potential for even greater utilization in the future. Market analysis and projections have been developed from a number of sources both foreign and domestic are referenced and given in the text. Projection on the future use of advanced ceramics to the year 2000 indicate a potential growth of the total world market approaching 187 billion dollars. This paper describes advanced ceramic materials by their functionality, i.e. structural, electronic, chemical, thermal, biological, nuclear, etc. It also refers to specific engineering uses of advanced ceramics and include automotive ceramic materials with physical data for the most likely ceramic materials to be used for engine parts. This family of materials includes silicon carbides, silicon nitride, partially stabilized zirconia and alumina. Fiber reinforced ceramic composites are discussed with recognition of the research on fiber coating chemistry and the compatibility of the coating with the fiber and the matrix. Another class of advanced ceramics is toughened ceramics. The transformation toughened alumina is recognized as an example of this technology. The data indicate that electronic ceramic materials will always have the largest portion of the advanced ceramic market and the critical concepts of a wide range of uses is reviewed. (Auth.)

  8. Distribution, Sources and Toxicity Potentials of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soil Around the Vicinity of Balogun-Birro Dumpsite of Oshogbo, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adedosu, T.A.; Adeniyi, O.K.; Adedosu, H.O.

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of soil within the vicinity of dumpsites by toxic and persistent organic pollutants is of environmental concern because of their carcinogenic, genotoxic and environmental persistence. Waste disposal sites have been identified as potential source of PAHs accumulating in soil. Assessment of level, distribution and sources of PAHs in environmental media is important for evaluation of ecotoxicological and health effect. This study investigated the distribution, sources and level of PAHs in soil within the vicinity of Balogun-Birro Dumpsite in Osogbo, Nigeria and their potential impacts on human health. Soil samples were collected at ten points within the vicinity of the dumpsite. The level of the 16 USEPA PAHs in the soil samples were determined by gas chromatography - flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The total concentration of the 16PAHs ranged between 0.1137 mg/ kg to 5.6491 mg/ kg. Samples from the main dumpsite and the mechanic workshops had highest PAHs concentrations of 5.6491 mg/ kg and 3.6529 mg/ kg respectively. The distribution of PAHs ring size is in the order of 3>4>5>6>2. Carcinogenic fractions represent 34.74 % of the total PAHs. The total concentration of carcinogenic PAHs ranged from 0.06425 mg/ kg to 1.6775 mg/ kg. Diagnostic ratios of PAHs indicate that pyrogenic activities are major sources of PAHs. The study had revealed increasing accumulation of carcinogenic PAHs in soil within the vicinity of the dumpsite. (author)

  9. Linking potential heat source and sink to urban heat island: Heterogeneous effects of landscape pattern on land surface temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weifeng; Cao, Qiwen; Lang, Kun; Wu, Jiansheng

    2017-05-15

    Rapid urbanization has significantly contributed to the development of urban heat island (UHI). Regulating landscape composition and configuration would help mitigate the UHI in megacities. Taking Shenzhen, China, as a case study area, we defined heat source and heat sink and identified strong and weak sources as well as strong and weak sinks according to the natural and socioeconomic factors influencing land surface temperature (LST). Thus, the potential thermal contributions of heat source and heat sink patches were differentiated. Then, the heterogeneous effects of landscape pattern on LST were examined by using semiparametric geographically weighted regression (SGWR) models. The results showed that landscape composition has more significant effects on thermal environment than configuration. For a strong source, the percentage of patches has a positive impact on LST. Additionally, when mosaicked with some heat sink, even a small improvement in the degree of dispersion of a strong source helps to alleviate UHI. For a weak source, the percentage and density of patches have positive impacts on LST. For a strong sink, the percentage, density, and degree of aggregation of patches have negative impacts on LST. The effects of edge density and patch shape complexity vary spatially with the fragmentation of a strong sink. Similarly, the impacts of a weak sink are mainly exerted via the characteristics of percent, density, and shape complexity of patches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Source Segregation and Collection of Source-Segregated Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    of optimal handling of the waste. But in a few cases, the waste must also be separated at source, for example removing the protective plastic cover from a commercial advertisement received by mail, prior to putting the advertisement into the waste collection bin for recyclable paper. These issues are often...... in wastes segregation addressing: - Purpose of source segregation. - Segregation criteria and guidance. - Segregation potentials and efficiencies. - Systems for collecting segregated fraction....

  11. New developments and applications of intense pulsed radiation sources at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, D.

    1998-02-01

    In the past thirty-six months, tremendous strides have been made in x-ray production using high-current z-pinches. Today, the x-ray energy (1.9 MJ) and power (200 TW) output of the Z accelerator (formerly PBFA-II) is the largest available in the laboratory. These z-pinch x-ray sources are being developed for research into the physics of high energy density plasmas of interest in weapon behavior and in inertial confinement fusion. Beyond the Z accelerator current of 20 MA, an extrapolation to the X-1 accelerator level of 60 MA may have the potential to drive high-yield ICF reactions at affordable cost if several challenging technical problems can be overcome. New developments have also taken place at Sandia in the area of high current, mm-diameter electron beams for advanced hydrodynamic radiography. On SABRE, x-ray spot diameters were less than 2 mm with a dose of 100 R at 1 meter in a 40 ns pulse.

  12. Costs and potentials of energy conservation in China's coal-fired power industry: A bottom-up approach considering price uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hao; Kang, Jia-Ning; Liao, Hua; Tang, Bao-Jun; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Energy conservation technologies in the coal-fired power sector are important solutions for the environmental pollution and climate change issues. However, a unified framework for estimating their costs and potentials is still needed due to the wide technology choices, especially considering their economic feasibility under fuel and carbon price uncertainties. Therefore, this study has employed a bottom-up approach to analyze the costs and potentials of 32 key technologies’ new promotions during the 13th Five-Year Plan period (2016–2020), which combines the conservation supply curve (CSC) approach and break-even analysis. Findings show that (1) these 32 technologies have a total coal conservation potential of 275.77 Mt with a cost of 238.82 billion yuan, and their break-even coal price is 866 yuan/ton. (2) steam-water circulation system has the largest energy conservation potential in the coal-fired power industry. (3) considering the co-benefits will facilitate these technologies’ promotions, because their break-even coal prices will decrease by 2.35 yuan/ton when the carbon prices increase by 1 yuan/ton. (4) discount rates have the largest impacts on the technologies’ cost-effectiveness, while the future generation level affect their energy conservation potentials most. - Highlights: • The 32 technologies can save 275.77 Mt coal with a cost of 238.82 billion yuan. • The steam-water circulation system has the largest energy conservation potential. • Considering the co-benefits will facilitate the technology promotions • Discount rates have the largest impacts on the technologies’ cost-effectiveness.

  13. Correlation of errors in the Monte Carlo fission source and the fission matrix fundamental-mode eigenvector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufek, Jan; Holst, Gustaf

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Errors in the fission matrix eigenvector and fission source are correlated. • The error correlations depend on coarseness of the spatial mesh. • The error correlations are negligible when the mesh is very fine. - Abstract: Previous studies raised a question about the level of a possible correlation of errors in the cumulative Monte Carlo fission source and the fundamental-mode eigenvector of the fission matrix. A number of new methods tally the fission matrix during the actual Monte Carlo criticality calculation, and use its fundamental-mode eigenvector for various tasks. The methods assume the fission matrix eigenvector is a better representation of the fission source distribution than the actual Monte Carlo fission source, although the fission matrix and its eigenvectors do contain statistical and other errors. A recent study showed that the eigenvector could be used for an unbiased estimation of errors in the cumulative fission source if the errors in the eigenvector and the cumulative fission source were not correlated. Here we present new numerical study results that answer the question about the level of the possible error correlation. The results may be of importance to all methods that use the fission matrix. New numerical tests show that the error correlation is present at a level which strongly depends on properties of the spatial mesh used for tallying the fission matrix. The error correlation is relatively strong when the mesh is coarse, while the correlation weakens as the mesh gets finer. We suggest that the coarseness of the mesh is measured in terms of the value of the largest element in the tallied fission matrix as that way accounts for the mesh as well as system properties. In our test simulations, we observe only negligible error correlations when the value of the largest element in the fission matrix is about 0.1. Relatively strong error correlations appear when the value of the largest element in the fission matrix raises

  14. Persistence of deeply sourced iron in the Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Tristan J; Williams, Helen M; Hein, James R; Saito, Mak A; Burton, Kevin W; Halliday, Alex N; Nielsen, Sune G

    2015-02-03

    Biological carbon fixation is limited by the supply of Fe in vast regions of the global ocean. Dissolved Fe in seawater is primarily sourced from continental mineral dust, submarine hydrothermalism, and sediment dissolution along continental margins. However, the relative contributions of these three sources to the Fe budget of the open ocean remains contentious. By exploiting the Fe stable isotopic fingerprints of these sources, it is possible to trace distinct Fe pools through marine environments, and through time using sedimentary records. We present a reconstruction of deep-sea Fe isotopic compositions from a Pacific Fe-Mn crust spanning the past 76 My. We find that there have been large and systematic changes in the Fe isotopic composition of seawater over the Cenozoic that reflect the influence of several, distinct Fe sources to the central Pacific Ocean. Given that deeply sourced Fe from hydrothermalism and marginal sediment dissolution exhibit the largest Fe isotopic variations in modern oceanic settings, the record requires that these deep Fe sources have exerted a major control over the Fe inventory of the Pacific for the past 76 My. The persistence of deeply sourced Fe in the Pacific Ocean illustrates that multiple sources contribute to the total Fe budget of the ocean and highlights the importance of oceanic circulation in determining if deeply sourced Fe is ever ventilated at the surface.

  15. Marine and land active-source seismic investigation of geothermal potential, tectonic structure, and earthquake hazards in Pyramid Lake, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisses, A.; Kell, A.; Kent, G. [UNR; Driscoll, N. [UCSD; Karlin, R.; Baskin, R. [USGS; Louie, J. [UNR; Pullammanappallil, S. [Optim

    2016-08-01

    Amy Eisses, Annie M. Kell, Graham Kent, Neal W. Driscoll, Robert E. Karlin, Robert L. Baskin, John N. Louie, Kenneth D. Smith, Sathish Pullammanappallil, 2011, Marine and land active-source seismic investigation of geothermal potential, tectonic structure, and earthquake hazards in Pyramid Lake, Nevada: presented at American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, Dec. 5-9, abstract NS14A-08.

  16. Seed oil from Harmal (Rhazya stricta Decne grown in Riyadh (Saudi Arabia: A potential source of δ-tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imededdine Arbi Nehdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhazya stricta (R. stricta known as Harmal is widely distributed in Saudi Arabia and throughout the Middle East. It is used as a medicinal plant in traditional cultures and the seeds are a source of unsaturated oil. In the present study, tocol (tocopherol and tocotrienol, triacylglycerol, and fatty acid compositions, pigment content, thermal behavior, and various physicochemical properties of R. stricta oil were characterized to determine the potential uses of this seed oil. Our results indicate that the oil is a rich source of bioactive molecules, including δ-tocopherol (896 mg/100 g, γ-tocopherol (148 mg/100 g and carotenoids (15.67 mg/kg. The oil content of the seeds was 13.68% and the triacylglycerols mainly consisted of linoleic acid (59.03%, and oleic acid (27.01%. The major triacylglycerols were trilinoleate, dilinoleate and monolinoleate. The ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids (UFA/SFA in the oil was high (9.20. Additionally, the oil showed a high degree of thermal stability and a low melting point of approximately −25 °C. These data indicate that R. stricta seed oil, which is low in saturated fats and rich in bioactive compounds, is potentially useful in food and pharmaceutical applications.

  17. The Nordic Seas carbon budget: Sources, sinks, and uncertainties

    OpenAIRE

    Jeansson, Emil; Olsen, Are; Eldevik, Tor; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Lauvset, Siv K.; Nilsen, Jan Even Ø.; Bellerby, Richard G. J; Johannessen, Truls; Falck, Eva

    2011-01-01

    A carbon budget for the Nordic Seas is derived by combining recent inorganic carbon data from the CARINA database with relevant volume transports. Values of organic carbon in the Nordic Seas' water masses, the amount of carbon input from river runoff, and the removal through sediment burial are taken from the literature. The largest source of carbon to the Nordic Seas is the Atlantic Water that enters the area across the Greenland-Scotland Ridge; this is in particular true for the anthropogen...

  18. The 10 largest public and philanthropic funders of health research in the world: what they fund and how they distribute their funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viergever, Roderik F; Hendriks, Thom C C

    2016-02-18

    Little is known about who the main public and philanthropic funders of health research are globally, what they fund and how they decide what gets funded. This study aims to identify the 10 largest public and philanthropic health research funding organizations in the world, to report on what they fund, and on how they distribute their funds. The world's key health research funding organizations were identified through a search strategy aimed at identifying different types of funding organizations. Organizations were ranked by their reported total annual health research expenditures. For the 10 largest funding organizations, data were collected on (1) funding amounts allocated towards 20 health areas, and (2) schemes employed for distributing funding (intramural/extramural, project/'people'/organizational and targeted/untargeted funding). Data collection consisted of a review of reports and websites and interviews with representatives of funding organizations. Data collection was challenging; data were often not reported or reported using different classification systems. Overall, 55 key health research funding organizations were identified. The 10 largest funding organizations together funded research for $37.1 billion, constituting 40% of all public and philanthropic health research spending globally. The largest funder was the United States National Institutes of Health ($26.1 billion), followed by the European Commission ($3.7 billion), and the United Kingdom Medical Research Council ($1.3 billion). The largest philanthropic funder was the Wellcome Trust ($909.1 million), the largest funder of health research through official development assistance was USAID ($186.4 million), and the largest multilateral funder was the World Health Organization ($135.0 million). Funding distribution mechanisms and funding patterns varied substantially between the 10 largest funders. There is a need for increased transparency about who the main funders of health research are

  19. Phase space reconstruction and estimation of the largest Lyapunov exponent for gait kinematic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josiński, Henryk [Silesian University of Technology, Akademicka 16, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Świtoński, Adam [Polish-Japanese Institute of Information Technology, Aleja Legionów 2, 41-902 Bytom (Poland); Silesian University of Technology, Akademicka 16, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Michalczuk, Agnieszka; Wojciechowski, Konrad [Polish-Japanese Institute of Information Technology, Aleja Legionów 2, 41-902 Bytom (Poland)

    2015-03-10

    The authors describe an example of application of nonlinear time series analysis directed at identifying the presence of deterministic chaos in human motion data by means of the largest Lyapunov exponent. The method was previously verified on the basis of a time series constructed from the numerical solutions of both the Lorenz and the Rössler nonlinear dynamical systems.

  20. Carbon and energy fluxes from China's largest freshwater lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, G.; LIU, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon and energy fluxes between lakes and the atmosphere are important aspects of hydrology, limnology, and ecology studies. China's largest freshwater lake, the Poyang lake experiences tremendous water-land transitions periodically throughout the year, which provides natural experimental settings for the study of carbon and energy fluxes. In this study, we use the eddy covariance technique to explore the seasonal and diurnal variation patterns of sensible and latent heat fluxes of Poyang lake during its high-water and low-water periods, when the lake is covered by water and mudflat, respectively. We also determine the annual NEE of Poyang lake and the variations of NEE's components: Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (Re). Controlling factors of seasonal and diurnal variations of carbon and energy fluxes are analyzed, and land cover impacts on the variation patterns are also studied. Finally, the coupling between the carbon and energy fluxes are analyzed under different atmospheric, boundary stability and land cover conditions.

  1. Negotiating place and gendered violence in Canada's largest open drug scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Ryan; Shannon, Kate; Shaver, Laura; Kerr, Thomas; Small, Will

    2014-05-01

    Vancouver's Downtown Eastside is home to Canada's largest street-based drug scene and only supervised injection facility (Insite). High levels of violence among men and women have been documented in this neighbourhood. This study was undertaken to explore the role of violence in shaping the socio-spatial relations of women and 'marginal men' (i.e., those occupying subordinate positions within the drug scene) in the Downtown Eastside, including access to Insite. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 23 people who inject drugs (PWID) recruited through the Vancouver Area Network of Drug Users, a local drug user organization. Interviews included a mapping exercise. Interview transcripts and maps were analyzed thematically, with an emphasis on how gendered violence shaped participants' spatial practices. Hegemonic forms of masculinity operating within the Downtown Eastside framed the everyday violence experienced by women and marginal men. This violence shaped the spatial practices of women and marginal men, in that they avoided drug scene milieus where they had experienced violence or that they perceived to be dangerous. Some men linked their spatial restrictions to the perceived 'dope quality' of neighbourhood drug dealers to maintain claims to dominant masculinities while enacting spatial strategies to promote safety. Environmental supports provided by health and social care agencies were critical in enabling women and marginal men to negotiate place and survival within the context of drug scene violence. Access to Insite did not motivate participants to enter into "dangerous" drug scene milieus but they did venture into these areas if necessary to obtain drugs or generate income. Gendered violence is critical in restricting the geographies of men and marginal men within the street-based drug scene. There is a need to scale up existing environmental interventions, including supervised injection services, to minimize violence and potential drug

  2. Firmiana simplex: a potential source of antimicrobials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajab, M.; Khan, K.M.

    2014-01-01

    he antimicrobial activity of leaves and bark extracts of Firmiana simplex (L.) W. F. Wight was evaluated by using zone of inhibition and MIC assay. It is revealed from the results that plant showed tremendous antibacterial and antifungal potential. The most significant results were obtained from petroleum ether extracts of leaves against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (78 ± 1.1 mm) and Aspergillus niger (66 ± 0.2 mm). The leaves and bark extracts have produced significant results against Klebsiella pneumoniae within the range of 0 ± 0 to 67 ± 1.5 mm. It is revealed that extracts macerated in water have failed to exhibit any potential against all test organisms employed. The lowest (significant) MIC value of bark extract was 0.023 ± 0.04 at 0.7 mg/ml and leaf extract was 0.030 ± 0.02 at 0.9 mg/ml. (author)

  3. Artificial intelligence search techniques for optimization of the cold source geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmy, Y.Y.

    1988-01-01

    Most optimization studies of cold neutron sources have concentrated on the numerical prediction or experimental measurement of the cold moderator optimum thickness which produces the largest cold neutron leakage for a given thermal neutron source. Optimizing the geometrical shape of the cold source, however, is a more difficult problem because the optimized quantity, the cold neutron leakage, is an implicit function of the shape which is the unknown in such a study. We draw an analogy between this problem and a state space search, then we use a simple Artificial Intelligence (AI) search technique to determine the optimum cold source shape based on a two-group, r-z diffusion model. We implemented this AI design concept in the computer program AID which consists of two modules, a physical model module and a search module, which can be independently modified, improved, or made more sophisticated. 7 refs., 1 fig

  4. Artificial intelligence search techniques for the optimization of cold source geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmy, Y.Y.

    1988-01-01

    Most optimization studies of cold neutron sources have concentrated on the numerical prediction or experimental measurement of the cold moderator optimum thickness that produces the largest cold neutron leakage for a given thermal neutron source. Optimizing the geometric shape of the cold source, however, is a more difficult problem because the optimized quantity, the cold neutron leakage, is an implicit function of the shape, which is the unknown in such a study. An analogy is drawn between this problem and a state space search, then a simple artificial intelligence (AI) search technique is used to determine the optimum cold source shape based on a two-group, r-z diffusion model. This AI design concept was implemented in the computer program AID, which consists of two modules, a physical model module, and a search module, which can be independently modified, improved, or made more sophisticated

  5. Identification of potential sources of airborne Olea pollen in the Southwest Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Brandao, Rui; Caeiro, Elsa; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Gonzalo-Garijo, Angela; Smith, Matt

    2014-04-01

    This study aims to determine the potential origin of Olea pollen recorded in Badajoz in the Southwest of the Iberian Peninsula during 2009-2011. This was achieved using a combination of daily average and diurnal (hourly) airborne Olea pollen counts recorded at Badajoz (south-western Spain) and Évora (south-eastern Portugal), an inventory of olive groves in the studied area and air mass trajectory calculations computed using the HYSPLIT model. Examining olive pollen episodes at Badajoz that had distinctly different diurnal cycles in olive pollen in relation to the mean, allowed us to identify three different scenarios where olive pollen can be transported to the city from either distant or nearby sources during conditions with slow air mass movements. Back trajectory analysis showed that olive pollen can be transported to Badajoz from the West on prevailing winds, either directly or on slow moving air masses, and from high densities of olive groves situated to the Southeast (e.g. Andalucía). Regional scale transport of olive pollen can result in increased nighttime concentrations of this important aeroallergen. This could be particularly important in Mediterranean countries where people can be outdoors during this time due to climate and lifestyle. Such studies that examine sources and the atmospheric transport of pollen are valuable for allergy sufferers and health care professionals because the information can be incorporated into forecasts, the outputs of which are used for avoiding exposure to aeroallergens and planning medication. The results of studies of this nature can also be used for examining gene flow in this important agricultural crop.

  6. Identification of potential sources of airborne Olea pollen in the Southwest Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Brandao, Rui; Caeiro, Elsa; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Gonzalo-Garijo, Ángela; Smith, Matt

    2014-04-01

    This study aims to determine the potential origin of Olea pollen recorded in Badajoz in the Southwest of the Iberian Peninsula during 2009-2011. This was achieved using a combination of daily average and diurnal (hourly) airborne Olea pollen counts recorded at Badajoz (south-western Spain) and Évora (south-eastern Portugal), an inventory of olive groves in the studied area and air mass trajectory calculations computed using the HYSPLIT model. Examining olive pollen episodes at Badajoz that had distinctly different diurnal cycles in olive pollen in relation to the mean, allowed us to identify three different scenarios where olive pollen can be transported to the city from either distant or nearby sources during conditions with slow air mass movements. Back trajectory analysis showed that olive pollen can be transported to Badajoz from the West on prevailing winds, either directly or on slow moving air masses, and from high densities of olive groves situated to the Southeast (e.g. Andalucía). Regional scale transport of olive pollen can result in increased nighttime concentrations of this important aeroallergen. This could be particularly important in Mediterranean countries where people can be outdoors during this time due to climate and lifestyle. Such studies that examine sources and the atmospheric transport of pollen are valuable for allergy sufferers and health care professionals because the information can be incorporated into forecasts, the outputs of which are used for avoiding exposure to aeroallergens and planning medication. The results of studies of this nature can also be used for examining gene flow in this important agricultural crop.

  7. Clerodendrum splendens: a potential source of antimicrobials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajaib, M.; Boota, F.

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial status of the bark and leaves of Clerodendrum splendens was evaluated.The inquisition had provided that the leaf and bark of the plant had exhibited maximum antimicrobial potential. The antibacterial activity was significant against S. aureus with the maximum effectiveness of 71 ± 0.6 mm displayed by the petroleum ether extracts of bark. Moreover, all the petroleum ether extracts exhibited maximum inhibitory effects against all the bacterial strains. The Gram negative strains, i.e. K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and E. coli had provided good to satisfactory results within the range of 20 ± 0.8 mm to 69 ± 0.9 mm. Excellent activities were exhibited by leaf and bark extracts against the fungal pathogens with the maximum potential displayed by the petroleum ether extracts of leaf i.e. 57 ± 0.5 mm against A. oryzae. The MIC assays were carried out to further authenticate the results obtained by zones of inhibitions. The MIC potential exhibited by Gram negative bacteria for K. pneumoniae was evaluated to be > 0.032 mg/mL while for the S. aureus was roughly evaluated to be > 0.088. Moreover, the MIC activity displayed against other Gram negative bacterial strains was reported > 0.112 ± 0.7 mg/mL for E. coli and > 0.059 ± 1.0 mg/mL for P. aeruginosa. The MIC effectiveness for the fungal strain of A. niger and A. oryzae was evaluated to be 0.118 ± 0.7 mg/mL. (author)

  8. A potential explanation for the effect of carbon source on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper proposes a new theory to account for the effect of carbon source on the characteristics of acetate-fed and glucose-fed aerobic granules. It is well known that reactor pH can vary in response to the oxidation of glucose or sodium acetate. As such, the effects associated with the carbon sources may be explained by ...

  9. WIKIPEDIA ENTRIES AS A SOURCE OF CAR NAVIGATION LANDMARKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Binski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Car navigation system devices provide today with an easy and simple solution to the basic concept of reaching a destination. Although these systems usually achieve this goal, they still deliver a limited and poor sequence of instructions that do not consider the human nature of using landmarks during wayfinding. This research paper addresses the concept of enriching navigation route instructions by adding supplementary route information in the form of landmarks. We aim at using a contributed source of landmarks information, which is easy to access, available, show high update rate, and have a large scale of information. For this, Wikipedia was chosen, since it represents the world’s largest free encyclopaedia that includes information about many spatial entities. A survey and classification of available landmarks is implemented, coupled with ranking algorithms based on the entries’ categories and attributes. These are aimed at retrieving the most relevant landmark information required that are valuable for the enrichment of a specific navigation route. The paper will present this methodology, together with examples and results, showing the feasibility of using this concept and its potential of enriching navigation processes.

  10. Potential of solid waste utilization as source of refuse derived fuel (RDF) energy (case study at temporary solid waste disposal site in West Jakarta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrawati, D.; Lindu, M.; Denita, P.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to measure the volume of solid waste generated as well asits density, composition, and characteristics, to analyze the potential of waste in TPS to become RDF materials and to analyze the best composition mixture of RDF materials. The results show that the average of solid waste generation in TPS reaches 40.80 m3/day, with the largest percentage of its share is the organic waste component of 77.9%, while the smallest amount of its share is metal and rubber of 0.1%. The average water content and ash content of solid waste at the TPS is 27.7% and 6.4% respectively, while the average calorific potential value is 728.71 kcal/kg. The results of solid waste characteristics comparison at three TPS indicate thatTPS Tanjung Duren has the greatest waste potential to be processed into RDF materials with a calorific value of 893.73 kcal/kg, water content level of 24.6%, andlow ash content of 6.11%. This research has also shown that the best composition for RDF composite materials is rubber, wood, and textile mixtureexposed to outdoor drying conditions because it produced low water content and low ash content of 10.8% and 9.6%, thus optimizedthe calorific value of 4,372.896 kcal/kg.

  11. Sea Water Characterization at Ujung Kulon Coastal Depth as Raw Water Source for Desalination and Potential Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugisidi Dan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fresh water is basic need for life while the source is limited. Therefore, sea water is used as fresh water through desalination process. Sea water has different physical and chemical properties ranging from the surface to the seabed. The energy potential that can be obtained from the hydrostatic pressure also changes according to the depth. As part of the research of the utilization of sea water into fresh water, the aim of this study is to know the characteristics of sea water in the depth that can be utilized as source of fresh water. The sea water samples were taken at 11km from Ujung Kulon beach with depth of 0m, 20m, 40m, 60m, 80m, and 100m under the surface. The results showed that the physical properties at every depth were below the maximum allowable drinking water except for the amount of dissolved solids. Chemical characteristics at any depth above allowable level were fluoride, hardness (CaCo3, chloride, sodium, sulphate, and (KMnO4. In addition to the properties, pressure is one of the considerations in this study to determine the depth of sea water as sources for desalination. Pressure increased by 36.11% as the depth of the sea increased.

  12. Sea Water Characterization at Ujung Kulon Coastal Depth as Raw Water Source for Desalination and Potential Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugisidi, Dan; Heriyani, Okatrina

    2018-02-01

    Fresh water is basic need for life while the source is limited. Therefore, sea water is used as fresh water through desalination process. Sea water has different physical and chemical properties ranging from the surface to the seabed. The energy potential that can be obtained from the hydrostatic pressure also changes according to the depth. As part of the research of the utilization of sea water into fresh water, the aim of this study is to know the characteristics of sea water in the depth that can be utilized as source of fresh water. The sea water samples were taken at 11km from Ujung Kulon beach with depth of 0m, 20m, 40m, 60m, 80m, and 100m under the surface. The results showed that the physical properties at every depth were below the maximum allowable drinking water except for the amount of dissolved solids. Chemical characteristics at any depth above allowable level were fluoride, hardness (CaCo3), chloride, sodium, sulphate, and (KMnO4). In addition to the properties, pressure is one of the considerations in this study to determine the depth of sea water as sources for desalination. Pressure increased by 36.11% as the depth of the sea increased.

  13. TITANIUM ISOTOPE SOURCE RELATIONS AND THE EXTENT OF MIXING IN THE PROTO-SOLAR NEBULA EXAMINED BY INDEPENDENT COMPONENT ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, Robert C. J.; Boehnke, Patrick [Department of Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The Ti isotope variations observed in hibonites represent some of the largest isotope anomalies observed in the solar system. Titanium isotope compositions have previously been reported for a wide variety of different early solar system materials, including calcium, aluminum rich inclusions (CAIs) and CM hibonite grains, some of the earliest materials to form in the solar system, and bulk meteorites which formed later. These data have the potential to allow mixing of material to be traced between many different regions of the early solar system. We have used independent component analysis to examine the mixing end-members required to produce the compositions observed in the different data sets. The independent component analysis yields results identical to a linear regression for the bulk meteorites. The components identified for hibonite suggest that most of the grains are consistent with binary mixing from one of three highly anomalous nucleosynthetic sources. Comparison of these end-members show that the sources which dominate the variation of compositions in the meteorite parent body forming regions was not present in the region in which the hibonites formed. This suggests that the source which dominates variation in Ti isotope anomalies between the bulk meteorites was not present when the hibonite grains were forming. One explanation is that the bulk meteorite source may not be a primary nucleosynthetic source but was created by mixing two or more of the hibonite sources. Alternatively, the hibonite sources may have been diluted during subsequent nebula processing and are not a dominant solar system signatures.

  14. Source of Lake Vostok Cations Constrained with Strontium Isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Berry Lyons

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Lake Vostok is the largest sub-glacial lake in Antarctica. The primary source of our current knowledge regarding the geochemistry and biology of the lake comes from the analysis of refrozen lake water associated with ice core drilling. Several sources of dissolved ions and particulate matter to the lake have been proposed, including materials from the melted glacier ice, the weathering of underlying geological materials, hydrothermal activity and underlying, ancient evaporitic deposits. A sample of Lake Vostok Type 1 accretion ice has been analyzed for its 87Sr/86Sr signature as well as its major cation and anion and Sr concentrations. The strontium isotope ratio of 0.71655 and the Ca/Sr ratio in the sample strongly indicate that the major source of the Sr is from aluminosilicate minerals from the continental crust. These data imply that at least a portion of the other cations in the Type 1 ice also are derived from continental crustal materials and not hydrothermal activity, the melted glacier ice, or evaporitic sources.

  15. Spatially Resolved Isotopic Source Signatures of Wetland Methane Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, A. L.; Stell, A. C.; Gedney, N.; Comyn-Platt, E.; Hayman, G.; Rigby, M.; Poulter, B.; Hornibrook, E. R. C.

    2018-04-01

    We present the first spatially resolved wetland δ13C(CH4) source signature map based on data characterizing wetland ecosystems and demonstrate good agreement with wetland signatures derived from atmospheric observations. The source signature map resolves a latitudinal difference of 10‰ between northern high-latitude (mean -67.8‰) and tropical (mean -56.7‰) wetlands and shows significant regional variations on top of the latitudinal gradient. We assess the errors in inverse modeling studies aiming to separate CH4 sources and sinks by comparing atmospheric δ13C(CH4) derived using our spatially resolved map against the common assumption of globally uniform wetland δ13C(CH4) signature. We find a larger interhemispheric gradient, a larger high-latitude seasonal cycle, and smaller trend over the period 2000-2012. The implication is that erroneous CH4 fluxes would be derived to compensate for the biases imposed by not utilizing spatially resolved signatures for the largest source of CH4 emissions. These biases are significant when compared to the size of observed signals.

  16. Trend of CO2 emissions of the 30 largest power plants in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, Hauke

    2014-01-01

    The brochure on the trend of CO 2 emissions of the 30 largest power plants in Germany includes tables of the emissions of these power plants. The CO 2 emissions of these power plants in 2013 (25% of the total German greenhouse gas emissions) have increased by 5% compared to 2012. The total CO 2 emission sin Germany increased by 1.5%. The differences between brown coal and black coal fired power plants are discussed.

  17. Heavy ion fusion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grote, D.P.; Kwan, J.; Westenskow, G.

    2003-01-01

    In Heavy-Fusion and in other applications, there is a need for high brightness sources with both high current and low emittance. The traditional design with a single monolithic source, while very successful, has significant constraints on it when going to higher currents. With the Child-Langmuir current-density limit, geometric aberration limits, and voltage breakdown limits, the area of the source becomes a high power of the current, A ∼ I 8/3 . We are examining a multi-beamlet source, avoiding the constraints by having many beamlets each with low current and small area. The beamlets are created and initially accelerated separately and then merged to form a single beam. This design offers a number of potential advantages over a monolithic source, such as a smaller transverse footprint, more control over the shaping and aiming of the beam, and more flexibility in the choice of ion sources. A potential drawback, however, is the emittance that results from the merging of the beamlets. We have designed injectors using simulation that have acceptably low emittance and are beginning to examine them experimentally

  18. Value-Creation Potential from Multi-Market Trading for a Hydropower Producer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marte Fodstad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We study a hydropower producer’s potential for value-creation from multi-market trading given the price variations in the markets and the flexibility provided through access to hydro reservoirs. We use a perfect foresight optimization model for a price-taking hydropower producer co-optimizing his trades in the day-ahead, intra-day and balancing markets. The model is used on real market data from Norway, Sweden and Germany. The study shows a theoretical potential for added value when selling energy in multiple markets relative to optimal day-ahead sale. Most of this value is achievable also when the perfect foresight is limited to the period from day-ahead bidding until operation. Flexible production plants achieve the largest relative added values for multi-market sales, and has the largest benefit from a long horizon with perfect foresight.

  19. High-frequency source radiation during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, Japan, inferred from KiK-net strong-motion seismograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Hiroyuki; Pulido, Nelson; Fukuyama, Eiichi; Aoi, Shin

    2013-01-01

    investigate source processes of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, we utilized a source location method using high-frequency (5-10 Hz) seismic amplitudes. In this method, we assumed far-field isotropic radiation of S waves, and conducted a spatial grid search to find the best fitting source locations along the subducted slab in each successive time window. Our application of the method to the Tohoku-Oki earthquake resulted in artifact source locations at shallow depths near the trench caused by limited station coverage and noise effects. We then assumed various source node distributions along the plate, and found that the observed seismograms were most reasonably explained when assuming deep source nodes. This result suggests that the high-frequency seismic waves were radiated at deeper depths during the earthquake, a feature which is consistent with results obtained from teleseismic back-projection and strong-motion source model studies. We identified three high-frequency subevents, and compared them with the moment-rate function estimated from low-frequency seismograms. Our comparison indicated that no significant moment release occurred during the first high-frequency subevent and the largest moment-release pulse occurred almost simultaneously with the second high-frequency subevent. We speculated that the initial slow rupture propagated bilaterally from the hypocenter toward the land and trench. The landward subshear rupture propagation consisted of three successive high-frequency subevents. The trenchward propagation ruptured the strong asperity and released the largest moment near the trench.

  20. Evolution of air pollution source contributions over one decade, derived by PM10 and PM2.5 source apportionment in two metropolitan urban areas in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diapouli, E.; Manousakas, M.; Vratolis, S.; Vasilatou, V.; Maggos, Th; Saraga, D.; Grigoratos, Th; Argyropoulos, G.; Voutsa, D.; Samara, C.; Eleftheriadis, K.

    2017-09-01

    Metropolitan Urban areas in Greece have been known to suffer from poor air quality, due to variety of emission sources, topography and climatic conditions favouring the accumulation of pollution. While a number of control measures have been implemented since the 1990s, resulting in reductions of atmospheric pollution and changes in emission source contributions, the financial crisis which started in 2009 has significantly altered this picture. The present study is the first effort to assess the contribution of emission sources to PM10 and PM2.5 concentration levels and their long-term variability (over 5-10 years), in the two largest metropolitan urban areas in Greece (Athens and Thessaloniki). Intensive measurement campaigns were conducted during 2011-2012 at suburban, urban background and urban traffic sites in these two cities. In addition, available datasets from previous measurements in Athens and Thessaloniki were used in order to assess the long-term variability of concentrations and sources. Chemical composition analysis of the 2011-2012 samples showed that carbonaceous matter was the most abundant component for both PM size fractions. Significant increase of carbonaceous particle concentrations and of OC/EC ratio during the cold period, especially in the residential urban background sites, pointed towards domestic heating and more particularly wood (biomass) burning as a significant source. PMF analysis further supported this finding. Biomass burning was the largest contributing source at the two urban background sites (with mean contributions for the two size fractions in the range of 24-46%). Secondary aerosol formation (sulphate, nitrate & organics) was also a major contributing source for both size fractions at the suburban and urban background sites. At the urban traffic site, vehicular traffic (exhaust and non-exhaust emissions) was the source with the highest contributions, accounting for 44% of PM10 and 37% of PM2.5, respectively. The long

  1. CATALOG OF MATERIALS AS POTENTIAL SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS - VOLUME 1. INSULATION, WALLCOVERINGS, RESI- LIENT FLOOR COVERINGS, CARPET, ADHESIVES, SEALANTS AND CAULKS, AND PESTICIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses and presents data on constituents and emissions from products that have the potential to impact the indoor air environment. t is a tool to be used by researchers to help organize the study of materials as potential sources of indoor air emissions. ncluded are...

  2. Potential formation in a one-dimensional bounded plasma system containing a two-electron temperature plasma: Kinetic model and PIC simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyergyek, T.; Jurcic-Zlobec, B.; Cercek, M.

    2008-01-01

    Potential formation in a bounded plasma system that contains electrons with a two-temperature velocity distribution and is terminated by a floating, electron emitting electrode (collector) is studied by a one-dimensional kinetic model. A method on how to determine the boundary conditions at the collector for the numerical solution of the Poisson equation is presented. The difference between the regular and the irregular numerical solutions of the Poisson equation is explained. The regular numerical solution of the Poisson equation fulfills the boundary conditions at the source and can be computed for any distance from the collector. The irregular solution does not fulfill the source boundary conditions and the computation breaks down at some distance from the collector. An excellent agreement of the values of the potential at the inflection point found from the numerical solution of the Poisson equation with the values predicted by the analytical model is obtained. Potential, electric field, and particle density profiles found by the numerical solution of the Poisson equation are compared to the profiles obtained with the particle in cell computer simulation. A very good quantitative agreement of the potential and electric field profiles is obtained. For certain values of the parameters the analytical model predicts three possible values of the potential at the inflection point. In such cases always only one of the corresponding numerical solutions of the Poisson equation is regular, while the other two are irregular. The regular numerical solution of the Poisson equation always corresponds to the solution of the model that predicts the largest ion flux to the collector

  3. Sources and oxidative potential of water-soluble humic-like substances (HULISWS) in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yiqiu; Cheng, Yubo; Qiu, Xinghua; Cao, Gang; Fang, Yanhua; Wang, Junxia; Zhu, Tong; Yu, Jianzhen; Hu, Di

    2018-04-01

    Water-soluble humic-like substances (HULISWS) are a major redox-active component of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5); however, information on their sources and associated redox activity is limited. In this study, HULISWS mass concentration, various HULISWS species, and dithiothreitol (DTT) activity of HULISWS were quantified in PM2.5 samples collected during a 1-year period in Beijing. Strong correlation was observed between HULISWS and DTT activity; both exhibited higher levels during the heating season than during the nonheating season. Positive matrix factorization analysis of both HULISWS and DTT activity was performed. Four combustion-related sources, namely coal combustion, biomass burning, waste incineration, and vehicle exhausts, and one secondary factor were resolved. In particular, waste incineration was identified as a source of HULISWS for the first time. Biomass burning and secondary aerosol formation were the major contributors ( > 59 %) to both HULISWS and associated DTT activity throughout the year. During the nonheating season, secondary aerosol formation was the most important source, whereas during the heating season, the predominant contributor was biomass burning. The four combustion-related sources accounted for > 70 % of HULISWS and DTT activity, implying that future reduction in PM2.5 emissions from combustion activities can substantially reduce the HULISWS burden and their potential health impact in Beijing.

  4. Ground Source Geothermal District Heating and Cooling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, James William [Ball State Univ., Muncie, IN (United States)

    2016-10-21

    Ball State University converted its campus from a coal-fired steam boiler district heating system to a ground source heat pump geothermal district system that produces simultaneously hot water for heating and chilled water for cooling. This system will include the installation of 3,600 four hundred feet deep vertical closed loop boreholes making it the largest ground source geothermal district system in the country. The boreholes will act as heat exchangers and transfer heat by virtue of the earth’s ability to maintain an average temperature of 55 degree Fahrenheit. With growing international concern for global warming and the need to reduce worldwide carbon dioxide loading of the atmosphere geothermal is poised to provide the means to help reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The shift from burning coal to utilizing ground source geothermal will increase electrical consumption but an overall decrease in energy use and reduction in carbon dioxide output will be achieved. This achievement is a result of coupling the ground source geothermal boreholes with large heat pump chiller technology. The system provides the thermodynamic means to move large amounts of energy with limited energy input. Ball State University: http://cms.bsu.edu/About/Geothermal.aspx

  5. Geothermal Potential Evaluation for Northern Chile and Suggestions for New Energy Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monia Procesi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Chile is a country rich in natural resources, and it is the world’s largest producer and exporter of copper. Mining is the main industry and is an essential part of the Chilean economy, but the country has limited indigenous fossil fuels—over 90% of the country’s fossil fuels must be imported. The electricity market in Chile comprises two main independent systems: the Northern Interconnected Power Grid (SING and the Central Interconnected Power Grid (SIC. Currently, the primary Chilean energy source is imported fossil fuels, whereas hydropower represents the main indigenous source. Other renewables such as wind, solar, biomass and geothermics are as yet poorly developed. Specifically, geothermal energy has not been exploited in Chile, but among all renewables it has the greatest potential. The transition from thermal power plants to renewable energy power plants is an important target for the Chilean Government in order to reduce dependence on imported fossil fuels. In this framework, the proposed study presents an evaluation of the geothermal potential for northern Chile in terms of power generation. The El Tatio, Surire, Puchuldiza, Orriputunco-Olca and Apacheta geothermal fields are considered for the analysis. The estimated electrical power is approximately 1300 MWe, and the energy supply is 10,200 GWh/year. This means that more than 30% of the SING energy could be provided from geothermal energy, reducing the dependence on imported fossil fuels, saving 8 Mton/year of CO2 and supplying the mining industry, which is Chile’s primary energy user.

  6. Chemical mass balance source apportionment of fine and PM10 in the Desert Southwest, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L. Clements

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Desert Southwest Coarse Particulate Matter Study was undertaken in Pinal County, Arizona, to better understand the origin and impact of sources of fine and coarse particulate matter (PM in rural, arid regions of the U.S. southwestern desert. The desert southwest experiences some of the highest PM10 mass concentrations in the country. To augment previously reported results, 6-week aggregated organic speciation data that included ambient concentrations of n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organic acids, and saccharides were used in chemical mass balance modeling (CMB. A set of re-suspended soil samples were analyzed for specific marker species to provide locally-appropriate source profiles for the CMB analysis. These profiles, as well as previously collected plant and fungal spore profiles from the region, were combined with published source profiles for other relevant sources and used in the CMB analysis. The six new region-specific source profiles included both organic and inorganic species for four crustal material sources, one plant detritus source, and one fungal spore source.Results indicate that up to half of the ambient PM2.5 was apportioned to motor vehicles with the highest regional contribution observed in the small urban center of Casa Grande. Daily levels of apportioned crustal material accounted for up to 50% of PM2.5 mass with the highest contributions observed at the sites closest to active agricultural areas. Apportioned secondary PM, biomass burning, and road dust typically contributed less than 35% as a group to the apportioned PM2.5 mass. Crustal material was the primary source apportioned to PM10 and accounted for between 50–90% of the apportioned mass. Of the other sources apportioned to PM10, motor vehicles and road dust were the largest contributors at the urban and one of the rural sites, whereas road dust and meat cooking operations were the largest contributors at the other rural site.

  7. Next-generation mid-infrared sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, D.; Bank, S.; Lee, M. L.; Wasserman, D.

    2017-12-01

    The mid-infrared (mid-IR) is a wavelength range with a variety of technologically vital applications in molecular sensing, security and defense, energy conservation, and potentially in free-space communication. The recent development and rapid commercialization of new coherent mid-infrared sources have spurred significant interest in the development of mid-infrared optical systems for the above applications. However, optical systems designers still do not have the extensive optical infrastructure available to them that exists at shorter wavelengths (for instance, in the visible and near-IR/telecom wavelengths). Even in the field of optoelectronic sources, which has largely driven the growing interest in the mid-infrared, the inherent limitations of state-of-the-art sources and the gaps in spectral coverage offer opportunities for the development of new classes of lasers, light emitting diodes and emitters for a range of potential applications. In this topical review, we will first present an overview of the current state-of-the-art mid-IR sources, in particular thermal emitters, which have long been utilized, and the relatively new quantum- and interband-cascade lasers, as well as the applications served by these sources. Subsequently, we will discuss potential mid-infrared applications and wavelength ranges which are poorly served by the current stable of mid-IR sources, with an emphasis on understanding the fundamental limitations of the current source technology. The bulk of the manuscript will then explore both past and recent developments in mid-infrared source technology, including narrow bandgap quantum well lasers, type-I and type-II quantum dot materials, type-II superlattices, highly mismatched alloys, lead-salts and transition-metal-doped II-VI materials. We will discuss both the advantages and limitations of each of the above material systems, as well as the potential new applications which they might serve. All in all, this topical review does not aim

  8. Occurrence, bioaccumulation and potential sources of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in typical freshwater cultured fish ponds of South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Baozhong; Ni Honggang; Guan Yufeng; Zeng, Eddy Y.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the potential input sources of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) to fish farming environments in South China, samples of seven various environmental matrices were collected from October 2006-September 2007. Tri- to deca-BDEs were detected in all samples analyzed, with mean concentrations (±standard deviations) at 5.7 ± 3.6 ng/L in pond water, 15 ± 11 ng/g dry wt. in pond sediment, 12 ± 3.8 ng/g dry wt. in bank soil, 21 ± 20 ng/g lipid wt. in fish, and 93 ± 62 ng/g lipid wt. in fish feeds. In addition, BDE-209 was the major constituent in all samples except fish and BDE-47 was predominant in fish samples. Relatively high abundances of BDE-49 were detected in all the samples compared to those in the penta-BDE technical products. Several bioaccumulation factors were evaluated. Finally, statistical analyses suggested that fish feed, as well as pond water at a lesser degree, may have been the major source of PBDEs in freshwater farmed fish. - Occurrence and sources of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in typical freshwater cultured fish ponds of the Pearl River Delta, South China are examined.

  9. Depositional environment and source rock potential of Cenomanian and Turonian sedimentary rocks of the Tarfaya Basin, Southwest Morocco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghassal, B.I.; Littke, R.; Sachse, V.; Sindern, S.; Schwarzbauer, J.

    2016-07-01

    Detailed organic and inorganic geochemical analyses were used to assess the depositional environment and source rock potential of the Cenomanian and Turonian oil shale deposits in the Tarfaya Basin. This study is based on core samples from the Tarfaya Sondage-4 well that penetrated over 300m of Mid Cretaceous organic matter-rich deposits. A total of 242 samples were analyzed for total organic and inorganic carbon and selected samples for total sulfur and major elements as well as for organic petrology, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, Curie-Point-pyrolysis-gaschromatography-Mass-Spectrometry and molecular geochemistry of solvent extracts. Based on major elements the lower Cenomanian differs from the other intervals by higher silicate and lower carbonate contents. Moreover, the molecular geochemistry suggests anoxic bottom marine water conditions during the Cenomanian-Turonian Boundary Event (CTBE; Oceanic Anoxic Event 2: OAE2). As a proxy for the Sorg/Corg ratio, the ratio total thiophenes/total benzenes compounds was calculated from pyrolysate compositions. The results suggest that Sorg/ Corg is low in the lower Cenomanian, moderate in the upper Cenomanian, very high in the CTBE (CenomanianTuronian Boundary Event) and high in the Turonian samples. Rock-Eval data reveal that the lower Cenomanian is a moderately organic carbon-rich source rock with good potential to generate oil and gas upon thermal maturation. On the other hand, the samples from the upper Cenomanian to Turonian exhibit higher organic carbon content and can be classified as oil-prone source rocks. Based on Tmax data, all rocks are thermally immature. The microscopic investigations suggest dominance of submicroscopic organic matter in all samples and different contents of bituminite and alginite. The lower Cenomanian samples have little visible organic matter and no bituminite. The upper Cenomanian and CTBE samples are poor in bituminite and have rare visible organic matter, whereas the Turonian samples change

  10. Guava: phytochemical composition of a potential source of antioxidants for cosmetic and/or dermatological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Galdorfini Chiari-Andréo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Guava (Psidium guajava L. is a native fruit of the American tropics with commercial applications for its taste, flavor and aroma. Numerous pharmacological uses have been described for it, such as the antiseptic effect of its leaves, the use of the fresh fruit and tea from its leaves for the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery, diabetes mellitus, and others. However, considering its rich composition, the guava also is a potential source of antioxidants to be used in the development of new formulations for cosmetic and/or dermatological applications, the main focus of this research. Herein, we describe the study of the phytochemical composition and the antioxidant activity of a guava extract prepared with non-toxic solvents aiming its use at biological applications. High performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry were employed to identify the major components, while thermoanalytical measurements and hot stage microscopy were used to assess the chemical stability of guava fruit extract. The antioxidant activity was also evaluated assessing the SOD-like activity and ABTS free radical scavenger. The results show that the extract is a rich source of phenolic compounds, such as quercetin, kaempferol, schottenol, among many others. All of the components found in guava extract exhibit biological effects according to the literature data, mainly antioxidant properties.

  11. Aurorasaurus Database of Real-Time, Soft-Sensor Sourced Aurora Data for Space Weather Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosar, B.; MacDonald, E.; Heavner, M.

    2017-12-01

    Aurorasaurus is an innovative citizen science project focused on two fundamental objectives i.e., collecting real-time, ground-based signals of auroral visibility from citizen scientists (soft-sensors) and incorporating this new type of data into scientific investigations pertaining to aurora. The project has been live since the Fall of 2014, and as of Summer 2017, the database compiled approximately 12,000 observations (5295 direct reports and 6413 verified tweets). In this presentation, we will focus on demonstrating the utility of this robust science quality data for space weather research needs. These data scale with the size of the event and are well-suited to capture the largest, rarest events. Emerging state-of-the-art computational methods based on statistical inference such as machine learning frameworks and data-model integration methods can offer new insights that could potentially lead to better real-time assessment and space weather prediction when citizen science data are combined with traditional sources.

  12. Exploring the potentials of volunteered geographic Information as a source for spatial data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariffin, Izyana; Solemon, Badariah; Anwar, Rina Md; Din, Marina Md; Azmi, Nor Nashrah

    2014-01-01

    The advancement of technologies nowadays enables participation by nonprofessionals, known as volunteers to participate in producing, sharing and consuming geographic information. Such information, termed as volunteered geographic Information (VGI) has created a new approach of gathering geographic information. This paper discusses the traditional way of acquiring geographic information and potentials of VGI as an information source in GIS applications. We also review four commonly cited applications which rely on volunteers for their geographic information based on five criteria; the geometry type available in the applications, availability of user profile, average number of attributes used in the applications, data type of the information (raster or vector) and the domain the application belongs to. This review serves as a preliminarv study in designing a GIS application used for asset management which aims at exploiting volunteers to produce geographic information related to assets

  13. An analysis of natural gas exploration potential in the Qiongdongnan Basin by use of the theory of “joint control of source rocks and geothermal heat”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Gongcheng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Oligocene Yacheng Fm contains the most important source rocks that have been confirmed by exploratory wells in the Qiongdongnan Basin. The efficiency of these source rocks is the key to the breakthrough in natural gas exploration in the study area. This paper analyzes the hydrocarbon potential of each sag in this basin from the perspective of control of both source rocks and geothermal heat. Two types of source rocks occur in the Yacheng Fm, namely mudstone of transitional facies and mudstone of neritic facies. Both of them are dominated by a kerogen of type-III, followed by type-II. Their organic matter abundances are controlled by the amount of continental clastic input. The mudstone of transitional facies is commonly higher in organic matter abundance, while that of neritic facies is lower. The coal-measure source rocks of transitional facies were mainly formed in such environments as delta plains, coastal plains and barrier tidal flat-marshes. Due to the control of Cenozoic lithosphere extension and influence of neotectonism, the geothermal gradient, terrestrial heat flow value (HFV and level of thermal evolution are generally high in deep water. The hot setting not only determines the predominance of gas generation in the deep-water sags, but can promote the shallow-buried source rocks in shallow water into oil window to generate oil. In addition to promoting the hydrocarbon generation of source rocks, the high geothermal and high heat flow value can also speed up the cracking of residual hydrocarbons, thus enhancing hydrocarbon generation efficiency and capacity. According to the theory of joint control of source quality and geothermal heat on hydrocarbon generation, we comprehensively evaluate and rank the exploration potentials of major sags in the Qiongdongnan Basin. These sags are divided into 3 types, of which type-I sags including Yanan, Lingshui, Baodao, Ledong and Huaguang are the highest in hydrocarbon exploration potential.

  14. Panel cutting method: new approach to generate panels on a hull in Rankine source potential approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jong Choi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a new hull panel generation algorithm, namely panel cutting method, was developed to predict flow phenomena around a ship using the Rankine source potential based panel method, where the iterative method was used to satisfy the nonlinear free surface condition and the trim and sinkage of the ship was taken into account. Numerical computations were performed to investigate the validity of the proposed hull panel generation algorithm for Series 60 (CB=0.60 hull and KRISO container ship (KCS, a container ship designed by Maritime and Ocean Engineering Research Institute (MOERI. The computational results were validated by comparing with the existing experimental data.

  15. Panel cutting method: new approach to generate panels on a hull in Rankine source potential approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hee-Jong; Chun, Ho-Hwan; Park, Il-Ryong; Kim, Jin

    2011-12-01

    In the present study, a new hull panel generation algorithm, namely panel cutting method, was developed to predict flow phenomena around a ship using the Rankine source potential based panel method, where the iterative method was used to satisfy the nonlinear free surface condition and the trim and sinkage of the ship was taken into account. Numerical computations were performed to investigate the validity of the proposed hull panel generation algorithm for Series 60 (CB=0.60) hull and KRISO container ship (KCS), a container ship designed by Maritime and Ocean Engineering Research Institute (MOERI). The computational results were validated by comparing with the existing experimental data.

  16. Source apportionment of airborne particulate matter using organic compounds as tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, James J.; Rogge, Wolfgang F.; Hildemann, Lynn M.; Mazurek, Monica A.; Cass, Glen R.; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    A chemical mass balance receptor model based on organic compounds has been developed that relates source contributions to airborne fine particle mass concentrations. Source contributions to the concentrations of specific organic compounds are revealed as well. The model is applied to four air quality monitoring sites in southern California using atmospheric organic compound concentration data and source test data collected specifically for the purpose of testing this model. The contributions of up to nine primary particle source types can be separately identified in ambient samples based on this method, and approximately 85% of the organic fine aerosol is assigned to primary sources on an annual average basis. The model provides information on source contributions to fine mass concentrations, fine organic aerosol concentrations and individual organic compound concentrations. The largest primary source contributors to fine particle mass concentrations in Los Angeles are found to include diesel engine exhaust, paved road dust, gasoline-powered vehicle exhaust, plus emissions from food cooking and wood smoke, with smaller contribution from tire dust, plant fragments, natural gas combustion aerosol, and cigarette smoke. Once these primary aerosol source contributions are added to the secondary sulfates, nitrates and organics present, virtually all of the annual average fine particle mass at Los Angeles area monitoring sites can be assigned to its source.

  17. The potential near-source ozone impacts of upstream oil and gas industry emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaguer, Eduardo P

    2012-08-01

    Increased drilling in urban areas overlying shale formations and its potential impact on human health through decreased air quality make it important to estimate the contribution of oil and gas activities to photochemical smog. Flares and compressor engines used in natural gas operations, for example, are large sources not only of NOx but also offormaldehyde, a hazardous air pollutant and powerful ozone precursor We used a neighborhood scale (200 m horizontal resolution) three-dimensional (3D) air dispersion model with an appropriate chemical mechanism to simulate ozone formation in the vicinity ofa hypothetical natural gas processing facility, based on accepted estimates of both regular and nonroutine emissions. The model predicts that, under average midday conditions in June, regular emissions mostly associated with compressor engines may increase ambient ozone in the Barnett Shale by more than 3 ppb beginning at about 2 km downwind of the facility, assuming there are no other major sources of ozone precursors. Flare volumes of 100,000 cubic meters per hour ofnatural gas over a period of 2 hr can also add over 3 ppb to peak 1-hr ozone somewhatfurther (>8 km) downwind, once dilution overcomes ozone titration and inhibition by large flare emissions of NOx. The additional peak ozone from the hypothetical flare can briefly exceed 10 ppb about 16 km downwind. The enhancements of ambient ozone predicted by the model are significant, given that ozone control strategy widths are of the order of a few parts per billion. Degrading the horizontal resolution of the model to 1 km spuriously enhances the simulated ozone increases by reducing the effectiveness of ozone inhibition and titration due to artificial plume dilution.

  18. Cymbopogon citratus industrial waste as a potential source of bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Filipa; Costa, Gustavo; Francisco, Vera; Liberal, Joana; Figueirinha, Artur; Lopes, Maria Celeste; Cruz, Maria Teresa; Batista, Maria Teresa

    2015-10-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (Cc), commonly known as lemongrass, is a very important crop worldwide, being grown in tropical countries. It is widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and perfumery industries for its essential oil. Cc aqueous extracts are also used in traditional medicine. They contain high levels of polyphenols, which are known for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Hydrodistillation of lemongrass essential oil produces an aqueous waste (CcHD) which is discarded. Therefore a comparative study between CcHD and Cc infusion (CcI) was performed to characterize its phytochemical profile and to research its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential. HPLC-PDA/ESI-MS(n) analysis showed that CcI and CcHD have similar phenolic profiles, with CcHD presenting a higher amount of polyphenols. Additionally, both CcI and CcHD showed antioxidant activity against DPPH (EC50 of 41.72 ± 0.05 and 42.29 ± 0.05 µg mL(-1) respectively) and strong anti-inflammatory properties, by reducing NO production and iNOS expression in macrophages and through their NO-scavenging activity, in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, no cytotoxicity was observed. The data of this study encourage considering the aqueous solution from Cc leaf hydrodistillation as a source of bioactive compounds, which may add great industrial value to this crop. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Modeling of open quantum dots and wave billiards using imaginary potentials for the source and the sink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berggren, Karl-Fredrik; Yakimenko, Irina I; Hakanen, Jani

    2010-01-01

    A heuristic model for particle states and current flow in open ballistic two-dimensional (2D) quantum dots/wave billiards is proposed. The model makes use of complex potentials first introduced in phenomenological nuclear inelastic scattering theory (the optical model). Here we assume that external input and output leads connecting the system to the source and the drain regions may be represented by complex potentials. In this way, a current may be set up between the two 'pseudo-leads'. Probability densities and current flows for an open quantum dot are analyzed here numerically and the results are compared with the microwave measurements used to emulate the system. The model is of conceptual as well as practical interest. In addition to quantum billiards, it may be used as a tool per se to analyze transport in classical wave analogues, such as microwave resonators, acoustic resonators, effects of leakage on such systems, etc.

  20. Investigation of Biogenic and Non-biogenic Methane Sources in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S.; Talbot, R. W.; Liu, L.; Lan, X.

    2016-12-01

    Methane (CH4) is a potent greenhouse gas with its mixing ratio increasing in the global atmosphere. Texas is one of the significant areas where underestimation of CH4 emissions by the U.S. inventories are pronounced. This study focused on two areas of Texas: Houston, the energy capital of the world, and the Barnett Shale area which is one of the largest onshore natural gas fields in the United States. The investigation of background CH4 and the fingerprints of CH4 emissions are critical to understanding potential impacts of extensive nature gas operations in these two areas. One-year of stationary CH4 measurements were studied to deduce the regional background CH4 characteristics and to identify the principle CH4 sources in Houston. Key information concerning CH4 sources can be obtained through the stable carbon isotope δ13CH4 during two field campaigns using a state-of-the-art mobile laboratory. CH4 mixing ratio and δ13C in CH4 were sampled by two cavity ring-down spectrometers (CRDS), one of which is coupled to a custom air core 13C sampling device which can supply more than 600 measurements for each plume analysis. Here, we report results of the overall δ13CH4 values and CH4 emission signatures derived from thirty-three sources in the two studied areas, ranging from oil production and processing, waste managements and landfills, to livestock. δ13CH4 signatures of these sources vary from -76‰ to -23‰. Several repeated measurements were sampled to investigate the variability of source signatures. We investigated a case of unexpected massive CH4 leaking detected near the San Jacinto River Fleet site. At the regional scale, the comparison of background δ13CH4 signatures were conducted to obtain the difference of dominate CH4 sources in two study areas. At the local scale, the combination of tower and mobile lab measurements were used to estimate and characterize CH4 emissions in Houston. The results and findings can supply valuable references for the local

  1. Potential of hydrogen production from wind energy in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uqaili, M. A.; Harijan, K.; Memon, M.

    2007-01-01

    The transport sector consumes about 34% of the total commercial energy consumption in Pakistan. About 97% of fuel used in this sector is oil and the remaining 3% is CNG and electricity. The indigenous reserves of oil and gas are limited and the country is heavily dependent on the import of oil. The oil import bill is serious strain on the country's economy. The production, transportation and consumption of fossil fuels also degrade the environment. Therefore, it is important to explore the opportunities for clean renewable energy for long-term energy supply in the transport sector. Sindh, the second largest province of Pakistan, has about 250 km long coastline. The estimated average annual wind speed at 50 m height at almost all sites is about 6-7 m/s, indicating that Sindh has the potential to effectively utilize wind energy source for power generation and hydrogen production. A system consisting of wind turbines coupled with electrolyzers is a promising design to produce hydrogen. This paper presents an assessment of the potential of hydrogen production from wind energy in the coastal area of Sindh, Pakistan. The estimated technical potential of wind power is 386 TWh per year. If the wind electricity is used to power electrolyzers, 347.4 TWh hydrogen can be produced annually, which is about 1.2 times the total energy consumption in the transport sector of Pakistan in 2005. The substitution of oil with renewable hydrogen is essential to increase energy independence, improve domestic economies, and reduce greenhouse gas and other harmful emissions

  2. Drilling the Bushveld Complex- the world's largest layered mafic intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwal, L. D.; Webb, S. J.; Trumbull, R. B.

    2013-12-01

    The fact that surprising new discoveries can be made in layered mafic intrusions (e.g., subtle 100-150 m cyclicity in apparently homogeneous cumulates over 1000s of m) means that we are still in the first-order characterization phase of understanding these objects. Accordingly, we have secured funding from ICDP for a planning workshop to be held in Johannesburg in early 2014, aimed at scientific drilling of the Bushveld Complex, the world's largest layered mafic intrusion. Science objectives include, but are not limited to: 1. Magma chamber processes & melt evolution. How many melts/magmas/mushes were involved, what were their compositions and how did they interact? What, if anything, is missing from the Complex, and where did it go? Did Bushveld magmatism have an effect upon Earth's atmosphere at 2 Ga? 2. Crust-mantle interactions & origin of Bushveld granitoids. Are Bushveld granites & rhyolites crustal melts, differentiates from the mafic magmas or products of immiscibility? How can the evolved isotopic signatures in the mafic rocks (e.g., epsilon Nd to -8) be understood? 3. Origin of ore deposits. What were the relative roles of gravity settling, magma mixing, immiscibility and hydrothermal fluid transport in producing the PGE, Cr and V deposits? We have identified 3 potential drilling targets representing a total of ~12 km of drill core. Exact locations of drill sites are to be discussed at the workshop. Target A- East-Central Bushveld Complex. We propose 3 overlapping 3 km boreholes that will provide the first roof-to-floor continuous coverage of the Rustenburg Layered Suite. These boreholes will represent a curated, internationally available reference collection of Bushveld material for present and future research. Target B- Southeastern Bushveld Complex. We propose a single borehole of ~2 km depth, collared in Rooiberg felsite, and positioned to intersect the Roof Zone, Upper Zone, Main Zone and floor of the Complex. Amongst other things, this site will

  3. The Marine Fungi Rhodotorula sp. (Strain CNYC4007) as a Potential Feed Source for Fish Larvae Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, M.; Llanos-Rivera, A.; Cruzat, F.; Pino-Maureira, N.; González-Saldía, R. R.

    2017-01-01

    Fish oil is used in the production of feed for cultured fish owing to its high polyunsaturated fatty acid content (PUFA). The over-exploitation of fisheries and events like “El Niño” are reducing the fish oil supply. Some marine microorganisms are considered potentially as alternative fatty acid sources. This study assesses a strain of Rhodotorula sp. (strain CNYC4007; 2