WorldWideScience

Sample records for largest environmental simulation

  1. The Environmental Responsibility of the World’s Largest Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszawska Bożena

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability transition is changing the role and function of banks, specially their products and services also in relation to stakeholders. Banks are one of the main actors supporting the transition to sustainable economy. The purpose of this study is to emphasise the role of world’s largest banks in that process. Banks are slowly responding to the new demand of sustainability and responsibility, and they try to align with it. The paper is based on an overview of the world’s five largest banks that employ corporate social responsibility (CSR reporting standards, together with detailed enumeration of pro-environmental activities included in the reports. The first section of this paper presents the most popular approaches to the problem at hand, as reported in professional literature. Section two presents the characteristics of the CSR actions in banks. The third section discusses the environmental actions of the biggest banks in Global Reporting Initiative (GRI reporting the most popular standard for reporting non-financial information. And the last part of the paper presents the conclusions resulting from the article. The research was conducted using a variety of sources, such as scientific articles, statistical data, CSR reports of the world’s largest banks, as well reporting principles and standard disclosures. The basic method used in the process of writing was a critical analysis of literature and reports concerning the CSR reporting standards, environmental responsibilities of different kinds of entities, as well as own observations based on special reports of banks. In the article, also the analysis of financial market data, induction method and comparison method have been used. The main conclusions of the analysis of the CSR reports disclosed by the world’s largest banks confirm all three of the theses presented in the article. The findings suggest that the banks under study can be regarded as environmentally responsible

  2. Environmental isotope signatures of the largest freshwater lake in Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unnikrishnan Warrier, C.

    2007-01-01

    Sasthamkotta lake, the largest freshwater lake in Kerala, serves as a source for drinking water for more than half a million people. Environmental 137 Cs analysis done on undisturbed sediment core samples reveals that the recent rate of sedimentation is not uniform in the lake. The useful life of lake is estimated as about 800 years. The δD and δ 18 O values of the lake waters indicate that the lake is well mixed with a slight variation horizontally. The stable isotope studies on well waters from the catchment indicate hydraulic communication with the lake and lake groundwater system is flow-through type. Analytical model also supports this view. (author)

  3. Ownership structure and economic and socio-environmental disclosure in the largest Brazilian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Aquino Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The disclosure of sustainable practices has become important in the search for competitive advantage, so as to meet the expectations of the various stakeholders. Thus, the study aims to investigate the relationship between the ownership structure and the economic and environmental voluntary disclosure in the largest Brazilian companies, analyzing ownership concentration and the identity of the controlling shareholder. For the analysis, we considered the economic, social and environmental perspectives, addressed both individually and jointly. The sample consists of 47 companies from the 100 largest public companies listed on BM&FBOVESPA, according to the magazine Exame Biggest and Best, edition 2013. The research is descriptive and quantitative, using Multiple Linear Regression for statistical analysis. The descriptive analysis of the prospects of (economic, social, environmental and sustainability disclosure showed lower average disclosure for the environmental aspect. The state control organizations stood out with the highest average in three of the four levels of disclosure: economic, social and sustainability. As regards the application of statistical analysis, the regression models were not statistically significant, indicating that, for the companies in the sample, the ownership structure does not influence the economic and socio-environmental disclosure.

  4. Contamination Control Assessment of the World's Largest Space Environment Simulation Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Aaron; Henry, Michael W.; Grisnik, Stanley P.; Sinclair, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    The Space Power Facility s thermal vacuum test chamber is the largest chamber in the world capable of providing an environment for space simulation. To improve performance and meet stringent requirements of a wide customer base, significant modifications were made to the vacuum chamber. These include major changes to the vacuum system and numerous enhancements to the chamber s unique polar crane, with a goal of providing high cleanliness levels. The significance of these changes and modifications are discussed in this paper. In addition, the composition and arrangement of the pumping system and its impact on molecular back-streaming are discussed in detail. Molecular contamination measurements obtained with a TQCM and witness wafers during two recent integrated system tests of the chamber are presented and discussed. Finally, a concluding remarks section is presented.

  5. Environmental impacts of SMEs and the effects of formal management tools : Evidence from EU's largest survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, Johan; Smid, Hugo

    Much literature on corporate social responsibility suggests that formal management tools to manage environmental impacts, such as environmental reporting or ISO14001 certification, are not suitable for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Other studies, however, argue that using some form of

  6. Recent progress in simulating galaxy formation from the largest to the smallest scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André

    2018-05-01

    Galaxy formation simulations are an essential part of the modern toolkit of astrophysicists and cosmologists alike. Astrophysicists use the simulations to study the emergence of galaxy populations from the Big Bang, as well as the formation of stars and supermassive black holes. For cosmologists, galaxy formation simulations are needed to understand how baryonic processes affect measurements of dark matter and dark energy. Owing to the extreme dynamic range of galaxy formation, advances are driven by novel approaches using simulations with different tradeoffs between volume and resolution. Large-volume but low-resolution simulations provide the best statistics, while higher-resolution simulations of smaller cosmic volumes can be evolved with self-consistent physics and reveal important emergent phenomena. I summarize recent progress in galaxy formation simulations, including major developments in the past five years, and highlight some key areas likely to drive further advances over the next decade.

  7. Adaptive Optics Simulation for the World's Largest Telescope on Multicore Architectures with Multiple GPUs

    KAUST Repository

    Ltaief, Hatem; Gratadour, Damien; Charara, Ali; Gendron, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We present a high performance comprehensive implementation of a multi-object adaptive optics (MOAO) simulation on multicore architectures with hardware accelerators in the context of computational astronomy. This implementation will be used

  8. Adaptive Optics Simulation for the World's Largest Telescope on Multicore Architectures with Multiple GPUs

    KAUST Repository

    Ltaief, Hatem

    2016-06-02

    We present a high performance comprehensive implementation of a multi-object adaptive optics (MOAO) simulation on multicore architectures with hardware accelerators in the context of computational astronomy. This implementation will be used as an operational testbed for simulating the de- sign of new instruments for the European Extremely Large Telescope project (E-ELT), the world\\'s biggest eye and one of Europe\\'s highest priorities in ground-based astronomy. The simulation corresponds to a multi-step multi-stage pro- cedure, which is fed, near real-time, by system and turbulence data coming from the telescope environment. Based on the PLASMA library powered by the OmpSs dynamic runtime system, our implementation relies on a task-based programming model to permit an asynchronous out-of-order execution. Using modern multicore architectures associated with the enormous computing power of GPUS, the resulting data-driven compute-intensive simulation of the entire MOAO application, composed of the tomographic reconstructor and the observing sequence, is capable of coping with the aforementioned real-time challenge and stands as a reference implementation for the computational astronomy community.

  9. Diving and Environmental Simulation Team

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Diving and Environmental Simulation Team focuses on ways to optimize the performance and safety of Navy divers. Our goal is to increase mission effectiveness by...

  10. Natural streamflow simulation for two largest river basins in Poland: a baseline for identification of flow alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piniewski, Mikołaj

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to apply a previously developed large-scale and high-resolution SWAT model of the Vistula and the Odra basins, calibrated with the focus of natural flow simulation, in order to assess the impact of three different dam reservoirs on streamflow using the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA). A tailored spatial calibration approach was designed, in which calibration was focused on a large set of relatively small non-nested sub-catchments with semi-natural flow regime. These were classified into calibration clusters based on the flow statistics similarity. After performing calibration and validation that gave overall positive results, the calibrated parameter values were transferred to the remaining part of the basins using an approach based on hydrological similarity of donor and target catchments. The calibrated model was applied in three case studies with the purpose of assessing the effect of dam reservoirs (Włocławek, Siemianówka and Czorsztyn Reservoirs) on streamflow alteration. Both the assessment based on gauged streamflow (Before-After design) and the one based on simulated natural streamflow showed large alterations in selected flow statistics related to magnitude, duration, high and low flow pulses and rate of change. Some benefits of using a large-scale and high-resolution hydrological model for the assessment of streamflow alteration include: (1) providing an alternative or complementary approach to the classical Before-After designs, (2) isolating the climate variability effect from the dam (or any other source of alteration) effect, (3) providing a practical tool that can be applied at a range of spatial scales over large area such as a country, in a uniform way. Thus, presented approach can be applied for designing more natural flow regimes, which is crucial for river and floodplain ecosystem restoration in the context of the European Union's policy on environmental flows.

  11. Natural streamflow simulation for two largest river basins in Poland: a baseline for identification of flow alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Piniewski

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to apply a previously developed large-scale and high-resolution SWAT model of the Vistula and the Odra basins, calibrated with the focus of natural flow simulation, in order to assess the impact of three different dam reservoirs on streamflow using the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA. A tailored spatial calibration approach was designed, in which calibration was focused on a large set of relatively small non-nested sub-catchments with semi-natural flow regime. These were classified into calibration clusters based on the flow statistics similarity. After performing calibration and validation that gave overall positive results, the calibrated parameter values were transferred to the remaining part of the basins using an approach based on hydrological similarity of donor and target catchments. The calibrated model was applied in three case studies with the purpose of assessing the effect of dam reservoirs (Włocławek, Siemianówka and Czorsztyn Reservoirs on streamflow alteration. Both the assessment based on gauged streamflow (Before-After design and the one based on simulated natural streamflow showed large alterations in selected flow statistics related to magnitude, duration, high and low flow pulses and rate of change. Some benefits of using a large-scale and high-resolution hydrological model for the assessment of streamflow alteration include: (1 providing an alternative or complementary approach to the classical Before-After designs, (2 isolating the climate variability effect from the dam (or any other source of alteration effect, (3 providing a practical tool that can be applied at a range of spatial scales over large area such as a country, in a uniform way. Thus, presented approach can be applied for designing more natural flow regimes, which is crucial for river and floodplain ecosystem restoration in the context of the European Union's policy on environmental flows.

  12. Rainfall simulation for environmental application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shriner, D.S.; Abner, C.H.; Mann, L.K.

    1977-08-01

    Rain simulation systems have been designed for field and greenhouse studies which have the capability of reproducing the physical and chemical characteristics of natural rainfall. The systems permit the simulation of variations in rainfall and droplet size similar to that of natural precipitation. The systems are completely automatic and programmable, allowing unattended operation for periods of up to one week, and have been used to expose not only vegetation but also soils and engineering materials, making them versatile tools for studies involving simulated precipitation.

  13. Predicting environmental restoration activities through static simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, T.L.; King, D.A.; Wilkins, M.L.; Forward, M.F.

    1994-12-01

    This paper discusses a static simulation model that predicts several performance measures of environmental restoration activities over different remedial strategies. Basic model operation consists of manipulating and processing waste streams via selecting and applying remedial technologies according to the strategy. Performance measure prediction is possible for contaminated soil, solid waste, surface water, groundwater, storage tank, and facility sites. Simulations are performed for the U.S. Department of Energy in support of its Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

  14. Non Nuclear NTR Environmental Simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrich, William J. Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear Thermal Rockets or NTR's have been suggested as a propulsion system option for vehicles traveling to the moon or Mars. These engines are capable of providing high thrust at specific impulses at least twice that of today's best chemical engines. The performance constraints on these engines are mainly the result of temperature limitations on the fuel coupled with a limited ability to withstand chemical attack by the hot hydrogen propellant. To operate at maximum efficiency, fuel forms are desired which can withstand the extremely hot, hostile environment characteristic of NTR operation for at least several hours. The simulation of such an environment would require an experimental device which could simultaneously approximate the power, flow, and temperature conditions which a nuclear fuel element (or partial element) would encounter during NTR operation. Such a simulation would allow detailed studies of the fuel behavior and hydrogen flow characteristics under reactor like conditions to be performed. The goal of these simulations would be directed toward expanding the performance envelope of NTR engines over that which was demonstrated during the Rover and NERVA nuclear rocket programs of the 1970's. Current planning calls for such a simulator to be constructed at the Marshall Space Flight Center over the coming year, and it is anticipated that it will be used in the future to evaluate a wide variety of fuel element designs and the materials of which they are constructed. This present work addresses the initial experimental objectives of the NTR simulator with regard to reproducing the fuel degradation patterns previously observed during the NERVA testing

  15. Environmental Effect on Egress Simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Samuel; Giese, Andrew; Amato, Nancy M.; Zarrinmehr, Saied; Al-Douri, Firas; Clayton, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Evacuation and egress simulations can be a useful tool for studying the effect of design decisions on the flow of agent movement. This type of simulation can be used to determine before hand the effect of design decisions and enable exploration of potential improvements. In this work, we study at how agent egress is affected by the environment in real world and large scale virtual environments and investigate metrics to analyze the flow. Our work differs from many evacuation systems in that we support grouping restrictions between agents (e.g., families or other social groups traveling together), and model scenarios with multiple modes of transportation with physically realistic dynamics (e.g., individuals walk from a building to their own cars and leave only when all people in the group arrive).

  16. Fractal Landscape Algorithms for Environmental Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, H.; Moran, S.

    2014-12-01

    Natural science and geographical research are now able to take advantage of environmental simulations that more accurately test experimental hypotheses, resulting in deeper understanding. Experiments affected by the natural environment can benefit from 3D landscape simulations capable of simulating a variety of terrains and environmental phenomena. Such simulations can employ random terrain generation algorithms that dynamically simulate environments to test specific models against a variety of factors. Through the use of noise functions such as Perlin noise, Simplex noise, and diamond square algorithms, computers can generate simulations that model a variety of landscapes and ecosystems. This study shows how these algorithms work together to create realistic landscapes. By seeding values into the diamond square algorithm, one can control the shape of landscape. Perlin noise and Simplex noise are also used to simulate moisture and temperature. The smooth gradient created by coherent noise allows more realistic landscapes to be simulated. Terrain generation algorithms can be used in environmental studies and physics simulations. Potential studies that would benefit from simulations include the geophysical impact of flash floods or drought on a particular region and regional impacts on low lying area due to global warming and rising sea levels. Furthermore, terrain generation algorithms also serve as aesthetic tools to display landscapes (Google Earth), and simulate planetary landscapes. Hence, it can be used as a tool to assist science education. Algorithms used to generate these natural phenomena provide scientists a different approach in analyzing our world. The random algorithms used in terrain generation not only contribute to the generating the terrains themselves, but are also capable of simulating weather patterns.

  17. Annual Report 1999 Environmental Dynamics and Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NS Foster-Mills

    2000-06-28

    This annual report describes selected 1999 research accomplishments for the Environmental Dynamics and Simulation (ED and S) directorate, one of six research organizations in the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL). These accomplishments are representative of the different lines of research underway in the ED and S directorate. EMSL is one of US Department of Energy's (DOE) national scientific user facilities and is the centerpiece of DOE's commitment to providing world-class experimental, theoretical, and computational capabilities for solving the nation's environmental problems. Capabilities in the EMSL include over 100 major instrument systems for use by the resident research staff, their collaborators, and users of the EMSL. These capabilities are used to address the fundamental science that will be the basis for finding solutions to national environmental issues such as cleaning up contamianted areas at DOE sites across the country and developing green technologies that will reduce or eliminate future pollution production. The capabilities are also used to further the understanding of global climate change and environmental issues relevant to energy production and use and health effects resulting from exposure to contaminated environments.

  18. Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrich, William J. Jr.

    2008-01-01

    To support a potential future development of a nuclear thermal rocket engine, a state-of-the-art non nuclear experimental test setup has been constructed to evaluate the performance characteristics of candidate fuel element materials and geometries in representative environments. The test device simulates the environmental conditions (minus the radiation) to which nuclear rocket fuel components could be subjected during reactor operation. Test articles mounted in the simulator are inductively heated in such a manner as to accurately reproduce the temperatures and heat fluxes normally expected to occur as a result of nuclear fission while at the same time being exposed to flowing hydrogen. This project is referred to as the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environment Simulator or NTREES. The NTREES device is located at the Marshall Space flight Center in a laboratory which has been modified to accommodate the high powers required to heat the test articles to the required temperatures and to handle the gaseous hydrogen flow required for the tests. Other modifications to the laboratory include the installation of a nitrogen gas supply system and a cooling water supply system. During the design and construction of the facility, every effort was made to comply with all pertinent regulations to provide assurance that the facility could be operated in a safe and efficient manner. The NTREES system can currently supply up to 50 kW of inductive heating to the fuel test articles, although the facility has been sized to eventually allow test article heating levels of up to several megawatts

  19. Environmental impact of the largest petroleum terminal in SE Brazil: A multiproxy analysis based on sediment geochemistry and living benthic foraminifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wânia Duleba

    Full Text Available The Dutos e Terminais do Centro Sul (DTCS is one of the largest petroleum terminals of the South America located in the São Sebastião Channel (SSC on the southeastern Brazilian coast. The aims of this study were to compare the sediment quality near the DTCS with that of several sites in the SSC region including the Araçá (AR domestic sewage outfall and to assess the efficiency of the DTCS wastewater treatment plant. To achieve these goals, textural, geochemical, and living benthic foraminifera results were analyzed for the DTCS, AR, and SSC regions. Sediments in the DTCS area were silty with high concentrations of total organic carbon (1.7-2.4%, total nitrogen (0.2-0.3%, total sulfur (0.4-0.6%, and total (0.12-0.18% and inorganic phosphorous (0.07-0.11%. These values were higher than those in sediments collected in the SSC and Araçá regions. The sediments' concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the SSC and AR regions were lower than their corresponding probable effect levels (PELs. However, sediments near the DTCS were enriched with As, Cu, and Ni, whose concentrations exceeded their corresponding threshold effect levels (TELs. Around the DTCS outfall diffusers, living foraminiferal densities and diversities were lower than those for the other areas studied. In the DTCS area, it was necessary to search 50 to 190 cm3 of sediment to find 100 live specimens. In the SSC and Araçá areas, a maximum of 40 cm3 of sediment was enough to locate 100 live specimens. The lower density and diversity of living foraminifera around the DTCS than around the other areas illustrates the impact of the environmental stress caused by the presence of pollutants. These results indicate that the wastewater treatment plant efficiency is low and its discharge of pollutants from petrochemical waste liquids affects the benthic fauna around the DTCS in a potentially harmful manner.

  20. Environmental impact of the largest petroleum terminal in SE Brazil: A multiproxy analysis based on sediment geochemistry and living benthic foraminifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duleba, Wânia; Teodoro, Andreia C.; Debenay, Jean-Pierre; Gubitoso, Silas; Pregnolato, Leonardo Antônio; Lerena, Laura Misailidis; Prada, Silvio Miranda; Bevilacqua, José Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    The Dutos e Terminais do Centro Sul (DTCS) is one of the largest petroleum terminals of the South America located in the São Sebastião Channel (SSC) on the southeastern Brazilian coast. The aims of this study were to compare the sediment quality near the DTCS with that of several sites in the SSC region including the Araçá (AR) domestic sewage outfall and to assess the efficiency of the DTCS wastewater treatment plant. To achieve these goals, textural, geochemical, and living benthic foraminifera results were analyzed for the DTCS, AR, and SSC regions. Sediments in the DTCS area were silty with high concentrations of total organic carbon (1.7–2.4%), total nitrogen (0.2–0.3%), total sulfur (0.4–0.6%), and total (0.12–0.18%) and inorganic phosphorous (0.07–0.11%). These values were higher than those in sediments collected in the SSC and Araçá regions. The sediments’ concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the SSC and AR regions were lower than their corresponding probable effect levels (PELs). However, sediments near the DTCS were enriched with As, Cu, and Ni, whose concentrations exceeded their corresponding threshold effect levels (TELs). Around the DTCS outfall diffusers, living foraminiferal densities and diversities were lower than those for the other areas studied. In the DTCS area, it was necessary to search 50 to 190 cm3 of sediment to find 100 live specimens. In the SSC and Araçá areas, a maximum of 40 cm3 of sediment was enough to locate 100 live specimens. The lower density and diversity of living foraminifera around the DTCS than around the other areas illustrates the impact of the environmental stress caused by the presence of pollutants. These results indicate that the wastewater treatment plant efficiency is low and its discharge of pollutants from petrochemical waste liquids affects the benthic fauna around the DTCS in a potentially harmful manner. PMID:29432425

  1. Largest College Endowments, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Of all endowments valued at more than $250-million, the UCLA Foundation had the highest rate of growth over the previous year, at 49 percent. This article presents a table of the largest college endowments in 2011. The table covers the "rank," "institution," "market value as of June 30, 2011," and "1-year change" of institutions participating in…

  2. Spatial Distribution of Bacterial Communities Driven by Multiple Environmental Factors in a Beach Wetland of the Largest Freshwater Lake in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia eDing

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distributions of bacterial communities may be driven by multiple environmental factors. Thus, understanding the relationships between bacterial distribution and environmental factors is critical for understanding wetland stability and the functioning of freshwater lakes. However, little research on the bacterial communities in deep sediment layers exists. In this study, thirty clone libraries of 16S rRNA were constructed from a beach wetland of the Poyang Lake along both horizontal (distance to the water-land junction and vertical (sediment depth gradients to assess the effects of sediment properties on bacterial community structure and diversity. Our results showed that bacterial diversity increased along the horizontal gradient and decreased along the vertical gradient. The heterogeneous sediment properties along gradients substantially affected the dominant bacterial groups at the phylum and species levels. For example, the NH4+ concentration decreased with increasing depth, which was positively correlated with the relative abundance of Alphaproteobacteria. The changes in bacterial diversity and dominant bacterial groups showed that the top layer had a different bacterial community structure than the deeper layers. Principal component analysis revealed that both gradients, not each gradient independently, contributed to the shift in the bacterial community structure. A multiple linear regression model explained the changes in bacterial diversity and richness along the depth and distance gradients. Overall, our results suggest that spatial gradients associated with sediment properties shaped the bacterial communities in the Poyang Lake beach wetland.

  3. Environmental simulation testing of solar cell contamination by hydrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, W. W., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Test results for thermal vacuum and radiation environment simulation of hydrazine contamination are discussed. Solar cell performance degradation, measured by short circuit current, is presented in correlation with the variations used in environmental parameters.

  4. Future water availability in the largest freshwater Mediterranean lake is at great risk as evidenced from simulations with the SWAT model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucak, Tuba; Trolle, Dennis; Andersen, Hans Estrup; Thodsen, Hans; Erdoğan, Şeyda; Levi, Eti E; Filiz, Nur; Jeppesen, Erik; Beklioğlu, Meryem

    2017-03-01

    Inter- and intra-annual water level fluctuations and changes in water flow regime are intrinsic characteristics of Mediterranean lakes. Additionally, considering climate change projections for the water-limited Mediterranean region, increased air temperatures and decreased precipitation are anticipated, leading to dramatic declines in lake water levels as well as severe water scarcity problems. The study site, Lake Beyşehir, the largest freshwater lake in the Mediterranean basin, is - like other Mediterranean lakes - threatened by climatic changes and over-abstraction of water for irrigated crop farming. Therefore, implementation of strict water level management policies is required. In this study, an integrated modeling approach was used to predict the future water levels of Lake Beyşehir in response to potential future changes in climate and land use. Water level estimation was performed by linking the catchment model Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) with a Support Vector Regression model (ε-SVR). The projected increase in temperature and decrease in precipitation based on the climate change models led to an enhanced potential evapotranspiration and reduced total runoff. On the other hand, the effects of various land use scenarios within the catchment appeared to be comparatively insignificant. According to the ε-SVR model results, changes in hydrological processes caused a water level reduction for all scenarios. Moreover, the MPI-ESM-MR General Circulation Model outputs produced the most dramatic results by predicting that Lake Beyşehir may dry out by the 2040s with the current outflow regime. The results indicate that shallow Mediterranean lakes may face a severe risk of drying out and losing their ecosystem values in the near future if the current intensity of water abstraction is not reduced. In addition, the results also demonstrate that outflow management and sustainable use of water sources are vital to sustain lake ecosystems in water

  5. Environmental impacts of thermal generation in the largest city of the Brazilian Amazon; Impactos ambientais da geracao termeletrica na maior cidade da Amazonia brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Ilsa Maria Valois; Cartaxo, Elizabeth Ferreira [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (NIEMA/UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Energia Meio Ambiente e Agua

    2010-07-01

    The developing process of the Manaus city is questioned from the authors' concern about the built environment and 'destroyed' by the diversity of human actions. Reflecting on the impacts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere of the city of Manaus by thermoelectric plants, the main source of electricity in the state, the focus of this study is the urban atmosphere where physical and chemical phenomena accelerate the effects of pollution. It is based on two works: A) monitoring of emissions of gaseous pollutants emitted by Power Plant (UTE) Maua from the emission source. This is a project - 'Reducing Emissions of Gaseous Pollutants in Central Steam Power Plants' - conducted by the Interdisciplinary Center for Energy, Environment and Water of the Federal University of Amazonas (UFAM) approved by the Research and Development Program of the Concessionaire local power. B) the result of a Master thesis submitted to UFAM, 'Mapping the distribution of nitrogen dioxide in the city of Manaus' (MARINHO, 2007). This research has made an assessment of levels of distribution of NO{sup 2} in twenty points distributed in a strategic way, demonstrating that the minimum values were found in a region with little urban influence. The analysis of these two works subsidizes a preliminary research in analytical chemistry and attempts to demonstrate the need to advance the search for methods and techniques more consistent. This is an important step toward a policy of environmental management of atmospheric air that will complement future studies of air pollution in the capital of Amazonas. (author)

  6. Acute ecological toxicity and environmental persistence of simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldo, D.A.; Ligotke, M.W.; McVeety, B.D.; Fellows, R.J.; Bolton, H. Jr.; Li, S.W.; Van Voris, P.; Wentsel, R.S.

    1988-06-01

    The objectives of these studies are to establish the comparative environmental behavior and chemical fate of chemical simulants. Laboratory studies were undertaken to establish: (1) deposition efficiency (deposition velocities, Vd) for receptor surfaces including plant foliage and soils; (2) dose/response relationships for important environmental components including plants and soil microflora; and (3) the environmental persistence of the simulants. Chemical agent simulants are employed for a range of testing and training activities where use of chemical agents is less than suitable from a safety and environmental standpoint. A variety of chemical simulant materials are used to simulate either nerve agents or blister agents. The following research describes the environmental effects and persistence of four simulants. These are the nerve agent stimulants diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP), diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP), and bis (2-ethylhexyl) phosphonate (BIS), and the mustard stimulant 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES). The vapor pressures for DIMP, DFP, and CEES are relatively high, reported to be 0.17, 0.58 and 3.4 mm Hg, respectively; while that of BIS is substantially less at 5.8 /times/ 10/sup /minus/5/ mm Hg at 25/degree/C. The chemical characteristics of DFP and CEES are very similar to G/VX-agents and mustard, respectively, and are employed for materials evaluation under controlled conditions. However, their toxicity precludes their use in the environment. DIMP and BIS are currently used for testing in the open air. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. POLICY ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH USING SIMULATION TO ASSESS ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchitel, Kirsten; Tanana, Heather

    2014-11-01

    This report examines the relationship between simulation-based science and judicial assessments of simulations or models supporting evaluations of environmental harms or risks, considering both how it exists currently and how it might be shaped in the future. This report considers the legal standards relevant to judicial assessments of simulation-based science and provides examples of the judicial application of those legal standards. Next, this report discusses the factors that inform whether there is a correlation between the sophistication of a challenged simulation and judicial support for that simulation. Finally, this report examines legal analysis of the broader issues that must be addressed for simulation-based science to be better understood and utilized in the context of judicial challenge and evaluation. !

  8. Simulated degradation of biochar and its potential environmental implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhaoyun; Demisie, Walelign; Zhang, Mingkui

    2013-01-01

    A simulated oxidation technique was used to examine the impacts of degradation on the surface properties of biochar and the potential implications of the changes in biochar properties were discussed. To simulate the short- and long-term environmental degradation, mild and harsh degradation were employed. Results showed that after mild degradation, the biochar samples showed significant reductions in surface area and pore volumes. After harsh degradation, the biochar samples revealed dramatic variations in their surface chemistry, surface area, pore volumes, morphology and adsorption properties. The results clearly indicate that changes of biochar surface properties were affected by biochar types and oxidative conditions. It is suggested that biochar surface properties are likely to be gradually altered during environmental exposure. This implies that these changes have potential effects for altering the physicochemical properties of biochar amended soils. -- Highlights: •Mild and harsh degradation were employed to simulate natural degradation of biochar. •Mild degradation could reduce the surface area and micropore volumes of biochar. •Harsh degradation caused severe changes of all of the biochar surface properties. •Biochar types and oxidative conditions may dominate the changes of its properties. -- The simulated degradation of biochar in this study could provide a mechanism for forecasting short- or long-term environmental degradation of biochar

  9. Environmentally assisted cracking behaviour of copper in simulated ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hietanen, S.; Ehrnsten, U.; Saario, T.

    1996-05-01

    Environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) behaviour of pure oxygen free copper in simulated ground water with additions of sodium nitrite was studied. Low frequency corrosion fatigue tests with high positive load ratio values under crosshead speed control were performed using precracked diskshaped compact specimens C(T). The load ratio values were about 0.9 and the frequencies were between 0.0008 and 0.0017 Hz. Tests were performed under electrochemical potential control in an autoclave at room temperature and at 80 deg C. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of repository environment on environmentally assisted cracking susceptibility of pure copper. (5 refs., 31 figs., 5 tabs.)

  10. Advance simulation capability for environmental management (ASCEM) - 59065

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, Paul; Keating, Elizabeth; Moulton, David; Williamson, Mark; Collazo, Yvette; Gerdes, Kurt; Freshley, Mark; Gorton, Ian; Meza, Juan

    2012-01-01

    The United States Department Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) determined that uniform application of advanced modeling in the subsurface could help reduce the cost and risks associated with its environmental cleanup mission. In response to this determination, the EM Office of Technology Innovation and Development (OTID), Groundwater and Soil Remediation (GW and S) began the program Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM). ASCEM is a state-of-the-art scientific tool and approach for integrating data and scientific understanding to enable prediction of contaminant fate and transport in natural and engineered systems. This initiative supports the reduction of uncertainties and risks associated with EM?s environmental cleanup and closure programs through better understanding and quantifying the subsurface flow and contaminant transport behavior in complex geological systems. This involves the long-term performance of engineered components, including cementitious materials in nuclear waste disposal facilities that may be sources for future contamination of the subsurface. This paper describes the ASCEM tools and approach and the ASCEM programmatic accomplishments completed in 2010 including recent advances and technology transfer. The US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management has begun development of an Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management, (ASCEM). This program will provide predictions of the end states of contaminated areas allowing for cost and risk reduction of EM remedial activities. ASCEM will provide the tools and approaches necessary to standardize risk and performance assessments across the DOE complex. Through its Phase One demonstration, the ASCEM team has shown value to the EM community in the areas of High Performance Computing, Data Management, Visualization, and Uncertainty Quantification. In 2012, ASCEM will provide an initial limited release of a community code for

  11. Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES) Upgrade Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, William J. Jr.; Moran, Robert P.; Pearson, J. Boise

    2012-01-01

    To support the on-going nuclear thermal propulsion effort, a state-of-the-art non nuclear experimental test setup has been constructed to evaluate the performance characteristics of candidate fuel element materials and geometries in representative environments. The facility to perform this testing is referred to as the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environment Simulator (NTREES). This device can simulate the environmental conditions (minus the radiation) to which nuclear rocket fuel components will be subjected during reactor operation. Test articles mounted in the simulator are inductively heated in such a manner so as to accurately reproduce the temperatures and heat fluxes which would normally occur as a result of nuclear fission and would be exposed to flowing hydrogen. Initial testing of a somewhat prototypical fuel element has been successfully performed in NTREES and the facility has now been shutdown to allow for an extensive reconfiguration of the facility which will result in a significant upgrade in its capabilities

  12. Environmental regulation in a network of simulated microbial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Hywel T P; Lenton, Timothy M

    2008-07-29

    The Earth possesses a number of regulatory feedback mechanisms involving life. In the absence of a population of competing biospheres, it has proved hard to find a robust evolutionary mechanism that would generate environmental regulation. It has been suggested that regulation must require altruistic environmental alterations by organisms and, therefore, would be evolutionarily unstable. This need not be the case if organisms alter the environment as a selectively neutral by-product of their metabolism, as in the majority of biogeochemical reactions, but a question then arises: Why should the combined by-product effects of the biota have a stabilizing, rather than destabilizing, influence on the environment? Under certain conditions, selection acting above the level of the individual can be an effective adaptive force. Here we present an evolutionary simulation model in which environmental regulation involving higher-level selection robustly emerges in a network of interconnected microbial ecosystems. Spatial structure creates conditions for a limited form of higher-level selection to act on the collective environment-altering properties of local communities. Local communities that improve their environmental conditions achieve larger populations and are better colonizers of available space, whereas local communities that degrade their environment shrink and become susceptible to invasion. The spread of environment-improving communities alters the global environment toward the optimal conditions for growth and tends to regulate against external perturbations. This work suggests a mechanism for environmental regulation that is consistent with evolutionary theory.

  13. Largest particle detector nearing completion

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "Construction of another part of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the worl's largest particle accelerator at CERN in Switzerland, is nearing completion. The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is oner of the LHC project's four large particle detectors. (1/2 page)

  14. Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM): Early Site Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meza, Juan; Hubbard, Susan; Freshley, Mark D.; Gorton, Ian; Moulton, David; Denham, Miles E.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management, Technology Innovation and Development (EM-32), is supporting development of the Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM). ASCEM is a state-of-the-art scientific tool and approach for understanding and predicting contaminant fate and transport in natural and engineered systems. The modular and open source high performance computing tool will facilitate integrated approaches to modeling and site characterization that enable robust and standardized assessments of performance and risk for EM cleanup and closure activities. As part of the initial development process, a series of demonstrations were defined to test ASCEM components and provide feedback to developers, engage end users in applications, and lead to an outcome that would benefit the sites. The demonstration was implemented for a sub-region of the Savannah River Site General Separations Area that includes the F-Area Seepage Basins. The physical domain included the unsaturated and saturated zones in the vicinity of the seepage basins and Fourmile Branch, using an unstructured mesh fit to the hydrostratigraphy and topography of the site. The calculations modeled variably saturated flow and the resulting flow field was used in simulations of the advection of non-reactive species and the reactive-transport of uranium. As part of the demonstrations, a new set of data management, visualization, and uncertainty quantification tools were developed to analyze simulation results and existing site data. These new tools can be used to provide summary statistics, including information on which simulation parameters were most important in the prediction of uncertainty and to visualize the relationships between model input and output.

  15. Simulated Space Environmental Effects on Thin Film Solar Array Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finckenor, Miria; Carr, John; SanSoucie, Michael; Boyd, Darren; Phillips, Brandon

    2017-01-01

    The Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) experiment consists of thin-film, low mass, low volume solar panels. Given the variety of thin solar cells and cover materials and the lack of environmental protection typically afforded by thick coverglasses, a series of tests were conducted in Marshall Space Flight Center's Space Environmental Effects Facility to evaluate the performance of these materials. Candidate thin polymeric films and nitinol wires used for deployment were also exposed. Simulated space environment exposures were selected based on SSP 30425 rev. B, "Space Station Program Natural Environment Definition for Design" or AIAA Standard S-111A-2014, "Qualification and Quality Requirements for Space Solar Cells." One set of candidate materials were exposed to 5 eV atomic oxygen and concurrent vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation for low Earth orbit simulation. A second set of materials were exposed to 1 MeV electrons. A third set of samples were exposed to 50, 100, 500, and 700 keV energy protons, and a fourth set were exposed to >2,000 hours of near ultraviolet (NUV) radiation. A final set was rapidly thermal cycled between -55 and +125degC. This test series provides data on enhanced power generation, particularly for small satellites with reduced mass and volume resources. Performance versus mass and cost per Watt is discussed.

  16. A Facility for Long-Term Mars Simulation Experiments: The Mars Environmental Simulation Chamber (MESCH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Lars Liengaard; Merrison, Jonathan; Hansen, Aviaja Anna; Mikkelsen, Karina Aarup; Kristoffersen, Tommy; Nørnberg, Per; Lomstein, Bente Aagaard; Finster, Kai

    2008-06-01

    We describe the design, construction, and pilot operation of a Mars simulation facility comprised of a cryogenic environmental chamber, an atmospheric gas analyzer, and a xenon/mercury discharge source for UV generation. The Mars Environmental Simulation Chamber (MESCH) consists of a double-walled cylindrical chamber. The double wall provides a cooling mantle through which liquid N2 can be circulated. A load-lock system that consists of a small pressure-exchange chamber, which can be evacuated, allows for the exchange of samples without changing the chamber environment. Fitted within the MESCH is a carousel, which holds up to 10 steel sample tubes. Rotation of the carousel is controlled by an external motor. Each sample in the carousel can be placed at any desired position. Environmental data, such as temperature, pressure, and UV exposure time, are computer logged and used in automated feedback mechanisms, enabling a wide variety of experiments that include time series. Tests of the simulation facility have successfully demonstrated its ability to produce temperature cycles and maintain low temperature (down to -140°C), low atmospheric pressure (5 10 mbar), and a gas composition like that of Mars during long-term experiments.

  17. Calibration of the TIME2 environmental simulation code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmot, R.D.; Hiscock, K.; Lloyd, J.

    1991-04-01

    The TARGET finite-difference groundwater modelling code has been used to reconstruct the hydrogeological environment of the area around Killingholme, Humberside, UK. Reconstructions have been made for the present day and for three periods during the past 120,000 years. Permeability development in the Chalk and the stratified nature of the current groundwater system act as boundary conditions for these reconstructions. The results from these reconstructions have been compared with values used by the environmental simulation code TIME2. With optimisation of partition coefficients within the water budget sub-model, values for recharge from TIME2 accord closely with those from this study for temperate and boreal conditions. TIME2 over-estimates recharge during tundra climate states because it does not account for permafrost. (author)

  18. Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management: Development and Demonstrations - 12532

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freshley, Mark D.; Freedman, Vicky; Gorton, Ian [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, MSIN K9-33, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Hubbard, Susan S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, MS 50B-4230, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Moulton, J. David; Dixon, Paul [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS B284, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (EM), Technology Innovation and Development is supporting development of the Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM). ASCEM is a state-of-the-art scientific tool and approach for understanding and predicting contaminant fate and transport in natural and engineered systems. The modular and open source high-performance computing tool facilitates integrated approaches to modeling and site characterization that enable robust and standardized assessments of performance and risk for EM cleanup and closure activities. The ASCEM project continues to make significant progress in development of capabilities, which are organized into Platform and Integrated Tool-sets and a High-Performance Computing Multi-process Simulator. The Platform capabilities target a level of functionality to allow end-to-end model development, starting with definition of the conceptual model and management of data for model input. The High-Performance Computing capabilities target increased functionality of process model representations, tool-sets for interaction with Platform, and verification and model confidence testing. The new capabilities are demonstrated through working groups, including one focused on the Hanford Site Deep Vadose Zone. The ASCEM program focused on planning during the first year and executing a prototype tool-set for an early demonstration of individual components. Subsequently, ASCEM has focused on developing and demonstrating an integrated set of capabilities, making progress toward a version of the capabilities that can be used to engage end users. Demonstration of capabilities continues to be implemented through working groups. Three different working groups, one focused on EM problems in the deep vadose zone, another investigating attenuation mechanisms for metals and radionuclides, and a third focusing on waste tank performance assessment, continue to make progress. The project

  19. Designing environmental campaigns by using agent-based simulations: strategies for changing environmental attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosler, Hans-Joachim; Martens, Thomas

    2008-09-01

    Agent-based computer simulation was used to create artificial communities in which each individual was constructed according to the principles of the elaboration likelihood model of Petty and Cacioppo [1986. The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion. In: Berkowitz, L. (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. Academic Press, New York, NY, pp. 123-205]. Campaigning strategies and community characteristics were varied systematically to understand and test their impact on attitudes towards environmental protection. The results show that strong arguments influence a green (environmentally concerned) population with many contacts most effectively, while peripheral cues have the greatest impact on a non-green population with fewer contacts. Overall, deeper information scrutiny increases the impact of strong arguments but is especially important for convincing green populations. Campaigns involving person-to-person communication are superior to mass-media campaigns because they can be adapted to recipients' characteristics.

  20. Numerical simulation system for environmental studies: SPEEDI-MP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Haruyasu; Chino, Masamichi; Terada, Hiroaki; Harayama, Takaya; Kobayashi, Takuya; Tsuduki, Katsunori; Kim, Keyong-Ok; Furuno, Akiko

    2006-09-01

    A numerical simulation system SPEEDI-MP has been developed to apply for various environmental studies. SPEEDI-MP consists of dynamical models and material transport models for the atmospheric, terrestrial, and oceanic environments, meteorological and geographical database for model inputs, and system utilities for file management, visualization, analysis, etc., using graphical user interfaces (GUIs). As a numerical simulation tool, a model coupling program (model coupler) has been developed. It controls parallel calculations of several models and data exchanges among them to realize the dynamical coupling of the models. A coupled model system for water circulation has been constructed with atmosphere, ocean, wave, hydrology, and land-surface models using the model coupler. System utility GUIs are based on the Web technology, allowing users to manipulate all the functions on the system using their own PCs via the internet. In this system, the source estimation function in the atmospheric transport model can be executed on the grid computer system. Performance tests of the coupled model system for water circulation were also carried out for the flood event at Saudi Arabia in January 2005 and the storm surge case by the hurricane KATRINA in August 2005. (author)

  1. Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM) Phase II Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freshley, M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hubbard, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Flach, G. [Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL), Aiken, SC (United States); Freedman, V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Agarwal, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Andre, B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bott, Y. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chen, X. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Davis, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Faybishenko, B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gorton, I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Murray, C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Moulton, D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Meyer, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rockhold, M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shoshani, A. [LBNL; Steefel, C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wainwright, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Waichler, S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-09-28

    In 2009, the National Academies of Science (NAS) reviewed and validated the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (EM) Technology Program in its publication, Advice on the Department of Energy’s Cleanup Technology Roadmap: Gaps and Bridges. The NAS report outlined prioritization needs for the Groundwater and Soil Remediation Roadmap, concluded that contaminant behavior in the subsurface is poorly understood, and recommended further research in this area as a high priority. To address this NAS concern, the EM Office of Site Restoration began supporting the development of the Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM). ASCEM is a state-of-the-art scientific approach that uses an integration of toolsets for understanding and predicting contaminant fate and transport in natural and engineered systems. The ASCEM modeling toolset is modular and open source. It is divided into three thrust areas: Multi-Process High Performance Computing (HPC), Platform and Integrated Toolsets, and Site Applications. The ASCEM toolsets will facilitate integrated approaches to modeling and site characterization that enable robust and standardized assessments of performance and risk for EM cleanup and closure activities. During fiscal year 2012, the ASCEM project continued to make significant progress in capabilities development. Capability development occurred in both the Platform and Integrated Toolsets and Multi-Process HPC Simulator areas. The new Platform and Integrated Toolsets capabilities provide the user an interface and the tools necessary for end-to-end model development that includes conceptual model definition, data management for model input, model calibration and uncertainty analysis, and model output processing including visualization. The new HPC Simulator capabilities target increased functionality of process model representations, toolsets for interaction with the Platform, and model confidence testing and verification for

  2. Satellite image time series simulation for environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tao

    2014-11-01

    The performance of environmental monitoring heavily depends on the availability of consecutive observation data and it turns out an increasing demand in remote sensing community for satellite image data in the sufficient resolution with respect to both spatial and temporal requirements, which appear to be conflictive and hard to tune tradeoffs. Multiple constellations could be a solution if without concerning cost, and thus it is so far interesting but very challenging to develop a method which can simultaneously improve both spatial and temporal details. There are some research efforts to deal with the problem from various aspects, a type of approaches is to enhance the spatial resolution using techniques of super resolution, pan-sharpen etc. which can produce good visual effects, but mostly cannot preserve spectral signatures and result in losing analytical value. Another type is to fill temporal frequency gaps by adopting time interpolation, which actually doesn't increase informative context at all. In this paper we presented a novel method to generate satellite images in higher spatial and temporal details, which further enables satellite image time series simulation. Our method starts with a pair of high-low resolution data set, and then a spatial registration is done by introducing LDA model to map high and low resolution pixels correspondingly. Afterwards, temporal change information is captured through a comparison of low resolution time series data, and the temporal change is then projected onto high resolution data plane and assigned to each high resolution pixel referring the predefined temporal change patterns of each type of ground objects to generate a simulated high resolution data. A preliminary experiment shows that our method can simulate a high resolution data with a good accuracy. We consider the contribution of our method is to enable timely monitoring of temporal changes through analysis of low resolution images time series only, and usage of

  3. How Does Environmental Regulation Affect Industrial Transformation? A Study Based on the Methodology of Policy Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The difference of factor input structure determines different response to environmental regulation. This paper constructs a theoretical model including environmental regulation, factor input structure, and industrial transformation and conducts a policy simulation based on the difference of influencing mechanism of environmental regulation considering industrial heterogeneity. The findings show that the impact of environmental regulation on industrial transformation presents comparison of distortion effect of resource allocation and technology effect. Environmental regulation will promote industrial transformation when technology effect of environmental regulation is stronger than distortion effect of resource allocation. Particularly, command-control environmental regulation has a significant incentive effect and spillover effect of technological innovation on cleaning industries, but these effects do not exist in pollution-intensive industries. Command-control environmental regulation promotes industrial transformation. The result of simulation showed that environmental regulation of market incentives is similar to that of command-control.

  4. Initial Operation of the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, William J., Jr.; Pearson, J. Boise; Schoenfeld, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    The Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES) facility is designed to perform realistic non-nuclear testing of nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) fuel elements and fuel materials. Although the NTREES facility cannot mimic the neutron and gamma environment of an operating NTR, it can simulate the thermal hydraulic environment within an NTR fuel element to provide critical information on material performance and compatibility. The NTREES facility has recently been upgraded such that the power capabilities of the facility have been increased significantly. At its present 1.2 MW power level, more prototypical fuel element temperatures nay now be reached. The new 1.2 MW induction heater consists of three physical units consisting of a transformer, rectifier, and inverter. This multiunit arrangement facilitated increasing the flexibility of the induction heater by more easily allowing variable frequency operation. Frequency ranges between 20 and 60 kHz can accommodated in the new induction heater allowing more representative power distributions to be generated within the test elements. The water cooling system was also upgraded to so as to be capable of removing 100% of the heat generated during testing In this new higher power configuration, NTREES will be capable of testing fuel elements and fuel materials at near-prototypic power densities. As checkout testing progressed and as higher power levels were achieved, several design deficiencies were discovered and fixed. Most of these design deficiencies were related to stray RF energy causing various components to encounter unexpected heating. Copper shielding around these components largely eliminated these problems. Other problems encountered involved unexpected movement in the coil due to electromagnetic forces and electrical arcing between the coil and a dummy test article. The coil movement and arcing which were encountered during the checkout testing effectively destroyed the induction coil in use at

  5. Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES) Upgrade Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, William J., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past year the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES) has been undergoing a significant upgrade beyond its initial configuration. The NTREES facility is designed to perform realistic non-nuclear testing of nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) fuel elements and fuel materials. Although the NTREES facility cannot mimic the neutron and gamma environment of an operating NTR, it can simulate the thermal hydraulic environment within an NTR fuel element to provide critical information on material performance and compatibility. The first phase of the upgrade activities which was completed in 2012 in part consisted of an extensive modification to the hydrogen system to permit computer controlled operations outside the building through the use of pneumatically operated variable position valves. This setup also allows the hydrogen flow rate to be increased to over 200 g/sec and reduced the operation complexity of the system. The second stage of modifications to NTREES which has just been completed expands the capabilities of the facility significantly. In particular, the previous 50 kW induction power supply has been replaced with a 1.2 MW unit which should allow more prototypical fuel element temperatures to be reached. The water cooling system was also upgraded to so as to be capable of removing 100% of the heat generated during. This new setup required that the NTREES vessel be raised onto a platform along with most of its associated gas and vent lines. In this arrangement, the induction heater and water systems are now located underneath the platform. In this new configuration, the 1.2 MW NTREES induction heater will be capable of testing fuel elements and fuel materials in flowing hydrogen at pressures up to 1000 psi at temperatures up to and beyond 3000 K and at near-prototypic reactor channel power densities. NTREES is also capable of testing potential fuel elements with a variety of propellants, including hydrogen with additives to inhibit

  6. Environmental regulation in a network of simulated microbial ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Hywel T. P.; Lenton, Timothy M.

    2008-01-01

    The Earth possesses a number of regulatory feedback mechanisms involving life. In the absence of a population of competing biospheres, it has proved hard to find a robust evolutionary mechanism that would generate environmental regulation. It has been suggested that regulation must require altruistic environmental alterations by organisms and, therefore, would be evolutionarily unstable. This need not be the case if organisms alter the environment as a selectively neutral by-product of their ...

  7. Simulator for candu600 fuel handling system. environmental implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vulpe, S.; Valeca, S.; Predescu, D.

    2016-01-01

    Personnel training are a main topic in the security and reliability of several industrial processes. The simulator is a physical device that reproduces real operation of a device used in a production process technology. Typically, a simulator is intended to train the operators to work properly with the real device in the production process, but simulators can be involved frequently in the research and evaluation of performance of human operators. Process simulation has a significant role in the training of operators of nuclear plants. To ensure the safe operation, protection of workers and the environment, of any nuclear power plant, the training of its operators in all operating modes of the plant is essential. A trained operator who can handle any emergency in a controlled manner, without panic, protecting equipment and personnel is an asset for a nuclear power plant. (authors)

  8. Environmental management policy analysis using complex system simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Eeckhout, E.; Roberts, D.; Oakes, R.; Shieh, A.; Hardie, W.; Pope, P.

    1999-01-01

    The two primary modules of Envirosim (the model of Los Alamos TA-55 and the WIPP transport/storage model) have been combined into one application, with the simulated waste generated by TA-55 operations being fed to storage, packaging, and transport simulation entities. Three simulation scenarios were executed which demonstrate the usefulness of Envirosim as a policy analysis tool for use in planning shipments to WIPP. A graphical user interface (GUI) has been implemented using IDL (Interactive Data Language) which allows the analyst to easily view simulation results. While IDL is not necessarily the graphics interface that would be selected for a production version of Envirosim, it does provide some powerful data manipulation capabilities, and it runs on a variety of platforms

  9. Ergonomic aspects simulation digital online: an educational game proposal to promote environmental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbex, D F; Jappur, R; Selig, P; Varvakis, G

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the ergonomic criteria that guide the construction of an educational game called Environmental Simulator. The focus is on environment navigation considering aspects of content architecture and its esthetics functionality.

  10. Loy Yang A - Australia's largest privatisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yenckin, C.

    1997-01-01

    The recent A$4,746 million privatisation of the 2000MW Loy Yang A power station and the Loy Yang coal mine by the Victorian Government is Australia's largest privatisation and one of 1997's largest project financing deals. (author)

  11. Canada's largest co-gen project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salaff, S.

    2000-01-01

    In November 2000, the TransAlta Energy Corp. began construction on its $400 million natural gas fuelled cogeneration project in Sarnia Ontario. The Sarnia Regional Cogeneration Project (SRCP) is designed to integrate a new 440 MW cogeneration facility to be built at the Sarnia Division of Dow Chemicals Canada Inc. with nearby existing generators totaling 210 MW at Dow and Bayer Inc. At 650 MW, the new facility will rank as Canada's largest cogeneration installation. Commercial operation is scheduled for October 2002. TransAlta owns three natural gas fuelled cogeneration facilities in Ontario (in Ottawa, Mississauga and Windsor) totaling 250 MW. The cost of electric power in Ontario is currently controlled by rising natural gas prices and the supply demand imbalance. This balance will be significantly affected by the possible return to service of 2000 MW of nuclear generating capacity. The SRCP project was announced just prior to the Ontario Energy Competition Act of October 1998 which committed the province to introduce competition to the electricity sector and which created major uncertainties in the electricity market. Some of the small, 25 MW projects which survived the market uncertainty included the Toronto-based Toromont Energy Ltd. project involving gas fuelled cogeneration and methane gas generation from landfill projects in Sudbury and Waterloo. It was emphasized that cogeneration and combined heat and power projects have significant environmental advantages over large combined cycle facilities. The Ontario Energy Board is currently considering an application from TransAlta to link the SRCP facility to Ontario's Hydro One Network Inc.'s transmission grid. 1 fig

  12. Thresholds of Extinction: Simulation Strategies in Environmental Values Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glew, Frank

    1990-01-01

    Describes a simulation exercise for campers and an accompanying curriculum unit--"Thresholds of Extinction"--that addresses the issues of endangered species. Uses this context to illustrate steps in the process of values development: awareness, gathering data, resolution (decision making), responsibility (acting on values), and…

  13. Computational simulation in architectural and environmental acoustics methods and applications of wave-based computation

    CERN Document Server

    Sakamoto, Shinichi; Otsuru, Toru

    2014-01-01

    This book reviews a variety of methods for wave-based acoustic simulation and recent applications to architectural and environmental acoustic problems. Following an introduction providing an overview of computational simulation of sound environment, the book is in two parts: four chapters on methods and four chapters on applications. The first part explains the fundamentals and advanced techniques for three popular methods, namely, the finite-difference time-domain method, the finite element method, and the boundary element method, as well as alternative time-domain methods. The second part demonstrates various applications to room acoustics simulation, noise propagation simulation, acoustic property simulation for building components, and auralization. This book is a valuable reference that covers the state of the art in computational simulation for architectural and environmental acoustics.  

  14. BRIDGING OUTDOOR AND INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL SIMULATION FOR ASSESSING AND AIDING SUSTAINABLE URBAN NEIGHBOURHOOD DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengzhi Peng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban dwellers in cities located in hot-arid or hothumid regions have greater needs to live in between outdoor and indoor environments. The sustainability of urban building design in these regions cannot be fully assessed by indoor environmental simulation not taking into account the microclimatic factors of the surrounding urban neighbourhood. We find that the current suites of outdoor and indoor simulation software do not connect with each other to give us a holistic understanding of both outdoor and indoor simulation results. This paper reports on our current development of a methodological framework for bridging the current gap between outdoor and indoor environmental simulation. Our objective is that assessment of sustainability at an urban neighbourhood level can be carried out more holistically, and hence achieving more valid environmental simulations from an urban  dwelling point of view. The outdoor-indoor coupling methodology is currently modelled on a digital work flow among three key software platforms: (1 ENVImet for urban neighbourhood outdoor simulation, (2 Ecotect for building indoor simulation, (3 uCampus for combined outdoor-indoor 3D visualisation modelling of an entire urban neighbourhood including its individual buildings. A case study of a new neighbourhood development proposed for New Cairo is presented to demonstrate how indoor environmental simulation can be grounded on outdoor environmental simulation of the urban neighbourhood. Graphical outputs from this outdoorindoor coupling approach to neighbourhood simulation can be further brought together onto a Web-based 3D virtual reality modelling platform to enable wider accessibility.

  15. broken magnet highlights largest collider's engineering challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    Inman, Mason

    2007-01-01

    "Even at the world's soon-to-be largest particle accelerator - a device that promises to push the boundaries of physics - scientists need to be mindful of one of the most fundamental laws in the universe: Murphy's Law. (2 pages)

  16. Development of a comprehensive database of scattering environmental conditions and simulation constraints for offshore wind turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hübler

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For the design and optimisation of offshore wind turbines, the knowledge of realistic environmental conditions and utilisation of well-founded simulation constraints is very important, as both influence the structural behaviour and power output in numerical simulations. However, real high-quality data, especially for research purposes, are scarcely available. This is why, in this work, a comprehensive database of 13 environmental conditions at wind turbine locations in the North and Baltic Sea is derived using data of the FINO research platforms. For simulation constraints, like the simulation length and the time of initial simulation transients, well-founded recommendations in the literature are also rare. Nevertheless, it is known that the choice of simulation lengths and times of initial transients fundamentally affects the quality and computing time of simulations. For this reason, studies of convergence for both parameters are conducted to determine adequate values depending on the type of substructure, the wind speed, and the considered loading (fatigue or ultimate. As the main purpose of both the database and the simulation constraints is to compromise realistic data for probabilistic design approaches and to serve as a guidance for further studies in order to enable more realistic and accurate simulations, all results are freely available and easy to apply.

  17. Identifying populations sensitive to environmental chemicals by simulating toxicokinetic variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Caroline L; Pearce, Robert G; Setzer, R Woodrow; Wetmore, Barbara A; Wambaugh, John F

    2017-09-01

    The thousands of chemicals present in the environment (USGAO, 2013) must be triaged to identify priority chemicals for human health risk research. Most chemicals have little of the toxicokinetic (TK) data that are necessary for relating exposures to tissue concentrations that are believed to be toxic. Ongoing efforts have collected limited, in vitro TK data for a few hundred chemicals. These data have been combined with biomonitoring data to estimate an approximate margin between potential hazard and exposure. The most "at risk" 95th percentile of adults have been identified from simulated populations that are generated either using standard "average" adult human parameters or very specific cohorts such as Northern Europeans. To better reflect the modern U.S. population, we developed a population simulation using physiologies based on distributions of demographic and anthropometric quantities from the most recent U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data. This allowed incorporation of inter-individual variability, including variability across relevant demographic subgroups. Variability was analyzed with a Monte Carlo approach that accounted for the correlation structure in physiological parameters. To identify portions of the U.S. population that are more at risk for specific chemicals, physiologic variability was incorporated within an open-source high-throughput (HT) TK modeling framework. We prioritized 50 chemicals based on estimates of both potential hazard and exposure. Potential hazard was estimated from in vitro HT screening assays (i.e., the Tox21 and ToxCast programs). Bioactive in vitro concentrations were extrapolated to doses that produce equivalent concentrations in body tissues using a reverse dosimetry approach in which generic TK models are parameterized with: 1) chemical-specific parameters derived from in vitro measurements and predicted from chemical structure; and 2) with

  18. MULTI AGENT-BASED ENVIRONMENTAL LANDSCAPE (MABEL) - AN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE SIMULATION MODEL: SOME EARLY ASSESSMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandridis, Konstantinos T.; Pijanowski, Bryan C.

    2002-01-01

    The Multi Agent-Based Environmental Landscape model (MABEL) introduces a Distributed Artificial Intelligence (DAI) systemic methodology, to simulate land use and transformation changes over time and space. Computational agents represent abstract relations among geographic, environmental, human and socio-economic variables, with respect to land transformation pattern changes. A multi-agent environment is developed providing task-nonspecific problem-solving abilities, flexibility on achieving g...

  19. Investigation on the Behavior of the Jointing Clamps to the Simulated Environmental - LOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivan, P.; Segarceanu, D.; Geambasu, C.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents the main aspect concerning the electric parameter variation of jointing clamps operating under specific environmental conditions determinate by pressure, temperature and humidity. The testing of jointing clamps capability to meet and exceed the required performances all along its operating life implies the performing of LOCA simulation conditions while the jointing clamps is bright in a relatively short time under conditions equivalent to those at the end of its service life. The paper describes ageing and measurement techniques and the analyses of electric parameter behaviour in these environmental simulated conditions. (author)

  20. Maintaining environmental quality while expanding biomass production: Sub-regional U.S. policy simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egbendewe-Mondzozo, Aklesso; Swinton, Scott M.; Izaurralde, R. César; Manowitz, David H.; Zhang, Xuesong

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates environmental policy effects on ligno-cellulosic biomass production and environmental outcomes using an integrated bioeconomic optimization model. The environmental policy integrated climate (EPIC) model is used to simulate crop yields and environmental indicators in current and future potential bioenergy cropping systems based on weather, topographic and soil data. The crop yield and environmental outcome parameters from EPIC are combined with biomass transport costs and economic parameters in a representative farmer profit-maximizing mathematical optimization model. The model is used to predict the impact of alternative policies on biomass production and environmental outcomes. We find that without environmental policy, rising biomass prices initially trigger production of annual crop residues, resulting in increased greenhouse gas emissions, soil erosion, and nutrient losses to surface and ground water. At higher biomass prices, perennial bioenergy crops replace annual crop residues as biomass sources, resulting in lower environmental impacts. Simulations of three environmental policies namely a carbon price, a no-till area subsidy, and a fertilizer tax reveal that only the carbon price policy systematically mitigates environmental impacts. The fertilizer tax is ineffectual and too costly to farmers. The no-till subsidy is effective only at low biomass prices and is too costly to government. - Highlights: ► Bioeconomic optimization model predicts how biomass production affects environment. ► Rising biomass production could impair climate and water quality. ► Environmental protection policies compared as biomass supply grows. ► Carbon price protects the environment cost-effectively as biomass supply expands

  1. CERN tests largest superconducting solenoid magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "CERN's Compacts Muon Solenoid (CMS) - the world's largest superconducting solenoid magnet - has reached full field in testing. The instrument is part of the proton-proton Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project, located in a giant subterranean chamber at Cessy on the Franco-Swiss border." (1 page)

  2. Environmental Health Assessment for Pyrotechnic Perchlorate Elimination/Mitigation Program for M118/M119 Simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-11

    17% Potassium Chlorate 3811-04-9 67% 80% Potassium Nitrate 7757-79-1 81% 13% 70% 70% Red Gum 9000-20-8 3% 3% Silicon 7440-21-3 6% Sulfur 7704-34-9 8... potassium perchlorate from the flash composition of the formulations for the Ml18 and Ml19 simulators. These simulators are used in training to produce...simulators that are more efficient, are life-cycle cost effective, and more conducive to human health and environmental quality. b. Potassium perchlorate

  3. Simulation of Water Environmental Capacity and Pollution Load Reduction Using QUAL2K for Water Environmental Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruibin; Qian, Xin; Yuan, Xingcheng; Ye, Rui; Xia, Bisheng; Wang, Yulei

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, water quality degradation associated with rapid socio-economic development in the Taihu Lake Basin, China, has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Chinese government. The primary sources of pollution in Taihu Lake are its inflow rivers and their tributaries. Effective water environmental management strategies need to be implemented in these rivers to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake, and to ensure sustainable development in the region. The aim of this study was to provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. In this study, the QUAL2K model for river and stream water quality was applied to predict the water quality and environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, which is a polluted tributary in the Taihu Lake Basin. The model parameters were calibrated by trial and error until the simulated results agreed well with the observed data. The calibrated QUAL2K model was used to calculate the water environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, and the water environmental capacities of CODCr NH3-N, TN, and TP were 17.51 t, 1.52 t, 2.74 t and 0.37 t, respectively. The results showed that the NH3-N, TN, and TP pollution loads of the studied river need to be reduced by 50.96%, 44.11%, and 22.92%, respectively to satisfy the water quality objectives. Thus, additional water pollution control measures are needed to control and reduce the pollution loads in the Hongqi River watershed. The method applied in this study should provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. PMID:23222206

  4. Simulation of water environmental capacity and pollution load reduction using QUAL2K for water environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruibin; Qian, Xin; Yuan, Xingcheng; Ye, Rui; Xia, Bisheng; Wang, Yulei

    2012-12-07

    In recent years, water quality degradation associated with rapid socio-economic development in the Taihu Lake Basin, China, has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Chinese government. The primary sources of pollution in Taihu Lake are its inflow rivers and their tributaries. Effective water environmental management strategies need to be implemented in these rivers to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake, and to ensure sustainable development in the region. The aim of this study was to provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. In this study, the QUAL2K model for river and stream water quality was applied to predict the water quality and environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, which is a polluted tributary in the Taihu Lake Basin. The model parameters were calibrated by trial and error until the simulated results agreed well with the observed data. The calibrated QUAL2K model was used to calculate the water environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, and the water environmental capacities of COD(Cr) NH(3)-N, TN, and TP were 17.51 t, 1.52 t, 2.74 t and 0.37 t, respectively. The results showed that the NH(3)-N, TN, and TP pollution loads of the studied river need to be reduced by 50.96%, 44.11%, and 22.92%, respectively to satisfy the water quality objectives. Thus, additional water pollution control measures are needed to control and reduce the pollution loads in the Hongqi River watershed. The method applied in this study should provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making.

  5. Simulation of Water Environmental Capacity and Pollution Load Reduction Using QUAL2K for Water Environmental Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulei Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, water quality degradation associated with rapid socio-economic development in the Taihu Lake Basin, China, has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Chinese government. The primary sources of pollution in Taihu Lake are its inflow rivers and their tributaries. Effective water environmental management strategies need to be implemented in these rivers to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake, and to ensure sustainable development in the region. The aim of this study was to provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. In this study, the QUAL2K model for river and stream water quality was applied to predict the water quality and environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, which is a polluted tributary in the Taihu Lake Basin. The model parameters were calibrated by trial and error until the simulated results agreed well with the observed data. The calibrated QUAL2K model was used to calculate the water environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, and the water environmental capacities of CODCr NH3-N, TN, and TP were 17.51 t, 1.52 t, 2.74 t and 0.37 t, respectively. The results showed that the NH3-N, TN, and TP pollution loads of the studied river need to be reduced by 50.96%, 44.11%, and 22.92%, respectively to satisfy the water quality objectives. Thus, additional water pollution control measures are needed to control and reduce the pollution loads in the Hongqi River watershed. The method applied in this study should provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making.

  6. Apex simulation: environmental benefits of agroforestry and grass buffers for corn-soybean watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agricultural Policy Environmental Extender (APEX) model is used to simulate the effects of vegetative filter strips on runoff and pollutant loadings from agricultural watersheds. A long-term paired watershed study under corn (Zea mays L-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotation with agroforestr...

  7. APEX simulation: environmental benefits of agroforestry and grass buffers on corn-soybean watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agricultural Policy Environmental Extender (APEX) model has the ability to simulate the effects of vegetative filter strips on runoff and pollutant loadings from agricultural watersheds. The objectives of this study were to calibrate and validate the APEX model for three adjacent watersheds and...

  8. An approach to teaching and research of simulation for environmental engineering design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartak, M.; Drkal, F.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Schwarzer, J.; Lain, M.; Sourek, B.

    2003-01-01

    This paper starts out by elaborating why computer modeling and simulation is such an important technique/ tool for modern state-of-the-art environmental engineering. It then continues with how this is currently integrated in engineering analysis and design. The paper continues with describing what

  9. Simulating sanitation and waste flows and their environmental impacts in East African urban centres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oyoo, R.

    2014-01-01

    Simulating Sanitation and Waste Flows and their Environmental Impacts in East African Urban Centres

    Abstract

    If improperly managed, urban waste flows can pose a significant threat to the quality of both the natural environment and public health.

  10. Modeling and Simulation of Multi-scale Environmental Systems with Generalized Hybrid Petri Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa eHerajy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Predicting and studying the dynamics and properties of environmental systems necessitates the construction and simulation of mathematical models entailing different levels of complexities. Such type of computational experiments often require the combination of discrete and continuous variables as well as processes operating at different time scales. Furthermore, the iterative steps of constructing and analyzing environmental models might involve researchers with different background. Hybrid Petri nets may contribute in overcoming such challenges as they facilitate the implementation of systems integrating discrete and continuous dynamics. Additionally, the visual depiction of model components will inevitably help to bridge the gap between scientists with distinct expertise working on the same problem. Thus, modeling environmental systems with hybrid Petri nets enables the construction of complex processes while keeping the models comprehensible for researchers working on the same project with significantly divergent education path. In this paper we propose the utilization of a special class of hybrid Petri nets, Generalized Hybrid Petri Nets (GHPN, to model and simulate environmental systems exposing processes interacting at different time-scales. GHPN integrate stochastic and deterministic semantics as well as other types of special basic events. Moreover, a case study is presented to illustrate the use of GHPN in constructing and simulating multi-timescale environmental scenarios.

  11. 26th Space Simulation Conference Proceedings. Environmental Testing: The Path Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Edward A.

    2010-01-01

    Topics covered include: A Multifunctional Space Environment Simulation Facility for Accelerated Spacecraft Materials Testing; Exposure of Spacecraft Surface Coatings in a Simulated GEO Radiation Environment; Gravity-Offloading System for Large-Displacement Ground Testing of Spacecraft Mechanisms; Microscopic Shutters Controlled by cRIO in Sounding Rocket; Application of a Physics-Based Stabilization Criterion to Flight System Thermal Testing; Upgrade of a Thermal Vacuum Chamber for 20 Kelvin Operations; A New Approach to Improve the Uniformity of Solar Simulator; A Perfect Space Simulation Storm; A Planetary Environmental Simulator/Test Facility; Collimation Mirror Segment Refurbishment inside ESA s Large Space; Space Simulation of the CBERS 3 and 4 Satellite Thermal Model in the New Brazilian 6x8m Thermal Vacuum Chamber; The Certification of Environmental Chambers for Testing Flight Hardware; Space Systems Environmental Test Facility Database (SSETFD), Website Development Status; Wallops Flight Facility: Current and Future Test Capabilities for Suborbital and Orbital Projects; Force Limited Vibration Testing of JWST NIRSpec Instrument Using Strain Gages; Investigation of Acoustic Field Uniformity in Direct Field Acoustic Testing; Recent Developments in Direct Field Acoustic Testing; Assembly, Integration and Test Centre in Malaysia: Integration between Building Construction Works and Equipment Installation; Complex Ground Support Equipment for Satellite Thermal Vacuum Test; Effect of Charging Electron Exposure on 1064nm Transmission through Bare Sapphire Optics and SiO2 over HfO2 AR-Coated Sapphire Optics; Environmental Testing Activities and Capabilities for Turkish Space Industry; Integrated Circuit Reliability Simulation in Space Environments; Micrometeoroid Impacts and Optical Scatter in Space Environment; Overcoming Unintended Consequences of Ambient Pressure Thermal Cycling Environmental Tests; Performance and Functionality Improvements to Next Generation

  12. Multilevel discretized random field models with 'spin' correlations for the simulation of environmental spatial data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Žukovič, Milan; Hristopulos, Dionissios T

    2009-01-01

    A current problem of practical significance is how to analyze large, spatially distributed, environmental data sets. The problem is more challenging for variables that follow non-Gaussian distributions. We show by means of numerical simulations that the spatial correlations between variables can be captured by interactions between 'spins'. The spins represent multilevel discretizations of environmental variables with respect to a number of pre-defined thresholds. The spatial dependence between the 'spins' is imposed by means of short-range interactions. We present two approaches, inspired by the Ising and Potts models, that generate conditional simulations of spatially distributed variables from samples with missing data. Currently, the sampling and simulation points are assumed to be at the nodes of a regular grid. The conditional simulations of the 'spin system' are forced to respect locally the sample values and the system statistics globally. The second constraint is enforced by minimizing a cost function representing the deviation between normalized correlation energies of the simulated and the sample distributions. In the approach based on the N c -state Potts model, each point is assigned to one of N c classes. The interactions involve all the points simultaneously. In the Ising model approach, a sequential simulation scheme is used: the discretization at each simulation level is binomial (i.e., ± 1). Information propagates from lower to higher levels as the simulation proceeds. We compare the two approaches in terms of their ability to reproduce the target statistics (e.g., the histogram and the variogram of the sample distribution), to predict data at unsampled locations, as well as in terms of their computational complexity. The comparison is based on a non-Gaussian data set (derived from a digital elevation model of the Walker Lake area, Nevada, USA). We discuss the impact of relevant simulation parameters, such as the domain size, the number of

  13. Multilevel discretized random field models with 'spin' correlations for the simulation of environmental spatial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žukovič, Milan; Hristopulos, Dionissios T.

    2009-02-01

    A current problem of practical significance is how to analyze large, spatially distributed, environmental data sets. The problem is more challenging for variables that follow non-Gaussian distributions. We show by means of numerical simulations that the spatial correlations between variables can be captured by interactions between 'spins'. The spins represent multilevel discretizations of environmental variables with respect to a number of pre-defined thresholds. The spatial dependence between the 'spins' is imposed by means of short-range interactions. We present two approaches, inspired by the Ising and Potts models, that generate conditional simulations of spatially distributed variables from samples with missing data. Currently, the sampling and simulation points are assumed to be at the nodes of a regular grid. The conditional simulations of the 'spin system' are forced to respect locally the sample values and the system statistics globally. The second constraint is enforced by minimizing a cost function representing the deviation between normalized correlation energies of the simulated and the sample distributions. In the approach based on the Nc-state Potts model, each point is assigned to one of Nc classes. The interactions involve all the points simultaneously. In the Ising model approach, a sequential simulation scheme is used: the discretization at each simulation level is binomial (i.e., ± 1). Information propagates from lower to higher levels as the simulation proceeds. We compare the two approaches in terms of their ability to reproduce the target statistics (e.g., the histogram and the variogram of the sample distribution), to predict data at unsampled locations, as well as in terms of their computational complexity. The comparison is based on a non-Gaussian data set (derived from a digital elevation model of the Walker Lake area, Nevada, USA). We discuss the impact of relevant simulation parameters, such as the domain size, the number of

  14. Parallel Motion Simulation of Large-Scale Real-Time Crowd in a Hierarchical Environmental Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a parallel real-time crowd simulation method based on a hierarchical environmental model. A dynamical model of the complex environment should be constructed to simulate the state transition and propagation of individual motions. By modeling of a virtual environment where virtual crowds reside, we employ different parallel methods on a topological layer, a path layer and a perceptual layer. We propose a parallel motion path matching method based on the path layer and a parallel crowd simulation method based on the perceptual layer. The large-scale real-time crowd simulation becomes possible with these methods. Numerical experiments are carried out to demonstrate the methods and results.

  15. Simulation of 7Be monthly depositions using normally available data on environmental monitoring and local meteorology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakashita, Tetsuya; Nakamura, Yuji; Doi, Masahiro

    2003-01-01

    Monthly depositions of Beryllium-7 were simulated using normally available data on environmental monitoring and local meteorology over a 5-year period, from 1986 to 1990. The washout scheme of ApSimon et al., the constant dry deposition velocity (0.002 ms -1 ), and the rainout scheme of Kasibhatla et al. (K scheme) were used for simulation. Seasonal variations in the observed depositions were relatively well simulated by the present parameterization, however, there was a tendency for simulations to exceed the observed values, when heavy rain was measured. The revised parameterization of rainout scheme was introduced and improved the overestimation. The result may suggest that aerosols containing 7 Be are removed at a relatively high rate from the formation area of raindrops. (author)

  16. Environmental concern and cooperative-competitive behavior in a simulated commons dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J M; Bell, P A

    1992-08-01

    Commons-dilemma simulation games are designed to examine behavior associated with preservation and destruction of slowly regenerating natural resources. In Experiment 1, 120 introductory psychology students in the United States were assigned to high- or low-environmental-concern conditions based on a median split of their scores from a pretest. They then played either a points game, in which they selected numerical points from a slowly regenerating pool, or a tree game, in which they harvested trees from a jointly managed forest. After the game, subjects were asked to sign a petition for an environmental cause, to participate in a litter pick-up, and to participate in a recycling drive. Neither environmental concern nor proenvironmental behaviors were related to commons dilemma performance. In Experiment 2, 57 other introductory psychology students were assessed on environmental concern and Machiavellian personality, size of other players' harvesting choices, and other players' altruistic choices, all correlated with subjects' outcomes in the game. Overall, cooperation and competition were more important than environmental concern in predicting behavior in the commons dilemma simulation game.

  17. Crash testing the largest experiment on Earth

    OpenAIRE

    Cauchi, Marija

    2015-01-01

    Under Europe lies a 27 km tunnel that is both the coldest and hottest place on Earth. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has already found out what gives mass to all the matter in the Universe. It is now trying to go even deeper into what makes up everything we see around us. Dr Marija Cauchi writes about her research that helped protect this atom smasher from itself. Photography by Jean Claude Vancell. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/crash-testing-the-largest-experiment-on-earth/

  18. The effects of indoor environmental exposures on pediatric asthma: a discrete event simulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian M Patricia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United States, asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood across all socioeconomic classes and is the most frequent cause of hospitalization among children. Asthma exacerbations have been associated with exposure to residential indoor environmental stressors such as allergens and air pollutants as well as numerous additional factors. Simulation modeling is a valuable tool that can be used to evaluate interventions for complex multifactorial diseases such as asthma but in spite of its flexibility and applicability, modeling applications in either environmental exposures or asthma have been limited to date. Methods We designed a discrete event simulation model to study the effect of environmental factors on asthma exacerbations in school-age children living in low-income multi-family housing. Model outcomes include asthma symptoms, medication use, hospitalizations, and emergency room visits. Environmental factors were linked to percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1%, which in turn was linked to risk equations for each outcome. Exposures affecting FEV1% included indoor and outdoor sources of NO2 and PM2.5, cockroach allergen, and dampness as a proxy for mold. Results Model design parameters and equations are described in detail. We evaluated the model by simulating 50,000 children over 10 years and showed that pollutant concentrations and health outcome rates are comparable to values reported in the literature. In an application example, we simulated what would happen if the kitchen and bathroom exhaust fans were improved for the entire cohort, and showed reductions in pollutant concentrations and healthcare utilization rates. Conclusions We describe the design and evaluation of a discrete event simulation model of pediatric asthma for children living in low-income multi-family housing. Our model simulates the effect of environmental factors (combustion pollutants and allergens

  19. Kabob report. Pt. 3. Chevron plant largest in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1971-01-18

    Canada's largest fully integrated primary natural- gas processing and sulfur recovery plant is heading for physical completion by mid-summer of 1971. The Ralph M. Parsons Construction Co. of Canada Ltd., contractor for the S. Kaybob Beaverhill Lake Unit No. 3 gas-processing plant, to be operated by Chevron Standard Ltd., estimates completion by June 30. After that the $80 million complex will have tests and running in time. With any reasonable luck, it should be fully on stream by late summer. Preliminary construction on the 200-acre site started in Jan. 1969 with clearing and contouring of the main plant and sulfur storage sites. Initial rough grading started in the early summer, after spring breakup was over. Delivery of most of the big items was made by rail because the local secondary roads were inadequate for them. Concrete has been a large item. The contractor has its own batch plant on the site for the estimated 28,000 cu yd which will be needed for the whole job. Dominating the construction site from the start has been the high sulfur plant stack, first of the major items to be finished. It will serve to dispose of effluent from the largest sulfur recovery unit in Canada. It is 465 ft high, one of the largest in Alberta, and a significant contribution to pollution control and environmental protection.

  20. Detection, simulation, assessing environmental influences. Climate/shock/irradiation/vibrations/electromagnetism/air contamination/biological influences. Papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Investigations using environmental simulation are designed to reveal cause-and-effect mechanisms in ageing and weathering processes. Issues of artificial ageing and timelapsing play an important role. The 29 contributions to the 21st Annual Conference deal in particular with the topics: strategies in environmental simulation, irradiation and exposure testing of polymers, atmospheric influences and air ingredients, and mechanical environmental influences. (orig./DG) [de

  1. Environmental Factors Affecting Asthma and Allergies: Predicting and Simulating Downwind Exposure to Airborne Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, Jeffrey; Estes, Sue; Sprigg, William A.; Nickovic, Slobodan; Huete, Alfredo; Solano, Ramon; Ratana, Piyachat; Jiang, Zhangyan; Flowers, Len; Zelicoff, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the environmental factors that affect asthma and allergies and work to predict and simulate the downwind exposure to airborne pollen. Using a modification of Dust REgional Atmosphere Model (DREAM) that incorporates phenology (i.e. PREAM) the aim was to predict concentrations of pollen in time and space. The strategy for using the model to simulate downwind pollen dispersal, and evaluate the results. Using MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), to get seasonal sampling of Juniper, the pollen chosen for the study, land cover on a near daily basis. The results of the model are reviewed.

  2. The world's largest LNG producer's next market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, R.; Isworo Suharno; Simandjuntak, W.M.P.

    1996-01-01

    The development of the domestic gas market in Indonesia, the world's largest liquefied natural gas producing country, is described as part of the overall impact of the country's oil and gas production. The first large scale use of natural gas in Indonesia was established in 1968 when a fertiliser plant using gas as the feedstock was built. Ultimately, through increased yields, this has enabled Indonesia to be self-sufficient in rice and an exporter of fertiliser. Problems which stand in the way of further developments include: capital, though Pertamina and PGN are perceived as attractive for foreign investment; the lack of a regulatory framework for gas; geographical constraints, among them the fact that the gas deposits are remote from the largest population concentrations; lack of infrastructure. There are nevertheless plans for expansion and the provision of an integrated gas pipeline system. Pertamina, which has responsibility for all oil and gas developments, and PGN, whose primary role has been as a manufacturer and distributor of gas, are now working together in the coordination of all gas activities. (10 figures). (UK)

  3. Analytic approximation to the largest eigenvalue distribution of a white Wishart matrix

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vlok, JD

    2012-08-14

    Full Text Available offers largely simplified computation and provides statistics such as the mean value and region of support of the largest eigenvalue distribution. Numeric results from the literature are compared with the approximation and Monte Carlo simulation results...

  4. Integrating international relations and environmental science course concepts through an interactive world politics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, K. H.; Kesgin, B.

    2012-12-01

    During the fall 2012 semester, students in two introductory courses at Susquehanna University - EENV:101 Environmental Science and POLI:131 World Affairs - will participate together in an online international relations simulation called Statecraft (www.statecraftsim.com). In this strategy game, students are divided into teams representing independent countries, and choose their government type (democracy, constitutional monarchy, communist totalitarian, or military dictatorship) and two country attributes (industrial, green, militaristic, pacifist, or scientific), which determine a set of rules by which that country must abide. Countries interact over issues such as resource distribution, war, pollution, immigration, and global climate change, and must also keep domestic political unrest to a minimum in order to succeed in the game. This simulation has typically been run in political science courses, as the goal is to allow students to experience the balancing act necessary to maintain control of global and domestic issues in a dynamic, diverse world. This semester, environmental science students will be integrated into the simulation, both as environmental advisers to each country and as independent actors representing groups such as Greenpeace, ExxonMobil, and UNEP. The goal in integrating the two courses in the simulation is for the students in each course to gain both 1) content knowledge of certain fundamental material in the other course, and 2) a more thorough, applied understanding of the integrated nature of the two subjects. Students will gain an appreciation for the multiple tradeoffs that decision-makers must face in the real world (economy, resources, pollution, health, defense, etc.). Environmental science students will link these concepts to the traditional course material through a "systems thinking" approach to sustainability. Political science students will face the challenges of global climate change and gain an understanding of the nature of

  5. Dynamic Simulation pro-environmental behavior in reducing air pollution in el Valle de Aburra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopera P, Juan D

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes to expose some of the theoretical, methodological and conceptual aspects of the study of the pro-environmental behaviour on which the Master in Environmental and Development thesis named Dynamic simulation of stake holders under a structure based in beliefs, desires and intentions. Study in case: Pact for Air Quality Improvement of the AMVA, which justifies a reorientation of the intervention programs of the metropolitan authorities. Likewise, it is tried to provide to the reader with an ample point of view, with rigorous criteria, that do possible to analyze the multiple identities, the diversity of aims and the heterogeneity of intentions, to make visible what are behind the citizen's of environmental policies. By means of the analysis of the theoretical models: the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). It's presented the aspects that influence the pro environmental behaviour of the individuals, and their dynamics in a systemic environment. An approach from methodological individualism of the TRA was applied to the reduction 01 air pollution in the valley of Aburra, and the proposed model is validated in abstract. Finally, so me considerations are presented about their application in the metropolitan environmental management. The analysis of the intention of behaviour of the actors and stake holders who participate in the execution of the programs tend to the diminution of the contamination establishes by the authorities, serves to understand how strong they will try, or how much effort they will exert to realise the promoted pro environmental behaviour.

  6. Tools for environmental simulations and calculations in an Integrated Design Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mads Dines; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2010-01-01

    to address environmental issues. This paper in specific takes its starting point in a student project where the student is working with a building complex that have to fulfill the passive house standards and through that the student explores the use of the simulation and calculation tools in the design...... the possibilities of interoperability and the different possibilities are utilized pointing towards a heavier focus of the utilization of BIM tools in the design process from the first stages....

  7. A system dynamics-based environmental performance simulation of construction waste reduction management in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhikun; Yi, Guizhen; Tam, Vivian W Y; Huang, Tengyue

    2016-05-01

    A huge amount of construction waste has been generated from increasingly higher number of construction activities than in the past, which has significant negative impacts on the environment if they are not properly managed. Therefore, effective construction waste management is of primary importance for future sustainable development. Based on the theory of planned behaviors, this paper develops a system dynamic model of construction waste reduction management at the construction phase to simulate the environmental benefits of construction waste reduction management. The application of the proposed model is shown using a case study in Shenzhen, China. Vensim is applied to simulate and analyze the model. The simulation results indicate that source reduction is an effective waste reduction measure which can reduce 27.05% of the total waste generation. Sorting behaviors are a premise for improving the construction waste recycling and reuse rates which account for 15.49% of the total waste generated. The environmental benefits of source reduction outweigh those of sorting behaviors. Therefore, to achieve better environmental performance of the construction waste reduction management, attention should be paid to source reduction such as low waste technologies and on-site management performance. In the meantime, sorting behaviors encouragement such as improving stakeholders' waste awareness, refining regulations, strengthening government supervision and controlling illegal dumping should be emphasized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An Agent-Based Modeling Framework for Simulating Human Exposure to Environmental Stresses in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Emlyn Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Several approaches have been used to assess potential human exposure to environmental stresses and achieve optimal results under various conditions, such as for example, for different scales, groups of people, or points in time. A thorough literature review in this paper identifies the research gap regarding modeling approaches for assessing human exposure to environment stressors, and it indicates that microsimulation tools are becoming increasingly important in human exposure assessments of urban environments, in which each person is simulated individually and continuously. The paper further describes an agent-based model (ABM framework that can dynamically simulate human exposure levels, along with their daily activities, in urban areas that are characterized by environmental stresses such as air pollution and heat stress. Within the framework, decision-making processes can be included for each individual based on rule-based behavior in order to achieve goals under changing environmental conditions. The ideas described in this paper are implemented in a free and open source NetLogo platform. A basic modeling scenario of the ABM framework in Hamburg, Germany, demonstrates its utility in various urban environments and individual activity patterns, as well as its portability to other models, programs, and frameworks. The prototype model can potentially be extended to support environmental incidence management through exploring the daily routines of different groups of citizens, and comparing the effectiveness of different strategies. Further research is needed to fully develop an operational version of the model.

  9. Brownfield Action: An education through an environmental science simulation experience for undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Ryan Daniel

    Brownfield Action is a computer simulation experience used by undergraduates in an Introduction to Environmental Science course for non-science majors at Barnard College. Students play the role of environmental consultants given the semester-long task of investigating a potentially contaminated landsite in a simulated town. The simulation serves as the integration mechanism for the entire course. The project is a collaboration between Professor Bower and the Columbia University Center for New Media Teaching and Learning (CCNMTL). This study chronicles the discovery, design, development, implementation, and evaluation of this project over its four-year history from prototype to full-fledged semester-long integrated lecture and lab experience. The complete project history serves as a model for the development of best practices in contributing to the field of educational technology in higher education through the study of fully designed and implemented projects in real classrooms. Recommendations from the project focus on linking the laboratory and lecture portions of a course, the use of simulations (especially for novice students), instructor adaptation to the use of technology, general educational technology project development, and design research, among others. Findings from the study also emphasize the uniqueness of individual student's growth through the experience, and the depth of understanding that can be gained from embracing the complexity of studying sophisticated learning environments in real classrooms.

  10. Environmental fate and transport of chemical signatures from buried landmines -- Screening model formulation and initial simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelan, J.M.; Webb, S.W.

    1997-06-01

    The fate and transport of chemical signature molecules that emanate from buried landmines is strongly influenced by physical chemical properties and by environmental conditions of the specific chemical compounds. Published data have been evaluated as the input parameters that are used in the simulation of the fate and transport processes. A one-dimensional model developed for screening agricultural pesticides was modified and used to simulate the appearance of a surface flux above a buried landmine, estimate the subsurface total concentration, and show the phase specific concentrations at the ground surface. The physical chemical properties of TNT cause a majority of the mass released to the soil system to be bound to the solid phase soil particles. The majority of the transport occurs in the liquid phase with diffusion and evaporation driven advection of soil water as the primary mechanisms for the flux to the ground surface. The simulations provided herein should only be used for initial conceptual designs of chemical pre-concentration subsystems or complete detection systems. The physical processes modeled required necessary simplifying assumptions to allow for analytical solutions. Emerging numerical simulation tools will soon be available that should provide more realistic estimates that can be used to predict the success of landmine chemical detection surveys based on knowledge of the chemical and soil properties, and environmental conditions where the mines are buried. Additional measurements of the chemical properties in soils are also needed before a fully predictive approach can be confidently applied.

  11. Photodegradation of antibiotics under simulated solar radiation: implications for their environmental fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchu, Sudha Rani; Panditi, Venkata R; O'Shea, Kevin E; Gardinali, Piero R

    2014-02-01

    Roxithromycin, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole are frequently detected antibiotics in environmental waters. Direct and indirect photolysis of these problematic antibiotics were investigated in pure and natural waters (fresh and salt water) under irradiation of different light sources. Fundamental photolysis parameters such as molar absorption coefficient, quantum yield and first order rate constants are reported and discussed. The antibiotics are degraded fastest under ultraviolet 254 nm, followed by 350 nm and simulated solar radiation. The composition of the matrix (pH, dissolved organic content, chloride ion concentration) played a significant role in the observed photodegradation. Under simulated solar radiation, ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole degrade relatively quickly with half-lives of 0.5 and 1.5h, respectively. However, roxithromycin and erythromycin, macrolides are persistent (half-life: 2.4-10 days) under solar simulation. The transformation products (15) of the targeted antibiotics produced under irradiation experiments were identified using high resolution mass spectrometry and degradation pathways were proposed. © 2013.

  12. Evolution of the Largest Mammalian Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ben J; Upham, Nathan S; Golding, Goeffrey B; Ojeda, Ricardo A; Ojeda, Agustina A

    2017-06-01

    The genome of the red vizcacha rat (Rodentia, Octodontidae, Tympanoctomys barrerae) is the largest of all mammals, and about double the size of their close relative, the mountain vizcacha rat Octomys mimax, even though the lineages that gave rise to these species diverged from each other only about 5 Ma. The mechanism for this rapid genome expansion is controversial, and hypothesized to be a consequence of whole genome duplication or accumulation of repetitive elements. To test these alternative but nonexclusive hypotheses, we gathered and evaluated evidence from whole transcriptome and whole genome sequences of T. barrerae and O. mimax. We recovered support for genome expansion due to accumulation of a diverse assemblage of repetitive elements, which represent about one half and one fifth of the genomes of T. barrerae and O. mimax, respectively, but we found no strong signal of whole genome duplication. In both species, repetitive sequences were rare in transcribed regions as compared with the rest of the genome, and mostly had no close match to annotated repetitive sequences from other rodents. These findings raise new questions about the genomic dynamics of these repetitive elements, their connection to widespread chromosomal fissions that occurred in the T. barrerae ancestor, and their fitness effects-including during the evolution of hypersaline dietary tolerance in T. barrerae. ©The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  13. 25th Space Simulation Conference. Environmental Testing: The Earth-Space Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Edward

    2008-01-01

    Topics covered include: Methods of Helium Injection and Removal for Heat Transfer Augmentation; The ESA Large Space Simulator Mechanical Ground Support Equipment for Spacecraft Testing; Temperature Stability and Control Requirements for Thermal Vacuum/Thermal Balance Testing of the Aquarius Radiometer; The Liquid Nitrogen System for Chamber A: A Change from Original Forced Flow Design to a Natural Flow (Thermo Siphon) System; Return to Mercury: A Comparison of Solar Simulation and Flight Data for the MESSENGER Spacecraft; Floating Pressure Conversion and Equipment Upgrades of Two 3.5kw, 20k, Helium Refrigerators; Affect of Air Leakage into a Thermal-Vacuum Chamber on Helium Refrigeration Heat Load; Special ISO Class 6 Cleanroom for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Project; A State-of-the-Art Contamination Effects Research and Test Facility Martian Dust Simulator; Cleanroom Design Practices and Their Influence on Particle Counts; Extra Terrestrial Environmental Chamber Design; Contamination Sources Effects Analysis (CSEA) - A Tool to Balance Cost/Schedule While Managing Facility Availability; SES and Acoustics at GSFC; HST Super Lightweight Interchangeable Carrier (SLIC) Static Test; Virtual Shaker Testing: Simulation Technology Improves Vibration Test Performance; Estimating Shock Spectra: Extensions beyond GEVS; Structural Dynamic Analysis of a Spacecraft Multi-DOF Shaker Table; Direct Field Acoustic Testing; Manufacture of Cryoshroud Surfaces for Space Simulation Chambers; The New LOTIS Test Facility; Thermal Vacuum Control Systems Options for Test Facilities; Extremely High Vacuum Chamber for Low Outgassing Processing at NASA Goddard; Precision Cleaning - Path to Premier; The New Anechoic Shielded Chambers Designed for Space and Commercial Applications at LIT; Extraction of Thermal Performance Values from Samples in the Lunar Dust Adhesion Bell Jar; Thermal (Silicon Diode) Data Acquisition System; Aquarius's Instrument Science Data System (ISDS) Automated

  14. HTTK R Package v1.5 - Identifying populations sensitive to environmental chemicals by simulating toxicokinetic variability

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — httk: High-Throughput Toxicokinetics Functions and data tables for simulation and statistical analysis of chemical toxicokinetics ("TK") using data obtained from...

  15. Modeling the effects of trophy selection and environmental disturbance on a simulated population of African lions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Karyl L; Starfield, Anthony M; Quadling, Henley; Packer, Craig

    2007-06-01

    Tanzania is a premier destination for trophy hunting of African lions (Panthera leo) and is home to the most extensive long-term study of unhunted lions. Thus, it provides a unique opportunity to apply data from a long-term field study to a conservation dilemma: How can a trophy-hunted species whose reproductive success is closely tied to social stability be harvested sustainably? We used an individually based, spatially explicit, stochastic model, parameterized with nearly 40 years of behavioral and demographic data on lions in the Serengeti, to examine the separate effects of trophy selection and environmental disturbance on the viability of a simulated lion population in response to annual harvesting. Female population size was sensitive to the harvesting of young males (> or = 3 years), whereas hunting represented a relatively trivial threat to population viability when the harvest was restricted to mature males (> or = 6 years). Overall model performance was robust to environmental disturbance and to errors in age assessment based on nose coloration as an index used to age potential trophies. Introducing an environmental disturbance did not eliminate the capacity to maintain a viable breeding population when harvesting only older males, and initially depleted populations recovered within 15-25 years after the disturbance to levels comparable to hunted populations that did not experience a catastrophic event. These results are consistent with empirical observations of lion resilience to environmental stochasticity.

  16. Virtual Reality Platform Based Simulation System of Environmental Noise Abatement Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yijun, Liu; Yu, Fang; Xiaoman, He; Yongyou, Wang

    The general mathematic mode of computing noise abatement is commonly used for most project planning and appraisal of environmental noise abatement projects. However, the inconvenient and impracticable mode and algorithm usually cannot meet the real world computation and testing. Therefore, a more practicable abatement mode and algorithm (multiple noise sources with multiband under sound barriers) which had been applied to VR based simulation system. That implemented the function of real-time demonstrating noise scattering condition within 3D virtual space, furthermore, with sound barriers added in 3D scene, the effectiveness of denoise by sound barriers also can be demonstrated within this system. That provides a significant solution for environmental noise abatement projects as a whole.

  17. Environmental Decontamination of a Chemical Warfare Simulant Utilizing a Membrane Vesicle-Encapsulated Phosphotriesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Nathan J; Moore, Martin; Johnson, Brandy J; Dean, Scott N; Turner, Kendrick B; Medintz, Igor L; Walper, Scott A

    2018-05-09

    While technologies for the remediation of chemical contaminants continue to emerge, growing interest in green technologies has led researchers to explore natural catalytic mechanisms derived from microbial species. One such method, enzymatic degradation, offers an alternative to harsh chemical catalysts and resins. Recombinant enzymes, however, are often too labile or show limited activity when challenged with nonideal environmental conditions that may vary in salinity, pH, or other physical properties. Here, we demonstrate how phosphotriesterase encapsulated in a bacterial outer membrane vesicle can be used to degrade the organophosphate chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulant paraoxon in environmental water samples. We also carried out remediation assays on solid surfaces, including glass, painted metal, and fabric, that were selected as representative materials, which could potentially be contaminated with a CWA.

  18. Opportunities for biodiversity gains under the world's largest reforestation programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Fangyuan; Wang, Xiaoyang; Zheng, Xinlei; Fisher, Brendan; Wang, Lin; Zhu, Jianguo; Tang, Ya; Yu, Douglas W.; Wilcove, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Reforestation is a critical means of addressing the environmental and social problems of deforestation. China's Grain-for-Green Program (GFGP) is the world's largest reforestation scheme. Here we provide the first nationwide assessment of the tree composition of GFGP forests and the first combined ecological and economic study aimed at understanding GFGP's biodiversity implications. Across China, GFGP forests are overwhelmingly monocultures or compositionally simple mixed forests. Focusing on birds and bees in Sichuan Province, we find that GFGP reforestation results in modest gains (via mixed forest) and losses (via monocultures) of bird diversity, along with major losses of bee diversity. Moreover, all current modes of GFGP reforestation fall short of restoring biodiversity to levels approximating native forests. However, even within existing modes of reforestation, GFGP can achieve greater biodiversity gains by promoting mixed forests over monocultures; doing so is unlikely to entail major opportunity costs or pose unforeseen economic risks to households. PMID:27598524

  19. Effects of simulated space environmental parameters on six commercially available composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funk, J.G.; Sykes, G.F. Jr.

    1989-04-01

    The effects of simulated space environmental parameters on microdamage induced by the environment in a series of commercially available graphite-fiber-reinforced composite materials were determined. Composites with both thermoset and thermoplastic resin systems were studied. Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) exposures were simulated by thermal cycling; geosynchronous-orbit (GEO) exposures were simulated by electron irradiation plus thermal cycling. The thermal cycling temperature range was -250 F to either 200 F or 150 F. The upper limits of the thermal cycles were different to ensure that an individual composite material was not cycled above its glass transition temperature. Material response was characterized through assessment of the induced microcracking and its influence on mechanical property changes at both room temperature and -250 F. Microdamage was induced in both thermoset and thermoplastic advanced composite materials exposed to the simulated LEO environment. However, a 350 F cure single-phase toughened epoxy composite was not damaged during exposure to the LEO environment. The simuated GEO environment produced microdamage in all materials tested

  20. Simulating Fine-Scale Marine Pollution Plumes for Autonomous Robotic Environmental Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fahad

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine plumes exhibit characteristics such as intermittency, sinuous structure, shape and flow field coherency, and a time varying concentration profile. Due to the lack of experimental quantification of these characteristics for marine plumes, existing work often assumes marine plumes exhibit behavior similar to aerial plumes and are commonly modeled by filament based Lagrangian models. Our previous field experiments with Rhodamine dye plumes at Makai Research Pier at Oahu, Hawaii revealed that marine plumes show similar characteristics to aerial plumes qualitatively, but quantitatively they are disparate. Based on the field data collected, this paper presents a calibrated Eulerian plume model that exhibits the qualitative and quantitative characteristics exhibited by experimentally generated marine plumes. We propose a modified model with an intermittent source, and implement it in a Robot Operating System (ROS based simulator. Concentration time series of stationary sampling points and dynamic sampling points across cross-sections and plume fronts are collected and analyzed for statistical parameters of the simulated plume. These parameters are then compared with statistical parameters from experimentally generated plumes. The comparison validates that the simulated plumes exhibit fine-scale qualitative and quantitative characteristics similar to experimental plumes. The ROS plume simulator facilitates future evaluations of environmental monitoring strategies by marine robots, and is made available for community use.

  1. Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES) Phase II Upgrade Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, William J.; Moran, Robert P.; Pearson, J. Bose

    2013-01-01

    To support the on-going nuclear thermal propulsion effort, a state-of-the-art non nuclear experimental test setup has been constructed to evaluate the performance characteristics of candidate fuel element materials and geometries in representative environments. The facility to perform this testing is referred to as the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environment Simulator (NTREES). This device can simulate the environmental conditions (minus the radiation) to which nuclear rocket fuel components will be subjected during reactor operation. Test articles mounted in the simulator are inductively heated in such a manner so as to accurately reproduce the temperatures and heat fluxes which would normally occur as a result of nuclear fission and would be exposed to flowing hydrogen. Initial testing of a somewhat prototypical fuel element has been successfully performed in NTREES and the facility has now been shutdown to allow for an extensive reconfiguration of the facility which will result in a significant upgrade in its capabilities. Keywords: Nuclear Thermal Propulsion, Simulator

  2. A simulation-based approach for evaluating and comparing the environmental footprints of beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, C A; Isenberg, B J; Stackhouse-Lawson, K R; Pollak, E J

    2013-11-01

    A methodology was developed and used to determine environmental footprints of beef cattle produced at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (MARC) in Clay Center, NE, with the goal of quantifying improvements achieved over the past 40 yr. Information for MARC operations was gathered and used to establish parameters representing their production system with the Integrated Farm System Model. The MARC farm, cow-calf, and feedlot operations were each simulated over recent historical weather to evaluate performance, environmental impact, and economics. The current farm operation included 841 ha of alfalfa and 1,160 ha of corn to produce feed predominately for the beef herd of 5,500 cows, 1,180 replacement cattle, and 3,724 cattle finished per year. Spring and fall cow-calf herds were fed on 9,713 ha of pastureland supplemented through the winter with hay and silage produced by the farm operation. Feedlot cattle were backgrounded for 3 mo on hay and silage with some grain and finished over 7 mo on a diet high in corn and wet distillers grain. For weather year 2011, simulated feed production and use, energy use, and production costs were within 1% of actual records. A 25-yr simulation of their current production system gave an average annual carbon footprint of 10.9±0.6 kg of CO2 equivalent units per kg BW sold, and the energy required to produce that beef (energy footprint) was 26.5±4.5 MJ/kg BW. The annual water required (water footprint) was 21,300±5,600 L/kg BW sold, and the water footprint excluding precipitation was 2,790±910 L/kg BW. The simulated annual cost of producing their beef was US$2.11±0.05/kg BW. Simulation of the production practices of 2005 indicated that the inclusion of distillers grain in animal diets has had a relatively small effect on environmental footprints except that reactive nitrogen loss has increased 10%. Compared to 1970, the carbon footprint of the beef produced has decreased 6% with no change in the energy footprint, a 3% reduction

  3. Largest irrigated district in the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-02

    The geothermal administration report includes the following: status of transfer of Imperial Valley Environmental Project, status of data cataloging and storage, findings of geothermal field inspections, status of cooperative efforts between industry and the County for commercialization, problems in local geothermal commercialization and recommendations for action, and the status of geothermal exploration development and production in the County. The number and types of applications for geothermal energy received, results of hearings on applications, permits issued, and EIR prepared are discussed. Other geothermal activities include the Department of Energy Region 9 meeting in April, the Department of Energy Direct Heat Developers meeting held in El Centro in April, and a new drilling company in the County. These are followed by the summary of events. (MHR)

  4. Environmental and body contamination from cleaning vomitus in a health care setting: A simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Linh; Su, Yu-Min; Weber, Rachel; Fritzen-Pedicini, Charissa; Edomwande, Osayuwamen; Jones, Rachael M

    2018-04-01

    Environmental service workers may be exposed to pathogens during the cleaning of pathogen-containing bodily fluids. Participants with experience cleaning hospital environments were asked to clean simulated, fluorescein-containing vomitus using normal practices in a simulated patient room. Fluorescein was visualized in the environment and on participants under black lights. Fluorescein was quantitatively measured on the floor, in the air, and on gloves and shoe covers. In all 21 trials involving 7 participants, fluorescein was found on the floor after cleaning and on participants' gloves. Lower levels of floor contamination were associated with the use of towels to remove bulk fluid (ρ = -0.56, P = .01). Glove contamination was not associated with the number or frequency of contacts with environmental surfaces, suggesting contamination occurs with specific events, such as picking up contaminated towels. Fluorescein contamination on shoe covers was measured in 19 trials. Fluorescein was not observed on participants' facial personal protective equipment, if worn, or faces. Contamination on other body parts, primarily the legs, was observed in 8 trials. Fluorescein was infrequently quantified in the air. Using towels to remove bulk fluid prior to mopping is part of the recommended cleaning protocol and should be used to minimize residual contamination. Contamination on shoes and the floor may serve as reservoirs for pathogens. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mimicking Mars: A vacuum simulation chamber for testing environmental instrumentation for Mars exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobrado, J. M., E-mail: sobradovj@inta.es; Martín-Soler, J. [Centro de Astrobiología (CAB), INTA-CSIC, Torrejón de Ardoz, 28850 Madrid (Spain); Martín-Gago, J. A. [Centro de Astrobiología (CAB), INTA-CSIC, Torrejón de Ardoz, 28850 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Ciencias de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM-CSIC), Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-03-15

    We have built a Mars environmental simulation chamber, designed to test new electromechanical devices and instruments that could be used in space missions. We have developed this environmental system aiming at validating the meteorological station Rover Environment Monitoring Station of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory mission currently installed on Curiosity rover. The vacuum chamber has been built following a modular configuration and operates at pressures ranging from 1000 to 10{sup −6} mbars, and it is possible to control the gas composition (the atmosphere) within this pressure range. The device (or sample) under study can be irradiated by an ultraviolet source and its temperature can be controlled in the range from 108 to 423 K. As an important improvement with respect to other simulation chambers, the atmospheric gas into the experimental chamber is cooled at the walls by the use of liquid-nitrogen heat exchangers. This chamber incorporates a dust generation mechanism designed to study Martian-dust deposition while modifying the conditions of temperature, and UV irradiated.

  6. Mimicking Mars: a vacuum simulation chamber for testing environmental instrumentation for Mars exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrado, J M; Martín-Soler, J; Martín-Gago, J A

    2014-03-01

    We have built a Mars environmental simulation chamber, designed to test new electromechanical devices and instruments that could be used in space missions. We have developed this environmental system aiming at validating the meteorological station Rover Environment Monitoring Station of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory mission currently installed on Curiosity rover. The vacuum chamber has been built following a modular configuration and operates at pressures ranging from 1000 to 10(-6) mbars, and it is possible to control the gas composition (the atmosphere) within this pressure range. The device (or sample) under study can be irradiated by an ultraviolet source and its temperature can be controlled in the range from 108 to 423 K. As an important improvement with respect to other simulation chambers, the atmospheric gas into the experimental chamber is cooled at the walls by the use of liquid-nitrogen heat exchangers. This chamber incorporates a dust generation mechanism designed to study Martian-dust deposition while modifying the conditions of temperature, and UV irradiated.

  7. Faecal coliform simulation on sewage discharge for an environmentally sustainable township in Medini Iskandar Johor Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Su Yean; Koh, Hock Lye; Lee, Elizabeth; Woo, Wing Thye; Tan, Wai Kiat

    2017-11-01

    The Medini Iskandar Development is a 2300-acre multi-purpose urban development comprising residential, commercial, educational, business and recreational areas. The developer applied to the Department of Environment (DOE) Johor in July 2008 for approval of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) report for the overall Medini development. A conditional approval of the EIA report was granted by the DOE subject to some conditions, one of which stipulated that sewage effluent from the centralized sewage treatment plant (STP) is not permitted to be discharged into Sungai Pendas. A suitable location for the discharge of sewage into the Selat Johor is to be identified, based on a hydraulic and water quality modelling investigation. This modelling investigation aims to assess the impact of the discharge of treated sewage effluent on the marine water quality and on aquatic life in the Selat Johor. The supplementary EIA report was submitted to the DOE. Approval was granted in December 2011 for the construction of the marine sewage outfall and its operations. This paper presents the sampling and simulation results for key hydraulic and environmental parameters suitable for sustaining acceptable faecal coliform criteria in Selat Johor. Simulation models used include WASP7 developed by USEPA and AQUASEA developed by Vatnaskil Consulting Engineers.

  8. [Simulation of air pollution characteristics and estimates of environmental capacity in Zibo City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Wen-Bo; Wang, Jin-Nan; Yang, Jin-Tian; Lei, Yu; Yan, Li; He, Jin-Yu; Han, Bao-Ping

    2013-04-01

    To develop a new pattern of air pollution control that is based on the integration of "concentration control, total amount control, and quality control", and in the context of developing national (2011-2015 air pollution control plan for key areas) and (Environmental protection plan of Zibo municipality for the "12th Five-Year Plan" period), a simulation of atmospheric dispersion of air pollutants in Zibo City and its peripheral areas is carried out by employing CALPUFF model, and the atmospheric environmental capacity of SO2, NO(x) and PM10 is estimated based on the results of model simulation and using multi-objective linear programming optimization. The results indicates that the air pollution in Zibo City is significantly related to the pollution sources outside of Zibo City, which contributes to the annual average concentration of SO2, NO2 and PM10 in Zibo City by 26.34%, 21.23%, and 14.58% respectively. There is a notable interaction between districts and counties of Zibo municipality, in which the contribution of SO2, NO(x) and PM10 emissions in surrounding counties and districts to the annual average concentrations of SO2, NO2 and PM10 in downtown area are 35.96%, 43.17%, and 17.69% respectively. There is a great variation in spatial sensitivity of air pollutant emission, and the environmental impact of unit pollutant emissions from Zhoucun, Huantai, Zhangdian and Zichuan is greater than that released from other districts/counties. To meet the requirement of (Ambient air quality standard) (GB 3095-2012), the environmental capacities of SO2, NO(x) and PM10 of Zibo City are only 8.03 x 10(4) t, 19.16 x 10(4) t and 3.21 x 10(4) t, respectively. Therefore, it is imperative to implement regional air pollution joint control in Shandong peninsula in order to ensure the achievement of air quality standard in Zibo City.

  9. Atmospheric models in the numerical simulation system (SPEEDI-MP) for environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Haruyasu; Terada, Hiroaki

    2007-01-01

    As a nuclear emergency response system, numerical models to predict the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides have been developed at Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). Evolving these models by incorporating new schemes for physical processes and up-to-date computational technologies, a numerical simulation system, which consists of dynamical models and material transport models for the atmospheric, terrestrial, and oceanic environments, has been constructed to apply for various environmental studies. In this system, the combination of a non-hydrostatic atmospheric dynamic model and Lagrangian particle dispersion model is used for the emergency response system. The utilization of detailed meteorological field by the atmospheric model improves the model performance for diffusion and deposition calculations. It also calculates a large area domain with coarse resolution and local area domain with high resolution simultaneously. The performance of new model system was evaluated using measurements of surface deposition of 137 Cs over Europe during the Chernobyl accident. (author)

  10. Advanced simulation capability for environmental management - current status and future applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freshley, Mark; Scheibe, Timothy [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington (United States); Robinson, Bruce; Moulton, J. David; Dixon, Paul [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States); Marble, Justin; Gerdes, Kurt [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management, Washington DC (United States); Stockton, Tom [Neptune and Company, Inc, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States); Seitz, Roger [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, South Carolina (United States); Black, Paul [Neptune and Company, Inc, Lakewood, Colorado (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM), Office of Soil and Groundwater (EM-12), is supporting development of the Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM). ASCEM is a state-of-the-art scientific tool and approach that is currently aimed at understanding and predicting contaminant fate and transport in natural and engineered systems. ASCEM is a modular and open source high-performance computing tool. It will be used to facilitate integrated approaches to modeling and site characterization, and provide robust and standardized assessments of performance and risk for EM cleanup and closure activities. The ASCEM project continues to make significant progress in development of capabilities, with current emphasis on integration of capabilities in FY12. Capability development is occurring for both the Platform and Integrated Tool-sets and High-Performance Computing (HPC) multi-process simulator. The Platform capabilities provide the user interface and tools for end-to-end model development, starting with definition of the conceptual model, management of data for model input, model calibration and uncertainty analysis, and processing of model output, including visualization. The HPC capabilities target increased functionality of process model representations, tool-sets for interaction with Platform, and verification and model confidence testing. The integration of the Platform and HPC capabilities were tested and evaluated for EM applications in a set of demonstrations as part of Site Applications Thrust Area activities in 2012. The current maturity of the ASCEM computational and analysis capabilities has afforded the opportunity for collaborative efforts to develop decision analysis tools to support and optimize radioactive waste disposal. Recent advances in computerized decision analysis frameworks provide the perfect opportunity to bring this capability into ASCEM. This will allow radioactive waste

  11. ADVANCED SIMULATION CAPABILITY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT- CURRENT STATUS AND PHASE II DEMONSTRATION RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, R.

    2013-02-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM), Office of Soil and Groundwater, is supporting development of the Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM). ASCEM is a state-of-the-art scientific tool and approach for understanding and predicting contaminant fate and transport in natural and engineered systems. The modular and open source high-performance computing tool facilitates integrated approaches to modeling and site characterization that enable robust and standardized assessments of performance and risk for EM cleanup and closure activities. The ASCEM project continues to make significant progress in development of computer software capabilities with an emphasis on integration of capabilities in FY12. Capability development is occurring for both the Platform and Integrated Toolsets and High-Performance Computing (HPC) Multiprocess Simulator. The Platform capabilities provide the user interface and tools for end-to-end model development, starting with definition of the conceptual model, management of data for model input, model calibration and uncertainty analysis, and processing of model output, including visualization. The HPC capabilities target increased functionality of process model representations, toolsets for interaction with Platform, and verification and model confidence testing. The Platform and HPC capabilities are being tested and evaluated for EM applications in a set of demonstrations as part of Site Applications Thrust Area activities. The Phase I demonstration focusing on individual capabilities of the initial toolsets was completed in 2010. The Phase II demonstration completed in 2012 focused on showcasing integrated ASCEM capabilities. For Phase II, the Hanford Site deep vadose zone (BC Cribs) served as an application site for an end-to-end demonstration of capabilities, with emphasis on integration and linkages between the Platform and HPC components. Other demonstrations

  12. The environmental dependence of H I in galaxies in the EAGLE simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, Antonino; Crain, Robert A.; Schaye, Joop; Bahé, Yannick M.; van der Hulst, Thijs; Theuns, Tom; Bower, Richard G.

    2016-09-01

    We use the EAGLE suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations to study how the H I content of present-day galaxies depends on their environment. We show that EAGLE reproduces observed H I mass-environment trends very well, while semi-analytic models typically overpredict the average H I masses in dense environments. The environmental processes act primarily as an on/off switch for the H I content of satellites with M* > 109 M⊙. At a fixed M*, the fraction of H I-depleted satellites increase with increasing host halo mass M200 in response to stronger environmental effects, while at a fixed M200 it decreases with increasing satellite M* as the gas is confined by deeper gravitational potentials. H I-depleted satellites reside mostly, but not exclusively, within the virial radius r200 of their host halo. We investigate the origin of these trends by focusing on three environmental mechanisms: ram pressure stripping by the intragroup medium, tidal stripping by the host halo and satellite-satellite encounters. By tracking back in time the evolution of the H I-depleted satellites, we find that the most common cause of H I removal is satellite encounters. The time-scale for H I removal is typically less than 0.5 Gyr. Tidal stripping occurs in haloes of M200 < 1014 M⊙ within 0.5 × r200, while the other processes act also in more massive haloes, generally within r200. Conversely, we find that ram pressure stripping is the most common mechanism that disturbs the H I morphology of galaxies at redshift z = 0. This implies that H I removal due to satellite-satellite interactions occurs on shorter time-scales than the other processes.

  13. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix A: River Operation Simulation (ROSE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The River Operation Simulation Experts (ROSE) work group is comprised of representatives of the Corps, BPA, Reclamation, NMFS, Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC), and Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC). ROSE was responsible for using computer hydroregulation models to simulate the operation of the river system for all of the alternatives evaluated in screening and full scale analysis in SOR. These models are complex computer programs which sequentially route streamflows through each dam in the system, calculating the streamflows, reservoir elevations, spill, power generation and other information at each project and pertinent locations on the river system. ROSE first reviewed specifications of proposed alternatives to determine whether such alternatives were formulated adequately to be run on hydroregulation models

  14. Prioritization Risk Integration Simulation Model (PRISM) For Environmental Remediation and Waste Management - 12097

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pentz, David L.; Stoll, Ralph H.; Greeves, John T. [Predicus LLC, Issaquah, WA 98027 (United States); Miller, R. Ian [GoldSim Technology Group, LLC, Issaquah, WA 98027 (United States); Nutt, W. Mark [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The PRISM (Prioritization Risk Integration Simulation Model), a computer model was developed to support the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) in its mission to clean up the environmental legacy from the Nation's nuclear weapons materials production complex. PRISM provides a comprehensive, fully integrated planning tool that can tie together DOE-EM's projects. It is designed to help DOE managers develop sound, risk-informed business practices and defend program decisions. It provides a better ability to understand and manage programmatic risks. The underlying concept for PRISM is that DOE-EM 'owns' a portfolio of environmental legacy obligations (ELOs), and that its mission is to transform the ELOs from their current conditions to acceptable conditions, in the most effective way possible. There are many types of ELOs - - contaminated soils and groundwater plumes, disused facilities awaiting D and D, and various types of wastes waiting for processing or disposal. For a given suite of planned activities, PRISM simulates the outcomes as they play out over time, allowing for all key identified uncertainties and risk factors. Each contaminated building, land area and waste stream is tracked from cradle to grave, and all of the linkages affecting different waste streams are captured. The progression of the activities is fully dynamic, reflecting DOE-EM's prioritization approaches, precedence requirements, available funding, and the consequences of risks and uncertainties. The top level of PRISM is the end-user interface that allows rapid evaluation of alternative scenarios and viewing the results in a variety of useful ways. PRISM is a fully probabilistic model, allowing the user to specify uncertainties in input data (such as the magnitude of an existing groundwater plume, or the total cost to complete a planned activity) as well as specific risk events that might occur. PRISM is based on the GoldSim software

  15. TERRA: a computer code for simulating the transport of environmentally released radionuclides through agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baes, C.F. III; Sharp, R.D.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Hermann, O.W.

    1984-11-01

    TERRA is a computer code which calculates concentrations of radionuclides and ingrowing daughters in surface and root-zone soil, produce and feed, beef, and milk from a given deposition rate at any location in the conterminous United States. The code is fully integrated with seven other computer codes which together comprise a Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System, CRRIS. Output from either the long range (> 100 km) atmospheric dispersion code RETADD-II or the short range (<80 km) atmospheric dispersion code ANEMOS, in the form of radionuclide air concentrations and ground deposition rates by downwind location, serves as input to TERRA. User-defined deposition rates and air concentrations may also be provided as input to TERRA through use of the PRIMUS computer code. The environmental concentrations of radionuclides predicted by TERRA serve as input to the ANDROS computer code which calculates population and individual intakes, exposures, doses, and risks. TERRA incorporates models to calculate uptake from soil and atmospheric deposition on four groups of produce for human consumption and four groups of livestock feeds. During the environmental transport simulation, intermediate calculations of interception fraction for leafy vegetables, produce directly exposed to atmospherically depositing material, pasture, hay, and silage are made based on location-specific estimates of standing crop biomass. Pasture productivity is estimated by a model which considers the number and types of cattle and sheep, pasture area, and annual production of other forages (hay and silage) at a given location. Calculations are made of the fraction of grain imported from outside the assessment area. TERRA output includes the above calculations and estimated radionuclide concentrations in plant produce, milk, and a beef composite by location

  16. TERRA: a computer code for simulating the transport of environmentally released radionuclides through agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baes, C.F. III; Sharp, R.D.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Hermann, O.W.

    1984-11-01

    TERRA is a computer code which calculates concentrations of radionuclides and ingrowing daughters in surface and root-zone soil, produce and feed, beef, and milk from a given deposition rate at any location in the conterminous United States. The code is fully integrated with seven other computer codes which together comprise a Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System, CRRIS. Output from either the long range (> 100 km) atmospheric dispersion code RETADD-II or the short range (<80 km) atmospheric dispersion code ANEMOS, in the form of radionuclide air concentrations and ground deposition rates by downwind location, serves as input to TERRA. User-defined deposition rates and air concentrations may also be provided as input to TERRA through use of the PRIMUS computer code. The environmental concentrations of radionuclides predicted by TERRA serve as input to the ANDROS computer code which calculates population and individual intakes, exposures, doses, and risks. TERRA incorporates models to calculate uptake from soil and atmospheric deposition on four groups of produce for human consumption and four groups of livestock feeds. During the environmental transport simulation, intermediate calculations of interception fraction for leafy vegetables, produce directly exposed to atmospherically depositing material, pasture, hay, and silage are made based on location-specific estimates of standing crop biomass. Pasture productivity is estimated by a model which considers the number and types of cattle and sheep, pasture area, and annual production of other forages (hay and silage) at a given location. Calculations are made of the fraction of grain imported from outside the assessment area. TERRA output includes the above calculations and estimated radionuclide concentrations in plant produce, milk, and a beef composite by location.

  17. Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management - Current Status and Phase II Demonstration Results - 13161

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, Roger R.; Flach, Greg [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Bldg 773-43A, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Freshley, Mark D.; Freedman, Vicky; Gorton, Ian [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, MSIN K9-33, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Dixon, Paul; Moulton, J. David [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS B284, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Hubbard, Susan S.; Faybishenko, Boris; Steefel, Carl I.; Finsterle, Stefan [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, MS 50B-4230, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Marble, Justin [Department of Energy, 19901 Germantown Road, Germantown, MD 20874-1290 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM), Office of Soil and Groundwater, is supporting development of the Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM). ASCEM is a state-of-the-art scientific tool and approach for understanding and predicting contaminant fate and transport in natural and engineered systems. The modular and open source high-performance computing tool facilitates integrated approaches to modeling and site characterization that enable robust and standardized assessments of performance and risk for EM cleanup and closure activities. The ASCEM project continues to make significant progress in development of computer software capabilities with an emphasis on integration of capabilities in FY12. Capability development is occurring for both the Platform and Integrated Tool-sets and High-Performance Computing (HPC) Multi-process Simulator. The Platform capabilities provide the user interface and tools for end-to-end model development, starting with definition of the conceptual model, management of data for model input, model calibration and uncertainty analysis, and processing of model output, including visualization. The HPC capabilities target increased functionality of process model representations, tool-sets for interaction with Platform, and verification and model confidence testing. The Platform and HPC capabilities are being tested and evaluated for EM applications in a set of demonstrations as part of Site Applications Thrust Area activities. The Phase I demonstration focusing on individual capabilities of the initial tool-sets was completed in 2010. The Phase II demonstration completed in 2012 focused on showcasing integrated ASCEM capabilities. For Phase II, the Hanford Site deep vadose zone (BC Cribs) served as an application site for an end-to-end demonstration of capabilities, with emphasis on integration and linkages between the Platform and HPC components. Other demonstrations

  18. Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management - Current Status and Phase II Demonstration Results - 13161

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, Roger R.; Flach, Greg; Freshley, Mark D.; Freedman, Vicky; Gorton, Ian; Dixon, Paul; Moulton, J. David; Hubbard, Susan S.; Faybishenko, Boris; Steefel, Carl I.; Finsterle, Stefan; Marble, Justin

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM), Office of Soil and Groundwater, is supporting development of the Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM). ASCEM is a state-of-the-art scientific tool and approach for understanding and predicting contaminant fate and transport in natural and engineered systems. The modular and open source high-performance computing tool facilitates integrated approaches to modeling and site characterization that enable robust and standardized assessments of performance and risk for EM cleanup and closure activities. The ASCEM project continues to make significant progress in development of computer software capabilities with an emphasis on integration of capabilities in FY12. Capability development is occurring for both the Platform and Integrated Tool-sets and High-Performance Computing (HPC) Multi-process Simulator. The Platform capabilities provide the user interface and tools for end-to-end model development, starting with definition of the conceptual model, management of data for model input, model calibration and uncertainty analysis, and processing of model output, including visualization. The HPC capabilities target increased functionality of process model representations, tool-sets for interaction with Platform, and verification and model confidence testing. The Platform and HPC capabilities are being tested and evaluated for EM applications in a set of demonstrations as part of Site Applications Thrust Area activities. The Phase I demonstration focusing on individual capabilities of the initial tool-sets was completed in 2010. The Phase II demonstration completed in 2012 focused on showcasing integrated ASCEM capabilities. For Phase II, the Hanford Site deep vadose zone (BC Cribs) served as an application site for an end-to-end demonstration of capabilities, with emphasis on integration and linkages between the Platform and HPC components. Other demonstrations

  19. Effects of environmental factor on gas evolution behavior from Al in simulating mortar environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashizume, Shuji; Matsumoto, Junko; Banba, Tsunetaka

    1998-01-01

    Dry Low-Level Radioactive Wastes (LLW) which mean incombustible solid LLW generated from nuclear power stations are scheduled to be packed in steel drums followed by solidification with mortar. The solidified dry LLW is then to be disposed to shallow under-ground at Rokkasho LLW Disposal Center. Dry LLW includes some amphoteric metals among which aluminum is the most corrosive with gas evolution in high alkaline media such as mortar. The evolved gas may accelerate the leaching of solidified dry LLW with mortar. Despite the planned removal of aluminum from dry LLW, small inclusion of aluminum is unavoidable. The present study focuses on the effect of environmental factors such as pH and temperature on gas evolution behavior caused by aluminum corrosion. Large effects of pH and temperature on corrosion rate of aluminum and gas evolution were recognized. Principal corrosion product of aluminum was calcium aluminate compound when it was immersed in simulated mortar environments. It is demonstrated that 1.5 mol hydrogen gas evolves with the corrosion of 1 mol aluminum in environments of 12 < pH < 13 at temperatures below 60degC. (author)

  20. Integration of Web-GIS and oil spill simulation applications for environmental management of near-shore spill accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, S.; Miyata, D.; Varlamov, S.M.; Kim, S.-W.

    2001-01-01

    In the event of a near-shore oil spill, the use of a web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) can greatly improve emergency response management and oil recovery operations by providing real-time information support. This paper presented a Web-GIS that is used in combination with an oil spill simulation model. The structure and content of the system was defined after the Nakhodka vessel spilled oil in the Sea of Japan in January 1997, leaving serious environmental damage to the coastal area of the Ishikawa prefecture. The Web-GIS provides a wide range of environmental and oil spill related information, presented in a geographical form. The system also consolidates spill and environmental damage related information from different sources and provides links to the specialized environmental and socio-economical information of other GIS databases. The oil spill modeling subsystem is part of an application for protection planning and oil recovery operations. With this system, oil-drift simulation begins at the onset of any oil spill and then remote sensing data are used to estimate the position and state of the spilled oil. The spill information is then assimilated into the spill model and the observed simulated results are uploaded to the Web page for public information. The applicability of the Web-GIS is extended by support for information gathering from the public and the responsible agencies. The relative simplicity of the system interface is an added advantage. 9 refs., 4 figs

  1. Simulating the Impact of Economic and Environmental Strategies on Future Urban Growth Scenarios in Ningbo, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Coastal cities in China are challenged by multiple growth paths and strategies related to demands in the housing market, economic growth and eco-system protection. This paper examines the effects of conflicting strategies between economic growth and environmental protection on future urban scenarios in Ningbo, China, through logistic-regression-based cellular automata (termed LogCA modeling. The LogCA model is calibrated based on the observed urban patterns in 1990 and 2015, and applied to simulate four future scenarios in 2040, including (a the Norm-scenario, a baseline scenario that maintains the 1990–2015 growth rate; (b the GDP-scenario, a GDP-oriented growth scenario emphasizing the development in city centers and along economic corridors; (c the Slow-scenario, a slow-growth scenario considering the potential downward trend of the housing market in China; and (d the Eco-scenario, a slow-growth scenario emphasizing natural conservation and ecosystem protections. The CA parameters of the Norm- and Slow-scenarios are the same as the calibrated parameters, while the parameters of proximities to economic corridors and natural scenery sites were increased by a factor of 3 for the GDP- and Eco-scenarios, respectively. The Norm- and GDP-scenarios predicted 1950 km2 of new growth for the next 25 years, the Slow-scenario predicted 650 km2, and the Eco-scenario predicted less growth than the Slow-scenario. The locations where the newly built-up area will emerge are significantly different under the four scenarios and the Slow- and Eco-scenarios are preferable to achieve long-term sustainability. The scenarios are not only helpful for exploring sustainable urban development options in China, but also serve as a reference for adjusting the urban planning and land policies.

  2. Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Ngada, Narcisse

    2015-06-15

    The complexity and cost of building and running high-power electrical systems make the use of simulations unavoidable. The simulations available today provide great understanding about how systems really operate. This paper helps the reader to gain an insight into simulation in the field of power converters for particle accelerators. Starting with the definition and basic principles of simulation, two simulation types, as well as their leading tools, are presented: analog and numerical simulations. Some practical applications of each simulation type are also considered. The final conclusion then summarizes the main important items to keep in mind before opting for a simulation tool or before performing a simulation.

  3. Guaranteeing uptime at worl's largest particle physics lab

    CERN Multimedia

    Brodkin, Jon

    2007-01-01

    "As the European agency CERN was gearing up to build the world's largest particle accelerator, officials there knew they could not afford to have problems in their technical infrastructure cause any downtime." (1 page)

  4. Effects of species biological traits and environmental heterogeneity on simulated tree species distribution shifts under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen J; He, Hong S; Thompson, Frank R; Spetich, Martin A; Fraser, Jacob S

    2018-09-01

    Demographic processes (fecundity, dispersal, colonization, growth, and mortality) and their interactions with environmental changes are not well represented in current climate-distribution models (e.g., niche and biophysical process models) and constitute a large uncertainty in projections of future tree species distribution shifts. We investigate how species biological traits and environmental heterogeneity affect species distribution shifts. We used a species-specific, spatially explicit forest dynamic model LANDIS PRO, which incorporates site-scale tree species demography and competition, landscape-scale dispersal and disturbances, and regional-scale abiotic controls, to simulate the distribution shifts of four representative tree species with distinct biological traits in the central hardwood forest region of United States. Our results suggested that biological traits (e.g., dispersal capacity, maturation age) were important for determining tree species distribution shifts. Environmental heterogeneity, on average, reduced shift rates by 8% compared to perfect environmental conditions. The average distribution shift rates ranged from 24 to 200myear -1 under climate change scenarios, implying that many tree species may not able to keep up with climate change because of limited dispersal capacity, long generation time, and environmental heterogeneity. We suggest that climate-distribution models should include species demographic processes (e.g., fecundity, dispersal, colonization), biological traits (e.g., dispersal capacity, maturation age), and environmental heterogeneity (e.g., habitat fragmentation) to improve future predictions of species distribution shifts in response to changing climates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A statistical simulation model for field testing of non-target organisms in environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedhart, Paul W; van der Voet, Hilko; Baldacchino, Ferdinando; Arpaia, Salvatore

    2014-04-01

    Genetic modification of plants may result in unintended effects causing potentially adverse effects on the environment. A comparative safety assessment is therefore required by authorities, such as the European Food Safety Authority, in which the genetically modified plant is compared with its conventional counterpart. Part of the environmental risk assessment is a comparative field experiment in which the effect on non-target organisms is compared. Statistical analysis of such trials come in two flavors: difference testing and equivalence testing. It is important to know the statistical properties of these, for example, the power to detect environmental change of a given magnitude, before the start of an experiment. Such prospective power analysis can best be studied by means of a statistical simulation model. This paper describes a general framework for simulating data typically encountered in environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants. The simulation model, available as Supplementary Material, can be used to generate count data having different statistical distributions possibly with excess-zeros. In addition the model employs completely randomized or randomized block experiments, can be used to simulate single or multiple trials across environments, enables genotype by environment interaction by adding random variety effects, and finally includes repeated measures in time following a constant, linear or quadratic pattern in time possibly with some form of autocorrelation. The model also allows to add a set of reference varieties to the GM plants and its comparator to assess the natural variation which can then be used to set limits of concern for equivalence testing. The different count distributions are described in some detail and some examples of how to use the simulation model to study various aspects, including a prospective power analysis, are provided.

  6. Opportunities for biodiversity gains under the world’s largest reforestation programme

    OpenAIRE

    Hua, Fangyuan; Wang, Xiaoyang; Zheng, Xinlei; Fisher, Brendan; Wang, Lin; Zhu, Jianguo; Tang, Ya; Yu, Douglas W.; Wilcove, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Reforestation is a critical means of addressing the environmental and social problems of deforestation. China’s Grain-for-Green Program (GFGP) is the world’s largest reforestation scheme. Here we provide the first nationwide assessment of the tree composition of GFGP forests and the first combined ecological and economic study aimed at understanding GFGP’s biodiversity implications. Across China, GFGP forests are overwhelmingly monocultures or compositionally simple mixed forests. Focusing on...

  7. Acute environmental toxicity and persistence of DEM, a chemical agent simulant: Diethyl malonate. [Diethyl malonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldo, D.A.; Ligotke, M.W.; Harvey, S.D.; Fellows, R.J.; Li, Shu-mei W.; Van Voris, P.; Wentsel, R.S.

    1990-05-01

    The purpose of the following chemical simulant studies is to assess the potential acute environmental effects and persistence of diethyl malonate (DEM). Deposition velocities for DEM to soil surfaces ranged from 0.04 to 0.2 cm/sec. For foliar surfaces, deposition velocities ranged from 0.0002 cm/sec at low air concentrations to 0.05 cm/sec for high dose levels. The residence times or half-lives of DEM deposited to soils was 2 h for the fast component and 5 to 16 h for the residual material. DEM deposited to foliar surfaces also exhibited biphasic depuration. The half-life of the short residence time component ranged from 1 to 3 h, while the longer time component had half-times of 16 to 242 h. Volatilization and other depuration mechanisms reduce surface contaminant levels in both soils and foliage to less than 1% of initial dose within 96 h. DEM is not phytotoxic at foliar mass loading levels of less than 10 {mu}m/cm{sup 2}. However, severe damage is evident at mass loading levels in excess of 17 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}. Tall fescue and sagebrush were more affected than was short-needle pine, however, mass loading levels were markedly different. Regrowth of tall fescue indicated that the effects of DEM are residual, and growth rates are affected only at higher mass loadings through the second harvest. Results from in vitro testing of DEM indicated concentrations below 500 {mu}g/g dry soil generally did not negatively impact soil microbial activity. Short-term effects of DEM were more profound on soil dehydrogenase activity than on soil phosphatase activity. No enzyme inhibition or enhancement was observed after 28 days in incubation. Results of the earthworm bioassay indicate survival to be 86 and 66% at soil doses of 107 and 204 {mu}g DEM/cm{sup 2}, respectively. At higher dose level, activity or mobility was judged to be affected in over 50% of the individuals. 21 refs., 10 figs., 15 tabs.

  8. A Selected List of Urban, Environmental and Social Problem Gaming/Simulations. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinwachs, Barbara

    This revised list includes games/simulations for all age levels, though often most applicable at the secondary through adult levels. In her reviews of available products, the author limited her listings to those games/simulations which are useful for educational purposes and which focus directly on social concerns relative to urban and…

  9. Environmental Systems Simulations for Carbon, Energy, Nitrogen, Water, and Watersheds: Design Principles and Pilot Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lant, C.; Pérez Lapena, B.; Xiong, W.; Kraft, S.; Kowalchuk, R.; Blair, M.

    2016-01-01

    Guided by the Next Generation Science Standards and elements of problem-based learning, four human-environment systems simulations are described in brief—carbon, energy, water, and watershed—and a fifth simulation on nitrogen is described in more depth. These science, technology, engineering, and

  10. Joint Asymptotic Distributions of Smallest and Largest Insurance Claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansjörg Albrecher

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Assume that claims in a portfolio of insurance contracts are described by independent and identically distributed random variables with regularly varying tails and occur according to a near mixed Poisson process. We provide a collection of results pertaining to the joint asymptotic Laplace transforms of the normalised sums of the smallest and largest claims, when the length of the considered time interval tends to infinity. The results crucially depend on the value of the tail index of the claim distribution, as well as on the number of largest claims under consideration.

  11. Challenges with the largest commercial hydrogen station in the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charbonneau, Thomas; Gauthier, Pierre [Air Liquide Canada (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This abstract's objective is to share with the participants the story of the largest hydrogen fueling station made to this date and to kick-start the story, we will cover the challenges; first the technical ones; the operational ones; the distribution ones and; the financial ones. We will then move on to review the logistic (geographic) issues raised by the project and conclude our presentation by sharing the output values of the largest fueling station built so far in the world. (orig.)

  12. Simulating economics and environmental impacts of beef and soybean systems in Brazil's Pamas and Amozon Biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent reductions in the deforestation of the Amazon biome have highlighted the need for the sustainable intensification of beef and commodity crop production in Brazil to increase agricultural productivity without accelerating adverse environmental impacts related to greenhouse gas emissions, eutro...

  13. Simulated environmental risk estimation of engineered nanomaterials: a case of cosmetics in Johannesburg City

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musee, N

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to quantify the potential risks posed by engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) to the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems from cosmetic-based nanoproducts. The predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) were modelled for the silver (n...

  14. A case study of environmental assisted cracking in a low alloy steel under simulated environment of pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzad, M.; Qureshi, A.H.; Waqas, H.; Hussain, N.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We study environmental assisted cracking (EAC) in simulated PWR environment. → The corrosion rate in simulated coolant is low but increases with B conc. → A516 steel shows EAC in simulated coolant particularly at high oxygen levels. → Fracture occurs when the surface cracks join the subsurface cracks. → Corrosion of MnS inclusions and ferrite provide crack nucleation sites. -- Abstract: The electromechanical behavior of a pressure vessel grade steel A516 has been investigated using potentiodynamic polarization curves and slow strain rate test (SSRT) in simulated environment of pressurized water reactor. The anodic polarization behavior shows that the steel remains active in the solution till localized attack (pitting) starts. The cracks initiated at the surface propagate in a trans-granular mode. These cracks are initiated at the inclusion (MnS) sites and at the interfaces between local anode (ferrite) and local cathode (pearlite). It seems that the ultimate fracture occurs when the propagating surface cracks join the subsurface hydrogen induced cracks. The addition of oxygen in the testing chamber to supersaturation levels shifts the corrosion potential to anodic side and significantly lowers the strength and ductility. Compared to the room temperature properties, the UTS and tensile elongation in various simulated conditions are reduced by 10-25% and 25-75%, respectively.

  15. Evaluating environmental effects of oil spills by simulating the behaviour and spreading of oil on the sea surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharov, V.K.; Ivanov, I.V.; Sokolov, A.N.

    2005-01-01

    The area of polluted surface of the sea and the volume of crude oil carried to the coastline are the main parameters that determine ecological damage. This paper considered some of the problems surrounding the assessment of environmental impacts caused by oil spills in the marine environment. Assessment of potential damage involves the analysis of many possible scenarios and the conditions that accompany them, including varying weather conditions. Computer simulations of the behaviour of spilled oil on the sea surface along with other criteria allow for the evaluation of the predicted scenario. Computer simulations provide knowledge of the spreading and drift of oil, as well as its volume and thickness. Knowledge of the following factors, combined with a knowledge of weather conditions is important in emergency response planning: vulnerability of oil pollution areas on shore; calculation of impact factors; detection of vulnerability to oil pollution; the possibility of incidents of the inadmissible oil pollution forecast; and results of a simulation of 48 hour drift of oil slick formed due to a spill in Devkin Zavod Bay. Adequate meteorological information is crucial for the development of valid data. Further progress is currently being developed for specific water areas around oil fields, tanker routes, seabed crude oil pipeline, wind currents, heaving, hydrological and environmental characteristics of sea water. 5 refs., 3 figs

  16. NAFTA: The World's Largest Trading Zone Turns 20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, Tawni Hunt; Day, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Everyone under the age of 20 who has grown up in North America has lived in the common market created by NAFTA--the North American Free Trade Agreement. In a zone linking the United States, Canada, and Mexico, most goods and investments flow freely across borders to users, consumers, and investors. In 1994, NAFTA created the largest relatively…

  17. Synchrotron Emission on the Largest Scales: Radio Detection of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Shocks and turbulence generated during large-scale structure formation are predicted to produce large-scale, low surface-brightness synchrotron emission. On the largest scales, this emission is globally correlated with the thermal baryon distribution, and constitutes the 'syn- chrotron cosmic-web'. I present the ...

  18. Building Earth's Largest Library: Driving into the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, Steve

    1999-01-01

    Examines the Amazon.com online bookstore as a blueprint for designing the world's largest library. Topics include selection; accessibility and convenience; quality of Web sites and search tools; personalized service; library collection development, including interlibrary loan; library catalogs and catalog records; a circulation system; costs;…

  19. Analysis of Human Standing Balance by Largest Lyapunov Exponent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to analyse the relationship between nonlinear dynamic character and individuals’ standing balance by the largest Lyapunov exponent, which is regarded as a metric for assessing standing balance. According to previous study, the largest Lyapunov exponent from centre of pressure time series could not well quantify the human balance ability. In this research, two improvements were made. Firstly, an external stimulus was applied to feet in the form of continuous horizontal sinusoidal motion by a moving platform. Secondly, a multiaccelerometer subsystem was adopted. Twenty healthy volunteers participated in this experiment. A new metric, coordinated largest Lyapunov exponent was proposed, which reflected the relationship of body segments by integrating multidimensional largest Lyapunov exponent values. By using this metric in actual standing performance under sinusoidal stimulus, an obvious relationship between the new metric and the actual balance ability was found in the majority of the subjects. These results show that the sinusoidal stimulus can make human balance characteristics more obvious, which is beneficial to assess balance, and balance is determined by the ability of coordinating all body segments.

  20. Worlds largest particle physics laboratory selects Proxim Wireless Mesh

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Proxim Wireless has announced that the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), the world's largest particle physics laboratory and the birthplace of the World Wide Web, is using it's ORiNOCO AP-4000 mesh access points to extend the range of the laboratory's Wi-Fi network and to provide continuous monitoring of the lab's calorimeters" (1/2 page)

  1. PNNL supercomputer to become largest computing resource on the Grid

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Hewlett Packard announced that the US DOE Pacific Northwest National Laboratory will connect a 9.3-teraflop HP supercomputer to the DOE Science Grid. This will be the largest supercomputer attached to a computer grid anywhere in the world (1 page).

  2. Toward sustainable harvesting of Africa's largest medicinal plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global demand for treating prostate disorders with Prunus africana bark extract has made P. africana Africa's largest medicinal plant export. Unsustainable harvesting practices can lead to local extirpations of this multipurpose tree. Survey research targeting P. africana harvesters in a Tanzania forest reserve revealed that ...

  3. Discovery of the largest orbweaving spider species: the evolution of gigantism in Nephila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntner, Matjaz; Coddington, Jonathan A

    2009-10-21

    More than 41,000 spider species are known with about 400-500 added each year, but for some well-known groups, such as the giant golden orbweavers, Nephila, the last valid described species dates from the 19(th) century. Nephila are renowned for being the largest web-spinning spiders, making the largest orb webs, and are model organisms for the study of extreme sexual size dimorphism (SSD) and sexual biology. Here, we report on the discovery of a new, giant Nephila species from Africa and Madagascar, and review size evolution and SSD in Nephilidae. We formally describe N. komaci sp. nov., the largest web spinning species known, and place the species in phylogenetic context to reconstruct the evolution of mean size (via squared change parsimony). We then test female and male mean size correlation using phylogenetically independent contrasts, and simulate nephilid body size evolution using Monte Carlo statistics. Nephila females increased in size almost monotonically to establish a mostly African clade of true giants. In contrast, Nephila male size is effectively decoupled and hovers around values roughly one fifth of female size. Although N. komaci females are the largest Nephila yet discovered, the males are also large and thus their SSD is not exceptional.

  4. Predicting Traffic Flow in Local Area Networks by the Largest Lyapunov Exponent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of network traffic are complex and nonlinear, and chaotic behaviors and their prediction, which play an important role in local area networks (LANs, are studied in detail, using the largest Lyapunov exponent. With the introduction of phase space reconstruction based on the time sequence, the high-dimensional traffic is projected onto the low dimension reconstructed phase space, and a reduced dynamic system is obtained from the dynamic system viewpoint. Then, a numerical method for computing the largest Lyapunov exponent of the low-dimensional dynamic system is presented. Further, the longest predictable time, which is related to chaotic behaviors in the system, is studied using the largest Lyapunov exponent, and the Wolf method is used to predict the evolution of the traffic in a local area network by both Dot and Interval predictions, and a reliable result is obtained by the presented method. As the conclusion, the results show that the largest Lyapunov exponent can be used to describe the sensitivity of the trajectory in the reconstructed phase space to the initial values. Moreover, Dot Prediction can effectively predict the flow burst. The numerical simulation also shows that the presented method is feasible and efficient for predicting the complex dynamic behaviors in LAN traffic, especially for congestion and attack in networks, which are the main two complex phenomena behaving as chaos in networks.

  5. Discovery of the largest orbweaving spider species: the evolution of gigantism in Nephila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaz Kuntner

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available More than 41,000 spider species are known with about 400-500 added each year, but for some well-known groups, such as the giant golden orbweavers, Nephila, the last valid described species dates from the 19(th century. Nephila are renowned for being the largest web-spinning spiders, making the largest orb webs, and are model organisms for the study of extreme sexual size dimorphism (SSD and sexual biology. Here, we report on the discovery of a new, giant Nephila species from Africa and Madagascar, and review size evolution and SSD in Nephilidae.We formally describe N. komaci sp. nov., the largest web spinning species known, and place the species in phylogenetic context to reconstruct the evolution of mean size (via squared change parsimony. We then test female and male mean size correlation using phylogenetically independent contrasts, and simulate nephilid body size evolution using Monte Carlo statistics.Nephila females increased in size almost monotonically to establish a mostly African clade of true giants. In contrast, Nephila male size is effectively decoupled and hovers around values roughly one fifth of female size. Although N. komaci females are the largest Nephila yet discovered, the males are also large and thus their SSD is not exceptional.

  6. What role can simulation model predictions play in environmental decisions: carbon dioxide as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emanuel, W.R.

    1979-01-01

    Frequently, when an environmental issue requiring quantitative analysis surfaces, the development of a model synthesizing all aspects of the problem and applicable at each stage of the decision process is proposed. A more desirable alternative is to generate models specifically designed to meet the requirements of each level in decision making and which can be adapted in response to the changing status of the environmental issue. Various models of the global carbon cycle constructed to predict levels of CO 2 in the atmosphere as a result of man's activities are described to illustrate this point. In summary, the progression of models developed to analyze the global carbon cycle in resolving the CO 2 /climate issue indicates the changing character of models depending on the immediate role they play in environmental decision making. The dominant and successful role served by models in the carbon cycle problem points to the desirability of this flexible approach

  7. Simulation of environmental change in response to operation of dams in Huaihe Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Jiang

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the model simulation of a portion of the Huaihe Basin upstream of the river mouth at Hongze Lake, with an area of 130 520 km2. The MIKE 11 modeling system was used to assess the flows and water quality in the Huaihe, Shayinghe, Honghe, Guohe, and Pihe rivers. The hydraulic part of the model was used to study the propagation of flows in the Huaihe River, which was calibrated with data from 2002–2003 and verified with data from 2004–2005. In general, there was agreement between measured and simulated discharges at all the hydrological stations. Except for some places close to large gates, there was reasonable agreement between measured and simulated water levels in the simulated rivers. The MIKE 11 WQ (water quality model was used to study general sanitary parameters describing the river water quality in areas influenced by human activities. The water quality model simulated dissolved oxygen (DO, chemical oxygen demand (COD and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N. The difference between the simulated and observed concentrations was within the range that could be expected from water quality modeling, taking into account uncertainties such as pollution loads, and monitoring and sampling frequency. This model setup was also suitable for the subsequent scenario modeling of periods of water project operation. In the simulation of the Pihe River, increasing the discharge at Hengpaitou Dam was shown to cause a significant improvement in water quality downstream of Lu'an City. In the Shayinghe and Huaihe rivers, the effect was less visible. This suggests that the poor water quality in the Huaihe Basin is mainly caused by extensive discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater.

  8. Dynamic simulation applied to the socio-environmental management in projects of concentrated infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz E, Mauricio; Pena Z, Gloria Elena

    2004-01-01

    This work presents a theoretical and methodological approach to system dynamics utilization to contribute in the comprehension and handle of complexly of management challenges what appears in design, construction and operation phases in concentrate infrastructure projects like as ports, big dams and industrial parks. The localization of this kind of projects generates socio environmental impacts in their influence zones, what requires a strategically management from enterprise owners, not only for to comply with current environmental laws but also ensure social viability of their projects

  9. Environmental assessment of alternative pasteurization technologies for fluid milk production using process simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluid milk processing (FMP) has significant environmental impact because of its high energy use. High temperature short time (HTST) pasteurization is the third most energy intensive operation comprising about 16% of total energy use, after clean-in-place operations and packaging. Nonthermal processe...

  10. Development, Implementation, and Analysis of an Environmental Simulation Information Reference Library and Archive (ESIRLA)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burgeson, John

    1997-01-01

    ...) conferences to facilitate the exchange of information on cloud modeling techniques and applications for the benefit of the DoD environmental science community. STC determined the detailed requirements for weather effects products and decision aids for specific Air Force operational electro-optical systems.

  11. Simulation supported field study of environmental tobacco smoke leakage from smoking rooms in 19 Dutch pubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.; Opperhuizen, A.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is produced during smoking and smoldering of tobacco products. This field study has measured how much ETS is leaking from smoking rooms into smoke free areas in 19 Dutch cafes. Nicotine, 3-EP and PM2,5 have been used as tracer compounds for ETS. The use of smoking

  12. THE CHALLENGE OF THE LARGEST STRUCTURES IN THE UNIVERSE TO COSMOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Changbom; Choi, Yun-Young; Kim, Sungsoo S.; Kim, Kap-Sung; Kim, Juhan; Gott III, J. Richard

    2012-01-01

    Large galaxy redshift surveys have long been used to constrain cosmological models and structure formation scenarios. In particular, the largest structures discovered observationally are thought to carry critical information on the amplitude of large-scale density fluctuations or homogeneity of the universe, and have often challenged the standard cosmological framework. The Sloan Great Wall (SGW) recently found in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) region casts doubt on the concordance cosmological model with a cosmological constant (i.e., the flat ΛCDM model). Here we show that the existence of the SGW is perfectly consistent with the ΛCDM model, a result that only our very large cosmological N-body simulation (the Horizon Run 2, HR2) could supply. In addition, we report on the discovery of a void complex in the SDSS much larger than the SGW, and show that such size of the largest void is also predicted in the ΛCDM paradigm. Our results demonstrate that an initially homogeneous isotropic universe with primordial Gaussian random phase density fluctuations growing in accordance with the general relativity can explain the richness and size of the observed large-scale structures in the SDSS. Using the HR2 simulation we predict that a future galaxy redshift survey about four times deeper or with 3 mag fainter limit than the SDSS should reveal a largest structure of bright galaxies about twice as big as the SGW.

  13. Biological consequences of environmental changes related to coastal upwelling: a simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, S.O.

    1979-05-01

    Two simulation models of marine ecosystem dynamics are formulated and applied to field data. The first is a time-dependent model of phytoplankton growth in nutrient-enriched batch cultures where spatial gradients of dependent variables and the effects of higher tropic level processes are not included. Rates of photosynthesis, nutrient uptake, chlorophyll synthesis and cell division for a single phytoplankton functional group are simulated as functions of photosynthetically active solar radiation, dissolved nutrient concentrations and cell quotas of carbon, nitrogen and silica. The second model combines the phytoplankton growth model with a time dependent, two-dimensional model of coastal upwelling off northwest Africa.

  14. Temporal properties of seismicity and largest earthquakes in SE Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Byrdina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to estimate the hazard rate distribution of the largest seismic events in Vrancea, South-Eastern Carpathians, we study temporal properties of historical and instrumental catalogues of seismicity. First, on the basis of Generalized Extreme Value theory we estimate the average return period of the largest events. Then, following Bak et al. (2002 and Corral (2005a, we study scaling properties of recurrence times between earthquakes in appropriate spatial volumes. We come to the conclusion that the seismicity is temporally clustered, and that the distribution of recurrence times is significantly different from a Poisson process even for times largely exceeding corresponding periods of foreshock and aftershock activity. Modeling the recurrence times by a gamma distributed variable, we finally estimate hazard rates with respect to the time elapsed from the last large earthquake.

  15. Worlds Largest Wave Energy Project 2007 in Wales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars; Friis-Madsen, Erik; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces world largest wave energy project being developed in Wales and based on one of the leading wave energy technologies. The background for the development of wave energy, the total resource ands its distribution around the world is described. In contrast to wind energy turbines...... Dragon has to be scaled in accordance with the wave climate at the deployment site, which makes the Welch demonstrator device the worlds largest WEC so far with a total width of 300 meters. The project budget, the construction methods and the deployment site are also given....... a large number of fundamentally different technologies are utilised to harvest wave energy. The Wave Dragon belongs to the wave overtopping class of converters and the paper describes the fundamentals and the technical solutions used in this wave energy converter. An offshore floating WEC like the Wave...

  16. A Coupled Surface Nudging Scheme for use in Retrospective Weather and Climate Simulations for Environmental Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    A surface analysis nudging scheme coupling atmospheric and land surface thermodynamic parameters has been implemented into WRF v3.8 (latest version) for use with retrospective weather and climate simulations, as well as for applications in air quality, hydrology, and ecosystem mo...

  17. The environmental dependence of H I in galaxies in the EAGLE simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marasco, Antonino; Crain, Robert A.; Schaye, Joop; Bahé, Yannick M.; van der Hulst, Thijs; Theuns, Tom; Bower, Richard G.

    2016-01-01

    We use the EAGLE suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations to study how the H I content of present-day galaxies depends on their environment. We show that EAGLE reproduces observed H I mass-environment trends very well, while semi-analytic models typically overpredict the average H I masses

  18. Simulation of building energy and indoor environmental quality - some weather data issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, J.L.M.

    1999-01-01

    After elaborating that a building is a rather complicated dynamic system where many of the governing energy and mass transfer relationships are highly non-linear, this paper focuses on weather data as needed for computer simulation of buildings. The paper does not aim for completeness but rather to

  19. Upgrade and modernization of the six largest HPPs in Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadzievska, M.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, Electric Power Company of Macedonia and the International Bank for Development and Reconstruction, started the Power System Improvement Project a part of which is the Project for rehabilitation of the six largest Hydro Power Plants (HPPs) in the Republic of Macedonia. The six largest Hydro Power Plants (HPP Vrutok, HPP Raven, HPP Globocica, HPP Tikves and HPP Spilje and HPP Vrben) represent 91% of the country's hydropower capacity. The rehabilitation program is divided in five parts (contracts) and covers the refurbishment of: turbine runners, turbine and generator bearings, governors, inlet valves; butterfly valves, including accessories and control systems; generators, excitation system and voltage regulation; control system, protection and LV auxiliaries; switch gears and control gears in 220 kV, 110 kV and 35 kV substations. At the moment, only the implementation of switch gears has started, the first phase is already finished, and 50 % of the rehabilitation works for HPP Vrutok, the largest HPP, has been finished. With the realization of this project, greater hydropower production is expected. It also expected that HPPs will become a more vital part of the Macedonian power system

  20. Analysis of Multiple Structural Changes in Financial Contagion Based on the Largest Lyapunov Exponents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A modified multiple structural changes model is built to test structural breaks of the financial system based on calculating the largest Lyapunov exponents of the financial time series. Afterwards, the Lorenz system is used as a simulation example to inspect the new model. As the Lorenz system has strong nonlinearity, the verification results show that the new model has good capability in both finding the breakpoint and revealing the changes in nonlinear characteristics of the time series. The empirical study based on the model used daily data from the S&P 500 stock index during the global financial crisis from 2005 to 2012. The results provide four breakpoints of the period, which divide the contagion into four stages: stationary, local outbreak, global outbreak, and recovery period. An additional significant result is the obvious chaos characteristic difference in the largest Lyapunov exponents and the standard deviation at various stages, particularly at the local outbreak stage.

  1. Integrated detoxification methodology of hazardous phenolic wastewaters in environmentally based trickle-bed reactors: Experimental investigation and CFD simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Rodrigo J.G.; Almeida, Teresa S.A.; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M.

    2011-01-01

    Centralized environmental regulations require the use of efficient detoxification technologies for the secure disposal of hazardous wastewaters. Guided by federal directives, existing plants need reengineering activities and careful analysis to improve their overall effectiveness and to become environmentally friendly. Here, we illustrate the application of an integrated methodology which encompasses the experimental investigation of catalytic wet air oxidation and CFD simulation of trickle-bed reactors. As long as trickle-bed reactors are determined by the flow environment coupled with chemical kinetics, first, on the optimization of prominent numerical solution parameters, the CFD model was validated with experimental data taken from a trickle bed pilot plant specifically designed for the catalytic wet oxidation of phenolic wastewaters. Second, several experimental and computational runs were carried out under unsteady-state operation to evaluate the dynamic performance addressing the TOC concentration and temperature profiles. CFD computations of total organic carbon conversion were found to agree better with experimental data at lower temperatures. Finally, the comparison of test data with simulation results demonstrated that this integrated framework was able to describe the mineralization of organic matter in trickle beds and the validated consequence model can be exploited to promote cleaner remediation technologies of contaminated waters.

  2. Integrated detoxification methodology of hazardous phenolic wastewaters in environmentally based trickle-bed reactors: Experimental investigation and CFD simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Rodrigo J G; Almeida, Teresa S A; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2011-05-15

    Centralized environmental regulations require the use of efficient detoxification technologies for the secure disposal of hazardous wastewaters. Guided by federal directives, existing plants need reengineering activities and careful analysis to improve their overall effectiveness and to become environmentally friendly. Here, we illustrate the application of an integrated methodology which encompasses the experimental investigation of catalytic wet air oxidation and CFD simulation of trickle-bed reactors. As long as trickle-bed reactors are determined by the flow environment coupled with chemical kinetics, first, on the optimization of prominent numerical solution parameters, the CFD model was validated with experimental data taken from a trickle bed pilot plant specifically designed for the catalytic wet oxidation of phenolic wastewaters. Second, several experimental and computational runs were carried out under unsteady-state operation to evaluate the dynamic performance addressing the TOC concentration and temperature profiles. CFD computations of total organic carbon conversion were found to agree better with experimental data at lower temperatures. Finally, the comparison of test data with simulation results demonstrated that this integrated framework was able to describe the mineralization of organic matter in trickle beds and the validated consequence model can be exploited to promote cleaner remediation technologies of contaminated waters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Integrated environmental monitoring and simulation system for use as a management decision support tool in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatta, D; Naoum, D; Loizidou, M

    2002-04-01

    Leachates are generated as a result of water or other liquid passing through waste at a landfill site. These contaminated liquids originate from a number of sources, including the water produced during the decomposition of the waste as well as rain-fall which penetrates the waste and dissolves the material with which it comes into contact. The penetration of the rain-water depends on the nature of the landfill (e.g. surface characteristics, type and quantity of vegetation, gradient of layers, etc). The uncontrolled infiltration of leachate into the vadose (unsaturated) zone and finally into the saturated zone (groundwater) is considered to be the most serious environmental impact of a landfill. In the present paper the water flow and the pollutant transport characteristics of the Ano Liosia Landfill site in Athens (Greece) were simulated by creating a model of groundwater flows and contaminant transport. A methodology for the model is presented. The model was then integrated into the Ecosim system which is a prototype funded by the EU, (Directorate General XIII: Telematics and Environment). This is an integrated environmental monitoring and modeling system, which supports the management of environmental planning in urban areas.

  4. The role of environmental parameter (degree day of snowmelt runoff simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Nabi*, Muhammad Latif, Habib-ur-Rehman and Aftab Hussain Azhar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The upper Indus basin comprises the high mountains covered with snow and glaciers. So the major portion of flowfrom Indus basin is due to snow and glacier melt runoff. The terrain is difficult to measure the hydrological andhydraulics data. Most of the data is available at catchments outlets. Due to the data constraints Snowmelt RunoffModel (SRM was used to estimate the snow melt runoff in Astor basin during, year 2000. The input data includeddaily temperature, precipitation and division of catchment in to different zones on the basis of elevation difference.The elevation zones were made from the Digital Elevation Model (DEM of the area. The snow depletion curveswere made by Landsat TM satellite data analysis on the monthly basis. The model output was dischargehydrograph. The model performance was tested by calculating the statistical parameters such as coefficient ofefficiency (COE and volume difference in percentage. The COE for simulation was 0.91 which illustrates a goodrelationship between simulated and measured values of runoff. The volume difference (Dv for simulation was 9.01.The statistical test showed that model performance was good. The results of SRM model encouraged to usetemperature index approach for snowmelt runoff estimation in Indus basin.

  5. Vichada meteorite impact effects from simulation of regional environmental consequences of a meteoroid impact on Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Hernandez Pardo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates the regional environmental consequences of the impactor extraterrestrial body that could produce the probable Vichada impact crater structure on the Vichada Plain, in Colombia, South America. This paper details the parameter assumptions upon which the estimation is made. It describes an approach to quantifying the principal impact processes that could have affected the landscape in the vicinity of the probable Vichada impact event in the past. The key parameters are impactor diameter, impactor density, impact velocity before atmospheric entry, impact angle, and the distance from the impact at which the environmental effects are to be calculated, and the target type of sedimentary rock or crystalline rock. These parameters were chosen with support from The Vichada Structure dimensions obtained from remote sensing data interpretation, regional geologic mapping and interpreted satellite data and ground-based gravity and magnetic anomalies. The calculations are based on compiled novel algorithms for estimating the thermal radiation emitted by the impact-generated vapor plume or fireball, and the intensity of seismic shaking. Model validation is performed by obtaining the approximates various dimensions of the Vichada impact crater and ejecta deposit, as well as estimating the severity of the air blasting both crater-forming and air burst impacts. We illustrate the utility of the calculations by examining the predicted environmental consequences in seven localities of the Colombian territory, through hypothetical impact scenarios occurring in Cumaribo and Puerto Carreño (Vichada, Puerto Inirida (Guainía, Puerto Gaitán and Villavicencio (Meta, Mitú (Vaupes and Bogotá, D.C. It is concluded that the most wide-reaching environmental consequence is seismic shaking. Both ejecta deposit thickness and air-blast pressure decay much more rapidly with distance than with seismic ground motion. Close to the impact site, the most

  6. Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gould, Derek A; Chalmers, Nicholas; Johnson, Sheena J

    2012-01-01

    Recognition of the many limitations of traditional apprenticeship training is driving new approaches to learning medical procedural skills. Among simulation technologies and methods available today, computer-based systems are topical and bring the benefits of automated, repeatable, and reliable p...... performance assessments. Human factors research is central to simulator model development that is relevant to real-world imaging-guided interventional tasks and to the credentialing programs in which it would be used....

  7. Environmental Mechanisms Shaping the Nature of Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies: The View of Computer Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Mayer

    2010-01-01

    cosmic ultraviolet ionizing flux was much higher than today, and was thus able to keep the gas in the dwarfs warm and diffuse, were rapidly stripped of their baryons via ram pressure and tidal forces, producing very dark-matter-dominated objects with truncated star-formation histories, such as the Draco dSph. The low star-formation efficiency expected in such low-metallicity objects prior to their infall was crucial for keeping their disks gas dominated until stripping took over. Therefore gas stripping along with inefficient star-formation provides a new feedback mechanism, alternative to photoevaporation or supernovae feedback, playing a crucial role in dwarf galaxy formation and evolution. We also discuss how the ultra-faint dSphs belong to a different population of lower-mass dwarf satellites that were mostly shaped by reionization rather than by environmental mechanisms (“reionization fossils”. Finally, we scrutinize the various caveats in the current understanding of environmental effects as well as other recent ideas on the origin of Local Group dSphs.

  8. Longevity in Calumma parsonii, the World's largest chameleon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessa, Giulia; Glaw, Frank; Andreone, Franco

    2017-03-01

    Large body size of ectothermic species can be correlated with high life expectancy. We assessed the longevity of the World's largest chameleon, the Parson's chameleon Calumma parsonii from Madagascar by using skeletochronology of phalanges taken from preserved specimens held in European natural history museums. Due to the high bone resorption we can provide only the minimum age of each specimen. The highest minimum age detected was nine years for a male and eight years for a female, confirming that this species is considerably long living among chameleons. Our data also show a strong correlation between snout-vent length and estimated age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Fishing down the largest coral reef fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, Douglas

    2014-07-15

    Studies on remote, uninhabited, near-pristine reefs have revealed surprisingly large populations of large reef fish. Locations such as the northwestern Hawaiian Islands, northern Marianas Islands, Line Islands, U.S. remote Pacific Islands, Cocos-Keeling Atoll and Chagos archipelago have much higher reef fish biomass than islands and reefs near people. Much of the high biomass of most remote reef fish communities lies in the largest species, such as sharks, bumphead parrots, giant trevally, and humphead wrasse. Some, such as sharks and giant trevally, are apex predators, but others such as bumphead parrots and humphead wrasse, are not. At many locations, decreases in large reef fish species have been attributed to fishing. Fishing is well known to remove the largest fish first, and a quantitative measure of vulnerability to fishing indicates that large reef fish species are much more vulnerable to fishing than small fish. The removal of large reef fish by fishing parallels the extinction of terrestrial megafauna by early humans. However large reef fish have great value for various ecological roles and for reef tourism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pre-engineering Spaceflight Validation of Environmental Models and the 2005 HZETRN Simulation Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nealy, John E.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.; Badavi, Francis F.; Dachev, Ts. P.; Tomov, B. T.; Walker, Steven A.; DeAngelis, Giovanni; Blattnig, Steve R.; Atwell, William

    2006-01-01

    The HZETRN code has been identified by NASA for engineering design in the next phase of space exploration highlighting a return to the Moon in preparation for a Mars mission. In response, a new series of algorithms beginning with 2005 HZETRN, will be issued by correcting some prior limitations and improving control of propagated errors along with established code verification processes. Code validation processes will use new/improved low Earth orbit (LEO) environmental models with a recently improved International Space Station (ISS) shield model to validate computational models and procedures using measured data aboard ISS. These validated models will provide a basis for flight-testing the designs of future space vehicles and systems of the Constellation program in the LEO environment.

  11. Collaborative spectrum sensing based on the ratio between largest eigenvalue and Geometric mean of eigenvalues

    KAUST Repository

    Shakir, Muhammad

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new detector referred to as Geometric mean detector (GEMD) which is based on the ratio of the largest eigenvalue to the Geometric mean of the eigenvalues for collaborative spectrum sensing. The decision threshold has been derived by employing Gaussian approximation approach. In this approach, the two random variables, i.e. The largest eigenvalue and the Geometric mean of the eigenvalues are considered as independent Gaussian random variables such that their cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) are approximated by a univariate Gaussian distribution function for any number of cooperating secondary users and received samples. The approximation approach is based on the calculation of exact analytical moments of the largest eigenvalue and the Geometric mean of the eigenvalues of the received covariance matrix. The decision threshold has been calculated by exploiting the CDF of the ratio of two Gaussian distributed random variables. In this context, we exchange the analytical moments of the two random variables with the moments of the Gaussian distribution function. The performance of the detector is compared with the performance of the energy detector and eigenvalue ratio detector. Analytical and simulation results show that our newly proposed detector yields considerable performance advantage in realistic spectrum sensing scenarios. Moreover, our results based on proposed approximation approach are in perfect agreement with the empirical results. © 2011 IEEE.

  12. Simulated biomass, environmental impacts and best management practices for long-term switchgrass systems in a semi-arid region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Limei; Qian, Yaling; Brummer, Joe E.; Zheng, Jiyong; Wilhelm, Sarah; Parton, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term information on switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) as a biomass energy crop grown on marginally saline soil and the associated impacts on soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and best management practices (BMPs) are limited. In this study, we employed the DAYCENT model, based on a 4-year switchgrass field experiment, to evaluate the long-term biomass yield potential and environmental impacts, and further to develop BMPs for switchgrass in a semi-arid region. The model showed that long-term (14-year) annual mean biomass yields were 9.6 and 5.2 Mg ha −1 for irrigated and rainfed switchgrass systems, respectively. The simulated biomass yields correlated well with field-measured biomass with r 2 values of 0.99 and 0.89 for irrigated and rainfed systems, respectively. Soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil total nitrogen (STN) accumulated rapidly after switchgrass establishment, with mean accrual rates of 0.99–1.13 Mg C ha −1  yr −1 and 0.04–0.08 Mg N ha −1  yr −1 , respectively. Based on the outputs of numerous long-term model simulations with variable irrigation water supplies and N rates, the irrigation regime and N rate with the highest yield to input ratio were chosen as BMPs. The DAYCENT model predicted-BMP was irrigating every 14 days at 70% potential evapotranspiration combined with an N rate of 67 kg ha −1  yr −1 . Switchgrass established and produced biomass reasonably well in this semi-arid region; however, appropriate irrigation and N fertilization were needed for optimal biomass yield. Switchgrass had a great potential to sequester C into soils with low N 2 O emissions while supplying significant quantities of biomass for biofuel synthesis. - Highlights: • The DAYCENT model reliably simulated the growth of switchgrass on marginal land. • Long-term biomass and environmental impacts were simulated using the DAYCENT model. • Switchgrass produced biomass well on marginal land, but

  13. Ecological impacts of environmental toxicants and radiation on the microbial ecosystem: a model simulation of computational microbiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Masahiro; Sakashita, Tetsuya; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Fuma, Shoichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Miyamoto, Kiriko; Yanagisawa, K.; Nakamura, Yuji; Kawabata, Zenichiro

    2000-01-01

    This study explores a microorganic closed-ecosystem by computer simulation to illustrate symbiosis among populations in the microcosm that consists of heterotroph protozoa, Tetrahymena thermophila B as a consumer, autotroph algae, Euglena gracilis Z as a primary producer and saprotroph Bacteria, Escherichia coli DH5 as decomposer. The simulation program is written as a procedure of StarLogoT1.5.1, which is developed by Center for Connected Learning and Computer-Based Modeling, Tufts University. The virtual microcosm is structured and operated by the following rules; 1) Environment is defined as a lattice model, which consists of 10,201 square patches, 300 micron Wide, 300 micron Length and 100 micron Hight. 2) Each patch has its own attributes, Nutrient, Detritus and absolute coordinates, 3) Components of the species, Tetrahymena, Euglena and E-coli are defined as sub-system, and each sub-system has its own attributes as location, heading direction, cell-age, structured biomass, reserves energy and demographic parameters (assimilation rate, breeding threshold, growth rate, etc.). 4) Each component of the species, Tetrahymena, Euglena and E-coli, lives by foraging (Tetrahymena eats E-coli), excreting its metabolic products to the environment (as a substrate of E-coli), breeding and dying according vital condition. 5) Euglena utilizes sunlight energy by photosynthesis process and produces organic compounds. E-coli breaks down the organic compounds of dead protoplasm or metabolic wastes (Detritus) and releases inorganic substances to construct down stream of food cycle. Virtual ecosystem in this study is named SIM-COSM, a parallel computing model for self-sustaining system of complexity. It found that SIM-COSM is a valuable to illustrate symbiosis among populations in the microcosm, where a feedback mechanism acts in response to disturbances and interactions among species and environment. In the simulation, microbes increased demographic and environmental

  14. Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Sheldon

    2006-01-01

    Ross's Simulation, Fourth Edition introduces aspiring and practicing actuaries, engineers, computer scientists and others to the practical aspects of constructing computerized simulation studies to analyze and interpret real phenomena. Readers learn to apply results of these analyses to problems in a wide variety of fields to obtain effective, accurate solutions and make predictions about future outcomes. This text explains how a computer can be used to generate random numbers, and how to use these random numbers to generate the behavior of a stochastic model over time. It presents the statist

  15. Scenario analysis of sustainable development of the world largest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, scenario analysis of the social development and environmental protection ... Scenario 2 is obviously more preferable though its ecological goal is not the most ... International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, Vol.

  16. Environmentally dependent dust chemistry of a super Asian dust storm in March 2010: observation and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiongzhen; Dong, Xinyi; Fu, Joshua S.; Xu, Jian; Deng, Congrui; Jiang, Yilun; Fu, Qingyan; Lin, Yanfen; Huang, Kan; Zhuang, Guoshun

    2018-03-01

    Near-surface and vertical in situ measurements of atmospheric particles were conducted in Shanghai during 19-23 March 2010 to explore the transport and chemical evolution of dust particles in a super dust storm. An air quality model with optimized physical dust emission scheme and newly implemented dust chemistry was utilized to study the impact of dust chemistry on regional air quality. Two discontinuous dust periods were observed with one traveling over northern China (DS1) and the other passing over the coastal regions of eastern China (DS2). Stronger mixing extents between dust and anthropogenic emissions were found in DS2, reflected by the higher SO2 / PM10 and NO2 / PM10 ratios as well as typical pollution elemental species such as As, Cd, Pb, and Zn. As a result, the concentrations of SO42- and NO3- and the ratio of Ca2+ / Ca were more elevated in DS2 than in DS1 but opposite for the [NH4+] / [SO42-+NO3-] ratio, suggesting the heterogeneous reactions between calcites and acid gases were significantly promoted in DS2 due to the higher level of relative humidity and gaseous pollution precursors. Lidar observation showed a columnar effect on the vertical structure of particle optical properties in DS1 that dust dominantly accounted for ˜ 80-90 % of the total particle extinction from near the ground to ˜ 700 m. In contrast, the dust plumes in DS2 were restrained within lower altitudes while the extinction from spherical particles exhibited a maximum at a high altitude of ˜ 800 m. The model simulation reproduced relatively consistent results with observations that strong impacts of dust heterogeneous reactions on secondary aerosol formation occurred in areas where the anthropogenic emissions were intensive. Compared to the sulfate simulation, the nitrate formation on dust is suggested to be improved in the future modeling efforts.

  17. World's largest off-road tires to be recycled

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-07-01

    Suncor Energy is the first company in Canada to use a new technology designed uniquely for tire recycling at oil sand facilities. The technology is owned by CuttingEdge Tire Recycling, a partnership between Denesoline Environmental Limited Partnership and Beaver Environmental Rubber Technologies Limited. Suncor has supported the development of this Aboriginal-owned and operated business by offering land, electricity, diesel fuel and stockpiles of used truck tires from its oil sand mining activities. These tires are the largest off-road tires in the world. In this new technology, tires that are worn-out through oil sand mining are shredded in a portable shredder before being recycled for subsequent use by the Alberta Recycling Management Association. 1 fig.

  18. Correlation between observation task performance and visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and environmental light in a simulated maritime study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koefoed, Vilhelm F; Assmuss, Jörg; Høvding, Gunnar

    2018-03-25

    To examine the relevance of visual acuity (VA) and index of contrast sensitivity (ICS) as predictors for visual observation task performance in a maritime environment. Sixty naval cadets were recruited to a study on observation tasks in a simulated maritime environment under three different light settings. Their ICS were computed based on contrast sensitivity (CS) data recorded by Optec 6500 and CSV-1000E CS tests. The correlation between object identification distance and VA/ICS was examined by stepwise linear regression. The object detection distance was significantly correlated to the level of environmental light (p maritime environment may presumably be ascribed to the normal and uniform visual capacity in all our study subjects. © 2018 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. ProbeZT: Simulation of transport coefficients of molecular electronic junctions under environmental effects using Büttiker's probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korol, Roman; Kilgour, Michael; Segal, Dvira

    2018-03-01

    We present our in-house quantum transport package, ProbeZT. This program provides linear response coefficients: electrical and electronic thermal conductances, as well as the thermopower of molecular junctions in which electrons interact with the surrounding thermal environment. Calculations are performed based on the Büttiker probe method, which introduces decoherence, energy exchange and dissipation effects phenomenologically using virtual electrode terminals called probes. The program can realize different types of probes, each introducing various environmental effects, including elastic and inelastic scattering of electrons. The molecular system is described by an arbitrary tight-binding Hamiltonian, allowing the study of different geometries beyond simple one-dimensional wires. Applications of the program to study the thermoelectric performance of molecular junctions are illustrated. The program also has a built-in functionality to simulate electron transport in double-stranded DNA molecules based on a tight-binding (ladder) description of the junction.

  20. Characteristics of lead(II) adsorption onto "Natural Red Earth" in simulated environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahatantila, K.; Vithanage, M. S.; Seike, Y.; Okumura, M.

    2011-12-01

    Lead is considered as a non-biodegradable and potentially toxic heavy metal and it is found as a common environmental pollutant. Adsorption characteristics of Pb(II) onto natural iron and aluminum coated sand, which is called Natural Red Earth (NRE), have been studied to ascertain the effect of pH, ionic strength, initial sorbate concentrations, temperature and time. Lead(II) adsorption achieved its maximum adsorption of nearly 100% at neutral to slightly acidic conditions. The optimum pH was nearly 5.5 and 6.5 for 2.41 and 24.1 μmol/L initial Pb(II) concentrations, respectively. Lead(II) adsorption was independent of 100 fold variation of ionic strength (0.001 - 0.1), indirectly evidencing dominance of an inner-sphere surface complexation mechanism for 10 fold variation of initial Pb(II) concentrations (2.41 and 24.1 μmol/L). Adsorption edges were quantified with a 2pK generalized diffuse double layer model considering two site types, >FeOH and >AlOH, for Pb(II) binding. The modeling results better fit with the mixture of monodentate and bidentated binding of Pb(II) onto >FeOH site and bidentate binding of Pb(II) onto >AlOH site. The intrinsic constants obtained were log KFeOPb=13.93, log K(FeO)2Pb=11.88 and log K(AlO)2Pb=13.21. Time required to reach the equilibrium was also increase from 15 min to 1hr with increasing Pb(II) concentrations from 2.41 to 24.1 μmol/L. Kinetic data fitted better to pseudo second order kinetic model. Lead(II) adsorption onto NRE was better explained by Two-site Langmuir isotherm with sorption maximum of 1.39x10-2 and 2.30x10-3 mol/kg for two sites with different affinities. Negative Gibbs free energy values indicated spontaneity of Pb(II) adsorption onto NRE, and entropy and enthalpy of adsorption were 124.04 J/K mol and 17.71 KJ/mol, respectively. These results suggested that the NRE could be effectively used as a low cost candidate for removal of Pb(II) from environmental water, since use of low cost materials to treat

  1. A basis for environmental monitoring in the gulf of Batabano applying hydrodynamic simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arriaza Oliveros, L.; Rodas Fernandez, L.; Simanca Cardenas, J.; Milian Lorenz, D.E.; Romero Suarez, P.L.

    2006-01-01

    The spreading of organic compounds and wastes in seawater depend on the space-time distribution of marine currents. Therefore, for the Environmental Monitoring of sea waters in the Cuban shelf it is necessary to include the marine current variable. A hydrodynamic model is applied in the Gulf of Batabano. The model was validated by using marine currents observed. Any organic compound or wastes in the Batabano or La Broa will moved slowly (1 + - 0.0529 cm/s and 4.7 + - 0.0529 cm/s) until the center and southwestern part of the gulf and the western part of the Isla de la Juventud, affecting for a long time period the SW coast of the gulf. Any pollution in ocean waters adjacent to this shelf will go through the open boundary with a mean velocity between 15 + - 0.25 cm/s and 29.5 + - 0.25 cm/s until the northern part of the Isla de la Juventud; it affects quickly this island and the southwestern and southeastern coasts of the gulf; the pollution will go slowly (1 + - 0.0529 cm/s and 3 + - 0.0529 cm/s) until the central and northeastern part of the gulf

  2. Burning plasma simulation and environmental assessment of tokamak, spherical tokamak and helical reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Uemura, S.; Oishi, T.; Arimoto, H.; Shoji, T.; Garcia, J.

    2009-01-01

    Reference 1-GWe DT reactors (tokamak TR-1, spherical tokamak ST-1 and helical HR-1 reactors) are designed using physics, engineering and cost (PEC) code, and their plasma behaviours with internal transport barrier operations are analysed using toroidal transport analysis linkage (TOTAL) code, which clarifies the requirement of deep penetration of pellet fuelling to realize steady-state advanced burning operation. In addition, economical and environmental assessments were performed using extended PEC code, which shows the advantage of high beta tokamak reactors in the cost of electricity (COE) and the advantage of compact spherical tokamak in life-cycle CO 2 emission reduction. Comparing with other electric power generation systems, the COE of the fusion reactor is higher than that of the fission reactor, but on the same level as the oil thermal power system. CO 2 reduction can be achieved in fusion reactors the same as in the fission reactor. The energy payback ratio of the high-beta tokamak reactor TR-1 could be higher than that of other systems including the fission reactor.

  3. The potential environmental gains from recycling waste plastics: simulation of transferring recycling and recovery technologies to Shenyang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xudong; Xi, Fengming; Geng, Yong; Fujita, Tsuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing attention on developing a low-carbon economy, it is necessary to seek appropriate ways on reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through innovative municipal solid waste management (MSWM), such as urban symbiosis. However, quantitative assessments on the environmental benefits of urban symbiosis, especially in developing countries, are limited because only a limited number of planned synergistic activities have been successful and it is difficult to acquire detailed inventory data from private companies. This paper modifies and applies a two-step simulation system and used it to assess the potential environmental benefits, including the reduction of GHG emissions and saving of fossil fuels, by employing various Japanese plastics recycling/energy-recovery technologies in Shenyang, China. The results showed that among various recycling/energy-recovery technologies, the mechanical waste plastics recycling technology, which produces concrete formwork boards (NF boards), has the greatest potential in terms of reducing GHG emissions (1.66 kg CO(2)e/kg plastics), whereas the technology for the production of refuse plastic fuel (RPF) has the greatest potential on saving fossil fuel consumption (0.77 kg ce/kg-plastics). Additional benefits can be gained by applying combined technologies that cascade the utilization of waste plastics. Moreover, the development of clean energy in conjunction with the promotion of new waste plastics recycling programs could contribute to additional reductions in GHG emissions and fossil fuel consumption. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Environmentally dependent dust chemistry of a super Asian dust storm in March 2010: observation and simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Near-surface and vertical in situ measurements of atmospheric particles were conducted in Shanghai during 19–23 March 2010 to explore the transport and chemical evolution of dust particles in a super dust storm. An air quality model with optimized physical dust emission scheme and newly implemented dust chemistry was utilized to study the impact of dust chemistry on regional air quality. Two discontinuous dust periods were observed with one traveling over northern China (DS1 and the other passing over the coastal regions of eastern China (DS2. Stronger mixing extents between dust and anthropogenic emissions were found in DS2, reflected by the higher SO2 ∕ PM10 and NO2 ∕ PM10 ratios as well as typical pollution elemental species such as As, Cd, Pb, and Zn. As a result, the concentrations of SO42− and NO3− and the ratio of Ca2+ ∕ Ca were more elevated in DS2 than in DS1 but opposite for the [NH4+] ∕ [SO42−+NO3−] ratio, suggesting the heterogeneous reactions between calcites and acid gases were significantly promoted in DS2 due to the higher level of relative humidity and gaseous pollution precursors. Lidar observation showed a columnar effect on the vertical structure of particle optical properties in DS1 that dust dominantly accounted for ∼ 80–90 % of the total particle extinction from near the ground to ∼ 700 m. In contrast, the dust plumes in DS2 were restrained within lower altitudes while the extinction from spherical particles exhibited a maximum at a high altitude of ∼ 800 m. The model simulation reproduced relatively consistent results with observations that strong impacts of dust heterogeneous reactions on secondary aerosol formation occurred in areas where the anthropogenic emissions were intensive. Compared to the sulfate simulation, the nitrate formation on dust is suggested to be improved in the future modeling efforts.

  5. The potential environmental gains from recycling waste plastics: Simulation of transferring recycling and recovery technologies to Shenyang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xudong; Xi Fengming; Geng Yong; Fujita, Tsuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Urban symbiosis creates compatibility of industrial development and waste management. → Mechanical technology leads to more CO 2 emission reduction. → Energy recovery technology leads to more fossil fuel saving. → Clean energy makes recycling technologies cleaner. → Demand management is crucial for realizing potential environmental gains of recycling. - Abstract: With the increasing attention on developing a low-carbon economy, it is necessary to seek appropriate ways on reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through innovative municipal solid waste management (MSWM), such as urban symbiosis. However, quantitative assessments on the environmental benefits of urban symbiosis, especially in developing countries, are limited because only a limited number of planned synergistic activities have been successful and it is difficult to acquire detailed inventory data from private companies. This paper modifies and applies a two-step simulation system and used it to assess the potential environmental benefits, including the reduction of GHG emissions and saving of fossil fuels, by employing various Japanese plastics recycling/energy-recovery technologies in Shenyang, China. The results showed that among various recycling/energy-recovery technologies, the mechanical waste plastics recycling technology, which produces concrete formwork boards (NF boards), has the greatest potential in terms of reducing GHG emissions (1.66 kg CO 2 e/kg plastics), whereas the technology for the production of refuse plastic fuel (RPF) has the greatest potential on saving fossil fuel consumption (0.77 kgce/kg-plastics). Additional benefits can be gained by applying combined technologies that cascade the utilization of waste plastics. Moreover, the development of clean energy in conjunction with the promotion of new waste plastics recycling programs could contribute to additional reductions in GHG emissions and fossil fuel consumption.

  6. Carbon and energy fluxes from China's largest freshwater lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, G.; LIU, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon and energy fluxes between lakes and the atmosphere are important aspects of hydrology, limnology, and ecology studies. China's largest freshwater lake, the Poyang lake experiences tremendous water-land transitions periodically throughout the year, which provides natural experimental settings for the study of carbon and energy fluxes. In this study, we use the eddy covariance technique to explore the seasonal and diurnal variation patterns of sensible and latent heat fluxes of Poyang lake during its high-water and low-water periods, when the lake is covered by water and mudflat, respectively. We also determine the annual NEE of Poyang lake and the variations of NEE's components: Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (Re). Controlling factors of seasonal and diurnal variations of carbon and energy fluxes are analyzed, and land cover impacts on the variation patterns are also studied. Finally, the coupling between the carbon and energy fluxes are analyzed under different atmospheric, boundary stability and land cover conditions.

  7. SSC RIAR is the largest centre of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalygin, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    The State Scientific Centre (SSC) ''Research Institute of Atomic Reactors'' (RIAR) is situated 100 km to the south-east from Moscow, in Dimitrovgrad, the Volga Region of the Russian Federation. SSC RIAR is the largest centre of research reactors in Russia. At present there are 5 types of reactor facilities in operation, including two NPP. One of the main tasks the Centre is the investigations on safety increase for power reactors. Broad international connections are available at the Institute. On the basis of the SSC RIAR during 3 years work has been done on the development of the branch training centre (TC) for the training of operation personnel of research and pilot reactors in Russia. (author). 3 tabs

  8. BALU: Largest autoclave research facility in the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Ucan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the large-scale facilities operated at the Center for Lightweight-Production-Technology of the German Aerospace Center in Stade BALU is the world's largest research autoclave. With a loading length of 20m and a loading diameter of 5.8 m the main objective of the facility is the optimization of the curing process operated by components made of carbon fiber on an industrial scale. For this reason, a novel dynamic autoclaving control has been developed that is characterized by peripheral devices to expend the performance of the facility for differential applications, by sensing systems to detect the component state throughout the curing process and by a feedback system, which is capable to intervene into the running autoclave process.

  9. Switzerland's largest wood-pellet factory in Balsthal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stohler, F.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes how a small Swiss electricity utility has broken out of its traditional role in power generation and the distribution of electricity and gone into the production of wood pellets. The pellets, which are made from waste wood (sawdust) available from wood processing companies, are produced on a large scale in one of Europe's largest pellets production facilities. The boom in the use of wood pellets for heating purposes is discussed. The article discusses this unusual approach for a Swiss power utility, which also operates a wood-fired power station and is even involved in an incineration plant for household wastes. The markets being aimed for in Switzerland and in Europe are described, including modern low-energy-consumption housing projects. A further project is described that is to use waste wood available from a large wood processing facility planned in the utility's own region

  10. SSC RIAR is the largest centre of research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalygin, V V [State Scientific Centre, Research Inst. of Atomic Reactors (Russian Federation)

    1997-10-01

    The State Scientific Centre (SSC) ``Research Institute of Atomic Reactors`` (RIAR) is situated 100 km to the south-east from Moscow, in Dimitrovgrad, the Volga Region of the Russian Federation. SSC RIAR is the largest centre of research reactors in Russia. At present there are 5 types of reactor facilities in operation, including two NPP. One of the main tasks the Centre is the investigations on safety increase for power reactors. Broad international connections are available at the Institute. On the basis of the SSC RIAR during 3 years work has been done on the development of the branch training centre (TC) for the training of operation personnel of research and pilot reactors in Russia. (author). 3 tabs.

  11. The largest Silurian vertebrate and its palaeoecological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Brian; Zhu, Min; Zhao, Wenjin; Jia, Liaotao; Zhu, You'an

    2014-01-01

    An apparent absence of Silurian fishes more than half-a-metre in length has been viewed as evidence that gnathostomes were restricted in size and diversity prior to the Devonian. Here we describe the largest pre-Devonian vertebrate (Megamastax amblyodus gen. et sp. nov.), a predatory marine osteichthyan from the Silurian Kuanti Formation (late Ludlow, ~423 million years ago) of Yunnan, China, with an estimated length of about 1 meter. The unusual dentition of the new form suggests a durophagous diet which, combined with its large size, indicates a considerable degree of trophic specialisation among early osteichthyans. The lack of large Silurian vertebrates has recently been used as constraint in palaeoatmospheric modelling, with purported lower oxygen levels imposing a physiological size limit. Regardless of the exact causal relationship between oxygen availability and evolutionary success, this finding refutes the assumption that pre-Emsian vertebrates were restricted to small body sizes. PMID:24921626

  12. Largest US oil and gas fields, August 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Largest US Oil and Gas Fields is a technical report and part of an Energy Information Administration (EIA) series presenting distributions of US crude oil and natural gas resources, developed using field-level data collected by EIA's annual survey of oil and gas proved reserves. The series' objective is to provide useful information beyond that routinely presented in the EIA annual report on crude oil and natural gas reserves. These special reports also will provide oil and gas resource analysts with a fuller understanding of the nature of US crude oil and natural gas occurrence, both at the macro level and with respect to the specific subjects addressed. The series' approach is to integrate EIA's crude oil and natural gas survey data with related data obtained from other authoritative sources, and then to present illustrations and analyses of interest to a broad spectrum of energy information users ranging from the general public to oil and gas industry personnel

  13. Numerical simulation of rainfall and temperature over Kenya using weather research and forecasting-environmental modelling system (WRF-EMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagero Obaigwa Philip

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on one of the high resolution models used for weather forecasting at Kenya Meteorological Department (KMD. It reviews the skill and accuracy of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF - Environmental Modeling System (EMS model, in simulating weather over Kenya. The study period was March to May 2011, during the rainy season over Kenya. The model output was compared with the observed data from 27 synoptic stations spread over the study area, to determine the performance of the model in terms of its skill and accuracy in forecasting. The spatial distribution of rainfall and temperature showed that the WRF model was capable of reproducing the observed general pattern especially for temperature. The model has skill in forecasting both rainfall and temperature over the study area. However, the model may underestimate rainfall of more than 10 mm/day and displace its location and overestimate rainfall of less than 1 mm/day. Therefore, during the period of enhanced rainfall especially in the month of April and part of May the model forecast needs to be complemented by other models or forecasting methods before giving a forecast. There is need to improve its performance over the domain through review of the parameterization of small scale physical processes and more observed data need to be simulated into the model.

  14. Improved Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Crop Production at the Catchment Scale via a Process-Based Nitrogen Simulation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wenjie; van der Werf, Hayo M G; Salmon-Monviola, Jordy

    2015-09-15

    One of the major challenges in environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) of crop production is the nonlinearity between nitrogen (N) fertilizer inputs and on-site N emissions resulting from complex biogeochemical processes. A few studies have addressed this nonlinearity by combining process-based N simulation models with LCA, but none accounted for nitrate (NO3(-)) flows across fields. In this study, we present a new method, TNT2-LCA, that couples the topography-based simulation of nitrogen transfer and transformation (TNT2) model with LCA, and compare the new method with a current LCA method based on a French life cycle inventory database. Application of the two methods to a case study of crop production in a catchment in France showed that, compared to the current method, TNT2-LCA allows delineation of more appropriate temporal limits when developing data for on-site N emissions associated with specific crops in this catchment. It also improves estimates of NO3(-) emissions by better consideration of agricultural practices, soil-climatic conditions, and spatial interactions of NO3(-) flows across fields, and by providing predicted crop yield. The new method presented in this study provides improved LCA of crop production at the catchment scale.

  15. The largest glitch observed in the Crab pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, B.; Lyne, A. G.; Stappers, B. W.; Weltevrede, P.; Bassa, C. G.; Lien, A. Y.; Mickaliger, M. B.; Breton, R. P.; Jordan, C. A.; Keith, M. J.; Krimm, H. A.

    2018-05-01

    We have observed a large glitch in the Crab pulsar (PSR B0531+21). The glitch occurred around MJD 58064 (2017 November 8) when the pulsar underwent an increase in the rotation rate of Δν = 1.530 × 10-5 Hz, corresponding to a fractional increase of Δν/ν = 0.516 × 10-6 making this event the largest glitch ever observed in this source. Due to our high-cadence and long-dwell time observations of the Crab pulsar we are able to partially resolve a fraction of the total spin-up of the star. This delayed spin-up occurred over a timescale of ˜1.7 days and is similar to the behaviour seen in the 1989 and 1996 large Crab pulsar glitches. The spin-down rate also increased at the glitch epoch by Δ \\dot{ν } / \\dot{ν } = 7 × 10^{-3}. In addition to being the largest such event observed in the Crab, the glitch occurred after the longest period of glitch inactivity since at least 1984 and we discuss a possible relationship between glitch size and waiting time. No changes to the shape of the pulse profile were observed near the glitch epoch at 610 MHz or 1520 MHz, nor did we identify any changes in the X-ray flux from the pulsar. The long-term recovery from the glitch continues to progress as \\dot{ν } slowly rises towards pre-glitch values. In line with other large Crab glitches, we expect there to be a persistent change to \\dot{ν }. We continue to monitor the long-term recovery with frequent, high quality observations.

  16. Exploiting Expert Knowledge to Enhance Simulation-based Optimization of Environmental Remediation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reslink, C. F.; Matott, L. S.

    2012-12-01

    Designing cost-effective systems to safeguard national water supplies from contaminated sites is often aided by simulation-based optimization - where a flow or transport model is linked with an "off-the-shelf" global optimization search algorithm. However, achieving good performance from these types of optimizers within a reasonable computational budget has proven to be difficult. Therefore, this research seeks to boost optimization efficiency by augmenting search procedures with non-traditional information, such as site-specific knowledge and practitioner rules-of-thumb. An example application involving pump-and-treat optimization is presented in which a series of extraction wells are to be installed to intercept pollutants at a contaminated site in Billings, Montana. Selected heuristic algorithms (e.g. Genetic Algorithm) are interfaced with a rules engine that makes inline adjustments to the well locations of candidate pump-and-treat designs. If necessary, the rules engine modifies a given pump-and-treat design so that: (1) wells are placed within plume boundaries; and (2) well placement is biased toward areas where, if left untreated, the plume is predicted to spread most rapidly. Results suggest that incorporating this kind of expert knowledge can significantly increase the search efficiency of many popular global optimizers.

  17. [Method for environmental management in paper industry based on pollution control technology simulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Ying; Wen, Zong-Guo

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the reduction potential of industrial water pollutant emissions and to study the application of technology simulation in pollutant control and environment management, an Industrial Reduction Potential Analysis and Environment Management (IRPAEM) model was developed based on coupling of "material-process-technology-product". The model integrated bottom-up modeling and scenario analysis method, and was applied to China's paper industry. Results showed that under CM scenario, the reduction potentials of waster water, COD and ammonia nitrogen would reach 7 x 10(8) t, 39 x 10(4) t and 0.3 x 10(4) t, respectively in 2015, 13.8 x 10(8) t, 56 x 10(4) t and 0.5 x 10(4) t, respectively in 2020. Strengthening the end-treatment would still be the key method to reduce emissions during 2010-2020, while the reduction effect of structure adjustment would be more obvious during 2015-2020. Pollution production could basically reach the domestic or international advanced level of clean production in 2015 and 2020; the index of wastewater and ammonia nitrogen would basically meet the emission standards in 2015 and 2020 while COD would not.

  18. Assessment of the neighborhood environmental effects of highway improvements through micronetwork simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schimpeler, C.C. (Schimpeler--Corradino Associates, Louisville, KY); Corradino, J.C.; Siria, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    New Cut Road is a major arterial highway serving South Louisville. Until recently, it was a narrow two-lane highway of rural-type design carrying up to 14,000 vehicles per day under forced flow conditions. Then construction began to widen the road from Southside Drive to Old Third Street Road, as a result of Urban Corridor Demonstration Program funding. The impacts (traffic, noise, and air pollution) on the neighborhoods surrounding this widening have been measured through micronetwork simulation techniques. Traffic will be diverted from surrounding roads (up to 20 percent) to the widened New Cut facility, thereby eliminating ''over-capacity'' conditions in these facilities, adding several years' life. Further, expeditious movement of vehicles through the New Cut Road ''area of influence'' will have a beneficial, albeit small, effect on the local air and noise environment. New Cut Road will be a highly cost-effective, low-capital-intensive improvement.

  19. Efficacy of passive sampler collection for atmospheric NO2 isotopes under simulated environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Justin G; Yu, Zhongjie; Elliott, Emily M

    2017-07-30

    Nitrogen oxides or NO x (NO x = NO + NO 2 ) play an important role in air quality, atmospheric chemistry, and climate. The isotopic compositions of anthropogenic and natural NO 2 sources are wide-ranging, and they can be used to constrain sources of ambient NO 2 and associated atmospheric deposition of nitrogen compounds. While passive sample collection of NO 2 isotopes has been used in field studies to determine NO x source influences on atmospheric deposition, this approach has not been evaluated for accuracy or precision under different environmental conditions. The efficacy of NO 2 passive sampler collection for NO 2 isotopes was evaluated under varied temperature and relative humidity (RH) conditions in a dynamic flux chamber. The precision and accuracy of the filter NO 2 collection as nitrite (NO 2 - ) for isotopic analysis were determined using a reference NO 2 gas tank and through inter-calibration with a modified EPA Method 7. The bacterial denitrifer method was used to convert 20 μM of collected NO 2 - or nitrate (NO 3 - ) into N 2 O and was carried out on an Isoprime continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer. δ 15 N-NO 2 values determined from passive NO 2 collection, in conditions of 11-34 °C, 1-78% RH, have an overall accuracy and precision of ±2.1 ‰, and individual run precision of ±0.6 ‰. δ 18 O-NO 2 values obtained from passive NO 2 sampler collection, under the same conditions, have an overall precision of ± 1.3 ‰. Suitable conditions for passive sampler collection of NO 2 isotopes are in environments ranging from 11 to 34 °C and 1 to 78% RH. The passive NO 2 isotope measurement technique provides an accurate method to determine variations in atmospheric δ 15 N-NO 2 values and a precise method for determining atmospheric δ 18 O-NO 2 values. The ability to measure NO 2 isotopes over spatial gradients at the same temporal resolution provides a unique perspective on the extent and seasonality of fluctuations in atmospheric NO 2

  20. A valuable decision support. Simulation of biogas plants in connection with calculation of energy, environmental efficiency and costs; Wertvolle Entscheidungshilfe. Simulation von Biogasanlagen, verknuepft mit Energie-, Umweltwirkungs- und Kostenberechnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seick, I. [Hochschule Magdeburg-Stendal (F.H.), Magdeburg (Germany). Fachbereich Wasser- und Kreislaufwirtschaft; Tschepetzki, R. [ifak system GmbH, Magdeburg (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    As a virtual image, biogas plants can be simulated, analyzed and compared in different scenarios close to reality. The calculated results for behaviour, yield, achievement as well as environmental effects and operating costs enable an optimal and cost-efficient process engineering operation for the plant, respectively. The consequences of changes at the plant or in the operation can be estimated before. In the contribution under consideration, the model of a biogas plant is presented. Possibilities and results of simulation investigations are presented.

  1. The environmental impacts of one of the largest tailing dam failures worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatje, Vanessa; Pedreira, Rodrigo M A; de Rezende, Carlos Eduardo; Schettini, Carlos Augusto França; de Souza, Gabriel Cotrim; Marin, Danieli Canaver; Hackspacher, Peter Christian

    2017-09-06

    The impacts of the SAMARCO iron tailing spill along more than 650 km, between the dam and the plume of the Doce River in the Atlantic, were assessed by the determination of toxic metals. The tailing spill caused a substantial increase in suspended sediment loads (up to 33,000 mg L -1 ), in addition to large depositions of waste along the Doce basin. The highest estimated transport of dissolved metals was observed for Fe (58.8 μg s -1 ), Ba (37.9 μg s -1 ) and Al (25.0 μg s -1 ). Sediments reached the highest enrichment factors (EFs) for Hg (4,234), Co (133), Fe (43), and Ni (16), whereas As (55), Ba (64), Cr (16), Cu (17), Mn (41), Pb (38) and Zn (82) highest EFs were observed for suspended particulate matter (SPM). Iron, As, Hg, Mn exceeded sediment quality guidelines. Therefore, the risk of occurrence of adverse effects is highly possible, not only due to the dam failure, but also due to the Fe mining and the artisan Au mining. Heavy rain episodes will likely cause enhanced erosion, remobilization, and transport of contaminated particles, sustaining high inputs of SPM and metals for the years to come and threatening the ecosystem services.

  2. The laboratory environmental algae pond simulator (LEAPS) photobioreactor: Validation using outdoor pond cultures of Chlorella sorokiniana and Nannochloropsis salina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huesemann, M.; Williams, P.; Edmundson, S.; Chen, P.; Kruk, R.; Cullinan, V.; Crowe, B.; Lundquist, T.

    2017-09-01

    A bench-scale photobioreactor system, termed Laboratory Environmental Algae Pond Simulator (LEAPS), was designed and constructed to simulate outdoor pond cultivation for a wide range of geographical locations and seasons. The LEAPS consists of six well-mixed glass column photobioreactors sparged with CO2-enriched air to maintain a set-point pH, illuminated from above by a programmable multicolor LED lighting (0 to 2,500 µmol/m2-sec), and submerged in a temperature controlled water-bath (-2 °C to >60 °C). Measured incident light intensities and water temperatures deviated from the respective light and temperature set-points on average only 2.3% and 0.9%, demonstrating accurate simulation of light and temperature conditions measured in outdoor ponds. In order to determine whether microalgae strains cultured in the LEAPS exhibit the same linear phase biomass productivity as in outdoor ponds, Chlorella sorokiniana and Nannochloropsis salina were cultured in the LEAPS bioreactors using light and temperature scripts measured previously in the respective outdoor pond studies. For Chlorella sorokiniana, the summer season biomass productivity in the LEAPS was 6.6% and 11.3% lower than in the respective outdoor ponds in Rimrock, Arizona, and Delhi, California; however, these differences were not statistically significant. For Nannochloropsis salina, the winter season biomass productivity in the LEAPS was statistically significantly higher (15.2%) during the 27 day experimental period than in the respective outdoor ponds in Tucson, Arizona. However, when considering only the first 14 days, the LEAPS biomass productivity was only 9.2% higher than in the outdoor ponds, a difference shown to be not statistically significant. Potential reasons for the positive or negative divergence in LEAPS performance, relative to outdoor ponds, are discussed. To demonstrate the utility of the LEAPS in predicting productivity, two other strains – Scenedesmus obliquus and Stichococcus minor

  3. Oceans of Opportunity. Harnessing Europe's largest domestic energy resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichaux, N.; Wilkes, J.

    2009-09-01

    Europe's offshore wind potential is enormous and able to power Europe seven times over. Over 100 GW of offshore wind projects are already in various stages of planning. If realised, these projects would produce 10% of the EU's electricity whilst avoiding 200 million tonnes of CO2 emissions each year. EWEA has a target of 40 GW of offshore wind in the EU by 2020, implying an average annual market growth of 28% over the coming 12 years. The EU market for onshore wind grew by an average 32% per year in the 12-year period from 1992-2004 - what the wind energy industry has achieved on land can be repeated at sea. EWEA's proposed offshore grid builds on the 11 offshore grids currently operating and 21 offshore grids currently being considered by the grid operators in the Baltic and North Seas to give Europe a truly pan-European electricity super highway. Strong political support and action from Europe's policy-makers will allow a new, multi-billion euro industry to be built. This new industry will deliver thousands of green collar jobs and a new renewable energy economy and establish Europe as world leader in offshore wind power technology. A single European electricity market with large amounts of wind power will bring affordable electricity to consumers, reduce import dependence, cut CO2 emissions and allow Europe to access its largest domestic energy source.

  4. Characterization of the largest effector gene cluster of Ustilago maydis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Brefort

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the genome of the biotrophic plant pathogen Ustilago maydis, many of the genes coding for secreted protein effectors modulating virulence are arranged in gene clusters. The vast majority of these genes encode novel proteins whose expression is coupled to plant colonization. The largest of these gene clusters, cluster 19A, encodes 24 secreted effectors. Deletion of the entire cluster results in severe attenuation of virulence. Here we present the functional analysis of this genomic region. We show that a 19A deletion mutant behaves like an endophyte, i.e. is still able to colonize plants and complete the infection cycle. However, tumors, the most conspicuous symptoms of maize smut disease, are only rarely formed and fungal biomass in infected tissue is significantly reduced. The generation and analysis of strains carrying sub-deletions identified several genes significantly contributing to tumor formation after seedling infection. Another of the effectors could be linked specifically to anthocyanin induction in the infected tissue. As the individual contributions of these genes to tumor formation were small, we studied the response of maize plants to the whole cluster mutant as well as to several individual mutants by array analysis. This revealed distinct plant responses, demonstrating that the respective effectors have discrete plant targets. We propose that the analysis of plant responses to effector mutant strains that lack a strong virulence phenotype may be a general way to visualize differences in effector function.

  5. El Paso natural gas nearing completion of system's largest expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    El Paso Natural Gas Co.'s largest expansion program in its 64-year history will be completed along its northern system this spring or early summer. According to the company, the three-tiered, $241.5 million expansion program will increase El Paso's gas-transport capacity by 835 MMcfd to 2.5 bcfd of conventional and coal-seam gas from the San Juan basin in northwestern New Mexico. That's enough natural gas, says the company, to supply the needs of a city of more than 800,000 residents. This paper reports that the expansion involves the San Juan Triangle system, the company's northern main line, and the Permian-San Juan crossover line. The company also filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) in October 1991 to construct a new $15.2 million compressor station, Rio Vista, south of Bloomfield, N.M. The station would be used to move additional gas to the main line

  6. Benchmark Testing of the Largest Titanium Aluminide Sheet Subelement Conducted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotta, Paul A.; Krause, David L.

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate wrought titanium aluminide (gamma TiAl) as a viable candidate material for the High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) exhaust nozzle, an international team led by the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field successfully fabricated and tested the largest gamma TiAl sheet structure ever manufactured. The gamma TiAl sheet structure, a 56-percent subscale divergent flap subelement, was fabricated for benchmark testing in three-point bending. Overall, the subelement was 84-cm (33-in.) long by 13-cm (5-in.) wide by 8-cm (3-in.) deep. Incorporated into the subelement were features that might be used in the fabrication of a full-scale divergent flap. These features include the use of: (1) gamma TiAl shear clips to join together sections of corrugations, (2) multiple gamma TiAl face sheets, (3) double hot-formed gamma TiAl corrugations, and (4) brazed joints. The structural integrity of the gamma TiAl sheet subelement was evaluated by conducting a room-temperature three-point static bend test.

  7. Largest US oil and gas fields, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-06

    The Largest US Oil and Gas Fields is a technical report and part of an Energy Information Administration (EIA) series presenting distributions of US crude oil and natural gas resources, developed using field-level data collected by EIA`s annual survey of oil and gas proved reserves. The series` objective is to provide useful information beyond that routinely presented in the EIA annual report on crude oil and natural gas reserves. These special reports also will provide oil and gas resource analysts with a fuller understanding of the nature of US crude oil and natural gas occurrence, both at the macro level and with respect to the specific subjects addressed. The series` approach is to integrate EIA`s crude oil and natural gas survey data with related data obtained from other authoritative sources, and then to present illustrations and analyses of interest to a broad spectrum of energy information users ranging from the general public to oil and gas industry personnel.

  8. Phosphorus Loadings to the World's Largest Lakes: Sources and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Gabriel; Alcamo, Joseph; Flörke, Martina; Reder, Klara

    2018-04-01

    Eutrophication is a major water quality issue in lakes worldwide and is principally caused by the loadings of phosphorus from catchment areas. It follows that to develop strategies to mitigate eutrophication, we must have a good understanding of the amount, sources, and trends of phosphorus pollution. This paper provides the first consistent and harmonious estimates of current phosphorus loadings to the world's largest 100 lakes, along with the sources of these loadings and their trends. These estimates provide a perspective on the extent of lake eutrophication worldwide, as well as potential input to the evaluation and management of eutrophication in these lakes. We take a modeling approach and apply the WorldQual model for these estimates. The advantage of this approach is that it allows us to fill in large gaps in observational data. From the analysis, we find that about 66 of the 100 lakes are located in developing countries and their catchments have a much larger average phosphorus yield than the lake catchments in developed countries (11.1 versus 0.7 kg TP km-2 year-1). Second, the main source of phosphorus to the examined lakes is inorganic fertilizer (47% of total). Third, between 2005-2010 and 1990-1994, phosphorus pollution increased at 50 out of 100 lakes. Sixty percent of lakes with increasing pollution are in developing countries. P pollution changed primarily due to changing P fertilizer use. In conclusion, we show that the risk of P-stimulated eutrophication is higher in developing countries.

  9. LHC : The World's Largest Vacuum Systems being commissioned at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez, J M

    2008-01-01

    When it switches on in 2008, the 26.7 km Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, will have the world's largest vacuum system operating over a wide range of pressures and employing an impressive array of vacuum technologies. This system is composed by 54 km of UHV vacuum for the circulating beams and 50 km of insulation vacuum around the cryogenic magnets and the liquid helium transfer lines. Over the 54 km of UHV beam vacuum, 48 km of this are at cryogenic temperature (1.9 K). The remaining 6 km of beam vacuum containing the insertions for "cleaning" the proton beams, radiofrequency cavities for accelerating the protons as well as beam-monitoring equipment is at ambient temperature and uses non-evaporable getter (NEG) coatings - a vacuum technology that was born and industrialized at CERN. The pumping scheme is completed using 780 ion pumps to remove noble gases and to provide pressure interlocks to the 303 vacuum safety valves. Pressure readings are provided by 170 Bayard-Alpert gauges and 1084 gauges (Pirani a...

  10. When clusters collide: constraints on antimatter on the largest scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steigman, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Observations have ruled out the presence of significant amounts of antimatter in the Universe on scales ranging from the solar system, to the Galaxy, to groups and clusters of galaxies, and even to distances comparable to the scale of the present horizon. Except for the model-dependent constraints on the largest scales, the most significant upper limits to diffuse antimatter in the Universe are those on the ∼Mpc scale of clusters of galaxies provided by the EGRET upper bounds to annihilation gamma rays from galaxy clusters whose intracluster gas is revealed through its x-ray emission. On the scale of individual clusters of galaxies the upper bounds to the fraction of mixed matter and antimatter for the 55 clusters from a flux-limited x-ray survey range from 5 × 10 −9 to −6 , strongly suggesting that individual clusters of galaxies are made entirely of matter or of antimatter. X-ray and gamma-ray observations of colliding clusters of galaxies, such as the Bullet Cluster, permit these constraints to be extended to even larger scales. If the observations of the Bullet Cluster, where the upper bound to the antimatter fraction is found to be −6 , can be generalized to other colliding clusters of galaxies, cosmologically significant amounts of antimatter will be excluded on scales of order ∼20 Mpc (M∼5×10 15 M sun )

  11. Economic, energy and environmental evaluations of biomass-based fuel ethanol projects based on life cycle assessment and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Suiran; Tao Jing

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes the research of Monte Carlo simulation-based Economic, Energy and Environmental (3E) Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of the three Biomass-based Fuel Ethanol (BFE) projects in China. Our research includes both theoretical study and case study. In the theoretical study part, 3E LCA models are structured, 3E Index Functions are defined and the Monte Carlo simulation is introduced to address uncertainties in BFE life cycle analysis. In the case study part, projects of Wheat-based Fuel Ethanol (WFE) in Central China, Corn-based Fuel Ethanol (CFE) in Northeast China, and Cassava-based Fuel Ethanol (CFE) in Southwest China are evaluated from the aspects of economic viability and investment risks, energy efficiency and airborne emissions. The life cycle economy assessment shows that KFE project in Guangxi is viable, while CFE and WFE projects are not without government's subsidies. Energy efficiency assessment results show that WFE, CFE and KFE projects all have positive Net Energy Values. Emissions results show that the corn-based E10 (a blend of 10% gasoline and 90% ethanol by volume), wheat-based E10 and cassava-base E10 have less CO 2 and VOC life cycle emissions than conventional gasoline, but wheat-based E10 and cassava-based E10 can generate more emissions of CO, CH 4 , N 2 O, NO x , SO 2 , PM 10 and corn-based E10 can has more emissions of CH 4 , N 2 O, NO x , SO, PM 10 .

  12. Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender Simulation of Three Adjacent Row-Crop Watersheds in the Claypan Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anomaa Senaviratne, G M M M; Udawatta, Ranjith P; Baffaut, Claire; Anderson, Stephen H

    2013-01-01

    The Agricultural Policy Environmental Extender (APEX) model is used to evaluate best management practices on pollutant loading in whole farms or small watersheds. The objectives of this study were to conduct a sensitivity analysis to determine the effect of model parameters on APEX output and use the parameterized, calibrated, and validated model to evaluate long-term benefits of grass waterways. The APEX model was used to model three (East, Center, and West) adjacent field-size watersheds with claypan soils under a no-till corn ( L.)/soybean [ (L.) Merr.] rotation. Twenty-seven parameters were sensitive for crop yield, runoff, sediment, nitrogen (dissolved and total), and phosphorous (dissolved and total) simulations. The model was calibrated using measured event-based data from the Center watershed from 1993 to 1997 and validated with data from the West and East watersheds. Simulated crop yields were within ±13% of the measured yield. The model performance for event-based runoff was excellent, with calibration and validation > 0.9 and Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients (NSC) > 0.8, respectively. Sediment and total nitrogen calibration results were satisfactory for larger rainfall events (>50 mm), with > 0.5 and NSC > 0.4, but validation results remained poor, with NSC between 0.18 and 0.3. Total phosphorous was well calibrated and validated, with > 0.8 and NSC > 0.7, respectively. The presence of grass waterways reduced annual total phosphorus loadings by 13 to 25%. The replicated study indicates that APEX provides a convenient and efficient tool to evaluate long-term benefits of conservation practices. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  13. A Synthetic Method for Atmospheric Diffusion Simulation and Environmental Impact Assessment of Accidental Pollution in the Chemical Industry in a WEBGIS Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haochen Ni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical industry poses a potential security risk to factory personnel and neighboring residents. In order to mitigate prospective damage, a synthetic method must be developed for an emergency response. With the development of environmental numeric simulation models, model integration methods, and modern information technology, many Decision Support Systems (DSSs have been established. However, existing systems still have limitations, in terms of synthetic simulation and network interoperation. In order to resolve these limitations, the matured simulation model for chemical accidents was integrated into the WEB Geographic Information System (WEBGIS platform. The complete workflow of the emergency response, including raw data (meteorology information, and accident information management, numeric simulation of different kinds of accidents, environmental impact assessments, and representation of the simulation results were achieved. This allowed comprehensive and real-time simulation of acute accidents in the chemical industry. The main contribution of this paper is that an organizational mechanism of the model set, based on the accident type and pollutant substance; a scheduling mechanism for the parallel processing of multi-accident-type, multi-accident-substance, and multi-simulation-model; and finally a presentation method for scalar and vector data on the web browser on the integration of a WEB Geographic Information System (WEBGIS platform. The outcomes demonstrated that this method could provide effective support for deciding emergency responses of acute chemical accidents.

  14. A synthetic method for atmospheric diffusion simulation and environmental impact assessment of accidental pollution in the chemical industry in a WEBGIS context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Haochen; Rui, Yikang; Wang, Jiechen; Cheng, Liang

    2014-09-05

    The chemical industry poses a potential security risk to factory personnel and neighboring residents. In order to mitigate prospective damage, a synthetic method must be developed for an emergency response. With the development of environmental numeric simulation models, model integration methods, and modern information technology, many Decision Support Systems (DSSs) have been established. However, existing systems still have limitations, in terms of synthetic simulation and network interoperation. In order to resolve these limitations, the matured simulation model for chemical accidents was integrated into the WEB Geographic Information System (WEBGIS) platform. The complete workflow of the emergency response, including raw data (meteorology information, and accident information) management, numeric simulation of different kinds of accidents, environmental impact assessments, and representation of the simulation results were achieved. This allowed comprehensive and real-time simulation of acute accidents in the chemical industry. The main contribution of this paper is that an organizational mechanism of the model set, based on the accident type and pollutant substance; a scheduling mechanism for the parallel processing of multi-accident-type, multi-accident-substance, and multi-simulation-model; and finally a presentation method for scalar and vector data on the web browser on the integration of a WEB Geographic Information System (WEBGIS) platform. The outcomes demonstrated that this method could provide effective support for deciding emergency responses of acute chemical accidents.

  15. A Synthetic Method for Atmospheric Diffusion Simulation and Environmental Impact Assessment of Accidental Pollution in the Chemical Industry in a WEBGIS Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Haochen; Rui, Yikang; Wang, Jiechen; Cheng, Liang

    2014-01-01

    The chemical industry poses a potential security risk to factory personnel and neighboring residents. In order to mitigate prospective damage, a synthetic method must be developed for an emergency response. With the development of environmental numeric simulation models, model integration methods, and modern information technology, many Decision Support Systems (DSSs) have been established. However, existing systems still have limitations, in terms of synthetic simulation and network interoperation. In order to resolve these limitations, the matured simulation model for chemical accidents was integrated into the WEB Geographic Information System (WEBGIS) platform. The complete workflow of the emergency response, including raw data (meteorology information, and accident information) management, numeric simulation of different kinds of accidents, environmental impact assessments, and representation of the simulation results were achieved. This allowed comprehensive and real-time simulation of acute accidents in the chemical industry. The main contribution of this paper is that an organizational mechanism of the model set, based on the accident type and pollutant substance; a scheduling mechanism for the parallel processing of multi-accident-type, multi-accident-substance, and multi-simulation-model; and finally a presentation method for scalar and vector data on the web browser on the integration of a WEB Geographic Information System (WEBGIS) platform. The outcomes demonstrated that this method could provide effective support for deciding emergency responses of acute chemical accidents. PMID:25198686

  16. The use of a transport simulation system (AIMSUN to determine the environmental effects of pedestrianization and traffic management in the center of Thessaloniki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Mintsis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion in urban areas results in increased energy consumption and vehicle emissions. Traffic management that alleviates traffic congestion also mitigates the environmental effects of vehicular traffic. This study uses the transport simulation model AIMSUN to evaluate the environmental effect of a set of traffic management and pedestrianization schemes. The effects of the pedestrianization of specific sections of roads, converting two-way roads into one-way roads for traffic and changing the direction of flow of traffic along one-way roads were simulated for different areas of Thessaloniki’s city centre network. The assessment of the environmental effect was done by determining the predicted fuel consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG and air pollutants. Fuel consumption and the environmental indicators were quantified directly using the fuel consumption and emissions model in AIMSUN. A typical weekday morning peak period, between 09:00am–10:00am, was simulated and the demand data obtained using a macroscopic traffic assignment model previously developed for the wider area of Thessaloniki. The results presented in this paper are for network-wide simulation statistics (i.e. fuel consumed, carbon dioxide (CO2, nitrogen oxides (NOx and particulate matter (PM.

  17. A methodological study of environmental simulation in architecture and engineering. Integrating daylight and thermal performance across the urban and building scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sattrup, Peter Andreas; Strømann-Andersen, Jakob Bjørn

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a methodological and conceptual framework that allows for the integration and creation of knowledge across professional borders in the field of environmental simulation. The framework has been developed on the basis of interviews with leading international practitioners, key...... in pointing out the need for improving metrics, software and not least the performance of the built environment itself....

  18. Reach and messages of the world's largest ivory burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braczkowski, Alexander; Holden, Matthew H; O'Bryan, Christopher; Choi, Chi-Yeung; Gan, Xiaojing; Beesley, Nicholas; Gao, Yufang; Allan, James; Tyrrell, Peter; Stiles, Daniel; Brehony, Peadar; Meney, Revocatus; Brink, Henry; Takashina, Nao; Lin, Ming-Ching; Lin, Hsien-Yung; Rust, Niki; Salmo, Severino G; Watson, James Em; Kahumbu, Paula; Maron, Martine; Possingham, Hugh P; Biggs, Duan

    2018-03-01

    Recent increases in ivory poaching have depressed African elephant populations. Successful enforcement has led to ivory being stockpiled. Stockpile destruction is becoming increasingly popular, and most destruction has occurred in the last five years. Ivory destruction is intended to send a strong message against ivory consumption, both in promoting a taboo on ivory use and catalyzing policy change. However, there has been no effort to establish the distribution and extent of media reporting on ivory destruction events globally. We analyze media coverage across eleven important nation states of the largest ivory destruction event in history (Kenya, 30 April 2016). We used a well-accepted online media crawling tool and key language translations to search online and print newspapers. We found most online news on the ivory burn came from the US (81% of articles), while print news was dominated by Kenya (61% of articles). We subjected online articles from five key countries and territories to content analysis and found 86-97% of all online articles reported the burn as a positive conservation action, while between 4-50% discussed ivory burning as having a negative impact on elephant conservation. Most articles discussed law enforcement and trade bans as effective for elephant conservation. There was more relative search interest globally on the 2016 Kenyan ivory burn than any other in five years. Our study is the first attempt to track the spread of media around an ivory burn and is a case study in tracking the effects of a conservation-marketing event. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Genome size analyses of Pucciniales reveal the largest fungal genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Sílvia; Ramos, Ana Paula; Pires, Ana Sofia; Azinheira, Helena G; Caldeirinha, Patrícia; Link, Tobias; Abranches, Rita; Silva, Maria do Céu; Voegele, Ralf T; Loureiro, João; Talhinhas, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Rust fungi (Basidiomycota, Pucciniales) are biotrophic plant pathogens which exhibit diverse complexities in their life cycles and host ranges. The completion of genome sequencing of a few rust fungi has revealed the occurrence of large genomes. Sequencing efforts for other rust fungi have been hampered by uncertainty concerning their genome sizes. Flow cytometry was recently applied to estimate the genome size of a few rust fungi, and confirmed the occurrence of large genomes in this order (averaging 225.3 Mbp, while the average for Basidiomycota was 49.9 Mbp and was 37.7 Mbp for all fungi). In this work, we have used an innovative and simple approach to simultaneously isolate nuclei from the rust and its host plant in order to estimate the genome size of 30 rust species by flow cytometry. Genome sizes varied over 10-fold, from 70 to 893 Mbp, with an average genome size value of 380.2 Mbp. Compared to the genome sizes of over 1800 fungi, Gymnosporangium confusum possesses the largest fungal genome ever reported (893.2 Mbp). Moreover, even the smallest rust genome determined in this study is larger than the vast majority of fungal genomes (94%). The average genome size of the Pucciniales is now of 305.5 Mbp, while the average Basidiomycota genome size has shifted to 70.4 Mbp and the average for all fungi reached 44.2 Mbp. Despite the fact that no correlation could be drawn between the genome sizes, the phylogenomics or the life cycle of rust fungi, it is interesting to note that rusts with Fabaceae hosts present genomes clearly larger than those with Poaceae hosts. Although this study comprises only a small fraction of the more than 7000 rust species described, it seems already evident that the Pucciniales represent a group where genome size expansion could be a common characteristic. This is in sharp contrast to sister taxa, placing this order in a relevant position in fungal genomics research.

  20. Rehabilitation of the 6 largest hydropower plants in the Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chingoski, Vlatko; Savevski, Vasil

    2004-01-01

    In 1998, ESM (Electric Power Co. of Macedonia) received a loan from the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD - The World bank) for the cost of the Power System Improvement Project, major part of which is the partial rehabilitation of the six largest HPPs in the Republic of Macedonia. Rehabilitation and life extension of these six largest hydro power plants is given the highest priority in the whole Power System Improvement Project mainly because these HPPs are, in general, fairly old, older than most of the thermal generation capacity and because a significant part of their equipment is wearing out, or is now obsolete with spare parts difficult to obtain. Furthermore, these plants play a vital role in the Macedonian Power System, providing peaking capacity, reserve capacity and frequency control. With the realization of this project, greater hydropower production is expected. It is also expected that HPPs will become a more vital part of the Macedonian Power System, which is also beneficial from an environmental aspect, due to greater usage of renewable energy resources in the country. (Original)

  1. Lung segment geometry study: simulation of largest possible tumours that fit into bronchopulmonary segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welter, S; Stöcker, C; Dicken, V; Kühl, H; Krass, S; Stamatis, G

    2012-03-01

    Segmental resection in stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been well described and is considered to have similar survival rates as lobectomy but with increased rates of local tumour recurrence due to inadequate parenchymal margins. In consequence, today segmentectomy is only performed when the tumour is smaller than 2 cm. Three-dimensional reconstructions from 11 thin-slice CT scans of bronchopulmonary segments were generated, and virtual spherical tumours were placed over the segments, respecting all segmental borders. As a next step, virtual parenchymal safety margins of 2 cm and 3 cm were subtracted and the size of the remaining tumour calculated. The maximum tumour diameters with a 30-mm parenchymal safety margin ranged from 26.1 mm in right-sided segments 7 + 8 to 59.8 mm in the left apical segments 1-3. Using a three-dimensional reconstruction of lung CT scans, we demonstrated that segmentectomy or resection of segmental groups should be feasible with adequate margins, even for larger tumours in selected cases. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  2. Survival of enteric bacteria in relation to simulated solar radiation and other environmental factors in marine waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkan, U.; Elliott, D.J.; Evison, L.M.

    1995-01-01

    The survival rates of enteric bacteria (i.e. Escherichia coli and enterococci) exposed to a sunlight simulator were determined at two different depths of sea water in varying conditions of light intensity, turbidity, sewage content, degree of mixing and temperature under controlled laboratory conditions. The combined effect of these factors on bacterial die-off was evaluated by statistical analyses carried out on the experimental data obtained according to the central composite experimental design. The magnitude and the general character of the influence of the factors were determined. The variability of bacterial mortality due to the effect of light was shown to depend on the variability of the intensity of light and the other micro environmental factors (i.e. turbidity, sewage content, and mixing) influencing the depth profile of the light intensity and bacterial concentration. All factors except temperature were found to exert a significant influence on bacterial die-off under light conditions. Higher rates of die-off were brought about by high levels of light intensity and mixing with low levels of turbidity and sewage content of the water. No appreciable difference was found between the survival capabilities of E. coli and enterococci on exposure to light. (author)

  3. Enhanced natural radiation exposure enhanced by human activity: the largest contributor to the Chinese population dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Ziqiang; Liu Yanyang

    2011-01-01

    For the radiation exposure caused by human activities, the enhanced natural radiation exposure is the largest contributor to Chinese population dose. This problem has attracted social attention in recent years. Efforts have been made in several fields, such as radon indoors and in workplace, environmental problems associated with NORMs, occupational radiation hazards of non-uranium mine, and radiation dose evaluation for energy chain, but there are still many problems to be solved. In order to protect the health of workers and the public, while ensuring industrial production and economic development, it is also necessary to continue to strengthen research in all aspects above mentioned, and gradually promote the control of natural radiation exposure enhanced by human activities. (authors)

  4. GIS learning tool for world's largest earthquakes and their causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Moumita

    The objective of this thesis is to increase awareness about earthquakes among people, especially young students by showing the five largest and two most predictable earthquake locations in the world and their plate tectonic settings. This is a geographic based interactive tool which could be used for learning about the cause of great earthquakes in the past and the safest places on the earth in order to avoid direct effect of earthquakes. This approach provides an effective way of learning for the students as it is very user friendly and more aligned to the interests of the younger generation. In this tool the user can click on the various points located on the world map which will open a picture and link to the webpage for that point, showing detailed information of the earthquake history of that place including magnitude of quake, year of past quakes and the plate tectonic settings that made this place earthquake prone. Apart from knowing the earthquake related information students will also be able to customize the tool to suit their needs or interests. Students will be able to add/remove layers, measure distance between any two points on the map, select any place on the map and know more information for that place, create a layer from this set to do a detail analysis, run a query, change display settings, etc. At the end of this tool the user has to go through the earthquake safely guidelines in order to be safe during an earthquake. This tool uses Java as programming language and uses Map Objects Java Edition (MOJO) provided by ESRI. This tool is developed for educational purpose and hence its interface has been kept simple and easy to use so that students can gain maximum knowledge through it instead of having a hard time to install it. There are lots of details to explore which can help more about what a GIS based tool is capable of. Only thing needed to run this tool is latest JAVA edition installed in their machine. This approach makes study more fun and

  5. Effects of environmental conditions on point-of-care cardiac biomarker test performance during a simulated rescue: implications for emergency and disaster response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Richard F; Ferguson, William J; Curtis, Corbin M; Vy, John H; Tang, Chloe S; Kost, Gerald J

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the effects of environmental stress on point-of-care (POC) cardiac biomarker testing during a simulated rescue. Multiplex test cassettes for cardiac troponin I (cTnI), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), CK-MB, myoglobin, and D-dimer were exposed to environmental stresses simulating a 24-hour rescue from Hawaii to the Marshall Islands and back. We used Tenney environmental chambers (T2RC and BTRC) to simulate flight conditions (20°C, 10 percent relative humidity) and ground conditions (22.3-33.9°C, 73-77 percent). We obtained paired measurements using stressed versus control (room temperature) cassettes at seven time points (T1-7 with T1,2,6,7 during flight and T3-5 on ground). We analyzed paired differences (stressed minus control) with Wilcoxon signed rank test. We assessed the impact on decision-making at clinical thresholds. cTnI results from stressed test cassettes (n = 10) at T4 (p 100 ng/L. With sample median concentration of 108 pg/mL, BNP results from stressed test cassettes differed significantly from controls (p < 0.05). Despite modest, short-term temperature elevation, environmental stresses led to erroneous results. False negative cTnI and BNP results potentially could miss acute myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure, confounded treatment, and increased mortality and morbidity. Therefore, rescuers should protect POC reagents from temperature extremes.

  6. Watching the Creation of Southern California's Largest Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The new Diamond Valley Lake Reservoir near the city of Hemet in Riverside County is billed as the largest earthworks construction project in U.S.history. Construction began in 1995 and involved 31 million cubic meters of foundation excavation and 84 million cubic meters of embankment construction. This set of MISR images captures the most recent phase in the reservoir's activation. At the upper left is a natural-color view acquired by the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on March 14, 2000 (Terra orbit 1273), shortly after the Metropolitan Water District began filling the reservoir with water from the Colorado River and Northern California. Water appears darker than the surrounding land. The image at the upper right was acquired nearly one year later on March 1, 2001 (Terra orbit 6399), and shows a clear increase in the reservoir's water content. When full, the lake will hold nearly a trillion liters of water.According to the Metropolitan Water District, the 7 kilometer x 3 kilometer reservoir nearly doubles Southern California's above-groundwater storage capacity. In addition to routine water management, Diamond Valley Lake is designed to provide protection against drought and a six-month emergency supply in the event of earthquake damage to a major aqueduct. In the face of electrical power shortages, it is also expected to reduce dependence on the pumping of water from northern mountains during the high-demand summer months. An unexpected result of site excavation was the uncovering of mastodon and mammoth skeletons along with bones from extinct species not previously thought to have been indigenous to the area, such as the giant long-horned bison and North American lion. A museum and interpretive center is being built to protect these finds.The lower MISR image, from May 20, 2001 (Terra orbit 7564), is a false-color view combining data from the instrument's 26-degree forward view (displayed as blue) with data from the 26-degree backward view

  7. Drilling the Bushveld Complex- the world's largest layered mafic intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwal, L. D.; Webb, S. J.; Trumbull, R. B.

    2013-12-01

    The fact that surprising new discoveries can be made in layered mafic intrusions (e.g., subtle 100-150 m cyclicity in apparently homogeneous cumulates over 1000s of m) means that we are still in the first-order characterization phase of understanding these objects. Accordingly, we have secured funding from ICDP for a planning workshop to be held in Johannesburg in early 2014, aimed at scientific drilling of the Bushveld Complex, the world's largest layered mafic intrusion. Science objectives include, but are not limited to: 1. Magma chamber processes & melt evolution. How many melts/magmas/mushes were involved, what were their compositions and how did they interact? What, if anything, is missing from the Complex, and where did it go? Did Bushveld magmatism have an effect upon Earth's atmosphere at 2 Ga? 2. Crust-mantle interactions & origin of Bushveld granitoids. Are Bushveld granites & rhyolites crustal melts, differentiates from the mafic magmas or products of immiscibility? How can the evolved isotopic signatures in the mafic rocks (e.g., epsilon Nd to -8) be understood? 3. Origin of ore deposits. What were the relative roles of gravity settling, magma mixing, immiscibility and hydrothermal fluid transport in producing the PGE, Cr and V deposits? We have identified 3 potential drilling targets representing a total of ~12 km of drill core. Exact locations of drill sites are to be discussed at the workshop. Target A- East-Central Bushveld Complex. We propose 3 overlapping 3 km boreholes that will provide the first roof-to-floor continuous coverage of the Rustenburg Layered Suite. These boreholes will represent a curated, internationally available reference collection of Bushveld material for present and future research. Target B- Southeastern Bushveld Complex. We propose a single borehole of ~2 km depth, collared in Rooiberg felsite, and positioned to intersect the Roof Zone, Upper Zone, Main Zone and floor of the Complex. Amongst other things, this site will

  8. Final Status Survey for the Largest Decommissioning Project on Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubiel, R.W.; Miller, J.; Quayle, D.

    2006-01-01

    To assist the United States Department of Energy's (US DOE's) re-industrialization efforts at its gaseous diffusion site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, known as the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), the US DOE awarded a 6-year Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) contract to BNG America (formerly BNFL Inc.) in 1997. The ETTP 3-Building D and D Project included the removal and disposition of the materials and equipment from the K-33, K-31, and K-29 Gaseous Diffusion Plant buildings. The three buildings comprise more than 4.8 million square feet (446,000 square meters) of floor surface area and more than 350 million pounds (148 million kilograms) of hazardous and radioactively contaminated material, making it the largest nuclear D and D project in progress anywhere in the world. The logistical hurdles involved in a project of this scope and magnitude required an extensive amount of Engineering and Health Physics professionals. In order to accomplish the Final Status Survey (FSS) for a project of this scope, the speed and efficiency of automated survey equipment was essential. Surveys of floors, structural steel and ceilings up to 60 feet (18 meters) were required. The FSS had to be expanded to include additional remediation and surveys due to characterization surveys and assumptions regarding the nature and extent of contamination provided by the US DOE. Survey design and technical bases had to consider highly variable constituents; including uranium from depleted to low enrichment, variable levels of Technetium-99 and transuranic nuclides, which were introduced into the cascade during the 1960's when recycled uranium (RU) from Savannah River was re-enriched at the facility. The RU was transported to unexpected locations from leaks in the cascade by complex building ventilation patterns. The primary survey tool used for the post remediation and FSS was the Surface Contamination Monitor (SCM) and the associated Survey Information Management System (SIMS

  9. Comparative responses of phenology and reproductive development to simulated environmental change in sub-arctic and high arctic plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wookey, P A; Welker, J M; Callaghan, T V [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology, Merlewood Research Station, Grange-over-Sands, Cumbria (United Kingdom); Parsons, A N; Potter, J A; Lee, J A; Press, M C [Dept. of Environmental Biology, Univ. of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1993-01-01

    The effects of temperature, precipitation and nutrient perturbations, and their interactions, are being assessed on two contrasting arctic ecosystems to simulate impacts of climate change. One, a high arctic polar semi-desert community, is characterized by a sparse, low and aggregated vegetation cover where plant proliferation is by seedlings, whereas the other, a sub-arctic dwarf shrub health, is characterized by a complete, vegetation cover of erect, clonal dwarf shrubs which spread vegetatively. The developmental processes of seed production were shown to be highly sensitive, even within one growing season to specific environmental perturbations which differed between sites. At the polar semi-desert site, there was a striking effect of the temperature enhancement treatments on phenology and seed-setting of Dryas octopetala ssp. octopetala, with almost no seed-setting occurring in plots experiencing ambient temperatures. By contrast, there were no significant effects of temperature enhancement alone on fruit production of Empetrum hermaphroditum at the sub-Arctic dwarf shrub heath site, although fruit production was significantly influenced by the application of nutrients and/or water. The response of dominant high arctic dwarf shrub to increased temperature suggests that any climate warming may stimulate seed-set. This could be particularly important in the high Arctic where colonization can proceed in areas dominated by bare ground and where genetic recombination may be needed to generate tolerance to predicted changes of great magnitude. In the sub-Arctic, however the closed vegetation is dominated by clonally-proliferating species. Plant fitness will increase here in response to any increased vegetative growth resulting from higher nutrient availability in warmer organic soils. (ua) (59 refs.)

  10. Simulations of the neutron energy-spectra at the Olympus Gate Environmental Monitoring Station due to historical Bevatron operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donahue, R.J.; Thomas, R.H.; Zeman, G.H.

    2001-01-01

    Offsite neutron fluences resulting from Bevatron operations reached a maximum in 1959, prior to the addition of a permanent concrete roof shield, which was constructed in 1962. From the first operation of the Bevatron measurements of neutron fluence were made at locations around the perimeter of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) campus. Since the late 1950's measurements made at several locations, and particularly at the site of what is now called the Olympus Gate Environmental Monitoring Station, have been routinely reported and published. Early measurements were used to establish the shape of the neutron-energy spectrum from which an energy-averaged fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion coefficient could be derived. This conversion coefficient was then applied to a measured total neutron fluence to obtain the appropriate dose equivalent quantity required by regulation. Recent work by Thomas et al. (2000) have compared the early conversion coefficients used in the sixties with those accepted today and suggest suggested that ''the dose equivalents reported in the late fifties and early sixties were conservative by factors between two and four. In any current review of the historical data, therefore it would be prudent to reduce the reported dose equivalents by at least a factor of two.'' However, that analysis was based on the ''state of the art'' neutron energy-spectra of the '60s. This paper provides a detailed knowledge of the neutron energy spectrum at the site boundary paper thus removing any uncertainty in the analysis of Thomas et al., which might be caused by the use of the early neutron energy-spectra. Detailed Monte Carlo analyses of the interactions of 6.2 GeV protons in thick, medium-A targets are described. In the computer simulations, neutrons produced were allowed to scatter in the atmosphere. Detailed neutron energy spectra were calculated at a distance and elevation corresponding to the location of the Olympus Gate EMS. Both older

  11. Landscapes of thermal inequity: disproportionate exposure to urban heat in the three largest US cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Bruce C.; Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2015-11-01

    Heat waves are the most significant cause of mortality in the US compared to other natural hazards. Prior studies have found increased heat exposure for individuals of lower socioeconomic status in several US cities, but few comparative analyses of the social distribution of urban heat have been conducted. To address this gap, our paper examines and compares the environmental justice consequences of urban heat risk in the three largest US cities: New York City, Los Angeles, and Chicago. Risk to urban heat is estimated on the basis of three characteristics of the urban thermal landscape: land surface temperature, vegetation abundance, and structural density of the built urban environment. These variables are combined to develop an urban heat risk index, which is then statistically compared with social vulnerability indicators representing socioeconomic status, age, disability, race/ethnicity, and linguistic isolation. The results indicate a consistent and significant statistical association between lower socioeconomic and minority status and greater urban heat risk, in all three cities. Our findings support a growing body of environmental justice literature that indicates the presence of a landscape of thermal inequity in US cities and underscores the need to conduct comparative analyses of social inequities in exposure to urban heat.

  12. Scaling relationships among drivers of aquatic respiration from the smallest to the largest freshwater ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ed K; Schoolmaster, Donald; Amado, A.M; Stets, Edward G.; Lennon, J.T.; Domaine, L.; Cotner, J.B.

    2016-01-01

    To address how various environmental parameters control or constrain planktonic respiration (PR), we used geometric scaling relationships and established biological scaling laws to derive quantitative predictions for the relationships among key drivers of PR. We then used empirical measurements of PR and environmental (soluble reactive phosphate [SRP], carbon [DOC], chlorophyll a [Chl-a)], and temperature) and landscape parameters (lake area [LA] and watershed area [WA]) from a set of 44 lakes that varied in size and trophic status to test our hypotheses. We found that landscape-level processes affected PR through direct effects on DOC and temperature and indirectly via SRP. In accordance with predictions made from known relationships and scaling laws, scale coefficients (the parameter that describes the shape of a relationship between 2 variables) were found to be negative and have an absolute value 1, others respiration from small pond catchments to the largest body of freshwater on the planet, Lake Superior, these findings should be applicable to controls of PR for the great majority of temperate aquatic ecosystems.

  13. Carbon footprint of premium quality export bananas: case study in Ecuador, the world's largest exporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte, Alfredo; Almeida, Maria Gabriela; Villalobos, Pablo

    2014-02-15

    Nowadays, the new international market demands challenge the food producing countries to include the measurement of the environmental impact generated along the production process for their products. In order to comply with the environmentally responsible market requests the measurement of the greenhouse gas emissions of Ecuadorian agricultural goods has been promoted employing the carbon footprint concept. Ecuador is the largest exporter of bananas in the world. Within this context, this study is a first assessment of the carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian premium export banana (Musa AAA) using a considerable amount of field data. The system boundaries considered from agricultural production to delivery in a European destination port. The data collected over three years permitted identifying the hot spot stages. For the calculation, the CCaLC V3.0 software developed by the University of Manchester is used. The carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian export banana ranged from 0.45 to 1.04 kg CO2-equivalent/kg banana depending on the international overseas transport employed. The principal contributors to the carbon footprint are the on farm production and overseas transport stages. Mitigation and reduction strategies were suggested for the main emission sources in order to achieve sustainable banana production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: America's Largest Home Runs on Biodiesel in

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina America's Largest Home Runs on Biodiesel in North Carolina to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: America's Largest Home Runs on Biodiesel in North Carolina on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: America's Largest Home Runs on Biodiesel in North

  15. Hydrodynamic and Inundation Modeling of China’s Largest Freshwater Lake Aided by Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available China’s largest freshwater lake, Poyang Lake, is characterized by rapid changes in its inundation area and hydrodynamics, so in this study, a hydrodynamic model of Poyang Lake was established to simulate these long-term changes. Inundation information was extracted from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS remote sensing data and used to calibrate the wetting and drying parameter by assessing the accuracy of the simulated inundation area and its boundary. The bottom friction parameter was calibrated using current velocity measurements from Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP. The results show the model is capable of predicting the inundation area dynamic through cross-validation with remotely sensed inundation data, and can reproduce the seasonal dynamics of the water level, and water discharge through a comparison with hydrological data. Based on the model results, the characteristics of the current velocities of the lake in the wet season and the dry season of the lake were explored, and the potential effect of the current dynamic on water quality patterns was discussed. The model is a promising basic tool for prediction and management of the water resource and water quality of Poyang Lake.

  16. Nature Appropriation and Associations with Population Health in Canada’s Largest Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Jason

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Earth is a finite system with a limited supply of resources. As the human population grows, so does the appropriation of Earth’s natural capital, thereby exacerbating environmental concerns such as biodiversity loss, increased pollution, deforestation and global warming. Such concerns will negatively impact human health although it is widely believed that improving socio-economic circumstances will help to ameliorate environmental impacts and improve health outcomes. However, this belief does not explicitly acknowledge the fact that improvements in socio-economic position are reliant on increased inputs from nature. Gains in population health, particularly through economic means, are disconnected from the appropriation of nature to create wealth so that health gains become unsustainable. The current study investigated the sustainability of human population health in Canada with regard to resource consumption or “ecological footprints” (i.e., the resources required to sustain a given population. Ecological footprints of the 20 largest Canadian cities, along with several important determinants of health such as income and education, were statistically compared with corresponding indicators of human population health outcomes. A significant positive relationship was found between ecological footprints and life expectancy, as well as a significant negative relationship between ecological footprints and the prevalence of high blood pressure. Results suggest that increased appropriation of nature is linked to improved health outcomes. To prevent environmental degradation from excessive appropriation of natural resources will require the development of health promotion strategies that are de-coupled from ever-increasing and unsustainable resource use. Efforts to promote population health should focus on health benefits achieved from a lifestyle based on significantly reduced consumption of natural resources.

  17. Effects of competing environmental variables and signage on route-choices in simulated everyday and emergency wayfinding situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Elisângela; Rebelo, Francisco; Noriega, Paulo; Duarte, Emília; Mayhorn, Christopher B

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relative influence of environmental variables (corridor width and brightness) and signage (directional and exit signs), when presented in competition, on participants' route-choices in two situational variables (everyday vs. emergency), during indoor wayfinding in virtual environments. A virtual reality-based methodology was used. Thus, participants attempted to find a room (everyday situation) in a virtual hotel, followed by a fire-related emergency egress (emergency situation). Different behaviours were observed. In the everyday situation, for no-signs condition, participants choose mostly the wider and brighter corridors, suggesting a heavy reliance on the environmental affordances. Conversely, for signs condition, participants mostly complied with signage, suggesting a greater reliance on the signs rather than on the environmental cues. During emergency, without signage, reliance on environmental affordances seems to be affected by the intersection type. In the sign condition, the reliance on environmental affordances that started strong decreases along the egress route.

  18. Using the model release ARTM associated with resources for simulation geoprocessing radiological environmental impact of atmospheric emissions from a research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Simone Fonseca

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge of the dispersion of radionuclides emissions into the atmosphere arising from a nuclear reactor, in normal operation, is an important step in the process of the nuclear and environmental assessment study. These processes require an assessment study of the radiological environmental impact. However, to estimate this impact a simulation of the transport mechanisms and deposition of pollutants released into the atmosphere is required. The present study aimed at the application of the dispersion model ARTM (Atmospheric Radionuclide Transport Model), together with the powerful tools of the GIS (Geographic Information System) for the environmental impact assessment of a radiological nuclear reactor under typically routine and conditions. Therefore some important information from the national project for a research reactor known as Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) was considered. The information of the atmospheric emissions of the reactor, needed for the simulation of this project, was based on data of the Open Pool Australian Light Water (OPAL).Other important data that had to be collected and analyzed were the source term, the topography, the meteorology and the environmental data. The radionuclides analyzed as pollutants were 41 Ar; 140 Ba; 51 Cr; 137 Cs; 131 I; 133 I; 85m Kr; 87 Kr; 88 Kr; 140 La; 133 Xe; 135 Xe; 3 H; 90 Sr. The model was run for two chronological scenarios according to their meteorological data for the years 2009 and 2010, respectively. The adoption of GIS techniques was relevant in planning, data preprocessing and in the post-processing of results as well. After pre-processing, the input data were processed by the ARTM dispersion model. Maps, charts, and tables were then produced and evaluated. According to the simulated and evaluated scenarios it could be concluded that exposure pathways that mostly contributed to the dose for individual public were 41 Ar, for immersion in the plume, and 133 I, for inhalation. Nevertheless, even

  19. Simulation of water-surface elevations for a hypothetical 100-year peak flow in Birch Creek at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berenbrock, C.; Kjelstrom, L.C.

    1997-01-01

    Delineation of areas at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory that would be inundated by a 100-year peak flow in Birch Creek is needed by the US Department of Energy to fulfill flood-plain regulatory requirements. Birch Creek flows southward about 40 miles through an alluvium-filled valley onto the northern part of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental laboratory site on the eastern Snake River Plain. The lower 10-mile reach of Birch Creek that ends in Birch Creek Playa near several Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory facilities is of particular concern. Twenty-six channel cross sections were surveyed to develop and apply a hydraulic model to simulate water-surface elevations for a hypothetical 100-year peak flow in Birch Creek. Model simulation of the 100-year peak flow (700 cubic feet per second) in reaches upstream from State Highway 22 indicated that flow was confined within channels even when all flow was routed to one channel. Where the highway crosses Birch Creek, about 315 cubic feet per second of water was estimated to move downstream--115 cubic feet per second through a culvert and 200 cubic feet per second over the highway. Simulated water-surface elevation at this crossing was 0.8 foot higher than the elevation of the highway. The remaining 385 cubic feet per second flowed southwestward in a trench along the north side of the highway. Flow also was simulated with the culvert removed. The exact location of flood boundaries on Birch Creek could not be determined because of the highly braided channel and the many anthropogenic features (such as the trench, highway, and diversion channels) in the study area that affect flood hydraulics and flow. Because flood boundaries could not be located exactly, only a generalized flood-prone map was developed

  20. Oak habitat recovery on California's largest islands: Scenarios for the role of corvid seed dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesendorfer, Mario B.; Baker, Christopher M.; Stringer, Martin; McDonald-Madden, Eve; Bode, Michael; McEachern, A. Kathryn; Morrison, Scott A.; Sillett, T. Scott

    2018-01-01

    California's second-largest island. The simulation model, extensively parameterized with field data, suggests that re-establishing the mutualism with seed-hoarding jays would accelerate the expansion of island scrub oak, which could benefit myriad species of conservation concern.

  1. Negotiating place and gendered violence in Canada's largest open drug scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Ryan; Shannon, Kate; Shaver, Laura; Kerr, Thomas; Small, Will

    2014-05-01

    Vancouver's Downtown Eastside is home to Canada's largest street-based drug scene and only supervised injection facility (Insite). High levels of violence among men and women have been documented in this neighbourhood. This study was undertaken to explore the role of violence in shaping the socio-spatial relations of women and 'marginal men' (i.e., those occupying subordinate positions within the drug scene) in the Downtown Eastside, including access to Insite. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 23 people who inject drugs (PWID) recruited through the Vancouver Area Network of Drug Users, a local drug user organization. Interviews included a mapping exercise. Interview transcripts and maps were analyzed thematically, with an emphasis on how gendered violence shaped participants' spatial practices. Hegemonic forms of masculinity operating within the Downtown Eastside framed the everyday violence experienced by women and marginal men. This violence shaped the spatial practices of women and marginal men, in that they avoided drug scene milieus where they had experienced violence or that they perceived to be dangerous. Some men linked their spatial restrictions to the perceived 'dope quality' of neighbourhood drug dealers to maintain claims to dominant masculinities while enacting spatial strategies to promote safety. Environmental supports provided by health and social care agencies were critical in enabling women and marginal men to negotiate place and survival within the context of drug scene violence. Access to Insite did not motivate participants to enter into "dangerous" drug scene milieus but they did venture into these areas if necessary to obtain drugs or generate income. Gendered violence is critical in restricting the geographies of men and marginal men within the street-based drug scene. There is a need to scale up existing environmental interventions, including supervised injection services, to minimize violence and potential drug

  2. NEGOTIATING PLACE AND GENDERED VIOLENCE IN CANADA’S LARGEST OPEN DRUG SCENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Ryan; Shannon, Kate; Shaver, Laura; Kerr, Thomas; Small, Will

    2014-01-01

    Background Vancouver’s Downtown Eastside is home to Canada’s largest street-based drug scene and only supervised injection facility (Insite). High levels of violence among men and women have been documented in this neighbourhood. This study was undertaken to explore the role of violence in shaping the socio-spatial relations of women and ‘marginal men’ (i.e., those occupying subordinate positions within the drug scene) in the Downtown Eastside, including access to Insite. Methods Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 23 people who inject drugs (PWID) recruited through the Vancouver Area Network of Drug Users, a local drug user organization. Interviews included a mapping exercise. Interview transcripts and maps were analyzed thematically, with an emphasis on how gendered violence shaped participants’ spatial practices. Results Hegemonic forms of masculinity operating within the Downtown Eastside framed the everyday violence experienced by women and marginal men. This violence shaped the spatial practices of women and marginal men, in that they avoided drug scene milieus where they had experienced violence or that they perceived to be dangerous. Some men linked their spatial restrictions to the perceived 'dope quality' of neighbourhood drug dealers to maintain claims to dominant masculinities while enacting spatial strategies to promote safety. Environmental supports provided by health and social care agencies were critical in enabling women and marginal men to negotiate place and survival within the context of drug scene violence. Access to Insite did not motivate participants to enter into “dangerous” drug scene milieus but they did venture into these areas if necessary to obtain drugs or generate income. Conclusion Gendered violence is critical in restricting the geographies of men and marginal men within the street-based drug scene. There is a need to scale up existing environmental interventions, including supervised injection

  3. Monitoring coastal pollution associated with the largest oil refinery complex of Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Croquer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated pollution levels in water and sediments of Península de Paraguaná and related these levels with benthic macrofauna along a coastal area where the largest Venezuelan oil refineries have operated over the past 60 years. For this, the concentration of heavy metals, of hydrocarbon compounds and the community structure of the macrobenthos were examined at 20 sites distributed along 40 km of coastline for six consecutive years, which included windy and calm seasons. The spatial variability of organic and inorganic compounds showed considerably high coastal pollution along the study area, across both years and seasons. The southern sites, closest to the refineries, had consistently higher concentrations of heavy metals and organic compounds in water and sediments when compared to those in the north. The benthic community was dominated by polychaetes at all sites, seasons and years, and their abundance and distribution were significantly correlated with physical and chemical characteristics of the sediments. Sites close to the oil refineries were consistently dominated by families known to tolerate xenobiotics, such as Capitellidae and Spionidae. The results from this study highlight the importance of continuing long-term environmental monitoring programs to assess the impact of effluent discharge and spill events from the oil refineries that operate in the western coast of Paraguaná, Venezuela.

  4. Seasonal variations of trace elements in precipitation at the largest city in Tibet, Lhasa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junming; Kang, Shichang; Huang, Jie; Zhang, Qianggong; Tripathee, Lekhendra; Sillanpää, Mika

    2015-02-01

    Precipitation samples were collected from March 2010 to August 2012 at an urban site in Lhasa, the capital and largest city of Tibet. The volume weighted mean (VWM) concentrations of 17 trace elements in precipitation were higher during the non-monsoon season than in the monsoon season, but inverse seasonal variations occurred for wet deposition fluxes of most of the trace elements. Concentrations for most of trace elements were negatively correlated with precipitation amount, indicating that below-cloud scavenging of trace elements was an important mechanism contributing to wet deposition of these elements. The elements Al, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Mn, Ni, and U displayed low crustal enrichment factors (EFs), whereas Co, Cu, Zn, As, Cd Sn, Pb, and Bi showed high EF values in precipitation, suggesting that anthropogenic activities might be important contributors of these elements at Lhasa. However, this present work indicates a much lower anthropogenic emission at Lhasa than in seriously polluted regions. Our study will not only provide insights for assessing the current status of the atmospheric environment in Lhasa but also enhance our understanding for updating the baseline for environmental protection over the Tibetan Plateau.

  5. The largest subsea hot tap (future tap flange) at Angel Field, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lad, Deepak; Drysdale, Colin [T.D. Williamson (United States); Naidoo, Sashie [T.D. Williamson (Australia)

    2008-07-01

    A subsea hot tap was conducted near the gas production platforms in Angel Field, Australia in September 2007 and verified as the largest no. 900 subsea hot tap by Australian authorities. This paper outlines the subsea tapping process, risks and safety issues in deep water environment, including the need to ensure 100% system accuracy and that the machine fluids used to operate the subsea tapping machines were environmentally friendly. The testing phase included land and water testing. In the land tests, issues relating to metal hardness, temperature, pressure and ocean currents that affected machine stability, torque and cutting rate were considered. All preliminary design and testing focused on being able to mount the tapping machine to a pre-existing hot-tap flange and conduct the tapping operation, start to finish, preferably without changing the cutter. The water depth tests took place inside a pressurized, underwater hyperbaric chamber. The equipment repeated the land testing process in conditions duplicating that of the actual project site. Timing was also measured in multiple climatic conditions (except water depth) to obtain an estimation of various scenarios. The field tapping process was conducted without problems in over six hours with a single cutter and without any stalls. (author)

  6. Climate and anthropogenic contributions to the desiccation of the second largest saline lake in the twentieth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Suyog; Felfelani, Farshid; Shin, Sanghoon; Pokhrel, Yadu

    2018-05-01

    Urmia Lake, once the second largest saline lake in the world, is on the verge of complete desiccation. It has been suggested that the desiccation is caused by intensified human activities, especially irrigation, and prolonged droughts in the lake basin, but there is a lack of quantitative analysis to attribute the observed water level decline to natural and anthropogenic causes. In this study, we use remote sensing data, ground observations, and a hydrological model with human impact assessment capabilities (HiGW-MAT) to investigate the natural and human-induced changes in the hydrology of Urmia Lake basin from 1980 to 2010. Based on the analysis of remote sensing data, we find a ∼98% and ∼180% increase in agricultural lands and urban areas, respectively, from 1987 through 2016, with a corresponding shrinkage in lake area by ∼86%. Further, we use model results to examine the changes in terrestrial water storage (TWS) over the basin including the lake. Results indicate that TWS declined over the lake region and the lake lost water at a faster rate than the watershed did. Comparison of river inflow to the lake from two simulations-one with and the other without human activities-suggests that human water management activities caused a reduction in streamflow of ∼1.74 km3/year from 1995 to 2010, which accounts for ∼86% of the total depletion in lake volume during the same period. It is also found that irrigation water requirement almost tripled, causing high withdrawals from rivers. These results demonstrate that the on-going depletion of Urmia Lake is not solely due to prolonged droughts but also due to direct anthropogenic alterations which caused significant changes in land use, streamflow, and water storage within the basin. This study provides important insights on the natural and human-induced changes in the hydrology of Urmia Lake and highlights the need for a high resolution regional scale modeling approach for better understanding potential future

  7. Integrating environmental taxes on local air pollutants with fiscal reform in Hungary: simulations with a computable general equilibrium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Glenn E.; Revesz, Tamas; Zalai, Ernoe; Fucsko, Jozsef

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the Fiscal Environmental Integration Model (FEIM) and its use to examine the merits of introducing a set of air pollutant emission taxes and stringent abatement requirements based on best commonly available control technology. These environmental protection strategies are examined both independently and in combination. In addition, Hungary has very high VAT, employment, and income tax rates and therefore might receive more than the usual advantage from using environmental tax revenues to reduce other taxes. We therefore also examine the economic and environmental implications of different uses of the revenues generated by the air pollutant emissions taxes. FEIM is a CGE model of the Hungarian economy that includes sectoral air pollution control costs functions and execution options that allow examination of the key policy choices involved. We developed and ran a baseline and seven scenarios with FEIM. The scenarios centered on introduction of environmental load fees (ELF) on emissions of SO 2 , NO x , and particulates and emission abatement requirements (EAR) for these pollutants. (Author)

  8. Percolation under noise: Detecting explosive percolation using the second-largest component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viles, Wes; Ginestet, Cedric E.; Tang, Ariana; Kramer, Mark A.; Kolaczyk, Eric D.

    2016-05-01

    We consider the problem of distinguishing between different rates of percolation under noise. A statistical model of percolation is constructed allowing for the birth and death of edges as well as the presence of noise in the observations. This graph-valued stochastic process is composed of a latent and an observed nonstationary process, where the observed graph process is corrupted by type-I and type-II errors. This produces a hidden Markov graph model. We show that for certain choices of parameters controlling the noise, the classical (Erdős-Rényi) percolation is visually indistinguishable from a more rapid form of percolation. In this setting, we compare two different criteria for discriminating between these two percolation models, based on the interquartile range (IQR) of the first component's size, and on the maximal size of the second-largest component. We show through data simulations that this second criterion outperforms the IQR of the first component's size, in terms of discriminatory power. The maximal size of the second component therefore provides a useful statistic for distinguishing between different rates of percolation, under physically motivated conditions for the birth and death of edges, and under noise. The potential application of the proposed criteria for the detection of clinically relevant percolation in the context of applied neuroscience is also discussed.

  9. Bubble nucleation in simple and molecular liquids via the largest spherical cavity method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Miguel A.; Abascal, José L. F.; Valeriani, Chantal; Bresme, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we propose a methodology to compute bubble nucleation free energy barriers using trajectories generated via molecular dynamics simulations. We follow the bubble nucleation process by means of a local order parameter, defined by the volume of the largest spherical cavity (LSC) formed in the nucleating trajectories. This order parameter simplifies considerably the monitoring of the nucleation events, as compared with the previous approaches which require ad hoc criteria to classify the atoms and molecules as liquid or vapor. The combination of the LSC and the mean first passage time technique can then be used to obtain the free energy curves. Upon computation of the cavity distribution function the nucleation rate and free-energy barrier can then be computed. We test our method against recent computations of bubble nucleation in simple liquids and water at negative pressures. We obtain free-energy barriers in good agreement with the previous works. The LSC method provides a versatile and computationally efficient route to estimate the volume of critical bubbles the nucleation rate and to compute bubble nucleation free-energies in both simple and molecular liquids

  10. Decision support for environmental management of industrial non-hazardous secondary materials: New analytical methods combined with simulation and optimization modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Keith W; Koralegedara, Nadeesha H; Northeim, Coleen M; Al-Abed, Souhail R

    2017-07-01

    Non-hazardous solid materials from industrial processes, once regarded as waste and disposed in landfills, offer numerous environmental and economic advantages when put to beneficial uses (BUs). Proper management of these industrial non-hazardous secondary materials (INSM) requires estimates of their probable environmental impacts among disposal as well as BU options. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recently approved new analytical methods (EPA Methods 1313-1316) to assess leachability of constituents of potential concern in these materials. These new methods are more realistic for many disposal and BU options than historical methods, such as the toxicity characteristic leaching protocol. Experimental data from these new methods are used to parameterize a chemical fate and transport (F&T) model to simulate long-term environmental releases from flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) when disposed of in an industrial landfill or beneficially used as an agricultural soil amendment. The F&T model is also coupled with optimization algorithms, the Beneficial Use Decision Support System (BUDSS), under development by EPA to enhance INSM management. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Development of a code to simulate dispersion of atmospheric released tritium gas in the environmental media and to evaluate doses. TRIDOSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Mikio; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Sumi

    2000-11-01

    A computer code (TRIDOSE) was developed to assess the environmental impact of atmospheric released tritium gas (T 2 ) from nuclear fusion related facilities. The TRIDOSE simulates dispersion of T 2 and resultant HTO in the atmosphere, land, plant, water and foods in the environment, and evaluates contamination concentrations in the media and exposure doses. A part of the mathematical models in TRIDOSE were verified by comparison of the calculation with the results of the short range (400 m) dispersion experiment of HT gas performed in Canada postulating a short-time (30 minutes) accidental release. (author)

  12. Development of a code to simulate dispersion of atmospheric released tritium gas in the environmental media and to evaluate doses. TRIDOSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, Mikio [Nuclear Engineering Co., Ltd., Hitachi, Ibaraki (Japan); Noguchi, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Sumi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-11-01

    A computer code (TRIDOSE) was developed to assess the environmental impact of atmospheric released tritium gas (T{sub 2}) from nuclear fusion related facilities. The TRIDOSE simulates dispersion of T{sub 2} and resultant HTO in the atmosphere, land, plant, water and foods in the environment, and evaluates contamination concentrations in the media and exposure doses. A part of the mathematical models in TRIDOSE were verified by comparison of the calculation with the results of the short range (400 m) dispersion experiment of HT gas performed in Canada postulating a short-time (30 minutes) accidental release. (author)

  13. Development of a portable micro-environmental cell for the testing of neutron bubble detectors in a simulated jet-aircraft environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tume, P.; Bennett, L.G.I.; Lewis, B.J.; Wieland, H.K.; Reid, M.K.; Cousins, T.

    1998-01-01

    Neutron-sensitive bubble detectors were chosen as a primary detection tool to survey the dose equivalent received by aircrew exposed to natural radiation. As part of the qualification criterion, a novel micro-environmental cell was designed, assembled and tested. This apparatus is capable of simulating the climate, i.e., pressure, temperature and relative humidity, inside a jet aircraft while irradiating bubble detectors in-situ. The cell environment was manipulated using an on-line control and data acquisition system developed using LabView software. (author)

  14. Simulation of Changes of Activity Level of Some Carbohydrazes of Russian Sturgeon by the Influence of Environmental Osmotic Pressure by Means of Hybrid Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Tuktarov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of simulation of the influence environmental osmotic pressure to the activity level of maltase and α-amilase of intestinal mucous tunic of Russian sturgeon. For the solving of this problem methods of neural networks and fuzzy logic are used. Create models are rated as the category of adaptive neural-fuzzy inference systems. Regularities of this influence were researched; created models have high approximate property and generalize well.

  15. Effects of species biological traits and environmental heterogeneity on simulated tree species distribution shifts under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen J. Wang; Hong S. He; Frank R. Thompson; Martin A. Spetich; Jacob S. Fraser

    2018-01-01

    Demographic processes (fecundity, dispersal, colonization, growth, and mortality) and their interactions with environmental changes are notwell represented in current climate-distribution models (e.g., niche and biophysical process models) and constitute a large uncertainty in projections of future tree species distribution shifts.We investigate how species biological...

  16. Using Artificial Soil and Dry-Column Flash Chromatography to Simulate Organic Substance Leaching Process: A Colorful Environmental Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Avellar, Isa G. J.; Cotta, Tais A. P. G.; Neder, Amarilis de V. Finageiv

    2012-01-01

    Soil is an important and complex environmental compartment and soil contamination contributes to the pollution of aquifers and other water basins. A simple and low-cost experiment is described in which the mobility of three organic compounds in an artificial soil is examined using dry-column flash chromatography. The compounds were applied on top…

  17. A study of effects of hyperthermia on large, short-haired male dogs : a simulated air transport environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-01

    When dogs are shipped by air transport, they can encounter environmental temperatures as high as 130.0 F during the summer months. Heat- induced hyperthermia can be a major problem in dogs. : To assess some aspects of the heat stress problem, 20 dogs...

  18. First Experience from the World Largest fully commercial Solar Heating Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred; Furbo, Simon

    1997-01-01

    The first experience from the largest solar heating plant in the world is given. The plant is situated in Marstal and is has a total area of 8000 square m.......The first experience from the largest solar heating plant in the world is given. The plant is situated in Marstal and is has a total area of 8000 square m....

  19. Revisiting the phylogeny of Ocellularieae, the second largest tribe within Graphidaceae (lichenized Ascomycota: Ostropales)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekaphan Kraichak; Sittiporn Parnmen; Robert Lücking; Eimy Rivas Plata; Andre Aptroot; Marcela E.S. Caceres; Damien Ertz; Armin Mangold; Joel A. Mercado-Diaz; Khwanruan Papong; Dries Van der Broeck; Gothamie Weerakoon; H. Thorsten. Lumbsch; NO-VALUE

    2014-01-01

    We present an updated 3-locus molecular phylogeny of tribe Ocellularieae, the second largest tribe within subfamily Graphidoideae in the Graphidaceae. Adding 165 newly generated sequences from the mitochondrial small subunit rDNA (mtSSU), the nuclear large subunit rDNA (nuLSU), and the second largest subunit of the DNA-directed RNA polymerase II (RPB2), we currently...

  20. Experimental simulations of interactions between glass and environmental materials, from laboratory benches to in-site testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godon, N.

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of 26 long-duration tests simulating a variety of storage conditions. The effects of the back-filling materials, glass cracking and the nature of the host rock are discussed. Moreover, two experiments have been in progress for over 15 and 7 years in a granite medium and a clay medium. (author)

  1. Solar energy potential of the largest buildings in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wence, E. R.; Grodsky, S.; Hernandez, R. R.

    2017-12-01

    Sustainable pathways of land use for energy are necessary to mitigate climate change and limit conversion of finite land resources needed for conservation and food production. Large, commercial buildings (LCBs) are increasing in size and number throughout the United States (US) and may serve as suitable recipient environments for photovoltaic (PV) solar energy infrastructure that may support a low carbon, low land footprint energy transition. In this study, we identified, characterized, and evaluated the technical potential of the largest, commercial building rooftops (i.e., exceeding 110,000 m2) and their associated parking lots in the US for PV solar energy systems using Aurora, a cloud-based solar optimization platform. We also performed a case study of building-specific electricity generation: electricity consumption balance. Further, we quantified the environmental co-benefit of land sparing and associated avoided emissions (t-CO2-eq) conferred under the counterfactual scenario that solar development would otherwise proceed as a ground-mounted, utility-scale PV installation of equal nominal capacity. We identified and mapped 37 LCBs (by rooftop area) across 18 states in the US, spanning from as far north as the state of Minnesota to as far south as Florida. Rooftop footprints range from 427,297 to 113,689 m2 and have a cumulative surface area of 99.8 million ft2. We characterize the LCBs as either: distribution/warehouse, factory, shopping center, or administrative office/facility. Three of the 37 LCBs currently support rooftop PV and the numbers of associated, detached buildings number up to 38. This study elucidates the extent to which LCBs and their respective parking lots can serve as suitable sites for PV solar energy generation. Lastly, this study demonstrates research-based applications of the Aurora energy modeling platform and informs decision-making focused on redirecting energy development towards human-modified landscapes to prioritize land use for

  2. Invertebrate population genetics across Earth's largest habitat: The deep-sea floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M L; Roterman, C N

    2017-10-01

    Despite the deep sea being the largest habitat on Earth, there are just 77 population genetic studies of invertebrates (115 species) inhabiting non-chemosynthetic ecosystems on the deep-sea floor (below 200 m depth). We review and synthesize the results of these papers. Studies reveal levels of genetic diversity comparable to shallow-water species. Generally, populations at similar depths were well connected over 100s-1,000s km, but studies that sampled across depth ranges reveal population structure at much smaller scales (100s-1,000s m) consistent with isolation by adaptation across environmental gradients, or the existence of physical barriers to connectivity with depth. Few studies were ocean-wide (under 4%), and 48% were Atlantic-focused. There is strong emphasis on megafauna and commercial species with research into meiofauna, "ecosystem engineers" and other ecologically important species lacking. Only nine papers account for ~50% of the planet's surface (depths below 3,500 m). Just two species were studied below 5,000 m, a quarter of Earth's seafloor. Most studies used single-locus mitochondrial genes revealing a common pattern of non-neutrality, consistent with demographic instability or selective sweeps; similar to deep-sea hydrothermal vent fauna. The absence of a clear difference between vent and non-vent could signify that demographic instability is common in the deep sea, or that selective sweeps render single-locus mitochondrial studies demographically uninformative. The number of population genetics studies to date is miniscule in relation to the size of the deep sea. The paucity of studies constrains meta-analyses where broad inferences about deep-sea ecology could be made. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The 100-C-7 Remediation Project. An Overview of One of DOE's Largest Remediation Projects - 13260

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, Thomas C.; Strom, Dean; Beulow, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (RL), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington Closure Hanford LLC (WCH) completed remediation of one of the largest waste sites in the U.S. Department of Energy complex. The waste site, 100-C-7, covers approximately 15 football fields and was excavated to a depth of 85 feet (groundwater). The project team removed a total of 2.3 million tons of clean and contaminated soil, concrete debris, and scrap metal. 100-C-7 lies in Hanford's 100 B/C Area, home to historic B and C Reactors. The waste site was excavated in two parts as 100-C-7 and 100-C-7:1. The pair of excavations appear like pit mines. Mining engineers were hired to design their tiered sides, with safety benches every 17 feet and service ramps which allowed equipment access to the bottom of the excavations. The overall cleanup project was conducted over a span of almost 10 years. A variety of site characterization, excavation, load-out and sampling methodologies were employed at various stages of remediation. Alternative technologies were screened and evaluated during the project. A new method for cost effectively treating soils was implemented - resulting in significant cost savings. Additional opportunities for minimizing waste streams and recycling were identified and effectively implemented by the project team. During the final phase of cleanup the project team applied lessons learned throughout the entire project to address the final, remaining source of chromium contamination. The C-7 cleanup now serves as a model for remediating extensive deep zone contamination sites at Hanford. (authors)

  4. Dragon's paradise lost: palaeobiogeography, evolution and extinction of the largest-ever terrestrial lizards (Varanidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Hocknull

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The largest living lizard species, Varanus komodoensis Ouwens 1912, is vulnerable to extinction, being restricted to a few isolated islands in eastern Indonesia, between Java and Australia, where it is the dominant terrestrial carnivore. Understanding how large-bodied varanids responded to past environmental change underpins long-term management of V. komodoensis populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We reconstruct the palaeobiogeography of Neogene giant varanids and identify a new (unnamed species from the island of Timor. Our data reject the long-held perception that V. komodoensis became a giant because of insular evolution or as a specialist hunter of pygmy Stegodon. Phyletic giantism, coupled with a westward dispersal from mainland Australia, provides the most parsimonious explanation for the palaeodistribution of V. komodoensis and the newly identified species of giant varanid from Timor. Pliocene giant varanid fossils from Australia are morphologically referable to V. komodoensis suggesting an ultimate origin for V. komodoensis on mainland Australia (>3.8 million years ago. Varanus komodoensis body size has remained stable over the last 900,000 years (ka on Flores, a time marked by major faunal turnovers, extinction of the island's megafauna, the arrival of early hominids by 880 ka, co-existence with Homo floresiensis, and the arrival of modern humans by 10 ka. Within the last 2000 years their populations have contracted severely. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Giant varanids were once a ubiquitous part of Subcontinental Eurasian and Australasian faunas during the Neogene. Extinction played a pivotal role in the reduction of their ranges and diversity throughout the late Quaternary, leaving only V. komodoensis as an isolated long-term survivor. The events over the last two millennia now threaten its future survival.

  5. Techno-environmental assessment of the green biorefinery concept: Combining process simulation and life cycle assessment at an early design stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Andrea; Ambye-Jensen, Morten; Vega, Giovanna Croxatto; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Birkved, Morten

    2018-09-01

    The Green biorefinery (GBR) is a biorefinery concept that converts fresh biomass into value-added products. The present study combines a Process Flowsheet Simulation (PFS) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to evaluate the technical and environmental performance of different GBR configurations and the cascading utilization of the GBR output. The GBR configurations considered in this study, test alternatives in the three main steps of green-biorefining: fractionation, precipitation, and protein separation. The different cascade utilization alternatives analyse different options for press-pulp utilization, and the LCA results show that the environmental profile of the GBR is highly affected by the utilization of the press-pulp and thus by the choice of conventional product replaced by the press-pulp. Furthermore, scenario analysis of different GBR configurations shows that higher benefits can be achieved by increasing product yields rather than lowering energy consumption. Green biorefining is shown to be an interesting biorefining concept, especially in a Danish context. Biorefining of green biomass is technically feasible and can bring environmental savings, when compared to conventional production methods. However, the savings will be determined by the processing involved in each conversion stage and on the cascade utilization of the different platform products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Photosynthesis and oxidative stress in the restinga plant species Eugenia uniflora L. exposed to simulated acid rain and iron ore dust deposition: Potential use in environmental risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rust Neves, Natalia; Oliva, Marco Antonio; Cruz Centeno, Danilo da; Costa, Alan Carlos; Ferreira Ribas, Rogerio [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Av. PH Rolfs, Campus, Vicosa, Minas Gerais, 36570-000 (Brazil); Gusmao Pereira, Eduardo, E-mail: egpereira@gmail.com [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Av. PH Rolfs, Campus, Vicosa, Minas Gerais, 36570-000 (Brazil)

    2009-06-01

    The Brazilian sandy coastal plain named restinga is frequently subjected to particulate and gaseous emissions from iron ore factories. These gases may come into contact with atmospheric moisture and produce acid rain. The effects of the acid rain on vegetation, combined with iron excess in the soil, can lead to the disappearance of sensitive species and decrease restinga biodiversity. The effects of iron ore dust deposition and simulated acid rain on photosynthesis and on antioxidant enzymes were investigated in Eugenia uniflora, a representative shrub species of the restinga. This study aimed to determine the possible utility of this species in environmental risk assessment. After the application of iron ore dust as iron solid particulate matter (SPM{sub Fe}) and simulated acid rain (pH 3.1), the 18-month old plants displayed brown spots and necrosis, typical symptoms of iron toxicity and injuries caused by acid rain, respectively. The acidity of the rain intensified leaf iron accumulation, which reached phytotoxic levels, mainly in plants exposed to iron ore dust. These plants showed the lowest values for net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration, chlorophyll a content and electron transport rate through photosystem II (PSII). Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were decreased by simulated acid rain. Peroxidase activity and membrane injury increased following exposure to acid rain and simultaneous SPM{sub Fe} application. Eugenia uniflora exhibited impaired photosynthetic and antioxidative metabolism in response to combined iron and acid rain stresses. This species could become a valuable tool in environmental risk assessment in restinga areas near iron ore pelletizing factories. Non-invasive evaluations of visual injuries, photosynthesis and chlorophyll a fluorescence, as well as invasive biochemical analysis could be used as markers.

  7. Photosynthesis and oxidative stress in the restinga plant species Eugenia uniflora L. exposed to simulated acid rain and iron ore dust deposition: Potential use in environmental risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust Neves, Natalia; Oliva, Marco Antonio; Cruz Centeno, Danilo da; Costa, Alan Carlos; Ferreira Ribas, Rogerio; Gusmao Pereira, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    The Brazilian sandy coastal plain named restinga is frequently subjected to particulate and gaseous emissions from iron ore factories. These gases may come into contact with atmospheric moisture and produce acid rain. The effects of the acid rain on vegetation, combined with iron excess in the soil, can lead to the disappearance of sensitive species and decrease restinga biodiversity. The effects of iron ore dust deposition and simulated acid rain on photosynthesis and on antioxidant enzymes were investigated in Eugenia uniflora, a representative shrub species of the restinga. This study aimed to determine the possible utility of this species in environmental risk assessment. After the application of iron ore dust as iron solid particulate matter (SPM Fe ) and simulated acid rain (pH 3.1), the 18-month old plants displayed brown spots and necrosis, typical symptoms of iron toxicity and injuries caused by acid rain, respectively. The acidity of the rain intensified leaf iron accumulation, which reached phytotoxic levels, mainly in plants exposed to iron ore dust. These plants showed the lowest values for net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration, chlorophyll a content and electron transport rate through photosystem II (PSII). Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were decreased by simulated acid rain. Peroxidase activity and membrane injury increased following exposure to acid rain and simultaneous SPM Fe application. Eugenia uniflora exhibited impaired photosynthetic and antioxidative metabolism in response to combined iron and acid rain stresses. This species could become a valuable tool in environmental risk assessment in restinga areas near iron ore pelletizing factories. Non-invasive evaluations of visual injuries, photosynthesis and chlorophyll a fluorescence, as well as invasive biochemical analysis could be used as markers.

  8. HOT Faults", Fault Organization, and the Occurrence of the Largest Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, J. M.; Hillers, G.; Archuleta, R. J.

    2006-12-01

    We apply the concept of "Highly Optimized Tolerance" (HOT) for the investigation of spatio-temporal seismicity evolution, in particular mechanisms associated with largest earthquakes. HOT provides a framework for investigating both qualitative and quantitative features of complex feedback systems that are far from equilibrium and punctuated by rare, catastrophic events. In HOT, robustness trade-offs lead to complexity and power laws in systems that are coupled to evolving environments. HOT was originally inspired by biology and engineering, where systems are internally very highly structured, through biological evolution or deliberate design, and perform in an optimum manner despite fluctuations in their surroundings. Though faults and fault systems are not designed in ways comparable to biological and engineered structures, feedback processes are responsible in a conceptually comparable way for the development, evolution and maintenance of younger fault structures and primary slip surfaces of mature faults, respectively. Hence, in geophysical applications the "optimization" approach is perhaps more aptly replaced by "organization", reflecting the distinction between HOT and random, disorganized configurations, and highlighting the importance of structured interdependencies that evolve via feedback among and between different spatial and temporal scales. Expressed in the terminology of the HOT concept, mature faults represent a configuration optimally organized for the release of strain energy; whereas immature, more heterogeneous fault networks represent intermittent, suboptimal systems that are regularized towards structural simplicity and the ability to generate large earthquakes more easily. We discuss fault structure and associated seismic response pattern within the HOT concept, and outline fundamental differences between this novel interpretation to more orthodox viewpoints like the criticality concept. The discussion is flanked by numerical simulations of a

  9. Simulated environmental transport distances of Lepeophtheirus salmonis in Loch Linnhe, Scotland, for informing aquaculture area management structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, N K G; Murray, A G; Rabe, B

    2016-04-01

    In the majority of salmon farming countries, production occurs in zones where practices are coordinated to manage disease agents such as Lepeophtheirus salmonis. To inform the structure of zones in specific systems, models have been developed accounting for parasite biology and system hydrodynamics. These models provide individual system farm relationships, and as such, it may be beneficial to produce more generalized principles for informing structures. Here, we use six different forcing scenarios to provide simulations from a previously described model of the Loch Linnhe system, Scotland, to assess the maximum dispersal distance of lice particles released from 12 sites transported over 19 day. Results indicate that the median distance travelled is 6.1 km from release site with management areas developed for infectious salmon anaemia control may also have properties appropriate for salmon lice management in Scottish coastal waters. Additionally, general numerical descriptors of the simulated relative lice abundance reduction with increased distance from release location are proposed. © 2015 Crown copyright. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Evaluation of a simple, point-scale hydrologic model in simulating soil moisture using the Delaware environmental observing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legates, David R.; Junghenn, Katherine T.

    2018-04-01

    Many local weather station networks that measure a number of meteorological variables (i.e. , mesonetworks) have recently been established, with soil moisture occasionally being part of the suite of measured variables. These mesonetworks provide data from which detailed estimates of various hydrological parameters, such as precipitation and reference evapotranspiration, can be made which, when coupled with simple surface characteristics available from soil surveys, can be used to obtain estimates of soil moisture. The question is Can meteorological data be used with a simple hydrologic model to estimate accurately daily soil moisture at a mesonetwork site? Using a state-of-the-art mesonetwork that also includes soil moisture measurements across the US State of Delaware, the efficacy of a simple, modified Thornthwaite/Mather-based daily water balance model based on these mesonetwork observations to estimate site-specific soil moisture is determined. Results suggest that the model works reasonably well for most well-drained sites and provides good qualitative estimates of measured soil moisture, often near the accuracy of the soil moisture instrumentation. The model exhibits particular trouble in that it cannot properly simulate the slow drainage that occurs in poorly drained soils after heavy rains and interception loss, resulting from grass not being short cropped as expected also adversely affects the simulation. However, the model could be tuned to accommodate some non-standard siting characteristics.

  11. Experiencing Nature through Immersive Virtual Environments: Environmental Perceptions, Physical Engagement, and Affective Responses during a Simulated Nature Walk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Calogiuri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available By combining physical activity and exposure to nature, green exercise can provide additional health benefits compared to physical activity alone. Immersive Virtual Environments (IVE have emerged as a potentially valuable supplement to environmental and behavioral research, and might also provide new approaches to green exercise promotion. However, it is unknown to what extent green exercise in IVE can provide psychophysiological responses similar to those experienced in real natural environments. In this study, 26 healthy adults underwent three experimental conditions: nature walk, sitting-IVE, and treadmill-IVE. The nature walk took place on a paved trail along a large river. In the IVE conditions, the participants wore a head-mounted display with headphones reproducing a 360° video and audio of the nature walk, either sitting on a chair or walking on a manually driven treadmill. Measurements included environmental perceptions (presence and perceived environmental restorativeness – PER, physical engagement (walking speed, heart rate, and perceived exertion, and affective responses (enjoyment and affect. Additionally, qualitative information was collected through open-ended questions. The participants rated the IVEs with satisfactory levels of ‘being there’ and ‘sense of reality,’ but also reported discomforts such as ‘flatness,’ ‘movement lag’ and ‘cyber sickness.’ With equivalent heart rate and walking speed, participants reported higher perceived exertion in the IVEs than in the nature walk. The nature walk was associated with high enjoyment and enhanced affect. However, despite equivalent ratings of PER in the nature walk and in the IVEs, the latter were perceived as less enjoyable and gave rise to a poorer affect. Presence and PER did not differ between the two IVEs, although in the treadmill-IVE the negative affective responses had slightly smaller magnitude than in the sitting-IVE. In both the IVEs, the negative

  12. A marine heatwave drives massive losses from the world’s largest seagrass carbon stocks

    KAUST Repository

    Arias-Ortiz, Ariane; Serrano, Oscar; Masqué , Pere; Lavery, P. S.; Mueller, U.; Kendrick, G. A.; Rozaimi, M.; Esteban, A.; Fourqurean, J. W.; Marbà , N.; Mateo, M. A.; Murray, K.; Rule, M. J.; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2018-01-01

    Seagrass ecosystems contain globally significant organic carbon (C) stocks. However, climate change and increasing frequency of extreme events threaten their preservation. Shark Bay, Western Australia, has the largest C stock reported for a seagrass

  13. New Chicago-Indiana computer network will handle dataflow from world's largest scientific experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "Massive quantities of data will soon begin flowing from the largest scientific instrument ever built into an international netword of computer centers, including one operated jointly by the University of Chicago and Indiana University." (1,5 page)

  14. Lagisza, world's largest CFB boiler, begins commercial operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuortimo, K. [Foster Wheeler, Varkaus (Finland)

    2010-04-15

    Early operating experience with the Lagisza circulating fluidised bed (CFB) boiler in Poland - the world's largest such boiler to date, and also the first one with supercritical steam conditions - has been positive. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Efficiency corrections in determining the 137Cs inventory of environmental soil samples by using relative measurement method and GEANT4 simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Gang; Liang, Yongfei; Xu, Jiayun; Bai, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    The determination of 137 Cs inventory is widely used to estimate the soil erosion or deposition rate. The generally used method to determine the activity of volumetric samples is the relative measurement method, which employs a calibration standard sample with accurately known activity. This method has great advantages in accuracy and operation only when there is a small difference in elemental composition, sample density and geometry between measuring samples and the calibration standard. Otherwise it needs additional efficiency corrections in the calculating process. The Monte Carlo simulations can handle these correction problems easily with lower financial cost and higher accuracy. This work presents a detailed description to the simulation and calibration procedure for a conventionally used commercial P-type coaxial HPGe detector with cylindrical sample geometry. The effects of sample elemental composition, density and geometry were discussed in detail and calculated in terms of efficiency correction factors. The effect of sample placement was also analyzed, the results indicate that the radioactive nuclides and sample density are not absolutely uniform distributed along the axial direction. At last, a unified binary quadratic functional relationship of efficiency correction factors as a function of sample density and height was obtained by the least square fitting method. This function covers the sample density and height range of 0.8–1.8 g/cm 3 and 3.0–7.25 cm, respectively. The efficiency correction factors calculated by the fitted function are in good agreement with those obtained by the GEANT4 simulations with the determination coefficient value greater than 0.9999. The results obtained in this paper make the above-mentioned relative measurements more accurate and efficient in the routine radioactive analysis of environmental cylindrical soil samples. - Highlights: • Determination of 137 Cs inventory in environmental soil samples by using relative

  16. City-ecological perspectives of the development of high urbanized multifunctional centers of the largest Russian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolesnikov Sergey Anatol’evich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents some results of the author’s dissertation research dedicated to formation of an architectural typology of high urbanized multifunctional units of urban structure of the largest cities (further HUMUUS as centers of social activity, which include buildings, constructions, transportation equipment and open spaces, where human flows transpose, start and end with the purpose of bringing into this space a concentrated maximum of goods, services and information with minimum time expenditures. This article draws attention to the development analysis of the structure-forming functions of HUMUUS and their town planning and environmental impact on the surrounding area. The study of planning structures of the largest Russian cities (Samara, Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod made it possible to identify a number of main objects, in which structure-forming functions of HUMUUS are materialized: railroad complex (historically formed, developed, dominated, system-wide road junction, transport interchange hub (providing intraurban messages, public office and business centers, leisure and entertainment centers, shopping centers. Basing on researches of Russian and foreign experience, it is possible to predict with full confidence the following trends and streams of environmental and urban development of HUMUUS in the near-term perspective: Strengthening of the environmental and urban frame by network evolution of HUMUUS; Inclusion of green areas of HUMUUS in the system of citywide green areas; Increment of the interest of the investors to the public road junction for the purpose of reorganization of them to full HUMUUS with all characteristics of high-urbanized and environmental and urban reorganization (separation of traffic and pedestrian flows, maximum capacity, multiple-level system, multifunctional, increase in landscaped green space, reconstruction of engineering systems and communications, the use of modern ecological building designs and

  17. Simulation and Evaluation of Pollution Load Reduction Scenarios for Water Environmental Management: A Case Study of Inflow River of Taihu Lake, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruibin; Qian, Xin; Zhu, Wenting; Gao, Hailong; Hu, Wei; Wang, Jinhua

    2014-01-01

    In the beginning of the 21st century, the deterioration of water quality in Taihu Lake, China, has caused widespread concern. The primary source of pollution in Taihu Lake is river inflows. Effective pollution load reduction scenarios need to be implemented in these rivers in order to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake. It is important to select appropriate pollution load reduction scenarios for achieving particular goals. The aim of this study was to facilitate the selection of appropriate scenarios. The QUAL2K model for river water quality was used to simulate the effects of a range of pollution load reduction scenarios in the Wujin River, which is one of the major inflow rivers of Taihu Lake. The model was calibrated for the year 2010 and validated for the year 2011. Various pollution load reduction scenarios were assessed using an analytic hierarchy process, and increasing rates of evaluation indicators were predicted using the Delphi method. The results showed that control of pollution from the source is the optimal method for pollution prevention and control, and the method of “Treatment after Pollution” has bad environmental, social and ecological effects. The method applied in this study can assist for environmental managers to select suitable pollution load reduction scenarios for achieving various objectives. PMID:25207492

  18. Simulation and evaluation of pollution load reduction scenarios for water environmental management: a case study of inflow river of Taihu Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruibin; Qian, Xin; Zhu, Wenting; Gao, Hailong; Hu, Wei; Wang, Jinhua

    2014-09-09

    In the beginning of the 21st century, the deterioration of water quality in Taihu Lake, China, has caused widespread concern. The primary source of pollution in Taihu Lake is river inflows. Effective pollution load reduction scenarios need to be implemented in these rivers in order to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake. It is important to select appropriate pollution load reduction scenarios for achieving particular goals. The aim of this study was to facilitate the selection of appropriate scenarios. The QUAL2K model for river water quality was used to simulate the effects of a range of pollution load reduction scenarios in the Wujin River, which is one of the major inflow rivers of Taihu Lake. The model was calibrated for the year 2010 and validated for the year 2011. Various pollution load reduction scenarios were assessed using an analytic hierarchy process, and increasing rates of evaluation indicators were predicted using the Delphi method. The results showed that control of pollution from the source is the optimal method for pollution prevention and control, and the method of "Treatment after Pollution" has bad environmental, social and ecological effects. The method applied in this study can assist for environmental managers to select suitable pollution load reduction scenarios for achieving various objectives.

  19. Remediation of lead and cadmium from simulated groundwater in loess region in northwestern China using permeable reactive barrier filled with environmentally friendly mixed adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chunhui; Gao, Yalin; Zhang, Yingchao; Dong, Wanqing; Lai, Miao

    2018-01-01

    Permeable reactive barrier (PRB) is potentially effective for groundwater remediation, especially using environmentally friendly mixed fillers in representative areas, such as semi-arid loess region in northwestern China. The mixed materials, including corn straw (agricultural wastes), fly ash (industrial wastes), zeolite synthesized from fly ash (reutilized products), and iron-manganese nodule derived from loess (materials with regional characteristics) in northwestern China, were chosen as PRB media to reduce the contents of lead and cadmium in simulated groundwater. A series of lab-scale column experiments were investigated, and the response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the working process; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were applied to further reveal the reaction mechanism. It shows that the purification efficiencies are more acceptable when the concentrations of lead and cadmium are approximately 7 and 0.7 mg/L, respectively, at 25 °C in weakly acidic solution, and functional groups of -OH and C=C play an important role for contaminants removal. The mixed adsorbents used are effective to remove lead and cadmium in groundwater. This is the first report on the removal of lead and cadmium from groundwater in loess region in northwestern China using PRB filled with environmentally friendly mixed adsorbents.

  20. Simulation and Evaluation of Pollution Load Reduction Scenarios for Water Environmental Management: A Case Study of Inflow River of Taihu Lake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruibin Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the beginning of the 21st century, the deterioration of water quality in Taihu Lake, China, has caused widespread concern. The primary source of pollution in Taihu Lake is river inflows. Effective pollution load reduction scenarios need to be implemented in these rivers in order to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake. It is important to select appropriate pollution load reduction scenarios for achieving particular goals. The aim of this study was to facilitate the selection of appropriate scenarios. The QUAL2K model for river water quality was used to simulate the effects of a range of pollution load reduction scenarios in the Wujin River, which is one of the major inflow rivers of Taihu Lake. The model was calibrated for the year 2010 and validated for the year 2011. Various pollution load reduction scenarios were assessed using an analytic hierarchy process, and increasing rates of evaluation indicators were predicted using the Delphi method. The results showed that control of pollution from the source is the optimal method for pollution prevention and control, and the method of “Treatment after Pollution” has bad environmental, social and ecological effects. The method applied in this study can assist for environmental managers to select suitable pollution load reduction scenarios for achieving various objectives.

  1. The Curse of the Gold: Discourses Surrounding the Project of the Largest Pit-mine in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istvan Egresi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1996, a Canadian company started geological explorations in the Rosia Montana area in the Romanian Carpathians. Two years later it formed a joint-venture with a Romanian state company to exploit what is believed to be Europe´s largest gold reserves. However, as of June 2011 extraction has not started yet and it may never start due to the opposition of numerous NGO´s that have pointed out the environmental, social and economic unsustainability of this mining project. This situation is highly unusual for a country that is hungry for foreign investment especially since up until very recently the state had supported any project promising to revitalize its mining sector. This paper will investigate the changes in the discourses surrounding this mining project taking into consideration the effects of globalization and the effects of Romania´s EU membership after 2007.

  2. Distribution and Modeled Transport of Plastic Pollution in the Great Lakes, the World's Largest Freshwater Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel N. Cable

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Most plastic pollution originates on land. As such, freshwater bodies serve as conduits for the transport of plastic litter to the ocean. Understanding the concentrations and fluxes of plastic litter in freshwater ecosystems is critical to our understanding of the global plastic litter budget and underpins the success of future management strategies. We conducted a replicated field survey of surface plastic concentrations in four lakes in the North American Great Lakes system, the largest contiguous freshwater system on the planet. We then modeled plastic transport to resolve spatial and temporal variability of plastic distribution in one of the Great Lakes, Lake Erie. Triplicate surface samples were collected at 38 stations in mid-summer of 2014. Plastic particles >106 μm in size were quantified. Concentrations were highest near populated urban areas and their water infrastructure. In the highest concentration trawl, nearly 2 million fragments km−2 were found in the Detroit River—dwarfing previous reports of Great Lakes plastic abundances by over 4-fold. Yet, the accuracy of single trawl counts was challenged: within-station plastic abundances varied 0- to 3-fold between replicate trawls. In the smallest size class (106–1,000 μm, false positive rates of 12–24% were determined analytically for plastic vs. non-plastic, while false negative rates averaged ~18%. Though predicted to form in summer by the existing Lake Erie circulation model, our transport model did not predict a permanent surface “Lake Erie Garbage Patch” in its central basin—a trend supported by field survey data. Rather, general eastward transport with recirculation in the major basins was predicted. Further, modeled plastic residence times were drastically influenced by plastic buoyancy. Neutrally buoyant plastics—those with the same density as the ambient water—were flushed several times slower than plastics floating at the water's surface and exceeded the

  3. Simulating the potential for Carbon Dioxide (CO2) reduction by the application of environmentally friendly transportation (case study: Gatot Subroto Street, Medan City)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryati, Isra; Turmuzi Lubis, Muhammad; Mawaddah, Nurul

    2018-03-01

    Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is one of the greenhouse gases. One source of greenhouse gases comes from the use of fossil fuels from the transport sector. The transportation sector is one of the dominant sectors in contributing to the greenhouse effect. This study aims to calculate the amount of CO2 from transportation activities by using mobile six equations in Gatot Subroto Street, Medan City. A sampling of CO2 concentration was done using Carbon Dioxide Monitor with Non-Dispersive Infra Red (NDIR) Analyzer method. Also, a simulation of the reduction of the number of private vehicles to mass transportation such as BRT gas-fired. The results showed CO2 emissions calculations with mobile six ranged from 47.2 kg CO2 - 978.2 kg CO2. Meanwhile, measurements range from 3,004 ppm - 3,405 ppm. Implementation of the concept of environmentally friendly transportation such as BRT in Gatot Subroto Street, Medan City will be able to reduce the average emissions load CO2 by 42.75% -78.80%. Based on the calculation simulation in this study is estimated the number of BRT required approximately 71 units.

  4. Use of Human Modeling Simulation Software in the Task Analysis of the Environmental Control and Life Support System Component Installation Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Samantha; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Virtual reality and simulation applications are becoming widespread in human task analysis. These programs have many benefits for the Human Factors Engineering field. Not only do creating and using virtual environments for human engineering analyses save money and time, this approach also promotes user experimentation and provides increased quality of analyses. This paper explains the human engineering task analysis performed on the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) space station rack and its Distillation Assembly (DA) subsystem using EAI's human modeling simulation software, Jack. When installed on the International Space Station (ISS), ECLSS will provide the life and environment support needed to adequately sustain crew life. The DA is an Orbital Replaceable Unit (ORU) that provides means of wastewater (primarily urine from flight crew and experimental animals) reclamation. Jack was used to create a model of the weightless environment of the ISS Node 3, where the ECLSS is housed. Computer aided drawings of the ECLSS rack and DA system were also brought into the environment. Anthropometric models of a 95th percentile male and 5th percentile female were used to examine the human interfaces encountered during various ECLSS and DA tasks. The results of the task analyses were used in suggesting modifications to hardware and crew task procedures to improve accessibility, conserve crew time, and add convenience for the crew. This paper will address some of those suggested modifications and the method of presenting final analyses for requirements verification.

  5. Energy, economic and environmental performance simulation of a hybrid renewable microgeneration system with neural network predictive control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgueniy Entchev

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of artificial neural networks (ANNs in various applications has grown significantly over the years. This paper compares an ANN based approach with a conventional on-off control applied to the operation of a ground source heat pump/photovoltaic thermal system serving a single house located in Ottawa (Canada for heating and cooling purposes. The hybrid renewable microgeneration system was investigated using the dynamic simulation software TRNSYS. A controller for predicting the future room temperature was developed in the MATLAB environment and six ANN control logics were analyzed.The comparison was performed in terms of ability to maintain the desired indoor comfort levels, primary energy consumption, operating costs and carbon dioxide equivalent emissions during a week of the heating period and a week of the cooling period. The results showed that the ANN approach is potentially able to alleviate the intensity of thermal discomfort associated with overheating/overcooling phenomena, but it could cause an increase in unmet comfort hours. The analysis also highlighted that the ANNs based strategies could reduce the primary energy consumption (up to around 36%, the operating costs (up to around 81% as well as the carbon dioxide equivalent emissions (up to around 36%. Keywords: Hybrid microgeneration system, Ground source heat pump, Photovoltaic thermal, Artificial neural network, Predictive control, Energy saving

  6. Environmental and economic effects of post-Kyoto carbon regimes. Results of simulations with the global model GINFORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, Christian; Meyer, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    Using the extensive and disaggregated global GINFORS model, consequences of different possible post-Kyoto regimes on the German and European economy and other major economies in the medium run until 2020 are depicted. The approach is very extensive and detailed in comparison to already existing analyses: this holds for the number of explicitly modelled countries (50 and 2 regions) and 41 economic sectors, input-output tables, the bilateral trade flows, the detailed coverage of behavioural parameters, the coverage of energy balances and CO 2 emissions as well as for the number and precise economic-political design of simulation runs. Global emissions will double until 2030 compared to 1990 levels without the existence of a far-reaching climate regime after 2012. A unilateral commitment of the EU would only be a 'drop in the bucket', which solely strengthens the credibility of the EU in international negotiations. A stabilisation of global emissions in 2020 compared to 2010, which is consistent with the 2 target of the EU can only be achieved, if all developed and at least the large emerging economies participate and if all possible existing market-ready reduction technologies are used. (author)

  7. Response of marine and freshwater algae to nitric acid and elevated carbon dioxide levels simulating environmental effects of bolide impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, P. J.

    1988-01-01

    One of the intriguing facets of the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction is the apparently selective pattern of mortality amongst taxa. Some groups of organisms were severely affected and some remained relatively unscathed as they went through the K/T boundary. While there is argument concerning the exact interpretation of the fossil record, one of the best documented extinctions at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary is that of the calcareous nannoplankton. These organisms include coccolithic algae and foraminiferans. Attempts to explain their decline at the K/T boundary center around chemistry which could affect their calcium carbonate shells while leaving their silica-shelled cousins less affected or unaffected. Two environmental consequences of an extraterrestrial body impact which were suggested are the production of large quantities of nitrogen oxides generated by the shock heating of the atmosphere and the possible rise in CO2 from the dissolution of CaCO3 shells. Both of these phenomena would acidify the upper layers of the oceans and bodies of freshwater not otherwise buffered. The effects of nitric acid, carbon dioxide, or both factors on the growth and reproduction of calcareous marine coccoliths and non-calcareous marine and freshwater species of algae were considered. These experiments demonstrate that nitric acid and carbon dioxide have significant effects on important aspects of the physiology and reproduction of modern algae representative of extinct taxa thought to have suffered significant declines at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Furthermore, calcareous species showed more marked effects than siliceous species and marine species tested were more sensitive than freshwater species.

  8. Efficiency corrections in determining the (137)Cs inventory of environmental soil samples by using relative measurement method and GEANT4 simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Liang, Yongfei; Xu, Jiayun; Bai, Lixin

    2015-08-01

    The determination of (137)Cs inventory is widely used to estimate the soil erosion or deposition rate. The generally used method to determine the activity of volumetric samples is the relative measurement method, which employs a calibration standard sample with accurately known activity. This method has great advantages in accuracy and operation only when there is a small difference in elemental composition, sample density and geometry between measuring samples and the calibration standard. Otherwise it needs additional efficiency corrections in the calculating process. The Monte Carlo simulations can handle these correction problems easily with lower financial cost and higher accuracy. This work presents a detailed description to the simulation and calibration procedure for a conventionally used commercial P-type coaxial HPGe detector with cylindrical sample geometry. The effects of sample elemental composition, density and geometry were discussed in detail and calculated in terms of efficiency correction factors. The effect of sample placement was also analyzed, the results indicate that the radioactive nuclides and sample density are not absolutely uniform distributed along the axial direction. At last, a unified binary quadratic functional relationship of efficiency correction factors as a function of sample density and height was obtained by the least square fitting method. This function covers the sample density and height range of 0.8-1.8 g/cm(3) and 3.0-7.25 cm, respectively. The efficiency correction factors calculated by the fitted function are in good agreement with those obtained by the GEANT4 simulations with the determination coefficient value greater than 0.9999. The results obtained in this paper make the above-mentioned relative measurements more accurate and efficient in the routine radioactive analysis of environmental cylindrical soil samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Multivariate Largest Lyapunov Exponent as an Age-Related Metric of Quiet Standing Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The largest Lyapunov exponent has been researched as a metric of the balance ability during human quiet standing. However, the sensitivity and accuracy of this measurement method are not good enough for clinical use. The present research proposes a metric of the human body’s standing balance ability based on the multivariate largest Lyapunov exponent which can quantify the human standing balance. The dynamic multivariate time series of ankle, knee, and hip were measured by multiple electrical goniometers. Thirty-six normal people of different ages participated in the test. With acquired data, the multivariate largest Lyapunov exponent was calculated. Finally, the results of the proposed approach were analysed and compared with the traditional method, for which the largest Lyapunov exponent and power spectral density from the centre of pressure were also calculated. The following conclusions can be obtained. The multivariate largest Lyapunov exponent has a higher degree of differentiation in differentiating balance in eyes-closed conditions. The MLLE value reflects the overall coordination between multisegment movements. Individuals of different ages can be distinguished by their MLLE values. The standing stability of human is reduced with the increment of age.

  10. Identifying the node spreading influence with largest k-core values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jian-Hong; Guo, Qiang; Dong, Wen-Zhao; Tang, Li-Ying; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2014-01-01

    Identifying the nodes with largest spreading influence of complex networks is one of the most promising domains. By taking into account the neighbors' k-core values, we present an improved neighbors' k-core (INK) method which is the sum of the neighbors' k-core values with a tunable parameter α to evaluate the node spreading influence with largest k-core values. Comparing with the Susceptible–Infected–Recovered (SIR) results for four real networks, the INK method could identify the node spreading influence with largest k-core values more accurately than the ones generated by the degree k, closeness C, betweenness B and coreness centrality method. - Highlights: • We present an improved neighbors' k-core (INK) method to evaluate the node spreading influence with largest k-core values. • The INK method could identify the node spreading influence with largest k-core values more accurately. • Kendall's tau τ of INK method with α=1 are highly identical to rank the node influence

  11. Spatial Air Index Based on Largest Empty Rectangles for Non-Flat Wireless Broadcast in Pervasive Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Hong Shen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In pervasive computing, location-based services (LBSs are valuable for mobile clients based on their current locations. LBSs use spatial window queries to enable useful applications for mobile clients. Based on skewed access patterns of mobile clients, non-flat wireless broadcast has been shown to efficiently disseminate spatial objects to mobile clients. In this paper, we consider a scenario in which spatial objects are broadcast to mobile clients over a wireless channel in a non-flat broadcast manner to process window queries. For such a scenario, we propose an efficient spatial air index method to handle window query access in non-flat wireless broadcast environments. The concept of largest empty rectangles is used to avoid unnecessary examination of the broadcast content, thus reducing the processing time for window queries. Simulation results show that the proposed spatial air index method outperforms the existing methods under various settings.

  12. Simulating the environmental performance of post-harvest management measures to comply with the EU Nitrates Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waele, J; D'Haene, K; Salomez, J; Hofman, G; De Neve, S

    2017-02-01

    Nitrate (NO 3 - ) leaching from farmland remains the predominant source of nitrogen (N) loads to European ground- and surface water. As soil mineral N content at harvest is often high and may increase by mineralisation from crop residues and soil organic matter, it is critical to understand which post-harvest management measures can be taken to restrict the average NO 3 - concentration in ground- and surface waters below the norm of 50 mg l -1 . Nitrate leaching was simulated with the EU-rotate_N model on a silty and a sandy soil following the five main arable crops cultivated in Flanders: cut grassland, silage maize, potatoes, sugar beets and winter wheat, in scenarios of optimum fertilisation with and without post-harvest measures. We compared the average NO 3 - concentration in the leaching water at a depth of 90 cm in these scenarios after dividing it by a factor of 2.1 to include natural attenuation processes occurring during transport towards ground- and surface water. For cut grassland, the average attenuated NO 3 - concentration remained below the norm on both soils. In order to comply with the Nitrates Directive, post-harvest measures seemed to be necessary on sandy soils for the four other crops and on silty soils for silage maize and for potatoes. Successful measures appeared to be the early sowing of winter crops after harvesting winter wheat, the undersowing of grass in silage maize and the removal of sugar beet leaves. Potatoes remained a problematic crop as N uptake by winter crops was insufficient to prevent excessive NO 3 - leaching. For each crop, maximum levels of soil mineral N content at harvest were proposed, both with and without additional measures, which could be used in future nutrient legislation. The approach taken here could be upscaled from the field level to the subcatchment level to see how different crops could be arranged within a subcatchment to permit the cultivation of problem crops without adversely affecting the water

  13. Internationalization and environmental reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; van Tulder, R.J.M.; Lundan, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter examines the green face of the world's one hundred largest firms from developed economies by linking degrees of internationalization to (pro)activity on environmental reporting. A bargaining approach, emphasizing intrinsic and extrinsic motivations, is applied to understand why the most

  14. Discovery of the Largest Orbweaving Spider Species: The Evolution of Gigantism in Nephila

    OpenAIRE

    Kuntner, Matja?; Coddington, Jonathan A.

    2009-01-01

    Background More than 41,000 spider species are known with about 400?500 added each year, but for some well-known groups, such as the giant golden orbweavers, Nephila, the last valid described species dates from the 19th century. Nephila are renowned for being the largest web-spinning spiders, making the largest orb webs, and are model organisms for the study of extreme sexual size dimorphism (SSD) and sexual biology. Here, we report on the discovery of a new, giant Nephila species from Africa...

  15. Modeling the Environmental Fate of Graphene Oxide and Its Phototransformation Products in Brier Creek Watershed Using the Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program 8 (WASP8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Y.; Bouchard, D.; Chang, X.; Hsieh, H. S.; Knightes, C. D.; Spear, J.; Zepp, R. G.

    2017-12-01

    The production of graphene-family nanoparticles (GFNs) appreciably increased in recent years. Among GFNs, graphene oxide (GO) is one of the most highly studied members due to its inexpensive synthesis cost compared to graphene, its stability in aqueous media and its broad application. However, GO also has been found to be the most toxic among GFNs. Lab studies showed that GO undergoes phototransformation in surface waters, resulting in products that include reduced GO (rGO) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Due to technical and analytical limitations, it is still difficult to conduct in-situ measurement of GO and rGO concentrations released in the environment, and it is of utmost importance to establish a model that can predict their environmental exposure concentrations in the environment. In this study, we develop a fate and transport model to predict time-dependent environmental exposure concentrations of GO for the Brier Creek Watershed in the GA coastal plain. We investigate the influence of sunlight radiation on the distribution of GO and its phototransformation products in the watershed over a 20-year period using the most updated Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP8). Flow rate, sediment transport data and sunlight radiation data are input into WASP8, and WASP8 is used to internally calculate a GO phototransformation rate and productions of rGO and PAHs. Heteroaggregation coefficients of GO and rGO with suspended solids were measured in an EPA laboratory, and then input into WASP8. GO and rGO concentrations in the watershed are calculated by WASP8. Mass fraction results show that GO is the predominant species among GO derived species, which account for 99% of the mass throughout the whole watershed of interest, while rGO species, including free rGO and rGO heteroaggregated to suspended solids, only account for 1%. We also found that almost all free GO and rGO are present in water column due to their extremely low settling velocity. r

  16. CERN: Digital image analysis in the world's largest research center for particle physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Those interested in researching into the smallest building blocks that matter is made up of need the largest instruments. CERN, near Geneva, Switzerland is where the most powerful circular accelerator in the world is being built: the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) for proton collisions. It has a circumference of 26.7 km (4 pages)

  17. Mass balance of Greenland's three largest outlet glaciers - 2000–2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howat, I.M.; Ahn, Y.; Joughin, I.; van den Broeke, M.R.; Lenaerts, J.T.M.; Smith, B.

    2011-01-01

    Acceleration of Greenland's three largest outlet glaciers, Helheim, Kangerdlugssuaq and Jakobshavn Isbræ, accounted for a substantial portion of the ice sheet's mass loss over the past decade. Rapid changes in their discharge, however, make their cumulative mass-change uncertain. We derive monthly

  18. Key U.S.-built part fails during testing for world's largest particle collider

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Scientists are scrambling to redesign a key U.S.-built part that broke "with a loud bang and a cloud of dust" during a high-pressure test for the world's largest particle physics collider that is supposed to start up in November, officials sais Tuesday." (1,5 page)

  19. CERN, World's largest particle physics lab, selects Progress SonicMQ

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    "Progress Software Corporation (NADAQ: PRGS), a global supplier of application insfrastructure software used to develop, deploy, integrate and manage business applications, today announced that CERN the world's largest physis laboratory and particle accelerator, has chosen Progress® SonicMQ® for mission-critical message delivery." (1 page)

  20. Phase space reconstruction and estimation of the largest Lyapunov exponent for gait kinematic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josiński, Henryk [Silesian University of Technology, Akademicka 16, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Świtoński, Adam [Polish-Japanese Institute of Information Technology, Aleja Legionów 2, 41-902 Bytom (Poland); Silesian University of Technology, Akademicka 16, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Michalczuk, Agnieszka; Wojciechowski, Konrad [Polish-Japanese Institute of Information Technology, Aleja Legionów 2, 41-902 Bytom (Poland)

    2015-03-10

    The authors describe an example of application of nonlinear time series analysis directed at identifying the presence of deterministic chaos in human motion data by means of the largest Lyapunov exponent. The method was previously verified on the basis of a time series constructed from the numerical solutions of both the Lorenz and the Rössler nonlinear dynamical systems.

  1. World's third-largest producer of nuclear power. Japan in need of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Japan is the third largest oil consumer in the world behind the United States and China, and the second largest net importer of oil. Japan boasts one of the largest economies in the world. The country continues to experience a moderate economic recovery that began in 2003, following a decade of economic stagnation. Japan's real gross domestic product (GDP) grew by 2.5% in 2005 and 2.3% in 2004. The modest upturn over the last few years reflects higher business confidence in Japan, a surge in export demand led by exports to China, and robust consumer spending. Unemployment in Japan fell to 4.4% in 2005, down from an early 2003 peak of 5.5%. Japan has virtually no domestic oil or natural gas reserves, and in 2005 was the second largest net importer of crude oil in the world. Despite the country's dearth of hydrocarbon resources, Japanese companies have actively pursued upstream oil and natural gas projects overseas. Japan remains one of the major exporters of energy-sector capital equipment, and Japanese companies provide engineering, construction, and project management services for energy projects. (orig.)

  2. Distribution of the Largest Eigenvalues of the Levi-Smirnov Ensemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieczorek, W.

    2004-01-01

    We calculate the distribution of the k-th largest eigenvalue in the random matrix Levi - Smirnov Ensemble (LSE), using the spectral dualism between LSE and chiral Gaussian Unitary Ensemble (GUE). Then we reconstruct universal spectral oscillations and we investigate an asymptotic behavior of the spectral distribution. (author)

  3. Antimicrobial Properties of Selected Copper Alloys on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in Different Simulations of Environmental Conditions: With vs. without Organic Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Różańska

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hospital equipment made from copper alloys can play an important role in complementing traditional methods of disinfection. Aims of the study: The aim of this study was to assess the dynamics of the antimicrobial properties of selected copper alloys in different simulations of environmental conditions (with organic contamination vs. without organic contamination, and to test alternatives to the currently used testing methods. Materials and Methods: A modification of Japanese standard JIS Z 2801 as well as Staphylococcus aureus (SA and Escherichia coli (EC suspended in NaCl vs. tryptic soy broth (TSB were used in tests performed on seven commonly used copper alloys, copper, and stainless steel. Results: A much faster reduction of the bacterial suspension was observed for the inoculum prepared in NaCl than in TSB. A faster reduction for EC than for SA was observed in the inoculum prepared in NaCl. The opposite results were found for the inoculum based on TSB. A significant correlation between the copper concentration in the copper alloys and the time and degree of bacterial suspension reduction was only observed in the case of EC. Conclusions: This study confirmed the antimicrobial properties of copper alloys, and additionally showed that Staphylococcus aureus was more resistant than Escherichia coli in the variant of the experiment without organic contamination. However, even for SA, a total reduction of the bacterial inoculum’s density took no longer than 2 h. Under conditions simulating organic contamination, all of the tested alloys were shown to have bactericidal or bacteriostatic properties, which was contrary to the results from stainless steel.

  4. Antimicrobial Properties of Selected Copper Alloys on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in Different Simulations of Environmental Conditions: With vs. without Organic Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Różańska, Anna; Chmielarczyk, Agnieszka; Romaniszyn, Dorota; Sroka-Oleksiak, Agnieszka; Bulanda, Małgorzata; Walkowicz, Monika; Osuch, Piotr; Knych, Tadeusz

    2017-07-20

    Background: Hospital equipment made from copper alloys can play an important role in complementing traditional methods of disinfection. Aims of the study: The aim of this study was to assess the dynamics of the antimicrobial properties of selected copper alloys in different simulations of environmental conditions (with organic contamination vs. without organic contamination), and to test alternatives to the currently used testing methods. Materials and Methods: A modification of Japanese standard JIS Z 2801 as well as Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and Escherichia coli (EC) suspended in NaCl vs. tryptic soy broth (TSB) were used in tests performed on seven commonly used copper alloys, copper, and stainless steel. Results: A much faster reduction of the bacterial suspension was observed for the inoculum prepared in NaCl than in TSB. A faster reduction for EC than for SA was observed in the inoculum prepared in NaCl. The opposite results were found for the inoculum based on TSB. A significant correlation between the copper concentration in the copper alloys and the time and degree of bacterial suspension reduction was only observed in the case of EC. Conclusions: This study confirmed the antimicrobial properties of copper alloys, and additionally showed that Staphylococcus aureus was more resistant than Escherichia coli in the variant of the experiment without organic contamination. However, even for SA, a total reduction of the bacterial inoculum's density took no longer than 2 h. Under conditions simulating organic contamination, all of the tested alloys were shown to have bactericidal or bacteriostatic properties, which was contrary to the results from stainless steel.

  5. A Transient Numerical Simulation of Perched Ground-Water Flow at the Test Reactor Area, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho, 1952-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orr, B. R.

    1999-01-01

    Studies of flow through the unsaturated zone and perched ground-water zones above the Snake River Plain aquifer are part of the overall assessment of ground-water flow and determination of the fate and transport of contaminants in the subsurface at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). These studies include definition of the hydrologic controls on the formation of perched ground-water zones and description of the transport and fate of wastewater constituents as they moved through the unsaturated zone. The definition of hydrologic controls requires stratigraphic correlation of basalt flows and sedimentary interbeds within the saturated zone, analysis of hydraulic properties of unsaturated-zone rocks, numerical modeling of the formation of perched ground-water zones, and batch and column experiments to determine rock-water geochemical processes. This report describes the development of a transient numerical simulation that was used to evaluate a conceptual model of flow through perched ground-water zones beneath wastewater infiltration ponds at the Test Reactor Area (TRA)

  6. LOADING SIMULATION PROGRAM C

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — LSPC is the Loading Simulation Program in C++, a watershed modeling system that includes streamlined Hydrologic Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) algorithms for...

  7. Differential genome-wide gene expression profiling of bovine largest and second-largest follicles: identification of genes associated with growth of dominant follicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi Toru

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine follicular development is regulated by numerous molecular mechanisms and biological pathways. In this study, we tried to identify differentially expressed genes between largest (F1 and second-largest follicles (F2, and classify them by global gene expression profiling using a combination of microarray and quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR analysis. The follicular status of F1 and F2 were further evaluated in terms of healthy and atretic conditions by investigating mRNA localization of identified genes. Methods Global gene expression profiles of F1 (10.7 +/- 0.7 mm and F2 (7.8 +/- 0.2 mm were analyzed by hierarchical cluster analysis and expression profiles of 16 representative genes were confirmed by QPCR analysis. In addition, localization of six identified transcripts was investigated in healthy and atretic follicles using in situ hybridization. The healthy or atretic condition of examined follicles was classified by progesterone and estradiol concentrations in follicular fluid. Results Hierarchical cluster analysis of microarray data classified the follicles into two clusters. Cluster A was composed of only F2 and was characterized by high expression of 31 genes including IGFBP5, whereas cluster B contained only F1 and predominantly expressed 45 genes including CYP19 and FSHR. QPCR analysis confirmed AMH, CYP19, FSHR, GPX3, PlGF, PLA2G1B, SCD and TRB2 were greater in F1 than F2, while CCL2, GADD45A, IGFBP5, PLAUR, SELP, SPP1, TIMP1 and TSP2 were greater in F2 than in F1. In situ hybridization showed that AMH and CYP19 were detected in granulosa cells (GC of healthy as well as atretic follicles. PlGF was localized in GC and in the theca layer (TL of healthy follicles. IGFBP5 was detected in both GC and TL of atretic follicles. GADD45A and TSP2 were localized in both GC and TL of atretic follicles, whereas healthy follicles expressed them only in GC. Conclusion We demonstrated that global gene expression profiling of F

  8. Environmental challenges. Report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Essentially, this report discusses the environment conservation efforts of Statkraft SF. Statkraft SF is Norway's largest producer of hydroelectric power. A section on the environmental impacts of hydroelectric energy production discusses biological diversity, outdoor life, cultural monuments and environments, hazardous chemicals, waste treatment, climate change and air pollution. A section on new renewable energy sources deals with wind power, hydrogen and ''salt power''. Salt power is an application of osmotic pressure. Other sections describe life cycle analyses, environmental costs of different energy carriers, environmental labelling of electric energy, safety, health, international projects etc. Some of the sections explicitly state national goals

  9. Constraining the magnitude of the largest event in a foreshock-main shock-aftershock sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, Robert; Zhuang, Jiancang; Ogata, Yosihiko

    2018-01-01

    Extreme value statistics and Bayesian methods are used to constrain the magnitudes of the largest expected earthquakes in a sequence governed by the parametric time-dependent occurrence rate and frequency-magnitude statistics. The Bayesian predictive distribution for the magnitude of the largest event in a sequence is derived. Two types of sequences are considered, that is, the classical aftershock sequences generated by large main shocks and the aftershocks generated by large foreshocks preceding a main shock. For the former sequences, the early aftershocks during a training time interval are used to constrain the magnitude of the future extreme event during the forecasting time interval. For the latter sequences, the earthquakes preceding the main shock are used to constrain the magnitudes of the subsequent extreme events including the main shock. The analysis is applied retrospectively to past prominent earthquake sequences.

  10. Investigation of Science Faculty with Education Specialties within the Largest University System in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Bush, Seth D; Pelaez, Nancy; Rudd, James A, II; Stevens, Michael T; Tanner, Kimberly D; Williams, Kathy, PhD

    2011-01-01

    Efforts to improve science education include university science departments hiring Science Faculty with Education Specialties (SFES), scientists who take on specialized roles in science education within their discipline. Although these positions have existed for decades and may be growing more common, few reports have investigated the SFES approach to improving science education. We present comprehensive data on the SFES in the California State University (CSU) system, the largest university ...

  11. Statistics of the largest sunspot and facular areas per solar cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, D.M.; Kabasakal Tulunay, Y.

    1979-01-01

    The statistics of extreme values is used to investigate the statistical properties of the largest areas sunspots and photospheric faculae per solar cycle. The largest values of the synodic-solar-rotation mean areas of umbrae, whole spots and faculae, which have been recorded for nine solar cycles, are each shown to comply with the general form of the extreme value probability function. Empirical expressions are derived for the three extreme value populations from which the characteristic statistical parameters, namely the mode, median, mean and standard deviation, can be calculated for each population. These three extreme value populations are also used to find the expected ranges of the extreme areas in a group of solar cycles as a function of the number of cycles in the group. The extreme areas of umbrae and whole spots have a dispersion comparable to that found by Siscoe for the extreme values of sunspot number, whereas the extreme areas of faculae have a smaller dispersion which is comparable to that found by Siscoe for the largest geomagnetic storm per solar cycle. The expected range of the largest sunspot area per solar cycle for a group of one hundred cycles appears to be inconsistent with the existence of the prolonged periods of sunspot minima that have been inferred from the historical information on solar variability. This inconsistency supports the contention that there are temporal changes of solar-cycle statistics during protracted periods of sunspot minima (or maxima). Indeed, without such temporal changes, photospheric faculae should have been continually observable throughout the lifetime of the Sun. (orig.)

  12. Trend of CO2 emissions of the 30 largest power plants in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, Hauke

    2014-01-01

    The brochure on the trend of CO 2 emissions of the 30 largest power plants in Germany includes tables of the emissions of these power plants. The CO 2 emissions of these power plants in 2013 (25% of the total German greenhouse gas emissions) have increased by 5% compared to 2012. The total CO 2 emission sin Germany increased by 1.5%. The differences between brown coal and black coal fired power plants are discussed.

  13. Natural radionuclides in soil profiles surrounding the largest coal-fired power plant in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Tanić Milan N.; Janković-Mandić Ljiljana J.; Gajić Boško A.; Daković Marko Z.; Dragović Snežana D.; Bačić Goran G.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the influence of the largest Serbian coal-fired power plant on radionuclide concentrations in soil profiles up to 50 cm in depth. Thirty soil profiles were sampled from the plant surroundings (up to 10 km distance) and analyzed using standard methods for soil physicochemical properties and gamma ray spectrometry for specific activities of natural radionuclides (40K, 226Ra and 232Th). Spatial and vertical distribution of radionuclides wa...

  14. THE MASS OF (4) VESTA DERIVED FROM ITS LARGEST GRAVITATIONAL EFFECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmanoski, Mike; Novakovic, Bojan; Apostolovska, Gordana

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a recalculated value of the mass of (4) Vesta, derived from its largest gravitational perturbations on selected asteroids during their mutual close encounters. This was done by using a new method for mass determination, which is based on the linking of pre-encounter observations to the orbit determined from post-encounter ones. The estimated weighted mean of the mass of (4) Vesta is (1.300 ± 0.001) x 10 -10 M sun .

  15. Prostate Cancer Screening in Jamaica: Results of the Largest National Screening Clinic Prostate Cancer Screening in Jamaica: Results of the Largest National Screening Clinic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, B. F.; Aiken, W.; Mayhew, R.; Gordon, Y.; Reid, M.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is highly prevalent in Jamaica and is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Our aim was to evaluate the patterns of screening in the largest organized screening clinic in Jamaica at the Jamaica Cancer Society. A retrospective analysis of all men presenting for screening at the Jamaica Cancer Society from 1995 to 2005 was done. All patients had digital rectal examinations (DRE) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) tests done. Results of prostate biopsies were noted. 1117 men of mean age 59.9 ± 8.2 years presented for screening. The median documented PSA was 1.6 ng/mL (maximum of 5170 ng/mL). Most patients presented for only 1 screen. There was a gradual reduction in the mean age of presentation for screening over the period. Prostate biopsies were requested on 11% of screening visits; however, only 59% of these were done. 5.6% of all persons screened were found to have cancer. Of the cancers diagnosed, Gleason 6 adenocarcinoma was the commonest grade and median PSA was 8.9 ng/mL (range 1.5-1059 ng/mL). Older men tend to screen for prostate cancer in Jamaica. However, compliance with regular maintenance visits and requests for confirmatory biopsies are poor. Screening needs intervention in the Jamaican population.

  16. On the statistics of the largest geomagnetic storms per solar cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siscoe, G.L.

    1976-01-01

    The theory of extreme value statistics is applied to the first, second, and third largest geomagnetic storms in nine solar cycles measured by the average half-daily aa indices compiled by Mayaud. Analytic expressions giving the probability of the extremes per solar cycle as a contour function of storm magnitude are obtained by least squares fitting of the observations to the appropriate theoretical extreme value probability functions. The results are used to obtain the statistical characteristics (mode, median, mean, and standard deviation) for the extreme values. The results are applied to find the expected range of extreme values in a set as a function of the number of solar cycles in the set. We find that the expected range of the largest storm is quite narrow and is larger for the second and third largest storms. The observed range of the extreme half-daily aa index for the nine solar cycles is 354--546 γ. In a set of 100 cycles the range is expanded esentially to 311--680γ, an increase of only 39% in the range. The result supports the argument for a change in solar cycle statistics in the latter part of the Seventeenth Century (the Maunder minimum)

  17. Hospital Prices Increase in California, Especially Among Hospitals in the Largest Multi-hospital Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn A. Melnick PhD

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A surge in hospital consolidation is fueling formation of ever larger multi-hospital systems throughout the United States. This article examines hospital prices in California over time with a focus on hospitals in the largest multi-hospital systems. Our data show that hospital prices in California grew substantially (+76% per hospital admission across all hospitals and all services between 2004 and 2013 and that prices at hospitals that are members of the largest, multi-hospital systems grew substantially more (113% than prices paid to all other California hospitals (70%. Prices were similar in both groups at the start of the period (approximately $9200 per admission. By the end of the period, prices at hospitals in the largest systems exceeded prices at other California hospitals by almost $4000 per patient admission. Our study findings are potentially useful to policy makers across the country for several reasons. Our data measure actual prices for a large sample of hospitals over a long period of time in California. California experienced its wave of consolidation much earlier than the rest of the country and as such our findings may provide some insights into what may happen across the United States from hospital consolidation including growth of large, multi-hospital systems now forming in the rest of the rest of the country.

  18. The global diversion of pharmaceutical drugs. India: the third largest illicit opium producer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Letizia; Greenfield, Victoria A; Charles, Molly; Reuter, Peter

    2009-03-01

    This paper explores India's role in the world illicit opiate market, particularly its role as a producer. India, a major illicit opiate consumer, is also the sole licensed exporter of raw opium: this unique status may be enabling substantial diversion to the illicit market. Participant observation and interviews were carried out at eight different sites. Information was also drawn from all standard secondary sources and the analysis of about 180 drug-related criminal proceedings reviewed by Indian High Courts and the Supreme Court from 1985 to 2001. Diversion from licit opium production takes place on such a large scale that India may be the third largest illicit opium producer after Afghanistan and Burma. With the possible exceptions of 2005 and 2006, 200-300 tons of India's opium may be diverted yearly. After estimating India's opiate consumption on the basis of UN-reported prevalence estimates, we find that diversion from licit production might have satisfied a quarter to more than a third of India's illicit opiate demand to 2004. India is not only among the world's largest consumer of illicit opiates but also one of the largest illicit opium producers. In contrast to all other illicit producers, India owes the latter distinction not to blatantly illicit cultivation but to diversion from licit cultivation. India's experience suggests the difficulty of preventing substantial leakage, even in a relatively well-governed nation.

  19. Astronomers Break Ground on Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) - World's Largest Millimeter Wavelength Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    Scientists and dignitaries from Europe, North America and Chile are breaking ground today (Thursday, November 6, 2003) on what will be the world's largest, most sensitive radio telescope operating at millimeter wavelengths . ALMA - the "Atacama Large Millimeter Array" - will be a single instrument composed of 64 high-precision antennas located in the II Region of Chile, in the District of San Pedro de Atacama, at the Chajnantor altiplano, 5,000 metres above sea level. ALMA 's primary function will be to observe and image with unprecedented clarity the enigmatic cold regions of the Universe, which are optically dark, yet shine brightly in the millimetre portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is an international astronomy facility. ALMA is an equal partnership between Europe and North America, in cooperation with the Republic of Chile, and is funded in North America by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC), and in Europe by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and Spain. ALMA construction and operations are led on behalf of North America by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), which is managed by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), and on behalf of Europe by ESO. " ALMA will be a giant leap forward for our studies of this relatively little explored spectral window towards the Universe" , said Dr. Catherine Cesarsky , Director General of ESO. "With ESO leading the European part of this ambitious and forward-looking project, the impact of ALMA will be felt in wide circles on our continent. Together with our partners in North America and Chile, we are all looking forward to the truly outstanding opportunities that will be offered by ALMA , also to young scientists and engineers" . " The U.S. National Science Foundation joins today with our North American partner, Canada, and with the European Southern Observatory, Spain, and Chile to prepare

  20. Transient simulation of a solar heating system for a small-scale ethanol-water distillation plant: Thermal, environmental and economic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas-Bautista, Juan Pablo; García-Cuéllar, Alejandro Javier; Pérez-García, Santiago L.; Rivera-Solorio, Carlos I.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal simulation of a small solar ethanol distillation plant is performed. • The optimum collector area is obtained for two different thermal collectors types. • Higher solar fraction was found for parabolic trough collectors. • Economic analysis is performed for different scenarios to evaluate feasibility. - Abstract: The thermal, environmental and economic performance of a small-scale ethanol distillation system, where solar energy is used as primary energy source, was studied. Two different concentrations of ethanol at the feed stream (5 wt.% and 10 wt.%) were analysed to obtain a distillate product of 95 wt.% ethanol (hydrous ethanol). Evacuated tube solar collectors (ETC) and parabolic trough collectors (PTC) were considered for the solar heating system. A case of study for a specific geographical place (Monterrey, México) was developed herein to evaluate the solar ethanol distillation system; the results can be extended to other locations, weather conditions and operational parameters. The thermal results from the simulation showed that through an adequate selection of the solar collector area and an appropriate sizing of the different equipment of the solar distillation system, PTC represents a better option where energy savings of 80% and 71% can be achieved for 5 wt.% and 10 wt.% ethanol at the feed stream, respectively. However, the economic feasibility of the solar distillation system is achieved using ETC for a price of hydrous ethanol of 1.75 USD/L and a feed stream of 10 wt.% ethanol, reaching an internal rate of return (IRR) of 18.8% and payback period of 5.2 years. As an important technical result, selected ETC presented advantages over PTC where an average distillate product of 3.6 and 3.4 ml at 95 wt.% ethanol can be obtained per unit of solar energy (kW h) captured per area (m"2) of solar collector using 5 wt.% and 10 wt.% ethanol at the feed stream, respectively (36% more than PTC). The reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG

  1. Simulating the Incorporation of Geochemical Proxies into Scleractinian Coral Skeletons: Effects of Different Environmental and Biological Factors and Implications for Paleo-reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, W.

    2017-12-01

    Chemical and isotopic compositions of scleractinian coral skeletons reflect the physicochemical condition of the seawater in which corals grow. This makes coral skeleton one of the best archives of ocean climate and biogeochemical changes. A number of coral-based geochemical proxies have been developed and applied to reconstruct past seawater conditions, such as temperature, pH, carbonate chemistry and nutrient concentrations. Detailed laboratory and field-based studies of these proxies, however, indicate interpretation of the geochemistry of coral skeletons is not straightforward, due to the presence of `vital effects' and the variations of empirical proxy calibrations among and within different species. This poses challenges for the broad application of many geochemical proxies in corals, and highlights the need to better understand the fundamental processes governing the incorporation of different proxies. Here I present a numerical model that simulates the incorporation of a suite of geochemical proxies into coral skeletons, including δ11B, Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, U/Ca, B/Ca and Ba/Ca. This model, building on previous theoretical studies of coral calcification, combines our current understanding of coral calcification mechanism with experimental constraints on the isotope and element partition during carbonate precipitation. It enables quantitative evaluation of the effects of different environmental and biological factors on each proxy. Specifically, this model shows that (1) the incorporation of every proxy is affected by multiple seawater parameters (e.g. temperature, pH, DIC) as opposed to one single parameter, and (2) biological factors, particularly the interplay between enzymatic alkalinity pumping and the exchange of coral calcifying fluid with external seawater, also exert significant controls. Based on these findings, I propose an inverse method for simultaneously reconstructing multiple seawater physicochemical parameters, and compare the performance of this

  2. Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter environmental protection in the Slovak Republic in 1997 are reviewed. The economics of environmental protection, state budget, Slovak state environmental fund, economic instruments, environmental laws, environmental impact assessment, environmental management systems, and environmental education are presented

  3. Loss of largest and oldest individuals of the Montpellier snake correlates with recent warming in the southeastern Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Calderón, Cosme; Feriche, Mónica; Alaminos, Esmeralda; Pleguezuelos, Juan M

    2017-12-01

    The effects of climate change on organisms are now being extensively studied in many different taxa. However, the variation in body size, usually shrinkage in response to increasing temperature, has received little attention regarding to reptiles. During past periods of global warming, many organisms shrank in size, and current evidence and experiments manipulating temperature have shown a biomass decrease in some organisms with increasing temperatures. Here we test whether the body size of the Montpellier snake Malpolon monspessulanus from the southeastern Iberian Peninsula is changing and correlated with the increasing temperature in this region during a 39-year period (1976-2014). We measured the snout-vent length (SVL) of vouchers in scientific collections to check for trends in adult body size at the population level in relation with temperature, while controlling for the age of the individuals (estimated by skeletochronology, n  =141). Given the great ontogenetic variation in body size of the study species, we categorized age in 3 classes: "young adults" (under 5 years old), "intermediate adults" (from 5 to 7 years old), and "old adults" (from 8 to 14 years old). By means of linear mixed models, we found a negative relationship between SVL of "old adults" and average annual temperature in the region during the lifetime of each individual. Our results indicate that largest and oldest individuals of the Montpellier Snake, that is, males because of strong sexual size dimorphism in this species, disappeared from the study population, and suggest that it occurred in response to rising environmental temperature.

  4. Midday stomatal closure in Mediterranean type sclerophylls under simulated habitat conditions in an environmental chamber : II. Effect of the complex of leaf temperature and air humidity on gas exchange of Arbutus unedo and Quercus ilex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenhunen, J D; Lange, O L; Braun, M

    1981-08-01

    Shrubs of the Mediterranean sclerophyllous species Arbutus unedo and Quercus ilex were studied under simulated habitat conditions in an environmental chamber. Temperature, humidity, and light intensity were altered stepwise to simulate diurnal changes in conditions similar to those measured in an evergreen macchia in Sobreda, Portugal. Leaves were enclosed in cuvettes which reproduced the growth chamber climate and which allowed measurement of gas exchange. Increasing atmospheric stress in the form of higher temperature and lower humidity on successive days gradually results in midday depression of transpiration rate and net photosynthesis rate of leaves due to midday stomatal closure.

  5. Deep, diverse and definitely different: unique attributes of the world's largest ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ramirez-Llodra

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The deep sea, the largest biome on Earth, has a series of characteristics that make this environment both distinct from other marine and land ecosystems and unique for the entire planet. This review describes these patterns and processes, from geological settings to biological processes, biodiversity and biogeographical patterns. It concludes with a brief discussion of current threats from anthropogenic activities to deep-sea habitats and their fauna.

    Investigations of deep-sea habitats and their fauna began in the late 19th century. In the intervening years, technological developments and stimulating discoveries have promoted deep-sea research and changed our way of understanding life on the planet. Nevertheless, the deep sea is still mostly unknown and current discovery rates of both habitats and species remain high. The geological, physical and geochemical settings of the deep-sea floor and the water column form a series of different habitats with unique characteristics that support specific faunal communities. Since 1840, 28 new habitats/ecosystems have been discovered from the shelf break to the deep trenches and discoveries of new habitats are still happening in the early 21st century. However, for most of these habitats the global area covered is unknown or has been only very roughly estimated; an even smaller – indeed, minimal – proportion has actually been sampled and investigated. We currently perceive most of the deep-sea ecosystems as heterotrophic, depending ultimately on the flux on organic matter produced in the overlying surface ocean through photosynthesis. The resulting strong food limitation thus shapes deep-sea biota and communities, with exceptions only in reducing ecosystems such as inter alia hydrothermal vents or cold seeps. Here, chemoautolithotrophic bacteria play the role of primary producers fuelled by chemical energy sources rather than sunlight. Other ecosystems, such as seamounts, canyons or cold

  6. THE EVOLUTION OF THE WORLD’S LARGEST AUTOMAKERS IN THE PERIOD 2013-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin-George TOMA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The automotive industry has always represented an economic engine for many countries. It is dealing with the design, development, manufacture, marketing, and sale of the motor vehicles. Nowadays, this industry is full of intense competition between big auto groups fighting for higher profits and larger market shares. The key players in the automotive market are operating at a global scale in a highly competitive environment. In the last years, Toyota Motor and Volkswagen Group have proved to be the main competitors. The aim of our paper is to analyze the evolution of the world’s largest automakers in the period 2013-2014. The research type is literature review.

  7. Europe's largest solar thermal power plant. [200 kw thermal output supplemented by two 10-kw windmills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossel, U

    1976-03-01

    An overview is given over the solar heating plant which has recently been commissioned in the Camargue (France). This is the largest plant in Europe, with a mean heat output of about 200 kW, for the production of thermal energy from solar energy. The plant consists of 108 parabolic collectors (200 sq. metres) and 48 flat collectors (110 sq. metres). Two windmills with outputs of 10 kW each complete the system. The heat energy produced by the solar collectors is given up to 3 different stores, which in turn are connected to various consumers.

  8. OBJECT TRACKING WITH ROTATION-INVARIANT LARGEST DIFFERENCE INDEXED LOCAL TERNARY PATTERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Shajeena

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an ideal method for object tracking directly in the compressed domain in video sequences. An enhanced rotation-invariant image operator called Largest Difference Indexed Local Ternary Pattern (LDILTP has been proposed. The Local Ternary Pattern which worked very well in texture classification and face recognition is now extended for rotation invariant object tracking. Histogramming the LTP code makes the descriptor resistant to translation. The histogram intersection is used to find the similarity measure. This method is robust to noise and retain contrast details. The proposed scheme has been verified on various datasets and shows a commendable performance.

  9. Female urethral diverticulum presenting with acute urinary retention: Reporting the largest diverticulum with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas Ranjan Pradhan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Female urethral diverticulum is a rare entity with diverse spectrum of clinical manifestations. It is a very rare cause of bladder outlet obstruction and should be considered as a differential diagnosis in females presenting with acute urinary retention associated with a vaginal mass. Strong clinical suspicion combined with thorough physical examination and focused radiological investigations are vital for its diagnosis. Herein we report a case of giant urethral diverticulum presenting with acute urinary retention in a young female. It was managed by excision and urethral closure, and is the largest urethral diverticulum reported till date in the literature.

  10. WISMUT AG: Past, present and future of the largest uranium producer in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madel, J.

    1990-01-01

    The author gives a brief summary of WISMUT AG the largest uranium producer operating in Europe. The jointly owned German-Soviet company operates its production facilities in the southern part of the former German Democratic Republic. Given the new political and economic frame in Germany and the Soviet Union WISMUT AG will receive due recognition. Uranium exploration, mining, and milling activities are summarized from 1946-1989, and a summary of present activities and projections of future activities in the area of decontamination, restoration, and recultivation of present and abandoned mining and milling sites are noted. A statement of WISMUT AG's projected role in the international nuclear fuels market is made

  11. How the largest electric and gas utility companies administer public relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogart, J.D.

    1979-04-12

    This article describes the findings of a survey conducted by the author in the second half of 1978 to determine the sizes of the public relations staffs of the nation's largest operating electric and gas utilities, their budgets, organizational differences, and specific functions. Common public relations issues and major public relations problems of the utilities are identified, as well as recent trends or changes in budgeting and organization. Some functional variations of public relations departments among utility companies were detected and described.

  12. Line Balancing Using Largest Candidate Rule Algorithm In A Garment Industry: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P.Jaganathan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of fast changes in fashion has given rise to the need to shorten production cycle times in the garment industry. As effective usage of resources has a significant effect on the productivity and efficiency of production operations, garment manufacturers are urged to utilize their resources effectively in order to meet dynamic customer demand. This paper focuses specifically on line balancing and layout modification. The aim of assembly line balance in sewing lines is to assign tasks to the workstations, so that the machines of the workstation can perform the assigned tasks with a balanced loading. Largest Candidate Rule Algorithm (LCR has been deployed in this paper.

  13. Foreign exchange risk management : how are the largest non-financial companies in Norway managing their foreign exchange rate exposure?

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksen, Krister; Wedøe, Ola

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate how the largest non-financial companies in Norway manage their foreign exchange rate exposure. This is investigated through the use of a survey distributed to a sample the largest non-financial firms in Norway. According to our results, the largest non-financial companies in Norway have a predefined strategy for managing foreign exchange risk, which is defined by the board of directors or by the management in the organisation. The companies’ mai...

  14. Revisiting the impacts of oil price increases on monetary policy implementation in the largest oil importers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurtac Yildirim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to test the impacts of oil price increases on monetary policy implementation in the largest oil importers. For that purpose, we estimate structural vector error correction (SVEC models to show the impacts of oil price increases on industrial production, consumer prices and immediate interest rates which are the elements of Taylor rule for the four largest oil importers (the USA, the EU, China and Japan. Our results indicate that oil price increases transmit to output and inflation and lead to fluctuations in industrial production, consumer prices and immediate interest rates which in turn influence the monetary policy stance in the following periods. The basic conclusion of research is that the channels through which oil prices affect output, inflation and interest rates should be identified by the monetary policy authorities of the USA, the EU, China and Japan. We also emphasize the importance of the determination of the optimal monetary policy framework to eliminate the negative consequences of oil price increases.

  15. One last boom : Alberta's rapidly expanding oil mines may be the largest and messiest industrial projects in Canadian history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laird, G.

    2001-01-01

    The bitumen deposits of Alberta, 2.5 trillion barrels of oil, of which 300 billion are considered recoverable, represent the greatest single petroleum resources of the world, based on surface and subsurface calculations. Four deposits, covering an area the size of New Brunswick, are located in the area stretching from Cold Lake to Lloydminster (east of Edmonton), the upper reaches of the Athabasca River east to the Peace River. The largest by far is the Athabasca deposit in the vicinity of Fort McMurray, spread over 4.3 million hectares. The deposit is at the centre of the biggest industrial expansion witnessed by the province. Since 1996, 38 billion dollars worth of new projects have been announced. It is estimated that by 2025, the bulk of the national oil production will originate from open-pit mines and underground wells around Fort McMurray. This oil boom has economic benefits for the population, from welders to real estate agents to stakeholders. The environmental effects are not as beneficial. Huge strip mines are being carved next to the Athabasca River, with great amounts of greenhouse gases emissions. The Suncor and Syncrude oil-sands plants combined represent the fourth largest carbon dioxide emission source in Canada. The development of these projects dramatically affects global warming. The nitrogen and sulphur emissions could also acidify lakes and soil in the region. The Suncor mine resulted from the first boom to hit Fort McMurray in 1964. The Syncrude mine is the result of the second boom which took place in 1973. In 1996, Suncor installed a sulphur scrubber system that removes 95 per cent of sulphur dioxide from the electricity and steam-generation plant. Suncor also invested in various projects, such as wind-power, rainforest cultivation and biomass generation. The volume of pollution increases as the operations expand, even if operations are cleaner. If no new gains in pollution control are achieved, it is expected that by 2015, the total

  16. The economic and environmental impact of trade in forest reserve obligations: a simulation analysis of options for dealing with habitat heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth M. Chomitz

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A tradeable development rights (TDR program focusing on biodiversity conservation faces a crucial problem: defining which areas of habitat should be considered equivalent. Restricting the trading scope to a narrow area could boost the range of biodiversity conserved but could increase the opportunity cost of conservation. The issue is relevant to Brazil, where TDR-like policies are emerging. Long-standing laws require each rural property to maintain a legal forest reserve (reserva legal of at least 20%, but emerging policies allow some tradeability of this obligation. This paper uses a simple, spatially explicit model to simulate a hypothetical state-level program. We find that wider trading scopes drastically reduce landholder costs of complying with this regulation and result in environmentally preferable landscapes.Programas que tenham por objetivo desenvolver um mercado de Direitos Especiais de Propriedade (DEP enfrentam um problema fundamental, qual seja a definição de áreas de preservação equivalentes. Caso a definição seja por um conceito muito restritivo, poderá ocorrer uma maior conservação da biodiversidade, porém com um aumento do custo de oportunidade da preservação ambiental. O assunto é relevante para o Brasil onde programas semelhantes aos DEP estão surgindo. A legislação exige que cada propriedade rural mantenha pelo menos 20% de sua área na forma de florestas (reserva legal, porém algumas políticas nascentes já permitem tipo de negociação de Direitos. Este trabalho usa um modelo espacial simples para simular o efeito de um programa hipotético implantado em um estado. O principal resultado é que uma política menos restritiva para a comercialização dos DEP reduz de forma expressiva, para os produtores rurais, os custos de cumprir a legislação e leva a soluções preferíveis sob o ponto de vista ambiental.

  17. Field Note: Threatening Tonle Sap: Challenges for Southeast-Asia’s largest Freshwater Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuenzer, Claudia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Tonle Sap ecosystem in Cambodia is Southeast Asia’s largest freshwater lake; strongly impacted by the Mekong river flood pulse. The lake is home to exceptional biodiversity, and rural communities living in free floating villages on the lake and on its shores. The fragile niche ecosystems as well as the rural livelihoods of Tonle Sap are under severe threat. Overfishing, illegal wood harvesting, further resource exploitation, and water quality deterioration all impact the stability of the socio-ecological system of Tonle Sap. At the same time, expected flood pulse changes due to regulatory measures in the context of hydropower development upstream on the Mekong are a severe threat for Tonle Sap’s ecosystem stability. The area needs to shift into the focus of attention of national and international re-searchers, stakeholders, and decision makers, to find suitable pathways for a future sustainable development of this unique and pristine region.

  18. Fifteen Years of Operation at NASA's National Transonic Facility with the World's Largest Adjustable Speed Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydnor, George H.; Bhatia, Ram; Krattiger, Hansueli; Mylius, Justus; Schafer, D.

    2012-01-01

    In September 1995, a project was initiated to replace the existing drive line at NASA's most unique transonic wind tunnel, the National Transonic Facility (NTF), with a single 101 MW synchronous motor driven by a Load Commutated Inverter (LCI). This Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD) system also included a custom four-winding transformer, harmonic filter, exciter, switch gear, control system, and feeder cable. The complete system requirements and design details have previously been presented and published [1], as well as the commissioning and acceptance test results [2]. The NTF was returned to service in December 1997 with the new drive system powering the fan. Today, this installation still represents the world s largest horizontal single motor/drive combination. This paper describes some significant events that occurred with the drive system during the first 15 years of service. These noteworthy issues are analyzed and root causes presented. Improvements that have substantially increased the long term viability of the system are given.

  19. Mauna Loa--history, hazards and risk of living with the world's largest volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusdell, Frank A.

    2012-01-01

    Mauna Loa on the Island Hawaiʻi is the world’s largest volcano. People residing on its flanks face many hazards that come with living on or near an active volcano, including lava flows, explosive eruptions, volcanic smog, damaging earthquakes, and local tsunami (giant seawaves). The County of Hawaiʻi (Island of Hawaiʻi) is the fastest growing County in the State of Hawaii. Its expanding population and increasing development mean that risk from volcano hazards will continue to grow. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) closely monitor and study Mauna Loa Volcano to enable timely warning of hazardous activity and help protect lives and property.

  20. Approaching the largest ‘API’: extracting information from the Internet with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E. Germann

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the need for libraries to algorithmically access and manipulate the world’s largest API: the Internet. The billions of pages on the ‘Internet API’ (HTTP, HTML, CSS, XPath, DOM, etc. are easily accessible and manipulable. Libraries can assist in creating meaning through the datafication of information on the world wide web. Because most information is created for human consumption, some programming is required for automated extraction. Python is an easy-to-learn programming language with extensive packages and community support for web page automation. Four packages (Urllib, Selenium, BeautifulSoup, Scrapy in Python can automate almost any web page for all sized projects. An example warrant data project is explained to illustrate how well Python packages can manipulate web pages to create meaning through assembling custom datasets.

  1. Quicksort, largest bucket, and min-wise hashing with limited independence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mathias Bæk Tejs; Stöckel, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Randomized algorithms and data structures are often analyzed under the assumption of access to a perfect source of randomness. The most fundamental metric used to measure how “random” a hash function or a random number generator is, is its independence: a sequence of random variables is said...... to be k-independent if every variable is uniform and every size k subset is independent. In this paper we consider three classic algorithms under limited independence. Besides the theoretical interest in removing the unrealistic assumption of full independence, the work is motivated by lower independence...... being more practical. We provide new bounds for randomized quicksort, min-wise hashing and largest bucket size under limited independence. Our results can be summarized as follows. Randomized Quicksort. When pivot elements are computed using a 5-independent hash function, Karloff and Raghavan, J.ACM’93...

  2. What could we learn about high energy particle physics from cosmological observations at largest spatial scales ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunov Dmitry

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The very well known example of cosmology testing particle physics is the number of relativistic particles (photons and three active neutrinos within the Standard Model at primordial nucleosynthesis. These days the earliest moment we can hope to probe with present cosmological data is the early time inflation. The particle physics conditions there and now are different because of different energy scales and different values of the scalar fields, that usually prohibits a reliable connection between the particle physics parameters at the two interesting epochs. The physics at the highest energy scales may be probed with observations at the largest spatial scales (just somewhat smaller than the size of the visible Universe. However, we are not (yet ready to make the tests realistic, because of lack of a self-consistent theoretical description of the presently favorite cosmological models to be valid right after inflation.

  3. The role and attributes of entrepreneurs at South Africa´s largest arts festival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Jonker

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Klein Karoo National Arts Festival (KKNK in Oudtshoorn, South Africa, is the largest arts festival in South Africa. The purpose of this research was to determine the attributes and role of the entrepreneurs at the Klein Karoo National Arts Festival. This was done by means of a questionnaire survey (N=249. After data capturing was completed, two factor analyses were conducted. The first factor analysis revealed six factors (entrepreneurial attributes, namely organisational skills, resourcefulness, self-edification, explorative, acquired skill and drive, of which resourcefulness had the highest mean value. The second factor analysis identified the role of entrepreneurs at KKNK and revealed three primary roles, namely festival promotion, product promotion and income generation, of which product promotion had the highest mean value. This is the first time that the roles of entrepreneurs at festivals were investigated in South Africa.

  4. EVALUATION OF E-RECRUITMENT LEVEL AMONG THE LARGEST COMPANIES IN POLAND - PROJECT OF RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Buchnowska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The changes taking place in the labor market cause that it is increasingly difficult to recruit employees with the right skills and competencies to companies. To reach the right candidates, they use modern IT solutions, such as ATS (Applicant Tracking System, which are supporting the processes of recruitment. Among others, they enable the publication of job offers on the Internet - on corporate websites, job portals and business social networking services - and apply for jobs online through these channels. This article pre-sents the evolution of the use of the Internet, and particularly the social media, in the recruitment process and presents a projekt of comprehensive research, which aims is to analyze and evaluate of the level of development of e-recruitment in Poland among largest companies.

  5. Damage and protection cost curves for coastal floods within the 600 largest European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahl, Boris F.; Boettle, Markus; Costa, Luís; Kropp, Jürgen P.; Rybski, Diego

    2018-01-01

    The economic assessment of the impacts of storm surges and sea-level rise in coastal cities requires high-level information on the damage and protection costs associated with varying flood heights. We provide a systematically and consistently calculated dataset of macroscale damage and protection cost curves for the 600 largest European coastal cities opening the perspective for a wide range of applications. Offering the first comprehensive dataset to include the costs of dike protection, we provide the underpinning information to run comparative assessments of costs and benefits of coastal adaptation. Aggregate cost curves for coastal flooding at the city-level are commonly regarded as by-products of impact assessments and are generally not published as a standalone dataset. Hence, our work also aims at initiating a more critical discussion on the availability and derivation of cost curves. PMID:29557944

  6. Using largest Lyapunov exponent to confirm the intrinsic stability of boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavilian-Moreno, Carlos; Espinosa-Paredes, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the study of instability state of boiling water reactors with a method based in largest Lyapunov exponents (LLEs). Detecting the presence of chaos in a dynamical system is an important problem that is solved by measuring the LLE. Lyapunov exponents quantify the exponential divergence of initially close state-space trajectories and estimate the amount of chaos in a system. This method was applied to a set of signals from several nuclear power plant (NPP) reactors under commercial operating conditions that experienced instabilities events, apparently each of a different nature. Laguna Verde and Forsmark NPPs with in-phase instabilities, and Cofrentes NPP with out-of-phases instability. This study presents the results of intrinsic instability in the boiling water reactors of three NPPs. In the analyzed cases the limit cycle was not reached, which implies that the point of equilibrium exerts influence and attraction on system evolution

  7. Using largest Lyapunov exponent to confirm the intrinsic stability of boiling water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavilian-Moreno, Carlos [Iberdrola Generacion, S.A., Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant, Project Engineering Department, Paraje le Plano S/N, Valencia (Spain); Espinosa-Paredes, Gilberto [Area de ingeniera en Recursos Energeticos, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico city (Mexico)

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this paper is the study of instability state of boiling water reactors with a method based in largest Lyapunov exponents (LLEs). Detecting the presence of chaos in a dynamical system is an important problem that is solved by measuring the LLE. Lyapunov exponents quantify the exponential divergence of initially close state-space trajectories and estimate the amount of chaos in a system. This method was applied to a set of signals from several nuclear power plant (NPP) reactors under commercial operating conditions that experienced instabilities events, apparently each of a different nature. Laguna Verde and Forsmark NPPs with in-phase instabilities, and Cofrentes NPP with out-of-phases instability. This study presents the results of intrinsic instability in the boiling water reactors of three NPPs. In the analyzed cases the limit cycle was not reached, which implies that the point of equilibrium exerts influence and attraction on system evolution.

  8. A marine heatwave drives massive losses from the world’s largest seagrass carbon stocks

    KAUST Repository

    Arias-Ortiz, A.

    2018-03-29

    Seagrass ecosystems contain globally significant organic carbon (C) stocks. However, climate change and increasing frequency of extreme events threaten their preservation. Shark Bay, Western Australia, has the largest C stock reported for a seagrass ecosystem, containing up to 1.3% of the total C stored within the top metre of seagrass sediments worldwide. On the basis of field studies and satellite imagery, we estimate that 36% of Shark Bay’s seagrass meadows were damaged following a marine heatwave in 2010/2011. Assuming that 10 to 50% of the seagrass sediment C stock was exposed to oxic conditions after disturbance, between 2 and 9 Tg CO could have been released to the atmosphere during the following three years, increasing emissions from land-use change in Australia by 4–21% per annum. With heatwaves predicted to increase with further climate warming, conservation of seagrass ecosystems is essential to avoid adverse feedbacks on the climate system.

  9. Damage and protection cost curves for coastal floods within the 600 largest European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahl, Boris F.; Boettle, Markus; Costa, Luís; Kropp, Jürgen P.; Rybski, Diego

    2018-03-01

    The economic assessment of the impacts of storm surges and sea-level rise in coastal cities requires high-level information on the damage and protection costs associated with varying flood heights. We provide a systematically and consistently calculated dataset of macroscale damage and protection cost curves for the 600 largest European coastal cities opening the perspective for a wide range of applications. Offering the first comprehensive dataset to include the costs of dike protection, we provide the underpinning information to run comparative assessments of costs and benefits of coastal adaptation. Aggregate cost curves for coastal flooding at the city-level are commonly regarded as by-products of impact assessments and are generally not published as a standalone dataset. Hence, our work also aims at initiating a more critical discussion on the availability and derivation of cost curves.

  10. The largest deep-ocean silicic volcanic eruption of the past century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Rebecca; Soule, S Adam; Manga, Michael; White, James; McPhie, Jocelyn; Wysoczanski, Richard; Jutzeler, Martin; Tani, Kenichiro; Yoerger, Dana; Fornari, Daniel; Caratori-Tontini, Fabio; Houghton, Bruce; Mitchell, Samuel; Ikegami, Fumihiko; Conway, Chris; Murch, Arran; Fauria, Kristen; Jones, Meghan; Cahalan, Ryan; McKenzie, Warren

    2018-01-01

    The 2012 submarine eruption of Havre volcano in the Kermadec arc, New Zealand, is the largest deep-ocean eruption in history and one of very few recorded submarine eruptions involving rhyolite magma. It was recognized from a gigantic 400-km 2 pumice raft seen in satellite imagery, but the complexity of this event was concealed beneath the sea surface. Mapping, observations, and sampling by submersibles have provided an exceptionally high fidelity record of the seafloor products, which included lava sourced from 14 vents at water depths of 900 to 1220 m, and fragmental deposits including giant pumice clasts up to 9 m in diameter. Most (>75%) of the total erupted volume was partitioned into the pumice raft and transported far from the volcano. The geological record on submarine volcanic edifices in volcanic arcs does not faithfully archive eruption size or magma production.

  11. A general scaling law reveals why the largest animals are not the fastest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirt, Myriam R; Jetz, Walter; Rall, Björn C; Brose, Ulrich

    2017-08-01

    Speed is the fundamental constraint on animal movement, yet there is no general consensus on the determinants of maximum speed itself. Here, we provide a general scaling model of maximum speed with body mass, which holds across locomotion modes, ecosystem types and taxonomic groups. In contrast to traditional power-law scaling, we predict a hump-shaped relationship resulting from a finite acceleration time for animals, which explains why the largest animals are not the fastest. This model is strongly supported by extensive empirical data (474 species, with body masses ranging from 30 μg to 100 tonnes) from terrestrial as well as aquatic ecosystems. Our approach unravels a fundamental constraint on the upper limit of animal movement, thus enabling a better understanding of realized movement patterns in nature and their multifold ecological consequences.

  12. Largest solar installation on a hotel in Switzerland; Groesste Hotel-Solaranlage der Schweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadelmann, M.

    2008-07-01

    This article describes the solar thermal installation on the Hotel Europa in St. Moritz-Champfer, Switzerland. The installation provides heat energy for domestic hot water preparation and for the heating of the hotel's indoor swimming pool. A thirty-percent reduction of heating oil consumption has been obtained. The system, which is based on the 'low-flow' principle, provides the highest possible temperature difference while using low pumping energy. The hotel's hot-water circulation system, which ensures fast availability of hot water at the taps, is also discussed. This largest hotel solar installation is designed to meet heating and hot-water requirements during the summer season. The high requirements placed on the materials used are discussed. Schematics are provided and first operational experience is briefly discussed.

  13. Using Largest Lyapunov Exponent to Confirm the Intrinsic Stability of Boiling Water Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos J. Gavilán-Moreno

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is the study of instability state of boiling water reactors with a method based in largest Lyapunov exponents (LLEs. Detecting the presence of chaos in a dynamical system is an important problem that is solved by measuring the LLE. Lyapunov exponents quantify the exponential divergence of initially close state-space trajectories and estimate the amount of chaos in a system. This method was applied to a set of signals from several nuclear power plant (NPP reactors under commercial operating conditions that experienced instabilities events, apparently each of a different nature. Laguna Verde and Forsmark NPPs with in-phase instabilities, and Cofrentes NPP with out-of-phases instability. This study presents the results of intrinsic instability in the boiling water reactors of three NPPs. In the analyzed cases the limit cycle was not reached, which implies that the point of equilibrium exerts influence and attraction on system evolution.

  14. From Pushing Paper to Pushing Dirt - Canada's Largest LLRW Cleanup Gets Underway - 13111

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veen, Walter van; Lawrence, Dave

    2013-01-01

    The Port Hope Project is the larger of the two projects in the Port Hope Area Initiative (PHAI), Canada's largest low level radioactive waste (LLRW) cleanup. With a budget of approximately $1 billion, the Port Hope Project includes a broad and complex range of remedial elements from a state of the art water treatment plant, an engineered waste management facility, municipal solid waste removal, remediation of 18 major sites within the Municipality of Port Hope (MPH), sediment dredging and dewatering, an investigation of 4,800 properties (many of these homes) to identify LLRW and remediation of approximately 450 of these properties. This paper discusses the status of the Port Hope Project in terms of designs completed and regulatory approvals received, and sets out the scope and schedule for the remaining studies, engineering designs and remediation contracts. (authors)

  15. A marine heatwave drives massive losses from the world's largest seagrass carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Ortiz, A.; Serrano, O.; Masqué, P.; Lavery, P. S.; Mueller, U.; Kendrick, G. A.; Rozaimi, M.; Esteban, A.; Fourqurean, J. W.; Marbà, N.; Mateo, M. A.; Murray, K.; Rule, M. J.; Duarte, C. M.

    2018-04-01

    Seagrass ecosystems contain globally significant organic carbon (C) stocks. However, climate change and increasing frequency of extreme events threaten their preservation. Shark Bay, Western Australia, has the largest C stock reported for a seagrass ecosystem, containing up to 1.3% of the total C stored within the top metre of seagrass sediments worldwide. On the basis of field studies and satellite imagery, we estimate that 36% of Shark Bay's seagrass meadows were damaged following a marine heatwave in 2010/2011. Assuming that 10 to 50% of the seagrass sediment C stock was exposed to oxic conditions after disturbance, between 2 and 9 Tg CO2 could have been released to the atmosphere during the following three years, increasing emissions from land-use change in Australia by 4-21% per annum. With heatwaves predicted to increase with further climate warming, conservation of seagrass ecosystems is essential to avoid adverse feedbacks on the climate system.

  16. Mapping Biomass for REDD in the Largest Forest of Central Africa: the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Aurelie; Saatchi, Sassan

    2014-05-01

    With the support of the International Climate Initiative (ICI) of the Federal Ministry of the Environment, Conservation, and Nuclear Security, the implementation of the German Development Bank KfW, the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) Germany, the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) and local DRC partners will produce a national scale biomass map for the entire forest coverage of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) along with feasibility assessments of different forest protection measures within a framework of a REDD+ model project. The « Carbon Map and Model (CO2M&M) » project will produce a national forest biomass map for the DRC, which will enable quantitative assessments of carbon stocks and emissions in the largest forest of the Congo Basin. This effort will support the national REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation) program in DRC, which plays a major role in sustainable development and poverty alleviation. This map will be developed from field data, complemented by airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) and aerial photos, systematically sampled throughout the forests of the DRC and up-scaled to satellite images to accurately estimate carbon content in all forested areas. The second component of the project is to develop specific approaches for model REDD projects in key landscapes. This project represents the largest LiDAR-derived mapping effort in Africa, under unprecedented logistical constraints, which will provide one of the poorest nations in the world with the richest airborne and satellites derived datasets for analyzing forest structure, biomass and biodiversity.

  17. Dissolved Oxygen Dynamics in Backwaters of North America's Largest River Swamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueche, S. M.; Xu, Y. J.; Reiman, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    The Atchafalaya River (AR) is the largest distributary of the Mississippi River flowing through south-central Louisiana, creating North America's largest river swamp basin - the Atchafalaya River Basin (ARB). Prior to human settlement, the AR's main channel was highly connected to this large wetland ecosystem. However, due to constructed levee systems and other human modifications, much of the ARB is now hydrologically disconnected from the AR's main channel except during high flow events. This lack of regular inputs of fresh, oxygenated water to these wetlands, paired with high levels of organic matter decomposition in wetlands, has caused low oxygen-deprived hypoxic conditions in the ARB's back waters. In addition, due to the incredibly nutrient-rich and warm nature of the ARB, microbial decomposition in backwater areas with limited flow often results in potentially stressful, if not lethal, levels of DO for organisms during and after flood pulses. This study aims to investigate dynamics of dissolved oxygen in backwaters of the Atchafalaya River Basin, intending to answer a crucial question about hydrological and water quality connectivity between the river's mainstem and its floodplain. Specifically, the study will 1) conduct field water quality measurements, 2) collect composite water samples for chemical analysis of nutrients and carbon, 3) investigate DO dynamics over different seasons for one year, and 4) determine the major factors that affect DO dynamics in this unique swamp ecosystem. The study is currently underway; therefore, in this presentation we will share the major findings gained in the past several months and discuss backwater effects on river chemistry.

  18. Is Kasei Valles (Mars) the largest volcanic channel in the solar system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverington, David W.

    2018-02-01

    With a length of more than 2000 km and widths of up to several hundred kilometers, Kasei Valles is the largest outflow system on Mars. Superficially, the scabland-like character of Kasei Valles is evocative of terrestrial systems carved by catastrophic aqueous floods, and the system is widely interpreted as a product of outbursts from aquifers. However, as at other Martian outflow channels, clear examples of fluvial sedimentary deposits have proven difficult to identify here. Though Kasei Valles lacks several key properties expected of aqueous systems, its basic morphological and contextual properties are aligned with those of ancient volcanic channels on Venus, the Moon, Mercury, and Earth. There is abundant evidence that voluminous effusions of low-viscosity magmas occurred at the head of Kasei Valles, the channel system acted as a conduit for associated flows, and mare-style volcanic plains developed within its terminal basin. Combined mechanical and thermal incision rates of at least several meters per day are estimated to have been readily achieved at Kasei Valles by 20-m-deep magmas flowing with viscosities of 1 Pa s across low topographic slopes underlain by bedrock. If Kasei Valles formed through incision by magma, it would be the largest known volcanic channel in the solar system. The total volume of magma erupted at Kasei Valles is estimated here to have possibly reached or exceeded ∼5 × 106 km3, a volume comparable in magnitude to those that characterize individual Large Igneous Provinces on Earth. Development of other large outflow systems on Mars is expected to have similarly involved eruption of up to millions of cubic kilometers of magma.

  19. Spatial and temporal activity patterns of the free-living giant mole-rat (Fukomys mechowii, the largest social bathyergid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matěj Lövy

    Full Text Available Despite the considerable attention devoted to the biology of social species of African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia, knowledge is lacking about their behaviour under natural conditions. We studied activity of the largest social bathyergid, the giant mole-rat Fukomys mechowii, in its natural habitat in Zambia using radio-telemetry. We radio-tracked six individuals during three continuous 72-h sessions. Five of these individuals, including a breeding male, belonged to a single family group; the remaining female was probably a solitary disperser. The non-breeders of the family were active (i.e. outside the nest 5.8 hours per 24h-day with the activity split into 6.5 short bouts. The activity was more concentrated in the night hours, when the animals also travelled longer distances from the nest. The breeding male spent only 3.2 hours per day outside the nest, utilizing less than 20% of the whole family home range. The dispersing female displayed a much different activity pattern than the family members. Her 8.0 hours of outside-nest activity per day were split into 4.6 bouts which were twice as long as in the family non-breeders. Her activity peak in the late afternoon coincided with the temperature maximum in the depth of 10 cm (roughly the depth of the foraging tunnels. Our results suggest that the breeding individuals (at least males contribute very little to the work of the family group. Nevertheless, the amount of an individual's activity and its daily pattern are probably flexible in this species and can be modified in response to actual environmental and social conditions.

  20. The 100-C-7 Remediation Project. An Overview of One of DOE's Largest Remediation Projects - 13260

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Thomas C. [U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Strom, Dean [Washington Closure Hanford LLC, 2620 Fermi Avenue, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Beulow, Laura [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 309 Bradley Boulevard, Suite 115, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (RL), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington Closure Hanford LLC (WCH) completed remediation of one of the largest waste sites in the U.S. Department of Energy complex. The waste site, 100-C-7, covers approximately 15 football fields and was excavated to a depth of 85 feet (groundwater). The project team removed a total of 2.3 million tons of clean and contaminated soil, concrete debris, and scrap metal. 100-C-7 lies in Hanford's 100 B/C Area, home to historic B and C Reactors. The waste site was excavated in two parts as 100-C-7 and 100-C-7:1. The pair of excavations appear like pit mines. Mining engineers were hired to design their tiered sides, with safety benches every 17 feet and service ramps which allowed equipment access to the bottom of the excavations. The overall cleanup project was conducted over a span of almost 10 years. A variety of site characterization, excavation, load-out and sampling methodologies were employed at various stages of remediation. Alternative technologies were screened and evaluated during the project. A new method for cost effectively treating soils was implemented - resulting in significant cost savings. Additional opportunities for minimizing waste streams and recycling were identified and effectively implemented by the project team. During the final phase of cleanup the project team applied lessons learned throughout the entire project to address the final, remaining source of chromium contamination. The C-7 cleanup now serves as a model for remediating extensive deep zone contamination sites at Hanford. (authors)

  1. Quantifying the potential for reservoirs to secure future surface water yields in the world’s largest river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Parkinson, Simon; Gidden, Matthew; Byers, Edward; Satoh, Yusuke; Riahi, Keywan; Forman, Barton

    2018-04-01

    Surface water reservoirs provide us with reliable water supply, hydropower generation, flood control and recreation services. Yet reservoirs also cause flow fragmentation in rivers and lead to flooding of upstream areas, thereby displacing existing land-use activities and ecosystems. Anticipated population growth and development coupled with climate change in many regions of the globe suggests a critical need to assess the potential for future reservoir capacity to help balance rising water demands with long-term water availability. Here, we assess the potential of large-scale reservoirs to provide reliable surface water yields while also considering environmental flows within 235 of the world’s largest river basins. Maps of existing cropland and habitat conservation zones are integrated with spatially-explicit population and urbanization projections from the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways to identify regions unsuitable for increasing water supply by exploiting new reservoir storage. Results show that even when maximizing the global reservoir storage to its potential limit (∼4.3–4.8 times the current capacity), firm yields would only increase by about 50% over current levels. However, there exist large disparities across different basins. The majority of river basins in North America are found to gain relatively little firm yield by increasing storage capacity, whereas basins in Southeast Asia display greater potential for expansion as well as proportional gains in firm yield under multiple uncertainties. Parts of Europe, the United States and South America show relatively low reliability of maintaining current firm yields under future climate change, whereas most of Asia and higher latitude regions display comparatively high reliability. Findings from this study highlight the importance of incorporating different factors, including human development, land-use activities, and climate change, over a time span of multiple decades and across a range of different

  2. Decision Support for Environmental Management of Industrial Non-Hazardous Secondary Materials: New Analytical Methods Combined with Simulation and Optimization Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-hazardous solid materials from industrial processes, once regarded as waste and disposed in landfills, offer numerous environmental and economic advantages when put to beneficial uses (BUs). Proper management of these industrial non-hazardous secondary materials (INSM) requir...

  3. The Effects of Largest Claim and Excess of Loss Reinsurance on a Company’s Ruin Time and Valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguang Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We compare two types of reinsurance: excess of loss (EOL and largest claim reinsurance (LCR, each of which transfers the payment of part, or all, of one or more large claims from the primary insurance company (the cedant to a reinsurer. The primary insurer’s point of view is documented in terms of assessment of risk and payment of reinsurance premium. A utility indifference rationale based on the expected future dividend stream is used to value the company with and without reinsurance. Assuming the classical compound Poisson risk model with choices of claim size distributions (classified as heavy, medium and light-tailed cases, simulations are used to illustrate the impact of the EOL and LCR treaties on the company’s ruin probability, ruin time and value as determined by the dividend discounting model. We find that LCR is at least as effective as EOL in averting ruin in comparable finite time horizon settings. In instances where the ruin probability for LCR is smaller than for EOL, the dividend discount model shows that the cedant is able to pay a larger portion of the dividend for LCR reinsurance than for EOL while still maintaining company value. Both methods reduce risk considerably as compared with no reinsurance, in a variety of situations, as measured by the standard deviation of the company value. A further interesting finding is that heaviness of tails alone is not necessarily the decisive factor in the possible ruin of a company; small and moderate sized claims can also play a significant role in this.

  4. CLASH: COMPLETE LENSING ANALYSIS OF THE LARGEST COSMIC LENS MACS J0717.5+3745 AND SURROUNDING STRUCTURES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medezinski, Elinor; Lemze, Doron; Ford, Holland; Umetsu, Keiichi; Nonino, Mario; Merten, Julian; Mroczkowski, Tony; Zitrin, Adi; Broadhurst, Tom; Donahue, Megan; Sayers, Jack; Czakon, Nicole; Waizmann, Jean-Claude; Meneghetti, Massimo; Koekemoer, Anton; Coe, Dan; Postman, Marc; Molino, Alberto; Melchior, Peter; Grillo, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    The galaxy cluster MACS J0717.5+3745 (z = 0.55) is the largest known cosmic lens, with complex internal structures seen in deep X-ray, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect, and dynamical observations. We perform a combined weak- and strong-lensing analysis with wide-field BVR c i'z' Subaru/Suprime-Cam observations and 16-band Hubble Space Telescope observations taken as part of the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble. We find consistent weak distortion and magnification measurements of background galaxies and combine these signals to construct an optimally estimated radial mass profile of the cluster and its surrounding large-scale structure out to 5 Mpc h –1 . We find consistency between strong-lensing and weak-lensing in the region where these independent data overlap, –1 . The two-dimensional weak-lensing map reveals a clear filamentary structure traced by distinct mass halos. We model the lensing shear field with nine halos, including the main cluster, corresponding to mass peaks detected above 2.5σ κ . The total mass of the cluster as determined by the different methods is M vir ≈ (2.8 ± 0.4) × 10 15 M ☉ . Although this is the most massive cluster known at z > 0.5, in terms of extreme value statistics, we conclude that the mass of MACS J0717.5+3745 by itself is not in serious tension with ΛCDM, representing only a ∼2σ departure above the maximum simulated halo mass at this redshift

  5. CLASH: COMPLETE LENSING ANALYSIS OF THE LARGEST COSMIC LENS MACS J0717.5+3745 AND SURROUNDING STRUCTURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medezinski, Elinor; Lemze, Doron; Ford, Holland [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Umetsu, Keiichi [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Nonino, Mario [INAF/Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G.B. Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Merten, Julian; Mroczkowski, Tony [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 169-327, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Zitrin, Adi [Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Universität Heidelberg, Zentrum für Astronomie, Philosophenweg 12, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Broadhurst, Tom [Department of Theoretical Physics and History of Science, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, P.O. Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Donahue, Megan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Sayers, Jack; Czakon, Nicole [Division of Physics, Math, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Waizmann, Jean-Claude; Meneghetti, Massimo [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universit' a di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Koekemoer, Anton; Coe, Dan; Postman, Marc [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21208 (United States); Molino, Alberto [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), E-18080 Granada (Spain); Melchior, Peter [Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics and Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Grillo, Claudio, E-mail: elinor@pha.jhu.edu [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Mariesvej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); and others

    2013-11-01

    The galaxy cluster MACS J0717.5+3745 (z = 0.55) is the largest known cosmic lens, with complex internal structures seen in deep X-ray, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect, and dynamical observations. We perform a combined weak- and strong-lensing analysis with wide-field BVR{sub c} i'z' Subaru/Suprime-Cam observations and 16-band Hubble Space Telescope observations taken as part of the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble. We find consistent weak distortion and magnification measurements of background galaxies and combine these signals to construct an optimally estimated radial mass profile of the cluster and its surrounding large-scale structure out to 5 Mpc h {sup –1}. We find consistency between strong-lensing and weak-lensing in the region where these independent data overlap, <500 kpc h {sup –1}. The two-dimensional weak-lensing map reveals a clear filamentary structure traced by distinct mass halos. We model the lensing shear field with nine halos, including the main cluster, corresponding to mass peaks detected above 2.5σ{sub κ}. The total mass of the cluster as determined by the different methods is M{sub vir} ≈ (2.8 ± 0.4) × 10{sup 15} M{sub ☉}. Although this is the most massive cluster known at z > 0.5, in terms of extreme value statistics, we conclude that the mass of MACS J0717.5+3745 by itself is not in serious tension with ΛCDM, representing only a ∼2σ departure above the maximum simulated halo mass at this redshift.

  6. Functional form for the leading correction to the distribution of the largest eigenvalue in the GUE and LUE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Peter J.; Trinh, Allan K.

    2018-05-01

    The neighbourhood of the largest eigenvalue λmax in the Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE) and Laguerre unitary ensemble (LUE) is referred to as the soft edge. It is known that there exists a particular centring and scaling such that the distribution of λmax tends to a universal form, with an error term bounded by 1/N2/3. We take up the problem of computing the exact functional form of the leading error term in a large N asymptotic expansion for both the GUE and LUE—two versions of the LUE are considered, one with the parameter a fixed and the other with a proportional to N. Both settings in the LUE case allow for an interpretation in terms of the distribution of a particular weighted path length in a model involving exponential variables on a rectangular grid, as the grid size gets large. We give operator theoretic forms of the corrections, which are corollaries of knowledge of the first two terms in the large N expansion of the scaled kernel and are readily computed using a method due to Bornemann. We also give expressions in terms of the solutions of particular systems of coupled differential equations, which provide an alternative method of computation. Both characterisations are well suited to a thinned generalisation of the original ensemble, whereby each eigenvalue is deleted independently with probability (1 - ξ). In Sec. V, we investigate using simulation the question of whether upon an appropriate centring and scaling a wider class of complex Hermitian random matrix ensembles have their leading correction to the distribution of λmax proportional to 1/N2/3.

  7. KEPLER-1647B: THE LARGEST AND LONGEST-PERIOD KEPLER TRANSITING CIRCUMBINARY PLANET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostov, Veselin B. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Orosz, Jerome A.; Welsh, William F.; Short, Donald R. [Department of Astronomy, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Doyle, Laurance R. [SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Principia College, IMoP, One Maybeck Place, Elsah, IL 62028 (United States); Fabrycky, Daniel C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Haghighipour, Nader [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii-Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Quarles, Billy [Department of Physics and Physical Science, The University of Nebraska at Kearney, Kearney, NE 68849 (United States); Cochran, William D.; Endl, Michael [McDonald Observatory, The University of Texas as Austin, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Ford, Eric B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 428A Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Gregorio, Joao [Atalaia Group and Crow-Observatory, Portalegre (Portugal); Hinse, Tobias C. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Advanced Astronomy and Space Science Division, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Isaacson, Howard [Department of Astronomy, University of California Berkeley, 501 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Jenkins, Jon M. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Jensen, Eric L. N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA 19081 (United States); Kane, Stephen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Kull, Ilya, E-mail: veselin.b.kostov@nasa.gov [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); and others

    2016-08-10

    We report the discovery of a new Kepler transiting circumbinary planet (CBP). This latest addition to the still-small family of CBPs defies the current trend of known short-period planets orbiting near the stability limit of binary stars. Unlike the previous discoveries, the planet revolving around the eclipsing binary system Kepler-1647 has a very long orbital period (∼1100 days) and was at conjunction only twice during the Kepler mission lifetime. Due to the singular configuration of the system, Kepler-1647b is not only the longest-period transiting CBP at the time of writing, but also one of the longest-period transiting planets. With a radius of 1.06 ± 0.01 R {sub Jup}, it is also the largest CBP to date. The planet produced three transits in the light curve of Kepler-1647 (one of them during an eclipse, creating a syzygy) and measurably perturbed the times of the stellar eclipses, allowing us to measure its mass, 1.52 ± 0.65 M {sub Jup}. The planet revolves around an 11-day period eclipsing binary consisting of two solar-mass stars on a slightly inclined, mildly eccentric ( e {sub bin} = 0.16), spin-synchronized orbit. Despite having an orbital period three times longer than Earth’s, Kepler-1647b is in the conservative habitable zone of the binary star throughout its orbit.

  8. Evidence for protection of targeted reef fish on the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina-Amargós, Fabián; González-Sansón, Gaspar; Martín-Blanco, Félix; Valdivia, Abel

    2014-01-01

    Marine reserves can restore fish abundance and diversity in areas impacted by overfishing, but the effectiveness of reserves in developing countries where resources for enforcement are limited, have seldom been evaluated. Here we assess whether the establishment in 1996 of the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean, Gardens of the Queen in Cuba, has had a positive effect on the abundance of commercially valuable reef fish species in relation to neighboring unprotected areas. We surveyed 25 sites, including two reef habitats (reef crest and reef slope), inside and outside the marine reserve, on five different months, and over a one-and-a-half year period. Densities of the ten most frequent, highly targeted, and relatively large fish species showed a significant variability across the archipelago for both reef habitats that depended on the month of survey. These ten species showed a tendency towards higher abundance inside the reserve in both reef habitats for most months during the study. Average fish densities pooled by protection level, however, showed that five out of these ten species were at least two-fold significantly higher inside than outside the reserve at one or both reef habitats. Supporting evidence from previously published studies in the area indicates that habitat complexity and major benthic communities were similar inside and outside the reserve, while fishing pressure appeared to be homogeneous across the archipelago before reserve establishment. Although poaching may occur within the reserve, especially at the boundaries, effective protection from fishing was the most plausible explanation for the patterns observed.

  9. Investigation of science faculty with education specialties within the largest university system in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Seth D; Pelaez, Nancy J; Rudd, James A; Stevens, Michael T; Tanner, Kimberly D; Williams, Kathy S

    2011-01-01

    Efforts to improve science education include university science departments hiring Science Faculty with Education Specialties (SFES), scientists who take on specialized roles in science education within their discipline. Although these positions have existed for decades and may be growing more common, few reports have investigated the SFES approach to improving science education. We present comprehensive data on the SFES in the California State University (CSU) system, the largest university system in the United States. We found that CSU SFES were engaged in three key arenas including K-12 science education, undergraduate science education, and discipline-based science education research. As such, CSU SFES appeared to be well-positioned to have an impact on science education from within science departments. However, there appeared to be a lack of clarity and agreement about the purpose of these SFES positions. In addition, formal training in science education among CSU SFES was limited. Although over 75% of CSU SFES were fulfilled by their teaching, scholarship, and service, our results revealed that almost 40% of CSU SFES were seriously considering leaving their positions. Our data suggest that science departments would likely benefit from explicit discussions about the role of SFES and strategies for supporting their professional activities.

  10. Sources and distribution of microplastics in China's largest inland lake - Qinghai Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiong; Zhang, Kai; Chen, Xianchuan; Shi, Huahong; Luo, Ze; Wu, Chenxi

    2018-04-01

    Microplastic pollution was studied in China's largest inland lake - Qinghai Lake in this work. Microplastics were detected with abundance varies from 0.05 × 10 5 to 7.58 × 10 5 items km -2 in the lake surface water, 0.03 × 10 5 to 0.31 × 10 5 items km -2 in the inflowing rivers, 50 to 1292 items m -2 in the lakeshore sediment, and 2 to 15 items per individual in the fish samples, respectively. Small microplastics (0.1-0.5 mm) dominated in the lake surface water while large microplastics (1-5 mm) are more abundant in the river samples. Microplastics were predominantly in sheet and fiber shapes in the lake and river water samples but were more diverse in the lakeshore sediment samples. Polymer types of microplastics were mainly polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) as identified using Raman Spectroscopy. Spatially, microplastic abundance was the highest in the central part of the lake, likely due to the transport of lake current. Based on the higher abundance of microplastics near the tourist access points, plastic wastes from tourism are considered as an important source of microplastics in Qinghai Lake. As an important area for wildlife conservation, better waste management practice should be implemented, and waste disposal and recycling infrastructures should be improved for the protection of Qinghai Lake. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The largest human cognitive performance dataset reveals insights into the effects of lifestyle factors and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Sternberg

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Making new breakthroughs in understanding the processes underlying human cognition may depend on the availability of very large datasets that have not historically existed in psychology and neuroscience. Lumosity is a web-based cognitive training platform that has grown to include over 600 million cognitive training task results from over 35 million individuals, comprising the largest existing dataset of human cognitive performance. As part of the Human Cognition Project, Lumosity’s collaborative research program to understand the human mind, Lumos Labs researchers and external research collaborators have begun to explore this dataset in order uncover novel insights about the correlates of cognitive performance. This paper presents two preliminary demonstrations of some of the kinds of questions that can be examined with the dataset. The first example focuses on replicating known findings relating lifestyle factors to baseline cognitive performance in a demographically diverse, healthy population at a much larger scale than has previously been available. The second example examines a question that would likely be very difficult to study in laboratory-based and existing online experimental research approaches: specifically, how learning ability for different types of cognitive tasks changes with age. We hope that these examples will provoke the imagination of researchers who are interested in collaborating to answer fundamental questions about human cognitive performance.

  12. Reconstructing the population history of the largest tribe of India: the Dravidian speaking Gond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Tamang, Rakesh; Pennarun, Erwan; Dubey, Pavan; Rai, Niraj; Upadhyay, Rakesh Kumar; Meena, Rajendra Prasad; Patel, Jayanti R; van Driem, George; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Metspalu, Mait; Villems, Richard

    2017-04-01

    The Gond comprise the largest tribal group of India with a population exceeding 12 million. Linguistically, the Gond belong to the Gondi-Manda subgroup of the South Central branch of the Dravidian language family. Ethnographers, anthropologists and linguists entertain mutually incompatible hypotheses on their origin. Genetic studies of these people have thus far suffered from the low resolution of the genetic data or the limited number of samples. Therefore, to gain a more comprehensive view on ancient ancestry and genetic affinities of the Gond with the neighbouring populations speaking Indo-European, Dravidian and Austroasiatic languages, we have studied four geographically distinct groups of Gond using high-resolution data. All the Gond groups share a common ancestry with a certain degree of isolation and differentiation. Our allele frequency and haplotype-based analyses reveal that the Gond share substantial genetic ancestry with the Indian Austroasiatic (ie, Munda) groups, rather than with the other Dravidian groups to whom they are most closely related linguistically.

  13. A study on the regionalization of tornadogenesis for the domestic largest scale of tornado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Soichiro; Nohara, Daisuke; Hirakuchi, Hiromaru

    2014-01-01

    A new regulatory guide has been issued by the Nuclear Regulation Authority of Japan since the last year. According to this guide, electric power companies have to assess the influence of tornadoes on their nuclear power plants for operation. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the likelihood of the occurrence of F3 tornadoes, which are the largest encountered in Japan, and to consider the possibility of the regionalization of the maximum wind speed. Then, mesoscale analysis with a numerical meteorological model and re-analysis data is performed along with synoptic scale analysis. Especially, tornado parameters such as SReH (Storm Relative Helicity) and CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) are used for evaluating the potential tornadogenesis of F3 tornado. Both analyses indicate that favorable meteorological condition tends to occur in the coastal zones in the Pacific side west of Ibaraki and around Kyushu island. The frequency in these zones is different from the one in the other area in the order of 1 or 2, which is large enough for regionalization. (author)

  14. Vascular access in lipoprotein apheresis: a retrospective analysis from the UK's largest lipoprotein apheresis centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Daniel J; Pottle, Alison; Malietzis, George; Hakim, Nadey; Barbir, Mahmoud; Crane, Jeremy S

    2018-01-01

    Lipoprotein apheresis (LA) has proven to be an effective, safe and life-saving therapy. Vascular access is needed to facilitate this treatment but has recognised complications. Despite consistency in treatment indication and duration there are no guidelines in place. The aim of this study is to characterise vascular access practice at the UK's largest LA centre and forward suggestions for future approaches. A retrospective analysis of vascular access strategies was undertaken in all patients who received LA treatment in the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) Apheresis Unit at Harefield Hospital (Middlesex, UK) from November 2000 to March 2016. Fifty-three former and current patients underwent 4260 LA treatments. Peripheral vein cannulation represented 79% of initial vascular access strategies with arteriovenous (AV) fistula use accounting for 15%. Last used method of vascular access was peripheral vein cannulation in 57% versus AV fistula in 32%. Total AV fistula failure rate was 37%. Peripheral vein cannulation remains the most common method to facilitate LA. Practice trends indicate a move towards AV fistula creation; the favoured approach receiving support from the expert body in this area. AV fistula failure rate is high and of great concern, therefore we suggest the implementation of upper limb ultrasound vascular mapping in all patients who meet treatment eligibility criteria. We encourage close ties between apheresis units and specialist surgical centres to facilitate patient counselling and monitoring. Further prospective data regarding fistula failure is needed in this expanding treatment field.

  15. Sistema Faro, Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico: speleogenesis of the worlds largest flank margin cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lace, M. J.; Kambesis, P. N.; Mylroie, J. E.

    2016-01-01

    Isla de Mona, a small, uplifted carbonate plateau jutting out of the waters of the Mona Passage, is an incredibly fragile and densely karstic environment. Expedition work was conducted by the Isla de Mona Project in cooperation with the Departamento Recursos Naturales y Ambientales de Puerto Rico (DRNA), including contributions from many researchers and cavers volunteering from across the U.S and Puerto Rico in the course of 12 separate expeditions, spanning a 14 year period (1998 to 2013). Over 200 caves have been documented on the island to date, the majority of this inventory is composed of flank margin caves but also includes sea caves, pit caves and talus caves. The most extensive example of cave development on the island is Sistema Faro - a sprawling maze-like series of chambers formed within the eastern point of the island with over 40 cliffside entrances overlooking the Caribbean Sea. Detailed cartography and analysis of the geomorphology and development of the Sistema Faro has helped form a complex model of carbonate island cave development as a function of tectonic uplift, lithology, sea level changes, karst hydrogeology and cliff retreat. This communication examines the roles these controls have played in the genesis of the world's largest flank margin cave. (Author)

  16. Stand Up for the Burrup: Saving the Largest Aboriginal Rock Art Precinct in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Gregory

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dampier Rock Art Precinct contains the largest and most ancient collection of Aboriginal rock art in Australia. The cultural landscape created by generations of Aboriginal people includes images of long-extinct fauna and demonstrates the response of peoples to a changing climate over thousands of years as well as the continuity of lived experience. Despite Australian national heritage listing in 2007, this cultural landscape continues to be threatened by industrial development. Rock art on the eastern side of the archipelago, on the Burrup Peninsula, was relocated following the discovery of adjacent off-shore gas reserves so that a major gas plant could be constructed. Work has now begun on the construction of a second major gas plant nearby. This article describes the rock art of the Dampier Archipelago and the troubled history of European-Aboriginal contact history, before examining the impact of industry on the region and its environment. The destruction of Aboriginal rock art to meet the needs of industry is an example of continuing indifference to Aboriginal culture. While the complex struggle to protect the cultural landscape of the Burrup, in particular, involving Indigenous people, archaeologists, historians, state and federal politicians, government bureaucrats and multi-national companies, eventually led to national heritage listing, it is not clear that the battle to save the Burrup has been won.

  17. North Andean origin and diversification of the largest ithomiine butterfly genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa De-Silva, Donna; Mota, Luísa L.; Chazot, Nicolas; Mallarino, Ricardo; Silva-Brandão, Karina L.; Piñerez, Luz Miryam Gómez; Freitas, André V.L.; Lamas, Gerardo; Joron, Mathieu; Mallet, James; Giraldo, Carlos E.; Uribe, Sandra; Särkinen, Tiina; Knapp, Sandra; Jiggins, Chris D.; Willmott, Keith R.; Elias, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    The Neotropics harbour the most diverse flora and fauna on Earth. The Andes are a major centre of diversification and source of diversity for adjacent areas in plants and vertebrates, but studies on insects remain scarce, even though they constitute the largest fraction of terrestrial biodiversity. Here, we combine molecular and morphological characters to generate a dated phylogeny of the butterfly genus Pteronymia (Nymphalidae: Danainae), which we use to infer spatial, elevational and temporal diversification patterns. We first propose six taxonomic changes that raise the generic species total to 53, making Pteronymia the most diverse genus of the tribe Ithomiini. Our biogeographic reconstruction shows that Pteronymia originated in the Northern Andes, where it diversified extensively. Some lineages colonized lowlands and adjacent montane areas, but diversification in those areas remained scarce. The recent colonization of lowland areas was reflected by an increase in the rate of evolution of species’ elevational ranges towards present. By contrast, speciation rate decelerated with time, with no extinction. The geological history of the Andes and adjacent regions have likely contributed to Pteronymia diversification by providing compartmentalized habitats and an array of biotic and abiotic conditions, and by limiting dispersal between some areas while promoting interchange across others. PMID:28387233

  18. Level of patient and operator dose in the largest cardiac centre in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsapaki, V.; Patsilinakos, S.; Voudris, V.; Magginas, A.; Pavlidis, S.; Maounis, T.; Theodorakis, G.; Koutelou, M.; Vrantza, T.; Nearchou, M.; Nikolaki, N.; Kollaros, N.; Kyrozi, E.; Kottou, S.; Karaiskos, P.; Neofotistou, E.; Cokkinos, D.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the patient and staff doses in the most frequent interventional cardiology (IC) procedures performed in Onassio, the largest Cardiac Centre in Greece. Data were collected from three digital X-ray systems for 212 coronary angiographies, 203 percutaneous transluminal coronary angio-plasties (PTCA) and 134 various electrophysiological studies. Patient skin dose was measured using suitably calibrated slow radiotherapy films and cardiologist dose using suitably calibrated thermoluminescent dosemeters placed on left arm, hand and foot. Patient median dose area product (DAP) (all examinations) ranged between 6.7 and 83.5 Gy cm 2 . Patient median skin dose in PTCA was 799 mGy (320-1660 mGy) and in RF ablation 160 mGy (35-1920 mGy). Median arm, hand and foot dose to the cardiologist were 12.6, 27 and 13 μSv, respectively, per procedure. The great range of radiation doses received by both patients and operators confirms the need for continuous monitoring of all IC techniques. (authors)

  19. DISCOVERY OF THE LARGEST KNOWN LENSED IMAGES FORMED BY A CRITICALLY CONVERGENT LENSING CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zitrin, Adi; Broadhurst, Tom

    2009-01-01

    We identify the largest known lensed images of a single spiral galaxy, lying close to the center of the distant cluster MACS J1149.5+2223 (z = 0.544). These images cover a total area of ≅150 mbox '' and are magnified ≅200 times. Unusually, there is very little image distortion, implying that the central mass distribution is almost uniform over a wide area (r ≅ 200 kpc) with a surface density equal to the critical density for lensing, corresponding to maximal lens magnification. Many fainter multiply lensed galaxies are also uncovered by our model, outlining a very large tangential critical curve, of radius r ≅ 170 kpc, posing a potential challenge for the standard LCDM cosmology. Because of the uniform central mass distribution, a particularly clean measurement of the mass of the brightest cluster galaxy is possible here, for which we infer stars contribute most of the mass within a limiting radius of ≅30 kpc, with a mass-to-light ratio of M/L B ≅ 4.5(M/L) sun . This cluster with its uniform and central mass distribution acts analogously to a regular magnifying glass, converging light without distorting the images, resulting in the most powerful lens yet discovered for accessing the faint high-z universe.

  20. Epidemiological study of hepatitis A, B and C in the largest Afro-Brazilian isolated community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Márcia A D; Reis, Nádia Rúbia S; Kozlowski, Aline G; Teles, Sheila A; Motta-Castro, Ana Rita C; Mello, Francisco C A; Gomes, Selma A; Martins, Regina M B

    2009-09-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and molecular epidemiological features of viral hepatitis A, B and C in the Kalunga population, which represents the largest Afro-Brazilian isolated community. Among 878 individuals studied, the overall prevalence of anti-hepatitis A virus antibodies was 80.9%, with a significant rise from 44.8% to near 100% between the first and fourth decade of life. Rates for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) of 1.8% and 35.4%, respectively, were found. Increasing age, male gender, illiteracy and history of multiple sexual partners were associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. An occult HBV infection rate of 1.7% (5/295) was found among anti-HBc-positive individuals. HBV genotype A (subtype Aa) was dominant in this community. Only 5/878 individuals (0.6%) were positive for anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV RNA was detected in three of them, who were infected with genotype 1 (subtype 1a). These findings point out high, intermediate and low endemicity for hepatitis A, B and C, respectively, in the Kalunga community in Brazil. Circulation of HBV genotype A (subtype Aa) in this Afro-Brazilian isolated community indicates the introduction of this virus during the slave trade from Africa to Brazil.

  1. Rise and Fall of one of World's largest deltas; the Mekong delta in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minderhoud, P. S. J.; Eslami Arab, S.; Pham, H. V.; Erkens, G.; van der Vegt, M.; Oude Essink, G.; Stouthamer, E.; Hoekstra, P.

    2017-12-01

    The Mekong delta is the third's largest delta in the world. It is home to almost 20 million people and an important region for the food security in South East Asia. As most deltas, the Mekong delta is the dynamic result of a balance of sediment supply, sea level rise and subsidence, hosting a system of fresh and salt water dynamics. Ongoing urbanization, industrialization and intensification of agricultural practices in the delta, during the past decades, resulted in growing domestic, agricultural and industrial demands, and have led to a dramatic increase of fresh water use. Since the year 2000, the amount of fresh groundwater extracted from the subsurface increased by 500%. This accelerated delta subsidence as the groundwater system compacts, with current sinking rates exceeding global sea level rise up to an order of magnitude. These high sinking rates have greatly altered the sediment budget of the delta and, with over 50% of the Mekong delta surface elevated less than 1 meter above sea level, greatly increase vulnerability to flooding and storm surges and ultimately, permanent inundation. Furthermore, as the increasingly larger extractions rapidly reduce the fresh groundwater reserves, groundwater salinization subsequently increases. On top of that, dry season low-flows by the Mekong river cause record salt water intrusion in the delta's estuarine system, creating major problems for rice irrigation. We present the work of three years research by the Dutch-Vietnamese `Rise and Fall' project on land subsidence and salinization in both groundwater and surface water in the Vietnamese Mekong delta.

  2. Mortgage loans: an analysis of the portfolios of the largest banks in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Vinícius Ramos Fernandes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Given the current macroeconomic environment experienced in Brazil, where inflation has stabilized and the basic interest rate of the economy is in one of their historical lows, demand for mortgages is increasing. In this context, the mortgage is presented with great emphasis to meet the demand for purchasing housing in addition to being a catalyst for the reduction of the high housing deficit. From a descriptive and empirical-analytic was analyzed the mortgage loan portfolio of the largest banks of the country between the years 2001 and 2010 through Quarterly Financial Information (IFT available on the Central Bank website. It was settled a comparative relationship between the data in order to check the development of mortgage portfolios over the years and the factors that influenced this evolution, and evaluate the timeliness and quality of those loans. For the evolution of the portfolio there was an economic context in which Brazil was included in the period, and observed that for most of these operations are long term the banks are more exposed to market risk. With regard to credit risk parse that, over the years, Brazilian banks are presenting a mortgage loan portfolio with lower risk, and it is found that institutions with real estate credits with higher levels of portfolio risk are subject to have higher losses on such operations in the possibility of default.

  3. Corporate social responsibility of the 100 largest Indian companies – an analysis of website communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Mulky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility has become an important concept in the business world in recent decades. CSR is important in all countries but is particularly relevant in emerging markets where the levels of human development are not high. The United Nations Development Programme has created the Human Development Index (HDI to measure the human development in countries. The present study analyzes the CSR communication on the websites of the 100 largest Indian companies. The objective was to examine the reported CSR activities and determine whether the activities address the dimensions and indicators of the HDI. The study uses content analysis to classify the CSR activities into categories corresponding to HDI parameters. The findings indicate that about two thirds of the companies are using their websites to communicate CSR. Of the companies which reported CSR, about eighty percent report support for primary education and about seventy percent undertake livelihood support activities. The level of corporate involvement in the health dimension of human development is quite low. Reduction of infant and maternal mortality does not get much corporate attention. This study will add to the literature on CSR in emerging markets and will be useful for firms in India and other emerging markets that are planning CSR activities aimed at human development parameters.

  4. Natural radionuclides in soil profiles surrounding the largest coal-fired power plant in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanić Milan N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the influence of the largest Serbian coal-fired power plant on radionuclide concentrations in soil profiles up to 50 cm in depth. Thirty soil profiles were sampled from the plant surroundings (up to 10 km distance and analyzed using standard methods for soil physicochemical properties and gamma ray spectrometry for specific activities of natural radionuclides (40K, 226Ra and 232Th. Spatial and vertical distribution of radionuclides was determined and analyzed to show the relations between the specific activities in the soil and soil properties and the most influential factors of natural radionuclide variability were identified. The radiological indices for surface soil were calculated and radiological risk assessment was performed. The measured specific activities were similar to values of background levels for Serbia. The sampling depth did not show any significant influence on specific activities of natural radionuclides. The strongest predictor of specific activities of the investigated radionuclides was soil granulometry. All parameters of radiological risk assessment were below the recommended values and adopted limits. It appears that the coal-fired power plant does not have a significant impact on the spatial and vertical distribution of natural radionuclides in the area of interest, but technologically enhanced natural radioactivity as a consequence of the plant operations was identified within the first 1.5 km from the power plant. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije br. III43009 i br. III41005

  5. Largest known Mesozoic multituberculate from Eurasia and implications for multituberculate evolution and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Zhang, Xingliao; Pu, Hanyong; Jia, Songhai; Zhang, Jiming; Lü, Junchang; Meng, Jin

    2015-10-22

    A new multituberculate, Yubaartar zhongyuanensis gen. and sp. nov., is reported from the Upper Cretaceous of Luanchuan County, Henan Province, China. The holotype of the new taxon is a partial skeleton with nearly complete cranium and associated lower jaws with in situ dentitions. The new species is the southern-most record of a Late Cretaceous multituberculate from outside of the Mongolian Plateau in Asia and represents the largest known Mesozoic multituberculate from Eurasia. The new specimen displays some intriguing features previously unknown in multituberculates, such as the first evidence of replacement of the ultimate upper premolar and a unique paleopathological case in Mesozoic mammals in which the animal with a severely broken right tibia could heal and survive in natural condition. The phylogenetic analysis based on craniodental characters places Yubaartar as the immediate outgroup of Taeniolabidoidea, a group consisting of a North American clade and an Asian clade. This relationship indicates at least a faunal interchange of multituberculates before the K-Pg transition. The new evidence further supports the hypothesis that disparity in dental complexity, which relates to animal diets, increased with generic richness and disparity in body size, and that an adaptive shift towards increased herbivory across the K-Pg transitional interval.

  6. Complex biogeographic scenarios revealed in the diversification of the largest woodpecker radiation in the New World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Sigüenza, Adolfo G; Vázquez-Miranda, Hernán; Hernández-Alonso, Germán; García-Trejo, Erick A; Sánchez-González, Luis A

    2017-07-01

    Phylogenetic relationships and patterns of evolution within Melanerpes, one of the most diverse groups of New World woodpeckers (22-23 lineages), have been complicated due to complex plumages and morphological adaptations. In an attempt to resolve these issues, we obtained sequence data from four nuclear introns and two mitochondrial protein-coding genes for 22 of the 24 currently recognized species in the genus. We performed phylogenetic analyses involving Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference, species-tree divergence dating, and biogeographic reconstructions. Tree topologies from the concatenated and species-tree analyses of the mtDNA and nDNA showed broadly similar patterns, with three relatively well-supported groups apparent: (a) the Sphyrapicus clade (four species); (b) the typical Melanerpes clade, which includes temperate and subtropical dry forest black-backed species; and (c) the mostly barred-backed species, here referred to as the "Centurus" clade. The phylogenetic position of Melanerpes superciliaris regarding the rest of Melanerpes is ambiguous as it is recovered as sister to the rest of Melanerpes or as sister to a group including Sphyrapicus+Melanerpes. Our species tree estimations recovered the same well-delimited highly-supported clades. Geographic range evolution (estimated in BioGeoBEARS) was best explained by a DIVALIKE+j model, which includes vicariance, founder effect speciation, and anagenetic dispersal (range expansion) as important processes involved in the diversification of the largest radiation of woodpeckers in the New World. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Psyche's UV Reflectance Spectra: Exploring the origins of the largest exposed-core metallic asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Tracy

    2016-10-01

    (16) Psyche is the largest of the M-class asteroids, and is presumed to be the exposed core of a differentiated asteroid stripped of its mantle through hit-and-run collisions. However, other origins for Psyche have been proposed, including that it formed from a highly-reduced, metal rich material in the inner solar system or that its surface is olivine that has been space weathered. If (16) Psyche is an exposed core, then studying its properties enhances our understanding of the cores of all terrestrial planets, including the Earth's. If it accreted in the inner part of the solar system and was later injected into the asteroid belt, then Psyche sheds light on the conditions and subsequent evolution of the early solar system. Lastly, if Psyche is weathered olivine, then olivine may be more abundant in the solar system than currently measured, rectifying the so-called Great Dunite Shortage. Our program to obtain high-resolution UV spectra of Psyche with the COS G140L mode and the STIS NUV MAMA G230L mode to measure spectral signatures between 90 - 315 nm is designed to distinguish between the 3 hypothesized cases. These observations will enable identification of absorption bands, especially Fe-O charge transfer bands and will be sensitive to spectral blueing that occurs at UV wavelengths for space-weathered objects. When combined, the presence of these UV features, or not, provides a novel test of Psyche formation theories.

  8. Characterization of the largest relic Eurasian wild grapevine reservoir in Southern Iberian Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroyo-García, R.; Cantos, M.; Lara, M.; López, M.A.; Gallardo, A.; Ocete, C.A.; Pérez, A.; Bánáti, B.; García, J.L.; Ocete, R.

    2016-11-01

    Wild grapevine is becoming a threatened species in the Iberian Peninsula due to human impacts. The aim of this work was to carry out a holistic study for six years of the largest wild grapevine population found up to date in SW Iberian Peninsula. This population has 115 vines. Ampelographic and soil characteristics have been studied. Evaluation of its environment has also been studied by describing the main parasitic species and natural enemies of pests. The ability of this plant material for its micropropagation and storage in slow-growth conditions has been tested. Microvinification resulted in a wine with good acidity and medium color intensity, two interesting characteristics under a warm climatology. Finally, the identification of private alleles in this wild population, absent in other locations from the Northern and Southern Iberian territories, is a very valuable feature and confirms the importance of establishing conservation programs. The population here studied is genetically unique and potentially useful for commercial rootstocks and cultivars breeding that would improve viticulture and enology. (Author)

  9. State-owned companies dominate list of largest non-U.S. producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.J.; Williamson, M.

    1994-01-01

    Because state-owned oil and gas companies dominate Oil and Gas Journal's list of largest non-US producers, data aren't fully comparable with those of the OGJ300. Many state companies report only production and reserves, with little or no financial data. Companies on the OGJ100, therefore, cannot be ranked by assets or revenues. Instead, they are listed by regions, based on location of corporate headquarters. There was no change in makeup of the top 20 holders of crude oil reserves. These companies' reserves totaled 872.3 billion bbl in 1993. The top 20 non-US companies now control 87.3 % of total world crude oil reserves, according to OGJ estimates. This is up marginally from 87.2 % of total world oil reserves in 1992. The top 20 had 87.7 % of total world reserves in 1991 and 85.5 % in 1990. The table lists company name, total assets, revenues, net income, capital and exploratory expenditures, worldwide oil production, gas production, oil and gas reserves worldwide

  10. Estimation of the largest enterprises’ impact on the socio-economic development of territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Dmitrievna Razgulina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The key basic trends of modern society development are associated with the transfer of some government functions to big business. Thus, scientific and public circles argue about social partnership between government, business and employees and offer different variants of the corporate social responsibility concept. The article presents the experience to assess social responsibility of business on the example of the largest chemical enterprises located in the Vologda and Novgorod oblasts. The evaluation results have revealed a number of problems hindering the formation of socially responsible behavior of enterprises, particularly the lack of standardized reporting on corporate social responsibility; provision of formal corporate social responsibility report; business’ non-system participation in social and economic development of territories. According to the authors, the development of a special model to regulate participants’ mutual relations can increase social responsibility of Russian business. Unified interests and resources of business and government promote the development of an agreed strategy in the field of regional social-economic development

  11. Evaluation of several priority pollutants in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) in the largest Italian subalpine lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riva, Consuelo; Binelli, Andrea; Provini, Alfredo

    2008-01-01

    Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) has been used for the biomonitoring of several POPs (PCBs, DDTs, HCB and HCHs) in the largest Italian subalpine great lakes (Lake Maggiore, Garda, Como, Iseo and Lugano). Samplings were carried out in April 2003 at 15 locations selected according to industrial and anthropic levels of lakes. Results have pointed out high DDT levels in D. polymorpha specimens from Lake Maggiore (700-1400 ng/g lipids, 5-9 times higher than those measured in mussels of other Italian lakes), due to a contamination from a chemical plant located on one of the main lake inlet that occurred in 1996. On the contrary, PCB levels (400-2509 ng/g lipids) highlighted an overall pollution, with some sporadic peaks of contamination. Data showed a moderate increase trend compared to those found in a previous monitoring campaign carried out in 1996. Future monitoring is needed in order to confirm this tendency. - Significant levels of DDTs and PCBs are still present in the Italian subalpine great lakes

  12. Evaluation of several priority pollutants in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) in the largest Italian subalpine lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riva, Consuelo [Department of Biology, Ecology Section, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, 20133 Milan (Italy)], E-mail: consuelo.riva@unimi.it; Binelli, Andrea; Provini, Alfredo [Department of Biology, Ecology Section, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2008-02-15

    Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) has been used for the biomonitoring of several POPs (PCBs, DDTs, HCB and HCHs) in the largest Italian subalpine great lakes (Lake Maggiore, Garda, Como, Iseo and Lugano). Samplings were carried out in April 2003 at 15 locations selected according to industrial and anthropic levels of lakes. Results have pointed out high DDT levels in D. polymorpha specimens from Lake Maggiore (700-1400 ng/g lipids, 5-9 times higher than those measured in mussels of other Italian lakes), due to a contamination from a chemical plant located on one of the main lake inlet that occurred in 1996. On the contrary, PCB levels (400-2509 ng/g lipids) highlighted an overall pollution, with some sporadic peaks of contamination. Data showed a moderate increase trend compared to those found in a previous monitoring campaign carried out in 1996. Future monitoring is needed in order to confirm this tendency. - Significant levels of DDTs and PCBs are still present in the Italian subalpine great lakes.

  13. Bedrock Canyons Carved by the Largest Known Floods on Earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, M. P.; Lapôtre, M. G. A.; Larsen, I. J.; Williams, R. M. E.

    2017-12-01

    The surface of Earth is a dynamic and permeable interface where the rocky crust is sculpted by ice, wind and water resulting in spectacular mountain ranges, vast depositional basins and environments that support life. These landforms and deposits contain a rich, yet incomplete, record of Earth history that we are just beginning to understand. Some of the most dramatic landforms are the huge bedrock canyons carved by catastrophic floods. On Mars, similar bedrock canyons, known as Outflow Channels, are the most important indicators of large volumes of surface water in the past. Despite their importance and now decades of observations of canyon morphology, we lack a basic understanding of how the canyons formed, which limits our ability to reconstruct flood discharge, duration and water volume. In this presentation I will summarize recent work - using mechanistic numerical models and field observations - that suggests that bedrock canyons carved by megafloods rapidly evolve to a size and shape such that boundary shear stresses just exceed that required to entrain fractured blocks of rock. The threshold shear stress constraint allows for quantitative reconstruction of the largest known floods on Earth and Mars, and implies far smaller discharges than previous methods that assume flood waters fully filled the canyons to high water marks.

  14. KEPLER-1647B: THE LARGEST AND LONGEST-PERIOD KEPLER TRANSITING CIRCUMBINARY PLANET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostov, Veselin B.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Welsh, William F.; Short, Donald R.; Doyle, Laurance R.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Haghighipour, Nader; Quarles, Billy; Cochran, William D.; Endl, Michael; Ford, Eric B.; Gregorio, Joao; Hinse, Tobias C.; Isaacson, Howard; Jenkins, Jon M.; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Kane, Stephen; Kull, Ilya

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of a new Kepler transiting circumbinary planet (CBP). This latest addition to the still-small family of CBPs defies the current trend of known short-period planets orbiting near the stability limit of binary stars. Unlike the previous discoveries, the planet revolving around the eclipsing binary system Kepler-1647 has a very long orbital period (∼1100 days) and was at conjunction only twice during the Kepler mission lifetime. Due to the singular configuration of the system, Kepler-1647b is not only the longest-period transiting CBP at the time of writing, but also one of the longest-period transiting planets. With a radius of 1.06 ± 0.01 R Jup , it is also the largest CBP to date. The planet produced three transits in the light curve of Kepler-1647 (one of them during an eclipse, creating a syzygy) and measurably perturbed the times of the stellar eclipses, allowing us to measure its mass, 1.52 ± 0.65 M Jup . The planet revolves around an 11-day period eclipsing binary consisting of two solar-mass stars on a slightly inclined, mildly eccentric ( e bin = 0.16), spin-synchronized orbit. Despite having an orbital period three times longer than Earth’s, Kepler-1647b is in the conservative habitable zone of the binary star throughout its orbit.

  15. Dragon bridge - the world largest dragon-shaped (ARCH steel bridge as element of smart city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinh Luong Minh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dragon Bridge - The world’s largest dragon-shaped steel bridge, with an installation cost of $85 million USD, features 6 lanes for two separate directions, 666 meters of undulating steel in the shape of a dragon in the Ly Dynasty, the symbol of prosperity in Vietnamese culture. This unique and beautifully lit bridge, which also breathes fire and sprays water. It’s the purposeful integration of the lighting hardware articulates the dragon’s form, and the fire-breathing dragon head. This project transcends the notion of monumental bridge with dynamic colour-changing lighting, creating an iconic sculpture in the skyline that is both reverent and whimsical. The signature feature of the bridge was the massive undulating support structure resembling a dragon flying over the river. The dragon is prominent in Vietnamese culture as a symbol of power and nobility. Dragon Bridge stands out as a model of innovation. It has received worldwide attention in the design community and from the global media for its unique arch support system. Dragon Bridge serves as an example of how aesthetic quality of a design can serve cultural, economic and functional purposes. The article presents design solutions of the object and the evaluation of the technical condition before putting the facility into service.

  16. Astronomer's new guide to the galaxy: largest map of cold dust revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Astronomers have unveiled an unprecedented new atlas of the inner regions of the Milky Way, our home galaxy, peppered with thousands of previously undiscovered dense knots of cold cosmic dust -- the potential birthplaces of new stars. Made using observations from the APEX telescope in Chile, this survey is the largest map of cold dust so far, and will prove an invaluable map for observations made with the forthcoming ALMA telescope, as well as the recently launched ESA Herschel space telescope. ESO PR Photo 24a/09 View of the Galactic Plane from the ATLASGAL survey (annotated and in five sections) ESO PR Photo 24b/09 View of the Galactic Plane from the ATLASGAL survey (annotated) ESO PR Photo 24c/09 View of the Galactic Plane from the ATLASGAL survey (in five sections) ESO PR Photo 24d/09 View of the Galactic Plane from the ATLASGAL survey ESO PR Photo 24e/09 The Galactic Centre and Sagittarius B2 ESO PR Photo 24f/09 The NGC 6357 and NGC 6334 nebulae ESO PR Photo 24g/09 The RCW120 nebula ESO PR Video 24a/09 Annotated pan as seen by the ATLASGAL survey This new guide for astronomers, known as the APEX Telescope Large Area Survey of the Galaxy (ATLASGAL) shows the Milky Way in submillimetre-wavelength light (between infrared light and radio waves [1]). Images of the cosmos at these wavelengths are vital for studying the birthplaces of new stars and the structure of the crowded galactic core. "ATLASGAL gives us a new look at the Milky Way. Not only will it help us investigate how massive stars form, but it will also give us an overview of the larger-scale structure of our galaxy", said Frederic Schuller from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, leader of the ATLASGAL team. The area of the new submillimetre map is approximately 95 square degrees, covering a very long and narrow strip along the galactic plane two degrees wide (four times the width of the full Moon) and over 40 degrees long. The 16 000 pixel-long map was made with the LABOCA submillimetre

  17. The world's largest and cleanest cruise ship; Verdens stoerste og reneste cruiseskip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steensen, Anders J.

    2008-07-01

    The water dropped from ships all over the world, contribute to ruining the seas. The 'Independence of the sea' however has constructed a five step cleaning system that purifies the water well under the recommended level. This is a new technology, which makes the 'Independence of the sea' on of the worlds most environmental friendly ships in the world

  18. Rewriting the Landform History of One of Africa's Three Largest Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The Kalahari Basin in southern Africa - one of the largest basins in Africa, along with the Congo and Chad basins - has attracted attention since David Livingstone traveled through the area in the 1840s. It is a semiarid desert with a large freshwater swampland known as the Okavango Swamp (150 km radius). This prominent megafan (a fan with radii >100 km), with its fingers of dark green forests projecting into the dun colors of the dunes of the Kalahari semi-desert, has been well photographed by astronauts over the years. The study area in the northern Kalahari basin is centered on the Okavango megafan of northwest Botswana, whose swampland has become well known as an African wildlife preserve of importance to biology and tourism alike. The Okavango River is unusual because it has deposited not one but two megafans along its course: the Okavango megafan and the Cubango megafan. The Okavango megafan is one of only three well-known megafans in Africa. Megafans on Earth were once thought to be rare, but recent research has documented 68 in Africa alone. Eleven megafans, plus three more candidates, have been documented in the area immediately surrounding the Okavango feature. These 11 megafans occupy the flattest and smoothest terrains adjacent to the neighboring upland and stand out as the darkest areas in the roughness map of the area. Megafan terrains occupy at least 200,000 sq km of the study area. The roughness map shown is based on an algorithm used first on Mars to quantify topographic roughness. Research of Earth's flattest terrains is just beginning with the aid of such maps, and it appears that these terrains are analogous to the flattest regions of Mars. Implications: 1. The variability in depositional style in each subbasin may apply Africa-wide: rift megafan length is dominated by rift width, whereas Owambo subbasin megafans are probably controlled by upland basin size; Zambezi subbasin megafans appear more like foreland basin types, with the position of

  19. Indication and implementation of lipidapheresis, rheopheresis, or immunoadsorption (lessons learnt from Germany's largest apheresis center).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heigl, Franz; Hettich, Reinhard; Lotz, Norbert; Reeg, Harduin; Eder, Bernadette; Steckholzer-Kroth, Karin; Browatzki, Michael; Harre, Kerstin; Arendt, Rainer

    2009-12-29

    Efficient modes of extracorporeal blood purification are available today for apheresis treatment of progressive atherosclerosis, autoimmune disease, or for improving hemorheology. Advanced technology and sophisticated care render apheresis treatment selective, safe and tolerable. Our task is to constantly update indications for apheresis based on best evidence available and good clinical practice, as well as, to determine how apheresis therapy can be made available to those in need or with otherwise refractory disease. Presenting examples of lipid apheresis, rheopheresis, or immunoadsorption for treatment of hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipoproteinemia (a), acute hearing loss, refractory or exacerbating multiple sclerosis, we highlight real world obstacles for implementation of treatment, resulting in still too many patients with proven or recommended indication left untreated. Based on the experience of the largest apheresis center in Germany, with more than 3,300 treatments per year, we depict the necessary structure for identification of patients, defining indication, referral, implementation of therapy, and reimbursement. Apheresis is unfamiliar to most patients and many practitioners or consultants. Nephrologists, performing >90% of apheresis treatments in Germany, have to form a network for referral comprising all regional care-givers, general practitioners as well as the respective specialists (mainly, cardiologists, endocrinologists, diabetologists, ORL specialists, neurologists, ophthalmologists, or rheumatologists), and insurances or other cost-bearing parties for offering a scientifically approved therapeutic regimen and comprehensive care. We have realized this concept in a high volume apheresis center acting in a closely knit network characterized by an unrelenting effort at ongoing medical education. As a consequence, we include approximately 10 times more patients with appropriate diagnoses in our apheresis program as compared to the national average

  20. Evidence for protection of targeted reef fish on the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Pina-Amargós

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine reserves can restore fish abundance and diversity in areas impacted by overfishing, but the effectiveness of reserves in developing countries where resources for enforcement are limited, have seldom been evaluated. Here we assess whether the establishment in 1996 of the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean, Gardens of the Queen in Cuba, has had a positive effect on the abundance of commercially valuable reef fish species in relation to neighboring unprotected areas. We surveyed 25 sites, including two reef habitats (reef crest and reef slope, inside and outside the marine reserve, on five different months, and over a one-and-a-half year period. Densities of the ten most frequent, highly targeted, and relatively large fish species showed a significant variability across the archipelago for both reef habitats that depended on the month of survey. These ten species showed a tendency towards higher abundance inside the reserve in both reef habitats for most months during the study. Average fish densities pooled by protection level, however, showed that five out of these ten species were at least two-fold significantly higher inside than outside the reserve at one or both reef habitats. Supporting evidence from previously published studies in the area indicates that habitat complexity and major benthic communities were similar inside and outside the reserve, while fishing pressure appeared to be homogeneous across the archipelago before reserve establishment. Although poaching may occur within the reserve, especially at the boundaries, effective protection from fishing was the most plausible explanation for the patterns observed.

  1. Phylogenetics and diversification of tanagers (Passeriformes: Thraupidae), the largest radiation of Neotropical songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Kevin J; Shultz, Allison J; Title, Pascal O; Mason, Nicholas A; Barker, F Keith; Klicka, John; Lanyon, Scott M; Lovette, Irby J

    2014-06-01

    Thraupidae is the second largest family of birds and represents about 4% of all avian species and 12% of the Neotropical avifauna. Species in this family display a wide range of plumage colors and patterns, foraging behaviors, vocalizations, ecotypes, and habitat preferences. The lack of a complete phylogeny for tanagers has hindered the study of this evolutionary diversity. Here, we present a comprehensive, species-level phylogeny for tanagers using six molecular markers. Our analyses identified 13 major clades of tanagers that we designate as subfamilies. In addition, two species are recognized as distinct branches on the tanager tree. Our topologies disagree in many places with previous estimates of relationships within tanagers, and many long-recognized genera are not monophyletic in our analyses. Our trees identify several cases of convergent evolution in plumage ornaments and bill morphology, and two cases of social mimicry. The phylogeny produced by this study provides a robust framework for studying macroevolutionary patterns and character evolution. We use our new phylogeny to study diversification processes, and find that tanagers show a background model of exponentially declining diversification rates. Thus, the evolution of tanagers began with an initial burst of diversification followed by a rate slowdown. In addition to this background model, two later, clade-specific rate shifts are supported, one increase for Darwin's finches and another increase for some species of Sporophila. The rate of diversification within these two groups is exceptional, even when compared to the overall rapid rate of diversification found within tanagers. This study provides the first robust assessment of diversification rates for the Darwin's finches in the context of the larger group within which they evolved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Smart phone Acceptance among physicians: Application of structural equation modeling in Iranian largest university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nematollahi M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study aimed to determine attitudes and effective factors in the acceptance of smart phones by physicians of the largest University of Medical Sciences in the south of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM in 2014. Study participants included 200 physicians working in the hospitals of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences selected through two-stage stratified sampling, but 185 participants completed the study. The study data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire completed through a 5-point Likert scale. The content validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by a panel of experts, its construct validity by confirmatory factor analysis, and its reliability by Cronbach’s alpha of 0.802. All data analyses were performed using SPSS (version 22 and LISREL (version 8.8. Results: Results showed that most physicians had a desirable attitude towards using smart phones. Besides, the results of SEM indicated a significant relationship between attitude and compatibility, observability, personal experience, voluntariness of use and perceived usefulness. Moreover, some important fitness indices revealed appropriate fitness of the study model (p=0.26, X2 /df=1.35, RMR=0.070, GFI=0.77, AGFI=0.71, NNFI=0.93, CFI=0.94. Conclusion: The results revealed that compatibility, observability, personal experience, voluntariness of use and perceived usefulness were effective in the physicians’ attitude towards using smart phones. Thus, by preparation of the required infrastructures, policymakers in the field of health technology can enhance the utilization of smart phones in hospitals.

  3. Geochemical characterization of the largest upland lake of the Brazilian Amazonia: Impact of provenance and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Prafulla Kumar; Guimarães, José Tasso Felix; Souza-Filho, Pedro Walfir Martins; da Silva, Marcio Sousa; Nascimento, Wilson, Júnior; Powell, Mike A.; Reis, Luiza Santos; Pessenda, Luiz Carlos Ruiz; Rodrigues, Tarcísio Magevski; da Silva, Delmo Fonseca; Costa, Vladimir Eliodoro

    2017-12-01

    Lake Três Irmãs (LTI), the largest upland lake in the Brazilian Amazonia, located in Serra dos Carajás, was characterized using multi-elemental and isotope geochemistry (δ13C and δ15N) to understand the significance of organic and inorganic sources, weathering and sedimentary processes on the distribution of elements in lake bottom (surficial) sediments. Carbon and nitrogen isotopes from sedimentary organic matter suggest C3 terrestrial plants (forests > canga vegetation), macrophytes and freshwater DOC as the main sources. Sediments are depleted in most of the major oxides (except Fe2O3 and P2O5) when compared to upper continental crust (UCC) and their spatial distribution is highly influenced by catchment lithology. Principal Component Analysis revealed that most of the trace elements (Ba, Sr, Rb, Sc, Th, U, Zr, Hf, Nb, Y, V, Cr, Ga, Co, Ni) and REEs are closely correlated with Al and Ti (PC1; Group-1), so their redistribution is less influenced by post-depositional process. This is due to their relative immobility and being hosted by Al-bearing minerals during laterization. High Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA), Mafic Index of Alteration (MIA) and Index of Laterization (IOL) values indicate intense chemical weathering at source areas, but the weathering transformation was better quantified by IOL. A-CN-K plot along with elemental ratios (Al/K, Ti/K, Ti/Zr, La/Al, Cr/Th, Co/Th, La/Sm, La/Gd, Zr/Y, and Eu/Eu*) as well as chondrite-normalized REE patterns show that the detritic sediments are mainly sourced from ferruginous laterites and soils in the catchment, which may have characteristics similar to mafic rocks.

  4. Effect of noise and filtering on largest Lyapunov exponent of time series associated with human walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdizadeh, Sina; Sanjari, Mohammad Ali

    2017-11-07

    This study aimed to determine the effect of added noise, filtering and time series length on the largest Lyapunov exponent (LyE) value calculated for time series obtained from a passive dynamic walker. The simplest passive dynamic walker model comprising of two massless legs connected by a frictionless hinge joint at the hip was adopted to generate walking time series. The generated time series was used to construct a state space with the embedding dimension of 3 and time delay of 100 samples. The LyE was calculated as the exponential rate of divergence of neighboring trajectories of the state space using Rosenstein's algorithm. To determine the effect of noise on LyE values, seven levels of Gaussian white noise (SNR=55-25dB with 5dB steps) were added to the time series. In addition, the filtering was performed using a range of cutoff frequencies from 3Hz to 19Hz with 2Hz steps. The LyE was calculated for both noise-free and noisy time series with different lengths of 6, 50, 100 and 150 strides. Results demonstrated a high percent error in the presence of noise for LyE. Therefore, these observations suggest that Rosenstein's algorithm might not perform well in the presence of added experimental noise. Furthermore, findings indicated that at least 50 walking strides are required to calculate LyE to account for the effect of noise. Finally, observations support that a conservative filtering of the time series with a high cutoff frequency might be more appropriate prior to calculating LyE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Solomon Islands largest hawksbill turtle rookery shows signs of recovery after 150 years of excessive exploitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Hamilton

    Full Text Available The largest rookery for hawksbill turtles in the oceanic South Pacific is the Arnavon Islands, which are located in the Manning Strait between Isabel and Choiseul Province, Solomon Islands. The history of this rookery is one of overexploitation, conflict and violence. Throughout the 1800s Roviana headhunters from New Georgia repeatedly raided the Manning Strait to collect hawksbill shell which they traded with European whalers. By the 1970s the Arnavons hawksbill population was in severe decline and the national government intervened, declaring the Arnavons a sanctuary in 1976. But this government led initiative was short lived, with traditional owners burning down the government infrastructure and resuming intensive harvesting in 1982. In 1991 routine beach monitoring and turtle tagging commenced at the Arnavons along with extensive community consultations regarding the islands' future, and in 1995 the Arnavon Community Marine Conservation Area (ACMCA was established. Around the same time national legislation banning the sale of all turtle products was passed. This paper represents the first analysis of data from 4536 beach surveys and 845 individual turtle tagging histories obtained from the Arnavons between 1991-2012. Our results and the results of others, reveal that many of the hawksbill turtles that nest at the ACMCA forage in distant Australian waters, and that nesting on the Arnavons occurs throughout the year with peak nesting activity coinciding with the austral winter. Our results also provide the first known evidence of recovery for a western pacific hawksbill rookery, with the number of nests laid at the ACMCA and the remigration rates of turtles doubling since the establishment of the ACMCA in 1995. The Arnavons case study provides an example of how changes in policy, inclusive community-based management and long term commitment can turn the tide for one of the most charismatic and endangered species on our planet.

  6. Lessons Learned in Deploying the World s Largest Scale Lustre File System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillow, David A [ORNL; Fuller, Douglas [ORNL; Wang, Feiyi [ORNL; Oral, H Sarp [ORNL; Zhang, Zhe [ORNL; Hill, Jason J [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The Spider system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF) is the world's largest scale Lustre parallel file system. Envisioned as a shared parallel file system capable of delivering both the bandwidth and capacity requirements of the OLCF's diverse computational environment, the project had a number of ambitious goals. To support the workloads of the OLCF's diverse computational platforms, the aggregate performance and storage capacity of Spider exceed that of our previously deployed systems by a factor of 6x - 240 GB/sec, and 17x - 10 Petabytes, respectively. Furthermore, Spider supports over 26,000 clients concurrently accessing the file system, which exceeds our previously deployed systems by nearly 4x. In addition to these scalability challenges, moving to a center-wide shared file system required dramatically improved resiliency and fault-tolerance mechanisms. This paper details our efforts in designing, deploying, and operating Spider. Through a phased approach of research and development, prototyping, deployment, and transition to operations, this work has resulted in a number of insights into large-scale parallel file system architectures, from both the design and the operational perspectives. We present in this paper our solutions to issues such as network congestion, performance baselining and evaluation, file system journaling overheads, and high availability in a system with tens of thousands of components. We also discuss areas of continued challenges, such as stressed metadata performance and the need for file system quality of service alongside with our efforts to address them. Finally, operational aspects of managing a system of this scale are discussed along with real-world data and observations.

  7. Iceland as the largest source of natural air pollution in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagsson Waldhauserova, Pavla; Meinander, Outi; Olafsson, Haraldur; Arnalds, Olafur

    2017-04-01

    Arctic aerosols are often attributed to the Arctic Haze and long-range transport tracers. There is, however, an important dust source in the Arctic/Sub-arctic region which should receive more attention. The largest desert in the Arctic as well as in the Europe is Iceland with > 40,000 km2 of desert areas. The mean dust suspension frequency was 135 dust days annually in 1949-2012 with decreasing numbers in 2013-2015. The annual dust deposition was calculated as 31-40 million tons yr-1 affecting the area of > 500,000 km2. Satelite MODIS pictures have revealed dust plumes traveling > 1000 km at times. The physical properties of Icelandic dust showed differences in mineralogy, geochemical compositions, shapes, sizes, and colour, compared to the crustal mineral dust. Icelandic dust is of volcanic origin, dark in colour with sharp-tipped shards and large bubbles. About 80% of the particulate matter is volcanic glass rich in heavy metals, such as iron and titanium. Suspended dust measured at the glacial dust source consisted of such high number of close-to-ultrafine particles as concentrations during active eruptions. Generally, about 50% of the suspended PM10 are submicron particles in Iceland. Contrarily, suspended grains > 2 mm were captured during severe dust storm after the 2010 Eyjafjallajokull eruption when the aeolian transport exceeded 11 t m-1 of materials and placed this storms among the most extreme wind erosion events recorded on Earth. Our reflectance measurements showed that Icelandic dust deposited on snow lowers the snow albedo and reduces the snow density as much as Black Carbon. Icelandic volcanic dust tends to act as a positive climate forcing agent, both directly and indirectly, which is different to what generally concluded for crustal dust in the 2013 IPCC report. The high frequency, severity and year-round activity of volcanic dust emissions suggest that Icelandic dust may contribute to Arctic warming.

  8. Effect of farm and simulated laboratory cold environmental conditions on the performance and physiological responses of lactating dairy cows supplemented with bovine somatotropin (BST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, B. A.; Johnson, H. D.; Li, R.; Collier, R. J.

    1990-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of bovine somatotropin (BST) supplementation in twelve lactating dairy cows maintained in cold environmental conditions. Six cows were injected daily with 25 mg of BST; the other six were injected with a control vehicle. Cows were maintained under standard dairy management during mid-winter for 30 days. Milk production was recorded twice daily, and blood samples were taken weekly. Animals were then transferred to environmentally controlled chambers and exposed to cycling thermoneutral (15° to 20° C) and cycling cold (-5° to +5° C) temperatures for 10 days in a split-reversal design. Milk production, feed and water intake, body weights and rectal temperatures were monitored. Blood samples were taken on days 1, 3, 5, 8 and 10 of each period and analyzed for plasma triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), cortisol, insulin and prolactin. Under farm conditions, BST-treated cows produced 11% more milk than control-treated cows and in environmentally controlled chambers produced 17.4% more milk. No differences due to BST in feed or water intake, body weights or rectal temperatures were found under laboratory conditions. Plasma T3 and insulin increased due to BST treatment while no effect was found on cortisol, prolactin or T4. The results showed that the benefits of BST supplementation in lactating dairy cows were achieved under cold environmental conditions.

  9. A dynamic organic soil biogeochemical model for simulating the effects of wildfire on soil environmental conditions and carbon dynamics of black spruce forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuhua Yi; A. David McGuire; Eric Kasischke; Jennifer Harden; Kristen Manies; Michelle Mack; Merritt. Turetsky

    2010-01-01

    Ecosystem models have not comprehensively considered how interactions among fire disturbance, soil environmental conditions, and biogeochemical processes affect ecosystem dynamics in boreal forest ecosystems. In this study, we implemented a dynamic organic soil structure in the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (DOS-TEM) to investigate the effects of fire on soil temperature...

  10. IT-Tools Concept for Simulation and Design of Water Hydraulic Mechatronic Test Facilities for Motion Control and Operation in Environmentally Sensitive Application Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Pobedza, J.; Sobczyk, A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a proposed IT-Tools concept for modeling, simulation, analysis and design of water hydraulic actuators for motion control of machines, lifts, cranes and robots. The designed test rigs have tap water hydraulic components of the Danfoss Nessie® product family and equipped...... with a measurement and data acquisition system. Results of the mathematical modeling, simulation and design of the motion control test rigs are presented. Furthermore, the paper presents selected experimental and identifying test results for the water hydraulic test rigs....

  11. Experimental-based Modelling and Simulation of Water Hydraulic Mechatronics Test Facilities for Motion Control and Operation in Environmental Sensitive Applications` Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Pobedza, J.; Sobczyk, A.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents experimental-based modelling, simulation, analysis and design of water hydraulic actuators for motion control of machines, lifts, cranes and robots. The contributions includes results from on-going research projects on fluid power and mechatronics based on tap water hydraulic...

  12. Chemical Transformation Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemical Transformation Simulator (CTS) is a web-based, high-throughput screening tool that automates the calculation and collection of physicochemical properties for an organic chemical of interest and its predicted products resulting from transformations in environmental sy...

  13. Water Quality Analysis Simulation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality analysis simulation Program, an enhancement of the original WASP. This model helps users interpret and predict water quality responses to natural...

  14. Correlation of the Deccan and Rajahmundry Trap lavas: Are these the longest and largest lava flows on Earth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, S.; Jay, A. E.; Widdowson, M.; Keszthelyi, L. P.

    2008-05-01

    We propose that the Rajahmundry Trap lavas, found near the east coast of peninsular India , are remnants of the longest lava flows yet recognized on Earth (˜ 1000 km long). These outlying Deccan-like lavas are shown to belong to the main Deccan Traps. Several previous studies have already suggested this correlation, but have not demonstrated it categorically. The exposed Rajahmundry lavas are interpreted to be the distal parts of two very-large-volume pāhoehoe flow fields, one each from the Ambenali and Mahabaleshwar Formations of the Wai Sub-group in the Deccan Basalt Group. Eruptive conditions required to emplace such long flows are met by plausible values for cooling and eruption rates, and this is shown by applying a model for the formation of inflated pāhoehoe sheet flow lobes. The model predicts flow lobe thicknesses similar to those observed in the Rajahmundry lavas. For the last 400 km of flow, the lava flows were confined to the pre-existing Krishna valley drainage system that existed in the basement beyond the edge of the gradually expanding Deccan lava field, allowing the flows to extend across the subcontinent to the eastern margin where they were emplaced into a littoral and/or shallow marine environment. These lavas and other individual flow fields in the Wai Sub-group may exceed eruptive volumes of 5000 km 3, which would place them amongst the largest magnitude effusive eruptive units yet known. We suggest that the length of flood basalt lava flows on Earth is restricted mainly by the size of land masses and topography. In the case of the Rajahmundry lavas, the flows reached estuaries and the sea, where their advance was perhaps effectively terminated by cooling and/or disruption. However, it is only during large igneous province basaltic volcanism that such huge volumes of lava are erupted in single events, and when the magma supply rate is sufficiently high and maintained to allow the formation of very long lava flows. The Rajahmundry lava

  15. Health Insurance Premium Increases for the 5 Largest School Districts in the United States, 2004–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantillo, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Local school districts are often one of the largest, if not the largest, employers in their respective communities. Like many large employers, school districts offer health insurance to their employees. There is a lack of information about the rate of health insurance premiums in US school districts relative to other employers. Objective To assess the change in the costs of healthcare insurance in the 5 largest public school districts in the United States, between 2004 and 2008, as representative of large public employers in the country. Methods Data for this study were drawn exclusively from a survey sent to the 5 largest public school districts in the United States. The survey requested responses on 3 data elements for each benefit plan offered from 2004 through 2008; these included enrollment, employee costs, and employer costs. Results The premium growth for the 5 largest school districts has slowed down and is consistent with other purchasers—Kaiser/Health Research & Educational Trust and the Federal Employee Health Benefit Program. The average increase in health insurance premium for the schools was 5.9% in 2008, and the average annual growth rate over the study period was 7.5%. For family coverage, these schools provide the most generous employer contribution (80.8%) compared with the employer contribution reported by other employers (73.5%) for 2008. Conclusions Often the largest employers in their communities, school districts demonstrate a commitment to provide choice of benefits and affordability for employees and their families. Despite constraints typical of public employers, the 5 largest school districts in the United States have decelerated in premium growth consistent with other purchasers, albeit at a slower pace. PMID:25126311

  16. Health insurance premium increases for the 5 largest school districts in the United States, 2004-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantillo, John R

    2010-03-01

    Local school districts are often one of the largest, if not the largest, employers in their respective communities. Like many large employers, school districts offer health insurance to their employees. There is a lack of information about the rate of health insurance premiums in US school districts relative to other employers. To assess the change in the costs of healthcare insurance in the 5 largest public school districts in the United States, between 2004 and 2008, as representative of large public employers in the country. Data for this study were drawn exclusively from a survey sent to the 5 largest public school districts in the United States. The survey requested responses on 3 data elements for each benefit plan offered from 2004 through 2008; these included enrollment, employee costs, and employer costs. The premium growth for the 5 largest school districts has slowed down and is consistent with other purchasers-Kaiser/Health Research & Educational Trust and the Federal Employee Health Benefit Program. The average increase in health insurance premium for the schools was 5.9% in 2008, and the average annual growth rate over the study period was 7.5%. For family coverage, these schools provide the most generous employer contribution (80.8%) compared with the employer contribution reported by other employers (73.5%) for 2008. Often the largest employers in their communities, school districts demonstrate a commitment to provide choice of benefits and affordability for employees and their families. Despite constraints typical of public employers, the 5 largest school districts in the United States have decelerated in premium growth consistent with other purchasers, albeit at a slower pace.

  17. After Macondo: how has Brazil reacted to the largest accidental marine oil spill in history?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwind, William Prescott [Thompson and Knight LLP, Houston, TX (United States); Porto, Nara Galeb [Thompson and Knight LLP, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Macondo spill in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico was an undeniable and unprecedented environmental disaster. To many critics, however, the damage to the environment was exacerbated by harm to the economy, as a drilling moratorium and a regulatory slowdown practically eliminated new offshore drilling, cost both the nation and the region thousands of jobs and millions of dollars, and dealt a severe set-back to the offshore oil and gas industry in the United States. Over two years after the spill, the industry is still struggling to recover. What does Macondo mean for Brazil? As Brazil eyes its own abundant offshore oil and gas resources, the country is grappling with the environmental and political fallout of two recent spills that, while much smaller than Macondo, turned the public spotlight squarely on the possibility of a similar disaster in Brazilian waters. This article highlights the regulatory measures that were or are expected to be implemented in the United States and Brazil in the wake of Macondo, reviews the effects of the recent offshore spills in Brazil, and discusses evolutions in the contractual allocations of risks and responsibility in the international and the Brazilian oil and gas industry in response to Macondo. (author)

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN AND ENVIRONMENTALLY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    critique of theoretical approaches towards understanding the formation of environmental attitudes, a model has been developed ... instances, people must have the motivation and know- ... feelings and emotion, and behaviour to behavioural.

  19. What caused the UK's largest common dolphin (Delphinus delphis mass stranding event?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D Jepson

    Full Text Available On 9 June 2008, the UK's largest mass stranding event (MSE of short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis occurred in Falmouth Bay, Cornwall. At least 26 dolphins died, and a similar number was refloated/herded back to sea. On necropsy, all dolphins were in good nutritive status with empty stomachs and no evidence of known infectious disease or acute physical injury. Auditory tissues were grossly normal (26/26 but had microscopic haemorrhages (5/5 and mild otitis media (1/5 in the freshest cases. Five lactating adult dolphins, one immature male, and one immature female tested were free of harmful algal toxins and had low chemical pollutant levels. Pathological evidence of mud/seawater inhalation (11/26, local tide cycle, and the relative lack of renal myoglobinuria (26/26 suggested MSE onset on a rising tide between 06:30 and 08∶21 hrs (9 June. Potential causes excluded or considered highly unlikely included infectious disease, gas/fat embolism, boat strike, by-catch, predator attack, foraging unusually close to shore, chemical or algal toxin exposure, abnormal weather/climatic conditions, and high-intensity acoustic inputs from seismic airgun arrays or natural sources (e.g., earthquakes. International naval exercises did occur in close proximity to the MSE with the most intense part of the exercises (including mid-frequency sonars occurring four days before the MSE and resuming with helicopter exercises on the morning of the MSE. The MSE may therefore have been a "two-stage process" where a group of normally pelagic dolphins entered Falmouth Bay and, after 3-4 days in/around the Bay, a second acoustic/disturbance event occurred causing them to strand en masse. This spatial and temporal association with the MSE, previous associations between naval activities and cetacean MSEs, and an absence of other identifiable factors known to cause cetacean MSEs, indicates naval activity to be the most probable cause of the Falmouth Bay MSE.

  20. Transcriptome Sequencing and Analysis for Culm Elongation of the World's Largest Bamboo (Dendrocalamus sinicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Cui

    Full Text Available Dendrocalamus sinicus is the world's largest bamboo species with strong woody culms, and known for its fast-growing culms. As an economic bamboo species, it was popularized for multi-functional applications including furniture, construction, and industrial paper pulp. To comprehensively elucidate the molecular processes involved in its culm elongation, Illumina paired-end sequencing was conducted. About 65.08 million high-quality reads were produced, and assembled into 81,744 unigenes with an average length of 723 bp. A total of 64,338 (79% unigenes were annotated for their functions, of which, 56,587 were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 35,262 were annotated in the Swiss-Prot database. Also, 42,508 and 21,009 annotated unigenes were allocated to gene ontology (GO categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG, respectively. By searching against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG, 33,920 unigenes were assigned to 128 KEGG pathways. Meanwhile, 8,553 simple sequence repeats (SSRs and 81,534 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs were identified, respectively. Additionally, 388 transcripts encoding lignin biosynthesis were detected, among which, 27 transcripts encoding Shikimate O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT specifically expressed in D. sinicus when compared to other bamboo species and rice. The phylogenetic relationship between D. sinicus and other plants was analyzed, suggesting functional diversity of HCT unigenes in D. sinicus. We conjectured that HCT might lead to the high lignin content and giant culm. Given that the leaves are not yet formed and culm is covered with sheaths during culm elongation, the existence of photosynthesis of bamboo culm is usually neglected. Surprisedly, 109 transcripts encoding photosynthesis were identified, including photosystem I and II, cytochrome b6/f complex, photosynthetic electron transport and F-type ATPase, and 24 transcripts were characterized

  1. Evaluation of world's largest social welfare scheme: An assessment using non-parametric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sanjeet

    2016-08-01

    Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) is the world's largest social welfare scheme in India for the poverty alleviation through rural employment generation. This paper aims to evaluate and rank the performance of the states in India under MGNREGA scheme. A non-parametric approach, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is used to calculate the overall technical, pure technical, and scale efficiencies of states in India. The sample data is drawn from the annual official reports published by the Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India. Based on three selected input parameters (expenditure indicators) and five output parameters (employment generation indicators), I apply both input and output oriented DEA models to estimate how well the states utilize their resources and generate outputs during the financial year 2013-14. The relative performance evaluation has been made under the assumption of constant returns and also under variable returns to scale to assess the impact of scale on performance. The results indicate that the main source of inefficiency is both technical and managerial practices adopted. 11 states are overall technically efficient and operate at the optimum scale whereas 18 states are pure technical or managerially efficient. It has been found that for some states it necessary to alter scheme size to perform at par with the best performing states. For inefficient states optimal input and output targets along with the resource savings and output gains are calculated. Analysis shows that if all inefficient states operate at optimal input and output levels, on an average 17.89% of total expenditure and a total amount of $780million could have been saved in a single year. Most of the inefficient states perform poorly when it comes to the participation of women and disadvantaged sections (SC&ST) in the scheme. In order to catch up with the performance of best performing states, inefficient states on an average need to enhance

  2. Africa's largest long-lasting insecticide-treated net producer: lessons from A to Z Textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masum, Hassan; Shah, Ronak; Schroeder, Karl; Daar, Abdallah S; Singer, Peter A

    2010-12-13

    Field trials have demonstrated the efficacy of insecticide-treated nets, and the WHO has recently endorsed a shift toward Long-Lasting Insecticide Treated nets (LLINs) due to factors such as reduced distribution costs. However, the need for LLINs poses several challenges. Is it possible to manufacture LLINs in large quantities in the African continent, where malaria is most endemic? When production is located in low-income countries, what role is played by local funding and employment, scaling up manufacturing, and partnerships? What factors influence availability and pricing? A case study of A to Z Textiles was undertaken to answer the question of how large-scale production of LLINs can occur in a low income setting. One of the largest sources of bed nets for Africa, A to Z Textiles is Africa-based, and its Tanzanian operations have a production capacity of 30 million LLINs per year, along with full WHO recommendation for its nets. Our analysis is based on semi-structured interviews with key informants familiar with A to Z, site visits in Tanzania, and literature reviews.This paper discusses the history and current status of A to Z Textiles, identifies the factors that led to its success, and suggests policy considerations that could support similar initiatives in the future. Local funding, scaling up manufacturing, technology transfer, and partnerships all played important roles in A to Z's ascent, as did perceived benefits of local employment and capacity-building. Regulatory issues and procurement rules acted as barriers. A to Z cost-effectively manufactures high-quality LLINs where malaria is most endemic. With a production capacity of 30 million LLINs per year, and full WHOPES (WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme) certification, A to Z Textiles demonstrates how key health goods can be successfully produced in the low-income countries that use them. Its example may be instructive and of high interest to readers in the malaria community, especially in developing

  3. Helicobacter pylori virulence genes in the five largest islands of Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Syam, Ari Fahrial; Makmun, Dadang; Nusi, Iswan Abbas; Zein, Lukman Hakim; Zulkhairi; Akil, Fardah; Uswan, Willi Brodus; Simanjuntak, David; Uchida, Tomohisa; Adi, Pangestu; Utari, Amanda Pitarini; Rezkitha, Yudith Annisa Ayu; Subsomwong, Phawinee; Nasronudin; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    It remains unclear whether the low incidence of gastric cancer in Indonesia is due to low infection rates only or is also related to low Helicobacter pylori pathogenicity. We collected H. pylori strains from the five largest islands in Indonesia and evaluated genetic virulence factors. The genotypes of H. pylori virulence factors were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based sequencing. Histological severity of the gastric mucosa was classified into 4 grades, according to the updated Sydney system. A total of 44 strains were analyzed. Forty-three (97.7 %) were cagA-positive: 26 (60.5 %) were East-Asian-type-cagA, 9 (20.9 %) were Western-type-cagA, and 8 (18.6 %) were novel ABB-type, most of which were obtained from Papuan. EPIYT sequences were more prevalent than EPIYA sequences (P = 0.01) in the EPIYA-B motif of all types of cagA. The majority of cagA-positive strains (48.8 %, 21/43) had a 6-bp deletion in the first pre-EPIYA region. Subjects infected with East-Asian-type-cagA strains with a 6-bp deletion had significantly lower inflammation and atrophy scores in the corpus than those infected with Western-type-cagA strains (both P = 0.02). In total, 70.4 % of strains possessed the vacA s1m1 genotype and 29.5 % were m2. All strains from peptic ulcer patients were of the iceA1 genotype, which occurred at a significantly higher proportion in peptic ulcer patients than that in gastritis patients (55.3 %, P = 0.04). The double positive genotype of jhp0562/β-(1,3)galT was predominant (28/44, 63.6 %), and subjects infected with this type had significantly higher inflammation scores in the corpus than those with the jhp0562 negative/β-(1,3)galT positive genotype (mean [median]; 1.43 [1] vs. 0.83 [1], P = 0.04). There were significant differences in cagA and pre-EPIYA cagA type, oipA status, and jhp0562/β-(1,3)galT type among different ethnic groups (P dupA negative or short type dupA, and the jhp0562/β-(1,3)galT double positive genotype.

  4. What Caused the UK's Largest Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis) Mass Stranding Event?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepson, Paul D.; Deaville, Robert; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Barnett, James; Brownlow, Andrew; Brownell Jr., Robert L.; Clare, Frances C.; Davison, Nick; Law, Robin J.; Loveridge, Jan; Macgregor, Shaheed K.; Morris, Steven; Murphy, Sinéad; Penrose, Rod; Perkins, Matthew W.; Pinn, Eunice; Seibel, Henrike; Siebert, Ursula; Sierra, Eva; Simpson, Victor; Tasker, Mark L.; Tregenza, Nick; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fernández, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    On 9 June 2008, the UK's largest mass stranding event (MSE) of short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) occurred in Falmouth Bay, Cornwall. At least 26 dolphins died, and a similar number was refloated/herded back to sea. On necropsy, all dolphins were in good nutritive status with empty stomachs and no evidence of known infectious disease or acute physical injury. Auditory tissues were grossly normal (26/26) but had microscopic haemorrhages (5/5) and mild otitis media (1/5) in the freshest cases. Five lactating adult dolphins, one immature male, and one immature female tested were free of harmful algal toxins and had low chemical pollutant levels. Pathological evidence of mud/seawater inhalation (11/26), local tide cycle, and the relative lack of renal myoglobinuria (26/26) suggested MSE onset on a rising tide between 06∶30 and 08∶21 hrs (9 June). Potential causes excluded or considered highly unlikely included infectious disease, gas/fat embolism, boat strike, by-catch, predator attack, foraging unusually close to shore, chemical or algal toxin exposure, abnormal weather/climatic conditions, and high-intensity acoustic inputs from seismic airgun arrays or natural sources (e.g., earthquakes). International naval exercises did occur in close proximity to the MSE with the most intense part of the exercises (including mid-frequency sonars) occurring four days before the MSE and resuming with helicopter exercises on the morning of the MSE. The MSE may therefore have been a “two-stage process” where a group of normally pelagic dolphins entered Falmouth Bay and, after 3–4 days in/around the Bay, a second acoustic/disturbance event occurred causing them to strand en masse. This spatial and temporal association with the MSE, previous associations between naval activities and cetacean MSEs, and an absence of other identifiable factors known to cause cetacean MSEs, indicates naval activity to be the most probable cause of the Falmouth Bay MSE. PMID

  5. Transcriptome Sequencing and Analysis for Culm Elongation of the World's Largest Bamboo (Dendrocalamus sinicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Kai; Wang, Haiying; Liao, Shengxi; Tang, Qi; Li, Li; Cui, Yongzhong; He, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Dendrocalamus sinicus is the world's largest bamboo species with strong woody culms, and known for its fast-growing culms. As an economic bamboo species, it was popularized for multi-functional applications including furniture, construction, and industrial paper pulp. To comprehensively elucidate the molecular processes involved in its culm elongation, Illumina paired-end sequencing was conducted. About 65.08 million high-quality reads were produced, and assembled into 81,744 unigenes with an average length of 723 bp. A total of 64,338 (79%) unigenes were annotated for their functions, of which, 56,587 were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 35,262 were annotated in the Swiss-Prot database. Also, 42,508 and 21,009 annotated unigenes were allocated to gene ontology (GO) categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG), respectively. By searching against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG), 33,920 unigenes were assigned to 128 KEGG pathways. Meanwhile, 8,553 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 81,534 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) were identified, respectively. Additionally, 388 transcripts encoding lignin biosynthesis were detected, among which, 27 transcripts encoding Shikimate O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT) specifically expressed in D. sinicus when compared to other bamboo species and rice. The phylogenetic relationship between D. sinicus and other plants was analyzed, suggesting functional diversity of HCT unigenes in D. sinicus. We conjectured that HCT might lead to the high lignin content and giant culm. Given that the leaves are not yet formed and culm is covered with sheaths during culm elongation, the existence of photosynthesis of bamboo culm is usually neglected. Surprisedly, 109 transcripts encoding photosynthesis were identified, including photosystem I and II, cytochrome b6/f complex, photosynthetic electron transport and F-type ATPase, and 24 transcripts were characterized as antenna

  6. Africa's largest long-lasting insecticide-treated net producer: lessons from A to Z Textiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daar Abdallah S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Field trials have demonstrated the efficacy of insecticide-treated nets, and the WHO has recently endorsed a shift toward Long-Lasting Insecticide Treated nets (LLINs due to factors such as reduced distribution costs. However, the need for LLINs poses several challenges. Is it possible to manufacture LLINs in large quantities in the African continent, where malaria is most endemic? When production is located in low-income countries, what role is played by local funding and employment, scaling up manufacturing, and partnerships? What factors influence availability and pricing? Discussion A case study of A to Z Textiles was undertaken to answer the question of how large-scale production of LLINs can occur in a low income setting. One of the largest sources of bed nets for Africa, A to Z Textiles is Africa-based, and its Tanzanian operations have a production capacity of 30 million LLINs per year, along with full WHO recommendation for its nets. Our analysis is based on semi-structured interviews with key informants familiar with A to Z, site visits in Tanzania, and literature reviews. This paper discusses the history and current status of A to Z Textiles, identifies the factors that led to its success, and suggests policy considerations that could support similar initiatives in the future. Local funding, scaling up manufacturing, technology transfer, and partnerships all played important roles in A to Z’s ascent, as did perceived benefits of local employment and capacity-building. Regulatory issues and procurement rules acted as barriers. A to Z cost-effectively manufactures high-quality LLINs where malaria is most endemic. Summary With a production capacity of 30 million LLINs per year, and full WHOPES (WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme certification, A to Z Textiles demonstrates how key health goods can be successfully produced in the low-income countries that use them. Its example may be instructive and of high interest to

  7. Final Environmental Assessment for Proposed Enhanced Testing and Associated Training Use of the Giant Reusable Air Blast Simulator (GRABS) Site at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    the Central New Mexico Community College. Montoya Library, 4700 Morris NE, Albuquerque, New Mexico 871 02; and San Pedro Library, 5600 Trumbull...by the Director of the City Environmental Health Department (’ Director’) . Call (505) 768-1930 for current notifications. Tuesday , December...correspondence, telephone calls, fax or emails concerning this Permit shall be addressed to: Tuesday , December I 7, 2013 Open Bum Program Air Quality Division

  8. Analysis of the Effect of Environmental Conditions in Conducting Amphibious Assaults Using a Ship Simulator/Vessel-Response Model Proof-of-Concept Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    maximum water depth is about 7.3 m (24 ft) at slack high water. ERDC/CHL TR-17-4 34 Figure 26. Amphibious operations area. Figure 27. Landing... operational risk by testing the feasibility of the navigability of an area; 2) determining the capacity and timing of that operation ; 3) defining the...amphibious operations and their use in a virtual amphibious assault near the Port of Anchorage, Alaska. This site was chosen because the environmental

  9. Phase II modification of the Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER) for Kentucky: The sinkhole-drainage process, point-and-click basin delineation, and results of karst test-basin simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Charles J.; Williamson, Tanja N.; Newson, Jeremy K.; Ulery, Randy L.; Nelson, Hugh L.; Cinotto, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    This report describes Phase II modifications made to the Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER), which applies the process-based TOPMODEL approach to simulate or predict stream discharge in surface basins in the Commonwealth of Kentucky. The previous (Phase I) version of WATER did not provide a means of identifying sinkhole catchments or accounting for the effects of karst (internal) drainage in a TOPMODEL-simulated basin. In the Phase II version of WATER, sinkhole catchments are automatically identified and delineated as internally drained subbasins, and a modified TOPMODEL approach (called the sinkhole drainage process, or SDP-TOPMODEL) is applied that calculates mean daily discharges for the basin based on summed area-weighted contributions from sinkhole drain-age (SD) areas and non-karstic topographically drained (TD) areas. Results obtained using the SDP-TOPMODEL approach were evaluated for 12 karst test basins located in each of the major karst terrains in Kentucky. Visual comparison of simulated hydrographs and flow-duration curves, along with statistical measures applied to the simulated discharge data (bias, correlation, root mean square error, and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficients), indicate that the SDPOPMODEL approach provides acceptably accurate estimates of discharge for most flow conditions and typically provides more accurate simulation of stream discharge in karstic basins compared to the standard TOPMODEL approach. Additional programming modifications made to the Phase II version of WATER included implementation of a point-and-click graphical user interface (GUI), which fully automates the delineation of simulation-basin boundaries and improves the speed of input-data processing. The Phase II version of WATER enables the user to select a pour point anywhere on a stream reach of interest, and the program will automatically delineate all upstream areas that contribute drainage to that point. This capability enables

  10. Drought and flood effects on macrobenthic communities in the estuary of Australia's largest river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmann, Sabine; Baring, Ryan; Baggalley, Stephanie; Cantin, Agnes; Earl, Jason; Gannon, Ruan; Keuning, Justine; Mayo, Angela; Navong, Nathavong; Nelson, Matt; Noble, Warwick; Ramsdale, Tanith

    2015-11-01

    Estuaries are prone to drought and flood events, which can vary in frequency and intensity depending on water management and climate change. We investigated effects of two different drought and flow situations, including a four year long drought (referred to as Millennium drought) and a major flood event, on the macrobenthic community in the estuary and coastal lagoon of the Murray Mouth and Coorong, where freshwater inflows are strictly regulated. The analysis is based on ten years of annual monitoring of benthic communities and environmental conditions in sediment and water. The objectives were to identify changes in diversity, abundance, biomass and distribution, as well as community shifts and environmental drivers for the respective responses. The Millennium drought led to decreased taxonomic richness, abundance and biomass of macrobenthos as hypersaline conditions developed and water levels dropped. More taxa were found under very high salinities than predicted from the Remane diagram. When a flood event broke the Millennium drought, recovery took longer than from a shorter drought followed by small flows. A flow index was developed to assess the biological response subject to the duration of the preceding drought and flow volumes. The index showed higher taxonomic richness, abundance and biomass at intermediate and more continuous flow conditions. Abundance increased quickly after flows were restored, but the benthic community was initially composed of small bodied organisms and biomass increased only after several years once larger organisms became more abundant. Individual densities and constancy of distribution dropped during the drought for almost all macrobenthic taxa, but recoveries after the flood were taxon specific. Distinct benthic communities were detected over time before and after the drought and flood events, and spatially, as the benthic community in the hypersaline Coorong was split off with a salinity threshold of 64 identified by LINKTREE

  11. Environmental impacts on technical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The interaction between an object and its environment is examined by methods of environment simulation. With regard to possible synergisms, technical considerations and holistic thinking are essential. Environmental simulation is mainly concerned with questions of ability to function and the service life of technical products in their environment. The environmental simulation is used to discover cause/effect mechanisms in ageing and weathering processes. Questions of artificial ageing and speeded up time tests play a great part here. (orig.) [de

  12. Lessons from the Largest Epidemic of Avian Influenza Viruses in Taiwan, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching-Fen; King, Chwan-Chuen; Wan, Cho-Hua; Chang, Yun-Cheng; Chan, Ta-Chien; David Lee, Chang-Chun; Chou, Po-Hao Borris; Li, Zheng-Rong Tiger; Li, Yao-Tsun; Tseng, Tzu-Jung; Lee, Pei-Fen; Chang, Chuan-Hsiung

    2016-05-01

    The largest epidemic of avian influenza (AI) in history attacked poultry and wild birds throughout Taiwan starting January 6, 2015. This study analyzed surveillance results, epidemiologic characteristics, and viral sequences by using government-released information, with the intention to provide recommendations to minimize future pandemic influenza. The H5 clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic AI viruses (HPAIVs) had not been detected in Taiwan before 2015. During this epidemic, four types of etiologic agents were identified: the three novel subtypes H5N2, H5N8, and H5N3 clade 2.3.4.4 HPAIVs and one endemic chicken H5N2 subtype (Mexican-like lineage) of low pathogenic AI viruses. Cocirculation of mixed subtypes also occurred, with H5N2 clade 2.3.4.4 HPAIVs accompanied by the H5N8 and H5N3 subtypes or old H5N2 viruses in the same farm. More than 90% of domestic geese died from this AI epidemic; geese were affected the most at the early outbreaks. The epidemic peaked in mid-January for all three novel H5 subtypes. Spatial epidemiology found that most affected areas were located in southwestern coastal areas. In terrestrial poultry (mostly chickens), different geographic distributions of AI virus subtypes were detected, with hot spots of H5N2 clade 2.3.4.4 vs. past-endemic old H5N2 viruses in Changhwa (P = 0.03) and Yunlin (P = 0.007) counties, respectively, of central Taiwan. Phylogenetic and sequence analyses of all the early 10 Taiwan H5 clade 2.3.4.4 isolates covering the three subtypes showed that they were very different from the HA of the past local H5 viruses from domestic ducks (75%-80%) and chickens (70%-75%). However, they had the highest sequence identity percentages (99.53%-100%), with the HA of A/crane/Kagoshima/KU13/2014(H5N8) isolated on December 7, 2014, in Japan being higher than those of recent American and Korean H5 HPAIVs [A/Northern pintail/Washington/40964/2014 (H5N2) and A/gyrfalcon/Washington/41088-6/2014 (H5N8): 99.02%-99.54% and A/Baikal teal

  13. Effective of environmental impact prevention principle through the use of contingency simulated exercises at TRANSPETRO; Efetividade do principio da prevencao do dano ambiental atraves de exercicios simulados de contingencia na TRANSPETRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulucci, Valdemir Antonio; Alves, Anibal Jose Constantino; Tavares, Luiz Fernando Alves [PETROBRAS Transporte S. A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)] (and others)

    2008-07-01

    The effective prevention principle can be done of several ways and with the use of a roll of tools, including the environmental impact study and the simulation of catastrophic events. The last one has the main objective to estimate the emergency response capacity and to test the equipment and methodologies used to contingency simulated exercises at TRANSPETRO. Considering the several simulated exercises that occur annually in the covered area of pipeways and terminals of TRANSPETRO in the State of Sao Paulo, were chosen those that occurred at 21 of November of 2006, in Sao Bernardo do Campo city, and at 25 and 26 of September of 2007, in Sao Sebastiao city, because of the magnitude and natural areas especially protected. The evaluation of the training effective had as reference the information and data reports and interviews with the management agents. The results were analyzed observing negative and positive points and the level of community involvement, looking for measuring the security level in the satisfactory response in front of the possibility of real event occurrence, considering the fragility of the natural and social environment where are (author)

  14. Feasibility Analysis and Simulation of a Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Energy System for Electricity Generation and Environmental Sustainability – Equivalent to 650VA Fuel-Powered Generator – Popularly Known as “I Pass My Neighbour”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ani, Vincent Anayochukwu

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) power system can be used to replace wholly 650VA generator for electricity generation for household use in Nigeria. This paper presented the feasibility analysis of load data and simulation study of a stand-alone PV power system that produced the electrical needs of a household. This study is based on designing of PV energy system for household use. The patterns of load consumption within the household were studied and suitably modeled for simulation. The simulation study indicates that energy requirements to provide electricity, which is equivalent to 650VA generator for household use in Nigeria, can be accomplished by 520 W solar PV array, 2312 Ah nominal capacity battery, and a 1 kW DC/AC inverter. This would be suitable for deployment of 100% clean energy for environmental sustainability and uninterruptable power performance in the household. The results of this research show that, with a low-power consuming appliances, it is possible to meet the entire annual electricity demand of a single household solely through a stand-alone PV energy supply. Installing solar panels by most Nigerian home can significantly reduce home reliance on government power thereby reduce the strain on the current capacity of our power generation infrastructure. A detailed design and description of the system were presented in this paper.

  15. Feasibility Analysis and Simulation of a Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Energy System for Electricity Generation and Environmental Sustainability – Equivalent to 650VA Fuel-Powered Generator – Popularly Known as “I Pass My Neighbour”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ani, Vincent Anayochukwu, E-mail: vincent_ani@yahoo.com [Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Nsukka (Nigeria)

    2015-09-11

    Photovoltaic (PV) power system can be used to replace wholly 650VA generator for electricity generation for household use in Nigeria. This paper presented the feasibility analysis of load data and simulation study of a stand-alone PV power system that produced the electrical needs of a household. This study is based on designing of PV energy system for household use. The patterns of load consumption within the household were studied and suitably modeled for simulation. The simulation study indicates that energy requirements to provide electricity, which is equivalent to 650VA generator for household use in Nigeria, can be accomplished by 520 W solar PV array, 2312 Ah nominal capacity battery, and a 1 kW DC/AC inverter. This would be suitable for deployment of 100% clean energy for environmental sustainability and uninterruptable power performance in the household. The results of this research show that, with a low-power consuming appliances, it is possible to meet the entire annual electricity demand of a single household solely through a stand-alone PV energy supply. Installing solar panels by most Nigerian home can significantly reduce home reliance on government power thereby reduce the strain on the current capacity of our power generation infrastructure. A detailed design and description of the system were presented in this paper.

  16. Best approach to impact assessment is to use empirically based or simulation models to forecast impacts. Environmental Sciences Division Publication No. 1538

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, S.W.

    1980-01-01

    This paper advocates the utility of mathematical models, as contrasted with statistical procedures and processional judgment, for assessing environmental impacts. While it would be desirable to use statistical tests to detect and estimate impacts, this is generally difficult or impossible to do, even with existing sources of impact. Empirical modeling, supported by statistical analyses when possible, is proffered as the logical alternative. Next, for purposes of forecasting impacts, the use of models as opposed to professional judgment or experience is considered. The conclusion is reached that, while models cannot answer all of the relevant questions, they can be used effectively and can address problems that are beyond the reach of statistical methods

  17. Techno-environmental assessment of the green biorefinery concept: Combining process simulation and life cycle assessment at an early design stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corona, Andrea; Ambye-Jensen, Morten; Vega, Giovanna Croxatto

    2018-01-01

    and the cascading utilization of the GBR output. The GBR configurations considered in this study, test alternatives in the three main steps of green-biorefining: fractionation, precipitation, and protein separation. The different cascade utilization alternatives analyse different options for press-pulp utilization......, and the LCA results show that the environmental profile of the GBR is highly affected by the utilization of the press-pulp and thus by the choice of conventional product replaced by the press-pulp. Furthermore, scenario analysis of different GBR configurations shows that higher benefits can be achieved...

  18. Religious Beliefs and Environmental Behaviors in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of religion in the environment has yet to be empirically investigated in the country with the largest atheist population across the globe. Using data from the Chinese General Social Survey 2013, we examined the effects of religious beliefs on environmental behaviors in China. Dependent variables of private and public environmental behaviors were identified by factor analysis. The estimation revealed a contradictory result that most religious beliefs had negative effects on private environmental behaviors while having positive effects on public environmental behaviors. The findings suggest a religion–politics interactive mechanism to enhance pro-environmental behavior in China.

  19. Investigating respirable particulates (PM10) around the world's largest mercury mine, Almaden, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbons, W.; Jones, T. [Cardiff Univ., Cardiff, Wales (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Moreno, T.; Richards, R. [Cardiff Univ., Cardiff, Wales (United Kingdom). School of Biosciences; Higueras, P. [Almaden Univ. of Castilla-La Mancha, Almaden (Spain). Dept. of Geological Engineering

    2003-07-01

    The Almaden area in Spain has been mined for mercury since pre-Roman days. There is no evidence for significant contamination of the groundwater supply, since the lack of pyrite in the mercury deposits has prevented the formation of acid mine drainage. However, the main recognized environmental problem related to mercury mining has been the progressive poisoning of workers who are in direct contact with mercury vapours. This paper presents results of a study in which dust samples were collected from former mining and urban locations around Almaden. The samples were processed to extract their fine, respirable fraction. Mining activities have left contaminated ground, which under semi-arid conditions has created respirable mercury-bearing dusts. In some places the ground is severely contaminated with mercury as cinnabar and as schuetteite. Some of the contaminated areas are used for livestock grazing and growing plants for human consumption. A higher incidence of mercury-bearing particles is found in the finer fraction. The sizes of the mercury-bearing resuspended particles at all sites varies from inhalable dust, through respirable dust, to fine and ultrafine size capable of reaching the deepest levels of the lung alveoli. The most significant contamination is associated with old processing plants. Dust samples collected from Almaden, a town of 6,500 inhabitants, were found to contain significant amounts of respirable mercury-bearing aerosols.

  20. Simulation of weathering processes of uranium-nickel ore from Key Lake, Sask., Canada - a contribution of uranium mineralogy to environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pechmann, E. von; Voultsidis, V.

    1979-01-01

    The impact of frost and rain on stockpiles of uranium-nickel or from the Key Lake deposits has been investigated in simulation tests. Frost splitting causes strong disaggregation of the rock and fragmentation of the mineral grains. The ore is much less affected in the sandstone than in the mylonitized basement. During the tests, the uranium minerals have nearly not been weathered. The nickel minerals are quickly transformed into water soluble secondary minerals (sulphates and arsenate). The weathering effects on stored ore depend on the degree of ore comminution and its exposition to the atmospheric elements. (orig.) [de

  1. STAR Formation Histories Across the Interacting Galaxy NGC 6872, the Largest-Known Spiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eufrasio, Rafael T.; Dwek, E.; Arendt, RIchard G.; deMello, Duilia F.; Gadotti, DImitri A.; Urrutia-Viscarra, Fernanda; deOliveira, CLaudia Mendes; Benford, Dominic J.

    2014-01-01

    NGC6872, hereafter the Condor, is a large spiral galaxy that is interacting with its closest companion, the S0 galaxy IC 4970. The extent of the Condor provides an opportunity for detailed investigation of the impact of the interaction on the current star formation rate and its history across the galaxy, on the age and spatial distribution of its stellar population, and on the mechanism that drives the star formation activity. To address these issues we analyzed the far-ultraviolet (FUV) to near-infrared (near-IR) spectral energy distribution of seventeen 10 kpc diameter regions across the galaxy, and derived their star formation history, current star formation rate, and stellar population and mass. We find that most of the star formation takes place in the extended arms, with very little star formation in the central 5 kpc of the galaxy, in contrast to what was predicted from previous numerical simulations. There is a trend of increasing star formation activity with distance from the nucleus of the galaxy, and no evidence for a recent increase in the current star formation rate due to the interaction. The nucleus itself shows no significant current star formation activity. The extent of the Condor also provides an opportunity to test the applicability of a single standard prescription for conversion of the FUV + IR (22 micrometer) intensities to a star formation rate for all regions. We find that the conversion factor differs from region to region, arising from regional differences in the stellar populations.

  2. ESO Signs Largest-Ever European Industrial Contract For Ground-Based Astronomy Project ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    ESO, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, announced today that it has signed a contract with the consortium led by Alcatel Alenia Space and composed also of European Industrial Engineering (Italy) and MT Aerospace (Germany), to supply 25 antennas for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) project, along with an option for another seven antennas. The contract, worth 147 million euros, covers the design, manufacture, transport and on-site integration of the antennas. It is the largest contract ever signed in ground-based astronomy in Europe. The ALMA antennas present difficult technical challenges, since the antenna surface accuracy must be within 25 microns, the pointing accuracy within 0.6 arc seconds, and the antennas must be able to be moved between various stations on the ALMA site. This is especially remarkable since the antennas will be located outdoor in all weather conditions, without any protection. Moreover, the ALMA antennas can be pointed directly at the Sun. ALMA will have a collecting area of more than 5,600 square meters, allowing for unprecedented measurements of extremely faint objects. The signing ceremony took place on December 6, 2005 at ESO Headquarters in Garching, Germany. "This contract represents a major milestone. It allows us to move forward, together with our American and Japanese colleagues, in this very ambitious and unique project," said ESO's Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky. "By building ALMA, we are giving European astronomers access to the world's leading submillimetre facility at the beginning of the next decade, thereby fulfilling Europe's desire to play a major role in this field of fundamental research." Pascale Sourisse, Chairman and CEO of Alcatel Alenia Space, said: "We would like to thank ESO for trusting us to take on this new challenge. We are bringing to the table not only our recognized expertise in antenna development, but also our long-standing experience in

  3. Business Subsidies in Canada Comprehensive Estimates for the Government of Canada and the Four Largest Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Lester

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Business subsidies in Canada: the “winner” is Alberta; the loser is the taxpayer The federal government and the four largest provinces in Canada spend about $29 billion a year on business subsidies, delivered through program spending, the tax system, government business enterprises and direct investments by government. These subsidies represent almost half of the corporate income tax revenue collected by the five jurisdictions. Surprisingly, given its reputation as a bastion of free enterprise, Alberta is the most prolific subsidizer. In the 2014-15 fiscal year, per person subsidies were $640 in Alberta, about $100 ahead of the next most generous jurisdiction, Québec. Alberta has probably added to its “lead” through measures introduced in the October 2015 Fiscal Update and the 2016 budget. Alberta also stands out by having the least transparent public reporting of business subsidies. What motivates governments to subsidize business? Abstracting from cynical efforts to win votes, business subsidies have two broad objectives: to improve economic performance and to achieve a social objective by supporting specific firms, industries or regions. On average in the five jurisdictions, the split between the two categories is about 70-30 in favour of economic development measures. Assessing value for money from programs with a social objective is subjective, but measures intended to improve economic performance should be assessed on their ability to raise real income. Business subsidies can only raise real income if markets fail to allocate labour and capital to their best uses. The classic case is R&D. When a firm undertakes R&D, some of the knowledge created inevitably spills over to the benefit other firms. Firms are focused on their own benefits and costs when deciding how much to spend on R&D, not the benefits received by other firms, so society has an interest in encouraging additional R&D. While markets generally do a good job allocating

  4. Plant species and communities in Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang, H. F.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Studying plant species richness and composition of a wetland is essential when estimating its ecological importance and ecosystem services, especially if a particular wetland is subjected to human disturbances. Poyang Lake, located in the middle reaches of Yangtze River (central China, constitutes the largest freshwater lake of the country. It harbours high biodiversity and provides important habitat for local wildlife. A dam that will maintain the water capacity in Poyang Lake is currently being planned. However, the local biodiversity and the likely effects of this dam on the biodiversity (especially on the endemic and rare plants have not been thoroughly examined. Therefore, in order to assess the richness of plant species and plant communities in Poyang Lake, we conducted a detailed field investigation combined with a literature review. A total of 124 families, 339 genera, and 512 species (including sub-species, varieties and forms as well as eight dominant plant communities were identified, confirming the lake’s wetland as a regional hotspot of plant diversity. It is imperative to carry out further research on the impact of damming on the vegetation, particularly research focusing on protecting local biodiversity, maintaining the lake’s ecosystem services, controlling the spread of invasive species, and restoring degraded ecosystems.El estudio de la riqueza y la composición de especies vegetales de un humedal es esencial a la hora de estimar su importancia ecológica y sus servicios ecosistémicos, especialmente cuando éste está sujeto a perturbaciones humanas. El lago Poyang, situado en el curso medio del río Yangtsé (China central constituye la mayor superfície de agua dulce del país. Alberga una elevada biodiversidad y proporciona hábitats importantes para la flora y fauna locales. En la actualidad existen planes de construir una presa que mantendrá el volumen de agua del lago estable. Sin embargo, y hasta la fecha, apenas

  5. Simulating the production and dispersion of environmental pollutants in aerosol phase in an urban area of great historical and cultural value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Librando, Vito; Tringali, Giuseppe; Calastrini, Francesca; Gualtieri, Giovanni

    2009-11-01

    Mathematical models were developed to simulate the production and dispersion of aerosol phase atmospheric pollutants which are the main cause of the deterioration of monuments of great historical and cultural value. This work focuses on Particulate Matter (PM) considered the primary cause of monument darkening. Road traffic is the greatest contributor to PM in urban areas. Specific emission and dispersion models were used to study typical urban configurations. The area selected for this study was the city of Florence, a suitable test bench considering the magnitude of architectural heritage together with the remarkable effect of the PM pollution from road traffic. The COPERT model, to calculate emissions, and the street canyon model coupled with the CALINE model, to simulate pollutant dispersion, were used. The PM concentrations estimated by the models were compared to actual PM concentration measurements, as well as related to the trend of some meteorological variables. The results obtained may be defined as very encouraging even the models correlated poorly: the estimated concentration trends as daily averages moderately reproduce the same trends of the measured values.

  6. Effect of environmental conditions on the migration of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate from pet bottles into yogurt drinks: influence of time, temperature, and food simulant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhoodi, Mehdi; Djomeh, Zahra Emam; Ehsani, Mohammad Reza; Oromiehie, Abdolrasul

    2008-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is one of the materials that are widely used for packaging of beverages and edible oils. In this study, the migration of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) from PET bottles into the Iranian yogurt drink was investigated. According to European Commission regulations, acetic acid (3% w/v) was chosen as simulant. The acetic acid samples were stored at 4 degree C, 25 degree C, and 45 degree C for four months and analyzed periodically by gas chromatography. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was used to investigate if contact with the food simulant could affect the PET material. It was concluded that the storage temperature had a large effect on the migration of DEHP. Also, increasing storage time resulted in higher concentrations of migrating DEHP. The concentrations of migrating substance did not exceed its specific migration limit (Economic European Community (EEC) regulations). Determination of glass transition (Tg) and crystallinity percent of PET bottles using DSC method showed that the variations in the amount of migration at different storage condition did not induce any change in the PET material in contact with 3% acetic acid. (author)

  7. Prokaryotic diversity in one of the largest hypersaline coastal lagoons in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementino, M M; Vieira, R P; Cardoso, A M; Nascimento, A P A; Silveira, C B; Riva, T C; Gonzalez, A S M; Paranhos, R; Albano, R M; Ventosa, A; Martins, O B

    2008-07-01

    Araruama Lagoon is an environment characterized by high salt concentrations. The low raining and high evaporation rates in this region favored the development of many salty ponds around the lagoon. In order to reveal the microbial composition of this system, we performed a 16S rRNA gene survey. Among archaea, most clones were related to uncultured environmental Euryarchaeota. In lagoon water, we found some clones related to Methanomicrobia and Methanothermococcus groups, while in the saline pond water members related to the genus Haloarcula were detected. Bacterial community was dominated by clones related to Gamma-proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Synechococcus in lagoon water, while Salinibacter ruber relatives dominated in saline pond. We also detected the presence of Alpha-proteobacteria, Pseudomonas-like bacteria and Verrucomicrobia. Only representatives of the genus Ralstonia were cosmopolitan, being observed in both systems. The detection of a substantial number of clones related to uncultured archaea and bacteria suggest that the hypersaline waters of Araruama harbor a pool of novel prokaryotic phylotypes, distinct from those observed in other similar systems. We also observed clones related to halophilic genera of cyanobacteria that are specific for each habitat studied. Additionally, two bacterioplankton molecular markers with ecological relevance were analyzed, one is linked to nitrogen fixation (nifH) and the other is linked to carbon fixation by bacterial photosynthesis, the protochlorophyllide genes, revealing a specific genetic distribution in this ecosystem. This is the first study of the biogeography and community structure of microbial assemblages in Brazilian tropical hypersaline environments. This work is directed towards a better understanding of the free-living prokaryotic diversity adapted to life in hypersaline waters.

  8. Ownership, financing, and management strategies of the ten largest for-profit nursing home chains in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Charlene; Hauser, Clarilee; Olney, Brian; Rosenau, Pauline Vaillancourt

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the ownership, financing, and management strategies of the 10 largest for-profit nursing home chains in the United States, including the four largest chains purchased by private equity corporations. Descriptive data were collected from Internet searches, company reports, and other sources for the decade 1998-2008. Since 1998, the largest chains have made many changes in their ownership and structure, and some have converted from publicly traded companies to private ownership. This study shows the increasing complexity of corporate nursing home ownership and the lack of public information about ownership and financial status. The chains have used strategies to maximize shareholder and investor value that include increasing Medicare revenues, occupancy rates, and company diversification, establishing multiple layers of corporate ownership, developing real estate investment trusts, and creating limited liability companies. These strategies enhance shareholder and investor profits, reduce corporate taxes, and reduce liability risk. There is a need for greater transparency in ownership and financial reporting and for more government oversight of the largest for-profit chains, including those owned by private equity companies.

  9. Haven't We Been Here Before? Some Comments on Steve Coffman's Proposal for "Earth's Largest Library".

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGervey, Teresa

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the concept of Earth's Largest Library (ELL), a mega-virtual library based on the Amazon.com model. Topics include who will be included; privacy; censorship; scope of the collection; costs; legal aspects; collection development; personnel management; access; the concept of community; public service; lending policies; technical…

  10. Estimate of the largest Lyapunov characteristic exponent of a high dimensional atmospheric global circulation model: a sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrieri, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this report the largest Lyapunov characteristic exponent of a high dimensional atmospheric global circulation model of intermediate complexity has been estimated numerically. A sensitivity analysis has been carried out by varying the equator-to-pole temperature difference, the space resolution and the value of some parameters employed by the model. Chaotic and non-chaotic regimes of circulation have been found. [it

  11. Estimating the recreational value of Pakistan's largest freshwater lake to support sustainable tourism management using a travel cost model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangan, T.; Brouwer, R.; Lohano, H.; Nagraj, G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Keenjhar Lake, Pakistan's largest freshwater lake and an important Ramsar site, provides habitat for internationally important water birds. Annually, 385,000 people visit the lake. The lake is threatened by a variety of causes, including industrial and agricultural pollution. To support its

  12. German Migrant Teachers in Australia: Insights into the Largest Cohort of Non-English Speaking Background Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bense, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    The research reported in this paper investigates the situation of German migrant teachers in Australia. Although German born teachers represent the largest group of non-English speaking background teachers in Australia, there is no study of the circumstances and experiences of these teachers in Australia. This study aims to fill this gap. It…

  13. The Determinants of Bank Internationalisation in Times of Financial Globalisation: Evidence from the World's Largest Banks (1980-2007)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhuis, Gerarda; Mulder, Arjen

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the determinants of bank internationalisation, of the world's largest banks from the period 1980–2007. The purpose of the article is twofold. First, we show how a mixed-methods research design, in which we combine a variables-based research with three case studies, can

  14. Pay less, take more: the myth of quality of life at the Brazil’s largest drugstore chain counter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Maranhão de Souza Leão

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the role of cultural transformer that the brandoccupies in the contemporary and seeking to delineate the role played bymyth in this construction, we look at Pague Menos, the largest pharmacyretail network in the country, through a qualitative study based on Barthesiansemiology. Our results showed six myths, whose relationships reveal ametanarrative: the quality of life.

  15. Occurrence and fate of steroid estrogens in the largest wastewater treatment plant in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yiqi; Zha, Jinmiao; Wang, Zijian

    2012-11-01

    Concern over steroid estrogens has increased rapidly in recent years due to their adverse health effects. Effluent discharge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is the main pollutant source for environmental water. To understand the pollutant level and fate of steroid estrogens in WWTPs, the occurrence of estrone (E1), 17-β-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), and 17-β-ethinylestradiol (EE2) was investigated in the Gaobeidian WWTP in Beijing, China. Water samples from influent as well as effluent from second sedimentation tanks and advanced treatment processes were taken monthly during 2006 to 2007. In influent, steroid estrogen concentrations varied from 11.6 to 1.1 × 10(2) ng/l, 3.7 to 1.4 × 10(2) ng/l, no detection (nd) to 7.6×10(2) ng/l and nd to 3.3 × 10(2) ng/l for E1, E2, E3, and EE2, respectively. Compared with documented values, the higher steroid estrogen concentrations in the WWTP influent may be due to higher population density, higher birthrate, less dilution, and different sampling time. Results revealed that a municipal WWTP with an activated sludge system incorporating anaerobic, anoxic, and aerobic processes could eliminate natural and synthetic estrogens effectively. The mean elimination efficiencies were 83.2%, 96.4%, 98.8%, and 93.0% for E1, E2, E3, and EE2, respectively. The major removal mechanism for natural estrogens and synthetic estrogen EE2 were biodegradation and sorption on the basis of mass balance in water, suspension particles, and sludge. In the WWTP effluent, however, the highest concentrations of E1, E2, E3, and EE2 attained were 74.2, 3.9, 5.1, and 4.6 ng/l, respectively. This is concerning as residual steroid estrogens in WWTP effluent could lead to pollution of the receiving water. Advanced flocculation treatment was applied in the WWTP and transformed the residual estrogen conjugates to free species, which were reduced further by filtration with removal shifting from 32% to 57% for natural estrogen, although no EE2 was

  16. Environmental Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Lindelof, Anja Mølle

    from the perspective of time and liveness as experienced in art on environmental performance discussing how environmental performances frame the temporality of the world. The paper engages with contemporary examples of environmental performances from various disciplines (sound, video, television...

  17. Environmental Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Ekelund, Kathrine

    2015-01-01

    The philosophical subfield environmental aesthetics can contribute to the design of sustainable futures. Environmental aesthetics provides a conceptual framework for understanding the relationship between nature and culture. Current positions in environmental aesthetics are lined out and used...

  18. Environmental performance management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwant, J.W.H.; Grant, R.O.H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the environmental programme developed by Shell U.K. Exploration and Production (EXPRO) aiming at a continuous improvement of its environmental performance. The company operates a total of 33 platforms in the North Sea and has 3 land based gas treatment plants. This paper, therefore, relates mainly to the offshore environment. The programme is driven by adopting a goal setting policy. The plan was initiated mid 1990 when an inventory was made of all gaseous emissions, liquid effluents and solid waste discharges of EXPRO's operations during 1989. This baseline was used to identify the largest waste steams and to set priorities for the subsequent improvement programme. Areas for improvement are: atmospheric emissions from venting, flaring and the use of Freons and Halons, the use of Oil Based Mud (OBM), produced water and the disposal of industrial waste. The programme has gained momentum and targets have been set

  19. Application of an uncertainty analysis approach to strategic environmental assessment for urban planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Chen, Jining; He, Weiqi; Tong, Qingyuan; Li, Wangfeng

    2010-04-15

    Urban planning has been widely applied as a regulatory measure to guide a city's construction and management. It represents official expectations on future population and economic growth and land use over the urban area. No doubt, significant variations often occur between planning schemes and actual development; in particular in China, the world's largest developing country experiencing rapid urbanization and industrialization. This in turn leads to difficulty in estimating the environmental consequences of the urban plan. Aiming to quantitatively analyze the uncertain environmental impacts of the urban plan's implementation, this article developed an integrated methodology combining a scenario analysis approach and a stochastic simulation technique for strategic environmental assessment (SEA). Based on industrial development scenarios, Monte Carlo sampling is applied to generate all possibilities of the spatial distribution of newly emerged industries. All related environmental consequences can be further estimated given the industrial distributions as input to environmental quality models. By applying a HSY algorithm, environmentally unacceptable urban growth, regarding both economic development and land use spatial layout, can be systematically identified, providing valuable information to urban planners and decision makers. A case study in Dalian Municipality, Northeast China, is used to illustrate applicability of this methodology. The impacts of Urban Development Plan for Dalian Municipality (2003-2020) (UDP) on atmospheric environment are also discussed in this article.

  20. Environmental Law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    Contains information on the National Environmental Policy Act, the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, the Endangered Species Act, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability...

  1. Environmental projects. Volume 3: Environmental compliance audit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex is part of NASA's Deep Space Network, one of the world's largest and most sensitive scientific telecommunications and radio navigation networks. Activities at Goldstone are carried out in support of six large parabolic dish antennas. In support of the national goal of the preservation of the environment and the protection of human health and safety, NASA, JPL and Goldstone have adopted a position that their operating installations shall maintain a high level of compliance with Federal, state, and local laws governing the management of hazardous substances, abestos, and underground storage tanks. A JPL version of a document prepared as an environmental audit of Goldstone operations is presented. Both general and specific items of noncompliance at Goldstone are identified and recommendations are provided for corrective actions.

  2. Long-period Ground Motion Characteristics Inside and Outside of the Osaka Basin during the 2011 Great Tohoku Earthquake and Its Largest Aftershock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K.; Iwata, T.; Asano, K.; Kubo, H.; Aoi, S.

    2013-12-01

    The 2011 great Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) occurred on March 11, 2011, and the largest aftershock (Mw 7.7) at the region adjacent to south boundary of the mainshock's source region. Long-period ground motions (1-10s) of large amplitude were observed in the Osaka sedimentary basin about 550-800km away from the source regions during both events. We studied propagation and site characteristics of these ground motions, and found some common features between these two events in the Osaka basin. (1) The amplitude of horizontal components of the ground motion at the site-specific period is amplified at each sedimentary station. The predominant period is around 7s in the bayside area where the largest pSv were observed. (2) The velocity Fourier spectra have their peak values around 7s at the bedrock sites surrounding the Osaka basin. (3) Two remarkable wave packets separated by 30s propagating from stations around the Nobi plain to the bedrock sites near the Osaka basin were seen in the pasted-up velocity waveforms from the source regions to the Osaka basin for both events (Sato et al., 2012). Therefore, large long-period ground motions in the Osaka basin are generated by the combination of propagation-path and basin effects. Firstly, we simulate ground motions due to the largest aftershock using three-dimensional FDM (GMS; Aoi and Fujiwara, 1999). The reason we focus on the largest aftershock is that this event has a relatively small rupture area and simple rupture process compared to the mainshock. The source model is based on the model estimated by Kubo et al. (2013). The velocity structure model is a three-dimensional velocity structure based on the Japan Integrated Velocity Structure Model (Koketsu et al., 2012) and the layer of Vs 350m/s in this model is replaced with one of Vs 500m/s. The minimum effective period in this computation is 3s. Then, we compare synthetic waveforms with observed ones. At CHBH14, the nearest station to the source and 60km away from the

  3. Effects of simulated rain on the transport of fonofos and carbofuran from agricultural soils in the three-part environmental microcosm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtenstein, E.P.; Liang, T.T.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of simulated rain on the transport and metabolism of [ 14 C]fonofos and [ 14 C]carbofuran from insecticide-treated soil through deeper insecticide-free soil layers into surface waters were studied under laboratory conditions in a three-component microcosm. Radiocarbon derived from both [ 14 C]fonofos and [ 14 C]carbofuran was transported with soil runoff water from the place of the insecticide soil application through previously insecticide-free deeper soil layers into aquaria water and its sediments. Due to the lower water solubility of fonofos, less of this chemical was transported with water than did occur with carbofuran. Water, after its percolation through insecticide-free soil, contained 1.3% and 15.3% of the originally applied fonofos- and carbofuran-derived radiocarbon and 14 C]fonofos-treated soils resulted in lower insect mortalities than did exposure of larvae to comparable water samples from [ 14 C]carbofuran-treated soils. Thirty-six days after the start of the experiments and 21 days after the last rain application, aquaria water plus sediments from [ 14 C]fonofos- or [ 14 C]carbofuran-treated soils contained a total of 1.3% and 6.0% of the originally applied radiocarbon, respectively, but no fonofos and less than 0.1% of the originally applied carbofuran

  4. Assessment of environmental co-benefits of energy system decarbonisation - the case of UK air quality using Remote Sensing and Model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral Mourao, Z.; Konadu, D. D.; Damoah, R.

    2016-12-01

    The UK has a binding obligation to reduce GHG emission by 80% (based on 1990 levels) by 2050. Meeting this target requires extensive decarbonisation of the UK energy system. Different pathways that achieve this target at the lowest system costs are being explored at different levels of policy and decisions on future energy infrastructure. Whilst benefits of decarbonisation are mainly focused on the impacts on climate change, there are other potential environmental and health impacts such as air-quality. In particular, a decrease in fossil fuel use by directly substituting current systems with low-carbon technologies could lead to significant reductions in the concentrations of SO2, NOX, CO and other atmospheric pollutants. So far, the proposed decarbonisation pathways tend to target the electricity sector first, followed by a transition in transport and heating technologies and use. However, the spatial dimension of where short term changes in the energy sector occur in relation to high density population areas is not taken into account when defining the energy transition strategies. This may lead to limited short-term improvements in air quality within urban areas, where use of fossil fuels for heating and transport is the main contribution to overall atmospheric pollutant levels. It is therefore imperative to explore decarbonisation strategies that prioritise transition in sectors of the energy system that produce immediate improvements in air quality in key regions of the UK. This study aims to use a combination of Remote Sensing observations and atmospheric chemistry/transport modelling approaches to estimate and map the atmospheric pollutants impact of the traditional approach of decarbonising electricity first compared to a slower transition in the electricity sector, but faster change in end use sectors (heating and transport). This would provide an additional standard to compare future energy system pathways beyond the traditional metrics of cost and GHG

  5. The largest Fresco in Europe on cooling tower of nuclear power station of Cruas Meysse in Ardeche, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Mayo, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Station Cruas Meysse is on the most important communication way of France, in the Rhone Valley, between the Rhin and the Mediterranean Sea. In the South of the Rhone Valley, the Nuclear Power Plant is situated near the very important site of 'Tricastin', the largest nuclear area in France. Cruas Meysse has a very good integration to the economy, social, and cultural scheme ; that's why EDF and the Ardeche Department had enter into partnership to associate art and technology of our time, and offer a work for everybody - 'Le Verseau' is the largest fresco in Europe - It gives a gigantic signalling system to the Ardeche Department, because the Nuclear Power Station has a very interesting position, close the motor way A7, the National 7 road, and the way of high speed train (TGV) an another symbol of the high French technology

  6. Invasive fish species in the largest lakes of Scotland, Northern Ireland, Wales and England: the collective U.K. experience

    OpenAIRE

    Winfield, I.J.; Fletcher, J.M.; James, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    An invasive species is defined as an alien (or introduced or non-native) species whose establishment and spread threaten ecosystems, habitats or species with harm. Such threats to UK lake fish communities have long been appreciated and this review assembles case histories, including new data, from the largest lakes of Scotland, Northern Ireland, Wales and England to examine the hypothesis that at least some of these introductions have become invasive. Loch Lomond in Scotland has experienced s...

  7. Survival of Extremely Premature Infants at the Largest MOH Referral Hospital in UAE: Comparable Results to Developed Countries

    OpenAIRE

    YASEEN, Hakam; YASEEN, Hoda

    2010-01-01

    Objective: to investigate the survival rate of extreme premature infants born between 2000 and 2008 at AL Qassimi hospital that is the largest Ministry of Health (MOH) referral hospital in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).Methods: This was an institutional review board approved retrospective study of the outcomes of pregnancies in women who were in labor and delivered between 23 and 25 weeks' completed gestation at Al Qassimi Hospital in the Emirate of Sharjah between January 1,2000 and De...

  8. Mapping Dynamics of Inundation Patterns of Two Largest River-Connected Lakes in China: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Guiping Wu; Yuanbo Liu

    2016-01-01

    Poyang Lake and Dongting Lake are the two largest freshwater lakes in China. The lakes are located approximately 300 km apart on the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and are differently connected through their respective tributary systems, which will lead to different river–lake water exchanges and discharges. Thus, differences in their morphological and hydrological conditions should induce individual lake spatio-temporal inundation patterns. Quantitative comparative analyses of the dynam...

  9. The largest forest fires in Portugal: the constraints of burned area size on the comprehension of fire severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedim, Fantina; Remelgado, Ruben; Martins, João; Carvalho, Salete

    2015-01-01

    Portugal is a European country with highest forest fires density and burned area. Since beginning of official forest fires database in 1980, an increase in number of fires and burned area as well as appearance of large and catastrophic fires have characterized fire activity in Portugal. In 1980s, the largest fires were just a little bit over 10,000 ha. However, in the beginning of 21st century several fires occurred with a burned area over 20,000 ha. Some of these events can be classified as mega-fires due to their ecological and socioeconomic severity. The present study aimed to discuss the characterization of large forest fires trend, in order to understand if the largest fires that occurred in Portugal were exceptional events or evidences of a new trend, and the constraints of fire size to characterize fire effects because, usually, it is assumed that larger the fire higher the damages. Using Portuguese forest fire database and satellite imagery, the present study showed that the largest fires could be seen at the same time as exceptional events and as evidence of a new fire regime. It highlighted the importance of size and patterns of unburned patches within fire perimeter as well as heterogeneity of fire ecological severity, usually not included in fire regime description, which are critical to fire management and research. The findings of this research can be used in forest risk reduction and suppression planning.

  10. Environmental strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zabkar, Vesna; Cater, Tomaz; Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    perspective, appropriate environmental strategies in compliance with environmental requirements aim at building competitive advantages through sustainable development. There is no universal “green” strategy that would be appropriate for each company, regardless of its market requirements and competitive......Environmental issues and the inclusion of environmental strategies in strategic thinking is an interesting subject of investigation. In general, managerial practices organized along ecologically sound principles contribute to a more environmentally sustainable global economy. From the managerial...

  11. Time compression of soil erosion by the effect of largest daily event. A regional analysis of USLE database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Hidalgo, J. C.; Batalla, R.; Cerda, A.; de Luis, M.

    2009-04-01

    When Thornes and Brunsden wrote in 1977 "How often one hears the researcher (and no less the undergraduate) complain that after weeks of observation "nothing happened" only to learn that, the day after his departure, a flood caused unprecedent erosion and channel changes!" (Thornes and Brunsden, 1977, p. 57), they focussed on two different problems in geomorphological research: the effects of extreme events and the temporal compression of geomorphological processes. The time compression is one of the main characteristic of erosion processes. It means that an important amount of the total soil eroded is produced in very short temporal intervals, i.e. few events mostly related to extreme events. From magnitude-frequency analysis we know that few events, not necessarily extreme by magnitude, produce high amount of geomorphological work. Last but not least, extreme isolated events are a classical issue in geomorphology by their specific effects, and they are receiving permanent attention, increased at present because of scenarios of global change. Notwithstanding, the time compression of geomorphological processes could be focused not only on the analysis of extreme events and the traditional magnitude-frequency approach, but on new complementary approach based on the effects of largest events. The classical approach define extreme event as a rare event (identified by its magnitude and quantified by some deviation from central value), while we define largest events by the rank, whatever their magnitude. In a previous research on time compression of soil erosion, using USLE soil erosion database (Gonzalez-Hidalgo et al., EGU 2007), we described a relationship between the total amount of daily erosive events recorded by plot and the percentage contribution to total soil erosion of n-largest aggregated daily events. Now we offer a further refined analysis comparing different agricultural regions in USA. To do that we have analyzed data from 594 erosion plots from USLE

  12. Computer science handbook. Vol. 13.3. Environmental computer science. Computer science methods for environmental protection and environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, B.; Hilty, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental computer science is a new partial discipline of applied computer science, which makes use of methods and techniques of information processing in environmental protection. Thanks to the inter-disciplinary nature of environmental problems, computer science acts as a mediator between numerous disciplines and institutions in this sector. The handbook reflects the broad spectrum of state-of-the art environmental computer science. The following important subjects are dealt with: Environmental databases and information systems, environmental monitoring, modelling and simulation, visualization of environmental data and knowledge-based systems in the environmental sector. (orig.) [de

  13. Peat in environmental management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinttilae, R.

    1998-01-01

    Peat is the largest natural resource of Finland. The DS-reserves of peat are more than seven times larger than those of wood. Peat is known as a domestic source of energy. Peat is, however, more than an energy source. The most significant problem of water protection in Finland is the eutrophication of the water courses. The reduction of concentrated loads and large emissions sources has up to now been the target for the water protection. The control of diffuse loads has been more difficult. The environmental use of peat can reduce the loads on watercourses, and especially the diffuse emissions. The natural and unique properties of peat can be utilized in several targets: agriculture, pisciculture, fur farming, in small and medium sized industry, and in processing of waste waters of both municipalities and rural areas, as well as in different environmental hazards. The present use of environmental peat is just a small fragment of the annual growth of peat reserves in Finland. The amount of protected mires is about ten times larger than the amount of peatlands taken into peat production. The use of environmental peat makes it possible to reduce the diffuse loads significantly in the future. This, however, requires willingness of cooperation and development by the entrepreneurs, authorities, and peat producers. The present use of agricultural peat binds about three times more phosphor and nearly one and a half fold nitrogen fertilizers compare to the emissions caused by peat production. It has to be noticed that the utilization of peat in reduction of environmental loads does not cause any secondary waste problem. The final product formed can usually be composted and used e.g. in soil remediation or in construction of green areas. The tightening environmental regulations and international agreements increase the utilization of peat. As the demand of peat increased the quality requirements for peat will be increased. Certain grain size and the restoration of the

  14. High Prevalence of Multidrug-Resistant Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus at the Largest Veterinary Teaching Hospital in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Irene; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; van Balen, Joany C; Rojas, Norman; Muñoz-Vargas, Lohendy; Hoet, Armando E

    2017-09-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a pathogen associated with severe infections in companion animals present in the community, and it is diagnosed in animals admitted to veterinary hospitals. However, reports that describe the circulation of MRSA in animal populations and veterinary settings in Latin America are scarce. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and investigate the molecular epidemiology of MRSA in the environment of the largest veterinary teaching hospital in Costa Rica. Preselected contact surfaces were sampled twice within a 6-week period. Antimicrobial resistance, SCCmec type, Panton-Valentine leukocidin screening, USA type, and clonality were assessed in all recovered isolates. Overall, MRSA was isolated from 26.5% (27/102) of the surfaces sampled, with doors, desks, and examination tables most frequently contaminated. Molecular analysis demonstrated a variety of surfaces from different sections of the hospital contaminated by three highly related clones/pulsotypes. All, but one of the isolates were characterized as multidrug-resistant SCCmec type IV-USA700, a strain sporadically described in other countries and often classified as community acquired. The detection and frequency of this unique strain in this veterinary setting suggest Costa Rica has a distinctive MRSA ecology when compared with other countries/regions. The high level of environmental contamination highlights the necessity to establish and enforce standard cleaning and disinfection protocols to minimize further spread of this pathogen and reduce the risk of nosocomial and/or occupational transmission of MRSA.

  15. Sweden's largest Facebook study

    OpenAIRE

    Denti, Leif; Barbopoulus, Isak; Nilsson, Ida; Holmberg, Linda; Thulin, Magdalena; Wendeblad, Malin; Andén, Lisa; Davidsson, Emelie

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of the Internet has made it easier for people to socially interact than ever before. Today, the most popular channel is Facebook with over 845 million users world wide. In Sweden, the number of users amount to approximately half of the population. We had two aims with this study. First, we investigate which areas of Facebook usage that Swedish Facebook users consider more important vis-a-vis less important. We were also interested in how users convey their persona through t... m...

  16. Largest terrestrial electromagnetic pulsar

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pardy, Miroslav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 6 (2002), s. 1155-1163 ISSN 0020-7748 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A100 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : source theory, spectral formula, synchrotron radiation Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.655, year: 2002

  17. Environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Tadza Abd Rahman

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear Technology offers unique method, yet effective for environmental research. Nuclear techniques are invented to carry out research activities on environmental pollutions, erosion and slope stability, landslide ground water studies and water pollution

  18. Environmental management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guicherit, R.

    1996-01-01

    Elements of a national environmental management system include: • monitoring networks to establish the prevailing environmental quality; • emission inventories, and projected emission inventories based on population growth, increase of traffic density, and economie growth; taking into account

  19. World's largest DC flywheel generator for the toroidal field power supply of JAERI's JFT-2M Tokamak nuclear fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Takashi; Nakanishi, Yuji; Horita, Tsuyoshi; Kawase, Chiharu; Oyabu, Isao; Kishimoto, Takeshi.

    1996-01-01

    Mitsubishi Electric has delivered the world's largest DC generator for the toroidal field coil power supply of the JFT-2M Tokamak at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The unit rotates at 225 or 460 rpm, providing a maximum rated output of 2,700 V, 19,000 A and 51.3 MW. The toroidal field is a DC field, so use of a DC generator permits a simpler design consuming less floor space than an AC drive system. The generator was manufactured following extensive studies on commutation, mechanical strength and insulation. (author)

  20. Does gender affect funding success at the peer-to-peer credit markets? Evidence from the largest German lending platform

    OpenAIRE

    Barasinska, Nataliya; Schäfer, Dorothea

    2010-01-01

    Studies of peer-to-peer lending in the USA find that female borrowers have better chances of getting funds than males. Is differential treatment of borrowers of different sexes a common feature of peer-to-peer lendingmarkets or is it subject to specific businessmodels, ways of fixing loan contracts and even national financial systems? We aim at answering this question by providing evidence on loan procurement at the largest German peer-to-peer lending platform Smava.de. Our results show that ...

  1. Fluctuations in the size of the largest projectile fragment produced in 1 GeV/nucleon Au + C collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, P.; Elliott, J.B.; Gilkes, M.L.; Hauger, A.; Hirsch, A.S.

    1993-01-01

    Large fluctuations in quantities such as density are characteristic of critical phenomena in the neighborhood of the critical point. Using the EOS apparatus at the Bevalac, we have performed an exclusive experiment in which the size of the largest projectile fragment produced in 1 GeV/nucleon Au+C collisions is studied as a function of the charged multiplicity of the event. A peak in the fluctuations is expected at the critical multiplicity. The data are compared to a percolation model and a statistical multifragmentation model

  2. Global CO_2-energy emissions in 2007. China becomes the largest emitter along with the United States - June 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    China becomes the largest emitter along with the United States. Contents: 1990-2007 evolution (key figures of Yearly average evolutions); Global CO_2-energy emissions in 2007: 27,3 GtCO_2; Global CO_2-energy emissions have increased by 3,2% in 2007, largely driven by China. Since 1990, China has more than doubled its CO_2-energy emissions, to reach the same emission level as the USA in 2007. Two very contrasting tendencies appear since 1990: stabilization of emissions in Annex B countries, boom in China and India. Since 1990, more than half of CO_2-energy emissions growth is (logically) due to coal. (authors)

  3. Environmental Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Burns & McDonnell Engineering's environmental control study is assisted by NASA's Computer Software Management and Information Center's programs in environmental analyses. Company is engaged primarily in design of such facilities as electrical utilities, industrial plants, wastewater treatment systems, dams and reservoirs and aviation installations. Company also conducts environmental engineering analyses and advises clients as to the environmental considerations of a particular construction project. Company makes use of many COSMIC computer programs which have allowed substantial savings.

  4. Environmental procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The European Bank has pledged in its Agreement to place environmental management at the forefront of its operations to promote sustainable economic development in central and eastern Europe. The Bank's environmental policy is set out in the document titled, Environmental Management: The Bank's Policy Approach. This document, Environmental Procedures, presents the procedures which the European Bank has adopted to implement this policy approach with respect to its operations. The environmental procedures aim to: ensure that throughout the project approval process, those in positions of responsibility for approving projects are aware of the environmental implications of the project, and can take these into account when making decisions; avoid potential liabilities that could undermine the success of a project for its sponsors and the Bank; ensure that environmental costs are estimated along with other costs and liabilities; and identify opportunities for environmental enhancement associated with projects. The review of environmental aspects of projects is conducted by many Bank staff members throughout the project's life. This document defines the responsibilities of the people and groups involved in implementing the environmental procedures. Annexes contain Environmental Management: The Bank's Policy Approach, examples of environmental documentation for the project file and other ancillary information

  5. Environmental biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschumi, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    Environmental biology illustrates the functioning of ecosystems and the dynamics of populations with many examples from limnology and terrestrial ecology. On this basis, present environmental problems are analyzed. The present environmental crisis is seen as a result of the failure to observe ecological laws. (orig.) [de

  6. Environmental challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conable, B.; Warford, J.; Partow, Z.; Lutz, E.; Munasinghe, M.

    1991-09-01

    The contents include the following: Development and the Environment: A Global Balance; Evolution of the World Bank's Environmental Policy; Accounting for the Environment; Public Policy and the Environment; Managing Drylands; Environmental Action Plans in Africa; Agroforestry in Sub-Saharan Africa; Irrigation and the Environmental Challenge; Curbing Pollution in Developing Countries; Global Warming and the Developing World; and The Global Environment Facility

  7. Distribution of the largest aftershocks in branching models of triggered seismicity: Theory of the universal Baath law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saichev, A.; Sornette, D.

    2005-01-01

    Using the epidemic-type aftershock sequence (ETAS) branching model of triggered seismicity, we apply the formalism of generating probability functions to calculate exactly the average difference between the magnitude of a mainshock and the magnitude of its largest aftershock over all generations. This average magnitude difference is found empirically to be independent of the mainshock magnitude and equal to 1.2, a universal behavior known as Baath's law. Our theory shows that Baath's law holds only sufficiently close to the critical regime of the ETAS branching process. Allowing for error bars ±0.1 for Baath's constant value around 1.2, our exact analytical treatment of Baath's law provides new constraints on the productivity exponent α and the branching ratio n: 0.9 < or approx. α≤1 and 0.8 < or approx. n≤1. We propose a method for measuring α based on the predicted renormalization of the Gutenberg-Richter distribution of the magnitudes of the largest aftershock. We also introduce the 'second Baath law for foreshocks': the probability that a main earthquake turns out to be the foreshock does not depend on its magnitude ρ

  8. The Process of Leadership and the Organizational Knowledge Management: the practicy of the largest industries of Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dante Marciano Girardi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8077.2012v14n32p65 The aim of this article is to introduce the practices of leadership in the largest industries of Santa Catarina and their contribution to the Knowledge Management. The organization competitiveness is related to the people and to the capacity of the companies to improve the constant development of knowledge. Using the leadership, the managers and the People Management have created compromise and improved the results of the organizations. The adopted methodology followed the qualitative methodology, descriptive and applied research. There were interviewed the seven largest industries of the state of Santa Catarina, in number of collaborators. The data were analyzed by the technique of analysis of content. It has been observed that the leadership is present in the most of the studied companies, by the use of formal programs of development of leaders or of actions related to leadership. It is concluded that the companies have the focus in the people and in the knowledge, in bigger or smaller degree, but some of them are in phase of transition and revision of programs towards the development of their talents and of the Knowledge Management.

  9. Application of the largest Lyapunov exponent and non-linear fractal extrapolation algorithm to short-term load forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianzhou; Jia Ruiling; Zhao Weigang; Wu Jie; Dong Yao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The maximal predictive step size is determined by the largest Lyapunov exponent. ► A proper forecasting step size is applied to load demand forecasting. ► The improved approach is validated by the actual load demand data. ► Non-linear fractal extrapolation method is compared with three forecasting models. ► Performance of the models is evaluated by three different error measures. - Abstract: Precise short-term load forecasting (STLF) plays a key role in unit commitment, maintenance and economic dispatch problems. Employing a subjective and arbitrary predictive step size is one of the most important factors causing the low forecasting accuracy. To solve this problem, the largest Lyapunov exponent is adopted to estimate the maximal predictive step size so that the step size in the forecasting is no more than this maximal one. In addition, in this paper a seldom used forecasting model, which is based on the non-linear fractal extrapolation (NLFE) algorithm, is considered to develop the accuracy of predictions. The suitability and superiority of the two solutions are illustrated through an application to real load forecasting using New South Wales electricity load data from the Australian National Electricity Market. Meanwhile, three forecasting models: the gray model, the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average approach and the support vector machine method, which received high approval in STLF, are selected to compare with the NLFE algorithm. Comparison results also show that the NLFE model is outstanding, effective, practical and feasible.

  10. Environmental history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawson, Eric; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2017-01-01

    Environmental history is an interdisciplinary pursuit that has developed as a form of conscience to counter an increasingly powerful, forward-looking liberal theory of the environment. It deals with the relations between environmental ideas and materialities, from the work of the geographers George...... risks”. These are exposed by environmental history’s focus on long-run analysis and its narrative form that identifies the stories that we tell ourselves about nature. How a better understanding of past environmental transformations helps to analyse society and agency, and what this can mean...... for solutions and policies, is the agenda for an engaged environmental history from now on....

  11. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketteler, G.; Kippels, K.

    1988-01-01

    In section I 'Basic principles' the following topics are considered: Constitutional-legal aspects of environmental protection, e.g. nuclear hazards and the remaining risk; European environmental law; international environmental law; administrative law, private law and criminal law relating to the environment; basic principles of environmental law, the instruments of public environmental law. Section II 'Special areas of law' is concerned with the law on water and waste, prevention of air pollution, nature conservation and care of the countryside. Legal decisions and literature up to June 1988 have been taken into consideration. (orig./RST) [de

  12. Environmental research and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    At the request of the Ministry for Research and Technology, the 'Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Grossforschungseinrichtungen' (AGF) presented in 1972 an information brochure called 'Activities in the field of environmental research and environmental protection', closely associated with the environmental programme of the Federal government (1971). The information brochure reports on those activities of the working group's members which are closely, or less closely, connected with questions concerning environmental research and protection, however, investments for the protection of the individual facilities in internal operation are excluded. The AGF programme 'Environmental research and environmental protection' comprises contributions, brought up to date, of member companies. From the 'AGF programme survey 1974' it contains 'Environmental research' as well as aspects of nuclear development with environmental relevance. Technologies not harmful to the environment developed by the research facilities are only mentioned very briefly. (orig.) [de

  13. (Environmental technology)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boston, H.L.

    1990-10-12

    The traveler participated in a conference on environmental technology in Paris, sponsored by the US Embassy-Paris, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the French Environmental Ministry, and others. The traveler sat on a panel for environmental aspects of energy technology and made a presentation on the potential contributions of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to a planned French-American Environmental Technologies Institute in Chattanooga, Tennessee, and Evry, France. This institute would provide opportunities for international cooperation on environmental issues and technology transfer related to environmental protection, monitoring, and restoration at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The traveler also attended the Fourth International Conference on Environmental Contamination in Barcelona. Conference topics included environmental chemistry, land disposal of wastes, treatment of toxic wastes, micropollutants, trace organics, artificial radionuclides in the environment, and the use biomonitoring and biosystems for environmental assessment. The traveler presented a paper on The Fate of Radionuclides in Sewage Sludge Applied to Land.'' Those findings corresponded well with results from studies addressing the fate of fallout radionuclides from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. There was an exchange of new information on a number of topics of interest to DOE waste management and environmental restoration needs.

  14. Environmental spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Gutzon

    Using the development of intergovernmental environmental cooperation in the Baltic Sea area as a concrete example, the aim of this study is to explore how the 'environment' in situations of environmental interdependence is identified and institutionalised as political-geographical objects....... 'Environmental interdependence' is to this end conceptualised as a tension between 'political spaces' of discrete state territories and 'environmental spaces' of spatially nested ecosystems. This tension between geographies of political separateness and environmental wholeness is the implicit or explicit basis...... for a large and varied literature. But in both its critical and problemsolving manifestations, this literature tends to naturalise the spatiality of environmental concerns: environmental spaces are generally taken for granted. On the suggestion that there is a subtle politics to the specification...

  15. Environmental profile of Lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aftab, M.P.

    2005-01-01

    Lahore commands a strategic political and administrative role as the capital of Punjab Province and second largest city of Pakistan with a population of over 6 million. Lahore is situated on a good quality aquifer being main source of potable water supply. Natural nullahs originally for storm water drainage have been encroached upon and become sullage carriers due to inadequate sewerage system. Raw sewage is discharged into River Ravi in the absence of any treatment facility. River Ravi is badly polluted due to indiscriminate discharge of municipal and industrial wastes. No sanitary landfill exists in the city for solid waste management except open dumping. Air quality has also deteriorated in the recent past due to increase in vehicular traffic and inadequate road network. This paper describes existing environmental situation and some proposals for its improvement, which would lead towards sustainable development and poverty reduction in due course. (author)

  16. Modelling phosphorus transport and its response to climate change at upper stream of Poyang Lake-the largest fresh water lake in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Sanyuan; Zhang, Qi

    2017-04-01

    Phosphorus losses from excessive fertilizer application and improper land exploitation were found to be the limiting factor for freshwater quality deterioration and eutrophication. Phosphorus transport from uplands to river is related to hydrological, soil erosion and sediment transport processes, which is impacted by several physiographic and meteorological factors. The objective of this study was to investigate the spatiotemporal variation of phosphorus losses and response to climate change at a typical upstream tributary (Le'An river) of Poyang Lake. To this end, a process-oriented hydrological and nutrient transport model HYPE (Hydrological Predictions for the Environment) was set up for discharge and phosphorus transport simulation at Le'An catchment. Parameter ESTimator (PEST) was combined with HYPE model for parameter sensitivity analysis and optimisation. In runoff modelling, potential evapotranspiration rate of the dominant land use (forest) is most sensitive; parameters of surface runoff rate and percolation capacity for the red soil are also very sensitive. In phosphorus transport modelling, the exponent of equation for soil erosion processes induced by surface runoff is most sensitive, coefficient of adsorption/desorption processes for red soil is also very sensitive. Flow dynamics and water balance were simulated well at all sites for the whole period (1978-1986) with NSE≥0.80 and PBIAS≤14.53%. The optimized hydrological parameter set were transferable for the independent period (2009-2010) with NSE≥0.90 and highest PBIAS of -7.44% in stream flow simulation. Seasonal dynamics and balance of stream water TP (Total Phosphorus ) concentrations were captured satisfactorily indicated by NSE≥0.53 and highest PBIAS of 16.67%. In annual scale, most phosphorus is transported via surface runoff during heavy storm flow events, which may account for about 70% of annual TP loads. Based on future climate change analysis under three different emission

  17. Environmental challenges. Report 2000; Miljoeutfordringer. Rapport 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Essentially, this report discusses the environment conservation efforts of Statkraft SF. Statkraft SF is Norway's largest producer of hydroelectric power. A section on the environmental impacts of hydroelectric energy production discusses biological diversity, outdoor life, cultural monuments and environments, hazardous chemicals, waste treatment, climate change and air pollution. A section on new renewable energy sources deals with wind power, hydrogen and ''salt power''. Salt power is an application of osmotic pressure. Other sections describe life cycle analyses, environmental costs of different energy carriers, environmental labelling of electric energy, safety, health, international projects etc. Some of the sections explicitly state national goals.

  18. Environmental monitoring report for calendar year 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stencel, J.R.

    1985-05-01

    The results of the environmental monitoring program for CY84 for the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) are presented and discussed. The Princeton Large Torus (PLT), Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX), and PPPL's largest tokamak, the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) had a complete year of run time. In addition, the S-1 Spheromak was in operation and the RF Test Facility came on-line. The phased approach of TFTR environmental monitoring continued with the addition of neutron monitors. During CY84 there were no adverse effects to the environment resulting from any operational program at PPPL, and the Laboratory was in compliance with all applicable Federal, State, and local environmental regulations

  19. Assessment of bioaerosol contamination (bacteria and fungi) in the largest urban wastewater treatment plant in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Sadegh; Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Alimohammadi, Mahmood; Nabavi, Samira; Faridi, Sasan; Dehghani, Asghar; Hoseini, Mohammad; Moradi-Joo, Mohammad; Mokamel, Adel; Kashani, Homa; Yarali, Navid; Yunesian, Masud

    2015-10-01

    Bioaerosol concentration was measured in wastewater treatment units in south of Tehran, the largest wastewater treatment plant in the Middle East. Active sampling was carried out around four operational units and a point as background. The results showed that the aeration tank with an average of 1016 CFU/m(3) in winter and 1973 CFU/m(3) in summer had the greatest effect on emission of bacterial bioaerosols. In addition, primary treatment had the highest impact on fungal emission. Among the bacteria, Micrococcus spp. showed the widest emission in the winter, and Bacillus spp. was dominant in summer. Furthermore, fungi such as Penicillium spp. and Cladosporium spp. were the dominant types in the seasons. Overall, significant relationship was observed between meteorological parameters and the concentration of bacterial and fungal aerosols.

  20. An Examination of Strategic Philanthropy and CSR Communication Patterns among the World’s Twenty-One Largest Oil Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brad Gatlin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Fortune Magazine’s 2012 list of 100 largest companies included 21 oil companies. This paper seeks to discern patterns of those 21 companies’ philanthropic efforts and communication thereof. Specifically, the paper will consider issues such as ownership (all companies were either publicly-traded or state-owned, the economic development of the home country, and the citizens’ expectations of corporate citizens. The philanthropic efforts of all 21 companies are discussed in the context of Porter and Kramer’s (2001 framework of the competitive context It is concluded that the oil industry is particularly well-suited to affect factor and, to a lesser extent, demand conditions, through philanthropic efforts. A model for classifying the philanthropic based on ownership and country conditions is proposed, and suggestions for further research are made.