WorldWideScience

Sample records for largest autism science

  1. Investigation of Science Faculty with Education Specialties within the Largest University System in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Bush, Seth D; Pelaez, Nancy; Rudd, James A, II; Stevens, Michael T; Tanner, Kimberly D; Williams, Kathy, PhD

    2011-01-01

    Efforts to improve science education include university science departments hiring Science Faculty with Education Specialties (SFES), scientists who take on specialized roles in science education within their discipline. Although these positions have existed for decades and may be growing more common, few reports have investigated the SFES approach to improving science education. We present comprehensive data on the SFES in the California State University (CSU) system, the largest university ...

  2. Investigation of science faculty with education specialties within the largest university system in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Seth D; Pelaez, Nancy J; Rudd, James A; Stevens, Michael T; Tanner, Kimberly D; Williams, Kathy S

    2011-01-01

    Efforts to improve science education include university science departments hiring Science Faculty with Education Specialties (SFES), scientists who take on specialized roles in science education within their discipline. Although these positions have existed for decades and may be growing more common, few reports have investigated the SFES approach to improving science education. We present comprehensive data on the SFES in the California State University (CSU) system, the largest university system in the United States. We found that CSU SFES were engaged in three key arenas including K-12 science education, undergraduate science education, and discipline-based science education research. As such, CSU SFES appeared to be well-positioned to have an impact on science education from within science departments. However, there appeared to be a lack of clarity and agreement about the purpose of these SFES positions. In addition, formal training in science education among CSU SFES was limited. Although over 75% of CSU SFES were fulfilled by their teaching, scholarship, and service, our results revealed that almost 40% of CSU SFES were seriously considering leaving their positions. Our data suggest that science departments would likely benefit from explicit discussions about the role of SFES and strategies for supporting their professional activities.

  3. REVIEW OF SCHREIBMAN'S THE SCIENCE AND FICTION OF AUTISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Linda A; Losowski-Sullivan, Sheryl; Riley, Andrew R

    2010-01-01

    Although the awareness of autism in the general public has increased significantly over the past 20 years, much of the widely disseminated information is not fully grounded in scientific fact. In The Science and Fiction of Autism (2005), Laura Schreibman addresses a series of debates and controversies in areas ranging from diagnostic practices and etiological theories to effective clinical practices. This book provides an overview of the field of autism that is suitable for well-educated parents and new professionals in the field.

  4. Coming to grips with autism: Parents engaging with science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Noah Robert

    When and how does science matter to people in their everyday lives? In this dissertation, I explore the importance of science to parents of young children recently diagnosed with autism. I examine the questions parents ask and the resources they use as they attempt to understand and advocate for their children, and use this data to develop a new conceptual model of engagement with science: the intrapersonal and interpersonal process through which people connect science with their lived experience. I recruited a socio-economically diverse sample of ten parents, each with at least one young child (18 months--7 years) who had been diagnosed with autism 6--24 months prior to recruitment. Each parent completed a series of 8--12 semi-structured interviews over a period of approximately six months. These interviews were analyzed using both grounded theory and conceptually driven coding strategies. Two findings stand out. First, only a small fraction of parents' questions (15%) and resources (11%) were directly related to science. A much larger fraction (41% and 42%) fell into the broader categories of near-science questions and resources. Second, half of the parents demonstrated an iterative pattern of activity that I referred to as progressive engagement with science. In each case, a science or near-science question led the parent to a science or near-science resource, which transformed the question. The new question led to different science or near-science resources, which led to new questions and so forth. Parents who did not undertake progressive engagement with science were also less interested in autism as an organizing construct for understanding their children. Drawing on the work of Peter Galison, I propose that the idea of autism helps create a "trading zone" between the distinct social systems of family life and medical science. Parents who ask near-science questions must find near-science resources to help them direct their questions appropriately. They must

  5. Fundamental challenges for autism research: the science-practice gap, demarcating autism and the unsuccessful search for the neurobiological basis of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeff, Berend

    2015-08-01

    One of the central aims of autism research is to identify specific neurodevelopmental mechanisms that cause and explain the visible autistic signs and symptoms. In this short paper, I argue that the persistent search for autism-specific pathophysiologies has two fundamental difficulties. The first regards the growing gap between basic autism science and clinical practice. The second regards the difficulties with demarcating autism as a psychiatric condition. Instead of the unremitting search for the neurobiological basis of autism, I suggest that basic autism research should focus on experiences of impairment and distress, and on how these experiences relate to particular (autistic) behaviors in particular circumstances, regardless of whether we are dealing with an autism diagnosis or not.

  6. Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Autism KidsHealth / For Teens / Autism What's in this article? ... With Autism? Print en español Autismo What Is Autism? Autism (also called "autism spectrum disorder") is a ...

  7. Augmented Reality for Teaching Science Vocabulary to Postsecondary Education Students with Intellectual Disabilities and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Don D.; Cihak, David F.; Wright, Rachel E.; Bell, Sherry Mee

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the use of an emerging technology called augmented reality to teach science vocabulary words to college students with intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders. One student with autism and three students with an intellectual disability participated in a multiple probe across behaviors (i.e.,…

  8. Autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggernaes, Bodil

    2018-01-01

    The concept of autism has changed across time, from the Bleulerian concept, which defined it as one of several symptoms of dementia praecox, to the present-day concept representing a pervasive development disorder. The present theoretical contribution to this special issue of EJN on autism...... introduces new theoretical ideas and discusses them in light of selected prior theories, clinical examples, and recent empirical evidence. The overall aim is to identify some present challenges of diagnostic practice and autism research and to suggest new pathways that may help direct future research. Future...

  9. Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Susan E; Mandell, David S; Schultz, Robert T

    2009-11-07

    Autism spectrum disorders are characterised by severe deficits in socialisation, communication, and repetitive or unusual behaviours. Increases over time in the frequency of these disorders (to present rates of about 60 cases per 10,000 children) might be attributable to factors such as new administrative classifications, policy and practice changes, and increased awareness. Surveillance and screening strategies for early identification could enable early treatment and improved outcomes. Autism spectrum disorders are highly genetic and multifactorial, with many risk factors acting together. Genes that affect synaptic maturation are implicated, resulting in neurobiological theories focusing on connectivity and neural effects of gene expression. Several treatments might address core and comorbid symptoms. However, not all treatments have been adequately studied. Improved strategies for early identification with phenotypic characteristics and biological markers (eg, electrophysiological changes) might hopefully improve effectiveness of treatment. Further knowledge about early identification, neurobiology of autism, effective treatments, and the effect of this disorder on families is needed.

  10. Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Jeremy

    2010-01-07

    Evidence for the efficacy of treatments for autism has improved in recent years. In this systematic review the evidence for both drug and non-drug treatments is appraised and clinical guidance is provided for their use. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of early intensive multidisciplinary intervention programmes in children with autism? What are the effects of dietary interventions in children with autism? What are the effects of drug treatments in children with autism? What are the effects of non-drug treatments in children with autism? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to May 2009 (Clinical evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 30 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: applied behavioural analysis; auditory integration training; Autism Preschool Programme; casein-free diet; chelation; Child's Talk programme; cognitive behavioural therapy; digestive enzymes; EarlyBird programme; facilitated communication; Floortime therapy; gluten-free diet; immunoglobulins; melatonin; memantine; methylphenidate; More Than Words programme; music therapy; olanzapine; omega-3 fish oil; picture exchange communication system; Portage scheme; probiotics; relationship development interventions; risperidone; secretin; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs); sensory integration training; social stories; social skills training; Son-Rise programme; TEACCH

  11. Understanding environmental contributions to autism: Causal concepts and the state of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Schmidt, Rebecca J; Krakowiak, Paula

    2018-04-01

    The complexity of neurodevelopment, the rapidity of early neurogenesis, and over 100 years of research identifying environmental influences on neurodevelopment serve as backdrop to understanding factors that influence risk and severity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This Keynote Lecture, delivered at the May 2016 annual meeting of the International Society for Autism Research, describes concepts of causation, outlines the trajectory of research on nongenetic factors beginning in the 1960s, and briefly reviews the current state of this science. Causal concepts are introduced, including root causes; pitfalls in interpreting time trends as clues to etiologic factors; susceptible time windows for exposure; and implications of a multi-factorial model of ASD. An historical background presents early research into the origins of ASD. The epidemiologic literature from the last fifteen years is briefly but critically reviewed for potential roles of, for example, air pollution, pesticides, plastics, prenatal vitamins, lifestyle and family factors, and maternal obstetric and metabolic conditions during her pregnancy. Three examples from the case-control CHildhood Autism Risks from Genes and the Environment Study are probed to illustrate methodological approaches to central challenges in observational studies: capturing environmental exposure; causal inference when a randomized controlled clinical trial is either unethical or infeasible; and the integration of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental influences on development. We conclude with reflections on future directions, including exposomics, new technologies, the microbiome, gene-by-environment interaction in the era of -omics, and epigenetics as the interface of those two. As the environment is malleable, this research advances the goal of a productive and fulfilling life for all children, teen-agers and adults. Autism Res 2018, 11: 554-586. © 2018 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  12. Using embedded computer-assisted instruction to teach science to students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bethany

    The need for promoting scientific literacy for all students has been the focus of recent education reform resulting in the rise of the Science Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics movement. For students with Autism Spectrum Disorders and intellectual disability, this need for scientific literacy is further complicated by the need for individualized instruction that is often required to teach new skills, especially when those skills are academic in nature. In order to address this need for specialized instruction, as well as scientific literacy, this study investigated the effects of embedded computer-assisted instruction to teach science terms and application of those terms to three middle school students with autism and intellectual disability. This study was implemented within an inclusive science classroom setting. A multiple probe across participants research design was used to examine the effectiveness of the intervention. Results of this study showed a functional relationship between the number of correct responses made during probe sessions and introduction of the intervention. Additionally, all three participants maintained the acquired science terms and applications over time and generalized these skills across materials and settings. The findings of this study suggest several implications for practice within inclusive settings and provide suggestions for future research investigating the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction to teach academic skills to students with Autism Spectrum Disorders and intellectual disability.

  13. Largest College Endowments, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Of all endowments valued at more than $250-million, the UCLA Foundation had the highest rate of growth over the previous year, at 49 percent. This article presents a table of the largest college endowments in 2011. The table covers the "rank," "institution," "market value as of June 30, 2011," and "1-year change" of institutions participating in…

  14. Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) participation among college students with an autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xin; Yu, Jennifer W; Shattuck, Paul; McCracken, Mary; Blackorby, Jose

    2013-07-01

    Little research has examined the popular belief that individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are more likely than the general population to gravitate toward science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. This study analyzed data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2, a nationally representative sample of students with an ASD in special education. Findings suggest that students with an ASD had the highest STEM participation rates although their college enrollment rate was the third lowest among 11 disability categories and students in the general population. Disproportionate postsecondary enrollment and STEM participation by gender, family income, and mental functioning skills were found for young adults with an ASD. Educational policy implications are discussed.

  15. When Science caught up with fiction Our Focus team explores the Large Hadron Collider, one of the world's largest scientific experiments

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "You could be forgiven for thinking that what follows is an extract from a science fiction novel. Modern physics now has a a weel-established traditin of befogging the intuition of the tidiest minds, so readers are urged to leave behing their workaday common sense at the end of this paragraph." (6 pages)

  16. The world’s largest social science infrastructure and academic survey research program: The World Values Survey in the New Independent States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Haerpfer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The World Values Survey (WVS is an international research program developed to assess the impact of values stability or change over time on the social, political and economic development of countries and societies. It started in 1981 by Ronald Inglehart and his team, since then has involved more than 100 world societies and turned into the largest non-commercial cross-national empirical time-series investigation of human beliefs and values ever executed on a global scale. The article consists of a few sections differing by the focus. The authors begin with the description of survey methodology and organization management that both ensure cross-national and cross-regional comparative character of the study (the survey is implemented using the same questionnaire, a face-to-face mode of interviews, and the same sample type in every country. The next part of the article presents a short overview of the project history and comparative surveys’ time-series (so called “waves” - periods between two and four years long during which collection of data in several dozens of countries using one same questionnaire is taking place; such waves are conducted every five years. Here the authors describe every wave of the WVS mentioning coordination and management activities that were determined by the extension of the project thematically and geographically. After that the authors identify the key features of the WVS in the New Independent States and mention some of the results of the study conducted in NIS countries in 1990-2014, such as high level of uncertainty in the choice of ideological preferences; rapid growth of declared religiosity; observed gap between the declared values and actual facts of social life, etc. The final section of the article summarizes the findings and key publications of the project for its data is widely used to analyse economic and political development, religious beliefs, gender equality, social capital, subjective well

  17. Autism Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Improving the lives of all affected by autism. The Autism Society is the nation's leading grassroots ... more Improving the lives of all affected by autism. The Autism Society is the nation's leading grassroots ...

  18. Brief Report: Neuropsychology of Autism: A Report on the State of the Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Geraldine

    1996-01-01

    This review of the literature on the neuropsychology of autism identifies several consistent findings, such as: existence of neuropsychological impairments in a wide range of domains; large individual differences in certain neuropsychological domains; greater difficulty with tasks involving social information; possible association of the amygdala…

  19. In the Know and in the News: How Science and the Media Communicate About Stem Cells, Autism and Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Kimberly; Di Pietro, Nina; Illes, Judy

    2016-02-01

    Stem cell research has generated considerable attention for its potential to remediate many disorders of the central nervous system including neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and cerebral palsy (CP) that place a high burden on individual children, families and society. Here we characterized messaging about the use of stem cells for ASD and CP in news media articles and concurrent dissemination of discoveries through conventional science discourse. We searched LexisNexis and Canadian Newsstand for news articles from the US, UK, Canada and Australia in the period between 2000 and 2014, and PubMed for peer reviewed articles for the same 10 years. Using in-depth content analysis methods, we found less cautionary messaging about stem cells for ASD and CP in the resulting sample of 73 media articles than in the sample of 87 science papers, and a privileging of benefits over risk. News media also present stem cells as ready for clinical application to treat these neurodevelopmental disorders, even while the science literature calls for further research. Investigative news reports that explicitly quote researchers, however, provide the most accurate information to actual science news. The hope, hype, and promise of stem cell interventions for neurodevelopmental disorders, combined with the extreme vulnerability of these children and their families, creates a perfect storm in which journalists and stem cell scientists must commit to a continued, if not even more robust, partnership to promote balanced and accurate messaging.

  20. Largest particle detector nearing completion

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "Construction of another part of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the worl's largest particle accelerator at CERN in Switzerland, is nearing completion. The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is oner of the LHC project's four large particle detectors. (1/2 page)

  1. Effects of supported electronic text and explicit instruction on science comprehension by students with autism spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Victoria Floyd

    Supported electronic text (eText), or text that has been altered to increase access and provide support to learners, may promote comprehension of science content for students with disabilities. According to CAST, Book Builder(TM) uses supported eText to promote reading for meaning for all students. Although little research has been conducted in the area of supported eText for students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), technology (e.g., computer assisted instruction) has been used for over 35 years to instruct students with ASD in academic areas. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a supported eText and explicit instruction on the science vocabulary and comprehension of four middle school students with ASD. Researchers used a multiple probe across participants design to evaluate the Book Builder (TM) program on measures of vocabulary, literal comprehension, and application questions. Results indicated a functional relation between the Book Builder(TM) and explicit instruction (i.e., model-lead-test, examples and non-examples, and referral to the definition) and the number of correct responses on the probe. In addition, students were able to generalize concepts to untrained exemplars. Finally, teachers and students validate the program as practical and useful.

  2. Autism: Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Publications Awards Partners Contact Us ¿Qué es Autismo? Donate Home What is Autism? What is Autism? ... Information Publications Awards Partners Contact Us ¿Qué es Autismo? Diagnosis Home / What is Autism? / Diagnosis Expand Medical ...

  3. Cultural Beliefs about Autism in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riany, Yulina Eva; Cuskelly, Monica; Meredith, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Cultural beliefs about parenting have an important influence on parenting behaviours, including considerations about appropriate ways to parent children with autism. Although Indonesia has one of the largest and most ethnically diverse populations in the world, little is known about cultural beliefs regarding children with autism within Indonesian…

  4. Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Rosenberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a national online registry to examine variation in cumulative prevalence of community diagnosis of psychiatric comorbidity in 4343 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Adjusted multivariate logistic regression models compared influence of individual, family, and geographic factors on cumulative prevalence of parent-reported anxiety disorder, depression, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder or attention deficit disorder. Adjusted odds of community-assigned lifetime psychiatric comorbidity were significantly higher with each additional year of life, with increasing autism severity, and with Asperger syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder—not otherwise specified compared with autistic disorder. Overall, in this largest study of parent-reported community diagnoses of psychiatric comorbidity, gender, autistic regression, autism severity, and type of ASD all emerged as significant factors correlating with cumulative prevalence. These findings could suggest both underlying trends in actual comorbidity as well as variation in community interpretation and application of comorbid diagnoses in ASD.

  5. Autism Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarahan, Neal; Copas, Randy

    2014-01-01

    The Center for Disease Control estimates that 1 in 88 children have been identified with autism (CDC, 2012). Autism is often associated with other psychiatric, developmental, neurological, and genetic diagnoses. However, the majority (62%) of children identified on the autism spectrum do not have intellectual disability. Instead, they are hurting.…

  6. How autism became autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that the meaning of the word ‘autism’ experienced a radical shift in the early 1960s in Britain which was contemporaneous with a growth in epidemiological and statistical studies in child psychiatry. The first part of the article explores how ‘autism’ was used as a category to describe hallucinations and unconscious fantasy life in infants through the work of significant child psychologists and psychoanalysts such as Jean Piaget, Lauretta Bender, Leo Kanner and Elwyn James Anthony. Theories of autism were then associated both with schizophrenia in adults and with psychoanalytic styles of reasoning. The closure of institutions for ‘mental defectives’ and the growth in speech therapy services in the 1960s and 1970s encouraged new models for understanding autism in infants and children. The second half of the article explores how researchers such as Victor Lotter and Michael Rutter used the category of autism to reconceptualize psychological development in infants and children via epidemiological studies. These historical changes have influenced the form and function of later research into autism and related conditions. PMID:24014081

  7. PNNL supercomputer to become largest computing resource on the Grid

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Hewlett Packard announced that the US DOE Pacific Northwest National Laboratory will connect a 9.3-teraflop HP supercomputer to the DOE Science Grid. This will be the largest supercomputer attached to a computer grid anywhere in the world (1 page).

  8. Loy Yang A - Australia's largest privatisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yenckin, C.

    1997-01-01

    The recent A$4,746 million privatisation of the 2000MW Loy Yang A power station and the Loy Yang coal mine by the Victorian Government is Australia's largest privatisation and one of 1997's largest project financing deals. (author)

  9. Autism through the Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Publications Awards Partners Contact Us ¿Qué es Autismo? Donate Home What is Autism? What is Autism? ... Information Publications Awards Partners Contact Us ¿Qué es Autismo? Autism through the Lifespan Home / Living with Autism / ...

  10. broken magnet highlights largest collider's engineering challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    Inman, Mason

    2007-01-01

    "Even at the world's soon-to-be largest particle accelerator - a device that promises to push the boundaries of physics - scientists need to be mindful of one of the most fundamental laws in the universe: Murphy's Law. (2 pages)

  11. Evaluation of MMR Vaccination and Autism Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective cohort study of autism in all children born in Denmark from January 1991 through December 1998 and those receiving measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR vaccination is reported from the Danish Epidemiology Science Center, Aarhus, Denmark.

  12. CERN tests largest superconducting solenoid magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "CERN's Compacts Muon Solenoid (CMS) - the world's largest superconducting solenoid magnet - has reached full field in testing. The instrument is part of the proton-proton Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project, located in a giant subterranean chamber at Cessy on the Franco-Swiss border." (1 page)

  13. Autism As a Disorder of High Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Bernard J.

    2016-01-01

    A suite of recent studies has reported positive genetic correlations between autism risk and measures of mental ability. These findings indicate that alleles for autism overlap broadly with alleles for high intelligence, which appears paradoxical given that autism is characterized, overall, by below-average IQ. This paradox can be resolved under the hypothesis that autism etiology commonly involves enhanced, but imbalanced, components of intelligence. This hypothesis is supported by convergent evidence showing that autism and high IQ share a diverse set of convergent correlates, including large brain size, fast brain growth, increased sensory and visual-spatial abilities, enhanced synaptic functions, increased attentional focus, high socioeconomic status, more deliberative decision-making, profession and occupational interests in engineering and physical sciences, and high levels of positive assortative mating. These findings help to provide an evolutionary basis to understanding autism risk as underlain in part by dysregulation of intelligence, a core human-specific adaptation. In turn, integration of studies on intelligence with studies of autism should provide novel insights into the neurological and genetic causes of high mental abilities, with important implications for cognitive enhancement, artificial intelligence, the relationship of autism with schizophrenia, and the treatment of both autism and intellectual disability. PMID:27445671

  14. Crash testing the largest experiment on Earth

    OpenAIRE

    Cauchi, Marija

    2015-01-01

    Under Europe lies a 27 km tunnel that is both the coldest and hottest place on Earth. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has already found out what gives mass to all the matter in the Universe. It is now trying to go even deeper into what makes up everything we see around us. Dr Marija Cauchi writes about her research that helped protect this atom smasher from itself. Photography by Jean Claude Vancell. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/crash-testing-the-largest-experiment-on-earth/

  15. The world's largest LNG producer's next market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, R.; Isworo Suharno; Simandjuntak, W.M.P.

    1996-01-01

    The development of the domestic gas market in Indonesia, the world's largest liquefied natural gas producing country, is described as part of the overall impact of the country's oil and gas production. The first large scale use of natural gas in Indonesia was established in 1968 when a fertiliser plant using gas as the feedstock was built. Ultimately, through increased yields, this has enabled Indonesia to be self-sufficient in rice and an exporter of fertiliser. Problems which stand in the way of further developments include: capital, though Pertamina and PGN are perceived as attractive for foreign investment; the lack of a regulatory framework for gas; geographical constraints, among them the fact that the gas deposits are remote from the largest population concentrations; lack of infrastructure. There are nevertheless plans for expansion and the provision of an integrated gas pipeline system. Pertamina, which has responsibility for all oil and gas developments, and PGN, whose primary role has been as a manufacturer and distributor of gas, are now working together in the coordination of all gas activities. (10 figures). (UK)

  16. Contextual Autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2009-01-01

    This project deals with the notion of ghost anthropologically and artistic. The contextual autism of ghosting reveals itself as a sensation of in-betweeness in art as well as in everyday life. The ghost is not easily defined; as Jacques Derrida states in Spectres of Marx (1993/1994) about...

  17. [Pragmatics in autism spectrum disorder: recent developments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissine, Mikhail; Clin, Elise; de Villiers, Jessica

    2016-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by primary pragmatic difficulties, out of step with verbal and non-verbal developmental level. This selective survey paper addresses three recent domains of research on pragmatic functions in autism. First, we provide an up-to-date discussion of how lack of sensitivity to social cues impacts early acquisition of words. Second, we review recent findings on the comprehension of non-literal language, pointing to a more refined clinical reality. Third, we describe recent developments in the study of conversation skills in autism. © 2016 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  18. Evolution of the Largest Mammalian Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ben J; Upham, Nathan S; Golding, Goeffrey B; Ojeda, Ricardo A; Ojeda, Agustina A

    2017-06-01

    The genome of the red vizcacha rat (Rodentia, Octodontidae, Tympanoctomys barrerae) is the largest of all mammals, and about double the size of their close relative, the mountain vizcacha rat Octomys mimax, even though the lineages that gave rise to these species diverged from each other only about 5 Ma. The mechanism for this rapid genome expansion is controversial, and hypothesized to be a consequence of whole genome duplication or accumulation of repetitive elements. To test these alternative but nonexclusive hypotheses, we gathered and evaluated evidence from whole transcriptome and whole genome sequences of T. barrerae and O. mimax. We recovered support for genome expansion due to accumulation of a diverse assemblage of repetitive elements, which represent about one half and one fifth of the genomes of T. barrerae and O. mimax, respectively, but we found no strong signal of whole genome duplication. In both species, repetitive sequences were rare in transcribed regions as compared with the rest of the genome, and mostly had no close match to annotated repetitive sequences from other rodents. These findings raise new questions about the genomic dynamics of these repetitive elements, their connection to widespread chromosomal fissions that occurred in the T. barrerae ancestor, and their fitness effects-including during the evolution of hypersaline dietary tolerance in T. barrerae. ©The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  19. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability that can cause ... work. Autism: What's New MMWR article: Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder Data Community Report Press release: Autism Prevalence Slightly ...

  20. Review of Autism Screening Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farin Soleimani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that onset in the first 3 years of life and led to lifelong disability.Despite the early onset of symptoms, diagnosis of thissyndromedoes not happenuntil severalyears later, somany childrenlosethe opportunityfor earlyintervention.There arevarious toolsforscreening anddiagnosis, buttheirdesign, strengths and weaknesses aredifferent. The aim of this study was assess these tools from various aspects to provide a comprehensive view. Materials and methods: This study is a narrative literature review on screeningtoolsof autism. Comprehensive searches of the scientific literature were conducted in textbooks and 8 electronic databases(proquest,wiley,google scholar,SID,Scopus, Web of Science ،Science Direct ، and Medline and Pediatric book. language restriction (Persian and English was applied. The search strategy consisted of keywords and medical subject headings for autism and various screening tests. Result: In this study, 28 screening tests were identified from 1992 to 2014. CHAT is oldest test and the most recent test is CAST The minimum age that can perform the screening is six months that related to ITC. Minimum time of testing was 5 minutes  for CHAT and the maximum time was 90-120 minutes for ASIEP-3.RAADS-R test was the highest specificity and specificity (100% and the lowest specificity was 14% in ESAT test Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that any of the autism screening tools consider specific skill and various aspects of the disease, careful evaluation is need to choose proper test.

  1. Evaluating and Enhancing Driving Ability among Teens with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    spectrum disorder (ASD). Autism also has a significant effect on military families . Autism Speaks, a science and advocacy organization, estimates that...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0610 TITLE: Evaluating and Enhancing Driving Ability among Teens with Autism Spectrum Disorder PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Evaluating and Enhancing Driving Ability among Teens with Autism Spectrum Disorder 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0610 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  2. What's going on? The question of time trends in autism.

    OpenAIRE

    Blaxill, Mark F.

    2004-01-01

    Increases in the reported prevalence of autism and autistic spectrum disorders in recent years have fueled concern over possible environmental causes. The author reviews the available survey literature and finds evidence of large increases in prevalence in both the United States and the United Kingdom that cannot be explained by changes in diagnostic criteria or improvements in case ascertainment. Incomplete ascertainment of autism cases in young child populations is the largest source of pre...

  3. Canada's largest co-gen project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salaff, S.

    2000-01-01

    In November 2000, the TransAlta Energy Corp. began construction on its $400 million natural gas fuelled cogeneration project in Sarnia Ontario. The Sarnia Regional Cogeneration Project (SRCP) is designed to integrate a new 440 MW cogeneration facility to be built at the Sarnia Division of Dow Chemicals Canada Inc. with nearby existing generators totaling 210 MW at Dow and Bayer Inc. At 650 MW, the new facility will rank as Canada's largest cogeneration installation. Commercial operation is scheduled for October 2002. TransAlta owns three natural gas fuelled cogeneration facilities in Ontario (in Ottawa, Mississauga and Windsor) totaling 250 MW. The cost of electric power in Ontario is currently controlled by rising natural gas prices and the supply demand imbalance. This balance will be significantly affected by the possible return to service of 2000 MW of nuclear generating capacity. The SRCP project was announced just prior to the Ontario Energy Competition Act of October 1998 which committed the province to introduce competition to the electricity sector and which created major uncertainties in the electricity market. Some of the small, 25 MW projects which survived the market uncertainty included the Toronto-based Toromont Energy Ltd. project involving gas fuelled cogeneration and methane gas generation from landfill projects in Sudbury and Waterloo. It was emphasized that cogeneration and combined heat and power projects have significant environmental advantages over large combined cycle facilities. The Ontario Energy Board is currently considering an application from TransAlta to link the SRCP facility to Ontario's Hydro One Network Inc.'s transmission grid. 1 fig

  4. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farida El-Baz

    2015-06-19

    Jun 19, 2015 ... Abstract Background: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by clinical, etio- logic and ... twin and family studies provide evidence for strong genetic ..... adolescents rats: relevant to autism spectrum disorders.

  5. Diagnosis of autism

    OpenAIRE

    Baird, Gillian; Cass, Hilary; Slonims, Vicky

    2003-01-01

    Parents want autism to be diagnosed as early as possible, and early intervention may improve long term outcomes. The authors of this review discuss the identification and assessment process for children with autism and autistic spectrum disorder

  6. Configuring the autism epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Jens; Christensen, Fie Lund Lindegaard

    2017-01-01

    Autism has been described as an epidemic, but this claim is contested and may point to an awareness epidemic, i.e. changes in the definition of what autism is and more attention being invested in diagnosis leading to a rise in registered cases. The sex ratio of children diagnosed with autism...... is skewed in favour of boys, and girls with autism tend to be diagnosed much later than boys. Building and further developing the notion of ‘configuration’ of epidemics, this article explores the configuration of autism in Denmark, with a particular focus on the health system and social support to families...... with children diagnosed with autism, seen from a parental perspective. The article points to diagnostic dynamics that contribute to explaining why girls with autism are not diagnosed as easily as boys. We unfold these dynamics through the analysis of a case of a Danish family with autism....

  7. Kids' Quest: Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I Have Information For… Parents / Educators What is autism and how do I recognize a kid who might be diagnosed as having an autism spectrum disorder? Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ...

  8. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiver Education » Fact Sheets Autism Spectrum Disorder Fact Sheet What is autism spectrum disorder? What are some ... of mutations in individual genes but rather spontaneous coding mutations across many genes. De novo mutations may ...

  9. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... within the category. These were autistic disorder ("classic" autism), Asperger syndrome (which usually involved milder symptoms, mostly related ... but not all, of the features of classic autism or Asperger syndrome). 2 Health care providers no longer use ...

  10. Roses for Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaino, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses Roses for Autism, a program that provides training, guidance and employment opportunities for older students and adults on the autistic spectrum. Roses for Autism tackles one of the biggest challenges currently facing the autism community--a disproportionally high unemployment rate that hovers around 88 percent. Although a…

  11. The broad autism phenotype in parents of individuals with autism: a systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Prata Cruz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The broad autism phenotype (BAP is a milder manifestation of the defining symptoms of the syndrome in individuals without autism. This study conducted a systematic review of studies about behavioral characteristics of interpersonal relationships, communication and rigidity, as well as about three cognitive models, Theory of Mind, central coherence and executive function, in parents of individuals with autism. The indexed databases were LILACS, IBECS, Web of Science, and MEDLINE, and the studies retrieved were published between 1991 and March 2012. Parents of individuals with autism have more difficulties in interpersonal relationships and in pragmatic language use and have more rigidity traits. The inclusions of the cognitive theories in the group of BAP characteristics were inconclusive.

  12. Sensory perception in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Caroline E; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2017-11-01

    Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental condition, and little is known about its neurobiology. Much of autism research has focused on the social, communication and cognitive difficulties associated with the condition. However, the recent revision of the diagnostic criteria for autism has brought another key domain of autistic experience into focus: sensory processing. Here, we review the properties of sensory processing in autism and discuss recent computational and neurobiological insights arising from attention to these behaviours. We argue that sensory traits have important implications for the development of animal and computational models of the condition. Finally, we consider how difficulties in sensory processing may relate to the other domains of behaviour that characterize autism.

  13. Autism spectrum disorder - Asperger syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... part of the larger developmental disorder category of autism spectrum disorder . ... American Psychiatric Association. Autism spectrum disorder. ... VA: American Psychiatric Publishing: 2013;50-59. Raviola GJ, ...

  14. XI AUTISM-EUROPE INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina TROSHANSKA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the period from 16th to 18th September 2016 in the historic city of Edinburgh the 11th International Congress of Autism Europe organized by the National Organization for Autism from the UK will be held. Theme of the Congress in 2016 will be "happy, healthy and empowered". The Congress will focus on the most recent developments in the field of autism, including causes, genetics, diagnosis, early intervention, treatments, education, support, employment, rights and policies, and many more. The improvement of the science, the rights and services for autistic people will be presented, and an insight into future developments of the events, knowledge and technologies for autistic people that may soon become a part of everyday life will be provided.

  15. Guaranteeing uptime at worl's largest particle physics lab

    CERN Multimedia

    Brodkin, Jon

    2007-01-01

    "As the European agency CERN was gearing up to build the world's largest particle accelerator, officials there knew they could not afford to have problems in their technical infrastructure cause any downtime." (1 page)

  16. Beyond Time out and Table Time: Today's Applied Behavior Analysis for Students with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutot, E. Amanda; Hume, Kara

    2012-01-01

    Recent mandates related to the implementation of evidence-based practices for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) require that autism professionals both understand and are able to implement practices based on the science of applied behavior analysis (ABA). The use of the term "applied behavior analysis" and its related concepts…

  17. Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Interventions: Empirically Validated Treatments for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreibman, Laura; Dawson, Geraldine; Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Landa, Rebecca; Rogers, Sally J.; McGee, Gail G.; Kasari, Connie; Ingersoll, Brooke; Kaiser, Ann P.; Bruinsma, Yvonne; McNerney, Erin; Wetherby, Amy; Halladay, Alycia

    2015-01-01

    Earlier autism diagnosis, the importance of early intervention, and development of specific interventions for young children have contributed to the emergence of similar, empirically supported, autism interventions that represent the merging of applied behavioral and developmental sciences. "Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Interventions…

  18. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Autism Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Diet Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Diet By Karen Ansel, MS, RDN, CDN Published April 2, 2018 nambitomo/iStock/Thinkstock Autism Spectrum Disorder, or ASD, is a complex developmental and neurological ...

  19. Stereotypes of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draaisma, Douwe

    2009-05-27

    In their landmark papers, both Kanner and Asperger employed a series of case histories to shape clinical insight into autistic disorders. This way of introducing, assessing and representing disorders has disappeared from today's psychiatric practice, yet it offers a convincing model of the way stereotypes may build up as a result of representations of autism. Considering that much of what society at large learns on disorders on the autism spectrum is produced by representations of autism in novels, TV-series, movies or autobiographies, it will be of vital importance to scrutinize these representations and to check whether or not they are, in fact, misrepresenting autism. In quite a few cases, media representations of talent and special abilities can be said to have contributed to a harmful divergence between the general image of autism and the clinical reality of the autistic condition.

  20. Joint Asymptotic Distributions of Smallest and Largest Insurance Claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansjörg Albrecher

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Assume that claims in a portfolio of insurance contracts are described by independent and identically distributed random variables with regularly varying tails and occur according to a near mixed Poisson process. We provide a collection of results pertaining to the joint asymptotic Laplace transforms of the normalised sums of the smallest and largest claims, when the length of the considered time interval tends to infinity. The results crucially depend on the value of the tail index of the claim distribution, as well as on the number of largest claims under consideration.

  1. Challenges with the largest commercial hydrogen station in the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charbonneau, Thomas; Gauthier, Pierre [Air Liquide Canada (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This abstract's objective is to share with the participants the story of the largest hydrogen fueling station made to this date and to kick-start the story, we will cover the challenges; first the technical ones; the operational ones; the distribution ones and; the financial ones. We will then move on to review the logistic (geographic) issues raised by the project and conclude our presentation by sharing the output values of the largest fueling station built so far in the world. (orig.)

  2. Vaccination as a cause of autism-myths and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Michael

    2017-12-01

    Despite significant progress in the study of the epidemiology and genetics of autism, the etiology and patho-physiology of this condition is far from being elucidated and no curative treatment currently exists. Although solid scientific research continues, in an attempt to find explanations and solutions, a number of nonscientific and pure myths about autism have emerged. Myths that vaccines or mercury are associated with autism have been amplified by misguided scientists; frustrated, but effective parent groups; and politicians. Preventing the protection provided by vaccination or administration of mercury-chelating agents may cause real damage to autistic individuals and to innocent bystanders who as a result may be exposed to resurgent diseases that had already been "extinguished. " That such myths flourish is a consequence of the authority of scientific evidence obtained by scientific methodology losing ground to alternative truths and alternative science. This article presents a narrative of the origin of the myths around autism.

  3. NAFTA: The World's Largest Trading Zone Turns 20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, Tawni Hunt; Day, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Everyone under the age of 20 who has grown up in North America has lived in the common market created by NAFTA--the North American Free Trade Agreement. In a zone linking the United States, Canada, and Mexico, most goods and investments flow freely across borders to users, consumers, and investors. In 1994, NAFTA created the largest relatively…

  4. Synchrotron Emission on the Largest Scales: Radio Detection of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Shocks and turbulence generated during large-scale structure formation are predicted to produce large-scale, low surface-brightness synchrotron emission. On the largest scales, this emission is globally correlated with the thermal baryon distribution, and constitutes the 'syn- chrotron cosmic-web'. I present the ...

  5. Building Earth's Largest Library: Driving into the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, Steve

    1999-01-01

    Examines the Amazon.com online bookstore as a blueprint for designing the world's largest library. Topics include selection; accessibility and convenience; quality of Web sites and search tools; personalized service; library collection development, including interlibrary loan; library catalogs and catalog records; a circulation system; costs;…

  6. Analysis of Human Standing Balance by Largest Lyapunov Exponent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to analyse the relationship between nonlinear dynamic character and individuals’ standing balance by the largest Lyapunov exponent, which is regarded as a metric for assessing standing balance. According to previous study, the largest Lyapunov exponent from centre of pressure time series could not well quantify the human balance ability. In this research, two improvements were made. Firstly, an external stimulus was applied to feet in the form of continuous horizontal sinusoidal motion by a moving platform. Secondly, a multiaccelerometer subsystem was adopted. Twenty healthy volunteers participated in this experiment. A new metric, coordinated largest Lyapunov exponent was proposed, which reflected the relationship of body segments by integrating multidimensional largest Lyapunov exponent values. By using this metric in actual standing performance under sinusoidal stimulus, an obvious relationship between the new metric and the actual balance ability was found in the majority of the subjects. These results show that the sinusoidal stimulus can make human balance characteristics more obvious, which is beneficial to assess balance, and balance is determined by the ability of coordinating all body segments.

  7. Worlds largest particle physics laboratory selects Proxim Wireless Mesh

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Proxim Wireless has announced that the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), the world's largest particle physics laboratory and the birthplace of the World Wide Web, is using it's ORiNOCO AP-4000 mesh access points to extend the range of the laboratory's Wi-Fi network and to provide continuous monitoring of the lab's calorimeters" (1/2 page)

  8. Toward sustainable harvesting of Africa's largest medicinal plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global demand for treating prostate disorders with Prunus africana bark extract has made P. africana Africa's largest medicinal plant export. Unsustainable harvesting practices can lead to local extirpations of this multipurpose tree. Survey research targeting P. africana harvesters in a Tanzania forest reserve revealed that ...

  9. Watching the Creation of Southern California's Largest Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The new Diamond Valley Lake Reservoir near the city of Hemet in Riverside County is billed as the largest earthworks construction project in U.S.history. Construction began in 1995 and involved 31 million cubic meters of foundation excavation and 84 million cubic meters of embankment construction. This set of MISR images captures the most recent phase in the reservoir's activation. At the upper left is a natural-color view acquired by the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on March 14, 2000 (Terra orbit 1273), shortly after the Metropolitan Water District began filling the reservoir with water from the Colorado River and Northern California. Water appears darker than the surrounding land. The image at the upper right was acquired nearly one year later on March 1, 2001 (Terra orbit 6399), and shows a clear increase in the reservoir's water content. When full, the lake will hold nearly a trillion liters of water.According to the Metropolitan Water District, the 7 kilometer x 3 kilometer reservoir nearly doubles Southern California's above-groundwater storage capacity. In addition to routine water management, Diamond Valley Lake is designed to provide protection against drought and a six-month emergency supply in the event of earthquake damage to a major aqueduct. In the face of electrical power shortages, it is also expected to reduce dependence on the pumping of water from northern mountains during the high-demand summer months. An unexpected result of site excavation was the uncovering of mastodon and mammoth skeletons along with bones from extinct species not previously thought to have been indigenous to the area, such as the giant long-horned bison and North American lion. A museum and interpretive center is being built to protect these finds.The lower MISR image, from May 20, 2001 (Terra orbit 7564), is a false-color view combining data from the instrument's 26-degree forward view (displayed as blue) with data from the 26-degree backward view

  10. Drilling the Bushveld Complex- the world's largest layered mafic intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwal, L. D.; Webb, S. J.; Trumbull, R. B.

    2013-12-01

    The fact that surprising new discoveries can be made in layered mafic intrusions (e.g., subtle 100-150 m cyclicity in apparently homogeneous cumulates over 1000s of m) means that we are still in the first-order characterization phase of understanding these objects. Accordingly, we have secured funding from ICDP for a planning workshop to be held in Johannesburg in early 2014, aimed at scientific drilling of the Bushveld Complex, the world's largest layered mafic intrusion. Science objectives include, but are not limited to: 1. Magma chamber processes & melt evolution. How many melts/magmas/mushes were involved, what were their compositions and how did they interact? What, if anything, is missing from the Complex, and where did it go? Did Bushveld magmatism have an effect upon Earth's atmosphere at 2 Ga? 2. Crust-mantle interactions & origin of Bushveld granitoids. Are Bushveld granites & rhyolites crustal melts, differentiates from the mafic magmas or products of immiscibility? How can the evolved isotopic signatures in the mafic rocks (e.g., epsilon Nd to -8) be understood? 3. Origin of ore deposits. What were the relative roles of gravity settling, magma mixing, immiscibility and hydrothermal fluid transport in producing the PGE, Cr and V deposits? We have identified 3 potential drilling targets representing a total of ~12 km of drill core. Exact locations of drill sites are to be discussed at the workshop. Target A- East-Central Bushveld Complex. We propose 3 overlapping 3 km boreholes that will provide the first roof-to-floor continuous coverage of the Rustenburg Layered Suite. These boreholes will represent a curated, internationally available reference collection of Bushveld material for present and future research. Target B- Southeastern Bushveld Complex. We propose a single borehole of ~2 km depth, collared in Rooiberg felsite, and positioned to intersect the Roof Zone, Upper Zone, Main Zone and floor of the Complex. Amongst other things, this site will

  11. AUTISM. Unraveling a pathway to autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burbach, J Peter H

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders with shared symptoms in the area of communication and language, restricted interests, and stereotyped and social behaviors. Causes lie in perturbations of brain development, which can be manifold, but genetic

  12. Autism spectrum disorders and neuropathology of the cerebellum

    OpenAIRE

    Hampson, David R.; Blatt, Gene J.

    2015-01-01

    The cerebellum contains the largest number of neurons and synapses of any structure in the central nervous system. The concept that the cerebellum is solely involved in fine motor function has become outdated; substantial evidence has accumulated linking the cerebellum with higher cognitive functions including language. Cerebellar deficits have been implicated in autism for more than two decades. The computational power of the cerebellum is essential for many, if not most of the processes ...

  13. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida El-Baz

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Chromosomal abnormalities were not detected in the studied autistic children, and so the relation between the genetics and autism still needs further work up with different study methods and techniques.

  14. Learning about Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Learning About Autism Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research News Features Funding Divisions Funding ...

  15. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast discusses autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a developmental disability that causes problems with social, communication, and behavioral skills. CDC estimates that one in 68 children has been identified as having ASD.

  16. Childhood Autism In Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotter, Victor

    1978-01-01

    Mentally handicapped children were screened in 5 countries in Africa in order to explore the usefulness of Western criteria for the recognition of childhood autism in children from developing countries. (CM)

  17. Autism spectrum disorders and neuropathology of the cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, David R; Blatt, Gene J

    2015-01-01

    The cerebellum contains the largest number of neurons and synapses of any structure in the central nervous system. The concept that the cerebellum is solely involved in fine motor function has become outdated; substantial evidence has accumulated linking the cerebellum with higher cognitive functions including language. Cerebellar deficits have been implicated in autism for more than two decades. The computational power of the cerebellum is essential for many, if not most of the processes that are perturbed in autism including language and communication, social interactions, stereotyped behavior, motor activity and motor coordination, and higher cognitive functions. The link between autism and cerebellar dysfunction should not be surprising to those who study its cellular, physiological, and functional properties. Postmortem studies have revealed neuropathological abnormalities in cerebellar cellular architecture while studies on mouse lines with cell loss or mutations in single genes restricted to cerebellar Purkinje cells have also strongly implicated this brain structure in contributing to the autistic phenotype. This connection has been further substantiated by studies investigating brain damage in humans restricted to the cerebellum. In this review, we summarize advances in research on idiopathic autism and three genetic forms of autism that highlight the key roles that the cerebellum plays in this spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders.

  18. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Neuropathology of the Cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Hampson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The cerebellum contains the largest number of neurons and synapses of any structure in the central nervous system. The concept that the cerebellum is solely involved in fine motor function has become outdated; substantial evidence has accumulated linking the cerebellum with higher cognitive functions including language. Cerebellar deficits have been implicated in autism for more than two decades. The computational power of the cerebellum is essential for many, if not most of the processes that are perturbed in autism including language and communication, social interactions, stereotyped behavior, motor activity and motor coordination, and higher cognitive functions. The link between autism and cerebellar dysfunction should not be surprising to those who study its cellular, physiological, and functional properties. Postmortem studies have revealed neuropathological abnormalities in cerebellar cellular architecture while studies on mouse lines with cell loss or mutations in single genes restricted to cerebellar Purkinje cells have also strongly implicated this brain structure in contributing to the autistic phenotype. This connection has been further substantiated by studies investigating brain damage in humans restricted to the cerebellum. In this review, we summarize advances in research on idiopathic autism and three genetic forms of autism that highlight the key roles that the cerebellum plays in this spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders.

  19. Temporal properties of seismicity and largest earthquakes in SE Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Byrdina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to estimate the hazard rate distribution of the largest seismic events in Vrancea, South-Eastern Carpathians, we study temporal properties of historical and instrumental catalogues of seismicity. First, on the basis of Generalized Extreme Value theory we estimate the average return period of the largest events. Then, following Bak et al. (2002 and Corral (2005a, we study scaling properties of recurrence times between earthquakes in appropriate spatial volumes. We come to the conclusion that the seismicity is temporally clustered, and that the distribution of recurrence times is significantly different from a Poisson process even for times largely exceeding corresponding periods of foreshock and aftershock activity. Modeling the recurrence times by a gamma distributed variable, we finally estimate hazard rates with respect to the time elapsed from the last large earthquake.

  20. Worlds Largest Wave Energy Project 2007 in Wales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars; Friis-Madsen, Erik; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces world largest wave energy project being developed in Wales and based on one of the leading wave energy technologies. The background for the development of wave energy, the total resource ands its distribution around the world is described. In contrast to wind energy turbines...... Dragon has to be scaled in accordance with the wave climate at the deployment site, which makes the Welch demonstrator device the worlds largest WEC so far with a total width of 300 meters. The project budget, the construction methods and the deployment site are also given....... a large number of fundamentally different technologies are utilised to harvest wave energy. The Wave Dragon belongs to the wave overtopping class of converters and the paper describes the fundamentals and the technical solutions used in this wave energy converter. An offshore floating WEC like the Wave...

  1. Pulih Dari Autisme

    OpenAIRE

    Hidayat, Meilinah

    2003-01-01

    Autisme adalah gangguan perkembangan pervasif pada anak yang umumnya muncul sebelum usia 3 tahun. Autisme bukan gangguan perilaku semata, tapi ada sebab-sebab fisik yang mendasarinya. Jadi pengobatannya selain untuk terapi mental, juga diperlukan intervensi biomedis untuk terapi fisik sesuai penyebab gejalanya. Dipaparkan kasus Alan yang didiagnosis sebagai ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder) / ADHD (Attention Deficit Disorder + Hiperactivity) dan Taylor yang didiagnosis sebagai Late onset infan...

  2. Upgrade and modernization of the six largest HPPs in Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadzievska, M.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, Electric Power Company of Macedonia and the International Bank for Development and Reconstruction, started the Power System Improvement Project a part of which is the Project for rehabilitation of the six largest Hydro Power Plants (HPPs) in the Republic of Macedonia. The six largest Hydro Power Plants (HPP Vrutok, HPP Raven, HPP Globocica, HPP Tikves and HPP Spilje and HPP Vrben) represent 91% of the country's hydropower capacity. The rehabilitation program is divided in five parts (contracts) and covers the refurbishment of: turbine runners, turbine and generator bearings, governors, inlet valves; butterfly valves, including accessories and control systems; generators, excitation system and voltage regulation; control system, protection and LV auxiliaries; switch gears and control gears in 220 kV, 110 kV and 35 kV substations. At the moment, only the implementation of switch gears has started, the first phase is already finished, and 50 % of the rehabilitation works for HPP Vrutok, the largest HPP, has been finished. With the realization of this project, greater hydropower production is expected. It also expected that HPPs will become a more vital part of the Macedonian power system

  3. Kabob report. Pt. 3. Chevron plant largest in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1971-01-18

    Canada's largest fully integrated primary natural- gas processing and sulfur recovery plant is heading for physical completion by mid-summer of 1971. The Ralph M. Parsons Construction Co. of Canada Ltd., contractor for the S. Kaybob Beaverhill Lake Unit No. 3 gas-processing plant, to be operated by Chevron Standard Ltd., estimates completion by June 30. After that the $80 million complex will have tests and running in time. With any reasonable luck, it should be fully on stream by late summer. Preliminary construction on the 200-acre site started in Jan. 1969 with clearing and contouring of the main plant and sulfur storage sites. Initial rough grading started in the early summer, after spring breakup was over. Delivery of most of the big items was made by rail because the local secondary roads were inadequate for them. Concrete has been a large item. The contractor has its own batch plant on the site for the estimated 28,000 cu yd which will be needed for the whole job. Dominating the construction site from the start has been the high sulfur plant stack, first of the major items to be finished. It will serve to dispose of effluent from the largest sulfur recovery unit in Canada. It is 465 ft high, one of the largest in Alberta, and a significant contribution to pollution control and environmental protection.

  4. Occupational Therapy's Role with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Occupational Therapy’s Role with Autism Autism is a lifelong condition associated with a varied course from early childhood through adulthood. Occupational therapy practitioners are distinctly qualified to ...

  5. Signs and Symptoms of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... Mitochondrial Disease FAQs Data & Statistics New Data on Autism Research & Tracking ADDM Community Report CADDRE SEED Frequently ...

  6. science

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    David Spurgeon

    Give us the tools: science and technology for development. Ottawa, ...... altered technical rela- tionships among the factors used in the process of production, and the en- .... to ourselves only the rights of audit and periodic substantive review." If a ...... and destroying scarce water reserves, recreational areas and a generally.

  7. Strabismus in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Melvin; Edelson, Stephen M.; Rimland, Bernard

    1999-01-01

    Two studies of strabismus ("crossed eyes") in children with autism are reported. A clinical optometric evaluation of 34 individuals with autism, ages 7 to 19 years, found a strabismus rate of 50% and a parent survey of 7,640 families of children with autism found an incidence of 18% (compared to 2-4% in the general population). (Author/DB)

  8. Green Space and Childhood Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autism, a group of complex neurodevelopmental disorders typically identified in early childhood, affects more than 3 million people in the U.S. To date, the cause of autism is unclear. It is believed that autism results from a combination of genetic and environmental factors incl...

  9. SAP SE: Autism at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisano, Gary P.; Austin, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    This case describes SAP's 'Autism at Work' program, which integrates people with autism into the company's workforce. The company has a stated objective of making 1% o its workforce people with autism by 2020. SAP's rationale for the program is based on the belief that 'neurodiversity' contributes...

  10. Random Number Generation in Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mark A.; Moss, Simon A.; Bradshaw, John L.; Rinehart, Nicole J.

    2002-01-01

    This study explored the ability of 14 individuals with autism to generate a unique series of digits. Individuals with autism were more likely to repeat previous digits than comparison individuals, suggesting they may exhibit a shortfall in response inhibition. Results support the executive dysfunction theory of autism. (Contains references.)…

  11. Autism Overview: What We Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, is one of many federal agencies working to understand autism. The NICHD supports and conducts research on what causes autism, how many people have autism, how best to treat…

  12. The Environmental Responsibility of the World’s Largest Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszawska Bożena

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability transition is changing the role and function of banks, specially their products and services also in relation to stakeholders. Banks are one of the main actors supporting the transition to sustainable economy. The purpose of this study is to emphasise the role of world’s largest banks in that process. Banks are slowly responding to the new demand of sustainability and responsibility, and they try to align with it. The paper is based on an overview of the world’s five largest banks that employ corporate social responsibility (CSR reporting standards, together with detailed enumeration of pro-environmental activities included in the reports. The first section of this paper presents the most popular approaches to the problem at hand, as reported in professional literature. Section two presents the characteristics of the CSR actions in banks. The third section discusses the environmental actions of the biggest banks in Global Reporting Initiative (GRI reporting the most popular standard for reporting non-financial information. And the last part of the paper presents the conclusions resulting from the article. The research was conducted using a variety of sources, such as scientific articles, statistical data, CSR reports of the world’s largest banks, as well reporting principles and standard disclosures. The basic method used in the process of writing was a critical analysis of literature and reports concerning the CSR reporting standards, environmental responsibilities of different kinds of entities, as well as own observations based on special reports of banks. In the article, also the analysis of financial market data, induction method and comparison method have been used. The main conclusions of the analysis of the CSR reports disclosed by the world’s largest banks confirm all three of the theses presented in the article. The findings suggest that the banks under study can be regarded as environmentally responsible

  13. Longevity in Calumma parsonii, the World's largest chameleon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessa, Giulia; Glaw, Frank; Andreone, Franco

    2017-03-01

    Large body size of ectothermic species can be correlated with high life expectancy. We assessed the longevity of the World's largest chameleon, the Parson's chameleon Calumma parsonii from Madagascar by using skeletochronology of phalanges taken from preserved specimens held in European natural history museums. Due to the high bone resorption we can provide only the minimum age of each specimen. The highest minimum age detected was nine years for a male and eight years for a female, confirming that this species is considerably long living among chameleons. Our data also show a strong correlation between snout-vent length and estimated age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Environmental isotope signatures of the largest freshwater lake in Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unnikrishnan Warrier, C.

    2007-01-01

    Sasthamkotta lake, the largest freshwater lake in Kerala, serves as a source for drinking water for more than half a million people. Environmental 137 Cs analysis done on undisturbed sediment core samples reveals that the recent rate of sedimentation is not uniform in the lake. The useful life of lake is estimated as about 800 years. The δD and δ 18 O values of the lake waters indicate that the lake is well mixed with a slight variation horizontally. The stable isotope studies on well waters from the catchment indicate hydraulic communication with the lake and lake groundwater system is flow-through type. Analytical model also supports this view. (author)

  15. Scenario analysis of sustainable development of the world largest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, scenario analysis of the social development and environmental protection ... Scenario 2 is obviously more preferable though its ecological goal is not the most ... International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, Vol.

  16. Fishing down the largest coral reef fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, Douglas

    2014-07-15

    Studies on remote, uninhabited, near-pristine reefs have revealed surprisingly large populations of large reef fish. Locations such as the northwestern Hawaiian Islands, northern Marianas Islands, Line Islands, U.S. remote Pacific Islands, Cocos-Keeling Atoll and Chagos archipelago have much higher reef fish biomass than islands and reefs near people. Much of the high biomass of most remote reef fish communities lies in the largest species, such as sharks, bumphead parrots, giant trevally, and humphead wrasse. Some, such as sharks and giant trevally, are apex predators, but others such as bumphead parrots and humphead wrasse, are not. At many locations, decreases in large reef fish species have been attributed to fishing. Fishing is well known to remove the largest fish first, and a quantitative measure of vulnerability to fishing indicates that large reef fish species are much more vulnerable to fishing than small fish. The removal of large reef fish by fishing parallels the extinction of terrestrial megafauna by early humans. However large reef fish have great value for various ecological roles and for reef tourism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Applying Machine Learning to Facilitate Autism Diagnostics: Pitfalls and Promises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone, Daniel; Goodwin, Matthew S.; Black, Matthew P.; Lee, Chi-Chun; Audhkhasi, Kartik; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2015-01-01

    Machine learning has immense potential to enhance diagnostic and intervention research in the behavioral sciences, and may be especially useful in investigations involving the highly prevalent and heterogeneous syndrome of autism spectrum disorder. However, use of machine learning in the absence of clinical domain expertise can be tenuous and lead…

  18. Language Acquisition in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Developmental Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigsti, Inge-Marie; de Marchena, Ashley B.; Schuh, Jillian M.; Kelley, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the complex literature on language acquisition in the autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Because of the high degree of interest in ASD in the past decade, the field has been changing rapidly, with progress in both basic science and applied clinical areas. In addition, psycholinguistically-trained researchers have increasingly…

  19. Prevalence and Incidence of Autism Spectrum Disorder in an Israeli Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovitch, Michael; Hemo, Beatriz; Manning-Courtney, Patricia; Fombonne, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders has been steadily rising. In most parts of the world, rates as high as 1% are reported, including in the United States. In Israel, previously reported prevalence rates have been in the 0.2% range, and were based on parental reporting of diagnosis. In this study, records from one of the largest Israeli…

  20. GENETIC ASPECTS OF AUTISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastas LAKOSKI

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available In the first paper on the syndrome of autism, Kanner described it as innate and inborn. He drew attention to the abnormalities in infancy without evidence of prior normal development and the intellectual, non emotional qualities shown by many of the parents and grandparents. Subsequently, the supposed lack of parental warmth led many clinicians to abandon the notions of constitutional deficit in the child and instead to postulate a psychogenic origin etiology was likely, genetic factors probably did not play a major role. Attention was draw to the low rate of autism in siblings, the lack of chromosome anomalies, and the similarities with syndromes associated with known brain trauma. Although the rate of autism in siblings was indeed low, it was much higher than in the general population rate providing a strong pointer to the genetic factors. The recognition that this was so, associated with the parallel finding of apparently high familiar loading for language delay, stimulated the first, systematic, twin study of autism, which suggested a strong genetic component. Subsequent research has produced findings in the same direction, although many questions remain unanswered. In this paper the evidence that has accumulated on genetic influences on autism is summarized and the remained dilemmas on this field are discussed.

  1. Neuroimaging of autism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoeven, Judith S; Cock, Paul de; Lagae, Lieven [University Hospitals of the Catholic University of Leuven, Department of Pediatrics, Leuven (Belgium); Sunaert, Stefan [University Hospitals of the Catholic University of Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium)

    2010-01-15

    Neuroimaging studies done by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have provided important insights into the neurobiological basis for autism. The aim of this article is to review the current state of knowledge regarding brain abnormalities in autism. Results of structural MRI studies dealing with total brain volume, the volume of the cerebellum, caudate nucleus, thalamus, amygdala and the area of the corpus callosum are summarised. In the past 5 years also new MRI applications as functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging brought considerable new insights in the pathophysiological mechanisms of autism. Dysfunctional activation in key areas of verbal and non-verbal communication, social interaction, and executive functions are revised. Finally, we also discuss white matter alterations in important communication pathways in the brain of autistic patients. (orig.)

  2. Neuroimaging of autism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhoeven, Judith S.; Cock, Paul de; Lagae, Lieven; Sunaert, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies done by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have provided important insights into the neurobiological basis for autism. The aim of this article is to review the current state of knowledge regarding brain abnormalities in autism. Results of structural MRI studies dealing with total brain volume, the volume of the cerebellum, caudate nucleus, thalamus, amygdala and the area of the corpus callosum are summarised. In the past 5 years also new MRI applications as functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging brought considerable new insights in the pathophysiological mechanisms of autism. Dysfunctional activation in key areas of verbal and non-verbal communication, social interaction, and executive functions are revised. Finally, we also discuss white matter alterations in important communication pathways in the brain of autistic patients. (orig.)

  3. Carbon and energy fluxes from China's largest freshwater lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, G.; LIU, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon and energy fluxes between lakes and the atmosphere are important aspects of hydrology, limnology, and ecology studies. China's largest freshwater lake, the Poyang lake experiences tremendous water-land transitions periodically throughout the year, which provides natural experimental settings for the study of carbon and energy fluxes. In this study, we use the eddy covariance technique to explore the seasonal and diurnal variation patterns of sensible and latent heat fluxes of Poyang lake during its high-water and low-water periods, when the lake is covered by water and mudflat, respectively. We also determine the annual NEE of Poyang lake and the variations of NEE's components: Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (Re). Controlling factors of seasonal and diurnal variations of carbon and energy fluxes are analyzed, and land cover impacts on the variation patterns are also studied. Finally, the coupling between the carbon and energy fluxes are analyzed under different atmospheric, boundary stability and land cover conditions.

  4. SSC RIAR is the largest centre of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalygin, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    The State Scientific Centre (SSC) ''Research Institute of Atomic Reactors'' (RIAR) is situated 100 km to the south-east from Moscow, in Dimitrovgrad, the Volga Region of the Russian Federation. SSC RIAR is the largest centre of research reactors in Russia. At present there are 5 types of reactor facilities in operation, including two NPP. One of the main tasks the Centre is the investigations on safety increase for power reactors. Broad international connections are available at the Institute. On the basis of the SSC RIAR during 3 years work has been done on the development of the branch training centre (TC) for the training of operation personnel of research and pilot reactors in Russia. (author). 3 tabs

  5. BALU: Largest autoclave research facility in the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Ucan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the large-scale facilities operated at the Center for Lightweight-Production-Technology of the German Aerospace Center in Stade BALU is the world's largest research autoclave. With a loading length of 20m and a loading diameter of 5.8 m the main objective of the facility is the optimization of the curing process operated by components made of carbon fiber on an industrial scale. For this reason, a novel dynamic autoclaving control has been developed that is characterized by peripheral devices to expend the performance of the facility for differential applications, by sensing systems to detect the component state throughout the curing process and by a feedback system, which is capable to intervene into the running autoclave process.

  6. Switzerland's largest wood-pellet factory in Balsthal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stohler, F.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes how a small Swiss electricity utility has broken out of its traditional role in power generation and the distribution of electricity and gone into the production of wood pellets. The pellets, which are made from waste wood (sawdust) available from wood processing companies, are produced on a large scale in one of Europe's largest pellets production facilities. The boom in the use of wood pellets for heating purposes is discussed. The article discusses this unusual approach for a Swiss power utility, which also operates a wood-fired power station and is even involved in an incineration plant for household wastes. The markets being aimed for in Switzerland and in Europe are described, including modern low-energy-consumption housing projects. A further project is described that is to use waste wood available from a large wood processing facility planned in the utility's own region

  7. Opportunities for biodiversity gains under the world's largest reforestation programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Fangyuan; Wang, Xiaoyang; Zheng, Xinlei; Fisher, Brendan; Wang, Lin; Zhu, Jianguo; Tang, Ya; Yu, Douglas W.; Wilcove, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Reforestation is a critical means of addressing the environmental and social problems of deforestation. China's Grain-for-Green Program (GFGP) is the world's largest reforestation scheme. Here we provide the first nationwide assessment of the tree composition of GFGP forests and the first combined ecological and economic study aimed at understanding GFGP's biodiversity implications. Across China, GFGP forests are overwhelmingly monocultures or compositionally simple mixed forests. Focusing on birds and bees in Sichuan Province, we find that GFGP reforestation results in modest gains (via mixed forest) and losses (via monocultures) of bird diversity, along with major losses of bee diversity. Moreover, all current modes of GFGP reforestation fall short of restoring biodiversity to levels approximating native forests. However, even within existing modes of reforestation, GFGP can achieve greater biodiversity gains by promoting mixed forests over monocultures; doing so is unlikely to entail major opportunity costs or pose unforeseen economic risks to households. PMID:27598524

  8. SSC RIAR is the largest centre of research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalygin, V V [State Scientific Centre, Research Inst. of Atomic Reactors (Russian Federation)

    1997-10-01

    The State Scientific Centre (SSC) ``Research Institute of Atomic Reactors`` (RIAR) is situated 100 km to the south-east from Moscow, in Dimitrovgrad, the Volga Region of the Russian Federation. SSC RIAR is the largest centre of research reactors in Russia. At present there are 5 types of reactor facilities in operation, including two NPP. One of the main tasks the Centre is the investigations on safety increase for power reactors. Broad international connections are available at the Institute. On the basis of the SSC RIAR during 3 years work has been done on the development of the branch training centre (TC) for the training of operation personnel of research and pilot reactors in Russia. (author). 3 tabs.

  9. The largest Silurian vertebrate and its palaeoecological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Brian; Zhu, Min; Zhao, Wenjin; Jia, Liaotao; Zhu, You'an

    2014-01-01

    An apparent absence of Silurian fishes more than half-a-metre in length has been viewed as evidence that gnathostomes were restricted in size and diversity prior to the Devonian. Here we describe the largest pre-Devonian vertebrate (Megamastax amblyodus gen. et sp. nov.), a predatory marine osteichthyan from the Silurian Kuanti Formation (late Ludlow, ~423 million years ago) of Yunnan, China, with an estimated length of about 1 meter. The unusual dentition of the new form suggests a durophagous diet which, combined with its large size, indicates a considerable degree of trophic specialisation among early osteichthyans. The lack of large Silurian vertebrates has recently been used as constraint in palaeoatmospheric modelling, with purported lower oxygen levels imposing a physiological size limit. Regardless of the exact causal relationship between oxygen availability and evolutionary success, this finding refutes the assumption that pre-Emsian vertebrates were restricted to small body sizes. PMID:24921626

  10. Largest US oil and gas fields, August 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Largest US Oil and Gas Fields is a technical report and part of an Energy Information Administration (EIA) series presenting distributions of US crude oil and natural gas resources, developed using field-level data collected by EIA's annual survey of oil and gas proved reserves. The series' objective is to provide useful information beyond that routinely presented in the EIA annual report on crude oil and natural gas reserves. These special reports also will provide oil and gas resource analysts with a fuller understanding of the nature of US crude oil and natural gas occurrence, both at the macro level and with respect to the specific subjects addressed. The series' approach is to integrate EIA's crude oil and natural gas survey data with related data obtained from other authoritative sources, and then to present illustrations and analyses of interest to a broad spectrum of energy information users ranging from the general public to oil and gas industry personnel

  11. Ubiquinol Improves Symptoms in Children with Autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gvozdjakova, Anna; Kucharska, Jarmila; Ostatnikova, Daniela; Babinska, Katarina; Nakladal, Dalibor; Crane, Fred L.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Autism is a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders with manifestation within 3 years after birth. Manifestations of autism include behavior problems (hyperactivity, toys destruction, self-harm, and agression) and sleep and eating disorders. Etiology of autism is poorly understood.

  12. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... only after another family member has been diagnosed. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Fragile X Syndrome Fragile X syndrome is ... gene cause of ASD What Is Autism Spectrum Disorder? Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a behavioral diagnosis. The range ...

  13. Therapies for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Autism Spectrum Disorder Therapies for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder Consumer Summary September 23, 2014 Download PDF 692. ... Web page Understanding Your Child's Condition What is autism spectrum disorder (ASD)? ASD includes a range of behavioral symptoms. ...

  14. The largest glitch observed in the Crab pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, B.; Lyne, A. G.; Stappers, B. W.; Weltevrede, P.; Bassa, C. G.; Lien, A. Y.; Mickaliger, M. B.; Breton, R. P.; Jordan, C. A.; Keith, M. J.; Krimm, H. A.

    2018-05-01

    We have observed a large glitch in the Crab pulsar (PSR B0531+21). The glitch occurred around MJD 58064 (2017 November 8) when the pulsar underwent an increase in the rotation rate of Δν = 1.530 × 10-5 Hz, corresponding to a fractional increase of Δν/ν = 0.516 × 10-6 making this event the largest glitch ever observed in this source. Due to our high-cadence and long-dwell time observations of the Crab pulsar we are able to partially resolve a fraction of the total spin-up of the star. This delayed spin-up occurred over a timescale of ˜1.7 days and is similar to the behaviour seen in the 1989 and 1996 large Crab pulsar glitches. The spin-down rate also increased at the glitch epoch by Δ \\dot{ν } / \\dot{ν } = 7 × 10^{-3}. In addition to being the largest such event observed in the Crab, the glitch occurred after the longest period of glitch inactivity since at least 1984 and we discuss a possible relationship between glitch size and waiting time. No changes to the shape of the pulse profile were observed near the glitch epoch at 610 MHz or 1520 MHz, nor did we identify any changes in the X-ray flux from the pulsar. The long-term recovery from the glitch continues to progress as \\dot{ν } slowly rises towards pre-glitch values. In line with other large Crab glitches, we expect there to be a persistent change to \\dot{ν }. We continue to monitor the long-term recovery with frequent, high quality observations.

  15. [The neurobiology of autism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsopoulos, S

    2007-07-01

    The research effort on autism has for several years been intensive. Recent progress in this field is due mainly to the development of increasingly sophisticated visualizing assessment methods of the brain. Most of the evidence reported in this review requires further replication and elaboration by ongoing research. Evidence from volumetric studies indicates that the brain of the child with autism deviates from normal paths at the early stages of development showing excessive growth during the first year and a half involving the hemispheres and the cerebellum. Post mortem studies have shown neuron abnormalities in the frontal and temporal cortex and the cerebellum. Studies using diffusion tensor imaging, an fMRI based method, have shown disruptions between white and grey matter in several areas of the hemispheres. Other studies investigating activation of the cortex showed lack of synchrony and coordination between anterior and posterior areas of the hemispheres. It has been suggested that the deviation in brain development in autism consists of excessive numbers of neurons which cause the cytoarchitectural deviation. A theory suggesting that the basic deficit in autism is due to dysfunction of the "mirror neuron system" requires further substantiation. The aetiology of autism is not known although risk factors have been identified. Predominant among them are genetic influences. The search is currently intensive for an understanding of the pathogenesis of the pathological deviation in the development of the brain in autism. Neurotrophic factors which determine the developmental steps of the brain are examined such as serotonin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the neuropeptide reelin, neuroligines and others. There is evidence of some involvement of these factors with autism but it is still far from clear how they do interact with one another and how they lead to the pathological deviations observed in autism. The neurotrophic factors are evidently coded by

  16. Autism spectrum disorder - childhood disintegrative disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... part of the larger developmental disorder category of autism spectrum disorder . ... American Psychiatric Association. Autism spectrum disorder. ... VA: American Psychiatric Publishing: 2013;50-59. Raviola GJ, ...

  17. Antidepressant exposure in pregnancy and risk of autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sørensen MJ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Merete Juul Sørensen,1 Therese Koops Grønborg,2 Jakob Christensen,3,4 Erik Thorlund Parner,2 Mogens Vestergaard,5,6 Diana Schendel,7 Lars Henning Pedersen8,9 1Regional Centre of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Aarhus University Hospital, Risskov, Denmark; 2Department of Public Health, Section of Biostatistics, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark; 3Department of Neurology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 4Department of Clinical Pharmacology, 5Department of Public Health, Section of General Practice, 6Research unit for General Practice, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark; 7Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA; 8Danish Epidemiological Science Centre, Institute of Public Health, 9Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark Background: Both the use of antidepressant medication during pregnancy and the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder have increased during recent years. A causal link has recently been suggested, but the association may be confounded by the underlying indication for antidepressant use. We investigated the association between maternal use of antidepressant medication in pregnancy and autism, controlling for potential confounding factors. Methods: We identified all children born alive in Denmark 1996–2006 (n=668,468 and their parents in the Danish Civil Registration System. We obtained information on the mother's prescriptions filled during pregnancy from the Danish National Prescription Registry, and on diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders in the children and diagnoses of psychiatric disorders in the parents from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register. In a cohort analysis, we estimated hazard ratios of autism spectrum disorders in children exposed to antidepressant medication during pregnancy compared with children who were not exposed, using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Furthermore, we estimated the risk

  18. Epigenetics and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbadiwe, Tafari; Millis, Richard M

    2013-01-01

    This review identifies mechanisms for altering DNA-histone interactions of cell chromatin to upregulate or downregulate gene expression that could serve as epigenetic targets for therapeutic interventions in autism. DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) can phosphorylate histone H3 at T6. Aided by protein kinase C β 1, the DNMT lysine-specific demethylase-1 prevents demethylation of H3 at K4. During androgen-receptor-(AR-) dependent gene activation, this sequence may produce AR-dependent gene overactivation which may partly explain the male predominance of autism. AR-dependent gene overactivation in conjunction with a DNMT mechanism for methylating oxytocin receptors could produce high arousal inputs to the amygdala resulting in aberrant socialization, a prime characteristic of autism. Dysregulation of histone methyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs) associated with low activity of methyl CpG binding protein-2 at cytosine-guanine sites in genes may reduce the capacity for condensing chromatin and silencing genes in frontal cortex, a site characterized by decreased cortical interconnectivity in autistic subjects. HDAC1 inhibition can overactivate mRNA transcription, a putative mechanism for the increased number of cerebral cortical columns and local frontal cortex hyperactivity in autistic individuals. These epigenetic mechanisms underlying male predominance, aberrant social interaction, and low functioning frontal cortex may be novel targets for autism prevention and treatment strategies.

  19. Epigenetics and Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tafari Mbadiwe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review identifies mechanisms for altering DNA-histone interactions of cell chromatin to upregulate or downregulate gene expression that could serve as epigenetic targets for therapeutic interventions in autism. DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs can phosphorylate histone H3 at T6. Aided by protein kinase Cβ1, the DNMT lysine-specific demethylase-1 prevents demethylation of H3 at K4. During androgen-receptor-(AR- dependent gene activation, this sequence may produce AR-dependent gene overactivation which may partly explain the male predominance of autism. AR-dependent gene overactivation in conjunction with a DNMT mechanism for methylating oxytocin receptors could produce high arousal inputs to the amygdala resulting in aberrant socialization, a prime characteristic of autism. Dysregulation of histone methyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs associated with low activity of methyl CpG binding protein-2 at cytosine-guanine sites in genes may reduce the capacity for condensing chromatin and silencing genes in frontal cortex, a site characterized by decreased cortical interconnectivity in autistic subjects. HDAC1 inhibition can overactivate mRNA transcription, a putative mechanism for the increased number of cerebral cortical columns and local frontal cortex hyperactivity in autistic individuals. These epigenetic mechanisms underlying male predominance, aberrant social interaction, and low functioning frontal cortex may be novel targets for autism prevention and treatment strategies.

  20. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-04-02

    This podcast discusses autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a developmental disability that causes problems with social, communication, and behavioral skills. CDC estimates that one in 68 children has been identified as having ASD.  Created: 4/2/2014 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 4/2/2014.

  1. Cognitive Theories of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Gnanathusharan; Mitchell, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This article considers three theories of autism: The Theory of Mind Deficit, Executive Dysfunction and the Weak Central Coherence accounts. It outlines each along with studies relevant to their emergence, their expansion, their limitations and their possible integration. Furthermore, consideration is given to any implication from the theories in…

  2. Autism and Mitochondrial Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Richard H.

    2010-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as defined by the revised Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM IVTR criteria (American Psychiatric Association [2000] Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing) as impairment before the age of 3 in language development and socialization with the development of repetitive behaviors, appears…

  3. Oceans of Opportunity. Harnessing Europe's largest domestic energy resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichaux, N.; Wilkes, J.

    2009-09-01

    Europe's offshore wind potential is enormous and able to power Europe seven times over. Over 100 GW of offshore wind projects are already in various stages of planning. If realised, these projects would produce 10% of the EU's electricity whilst avoiding 200 million tonnes of CO2 emissions each year. EWEA has a target of 40 GW of offshore wind in the EU by 2020, implying an average annual market growth of 28% over the coming 12 years. The EU market for onshore wind grew by an average 32% per year in the 12-year period from 1992-2004 - what the wind energy industry has achieved on land can be repeated at sea. EWEA's proposed offshore grid builds on the 11 offshore grids currently operating and 21 offshore grids currently being considered by the grid operators in the Baltic and North Seas to give Europe a truly pan-European electricity super highway. Strong political support and action from Europe's policy-makers will allow a new, multi-billion euro industry to be built. This new industry will deliver thousands of green collar jobs and a new renewable energy economy and establish Europe as world leader in offshore wind power technology. A single European electricity market with large amounts of wind power will bring affordable electricity to consumers, reduce import dependence, cut CO2 emissions and allow Europe to access its largest domestic energy source.

  4. Characterization of the largest effector gene cluster of Ustilago maydis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Brefort

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the genome of the biotrophic plant pathogen Ustilago maydis, many of the genes coding for secreted protein effectors modulating virulence are arranged in gene clusters. The vast majority of these genes encode novel proteins whose expression is coupled to plant colonization. The largest of these gene clusters, cluster 19A, encodes 24 secreted effectors. Deletion of the entire cluster results in severe attenuation of virulence. Here we present the functional analysis of this genomic region. We show that a 19A deletion mutant behaves like an endophyte, i.e. is still able to colonize plants and complete the infection cycle. However, tumors, the most conspicuous symptoms of maize smut disease, are only rarely formed and fungal biomass in infected tissue is significantly reduced. The generation and analysis of strains carrying sub-deletions identified several genes significantly contributing to tumor formation after seedling infection. Another of the effectors could be linked specifically to anthocyanin induction in the infected tissue. As the individual contributions of these genes to tumor formation were small, we studied the response of maize plants to the whole cluster mutant as well as to several individual mutants by array analysis. This revealed distinct plant responses, demonstrating that the respective effectors have discrete plant targets. We propose that the analysis of plant responses to effector mutant strains that lack a strong virulence phenotype may be a general way to visualize differences in effector function.

  5. El Paso natural gas nearing completion of system's largest expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    El Paso Natural Gas Co.'s largest expansion program in its 64-year history will be completed along its northern system this spring or early summer. According to the company, the three-tiered, $241.5 million expansion program will increase El Paso's gas-transport capacity by 835 MMcfd to 2.5 bcfd of conventional and coal-seam gas from the San Juan basin in northwestern New Mexico. That's enough natural gas, says the company, to supply the needs of a city of more than 800,000 residents. This paper reports that the expansion involves the San Juan Triangle system, the company's northern main line, and the Permian-San Juan crossover line. The company also filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) in October 1991 to construct a new $15.2 million compressor station, Rio Vista, south of Bloomfield, N.M. The station would be used to move additional gas to the main line

  6. Benchmark Testing of the Largest Titanium Aluminide Sheet Subelement Conducted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotta, Paul A.; Krause, David L.

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate wrought titanium aluminide (gamma TiAl) as a viable candidate material for the High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) exhaust nozzle, an international team led by the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field successfully fabricated and tested the largest gamma TiAl sheet structure ever manufactured. The gamma TiAl sheet structure, a 56-percent subscale divergent flap subelement, was fabricated for benchmark testing in three-point bending. Overall, the subelement was 84-cm (33-in.) long by 13-cm (5-in.) wide by 8-cm (3-in.) deep. Incorporated into the subelement were features that might be used in the fabrication of a full-scale divergent flap. These features include the use of: (1) gamma TiAl shear clips to join together sections of corrugations, (2) multiple gamma TiAl face sheets, (3) double hot-formed gamma TiAl corrugations, and (4) brazed joints. The structural integrity of the gamma TiAl sheet subelement was evaluated by conducting a room-temperature three-point static bend test.

  7. Largest US oil and gas fields, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-06

    The Largest US Oil and Gas Fields is a technical report and part of an Energy Information Administration (EIA) series presenting distributions of US crude oil and natural gas resources, developed using field-level data collected by EIA`s annual survey of oil and gas proved reserves. The series` objective is to provide useful information beyond that routinely presented in the EIA annual report on crude oil and natural gas reserves. These special reports also will provide oil and gas resource analysts with a fuller understanding of the nature of US crude oil and natural gas occurrence, both at the macro level and with respect to the specific subjects addressed. The series` approach is to integrate EIA`s crude oil and natural gas survey data with related data obtained from other authoritative sources, and then to present illustrations and analyses of interest to a broad spectrum of energy information users ranging from the general public to oil and gas industry personnel.

  8. Phosphorus Loadings to the World's Largest Lakes: Sources and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Gabriel; Alcamo, Joseph; Flörke, Martina; Reder, Klara

    2018-04-01

    Eutrophication is a major water quality issue in lakes worldwide and is principally caused by the loadings of phosphorus from catchment areas. It follows that to develop strategies to mitigate eutrophication, we must have a good understanding of the amount, sources, and trends of phosphorus pollution. This paper provides the first consistent and harmonious estimates of current phosphorus loadings to the world's largest 100 lakes, along with the sources of these loadings and their trends. These estimates provide a perspective on the extent of lake eutrophication worldwide, as well as potential input to the evaluation and management of eutrophication in these lakes. We take a modeling approach and apply the WorldQual model for these estimates. The advantage of this approach is that it allows us to fill in large gaps in observational data. From the analysis, we find that about 66 of the 100 lakes are located in developing countries and their catchments have a much larger average phosphorus yield than the lake catchments in developed countries (11.1 versus 0.7 kg TP km-2 year-1). Second, the main source of phosphorus to the examined lakes is inorganic fertilizer (47% of total). Third, between 2005-2010 and 1990-1994, phosphorus pollution increased at 50 out of 100 lakes. Sixty percent of lakes with increasing pollution are in developing countries. P pollution changed primarily due to changing P fertilizer use. In conclusion, we show that the risk of P-stimulated eutrophication is higher in developing countries.

  9. LHC : The World's Largest Vacuum Systems being commissioned at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez, J M

    2008-01-01

    When it switches on in 2008, the 26.7 km Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, will have the world's largest vacuum system operating over a wide range of pressures and employing an impressive array of vacuum technologies. This system is composed by 54 km of UHV vacuum for the circulating beams and 50 km of insulation vacuum around the cryogenic magnets and the liquid helium transfer lines. Over the 54 km of UHV beam vacuum, 48 km of this are at cryogenic temperature (1.9 K). The remaining 6 km of beam vacuum containing the insertions for "cleaning" the proton beams, radiofrequency cavities for accelerating the protons as well as beam-monitoring equipment is at ambient temperature and uses non-evaporable getter (NEG) coatings - a vacuum technology that was born and industrialized at CERN. The pumping scheme is completed using 780 ion pumps to remove noble gases and to provide pressure interlocks to the 303 vacuum safety valves. Pressure readings are provided by 170 Bayard-Alpert gauges and 1084 gauges (Pirani a...

  10. When clusters collide: constraints on antimatter on the largest scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steigman, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Observations have ruled out the presence of significant amounts of antimatter in the Universe on scales ranging from the solar system, to the Galaxy, to groups and clusters of galaxies, and even to distances comparable to the scale of the present horizon. Except for the model-dependent constraints on the largest scales, the most significant upper limits to diffuse antimatter in the Universe are those on the ∼Mpc scale of clusters of galaxies provided by the EGRET upper bounds to annihilation gamma rays from galaxy clusters whose intracluster gas is revealed through its x-ray emission. On the scale of individual clusters of galaxies the upper bounds to the fraction of mixed matter and antimatter for the 55 clusters from a flux-limited x-ray survey range from 5 × 10 −9 to −6 , strongly suggesting that individual clusters of galaxies are made entirely of matter or of antimatter. X-ray and gamma-ray observations of colliding clusters of galaxies, such as the Bullet Cluster, permit these constraints to be extended to even larger scales. If the observations of the Bullet Cluster, where the upper bound to the antimatter fraction is found to be −6 , can be generalized to other colliding clusters of galaxies, cosmologically significant amounts of antimatter will be excluded on scales of order ∼20 Mpc (M∼5×10 15 M sun )

  11. Stoppage in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønborg, Therese Koops; Hansen, Stefan Nygaard; Nielsen, Svend V

    2015-01-01

    of bias in sibling recurrence risk estimation. This study investigated whether stoppage occurs in Danish families with a firstborn child diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders, and if stoppage was differential. We found that stoppage occurs moderately in Danish families affected by autism spectrum...... disorders, and that stoppage is differential. However, differential stoppage is a minor source of estimation bias in Danish sibling recurrence risk studies of autism spectrum disorders....

  12. Novel Probiotic Therapies for Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    1 AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0515 TITLE: Novel Probiotic Therapies for Autism PRINCIPAL...August 2012 – 21 August 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Novel Probiotic Therapies for Autism 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-0515...suggest a gut-microbiome-brain connection in autism, and identify a potential probiotic therapy for ASD. We have now developed assays for some of

  13. Applied behavior analysis as intervention for autism: definition, features and philosophical concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Síglia Pimentel Höher Camargo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a lifelong pervasive developmental disorder with no known causes and cure. However, educational and behavioral interventions with a foundation in applied behavior analysis (ABA have been shown to improve a variety of skill areas such as communication, social, academic, and adaptive behaviors of individuals with ASD. The goal of this work is to present the definition, features and philosophical concepts that underlie ABA and make this science an effective intervention method for people with autism.

  14. Brief Report: Sensorimotor Gating in Idiopathic Autism and Autism Associated with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuhas, Jennifer; Cordeiro, Lisa; Tassone, Flora; Ballinger, Elizabeth; Schneider, Andrea; Long, James M.; Ornitz, Edward M.; Hessl, David

    2011-01-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) may useful for exploring the proposed shared neurobiology between idiopathic autism and autism caused by FXS. We compared PPI in four groups: typically developing controls (n = 18), FXS and autism (FXS+A; n = 15), FXS without autism spectrum disorder (FXS-A; n = 17), and idiopathic autism (IA; n = 15). Relative to…

  15. [Genetics and epigenetics in autism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Atsuo; Masaki, Shiego; Aoki, Eiko

    2006-11-01

    Autism is a behaviorally defined syndrome characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, and restricted, stereotyped interests and behaviors. Several lines of evidence support the contention that genetic factors are a large component to autism etiology. However, in spite of vigorous genetic studies, no single causative or susceptibility gene common in autism has been identified. Thus multiple susceptibility genes in interaction are considered to account for the disorder. Furthermore, environmental risk factors can accelerate the autism development of. Recent advances in understanding the epigenetic regulation may shed light on the interaction among multiple genetic factors and environmental factors.

  16. Reach and messages of the world's largest ivory burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braczkowski, Alexander; Holden, Matthew H; O'Bryan, Christopher; Choi, Chi-Yeung; Gan, Xiaojing; Beesley, Nicholas; Gao, Yufang; Allan, James; Tyrrell, Peter; Stiles, Daniel; Brehony, Peadar; Meney, Revocatus; Brink, Henry; Takashina, Nao; Lin, Ming-Ching; Lin, Hsien-Yung; Rust, Niki; Salmo, Severino G; Watson, James Em; Kahumbu, Paula; Maron, Martine; Possingham, Hugh P; Biggs, Duan

    2018-03-01

    Recent increases in ivory poaching have depressed African elephant populations. Successful enforcement has led to ivory being stockpiled. Stockpile destruction is becoming increasingly popular, and most destruction has occurred in the last five years. Ivory destruction is intended to send a strong message against ivory consumption, both in promoting a taboo on ivory use and catalyzing policy change. However, there has been no effort to establish the distribution and extent of media reporting on ivory destruction events globally. We analyze media coverage across eleven important nation states of the largest ivory destruction event in history (Kenya, 30 April 2016). We used a well-accepted online media crawling tool and key language translations to search online and print newspapers. We found most online news on the ivory burn came from the US (81% of articles), while print news was dominated by Kenya (61% of articles). We subjected online articles from five key countries and territories to content analysis and found 86-97% of all online articles reported the burn as a positive conservation action, while between 4-50% discussed ivory burning as having a negative impact on elephant conservation. Most articles discussed law enforcement and trade bans as effective for elephant conservation. There was more relative search interest globally on the 2016 Kenyan ivory burn than any other in five years. Our study is the first attempt to track the spread of media around an ivory burn and is a case study in tracking the effects of a conservation-marketing event. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Genome size analyses of Pucciniales reveal the largest fungal genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Sílvia; Ramos, Ana Paula; Pires, Ana Sofia; Azinheira, Helena G; Caldeirinha, Patrícia; Link, Tobias; Abranches, Rita; Silva, Maria do Céu; Voegele, Ralf T; Loureiro, João; Talhinhas, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Rust fungi (Basidiomycota, Pucciniales) are biotrophic plant pathogens which exhibit diverse complexities in their life cycles and host ranges. The completion of genome sequencing of a few rust fungi has revealed the occurrence of large genomes. Sequencing efforts for other rust fungi have been hampered by uncertainty concerning their genome sizes. Flow cytometry was recently applied to estimate the genome size of a few rust fungi, and confirmed the occurrence of large genomes in this order (averaging 225.3 Mbp, while the average for Basidiomycota was 49.9 Mbp and was 37.7 Mbp for all fungi). In this work, we have used an innovative and simple approach to simultaneously isolate nuclei from the rust and its host plant in order to estimate the genome size of 30 rust species by flow cytometry. Genome sizes varied over 10-fold, from 70 to 893 Mbp, with an average genome size value of 380.2 Mbp. Compared to the genome sizes of over 1800 fungi, Gymnosporangium confusum possesses the largest fungal genome ever reported (893.2 Mbp). Moreover, even the smallest rust genome determined in this study is larger than the vast majority of fungal genomes (94%). The average genome size of the Pucciniales is now of 305.5 Mbp, while the average Basidiomycota genome size has shifted to 70.4 Mbp and the average for all fungi reached 44.2 Mbp. Despite the fact that no correlation could be drawn between the genome sizes, the phylogenomics or the life cycle of rust fungi, it is interesting to note that rusts with Fabaceae hosts present genomes clearly larger than those with Poaceae hosts. Although this study comprises only a small fraction of the more than 7000 rust species described, it seems already evident that the Pucciniales represent a group where genome size expansion could be a common characteristic. This is in sharp contrast to sister taxa, placing this order in a relevant position in fungal genomics research.

  18. A meta-analysis of the social communication questionnaire: Screening for autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnut, Steven R; Wei, Tianlan; Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Richman, David M

    2017-11-01

    The current meta-analysis examines the previous research on the utility of the Social Communication Questionnaire as a screening instrument for autism spectrum disorder. Previously published reports have highlighted the inconsistencies between Social Communication Questionnaire-screening results and formal autism spectrum disorder diagnoses. The variations in accuracy resulted in some researchers questioning the validity of the Social Communication Questionnaire. This study systematically examined the accuracy of the Social Communication Questionnaire as a function of the methodological decisions made by researchers screening for autism spectrum disorder over the last 15 years. Findings from this study suggest that the Social Communication Questionnaire is an acceptable screening instrument for autism spectrum disorder (area under the curve = 0.885). Variations in methodological decisions, however, greatly influenced the accuracy of the Social Communication Questionnaire in screening for autism spectrum disorder. Of these methodological variations, using the Current instead of the Lifetime version of the Social Communication Questionnaire resulted in the largest detrimental effect ( d = -3.898), followed by using the Social Communication Questionnaire with individuals younger than 4 years of age ( d = -2.924) and relying upon convenience samples ( d = -4.828 for clinical samples, -2.734 for convenience samples, and -1.422 for community samples). Directions for future research and implications for using the Social Communication Questionnaire to screen for autism spectrum disorder are discussed.

  19. GIS learning tool for world's largest earthquakes and their causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Moumita

    The objective of this thesis is to increase awareness about earthquakes among people, especially young students by showing the five largest and two most predictable earthquake locations in the world and their plate tectonic settings. This is a geographic based interactive tool which could be used for learning about the cause of great earthquakes in the past and the safest places on the earth in order to avoid direct effect of earthquakes. This approach provides an effective way of learning for the students as it is very user friendly and more aligned to the interests of the younger generation. In this tool the user can click on the various points located on the world map which will open a picture and link to the webpage for that point, showing detailed information of the earthquake history of that place including magnitude of quake, year of past quakes and the plate tectonic settings that made this place earthquake prone. Apart from knowing the earthquake related information students will also be able to customize the tool to suit their needs or interests. Students will be able to add/remove layers, measure distance between any two points on the map, select any place on the map and know more information for that place, create a layer from this set to do a detail analysis, run a query, change display settings, etc. At the end of this tool the user has to go through the earthquake safely guidelines in order to be safe during an earthquake. This tool uses Java as programming language and uses Map Objects Java Edition (MOJO) provided by ESRI. This tool is developed for educational purpose and hence its interface has been kept simple and easy to use so that students can gain maximum knowledge through it instead of having a hard time to install it. There are lots of details to explore which can help more about what a GIS based tool is capable of. Only thing needed to run this tool is latest JAVA edition installed in their machine. This approach makes study more fun and

  20. Increasing Autism Prevalence in Metropolitan New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahorodny, Walter; Shenouda, Josephine; Howell, Sandra; Rosato, Nancy Scotto; Peng, Bo; Mehta, Uday

    2014-01-01

    High baseline autism spectrum disorder prevalence estimates in New Jersey led to a follow-up surveillance. The objectives were to determine autism spectrum disorder prevalence in the year 2006 in New Jersey and to identify changes in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder or in the characteristics of the children with autism spectrum disorder,…

  1. Autism – environmental risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryka Langauer-Lewowicka 1

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of infantile autism due to developmental brain disorders has been permanently increasing in many parts of the world. Autism is characterized by impairments of communication and reciprocal social interaction and by restricted repetitive behaviours or interests. The causes of these disorders are not yet known. Experimental studies and clinical observation suggest that genetic and environmental factors could converge to result in neurotoxic mechanisms. These may lead to the development of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD. Several recent studies have indicated that perinatal exposure to environmental toxins may be the risk factor for ASD, among them: polybrominated diphenyl, esters, phthalates, bisphenol A, tetrabrombisphenol A, solvents, pesticides, and heavy metals. They can easily pass the placental and blood brain barriers and affect brain development.

  2. Biomarkers in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eHendren

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are complex, heterogeneous disorders caused by an interaction between genetic vulnerability and environmental factors. In an effort to better target the underlying roots of ASD for diagnosis and treatment, efforts to identify reliable biomarkers in genetics, neuroimaging, gene expression and measures of the body’s metabolism are growing. For this article, we review the published studies of potential biomarkers in autism and conclude that while there is increasing promise of finding biomarkers that can help us target treatment, there are none with enough evidence to support routine clinical use unless medical illness is suspected. Promising biomarkers include those for mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, and immune function. Genetic clusters are also suggesting the potential for useful biomarkers.

  3. Epigenetics and Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Mbadiwe, Tafari; Millis, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    This review identifies mechanisms for altering DNA-histone interactions of cell chromatin to upregulate or downregulate gene expression that could serve as epigenetic targets for therapeutic interventions in autism. DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) can phosphorylate histone H3 at T6. Aided by protein kinase C ? 1, the DNMT lysine-specific demethylase-1 prevents demethylation of H3 at K4. During androgen-receptor-(AR-) dependent gene activation, this sequence may produce AR-dependent gene overac...

  4. Autism and sleep disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Devnani, Preeti A.; Hegde, Anaita U.

    2015-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders” (ASDs) are neurodevelopment disorders and are characterized by persistent impairments in reciprocal social interaction and communication. Sleep problems in ASD, are a prominent feature that have an impact on social interaction, day to day life, academic achievement, and have been correlated with increased maternal stress and parental sleep disruption. Polysomnography studies of ASD children showed most of their abnormalities related to rapid eye movement (REM) slee...

  5. Final Status Survey for the Largest Decommissioning Project on Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubiel, R.W.; Miller, J.; Quayle, D.

    2006-01-01

    To assist the United States Department of Energy's (US DOE's) re-industrialization efforts at its gaseous diffusion site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, known as the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), the US DOE awarded a 6-year Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) contract to BNG America (formerly BNFL Inc.) in 1997. The ETTP 3-Building D and D Project included the removal and disposition of the materials and equipment from the K-33, K-31, and K-29 Gaseous Diffusion Plant buildings. The three buildings comprise more than 4.8 million square feet (446,000 square meters) of floor surface area and more than 350 million pounds (148 million kilograms) of hazardous and radioactively contaminated material, making it the largest nuclear D and D project in progress anywhere in the world. The logistical hurdles involved in a project of this scope and magnitude required an extensive amount of Engineering and Health Physics professionals. In order to accomplish the Final Status Survey (FSS) for a project of this scope, the speed and efficiency of automated survey equipment was essential. Surveys of floors, structural steel and ceilings up to 60 feet (18 meters) were required. The FSS had to be expanded to include additional remediation and surveys due to characterization surveys and assumptions regarding the nature and extent of contamination provided by the US DOE. Survey design and technical bases had to consider highly variable constituents; including uranium from depleted to low enrichment, variable levels of Technetium-99 and transuranic nuclides, which were introduced into the cascade during the 1960's when recycled uranium (RU) from Savannah River was re-enriched at the facility. The RU was transported to unexpected locations from leaks in the cascade by complex building ventilation patterns. The primary survey tool used for the post remediation and FSS was the Surface Contamination Monitor (SCM) and the associated Survey Information Management System (SIMS

  6. Sleep Disorders, Epilepsy, and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malow, Beth A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this review article is to describe the clinical data linking autism with sleep and epilepsy and to discuss the impact of treating sleep disorders in children with autism either with or without coexisting epileptic seizures. Studies are presented to support the view that sleep is abnormal in individuals with autistic spectrum…

  7. [Autism spectrum disorders in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, C.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Gaag, R.J. van der

    2008-01-01

    Early infantile autism' as defined by Kanner has grown into a spectrum of autistic disorders. The recognition of Asperger's disorder and of pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), has led to increased demand for appropriate diagnostic assessment of autism in adults. The

  8. Children with Autism & Their Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancro, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    The parent of the child with autism is faced with many home management challenges, not the least of which is the achievement of intra-family harmony among siblings. Sibling rivalry occurs in all families. However, the presence of a child with autism may, in some instances, intensify this rivalry. In this article, the author provides tips for…

  9. Material Voices: Intermediality and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimingham, Melissa; Shaughnessy, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Autism continues to be regarded enigmatically; a community that is difficult to access due to perceived disruptions of interpersonal connectedness. Through detailed observations of two children participating in the Arts and Humanities Research Council funded project "Imagining Autism: Drama, Performance and Intermediality as Interventions for…

  10. Understanding Autism in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Ballerini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Detachment from external reality, distancing from others, closure into a sort of virtual hermitage, and prevalence of inner fantasies, are the descriptive aspects of autism. However, from an anthropological-phenomenological point of view, in schizophrenia, the autistic mode of life can arise from a person’s being confronted with a pathological crisis in the obviousness of the intersubjective world, essentially a crisis in the intersubjective foundation of human presence. The “condition of possibility” of the autistic way of being is the deficiency of the operation that phenomenology call empathetic-intuitive constitution of the Other, an Other which is the naturalness of evidence of being a subject like me. The theme of the Other, of intersubjectivity, has become so central in the psychopathological analysis of schizophrenic disorders because the modifications of interhuman encounter cannot be seen as the secondary consequences of symptoms but constitute the fundamental disorder of schizophrenic alienation. Revision of the concept of autism from the original definition, centered on the prevalence of inner fantasies, leads to the profound change with the vision of autism as “loss” and “void.” I call attention to possibility of phenomenological research to understand autistic world starting from this “void.”

  11. Dietary methanol and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Ralph G; Monte, Woodrow C

    2015-10-01

    The authors sought to establish whether maternal dietary methanol during pregnancy was a factor in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders. A seven item questionnaire was given to women who had given birth to at least one child after 1984. The subjects were solicited from a large primary care practice and several internet sites and separated into two groups - mothers who had given birth to a child with autism and those who had not. Average weekly methanol consumption was calculated based on questionnaire responses. 550 questionnaires were completed by women who gave birth to a non-autistic child. On average these women consumed 66.71mg. of methanol weekly. 161 questionnaires were completed by women who had given birth to an autistic child. The average estimated weekly methanol consumption for this group was 142.31mg. Based on the results of the Wilcoxon rank sum-test, we see a significant difference between the reported methanol consumption rates of the two groups. This study suggests that women who have given birth to an autistic child are likely to have had higher intake of dietary sources of methanol than women who have not. Further investigation of a possible link of dietary methanol to autism is clearly warranted. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Brain imaging and autism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilbovicius, M.

    2006-01-01

    Autism is a neuro-developmental disorder with a range of clinical presentations, from mild to severe, referred to as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The most common clinical ASD sign is social interaction impairment, which is associated with verbal and non-verbal communication deficits and stereotyped and obsessive behaviors. Thanks to recent brain imaging studies, scientists are getting a better idea of the neural circuits involved in ASD. Indeed, functional brain imaging, such as positron emission tomography (PET), single positron emission tomograph y (SPECT) and functional MRI (fMRI) have opened a new perspective to study normal and pathological brain functions. Three independent studies have found anatomical and rest functional temporal abnormalities. These anomalies are localized in the superior temporal sulcus bilaterally which are critical for perception of key social stimuli. In addition, functional studies have shown hypo-activation of most areas implicated in social perception (face and voice perception) and social cognition (theory of mind). These data suggest an abnormal functioning of the social brain network. The understanding of such crucial abnormal mechanism may drive the elaboration of new and more adequate social re-educative strategies in autism. (author)

  13. Brain imaging and autism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zilbovicius, M [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot (CEA/DSV/DRM), INSERM CEA 0205, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2006-07-01

    Autism is a neuro-developmental disorder with a range of clinical presentations, from mild to severe, referred to as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The most common clinical ASD sign is social interaction impairment, which is associated with verbal and non-verbal communication deficits and stereotyped and obsessive behaviors. Thanks to recent brain imaging studies, scientists are getting a better idea of the neural circuits involved in ASD. Indeed, functional brain imaging, such as positron emission tomography (PET), single positron emission tomograph y (SPECT) and functional MRI (fMRI) have opened a new perspective to study normal and pathological brain functions. Three independent studies have found anatomical and rest functional temporal abnormalities. These anomalies are localized in the superior temporal sulcus bilaterally which are critical for perception of key social stimuli. In addition, functional studies have shown hypo-activation of most areas implicated in social perception (face and voice perception) and social cognition (theory of mind). These data suggest an abnormal functioning of the social brain network. The understanding of such crucial abnormal mechanism may drive the elaboration of new and more adequate social re-educative strategies in autism. (author)

  14. Understanding autism in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballerini, Arnaldo

    2012-01-01

    Detachment from external reality, distancing from others, closure into a sort of virtual hermitage, and prevalence of inner fantasies, are the descriptive aspects of autism. However, from an anthropological-phenomenological point of view, in schizophrenia, the autistic mode of life can arise from a person's being confronted with a pathological crisis in the obviousness of the intersubjective world, essentially a crisis in the intersubjective foundation of human presence. The "condition of possibility" of the autistic way of being is the deficiency of the operation that phenomenology call empathetic-intuitive constitution of the Other, an Other which is the naturalness of evidence of being a subject like me. The theme of the Other, of intersubjectivity, has become so central in the psychopathological analysis of schizophrenic disorders because the modifications of interhuman encounter cannot be seen as the secondary consequences of symptoms but constitute the fundamental disorder of schizophrenic alienation. Revision of the concept of autism from the original definition, centered on the prevalence of inner fantasies, leads to the profound change with the vision of autism as "loss" and "void." I call attention to possibility of phenomenological research to understand autistic world starting from this "void."

  15. Autism from a cognitive-pragmatic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Reboul , Anne; Manificat , Sabine; Foudon , Nadège

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Autism is one of a group of three neuro-developmental disorders including, in addition to autism itself, Asperger Syndrome and a fairly heterogeneous group of patients who present some but not all of the symptoms of autism (see below, section 2.2). Asperger Syndrome and autism being the best described pathologies, notably in terms of language and language development, they will be the focus of our attention in what follows. Autism has been described as being to pragmat...

  16. Music therapy for children with autism

    OpenAIRE

    Thálová, Kateřina

    2012-01-01

    Music Therapy and Children with Autism Abstract The thesis entitled Music Therapy and Children with Autism deals with the characteristics of childhood autism and introduces music therapy as one of the possible forms of therapies, by means of which the development of children with autism can be positively influenced. The objective of the thesis is to record and organize theoretical knowledge regarding therapeutic effect of music on children with autism. The practical, empiric, part of the thes...

  17. The Broader Autism Phenotype and Its Implications on the Etiology and Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Gerdts, Jennifer; Bernier, Raphael

    2011-01-01

    The presence of autism-related traits has been well documented in undiagnosed family members of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The most common finding is mild impairments in social and communication skills that are similar to those shown by individuals with autism, but exhibited to a lesser degree. Termed the broader autism phenotype (BAP), these traits suggest a genetic liability for autism-related traits in families. Genetic influence in autism is strong, with identical tw...

  18. Autism: Collaborative Perspektives in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imanuel Hitipeuw

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Autism is the continuum of impairments. Children with autism show intellectual, social, emotional, and language or communication disorder. Collaboration is an important aspect in delivering education/intervention for children. Professionals have to have knowledge and skill related to autism and have to team up with parent in dealing with the disorder. The unique profile of the individual with autism calls for emphasis in the areas of communication skills, social-emotional, behavioral, and sensory regulation, and communication. Pre-identification of the children may help teachers and parents to make decisions whether the child needs a referral or not. In this case, Indonesia needs to make more political will in order to implement autism education in various setting to address immediate needs of the children before the problem becomes more complicated

  19. Mapping autism risk loci using genetic linkage and chromosomal rearrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatmari, Peter; Paterson, Andrew; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Roberts, Wendy; Brian, Jessica; Liu, Xiao-Qing; Vincent, John; Skaug, Jennifer; Thompson, Ann; Senman, Lili; Feuk, Lars; Qian, Cheng; Bryson, Susan; Jones, Marshall; Marshall, Christian; Scherer, Stephen; Vieland, Veronica; Bartlett, Christopher; Mangin, La Vonne; Goedken, Rhinda; Segre, Alberto; Pericak-Vance, Margaret; Cuccaro, Michael; Gilbert, John; Wright, Harry; Abramson, Ruth; Betancur, Catalina; Bourgeron, Thomas; Gillberg, Christopher; Leboyer, Marion; Buxbaum, Joseph; Davis, Kenneth; Hollander, Eric; Silverman, Jeremy; Hallmayer, Joachim; Lotspeich, Linda; Sutcliffe, James; Haines, Jonathan; Folstein, Susan; Piven, Joseph; Wassink, Thomas; Sheffield, Val; Geschwind, Daniel; Bucan, Maja; Brown, Ted; Cantor, Rita; Constantino, John; Gilliam, Conrad; Herbert, Martha; Lajonchere, Clara; Ledbetter, David; Lese-Martin, Christa; Miller, Janet; Nelson, Stan; Samango-Sprouse, Carol; Spence, Sarah; State, Matthew; Tanzi, Rudolph; Coon, Hilary; Dawson, Geraldine; Devlin, Bernie; Estes, Annette; Flodman, Pamela; Klei, Lambertus; Mcmahon, William; Minshew, Nancy; Munson, Jeff; Korvatska, Elena; Rodier, Patricia; Schellenberg, Gerard; Smith, Moyra; Spence, Anne; Stodgell, Chris; Tepper, Ping Guo; Wijsman, Ellen; Yu, Chang-En; Rogé, Bernadette; Mantoulan, Carine; Wittemeyer, Kerstin; Poustka, Annemarie; Felder, Bärbel; Klauck, Sabine; Schuster, Claudia; Poustka, Fritz; Bölte, Sven; Feineis-Matthews, Sabine; Herbrecht, Evelyn; Schmötzer, Gabi; Tsiantis, John; Papanikolaou, Katerina; Maestrini, Elena; Bacchelli, Elena; Blasi, Francesca; Carone, Simona; Toma, Claudio; Van Engeland, Herman; De Jonge, Maretha; Kemner, Chantal; Koop, Frederieke; Langemeijer, Marjolein; Hijmans, Channa; Staal, Wouter; Baird, Gillian; Bolton, Patrick; Rutter, Michael; Weisblatt, Emma; Green, Jonathan; Aldred, Catherine; Wilkinson, Julie-Anne; Pickles, Andrew; Le Couteur, Ann; Berney, Tom; Mcconachie, Helen; Bailey, Anthony; Francis, Kostas; Honeyman, Gemma; Hutchinson, Aislinn; Parr, Jeremy; Wallace, Simon; Monaco, Anthony; Barnby, Gabrielle; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Lamb, Janine; Sousa, Ines; Sykes, Nuala; Cook, Edwin; Guter, Stephen; Leventhal, Bennett; Salt, Jeff; Lord, Catherine; Corsello, Christina; Hus, Vanessa; Weeks, Daniel; Volkmar, Fred; Tauber, Maïté; Fombonne, Eric; Shih, Andy; Meyer, Kacie

    2007-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are common, heritable neurodevelopmental conditions. The genetic architecture of ASD is complex, requiring large samples to overcome heterogeneity. Here we broaden coverage and sample size relative to other studies of ASD by using Affymetrix 10K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays and 1168 families with ≥ 2 affected individuals to perform the largest linkage scan to date, while also analyzing copy number variation (CNV) in these families. Linkage and CNV analyses implicate chromosome 11p12-p13 and neurexins, respectively, amongst other candidate loci. Neurexins team with previously-implicated neuroligins for glutamatergic synaptogenesis, highlighting glutamate-related genes as promising candidates for ASD. PMID:17322880

  20. The link between autism and skills such as engineering, maths, physics and computing: a reply to Jarrold and Routh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelwright, S; Baron-Cohen, S

    2001-06-01

    In the first edition of this journal, we published a paper reporting that fathers and grandfathers of children with autism were over-represented in the field of engineering. This result was interpreted as providing supporting evidence for the folk-psychology/folk-physics theory of autism. After carrying out further analyses on the same data, Jarrold and Routh found that fathers of children with autism were also over-represented in accountancy and science. They suggested that these results could either provide additional support for the folk-psychology/folk-physics theory or be accounted for by an over-representation of professionals amongst the fathers of children with autism. Here we present evidence that engineers are still over-represented among fathers of children with autism, even taking into account the professional bias.

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: America's Largest Home Runs on Biodiesel in

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina America's Largest Home Runs on Biodiesel in North Carolina to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: America's Largest Home Runs on Biodiesel in North Carolina on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: America's Largest Home Runs on Biodiesel in North

  2. Language and Speech in Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Morson, Emily M; Grace, Elizabeth J

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a developmental disability characterized by atypical social interaction, interests or body movements, and communication. Our review examines the empirical status of three communication phenomena believed to be unique to autism: pronoun reversal (using the pronoun you when the pronoun I is intended, and vice versa), echolalia (repeating what someone has said), and a reduced or even reversed production-comprehension lag (a reduction or reversal of the well-established finding that speakers produce less sophisticated language than they can comprehend). Each of these three phenomena has been claimed to be unique to autism; therefore, each has been proposed to be diagnostic of autism, and each has been interpreted in autism-centric ways (psychoanalytic interpretations of pronoun reversal, behaviorist interpretations of echolalia, and clinical lore about the production-comprehension lag). However, as our review demonstrates, none of these three phenomena is in fact unique to autism; none can or should serve as diagnostic of autism, and all call into question unwarranted assumptions about autistic persons and their language development and use.

  3. Increasing autism prevalence in metropolitan New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahorodny, Walter; Shenouda, Josephine; Howell, Sandra; Rosato, Nancy Scotto; Peng, Bo; Mehta, Uday

    2014-02-01

    High baseline autism spectrum disorder prevalence estimates in New Jersey led to a follow-up surveillance. The objectives were to determine autism spectrum disorder prevalence in the year 2006 in New Jersey and to identify changes in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder or in the characteristics of the children with autism spectrum disorder, between 2002 and 2006. The cohorts included 30,570 children, born in 1998 and 28,936 children, born in 1994, residing in Hudson, Union, and Ocean counties, New Jersey. Point prevalence estimates by sex, ethnicity, autism spectrum disorder subtype, and previous autism spectrum disorder diagnosis were determined. For 2006, a total of 533 children with autism spectrum disorder were identified, consistent with prevalence of 17.4 per 1000 (95% confidence interval = 15.9-18.9), indicating a significant increase in the autism spectrum disorder prevalence (p autism spectrum disorder was broad, affecting major demographic groups and subtypes. Boys with autism spectrum disorder outnumbered girls by nearly 5:1. Autism spectrum disorder prevalence was higher among White children than children of other ethnicities. Additional studies are needed to specify the influence of better awareness of autism spectrum disorder prevalence estimates and to identify possible autism spectrum disorder risk factors. More resources are necessary to address the needs of individuals affected by autism spectrum disorder.

  4. Biological sex affects the neurobiology of autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Michael V.; Suckling, John; Ruigrok, Amber N. V.; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Ecker, Christine; Deoni, Sean C. L.; Craig, Michael C.; Murphy, Declan G. M.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2013-01-01

    In autism, heterogeneity is the rule rather than the exception. One obvious source of heterogeneity is biological sex. Since autism was first recognized, males with autism have disproportionately skewed research. Females with autism have thus been relatively overlooked, and have generally been assumed to have the same underlying neurobiology as males with autism. Growing evidence, however, suggests that this is an oversimplification that risks obscuring the biological base of autism. This study seeks to answer two questions about how autism is modulated by biological sex at the level of the brain: (i) is the neuroanatomy of autism different in males and females? and (ii) does the neuroanatomy of autism fit predictions from the ‘extreme male brain’ theory of autism, in males and/or in females? Neuroanatomical features derived from voxel-based morphometry were compared in a sample of equal-sized high-functioning male and female adults with and without autism (n = 120, n = 30/group). The first question was investigated using a 2 × 2 factorial design, and by spatial overlap analyses of the neuroanatomy of autism in males and females. The second question was tested through spatial overlap analyses of specific patterns predicted by the extreme male brain theory. We found that the neuroanatomy of autism differed between adult males and females, evidenced by minimal spatial overlap (not different from that occurred under random condition) in both grey and white matter, and substantially large white matter regions showing significant sex × diagnosis interactions in the 2 × 2 factorial design. These suggest that autism manifests differently by biological sex. Furthermore, atypical brain areas in females with autism substantially and non-randomly (P males with autism. How differences in neuroanatomy relate to the similarities in cognition between males and females with autism remains to be understood. Future research should stratify by biological sex to reduce

  5. Normal movement selectivity in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinstein, Ilan; Thomas, Cibu; Humphreys, Kate; Minshew, Nancy; Behrmann, Marlene; Heeger, David J

    2010-05-13

    It has been proposed that individuals with autism have difficulties understanding the goals and intentions of others because of a fundamental dysfunction in the mirror neuron system. Here, however, we show that individuals with autism exhibited not only normal fMRI responses in mirror system areas during observation and execution of hand movements but also exhibited typical movement-selective adaptation (repetition suppression) when observing or executing the same movement repeatedly. Movement selectivity is a defining characteristic of neurons involved in movement perception, including mirror neurons, and, as such, these findings argue against a mirror system dysfunction in autism. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Autism and Related Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartland, James; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2012-01-01

    The Pervasive Developmental Disorders are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that include Autistic Disorder, Asperger’s Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder - Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS), Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD), and Rett’s Disorder. All feature childhood onset with a constellation of symptoms spanning social interaction and communication and including atypical behavior patterns. The first three disorders (Autistic Disorder, Asperger’s Disorder, and PDD-NOS) are currently referred to as Autism Spectrum Disorders, reflecting divergent phenotypic and etiologic characteristics compared to Rett’s Disorder and CDD. This chapter reviews relevant research and clinical information relevant to appropriate medical diagnosis and treatment. PMID:22608634

  7. Sex and gender differences in autism spectrum disorder: summarizing evidence gaps and identifying emerging areas of priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halladay, Alycia K; Bishop, Somer; Constantino, John N; Daniels, Amy M; Koenig, Katheen; Palmer, Kate; Messinger, Daniel; Pelphrey, Kevin; Sanders, Stephan J; Singer, Alison Tepper; Taylor, Julie Lounds; Szatmari, Peter

    2015-01-01

    One of the most consistent findings in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) research is a higher rate of ASD diagnosis in males than females. Despite this, remarkably little research has focused on the reasons for this disparity. Better understanding of this sex difference could lead to major advancements in the prevention or treatment of ASD in both males and females. In October of 2014, Autism Speaks and the Autism Science Foundation co-organized a meeting that brought together almost 60 clinicians, researchers, parents, and self-identified autistic individuals. Discussion at the meeting is summarized here with recommendations on directions of future research endeavors.

  8. Rethinking language in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterponi, Laura; de Kirby, Kenton; Shankey, Jennifer

    2015-07-01

    In this article, we invite a rethinking of traditional perspectives of language in autism. We advocate a theoretical reappraisal that offers a corrective to the dominant and largely tacitly held view that language, in its essence, is a referential system and a reflection of the individual's cognition. Drawing on scholarship in Conversation Analysis and linguistic anthropology, we present a multidimensional view of language, showing how it also functions as interactional accomplishment, social action, and mode of experience. From such a multidimensional perspective, we revisit data presented by other researchers that include instances of prototypical features of autistic speech, giving them a somewhat different-at times complementary, at times alternative-interpretation. In doing so, we demonstrate that there is much at stake in the view of language that we as researchers bring to our analysis of autistic speech. Ultimately, we argue that adopting a multidimensional view of language has wide ranging implications, deepening our understanding of autism's core features and developmental trajectory. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Smart phone Acceptance among physicians: Application of structural equation modeling in Iranian largest university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nematollahi M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study aimed to determine attitudes and effective factors in the acceptance of smart phones by physicians of the largest University of Medical Sciences in the south of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM in 2014. Study participants included 200 physicians working in the hospitals of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences selected through two-stage stratified sampling, but 185 participants completed the study. The study data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire completed through a 5-point Likert scale. The content validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by a panel of experts, its construct validity by confirmatory factor analysis, and its reliability by Cronbach’s alpha of 0.802. All data analyses were performed using SPSS (version 22 and LISREL (version 8.8. Results: Results showed that most physicians had a desirable attitude towards using smart phones. Besides, the results of SEM indicated a significant relationship between attitude and compatibility, observability, personal experience, voluntariness of use and perceived usefulness. Moreover, some important fitness indices revealed appropriate fitness of the study model (p=0.26, X2 /df=1.35, RMR=0.070, GFI=0.77, AGFI=0.71, NNFI=0.93, CFI=0.94. Conclusion: The results revealed that compatibility, observability, personal experience, voluntariness of use and perceived usefulness were effective in the physicians’ attitude towards using smart phones. Thus, by preparation of the required infrastructures, policymakers in the field of health technology can enhance the utilization of smart phones in hospitals.

  10. Family Process - Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Slides for a talk about family process and the importance of parenting dimensions in adolescent development. The slides list findings to date, and propose research into the influence of family on outcomes for those diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder.

  11. IMUNODIAGNOSTIC AND IMMUNOTHERAPY OF AUTISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir TRAJKOVSKI

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Infantile autism is one of the most disabling illnesses of neurological, emotional and intellectual development. The cause of autism remains unknown. However, recent investigations suggest that this disorder shares several features of established autoimmune disorders.The aim of this article is to describe the news of imunodiagnostic and immunotherapy in autism. Interpretation of data is made by conceptual and methodological differences between studies. The autoimmune response is most likely directed against the brain myelin, perhaps secondary to a viral infection. The idea that autism is an autoimmune disorder is further strengthened by the fact that autistic patients respond well to treatment with immune modulating drugs. Immune interventions can produce immune modulation-state of suppression or stimulation. Immune therapy should always be done in consultation with physicians.

  12. Social demographic change and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kayuet; Zerubavel, Noam; Bearman, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Parental age at child's birth--which has increased for U.S. children in the 1992-2000 birth cohorts--is strongly associated with an increased risk of autism. By turning a social demographic lens on the historical patterning of concordance among twin pairs, we identify a central mechanism for this association: de novo mutations, which are deletions, insertions, and duplications of DNA in the germ cells that are not present in the parents' DNA. Along the way, we show that a demographic eye on the rising prevalence of autism leads to three major discoveries. First, the estimated heritability of autism has been dramatically overstated. Second, heritability estimates can change over remarkably short periods of time because of increases in germ cell mutations. Third, social demographic change can yield genetic changes that, at the population level, combine to contribute to the increased prevalence of autism.

  13. Parents' first concerns about toddlers with autism spectrum disorder: effect of sibling status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihy, Lauren; Knoch, Kelley; Vibert, Bethany; Fein, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms of autism spectrum disorders may appear as early as 6 months, but parent concern, which can precipitate evaluation, often lags significantly. The presence of typical or atypical older siblings can change parents' sensitivity to departures from typical development. This study investigated type and age of parent's first concerns in toddlers with autism spectrum disorder, prior to diagnosis. Participants had (1) at least one older sibling with autism spectrum disorder (Sibs-ASD); (2) only typically developing older siblings (Sibs-TD), or (3) were only/oldest (No-Sibs). Specific autism spectrum disorder diagnoses and symptom severity were similar among groups. Developmentally, No-Sibs showed the largest delays, followed by Sibs-TD, followed by Sibs-ASD. Mean age of first concern was 16 months for No-Sibs, 14 months for Sibs-TD, and 10 months for Sibs-ASD. Age of first concern differed significantly by group, even after controlling for mother's age and education. Concern about language was prevalent in all groups. Thus, the presence of an older child with typical or, especially, atypical development was associated with earlier concerns for the affected child, despite milder developmental delays. These findings underscore the importance of encouraging parents to report concerns to pediatricians, routine standardized screening for autism spectrum disorder, and the need for pediatrician vigilance, especially for only or oldest children. © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. Autismo: neuroimagem Autism: neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Zilbovicius

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available O autismo é um transtorno de neurodesenvolvimento com diversas apresentações clínicas. Essas apresentações variam em gravidade (leves a graves e são denominadas transtornos do espectro do autismo. O sinal mais comum aos transtornos desse espectro é o déficit de interação social, que está associado a déficits de comunicação verbal e não-verbal e a comportamentos estereotipados e repetitivos. Graças a estudos recentes que utilizam métodos de imagem cerebral, os cientistas obtiveram uma idéia melhor dos circuitos neurais envolvidos nos transtornos do espectro do autismo. De fato, os exames de imagem cerebral funcionais, como tomografia por emissão de pósitrons, tomografia por emissão de fóton único e ressonância magnética funcional abriram uma nova perspectiva para o estudo do funcionamento cerebral normal e patológico. Três estudos independentes encontraram anormalidades da anatomia e do funcionamento em repouso do lobo temporal em pacientes autistas. Essas alterações estão localizadas bilateralmente nos sulcos temporais superiores. Essa região anatômica é de grande importância para a percepção de estímulos sociais essenciais. Além disso, estudos funcionais demonstraram hipoativação da maior parte das áreas envolvidas na percepção social (percepção de faces e voz e cognição social (teoria da mente. Esses dados sugerem um funcionamento anormal da rede de pensamentos do cérebro social no autismo. A compreensão das alterações nesse importante mecanismo pode estimular a elaboração de novas e mais adequadas estratégias sociais de reeducação para pacientes autistas.Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a range of clinical presentations. These presentations vary from mild to severe and are referred to as autism spectrum disorders. The most common clinical sign of autism spectrum disorders is social interaction impairment, which is associated with verbal and non-verbal communication deficits

  15. Autism and the Good Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodogno, Raffaele; Krause-Jensen, Katrine; Ashcroft, Richard

    2016-01-01

    that, as it stands, the current approach to the study of well-being is for the most part unable to answer these questions. In particular, much effort is needed in order to improve the epistemology of well-being, especially so if we wish this epistemology to be ‘autism-sensitive.’ Towards the end...... of the paper, we sketch a new, autism-sensitive approach and apply it in order to begin answering our initial questions....

  16. Normal Movement Selectivity in Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Dinstein, Ilan; Thomas, Cibu; Humphreys, Kate; Minshew, Nancy; Behrmann, Marlene; Heeger, David J.

    2010-01-01

    It has been proposed that individuals with autism have difficulties understanding the goals and intentions of others because of a fundamental dysfunction in the mirror neuron system. Here, however, we show that individuals with autism exhibited not only normal fMRI responses in mirror system areas during observation and execution of hand movements, but also exhibited typical movement-selective adaptation (repetition suppression) when observing or executing the same movement repeatedly. Moveme...

  17. Biomarkers for Autism and for Gastrointestinal and Sleep Problems in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0889 TITLE: Biomarkers for Autism and for Gastrointestinal and Sleep Problems in Autism PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...29Sep2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER AR093240 Biomarkers for Autism and for Gastrointestinal and Sleep Problems in Autism 5b. GRANT NUMBER...and daytime excretions of melatonin sulfate were not significantly different between typically developing (TD) toddlers and toddlers with autism

  18. Genetics Home Reference: autism spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share: Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions ASD Autism spectrum disorder Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Autism spectrum disorder ( ASD ) is a condition that appears very early ...

  19. Prenatal Inflammation Linked to Autism Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thursday, January 24, 2013 Prenatal inflammation linked to autism risk Maternal inflammation during early pregnancy may be related to an increased risk of autism in children, according to new findings supported by ...

  20. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Mitochondrial Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... with a mitochondrial disease: may also have an autism spectrum disorder, may have some of the symptoms/signs of ...

  1. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): Related Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Q: Do vaccines cause autism spectrum disorder (ASD)? A: Many studies that have looked at whether there is a relationship between vaccines and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To date, the studies continue to show ...

  2. Symptomatic Autism in Childhood and Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easson, William M.

    1971-01-01

    The frequency of symptomatic autism in children with severe perceptual or intellectual handicaps is noted and early diagnosis and treatment urged to permit healthy child development. Highlighted are some common causes leading to symptomatic autism. (KW)

  3. Autism spectrum disorder with microdeletion 10q26 by subtelomere FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonk VS

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Vijay S Tonk1,2, Golder N Wilson11Department of Pediatrics, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX, USA; 2Departments of Pathology, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX, USAAbstract: An 11-year-old female with early feeding problems, mild motor delays, normal speech, subtle facial changes, social difficulties, anxiety and a diagnosis of Asperger disorder was found to have deletion of 10q26.3 by subtelomere fluorescent in situ hybridization (stF analysis. Our patient and others with 10q26 aneuploidy add this region to 11 other autism susceptibility loci qualified by converging genome linkage/association, high resolution chromosome, and mutation studies in our review. We summarize these loci and the current spectrum of terminal 10q deletion cases.Keywords: autism disorder, Asperger disorder, subtelomere FISH, microarray analysis, 10q26 deletion, gene changes in autism

  4. The social brain network and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Vivek

    2014-04-01

    Available research data in Autism suggests the role of a network of brain areas, often known as the 'social brain'. Recent studies highlight the role of genetic mutations as underlying patho-mechanism in Autism. This mini review, discusses the basic concepts behind social brain networks, theory of mind and genetic factors associated with Autism. It critically evaluates and explores the relationship between the behavioral outcomes and genetic factors providing a conceptual framework for understanding of autism.

  5. Music therapy: An effective approach in improving social skills of children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemtabar, Seyyed Nabiollah; Hosseini, Mahbubeh; Fayyaz, Irandokht; Arab, Saeid; Naghashian, Hamed; Poudineh, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    The existing methodological weakness in conducted researches concerning music therapy (MT) for children with autism led to ambiguity and confusion in this scope of studies. The aim of the present research is to identify the effectiveness of MT method in improving social skills of children with autism and its stability, as well. In the form of a clinical trial study with design of pretest/posttest/follow-up with control group, among the children with autism in community of Tehran city, on the basis of childhood autism rating scale, 27 children with mild to moderate autism were chosen and were divided into two groups of experiment (n = 13), and control (n = 14). Social skills' level of both groups was measured and recorded with the help of social skills rating system scale. The children of the experiment group participated in MT programs of Orff-Schulwerk for 45 days in 12 sessions (two sessions of 1-h/week), whereas the control group received no intervention. The data were analyzed with Statistic Package For Social Science (SPSS) software t-test and analysis of covariance was used to compare groups. In posttest, the results of covariance analysis showed a significant increase in social skills' scores of the experiment group (P social skills of children with autism.

  6. Polysubstance and Behavioral Addictions in a Patient with Bipolar Disorder: Role of Lifetime Subthreshold Autism Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Dell’Osso

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report draws attention to the potential relevance of undetected autism spectrum symptoms in a bipolar patient with high work functioning showing a peculiar addictive profile with impulsive and antisocial behaviors. A 23-year-old man with a diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder (BD and Substance Use Disorder (SUD was hospitalized at the Psychiatric Clinic of the University of Pisa for diuretics and β-2 adrenergic agonist abuse in a remission phase of benzodiazepines and substance abuse. He reported a history of behavioral addictions in the framework of a global high work functioning with particular skills in computer science. When assessed for adult autism spectrum symptoms, despite not fulfilling a DSM-5 diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD, he reported a score of 93/240 at the Ritvo Autism and Asperger Diagnostic Scale (RAADS-r and of 88/160 at the Adult Autism Subthreshold Spectrum (AdAS Spectrum, both indicative of ASD. We argue the possible role of adult subthreshold autism spectrum features, generally disregarded in adult psychiatry, in the peculiar addictive profile developed by this patient with BD that may deserve appropriate treatment.

  7. Autism and ADHD: Overlapping and Discriminating Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Mayes, Rebecca D.; Molitoris, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Children with ADHD and autism have some similar features, complicating a differential diagnosis. The purpose of our study was to determine the degree to which core ADHD and autistic symptoms overlap in and discriminate between children 2-16 years of age with autism and ADHD. Our study demonstrated that 847 children with autism were easily…

  8. Color Perception in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Anna; Sowden, Paul; Burley, Rachel; Notman, Leslie; Alder, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether color perception is atypical in children with autism. In experiment 1, accuracy of color memory and search was compared for children with autism and typically developing children matched on age and non-verbal cognitive ability. Children with autism were significantly less accurate at color memory and search than…

  9. Elderly with Autism: Executive Functions and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts, Hilde M.; Vissers, Marlies E.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive autism research is mainly focusing on children and young adults even though we know that autism is a life-long disorder and that healthy aging already has a strong impact on cognitive functioning. We compared the neuropsychological profile of 23 individuals with autism and 23 healthy controls (age range 51-83 years). Deficits were…

  10. Low Endogenous Neural Noise in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Greg; Plaisted-Grant, Kate

    2015-01-01

    "Heuristic" theories of autism postulate that a single mechanism or process underpins the diverse psychological features of autism spectrum disorder. Although no such theory can offer a comprehensive account, the parsimonious descriptions they provide are powerful catalysts to autism research. One recent proposal holds that…

  11. Test Review: Autism Spectrum Rating Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simek, Amber N.; Wahlberg, Andrea C.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews Autism Spectrum Rating Scales (ASRS) which are designed to measure behaviors in children between the ages of 2 and 18 that are associated with disorders on the autism spectrum as rated by parents/caregivers and/or teachers. The rating scales include items related to behaviors associated with Autism, Asperger's Disorder, and…

  12. Developing Undergraduate Coursework in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Tracy Loye; Dimitriou, Francine; Turko, Kristine; McPartland, James

    2014-01-01

    With rates of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) continuing to rise alongside improvements in early identification and treatment, service providers are in great demand. Providing undergraduate students with opportunities for education and applied experiences with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can help fill a valuable niche in the autism community.…

  13. Survey of Bilingualism in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay-Raining Bird, Elizabeth; Lamond, Erin; Holden, Jeanette

    2012-01-01

    This survey study investigates issues related to bilingualism and autism. Bilingualism is common around the world but there is little published information to guide professionals and parents in making decisions about bilingualism for children with autism. Participants were 49 parents or guardians of children with autism who were members of a…

  14. Some children with autism have latent social skills that can be tested

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrdlicka M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Michal Hrdlicka,1 Tomas Urbanek,2 Maria Vacova,1 Stepanka Beranova,1 Iva Dudova1 1Department of Child Psychiatry, Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Motol, Prague, 2Institute of Psychology, Academy of Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic Background: The idea of latent social skills in autism emerged as a possible interpretation of the rapid (but temporary improvement of autistic subjects in oxytocin studies. We tested a hypothesis that a normal response to Item No 59 “Secure Base” from the third version of the Autism Diagnostic Interview – Revised (ADIR-59 could indicate the presence of latent social skills in autism.Methods: We examined 110 autistic children (88 boys and 22 girls with a mean age of 6.0±2.5 years (range: 2.2–14.8 years using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS – Generic. A diagnosis of mental retardation was established in 68 autistic children (62%.Results: The difference in the ADOS social domain between children aged ≤5 years on one side and children older than 5 years on the other side was significant in subjects with normal responses to ADIR-59 (9.60 vs 6.47; P=0.031 but not in those with abnormal responses to ADIR-59 (10.62 vs 9.63; P=0.537. In a predictive model, lower ADOS social domain scores were predicted by older age (P=0.001, lower scores on the ADIR-59 (P=0.01, and the absence of mental retardation (P=0.049.Conclusion: The results support the hypothesis that the normal response to item ADIR-59 “Secure Base” indicates the presence of latent social skills in autism that might foretell further social growth in older autistic subjects. Keywords: autism, latent social skills, Autism Diagnostic Interview – Revised, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, prediction

  15. First Experience from the World Largest fully commercial Solar Heating Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred; Furbo, Simon

    1997-01-01

    The first experience from the largest solar heating plant in the world is given. The plant is situated in Marstal and is has a total area of 8000 square m.......The first experience from the largest solar heating plant in the world is given. The plant is situated in Marstal and is has a total area of 8000 square m....

  16. Revisiting the phylogeny of Ocellularieae, the second largest tribe within Graphidaceae (lichenized Ascomycota: Ostropales)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekaphan Kraichak; Sittiporn Parnmen; Robert Lücking; Eimy Rivas Plata; Andre Aptroot; Marcela E.S. Caceres; Damien Ertz; Armin Mangold; Joel A. Mercado-Diaz; Khwanruan Papong; Dries Van der Broeck; Gothamie Weerakoon; H. Thorsten. Lumbsch; NO-VALUE

    2014-01-01

    We present an updated 3-locus molecular phylogeny of tribe Ocellularieae, the second largest tribe within subfamily Graphidoideae in the Graphidaceae. Adding 165 newly generated sequences from the mitochondrial small subunit rDNA (mtSSU), the nuclear large subunit rDNA (nuLSU), and the second largest subunit of the DNA-directed RNA polymerase II (RPB2), we currently...

  17. Comment on Technology-Based Intervention Research for Individuals on the Autism Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleery, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this letter to the editor is to comment on several review papers recently published in the current "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, Special Issue on Technology: Software, Robotics, and Translational Science." These reviews address a variety of aspects relating to technology-aided intervention and instruction…

  18. [Autism spectrum syndrome replaces Asperger syndrome and autism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejerot, Susanne; Nordin, Viviann

    2014-09-23

    Autism spectrum disorder describes a behaviourally defined impairment in social interaction and communication, along with the presence of restricted interests and repetitive behaviours. Although the etiology is mostly unknown, it is evident that biological factors affect the brain and result in the autistic clinical presentation. Assessment for diagnosing autism spectrum disorder should be comprehensive in order to cover all sorts of problems related to the disorder. Knowledge and experience from working with neurological and psychiatric disorders are a prerequisite for quality in the examination. Up to now, there is no cure for autism spectrum disorder, but support and adaptations in education are nevertheless important for obtaining sufficient life quality for the patients and the family.

  19. Language Usage and Exposure by 5- to 6-Year-Old Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Families Living in the Imperial Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoso, N. Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    There is a great need for research on the topic of bilingualism of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), especially in the Hispanic/Latino community, which numerically comprises the largest growing minority group in the United States. Little is known about how young culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) children with ASD use their…

  20. Variable sensory perception in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Sarah M

    2018-03-01

    Autism is associated with sensory and cognitive abnormalities. Individuals with autism generally show normal or superior early sensory processing abilities compared to healthy controls, but deficits in complex sensory processing. In the current opinion paper, it will be argued that sensory abnormalities impact cognition by limiting the amount of signal that can be used to interpret and interact with environment. There is a growing body of literature showing that individuals with autism exhibit greater trial-to-trial variability in behavioural and cortical sensory responses. If multiple sensory signals that are highly variable are added together to process more complex sensory stimuli, then this might destabilise later perception and impair cognition. Methods to improve sensory processing have shown improvements in more general cognition. Studies that specifically investigate differences in sensory trial-to-trial variability in autism, and the potential changes in variability before and after treatment, could ascertain if trial-to-trial variability is a good mechanism to target for treatment in autism. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Functional neuroimaging and childhood autism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boddaert, Nathalie [Service de Radiologie Pediatrique, Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital, Paris (France); Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, DRM, DSV, CEA, Orsay (France); Zilbovicius, Monica [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, DRM, DSV, CEA, Orsay (France); INSERM, Tours [France

    2002-01-01

    Childhood autism is now widely viewed as being of developmental neurobiological origin. Yet, localised structural and functional brain correlates of autism have to be established. Structural brain-imaging studies performed in autistic patients have reported abnormalities such as increased total brain volume and cerebellar abnormalities. However, none of these abnormalities fully account for the full range of autistic symptoms. Functional brain imaging, such as positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and functional MRI (fMRI) have added a new perspective to the study of normal and pathological brain functions. In autism, functional studies have been performed at rest or during activation. However, first-generation functional imaging devices were not sensitive enough to detect any consistent dysfunction. Recently, with improved technology, two independent groups have reported bilateral hypoperfusion of the temporal lobes in autistic children. In addition, activation studies, using perceptive and cognitive paradigms, have shown an abnormal pattern of cortical activation in autistic patients. These results suggest that different connections between particular cortical regions could exist in autism. The purpose of this review is to present the main results of rest and activation studies performed in autism. (orig.)

  2. [Infantile autism and mirror neurons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelio-Nieto, J O

    2009-02-27

    Infantile autism is a disorder that is characterised by alterations affecting reciprocal social interactions, abnormal verbal and non-verbal communication, poor imaginative activity and a restricted repertoire of activities and interests. The causes of autism remain unknown, but there are a number of different approaches that attempt to explain the neurobiological causes of the syndrome. A recent theory that has been considered is that of a dysfunction in the mirror neuron system (MNS). The MNS is a neuronal complex, originally described in monkeys and also found in humans, that is related with our movements and which offers specific responses to the movements and intended movements of other subjects. This system is believed to underlie processes of imitation and our capacity to learn by imitation. It is also thought to play a role in language acquisition, in expressing the emotions, in understanding what is happening to others and in empathy. Because these functions are altered in children with autism, it has been suggested that there is some dysfunction present in the MNS of those with autism. Dysfunction of the MNS could account for the symptoms that are observed in children with autism.

  3. Quantifying social development in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkmar, F R; Carter, A; Sparrow, S S; Cicchetti, D V

    1993-05-01

    This study was concerned with the development of quantitative measures of social development in autism. Multiple regression equations predicting social, communicative, and daily living skills on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales were derived from a large, normative sample and applied to groups of autistic and nonautistic, developmentally disordered children. Predictive models included either mental or chronological age and other relevant variables. Social skills in the autistic group were more than two standard deviations below those predicted by their mental age; an index derived from the ratio of actual to predicted social skills correctly classified 94% of the autistic and 92% of the nonautistic, developmentally disordered cases. The findings are consistent with the idea that social disturbance is central in the definition of autism. The approach used in this study has potential advantages for providing more precise measures of social development in autism.

  4. Somatosensory evoked potentials in children with autism | Azouz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SSEPs) changesamong children with autism, and their relation to somatosensory manifestations and severity of autism. Subjects: Thirty children with autism aged 2–12 years were included in the study, all of them fulfilling criteria of the Diagnostic ...

  5. Clinical neurogenetics: autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sunil Q; Golshani, Peyman

    2013-11-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by deficits in social interactions, communication, and repetitive or restricted interests. There is strong evidence that de novo or inherited genetic alterations play a critical role in causing Autism Spectrum Disorders, but non-genetic causes, such as in utero infections, may also play a role. Magnetic resonance imaging based and autopsy studies indicate that early rapid increase in brain size during infancy could underlie the deficits in a large subset of subjects. Clinical studies show benefits for both behavioral and pharmacological treatment strategies. Genotype-specific treatments have the potential for improving outcome in the future. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza MOHAMMADI; Maryam SALMANIAN; Shahin AKHONDZADEH

    2011-01-01

    How to Cite this Article: Mohammadi MR, Salmanian M, Akhondzadeh Sh. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran. Iranian Journal of Child Neurology2011;5(4):1-9.ObjectiveAutistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, and PDD-Not Otherwise Specified are subsets of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), which are characterized by impairments in social communication and stereotyped behavior. This article reviews the prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of ASDs in Iran.Materials & MethodsWe searched PubMe...

  7. Biological Motion Perception in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Cusack

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Typically developing adults can readily recognize human actions, even when conveyed to them via point-like markers placed on the body of the actor (Johansson, 1973. Previous research has suggested that children affected by autism spectrum disorder (ASD are not equally sensitive to this type of visual information (Blake et al, 2003, but it remains unknown why ASD would impact the ability to perceive biological motion. We present evidence which looks at how adolescents and adults with autism are affected by specific factors which are important in biological motion perception, such as (eg, inter-agent synchronicity, upright/inverted, etc.

  8. BES Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biocca, Alan; Carlson, Rich; Chen, Jackie; Cotter, Steve; Tierney, Brian; Dattoria, Vince; Davenport, Jim; Gaenko, Alexander; Kent, Paul; Lamm, Monica; Miller, Stephen; Mundy, Chris; Ndousse, Thomas; Pederson, Mark; Perazzo, Amedeo; Popescu, Razvan; Rouson, Damian; Sekine, Yukiko; Sumpter, Bobby; Dart, Eli; Wang, Cai-Zhuang -Z; Whitelam, Steve; Zurawski, Jason

    2011-02-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivityfor the US Department of Energy Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office ofScience programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years.

  9. BES Science Network Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian; Biocca, A.; Carlson, R.; Chen, J.; Cotter, S.; Dattoria, V.; Davenport, J.; Gaenko, A.; Kent, P.; Lamm, M.; Miller, S.; Mundy, C.; Ndousse, T.; Pederson, M.; Perazzo, A.; Popescu, R.; Rouson, D.; Sekine, Y.; Sumpter, B.; Wang, C.-Z.; Whitelam, S.; Zurawski, J.

    2011-01-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years.

  10. What is this thing called autism? A critical analysis of the tenacious search for autism's essence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, Berend

    2012-01-01

    Currently, autism is a widespread and diverse neurodevelopmental disorder that includes both severely impaired and institutionalized patients and the fairly geeky but brilliant university professor. Despite its heterogeneity, autism is often presented as a distinct nosological entity with a unifying

  11. Autism counts. Stereological studies on human postmortem brains and a mouse model for autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kooten, I.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a strong genetic component and several known environmental risk factors. Classical neuropathology studies have reported consistent findings in the limbic system, cerebellum and cerebral cortex of patients with autism. However, the neurobiological

  12. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Being strong visual and auditory learners Excelling in math, science, music, or art Causes and Risk Factors ... in communication difficulties The evaluation may assess: Cognitive level or thinking skills Language abilities Age-appropriate skills ...

  13. Psychotherapy for Anxiety in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-30

    Autism Spectrum Disorders; Autism; Asperger's Syndrome; Pervasive Developmental Disability - Not Otherwise Specified; Obsessive-compulsive Disorder; Social Phobia; Generalized Anxiety Disorder; Specific Phobia; Separation Anxiety Disorder

  14. A marine heatwave drives massive losses from the world’s largest seagrass carbon stocks

    KAUST Repository

    Arias-Ortiz, Ariane; Serrano, Oscar; Masqué , Pere; Lavery, P. S.; Mueller, U.; Kendrick, G. A.; Rozaimi, M.; Esteban, A.; Fourqurean, J. W.; Marbà , N.; Mateo, M. A.; Murray, K.; Rule, M. J.; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2018-01-01

    Seagrass ecosystems contain globally significant organic carbon (C) stocks. However, climate change and increasing frequency of extreme events threaten their preservation. Shark Bay, Western Australia, has the largest C stock reported for a seagrass

  15. New Chicago-Indiana computer network will handle dataflow from world's largest scientific experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "Massive quantities of data will soon begin flowing from the largest scientific instrument ever built into an international netword of computer centers, including one operated jointly by the University of Chicago and Indiana University." (1,5 page)

  16. Lagisza, world's largest CFB boiler, begins commercial operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuortimo, K. [Foster Wheeler, Varkaus (Finland)

    2010-04-15

    Early operating experience with the Lagisza circulating fluidised bed (CFB) boiler in Poland - the world's largest such boiler to date, and also the first one with supercritical steam conditions - has been positive. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Analytic approximation to the largest eigenvalue distribution of a white Wishart matrix

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vlok, JD

    2012-08-14

    Full Text Available offers largely simplified computation and provides statistics such as the mean value and region of support of the largest eigenvalue distribution. Numeric results from the literature are compared with the approximation and Monte Carlo simulation results...

  18. Gender dysphoria and autism spectrum disorder: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Miesen, Anna I R; Hurley, Hannah; De Vries, Annelou L C

    2016-01-01

    The current literature shows growing evidence of a link between gender dysphoria (GD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study reviews the available clinical and empirical data. A systematic search of the literature was conducted using the following databases: PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO and Scopus; utilizing different combinations of the following search terms: autism, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), Asperger's disorder (AD), co-morbidity, gender dysphoria (GD), gender identity disorder (GID), transgenderism and transsexualism. In total, 25 articles and reports were selected and discussed. Information was grouped by found co-occurrence rates, underlying hypotheses and implications for diagnosis and treatment. GD and ASD were found to co-occur frequently - sometimes characterized by atypical presentation of GD, which makes a correct diagnosis and determination of treatment options for GD difficult. Despite these challenges there are several case reports describing gender affirming treatment of co-occurring GD in adolescents and adults with ASD. Various underlying hypotheses for the link between GD and ASD were suggested, but almost all of them lack evidence.

  19. Robot Enhanced Therapy for Children with Autism (DREAM): A Social Model of Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Kathleen; Coecklebergh, M; Wakunuma, Kutoma; Billing, Erik; Ziemke, Tom; Gomez, P; Vanderborght, Bram; Belpaeme, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Development of Robot-enhanced Therapy for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders The development of social robots for children with autism has been a growth field in the last 15 years. This paper reviews studies in robots and autism as a neurodevelopmental disorder that impacts on social-communication development and the way in which social robots could help children with autism develop social skills. Drawing on the ethics research from the EU funded DREAM project (framework 7), based on ...

  20. A Phenomenological Account of Sensorimotor Difficulties in Autism: Intentionality, Movement, and Proprioception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohmann, Till D A

    2017-01-01

    During the last decades, the focus in autism research has been progressively extended. Today it offers a large amount of material on sensorimotor disturbances as well as perceptive-cognitive preferences of people with autism. However, there are more and more critical voices against an intellectualist perspective in the cognitive sciences. The "enactive approach" as well as a new "movement perspective" to autism challenge the view of autism as a mere "cognitive" disturbance. They criticize the conception of a cognizing subject which is only interested in the world in as much as she/he can extract knowledge and organize it rationally. The present paper discusses fundamental insights from this critical sensorimotor perspective to autism from a phenomenological standpoint. Several important papers have already proven the fruitful combination of phenomenology with sensorimotor-focused research in the field of autism. However, these writings generally concentrate on problems of embodied intersubjectivity as an alternative approach to leading "theory of mind" paradigms. The present article reflects on the role and dimension of sensorimotor problems in themselves and not primarily in the intersubjective encounter. The notion of body intentionality will turn out to be a central heuristic device in order to understand the subject's relationship to the world within a holistic framework, in which the person's way to move, feel, and perceive are manners of understanding his/her own world. Empirical findings on difficulties in proactive and anticipatory control of movement as well as research outcome on proprioception and kinesthetic feedback will provide suitable material for discussing the transformation of body intentionality in autism. Phenomenology will provide the theoretical foundation in order to understand atypical movement patterns as alternative ways for producing alternative meanings. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Evaluating Parental Autism Disclosure Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Jillian E.; Galijot, Ratka; Davies, W. Hobart

    2018-01-01

    The relative effects of different autism disclosure methods on the perceptions of a mother-child dyad were investigated. Using three conditions, disclosure card, disclosure bracelet, and no disclosure, U.S. community parents (N = 383) were asked 18 questions about their perceptions of the dyad. An ANOVA revealed significant protection from stigma…

  2. Neurochemical aspects of childhood autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B. Minderaa (Ruud)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractThe topic of this thesis is neurochemical aspects of infantile autism. The experimental work is centered around the most robust and consistant neurochemical finding in child psychiatry, namely that group mean whole blood serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) values are

  3. Relative Carnitine Deficiency in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipek, Pauline A.; Juranek, Jenifer; Nguyen, Minh T.; Cummings, Christa; Gargus, J. Jay

    2004-01-01

    A random retrospective chart review was conducted to document serum carnitine levels on 100 children with autism. Concurrently drawn serum pyruvate, lactate, ammonia, and alanine levels were also available in many of these children. Values of free and total carnitine ([rho] less than 0.001), and pyruvate ([rho]=0.006) were significantly reduced…

  4. Autism: Tactile Perception and Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernon, E.; Pry, R.; Baghdadli, A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: For many years, and especially since Waynbaum and Wallon, psychology and psychopathology have dealt with cognitive perception, but have had little to do with the affective qualities of perception. Our aim was to study the influence of the sensory environment on people with autism. Method: Several experiments were carried out using…

  5. Neurofeedback in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtmann, Martin; Steiner, Sabina; Hohmann, Sarah; Poustka, Luise; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bolte, Sven

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To review current studies on the effectiveness of neurofeedback as a method of treatment of the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Method: Studies were selected based on searches in PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, and CINAHL using combinations of the following keywords: "Neurofeedback" OR "EEG Biofeedback" OR "Neurotherapy"…

  6. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Epigenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafodatskaya, Daria; Chung, Brian; Szatmari, Peter; Weksberg, Rosanna

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Current research suggests that the causes of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are multifactorial and include both genetic and environmental factors. Several lines of evidence suggest that epigenetics also plays an important role in ASD etiology and that it might, in fact, integrate genetic and environmental influences to dysregulate…

  7. Mercury and Autism: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Wheeler, John J.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of autism has increased approximately four times in children in nearly one decade (California Health and Human Services Agency, 2003). It has been reported that explanations such as immigration, shifts in the interpretation of diagnostic criteria, improved identification, or diagnostic accuracies cannot explain the observed increase…

  8. Autism and Phthalate Metabolite Glucuronidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, T. Peter; Schluter, Margaret D.; Steer, Robert A.; Ming, Xue

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to environmental chemicals may precipitate autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in genetically susceptible children. Differences in the efficiency of the glucuronidation process may substantially modulate substrate concentrations and effects. To determine whether the efficiency of this pathway is compromised in children with ASD, we measured…

  9. Beyond the Spectrum: Rethinking Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The "spectrum" has become the dominant metaphor for conceptualizing autism, with fundamental consequences for notions of disability, diversity, and normality. In this article, we draw on ethnographic research with autistic communities to explore how the notion of the autism spectrum has become a focus of explicit identification, reflection, and contestation. To further this inquiry, we place these debates into conversation with earlier debates regarding another spectrum—the Kinsey Scale, a "spectrum" for conceptualizing sexual orientation that first appeared in 1948 but has been critiqued since the 1970s. How might responses to the Kinsey Scale (like the Klein Grid contribute to rethinking the autism spectrum? This is a question about the cultural and political implications of metaphors and conceptual models. It is of broad importance because the spectrum metaphor is being extended to a range of conditions beyond autism itself. Our goal is thus to build on insights from sexuality studies as well as the insights of autistic persons, advocates, and researchers who wish to forestall the naturalization of "the spectrum." In doing so, we seek to contribute to a discussion of what alternative frameworks might bring to questions of social justice, ability, and human flourishing.

  10. Expression of the Broad Autism Phenotype in Simplex Autism Families from the Simons Simplex Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Julie; Goin-Kochel, Robin P.; Green-Snyder, Lee Anne; Hundley, Rachel J.; Warren, Zachary; Peters, Sarika U.

    2014-01-01

    The broad autism phenotype (BAP) refers to the phenotypic expression of an underlying genetic liability to autism, manifest in non-autistic relatives. This study examined the relationship among the "Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire" (BAPQ), "Social Responsiveness Scale: Adult Research Version" (SRS:ARV), and "Family…

  11. Which Terms Should Be Used to Describe Autism? Perspectives from the UK Autism Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Lorcan; Hattersley, Caroline; Molins, Bonnie; Buckley, Carole; Povey, Carol; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Recent public discussions suggest that there is much disagreement about the way autism is and should be described. This study sought to elicit the views and preferences of UK autism community members--autistic people, parents and their broader support network--about the terms they use to describe autism. In all, 3470 UK residents responded to an…

  12. The Association between Epilepsy and Autism Symptoms and Maladaptive Behaviors in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscidi, Emma W.; Johnson, Ashley L.; Spence, Sarah J.; Buka, Stephen L.; Morrow, Eric M.; Triche, Elizabeth W.

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) but little is known about how seizures impact the autism phenotype. The association between epilepsy and autism symptoms and associated maladaptive behaviors was examined in 2,645 children with ASD, of whom 139 had epilepsy, from the Simons Simplex Collection. Children with ASD and…

  13. Subclinical autism spectrum symptoms in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arildskov, Trine Wigh; Højgaard, David R M A; Skarphedinsson, Gudmundur; Thomsen, Per Hove; Ivarsson, Tord; Weidle, Bernhard; Melin, Karin Holmgren; Hybel, Katja A

    2016-07-01

    The literature on subclinical autism spectrum (ASD) symptoms in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is scarce, and it remains unclear whether ASD symptoms are related to OCD severity. The aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of ASD symptoms and age and sex differences in children and adolescents with OCD, and to explore the relation between ASD symptoms and OCD severity. This is the largest study of ASD symptoms in an OCD population to date, and the first directly aimed at elucidating sex and age differences in this matter. The study used baseline data from the Nordic Long-term OCD Treatment Study in which parents of 257 children and adolescents with OCD aged 7-17 completed the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire. OCD severity was assessed with the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. Pediatric OCD patients were found to exhibit elevated rates of ASD symptoms compared to a norm group of school-age children. ASD symptoms were concentrated in a subgroup with a prevalence of 10-17 %. This subgroup was characterized by a male preponderance with a sex ratio of approximately 2.6:1, while children versus adolescents with OCD exhibited similar rates. Autism-specific social and communication difficulties were not related to OCD severity, while restricted repetitive behavior was positively related to OCD severity. The results indicate that clinicians need to be aware of ASD symptoms in children and adolescents with OCD since one out of ten exhibits such symptoms at a clinical sub-threshold.

  14. Astronomers Break Ground on Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) - World's Largest Millimeter Wavelength Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    Scientists and dignitaries from Europe, North America and Chile are breaking ground today (Thursday, November 6, 2003) on what will be the world's largest, most sensitive radio telescope operating at millimeter wavelengths . ALMA - the "Atacama Large Millimeter Array" - will be a single instrument composed of 64 high-precision antennas located in the II Region of Chile, in the District of San Pedro de Atacama, at the Chajnantor altiplano, 5,000 metres above sea level. ALMA 's primary function will be to observe and image with unprecedented clarity the enigmatic cold regions of the Universe, which are optically dark, yet shine brightly in the millimetre portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is an international astronomy facility. ALMA is an equal partnership between Europe and North America, in cooperation with the Republic of Chile, and is funded in North America by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC), and in Europe by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and Spain. ALMA construction and operations are led on behalf of North America by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), which is managed by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), and on behalf of Europe by ESO. " ALMA will be a giant leap forward for our studies of this relatively little explored spectral window towards the Universe" , said Dr. Catherine Cesarsky , Director General of ESO. "With ESO leading the European part of this ambitious and forward-looking project, the impact of ALMA will be felt in wide circles on our continent. Together with our partners in North America and Chile, we are all looking forward to the truly outstanding opportunities that will be offered by ALMA , also to young scientists and engineers" . " The U.S. National Science Foundation joins today with our North American partner, Canada, and with the European Southern Observatory, Spain, and Chile to prepare

  15. National Database for Autism Research (NDAR): Big Data Opportunities for Health Services Research and Health Technology Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payakachat, Nalin; Tilford, J Mick; Ungar, Wendy J

    2016-02-01

    The National Database for Autism Research (NDAR) is a US National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded research data repository created by integrating heterogeneous datasets through data sharing agreements between autism researchers and the NIH. To date, NDAR is considered the largest neuroscience and genomic data repository for autism research. In addition to biomedical data, NDAR contains a large collection of clinical and behavioral assessments and health outcomes from novel interventions. Importantly, NDAR has a global unique patient identifier that can be linked to aggregated individual-level data for hypothesis generation and testing, and for replicating research findings. As such, NDAR promotes collaboration and maximizes public investment in the original data collection. As screening and diagnostic technologies as well as interventions for children with autism are expensive, health services research (HSR) and health technology assessment (HTA) are needed to generate more evidence to facilitate implementation when warranted. This article describes NDAR and explains its value to health services researchers and decision scientists interested in autism and other mental health conditions. We provide a description of the scope and structure of NDAR and illustrate how data are likely to grow over time and become available for HSR and HTA.

  16. Why hasn't studying perception in autism spectrum disorders helped us create a cognitive model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlam, Jonathan

    2015-09-01

    There are a number of cognitive models of autism that aim to explain how mental processes are handled differently in the condition. These models make claims about the nature of cognitive function in people with autism, and suggest that these differences applied in social contexts lead to the characteristic behavioural patterns. However, it is difficult to study these cognitive differences directly because of the complexity of social situations. Studies of perceptual function are tempting as an alternative way to study cognition because it is far easier to control the conditions and the stimuli that participants are exposed to. This makes hypothesis generation and interpretation of results more objective and more convincing. However, the study of perception in autism hasn't been very productive in contributing towards a model of cognition in autism. In many areas there are studies reporting contradictory results, preventing arrival at a consensus about the largest unresolved issues in the area. These studies tend to be repeated multiple times, but continue to provide contradictory evidence that doesn't allow us to place confidence in any of the cognitive models. An approach to these issues is proposed, focusing on critical analysis of contradictory studies rather than the endless process of repetition. This allows previous studies to be interpreted more objectively and resolve conflicts, and guides the design of future studies in ways that avoid the pitfalls that have been identified. Both of these outcomes result in more productive work being done. The first example is in the study of motion perception in autism, where the use of non-identical stimuli has been problematic. On closer critical analysis, a fundamental aspect of the motion stimuli demonstrates that the contradictions might be expected based on the differences in stimuli used. Addressing this issue can move the field towards resolution. A second example is in the study of spatial frequency sensitivity

  17. White Matter Glial Pathology in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0302 TITLE: White Matter Glial Pathology in Autism PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Gregory A. Ordway, Ph.D. CONTRACTING...Pathology in Autism 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0302 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Gregory A. Ordway, Ph.D...Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Methods used to directly study the autism brain include brain

  18. The Multivariate Largest Lyapunov Exponent as an Age-Related Metric of Quiet Standing Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The largest Lyapunov exponent has been researched as a metric of the balance ability during human quiet standing. However, the sensitivity and accuracy of this measurement method are not good enough for clinical use. The present research proposes a metric of the human body’s standing balance ability based on the multivariate largest Lyapunov exponent which can quantify the human standing balance. The dynamic multivariate time series of ankle, knee, and hip were measured by multiple electrical goniometers. Thirty-six normal people of different ages participated in the test. With acquired data, the multivariate largest Lyapunov exponent was calculated. Finally, the results of the proposed approach were analysed and compared with the traditional method, for which the largest Lyapunov exponent and power spectral density from the centre of pressure were also calculated. The following conclusions can be obtained. The multivariate largest Lyapunov exponent has a higher degree of differentiation in differentiating balance in eyes-closed conditions. The MLLE value reflects the overall coordination between multisegment movements. Individuals of different ages can be distinguished by their MLLE values. The standing stability of human is reduced with the increment of age.

  19. Identifying the node spreading influence with largest k-core values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jian-Hong; Guo, Qiang; Dong, Wen-Zhao; Tang, Li-Ying; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2014-01-01

    Identifying the nodes with largest spreading influence of complex networks is one of the most promising domains. By taking into account the neighbors' k-core values, we present an improved neighbors' k-core (INK) method which is the sum of the neighbors' k-core values with a tunable parameter α to evaluate the node spreading influence with largest k-core values. Comparing with the Susceptible–Infected–Recovered (SIR) results for four real networks, the INK method could identify the node spreading influence with largest k-core values more accurately than the ones generated by the degree k, closeness C, betweenness B and coreness centrality method. - Highlights: • We present an improved neighbors' k-core (INK) method to evaluate the node spreading influence with largest k-core values. • The INK method could identify the node spreading influence with largest k-core values more accurately. • Kendall's tau τ of INK method with α=1 are highly identical to rank the node influence

  20. Which terms should be used to describe autism? Perspectives from the UK autism community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Lorcan; Hattersley, Caroline; Molins, Bonnie; Buckley, Carole; Povey, Carol; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Recent public discussions suggest that there is much disagreement about the way autism is and should be described. This study sought to elicit the views and preferences of UK autism community members - autistic people, parents and their broader support network - about the terms they use to describe autism. In all, 3470 UK residents responded to an online survey on their preferred ways of describing autism and their rationale for such preferences. The results clearly show that people use many terms to describe autism. The most highly endorsed terms were 'autism' and 'on the autism spectrum', and to a lesser extent, 'autism spectrum disorder', for which there was consensus across community groups. The groups disagreed, however, on the use of several terms. The term 'autistic' was endorsed by a large percentage of autistic adults, family members/friends and parents but by considerably fewer professionals; 'person with autism' was endorsed by almost half of professionals but by fewer autistic adults and parents. Qualitative analysis of an open-ended question revealed the reasons underlying respondents' preferences. These findings demonstrate that there is no single way of describing autism that is universally accepted and preferred by the UK's autism community and that some disagreements appear deeply entrenched. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. [Autism spectrum disorder and suicidality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, G; Contejean, Y; Doyen, C

    2015-09-01

    Most studies on suicide exclude subjects with autism spectrum disorders, yet there is a risk group. The purpose of this article is to present the data in the literature regarding the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of suicidality in subjects with autism spectrum disorders and to identify the factors that promote the transition to action. This review was carried out using the data set collected in Medline PubMed, items with "autism spectrum disorder", "pervasive developmental disorder", "Asperger's syndrome", "suicide", "suicide attempt", and "suicide behavior". In all subjects from our research on PubMed, 21.3% of subjects with autism spectrum disorder reported suicidal ideation, have attempted suicide or died by suicide (115 out of 539 subjects) and 7.7% of subjects supported for suicidal thoughts or attempted suicide exhibited an autism spectrum disorder (62 out of 806 subjects), all ages combined. Suicidal ideation and morbid preoccupation are particularly common in adolescents and young adults. Suicide attempts are accompanied by a willingness for death and can lead to suicide. They are more common in high-functioning autism and Asperger subjects. The methods used are often violent and potentially lethal or fatal in two cases published. Suicide risk depends on many factors that highlight the vulnerability of these subjects, following autistic and developmental symptoms. Vulnerability complicating the diagnosis of comorbid depressive and anxiety disorders are major factors associated with suicidality. Vulnerability but also directly related to suicidality, since the origin of physical and sexual abuse and victimization by peers assigning them the role of "scapegoat" are both responsible for acting out. Given the diversity of factors involved in the risk of suicide in this population, this does not validate "a" program of intervention, but the intervention of "customized programs". Their implementation should be as early as possible in order to treat

  2. Social Thinking®: Science, Pseudoscience, or Antiscience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Justin B; Kassardjian, Alyne; Oppenheim-Leaf, Misty L; Cihon, Joseph H; Taubman, Mitchell; Leaf, Ronald; McEachin, John

    2016-06-01

    Today, there are several interventions that can be implemented with individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Most of these interventions have limited to no empirical evidence demonstrating their effectiveness, yet they are widely implemented in home, school, university, and community settings. In 1996, Green wrote a chapter in which she outlined three levels of science: evidence science, pseudoscience, and antiscience; professionals were encouraged to implement and recommend only those procedures that would be considered evidence science. Today, an intervention that is commonly implemented with individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder is Social Thinking®. This intervention has been utilized by behaviorists and non-behaviorists. This commentary will outline Social Thinking® and provide evidence that the procedure, at the current time, qualifies as a pseudoscience and, therefore, should not be implemented with individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, especially given the availability of alternatives which clearly meet the standard of evidence science.

  3. Subtypes of autism by cluster analysis based on structural MRI data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrdlicka, Michal; Dudova, Iva; Beranova, Irena; Lisy, Jiri; Belsan, Tomas; Neuwirth, Jiri; Komarek, Vladimir; Faladova, Ludvika; Havlovicova, Marketa; Sedlacek, Zdenek; Blatny, Marek; Urbanek, Tomas

    2005-05-01

    The aim of our study was to subcategorize Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) using a multidisciplinary approach. Sixty four autistic patients (mean age 9.4+/-5.6 years) were entered into a cluster analysis. The clustering analysis was based on MRI data. The clusters obtained did not differ significantly in the overall severity of autistic symptomatology as measured by the total score on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). The clusters could be characterized as showing significant differences: Cluster 1: showed the largest sizes of the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum (CC), the lowest pregnancy order and the lowest frequency of facial dysmorphic features. Cluster 2: showed the largest sizes of the amygdala and hippocampus (HPC), the least abnormal visual response on the CARS, the lowest frequency of epilepsy and the least frequent abnormal psychomotor development during the first year of life. Cluster 3: showed the largest sizes of the caput of the nucleus caudatus (NC), the smallest sizes of the HPC and facial dysmorphic features were always present. Cluster 4: showed the smallest sizes of the genu and splenium of the CC, as well as the amygdala, and caput of the NC, the most abnormal visual response on the CARS, the highest frequency of epilepsy, the highest pregnancy order, abnormal psychomotor development during the first year of life was always present and facial dysmorphic features were always present. This multidisciplinary approach seems to be a promising method for subtyping autism.

  4. 76 FR 19265 - World Autism Awareness Day, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... America A Proclamation With autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) affecting nearly one percent of children in... autism spectrum and provide necessary resources for their families, we must also remember that young... about autism and what they can do to support individuals on the autism spectrum and their families...

  5. Awareness of autism amongst primary school teachers in Yenagoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Autism is a chronic neuro-developmental disorder and teachers of pupils with autism require a basic understanding of the disorder. Objective: To determine the awareness of autism amongst primary school teachers and to find out pupils with symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Primary schools ...

  6. Children with Autism: Sleep Problems and Symptom Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, Megan E.; Hoffman, Charles D.; Sweeney, Dwight P.

    2012-01-01

    Relationships between the specific sleep problems and specific behavioral problems of children with autism were evaluated. Mothers' reports of sleep habits and autism symptoms were collected for 109 children with autism. Unlike previous research in this area, only children diagnosed with autism without any commonly comorbid diagnoses (e.g.,…

  7. Experiences of Autism Acceptance and Mental Health in Autistic Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cage, Eilidh; Di Monaco, Jessica; Newell, Victoria

    2018-01-01

    Mental health difficulties are highly prevalent in individuals on the autism spectrum. The current study examined how experiences and perceptions of autism acceptance could impact on the mental health of autistic adults. 111 adults on the autism spectrum completed an online survey examining their experiences of autism acceptance, along with…

  8. Equivalence of Symptom Dimensions in Females and Males with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Thomas W.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated equivalence of autism symptom domains in males and females with autism. Symptom data were obtained from 2643 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (352 females, 2291 males; age range = 4-17 years) included in the Simons Simplex Collection. Items from the Social Responsiveness Scale and Autism Diagnostic…

  9. Comparison of Scores on the Checklist for Autism Spectrum Disorder, Childhood Autism Rating Scale, and Gilliam Asperger's Disorder Scale for Children with Low Functioning Autism, High Functioning Autism, Asperger's Disorder, ADHD, and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Murray, Michael J.; Morrow, Jill D.; Yurich, Kirsten K. L.; Mahr, Fauzia; Cothren, Shiyoko; Purichia, Heather; Bouder, James N.; Petersen, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Reliability and validity for three autism instruments were compared for 190 children with low functioning autism (LFA), 190 children with high functioning autism or Asperger's disorder (HFA), 76 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and 64 typical children. The instruments were the Checklist for Autism Spectrum Disorder…

  10. Breast cancer and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliff, Lisa

    2013-03-01

    Case Study Amy is a 44-year-old woman with severe autism. She lives with her sister Susan, who is her caregiver and guardian. Amy is ambulatory and able to dress and feed herself. She is a healthy individual with no other significant comorbidities. She walks daily and enjoys her sister's company. Amy's life expectancy is greater than 10 years. However, she is difficult to care for medically, as she will not allow a physical examination and strikes out when strangers try to touch her. She is nonverbal and unable to participate in decision-making. INITIAL DIAGNOSIS Amy has a history of breast cancer diagnosed 2 years ago, originally presenting as a stage I lesion (T2N0) that was palpated by her caregiver while bathing. She underwent right simple mastectomy with sentinel lymph node resection. Susan recalls that the mastectomy was a very challenging ordeal, as Amy kept pulling out IV lines, drains, and dressings. Susan felt that Amy withdrew from her after the procedure as she most likely associated Susan with the cause of the pain, making her role as caregiver more difficult. Pathology confirmed an invasive ductal carcinoma, moderately differentiated, 2.4 cm, estrogen/progesterone receptor negative, HER2/neu negative, with negative surgical margins. Two right axillary sentinel lymph nodes were negative for disease. The standard of care for a patient with these tumor features is surgery plus adjuvant chemotherapy (National Comprehensive Cancer Network [NCCN], 2012). According to the Adjuvant Online! database (2012), Amy's risk for relapse was approximately 40% without adjuvant treatment; her risk for mortality was approximately 29%. After meeting with a medical oncologist, Amy did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. According to Susan, she was not offered the choice, and the decision was not explained to them. She was simply told that it was not necessary. Aside from pathology, previous records were unavailable for review. Medical assessment of Amy's level of autism

  11. Customized overhead cranes for installation of India's largest 3.6m optical telescope at Devasthal, Nainital, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangia, Tarun; Yadava, Shobhit; Kumar, Brijesh; Ghanti, A. S.; Hardikar, P. M.

    2016-07-01

    India's largest 3.6 m aperture optical telescope facility has been recently established at Devasthal site by Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observation Sciences (ARIES), an autonomous Institute under Department of Science and Technology, Government of India. The telescope is equipped with active optics and it is designed to be used for seeinglimited observations at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. A steel building with rotating cylindrical steel Dome was erected to house 3.6m telescope and its accessories at hilltop of Devasthal site. Customized cranes were essentially required inside the building as there were space constraints around the telescope building for operating big external heavy duty cranes from outside, transportation constraints in route for bringing heavy weight cranes, altitude of observatory, and sharp bends etc. to site. To meet the challenge of telescope installation from inside the telescope building by lifting components through its hatch, two Single Girder cranes and two Under Slung cranes of 10 MT capacity each were specifically designed and developed. All the four overhead cranes were custom built to achieve the goal of handling telescope mirror and its various components during installation and assembly. Overhead cranes were installed in limited available space inside the building and tested as per IS 3177. Cranes were equipped with many features like VVVFD compatibility, provision for tandem operation, digital load display, anti-collision mechanism, electrical interlocks, radio remote, low hook height and compact carriage etc. for telescope integration at site.

  12. Discovery of the Largest Orbweaving Spider Species: The Evolution of Gigantism in Nephila

    OpenAIRE

    Kuntner, Matja?; Coddington, Jonathan A.

    2009-01-01

    Background More than 41,000 spider species are known with about 400?500 added each year, but for some well-known groups, such as the giant golden orbweavers, Nephila, the last valid described species dates from the 19th century. Nephila are renowned for being the largest web-spinning spiders, making the largest orb webs, and are model organisms for the study of extreme sexual size dimorphism (SSD) and sexual biology. Here, we report on the discovery of a new, giant Nephila species from Africa...

  13. Symptoms of Autism Among Children with Congenital Deafblindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammeyer, Jesper Herup

    2014-01-01

    concerning individuals with congenital deafblindness. This study examines symptoms of autism among 71 children with congenital deafblindness using the Autism Behavior Checklist. The cohort of children with congenital deafblindness was found to have symptoms of autism on a level similar to children......Associations between congenital deafness or blindness and autism have been found. The main consequences of congenital sensory impairment, being barriers for communication, language and social interaction development, may lead to symptoms of autism. To date only few studies have been reported...... with another developmental disorder than autism for example intellectual disability. No association was found between severity of congenital sensory impairment and severity or type of symptoms of autism....

  14. Imitation, mirror neurons and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J H; Whiten, A; Suddendorf, T; Perrett, D I

    2001-06-01

    Various deficits in the cognitive functioning of people with autism have been documented in recent years but these provide only partial explanations for the condition. We focus instead on an imitative disturbance involving difficulties both in copying actions and in inhibiting more stereotyped mimicking, such as echolalia. A candidate for the neural basis of this disturbance may be found in a recently discovered class of neurons in frontal cortex, 'mirror neurons' (MNs). These neurons show activity in relation both to specific actions performed by self and matching actions performed by others, providing a potential bridge between minds. MN systems exist in primates without imitative and 'theory of mind' abilities and we suggest that in order for them to have become utilized to perform social cognitive functions, sophisticated cortical neuronal systems have evolved in which MNs function as key elements. Early developmental failures of MN systems are likely to result in a consequent cascade of developmental impairments characterised by the clinical syndrome of autism.

  15. Sex differences in the reciprocal behaviour of children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer van Ommeren, Tineke; Koot, Hans M; Scheeren, Anke M; Begeer, Sander

    2017-08-01

    Differences in the social limitations of girls compared to boys on the autism spectrum are still poorly understood. Impaired social-emotional reciprocity is a core diagnostic criterion for an autism spectrum disorder. This study compares sex differences in reciprocal behaviour in children with autism spectrum disorder (32 girls, 114 boys) and in typically developing children (24 girls, 55 boys). While children with autism spectrum disorder showed clear limitations in reciprocal behaviour compared to typically developing children, sex differences were found only in the autism spectrum disorder group: girls with autism spectrum disorder had higher reciprocity scores than boys with autism spectrum disorder. However, compared to typically developing girls, girls with autism spectrum disorder showed subtle differences in reciprocal behaviour. The sex-specific response patterns in autism spectrum disorder can inform and improve the diagnostic assessment of autism in females.

  16. The autism-spectrum quotient (AQ): evidence from Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism, males and females, scientists and mathematicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron-Cohen, S; Wheelwright, S; Skinner, R; Martin, J; Clubley, E

    2001-02-01

    Currently there are no brief, self-administered instruments for measuring the degree to which an adult with normal intelligence has the traits associated with the autistic spectrum. In this paper, we report on a new instrument to assess this: the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Individuals score in the range 0-50. Four groups of subjects were assessed: Group 1: 58 adults with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA); Group 2: 174 randomly selected controls. Group 3: 840 students in Cambridge University; and Group 4: 16 winners of the UK Mathematics Olympiad. The adults with AS/HFA had a mean AQ score of 35.8 (SD = 6.5), significantly higher than Group 2 controls (M = 16.4, SD = 6.3). 80% of the adults with AS/HFA scored 32+, versus 2% of controls. Among the controls, men scored slightly but significantly higher than women. No women scored extremely highly (AQ score 34+) whereas 4% of men did so. Twice as many men (40%) as women (21%) scored at intermediate levels (AQ score 20+). Among the AS/HFA group, male and female scores did not differ significantly. The students in Cambridge University did not differ from the randomly selected control group, but scientists (including mathematicians) scored significantly higher than both humanities and social sciences students, confirming an earlier study that autistic conditions are associated with scientific skills. Within the sciences, mathematicians scored highest. This was replicated in Group 4, the Mathematics Olympiad winners scoring significantly higher than the male Cambridge humanities students. 6% of the student sample scored 32+ on the AQ. On interview, 11 out of 11 of these met three or more DSM-IV criteria for AS/HFA, and all were studying sciences/mathematics, and 7 of the 11 met threshold on these criteria. Test-retest and interrater reliability of the AQ was good. The AQ is thus a valuable instrument for rapidly quantifying where any given individual is situated on the continuum from autism to

  17. Relationship between the Broad Autism Phenotype, Social Relationships and Mental Health for Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Megan M.; Rhoden, Madeline; Ekas, Naomi V.

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the mechanisms responsible for the association between the broad autism phenotype and depressive symptoms in mothers of a child with autism spectrum disorder. A total of 98 mothers who had a child with autism spectrum disorder between the ages of 2 and 16 years completed assessments of maternal broad autism phenotype,…

  18. The Diagnosis of Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorder in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Experience from Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Dickerson, Aisha S.; Loveland, Katherine A.; Hessabi, Manouchehr; Pearson, Deborah A.; Bressler, Jan; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L.; Coore-Desai, Charlene; Reece, Jody; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2017-01-01

    The administration requirements of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, widely used in high-income countries, make them less feasible for diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder in low- and middle-income countries. The flexible administration requirements of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale have…

  19. Imitation, mirror neurons and autism

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Justin H.G.; Whiten, Andrew; Suddendorf, Thomas; Perrett, David I.

    2001-01-01

    Various deficits in the cognitive functioning of people with autism have been documented in recent years but these provide only partial explanations for the condition. We focus instead on an imitative disturbance involving difficulties both in copying actions and in inhibiting more stereotyped mimicking, such as echolalia. A candidate for the neural basis of this disturbance may be found in a recently discovered class of neurons in frontal cortex, 'mirror neurons' (MNs). These neurons show ac...

  20. Autism in 2016: the need for answers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annio Posar

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: Future research should investigate whether there is a significant difference in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among nations with high and low levels of the various types of pollution. A very important goal of the research concerning the interactions between genetic and environmental factors in autism spectrum disorder etiopathogenesis is the identification of vulnerable populations, also in view of proper prevention.

  1. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Implications for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echaniz, Crystal; Cronin, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), possible causes of ASD, current demographic information, the effects on the individual with ASD and the family, as well as diversity and multicultural issues related to autism. Additionally, the paper provides pertinent information about students with ASD for both general…

  2. Beyond Pragmatics: Morphosyntactic Development in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Bennetto, Loisa; Dadlani, Mamta B.

    2007-01-01

    Language acquisition research in autism has traditionally focused on high-level pragmatic deficits. Few studies have examined grammatical abilities in autism, with mixed findings. The present study addresses this gap in the literature by providing a detailed investigation of syntactic and higher-level discourse abilities in verbal children with…

  3. Unusual Fears in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Aggarwal, Richa; Baker, Courtney; Mathapati, Santosh; Molitoris, Sarah; Mayes, Rebecca D.

    2013-01-01

    Unusual fears have long been recognized as common in autism, but little research exists. In our sample of 1033 children with autism, unusual fears were reported by parents of 421 (41%) of the children, representing 92 different fears. Many additional children had common childhood fears (e.g., dogs, bugs, and the dark). More than half of children…

  4. Deaf Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Christen A.; Brice, Patrick J.; Lam, Kay H.; Hotto, Sue A.

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies investigating the prevalence of autism have increased in recent years, within the United States and abroad. However, statistics as to how many of those children may also have a comorbid hearing loss is lacking. The prevalence of school-administrator reported diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (clinical diagnosis…

  5. Two Boys with 47, XXY and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merhar, S. L.; Manning-Courtney, P.

    2007-01-01

    Two children with autism and Klinefelter syndrome (KS) (47, XXY) are presented. Both qualify for the diagnosis of autism based on DSM-IV with severely delayed and disordered language, difficulties with social interaction, and a restricted range of interests and activities. Both also have abnormal EEGs, and one patient has had what appear to be…

  6. Brief Report: Stereotypes in Autism Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Jennifer Christina; Schmitz, Florian; Dziobek, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Autism involves core impairments in social cognition. Given that social learning underlies the acquisition of stereotypes, it was hypothesized that use of stereotypes would be reduced in autism. Contrary to this prediction, previous studies found the same use of stereotypes in autistic individuals as in controls. Measurement of stereotypes,…

  7. Recent Research on the Etiologies of Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Eileen; Van Dyke, Don C.; Sears, Lonnie; Matzen, Jane; Lin-Dyken, Deborah; McBrien, Dianne M.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews recent research on the etiologies of autism, including genetic research, anatomic and neuroimaging studies, topics in neurophysiology research (including serotonin, dopamine, and opiods), immunologic research, studies of autism phenotype, and electroencephalographic studies. It concludes that, as of yet, research has found no clear…

  8. Searching for the Causes of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Walter E.; Silverman, Wayne

    2010-01-01

    A March 16, 2009 New York Times headline read, "An Outbreak of Autism, or a Statistical Fluke?" While this article focused narrowly on Somali families relocated to the Minneapolis area, the headline applies equally well to the broader national picture of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), and it represents a compelling illustration of the lack of…

  9. Autism Spectrum Disorders Associated with Chromosomal Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo-Castro, Adriana; Benvenuto, Arianna; Galasso, Cinzia; Porfirio, Cristina; Curatolo, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) constitute a class of severe neurodevelopmental conditions with complex multifactorial and heterogeneous etiology. Despite high estimates of heritability, genetic causes of ASDs remain elusive, due to a high degree of genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity. So far, several "monogenic" forms of autism have been…

  10. Supporting University Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Ashleigh; Goldstein, Jody; Murphy, Deirdra; Trietsch, Rhoda; Keeves, Jacqueline; Mendes, Eva; Queenan, Alexa

    2018-01-01

    Increasing numbers of students with autism spectrum disorder are entering higher education. Their success can be jeopardized by organizational, social/emotional, and academic challenges if appropriate supports are not in place. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a support group model for university students with autism spectrum…

  11. Autism spectrum disorder: seeing is not understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecteau, Shirley; Lepage, Jean-François; Théoret, Hugo

    2006-02-21

    Impairments in social and emotional skills are a defining feature of autism spectrum disorder. Recent research shows that structural and functional abnormalities within the neural system that matches observation and execution of actions--the mirror neuron system--may explain the social aspects of the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder.

  12. Unbroken Mirror Neurons in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yang-Teng; Decety, Jean; Yang, Chia-Yen; Liu, Ji-Lin; Cheng, Yawei

    2010-01-01

    Background: The "broken mirror" theory of autism, which proposes that a dysfunction of the human mirror neuron system (MNS) is responsible for the core social and cognitive deficits in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), has received considerable attention despite weak empirical evidence. Methods: In this electroencephalographic…

  13. Building Bridges across the Autism Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroson, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Among the many challenges that students with autism spectrum disorder bring into the learning environment, teachers report one particular difficulty: working with students' parents. As both an autism educator and parent of a child on the spectrum, Barbara Boroson explores some common complexities in parent-teacher relationships. She also offers…

  14. Maternal Depressive Symptoms following Autism Spectrum Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Warren, Zachary E.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined depressive symptoms, concerning the week following autism spectrum diagnosis and an average of 1.4 years later, in mothers (n = 75) of young children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Over three-quarters of mothers (78.7%) provided retrospective reports of clinically significant depressive symptoms…

  15. Early Identification of Autism: Implications for Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layne, Christina Mann

    2007-01-01

    The author reviews an article (L. C. Eaves & H. H. Ho, 2004) published in the Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders that discussed screening tools and diagnostic assessments used to identify autism in 2-year-olds as well as a follow-up study 2 1/2 years later. The author also provides a discussion of the impact of receiving this diagnosis…

  16. [Recognition of autism spectrum disorders in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, M.W.; Londen, L. van; Gaag, R.J. van der

    2008-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder was diagnosed in three adults. The first patient, a married man aged 41, was referred to a psychiatrist with 'impending burn-out'. The second was a 32-year-old male student with schizophrenia and a depressive disorder who was referred to a centre for autism because a friend

  17. Autism Spectrum Disorders (Pervasive Developmental Disorders)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strock, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    This booklet focuses on classic autism, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), and Asperger syndrome, with brief descriptions of Rett syndrome and childhood disintegrative disorder. The booklet describes possible indicators of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), their diagnosis, available aids, treatment options, adults…

  18. The Association Between Children with Autism and Gastrointestinal Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Prince, Yasmeen

    2013-01-01

    Every day many thousands of children face the complications of Autism. According to Geraghty, Depasquale, and Lane (2010), Autism has become one of the most frequently diagnosed developmental disabilities, with one in one hundred children diagnosed with Autism in the United States every day. The etiology of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has not been determined. One of many questions researchers are asking is whether an association exists between gastrointestinal disorders and Autism. This li...

  19. CERN: Digital image analysis in the world's largest research center for particle physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Those interested in researching into the smallest building blocks that matter is made up of need the largest instruments. CERN, near Geneva, Switzerland is where the most powerful circular accelerator in the world is being built: the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) for proton collisions. It has a circumference of 26.7 km (4 pages)

  20. Mass balance of Greenland's three largest outlet glaciers - 2000–2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howat, I.M.; Ahn, Y.; Joughin, I.; van den Broeke, M.R.; Lenaerts, J.T.M.; Smith, B.

    2011-01-01

    Acceleration of Greenland's three largest outlet glaciers, Helheim, Kangerdlugssuaq and Jakobshavn Isbræ, accounted for a substantial portion of the ice sheet's mass loss over the past decade. Rapid changes in their discharge, however, make their cumulative mass-change uncertain. We derive monthly

  1. Key U.S.-built part fails during testing for world's largest particle collider

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Scientists are scrambling to redesign a key U.S.-built part that broke "with a loud bang and a cloud of dust" during a high-pressure test for the world's largest particle physics collider that is supposed to start up in November, officials sais Tuesday." (1,5 page)

  2. CERN, World's largest particle physics lab, selects Progress SonicMQ

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    "Progress Software Corporation (NADAQ: PRGS), a global supplier of application insfrastructure software used to develop, deploy, integrate and manage business applications, today announced that CERN the world's largest physis laboratory and particle accelerator, has chosen Progress® SonicMQ® for mission-critical message delivery." (1 page)

  3. Phase space reconstruction and estimation of the largest Lyapunov exponent for gait kinematic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josiński, Henryk [Silesian University of Technology, Akademicka 16, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Świtoński, Adam [Polish-Japanese Institute of Information Technology, Aleja Legionów 2, 41-902 Bytom (Poland); Silesian University of Technology, Akademicka 16, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Michalczuk, Agnieszka; Wojciechowski, Konrad [Polish-Japanese Institute of Information Technology, Aleja Legionów 2, 41-902 Bytom (Poland)

    2015-03-10

    The authors describe an example of application of nonlinear time series analysis directed at identifying the presence of deterministic chaos in human motion data by means of the largest Lyapunov exponent. The method was previously verified on the basis of a time series constructed from the numerical solutions of both the Lorenz and the Rössler nonlinear dynamical systems.

  4. Discovery of the largest orbweaving spider species: the evolution of gigantism in Nephila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntner, Matjaz; Coddington, Jonathan A

    2009-10-21

    More than 41,000 spider species are known with about 400-500 added each year, but for some well-known groups, such as the giant golden orbweavers, Nephila, the last valid described species dates from the 19(th) century. Nephila are renowned for being the largest web-spinning spiders, making the largest orb webs, and are model organisms for the study of extreme sexual size dimorphism (SSD) and sexual biology. Here, we report on the discovery of a new, giant Nephila species from Africa and Madagascar, and review size evolution and SSD in Nephilidae. We formally describe N. komaci sp. nov., the largest web spinning species known, and place the species in phylogenetic context to reconstruct the evolution of mean size (via squared change parsimony). We then test female and male mean size correlation using phylogenetically independent contrasts, and simulate nephilid body size evolution using Monte Carlo statistics. Nephila females increased in size almost monotonically to establish a mostly African clade of true giants. In contrast, Nephila male size is effectively decoupled and hovers around values roughly one fifth of female size. Although N. komaci females are the largest Nephila yet discovered, the males are also large and thus their SSD is not exceptional.

  5. Predicting Traffic Flow in Local Area Networks by the Largest Lyapunov Exponent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of network traffic are complex and nonlinear, and chaotic behaviors and their prediction, which play an important role in local area networks (LANs, are studied in detail, using the largest Lyapunov exponent. With the introduction of phase space reconstruction based on the time sequence, the high-dimensional traffic is projected onto the low dimension reconstructed phase space, and a reduced dynamic system is obtained from the dynamic system viewpoint. Then, a numerical method for computing the largest Lyapunov exponent of the low-dimensional dynamic system is presented. Further, the longest predictable time, which is related to chaotic behaviors in the system, is studied using the largest Lyapunov exponent, and the Wolf method is used to predict the evolution of the traffic in a local area network by both Dot and Interval predictions, and a reliable result is obtained by the presented method. As the conclusion, the results show that the largest Lyapunov exponent can be used to describe the sensitivity of the trajectory in the reconstructed phase space to the initial values. Moreover, Dot Prediction can effectively predict the flow burst. The numerical simulation also shows that the presented method is feasible and efficient for predicting the complex dynamic behaviors in LAN traffic, especially for congestion and attack in networks, which are the main two complex phenomena behaving as chaos in networks.

  6. Discovery of the largest orbweaving spider species: the evolution of gigantism in Nephila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaz Kuntner

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available More than 41,000 spider species are known with about 400-500 added each year, but for some well-known groups, such as the giant golden orbweavers, Nephila, the last valid described species dates from the 19(th century. Nephila are renowned for being the largest web-spinning spiders, making the largest orb webs, and are model organisms for the study of extreme sexual size dimorphism (SSD and sexual biology. Here, we report on the discovery of a new, giant Nephila species from Africa and Madagascar, and review size evolution and SSD in Nephilidae.We formally describe N. komaci sp. nov., the largest web spinning species known, and place the species in phylogenetic context to reconstruct the evolution of mean size (via squared change parsimony. We then test female and male mean size correlation using phylogenetically independent contrasts, and simulate nephilid body size evolution using Monte Carlo statistics.Nephila females increased in size almost monotonically to establish a mostly African clade of true giants. In contrast, Nephila male size is effectively decoupled and hovers around values roughly one fifth of female size. Although N. komaci females are the largest Nephila yet discovered, the males are also large and thus their SSD is not exceptional.

  7. World's third-largest producer of nuclear power. Japan in need of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Japan is the third largest oil consumer in the world behind the United States and China, and the second largest net importer of oil. Japan boasts one of the largest economies in the world. The country continues to experience a moderate economic recovery that began in 2003, following a decade of economic stagnation. Japan's real gross domestic product (GDP) grew by 2.5% in 2005 and 2.3% in 2004. The modest upturn over the last few years reflects higher business confidence in Japan, a surge in export demand led by exports to China, and robust consumer spending. Unemployment in Japan fell to 4.4% in 2005, down from an early 2003 peak of 5.5%. Japan has virtually no domestic oil or natural gas reserves, and in 2005 was the second largest net importer of crude oil in the world. Despite the country's dearth of hydrocarbon resources, Japanese companies have actively pursued upstream oil and natural gas projects overseas. Japan remains one of the major exporters of energy-sector capital equipment, and Japanese companies provide engineering, construction, and project management services for energy projects. (orig.)

  8. Distribution of the Largest Eigenvalues of the Levi-Smirnov Ensemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieczorek, W.

    2004-01-01

    We calculate the distribution of the k-th largest eigenvalue in the random matrix Levi - Smirnov Ensemble (LSE), using the spectral dualism between LSE and chiral Gaussian Unitary Ensemble (GUE). Then we reconstruct universal spectral oscillations and we investigate an asymptotic behavior of the spectral distribution. (author)

  9. 78 FR 78342 - Extension of Autism Services Demonstration Project for TRICARE Beneficiaries Under the Extended...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Extension of Autism Services Demonstration Project... (the Department) Enhanced Access to Autism Services Demonstration Project (Autism Demonstration) under the Extended Care Health Option (ECHO) for beneficiaries diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder...

  10. A Review of Assessment Tools for Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders: Implications for School Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Laurie McGarry; Plotts, Cynthia; Kozeneski, Nicole; Skinner-Foster, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a review of widely used measures for assessing Autism Spectrum Disorders, including the "Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised," "Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule," "Psychoeducational Profile-Third Edition," "Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-Second Edition," and "Childhood Autism…

  11. Brain Transcriptional and Epigenetic Associations with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Matthew R.; Rubin, Robert A.; Falcone, Tatiana; Ting, Angela H.; Natowicz, Marvin R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Autism is a common neurodevelopmental syndrome. Numerous rare genetic etiologies are reported; most cases are idiopathic. Methodology/Principal Findings To uncover important gene dysregulation in autism we analyzed carefully selected idiopathic autistic and control cerebellar and BA19 (occipital) brain tissues using high resolution whole genome gene expression and whole genome DNA methylation microarrays. No changes in DNA methylation were identified in autistic brain but gene expression abnormalities in two areas of metabolism were apparent: down-regulation of genes of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and of protein translation. We also found associations between specific behavioral domains of autism and specific brain gene expression modules related to myelin/myelination, inflammation/immune response and purinergic signaling. Conclusions/Significance This work highlights two largely unrecognized molecular pathophysiological themes in autism and suggests differing molecular bases for autism behavioral endophenotypes. PMID:22984548

  12. Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natascia Brondino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM represents a popular therapeutic option for patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of data regarding the efficacy of CAM in ASD. The aim of the present systematic review is to investigate trials of CAM in ASD. Material and Methods. We searched the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CINAHL, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, Agricola, and Food Science Source. Results. Our literature search identified 2687 clinical publications. After the title/abstract screening, 139 publications were obtained for detailed evaluation. After detailed evaluation 67 studies were included, from hand search of references we retrieved 13 additional studies for a total of 80. Conclusion. There is no conclusive evidence supporting the efficacy of CAM therapies in ASD. Promising results are reported for music therapy, sensory integration therapy, acupuncture, and massage.

  13. The Broader Autism Phenotype and Its Implications on the Etiology and Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Gerdts

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of autism-related traits has been well documented in undiagnosed family members of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. The most common finding is mild impairments in social and communication skills that are similar to those shown by individuals with autism, but exhibited to a lesser degree. Termed the broader autism phenotype (BAP, these traits suggest a genetic liability for autism-related traits in families. Genetic influence in autism is strong, with identical twins showing high concordance for the diagnosis and related traits and approximately 20% of all ASD cases having an identified genetic mechanism. This paper highlights the studies conducted to date regarding the BAP and considers the implications of these findings for the etiology and treatment of ASD.

  14. Differential genome-wide gene expression profiling of bovine largest and second-largest follicles: identification of genes associated with growth of dominant follicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi Toru

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine follicular development is regulated by numerous molecular mechanisms and biological pathways. In this study, we tried to identify differentially expressed genes between largest (F1 and second-largest follicles (F2, and classify them by global gene expression profiling using a combination of microarray and quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR analysis. The follicular status of F1 and F2 were further evaluated in terms of healthy and atretic conditions by investigating mRNA localization of identified genes. Methods Global gene expression profiles of F1 (10.7 +/- 0.7 mm and F2 (7.8 +/- 0.2 mm were analyzed by hierarchical cluster analysis and expression profiles of 16 representative genes were confirmed by QPCR analysis. In addition, localization of six identified transcripts was investigated in healthy and atretic follicles using in situ hybridization. The healthy or atretic condition of examined follicles was classified by progesterone and estradiol concentrations in follicular fluid. Results Hierarchical cluster analysis of microarray data classified the follicles into two clusters. Cluster A was composed of only F2 and was characterized by high expression of 31 genes including IGFBP5, whereas cluster B contained only F1 and predominantly expressed 45 genes including CYP19 and FSHR. QPCR analysis confirmed AMH, CYP19, FSHR, GPX3, PlGF, PLA2G1B, SCD and TRB2 were greater in F1 than F2, while CCL2, GADD45A, IGFBP5, PLAUR, SELP, SPP1, TIMP1 and TSP2 were greater in F2 than in F1. In situ hybridization showed that AMH and CYP19 were detected in granulosa cells (GC of healthy as well as atretic follicles. PlGF was localized in GC and in the theca layer (TL of healthy follicles. IGFBP5 was detected in both GC and TL of atretic follicles. GADD45A and TSP2 were localized in both GC and TL of atretic follicles, whereas healthy follicles expressed them only in GC. Conclusion We demonstrated that global gene expression profiling of F

  15. Core Challenges of Autism. Sensory aspects of autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nason William

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An american clincal psychologist Bill Nason tells us about the differences in ways of functioning between people on the autistic spectrum and neurotypical people. The third part of his Blue book «The Autism Discussion Page» talks about the sensory differences in autistic people. Sensory hypersensitivity, fragmented or distorted perception, problems of sensoru processing — these are the differences that make the external world experience very special, overwhelming and even painful. The author gives the signs of hyper- and hypo-sensitivity in basical sensory areas. Translated from English by L.G. Borodina

  16. Analysis of Multiple Structural Changes in Financial Contagion Based on the Largest Lyapunov Exponents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A modified multiple structural changes model is built to test structural breaks of the financial system based on calculating the largest Lyapunov exponents of the financial time series. Afterwards, the Lorenz system is used as a simulation example to inspect the new model. As the Lorenz system has strong nonlinearity, the verification results show that the new model has good capability in both finding the breakpoint and revealing the changes in nonlinear characteristics of the time series. The empirical study based on the model used daily data from the S&P 500 stock index during the global financial crisis from 2005 to 2012. The results provide four breakpoints of the period, which divide the contagion into four stages: stationary, local outbreak, global outbreak, and recovery period. An additional significant result is the obvious chaos characteristic difference in the largest Lyapunov exponents and the standard deviation at various stages, particularly at the local outbreak stage.

  17. Constraining the magnitude of the largest event in a foreshock-main shock-aftershock sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, Robert; Zhuang, Jiancang; Ogata, Yosihiko

    2018-01-01

    Extreme value statistics and Bayesian methods are used to constrain the magnitudes of the largest expected earthquakes in a sequence governed by the parametric time-dependent occurrence rate and frequency-magnitude statistics. The Bayesian predictive distribution for the magnitude of the largest event in a sequence is derived. Two types of sequences are considered, that is, the classical aftershock sequences generated by large main shocks and the aftershocks generated by large foreshocks preceding a main shock. For the former sequences, the early aftershocks during a training time interval are used to constrain the magnitude of the future extreme event during the forecasting time interval. For the latter sequences, the earthquakes preceding the main shock are used to constrain the magnitudes of the subsequent extreme events including the main shock. The analysis is applied retrospectively to past prominent earthquake sequences.

  18. Some children with autism have latent social skills that can be tested

    OpenAIRE

    Hrdlicka, Michal; Urbanek, Tomas; Vacova, Maria; Beranova, Stepanka; Dudova, Iva

    2017-01-01

    Michal Hrdlicka,1 Tomas Urbanek,2 Maria Vacova,1 Stepanka Beranova,1 Iva Dudova1 1Department of Child Psychiatry, Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Motol, Prague, 2Institute of Psychology, Academy of Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic Background: The idea of latent social skills in autism emerged as a possible interpretation of the rapid (but temporary) improvement of autistic subjects in oxytocin studies. We tested a hypothesis that a normal response to Item...

  19. Mood Disorders in Mothers of Children on the Autism Spectrum Are Associated with Higher Functioning Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Vasa, Roma A.; Anderson, Connie; Marvin, Alison R.; Rosenberg, Rebecca E.; Law, J. Kiely; Thorn, Julia; Sarphare, Geeta; Law, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Mood disorders occur more frequently in family members of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) than in the general population. There may be associations between maternal mood disorder history patterns and specific ASD phenotypes. We therefore examined the relationship between maternal mood disorders and child autism spectrum disorders in 998 mother-child dyads enrolled in a national online autism registry and database. Mothers of children with ASD completed online questionnaires a...

  20. Default mode network in young male adults with autism spectrum disorder: Relationship with autism spectrum traits

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Minyoung; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Saito, Daisuke N; Ishitobi, Makoto; Morita, Tomoyo; Inohara, Keisuke; Asano, Mizuki; Arai, Sumiyoshi; Munesue, Toshio; Tomoda, Akemi; Wada, Yuji; Sadato, Norihiro; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Iidaka, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Background: Autism spectrum traits are postulated to lie on a continuum that extends between individuals with autism and individuals with typical development (TD). Social cognition properties that are deeply associated with autism spectrum traits have been linked to functional connectivity between regions within the brain's default mode network (DMN). Previous studies have shown that the resting-state functional connectivities (rs-FCs) of DMN are low and show negative correlation with the lev...

  1. Demographic and clinical correlates of autism symptom domains and autism spectrum diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Frazier, Thomas W; Youngstrom, Eric A; Embacher, Rebecca; Hardan, Antonio Y; Constantino, John N; Law, Paul; Findling, Robert L; Eng, Charis

    2013-01-01

    Demographic and clinical factors may influence assessment of autism symptoms. This study evaluated these correlates and also examined whether social communication and interaction and restricted/repetitive behavior provided unique prediction of autism spectrum disorder diagnosis. We analyzed data from 7352 siblings included in the Interactive Autism Network registry. Social communication and interaction and restricted/repetitive behavior symptoms were obtained using caregiver-reports on the So...

  2. Opportunities for biodiversity gains under the world’s largest reforestation programme

    OpenAIRE

    Hua, Fangyuan; Wang, Xiaoyang; Zheng, Xinlei; Fisher, Brendan; Wang, Lin; Zhu, Jianguo; Tang, Ya; Yu, Douglas W.; Wilcove, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Reforestation is a critical means of addressing the environmental and social problems of deforestation. China’s Grain-for-Green Program (GFGP) is the world’s largest reforestation scheme. Here we provide the first nationwide assessment of the tree composition of GFGP forests and the first combined ecological and economic study aimed at understanding GFGP’s biodiversity implications. Across China, GFGP forests are overwhelmingly monocultures or compositionally simple mixed forests. Focusing on...

  3. Statistics of the largest sunspot and facular areas per solar cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, D.M.; Kabasakal Tulunay, Y.

    1979-01-01

    The statistics of extreme values is used to investigate the statistical properties of the largest areas sunspots and photospheric faculae per solar cycle. The largest values of the synodic-solar-rotation mean areas of umbrae, whole spots and faculae, which have been recorded for nine solar cycles, are each shown to comply with the general form of the extreme value probability function. Empirical expressions are derived for the three extreme value populations from which the characteristic statistical parameters, namely the mode, median, mean and standard deviation, can be calculated for each population. These three extreme value populations are also used to find the expected ranges of the extreme areas in a group of solar cycles as a function of the number of cycles in the group. The extreme areas of umbrae and whole spots have a dispersion comparable to that found by Siscoe for the extreme values of sunspot number, whereas the extreme areas of faculae have a smaller dispersion which is comparable to that found by Siscoe for the largest geomagnetic storm per solar cycle. The expected range of the largest sunspot area per solar cycle for a group of one hundred cycles appears to be inconsistent with the existence of the prolonged periods of sunspot minima that have been inferred from the historical information on solar variability. This inconsistency supports the contention that there are temporal changes of solar-cycle statistics during protracted periods of sunspot minima (or maxima). Indeed, without such temporal changes, photospheric faculae should have been continually observable throughout the lifetime of the Sun. (orig.)

  4. Trend of CO2 emissions of the 30 largest power plants in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, Hauke

    2014-01-01

    The brochure on the trend of CO 2 emissions of the 30 largest power plants in Germany includes tables of the emissions of these power plants. The CO 2 emissions of these power plants in 2013 (25% of the total German greenhouse gas emissions) have increased by 5% compared to 2012. The total CO 2 emission sin Germany increased by 1.5%. The differences between brown coal and black coal fired power plants are discussed.

  5. Natural radionuclides in soil profiles surrounding the largest coal-fired power plant in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Tanić Milan N.; Janković-Mandić Ljiljana J.; Gajić Boško A.; Daković Marko Z.; Dragović Snežana D.; Bačić Goran G.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the influence of the largest Serbian coal-fired power plant on radionuclide concentrations in soil profiles up to 50 cm in depth. Thirty soil profiles were sampled from the plant surroundings (up to 10 km distance) and analyzed using standard methods for soil physicochemical properties and gamma ray spectrometry for specific activities of natural radionuclides (40K, 226Ra and 232Th). Spatial and vertical distribution of radionuclides wa...

  6. THE MASS OF (4) VESTA DERIVED FROM ITS LARGEST GRAVITATIONAL EFFECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmanoski, Mike; Novakovic, Bojan; Apostolovska, Gordana

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a recalculated value of the mass of (4) Vesta, derived from its largest gravitational perturbations on selected asteroids during their mutual close encounters. This was done by using a new method for mass determination, which is based on the linking of pre-encounter observations to the orbit determined from post-encounter ones. The estimated weighted mean of the mass of (4) Vesta is (1.300 ± 0.001) x 10 -10 M sun .

  7. Genetics and epigenetics of autism: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waye, Mary M Y; Cheng, Ho Yu

    2018-04-01

    Autism is a developmental disorder that starts before age 3 years, and children with autism have impairment in both social interaction and communication, and have restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. There is a strong heritable component of autism and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as studies have shown that parents who have a child with ASD have a 2-18% chance of having a second child with ASD. The prevalence of autism and ASD have been increasing during the last 3 decades and much research has been carried out to understand the etiology, so as to develop novel preventive and treatment strategies. This review aims at summarizing the latest research studies related to autism and ASD, focusing not only on the genetics but also some epigenetic findings of autism/ASD. Some promising areas of research using transgenic/knockout animals and some ideas related to potential novel treatment and prevention strategies will be discussed. © 2017 The Chinese University of Hong Kong. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2017 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  8. Autism Treatment and Family Support Models Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoush Esbati

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a lifelong neurological disability of unknown etiology. The criteria for a diagnosis of autism are based on a triad of impairments in social interaction, communication and a lack of flexibility in thinking and behavior There are several factors which are likely to contribute to this variation including the definition of autism and variability in diagnosis amongst professionals, however anecdotally there appears to have been a steadily increasing demand for services. The purpose of this review of research literature relating to the management and treatment of children with autism is to identify the most effective models of best practice. The review includes Comparative evidence supporting a range of treatment and intervention models, across the range of individuals included within autism spectrum disorders, psychodynamic treatment/management which are based on the assumption that autism is the result of emotional damage to the child, usually because of failure to develop a close attachment to parents, especially the mother, biological treatments, educational and behavioral interventions, communication therapies, cost benefits and supporting families.The research is examined for evidence to support best practice models in supporting families at the time of diagnosis and assessment and an overview of the nature of comprehensive supports that help reduce stresses that may be experienced by families of a child with autism and promote inclusion in community activities.

  9. Aminoglycoside antibiotics and autism: a speculative hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manev Hari

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, it has been suspected that there is a relationship between therapy with some antibiotics and the onset of autism; but even more curious, some children benefited transiently from a subsequent treatment with a different antibiotic. Here, we speculate how aminoglycoside antibiotics might be associated with autism. Presentation We hypothesize that aminoglycoside antibiotics could a trigger the autism syndrome in susceptible infants by causing the stop codon readthrough, i.e., a misreading of the genetic code of a hypothetical critical gene, and/or b improve autism symptoms by correcting the premature stop codon mutation in a hypothetical polymorphic gene linked to autism. Testing Investigate, retrospectively, whether a link exists between aminoglycoside use (which is not extensive in children and the onset of autism symptoms (hypothesis "a", or between amino glycoside use and improvement of these symptoms (hypothesis "b". Whereas a prospective study to test hypothesis "a" is not ethically justifiable, a study could be designed to test hypothesis "b". Implications It should be stressed that at this stage no direct evidence supports our speculative hypothesis and that its main purpose is to initiate development of new ideas that, eventually, would improve our understanding of the pathobiology of autism.

  10. Ubiquinol Improves Symptoms in Children with Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gvozdjáková

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Autism is a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders with manifestation within 3 years after birth. Manifestations of autism include behavior problems (hyperactivity, toys destruction, self-harm, and agression and sleep and eating disorders. Etiology of autism is poorly understood. Oxidative stress and antioxidants can participate in pathobiochemical mechanisms of autism. Methods. Twenty-four children, aged 3–6 years, with autism according to the DSM IV criteria and using CARS were included in the study. Concentrations of CoQ10-TOTAL, γ- and α-tocopherol, β-carotene, and lipid peroxidation were determined in plasma before and after three months of supportive therapy with ubiquinol at a daily dose 2×50 mg. Data on behavior of the children were collected from parents at the same time. Results. Ubiquinol supportive therapy improved symptoms in children with autism, as communication with parents (in 12%, verbal communication (in 21%, playing games of children (in 42%, sleeping (in 34%, and food rejection (in 17%, with CoQ10-TOTAL plasma level above 2.5 μmol/L. Conclusions. Beneficial effect of ubiquinol in children with autism has been demonstrated for the first time. We assume that plasma concentration of CoQ10-TOTAL and lipid peroxidation could be used as relevant biomarkers of ubiquinol supportive therapy.

  11. Prostate Cancer Screening in Jamaica: Results of the Largest National Screening Clinic Prostate Cancer Screening in Jamaica: Results of the Largest National Screening Clinic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, B. F.; Aiken, W.; Mayhew, R.; Gordon, Y.; Reid, M.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is highly prevalent in Jamaica and is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Our aim was to evaluate the patterns of screening in the largest organized screening clinic in Jamaica at the Jamaica Cancer Society. A retrospective analysis of all men presenting for screening at the Jamaica Cancer Society from 1995 to 2005 was done. All patients had digital rectal examinations (DRE) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) tests done. Results of prostate biopsies were noted. 1117 men of mean age 59.9 ± 8.2 years presented for screening. The median documented PSA was 1.6 ng/mL (maximum of 5170 ng/mL). Most patients presented for only 1 screen. There was a gradual reduction in the mean age of presentation for screening over the period. Prostate biopsies were requested on 11% of screening visits; however, only 59% of these were done. 5.6% of all persons screened were found to have cancer. Of the cancers diagnosed, Gleason 6 adenocarcinoma was the commonest grade and median PSA was 8.9 ng/mL (range 1.5-1059 ng/mL). Older men tend to screen for prostate cancer in Jamaica. However, compliance with regular maintenance visits and requests for confirmatory biopsies are poor. Screening needs intervention in the Jamaican population.

  12. Science Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory Delivering science and technology to protect our nation and promote world stability Science & ; Innovation Collaboration Careers Community Environment Science & Innovation Facilities Science Pillars Research Library Science Briefs Science News Science Highlights Lab Organizations Science Programs Applied

  13. THE CHALLENGE OF THE LARGEST STRUCTURES IN THE UNIVERSE TO COSMOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Changbom; Choi, Yun-Young; Kim, Sungsoo S.; Kim, Kap-Sung; Kim, Juhan; Gott III, J. Richard

    2012-01-01

    Large galaxy redshift surveys have long been used to constrain cosmological models and structure formation scenarios. In particular, the largest structures discovered observationally are thought to carry critical information on the amplitude of large-scale density fluctuations or homogeneity of the universe, and have often challenged the standard cosmological framework. The Sloan Great Wall (SGW) recently found in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) region casts doubt on the concordance cosmological model with a cosmological constant (i.e., the flat ΛCDM model). Here we show that the existence of the SGW is perfectly consistent with the ΛCDM model, a result that only our very large cosmological N-body simulation (the Horizon Run 2, HR2) could supply. In addition, we report on the discovery of a void complex in the SDSS much larger than the SGW, and show that such size of the largest void is also predicted in the ΛCDM paradigm. Our results demonstrate that an initially homogeneous isotropic universe with primordial Gaussian random phase density fluctuations growing in accordance with the general relativity can explain the richness and size of the observed large-scale structures in the SDSS. Using the HR2 simulation we predict that a future galaxy redshift survey about four times deeper or with 3 mag fainter limit than the SDSS should reveal a largest structure of bright galaxies about twice as big as the SGW.

  14. On the statistics of the largest geomagnetic storms per solar cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siscoe, G.L.

    1976-01-01

    The theory of extreme value statistics is applied to the first, second, and third largest geomagnetic storms in nine solar cycles measured by the average half-daily aa indices compiled by Mayaud. Analytic expressions giving the probability of the extremes per solar cycle as a contour function of storm magnitude are obtained by least squares fitting of the observations to the appropriate theoretical extreme value probability functions. The results are used to obtain the statistical characteristics (mode, median, mean, and standard deviation) for the extreme values. The results are applied to find the expected range of extreme values in a set as a function of the number of solar cycles in the set. We find that the expected range of the largest storm is quite narrow and is larger for the second and third largest storms. The observed range of the extreme half-daily aa index for the nine solar cycles is 354--546 γ. In a set of 100 cycles the range is expanded esentially to 311--680γ, an increase of only 39% in the range. The result supports the argument for a change in solar cycle statistics in the latter part of the Seventeenth Century (the Maunder minimum)

  15. Hospital Prices Increase in California, Especially Among Hospitals in the Largest Multi-hospital Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn A. Melnick PhD

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A surge in hospital consolidation is fueling formation of ever larger multi-hospital systems throughout the United States. This article examines hospital prices in California over time with a focus on hospitals in the largest multi-hospital systems. Our data show that hospital prices in California grew substantially (+76% per hospital admission across all hospitals and all services between 2004 and 2013 and that prices at hospitals that are members of the largest, multi-hospital systems grew substantially more (113% than prices paid to all other California hospitals (70%. Prices were similar in both groups at the start of the period (approximately $9200 per admission. By the end of the period, prices at hospitals in the largest systems exceeded prices at other California hospitals by almost $4000 per patient admission. Our study findings are potentially useful to policy makers across the country for several reasons. Our data measure actual prices for a large sample of hospitals over a long period of time in California. California experienced its wave of consolidation much earlier than the rest of the country and as such our findings may provide some insights into what may happen across the United States from hospital consolidation including growth of large, multi-hospital systems now forming in the rest of the rest of the country.

  16. Collaborative spectrum sensing based on the ratio between largest eigenvalue and Geometric mean of eigenvalues

    KAUST Repository

    Shakir, Muhammad

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new detector referred to as Geometric mean detector (GEMD) which is based on the ratio of the largest eigenvalue to the Geometric mean of the eigenvalues for collaborative spectrum sensing. The decision threshold has been derived by employing Gaussian approximation approach. In this approach, the two random variables, i.e. The largest eigenvalue and the Geometric mean of the eigenvalues are considered as independent Gaussian random variables such that their cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) are approximated by a univariate Gaussian distribution function for any number of cooperating secondary users and received samples. The approximation approach is based on the calculation of exact analytical moments of the largest eigenvalue and the Geometric mean of the eigenvalues of the received covariance matrix. The decision threshold has been calculated by exploiting the CDF of the ratio of two Gaussian distributed random variables. In this context, we exchange the analytical moments of the two random variables with the moments of the Gaussian distribution function. The performance of the detector is compared with the performance of the energy detector and eigenvalue ratio detector. Analytical and simulation results show that our newly proposed detector yields considerable performance advantage in realistic spectrum sensing scenarios. Moreover, our results based on proposed approximation approach are in perfect agreement with the empirical results. © 2011 IEEE.

  17. The global diversion of pharmaceutical drugs. India: the third largest illicit opium producer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Letizia; Greenfield, Victoria A; Charles, Molly; Reuter, Peter

    2009-03-01

    This paper explores India's role in the world illicit opiate market, particularly its role as a producer. India, a major illicit opiate consumer, is also the sole licensed exporter of raw opium: this unique status may be enabling substantial diversion to the illicit market. Participant observation and interviews were carried out at eight different sites. Information was also drawn from all standard secondary sources and the analysis of about 180 drug-related criminal proceedings reviewed by Indian High Courts and the Supreme Court from 1985 to 2001. Diversion from licit opium production takes place on such a large scale that India may be the third largest illicit opium producer after Afghanistan and Burma. With the possible exceptions of 2005 and 2006, 200-300 tons of India's opium may be diverted yearly. After estimating India's opiate consumption on the basis of UN-reported prevalence estimates, we find that diversion from licit production might have satisfied a quarter to more than a third of India's illicit opiate demand to 2004. India is not only among the world's largest consumer of illicit opiates but also one of the largest illicit opium producers. In contrast to all other illicit producers, India owes the latter distinction not to blatantly illicit cultivation but to diversion from licit cultivation. India's experience suggests the difficulty of preventing substantial leakage, even in a relatively well-governed nation.

  18. Does rubella cause autism: a 2015 reappraisal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill eHutton

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the 1970s, Stella Chess found a high prevalence of autism in children with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS, 200 times that of the general population at the time. Many researchers quote this fact to add proof to the current theory that maternal infection with immune system activation in pregnancy leads to autism in the offspring. This rubella and autism association is presented with the notion that rubella has been eliminated in today’s world. CRS cases are no longer typically seen, yet autistic children often share findings of CRS including deafness, congenital heart defects and to a lesser extent visual changes. Autistic children commonly have hyperactivity and spasticity, as do CRS children. Both autistic and CRS individuals may develop type 1 diabetes as young adults. Neuropathology of CRS infants may reveal cerebral vasculitis with narrowed lumens and cerebral necrosis. Neuroradiologic findings of children with CRS show calcifications, periventricular leukomalacia, and dilated perivascular spaces. Neuroradiology of autism has also demonstrated hyperintensities, leukomalacia and prominent perivascular spaces. PET studies of autistic individuals exhibit decreased perfusion to areas of the brain similarly affected by rubella. In both autism and CRS, certain changes in the brain have implicated the immune system. Several children with autism lack antibodies to rubella, as do children with CRS. These numerous similarities increase the probability of an association between rubella virus and autism.Rubella and autism cross many ethnicities in many countries. Contrary to current belief, rubella has not been eradicated and globally affects up to 5% of pregnant women. Susceptibility continues as vaccines are not given worldwide and are not fully protective. Rubella might still cause autism, even in vaccinated populations.

  19. Proteomic explorations of autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szoko, Nicholas; McShane, Adam J; Natowicz, Marvin R

    2017-09-01

    Proteomics, the large-scale study of protein expression in cells and tissues, is a powerful tool to study the biology of clinical conditions and has provided significant insights in many experimental systems. Herein, we review the basics of proteomic methodology and discuss challenges in using proteomic approaches to study autism. Unlike other experimental approaches, such as genomic approaches, there have been few large-scale studies of proteins in tissues from persons with autism. Most of the proteomic studies on autism used blood or other peripheral tissues; few studies used brain tissue. Some studies found dysregulation of aspects of the immune system or of aspects of lipid metabolism, but no consistent findings were noted. Based on the challenges in using proteomics to study autism, we discuss considerations for future studies. Apart from the complex technical considerations implicit in any proteomic analysis, key nontechnical matters include attention to subject and specimen inclusion/exclusion criteria, having adequate sample size to ensure appropriate powering of the study, attention to the state of specimens prior to proteomic analysis, and the use of a replicate set of specimens, when possible. We conclude by discussing some potentially productive uses of proteomics, potentially coupled with other approaches, for future autism research including: (1) proteomic analysis of banked human brain specimens; (2) proteomic analysis of tissues from animal models of autism; and (3) proteomic analysis of induced pluripotent stem cells that are differentiated into various types of brain cells and neural organoids. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1460-1469. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Does Rubella Cause Autism: A 2015 Reappraisal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Jill

    2016-01-01

    In the 1970s, Stella Chess found a high prevalence of autism in children with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), 200 times that of the general population at the time. Many researchers quote this fact to add proof to the current theory that maternal infection with immune system activation in pregnancy leads to autism in the offspring. This rubella and autism association is presented with the notion that rubella has been eliminated in today's world. CRS cases are no longer typically seen; yet, autistic children often share findings of CRS including deafness, congenital heart defects, and to a lesser extent visual changes. Autistic children commonly have hyperactivity and spasticity, as do CRS children. Both autistic and CRS individuals may develop type 1 diabetes as young adults. Neuropathology of CRS infants may reveal cerebral vasculitis with narrowed lumens and cerebral necrosis. Neuroradiological findings of children with CRS show calcifications, periventricular leukomalacia, and dilated perivascular spaces. Neuroradiology of autism has also demonstrated hyperintensities, leukomalacia, and prominent perivascular spaces. PET studies of autistic individuals exhibit decreased perfusion to areas of the brain similarly affected by rubella. In both autism and CRS, certain changes in the brain have implicated the immune system. Several children with autism lack antibodies to rubella, as do children with CRS. These numerous similarities increase the probability of an association between rubella virus and autism. Rubella and autism cross many ethnicities in many countries. Contrary to current belief, rubella has not been eradicated and globally affects up to 5% of pregnant women. Susceptibility continues as vaccines are not given worldwide and are not fully protective. Rubella might still cause autism, even in vaccinated populations.

  1. Reflections on Autism : Ethical Perspectives on Autism Spectrum Disorder in Health Care and Education

    OpenAIRE

    Jaarsma, Pier

    2014-01-01

    In the four papers presented in this dissertation I analyze and discuss various value statements and moral stances, which I regard as unjustifiably harmful for persons with Autism and obstacles for the creation of an Autism-friendly society. In the papers I try to show that the positions underpinning the Autism-phobic moral stances are not warranted and cannot be defended in a good way. In doing so, I hope to transform the harmful moral intuitions underlying these positions into autism-friend...

  2. The Carolina Autism Transition Study (CATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0093 TITLE: The Carolina Autism Transition Study (CATS) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Laura Carpenter, MD RECIPIENT...Carolina Autism Transition Study (CATS) 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0093 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Laura Carpenter...provides a description of the Year 2 progress made and plans for Year 3 for the project entitled “The Carolina Autism Transition Study (CATS).” The goal of

  3. Auditory processing in autism spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlaskamp, Chantal; Oranje, Bob; Madsen, Gitte Falcher

    2017-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often show changes in (automatic) auditory processing. Electrophysiology provides a method to study auditory processing, by investigating event-related potentials such as mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a-amplitude. However, findings on MMN in autism...... a hyper-responsivity at the attentional level. In addition, as similar MMN deficits are found in schizophrenia, these MMN results may explain some of the frequently reported increased risk of children with ASD to develop schizophrenia later in life. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1857–1865....

  4. Instructions to mimic improve facial emotion recognition in people with sub-clinical autism traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael B; Dunn, Emily

    2017-11-01

    People tend to mimic the facial expression of others. It has been suggested that this helps provide social glue between affiliated people but it could also aid recognition of emotions through embodied cognition. The degree of facial mimicry, however, varies between individuals and is limited in people with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). The present study sought to investigate the effect of promoting facial mimicry during a facial-emotion-recognition test. In two experiments, participants without an ASC diagnosis had their autism quotient (AQ) measured. Following a baseline test, they did an emotion-recognition test again but half of the participants were asked to mimic the target face they saw prior to making their responses. Mimicry improved emotion recognition, and further analysis revealed that the largest improvement was for participants who had higher scores on the autism traits. In fact, recognition performance was best overall for people who had high AQ scores but also received the instruction to mimic. Implications for people with ASC are explored.

  5. A Comparison of the Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) for the Quantitative Evaluation of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, David A.; Kern, Janet K.; Geier, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate scores generated from the Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC), a parent-rated measure, and those derived from professionally completed Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) evaluations. A cohort of 56 participants diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder was used for the study, and each child was…

  6. Teaching children with autism spectrum disorder to recognize and express emotion: A review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidal Daou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The developmental literature hasfocused extensively on deficits in the expression and recognition of emotion in people with autism, and has reported on the use of interactive tools to address the problems of affect. The behavioral literature has offered interventions to teach children with autism to engage in appropriate affective displays, and for these gains to generalize more readily to novel conditions. Nevertheless, the topic of affect intervention remains under-researched. Although a handful of affect-training behavioral studies have been published in the last two decades, more research is needed to determine precisely what would constitute science-based best-practice methods to facilitate socialization in autism. This review examines the developmental and behavioral approaches in the study of affect in autism; it reviews behavior analytic interventions that have been carried out in this context and evaluates reasons and potential solutions for the underrepresentation of this topic. Finally, this review offers recommendations for social-skills training that could be adopted by educators and practitioners.

  7. Teaching Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder to Recognize and Express Emotion: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidal DAOU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The developmental literature has focused extensively on deficits in the expression and recognition of emotion in people with autism, and has reported on the use of interactive tools to address the problems of affect. The behavioral literature has offered interventions to teach children with autism to engage in appropriate affective displays, and for these gains to generalize more readily to novel conditions. Nevertheless, the topic of affect intervention remains under-researched. Although a handful of affect-training behavioral studies have been published in the last two decades, more research is needed to determine precisely what would constitute science-based best-practice methods to facilitate socialization in autism. This review examines the developmental and behavioral approaches in the study of affect in autism; it reviews behavior analytic interventions that have been carried out in this context and evaluates reasons and potential solutions for the underrepresentation of this topic. Finally, this review offers recommendations for social-skills training that could be adopted by educators and practitioners.

  8. Prenatal Valproate Exposure and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders and Childhood Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jakob; Grønborg, Therese Koops; Sørensen, Merete Juul; Schendel, Diana; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Pedersen, Lars Henning; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    Importance Valproate is used for the treatment of epilepsy and other neuropsychological disorders and may be the only treatment option for women of childbearing potential. However, prenatal exposure to valproate may increase the risk of autism. Objective To determine whether prenatal exposure to valproate is associated with an increased risk of autism in offspring. Design, Setting, and Participants Population-based study of all children born alive in Denmark from 1996 to 2006. National registers were used to identify children exposed to valproate during pregnancy and diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (childhood autism [autistic disorder], Asperger syndrome, atypical autism, and other or unspecified pervasive developmental disorders). We analyzed the risks associated with all autism spectrum disorders as well as childhood autism. Data were analyzed by Cox regression adjusting for potential confounders (maternal age at conception, paternal age at conception, parental psychiatric history, gestational age, birth weight, sex, congenital malformations, and parity). Children were followed up from birth until the day of autism spectrum disorder diagnosis, death, emigration, or December 31, 2010, whichever came first. Main Outcomes and Measures Absolute risk (cumulative incidence) and the hazard ratio (HR) of autism spectrum disorder and childhood autism in children after exposure to valproate in pregnancy. Results Of 655 615 children born from 1996 through 2006, 5437 were identified with autism spectrum disorder, including 2067 with childhood autism. The mean age of the children at end of follow-up was 8.84 years (range, 4-14; median, 8.85). The estimated absolute risk after 14 years of follow-up was 1.53% (95% CI, 1.47%- 1.58%) for autism spectrum disorder and 0.48% (95% CI, 0.46%-0.51%) for childhood autism. Overall, the 508 children exposed to valproate had an absolute risk of 4.42% (95% CI, 2.59%-7.46%) for autism spectrum disorder (adjusted HR, 2.9 [95% CI, 1

  9. Deep, diverse and definitely different: unique attributes of the world's largest ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ramirez-Llodra

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The deep sea, the largest biome on Earth, has a series of characteristics that make this environment both distinct from other marine and land ecosystems and unique for the entire planet. This review describes these patterns and processes, from geological settings to biological processes, biodiversity and biogeographical patterns. It concludes with a brief discussion of current threats from anthropogenic activities to deep-sea habitats and their fauna.

    Investigations of deep-sea habitats and their fauna began in the late 19th century. In the intervening years, technological developments and stimulating discoveries have promoted deep-sea research and changed our way of understanding life on the planet. Nevertheless, the deep sea is still mostly unknown and current discovery rates of both habitats and species remain high. The geological, physical and geochemical settings of the deep-sea floor and the water column form a series of different habitats with unique characteristics that support specific faunal communities. Since 1840, 28 new habitats/ecosystems have been discovered from the shelf break to the deep trenches and discoveries of new habitats are still happening in the early 21st century. However, for most of these habitats the global area covered is unknown or has been only very roughly estimated; an even smaller – indeed, minimal – proportion has actually been sampled and investigated. We currently perceive most of the deep-sea ecosystems as heterotrophic, depending ultimately on the flux on organic matter produced in the overlying surface ocean through photosynthesis. The resulting strong food limitation thus shapes deep-sea biota and communities, with exceptions only in reducing ecosystems such as inter alia hydrothermal vents or cold seeps. Here, chemoautolithotrophic bacteria play the role of primary producers fuelled by chemical energy sources rather than sunlight. Other ecosystems, such as seamounts, canyons or cold

  10. [Autism: An early neurodevelopmental disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet-Brilhault, F

    2017-04-01

    With approximately 67 million individuals affected worldwide, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the fastest growing neurodevelopmental disorder (United Nations, 2011), with a prevalence estimated to be 1/100. In France ASD affects approximately 600,000 individuals (from childhood to adulthood, half of whom are also mentally retarded), who thus have a major handicap in communication and in adapting to daily life, which leads autism to be recognized as a national public health priority. ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects several domains (i.e., socio-emotional, language, sensori-motor, executive functioning). These disorders are expressed early in life with an age of onset around 18 months. Despite evidence suggesting a strong genetic link with ASD, the genetic determinant remains unclear. The clinical picture is characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication and the presence of restrictive and repetitive behaviors (DSM-5, ICD-10). However, in addition to these two main dimensions there is significant comorbidity between ASD and other neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or with genetic and medical conditions. One of the diagnostic features of ASD is its early emergence: symptoms must begin in early childhood for a diagnosis to be given. Due to brain plasticity, early interventions are essential to facilitate clinical improvement. Therefore, general practitioners and pediatricians are on the front line to detect early signs of ASD and to guide both medical explorations and early rehabilitation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Myths about autism: An exploratory study using focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Rachael Ps; Knott, Fiona J; Harvey, Kate N

    2017-08-01

    Individuals with autism are often stigmatised and isolated by their typically developing peers according to parental, teacher and self-reports. While quantitative studies often report negative attitudes towards individuals with autism, it is still unclear how understandings of autism influence attitudes. In this exploratory study, misconceptions or myths about autism, that is, the cognitive component of attitudes, were examined using focus groups. Purposive sampling was used to recruit undergraduate and postgraduate students, and adults with and without experience of autism, to one of the five focus groups (n = 37). Content analysis was used to identify emergent themes. The data identified seven commonly held beliefs about individuals with autism. The first four were related to social interaction, such as that people with autism do not like to be touched. The fifth reflected the view that all individuals with autism have a special talent, and the final two concerned beliefs that people with autism are dangerous. The findings from this study demonstrate that people with varying experience or knowledge of autism often hold inaccurate beliefs about autism. These findings improve our understandings of lay beliefs about autism and will aid the development and implementation of interventions designed to improve lay knowledge of autism.

  12. An aberrant precision account of autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca P Lawson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by problems with social-communication, restricted interests and repetitive behaviour. A recent and controversial article presented a compelling normative explanation for the perceptual symptoms of autism in terms of a failure of Bayesian inference (Pellicano and Burr, 2012. In response, we suggested that when Bayesian interference is grounded in its neural instantiation – namely, predictive coding – many features of autistic perception can be attributed to aberrant precision (or beliefs about precision within the context of hierarchical message passing in the brain (Friston et al., 2013. Here, we unpack the aberrant precision account of autism. Specifically, we consider how empirical findings – that speak directly or indirectly to neurobiological mechanisms – are consistent with the aberrant encoding of precision in autism; in particular, an imbalance of the precision ascribed to sensory evidence relative to prior beliefs.

  13. What Are the Treatments for Autism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms and later skills. Read more about early interventions for autism. Because there can be overlap in symptoms between ASD and other disorders, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 2 it's important that treatment focus on ...

  14. Beyond pragmatics: morphosyntactic development in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Bennetto, Loisa; Dadlani, Mamta B

    2007-07-01

    Language acquisition research in autism has traditionally focused on high-level pragmatic deficits. Few studies have examined grammatical abilities in autism, with mixed findings. The present study addresses this gap in the literature by providing a detailed investigation of syntactic and higher-level discourse abilities in verbal children with autism, age 5 years. Findings indicate clear language difficulties that go beyond what would be expected based on developmental level; specifically, syntactic delays, impairments in discourse management and increased production of non-meaningful words (jargon). The present study indicates a highly specific pattern of language impairments, and importantly, syntactic delays, in a group of children with autism carefully matched on lexical level and non-verbal mental age with children with developmental delays and typical development.

  15. National Database for Autism Research (NDAR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — National Database for Autism Research (NDAR) is an extensible, scalable informatics platform for austism spectrum disorder-relevant data at all levels of biological...

  16. Autism and green space_clean

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Autism and green space metrics in California elementary school districts. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Wu, J., and L. Jackson. Inverse...

  17. Robots for use in autism research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scassellati, Brian; Admoni, Henny; Matarić, Maja

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are a group of lifelong disabilities that affect people's ability to communicate and to understand social cues. Research into applying robots as therapy tools has shown that robots seem to improve engagement and elicit novel social behaviors from people (particularly children and teenagers) with autism. Robot therapy for autism has been explored as one of the first application domains in the field of socially assistive robotics (SAR), which aims to develop robots that assist people with special needs through social interactions. In this review, we discuss the past decade's work in SAR systems designed for autism therapy by analyzing robot design decisions, human-robot interactions, and system evaluations. We conclude by discussing challenges and future trends for this young but rapidly developing research area.

  18. Autism: cause factors, early diagnosis and therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Shreya; Acharya, U Rajendra; Adeli, Hojjat; Bairy, G Muralidhar; Adeli, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurobiological disorder characterized by neuropsychological and behavioral deficits. Cognitive impairment, lack of social skills, and stereotyped behavior are the major autistic symptoms, visible after a certain age. It is one of the fastest growing disabilities. Its current prevalence rate in the U.S. estimated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is 1 in 68 births. The genetic and physiological structure of the brain is studied to determine the pathology of autism, but diagnosis of autism at an early age is challenging due to the existing phenotypic and etiological heterogeneity among ASD individuals. Volumetric and neuroimaging techniques are explored to elucidate the neuroanatomy of the ASD brain. Nuroanatomical, neurochemical, and neuroimaging biomarkers can help in the early diagnosis and treatment of ASD. This paper presents a review of the types of autism, etiologies, early detection, and treatment of ASD.

  19. Modern problems of diagnosis of autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Iovchuk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available After a brief analysis of the autism problem history in domestic and foreign literature, the authors clarifiy the concept of autism as a form of personality pathology. The major factor in the growth of the number of children diagnosed with Early Infantile Autism, from the point of view of the authors, is its overdiagnosis. This diagnosis is often mistakenly set for children with developmental delays and autistic-like behavior at early residual organic lesions of the central nervous system, in protracted neurotic and cyclothymic depressions occurring in infancy and preschool age and, of course, in early manifestation of schizophrenia. Error diagnoses are of general concern, not only because they grossly distort the statistics and generate chaos in scientific research, but primarily because they affect the treatment and correction strategy, determining education prognosis, vocational guidance, the quality of life. The article presents the main differential diagnostic features that allow to distinguish autism from clinically similar conditions.

  20. Virtual reality for the treatment of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, D

    1997-01-01

    Autism is a mental disorder which has received attention in several unrelated studies using virtual reality. One of the first attempts was to diagnose children with special needs at Tokyo University using a sandbox playing technique. Although operating the computer controls proved to be too difficult for the individuals with autism in the Tokyo study, research at the University of Nottingham, UK, is successful in using VR as a learning aid for children with a variety of disorders including autism. Both centers used flat screen computer systems with virtual scenes. Another study which concentrated on using VR as a learning aid with an immersive headset system is described in detail in this chapter. Perhaps because of the seriousness of the disorder and the lack of effective treatments, autism has received more study than attention deficit disorders, although both would appear to benefit from many of the same technology features.

  1. Science and Science Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oravetz, David

    2005-01-01

    This article is for teachers looking for new ways to motivate students, increase science comprehension, and understanding without using the old standard expository science textbook. This author suggests reading a science fiction novel in the science classroom as a way to engage students in learning. Using science fiction literature and language…

  2. THE EVOLUTION OF THE WORLD’S LARGEST AUTOMAKERS IN THE PERIOD 2013-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin-George TOMA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The automotive industry has always represented an economic engine for many countries. It is dealing with the design, development, manufacture, marketing, and sale of the motor vehicles. Nowadays, this industry is full of intense competition between big auto groups fighting for higher profits and larger market shares. The key players in the automotive market are operating at a global scale in a highly competitive environment. In the last years, Toyota Motor and Volkswagen Group have proved to be the main competitors. The aim of our paper is to analyze the evolution of the world’s largest automakers in the period 2013-2014. The research type is literature review.

  3. Europe's largest solar thermal power plant. [200 kw thermal output supplemented by two 10-kw windmills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossel, U

    1976-03-01

    An overview is given over the solar heating plant which has recently been commissioned in the Camargue (France). This is the largest plant in Europe, with a mean heat output of about 200 kW, for the production of thermal energy from solar energy. The plant consists of 108 parabolic collectors (200 sq. metres) and 48 flat collectors (110 sq. metres). Two windmills with outputs of 10 kW each complete the system. The heat energy produced by the solar collectors is given up to 3 different stores, which in turn are connected to various consumers.

  4. OBJECT TRACKING WITH ROTATION-INVARIANT LARGEST DIFFERENCE INDEXED LOCAL TERNARY PATTERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Shajeena

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an ideal method for object tracking directly in the compressed domain in video sequences. An enhanced rotation-invariant image operator called Largest Difference Indexed Local Ternary Pattern (LDILTP has been proposed. The Local Ternary Pattern which worked very well in texture classification and face recognition is now extended for rotation invariant object tracking. Histogramming the LTP code makes the descriptor resistant to translation. The histogram intersection is used to find the similarity measure. This method is robust to noise and retain contrast details. The proposed scheme has been verified on various datasets and shows a commendable performance.

  5. Female urethral diverticulum presenting with acute urinary retention: Reporting the largest diverticulum with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas Ranjan Pradhan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Female urethral diverticulum is a rare entity with diverse spectrum of clinical manifestations. It is a very rare cause of bladder outlet obstruction and should be considered as a differential diagnosis in females presenting with acute urinary retention associated with a vaginal mass. Strong clinical suspicion combined with thorough physical examination and focused radiological investigations are vital for its diagnosis. Herein we report a case of giant urethral diverticulum presenting with acute urinary retention in a young female. It was managed by excision and urethral closure, and is the largest urethral diverticulum reported till date in the literature.

  6. WISMUT AG: Past, present and future of the largest uranium producer in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madel, J.

    1990-01-01

    The author gives a brief summary of WISMUT AG the largest uranium producer operating in Europe. The jointly owned German-Soviet company operates its production facilities in the southern part of the former German Democratic Republic. Given the new political and economic frame in Germany and the Soviet Union WISMUT AG will receive due recognition. Uranium exploration, mining, and milling activities are summarized from 1946-1989, and a summary of present activities and projections of future activities in the area of decontamination, restoration, and recultivation of present and abandoned mining and milling sites are noted. A statement of WISMUT AG's projected role in the international nuclear fuels market is made

  7. How the largest electric and gas utility companies administer public relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogart, J.D.

    1979-04-12

    This article describes the findings of a survey conducted by the author in the second half of 1978 to determine the sizes of the public relations staffs of the nation's largest operating electric and gas utilities, their budgets, organizational differences, and specific functions. Common public relations issues and major public relations problems of the utilities are identified, as well as recent trends or changes in budgeting and organization. Some functional variations of public relations departments among utility companies were detected and described.

  8. Line Balancing Using Largest Candidate Rule Algorithm In A Garment Industry: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P.Jaganathan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of fast changes in fashion has given rise to the need to shorten production cycle times in the garment industry. As effective usage of resources has a significant effect on the productivity and efficiency of production operations, garment manufacturers are urged to utilize their resources effectively in order to meet dynamic customer demand. This paper focuses specifically on line balancing and layout modification. The aim of assembly line balance in sewing lines is to assign tasks to the workstations, so that the machines of the workstation can perform the assigned tasks with a balanced loading. Largest Candidate Rule Algorithm (LCR has been deployed in this paper.

  9. Foreign exchange risk management : how are the largest non-financial companies in Norway managing their foreign exchange rate exposure?

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksen, Krister; Wedøe, Ola

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate how the largest non-financial companies in Norway manage their foreign exchange rate exposure. This is investigated through the use of a survey distributed to a sample the largest non-financial firms in Norway. According to our results, the largest non-financial companies in Norway have a predefined strategy for managing foreign exchange risk, which is defined by the board of directors or by the management in the organisation. The companies’ mai...

  10. Autism in 2016: the need for answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posar, Annio; Visconti, Paola

    Autism spectrum disorders are lifelong and often devastating conditions that severely affect social functioning and self-sufficiency. The etiopathogenesis is presumably multifactorial, resulting from a very complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. The dramatic increase in autism spectrum disorder prevalence observed during the last decades has led to placing more emphasis on the role of environmental factors in the etiopathogenesis. The objective of this narrative biomedical review was to summarize and discuss the results of the most recent and relevant studies about the environmental factors hypothetically involved in autism spectrum disorder etiopathogenesis. A search was performed in PubMed (United States National Library of Medicine) about the environmental factors hypothetically involved in the non-syndromic autism spectrum disorder etiopathogenesis, including: air pollutants, pesticides and other endocrine-disrupting chemicals, electromagnetic pollution, vaccinations, and diet modifications. While the association between air pollutants, pesticides and other endocrine-disrupting chemicals, and risk for autism spectrum disorder is receiving increasing confirmation, the hypothesis of a real causal relation between them needs further data. The possible pathogenic mechanisms by which environmental factors can lead to autism spectrum disorder in genetically predisposed individuals were summarized, giving particular emphasis to the increasingly important role of epigenetics. Future research should investigate whether there is a significant difference in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among nations with high and low levels of the various types of pollution. A very important goal of the research concerning the interactions between genetic and environmental factors in autism spectrum disorder etiopathogenesis is the identification of vulnerable populations, also in view of proper prevention. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de

  11. Autism in 2016: the need for answers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annio Posar

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Autism spectrum disorders are lifelong and often devastating conditions that severely affect social functioning and self-sufficiency. The etiopathogenesis is presumably multifactorial, resulting from a very complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. The dramatic increase in autism spectrum disorder prevalence observed during the last decades has led to placing more emphasis on the role of environmental factors in the etiopathogenesis. The objective of this narrative biomedical review was to summarize and discuss the results of the most recent and relevant studies about the environmental factors hypothetically involved in autism spectrum disorder etiopathogenesis. Sources: A search was performed in PubMed (United States National Library of Medicine about the environmental factors hypothetically involved in the non-syndromic autism spectrum disorder etiopathogenesis, including: air pollutants, pesticides and other endocrine-disrupting chemicals, electromagnetic pollution, vaccinations, and diet modifications. Summary of the findings: While the association between air pollutants, pesticides and other endocrine-disrupting chemicals, and risk for autism spectrum disorder is receiving increasing confirmation, the hypothesis of a real causal relation between them needs further data. The possible pathogenic mechanisms by which environmental factors can lead to autism spectrum disorder in genetically predisposed individuals were summarized, giving particular emphasis to the increasingly important role of epigenetics. Conclusions: Future research should investigate whether there is a significant difference in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among nations with high and low levels of the various types of pollution. A very important goal of the research concerning the interactions between genetic and environmental factors in autism spectrum disorder etiopathogenesis is the identification of vulnerable

  12. Interactive visual supports for children with autism

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Gillian R.; Hirano, Sen; Marcu, Gabriela; Monibi, Mohamad; Nguyen, David H.; Yeganyan, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Interventions to support children with autism often include the use of visual supports, which are cognitive tools to enable learning and the production of language. Although visual supports are effective in helping to diminish many of the challenges of autism, they are difficult and time-consuming to create, distribute, and use. In this paper, we present the results of a qualitative study focused on uncovering design guidelines for interactive visual supports that would address the many chall...

  13. Is synaesthesia more common in autism?

    OpenAIRE

    Baron-Cohen, Simon; Johnson, Donielle; Asher, Julian; Wheelwright, Sally; Fisher, Simon E; Gregersen, Peter K; Allison, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    Background Synaesthesia is a neurodevelopmental condition in which a sensation in one modality triggers a perception in a second modality. Autism (shorthand for Autism Spectrum Conditions) is a neurodevelopmental condition involving social-communication disability alongside resistance to change and unusually narrow interests or activities. Whilst on the surface they appear distinct, they have been suggested to share common atypical neural connectivity. Methods In the present study, we carried...

  14. The Biolinguistics of Autism: Emergent Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas J. Bourguignon; Aparna Nadig; Daniel Valois

    2012-01-01

    This contribution attempts to import the study of autism into the biolinguistics program by reviewing the current state of knowledge on its neurobiology, physiology and verbal phenotypes from a comparative vantage point. A closer look at alternative approaches to the primacy of social cognition impairments in autism spectrum disorders suggests fundamental differences in every aspect of language comprehension and production, suggesting productive directions of research in auditory and visual s...

  15. The Cerebellum, Sensitive Periods, and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Samuel S.-H.; Kloth, Alexander D.; Badura, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Cerebellar research has focused principally on adult motor function. However, the cerebellum also maintains abundant connections with nonmotor brain regions throughout postnatal life. Here we review evidence that the cerebellum may guide the maturation of remote nonmotor neural circuitry and influence cognitive development, with a focus on its relationship with autism. Specific cerebellar zones influence neocortical substrates for social interaction, and we propose that sensitive-period disruption of such internal brain communication can account for autism's key features. PMID:25102558

  16. Executive dysfunction in high functioning autism

    OpenAIRE

    Burnett, Hollie

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is presently a lack of consistency in research designed to measure executive functioning (EF) in autism that may be attributable to lack of homogeneity or comorbid conditions (i.e. learning disability or additional diagnosis) in test samples. Aim: A systematic review focused on a subset of EF (verbal fluency: VF) was conducted, using only studies of high-functioning individuals with autism (HFA) without an additional diagnosis or learning disability. An emp...

  17. Clinical heterogeneity among people with high functioning autism spectrum conditions: evidence favouring a continuous severity gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodbury-Smith Marc

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASCs are characterized by a high degree of clinical heterogeneity, but the extent to which this variation represents a severity gradient versus discrete phenotypes is unclear. This issue has complicated genetic studies seeking to investigate the genetic basis of the high hereditability observed clinically in those with an ASC. The aim of this study was to examine the possible clustering of symptoms associated with ASCs to determine whether the observed distribution of symptom type and severity supported either a severity or a symptom subgroup model to account for the phenotypic variation observed within the ASCs. Methods We investigated the responses of a group of adults with higher functioning ASCs on the fifty clinical features examined in the Autism Spectrum Quotient, a screening questionnaire used in the diagnosis of higher functioning ASCs. In contrast to previous studies we have used this instrument with no a priori assumptions about any underlying factor structure of constituent items. The responses obtained were analyzed using complete linkage hierarchical cluster analysis. For the members of each cluster identified the mean score on each Autism Spectrum Quotient question was calculated. Results Autism Spectrum Quotient responses from a total of 333 individuals between the ages of 16.6 and 78.0 years were entered into the hierarchical cluster analysis. The four cluster solution was the one that generated the largest number of clusters that did not also include very small cluster sizes, defined as a membership comprising 10 individuals or fewer. Examination of these clusters demonstrated that they varied in total Autism Spectrum Quotient but that the profiles across the symptoms comprising the Autism Spectrum Quotient did not differ independently of this severity factor. Conclusion These results are consistent with a unitary spectrum model, suggesting that the clinical heterogeneity observed

  18. Enhancing studies of the connectome in autism using the autism brain imaging data exchange II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Martino, A. (Adriana); O'Connor, D. (David); Chen, B. (Bosi); Alaerts, K. (Kaat); Anderson, J.S. (Jeffrey S.); Assaf, M. (Michal); Balsters, J.H. (Joshua H.); Baxter, L. (Leslie); Beggiato, A. (Anita); Bernaerts, S. (Sylvie); L.M.E. Blanken (Laura); Bookheimer, S.Y. (Susan Y.); Braden, B.B. (B. Blair); Byrge, L. (Lisa); Castellanos, F.X. (F. Xavier); Dapretto, M. (Mirella); R. Delorme (Richard); Fair, D.A. (Damien A.); Fishman, I. (Inna); Fitzgerald, J. (Jacqueline); L. Gallagher (Louise); Keehn, R.J.J. (R. Joanne Jao); Kennedy, D.P. (Daniel P.); Lainhart, J.E. (Janet E.); Luna, B. (Beatriz); S.H. Mostofsky (Stewart H.); Müller, R.-A. (Ralph-Axel); Nebel, M.B. (Mary Beth); Nigg, J.T. (Joel T.); O'Hearn, K. (Kirsten); Solomon, M. (Marjorie); R. Toro (Roberto); Vaidya, C.J. (Chandan J.); Wenderoth, N. (Nicole); T.J.H. White (Tonya); Craddock, R.C. (R. Cameron); Lord, C. (Catherine); Leventhal, B. (Bennett); Milham, M.P. (Michael P.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe second iteration of the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE II) aims to enhance the scope of brain connectomics research in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Consistent with the initial ABIDE effort (ABIDE I), that released 1112 datasets in 2012, this new multisite open-data

  19. Identifying autism early: The Toddlers at Risk of Autism Clinic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tessa; Clifton, Deirdre; Papadopoulos, Con

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes the Toddlers at Risk of Autism Clinic (TRAC), which utilises the Social Attention and Communication Study (SACS) and/or Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC) play-based assessments to facilitate the early diagnosis of autism. A retrospective audit was conducted of all 42 children assessed over a 3-year period in the TRAC. A semi-structured interview and play-based assessment (SACS and ADEC) were used to aid experienced clinicians in diagnosing autism. Intervention was recommended, and families were routinely followed up. Analysis was conducted on the tools used, the outcomes of assessment, diagnosis and stability of diagnosis on follow-up. During this period, 35 boys and 7 girls were assessed, with a mean age of 25 months. The average waiting time for clinic was 11.6 weeks. Twenty-five patients were diagnosed with autism; 90.5% of toddlers given an initial diagnosis retained that diagnosis at follow-up. Out of the 17 children who were not diagnosed with autism in the TRAC, one child was later diagnosed with autism. Experienced clinicians can use the SACS and/or ADEC to assist with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual diagnosis of autism in toddlers. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  20. Autism Severity and Motor Abilities Correlates of Imitation Situations in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachor, Ditza A.; Ilanit, Tzaig; Itzchak, Esther Ben

    2010-01-01

    Impaired performance in a range of imitation tasks has been described in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and several underlying mechanism have been suggested. This study examined whether imitation abilities are related to autism severity and to motor skills. Furthermore, the performance of children with ASD in four imitation…

  1. Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorders in Adults : the Use of Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) Module 4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaansen, Jojanneke A.; Meffert, Harma; Hein, Simone; Huizinga, Petra; Ketelaars, Cees; Pijnenborg, Marieke; Bartels, Arnold; Minderaa, Ruud; Keysers, Christian; de Bildt, Annelies

    Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) module 4 was investigated in an independent sample of high-functioning adult males with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to three specific diagnostic groups: schizophrenia, psychopathy, and typical development. ADOS module 4 proves to be a

  2. Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorders in Adults: The Use of Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) Module 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaansen, Jojanneke A.; Meffert, Harma; Hein, Simone; Huizinga, Petra; Ketelaars, Cees; Pijnenborg, Marieke; Bartels, Arnold; Minderaa, Ruud; Keysers, Christian; de Bildt, Annelies

    2011-01-01

    Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) module 4 was investigated in an independent sample of high-functioning adult males with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to three specific diagnostic groups: schizophrenia, psychopathy, and typical development. ADOS module 4 proves to be a reliable instrument with good predictive value. It…

  3. Brief Report: The Autism Mental Status Examination--Development of a Brief Autism-Focused Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodberg, David; Weinger, Paige M.; Kolevzon, Alexander; Soorya, Latha; Buxbaum, Joseph D.

    2012-01-01

    The Autism Mental Status Examination (AMSE) described here is an eight-item observational assessment that prompts the observation and recording of signs and symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The AMSE is intended to take place seamlessly in the context of a clinical exam and produces a total score. Subjects were independently…

  4. Ratings of Broader Autism Phenotype and Personality Traits in Optimal Outcomes from Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Joyce; Orinstein, Alyssa; Barton, Marianne; Chen, Chi-Ming; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Ramirez-Esparza, Nairan; Fein, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    The study examines whether "optimal outcome" (OO) children, despite no longer meeting diagnostic criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), exhibit personality traits often found in those with ASD. Nine zero acquaintance raters evaluated Broader Autism Phenotype (BAP) and Big Five personality traits of 22 OO individuals, 27 high…

  5. Category Formation in Autism: Can Individuals with Autism Form Categories and Prototypes of Dot Patterns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastgeb, Holly Zajac; Dundas, Eva M.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Strauss, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing amount of evidence suggesting that individuals with autism have difficulty with categorization. One basic cognitive ability that may underlie this difficulty is the ability to abstract a prototype. The current study examined prototype and category formation with dot patterns in high-functioning adults with autism and matched…

  6. Implicit and Explicit Memory in Autism: Is Autism an Amnesic Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Peggy; Klinger, Laura Grofer; Klinger, Mark R.

    2000-01-01

    This study examined whether children with high-functioning autism have a dissociation between explicit and implicit memory abilities characteristic of medial temporal lobe amnesic disorder. Children (N=14 and ages 6-14) with autism showed intact implicit and explicit memory abilities but did not show typical memory patterns, suggesting they used…

  7. Demographic and Clinical Correlates of Autism Symptom Domains and Autism Spectrum Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Thomas W.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Embacher, Rebecca; Hardan, Antonio Y.; Constantino, John N.; Law, Paul; Findling, Robert L.; Eng, Charis

    2014-01-01

    Demographic and clinical factors may influence assessment of autism symptoms. This study evaluated these correlates and also examined whether social communication and interaction and restricted/repetitive behavior provided unique prediction of autism spectrum disorder diagnosis. We analyzed data from 7352 siblings included in the Interactive…

  8. Neurodiversity: Autism Pride among Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascio, M. Ariel

    2012-01-01

    The neurodiversity movement takes an identity politics approach to autism spectrum disorders, proposing autism spectrum disorders as a positive "neuro-variation" to be approached only with interventions that assist individuals without changing them. This article explicates the concept of "neurodiversity" and places it within…

  9. Setting the Standard for Autism Treatments: National Autism Center Releases Groundbreaking Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczynski, Susan M.; Pollack, Eileen G.

    2009-01-01

    In the United States and throughout the world, one's understanding of autism and other related disorders continues to evolve. Parents, educators, and health professionals today benefit from significant advancements in both the diagnosis and treatment of autism. However, the need to evaluate and select from a list of treatment options can be…

  10. Autism Treatment Survey: Services Received by Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Public School Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Kristen L.; Morrier, Michael J.; Heflin, L.; Ivey, Michelle L.

    2008-01-01

    The Autism Treatment Survey was developed to identify strategies used in education of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in Georgia. Respondents of the web-based survey included a representative sample of 185 teachers across the state, reporting on 226 children with ASD in grades preschool-12th. The top five strategies being used in…

  11. Autism: the quest for the genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Nuala H; Lamb, Janine A

    2007-09-03

    Autism, at its most extreme, is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder, and recent studies have indicated that autism spectrum disorders are considerably more common than previously supposed. However, although one of the most heritable neuropsychiatric syndromes, autism has so far eluded attempts to discover its genetic origins in the majority of cases. Several whole-genome scans for autism-susceptibility loci have identified specific chromosomal regions, but the results have been inconclusive and fine mapping and association studies have failed to identify the underlying genes. Recent advances in knowledge from the Human Genome and HapMap Projects, and progress in technology and bioinformatic resources, have aided study design and made data generation more efficient and cost-effective. Broadening horizons about the landscape of structural genetic variation and the field of epigenetics are indicating new possible mechanisms underlying autism aetiology, while endophenotypes are being used in an attempt to break down the complexity of the syndrome and refine genetic data. Although the genetic variants underlying idiopathic autism have proven elusive so far, the future for this field looks promising.

  12. Autism Spectrum Disorder and intact executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, R; Ansermet, F; Massoni, F; Petrone, L; Onofri, E; Ricci, P; Archer, T; Ricci, S

    2016-01-01

    Earliest notions concerning autism (Autism Spectrum Disorders, ASD) describe the disturbance in executive functioning. Despite altered definition, executive functioning, expressed as higher cognitive skills required complex behaviors linked to the prefrontal cortex, are defective in autism. Specific difficulties in children presenting autism or verbal disabilities at executive functioning levels have been identified. Nevertheless, the developmental deficit of executive functioning in autism is highly diversified with huge individual variation and may even be absent. The aim of the present study to examine the current standing of intact executive functioning intact in ASD. Analysis of ASD populations, whether high-functioning, Asperger's or autism Broad Phenotype, studied over a range of executive functions including response inhibition, planning, cognitive flexibility, cognitive inhibition, and alerting networks indicates an absence of damage/impairment compared to the typically-developed normal control subjects. These findings of intact executive functioning in ASD subjects provide a strong foundation on which to construct applications for growth environments and the rehabilitation of autistic subjects.

  13. Cortical Changes Across the Autism Lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipowicz, Karol; Bosenbark, Danielle D; Patrick, Kristina E

    2015-08-01

    Although it is widely accepted that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) involves neuroanatomical abnormalities and atypical neurodevelopmental patterns, there is little consensus regarding the precise pattern of neuroanatomical differences or how these differences relate to autism symptomology. Furthermore, there is limited research related to neuroanatomical correlates of autism symptomology in individuals with ASD and the studies that do exist primarily include small samples. This study was the first to investigate gray matter (GM) changes throughout the ASD lifespan, using voxel-based morphometry to determine whether significant differences exist in the GM volumes of a large sample of individuals with ASD compared to age- and IQ-matched typical controls. We examined GM volume across the lifespan in 531 individuals diagnosed with ASD and 571 neurotypical controls, aged 7-64. We compared groups and correlated GM with age and autism severity in the ASD group. Findings suggest bilateral decreased GM volume for individuals with ASD in regions extending from the thalamus to the cerebellum, anterior medial temporal lobes, and orbitofrontal regions. Higher autism severity was associated with decreased GM volumes in prefrontal cortex, inferior parietal and temporal regions, and temporal poles. Similar relationships were found between GM volume and age. ASD diagnosis and severity were not associated with increased GM volumes in any region. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Pitch memory, labelling and disembedding in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Pamela

    2003-05-01

    Autistic musical savants invariably possess absolute pitch ability and are able to disembed individual musical tones from chords. Enhanced pitch discrimination and memory has been found in non-savant individuals with autism who also show superior performance on visual disembedding tasks. These experiments investigate the extent that enhanced disembedding ability will be found within the musical domain in autism. High-functioning children with autism, together with age- and intelligence-matched controls, participated in three experiments testing pitch memory, labelling and chord disembedding. The findings from experiment 1 showed enhanced pitch memory and labelling in the autism group. In experiment 2, when subjects were pre-exposed to labelled individual tones, superior chord segmentation was also found. However, in experiment 3, when disembedding performance was less reliant on pitch memory, no group differences emerged and the children with autism, like controls, perceived musical chords holistically. These findings indicate that pitch memory and labelling is superior in autism and can facilitate performance on musical disembedding tasks. However, when task performance does not rely on long-term pitch memory, autistic children, like controls, succumb to the Gestalt qualities of chords.

  15. Expressive drawing ability in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Richard P; O'Kelly, Rachael; Barlow, Claire M; Jarrold, Christopher

    2013-03-01

    The autistic impairments in emotional and social competence, imagination and generating ideas predict qualitative differences in expressive drawings by children with autism beyond that accounted by any general learning difficulties. In a sample of 60 5-19-year-olds, happy and sad drawings were requested from 15 participants with non-savant autism and compared with those drawn by three control groups matched on either degree of learning difficulty (MLD), mental age (MA) or chronological age (CA). All drawings were rated by two artists on a 7-point quality of expression scale. Contrary to our predictions, the drawings from the autistic group were rated similar to those of the MA and MLD groups. Analysis of the people and social content of the drawings revealed that although children with autism did not draw fewer people, they did draw more immature forms than mental age controls. Furthermore, there was tentative evidence that fewer social scenes were produced by the autism sample. We conclude that the overall merit of expressive drawing in autism is commensurate with their general learning difficulties, but the social/emotional impairment in autism affects their drawings of people and social scenes. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Earliest Marker for Autism Found in Young Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... autism. If clinicians can identify this sort of marker for autism in a young infant, interventions may be better able to keep the child’s social development on track. “This insight, the preservation of ...

  17. Psychosis and autism: magnetic resonance imaging study of brain anatomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toal, Fiona

    2009-05-01

    Autism-spectrum disorder is increasingly recognised, with recent studies estimating that 1% of children in South London are affected. However, the biology of comorbid mental health problems in people with autism-spectrum disorder is poorly understood.

  18. Evolutionary approaches to autism: an overview and integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeger, A.; Galis, F.

    2011-01-01

    Autism is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder, which greatly reduces reproductive success. The combination of high heritability and low reproductive success raises an evolutionary question: why was autism not eliminated by natural selection? We review different perspectives on the

  19. Disorganized Cortical Patches Suggest Prenatal Origin of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014 Disorganized cortical patches suggest prenatal origin of autism NIH-funded study shows disrupted cell layering process ... study suggests that brain irregularities in children with autism can be traced back to prenatal development. “While ...

  20. New Data on Autism: Five Facts to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit Button Past Emails New Data on Autism: Five Facts to Know Language: English (US) Español ( ... Tweet Share Compartir Many children are living with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and they need services and ...

  1. Common Gene Variants Account for Most Genetic Risk for Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gene variants account for most genetic risk for autism Roles of heritability, mutations, environment estimated – NIH-funded study. The bulk of risk, or liability, for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) was traced to inherited variations ...

  2. Autism Center First to Study Minimally Verbal Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on. Feature: Taste, Smell, Hearing, Language, Voice, Balance Autism Center First to Study Minimally Verbal Children Past ... research exploring the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a complex developmental disorder that ...

  3. autism among primary school pupils in benin metropolis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emeka Egbochuku

    neuro-developmental disorder that affects a child's social interaction, communication and ... aggressive or quiet and withdrawn. Very often, teachers ... autism, and about six per 1,000 for mild autism spectrum disorder (ASD). He further found ...

  4. Baby Teeth Link Autism and Heavy Metals, NIH Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Release Thursday, June 1, 2017 Baby teeth link autism and heavy metals, NIH study suggests Cross-section ... Sinai Health System Baby teeth from children with autism contain more toxic lead and less of the ...

  5. Revisiting the impacts of oil price increases on monetary policy implementation in the largest oil importers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurtac Yildirim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to test the impacts of oil price increases on monetary policy implementation in the largest oil importers. For that purpose, we estimate structural vector error correction (SVEC models to show the impacts of oil price increases on industrial production, consumer prices and immediate interest rates which are the elements of Taylor rule for the four largest oil importers (the USA, the EU, China and Japan. Our results indicate that oil price increases transmit to output and inflation and lead to fluctuations in industrial production, consumer prices and immediate interest rates which in turn influence the monetary policy stance in the following periods. The basic conclusion of research is that the channels through which oil prices affect output, inflation and interest rates should be identified by the monetary policy authorities of the USA, the EU, China and Japan. We also emphasize the importance of the determination of the optimal monetary policy framework to eliminate the negative consequences of oil price increases.

  6. Rehabilitation of the 6 largest hydropower plants in the Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chingoski, Vlatko; Savevski, Vasil

    2004-01-01

    In 1998, ESM (Electric Power Co. of Macedonia) received a loan from the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD - The World bank) for the cost of the Power System Improvement Project, major part of which is the partial rehabilitation of the six largest HPPs in the Republic of Macedonia. Rehabilitation and life extension of these six largest hydro power plants is given the highest priority in the whole Power System Improvement Project mainly because these HPPs are, in general, fairly old, older than most of the thermal generation capacity and because a significant part of their equipment is wearing out, or is now obsolete with spare parts difficult to obtain. Furthermore, these plants play a vital role in the Macedonian Power System, providing peaking capacity, reserve capacity and frequency control. With the realization of this project, greater hydropower production is expected. It is also expected that HPPs will become a more vital part of the Macedonian Power System, which is also beneficial from an environmental aspect, due to greater usage of renewable energy resources in the country. (Original)

  7. Ownership structure and economic and socio-environmental disclosure in the largest Brazilian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Aquino Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The disclosure of sustainable practices has become important in the search for competitive advantage, so as to meet the expectations of the various stakeholders. Thus, the study aims to investigate the relationship between the ownership structure and the economic and environmental voluntary disclosure in the largest Brazilian companies, analyzing ownership concentration and the identity of the controlling shareholder. For the analysis, we considered the economic, social and environmental perspectives, addressed both individually and jointly. The sample consists of 47 companies from the 100 largest public companies listed on BM&FBOVESPA, according to the magazine Exame Biggest and Best, edition 2013. The research is descriptive and quantitative, using Multiple Linear Regression for statistical analysis. The descriptive analysis of the prospects of (economic, social, environmental and sustainability disclosure showed lower average disclosure for the environmental aspect. The state control organizations stood out with the highest average in three of the four levels of disclosure: economic, social and sustainability. As regards the application of statistical analysis, the regression models were not statistically significant, indicating that, for the companies in the sample, the ownership structure does not influence the economic and socio-environmental disclosure.

  8. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children Referred for Diagnostic Autism Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Sonia A; Spinks-Franklin, Adiaha; Treadwell-Deering, Diane; Berry, Leandra; Sellers-Vinson, Sherry; Smith, Eboni; Proud, Monica; Voigt, Robert G

    2015-12-01

    Increased public awareness of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and routine screening in primary care have contributed to increased requests for diagnostic ASD evaluations. However, given the scarcity of subspecialty autism diagnostic resources, overreferral of children suspected of having ASD may be contributing to long waiting lists at tertiary care autism centers and delaying diagnosis for those children who truly have ASD. To determine whether children are being excessively referred to ASD-specific diagnostic clinics, our objective was to determine the prevalence of true ASD diagnoses in children referred for diagnostic ASD evaluation. Charts of all patients referred to a regional autism center between April 2011 and August 2012 for suspicion of a possible ASD were retrospectively reviewed and demographic and clinical diagnoses abstracted. Only 214 of 348 patients evaluated (61%) received an ASD diagnosis. Thus, concerns about autism are not confirmed by an ASD diagnosis in a significant number of children. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Abnormal glutamate release in aged BTBR mouse model of autism

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Hongen; Ding, Caiyun; Jin, Guorong; Yin, Haizhen; Liu, Jianrong; Hu, Fengyun

    2015-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by abnormal reciprocal social interactions, communication deficits, and repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. Most of the available research on autism is focused on children and young adults and little is known about the pathological alternation of autism in older adults. In order to investigate the neurobiological alternation of autism in old age stage, we compared the morphology and synaptic function of excitatory synapses betw...

  10. The Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ)-Adolescent Version

    OpenAIRE

    Baron-Cohen, Simon; Hoekstra, Rosa A.; Knickmeyer, Rebecca; Wheelwright, Sally

    2006-01-01

    The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) quantifies autistic traits in adults. This paper adapted the AQ for children (age 9.8-15.4 years). Three groups of participants were assessed: Group 1: n=52 adolescents with Asperger Syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA); Group 2: n=79 adolescents with classic autism; and Group 3, n=50 controls. The adolescents with AS/ HFA did not differ significantly from the adolescents with autism but both clinical groups scored higher than controls. Approximatel...

  11. Possible Links among Mirror Neurons and Genes Related to Autism

    OpenAIRE

    MOCHIZUKI, Mai; 望月,麻衣

    2016-01-01

    Autism includes many neurodevelopmental disorders and defi cits in communication. Althoughresearchers have considered various origins, the onset mechanism is still not clear. The aim ofthis article is to provide some clues for interaction of autism with mirror neuronal and geneticfactors. First, the impact of neural brain cells considered to infl uence autism will be discussedwith reference to mirror neurons. Then, the discussion will move to genes related to autism.Consequently, it is argued...

  12. Anxiety in Adolescents with ASD. Autism at-a-Glance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, S.; White, T.; Smith, L.

    2015-01-01

    "Autism at-a-Glance" is a series of practitioner and family-friendly documents created by the Center on Secondary Education for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) designed for high school staff members supporting students on the autism spectrum, as well as family members of adolescents with ASD. The purpose of the "Autism…

  13. Autism Severity and Qualities of Parent-Child Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beurkens, Nicole M.; Hobson, Jessica A.; Hobson, R. Peter

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how severity of autism affects children's interactions (relatedness) and relationships with their parents. Participants were 25 parent-child dyads that included offspring who were children with autism aged from 4 to 14 years. The severity of the children's autism was assessed using the calibrated severity…

  14. Informing Instruction of Students with Autism in Public School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Nai-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    The number of applied behavior analysis (ABA) classrooms for students with autism is increasing in K-12 public schools. To inform instruction of students with autism in public school settings, this study examined the relation between performance on mastery learning assessments and standardized achievement tests for students with autism spectrum…

  15. Anterior EEG Asymmetry and the Modifier Model of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnette, Courtney P.; Henderson, Heather A.; Inge, Anne Pradella; Zahka, Nicole E.; Schwartz, Caley B.; Mundy, Peter C.

    2011-01-01

    Individual differences in the expression of autism complicate research on the nature and treatment of this disorder. In the Modifier Model of Autism (Mundy et al. 2007), we proposed that individual differences in autism may result not only from syndrome specific causal processes, but also from variability in generic, non-syndrome specific…

  16. Suicide Ideation and Attempts in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Gorman, Angela A.; Hillwig-Garcia, Jolene; Syed, Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    Frequency of suicide ideation and attempts in 791 children with autism (1-16 years), 35 nonautistic depressed children, and 186 typical children and risk factors in autism were determined. Percent of children with autism for whom suicide ideation or attempts was rated as sometimes to very often a problem by mothers (14%) was 28 times greater than…

  17. Implicit Learning Abilities Predict Treatment Response in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    early behavioral interventions are the most effective treatment for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), but almost half of the children do not make...behavioral intervention . 2. KEYWORDS Autism Spectrum Disorder , implicit learning, associative learning, individual differences, functional Magnetic...2 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0261 TITLE: Implicit Learning Abilities Predict Treatment Response in Autism Spectrum Disorders PRINCIPAL

  18. Frontal networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catani, Marco; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Budisavljevic, Sanja; Howells, Henrietta; Thiebaut De Schotten, Michel; Froudist-Walsh, Seán; D'Anna, Lucio; Thompson, Abigail; Sandrone, Stefano; Bullmore, Edward T.; Suckling, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Lombardo, Michael V.; Wheelwright, Sally J.; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Lai, Meng Chuan; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Leemans, Alexander; Ecker, Christine; Craig, Michael C.; Murphy, Declan G M; Bailey, Anthony J.; Bolton, Patrick F.; Carrington, Sarah; Daly, Eileen M.; Deoni, Sean C.; Happé, Francesca; Henty, Julian; Jezzard, Peter; Johnston, Patrick; Jones, Derek K.; Madden, Anya; Mullins, Diane; Murphy, Clodagh M.; Murphy, Declan G M; Pasco, Greg; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Sadek, Susan A.; Spain, Debbie; Stewart, Rose; Williams, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    It has been postulated that autism spectrum disorder is underpinned by an 'atypical connectivity' involving higher-order association brain regions. To test this hypothesis in a large cohort of adults with autism spectrum disorder we compared the white matter networks of 61 adult males with autism

  19. Imitation in Fragile X Syndrome: Implications for Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedoni-Luksic, Marta; Greiss-Hess, Laura; Rogers, Sally J.; Gosar, David; Lemons-Chitwood, Kerrie; Hagerman, Randi

    2009-01-01

    To address the specific impairment of imitation in autism, the imitation abilities of 22 children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) with and without autism were compared. Based on previous research, we predicted that children with FXS and autism would have significantly more difficulty with non-meaningful imitation tasks. After controlling for…

  20. Sex Differences in the Reciprocal Behaviour of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer van Ommeren, Tineke; Koot, Hans M.; Scheeren, Anke M.; Begeer, Sander

    2017-01-01

    Differences in the social limitations of girls compared to boys on the autism spectrum are still poorly understood. Impaired social-emotional reciprocity is a core diagnostic criterion for an autism spectrum disorder. This study compares sex differences in reciprocal behaviour in children with autism spectrum disorder (32 girls, 114 boys) and in…

  1. Enhanced Cortisol Response to Stress in Children in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratt, Eve G.; Nicholas, Joyce S.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Carpenter, Laura A.; Hatcher, Charles R.; Meekins, Kirk A.; Furlanetto, Richard W.; Charles, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    Children with Autism often show difficulties in adapting to change. Previous studies of cortisol, a neurobiologic stress hormone reflecting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, in children with autism have demonstrated variable results. This study measured cortisol levels in children with and without Autism: (1) at rest; (2) in a…

  2. 2009 Autism Spectrum Disorder Research: Portfolio Analysis Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, the Office of Autism Research Coordination (OARC) and Acclaro Research Solutions, Inc., on behalf of the Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee (IACC), conducted a comprehensive analysis of the 2009 autism spectrum disorder (ASD) research portfolio of major Federal agencies and private organizations. This is the second annual analysis…

  3. Using Visual Supports for Students with Autism in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fittipaldi-Wert, Jeanine; Mowling, Claire M.

    2009-01-01

    Due to deficits in communication, students with autism experience anxiety and confusion, which cause withdrawal and disruptive behaviors. However, teachers can create a positive educational environment that will facilitate learning by having an understanding of autism and of the characteristics associated with children with autism. One important…

  4. Diagnostic Stability in Very Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Jamie M.; Ventola, Pamela E.; Pandey, Juhi; Verbalis, Alyssa D.; Barton, Marianne; Hodgson, Sarah; Green, James; Dumont-Mathieu, Thyde; Robins, Diana L.; Fein, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) diagnosis in very young children may be delayed due to doubts about validity. In this study, 77 children received a diagnostic and developmental evaluation between 16 and 35 months and also between 42 and 82 months. Diagnoses based on clinical judgment, Childhood Autism Rating Scale, and the Autism Diagnostic…

  5. Joint Attention Revisited: Finding Strengths among Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Sarah; Watson, Linda R.

    2016-01-01

    Differences in joint attention are prominent for some children with autism and are often used as an indicator of the disorder. This study examined the joint attention competencies of young children with autism who demonstrated joint attention ability and compared them to children with developmental delays. A total of 40 children with autism and…

  6. 45 CFR 1308.15 - Eligibility criteria: Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility criteria: Autism. 1308.15 Section 1308... Services Performance Standards § 1308.15 Eligibility criteria: Autism. A child is classified as having autism when the child has a developmental disability that significantly affects verbal and non-verbal...

  7. Cognitive Deficits and Symbolic Play in Preschoolers with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Yan Grace; Yeung, Siu-sze Susanna

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated symbolic play in 12 children with autism and 12 children with typical development and compared theories that consider either theory of mind, executive function or central coherence to be causally involved in the development of symbolic play in autism. Children with autism demonstrated significantly less symbolic play than…

  8. Unauthorized Minds: How "Theory of Mind" Theory Misrepresents Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smukler, David

    2005-01-01

    Recent representations of autism frequently include an assumption that autism is the result of a "theory of mind" deficit (i.e., an inability to understand others' mental states). This notion is examined using a social constructionist perspective. The belief that autism is a sort of "mind-blindness" has much in common with earlier representations…

  9. Minds between Us: Autism, Mindblindness and the Uncertainty of Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Anne E.; Michalko, Rod

    2011-01-01

    This paper problematizes contemporary cultural understandings of autism. We make use of the developmental psychology concepts of "Theory of Mind" and "mindblindness" to uncover the meaning of autism as expressed in these concepts. Our concern is that autism is depicted as a puzzle and that this depiction governs not only the way Western culture…

  10. Outcomes in Adult Life among Siblings of Individuals with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlin, Patricia; Moss, Philippa; Savage, Sarah; Bolton, Patrick; Rutter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about adult siblings of individuals with autism. We report on cognitive, social and mental health outcomes in 87 adult siblings (mean age 39 years). When younger all had been assessed either as being "unaffected" by autism (n = 69) or as meeting criteria for the "Broader Autism Phenotype" (BAP, n = 18). As…

  11. Presentation of Depression in Autism and Asperger Syndrome: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Mary E.; Barnard, Louise; Pearson, Joanne; Hasan, Reem; O'Brien, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    Depression is common in autism and Asperger syndrome, but despite this, there has been little research into this issue. This review considers the current literature on the prevalence, presentation, treatment and assessment of depression in autism and Asperger syndrome. There are diagnostic difficulties when considering depression in autism and…

  12. The Contribution of Epigenetics to Understanding Genetic Factors in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Layla; Kelley, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is a grouping of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by deficits in social communication and language, as well as by repetitive and stereotyped behaviors. While the environment is believed to play a role in the development of autism spectrum disorder, there is now strong evidence for a genetic link to autism.…

  13. Emerging Technologies in Autism Diagnosis, Therapy, Treatment, and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Angela C.

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder is the fastest growing developmental disability today. Autism is a syndrome with a diverse set of symptoms--rarely consistent across diagnosed individuals, and requiring a combination of therapies, educational approaches, and treatments. There is no known cure for autism. Instead treatment is left to educators and…

  14. Brief Report: Concurrent Validity of Autism Symptom Severity Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reszka, Stephanie S.; Boyd, Brian A.; McBee, Matthew; Hume, Kara A.; Odom, Samuel L.

    2014-01-01

    The autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnostic classifications, according to the DSM-5, include a severity rating. Several screening and/or diagnostic measures, such as the autism diagnostic and observation schedule (ADOS), Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) and social responsiveness scale (SRS) (teacher and parent versions), include an…

  15. Assessing Early Implementation of State Autism Insurance Mandates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baller, Julia Berlin; Barry, Colleen L.; Shea, Kathleen; Walker, Megan M.; Ouellette, Rachel; Mandell, David S.

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, health insurance coverage for autism spectrum disorder treatments has been historically limited. In response, as of 2015, 40 states and Washington, DC, have passed state autism insurance mandates requiring many health plans in the private insurance market to cover autism diagnostic and treatment services. This study examined…

  16. Epilepsy and Autism: Is there a special relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Anne T.; Plioplys, Sigita

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly, there has been an interest in the association between epilepsy and autism. The high frequency of autism in some of the early-onset developmental encephalopathic epilepsies is frequently cited as evidence of the relationship between autism and epilepsy. While these specific forms of epilepsy carry a higher than expected risk of autism, most if not all of the association may be due to intellectual disability (ID). The high prevalence of interictal EEG discharges in children with autism is also cited as further evidence although errors in the diagnosis of epilepsy seem to account for at least part of those findings. The prevalence of ID is substantially elevated in children with either epilepsy or autism. In the absence of ID, there is little evidence of a substantial, if any, increased risk of autism in children with epilepsy. Further, although the reported prevalence of autism has increased over the last several years, much of this increase may be attributable to changes in diagnostic practices, conceptualization of autism in the presence of ID, and laws requiring provision of services for children with autism. In the context of these temporal trends, any further efforts to tease apart the relationships between epilepsy, ID, and autism will have to address head-on the accuracy of diagnosis of all three conditions before we can determine whether there is indeed a special relationship between autism and epilepsy. PMID:22381386

  17. Epigenetics of autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanen, N Carolyn

    2006-10-15

    The autism spectrum disorders (ASD) comprise a complex group of behaviorally related disorders that are primarily genetic in origin. Involvement of epigenetic regulatory mechanisms in the pathogenesis of ASD has been suggested by the occurrence of ASD in patients with disorders arising from epigenetic mutations (fragile X syndrome) or that involve key epigenetic regulatory factors (Rett syndrome). Moreover, the most common recurrent cytogenetic abnormalities in ASD involve maternally derived duplications of the imprinted domain on chromosome 15q11-13. Thus, parent of origin effects on sharing and linkage to imprinted regions on chromosomes 15q and 7q suggest that these regions warrant specific examination from an epigenetic perspective, particularly because epigenetic modifications do not change the primary genomic sequence, allowing risk epialleles to evade detection using standard screening strategies. This review examines the potential role of epigenetic factors in the etiology of ASD.

  18. Epigenetics of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Michelle T; Weksberg, Rosanna

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), one of the most common childhood neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), is diagnosed in 1 of every 68 children. ASD is incredibly heterogeneous both clinically and aetiologically. The etiopathogenesis of ASD is known to be complex, including genetic, environmental and epigenetic factors. Normal epigenetic marks modifiable by both genetics and environmental exposures can result in epigenetic alterations that disrupt the regulation of gene expression, negatively impacting biological pathways important for brain development. In this chapter we aim to summarize some of the important literature that supports a role for epigenetics in the underlying molecular mechanism of ASD. We provide evidence from work in genetics, from environmental exposures and finally from more recent studies aimed at directly determining ASD-specific epigenetic patterns, focusing mainly on DNA methylation (DNAm). Finally, we briefly discuss some of the implications of current research on potential epigenetic targets for therapeutics and novel avenues for future work.

  19. My experience learning about autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignol, Daniel A

    2013-11-01

    I remember the first time I heard the word "autistic." I was 10 years old, and my mom mentioned that someone had a child who was autistic. I was confused because I mistook her description as "artistic." In April 2001, our first child, Isaiah, was born. My wife, Lanier, was concerned that he had autism at about 11 months of age, but I did not recognize his obvious problems, even though he was not responding to his name, was obsessed with spinning objects, and did not play with toys appropriately. He also had no language, did not walk until 18 months, and had significant gastrointestinal (GI) problems including severe reflux requiring medication and chronic diarrhea. At 19 months of age, Isaiah was diagnosed with autistic disorder.

  20. Field Note: Threatening Tonle Sap: Challenges for Southeast-Asia’s largest Freshwater Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuenzer, Claudia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Tonle Sap ecosystem in Cambodia is Southeast Asia’s largest freshwater lake; strongly impacted by the Mekong river flood pulse. The lake is home to exceptional biodiversity, and rural communities living in free floating villages on the lake and on its shores. The fragile niche ecosystems as well as the rural livelihoods of Tonle Sap are under severe threat. Overfishing, illegal wood harvesting, further resource exploitation, and water quality deterioration all impact the stability of the socio-ecological system of Tonle Sap. At the same time, expected flood pulse changes due to regulatory measures in the context of hydropower development upstream on the Mekong are a severe threat for Tonle Sap’s ecosystem stability. The area needs to shift into the focus of attention of national and international re-searchers, stakeholders, and decision makers, to find suitable pathways for a future sustainable development of this unique and pristine region.

  1. Fifteen Years of Operation at NASA's National Transonic Facility with the World's Largest Adjustable Speed Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydnor, George H.; Bhatia, Ram; Krattiger, Hansueli; Mylius, Justus; Schafer, D.

    2012-01-01

    In September 1995, a project was initiated to replace the existing drive line at NASA's most unique transonic wind tunnel, the National Transonic Facility (NTF), with a single 101 MW synchronous motor driven by a Load Commutated Inverter (LCI). This Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD) system also included a custom four-winding transformer, harmonic filter, exciter, switch gear, control system, and feeder cable. The complete system requirements and design details have previously been presented and published [1], as well as the commissioning and acceptance test results [2]. The NTF was returned to service in December 1997 with the new drive system powering the fan. Today, this installation still represents the world s largest horizontal single motor/drive combination. This paper describes some significant events that occurred with the drive system during the first 15 years of service. These noteworthy issues are analyzed and root causes presented. Improvements that have substantially increased the long term viability of the system are given.

  2. Mauna Loa--history, hazards and risk of living with the world's largest volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusdell, Frank A.

    2012-01-01

    Mauna Loa on the Island Hawaiʻi is the world’s largest volcano. People residing on its flanks face many hazards that come with living on or near an active volcano, including lava flows, explosive eruptions, volcanic smog, damaging earthquakes, and local tsunami (giant seawaves). The County of Hawaiʻi (Island of Hawaiʻi) is the fastest growing County in the State of Hawaii. Its expanding population and increasing development mean that risk from volcano hazards will continue to grow. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) closely monitor and study Mauna Loa Volcano to enable timely warning of hazardous activity and help protect lives and property.

  3. Approaching the largest ‘API’: extracting information from the Internet with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E. Germann

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the need for libraries to algorithmically access and manipulate the world’s largest API: the Internet. The billions of pages on the ‘Internet API’ (HTTP, HTML, CSS, XPath, DOM, etc. are easily accessible and manipulable. Libraries can assist in creating meaning through the datafication of information on the world wide web. Because most information is created for human consumption, some programming is required for automated extraction. Python is an easy-to-learn programming language with extensive packages and community support for web page automation. Four packages (Urllib, Selenium, BeautifulSoup, Scrapy in Python can automate almost any web page for all sized projects. An example warrant data project is explained to illustrate how well Python packages can manipulate web pages to create meaning through assembling custom datasets.

  4. Quicksort, largest bucket, and min-wise hashing with limited independence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mathias Bæk Tejs; Stöckel, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Randomized algorithms and data structures are often analyzed under the assumption of access to a perfect source of randomness. The most fundamental metric used to measure how “random” a hash function or a random number generator is, is its independence: a sequence of random variables is said...... to be k-independent if every variable is uniform and every size k subset is independent. In this paper we consider three classic algorithms under limited independence. Besides the theoretical interest in removing the unrealistic assumption of full independence, the work is motivated by lower independence...... being more practical. We provide new bounds for randomized quicksort, min-wise hashing and largest bucket size under limited independence. Our results can be summarized as follows. Randomized Quicksort. When pivot elements are computed using a 5-independent hash function, Karloff and Raghavan, J.ACM’93...

  5. Contamination Control Assessment of the World's Largest Space Environment Simulation Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Aaron; Henry, Michael W.; Grisnik, Stanley P.; Sinclair, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    The Space Power Facility s thermal vacuum test chamber is the largest chamber in the world capable of providing an environment for space simulation. To improve performance and meet stringent requirements of a wide customer base, significant modifications were made to the vacuum chamber. These include major changes to the vacuum system and numerous enhancements to the chamber s unique polar crane, with a goal of providing high cleanliness levels. The significance of these changes and modifications are discussed in this paper. In addition, the composition and arrangement of the pumping system and its impact on molecular back-streaming are discussed in detail. Molecular contamination measurements obtained with a TQCM and witness wafers during two recent integrated system tests of the chamber are presented and discussed. Finally, a concluding remarks section is presented.

  6. What could we learn about high energy particle physics from cosmological observations at largest spatial scales ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunov Dmitry

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The very well known example of cosmology testing particle physics is the number of relativistic particles (photons and three active neutrinos within the Standard Model at primordial nucleosynthesis. These days the earliest moment we can hope to probe with present cosmological data is the early time inflation. The particle physics conditions there and now are different because of different energy scales and different values of the scalar fields, that usually prohibits a reliable connection between the particle physics parameters at the two interesting epochs. The physics at the highest energy scales may be probed with observations at the largest spatial scales (just somewhat smaller than the size of the visible Universe. However, we are not (yet ready to make the tests realistic, because of lack of a self-consistent theoretical description of the presently favorite cosmological models to be valid right after inflation.

  7. The role and attributes of entrepreneurs at South Africa´s largest arts festival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Jonker

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Klein Karoo National Arts Festival (KKNK in Oudtshoorn, South Africa, is the largest arts festival in South Africa. The purpose of this research was to determine the attributes and role of the entrepreneurs at the Klein Karoo National Arts Festival. This was done by means of a questionnaire survey (N=249. After data capturing was completed, two factor analyses were conducted. The first factor analysis revealed six factors (entrepreneurial attributes, namely organisational skills, resourcefulness, self-edification, explorative, acquired skill and drive, of which resourcefulness had the highest mean value. The second factor analysis identified the role of entrepreneurs at KKNK and revealed three primary roles, namely festival promotion, product promotion and income generation, of which product promotion had the highest mean value. This is the first time that the roles of entrepreneurs at festivals were investigated in South Africa.

  8. EVALUATION OF E-RECRUITMENT LEVEL AMONG THE LARGEST COMPANIES IN POLAND - PROJECT OF RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Buchnowska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The changes taking place in the labor market cause that it is increasingly difficult to recruit employees with the right skills and competencies to companies. To reach the right candidates, they use modern IT solutions, such as ATS (Applicant Tracking System, which are supporting the processes of recruitment. Among others, they enable the publication of job offers on the Internet - on corporate websites, job portals and business social networking services - and apply for jobs online through these channels. This article pre-sents the evolution of the use of the Internet, and particularly the social media, in the recruitment process and presents a projekt of comprehensive research, which aims is to analyze and evaluate of the level of development of e-recruitment in Poland among largest companies.

  9. Damage and protection cost curves for coastal floods within the 600 largest European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahl, Boris F.; Boettle, Markus; Costa, Luís; Kropp, Jürgen P.; Rybski, Diego

    2018-01-01

    The economic assessment of the impacts of storm surges and sea-level rise in coastal cities requires high-level information on the damage and protection costs associated with varying flood heights. We provide a systematically and consistently calculated dataset of macroscale damage and protection cost curves for the 600 largest European coastal cities opening the perspective for a wide range of applications. Offering the first comprehensive dataset to include the costs of dike protection, we provide the underpinning information to run comparative assessments of costs and benefits of coastal adaptation. Aggregate cost curves for coastal flooding at the city-level are commonly regarded as by-products of impact assessments and are generally not published as a standalone dataset. Hence, our work also aims at initiating a more critical discussion on the availability and derivation of cost curves. PMID:29557944

  10. Using largest Lyapunov exponent to confirm the intrinsic stability of boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavilian-Moreno, Carlos; Espinosa-Paredes, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the study of instability state of boiling water reactors with a method based in largest Lyapunov exponents (LLEs). Detecting the presence of chaos in a dynamical system is an important problem that is solved by measuring the LLE. Lyapunov exponents quantify the exponential divergence of initially close state-space trajectories and estimate the amount of chaos in a system. This method was applied to a set of signals from several nuclear power plant (NPP) reactors under commercial operating conditions that experienced instabilities events, apparently each of a different nature. Laguna Verde and Forsmark NPPs with in-phase instabilities, and Cofrentes NPP with out-of-phases instability. This study presents the results of intrinsic instability in the boiling water reactors of three NPPs. In the analyzed cases the limit cycle was not reached, which implies that the point of equilibrium exerts influence and attraction on system evolution

  11. Using largest Lyapunov exponent to confirm the intrinsic stability of boiling water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavilian-Moreno, Carlos [Iberdrola Generacion, S.A., Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant, Project Engineering Department, Paraje le Plano S/N, Valencia (Spain); Espinosa-Paredes, Gilberto [Area de ingeniera en Recursos Energeticos, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico city (Mexico)

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this paper is the study of instability state of boiling water reactors with a method based in largest Lyapunov exponents (LLEs). Detecting the presence of chaos in a dynamical system is an important problem that is solved by measuring the LLE. Lyapunov exponents quantify the exponential divergence of initially close state-space trajectories and estimate the amount of chaos in a system. This method was applied to a set of signals from several nuclear power plant (NPP) reactors under commercial operating conditions that experienced instabilities events, apparently each of a different nature. Laguna Verde and Forsmark NPPs with in-phase instabilities, and Cofrentes NPP with out-of-phases instability. This study presents the results of intrinsic instability in the boiling water reactors of three NPPs. In the analyzed cases the limit cycle was not reached, which implies that the point of equilibrium exerts influence and attraction on system evolution.

  12. World's largest off-road tires to be recycled

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-07-01

    Suncor Energy is the first company in Canada to use a new technology designed uniquely for tire recycling at oil sand facilities. The technology is owned by CuttingEdge Tire Recycling, a partnership between Denesoline Environmental Limited Partnership and Beaver Environmental Rubber Technologies Limited. Suncor has supported the development of this Aboriginal-owned and operated business by offering land, electricity, diesel fuel and stockpiles of used truck tires from its oil sand mining activities. These tires are the largest off-road tires in the world. In this new technology, tires that are worn-out through oil sand mining are shredded in a portable shredder before being recycled for subsequent use by the Alberta Recycling Management Association. 1 fig.

  13. Enhanced natural radiation exposure enhanced by human activity: the largest contributor to the Chinese population dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Ziqiang; Liu Yanyang

    2011-01-01

    For the radiation exposure caused by human activities, the enhanced natural radiation exposure is the largest contributor to Chinese population dose. This problem has attracted social attention in recent years. Efforts have been made in several fields, such as radon indoors and in workplace, environmental problems associated with NORMs, occupational radiation hazards of non-uranium mine, and radiation dose evaluation for energy chain, but there are still many problems to be solved. In order to protect the health of workers and the public, while ensuring industrial production and economic development, it is also necessary to continue to strengthen research in all aspects above mentioned, and gradually promote the control of natural radiation exposure enhanced by human activities. (authors)

  14. A marine heatwave drives massive losses from the world’s largest seagrass carbon stocks

    KAUST Repository

    Arias-Ortiz, A.

    2018-03-29

    Seagrass ecosystems contain globally significant organic carbon (C) stocks. However, climate change and increasing frequency of extreme events threaten their preservation. Shark Bay, Western Australia, has the largest C stock reported for a seagrass ecosystem, containing up to 1.3% of the total C stored within the top metre of seagrass sediments worldwide. On the basis of field studies and satellite imagery, we estimate that 36% of Shark Bay’s seagrass meadows were damaged following a marine heatwave in 2010/2011. Assuming that 10 to 50% of the seagrass sediment C stock was exposed to oxic conditions after disturbance, between 2 and 9 Tg CO could have been released to the atmosphere during the following three years, increasing emissions from land-use change in Australia by 4–21% per annum. With heatwaves predicted to increase with further climate warming, conservation of seagrass ecosystems is essential to avoid adverse feedbacks on the climate system.

  15. Damage and protection cost curves for coastal floods within the 600 largest European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahl, Boris F.; Boettle, Markus; Costa, Luís; Kropp, Jürgen P.; Rybski, Diego

    2018-03-01

    The economic assessment of the impacts of storm surges and sea-level rise in coastal cities requires high-level information on the damage and protection costs associated with varying flood heights. We provide a systematically and consistently calculated dataset of macroscale damage and protection cost curves for the 600 largest European coastal cities opening the perspective for a wide range of applications. Offering the first comprehensive dataset to include the costs of dike protection, we provide the underpinning information to run comparative assessments of costs and benefits of coastal adaptation. Aggregate cost curves for coastal flooding at the city-level are commonly regarded as by-products of impact assessments and are generally not published as a standalone dataset. Hence, our work also aims at initiating a more critical discussion on the availability and derivation of cost curves.

  16. The largest deep-ocean silicic volcanic eruption of the past century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Rebecca; Soule, S Adam; Manga, Michael; White, James; McPhie, Jocelyn; Wysoczanski, Richard; Jutzeler, Martin; Tani, Kenichiro; Yoerger, Dana; Fornari, Daniel; Caratori-Tontini, Fabio; Houghton, Bruce; Mitchell, Samuel; Ikegami, Fumihiko; Conway, Chris; Murch, Arran; Fauria, Kristen; Jones, Meghan; Cahalan, Ryan; McKenzie, Warren

    2018-01-01

    The 2012 submarine eruption of Havre volcano in the Kermadec arc, New Zealand, is the largest deep-ocean eruption in history and one of very few recorded submarine eruptions involving rhyolite magma. It was recognized from a gigantic 400-km 2 pumice raft seen in satellite imagery, but the complexity of this event was concealed beneath the sea surface. Mapping, observations, and sampling by submersibles have provided an exceptionally high fidelity record of the seafloor products, which included lava sourced from 14 vents at water depths of 900 to 1220 m, and fragmental deposits including giant pumice clasts up to 9 m in diameter. Most (>75%) of the total erupted volume was partitioned into the pumice raft and transported far from the volcano. The geological record on submarine volcanic edifices in volcanic arcs does not faithfully archive eruption size or magma production.

  17. A general scaling law reveals why the largest animals are not the fastest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirt, Myriam R; Jetz, Walter; Rall, Björn C; Brose, Ulrich

    2017-08-01

    Speed is the fundamental constraint on animal movement, yet there is no general consensus on the determinants of maximum speed itself. Here, we provide a general scaling model of maximum speed with body mass, which holds across locomotion modes, ecosystem types and taxonomic groups. In contrast to traditional power-law scaling, we predict a hump-shaped relationship resulting from a finite acceleration time for animals, which explains why the largest animals are not the fastest. This model is strongly supported by extensive empirical data (474 species, with body masses ranging from 30 μg to 100 tonnes) from terrestrial as well as aquatic ecosystems. Our approach unravels a fundamental constraint on the upper limit of animal movement, thus enabling a better understanding of realized movement patterns in nature and their multifold ecological consequences.

  18. Largest solar installation on a hotel in Switzerland; Groesste Hotel-Solaranlage der Schweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadelmann, M.

    2008-07-01

    This article describes the solar thermal installation on the Hotel Europa in St. Moritz-Champfer, Switzerland. The installation provides heat energy for domestic hot water preparation and for the heating of the hotel's indoor swimming pool. A thirty-percent reduction of heating oil consumption has been obtained. The system, which is based on the 'low-flow' principle, provides the highest possible temperature difference while using low pumping energy. The hotel's hot-water circulation system, which ensures fast availability of hot water at the taps, is also discussed. This largest hotel solar installation is designed to meet heating and hot-water requirements during the summer season. The high requirements placed on the materials used are discussed. Schematics are provided and first operational experience is briefly discussed.

  19. Using Largest Lyapunov Exponent to Confirm the Intrinsic Stability of Boiling Water Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos J. Gavilán-Moreno

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is the study of instability state of boiling water reactors with a method based in largest Lyapunov exponents (LLEs. Detecting the presence of chaos in a dynamical system is an important problem that is solved by measuring the LLE. Lyapunov exponents quantify the exponential divergence of initially close state-space trajectories and estimate the amount of chaos in a system. This method was applied to a set of signals from several nuclear power plant (NPP reactors under commercial operating conditions that experienced instabilities events, apparently each of a different nature. Laguna Verde and Forsmark NPPs with in-phase instabilities, and Cofrentes NPP with out-of-phases instability. This study presents the results of intrinsic instability in the boiling water reactors of three NPPs. In the analyzed cases the limit cycle was not reached, which implies that the point of equilibrium exerts influence and attraction on system evolution.

  20. From Pushing Paper to Pushing Dirt - Canada's Largest LLRW Cleanup Gets Underway - 13111

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veen, Walter van; Lawrence, Dave

    2013-01-01

    The Port Hope Project is the larger of the two projects in the Port Hope Area Initiative (PHAI), Canada's largest low level radioactive waste (LLRW) cleanup. With a budget of approximately $1 billion, the Port Hope Project includes a broad and complex range of remedial elements from a state of the art water treatment plant, an engineered waste management facility, municipal solid waste removal, remediation of 18 major sites within the Municipality of Port Hope (MPH), sediment dredging and dewatering, an investigation of 4,800 properties (many of these homes) to identify LLRW and remediation of approximately 450 of these properties. This paper discusses the status of the Port Hope Project in terms of designs completed and regulatory approvals received, and sets out the scope and schedule for the remaining studies, engineering designs and remediation contracts. (authors)

  1. A marine heatwave drives massive losses from the world's largest seagrass carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Ortiz, A.; Serrano, O.; Masqué, P.; Lavery, P. S.; Mueller, U.; Kendrick, G. A.; Rozaimi, M.; Esteban, A.; Fourqurean, J. W.; Marbà, N.; Mateo, M. A.; Murray, K.; Rule, M. J.; Duarte, C. M.

    2018-04-01

    Seagrass ecosystems contain globally significant organic carbon (C) stocks. However, climate change and increasing frequency of extreme events threaten their preservation. Shark Bay, Western Australia, has the largest C stock reported for a seagrass ecosystem, containing up to 1.3% of the total C stored within the top metre of seagrass sediments worldwide. On the basis of field studies and satellite imagery, we estimate that 36% of Shark Bay's seagrass meadows were damaged following a marine heatwave in 2010/2011. Assuming that 10 to 50% of the seagrass sediment C stock was exposed to oxic conditions after disturbance, between 2 and 9 Tg CO2 could have been released to the atmosphere during the following three years, increasing emissions from land-use change in Australia by 4-21% per annum. With heatwaves predicted to increase with further climate warming, conservation of seagrass ecosystems is essential to avoid adverse feedbacks on the climate system.

  2. Early Generalized Overgrowth in Boys With Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawarska, Katarzyna; Campbell, Daniel; Chen, Lisha; Shic, Frederick; Klin, Ami; Chang, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Context Multiple studies have reported an overgrowth in head circumference (HC) in the first year of life in autism. However, it is unclear whether this phenomenon is independent of overall body growth and whether it is associated with specific social or cognitive features. Objectives To examine the trajectory of early HC growth in autism compared with control groups; to assess whether HC growth in autism is independent of height and weight growth during infancy; and to examine HC growth from birth to 24 months in relationship to social, verbal, cognitive, and adaptive functioning levels. Design Retrospective study. Setting A specialized university-based clinic. Participants Boys diagnosed as having autistic disorder (n=64), pervasive developmental disorder–not otherwise specified (n=34), global developmental delay (n=13), and other developmental problems (n=18) and typically developing boys (n=55). Main Outcome Measures Age-related changes in HC, height, and weight between birth and age 24 months; measures of social, verbal, and cognitive functioning at age 2 years. Results Compared with typically developing controls, boys with autism were significantly longer by age 4.8 months, had a larger HC by age 9.5 months, and weighed more by age 11.4 months (P=.05 for all). None of the other clinical groups showed a similar overgrowth pattern. Boys with autism who were in the top 10% of overall physical size in infancy exhibited greater severity of social deficits (P=.009) and lower adaptive functioning (P=.03). Conclusions Boys with autism experienced accelerated HC growth in the first year of life. However, this phenomenon reflected a generalized process affecting other morphologic features, including height and weight. The study highlights the importance of studying factors that influence not only neuronal development but also skeletal growth in autism. PMID:21969460

  3. Embodiment and sense-making in autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne eDe Jaegher

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional functionalist approaches to autism consider cognition, communication, and perception separately, and can only provide piecemeal accounts of autism. Basing an integrative explanation on a single cause or common factor has proven difficult. Traditional theories are also disembodied and methodologically individualistic. In order to overcome these problems, I propose an enactive account of autism.For the enactive approach to cognition embodiment, interaction, and personal experience are central to understanding mind and subjectivity. Enaction defines cognition as sense-making: the way cognitive agents meaningfully connect with their world, based on their needs and goals as self-organizing, self-maintaining, embodied agents. In the social realm, when we interactively coordinate our embodied sense-making, we participate in each other’s sense-making. Thus, social understanding is defined as participatory sense-making.Applying the concepts of enaction to autism, I propose that1Sensorimotor particularities in autism translate into a different sense-making and vice versa. Autistic behaviors, e.g. restricted interests, will have sensorimotor correlates, as well as specific significance for autistic people in their context. 2Socially, a reduced flexibility in interactional coordination can lead to difficulties in participatory sense-making. At the same time, however, seemingly irrelevant autistic behavior can be quite attuned to the interactive context. I illustrate this complexity in the case of echolalia. An enactive account of autism starts from the embodiment, experience, and social interactions of autistic people. Enaction brings together the cognitive, social, experiential, and affective aspects of autism in a coherent framework based on a complex, non-linear multi-causality. On this foundation, bridges can be built between autistic people and their often non-autistic context, and quality of life prospects can be improved.

  4. Epilepsy in autism: A pathophysiological consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yoshiko; Nagao, Yuri; Kimura, Kazue; Hachimori, Kei; Segawa, Masaya

    2010-11-01

    Eighty cases of idiopathic autism with epilepsy and 97 cases without epilepsy were studied to evaluate the pathophysiology of epilepsy in autism. The initial visit to this clinic ranged 8months-30years 3months of age, and the current ages are 5years 8months-42years 3months, 60% reaching to over 30years of age. The average follow up duration is 22.2years±9.4years. The ages of onset of epilepsy were from 7months to 30years of age, with the two peaks at 3.2years and 16.7years. EEG central focus appeared earlier than frontal focus. Abnormality of locomotion and atonic NREM were observed more frequently in epileptic group. These suggest the neuronal system related to abnormality of locomotion and atonic NREM, which are the hypofunction of the brainstem monoaminergic system, is the pathomechanism underling the epilepsy in autism. By showing the abnormal sleep-wake rhythm and locomotion being the very initial symptoms in autism, we had shown the hypofunction of the brainstem monoaminergic system is the initial pathomechanism of autism. Thus, epilepsy in autism is not the secondary manifestation, but one of the pathognomonic symptoms of autism. The brainstem monoaminergic system project to the wider cortical area, and the initial monoaminergic hypofunction may lead to the central focus which appears earlier. The failure of the monoaminergic (serotonergic) system causes dysfunction of the pedunculo-pontine nucleus (PPN) and induces dysfunction of the dopamine (DA) system, and with development of the DA receptor supersensitivity consequently disinhibits the thalamo-frontal pathway, which after maturation of this pathway in teens cause the epileptogenesis in the frontal cortex. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder as Behavior Technicians for Young Children with Autism: Outcomes of a Behavioral Skills Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Dorothea C.; Hawkins, Lynn; Hillman, Conrad; Shireman, Molly; Nissen, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who were interested in working as behavior technicians for young children with autism, participated in 2 experiments. Participants included 5 adults with Asperger syndrome or pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, 19 to 23 years old, and 11 children with autism, 3 to 7 years old. In…

  6. Verification of Parent-Report of Child Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis to a Web-Based Autism Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Amy M.; Rosenberg, Rebecca E.; Anderson, Connie; Law, J. Kiely; Marvin, Alison R.; Law, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Growing interest in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) research requires increasingly large samples to uncover epidemiologic trends; such a large dataset is available in a national, web-based autism registry, the Interactive Autism Network (IAN). The objective of this study was to verify parent-report of professional ASD diagnosis to the registry's…

  7. Randomized Controlled Trial for Early Intervention for Autism: A Pilot Study of the Autism 1-2-3 Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Virginia C. N.; Kwan, Queenie K.

    2010-01-01

    We piloted a 2-week "Autism-1-2-3" early intervention for children with autism and their parents immediately after diagnosis that targeted at (1) eye contact, (2) gesture and (3) vocalization/words. Seventeen children were randomized into the Intervention (n = 9) and Control (n = 8) groups. Outcome measures included the Autism Diagnostic…

  8. Diagnosis, Disclosure, and Having Autism: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of the Perceptions of Young People with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huws, Jaci C.; Jones, Robert S. P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although there is extensive research examining parental experiences of assessment and diagnosis of autism, there is a paucity of research from the perspective of individuals with autism. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine young people with high functioning autism who were capable of providing a verbal account…

  9. Mapping Biomass for REDD in the Largest Forest of Central Africa: the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Aurelie; Saatchi, Sassan

    2014-05-01

    With the support of the International Climate Initiative (ICI) of the Federal Ministry of the Environment, Conservation, and Nuclear Security, the implementation of the German Development Bank KfW, the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) Germany, the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) and local DRC partners will produce a national scale biomass map for the entire forest coverage of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) along with feasibility assessments of different forest protection measures within a framework of a REDD+ model project. The « Carbon Map and Model (CO2M&M) » project will produce a national forest biomass map for the DRC, which will enable quantitative assessments of carbon stocks and emissions in the largest forest of the Congo Basin. This effort will support the national REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation) program in DRC, which plays a major role in sustainable development and poverty alleviation. This map will be developed from field data, complemented by airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) and aerial photos, systematically sampled throughout the forests of the DRC and up-scaled to satellite images to accurately estimate carbon content in all forested areas. The second component of the project is to develop specific approaches for model REDD projects in key landscapes. This project represents the largest LiDAR-derived mapping effort in Africa, under unprecedented logistical constraints, which will provide one of the poorest nations in the world with the richest airborne and satellites derived datasets for analyzing forest structure, biomass and biodiversity.

  10. Dissolved Oxygen Dynamics in Backwaters of North America's Largest River Swamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueche, S. M.; Xu, Y. J.; Reiman, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    The Atchafalaya River (AR) is the largest distributary of the Mississippi River flowing through south-central Louisiana, creating North America's largest river swamp basin - the Atchafalaya River Basin (ARB). Prior to human settlement, the AR's main channel was highly connected to this large wetland ecosystem. However, due to constructed levee systems and other human modifications, much of the ARB is now hydrologically disconnected from the AR's main channel except during high flow events. This lack of regular inputs of fresh, oxygenated water to these wetlands, paired with high levels of organic matter decomposition in wetlands, has caused low oxygen-deprived hypoxic conditions in the ARB's back waters. In addition, due to the incredibly nutrient-rich and warm nature of the ARB, microbial decomposition in backwater areas with limited flow often results in potentially stressful, if not lethal, levels of DO for organisms during and after flood pulses. This study aims to investigate dynamics of dissolved oxygen in backwaters of the Atchafalaya River Basin, intending to answer a crucial question about hydrological and water quality connectivity between the river's mainstem and its floodplain. Specifically, the study will 1) conduct field water quality measurements, 2) collect composite water samples for chemical analysis of nutrients and carbon, 3) investigate DO dynamics over different seasons for one year, and 4) determine the major factors that affect DO dynamics in this unique swamp ecosystem. The study is currently underway; therefore, in this presentation we will share the major findings gained in the past several months and discuss backwater effects on river chemistry.

  11. Is Kasei Valles (Mars) the largest volcanic channel in the solar system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverington, David W.

    2018-02-01

    With a length of more than 2000 km and widths of up to several hundred kilometers, Kasei Valles is the largest outflow system on Mars. Superficially, the scabland-like character of Kasei Valles is evocative of terrestrial systems carved by catastrophic aqueous floods, and the system is widely interpreted as a product of outbursts from aquifers. However, as at other Martian outflow channels, clear examples of fluvial sedimentary deposits have proven difficult to identify here. Though Kasei Valles lacks several key properties expected of aqueous systems, its basic morphological and contextual properties are aligned with those of ancient volcanic channels on Venus, the Moon, Mercury, and Earth. There is abundant evidence that voluminous effusions of low-viscosity magmas occurred at the head of Kasei Valles, the channel system acted as a conduit for associated flows, and mare-style volcanic plains developed within its terminal basin. Combined mechanical and thermal incision rates of at least several meters per day are estimated to have been readily achieved at Kasei Valles by 20-m-deep magmas flowing with viscosities of 1 Pa s across low topographic slopes underlain by bedrock. If Kasei Valles formed through incision by magma, it would be the largest known volcanic channel in the solar system. The total volume of magma erupted at Kasei Valles is estimated here to have possibly reached or exceeded ∼5 × 106 km3, a volume comparable in magnitude to those that characterize individual Large Igneous Provinces on Earth. Development of other large outflow systems on Mars is expected to have similarly involved eruption of up to millions of cubic kilometers of magma.

  12. Motor learning characterization in people with autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Íbis Ariana Peña; Massetti, Thais; Crocetta, Tânia Brusque; da Silva, Talita Dias; de Menezes, Lilian Del Ciello; Monteiro, Carlos Bandeira de Mello; Magalhães, Fernando Henrique

    2017-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder primarily characterized by deficits in social interaction, communication and implicit skill learning. To analyse the results of research on "motor learning" and the means used for measuring "autistic disorder". A systematic literature search was done using Medline/PubMed, Web of Science, BVS (virtual health library), and PsycINFO. We included articles that contained the keywords "autism" and "motor learning". The variables considered were the methodological aspects; results presented, and the methodological quality of the studies. A total of 42 studies were identified; 33 articles were excluded because they did not meet the inclusion criteria. Data were extracted from nine eligible studies and summarized. We concluded that although individuals with ASD showed performance difficulties in different memory and motor learning tasks, acquisition of skills still takes place in this population; however, this skill acquisition is related to heterogeneous events, occurring without the awareness of the individual.

  13. Autism and primary care dentistry: parents' experiences of taking children with autism or working diagnosis of autism for dental examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nicole; Blake, Sharon; Morris, Christopher; Moles, David R

    2018-03-01

    Accessing and receiving preventative dental treatment can be difficult for children with autism due to sensory processing disorders and/or challenging behaviours coupled with a reported reluctance by dentists to treat these children. To gather dental experiences of UK parents of children with autism or working diagnosis of autism and explore how they feel primary care dental services can be improved. A total of 17 parents of children with a diagnosis or working diagnosis of autism took part in semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed thematically. Key themes identified were flexibility of the dental team and environment, confidence of the parents to advocate for their children's needs, continuity of services and clear referral pathways to specialist services. Cross-cutting all themes was the value of clear communication. The experiences provide greater understanding of issues such as hyper-empathy, the dental chair, challenges of the waiting room, perceived medical authority, and the importance of continuation of care. In line with previous research about the importance of family-centred care, a strong relationship between parents and the whole dental team is essential for children with autism to access dental examinations and have satisfactory experience of care. © 2017 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Using Telepresence to Connect and Engage Classes and the Public in the Exploration of Tamu Massif, the World's Largest Single Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanez-James, S. E.; Sager, W.

    2016-02-01

    Research published in 2013 showed that TAMU Massif, the largest mountain in the Shatsky Rise oceanic plateau, located approximately 1500 kilometers east of Japan, is the "World's Largest Single Volcano." This claim garnered widespread public interest and wonder concerning how something so big could remain so mysterious in the 21st century. This disconnect highlights the fact that oceans are still widely unexplored, especially the middle of the deep ocean. Because there is so much interest in TAMU Massif, a diverse outreach team lead by chief scientist Dr. William Sager from the University of Houston in partnership with the Texas State Aquarium and the Schmidt Ocean Institute (SOI) conducted a multifaceted ship-to-shore outreach project that included secondary school students, formal and informal educators, university students and professors, the aquarium and museum audience, and the general public. The objective was to work in conjunction with SOI and various other partners, including the Texas Regional Collaborative, the Aquarium of the Pacific, and the Houston Museum of Natural Science, to promote science and ocean literacy while inspiring future scientists - especially those from underserved and underrepresented groups - through ocean connections. Participants were connected through live ship-to-shore distance learning broadcasts of ongoing marine research and discovery of TAMU Massif aboard the R/V Falkor, allowing audiences to participate in real-time research and apply real world science to curriculum in the classrooms. These ship-to-shore presentations connected to existing curriculums and standards, lessons, and career interests of the students and educators with special teacher events and professional development workshops conducted from aboard the R/V Falkor.

  15. Science and data science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blei, David M; Smyth, Padhraic

    2017-08-07

    Data science has attracted a lot of attention, promising to turn vast amounts of data into useful predictions and insights. In this article, we ask why scientists should care about data science. To answer, we discuss data science from three perspectives: statistical, computational, and human. Although each of the three is a critical component of data science, we argue that the effective combination of all three components is the essence of what data science is about.

  16. Defining Autism: Variability in State Education Agency Definitions of and Evaluations for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinda L. Pennington

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In light of the steady rise in the prevalence of students with autism, this study examined the definition of autism published by state education agencies (SEAs, as well as SEA-indicated evaluation procedures for determining student qualification for autism. We compared components of each SEA definition to aspects of autism from two authoritative sources: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR and Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA-2004. We also compared SEA-indicated evaluation procedures across SEAs to evaluation procedures noted in IDEA-2004. Results indicated that many more SEA definitions incorporate IDEA-2004 features than DSM-IV-TR features. However, despite similar foundations, SEA definitions of autism displayed considerable variability. Evaluation procedures were found to vary even more across SEAs. Moreover, within any particular SEA there often was little concordance between the definition (what autism is and evaluation procedures (how autism is recognized. Recommendations for state and federal policy changes are discussed.

  17. Motivation for everyday social participation in cognitively able individuals with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen YW

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Wei Chen,1 Anita C Bundy,1 Reinie Cordier,2 Yi-Ling Chien,3 Stewart L Einfeld1,4 1Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia; 3Department of Psychiatry, National Taiwan University Hospital and College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan; 4Brain and Mind Research Institute, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Objective: The purpose of the present study was to examine motivation for the contextual nature of motivations for social participation in cognitively able adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder, using self-determination theory as a theoretical framework.Methods: Fourteen Australians and 16 Taiwanese (aged 16–45 years with Asperger’s syndrome and high functioning autism were asked to carry a device which prompted them seven times/day for 7 days, to record what they were doing, with whom, perceived difficulty and social reciprocity, and the reasons for engaging in a situation, which were then coded into degree of self-determination.Results: Multilevel analyses showed that participants were more likely to be self-determined while engaging in “solitary/parallel leisure” and “social activities” than in other types of activities. Interactions with “family members” and “casual/intimate friends” were also positively associated with self-determined motivation. Further, participants were more likely to perceive higher levels of being listened to during interaction with casual/intimate friends than in interaction with other people. Global social anxiety served as a moderator for their perceptions of difficulty and social reciprocity during social engagement.Conclusion: The findings highlight the context-dependent motivations for social engagement of cognitively able individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Keywords: autism, real-life experience, social

  18. Gender discrimination of eyes and mouths by individuals with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Catherine A; Minshew, Nancy J; Strauss, Mark S

    2010-04-01

    Evidence remains mixed about whether individuals with autism look less to eyes and whether they look more at mouths. Few studies have examined how spontaneous attention to facial features relates to face processing abilities. This study tested the ability to discriminate gender from facial features, namely eyes and mouths, by comparing accuracy scores of 17 children with autism and 15 adults with autism to 17 typically developing children and 15 typically developing adults. Results indicated that all participants regardless of diagnosis discriminated gender more accurately from eyes than from mouths. However, results indicated that compared to adults without autism, adults with autism were significantly worse at discriminating gender from eyes.

  19. [Early diagnosis of autism: Phenotype-endophenotype].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsopoulos, S

    2015-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders have for some time been the focus of intense interest for clinicians and researchers because of the high prevalence of the disorders among children in the community (approximately 1%), their severity and pervasiveness. Particular attention has been paid to the early diagnosis of the disorder and to the intensive therapeutic intervention. Currently the best prognosis for autism lays in the early diagnosis and intervention. Postponing the diagnosis and the intervention beyond infancy is considered loss of precious time. The diagnosis of autism, which begins early in life, was until recently considered that could be reliability made at the age of 3 years. Recent follow up studies however on children at risk for autism (children who had an older sibling with autism) have shown that the clinical signs of autism emerge at the end of the first year and become distinct by the end of the second year when the diagnosis can reliably be made. From a clinical perspective it is noted that the early clinical signs of risk for autism are related to social communication (e.g. limited or absent response when calling his/her name and to joint attention), stereotype behaviours and body movements or unusual handling of objects (e.g. intensive observation of objects and stereotype movements of hands and tapping or spinning), incongruent regulation of emotions (reduced positive and increased negative emotion). There is also delay in developmental characteristics such as the language (both receptive and expressive) and motor (particularly in postural control - characteristic is the drop of the head backwards when the infant is held in horizontal position). Studies on various aspects of the endophenotype of certain clinical signs among infants at risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders, such as avoidance of eye contact, delay in verbal communication and increase of the head circumference, may provide useful information and may assist the clinician on follow up in the

  20. BER Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alapaty, Kiran; Allen, Ben; Bell, Greg; Benton, David; Brettin, Tom; Canon, Shane; Dart, Eli; Cotter, Steve; Crivelli, Silvia; Carlson, Rich; Dattoria, Vince; Desai, Narayan; Egan, Richard; Tierney, Brian; Goodwin, Ken; Gregurick, Susan; Hicks, Susan; Johnston, Bill; de Jong, Bert; Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Livny, Miron; Markowitz, Victor; McGraw, Jim; McCord, Raymond; Oehmen, Chris; Regimbal, Kevin; Shipman, Galen; Strand, Gary; Flick, Jeff; Turnbull, Susan; Williams, Dean; Zurawski, Jason

    2010-11-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In April 2010 ESnet and the Office of Biological and Environmental Research, of the DOE Office of Science, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the science programs funded by BER. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized and described in more detail in the case studies and the Findings section. A number of common themes emerged from the case studies and workshop discussions. One is that BER science, like many other disciplines, is becoming more and more distributed and collaborative in nature. Another common theme is that data set sizes are exploding. Climate Science in particular is on the verge of needing to manage exabytes of data, and Genomics is on the verge of a huge paradigm shift in the number of sites with sequencers and the amount of sequencer data being generated.

  1. Examination of Local Functional Homogeneity in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing neuroimaging evidence suggests that autism patients exhibit abnormal brain structure and function. We used the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE sample to analyze locally focal (~8 mm functional connectivity of 223 autism patients and 285 normal controls from 15 international sites using a recently developed surface-based approach. We observed enhanced local connectivity in the middle frontal cortex, left precuneus, and right superior temporal sulcus, and reduced local connectivity in the right insular cortex. The local connectivity in the right middle frontal gyrus was positively correlated with the total score of the autism diagnostic observation schedule whereas the local connectivity within the right superior temporal sulcus was positively correlated with total subscores of both the communication and the stereotyped behaviors and restricted interests of the schedule. Finally, significant interactions between age and clinical diagnosis were detected in the left precuneus. These findings replicated previous observations that used a volume-based approach and suggested possible neuropathological impairments of local information processing in the frontal, temporal, parietal, and insular cortices. Novel site-variability analysis demonstrated high reproducibility of our findings across the 15 international sites. The age-disease interaction provides a potential target region for future studies to further elucidate the neurodevelopmental mechanisms of autism.

  2. Autism, fever, epigenetics and the locus coeruleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehler, Mark F; Purpura, Dominick P

    2009-03-01

    Some children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) exhibit improved behaviors and enhanced communication during febrile episodes. We hypothesize that febrigenesis and the behavioral-state changes associated with fever in autism depend upon selective normalization of key components of a functionally impaired locus coeruleus-noradrenergic (LC-NA) system. We posit that autistic behaviors result from developmental dysregulation of LC-NA system specification and neural network deployment and modulation linked to the core behavioral features of autism. Fever transiently restores the modulatory functions of the LC-NA system and ameliorates autistic behaviors. Fever-induced reversibility of autism suggests preserved functional integrity of widespread neural networks subserving the LC-NA system and specifically the subsystems involved in mediating the cognitive and behavioral repertoires compromised in ASD. Alterations of complex gene-environmental interactions and associated epigenetic mechanisms during seminal developmental critical periods are viewed as instrumental in LC-NA dysregulation as emphasized by the timing and severity of prenatal maternal stressors on autism prevalence. Our hypothesis has implications for a rational approach to further interrogate the interdisciplinary etiology of ASD and for designing novel biological detection systems and therapeutic agents that target the LC-NA system's diverse network of pre- and postsynaptic receptors, intracellular signaling pathways and dynamic epigenetic remodeling processes involved in their regulation and functional plasticity.

  3. Autism in Phenylketonuria Patients: From Clinical Presentation to Molecular Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemir, Sameh; Halayem, Soumeyya; Azzouz, Hatem; Siala, Hajer; Ferchichi, Maherzia; Guedria, Asma; Bedoui, Amel; Abdelhak, Sonia; Messaoud, Taieb; Tebib, Neji; Belhaj, Ahlem; Kaabachi, Naziha

    2016-06-01

    Autism has been reported in untreated patients with phenylketonuria. The authors aimed to explore autism in 15 Tunisian and 4 Algerian phenylketonuria patients, and report their clinical, biochemical and molecular peculiarities. The Childhood Autism Rating Scale and the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised were used for the diagnosis of autism. Five exons of phenylalanine hydroxylase gene (7, 6, 10, 11, and 5) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and directly sequenced. Among these patients, 15 were suffering from autism at the time of evaluation. Six mutations were identified: p.E280K, p.G352Vfs, IVS10nt11, p.I224T, p.R261Q, and p.R252W. There was no correlation between autism and mutations affecting the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene, but the age of diet onset was the determining factor in autistic symptoms' evolution. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Comparing the use of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale and the Autism Behavior Checklist protocols to identify and characterize autistic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Thaís Helena Ferreira; Barbosa, Milene Rossi Pereira; Pimentel, Ana Gabriela Lopes; Lacerda, Camila Andrioli; Balestro, Juliana Izidro; Amato, Cibelle Albuquerque de la Higuera; Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux Miranda

    2012-01-01

    To compare the results obtained in the Autism Behavior Checklist with those obtained in the Childhood Autism Rating Scale to identify and characterize children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Participants were 28 children with psychiatric diagnosis within the autism spectrum that were enrolled in language therapy in a specialized service. These children were assessed according to the Autism Behavior Checklist and Childhood Autism Rating Scale criteria, based on information obtained with parents and therapists, respectively. Data were statistically analyzed regarding the agreement between responses. Results indicating high or moderate probability of autism in the Autism Behavior Checklist were considered concordant with the results indicating mild-to-moderate or severe autism in the Childhood Autism Rating Scale. Results indicating low probability of autism in the Autism Behavior Checklist and without autism in the Childhood Autism Rating Scale were also considered concordant. There was agreement on most of the responses. Cases in which there was disagreement between results obtained on both protocols corroborate literature data, showing that the instruments may not be sufficient, if applied alone, to define the diagnosis. The Childhood Autism Rating Scale may not effectively diagnose autistic children, while the Autism Behavior Checklist may result in over- diagnose, including within the autism spectrum children with other disorders. Therefore, the associated use of both protocols is recommended.

  5. NP Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dart, Eli [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rotman, Lauren [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tierney, Brian [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-08-26

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. To support SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In August 2011, ESnet and the Office of Nuclear Physics (NP), of the DOE SC, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by NP. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.

  6. Robot technologies, autism and designs for learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansbøl, Mikala

    2015-01-01

    technologies involves several very different educational approaches to supporting young people’s learning and development. The paper discusses how robot technologies as learning resources have been related to the field of autism and education, and argues for a need to further expand the areas of application...... in the future, with a focus on children and young people diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders, their ICT interests and engagement in innovative and creative learning. The paper draws on international research and examples from the author’s own research into education for children and young people diagnosed...... with autism spectrum disorders, drawing on teachers’ and the students’ interests in working with ICT (e.g. robot technology)....

  7. Neurobiological correlates of social functioning in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Emily; Beauchaine, Theodore P; Bernier, Raphael

    2010-08-01

    Although autism is defined by deficits in three areas of functioning (social, communicative, and behavioral), impairments in social interest and restricted behavioral repertoires are central to the disorder. As a result, a detailed understanding of the neurobiological systems subserving social behavior may have implications for prevention, early identification, and intervention for affected families. In this paper, we review a number of potential neurobiological mechanisms--across several levels of analysis--that subserve normative social functioning. These include neural networks, neurotransmitters, and hormone systems. After describing the typical functioning of each system, we review available empirical findings specific to autism. Among the most promising potential mechanisms of social behavioral deficits in autism are those involving neural networks including the amygdala, the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, and the oxytocin system. Particularly compelling are explanatory models that integrate mechanisms across biological systems, such as those linking dopamine and oxytocin with brain regions critical to reward processing. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. THE NEWS IN THERAPY OF AUTISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir TRAJKOVSKI

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no specifically marked medicine for the treatment of autism. A number of approaches have been used in evaluating the safety and efficiency of pharmacological treatments of both children and adults with autism. Two study parameters are particularly important, the presence of “blind” and control groups. The highest quality studies utilize equally “blind” and control procedures as well. They have to be performed at multiple sites with a large number of subjects.Research evaluating medicine proposed for treatment of autism, is on the increase. There is accelerated emphasis on medicine testing and better information on treatments should be more available than in the past. In this article, the following classes of medicine and therapies will be discussed: possible future medicine treatments - such as oxytocin, tetrahydrobiopterin and ampakines, hormone therapies, anti-yeast therapies, vitamin therapies, dimethylglycine, alpha lipoic acid and diet therapies.

  9. Why Does Music Therapy Help in Autism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Khetrapal

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Music therapy is shown to be an effective intervention for emotional recognition deficits in autism. However, researchers to date have yet to propose a model that accounts for the neurobiological and cognitive components that are responsible for such improvements. The current paper outlines a model whereby the encoding of tonal pitch is proposed as the underlying mechanism. Accurate tonal pitch perception is important for recognizing emotions like happiness and sadness in the auditory domain. Once acquired, the ability to perceive tonal pitch functions as a domain-specific module that proves beneficial for music cognition. There is biological preparedness for the development of such a module and it is hypothesized to be preserved in autism. The current paper reinforces the need to build intervention programs based on this preserved module in autism, and proposes that this module may form the basis for a range of benefits related to music therapy. Possible brain areas associated with this module are suggested.

  10. [Psychotic forms of atypical autism in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simashkova, N V

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine clinical borders of psychotic forms of atypical autism in children, its psychopathological and age-specific manifestations as well as nosological peculiarities and to specify its pathogenetic features. Eighty patients with childhood endogenous autism, Rett syndrome, fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome have been studied during 14 years. The study showed that psychoses similar by symptoms and course, which are characterized by attacks and regressive-catatonic disorders, may develop in the course of atypical autism. These psychoses develop on the background of dysontogenesis with consequent replacement of the following stages: autistic, regressive, catatonic, with returning to the autistic stage between attacks. Psychopathological similarity of these psychoses in different disorders correlated with EEG changes of the same type (appearance of the marked I-rhythm at the regressive stage of psychosis).

  11. The familial risk of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandin, Sven; Lichtenstein, Paul; Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Larsson, Henrik; Hultman, Christina M; Reichenberg, Abraham

    2014-05-07

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aggregates in families, but the individual risk and to what extent this is caused by genetic factors or shared or nonshared environmental factors remains unresolved. To provide estimates of familial aggregation and heritability of ASD. A population-based cohort including 2,049,973 Swedish children born 1982 through 2006. We identified 37,570 twin pairs, 2,642,064 full sibling pairs, 432,281 maternal and 445,531 paternal half sibling pairs, and 5,799,875 cousin pairs. Diagnoses of ASD to December 31, 2009 were ascertained. The relative recurrence risk (RRR) measures familial aggregation of disease. The RRR is the relative risk of autism in a participant with a sibling or cousin who has the diagnosis (exposed) compared with the risk in a participant with no diagnosed family member (unexposed). We calculated RRR for both ASD and autistic disorder adjusting for age, birth year, sex, parental psychiatric history, and parental age. We estimated how much of the probability of developing ASD can be related to genetic (additive and dominant) and environmental (shared and nonshared) factors. In the sample, 14,516 children were diagnosed with ASD, of whom 5689 had autistic disorder. The RRR and rate per 100,000 person-years for ASD among monozygotic twins was estimated to be 153.0 (95% CI, 56.7-412.8; rate, 6274 for exposed vs 27 for unexposed ); for dizygotic twins, 8.2 (95% CI, 3.7-18.1; rate, 805 for exposed vs 55 for unexposed); for full siblings, 10.3 (95% CI, 9.4-11.3; rate, 829 for exposed vs 49 for unexposed); for maternal half siblings, 3.3 (95% CI, 2.6-4.2; rate, 492 for exposed vs 94 for unexposed); for paternal half siblings, 2.9 (95% CI, 2.2-3.7; rate, 371 for exposed vs 85 for unexposed); and for cousins, 2.0 (95% CI, 1.8-2.2; rate, 155 for exposed vs 49 for unexposed). The RRR pattern was similar for autistic disorder but of slightly higher magnitude.We found support for a disease etiology including only additive genetic and

  12. Fusion Energy Sciences Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dart, Eli [ESNet, Berkeley, CA (United States); Tierney, Brian [ESNet, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-09-26

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In December 2011, ESnet and the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES), of the DOE Office of Science (SC), organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by FES. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.

  13. Landscapes of thermal inequity: disproportionate exposure to urban heat in the three largest US cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Bruce C.; Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2015-11-01

    Heat waves are the most significant cause of mortality in the US compared to other natural hazards. Prior studies have found increased heat exposure for individuals of lower socioeconomic status in several US cities, but few comparative analyses of the social distribution of urban heat have been conducted. To address this gap, our paper examines and compares the environmental justice consequences of urban heat risk in the three largest US cities: New York City, Los Angeles, and Chicago. Risk to urban heat is estimated on the basis of three characteristics of the urban thermal landscape: land surface temperature, vegetation abundance, and structural density of the built urban environment. These variables are combined to develop an urban heat risk index, which is then statistically compared with social vulnerability indicators representing socioeconomic status, age, disability, race/ethnicity, and linguistic isolation. The results indicate a consistent and significant statistical association between lower socioeconomic and minority status and greater urban heat risk, in all three cities. Our findings support a growing body of environmental justice literature that indicates the presence of a landscape of thermal inequity in US cities and underscores the need to conduct comparative analyses of social inequities in exposure to urban heat.

  14. KEPLER-1647B: THE LARGEST AND LONGEST-PERIOD KEPLER TRANSITING CIRCUMBINARY PLANET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostov, Veselin B. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Orosz, Jerome A.; Welsh, William F.; Short, Donald R. [Department of Astronomy, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Doyle, Laurance R. [SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Principia College, IMoP, One Maybeck Place, Elsah, IL 62028 (United States); Fabrycky, Daniel C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Haghighipour, Nader [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii-Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Quarles, Billy [Department of Physics and Physical Science, The University of Nebraska at Kearney, Kearney, NE 68849 (United States); Cochran, William D.; Endl, Michael [McDonald Observatory, The University of Texas as Austin, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Ford, Eric B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 428A Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Gregorio, Joao [Atalaia Group and Crow-Observatory, Portalegre (Portugal); Hinse, Tobias C. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Advanced Astronomy and Space Science Division, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Isaacson, Howard [Department of Astronomy, University of California Berkeley, 501 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Jenkins, Jon M. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Jensen, Eric L. N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA 19081 (United States); Kane, Stephen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Kull, Ilya, E-mail: veselin.b.kostov@nasa.gov [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); and others

    2016-08-10

    We report the discovery of a new Kepler transiting circumbinary planet (CBP). This latest addition to the still-small family of CBPs defies the current trend of known short-period planets orbiting near the stability limit of binary stars. Unlike the previous discoveries, the planet revolving around the eclipsing binary system Kepler-1647 has a very long orbital period (∼1100 days) and was at conjunction only twice during the Kepler mission lifetime. Due to the singular configuration of the system, Kepler-1647b is not only the longest-period transiting CBP at the time of writing, but also one of the longest-period transiting planets. With a radius of 1.06 ± 0.01 R {sub Jup}, it is also the largest CBP to date. The planet produced three transits in the light curve of Kepler-1647 (one of them during an eclipse, creating a syzygy) and measurably perturbed the times of the stellar eclipses, allowing us to measure its mass, 1.52 ± 0.65 M {sub Jup}. The planet revolves around an 11-day period eclipsing binary consisting of two solar-mass stars on a slightly inclined, mildly eccentric ( e {sub bin} = 0.16), spin-synchronized orbit. Despite having an orbital period three times longer than Earth’s, Kepler-1647b is in the conservative habitable zone of the binary star throughout its orbit.

  15. Evidence for protection of targeted reef fish on the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina-Amargós, Fabián; González-Sansón, Gaspar; Martín-Blanco, Félix; Valdivia, Abel

    2014-01-01

    Marine reserves can restore fish abundance and diversity in areas impacted by overfishing, but the effectiveness of reserves in developing countries where resources for enforcement are limited, have seldom been evaluated. Here we assess whether the establishment in 1996 of the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean, Gardens of the Queen in Cuba, has had a positive effect on the abundance of commercially valuable reef fish species in relation to neighboring unprotected areas. We surveyed 25 sites, including two reef habitats (reef crest and reef slope), inside and outside the marine reserve, on five different months, and over a one-and-a-half year period. Densities of the ten most frequent, highly targeted, and relatively large fish species showed a significant variability across the archipelago for both reef habitats that depended on the month of survey. These ten species showed a tendency towards higher abundance inside the reserve in both reef habitats for most months during the study. Average fish densities pooled by protection level, however, showed that five out of these ten species were at least two-fold significantly higher inside than outside the reserve at one or both reef habitats. Supporting evidence from previously published studies in the area indicates that habitat complexity and major benthic communities were similar inside and outside the reserve, while fishing pressure appeared to be homogeneous across the archipelago before reserve establishment. Although poaching may occur within the reserve, especially at the boundaries, effective protection from fishing was the most plausible explanation for the patterns observed.

  16. Scaling relationships among drivers of aquatic respiration from the smallest to the largest freshwater ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ed K; Schoolmaster, Donald; Amado, A.M; Stets, Edward G.; Lennon, J.T.; Domaine, L.; Cotner, J.B.

    2016-01-01

    To address how various environmental parameters control or constrain planktonic respiration (PR), we used geometric scaling relationships and established biological scaling laws to derive quantitative predictions for the relationships among key drivers of PR. We then used empirical measurements of PR and environmental (soluble reactive phosphate [SRP], carbon [DOC], chlorophyll a [Chl-a)], and temperature) and landscape parameters (lake area [LA] and watershed area [WA]) from a set of 44 lakes that varied in size and trophic status to test our hypotheses. We found that landscape-level processes affected PR through direct effects on DOC and temperature and indirectly via SRP. In accordance with predictions made from known relationships and scaling laws, scale coefficients (the parameter that describes the shape of a relationship between 2 variables) were found to be negative and have an absolute value 1, others respiration from small pond catchments to the largest body of freshwater on the planet, Lake Superior, these findings should be applicable to controls of PR for the great majority of temperate aquatic ecosystems.

  17. Sources and distribution of microplastics in China's largest inland lake - Qinghai Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiong; Zhang, Kai; Chen, Xianchuan; Shi, Huahong; Luo, Ze; Wu, Chenxi

    2018-04-01

    Microplastic pollution was studied in China's largest inland lake - Qinghai Lake in this work. Microplastics were detected with abundance varies from 0.05 × 10 5 to 7.58 × 10 5 items km -2 in the lake surface water, 0.03 × 10 5 to 0.31 × 10 5 items km -2 in the inflowing rivers, 50 to 1292 items m -2 in the lakeshore sediment, and 2 to 15 items per individual in the fish samples, respectively. Small microplastics (0.1-0.5 mm) dominated in the lake surface water while large microplastics (1-5 mm) are more abundant in the river samples. Microplastics were predominantly in sheet and fiber shapes in the lake and river water samples but were more diverse in the lakeshore sediment samples. Polymer types of microplastics were mainly polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) as identified using Raman Spectroscopy. Spatially, microplastic abundance was the highest in the central part of the lake, likely due to the transport of lake current. Based on the higher abundance of microplastics near the tourist access points, plastic wastes from tourism are considered as an important source of microplastics in Qinghai Lake. As an important area for wildlife conservation, better waste management practice should be implemented, and waste disposal and recycling infrastructures should be improved for the protection of Qinghai Lake. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The largest human cognitive performance dataset reveals insights into the effects of lifestyle factors and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Sternberg

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Making new breakthroughs in understanding the processes underlying human cognition may depend on the availability of very large datasets that have not historically existed in psychology and neuroscience. Lumosity is a web-based cognitive training platform that has grown to include over 600 million cognitive training task results from over 35 million individuals, comprising the largest existing dataset of human cognitive performance. As part of the Human Cognition Project, Lumosity’s collaborative research program to understand the human mind, Lumos Labs researchers and external research collaborators have begun to explore this dataset in order uncover novel insights about the correlates of cognitive performance. This paper presents two preliminary demonstrations of some of the kinds of questions that can be examined with the dataset. The first example focuses on replicating known findings relating lifestyle factors to baseline cognitive performance in a demographically diverse, healthy population at a much larger scale than has previously been available. The second example examines a question that would likely be very difficult to study in laboratory-based and existing online experimental research approaches: specifically, how learning ability for different types of cognitive tasks changes with age. We hope that these examples will provoke the imagination of researchers who are interested in collaborating to answer fundamental questions about human cognitive performance.

  19. Reconstructing the population history of the largest tribe of India: the Dravidian speaking Gond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Tamang, Rakesh; Pennarun, Erwan; Dubey, Pavan; Rai, Niraj; Upadhyay, Rakesh Kumar; Meena, Rajendra Prasad; Patel, Jayanti R; van Driem, George; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Metspalu, Mait; Villems, Richard

    2017-04-01

    The Gond comprise the largest tribal group of India with a population exceeding 12 million. Linguistically, the Gond belong to the Gondi-Manda subgroup of the South Central branch of the Dravidian language family. Ethnographers, anthropologists and linguists entertain mutually incompatible hypotheses on their origin. Genetic studies of these people have thus far suffered from the low resolution of the genetic data or the limited number of samples. Therefore, to gain a more comprehensive view on ancient ancestry and genetic affinities of the Gond with the neighbouring populations speaking Indo-European, Dravidian and Austroasiatic languages, we have studied four geographically distinct groups of Gond using high-resolution data. All the Gond groups share a common ancestry with a certain degree of isolation and differentiation. Our allele frequency and haplotype-based analyses reveal that the Gond share substantial genetic ancestry with the Indian Austroasiatic (ie, Munda) groups, rather than with the other Dravidian groups to whom they are most closely related linguistically.

  20. A study on the regionalization of tornadogenesis for the domestic largest scale of tornado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Soichiro; Nohara, Daisuke; Hirakuchi, Hiromaru

    2014-01-01

    A new regulatory guide has been issued by the Nuclear Regulation Authority of Japan since the last year. According to this guide, electric power companies have to assess the influence of tornadoes on their nuclear power plants for operation. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the likelihood of the occurrence of F3 tornadoes, which are the largest encountered in Japan, and to consider the possibility of the regionalization of the maximum wind speed. Then, mesoscale analysis with a numerical meteorological model and re-analysis data is performed along with synoptic scale analysis. Especially, tornado parameters such as SReH (Storm Relative Helicity) and CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) are used for evaluating the potential tornadogenesis of F3 tornado. Both analyses indicate that favorable meteorological condition tends to occur in the coastal zones in the Pacific side west of Ibaraki and around Kyushu island. The frequency in these zones is different from the one in the other area in the order of 1 or 2, which is large enough for regionalization. (author)

  1. Vascular access in lipoprotein apheresis: a retrospective analysis from the UK's largest lipoprotein apheresis centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Daniel J; Pottle, Alison; Malietzis, George; Hakim, Nadey; Barbir, Mahmoud; Crane, Jeremy S

    2018-01-01

    Lipoprotein apheresis (LA) has proven to be an effective, safe and life-saving therapy. Vascular access is needed to facilitate this treatment but has recognised complications. Despite consistency in treatment indication and duration there are no guidelines in place. The aim of this study is to characterise vascular access practice at the UK's largest LA centre and forward suggestions for future approaches. A retrospective analysis of vascular access strategies was undertaken in all patients who received LA treatment in the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) Apheresis Unit at Harefield Hospital (Middlesex, UK) from November 2000 to March 2016. Fifty-three former and current patients underwent 4260 LA treatments. Peripheral vein cannulation represented 79% of initial vascular access strategies with arteriovenous (AV) fistula use accounting for 15%. Last used method of vascular access was peripheral vein cannulation in 57% versus AV fistula in 32%. Total AV fistula failure rate was 37%. Peripheral vein cannulation remains the most common method to facilitate LA. Practice trends indicate a move towards AV fistula creation; the favoured approach receiving support from the expert body in this area. AV fistula failure rate is high and of great concern, therefore we suggest the implementation of upper limb ultrasound vascular mapping in all patients who meet treatment eligibility criteria. We encourage close ties between apheresis units and specialist surgical centres to facilitate patient counselling and monitoring. Further prospective data regarding fistula failure is needed in this expanding treatment field.

  2. Sistema Faro, Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico: speleogenesis of the worlds largest flank margin cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lace, M. J.; Kambesis, P. N.; Mylroie, J. E.

    2016-01-01

    Isla de Mona, a small, uplifted carbonate plateau jutting out of the waters of the Mona Passage, is an incredibly fragile and densely karstic environment. Expedition work was conducted by the Isla de Mona Project in cooperation with the Departamento Recursos Naturales y Ambientales de Puerto Rico (DRNA), including contributions from many researchers and cavers volunteering from across the U.S and Puerto Rico in the course of 12 separate expeditions, spanning a 14 year period (1998 to 2013). Over 200 caves have been documented on the island to date, the majority of this inventory is composed of flank margin caves but also includes sea caves, pit caves and talus caves. The most extensive example of cave development on the island is Sistema Faro - a sprawling maze-like series of chambers formed within the eastern point of the island with over 40 cliffside entrances overlooking the Caribbean Sea. Detailed cartography and analysis of the geomorphology and development of the Sistema Faro has helped form a complex model of carbonate island cave development as a function of tectonic uplift, lithology, sea level changes, karst hydrogeology and cliff retreat. This communication examines the roles these controls have played in the genesis of the world's largest flank margin cave. (Author)

  3. Stand Up for the Burrup: Saving the Largest Aboriginal Rock Art Precinct in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Gregory

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dampier Rock Art Precinct contains the largest and most ancient collection of Aboriginal rock art in Australia. The cultural landscape created by generations of Aboriginal people includes images of long-extinct fauna and demonstrates the response of peoples to a changing climate over thousands of years as well as the continuity of lived experience. Despite Australian national heritage listing in 2007, this cultural landscape continues to be threatened by industrial development. Rock art on the eastern side of the archipelago, on the Burrup Peninsula, was relocated following the discovery of adjacent off-shore gas reserves so that a major gas plant could be constructed. Work has now begun on the construction of a second major gas plant nearby. This article describes the rock art of the Dampier Archipelago and the troubled history of European-Aboriginal contact history, before examining the impact of industry on the region and its environment. The destruction of Aboriginal rock art to meet the needs of industry is an example of continuing indifference to Aboriginal culture. While the complex struggle to protect the cultural landscape of the Burrup, in particular, involving Indigenous people, archaeologists, historians, state and federal politicians, government bureaucrats and multi-national companies, eventually led to national heritage listing, it is not clear that the battle to save the Burrup has been won.

  4. Percolation under noise: Detecting explosive percolation using the second-largest component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viles, Wes; Ginestet, Cedric E.; Tang, Ariana; Kramer, Mark A.; Kolaczyk, Eric D.

    2016-05-01

    We consider the problem of distinguishing between different rates of percolation under noise. A statistical model of percolation is constructed allowing for the birth and death of edges as well as the presence of noise in the observations. This graph-valued stochastic process is composed of a latent and an observed nonstationary process, where the observed graph process is corrupted by type-I and type-II errors. This produces a hidden Markov graph model. We show that for certain choices of parameters controlling the noise, the classical (Erdős-Rényi) percolation is visually indistinguishable from a more rapid form of percolation. In this setting, we compare two different criteria for discriminating between these two percolation models, based on the interquartile range (IQR) of the first component's size, and on the maximal size of the second-largest component. We show through data simulations that this second criterion outperforms the IQR of the first component's size, in terms of discriminatory power. The maximal size of the second component therefore provides a useful statistic for distinguishing between different rates of percolation, under physically motivated conditions for the birth and death of edges, and under noise. The potential application of the proposed criteria for the detection of clinically relevant percolation in the context of applied neuroscience is also discussed.

  5. North Andean origin and diversification of the largest ithomiine butterfly genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa De-Silva, Donna; Mota, Luísa L.; Chazot, Nicolas; Mallarino, Ricardo; Silva-Brandão, Karina L.; Piñerez, Luz Miryam Gómez; Freitas, André V.L.; Lamas, Gerardo; Joron, Mathieu; Mallet, James; Giraldo, Carlos E.; Uribe, Sandra; Särkinen, Tiina; Knapp, Sandra; Jiggins, Chris D.; Willmott, Keith R.; Elias, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    The Neotropics harbour the most diverse flora and fauna on Earth. The Andes are a major centre of diversification and source of diversity for adjacent areas in plants and vertebrates, but studies on insects remain scarce, even though they constitute the largest fraction of terrestrial biodiversity. Here, we combine molecular and morphological characters to generate a dated phylogeny of the butterfly genus Pteronymia (Nymphalidae: Danainae), which we use to infer spatial, elevational and temporal diversification patterns. We first propose six taxonomic changes that raise the generic species total to 53, making Pteronymia the most diverse genus of the tribe Ithomiini. Our biogeographic reconstruction shows that Pteronymia originated in the Northern Andes, where it diversified extensively. Some lineages colonized lowlands and adjacent montane areas, but diversification in those areas remained scarce. The recent colonization of lowland areas was reflected by an increase in the rate of evolution of species’ elevational ranges towards present. By contrast, speciation rate decelerated with time, with no extinction. The geological history of the Andes and adjacent regions have likely contributed to Pteronymia diversification by providing compartmentalized habitats and an array of biotic and abiotic conditions, and by limiting dispersal between some areas while promoting interchange across others. PMID:28387233

  6. Level of patient and operator dose in the largest cardiac centre in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsapaki, V.; Patsilinakos, S.; Voudris, V.; Magginas, A.; Pavlidis, S.; Maounis, T.; Theodorakis, G.; Koutelou, M.; Vrantza, T.; Nearchou, M.; Nikolaki, N.; Kollaros, N.; Kyrozi, E.; Kottou, S.; Karaiskos, P.; Neofotistou, E.; Cokkinos, D.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the patient and staff doses in the most frequent interventional cardiology (IC) procedures performed in Onassio, the largest Cardiac Centre in Greece. Data were collected from three digital X-ray systems for 212 coronary angiographies, 203 percutaneous transluminal coronary angio-plasties (PTCA) and 134 various electrophysiological studies. Patient skin dose was measured using suitably calibrated slow radiotherapy films and cardiologist dose using suitably calibrated thermoluminescent dosemeters placed on left arm, hand and foot. Patient median dose area product (DAP) (all examinations) ranged between 6.7 and 83.5 Gy cm 2 . Patient median skin dose in PTCA was 799 mGy (320-1660 mGy) and in RF ablation 160 mGy (35-1920 mGy). Median arm, hand and foot dose to the cardiologist were 12.6, 27 and 13 μSv, respectively, per procedure. The great range of radiation doses received by both patients and operators confirms the need for continuous monitoring of all IC techniques. (authors)

  7. DISCOVERY OF THE LARGEST KNOWN LENSED IMAGES FORMED BY A CRITICALLY CONVERGENT LENSING CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zitrin, Adi; Broadhurst, Tom

    2009-01-01

    We identify the largest known lensed images of a single spiral galaxy, lying close to the center of the distant cluster MACS J1149.5+2223 (z = 0.544). These images cover a total area of ≅150 mbox '' and are magnified ≅200 times. Unusually, there is very little image distortion, implying that the central mass distribution is almost uniform over a wide area (r ≅ 200 kpc) with a surface density equal to the critical density for lensing, corresponding to maximal lens magnification. Many fainter multiply lensed galaxies are also uncovered by our model, outlining a very large tangential critical curve, of radius r ≅ 170 kpc, posing a potential challenge for the standard LCDM cosmology. Because of the uniform central mass distribution, a particularly clean measurement of the mass of the brightest cluster galaxy is possible here, for which we infer stars contribute most of the mass within a limiting radius of ≅30 kpc, with a mass-to-light ratio of M/L B ≅ 4.5(M/L) sun . This cluster with its uniform and central mass distribution acts analogously to a regular magnifying glass, converging light without distorting the images, resulting in the most powerful lens yet discovered for accessing the faint high-z universe.

  8. Epidemiological study of hepatitis A, B and C in the largest Afro-Brazilian isolated community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Márcia A D; Reis, Nádia Rúbia S; Kozlowski, Aline G; Teles, Sheila A; Motta-Castro, Ana Rita C; Mello, Francisco C A; Gomes, Selma A; Martins, Regina M B

    2009-09-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and molecular epidemiological features of viral hepatitis A, B and C in the Kalunga population, which represents the largest Afro-Brazilian isolated community. Among 878 individuals studied, the overall prevalence of anti-hepatitis A virus antibodies was 80.9%, with a significant rise from 44.8% to near 100% between the first and fourth decade of life. Rates for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) of 1.8% and 35.4%, respectively, were found. Increasing age, male gender, illiteracy and history of multiple sexual partners were associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. An occult HBV infection rate of 1.7% (5/295) was found among anti-HBc-positive individuals. HBV genotype A (subtype Aa) was dominant in this community. Only 5/878 individuals (0.6%) were positive for anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV RNA was detected in three of them, who were infected with genotype 1 (subtype 1a). These findings point out high, intermediate and low endemicity for hepatitis A, B and C, respectively, in the Kalunga community in Brazil. Circulation of HBV genotype A (subtype Aa) in this Afro-Brazilian isolated community indicates the introduction of this virus during the slave trade from Africa to Brazil.

  9. Bubble nucleation in simple and molecular liquids via the largest spherical cavity method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Miguel A.; Abascal, José L. F.; Valeriani, Chantal; Bresme, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we propose a methodology to compute bubble nucleation free energy barriers using trajectories generated via molecular dynamics simulations. We follow the bubble nucleation process by means of a local order parameter, defined by the volume of the largest spherical cavity (LSC) formed in the nucleating trajectories. This order parameter simplifies considerably the monitoring of the nucleation events, as compared with the previous approaches which require ad hoc criteria to classify the atoms and molecules as liquid or vapor. The combination of the LSC and the mean first passage time technique can then be used to obtain the free energy curves. Upon computation of the cavity distribution function the nucleation rate and free-energy barrier can then be computed. We test our method against recent computations of bubble nucleation in simple liquids and water at negative pressures. We obtain free-energy barriers in good agreement with the previous works. The LSC method provides a versatile and computationally efficient route to estimate the volume of critical bubbles the nucleation rate and to compute bubble nucleation free-energies in both simple and molecular liquids

  10. Rise and Fall of one of World's largest deltas; the Mekong delta in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minderhoud, P. S. J.; Eslami Arab, S.; Pham, H. V.; Erkens, G.; van der Vegt, M.; Oude Essink, G.; Stouthamer, E.; Hoekstra, P.

    2017-12-01

    The Mekong delta is the third's largest delta in the world. It is home to almost 20 million people and an important region for the food security in South East Asia. As most deltas, the Mekong delta is the dynamic result of a balance of sediment supply, sea level rise and subsidence, hosting a system of fresh and salt water dynamics. Ongoing urbanization, industrialization and intensification of agricultural practices in the delta, during the past decades, resulted in growing domestic, agricultural and industrial demands, and have led to a dramatic increase of fresh water use. Since the year 2000, the amount of fresh groundwater extracted from the subsurface increased by 500%. This accelerated delta subsidence as the groundwater system compacts, with current sinking rates exceeding global sea level rise up to an order of magnitude. These high sinking rates have greatly altered the sediment budget of the delta and, with over 50% of the Mekong delta surface elevated less than 1 meter above sea level, greatly increase vulnerability to flooding and storm surges and ultimately, permanent inundation. Furthermore, as the increasingly larger extractions rapidly reduce the fresh groundwater reserves, groundwater salinization subsequently increases. On top of that, dry season low-flows by the Mekong river cause record salt water intrusion in the delta's estuarine system, creating major problems for rice irrigation. We present the work of three years research by the Dutch-Vietnamese `Rise and Fall' project on land subsidence and salinization in both groundwater and surface water in the Vietnamese Mekong delta.

  11. Mortgage loans: an analysis of the portfolios of the largest banks in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Vinícius Ramos Fernandes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Given the current macroeconomic environment experienced in Brazil, where inflation has stabilized and the basic interest rate of the economy is in one of their historical lows, demand for mortgages is increasing. In this context, the mortgage is presented with great emphasis to meet the demand for purchasing housing in addition to being a catalyst for the reduction of the high housing deficit. From a descriptive and empirical-analytic was analyzed the mortgage loan portfolio of the largest banks of the country between the years 2001 and 2010 through Quarterly Financial Information (IFT available on the Central Bank website. It was settled a comparative relationship between the data in order to check the development of mortgage portfolios over the years and the factors that influenced this evolution, and evaluate the timeliness and quality of those loans. For the evolution of the portfolio there was an economic context in which Brazil was included in the period, and observed that for most of these operations are long term the banks are more exposed to market risk. With regard to credit risk parse that, over the years, Brazilian banks are presenting a mortgage loan portfolio with lower risk, and it is found that institutions with real estate credits with higher levels of portfolio risk are subject to have higher losses on such operations in the possibility of default.

  12. Corporate social responsibility of the 100 largest Indian companies – an analysis of website communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Mulky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility has become an important concept in the business world in recent decades. CSR is important in all countries but is particularly relevant in emerging markets where the levels of human development are not high. The United Nations Development Programme has created the Human Development Index (HDI to measure the human development in countries. The present study analyzes the CSR communication on the websites of the 100 largest Indian companies. The objective was to examine the reported CSR activities and determine whether the activities address the dimensions and indicators of the HDI. The study uses content analysis to classify the CSR activities into categories corresponding to HDI parameters. The findings indicate that about two thirds of the companies are using their websites to communicate CSR. Of the companies which reported CSR, about eighty percent report support for primary education and about seventy percent undertake livelihood support activities. The level of corporate involvement in the health dimension of human development is quite low. Reduction of infant and maternal mortality does not get much corporate attention. This study will add to the literature on CSR in emerging markets and will be useful for firms in India and other emerging markets that are planning CSR activities aimed at human development parameters.

  13. Natural radionuclides in soil profiles surrounding the largest coal-fired power plant in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanić Milan N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the influence of the largest Serbian coal-fired power plant on radionuclide concentrations in soil profiles up to 50 cm in depth. Thirty soil profiles were sampled from the plant surroundings (up to 10 km distance and analyzed using standard methods for soil physicochemical properties and gamma ray spectrometry for specific activities of natural radionuclides (40K, 226Ra and 232Th. Spatial and vertical distribution of radionuclides was determined and analyzed to show the relations between the specific activities in the soil and soil properties and the most influential factors of natural radionuclide variability were identified. The radiological indices for surface soil were calculated and radiological risk assessment was performed. The measured specific activities were similar to values of background levels for Serbia. The sampling depth did not show any significant influence on specific activities of natural radionuclides. The strongest predictor of specific activities of the investigated radionuclides was soil granulometry. All parameters of radiological risk assessment were below the recommended values and adopted limits. It appears that the coal-fired power plant does not have a significant impact on the spatial and vertical distribution of natural radionuclides in the area of interest, but technologically enhanced natural radioactivity as a consequence of the plant operations was identified within the first 1.5 km from the power plant. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije br. III43009 i br. III41005

  14. Largest known Mesozoic multituberculate from Eurasia and implications for multituberculate evolution and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Zhang, Xingliao; Pu, Hanyong; Jia, Songhai; Zhang, Jiming; Lü, Junchang; Meng, Jin

    2015-10-22

    A new multituberculate, Yubaartar zhongyuanensis gen. and sp. nov., is reported from the Upper Cretaceous of Luanchuan County, Henan Province, China. The holotype of the new taxon is a partial skeleton with nearly complete cranium and associated lower jaws with in situ dentitions. The new species is the southern-most record of a Late Cretaceous multituberculate from outside of the Mongolian Plateau in Asia and represents the largest known Mesozoic multituberculate from Eurasia. The new specimen displays some intriguing features previously unknown in multituberculates, such as the first evidence of replacement of the ultimate upper premolar and a unique paleopathological case in Mesozoic mammals in which the animal with a severely broken right tibia could heal and survive in natural condition. The phylogenetic analysis based on craniodental characters places Yubaartar as the immediate outgroup of Taeniolabidoidea, a group consisting of a North American clade and an Asian clade. This relationship indicates at least a faunal interchange of multituberculates before the K-Pg transition. The new evidence further supports the hypothesis that disparity in dental complexity, which relates to animal diets, increased with generic richness and disparity in body size, and that an adaptive shift towards increased herbivory across the K-Pg transitional interval.

  15. Complex biogeographic scenarios revealed in the diversification of the largest woodpecker radiation in the New World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Sigüenza, Adolfo G; Vázquez-Miranda, Hernán; Hernández-Alonso, Germán; García-Trejo, Erick A; Sánchez-González, Luis A

    2017-07-01

    Phylogenetic relationships and patterns of evolution within Melanerpes, one of the most diverse groups of New World woodpeckers (22-23 lineages), have been complicated due to complex plumages and morphological adaptations. In an attempt to resolve these issues, we obtained sequence data from four nuclear introns and two mitochondrial protein-coding genes for 22 of the 24 currently recognized species in the genus. We performed phylogenetic analyses involving Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference, species-tree divergence dating, and biogeographic reconstructions. Tree topologies from the concatenated and species-tree analyses of the mtDNA and nDNA showed broadly similar patterns, with three relatively well-supported groups apparent: (a) the Sphyrapicus clade (four species); (b) the typical Melanerpes clade, which includes temperate and subtropical dry forest black-backed species; and (c) the mostly barred-backed species, here referred to as the "Centurus" clade. The phylogenetic position of Melanerpes superciliaris regarding the rest of Melanerpes is ambiguous as it is recovered as sister to the rest of Melanerpes or as sister to a group including Sphyrapicus+Melanerpes. Our species tree estimations recovered the same well-delimited highly-supported clades. Geographic range evolution (estimated in BioGeoBEARS) was best explained by a DIVALIKE+j model, which includes vicariance, founder effect speciation, and anagenetic dispersal (range expansion) as important processes involved in the diversification of the largest radiation of woodpeckers in the New World. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Psyche's UV Reflectance Spectra: Exploring the origins of the largest exposed-core metallic asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Tracy

    2016-10-01

    (16) Psyche is the largest of the M-class asteroids, and is presumed to be the exposed core of a differentiated asteroid stripped of its mantle through hit-and-run collisions. However, other origins for Psyche have been proposed, including that it formed from a highly-reduced, metal rich material in the inner solar system or that its surface is olivine that has been space weathered. If (16) Psyche is an exposed core, then studying its properties enhances our understanding of the cores of all terrestrial planets, including the Earth's. If it accreted in the inner part of the solar system and was later injected into the asteroid belt, then Psyche sheds light on the conditions and subsequent evolution of the early solar system. Lastly, if Psyche is weathered olivine, then olivine may be more abundant in the solar system than currently measured, rectifying the so-called Great Dunite Shortage. Our program to obtain high-resolution UV spectra of Psyche with the COS G140L mode and the STIS NUV MAMA G230L mode to measure spectral signatures between 90 - 315 nm is designed to distinguish between the 3 hypothesized cases. These observations will enable identification of absorption bands, especially Fe-O charge transfer bands and will be sensitive to spectral blueing that occurs at UV wavelengths for space-weathered objects. When combined, the presence of these UV features, or not, provides a novel test of Psyche formation theories.

  17. Carbon footprint of premium quality export bananas: case study in Ecuador, the world's largest exporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte, Alfredo; Almeida, Maria Gabriela; Villalobos, Pablo

    2014-02-15

    Nowadays, the new international market demands challenge the food producing countries to include the measurement of the environmental impact generated along the production process for their products. In order to comply with the environmentally responsible market requests the measurement of the greenhouse gas emissions of Ecuadorian agricultural goods has been promoted employing the carbon footprint concept. Ecuador is the largest exporter of bananas in the world. Within this context, this study is a first assessment of the carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian premium export banana (Musa AAA) using a considerable amount of field data. The system boundaries considered from agricultural production to delivery in a European destination port. The data collected over three years permitted identifying the hot spot stages. For the calculation, the CCaLC V3.0 software developed by the University of Manchester is used. The carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian export banana ranged from 0.45 to 1.04 kg CO2-equivalent/kg banana depending on the international overseas transport employed. The principal contributors to the carbon footprint are the on farm production and overseas transport stages. Mitigation and reduction strategies were suggested for the main emission sources in order to achieve sustainable banana production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of the largest relic Eurasian wild grapevine reservoir in Southern Iberian Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroyo-García, R.; Cantos, M.; Lara, M.; López, M.A.; Gallardo, A.; Ocete, C.A.; Pérez, A.; Bánáti, B.; García, J.L.; Ocete, R.

    2016-11-01

    Wild grapevine is becoming a threatened species in the Iberian Peninsula due to human impacts. The aim of this work was to carry out a holistic study for six years of the largest wild grapevine population found up to date in SW Iberian Peninsula. This population has 115 vines. Ampelographic and soil characteristics have been studied. Evaluation of its environment has also been studied by describing the main parasitic species and natural enemies of pests. The ability of this plant material for its micropropagation and storage in slow-growth conditions has been tested. Microvinification resulted in a wine with good acidity and medium color intensity, two interesting characteristics under a warm climatology. Finally, the identification of private alleles in this wild population, absent in other locations from the Northern and Southern Iberian territories, is a very valuable feature and confirms the importance of establishing conservation programs. The population here studied is genetically unique and potentially useful for commercial rootstocks and cultivars breeding that would improve viticulture and enology. (Author)

  19. State-owned companies dominate list of largest non-U.S. producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.J.; Williamson, M.

    1994-01-01

    Because state-owned oil and gas companies dominate Oil and Gas Journal's list of largest non-US producers, data aren't fully comparable with those of the OGJ300. Many state companies report only production and reserves, with little or no financial data. Companies on the OGJ100, therefore, cannot be ranked by assets or revenues. Instead, they are listed by regions, based on location of corporate headquarters. There was no change in makeup of the top 20 holders of crude oil reserves. These companies' reserves totaled 872.3 billion bbl in 1993. The top 20 non-US companies now control 87.3 % of total world crude oil reserves, according to OGJ estimates. This is up marginally from 87.2 % of total world oil reserves in 1992. The top 20 had 87.7 % of total world reserves in 1991 and 85.5 % in 1990. The table lists company name, total assets, revenues, net income, capital and exploratory expenditures, worldwide oil production, gas production, oil and gas reserves worldwide

  20. Estimation of the largest enterprises’ impact on the socio-economic development of territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Dmitrievna Razgulina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The key basic trends of modern society development are associated with the transfer of some government functions to big business. Thus, scientific and public circles argue about social partnership between government, business and employees and offer different variants of the corporate social responsibility concept. The article presents the experience to assess social responsibility of business on the example of the largest chemical enterprises located in the Vologda and Novgorod oblasts. The evaluation results have revealed a number of problems hindering the formation of socially responsible behavior of enterprises, particularly the lack of standardized reporting on corporate social responsibility; provision of formal corporate social responsibility report; business’ non-system participation in social and economic development of territories. According to the authors, the development of a special model to regulate participants’ mutual relations can increase social responsibility of Russian business. Unified interests and resources of business and government promote the development of an agreed strategy in the field of regional social-economic development