WorldWideScience

Sample records for larger scale environment

  1. A Survey of Precipitation-Induced Atmospheric Cold Pools over Oceans and Their Interactions with the Larger-Scale Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuidema, Paquita; Torri, Giuseppe; Muller, Caroline; Chandra, Arunchandra

    2017-11-01

    Pools of air cooled by partial rain evaporation span up to several hundreds of kilometers in nature and typically last less than 1 day, ultimately losing their identity to the large-scale flow. These fundamentally differ in character from the radiatively-driven dry pools defining convective aggregation. Advancement in remote sensing and in computer capabilities has promoted exploration of how precipitation-induced cold pool processes modify the convective spectrum and life cycle. This contribution surveys current understanding of such cold pools over the tropical and subtropical oceans. In shallow convection with low rain rates, the cold pools moisten, preserving the near-surface equivalent potential temperature or increasing it if the surface moisture fluxes cannot ventilate beyond the new surface layer; both conditions indicate downdraft origin air from within the boundary layer. When rain rates exceed ˜ 2 mm h^{-1}, convective-scale downdrafts can bring down drier air of lower equivalent potential temperature from above the boundary layer. The resulting density currents facilitate the lifting of locally thermodynamically favorable air and can impose an arc-shaped mesoscale cloud organization. This organization allows clouds capable of reaching 4-5 km within otherwise dry environments. These are more commonly observed in the northern hemisphere trade wind regime, where the flow to the intertropical convergence zone is unimpeded by the equator. Their near-surface air properties share much with those shown from cold pools sampled in the equatorial Indian Ocean. Cold pools are most effective at influencing the mesoscale organization when the atmosphere is moist in the lower free troposphere and dry above, suggesting an optimal range of water vapor paths. Outstanding questions on the relationship between cold pools, their accompanying moisture distribution and cloud cover are detailed further. Near-surface water vapor rings are documented in one model inside but

  2. Electrodialytic removal of cadmium from biomass combustion fly ash in larger scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Simonsen, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Due to a high concentration of the toxic heavy metal cadmium (Cd), biomass combustion fly ash often fails to meet the Danish legislative requirements for recycling on agricultural fields. It has previously been shown that it is possible to reduce the concentration of Cd in different bio ashes...... significantly by using electrodialytic remediation, an electrochemically assisted extraction method. In this work the potential of the method was demonstrated in larger scale. Three different experimental set-ups were used, ranging from bench-scale (25 L ash suspension) to pilot scale (0.3 - 3 m3......). The experimental ash was a straw combustion fly ash suspended in water. Within 4 days of remediation, Cd concentrations below the limiting concentration of 5.0 mg Cd/kg DM for straw ash were reached. On the basis of these results, the energy costs for remediation of ash in industrial scale have been estimated...

  3. Scaling local species-habitat relations to the larger landscape with a hierarchical spatial count model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thogmartin, W.E.; Knutson, M.G.

    2007-01-01

    Much of what is known about avian species-habitat relations has been derived from studies of birds at local scales. It is entirely unclear whether the relations observed at these scales translate to the larger landscape in a predictable linear fashion. We derived habitat models and mapped predicted abundances for three forest bird species of eastern North America using bird counts, environmental variables, and hierarchical models applied at three spatial scales. Our purpose was to understand habitat associations at multiple spatial scales and create predictive abundance maps for purposes of conservation planning at a landscape scale given the constraint that the variables used in this exercise were derived from local-level studies. Our models indicated a substantial influence of landscape context for all species, many of which were counter to reported associations at finer spatial extents. We found land cover composition provided the greatest contribution to the relative explained variance in counts for all three species; spatial structure was second in importance. No single spatial scale dominated any model, indicating that these species are responding to factors at multiple spatial scales. For purposes of conservation planning, areas of predicted high abundance should be investigated to evaluate the conservation potential of the landscape in their general vicinity. In addition, the models and spatial patterns of abundance among species suggest locations where conservation actions may benefit more than one species. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  4. Shyer and larger bird species show more reduced fear of humans when living in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    delBarco-Trillo, Javier

    2018-04-01

    As the natural habitats of many species are degraded or disappear, there is scope for these species to be established in urban habitats. To ease the establishment and maintenance of urban populations of more species we need to better understand what degree of phenotypical change to expect as different species transition into urban environments. During the first stages of urban colonization, behavioural changes such as an increase in boldness are particularly important. A consistent response in urban populations is to decrease the distance at which individuals flee from an approaching human (flight initiation distance, or FID). Performing a phylogenetic generalized least-squares (PGLS) analysis on 130 avian species, I found that the largest changes in FID between rural and urban populations occur in species that are larger-bodied and naturally shy (higher rural FID), two phenotypic traits that are not normally associated with urban colonizers. More unlikely species may thus be able to colonize urban environments, especially if we design cities in ways that promote such urban colonizations. © 2018 The Author(s).

  5. Distribution of living larger benthic foraminifera in littoral environments of the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Flavia; Lokier, Stephen W.

    2015-04-01

    The distribution of larger benthic foraminifera in Recent littoral environment of the United Arab Emirates (Abu Dhabi and Western regions) was investigated with the aim of understanding the response of those foraminifera to an increase in water salinity. For this purpose, 100 sediment samples from nearshore shelf, beach-front, channel, lagoon, and intertidal environment were collected. Sampling was undertaken at a water depth shallower than 15 m in water with a temperature of 22 to 35˚C, a salinity ranging from 40 to 60‰ and a pH of 8. Samples were stained with rose Bengal at the moment of sample collection in order to identify living specimens. The most abundant epiphytic larger benthic foraminifera in the studied area were Peneroplis pertusus and P. planatus with less common Spirolina areatina, S. aciculate and Sorites marginalis. The living specimens of the above mentioned species with normal test growing were particularly abundant in the nearshore shelf and lagoonal samples collected on seaweed. Dead specimens were concentrated in the coarser sediments of the beach-front, probably transported from nearby environments. Shallow coastal ponds are located in the upper intertidal zone and have a maximum salinity of 60‰ and contain abundant detached seagrass. Samples collected from these ponds possess a living foraminifera assemblage dominated by Peneroplis pertusus and P. planatus. High percentages (up to 50% of the stained assemblage) of Peneroplis presented abnormality in test growth, such as the presence of multiple apertures with reduced size, deformation in the general shape of the test, irregular suture lines and abnormal coiling. The high percentage of abnormal tests reflects natural environmental stress mainly caused by high and variable salinity. The unique presence of living epiphytic species, suggests that epiphytic foraminifera may be transported into the pond together with seagrass and continued to live in the pond. This hypothesis is supported by

  6. Persistent Homology fingerprinting of microstructural controls on larger-scale fluid flow in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, C.; Mitchell, S. A.; Callor, N.; Dewers, T. A.; Heath, J. E.; Yoon, H.; Conner, G. R.

    2017-12-01

    Traditional subsurface continuum multiphysics models include useful yet limiting geometrical assumptions: penny- or disc-shaped cracks, spherical or elliptical pores, bundles of capillary tubes, cubic law fracture permeability, etc. Each physics (flow, transport, mechanics) uses constitutive models with an increasing number of fit parameters that pertain to the microporous structure of the rock, but bear no inter-physics relationships or self-consistency. Recent advances in digital rock physics and pore-scale modeling link complex physics to detailed pore-level geometries, but measures for upscaling are somewhat unsatisfactory and come at a high computational cost. Continuum mechanics rely on a separation between small scale pore fluctuations and larger scale heterogeneity (and perhaps anisotropy), but this can break down (particularly for shales). Algebraic topology offers powerful mathematical tools for describing a local-to-global structure of shapes. Persistent homology, in particular, analyzes the dynamics of topological features and summarizes into numeric values. It offers a roadmap to both "fingerprint" topologies of pore structure and multiscale connectedness as well as links pore structure to physical behavior, thus potentially providing a means to relate the dependence of constitutive behaviors of pore structures in a self-consistent way. We present a persistence homology (PH) analysis framework of 3D image sets including a focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy data set of the Selma Chalk. We extract structural characteristics of sampling volumes via persistence homology and fit a statistical model using the summarized values to estimate porosity, permeability, and connectivity—Lattice Boltzmann methods for single phase flow modeling are used to obtain the relationships. These PH methods allow for prediction of geophysical properties based on the geometry and connectivity in a computationally efficient way. Sandia National Laboratories is a

  7. Lecture archiving on a larger scale at the University of Michigan and CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, Jeremy; Lougheed, Robert; Neal, Homer A, E-mail: herrj@umich.ed [University of Michigan, 450 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The ATLAS Collaboratory Project at the University of Michigan has been a leader in the area of collaborative tools since 1999. Its activities include the development of standards, software and hardware tools for lecture archiving, and making recommendations for videoconferencing and remote teaching facilities. Starting in 2006 our group became involved in classroom recordings, and in early 2008 we spawned CARMA, a University-wide recording service. This service uses a new portable recording system that we developed. Capture, archiving and dissemination of rich multimedia content from lectures, tutorials and classes are increasingly widespread activities among universities and research institutes. A growing array of related commercial and open source technologies is becoming available, with several new products introduced in the last couple years. As the result of a new close partnership between U-M and CERN IT, a market survey of these products was conducted and a summary of the results are presented here. It is informing an ambitious effort in 2009 to equip many CERN rooms with automated lecture archiving systems, on a much larger scale than before. This new technology is being integrated with CERN's existing webcast, CDS, and Indico applications.

  8. Lecture archiving on a larger scale at the University of Michigan and CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herr, Jeremy; Lougheed, Robert; Neal, Homer A

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Collaboratory Project at the University of Michigan has been a leader in the area of collaborative tools since 1999. Its activities include the development of standards, software and hardware tools for lecture archiving, and making recommendations for videoconferencing and remote teaching facilities. Starting in 2006 our group became involved in classroom recordings, and in early 2008 we spawned CARMA, a University-wide recording service. This service uses a new portable recording system that we developed. Capture, archiving and dissemination of rich multimedia content from lectures, tutorials and classes are increasingly widespread activities among universities and research institutes. A growing array of related commercial and open source technologies is becoming available, with several new products introduced in the last couple years. As the result of a new close partnership between U-M and CERN IT, a market survey of these products was conducted and a summary of the results are presented here. It is informing an ambitious effort in 2009 to equip many CERN rooms with automated lecture archiving systems, on a much larger scale than before. This new technology is being integrated with CERN's existing webcast, CDS, and Indico applications.

  9. Parameterization of cirrus microphysical and radiative properties in larger-scale models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heymsfield, A.J.; Coen, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    This study exploits measurements in clouds sampled during several field programs to develop and validate parameterizations that represent the physical and radiative properties of convectively generated cirrus clouds in intermediate and large-scale models. The focus is on cirrus anvils because they occur frequently, cover large areas, and play a large role in the radiation budget. Preliminary work focuses on understanding the microphysical, radiative, and dynamical processes that occur in these clouds. A detailed microphysical package has been constructed that considers the growth of the following hydrometer types: water drops, needles, plates, dendrites, columns, bullet rosettes, aggregates, graupel, and hail. Particle growth processes include diffusional and accretional growth, aggregation, sedimentation, and melting. This package is being implemented in a simple dynamical model that tracks the evolution and dispersion of hydrometers in a stratiform anvil cloud. Given the momentum, vapor, and ice fluxes into the stratiform region and the temperature and humidity structure in the anvil's environment, this model will suggest anvil properties and structure

  10. Characteristics of the Residual Stress tensor when filter width is larger than the Ozmidov scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bragança Alves, Felipe Augusto; de Bruyn Kops, Stephen

    2017-11-01

    In stratified turbulence, the residual stress tensor is statistically anisotropic unless the smallest resolved length scale is smaller than the Ozmidov scale and the buoyancy Reynolds number is sufficiently high for there to exist a range of scales that is statistically isotropic. We present approximations to the residual stress tensor that are derived analytically. These approximations are evaluated by filtering data from direct numerical simulations of homogeneous stratified turbulence, with unity Prandtl number, resolved on up to 8192 × 8192 × 4096 grid points along with an isotropic homogeneous case resolved on 81923 grid points. It is found that the best possible scaling of the strain rate tensor yields a residual stress tensor (RST) that is less well statistically aligned with the exact RST than a randomly generated tensor. It is also found that, while a scaling of the strain rate tensor can dissipate the right amount of energy, it produces incorrect anisotropic dissipation, removing energy from the wrong components of the velocity vector. We find that a combination of the strain rate tensor and a tensor related to energy redistribution caused by a Newtonian fluid viscous stress yields an excellent tensorial basis for modelling the RST.

  11. Burdigalian turbid water patch reef environment revealed by larger benthic foraminifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, V.; Renema, W.; Throughflow-project

    2012-04-01

    Ancient isolated patch reefs outcropping from siliciclastic sediments are a trademark for the Miocene carbonate deposits occurring in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. They develop in transitional shelf sediments deposited between deltaic and deep marine deposits (Allen and Chambers, 1998). The Batu Putih Limestone (Wilson, 2005) and similar outcrops in adjacent areas have been characterized as shallow water carbonates influenced by high siliciclastic input, showing low relief patch reefs in turbid waters. Larger benthic foraminifera (LBF) are excellent markers for biochronology and paleoenvironmental reconstruction. This study aims to reveal age and paleoenvironment of a shallow water carbonate patch reef developed in mixed depositional system by using LBF and microfacies analysis. The studied section is located near Bontang, East Kalimantan, and is approximately 80 m long and 12 m high. It is placed within Miocene sediments in the central part of the Kutai Basin. Patch reef and capping sediments were logged through eight transects along section and divided into nine different lithological units from which samples were collected. Thin sections and isolated specimens of larger benthic foraminifera were analyzed and recognized to species level (where possible) providing age and environmental information. Microfacies analysis of thin sections included carbonate classification (textural scheme of Dunham, 1962) and assemblage composition of LBF, algae and corals relative abundance. Three environmentally indicative groups of LBF were separated based on test morphology, habitat or living relatives (Hallock and Glenn, 1986). Analysed foraminifera assemblage suggests Burdigalian age (Tf1). With use of microfacies analysis nine successive lithological units were grouped into five facies types. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of LBF fossil assemblage indicate two cycles of possible deepening recorded in the section. Based on high muddy matrix ratio in analyzed thin-sections we

  12. Theoretical explanation of present mirror experiments and linear stability of larger scaled machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.; Baldwin, D.E.; Cutler, T.A.; Lodestro, L.L.; Maron, N.; Pearlstein, L.D.; Rognlien, T.D.; Stewart, J.J.; Watson, D.C.

    1976-01-01

    A quasilinear model for the evolution of the 2XIIB mirror experiment is presented and shown to reproduce the time evolution of the experiment. From quasilinear theory it follows that the energy lifetime is the Spitzer electron drag time for T/sub e/ approximately less than 0.1T/sub i/. By computing the stability boundary of the DCLC mode, with warm plasma stabilization, the electron temperature is predicted as a function of radial scale length. In addition, the effect of finite length corrections to the Alfven cyclotron mode is assessed

  13. MASSIVE GALAXIES ARE LARGER IN DENSE ENVIRONMENTS: ENVIRONMENTAL DEPENDENCE OF MASS–SIZE RELATION OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Yongmin; Im, Myungshin; Kim, Jae-Woo, E-mail: yymx2@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: mim@astro.snu.ac.kr [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe (CEOU), Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-01

    Under the Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmological models, massive galaxies are expected to be larger in denser environments through frequent hierarchical mergers with other galaxies. Yet, observational studies of low-redshift early-type galaxies have shown no such trend, standing as a puzzle to solve during the past decade. We analyzed 73,116 early-type galaxies at 0.1 ≤  z  < 0.15, adopting a robust nonparametric size measurement technique and extending the analysis to many massive galaxies. We find for the first time that local early-type galaxies heavier than 10{sup 11.2} M {sub ⊙} show a clear environmental dependence in mass–size relation, in such a way that galaxies are as much as 20%–40% larger in the densest environments than in underdense environments. Splitting the sample into the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) and non-BCGs does not affect the result. This result agrees with the ΛCDM cosmological simulations and suggests that mergers played a significant role in the growth of massive galaxies in dense environments as expected in theory.

  14. Scaling the Baltic Sea environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Gutzon

    2008-01-01

    of this development, this article suggests that environmental politics critically depend on the delineation of relatively bounded spaces that identify and situate particular environmental concerns as spatial objects for politics. These spaces are not simply determined by ‘nature' or some environmental......The Baltic Sea environment has since the early 1970s passed through several phases of spatial objectification in which the ostensibly well-defined semi-enclosed sea has been framed and reframed as a geographical object for intergovernmental environmental politics. Based on a historical analysis......-scientific logic, but should rather be seen as temporal outcomes of scale framing processes, processes that are accentuated by contemporary conceptions of the environment (or nature) in terms of multi-scalar ecosystems. This has implications for how an environmental concern is perceived and politically addressed....

  15. Canopy BRF simulation of forest with different crown shape and height in larger scale based on Radiosity method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jinling; Qu, Yonghua; Wang, Jindi; Wan, Huawei; Liu, Xiaoqing

    2007-06-01

    Radiosity method is based on the computer simulation of 3D real structures of vegetations, such as leaves, branches and stems, which are composed by many facets. Using this method we can simulate the canopy reflectance and its bidirectional distribution of the vegetation canopy in visible and NIR regions. But with vegetations are more complex, more facets to compose them, so large memory and lots of time to calculate view factors are required, which are the choke points of using Radiosity method to calculate canopy BRF of lager scale vegetation scenes. We derived a new method to solve the problem, and the main idea is to abstract vegetation crown shapes and to simplify their structures, which can lessen the number of facets. The facets are given optical properties according to the reflectance, transmission and absorption of the real structure canopy. Based on the above work, we can simulate the canopy BRF of the mix scenes with different species vegetation in the large scale. In this study, taking broadleaf trees as an example, based on their structure characteristics, we abstracted their crowns as ellipsoid shells, and simulated the canopy BRF in visible and NIR regions of the large scale scene with different crown shape and different height ellipsoids. Form this study, we can conclude: LAI, LAD the probability gap, the sunlit and shaded surfaces are more important parameter to simulate the simplified vegetation canopy BRF. And the Radiosity method can apply us canopy BRF data in any conditions for our research.

  16. Size exclusion chromatography for semipreparative scale separation of Au38(SR)24 and Au40(SR)24 and larger clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoppe, Stefan; Boudon, Julien; Dolamic, Igor; Dass, Amala; Bürgi, Thomas

    2011-07-01

    Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) on a semipreparative scale (10 mg and more) was used to size-select ultrasmall gold nanoclusters (<2 nm) from polydisperse mixtures. In particular, the ubiquitous byproducts of the etching process toward Au(38)(SR)(24) (SR, thiolate) clusters were separated and gained in high monodispersity (based on mass spectrometry). The isolated fractions were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, MALDI mass spectrometry, HPLC, and electron microscopy. Most notably, the separation of Au(38)(SR)(24) and Au(40)(SR)(24) clusters is demonstrated.

  17. Hot Gas Conditioning: Recent Progress with Larger-Scale Biomass Gasification Systems; Update and Summary of Recent Progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, D. J.

    2001-09-01

    As a result of environmental and policy considerations, there is increasing interest in using renewable biomass resources as feedstock for power, fuels, and chemicals and hydrogen. Biomass gasification is seen as an important technology component for expanding the use of biomass. Advanced biomass gasification systems provide clean products that can be used as fuel or synthesis gases in a variety of environmentally friendly processes. Advanced end-use technologies such as gas turbines or synthesis gas systems require high quality gases with narrowly defined specifications. Other systems such as boilers may also have fuel quality requirements, but they will be substantially less demanding. The gas product from biomass gasifiers contains quantities of particulates, tars, and other constituents that may exceed these specified limits. As a result, gas cleaning and conditioning will be required in most systems. Over the past decade, significant research and development activities have been conducted on the topic of gas cleanup and conditioning. This report provides an update of efforts related to large-scale biomass gasification systems and summarizes recent progress. Remaining research and development issues are also summarized.

  18. Variations of the petrophysical properties of rocks with increasing hydrocarbons content and their implications at larger scale: insights from the Majella reservoir (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippetta, Fabio; Ruggieri, Roberta; Lipparini, Lorenzo

    2016-04-01

    porosity. Preliminary data also suggest a different behaviour at increasing confining pressure for clean and-oil bearing samples: almost perfectly elastic behaviour for oil-bearing samples and more inelastic behaviours for cleaner samples. Thus HC presence appears to contrast the increase of confining pressure acting as semi-fluids, reducing the rock inelastic compaction and enhancing its elastic behaviour. Trying to upscale our rock-physics results, we started from wells and laboratory data on stratigraphy, porosity and Vp in order to simulate the effect of the HC presence at larger scale, using Petrel® software. The developed synthetic model highlights that Vp, which is primarily controlled by porosity, changes significantly within oil-bearing portions, with a notable impact on the velocity model that should be adopted. Moreover we are currently performing laboratory tests in order to evaluate the changes in the elastic parameters with the aim of modelling the effects of the HC on the mechanical behaviour of the involved rocks at larger scale.

  19. Scale-sensitive governance of the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padt, F.; Opdam, P.F.M.; Polman, N.B.P.; Termeer, C.J.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Sensitivity to scales is one of the key challenges in environmental governance. Climate change, food production, energy supply, and natural resource management are examples of environmental challenges that stretch across scales and require action at multiple levels. Governance systems are typically

  20. Construct Validity of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale for Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeyemi, Adewale L; Conway, Terry L; Adedoyin, Rufus A; Akinroye, Kingsley K; Aryeetey, Richmond; Assah, Felix; Cain, Kelli L; Gavand, Kavita A; Kasoma, Sandra S; Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L; Lambert, Estelle V; Larouche, Richard; Moss, Sarah J; Ocansey, Reginald; Onywera, Vincent O; Prista, Antonio; Tremblay, Mark S; Sallis, James F

    2017-03-01

    The development of valid measures of built environments relevant for physical activity is an important step toward controlling the global epidemic of physical inactivity-related noncommunicable diseases and deaths. This study assessed the construct validity of a self-report neighborhood environment walkability scale adapted for Africa (NEWS-Africa), by examining relationships with self-reported walking for transportation and recreation using pooled data from six sub-Saharan African countries. NEWS was systematically adapted to assess urban, periurban, and rural environments in sub-Saharan Africa. Adults (n = 469, 18-85 yr, 49.7% women) from Cameroon, Ghana, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa, and Uganda were purposively recruited from neighborhoods varying in walkability and socioeconomic status, with some from villages. Participants completed the 76-item (13 subscales) NEWS-Africa by structured interview and reported weekly minutes of walking for transport and recreation using items from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The overall "walkability" index had a positive relationship with both walking for transportation (η = 0.020, P = 0.005) and recreation (η = 0.013, P = 0.028) in the pooled analyses. The mixed-use access and stranger danger scales were positively related with transport walking (η = 0.020, P = 0.006 and η = 0.021, P = 0.040, respectively). Proximity of recreational facilities (η = 0.016, P = 0.015), road/path connectivity (η = 0.025, P = 0.002), path infrastructure (η = 0.021, P = 0.005), and overall places for walking and cycling (η = 0.012, P = 0.029) scales were positively related to recreational walking. Country-specific results were mostly nonsignificant except for South Africa and Uganda. Of 14 NEWS-Africa scales, 7 were significantly related to walking behavior in pooled analyses, providing partial support for the construct validity of NEWS-Africa. However, effect sizes appeared to be lower than those from other

  1. Construct Validity of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale for Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeyemi, Adewale L.; Conway, Terry L.; Adedoyin, Rufus A.; Akinroye, Kingsley K.; Aryeetey, Richmond; Assah, Felix; Cain, Kelli L.; Gavand, Kavita A.; Kasoma, Sandra S.; Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L.; Lambert, Estelle V.; Larouche, Richard; Mos, Sarah J.; Ocansey, Reginald; Onywera, Vincent O.; Prista, Antonio; Tremblay, Mark S.; Sallis, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Development of valid measures of built environments relevant for physical activity is an important step toward controlling the global epidemic of physical inactivity-related noncommunicable diseases and deaths. This study assessed the construct validity of a self-report neighborhood environment walkability scale adapted for Africa (NEWS-Africa), by examining relationships with self-reported walking for transportation and recreation using pooled data from six sub-Saharan African countries. Methods NEWS was systematically adapted to assess urban, peri-urban and rural environments in sub-Saharan Africa. Adults (n=469, 18-85 years, 49.7% women) from Cameroon, Ghana, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa and Uganda were purposively recruited from neighborhoods varying in walkability and socioeconomic status, with some from villages. Participants completed the 76-item (13 subscales) NEWS-Africa by structured interview and reported weekly minutes of walking for transport and recreation using items from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results The overall ‘walkability’ index had a positive relationship with both walking for transportation (eta2=0.020, p=0.005) and recreation (eta2=0.013, p=0.028) in the pooled analyses. The mixed-use access and stranger-danger scales were positively related with transport walking (eta2=0.020, p=0.006 and eta2=0.021, p=0.040, respectively). Proximity of recreational facilities (eta2=0.016, p=0.015), road/path connectivity (eta2=0.025, p=0.002), path infrastructure (eta2=0.021, p=0.005), and overall places for walking and cycling (eta2=0.012, p=0.029) scales were positively related to recreational walking. Country-specific results were mostly non-significant except for South Africa and Uganda. Conclusions Seven of 14 NEWS-Africa scales were significantly related to walking behavior in pooled analyses, providing partial support for the construct validity of NEWS-Africa. However, effect sizes appeared to be lower than

  2. Developing a "Social Presence Scale" for E-Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic Cakmak, Ebru; Cebi, Ayça; Kan, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to develop a "social presence scale" for e-learning environments. A systematic approach was followed for developing the scale. The scale was applied to 461 students registered in seven different programs at Gazi University. The sample was split into two subsamples on a random basis (n1 = 261; n2 =…

  3. Brief Report: Theory of Mind, Relational Reasoning, and Social Responsiveness in Children With and Without Autism: Demonstration of Feasibility for a Larger-Scale Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, John R; Kandala, Sridhar; Petersen, Steven E; Povinelli, Daniel J

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the underpinnings of social responsiveness and theory of mind (ToM) will enhance our knowledge of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We hypothesize that higher-order relational reasoning (higher-order RR: reasoning necessitating integration of relationships among multiple variables) is necessary but not sufficient for ToM, and that social responsiveness varies independently of higher-order RR. A pilot experiment tested these hypotheses in n = 17 children, 3-14, with and without ASD. No child failing 2nd-order RR passed a false belief ToM test. Contrary to prediction, Social Responsiveness Scale scores did correlate with 2nd-order RR performance, likely due to sample characteristics. It is feasible to translate this comparative cognition-inspired line of inquiry for full-scale studies of ToM, higher-order RR, and social responsiveness in ASD.

  4. Innovative measures to combat rare diseases in China: The national rare diseases registry system, larger-scale clinical cohort studies, and studies in combination with precision medicine research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peipei; He, Jiangjiang; Li, Fen; Jin, Chunlin

    2017-02-01

    China is facing the great challenge of treating the world's largest rare disease population, an estimated 16 million patients with rare diseases. One effort offering promise has been a pilot national project that was launched in 2013 and that focused on 20 representative rare diseases. Another government-supported special research program on rare diseases - the "Rare Diseases Clinical Cohort Study" - was launched in December 2016. According to the plan for this research project, the unified National Rare Diseases Registry System of China will be established as of 2020, and a large-scale cohort study will be conducted from 2016 to 2020. The project plans to develop 109 technical standards, to establish and improve 2 national databases of rare diseases - a multi-center clinical database and a biological sample library, and to conduct studies on more than 50,000 registered cases of 50 different rare diseases. More importantly, this study will be combined with the concept of precision medicine. Chinese population-specific basic information on rare diseases, clinical information, and genomic information will be integrated to create a comprehensive predictive model with a follow-up database system and a model to evaluate prognosis. This will provide the evidence for accurate classification, diagnosis, treatment, and estimation of prognosis for rare diseases in China. Numerous challenges including data standardization, protecting patient privacy, big data processing, and interpretation of genetic information still need to be overcome, but research prospects offer great promise.

  5. Separating foliar physiology from morphology reveals the relative roles of vertically structured transpiration factors within red maple crowns and limitations of larger scale models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauerle, William L.; Bowden, Joseph D.

    2011-01-01

    A spatially explicit mechanistic model, MAESTRA, was used to separate key parameters affecting transpiration to provide insights into the most influential parameters for accurate predictions of within-crown and within-canopy transpiration. Once validated among Acer rubrum L. genotypes, model responses to different parameterization scenarios were scaled up to stand transpiration (expressed per unit leaf area) to assess how transpiration might be affected by the spatial distribution of foliage properties. For example, when physiological differences were accounted for, differences in leaf width among A. rubrum L. genotypes resulted in a 25% difference in transpiration. An in silico within-canopy sensitivity analysis was conducted over the range of genotype parameter variation observed and under different climate forcing conditions. The analysis revealed that seven of 16 leaf traits had a ≥5% impact on transpiration predictions. Under sparse foliage conditions, comparisons of the present findings with previous studies were in agreement that parameters such as the maximum Rubisco-limited rate of photosynthesis can explain ∼20% of the variability in predicted transpiration. However, the spatial analysis shows how such parameters can decrease or change in importance below the uppermost canopy layer. Alternatively, model sensitivity to leaf width and minimum stomatal conductance was continuous along a vertical canopy depth profile. Foremost, transpiration sensitivity to an observed range of morphological and physiological parameters is examined and the spatial sensitivity of transpiration model predictions to vertical variations in microclimate and foliage density is identified to reduce the uncertainty of current transpiration predictions. PMID:21617246

  6. The Large-scale Effect of Environment on Galactic Conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuangpeng; Guo, Qi; Wang, Lan; Wang, Jie; Gao, Liang; Lacey, Cedric G.; Pan, Jun

    2018-04-01

    We use a volume-limited galaxy sample from the SDSS Data Release 7 to explore the dependence of galactic conformity on the large-scale environment, measured on ˜ 4 Mpc scales. We find that the star formation activity of neighbour galaxies depends more strongly on the environment than on the activity of their primary galaxies. In under-dense regions most neighbour galaxies tend to be active, while in over-dense regions neighbour galaxies are mostly passive, regardless of the activity of their primary galaxies. At a given stellar mass, passive primary galaxies reside in higher density regions than active primary galaxies, leading to the apparently strong conformity signal. The dependence of the activity of neighbour galaxies on environment can be explained by the corresponding dependence of the fraction of satellite galaxies. Similar results are found for galaxies in a semi-analytical model, suggesting that no new physics is required to explain the observed large-scale conformity.

  7. Reliability of the Children's Attitudes Toward the Environment Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Min; Zeman, Catherine; Kostareva, Olga

    2007-08-01

    The Children's Attitudes toward the Environment Scale, developed by Musser and Malkus (1994), gave Cronbach alpha .73 and .83 at pretest and 3-wk. later for 274 children and a test-retest r of only .47. While Cronbach alpha was similar to the value reported by the test developers, it is close to the low end of acceptability.

  8. Large-scale visualization system for grid environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yoshio

    2007-01-01

    Center for Computational Science and E-systems of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (CCSE/JAEA) has been conducting R and Ds of distributed computing (grid computing) environments: Seamless Thinking Aid (STA), Information Technology Based Laboratory (ITBL) and Atomic Energy Grid InfraStructure (AEGIS). In these R and Ds, we have developed the visualization technology suitable for the distributed computing environment. As one of the visualization tools, we have developed the Parallel Support Toolkit (PST) which can execute the visualization process parallely on a computer. Now, we improve PST to be executable simultaneously on multiple heterogeneous computers using Seamless Thinking Aid Message Passing Interface (STAMPI). STAMPI, we have developed in these R and Ds, is the MPI library executable on a heterogeneous computing environment. The improvement realizes the visualization of extremely large-scale data and enables more efficient visualization processes in a distributed computing environment. (author)

  9. Installing and Scaling out Ubuntu Enterprise Cloud in Virtual Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantić, Zoran; Ali Babar, Muhammad

    This document contains the supplemental material to the book “Guidelines for Building a Private Cloud Infrastructure”. This document provides guidance on how to install Ubuntu Enterprise Cloud in virtual environment, and afterwards how to scale out when needed. The purpose of this supplemental book...... is to provide a practical, step-by-step, detailed guide on how to dimension and install the machines and network. Some initial steps of configuring the cloud are also covered. The installation is performed in a virtual environment based on Windows 7 and VMware Workstation 7. The cloud installation is performed...... cloud, both using the command line tools, and GUI based tool HybridFox....

  10. Development of a work environment rating scale for kindergarten teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yau-ho P

    2015-08-01

    Kindergarten education in Hong Kong serves children aged 32-68 months. However, there is no extant scale that measures kindergarten teachers' perceived work environment, an important influence on their well-being. To develop a new instrument, the Teachers' Perceived Work Environment (TPWE) scale, and to assess whether kindergarten teachers with higher TPWE ratings had higher scores for job satisfaction, self-esteem and mental health. A 25-item rating scale was developed and used with a sample of in-service kindergarten teachers. Their perceived work environment was represented by five factors (ergonomics, staffing, teaching space, work hours and social space). These teachers also completed three well-being inventories: the Job Satisfaction Survey, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory and the General Health Questionnaire-12. In a second stage, a new sample of in-service kindergarten teachers was used to cross-validate the findings from the earlier assessment. In the first sample of 141 teachers and the second of 125, social space, staffing and work hours were associated with job satisfaction, while ergonomics was a significant negative predictor of mental health complaints. The TPWE exhibited satisfactory reliability and validity. Some factors were differentially associated with specific types of well-being. The results may inform future studies of the working conditions of kindergarten teachers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Development and psychometric testing of the Nursing Workplace Relational Environment Scale (NWRES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duddle, Maree; Boughton, Maureen

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and test the psychometric properties of the Nursing Workplace Relational Environment Scale (NWRES). A positive relational environment in the workplace is characterised by a sense of connectedness and belonging, support and cooperation among colleagues, open communication and effectively managed conflict. A poor relational environment in the workplace may contribute to job dissatisfaction and early turnover of staff. Quantitative survey. A three-stage process was used to design and test the NWRES. In Stage 1, an extensive literature review was conducted on professional working relationships and the nursing work environment. Three key concepts; collegiality, workplace conflict and job satisfaction were identified and defined. In Stage 2, a pool of items was developed from the dimensions of each concept and formulated into a 35-item scale which was piloted on a convenience sample of 31 nurses. In Stage 3, the newly refined 28-item scale was administered randomly to a convenience sample of 150 nurses. Psychometric testing was conducted to establish the construct validity and reliability of the scale. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in a 22-item scale. The factor analysis indicated a four-factor structure: collegial behaviours, relational atmosphere, outcomes of conflict and job satisfaction which explained 68.12% of the total variance. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the NWRES was 0.872 and the subscales ranged from 0.781-0.927. The results of the study confirm the reliability and validity of the NWRES. Replication of this study with a larger sample is indicated to determine relationships among the subscales. The results of this study have implications for health managers in terms of understanding the impact of the relational environment of the workplace on job satisfaction and retention.

  12. Validation of Geriatric Care Environment Scale in Portuguese Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo de Almeida Tavares

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of hospitalized older adults in Portugal necessitates a better understanding of the acute care environment for older adults. This study translated and examined the psychometric qualities of the Geriatric Care Environment Scale (GCES among 1,068 Portuguese registered nurses (RNs. Four factors emerged from the exploratory factor analyses: resource availability, aging-sensitive care delivery, institutional values regarding older adults and staff, and continuity of care. The internal consistency of the GCES was α=.919. The GCES was significantly associated with the variables of region, hospital type, unit type, and RNs perception of hospital educational, staff knowledge, difficulty, rewarding, and burdensome in caring for older adults. Nurses who worked in hospitals centers in the northern region and medical and surgery units had more positive perceptions of the geriatric care environment. More positive perception was also found among RNs that reported more educational support, had more knowledge, and felt more rewarding and less difficulty and burden in caring older adults. This process resulted in a valid and reliable measurement of the geriatric care environment Portuguese version which provides hospital leadership with an instrument to evaluate organizational support for geriatric nursing practice and target specific areas that support or hinder care delivery.

  13. Designing for Change: Interoperability in a scaling and adapting environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmey, L.

    2015-12-01

    The Earth Science cyberinfrastructure landscape is constantly changing. Technologies advance and technical implementations are refined or replaced. Data types, volumes, packaging, and use cases evolve. Scientific requirements emerge and mature. Standards shift while systems scale and adapt. In this complex and dynamic environment, interoperability remains a critical component of successful cyberinfrastructure. Through the resource- and priority-driven iterations on systems, interfaces, and content, questions fundamental to stable and useful Earth Science cyberinfrastructure arise. For instance, how are sociotechnical changes planned, tracked, and communicated? How should operational stability balance against 'new and shiny'? How can ongoing maintenance and mitigation of technical debt be managed in an often short-term resource environment? The Arctic Data Explorer is a metadata brokering application developed to enable discovery of international, interdisciplinary Arctic data across distributed repositories. Completely dependent on interoperable third party systems, the Arctic Data Explorer publicly launched in 2013 with an original 3000+ data records from four Arctic repositories. Since then the search has scaled to 25,000+ data records from thirteen repositories at the time of writing. In the final months of original project funding, priorities shift to lean operations with a strategic eye on the future. Here we present lessons learned from four years of Arctic Data Explorer design, development, communication, and maintenance work along with remaining questions and potential directions.

  14. Development of an assessment of functioning scale for prison environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Deborah; Wakai, Sara

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the development of a global assessment of functioning (GAF), modified from the DSM Axis V GAF for the prison environment. Focus groups, which were conducted with 36 correctional officers and clinicians in two prisons, provided descriptions of behavior in prison settings to re-align the GAF scale. Face validity was established. It was found that Habitation/Behavior, Social, and Symptoms emerged as important domains of functioning in prison. Gender differences were noted with regard to cleanliness, relationships and coping strategies. The cut-off score was identified at a score where offenders were unable to participate in a disciplinary process due to their mental illness. The structure of prison alters human functioning, requiring different assessment language and ratings to measure perceived behavioral norms and/or expectations. Front-line staff need the ability to observe and communicate behavioral changes quickly and accurately in a prison environment without undue burden upon their workload. This assessment was modified by front-line staff specifically for the prison environment to document quick and frequent assessments of observed changes over time in the offender population.

  15. Large-scale parallel genome assembler over cloud computing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arghya Kusum; Koppa, Praveen Kumar; Goswami, Sayan; Platania, Richard; Park, Seung-Jong

    2017-06-01

    The size of high throughput DNA sequencing data has already reached the terabyte scale. To manage this huge volume of data, many downstream sequencing applications started using locality-based computing over different cloud infrastructures to take advantage of elastic (pay as you go) resources at a lower cost. However, the locality-based programming model (e.g. MapReduce) is relatively new. Consequently, developing scalable data-intensive bioinformatics applications using this model and understanding the hardware environment that these applications require for good performance, both require further research. In this paper, we present a de Bruijn graph oriented Parallel Giraph-based Genome Assembler (GiGA), as well as the hardware platform required for its optimal performance. GiGA uses the power of Hadoop (MapReduce) and Giraph (large-scale graph analysis) to achieve high scalability over hundreds of compute nodes by collocating the computation and data. GiGA achieves significantly higher scalability with competitive assembly quality compared to contemporary parallel assemblers (e.g. ABySS and Contrail) over traditional HPC cluster. Moreover, we show that the performance of GiGA is significantly improved by using an SSD-based private cloud infrastructure over traditional HPC cluster. We observe that the performance of GiGA on 256 cores of this SSD-based cloud infrastructure closely matches that of 512 cores of traditional HPC cluster.

  16. Why have microsaccades become larger?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dan Witzner; Nyström, Marcus; Andersson, Richard

    2014-01-01

    -trackers compared to the systems used in the classical studies, in combination with the lack of a systematic algorithmic treatment of the overshoot. We hope that awareness of these discrepancies in microsaccade dynamics across eye structures will lead to more generally accepted definitions of microsaccades....... experts. The main reason was that the overshoots were not systematically detected by the algorithm and therefore not accurately accounted for. We conclude that one reason to why the reported size of microsaccades has increased is due to the larger overshoots produced by the modern pupil-based eye...

  17. When the proton becomes larger

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    The TOTEM experiment at the LHC has just confirmed that, at high energy, protons behave as if they were becoming larger. In more technical terms, their total cross-section – a parameter linked to the proton-proton interaction probability – increases with energy. This phenomenon, expected from previous measurements performed at much lower energy, has now been confirmed for the first time at the LHC’s unprecedented energy.   One arm of a TOTEM T2 detector during its installation at interaction point 5. A composite particle like the proton is a complex system that in no way resembles a static Lego construction: sub-components move inside and interactions keep the whole thing together, but in a very dynamic way. This partly explains why even the very common proton can still be hiding secrets about its nature, decades after its discovery. One way of studying the inner properties of protons is to observe how they interact with each other, which, in technical terms, i...

  18. A Fault Oblivious Extreme-Scale Execution Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKie, Jim

    2014-11-20

    The FOX project, funded under the ASCR X-stack I program, developed systems software and runtime libraries for a new approach to the data and work distribution for massively parallel, fault oblivious application execution. Our work was motivated by the premise that exascale computing systems will provide a thousand-fold increase in parallelism and a proportional increase in failure rate relative to today’s machines. To deliver the capability of exascale hardware, the systems software must provide the infrastructure to support existing applications while simultaneously enabling efficient execution of new programming models that naturally express dynamic, adaptive, irregular computation; coupled simulations; and massive data analysis in a highly unreliable hardware environment with billions of threads of execution. Our OS research has prototyped new methods to provide efficient resource sharing, synchronization, and protection in a many-core compute node. We have experimented with alternative task/dataflow programming models and shown scalability in some cases to hundreds of thousands of cores. Much of our software is in active development through open source projects. Concepts from FOX are being pursued in next generation exascale operating systems. Our OS work focused on adaptive, application tailored OS services optimized for multi → many core processors. We developed a new operating system NIX that supports role-based allocation of cores to processes which was released to open source. We contributed to the IBM FusedOS project, which promoted the concept of latency-optimized and throughput-optimized cores. We built a task queue library based on distributed, fault tolerant key-value store and identified scaling issues. A second fault tolerant task parallel library was developed, based on the Linda tuple space model, that used low level interconnect primitives for optimized communication. We designed fault tolerance mechanisms for task parallel computations

  19. Connecting the small scale to the large scale: young massive stars and their environments from the Red MSX Source Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figura, Charles C.; Urquhart, James S.; Morgan, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    We have conducted a detailed multi-wavelength investigation of a variety of massive star forming regions in order to characterise the impact of the interactions between the substructure of the dense protostellar clumps and their local environment, including feedback from the embedded proto-cluster.A selection of 70 MYSOs and HII regions identified by the RMS survey have been followed up with observations of the ammonia (1,1) and (2,2) inversion transitions made with the KFPA on the GBT. These maps have been combined with archival CO data to investigate the thermal and kinematic structure of the extended envelopes down to the dense clumps. We complement this larger-scale picture with high resolution near- and mid-infrared images to probe the properties of the embedded objects themselves.We present an overview of several sources from this sample that illustrate some of the the interactions that we observe. We find that high molecular column densities and kinetic temperatures are coincident with embedded sources and with shocks and outflows as exhibited in gas kinematics.

  20. Mediterranean hurricanes: large-scale environment and convective and precipitating areas from satellite microwave observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Claud

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Subsynoptic scale vortices that have been likened to tropical cyclones or polar lows (medicanes are occasionally observed over the Mediterranean Sea. Generated over the sea, they are usually associated with strong winds and heavy precipitation and thus can be highly destructive in islands and costal areas. Only an accurate forecasting of such systems could mitigate these effects. However, at the moment, the predictability of these systems remains limited.

    Due to the scarcity of conventional observations, use is made of NOAA/MetOp satellite observations, for which advantage can be taken of the time coverage differences between the platforms that carry it, to give a very complete temporal description of the disturbances. A combination of AMSU-B (Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-B/MHS (Microwave Humidity Sounder observations permit to investigate precipitation associated with these systems while coincident AMSU-A (Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A observations give insights into the larger synoptic-scale environment in which they occur.

    Three different cases (in terms of intensity, location, trajectory, duration, and periods of the year – May, September and December, respectively were investigated. Throughout these time periods, AMSU-A observations show that the persisting deep outflow of cold air over the sea together with an upper-level trough upstream constituted a favourable environment for the development of medicanes. AMSU-B/MHS based diagnostics show that convection and precipitation areas are large in the early stage of the low, but significantly reduced afterwards. Convection is maximum just after the upper-level trough, located upstream of cold mid-tropospheric air, reached its maximum intensity and acquired a cyclonic orientation.

  1. A Study of Developing an Attitude Scale towards Authentic Learning Environments and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetinkaya, Murat

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the research is to improve a valid and reliable attributing scale which identifies authentic learning environments and evaluation attributes of the science teacher candidates. The study has been designed on the base of validity and reliability of the scale developed to evaluate the authentic learning environments. The research group is…

  2. Atomic-scale dislocation dynamics in radiation damage environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osetsky, Y.; Stoller, R.; Bacon, D.J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The dynamics behavior of dislocations determines mechanical properties of crystalline materials. Long-range interactions between a moving dislocation and other defects can be treated within a continuum approach via interaction of their stress and strain fields. However, a vast contribution to mechanical properties depends on the direct interaction between dislocations and other defects and depends very much on the particular atomic scale structure of the both moving dislocation core and the obstacle. In this work we review recent progress in large-scale modeling of dislocation dynamics in metals at the atomic level by molecular dynamics and statics. We review the modem techniques used to simulate dynamics of dislocations in different lattice structures, the dependence on temperature, strain rate and obstacle size. Examples are given for bcc, fcc and hcp metals where edge and screw dislocations interact with vacancy (loops, voids, stacking fault tetrahedra, etc), self-interstitial clusters and secondary phase precipitates. Attention is paid to interpretation of atomistic results from the point of view of parameterization of continuum models. The latter is vitally necessary for further application in 3-dimensional dislocation dynamics within the multi-scale materials modeling approach. Research sponsored by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering and the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy, under contract DE-AC0S-00OR22725 with UT-Battelle, LLC. (authors)

  3. Preparing Attitude Scale to Define Students' Attitudes about Environment, Recycling, Plastic and Plastic Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avan, Cagri; Aydinli, Bahattin; Bakar, Fatma; Alboga, Yunus

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to introduce an attitude scale in order to define students? attitudes about environment, recycling, plastics, plastic waste. In this study, 80 attitude sentences according to 5-point Likert-type scale were prepared and applied to 492 students of 6th grade in the Kastamonu city center of Turkey. The scale consists of…

  4. Effects of different vegetation on temperature in an urban building environment. Micro-scale numerical experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Guenter [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Meteorologie und Klimatologie

    2012-08-15

    A three-dimensional micro-scale model is used to study the effects of various greenery on temperature in a built-up environment. Green design elements like roofs and facades, lawns in courtyards and single trees are studied individually as well as in various combinations. Measures for comparison are temperatures at 2 m height and mean temperatures for the urban atmosphere up to the building height. Different types of greenery can reduce local temperatures up to 15 K during specific daytime hours. However, this extraordinary effect is restricted to a short time and especially to the direct surroundings, while an impact over larger distances is small. Roof and facade greenery have hardly any influence on temperature at the 2 m level but reduce daytime heating of the urban atmosphere to a minor degree, while the relevance of trees is more or less limited to the shadow effect. A significant decrease in urban temperatures can be achieved only with a large number of very different individual green elements. The largest effect on the urban atmosphere was simulated for a change in albedo resulting in a temperature decrease of some degrees around noon. (orig.)

  5. Profiling medical school learning environments in Malaysia: a validation study of the Johns Hopkins Learning Environment Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Tackett

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: While a strong learning environment is critical to medical student education, the assessment of medical school learning environments has confounded researchers. Our goal was to assess the validity and utility of the Johns Hopkins Learning Environment Scale (JHLES for preclinical students at three Malaysian medical schools with distinct educational and institutional models. Two schools were new international partnerships, and the third was school leaver program established without international partnership. Methods: First- and second-year students responded anonymously to surveys at the end of the academic year. The surveys included the JHLES, a 28-item survey using five-point Likert scale response options, the Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM, the most widely used method to assess learning environments internationally, a personal growth scale, and single-item global learning environment assessment variables. Results: The overall response rate was 369/429 (86%. After adjusting for the medical school year, gender, and ethnicity of the respondents, the JHLES detected differences across institutions in four out of seven domains (57%, with each school having a unique domain profile. The DREEM detected differences in one out of five categories (20%. The JHLES was more strongly correlated than the DREEM to two thirds of the single-item variables and the personal growth scale. The JHLES showed high internal reliability for the total score (α=0.92 and the seven domains (α, 0.56-0.85. Conclusion: The JHLES detected variation between learning environment domains across three educational settings, thereby creating unique learning environment profiles. Interpretation of these profiles may allow schools to understand how they are currently supporting trainees and identify areas needing attention.

  6. Psychometric analysis of two new scales: the evidence-based practice nursing leadership and work environment scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryse, Yvette; McDaniel, Anna; Schafer, John

    2014-08-01

    Those in nursing have been charged with practicing to the full extent of their education and training by the Institute of Medicine. Therefore, evidence-based practice (EBP) has never been more important to nursing than in the current healthcare environment. Frequently the burden of EBP is the responsibility of the bedside practitioner, but has been found to be a process that requires leadership and organizational support. A key underlying component of a strong EBP environment includes effective communications and collaboration among staff and nursing leadership. Developing measurement tools that examine the milieu and nursing leadership in which the staff nurse practices is an important component of understanding the factors that support or hinder EBP. The aim of this study is to report on the development and analysis of two new scales designed to explore leadership and organizational support for EBP. The EBP Nursing Leadership Scale (10 items) examines the staff nurses perception of support provided by the nurse manager for EBP, and the EBP Work Environment Scale (8 items) examines organizational support for EBP. Staff nurses who worked at least .5 FTE in direct patient care, from two inner city hospitals (n = 422) completed the scales. The scales were evaluated for internal consistency reliability with the Cronbach alpha technique, content validity using a panel of experts, and construct validity by The content validity index computed from expert rankings was .78 to 1.0 with an average of.96. Cronbach's alpha was .96 (n = 422) for the EBP Nursing Leadership Scale and .86 (n = 422) for the EBP Work Environment Scale. Factor analysis confirmed that each scale measured a unidimensional construct (p organizational influences on EBP. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  7. Quality assurance of the clinical learning environment in Austria: Construct validity of the Clinical Learning Environment, Supervision and Nurse Teacher Scale (CLES+T scale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Gerhard; Mylonas, Demetrius; Schumacher, Petra

    2018-04-21

    Within nursing education, the clinical learning environment is of a high importance in regards to the development of competencies and abilities. The organization, atmosphere, and supervision in the clinical learning environment are only a few factors that influence this development. In Austria there is currently no valid instrument available for the evaluation of influencing factors. The aim of the study was to test the construct validity with principal component analysis as well as the internal consistency of the German Clinical Learning Environment, Supervision and Teacher Scale (CLES+T scale) in Austria. The present validation study has a descriptive-quantitative cross-sectional design. The sample consisted of 385 nursing students from thirteen training institutions in Austria. The data collection was carried out online between March and April 2016. Starting with a polychoric correlation matrix, a parallel analysis with principal component extraction and promax rotation was carried out due to the ordinal data. The exploratory ordinal factor analysis supported a four-component solution and explained 73% of the total variance. The internal consistency of all 25 items reached a Cronbach's α of 0.95 and the four components ranged between 0.83 and 0.95. The German version of the CLES+T scale seems to be a useful instrument for identifying potential areas of improvement in clinical practice in order to derive specific quality measures for the practical learning environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Describing the Climate of Student Organizations: The Student Organization Environment Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roger B., Jr.; Bledsoe, Tyrone; Goldstein, Adam R.; Wisbey, Martha E.; Street, James L.; Brown, Steven R.; Goyen, Kenneth D.; Rounds, Linda E.

    1997-01-01

    Using M. R. Weisbord's model of organizational diagnosis, researchers developed the Student Organization Environment Scales to measure students' perceptions of the psychosocial environment or climate of college student organizations. Development of the instrument is described and estimates of its reliability and validity are reported. Describes…

  9. Development of a compassion-focused and contextual behavioural environment and validation of the Therapeutic Environment Scales (TESS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, David; Miles, Sarah; Naismith, Iona; Pieta, Maria; Gilbert, Paul

    2016-02-01

    Aims and method The aims of the study were to develop a scale sensitive enough to measure the interpersonal processes within a therapeutic environment, and to explore whether the new scale was sensitive enough to detect differences between settings, including a community based on compassionate mind and contextual behaviourism. The Therapeutic Environment Scales (TESS) were validated with 81 participants in three different settings: a specialist service for anxiety disorders, a specialist in-patient ward and a psychodynamic therapeutic community. Results TESS was found to be reliable and valid. Significant differences were seen between the services on the dimensions of compassion, belongingness, feeling safe, positive reinforcement of members' acts of courage, extinction and accommodation of unhelpful behaviours, inconsistency and high expressed emotion. These processes were over time associated with improved outcomes on a specialist service for anxiety disorders. Clinical implications The TESS offers a first step in exploring important interpersonal relationships in therapeutic environments and communities. An environment based on a compassionate mind and contextual behaviourism offers promise for the running of a therapeutic community.

  10. More 'altruistic' punishment in larger societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Frank W; Berbesque, J Colette

    2008-03-07

    If individuals will cooperate with cooperators, and punish non-cooperators even at a cost to themselves, then this strong reciprocity could minimize the cheating that undermines cooperation. Based upon numerous economic experiments, some have proposed that human cooperation is explained by strong reciprocity and norm enforcement. Second-party punishment is when you punish someone who defected on you; third-party punishment is when you punish someone who defected on someone else. Third-party punishment is an effective way to enforce the norms of strong reciprocity and promote cooperation. Here we present new results that expand on a previous report from a large cross-cultural project. This project has already shown that there is considerable cross-cultural variation in punishment and cooperation. Here we test the hypothesis that population size (and complexity) predicts the level of third-party punishment. Our results show that people in larger, more complex societies engage in significantly more third-party punishment than people in small-scale societies.

  11. The Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index: An updated review and recommendations for use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiger, Pauline A; Patrician, Patricia A; Miltner, Rebecca S Susie; Raju, Dheeraj; Breckenridge-Sproat, Sara; Loan, Lori A

    2017-09-01

    The Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI) is an instrument, which measures the nursing practice environment - defined as factors that enhance or attenuate a nurse's ability to practice nursing skillfully and deliver high quality care. The purpose of this paper is to provide an updated review of the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index's use to date and provide recommendations that may be helpful to nursing leaders and researchers who plan to use this instrument. A narrative review of quantitative studies. PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature were searched to identify relevant literature using the search terms, Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index and PES-NWI. Studies were included if they were published in English between 2010 and 2016 and focused on the relationship between the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index and patient, nurse, or organizational outcomes. Data extraction focused on the reported survey scores and the significance and strength of the reported associations. Forty-six articles, from 28 countries, were included in this review. The majority reported significant findings between the nursing practice environment and outcomes. Although some modifications have been made, the instrument has remained primarily unchanged since its development. Most often, the scores regarding staffing and resource adequacy remained the lowest. The frequency of use of this instrument has remained high. Many researchers advocate for a move beyond the study of the connection between the Practice Environment Scale and nurse, patient, and organizational outcomes. Research should shift toward identifying interventions that improve the environment in which nurses practice and determining if changing the environment results in improved care quality. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Modeling Hydrodynamics on the Wave Group Scale in Topographically Complex Reef Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyns, J.; Becker, J. M.; Merrifield, M. A.; Roelvink, J. A.

    2016-02-01

    The knowledge of the characteristics of waves and the associated wave-driven currents is important for sediment transport and morphodynamics, nutrient dynamics and larval dispersion within coral reef ecosystems. Reef-lined coasts differ from sandy beaches in that they have a steep offshore slope, that the non-sandy bottom topography is very rough, and that the distance between the point of maximum short wave dissipation and the actual coastline is usually large. At this short wave breakpoint, long waves are released, and these infragravity (IG) scale motions account for the bulk of the water level variance on the reef flat, the lagoon and eventually, the sandy beaches fronting the coast through run-up. These IG energy dominated water level motions are reinforced during extreme events such as cyclones or swells through larger incident band wave heights and low frequency wave resonance on the reef. Recently, a number of hydro(-morpho)dynamic models that have the capability to model these IG waves have successfully been applied to morphologically differing reef environments. One of these models is the XBeach model, which is curvilinear in nature. This poses serious problems when trying to model an entire atoll for example, as it is extremely difficult to build curvilinear grids that are optimal for the simulation of hydrodynamic processes, while maintaining the topology in the grid. One solution to remediate this problem of grid connectivity is the use of unstructured grids. We present an implementation of the wave action balance on the wave group scale with feedback to the flow momentum balance, which is the foundation of XBeach, within the framework of the unstructured Delft3D Flexible Mesh model. The model can be run in stationary as well as in instationary mode, and it can be forced by regular waves, time series or wave spectra. We show how the code is capable of modeling the wave generated flow at a number of topographically complex reef sites and for a number of

  13. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Professional Practice Environment (PPE) scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jeanette Ives; Duffy, Mary E; Gibbons, M Patricia; Fitzmaurice, Joan; Ditomassi, Marianne; Jones, Dorothy

    2004-01-01

    To describe the Professional Practice Environment (PPE) scale, its conceptual development and psychometric evaluation, and its uses in measuring eight characteristics of the professional practice environment in an acute care setting. The 38-item PPE Scale was validated on a sample of 849 professional practice staff at the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston. Psychometric analysis included: item analysis, principal components analysis (PCA) with varimax rotation and Kaiser normalization, and internal consistency reliability using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Eight components were shown, confirming the original conceptually derived model's structure and accounting for 61% of explained variance. Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the eight PPE subscales ranged from .78 to .88. Findings showed the 38-item PPE Scale was reliable and valid for use in health outcomes research to examine the professional practice environment of staff working in acute care settings.

  14. Design, construction, and validation of a scale to measure cyberbullying in a work environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz N. Fernández-López

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to design, construct, and validate a scale to measure cyberbullying in a work environment. The design used was quantitative, not experimental, and transversal. The research method was based on the Reactive Response Theory. This research produced a validated scale with a sample of the work environment in Puerto Rico. Three analyses were performed: content validity, reliability analysis of the Cronbach alpha coefficient, and the divergent type construct validity. Based on the analysis of the results, the scale was deemed to be useful for the purpose it was designed. Building a scale that measures cyberbullying contributes to the design of new instruments and the revision of existing ones; furthermore, it may serve as the basis for future re- search related to the topic of cyberbullying.

  15. FR-type radio sources in COSMOS: relation of radio structure to size, accretion modes and large-scale environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardoulaki, Eleni; Faustino Jimenez Andrade, Eric; Delvecchio, Ivan; Karim, Alexander; Smolčić, Vernesa; Magnelli, Benjamin; Bertoldi, Frank; Schinnener, Eva; Sargent, Mark; Finoguenov, Alexis; VLA COSMOS Team

    2018-01-01

    The radio sources associated with active galactic nuclei (AGN) can exhibit a variety of radio structures, from simple to more complex, giving rise to a variety of classification schemes. The question which still remains open, given deeper surveys revealing new populations of radio sources, is whether this plethora of radio structures can be attributed to the physical properties of the host or to the environment. Here we present an analysis on the radio structure of radio-selected AGN from the VLA-COSMOS Large Project at 3 GHz (JVLA-COSMOS; Smolčić et al.) in relation to: 1) their linear projected size, 2) the Eddington ratio, and 3) the environment their hosts lie within. We classify these as FRI (jet-like) and FRII (lobe-like) based on the FR-type classification scheme, and compare them to a sample of jet-less radio AGN in JVLA-COSMOS. We measure their linear projected sizes using a semi-automatic machine learning technique. Their Eddington ratios are calculated from X-ray data available for COSMOS. As environmental probes we take the X-ray groups (hundreds kpc) and the density fields (~Mpc-scale) in COSMOS. We find that FRII radio sources are on average larger than FRIs, which agrees with literature. But contrary to past studies, we find no dichotomy in FR objects in JVLA-COSMOS given their Eddington ratios, as on average they exhibit similar values. Furthermore our results show that the large-scale environment does not explain the observed dichotomy in lobe- and jet-like FR-type objects as both types are found on similar environments, but it does affect the shape of the radio structure introducing bents for objects closer to the centre of an X-ray group.

  16. LEGO® bricks as building blocks for centimeter-scale biological environments: the case of plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara R Lind

    Full Text Available LEGO bricks are commercially available interlocking pieces of plastic that are conventionally used as toys. We describe their use to build engineered environments for cm-scale biological systems, in particular plant roots. Specifically, we take advantage of the unique modularity of these building blocks to create inexpensive, transparent, reconfigurable, and highly scalable environments for plant growth in which structural obstacles and chemical gradients can be precisely engineered to mimic soil.

  17. LEGO® bricks as building blocks for centimeter-scale biological environments: the case of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Kara R; Sizmur, Tom; Benomar, Saida; Miller, Anthony; Cademartiri, Ludovico

    2014-01-01

    LEGO bricks are commercially available interlocking pieces of plastic that are conventionally used as toys. We describe their use to build engineered environments for cm-scale biological systems, in particular plant roots. Specifically, we take advantage of the unique modularity of these building blocks to create inexpensive, transparent, reconfigurable, and highly scalable environments for plant growth in which structural obstacles and chemical gradients can be precisely engineered to mimic soil.

  18. Geographic scale matters in detecting the relationship between neighbourhood food environments and obesity risk: an analysis of driver license records in Salt Lake County, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jessie X; Hanson, Heidi A; Zick, Cathleen D; Brown, Barbara B; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Smith, Ken R

    2014-08-19

    Empirical studies of the association between neighbourhood food environments and individual obesity risk have found mixed results. One possible cause of these mixed findings is the variation in neighbourhood geographic scale used. The purpose of this paper was to examine how various neighbourhood geographic scales affected the estimated relationship between food environments and obesity risk. Cross-sectional secondary data analysis. Salt Lake County, Utah, USA. 403,305 Salt Lake County adults 25-64 in the Utah driver license database between 1995 and 2008. Utah driver license data were geo-linked to 2000 US Census data and Dun & Bradstreet business data. Food outlets were classified into the categories of large grocery stores, convenience stores, limited-service restaurants and full-service restaurants, and measured at four neighbourhood geographic scales: Census block group, Census tract, ZIP code and a 1 km buffer around the resident's house. These measures were regressed on individual obesity status using multilevel random intercept regressions. Obesity. Food environment was important for obesity but the scale of the relevant neighbourhood differs for different type of outlets: large grocery stores were not significant at all four geographic scales, limited-service restaurants at the medium-to-large scale (Census tract or larger) and convenience stores and full-service restaurants at the smallest scale (Census tract or smaller). The choice of neighbourhood geographic scale can affect the estimated significance of the association between neighbourhood food environments and individual obesity risk. However, variations in geographic scale alone do not explain the mixed findings in the literature. If researchers are constrained to use one geographic scale with multiple categories of food outlets, using Census tract or 1 km buffer as the neighbourhood geographic unit is likely to allow researchers to detect most significant relationships. Published by the BMJ

  19. An Australian Version of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale: Validity Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerin, Ester; Leslie, Eva; Owen, Neville; Bauman, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    This study examined validity evidence for the Australian version of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS-AU). A stratified two-stage cluster sampling design was used to recruit 2,650 adults from Adelaide (Australia). The sample was drawn from residential addresses within eight high-walkable and eight low-walkable suburbs matched…

  20. Probabilistic discrimination between large-scale environments of intensifying and decaying African Easterly Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agudelo, Paula A. [Area Hidrometria e Instrumentacion Carrera, Empresas Publicas de Medellin, Medellin (Colombia); Hoyos, Carlos D.; Curry, Judith A.; Webster, Peter J. [School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2011-04-15

    About 50-60% of Atlantic tropical cyclones (TCs) including nearly 85% of intense hurricanes have their origins as African Easterly Waves (AEWs). However, predicting the likelihood of AEW intensification remains a difficult task. We have developed a Bayesian diagnostic methodology to understand genesis of North Atlantic TCs spawned by AEWs through the examination of the characteristics of the AEW itself together with the large-scale environment, resulting in a probabilistic discrimination between large-scale environments associated with intensifying and decaying AEWs. The methodology is based on a new objective and automatic AEW tracking scheme used for the period 1980 to 2001 based on spatio-temporally Fourier-filtered relative vorticity and meridional winds at different levels and outgoing long wave radiation. Using the AEW and Hurricane Best Track Files (HURDAT) data sets, probability density functions of environmental variables that discriminate between AEWs that decay, become TCs or become major hurricanes are determined. Results indicate that the initial amplitude of the AEWs is a major determinant for TC genesis, and that TC genesis risk increases when the wave enters an environment characterized by pre-existing large-scale convergence and moist convection. For the prediction of genesis, the most useful variables are column integrated heating, vertical velocity and specific humidity, and a combined form of divergence and vertical velocity and SST. It is also found that the state of the large-scale environment modulates the annual cycle and interannual variability of the AEW intensification efficiency. (orig.)

  1. Verbalizing, Visualizing, and Navigating: The Effect of Strategies on Encoding a Large-Scale Virtual Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, David J. M.; Schinazi, Victor R.; Cawkwell, Philip B.; Tekriwal, Anand; Epstein, Russell A.; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.

    2017-01-01

    Using novel virtual cities, we investigated the influence of verbal and visual strategies on the encoding of navigation-relevant information in a large-scale virtual environment. In 2 experiments, participants watched videos of routes through 4 virtual cities and were subsequently tested on their memory for observed landmarks and their ability to…

  2. Family Structure and Eating Disorders: The Family Environment Scale and Bulimic-Like Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Carol A.

    1991-01-01

    Family variables derived from the Family Environment Scale are examined using data from 174 college women at a Pacific Northwest university and 2 universities in Houston (Texas) with varying degrees of bulimia. Subjects' self-reports indicate family dysfunctions, but the study illustrates the complexity of the family's role in bulimia. (SLD)

  3. Applying DLM and DCM concepts in a multi-scale data environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoter, Jantien; Meijers, Martijn; van Oosterom, Peter J.M.; Grünreich, Dietmar; Kraak, Menno-Jan

    2010-01-01

    This extended abstract presents work in progress in which we explore the DLM and DCM concepts in a multi-scale topographic data environment. The abstract is prepared as input for the Symposium on Generalisation and Data Integration (GDI), University of Colorado, Boulder, 20-22 June 2010.

  4. Quality of Child Care Using the Environment Rating Scales: A Meta-Analysis of International Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Harriet J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Cárcamo, Rodrigo A.; Harrison, Linda J.

    2016-01-01

    The current study provides a systematic examination of child care quality around the globe, using the Environment Rating Scales (ERS). Additional goals of this study are to examine associations between ERS process quality and structural features (group size, caregiver-child ratio) that underpin quality and between ERS and more proximal aspects of…

  5. Micromégas: Altered Body-Environment Scaling in Literary Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieguez, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Architectonic embodiment postulates a bidirectional link between bodily awareness and the architectural environment. The standard size and features of the human body, for instance, are thought to influence the structure of interiors and buildings, as well as their perception and appreciation. Whereas architectural practice and theory, the visual arts and more recently the cognitive sciences have explored this relationship of humans with their crafted environments, many fictional literary works have long experimented with alterations of body-environment scaling. This so-called Gulliver theme - popular in the science-fiction genre but also in children's literature and philosophical satire - reveals, as a recurrent thought-experiment, our preoccupation with proportions and our fascination for the infinitely small and large. Here I provide an overview of the altered scaling theme in literature, including classics such as Voltaire's Micromégas, Swift's Gulliver's Travels, Caroll's Alice, and Matheson's The Shrinking man, closely examining issues relevant to architectonic embodiment such as: bodily, perceptual, cognitive, affective, and social changes related to alterations in body size relative to people, objects and architectural environments. I next provide a taxonomy of the Gulliver theme and highlight its main psychological features, and then proceed to review relevant work from cognitive science. Although fictional alterations of body-environment scaling far outreach current possibilities in experimental research, I argue that the peripetiae and morals outlined in the literary realm, as products of the human imagination, provide a unique window into the folk-psychology of body and space.

  6. Cluster galaxy dynamics and the effects of large-scale environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Martin; Cohn, J. D.; Smit, Renske

    2010-11-01

    Advances in observational capabilities have ushered in a new era of multi-wavelength, multi-physics probes of galaxy clusters and ambitious surveys are compiling large samples of cluster candidates selected in different ways. We use a high-resolution N-body simulation to study how the influence of large-scale structure in and around clusters causes correlated signals in different physical probes and discuss some implications this has for multi-physics probes of clusters (e.g. richness, lensing, Compton distortion and velocity dispersion). We pay particular attention to velocity dispersions, matching galaxies to subhaloes which are explicitly tracked in the simulation. We find that not only do haloes persist as subhaloes when they fall into a larger host, but groups of subhaloes retain their identity for long periods within larger host haloes. The highly anisotropic nature of infall into massive clusters, and their triaxiality, translates into an anisotropic velocity ellipsoid: line-of-sight galaxy velocity dispersions for any individual halo show large variance depending on viewing angle. The orientation of the velocity ellipsoid is correlated with the large-scale structure, and thus velocity outliers correlate with outliers caused by projection in other probes. We quantify this orientation uncertainty and give illustrative examples. Such a large variance suggests that velocity dispersion estimators will work better in an ensemble sense than for any individual cluster, which may inform strategies for obtaining redshifts of cluster members. We similarly find that the ability of substructure indicators to find kinematic substructures is highly viewing angle dependent. While groups of subhaloes which merge with a larger host halo can retain their identity for many Gyr, they are only sporadically picked up by substructure indicators. We discuss the effects of correlated scatter on scaling relations estimated through stacking, both analytically and in the simulations

  7. Is Parental Involvement Lower at Larger Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Parents who volunteer, or who lobby for improvements in school quality, are generally seen as providing a school-wide public good. If so, straightforward public-good theory predicts that free-riding will reduce average involvement at larger schools. This study uses longitudinal data to follow families over time, as their children move from middle…

  8. Software Architecture for a Virtual Environment for Nano Scale Assembly (VENSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Gu; Lyons, Kevin W; Feng, Shaw C

    2004-01-01

    A Virtual Environment (VE) uses multiple computer-generated media to let a user experience situations that are temporally and spatially prohibiting. The information flow between the user and the VE is bidirectional and the user can influence the environment. The software development of a VE requires orchestrating multiple peripherals and computers in a synchronized way in real time. Although a multitude of useful software components for VEs exists, many of these are packaged within a complex framework and can not be used separately. In this paper, an architecture is presented which is designed to let multiple frameworks work together while being shielded from the application program. This architecture, which is called the Virtual Environment for Nano Scale Assembly (VENSA), has been constructed for interfacing with an optical tweezers instrument for nanotechnology development. However, this approach can be generalized for most virtual environments. Through the use of VENSA, the programmer can rely on existing solutions and concentrate more on the application software design.

  9. Systematic Work Environment Management: experiences from implementation in Swedish small-scale enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Kristina; Andersson, Ing-Marie; Rosén, Gunnar

    2010-01-01

    Small-scale enterprises face difficulties in fulfilling the regulations for organising Systematic Work Environment Management. This study compared three groups of small-scale manufacturing enterprises with and without support for implementing the provision. Two implementation methods, supervised and network method, were used. The third group worked according to their own ideas. Twenty-three enterprises participated. The effects of the implementation were evaluated after one year by semi-structured dialogue with the manager and safety representative. Each enterprise was classified on compliance with ten demands concerning the provision. The work environment was estimated by the WEST-method. Impact of the implementation on daily work was also studied. At the follow-up, the enterprises in the supervised method reported slightly more improvements in the fulfilment of the demands in the provision than the enterprises in the network method and the enterprises working on their own did. The effect of the project reached the employees faster in the enterprises with the supervised method. In general, the work environment improved to some extent in all enterprises. Extensive support to small-scale enterprises in terms of advise and networking aimed to fulfil the regulations of Systematic Work Environment Management had limited effect - especially considering the cost of applying these methods.

  10. Work environment impact scale: testing the psychometric properties of the Swedish version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekbladh, Elin; Fan, Chia-Wei; Sandqvist, Jan; Hemmingsson, Helena; Taylor, Renée

    2014-01-01

    The Work Environment Impact Scale (WEIS) is an assessment that focuses on the fit between a person and his or her work environment. It is based on Kielhofner's Model of Human Occupation and designed to gather information on how clients experience their work environment. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the WEIS assessment instrument. In total, 95 ratings on the 17-item WEIS were obtained from a sample of clients with experience of sick leave due to different medical conditions. Rasch analysis was used to analyze the data. Overall, the WEIS items together cohered to form a single construct of increasingly challenging work environmental factors. The hierarchical ordering of the items along the continuum followed a logical and expected pattern, and the participants were validly measured by the scale. The three occupational therapists serving as raters validly used the scale, but demonstrated a relatively high rater separation index, indicating differences in rater severity. The findings provide evidence that the Swedish version of the WEIS is a psychometrically sound assessment across diagnoses and occupations, which can provide valuable information about experiences of work environment challenges.

  11. Psychometric Properties of the Perceived Wellness Culture and Environment Support Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Szalacha, Laura A; Amaya, Megan

    2018-05-01

    This study reports on the psychometric properties of the 11-item Perceived Wellness Culture and Environment Support Scale (PWCESS) and its relationship with employee healthy lifestyle beliefs and behaviors. Faculty and staff (N = 3959) at a large public university in the United States mid-west completed the PWCESS along with healthy lifestyle beliefs and behaviors scales. Data were randomly split into 2 halves to explore the PWCESS' validity and reliability and the second half to confirm findings. Principal components analysis indicated a unidimensional construct. The PWCESS was positively related to healthy lifestyle beliefs and behaviors supporting the scale's validity. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the unidimensional construct (Cronbach's α = .92). Strong evidence supports the validity and reliability of the PWCESS. Future use of this scale could guide workplace intervention strategies to improve organizational wellness culture and employee health outcomes.

  12. Test-retest reliability of the Clinical Learning Environment, Supervision and Nurse Teacher (CLES + T) scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Margareta; Blomberg, Karin; Holmefur, Marie

    2015-07-01

    The Clinical Learning Environment, Supervision and Nurse Teacher (CLES + T) scale evaluates the student nurses' perception of the learning environment and supervision within the clinical placement. It has never been tested in a replication study. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the CLES + T scale. The CLES + T scale was administered twice to a group of 42 student nurses, with a one-week interval. Test-retest reliability was determined by calculations of Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICCs) and weighted Kappa coefficients. Standard Error of Measurements (SEM) and Smallest Detectable Difference (SDD) determined the precision of individual scores. Bland-Altman plots were created for analyses of systematic differences between the test occasions. The results of the study showed that the stability over time was good to excellent (ICC 0.88-0.96) in the sub-dimensions "Supervisory relationship", "Pedagogical atmosphere on the ward" and "Role of the nurse teacher". Measurements of "Premises of nursing on the ward" and "Leadership style of the manager" had lower but still acceptable stability (ICC 0.70-0.75). No systematic differences occurred between the test occasions. This study supports the usefulness of the CLES + T scale as a reliable measure of the student nurses' perception of the learning environment within the clinical placement at a hospital. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Obesity and the built environment at different urban scales: examining the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkel-Castro, Andrea; Kim, Keuntae; Hamidi, Shima; Ewing, Reid

    2017-01-01

    The majority of people now live in an urban (or suburban) environment. The built (material) environment, its vehicular and pedestrian infrastructure, buildings, and public realm places, are the places used for working, living, and recreating. The environment currently favors and facilitates motorized vehicles generally, and private automobiles especially. The prioritization given to vehicles reduces opportunities for other, more active modes of travel such as walking and bicycling. Though the built environment cannot be said to directly affect human obesity, the built environment clearly has a relationship to obesity as a consequence of physical activity. Most concerning is that rates of obesity have risen as cars have become increasingly privileged, leading to places that favor driving over walking or bicycling. This review examines current empirical literature on the environment and obesity at 3 key urban scales: macro, meso, and micro. Other key issues examined include longitudinal studies and self-selection bias. Evidence for a relationship between urban and suburban environments and obesity is found in the literature, but the lack of longitudinal research and research controlling for self-selection bias remains underrepresented. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Complexity in built environment, health, and destination walking: a neighborhood-scale analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Cynthia; Aytur, Semra; Gardner, Kevin; Rogers, Shannon

    2012-04-01

    This study investigates the relationships between the built environment, the physical attributes of the neighborhood, and the residents' perceptions of those attributes. It focuses on destination walking and self-reported health, and does so at the neighborhood scale. The built environment, in particular sidewalks, road connectivity, and proximity of local destinations, correlates with destination walking, and similarly destination walking correlates with physical health. It was found, however, that the built environment and health metrics may not be simply, directly correlated but rather may be correlated through a series of feedback loops that may regulate risk in different ways in different contexts. In particular, evidence for a feedback loop between physical health and destination walking is observed, as well as separate feedback loops between destination walking and objective metrics of the built environment, and destination walking and perception of the built environment. These feedback loops affect the ability to observe how the built environment correlates with residents' physical health. Previous studies have investigated pieces of these associations, but are potentially missing the more complex relationships present. This study proposes a conceptual model describing complex feedback relationships between destination walking and public health, with the built environment expected to increase or decrease the strength of the feedback loop. Evidence supporting these feedback relationships is presented.

  15. Bikeability and methodological issues using the active commuting route environment scale (ACRES in a metropolitan setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schantz Peter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Route environments can positively influence people's active commuting and thereby contribute to public health. The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES was developed to study active commuters' perceptions of their route environments. However, bicycle commuters represent a small portion of the population in many cities and thus are difficult to study using population-based material. Therefore, the aim of this study is to expand the state of knowledge concerning the criterion-related validity of the ACRES and the representativity using an advertisement-recruited sample. Furthermore, by comparing commuting route environment profiles of inner urban and suburban areas, we provide a novel basis for understanding the relationship between environment and bikeability. Methods Bicycle commuters from Greater Stockholm, Sweden, advertisement- (n = 1379 and street-recruited (n = 93, responded to the ACRES. Traffic planning and environmental experts from the Municipality of Stockholm (n = 24 responded to a modified version of the ACRES. The criterion-related validity assessments were based on whether or not differences between the inner urban and the suburban route environments, as indicated by the experts and by four existing objective measurements, were reflected by differences in perceptions of these environments. Comparisons of ratings between advertisement- and street-recruited participants were used for the assessments of representativity. Finally, ratings of inner urban and suburban route environments were used to evaluate commuting route environment profiles. Results Differences in ratings of the inner urban and suburban route environments by the advertisement-recruited participants were in accord with the existing objective measurements and corresponded reasonably well with those of the experts. Overall, there was a reasonably good correspondence between the advertisement- and street-recruited participants' ratings

  16. Bikeability and methodological issues using the active commuting route environment scale (ACRES) in a metropolitan setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlgren, Lina; Schantz, Peter

    2011-01-17

    Route environments can positively influence people's active commuting and thereby contribute to public health. The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES) was developed to study active commuters' perceptions of their route environments. However, bicycle commuters represent a small portion of the population in many cities and thus are difficult to study using population-based material. Therefore, the aim of this study is to expand the state of knowledge concerning the criterion-related validity of the ACRES and the representativity using an advertisement-recruited sample. Furthermore, by comparing commuting route environment profiles of inner urban and suburban areas, we provide a novel basis for understanding the relationship between environment and bikeability. Bicycle commuters from Greater Stockholm, Sweden, advertisement- (n = 1379) and street-recruited (n = 93), responded to the ACRES. Traffic planning and environmental experts from the Municipality of Stockholm (n = 24) responded to a modified version of the ACRES. The criterion-related validity assessments were based on whether or not differences between the inner urban and the suburban route environments, as indicated by the experts and by four existing objective measurements, were reflected by differences in perceptions of these environments. Comparisons of ratings between advertisement- and street-recruited participants were used for the assessments of representativity. Finally, ratings of inner urban and suburban route environments were used to evaluate commuting route environment profiles. Differences in ratings of the inner urban and suburban route environments by the advertisement-recruited participants were in accord with the existing objective measurements and corresponded reasonably well with those of the experts. Overall, there was a reasonably good correspondence between the advertisement- and street-recruited participants' ratings. Distinct differences in commuting route environment

  17. Micromégas: Altered Body–Environment Scaling in Literary Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieguez, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Architectonic embodiment postulates a bidirectional link between bodily awareness and the architectural environment. The standard size and features of the human body, for instance, are thought to influence the structure of interiors and buildings, as well as their perception and appreciation. Whereas architectural practice and theory, the visual arts and more recently the cognitive sciences have explored this relationship of humans with their crafted environments, many fictional literary works have long experimented with alterations of body–environment scaling. This so-called Gulliver theme – popular in the science-fiction genre but also in children’s literature and philosophical satire – reveals, as a recurrent thought-experiment, our preoccupation with proportions and our fascination for the infinitely small and large. Here I provide an overview of the altered scaling theme in literature, including classics such as Voltaire’s Micromégas, Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels, Caroll’s Alice, and Matheson’s The Shrinking man, closely examining issues relevant to architectonic embodiment such as: bodily, perceptual, cognitive, affective, and social changes related to alterations in body size relative to people, objects and architectural environments. I next provide a taxonomy of the Gulliver theme and highlight its main psychological features, and then proceed to review relevant work from cognitive science. Although fictional alterations of body-environment scaling far outreach current possibilities in experimental research, I argue that the peripetiae and morals outlined in the literary realm, as products of the human imagination, provide a unique window into the folk-psychology of body and space. PMID:27148156

  18. COMBINED EFFECTS OF GALAXY INTERACTIONS AND LARGE-SCALE ENVIRONMENT ON GALAXY PROPERTIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Changbom; Choi, Yun-Young

    2009-01-01

    We inspect the coupled dependence of physical parameters of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies on the small-scale (distance to and morphology of the nearest neighbor galaxy) and the large-scale (background density smoothed over 20 nearby galaxies) environments. The impacts of interaction on galaxy properties are detected at least out to the neighbor separation corresponding to the virial radius of galaxies, which is typically between 200 and 400 h -1 kpc for the galaxies in our sample. To detect these long-range interaction effects, it is crucial to divide galaxy interactions into four cases dividing the morphology of target and neighbor galaxies into early and late types. We show that there are two characteristic neighbor-separation scales where the galaxy interactions cause abrupt changes in the properties of galaxies. The first scale is the virial radius of the nearest neighbor galaxy r vir,nei . Many physical parameters start to deviate from those of extremely isolated galaxies at the projected neighbor separation r p of about r vir,nei . The second scale is at r p ∼ 0.05r vir,nei = 10-20 h -1 kpc, and is the scale at which the galaxies in pairs start to merge. We find that late-type neighbors enhance the star formation activity of galaxies while early-type neighbors reduce it, and that these effects occur within r vir,nei . The hot halo gas and cold disk gas must be participating in the interactions at separations less than the virial radius of the galaxy plus dark halo system. Our results also show that the role of the large-scale density in determining galaxy properties is minimal once luminosity and morphology are fixed. We propose that the weak residual dependence of galaxy properties on the large-scale density is due to the dependence of the halo gas property on the large-scale density.

  19. Medical Students' Perception about the Educational Environment in Western Maharashtra in Medical College using DREEM Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhosale, Uma

    2015-11-01

    Educational Environment (EE) has significant impact on teaching-learning, satisfaction, performance and academic progress of students. Feedback obtained through structured questionnaire designed for them can serve as tool for identifying and solving these EE related problems. To assess the perceptions of medical students concerning their educational environment (EE) using Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM) scale. Study involved all three years medical students; surveyed with DREEM questionnaire consisted of 50 items based on the Likert 's scale (scores from 0 to 200); and 5 domains namely students' perceptions of learning (SPL), perceptions of teachers (SPT), academic self-perceptions (SAP), perceptions of atmosphere (SPA) and social self-perceptions (SSP). The overall total score on Likert's scale was 136 (interpretation: predominantly positive). The scores obtained in the different domains were 35.5 in SPL (interpretation: a more positive perception); 30.9 in SPT (interpretation: moving in the right direction); 21 in SAP (interpretation: feeling more in the positive side); 29.8 in SPA (interpretation: a more positive atmosphere); and 16.1 in SSP (interpretation: satisfactory. The DREEM score assigned by female students was significantly greater (pstudents. The second-year students were more positive in their perception of EE (pstudent's perception about EE was satisfactory. However, the item with score students during their academic life were the problem areas identified need to be revisited and improvised to further improve learning experience.

  20. Generic framework for meso-scale assessment of climate change hazards in coastal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelquist, Lars Rosendahl

    2013-01-01

    coastal environments worldwide through a specially designed coastal classification system containing 113 generic coastal types. The framework provides information on the degree to which key climate change hazards are inherent in a particular coastal environment, and covers the hazards of ecosystem......This paper presents a generic framework for assessing inherent climate change hazards in coastal environments through a combined coastal classification and hazard evaluation system. The framework is developed to be used at scales relevant for regional and national planning and aims to cover all...... and computing requirements, allowing for application in developing country settings. It is presented as a graphical tool—the Coastal Hazard Wheel—to ease its application for planning purposes....

  1. Enabling Structured Exploration of Workflow Performance Variability in Extreme-Scale Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Stephan, Eric G.; Raju, Bibi; Altintas, Ilkay; Elsethagen, Todd O.; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram

    2015-11-15

    Workflows are taking an Workflows are taking an increasingly important role in orchestrating complex scientific processes in extreme scale and highly heterogeneous environments. However, to date we cannot reliably predict, understand, and optimize workflow performance. Sources of performance variability and in particular the interdependencies of workflow design, execution environment and system architecture are not well understood. While there is a rich portfolio of tools for performance analysis, modeling and prediction for single applications in homogenous computing environments, these are not applicable to workflows, due to the number and heterogeneity of the involved workflow and system components and their strong interdependencies. In this paper, we investigate workflow performance goals and identify factors that could have a relevant impact. Based on our analysis, we propose a new workflow performance provenance ontology, the Open Provenance Model-based WorkFlow Performance Provenance, or OPM-WFPP, that will enable the empirical study of workflow performance characteristics and variability including complex source attribution.

  2. Polish Version of the Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS-Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaśkiewicz, Michał; Besta, Tomasz

    2016-11-04

    The characteristics of built environments are the subject of intense consideration in the search for solutions to promote wellbeing and a higher quality of life among the inhabitants of cities. Walkability, defined as the extent to which the built environment is friendly to living and fulfilling the needs of the area, has become an important concept in sustainable urban design, public health and environmental psychology. This study systematically adapted the Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) for Poland, and evaluated the construct validity aspects of the adapted version among Polish adults. A total sample of 783 participants from a TriCity (Trójmiasto) agglomeration completed the adapted version of the NEWS. Smaller extracted samples of the participants also completed wellbeing related scales, including self-efficacy, local identity and distance to city centre measures. It was expected that various districts of Gdańsk would differ in terms of walkability. The confirmatory factor analysis showed satisfactory goodness-of-fit statistics and factor loadings corresponding to the proposed original factor structure. According to the predictions, the NEWS subscales correlated with the self-efficacy, local identity and wellbeing related measures. In addition, the comparisons between the neighbourhoods of Gdańsk also showed a predictable pattern of results. Overall, the NEWS demonstrated satisfactory measurement properties, and may be useful in the evaluation of the built environment in Poland.

  3. Psychometric analysis of the leadership environment scale (LENS): Outcome from the Oregon research initiative on the organisation of nursing (ORION).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Amy M; Ilic, Kelley; Kiyoshi-Teo, Hiroko; Lee, Christopher S

    2017-12-26

    The purpose of this study was to establish the psychometric properties of the new 16-item leadership environment scale. The leadership environment scale was based on complexity science concepts relevant to complex adaptive health care systems. A workforce survey of direct-care nurses was conducted (n = 1,443) in Oregon. Confirmatory factor analysis, exploratory factor analysis, concordant validity test and reliability tests were conducted to establish the structure and internal consistency of the leadership environment scale. Confirmatory factor analysis indices approached acceptable thresholds of fit with a single factor solution. Exploratory factor analysis showed improved fit with a two-factor model solution; the factors were labelled 'influencing relationships' and 'interdependent system supports'. Moderate to strong convergent validity was observed between the leadership environment scale/subscales and both the nursing workforce index and the safety organising scale. Reliability of the leadership environment scale and subscales was strong, with all alphas ≥.85. The leadership environment scale is structurally sound and reliable. Nursing management can employ adaptive complexity leadership attributes, measure their influence on the leadership environment, subsequently modify system supports and relationships and improve the quality of health care systems. The leadership environment scale is an innovative fit to complex adaptive systems and how nurses act as leaders within these systems. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Conceptual Design and Demonstration of Space Scale for Measuring Mass in Microgravity Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn-Kyu Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new idea for developing a space scale for measuring mass in a microgravity environment was proposed by using the inertial force properties of an object to measure its mass. The space scale detected the momentum change of the specimen and reference masses by using a load-cell sensor as the force transducer based on Newton’s laws of motion. In addition, the space scale calculated the specimen mass by comparing the inertial forces of the specimen and reference masses in the same acceleration field. By using this concept, a space scale with a capacity of 3 kg based on the law of momentum conservation was implemented and demonstrated under microgravity conditions onboard International Space Station (ISS with an accuracy of ±1 g. By the performance analysis on the space scale, it was verified that an instrument with a compact size could be implemented and be quickly measured with a reasonable accuracy under microgravity conditions.

  5. Characterization of the Scale Model Acoustic Test Overpressure Environment using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Tanner; West, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT) is a 5% scale test of the Space Launch System (SLS), which is currently being designed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The purpose of this test is to characterize and understand a variety of acoustic phenomena that occur during the early portions of lift off, one being the overpressure environment that develops shortly after booster ignition. The pressure waves that propagate from the mobile launcher (ML) exhaust hole are defined as the ignition overpressure (IOP), while the portion of the pressure waves that exit the duct or trench are the duct overpressure (DOP). Distinguishing the IOP and DOP in scale model test data has been difficult in past experiences and in early SMAT results, due to the effects of scaling the geometry. The speed of sound of the air and combustion gas constituents is not scaled, and therefore the SMAT pressure waves propagate at approximately the same speed as occurs in full scale. However, the SMAT geometry is twenty times smaller, allowing the pressure waves to move down the exhaust hole, through the trench and duct, and impact the vehicle model much faster than occurs at full scale. The DOP waves impact portions of the vehicle at the same time as the IOP waves, making it difficult to distinguish the different waves and fully understand the data. To better understand the SMAT data, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed with a fictitious geometry that isolates the IOP and DOP. The upper and lower portions of the domain were segregated to accomplish the isolation in such a way that the flow physics were not significantly altered. The Loci/CHEM CFD software program was used to perform this analysis.

  6. The Larger Linear N-Heteroacenes

    KAUST Repository

    Bunz, Uwe H. F.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. ConspectusThe close structural and chemical relationship of N-heteroacenes to pentacene suggests their broad applicability in organic electronic devices, such as thin-film transistors. The superb materials science properties of azaacenes result from their improved resistance toward oxidation and their potential for electron transport, both of which have been demonstrated recently. The introduction of nitrogen atoms into the aromatic perimeter of acenes stabilizes their frontier molecular orbitals and increases their electron affinity. The HOMO-LUMO gaps in azaacenes in which the nitrogen atoms are symmetrically placed are similar to those of the acenes. The judiciously placed nitrogen atoms induce an "umpolung" of the electronic behavior of these pentacene-like molecules, i.e., instead of hole mobility in thin-film transistors, azaacenes are electron-transporting materials. The fundamental synthetic approaches toward larger azaacenes are described and discussed. Several synthetic methodologies have been exploited, and some have been newly developed to assemble substituted azaacenes. The oldest methods are condensation-based. Aromatic o-diamines are coupled with o-dihydroxyarenes in the melt without solvent. This method works well for unsubstituted azaacenes only. The attachment of substituents to the starting materials renders these "fire and sword" methods less useful. The starting materials decompose under these conditions. The direct condensation of substituted o-diamines with o-quinones proceeds well in some cases. Fluorinated benzene rings next to a pyrazine unit are introduced by nucleophilic aromatic substitution employing hexafluorobenzene. However, with these well-established synthetic methodologies, a number of azaacene topologies cannot be synthesized. The Pd-catalyzed coupling of aromatic halides and aromatic diamines has therefore emerged as versatile tool for azaacene synthesis. Now substituted diaza- and

  7. The Larger Linear N-Heteroacenes

    KAUST Repository

    Bunz, Uwe H. F.

    2015-06-16

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. ConspectusThe close structural and chemical relationship of N-heteroacenes to pentacene suggests their broad applicability in organic electronic devices, such as thin-film transistors. The superb materials science properties of azaacenes result from their improved resistance toward oxidation and their potential for electron transport, both of which have been demonstrated recently. The introduction of nitrogen atoms into the aromatic perimeter of acenes stabilizes their frontier molecular orbitals and increases their electron affinity. The HOMO-LUMO gaps in azaacenes in which the nitrogen atoms are symmetrically placed are similar to those of the acenes. The judiciously placed nitrogen atoms induce an "umpolung" of the electronic behavior of these pentacene-like molecules, i.e., instead of hole mobility in thin-film transistors, azaacenes are electron-transporting materials. The fundamental synthetic approaches toward larger azaacenes are described and discussed. Several synthetic methodologies have been exploited, and some have been newly developed to assemble substituted azaacenes. The oldest methods are condensation-based. Aromatic o-diamines are coupled with o-dihydroxyarenes in the melt without solvent. This method works well for unsubstituted azaacenes only. The attachment of substituents to the starting materials renders these "fire and sword" methods less useful. The starting materials decompose under these conditions. The direct condensation of substituted o-diamines with o-quinones proceeds well in some cases. Fluorinated benzene rings next to a pyrazine unit are introduced by nucleophilic aromatic substitution employing hexafluorobenzene. However, with these well-established synthetic methodologies, a number of azaacene topologies cannot be synthesized. The Pd-catalyzed coupling of aromatic halides and aromatic diamines has therefore emerged as versatile tool for azaacene synthesis. Now substituted diaza- and

  8. Development and validation of the Multidimensional Home Environment Scale (MHES) for adolescents and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbakh, Tamara; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne

    2016-08-01

    The home environment is an important setting for the development of weight status in adolescence. At present a limited number of valid and reliable tools are available to evaluate the weight-related comprehensive home environment of this population. The goal of this research was to develop the Multidimensional Home Environment Scale which measures multiple components of the home. It includes psychological, social, and environmental domains from the perspective of an adolescent and the mother. Items were generated based on a literature review and then assessed for content validity by an expert panel and focus group in the target population. Internal consistency reliability was determined using Cronbach's α. Principal components analysis with varimax rotation was employed for assessment of construct validity. Temporal stability was evaluated using paired sample t-tests and bivariate correlations between responses at two different times, 1-2weeks apart. Associations between adolescent and mother responses were utilized for convergent validity. The final versions contained 32-items for adolescents and 36-items for mothers; these were administered to 218 adolescents and mothers. The subscales on the questionnaires exhibited high construct validity, internal consistency reliability (adolescent: α=0.82, mother: α=0.83) and test-retest reliability (adolescent: r=0.90, p<0.01; mother: r=0.91, p<0.01). Total home environment scores were computed, with greater scores reflecting a better health environment. These results verify the utility of the MHES as a valid and reliable instrument. This promising tool can be utilized to capture the comprehensive home environment of young adolescents (11-14years old). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pilot scale ion exchange column study for reducing radioactivity discharges to environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kore, S.G.; Yadav, V.K.; Sonar, N.L.; Valsala, T.P.; Narayan, J.; Sharma, S.P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Dani, U.; Vishwaraj, I.

    2013-01-01

    Low level liquid waste (LLW) is generated during operation of Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS). Chemical co-precipitation is the treatment method used for decontamination of this waste with respect to radionuclide prior to discharge to environment. Further polishing of effluent from the treated LLW was planned using ion exchange column to reduce the discharges to the environment In view of this ion exchange column study was carried out in the laboratory using in-house prepared cobalt ferrocyanide (COFC) based composite resin. Based on the encouraging results obtained in the lab studies, pilot scale study was carried out in the plant. Decontamination factor (DF) of 14-15 was obtained with respect to Cs isotopes and overall DF of 2-5 was obtained with respect to gross beta activity. (author)

  10. Evaluation and comparison of health care Work Environment Scale in military settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, J P; Anderson, F D; Gladd, D L; Brown, D L; Hardy, M A

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe health care providers' perceptions of their work environment at a large U.S. Army medical center, and to compare the findings to other military medical centers. The sample (N = 112) consisted of the professional nursing staff working on the nine inpatient units. The Work Environmental Scale (WES) was used to measure perceptions of the workplace relative to gender, position (head nurses, staff nurses, and agency nurses), specialty nursing (intensive care unit [ICU] versus non-ICU), education (MSN, BSN, and ADN), and patterns of differences between the WES subscales of four military medical centers. Results of the study indicate that there were no significant gender differences. Head nurses, non-ICU nurses, and MSN nurses perceived their environment more positively. There were significant differences in the WES subscales between the military hospitals. Implications for nursing using the WES were recommended.

  11. Developing Renewable Energy Projects Larger Than 10 MWs at Federal Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    To accomplish Federal goals for renewable energy, sustainability, and energy security, large-scale renewable energy projects must be developed and constructed on Federal sites at a significant scale with significant private investment. For the purposes of this Guide, large-scale Federal renewable energy projects are defined as renewable energy facilities larger than 10 megawatts (MW) that are sited on Federal property and lands and typically financed and owned by third parties.1 The U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) helps Federal agencies meet these goals and assists agency personnel navigate the complexities of developing such projects and attract the necessary private capital to complete them. This Guide is intended to provide a general resource that will begin to develop the Federal employee’s awareness and understanding of the project developer’s operating environment and the private sector’s awareness and understanding of the Federal environment. Because the vast majority of the investment that is required to meet the goals for large-scale renewable energy projects will come from the private sector, this Guide has been organized to match Federal processes with typical phases of commercial project development. FEMP collaborated with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and professional project developers on this Guide to ensure that Federal projects have key elements recognizable to private sector developers and investors. The main purpose of this Guide is to provide a project development framework to allow the Federal Government, private developers, and investors to work in a coordinated fashion on large-scale renewable energy projects. The framework includes key elements that describe a successful, financially attractive large-scale renewable energy project. This framework begins the translation between the Federal and private sector operating environments. When viewing the overall

  12. Catalytic burners in larger boiler appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silversand, Fredrik; Persson, Mikael (Catator AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2009-02-15

    This project focuses on the scale up of a Catator's catalytic burner technology to enable retrofit installation in existing boilers and the design of new innovative combinations of catalytic burners and boilers. Different design approaches are discussed and evaluated in the report and suggestions are made concerning scale-up. Preliminary test data, extracted from a large boiler installation are discussed together with an accurate analysis of technical possibilities following an optimization of the boiler design to benefit from the advantages of catalytic combustion. The experimental work was conducted in close collaboration with ICI Caldaie (ICI), located in Verona, Italy. ICI is a leading European boiler manufacturer in the effect segment ranging from about 20 kWt to several MWt. The study shows that it is possibly to scale up the burner technology and to maintain low emissions. The boilers used in the study were designed around conventional combustion and were consequently not optimized for implementation of catalytic burners. From previous experiences it stands clear that the furnace volume can be dramatically decreased when applying catalytic combustion. In flame combustion, this volume is normally dimensioned to avoid flame impingement on cold surfaces and to facilitate completion of the gas-phase reactions. The emissions of nitrogen oxides can be reduced by decreasing the residence time in the furnace. Even with the over-dimensioned furnace used in this study, we easily reached emission values close to 35 mg/kWh. The emissions of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons were negligible (less than 5 ppmv). It is possible to decrease the emissions of nitrogen oxides further by designing the furnace/boiler around the catalytic burner, as suggested in the report. Simultaneously, the size of the boiler installation can be reduced greatly, which also will result in material savings, i.e. the production cost can be reduced. It is suggested to optimize the

  13. Adaptation and Evaluation of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale in India (NEWS-India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Adlakha

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality, with most of these deaths occurring in low and middle-income countries (LMICs like India. Research from developed countries has consistently demonstrated associations between built environment features and physical activity levels of populations. The development of culturally sensitive and reliable measures of the built environment is a necessary first step for accurate analysis of environmental correlates of physical activity in LMICs. This study systematically adapted the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS for India and evaluated aspects of test-retest reliability of the adapted version among Indian adults. Cultural adaptation of the NEWS was conducted by Indian and international experts. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with local residents and key informants in the city of Chennai, India. At baseline, participants (N = 370; female = 47.2% from Chennai completed the adapted NEWS-India surveys on perceived residential density, land use mix-diversity, land use mix-access, street connectivity, infrastructure and safety for walking and cycling, aesthetics, traffic safety, and safety from crime. NEWS-India was administered for a second time to consenting participants (N = 62; female = 53.2% with a gap of 2–3 weeks between successive administrations. Qualitative findings demonstrated that built environment barriers and constraints to active commuting and physical activity behaviors intersected with social ecological systems. The adapted NEWS subscales had moderate to high test-retest reliability (ICC range 0.48–0.99. The NEWS-India demonstrated acceptable measurement properties among Indian adults and may be a useful tool for evaluation of built environment attributes in India. Further adaptation and evaluation in rural and suburban settings in India is essential to create a version that could be used throughout India.

  14. Aroma: a larger than life experience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine DE SWARDT

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aroma is today an essential part of our diet. Often used to reinforce the initial neutral taste of the food produced on an industrial scale, it is sometimes the main course, at the core of many edible products. First thought as accessory, it now takes the lead. From this observation and through the review of examples of the food industry, this article puts forward the hypothesis that the aroma supplants the food –in the relation of resemblance between the original model and its representation, which falls under the inculcation – and eclipses it. Potentially strong on the palate, it is a promise of intense experience. This is particularly true in the case of flavors without pre-established references. Pure abstract aromatic constructions allow greater freedom of projection, and foster discursive emphasis. In these cases, the taste alone, uncorrelated with prerogatives of nutrition, becomes the support of a hyperesthesic experience.

  15. Small-Scale Flat Plate Collectors for Solar Thermal Scavenging in Low Conductivity Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Ogbonnaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is great opportunity to develop power supplies for autonomous application on the small scale. For example, remote environmental sensors may be powered through the harvesting of ambient thermal energy and heating of a thermoelectric generator. This work investigates a small-scale (centimeters solar thermal collector designed for this application. The absorber is coated with a unique selective coating and then studied in a low pressure environment to increase performance. A numerical model that is used to predict the performance of the collector plate is developed. This is validated based on benchtop testing of a fabricated collector plate in a low-pressure enclosure. Model results indicate that simulated solar input of about 800 W/m2 results in a collector plate temperature of 298 K in ambient conditions and up to 388 K in vacuum. The model also predicts the various losses in W/m2 K from the plate to the surroundings. Plate temperature is validated through the experimental work showing that the model is useful to the future design of these small-scale solar thermal energy collectors.

  16. Environment and host as large-scale controls of ectomycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linde, Sietse; Suz, Laura M; Orme, C David L; Cox, Filipa; Andreae, Henning; Asi, Endla; Atkinson, Bonnie; Benham, Sue; Carroll, Christopher; Cools, Nathalie; De Vos, Bruno; Dietrich, Hans-Peter; Eichhorn, Johannes; Gehrmann, Joachim; Grebenc, Tine; Gweon, Hyun S; Hansen, Karin; Jacob, Frank; Kristöfel, Ferdinand; Lech, Paweł; Manninger, Miklós; Martin, Jan; Meesenburg, Henning; Merilä, Päivi; Nicolas, Manuel; Pavlenda, Pavel; Rautio, Pasi; Schaub, Marcus; Schröck, Hans-Werner; Seidling, Walter; Šrámek, Vít; Thimonier, Anne; Thomsen, Iben Margrete; Titeux, Hugues; Vanguelova, Elena; Verstraeten, Arne; Vesterdal, Lars; Waldner, Peter; Wijk, Sture; Zhang, Yuxin; Žlindra, Daniel; Bidartondo, Martin I

    2018-06-06

    Explaining the large-scale diversity of soil organisms that drive biogeochemical processes-and their responses to environmental change-is critical. However, identifying consistent drivers of belowground diversity and abundance for some soil organisms at large spatial scales remains problematic. Here we investigate a major guild, the ectomycorrhizal fungi, across European forests at a spatial scale and resolution that is-to our knowledge-unprecedented, to explore key biotic and abiotic predictors of ectomycorrhizal diversity and to identify dominant responses and thresholds for change across complex environmental gradients. We show the effect of 38 host, environment, climate and geographical variables on ectomycorrhizal diversity, and define thresholds of community change for key variables. We quantify host specificity and reveal plasticity in functional traits involved in soil foraging across gradients. We conclude that environmental and host factors explain most of the variation in ectomycorrhizal diversity, that the environmental thresholds used as major ecosystem assessment tools need adjustment and that the importance of belowground specificity and plasticity has previously been underappreciated.

  17. The home environment resources scale / O inventário de recursos do ambiente familiar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Maria Marturano

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe the development of the HERS - Home Environment Resources Scale. The HERS is based on an ecological view of development. It assesses support resources available to the child at home, which can contribute for school achievement. These resources relate to three domains: resources that promote proximal processes; activities that signal stability in family processes; parental practices that promote a home–school linkage. Previous research using the HERS has indicated acceptable indexes of internal consistency, as well as significant associations between HERS scores and measures of academic achievement and adjustment. Leisure activities, toys, books, and opportunities for the child to interact with parents at home were all related to child achievement and adjustment. Although further studies are needed to secure its reliability and validity, the instrument has proven to be a useful tool for researchers, being used by professionals who work in clinical and educational contexts.

  18. Enhanced ICP for the Registration of Large-Scale 3D Environment Models: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianda Han

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the main applications of mobile robots is the large-scale perception of the outdoor environment. One of the main challenges of this application is fusing environmental data obtained by multiple robots, especially heterogeneous robots. This paper proposes an enhanced iterative closest point (ICP method for the fast and accurate registration of 3D environmental models. First, a hierarchical searching scheme is combined with the octree-based ICP algorithm. Second, an early-warning mechanism is used to perceive the local minimum problem. Third, a heuristic escape scheme based on sampled potential transformation vectors is used to avoid local minima and achieve optimal registration. Experiments involving one unmanned aerial vehicle and one unmanned surface vehicle were conducted to verify the proposed technique. The experimental results were compared with those of normal ICP registration algorithms to demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method.

  19. USB environment measurements based on full-scale static engine ground tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, M. B.; Harkonen, D. L.; Reed, J. B.

    1976-01-01

    Flow turning parameters, static pressures, surface temperatures, surface fluctuating pressures and acceleration levels were measured in the environment of a full-scale upper surface blowing (USB) propulsive lift test configuration. The test components included a flightworthy CF6-50D engine, nacelle, and USB flap assembly utilized in conjunction with ground verification testing of the USAF YC-14 Advanced Medium STOL Transport propulsion system. Results, based on a preliminary analysis of the data, generally show reasonable agreement with predicted levels based on model data. However, additional detailed analysis is required to confirm the preliminary evaluation, to help delineate certain discrepancies with model data, and to establish a basis for future flight test comparisons.

  20. Analysis, scale modeling, and full-scale tests of low-level nuclear-waste-drum response to accident environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerta, M.; Lamoreaux, G.H.; Romesberg, L.E.; Yoshimura, H.R.; Joseph, B.J.; May, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    This report describes extensive full-scale and scale-model testing of 55-gallon drums used for shipping low-level radioactive waste materials. The tests conducted include static crush, single-can impact tests, and side impact tests of eight stacked drums. Static crush forces were measured and crush energies calculated. The tests were performed in full-, quarter-, and eighth-scale with different types of waste materials. The full-scale drums were modeled with standard food product cans. The response of the containers is reported in terms of drum deformations and lid behavior. The results of the scale model tests are correlated to the results of the full-scale drums. Two computer techniques for calculating the response of drum stacks are presented. 83 figures, 9 tables

  1. The Development of a Community Feeling Scale toward Online Distance Education Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale Ilgaz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to develop a community feeling scale in order to analyze the community feeling of learners, enrolled in a distance education program which is designed with blended learning model, in online environments. Providing interaction with information communication technologies come into prominence as a result of increasing importance of these technologies in distance education. Although this situation has positive contributions, it may have negative effects on decrement of the motivation, achievement, satisfaction or learning of student such as social isolation, aprosexia, and feeling of alienation. The role of community feeling is major on drop out rates, which is one of the quality indicators of distance education. Rovai (2001b defined classroom community components, including McMillan and Chavis‟s four components of community dimensions. These components are spirit, trust, influence and learning. Spirit shows the acceptance of the membership in the community and develops the feelings of friendship, commitment and satisfaction between the students. Trust is the second one of the class community components. It will be friendly and constructive if the community can be trusted and be given feedback by individuals. When individuals have been accepted by a growing and developing community, they feel more in safe and start to trust to community. The third component, influence is the feeling of closeness and mutual benefit between the individuals. The last component learning is the feeling that community enhances the acquisition of knowledge and understanding, and also the feeling of active information and meaning conformation which supplies the educational needs of the individuals that it consists of. According to the research results, the community feeling of students has so many positive effects. Strong community feeling have positive outcomes as increasing the flow of information, access to support, collaboration between the

  2. The influence of large-scale electricity generation on man and environment. Ch. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugghen, F.W. van der; Koops, F.B.J.; Steen, J. van der.

    1990-01-01

    In order to be able to make a reliable consideration of the pro's and contra's of nuclear power, this chapter considers the risks of large-scale generation of electricity in general for man and environment. The treatment of this question is limited to the use of fossil fuel at one, and nuclear power at the other hand. Recurring energy sources like the sun and wind are not considered. These are important energy sources, but the planned further application of these sources will not render the contributions of large power plants to the Dutch electricity need in the near future. For the time being recurring energy sources therefore don't play a role in the choice of the type of nuclear reactors to be build in the near future. This limitation however leaves unimpeded that each contribution to the decrease of the burden to the environment, wether it concerns energy saving or application of recurrent energy sources, should be encouraged. When such alternatives can be realized technically and economically, they certainly will form a welcome supplement to the existing power-generation techniques. (author). 6 figs

  3. Oxidation of Al2O3 Scale-Forming MAX Phases in Turbine Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smialek, James L.

    2018-03-01

    High temperature oxidation of alumina-forming MAX phases, Ti2AlC and Cr2AlC, were examined under turbine engine environments and coating configurations. Thermogravimetric furnace tests of Ti2AlC showed a rapid initial transient due to non-protective TiO2 growth. Subsequent well-behaved cubic kinetics for alumina scale growth were shown from 1273 K to 1673 K (1000 °C to 1400 °C). These possessed an activation energy of 335 kJ/mol, consistent with estimates of grain boundary diffusivity of oxygen ( 375 kJ/mol). The durability of Ti2AlC under combustion conditions was demonstrated by high pressure burner rig testing at 1373 K to 1573 K (1100 °C to 1300 °C). Here good stability and cubic kinetics also applied, but produced lower weight gains due to volatile TiO(OH)2 formation in water vapor combustion gas. Excellent thermal stability was also shown for yttria-stabilized zirconia thermal barrier coatings deposited on Ti2AlC substrates in 2500-hour furnace tests at 1373 K to 1573 K (1100 °C to 1300 °C). These sustained a record 35 µm of scale as compared to 7 μm observed at failure for typical superalloy systems. In contrast, scale and TBC spallation became prevalent on Cr2AlC substrates above 1423 K (1150 °C). Cr2AlC diffusion couples with superalloys exhibited good long-term mechanical/oxidative stability at 1073 K (800 °C), as would be needed for corrosion-resistant coatings. However, diffusion zones containing a NiAl-Cr7C3 matrix with MC and M3B2 particulates were commonly formed and became extensive at 1423 K (1150 °C).

  4. Multi-scale dynamic modeling of atmospheric pollution in urban environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thouron, Laetitia

    2017-01-01

    Urban air pollution has been identified as an important cause of health impacts, including premature deaths. In particular, ambient concentrations of gaseous pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) are regulated, which means that emission reduction strategies must be put in place to reduce these concentrations in places where the corresponding regulations are not respected. Besides, air pollution can contribute to the contamination of other media, for example through the contribution of atmospheric deposition to runoff contamination. The multifactorial and multi-scale aspects of urban make the pollution sources difficult to identify. Indeed, the urban environment is a heterogeneous space characterized by complex architectural structures (old buildings alongside a more modern building, residential, commercial, industrial zones, roads, etc.), non-uniform atmospheric pollutant emissions and therefore the population exposure to pollution is variable in space and time. The modeling of urban air pollution aims to understand the origin of pollutants, their spatial extent and their concentration/deposition levels. Some pollutants have long residence times and can stay several weeks in the atmosphere (PM2.5) and therefore be transported over long distances, while others are more local (NO x in the vicinity of traffic). The spatial distribution of a pollutant will therefore depend on several factors, and in particular on the surfaces encountered. Air quality depends strongly on weather, buildings (canyon-street) and emissions. The aim of this thesis is to address some of these aspects by modeling: (1) urban background pollution with a transport-chemical model (Polyphemus / POLAIR3D), which makes it possible to estimate atmospheric pollutants by type of urban surfaces (roofs, walls and roadways), (2) street-level pollution by explicitly integrating the effects of the building in a three-dimensional way with a multi-scale model of

  5. Development and testing of the CALDs and CLES+T scales for international nursing students' clinical learning environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkonen, Kristina; Elo, Satu; Miettunen, Jouko; Saarikoski, Mikko; Kääriäinen, Maria

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test the psychometric properties of the new Cultural and Linguistic Diversity scale, which is designed to be used with the newly validated Clinical Learning Environment, Supervision and Nurse Teacher scale for assessing international nursing students' clinical learning environments. In various developed countries, clinical placements are known to present challenges in the professional development of international nursing students. A cross-sectional survey. Data were collected from eight Finnish universities of applied sciences offering nursing degree courses taught in English during 2015-2016. All the relevant students (N = 664) were invited and 50% chose to participate. Of the total data submitted by the participants, 28% were used for scale validation. The construct validity of the two scales was tested by exploratory factor analysis, while their validity with respect to convergence and discriminability was assessed using Spearman's correlation. Construct validation of the Clinical Learning Environment, Supervision and Nurse Teacher scale yielded an eight-factor model with 34 items, while validation of the Cultural and Linguistic Diversity scale yielded a five-factor model with 21 items. A new scale was developed to improve evidence-based mentorship of international nursing students in clinical learning environments. The instrument will be useful to educators seeking to identify factors that affect the learning of international students. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The term environment refers to the internal and external context in which organizations operate. For some scholars, environment is defined as an arrangement of political, economic, social and cultural factors existing in a given context that have an impact on organizational processes and structures....... For others, environment is a generic term describing a large variety of stakeholders and how these interact and act upon organizations. Organizations and their environment are mutually interdependent and organizational communications are highly affected by the environment. This entry examines the origin...... and development of organization-environment interdependence, the nature of the concept of environment and its relevance for communication scholarships and activities....

  7. The Climate-G testbed: towards a large scale data sharing environment for climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisio, G.; Fiore, S.; Denvil, S.; Petitdidier, M.; Fox, P.; Schwichtenberg, H.; Blower, J.; Barbera, R.

    2009-04-01

    The Climate-G testbed provides an experimental large scale data environment for climate change addressing challenging data and metadata management issues. The main scope of Climate-G is to allow scientists to carry out geographical and cross-institutional climate data discovery, access, visualization and sharing. Climate-G is a multidisciplinary collaboration involving both climate and computer scientists and it currently involves several partners such as: Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace (IPSL), Fraunhofer Institut für Algorithmen und Wissenschaftliches Rechnen (SCAI), National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), University of Reading, University of Catania and University of Salento. To perform distributed metadata search and discovery, we adopted a CMCC metadata solution (which provides a high level of scalability, transparency, fault tolerance and autonomy) leveraging both on P2P and grid technologies (GRelC Data Access and Integration Service). Moreover, data are available through OPeNDAP/THREDDS services, Live Access Server as well as the OGC compliant Web Map Service and they can be downloaded, visualized, accessed into the proposed environment through the Climate-G Data Distribution Centre (DDC), the web gateway to the Climate-G digital library. The DDC is a data-grid portal allowing users to easily, securely and transparently perform search/discovery, metadata management, data access, data visualization, etc. Godiva2 (integrated into the DDC) displays 2D maps (and animations) and also exports maps for display on the Google Earth virtual globe. Presently, Climate-G publishes (through the DDC) about 2TB of data related to the ENSEMBLES project (also including distributed replicas of data) as well as to the IPCC AR4. The main results of the proposed work are: wide data access/sharing environment for climate change; P2P/grid metadata approach; production-level Climate-G DDC; high quality tools for

  8. Economic and agricultural transformation through large-scale farming : impacts of large-scale farming on local economic development, household food security and the environment in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekele, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined impacts of large-scale farming in Ethiopia on local economic development, household food security, incomes, employment, and the environment. The study adopted a mixed research approach in which both qualitative and quantitative data were generated from secondary and primary

  9. Auto-Scaling of Geo-Based Image Processing in an OpenStack Cloud Computing Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Sanggoo Kang; Kiwon Lee

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing is a base platform for the distribution of large volumes of data and high-performance image processing on the Web. Despite wide applications in Web-based services and their many benefits, geo-spatial applications based on cloud computing technology are still developing. Auto-scaling realizes automatic scalability, i.e., the scale-out and scale-in processing of virtual servers in a cloud computing environment. This study investigates the applicability of auto-scaling to geo-bas...

  10. The Student-Centered Active Learning Environment for Undergraduate Programs (SCALE-UP) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beichner, Robert J.

    2011-04-01

    How do you keep a classroom of 100 undergraduates actively learning? Can students practice communication and teamwork skills in a large class? How do you boost the performance of underrepresented groups? The Student-Centered Active Learning Environment for Undergraduate Programs (SCALE-UP) Project has addressed these concerns. Because of their inclusion in a leading introductory physics textbook, project materials are used by more than 1/3 of all science, math, and engineering majors nationwide. The room design and pedagogy have been adopted at more than 100 leading institutions across the country. Physics, chemistry, math, astronomy, biology, engineering, earth sciences, and even literature classes are currently being taught this way. Educational research indicates that students should collaborate on interesting tasks and be deeply involved with the material they are studying. We promote active learning in a redesigned classroom for 100 students or more. (Of course, smaller classes can also benefit.) Class time is spent primarily on "tangibles" and "ponderables"--hands-on activities, simulations, and interesting questions. Nine students sit in three teams at round tables. Instructors circulate and engage in Socratic dialogues. The setting looks like a banquet hall, with lively interactions nearly all the time. Hundreds of hours of classroom video and audio recordings, transcripts of numerous interviews and focus groups, data from conceptual learning assessments (using widely-recognized instruments in a pretest/posttest protocol), and collected portfolios of student work are part of our rigorous assessment effort. Our findings (based on data from over 16,000 students collected over five years as well as replications at adopting sites) can be summarized as the following: 1) Female failure rate is 1/5 of previous levels, even though more is demanded of students. 2) Minority failure rate is 1/4 that seen in traditionally taught courses. 3) At-risk students are more

  11. Discontinuities concentrate mobile predators: Quantifying organism-environment interactions at a seascape scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Christina G.; Mather, Martha E.; Smith, Joseph M.; Finn, John T.; Deegan, Linda A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding environmental drivers of spatial patterns is an enduring ecological problem that is critical for effective biological conservation. Discontinuities (ecologically meaningful habitat breaks), both naturally occurring (e.g., river confluence, forest edge, drop-off) and anthropogenic (e.g., dams, roads), can influence the distribution of highly mobile organisms that have land- or seascape scale ranges. A geomorphic discontinuity framework, expanded to include ecological patterns, provides a way to incorporate important but irregularly distributed physical features into organism–environment relationships. Here, we test if migratory striped bass (Morone saxatilis) are consistently concentrated by spatial discontinuities and why. We quantified the distribution of 50 acoustically tagged striped bass at 40 sites within Plum Island Estuary, Massachusetts during four-monthly surveys relative to four physical discontinuities (sandbar, confluence, channel network, drop-off), one continuous physical feature (depth variation), and a geographic location variable (region). Despite moving throughout the estuary, striped bass were consistently clustered in the middle geographic region at sites with high sandbar area, close to channel networks, adjacent to complex confluences, with intermediate levels of bottom unevenness, and medium sized drop-offs. In addition, the highest striped bass concentrations occurred at sites with the greatest additive physical heterogeneity (i.e., where multiple discontinuities co-occurred). The need to incorporate irregularly distributed features in organism–environment relationships will increase as high-quality telemetry and GIS data accumulate for mobile organisms. The spatially explicit approach we used to address this challenge can aid both researchers who seek to understand the impact of predators on ecosystems and resource managers who require new approaches for biological conservation.

  12. The thermal environment of the human being on the global scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jendritzky, Gerd; Tinz, Birger

    2009-11-11

    The close relationship between human health, performance, well-being and the thermal environment is obvious. Nevertheless, most studies of climate and climate change impacts show amazing shortcomings in the assessment of the environment. Populations living in different climates have different susceptibilities, due to socio-economic reasons, and different customary behavioural adaptations. The global distribution of risks of hazardous thermal exposure has not been analysed before. To produce maps of the baseline and future bioclimate that allows a direct comparison of the differences in the vulnerability of populations to thermal stress across the world. The required climatological data fields are obtained from climate simulations with the global General Circulation Model ECHAM4 in T106-resolution. For the thermo-physiologically relevant assessment of these climate data a complete heat budget model of the human being, the 'Perceived Temperature' procedure has been applied which already comprises adaptation by clothing to a certain degree. Short-term physiological acclimatisation is considered via Health Related Assessment of the Thermal Environment. The global maps 1971-1980 (control run, assumed as baseline climate) show a pattern of thermal stress intensities as frequencies of heat. The heat load for people living in warm-humid climates is the highest. Climate change will lead to clear differences in health-related thermal stress between baseline climate and the future bioclimate 2041-2050 based on the 'business-as-usual' greenhouse gas scenario IS92a. The majority of the world's population will be faced with more frequent and more intense heat strain in spite of an assumed level of acclimatisation. Further adaptation measures are crucial in order to reduce the vulnerability of the populations. This bioclimatology analysis provides a tool for various questions in climate and climate change impact research. Considerations of regional or local scale require climate

  13. Evaluation of subjective thermal strain in different kitchen working environments using subjective judgment scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruyama, Yasuo; Muto, Takashi; Matsuzuki, Hiroe; Ito, Akiyoshi; Tomita, Shigeru; Muto, Shigeki; Haratani, Takashi; Seo, Akihiko; Ayabe, Makoto; Katamoto, Shizuo

    2010-01-01

    To elucidate the subjective thermal strain of workers in kitchen working environments, we performed a cross-sectional study involving 991 workers in 126 kitchen facilities in Japan, using a self-reporting questionnaire survey and subjective judgment scales (SJS). The ambient temperature, mean radiant temperature (MRT), and wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index were measured in 10 kitchen facilities of the 126 kitchens. The association of SJS with the types of kitchen was estimated by multiple logistic regression models. Of the 991 kitchen workers, 809 (81%) responded to the questionnaire survey. Compared with the electric kitchens, the proportion of workers who perceived the room temperature as hot to very hot was significantly higher, and the ambient temperature, MRT, and WBGT were significantly higher in the gas kitchens. Compared with the electric kitchens, workers in gas kitchens had a more than fivefold (males) and tenfold (females) higher SJS adjusted for confounding factors (male odds ratio (OR), 5.13; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.65-15.9; and female OR, 10.9; 95%CI, 3.89-30.5). Although SJS was affected by some confounding factors, our results suggest that workers in gas kitchens might be exposed to a higher heat strains than those in electric kitchens.

  14. Identifying gene-environment interactions in schizophrenia: contemporary challenges for integrated, large-scale investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Os, Jim; Rutten, Bart P; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Delespaul, Philippe; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; van Zelst, Catherine; Bruggeman, Richard; Reininghaus, Ulrich; Morgan, Craig; Murray, Robin M; Di Forti, Marta; McGuire, Philip; Valmaggia, Lucia R; Kempton, Matthew J; Gayer-Anderson, Charlotte; Hubbard, Kathryn; Beards, Stephanie; Stilo, Simona A; Onyejiaka, Adanna; Bourque, Francois; Modinos, Gemma; Tognin, Stefania; Calem, Maria; O'Donovan, Michael C; Owen, Michael J; Holmans, Peter; Williams, Nigel; Craddock, Nicholas; Richards, Alexander; Humphreys, Isla; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Leweke, F Markus; Tost, Heike; Akdeniz, Ceren; Rohleder, Cathrin; Bumb, J Malte; Schwarz, Emanuel; Alptekin, Köksal; Üçok, Alp; Saka, Meram Can; Atbaşoğlu, E Cem; Gülöksüz, Sinan; Gumus-Akay, Guvem; Cihan, Burçin; Karadağ, Hasan; Soygür, Haldan; Cankurtaran, Eylem Şahin; Ulusoy, Semra; Akdede, Berna; Binbay, Tolga; Ayer, Ahmet; Noyan, Handan; Karadayı, Gülşah; Akturan, Elçin; Ulaş, Halis; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara; Bernardo, Miguel; Sanjuán, Julio; Bobes, Julio; Arrojo, Manuel; Santos, Jose Luis; Cuadrado, Pedro; Rodríguez Solano, José Juan; Carracedo, Angel; García Bernardo, Enrique; Roldán, Laura; López, Gonzalo; Cabrera, Bibiana; Cruz, Sabrina; Díaz Mesa, Eva Ma; Pouso, María; Jiménez, Estela; Sánchez, Teresa; Rapado, Marta; González, Emiliano; Martínez, Covadonga; Sánchez, Emilio; Olmeda, Ma Soledad; de Haan, Lieuwe; Velthorst, Eva; van der Gaag, Mark; Selten, Jean-Paul; van Dam, Daniella; van der Ven, Elsje; van der Meer, Floor; Messchaert, Elles; Kraan, Tamar; Burger, Nadine; Leboyer, Marion; Szoke, Andrei; Schürhoff, Franck; Llorca, Pierre-Michel; Jamain, Stéphane; Tortelli, Andrea; Frijda, Flora; Vilain, Jeanne; Galliot, Anne-Marie; Baudin, Grégoire; Ferchiou, Aziz; Richard, Jean-Romain; Bulzacka, Ewa; Charpeaud, Thomas; Tronche, Anne-Marie; De Hert, Marc; van Winkel, Ruud; Decoster, Jeroen; Derom, Catherine; Thiery, Evert; Stefanis, Nikos C; Sachs, Gabriele; Aschauer, Harald; Lasser, Iris; Winklbaur, Bernadette; Schlögelhofer, Monika; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Borgwardt, Stefan; Walter, Anna; Harrisberger, Fabienne; Smieskova, Renata; Rapp, Charlotte; Ittig, Sarah; Soguel-dit-Piquard, Fabienne; Studerus, Erich; Klosterkötter, Joachim; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Paruch, Julia; Julkowski, Dominika; Hilboll, Desiree; Sham, Pak C; Cherny, Stacey S; Chen, Eric Y H; Campbell, Desmond D; Li, Miaoxin; Romeo-Casabona, Carlos María; Emaldi Cirión, Aitziber; Urruela Mora, Asier; Jones, Peter; Kirkbride, James; Cannon, Mary; Rujescu, Dan; Tarricone, Ilaria; Berardi, Domenico; Bonora, Elena; Seri, Marco; Marcacci, Thomas; Chiri, Luigi; Chierzi, Federico; Storbini, Viviana; Braca, Mauro; Minenna, Maria Gabriella; Donegani, Ivonne; Fioritti, Angelo; La Barbera, Daniele; La Cascia, Caterina Erika; Mulè, Alice; Sideli, Lucia; Sartorio, Rachele; Ferraro, Laura; Tripoli, Giada; Seminerio, Fabio; Marinaro, Anna Maria; McGorry, Patrick; Nelson, Barnaby; Amminger, G Paul; Pantelis, Christos; Menezes, Paulo R; Del-Ben, Cristina M; Gallo Tenan, Silvia H; Shuhama, Rosana; Ruggeri, Mirella; Tosato, Sarah; Lasalvia, Antonio; Bonetto, Chiara; Ira, Elisa; Nordentoft, Merete; Krebs, Marie-Odile; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus; Cristóbal, Paula; Kwapil, Thomas R; Brietzke, Elisa; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Gadelha, Ary; Maric, Nadja P; Andric, Sanja; Mihaljevic, Marina; Mirjanic, Tijana

    2014-07-01

    Recent years have seen considerable progress in epidemiological and molecular genetic research into environmental and genetic factors in schizophrenia, but methodological uncertainties remain with regard to validating environmental exposures, and the population risk conferred by individual molecular genetic variants is small. There are now also a limited number of studies that have investigated molecular genetic candidate gene-environment interactions (G × E), however, so far, thorough replication of findings is rare and G × E research still faces several conceptual and methodological challenges. In this article, we aim to review these recent developments and illustrate how integrated, large-scale investigations may overcome contemporary challenges in G × E research, drawing on the example of a large, international, multi-center study into the identification and translational application of G × E in schizophrenia. While such investigations are now well underway, new challenges emerge for G × E research from late-breaking evidence that genetic variation and environmental exposures are, to a significant degree, shared across a range of psychiatric disorders, with potential overlap in phenotype. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. LASSIE: the large analogue signal and scaling information environment for FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, T.; Braeuning, H.; Haseitl, R.

    2012-01-01

    At FAIR, the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research, several new accelerators and storage rings such as the SIS-100, HESR, CR, the inter-connecting HEBT beam lines, S-FRS and experiments will be built. All of these installations are equipped with beam diagnostic devices and other components, which deliver time-resolved analogue signals to show status, quality and performance of the accelerators. These signals can originate from particle detectors such as ionization chambers and plastic scintillators, but also from adapted output signals of transformers, collimators, magnet functions, RF cavities and others. To visualize and precisely correlate the time axis of all input signals a dedicated FESA based data acquisition and analysis system named LASSIE, the Large Analogue Signal and Scaling Information Environment, is currently being developed. The main operation mode of LASSIE is currently pulse counting with latching VME scaler boards. Later enhancements for ADC, QDC, or TDC digitization in the future are foreseen. The concept, features and challenges of this large distributed data acquisition system are presented. (authors)

  16. A Novel CPU/GPU Simulation Environment for Large-Scale Biologically-Realistic Neural Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger V Hoang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Computational Neuroscience is an emerging field that provides unique opportunities to studycomplex brain structures through realistic neural simulations. However, as biological details are added tomodels, the execution time for the simulation becomes longer. Graphics Processing Units (GPUs are now being utilized to accelerate simulations due to their ability to perform computations in parallel. As such, they haveshown significant improvement in execution time compared to Central Processing Units (CPUs. Most neural simulators utilize either multiple CPUs or a single GPU for better performance, but still show limitations in execution time when biological details are not sacrificed. Therefore, we present a novel CPU/GPU simulation environment for large-scale biological networks,the NeoCortical Simulator version 6 (NCS6. NCS6 is a free, open-source, parallelizable, and scalable simula-tor, designed to run on clusters of multiple machines, potentially with high performance computing devicesin each of them. It has built-in leaky-integrate-and-fire (LIF and Izhikevich (IZH neuron models, but usersalso have the capability to design their own plug-in interface for different neuron types as desired. NCS6is currently able to simulate one million cells and 100 million synapses in quasi real time by distributing dataacross these heterogeneous clusters of CPUs and GPUs.

  17. [Job retention and nursing practice environment of hospital nurses in Japan applying the Japanese version of the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Yasuko; Nagano, Midori; Fukuda, Takashi; Hashimoto, Michio

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how the nursing practice environment affects job retention and the turnover rate among hospital nurses. The Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI) was applied to investigate the nurse working environment from the viewpoint of hospital nurses in Japan. Methods A postal mail survey was conducted using the PES-NWI questionnaire targeting 2,211 nurses who were working at 91 wards in 5 hospitals situated in the Tokyo metropolitan area from February to March in 2008. In the questionnaire, hospital nurses were asked about characteristics such as sex, age and work experience as a nurse, whether they would work at the same hospital in the next year, the 31 items of the PES-NWI and job satisfaction. Nurse managers were asked to provide staff numbers to calculate the turnover rate of each ward. Logistic regression analyses were carried out, with "intention to retain or leave the workplace next year" as the dependent variable, with composite and 5 sub-scale scores of the PES-NWI and nurse characteristics as independent variables. Correlation coefficients were calculated to investigate the relationship between nurse turnover rates and nursing practice environments. A total of 1,067 full-time nurses (48.3%) from 5 hospitals responded. Almost all of them were men (95.9%), with an average age of 29.2 years old. They had an average of 7.0 years total work experience in hospitals and 5.8 years of experience at their current hospital. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0.75 for composite of the PES-NWI, and 0.77-0.85 for the sub-scales. All correlation coefficients between PES-NWI and job satisfaction were significant (P Leadership, and Support of Nurses" and "Staffing and Resource Adequacy" among the 5 sub-scales correlated with the intention of nurses to stay on (P < 0.05). The means for turnover rate were 10.4% for nurses and 17.6% for newly hired nurses. These rates were significantly correlated to the composite and

  18. A watershed-scale approach to tracing metal contamination in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Stanley E

    1996-01-01

    IntroductionPublic policy during the 1800's encouraged mining in the western United States. Mining on Federal lands played an important role in the growing economy creating national wealth from our abundant and diverse mineral resource base. The common industrial practice from the early days of mining through about 1970 in the U.S. was for mine operators to dispose of the mine wastes and mill tailings in the nearest stream reach or lake. As a result of this contamination, many stream reaches below old mines, mills, and mining districts and some major rivers and lakes no longer support aquatic life. Riparian habitats within these affected watersheds have also been impacted. Often, the water from these affected stream reaches is generally not suitable for drinking, creating a public health hazard. The recent Department of Interior Abandoned Mine Lands (AML) Initiative is an effort on the part of the Federal Government to address the adverse environmental impact of these past mining practices on Federal lands. The AML Initiative has adopted a watershed approach to determine those sites that contribute the majority of the contaminants in the watershed. By remediating the largest sources of contamination within the watershed, the impact of metal contamination in the environment within the watershed as a whole is reduced rather than focusing largely on those sites for which principal responsible parties can be found.The scope of the problem of metal contamination in the environment from past mining practices in the coterminous U.S. is addressed in a recent report by Ferderer (1996). Using the USGS1:2,000,000-scale hydrologic drainage basin boundaries and the USGS Minerals Availability System (MAS) data base, he plotted the distribution of 48,000 past-producing metal mines on maps showing the boundaries of lands administered by the various Federal Land Management Agencies (FLMA). Census analysis of these data provided an initial screening tool for prioritization of

  19. Larger men have larger prostates: Detection bias in epidemiologic studies of obesity and prostate cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundle, Andrew; Wang, Yun; Sadasivan, Sudha; Chitale, Dhananjay A; Gupta, Nilesh S; Tang, Deliang; Rybicki, Benjamin A

    2017-06-01

    Obesity is associated with risk of aggressive prostate cancer (PCa), but not with over-all PCa risk. However, obese men have larger prostates which may lower biopsy accuracy and cause a systematic bias toward the null in epidemiologic studies of over-all risk. Within a cohort of 6692 men followed-up after a biopsy or transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) with benign findings, a nested case-control study was conducted of 495 prostate cancer cases and controls matched on age, race, follow-up duration, biopsy versus TURP, and procedure date. Data on body mass index and prostate volume at the time of the initial procedure were abstracted from medical records. Prior to consideration of differences in prostate volume, overweight (OR = 1.41; 95%CI 1.01, 1.97), and obese status (OR = 1.59; 95%CI 1.09, 2.33) at the time of the original benign biopsy or TURP were associated with PCa incidence during follow-up. Prostate volume did not significantly moderate the association between body-size and PCa, however it did act as an inverse confounder; adjustment for prostate volume increased the effect size for overweight by 22% (adjusted OR = 1.52; 95%CI 1.08, 2.14) and for obese status by 23% (adjusted OR = 1.77; 95%CI 1.20, 2.62). Larger prostate volume at the time of the original benign biopsy or TURP was inversely associated with PCa incidence during follow-up (OR = 0.92 per 10 cc difference in volume; 95%CI 0.88, 0.97). In analyses that stratified case-control pairs by tumor aggressiveness of the case, prostate volume acted as an inverse confounder in analyses of non-aggressive PCa but not in analyses of aggressive PCa. In studies of obesity and PCa, differences in prostate volume cause a bias toward the null, particularly in analyses of non-aggressive PCa. A pervasive underestimation of the association between obesity and overall PCa risk may exist in the literature. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Escript: Open Source Environment For Solving Large-Scale Geophysical Joint Inversion Problems in Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Lutz; Altinay, Cihan; Fenwick, Joel; Smith, Troy

    2014-05-01

    inversion and appropriate solution schemes in escript. We will also give a brief introduction into escript's open framework for defining and solving geophysical inversion problems. Finally we will show some benchmark results to demonstrate the computational scalability of the inversion method across a large number of cores and compute nodes in a parallel computing environment. References: - L. Gross et al. (2013): Escript Solving Partial Differential Equations in Python Version 3.4, The University of Queensland, https://launchpad.net/escript-finley - L. Gross and C. Kemp (2013) Large Scale Joint Inversion of Geophysical Data using the Finite Element Method in escript. ASEG Extended Abstracts 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/ASEG2013ab306 - T. Poulet, L. Gross, D. Georgiev, J. Cleverley (2012): escript-RT: Reactive transport simulation in Python using escript, Computers & Geosciences, Volume 45, 168-176. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cageo.2011.11.005.

  1. An innovative experimental setup for Large Scale Particle Image Velocimetry measurements in riverine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauro, Flavia; Olivieri, Giorgio; Porfiri, Maurizio; Grimaldi, Salvatore

    2014-05-01

    Large Scale Particle Image Velocimetry (LSPIV) is a powerful methodology to nonintrusively monitor surface flows. Its use has been beneficial to the development of rating curves in riverine environments and to map geomorphic features in natural waterways. Typical LSPIV experimental setups rely on the use of mast-mounted cameras for the acquisition of natural stream reaches. Such cameras are installed on stream banks and are angled with respect to the water surface to capture large scale fields of view. Despite its promise and the simplicity of the setup, the practical implementation of LSPIV is affected by several challenges, including the acquisition of ground reference points for image calibration and time-consuming and highly user-assisted procedures to orthorectify images. In this work, we perform LSPIV studies on stream sections in the Aniene and Tiber basins, Italy. To alleviate the limitations of traditional LSPIV implementations, we propose an improved video acquisition setup comprising a telescopic, an inexpensive GoPro Hero 3 video camera, and a system of two lasers. The setup allows for maintaining the camera axis perpendicular to the water surface, thus mitigating uncertainties related to image orthorectification. Further, the mast encases a laser system for remote image calibration, thus allowing for nonintrusively calibrating videos without acquiring ground reference points. We conduct measurements on two different water bodies to outline the performance of the methodology in case of varying flow regimes, illumination conditions, and distribution of surface tracers. Specifically, the Aniene river is characterized by high surface flow velocity, the presence of abundant, homogeneously distributed ripples and water reflections, and a meagre number of buoyant tracers. On the other hand, the Tiber river presents lower surface flows, isolated reflections, and several floating objects. Videos are processed through image-based analyses to correct for lens

  2. Developing a comprehensive measure of mobility: mobility over varied environments scale (MOVES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Jana A; Winters, Meghan; Sims-Gould, Joanie; Clarke, Philippa J; Ste-Marie, Nathalie; Ashe, Maureen; McKay, Heather A

    2017-05-25

    While recent work emphasizes the multi-dimensionality of mobility, no current measure incorporates multiple domains of mobility. Using existing conceptual frameworks we identified four domains of mobility (physical, cognitive, social, transportation) to create a "Mobility Over Varied Environments Scale" (MOVES). We then assessed expected patterns of MOVES in the Canadian population. An expert panel identified survey items within each MOVES domain from the Canadian Community Health Survey- Healthy Aging Cycle (2008-2009) for 28,555 (weighted population n = 12,805,067) adults (≥45 years). We refined MOVES using principal components analysis and Cronbach's alpha and weighted items so each domain was 10 points. Expected mobility trends, as assessed by average MOVES, were examined by sociodemographic and health factors, and by province, using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). MOVES ranged from 0 to 40, where 0 represents individuals who are immobile and 40 those who are fully mobile. Mean MOVES was 29.58 (95% confidence interval (CI) 29.49, 29.67) (10th percentile: 24.17 (95% CI 23.96, 24.38), 90th percentile: 34.70 (CI 34.55, 34.85)). MOVES scores were lower for older, female, and non-white Canadians with worse health and lower socioeconomic status. MOVES was also lower for those who live in less urban areas. MOVES is a holistic measure of mobility for characterizing older adult mobility across populations. Future work should examine individual or neighborhood predictors of MOVES and its relationship to broader health outcomes. MOVES holds utility for research, surveillance, evaluation, and interventions around the broad factors influencing mobility in older adults.

  3. Flood management: prediction of microbial contamination in large-scale floods in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jonathon; Lai, Ka Man; Davies, Mike; Clifton, David; Ridley, Ian; Biddulph, Phillip

    2011-07-01

    , insurance companies and residents to better understand, prepare for and manage a large-scale flood in urban environments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Auto-Scaling of Geo-Based Image Processing in an OpenStack Cloud Computing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanggoo Kang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a base platform for the distribution of large volumes of data and high-performance image processing on the Web. Despite wide applications in Web-based services and their many benefits, geo-spatial applications based on cloud computing technology are still developing. Auto-scaling realizes automatic scalability, i.e., the scale-out and scale-in processing of virtual servers in a cloud computing environment. This study investigates the applicability of auto-scaling to geo-based image processing algorithms by comparing the performance of a single virtual server and multiple auto-scaled virtual servers under identical experimental conditions. In this study, the cloud computing environment is built with OpenStack, and four algorithms from the Orfeo toolbox are used for practical geo-based image processing experiments. The auto-scaling results from all experimental performance tests demonstrate applicable significance with respect to cloud utilization concerning response time. Auto-scaling contributes to the development of web-based satellite image application services using cloud-based technologies.

  5. The properties of protective oxide scales containing cerium on alloy 800H in oxidizing and oxidizing/sulphidizing environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haanappel, V.A.C.; Haanappel, V.A.C.; Fransen, T.; Geerdink, Bert; Gellings, P.J.; Stroosnijder, M.F.

    1991-01-01

    The corrosion protection of oxide scales formed by electrophoretic deposition in a cerium-containing sol on Alloy 800H, a 32Ni-20Cr steel, followed by firing in air at 1123 K was studied in oxidizing and mixed oxidizing/sulphidizing environments at elevated temperatures. In particular, the influence

  6. Measuring Social Relations in New Classroom Spaces: Development and Validation of the Social Context and Learning Environments (SCALE) Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J. D.; Baepler, Paul

    2017-01-01

    This study addresses the need for reliable and valid information concerning how innovative classrooms on college and university campuses affect teaching and learning. The Social Context and Learning Environments (SCALE) survey was developed though a three-stage process involving approximately 1300 college students. Exploratory and confirmatory…

  7. [Validity and Reliability of the Korean Version Scale of the Clinical Learning Environment, Supervision and Nurse Teacher Evaluation Scale (CLES+T)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Hee; Yoo, So Yeon; Kim, Yae Young

    2018-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Korean version of the clinical learning environment, supervision and nurse teacher evaluation scale (CLES+T) that measures the clinical learning environment and the conditions associated with supervision and nurse teachers. The English CLES+T was translated into Korean with forward and back translation. Survey data were collected from 434 nursing students who had more than four days of clinical practice in Korean hospitals. Internal consistency reliability and construct validity using confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis were conducted. SPSS 20.0 and AMOS 22.0 programs were used for data analysis. The exploratory factor analysis revealed seven factors for the thirty three-item scale. Confirmatory factor analysis supported good convergent and discriminant validities. The Cronbach's alpha for the overall scale was .94 and for the seven subscales ranged from .78 to .94. The findings suggest that the 33-items Korean CLES+T is an appropriate instrument to measure Korean nursing students'clinical learning environment with good validity and reliability. © 2018 Korean Society of Nursing Science.

  8. Large-Scale Environment Properties of Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies at z < 0.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Järvelä, Emilia [Metsähovi Radio Observatory, Aalto University, Espoo (Finland); Department of Electronics and Nanoengineering, Aalto University, Espoo (Finland); Lähteenmäki, A. [Metsähovi Radio Observatory, Aalto University, Espoo (Finland); Department of Electronics and Nanoengineering, Aalto University, Espoo (Finland); Tartu Observatory, Tõravere (Estonia); Lietzen, H., E-mail: emilia.jarvela@aalto.fi [Tartu Observatory, Tõravere (Estonia)

    2017-11-30

    The large-scale environment is believed to affect the evolution and intrinsic properties of galaxies. It offers a new perspective on narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1) which have not been extensively studied in this context before. We study a large and diverse sample of 960 NLS1 galaxies using a luminosity-density field constructed using Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We investigate how the large-scale environment is connected to the properties of NLS1 galaxies, especially their radio loudness. Furthermore, we compare the large-scale environment properties of NLS1 galaxies with other active galactic nuclei (AGN) classes, for example, other jetted AGN and broad-line Seyfert 1 (BLS1) galaxies, to shed light on their possible relations. In general NLS1 galaxies reside in less dense large-scale environments than any of our comparison samples, thus supporting their young age. The average luminosity-density and distribution to different luminosity-density regions of NLS1 sources is significantly different compared to BLS1 galaxies. This contradicts the simple orientation-based unification of NLS1 and BLS1 galaxies, and weakens the hypothesis that BLS1 galaxies are the parent population of NLS1 galaxies. The large-scale environment density also has an impact on the intrinsic properties of NLS1 galaxies; the radio loudness increases with the increasing luminosity-density. However, our results suggest that the NLS1 population is indeed heterogeneous, and that a considerable fraction of them are misclassified. We support a suggested description that the traditional classification based on the radio loudness should be replaced with the division to jetted and non-jetted sources.

  9. Demonstrating the value of larger ensembles in forecasting physical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reason L. Machete

    2016-12-01

    its relative information content (in bits using a proper skill score. Doubling the ensemble size is demonstrated to yield a non-trivial increase in the information content (forecast skill for an ensemble with well over 16 members; this result stands in forecasting a mathematical system and a physical system. Indeed, even at the largest ensemble sizes considered (128 and 256, there are lead times where the forecast information is still increasing with ensemble size. Ultimately, model error will limit the value of ever larger ensembles. No support is found, however, for limiting design studies to the sizes commonly found in seasonal and climate studies. It is suggested that ensemble size be considered more explicitly in future design studies of forecast systems on all time scales.

  10. STRUCTURAL SCALE LIFE PREDICTION OF AERO STRUCTURES EXPERIENCING COMBINED EXTREME ENVIRONMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    complex loading environments. Today’s state of the art methods cannot address structural reliability under combined environment conditions due to...probabilistically assess the structural life under complex loading environments. Today’s state of the art methods cannot address structural reliability...Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, San Diego, CA, January 4th‐8th, 2016. Clark, L. D., Bae, H., Gobal, K., and Penmetsa, R., “ Engineering

  11. O inventário de recursos do ambiente familiar The home environment resources scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Maria Marturano

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é descrever o desenvolvimento do RAF - Inventário de Recursos do Ambiente Familiar. Baseado na concepção ecológica do desenvolvimento, o RAF avalia recursos do ambiente familiar que podem contribuir para o aprendizado acadêmico nos anos do ensino fundamental, em três domínios: recursos que promovem processos proximais; atividades que sinalizam estabilidade na vida familiar; práticas parentais que promovem a ligação família-escola. Uma revisão de pesquisas que utilizaram o RAF indica índices aceitáveis de consistência interna, bem como associação entre escores no RAF e indicadores de desempenho escolar e ajustamento. Passeios, brinquedos e livros, bem como oportunidades de interação com os pais em casa, foram recursos relacionados a indicadores de bom desempenho escolar e ajustamento. Embora ainda sejam necessários estudos de validação e fidedignidade, o inventário tem sido uma ferramenta útil para pesquisadores e pode ser usado por profissionais que trabalham em contexto clínico ou educacional.The aim of this article is to describe the development of the HERS - Home Environment Resources Scale. The HERS is based on an ecological view of development. It assesses support resources available to the child at home, which can contribute for school achievement. These resources relate to three domains: resources that promote proximal processes; activities that signal stability in family processes; parental practices that promote a home-school linkage. Previous research using the HERS has indicated acceptable indexes of internal consistency, as well as significant associations between HERS scores and measures of academic achievement and adjustment. Leisure activities, toys, books, and opportunities for the child to interact with parents at home were all related to child achievement and adjustment. Although further studies are needed to secure its reliability and validity, the instrument has proven to be a

  12. Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Examples of disorders that ...

  13. Sudden transitions and scaling behavior of geometric quantum correlation for two qubits in quantum critical environments at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Da-Wei; Xu, Jing-Bo

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the phenomenon of sudden transitions in geometric quantum correlation of two qubits in spin chain environments at finite temperature. It is shown that when only one qubit is coupled to the spin environment, the geometric discord exhibits a double sudden transition behavior, which is closely related to the quantum criticality of the spin chain environment. When two qubits are uniformly coupled to a common spin chain environment, the geometric discord is found to display a sudden transition behavior whereby the system transits from pure classical decoherence to pure quantum decoherence. Moreover, an interesting scaling behavior is revealed for the frozen time, and we also present a scheme to prolong the time during which the discord remains constant by applying bang–bang pulses. (paper)

  14. Evaluating students' perception of their clinical placements - testing the clinical learning environment and supervision and nurse teacher scale (CLES + T scale) in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergjan, Manuela; Hertel, Frank

    2013-11-01

    Clinical nursing education in Germany has not received attention in nursing science and practice for a long time, as it often seems to be a more or less "formalized appendix" of nursing education. Several development projects of clinical education taking place are mainly focused on the qualification of clinical preceptors. However, the clinical context and its influence on learning processes have still not been sufficiently investigated. The aim of this study was the testing of a German version of the clinical learning environment and supervision and nurse teacher scale (CLES + T scale). The sample of the pilot study consists of first-, second- and third-year student nurses (n=240) of a university nursing school from January to March 2011. Psychometric testing of the instrument is carried out by selected methods of classical testing theories using SPPS 19. The results show transferability of all subcategories of the CLES + T scale in the non-academic nursing education system of a university hospital in Germany, without the teacher scale. The strongest factor is "supervisory relationship". The German version of the CLES + T scale may help to evaluate and compare traditional and new models in clinical nursing education. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The role of local environment and geographical distance in determining community composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi at the landscape scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazard, Christina; Gosling, Paul; van der Gast, Christopher J; Mitchell, Derek T; Doohan, Fiona M; Bending, Gary D

    2013-03-01

    Arbuscular fungi have a major role in directing the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems yet little is known about their biogeographical distribution. The Baas-Becking hypothesis ('everything is everywhere, but, the environment selects') was tested by investigating the distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) at the landscape scale and the influence of environmental factors and geographical distance in determining community composition. AMF communities in Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne roots were assessed in 40 geographically dispersed sites in Ireland representing different land uses and soil types. Field sampling and laboratory bioassays were used, with AMF communities characterised using 18S rRNA terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Landscape-scale distribution of AMF was driven by the local environment. AMF community composition was influenced by abiotic variables (pH, rainfall and soil type), but not land use or geographical distance. Trifolium repens and L. perenne supported contrasting communities of AMF, and the communities colonising each plant species were consistent across pasture habitats and over distance. Furthermore, L. perenne AMF communities grouped by soil type within pasture habitats. This is the largest and most comprehensive study that has investigated the landscape-scale distribution of AMF. Our findings support the Baas-Becking hypothesis at the landscape scale and demonstrate the strong influence the local environment has on determining AMF community composition.

  16. Cross-Scale Variation in Biodiversity-Environment Links Illustrated by Coastal Sandflat Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casper Kraan

    Full Text Available Spatial variation in the composition of communities is the product of many biotic and environmental interactions. A neglected factor in the analysis of community distribution patterns is the multi-scale nature of the data, which has implications for understanding ecological processes and the development of conservation and environmental management practice. Drawing on recently established multivariate spatial analyses, we investigate whether including relationships between spatial structure and abiotic variables enable us to better discern patterns of species and communities across scales. Data comprised 1200 macrozoobenthic samples collected over an array of distances (30 cm to 1 km in three New Zealand harbours, as well as commonly used abiotic variables, such as sediment characteristics and chlorophyll a concentrations, measured at the same scales. Moran's eigenvector mapping was used to extract spatial scales at which communities were structured. Benthic communities, representing primarily bivalves, polychaetes and crustaceans, were spatially structured at four spatial scales, i.e. >100 m, 50-100 m, 50-15 m, and < 15 m. A broad selection of abiotic variables contributed to the large-scale variation, whereas a more limited set explained part of the fine-scale community structure. Across all scales, less than 30% of the variation in spatial structure was captured by our analysis. The large number of species (48 making up the 10 highest species scores based on redundancy analyses illustrate the variability of species-scale associations. Our results emphasise that abiotic variables and biodiversity are related at all scales investigated and stress the importance of assessing the relationship between environmental variables and the abundance and distribution of biological assemblages across a range of different scales.

  17. Governance, scale and the environment: the importance of recognizing knowledge claims in transdisciplinary arenas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buizer, I.M.; Arts, B.J.M.; Kok, K.

    2011-01-01

    Any present day approach of the world’s most pressing environmental problems involves both scale and governance issues. After all, current local events might have long-term global consequences (the scale issue) and solving complex environmental problems requires policy makers to think and govern

  18. Human resource management and career planning in a larger library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelka Gazvoda

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Human resource management is presented as a managerial function which is used to develop potential abilities of the employees to achieve organizational goals.Different perception of the employees is essential - people working in the organization are treated as capital and not as an expenditure. In human resource management the most important view of the employees is their potential growth and professional development, training for acquiring new responsibilities and encouragement for innovation. Library management is becoming more and more complex as the result of introducing new technologies. For this reason libraries need well trained people with potentials to modernize library performance and to overcome the conflict between the traditional organizational culture and the requirements of the modem technologically developed environment. The author presents different techniques of active human resource management, which can be used in larger libraries where an appropriate number of employees exists to realize different programmes with. These are programmes for education, staffing,career planning, stimmulation and reward systems, job redefinition and enrichment,and other forms of internal segmentation.

  19. Governance, Scale and the Environment: The Importance of Recognizing Knowledge Claims in Transdisciplinary Arenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen Buizer

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Any present day approach of the world's most pressing environmental problems involves both scale and governance issues. After all, current local events might have long-term global consequences (the scale issue and solving complex environmental problems requires policy makers to think and govern beyond generally used time-space scales (the governance issue. To an increasing extent, the various scientists in these fields have used concepts like social-ecological systems, hierarchies, scales and levels to understand and explain the "complex cross-scale dynamics" of issues like climate change. A large part of this work manifests a realist paradigm: the scales and levels, either in ecological processes or in governance systems, are considered as "real". However, various scholars question this position and claim that scales and levels are continuously (reconstructed in the interfaces of science, society, politics and nature. Some of these critics even prefer to adopt a non-scalar approach, doing away with notions such as hierarchy, scale and level. Here we take another route, however. We try to overcome the realist-constructionist dualism by advocating a dialogue between them on the basis of exchanging and reflecting on different knowledge claims in transdisciplinary arenas. We describe two important developments, one in the ecological scaling literature and the other in the governance literature, which we consider to provide a basis for such a dialogue. We will argue that scale issues, governance practices as well as their mutual interdependencies should be considered as human constructs, although dialectically related to nature's materiality, and therefore as contested processes, requiring intensive and continuous dialogue and cooperation among natural scientists, social scientists, policy makers and citizens alike. They also require critical reflection on scientists' roles and on academic practices in general. Acknowledging knowledge claims

  20. More ‘altruistic’ punishment in larger societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Frank W; Berbesque, J. Colette; Barr, Abigail; Barrett, Clark; Bolyanatz, Alexander; Cardenas, Juan Camilo; Ensminger, Jean; Gurven, Michael; Gwako, Edwins; Henrich, Joseph; Henrich, Natalie; Lesorogol, Carolyn; McElreath, Richard; Tracer, David

    2007-01-01

    If individuals will cooperate with cooperators, and punish non-cooperators even at a cost to themselves, then this strong reciprocity could minimize the cheating that undermines cooperation. Based upon numerous economic experiments, some have proposed that human cooperation is explained by strong reciprocity and norm enforcement. Second-party punishment is when you punish someone who defected on you; third-party punishment is when you punish someone who defected on someone else. Third-party punishment is an effective way to enforce the norms of strong reciprocity and promote cooperation. Here we present new results that expand on a previous report from a large cross-cultural project. This project has already shown that there is considerable cross-cultural variation in punishment and cooperation. Here we test the hypothesis that population size (and complexity) predicts the level of third-party punishment. Our results show that people in larger, more complex societies engage in significantly more third-party punishment than people in small-scale societies. PMID:18089534

  1. [Study of adaptation and validation of the Practice environment scale of the nursing work index for the Portuguese reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Maria Regina Sardinheiro do Céu Furtado; Martins, José Joaquim Penedos Amendoeira

    2014-08-01

    Testing the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index. A descriptive, analytical and cross-sectional study, for the cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the psychometric properties of the scale. The study participants were 236 nurses from two hospitals in the regions of Lisbon and Vale do Tejo. The 0.92 Cronbach's alpha was obtained for overall reliability and support of a five-dimension structure. The excellent quality of adjustment of analysis confirms the validity of the adapted version to hospital care settings, although there was no total coincidence of items in the five dimensions

  2. Validation of the JDS satisfaction scales applied to educational university environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Giraldo-O'Meara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to review and summarize the main satisfaction scales used in publications about human Resource Management and educational research, in order to adapt the satisfaction scales of the Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS to higher education and validate it with a sample of university students and to assess the concept of satisfaction in two different ways: as a single-item measure, with a global indicator and as a multi-item measure, analyzed as a global model and composed by several scales. Design/methodology/approach: Confirmatory factor analysis with maximum likelihood, using structural equations model, was employed to assess the model fit in 152 business management undergraduates. Findings and Originality/value: The satisfaction model measured as multi-item scale present an acceptable fit. Even though, some of the satisfaction scales did not present a satisfactory fit, they can be used and interpreted independently with carefulness. Nevertheless, the satisfaction single-item scale presents a better fit and has been validated as a simpler and less costly measure of satisfaction. Originality/value: In the current process of change that is taking place in universities according to the plan developed by the European Space of higher Education, validated instruments as the satisfaction scale of JDS, adapted to teaching, may facilitate this process through the diagnosis, and follow-up of changes in satisfaction levels in university classrooms.

  3. The impact of small-scale mining activities on the levels of mercury in the environment. The case of Prestea and its environs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serfor-Armah, Y.; Adotey, D.K.; Nyarko, B.J.B.; Akaho, E.H.K.; Adomako, D.

    2004-01-01

    To obtain the baseline information of mercury pollution due to gold mining activities in Prestea and its environs total mercury (T-Hg) concentrations were measured in water and stream sediment. The samples were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). They were irradiated and counted without any preconcentration. Higher levels of T-Hg concentration were found in samples at the sites with extensive small-scale 'galamsey' gold mining activities than at the sites with low small-scale 'galamsey' activities. Concentrations varied between 6.80-19.82 mg/l for water and 28.90-84.30 mg/kg in sediment at sites with extensive small-scale mining activities. At low small-scale mining sites concentration levels for T-Hg varied between 0.50-9.10 mg/l and 1.20-22.75 mg/kg in water and sediment, respectively. The concentration levels of T-Hg in water from all the sampling sites are in excess of the WHO tolerable limit of 0.001 mg/l for drinking water. (author)

  4. The thermal environment of the human being on the global scale

    OpenAIRE

    Jendritzky, Gerd; Tinz, Birger

    2009-01-01

    Background: The close relationship between human health, performance, well-being and the thermal environment is obvious. Nevertheless, most studies of climate and climate change impacts show amazing shortcomings in the assessment of the environment. Populations living in different climates have different susceptibilities, due to socio-economic reasons, and different customary behavioural adaptations. The global distribution of risks of hazardous thermal exposure has not been analysed before. ...

  5. The role of local environment and geographical distance in determining community composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi at the landscape scale

    OpenAIRE

    Hazard, Christina; Gosling, Paul; van der Gast, Christopher J; Mitchell, Derek T; Doohan, Fiona M; Bending, Gary D

    2012-01-01

    Arbuscular fungi have a major role in directing the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems yet little is known about their biogeographical distribution. The Baas-Becking hypothesis (‘everything is everywhere, but, the environment selects') was tested by investigating the distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) at the landscape scale and the influence of environmental factors and geographical distance in determining community composition. AMF communities in Trifolium repens and Loliu...

  6. Assessing opportunities for physical activity in the built environment of children: interrelation between kernel density and neighborhood scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Christoph; Kneib, Thomas; Tkaczick, Tobias; Konstabel, Kenn; Pigeot, Iris

    2015-12-22

    Built environment studies provide broad evidence that urban characteristics influence physical activity (PA). However, findings are still difficult to compare, due to inconsistent measures assessing urban point characteristics and varying definitions of spatial scale. Both were found to influence the strength of the association between the built environment and PA. We simultaneously evaluated the effect of kernel approaches and network-distances to investigate the association between urban characteristics and physical activity depending on spatial scale and intensity measure. We assessed urban measures of point characteristics such as intersections, public transit stations, and public open spaces in ego-centered network-dependent neighborhoods based on geographical data of one German study region of the IDEFICS study. We calculated point intensities using the simple intensity and kernel approaches based on fixed bandwidths, cross-validated bandwidths including isotropic and anisotropic kernel functions and considering adaptive bandwidths that adjust for residential density. We distinguished six network-distances from 500 m up to 2 km to calculate each intensity measure. A log-gamma regression model was used to investigate the effect of each urban measure on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) of 400 2- to 9.9-year old children who participated in the IDEFICS study. Models were stratified by sex and age groups, i.e. pre-school children (2 to kernel approaches. Smallest variation in effect estimates over network-distances was found for kernel intensity measures based on isotropic and anisotropic cross-validated bandwidth selection. We found a strong variation in the association between the built environment and PA of children based on the choice of intensity measure and network-distance. Kernel intensity measures provided stable results over various scales and improved the assessment compared to the simple intensity measure. Considering different spatial

  7. The cause of larger local magnitude (Mj) in western Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, H.; Furumura, T.

    2017-12-01

    The local magnitude of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) scale (Mj) in Japan sometimes show a significant discrepancy between Mw. The Mj is calculated using the amplitude of the horizontal component of ground displacement recorded by seismometers with the natural period of T0=5 s using Katsumata et al. (2004). A typical example of such a discrepancy in estimating Mj was an overestimation of the 2000 Western Tottori earthquake (Mj=7.3, Mw=6.7; hereafter referred to as event T). In this study, we examined the discrepancy between Mj and Mw for recent large earthquakes occurring in Japan.We found that the most earthquakes with larger Mj (>Mw) occur in western Japan while the earthquakes in northern Japan show reasonable Mj (=Mw). To understand the cause of such larger Mj for western Japan earthquakes we examined the strong motion record from the K-NET and KiK-net network for the event T and other earthquakes for reference. The observed ground displacement record from the event T shows a distinctive Love wave packet in tangential motion with a dominant period of about T=5 s which propagates long distances without showing strong dispersions. On the other hand, the ground motions from the earthquakes in northeastern Japan do not have such surface wave packet, and attenuation of ground motion is significant. Therefore, the overestimation of the Mj for earthquakes in western Japan may be attributed to efficient generation and propagation properties of Love wave probably relating to the crustal structure of western Japan. To explain this, we then conducted a numerical simulation of seismic wave propagation using 3D sedimentary layer model (JIVSM; Koketsu et al., 2012) and the source model of the event T. The result demonstrated the efficient generation of Love wave from the shallow strike-slip source which propagates long distances in western Japan without significant dispersions. On the other hand, the generation of surface wave was not so efficient when using a

  8. Generation of large scale urban environments to support advanced sensor and seeker simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Joseph; Hershey, Daniel; McKeown, David, Jr.; Willis, Carla; Van, Tan

    2009-05-01

    One of the key aspects for the design of a next generation weapon system is the need to operate in cluttered and complex urban environments. Simulation systems rely on accurate representation of these environments and require automated software tools to construct the underlying 3D geometry and associated spectral and material properties that are then formatted for various objective seeker simulation systems. Under an Air Force Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contract, we have developed an automated process to generate 3D urban environments with user defined properties. These environments can be composed from a wide variety of source materials, including vector source data, pre-existing 3D models, and digital elevation models, and rapidly organized into a geo-specific visual simulation database. This intermediate representation can be easily inspected in the visible spectrum for content and organization and interactively queried for accuracy. Once the database contains the required contents, it can then be exported into specific synthetic scene generation runtime formats, preserving the relationship between geometry and material properties. To date an exporter for the Irma simulation system developed and maintained by AFRL/Eglin has been created and a second exporter to Real Time Composite Hardbody and Missile Plume (CHAMP) simulation system for real-time use is currently being developed. This process supports significantly more complex target environments than previous approaches to database generation. In this paper we describe the capabilities for content creation for advanced seeker processing algorithms simulation and sensor stimulation, including the overall database compilation process and sample databases produced and exported for the Irma runtime system. We also discuss the addition of object dynamics and viewer dynamics within the visual simulation into the Irma runtime environment.

  9. Validation of the JDS satisfaction scales applied to educational university environments

    OpenAIRE

    Giraldo-O'Meara, Martha; Marin-Garcia, Juan A.; Martinez-Gomez, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to review and summarize the main satisfaction scales used in publications about human Resource Management and educational research, in order to adapt the satisfaction scales of the Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS) to higher education and validate it with a sample of university students and to assess the concept of satisfaction in two different ways: as a single-item measure, with a global indicator and as a multi-item measure, analyzed as a global model and compos...

  10. On the scaling limits of Galton Watson processes in varying environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bansaye, V.; Simatos, F.

    2011-01-01

    Renormalized sequences of Galton Watson processes converge to Continuous State Branching Processes (CSBP), characterized by a L\\'evy triplet of two numbers and a measure. This paper investigates the case of Galton Watson processes in varying environment and provides an explicit sufficient condition

  11. System Thinking Scales and Learning Environment of Family Planning Field Workers in East Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listyawardani, Dwi; Hariastuti, Iswari

    2016-01-01

    Systems thinking is needed due to the growing complexity of the problems faced family planning field workers in the external environment that is constantly changing. System thinking ability could not be separated from efforts to develop learning for the workers, both learning at the individual, group, or organization level. The design of the study…

  12. Facilitating Creative Environments - Lessons from Danish cases at different organizational scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Elle, Morten; Munthe-Kaas, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to support the field of Facilities Management to take up the challenges and opportunities offered by the discourse of creativity. The key focus of the paper is on the discursive nature of creative environments and on the relation of facilities and facilitation...

  13. Facilitating Creative Environments - Lessons from Danish cases at different organizational scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Elle, Morten; Munthe-Kaas, Peter

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to support the field of Facilities Management to take up the challenges and opportunities offered by the discourse of creativity. The key focus of the paper is on the discursive nature of creative environments and on the relation of facilities and facilitation...

  14. Construction and validation of the national survey on recreation and the environment's lifestyles scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary T. Green; H. Ken Cordell; Carter J. Betz; Christine DiStefano

    2007-01-01

    This study sought to construct and validate a lifestyle scale that would capture for leisure professionals a more holistic picture of people's interests. A broader profile of their customers would allow recreation professionals to tailor information of their services. Public sector recreation managers would provide better serviced by learning about how customers...

  15. An Examination of Relationships between Psychosocial Satisfaction Scales in an Online Student Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookout, James Marshall, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Research suggests that students who are satisfied with their learning experiences are typically successful and there is a fundamental theory that suggests if the expectations of students are achieved they will be return customers. This study examined the relationships between the psychosocial satisfaction scales in an online student learning…

  16. Achieving online consent to participation in large-scale gene-environment studies: a tangible destination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wood, F.; Kowalczuk, J.; Elwyn, G.; Mitchell, C.; Gallacher, J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Population based genetics studies are dependent on large numbers of individuals in the pursuit of small effect sizes. Recruiting and consenting a large number of participants is both costly and time consuming. We explored whether an online consent process for large-scale genetics studies

  17. Fluid dynamics structures in a fire environment observed in laboratory-scale experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Lozano; W. Tachajapong; D.R. Weise; S. Mahalingam; M. Princevac

    2010-01-01

    Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements were performed in laboratory-scale experimental fires spreading across horizontal fuel beds composed of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx) excelsior. The continuous flame, intermittent flame, and thermal plume regions of a fire were investigated. Utilizing a PIV system, instantaneous velocity fields for...

  18. A Scale Development Study for the Teachers on Out of School Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkan-Kiyici, Fatime; Yavuz Topaloglu, Melike

    2016-01-01

    When teachers organize planned and systematical out-of-school learning activities, students can understand the abstract and complex terms and topics better and therefore meaningful and deeper learning can occur. Within this context this study aims to develop a valid and reliable scale to determine the attitudes, behaviors, efficiency and…

  19. Science curiosity in learning environments: developing an attitudinal scale for research in schools, homes, museums, and the community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weible, Jennifer L.; Toomey Zimmerman, Heather

    2016-05-01

    Although curiosity is considered an integral aspect of science learning, researchers have debated how to define, measure, and support its development in individuals. Prior measures of curiosity include questionnaire type scales (primarily for adults) and behavioral measures. To address the need to measure scientific curiosity, the Science Curiosity in Learning Environments (SCILE) scale was created and validated as a 12-item scale to measure scientific curiosity in youth. The scale was developed through (a) adapting the language of the Curiosity and Exploration Inventory-II [Kashdan, T. B., Gallagher, M. W., Silvia, P. J., Winterstein, B. P., Breen, W. E., Terhar, D., & Steger, M. F. (2009). The curiosity and exploration inventory-II: Development, factor structure, and psychometrics. Journal of Research in Personality, 43(6), 987-998] for youth and (b) crafting new items based on scientific practices drawn from U.S. science standards documents. We administered a preliminary set of 30 items to 663 youth ages 8-18 in the U.S.A. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis resulted in a three-factor model: stretching, embracing, and science practices. The findings indicate that the SCILE scale is a valid measure of youth's scientific curiosity for boys and girls as well as elementary, middle school, and high school learners.

  20. Diatom-based characterization of iberian coastal environments at different time scales

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Tânia Maria de Azevedo, 1978-

    2014-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Geologia (Geologia Económica e do Ambiente), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2014 This thesis presents the mesoscale characterization of the evolution of two lagoon systems, Traba (550 years of sedimentary sequence) and Melides (1745 years of sedimentary sequence), using sedimentological, geochemical and biological, particularly diatoms, indicators. Also, a characterization of 18 present-day transitional environments (coastal lakes and ponds...

  1. Alignment between Satellite and Central Galaxies in the SDSS DR7: Dependence on Large-scale Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Luo, Yu; Kang, Xi; Libeskind, Noam I.; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Youcai; Tempel, Elmo; Guo, Quan

    2018-06-01

    The alignment between satellites and central galaxies has been studied in detail both in observational and theoretical works. The widely accepted fact is that satellites preferentially reside along the major axis of their central galaxy. However, the origin and large-scale environmental dependence of this alignment are still unknown. In an attempt to determine these variables, we use data constructed from Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 to investigate the large-scale environmental dependence of this alignment with emphasis on examining the alignment’s dependence on the color of the central galaxy. We find a very strong large-scale environmental dependence of the satellite–central alignment (SCA) in groups with blue centrals. Satellites of blue centrals in knots are preferentially located perpendicular to the major axes of the centrals, and the alignment angle decreases with environment, namely, when going from knots to voids. The alignment angle strongly depends on the {}0.1(g-r) color of centrals. We suggest that the SCA is the result of a competition between satellite accretion within large-scale structure (LSS) and galaxy evolution inside host halos. For groups containing red central galaxies, the SCA is mainly determined by the evolution effect, while for blue central dominated groups, the effect of the LSS plays a more important role, especially in knots. Our results provide an explanation for how the SCA forms within different large-scale environments. The perpendicular case in groups and knots with blue centrals may also provide insight into understanding similar polar arrangements, such as the formation of the Milky Way and Centaurus A’s satellite system.

  2. A research on the excavation, support, and environment control of large scale underground space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Pil Chong; Kwon, Kwang Soo; Jeong, So Keul [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    With the growing necessity of the underground space due to the deficiency of above-ground space, the size and shape of underground structures tend to be complex and diverse. This complexity and variety force the development of new techniques for rock mass classification, excavation and supporting of underground space, monitoring and control of underground environment. All these techniques should be applied together to make the underground space comfortable. To achieve this, efforts have been made on 5 different areas; research on the underground space design and stability analysis, research on the techniques for excavation of rock by controlled blasting, research on the development of monitoring system to forecast the rock behaviour of underground space, research on the environment inspection system in closed space, and research on dynamic analysis of the airflow and environmental control in the large geos-spaces. The 5 main achievements are improvement of the existing structure analysis program(EXCRACK) to consider the deformation and failure characteristics of rock joints, development of new blasting design (SK-cut), prediction of ground vibration through the newly proposed wave propagation equation, development and In-Situ application of rock mass deformation monitoring system and data acquisition software, and trial manufacture of the environment inspection system in closed space. Should these techniques be applied to the development of underground space, prevention of industrial disaster, cut down of construction cost, domestication of monitoring system, improvement of tunnel stability, curtailment of royalty, upgrade of domestic technologies will be brought forth. (Abstract Truncated)

  3. Advanced Connectivity Analysis (ACA): a Large Scale Functional Connectivity Data Mining Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Nixon, Erika; Herskovits, Edward

    2016-04-01

    Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to study functional connectivity is of great importance to understand normal development and function as well as a host of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Seed-based analysis is one of the most widely used rs-fMRI analysis methods. Here we describe a freely available large scale functional connectivity data mining software package called Advanced Connectivity Analysis (ACA). ACA enables large-scale seed-based analysis and brain-behavior analysis. It can seamlessly examine a large number of seed regions with minimal user input. ACA has a brain-behavior analysis component to delineate associations among imaging biomarkers and one or more behavioral variables. We demonstrate applications of ACA to rs-fMRI data sets from a study of autism.

  4. Metingear: a development environment for annotating genome-scale metabolic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, John W; James, A Gordon; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2013-09-01

    Genome-scale metabolic models often lack annotations that would allow them to be used for further analysis. Previous efforts have focused on associating metabolites in the model with a cross reference, but this can be problematic if the reference is not freely available, multiple resources are used or the metabolite is added from a literature review. Associating each metabolite with chemical structure provides unambiguous identification of the components and a more detailed view of the metabolism. We have developed an open-source desktop application that simplifies the process of adding database cross references and chemical structures to genome-scale metabolic models. Annotated models can be exported to the Systems Biology Markup Language open interchange format. Source code, binaries, documentation and tutorials are freely available at http://johnmay.github.com/metingear. The application is implemented in Java with bundles available for MS Windows and Macintosh OS X.

  5. The large-scale environment from cosmological simulations - I. The baryonic cosmic web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Weiguang; Knebe, Alexander; Yepes, Gustavo; Yang, Xiaohu; Borgani, Stefano; Kang, Xi; Power, Chris; Staveley-Smith, Lister

    2018-01-01

    Using a series of cosmological simulations that includes one dark-matter-only (DM-only) run, one gas cooling-star formation-supernova feedback (CSF) run and one that additionally includes feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs), we classify the large-scale structures with both a velocity-shear-tensor code (VWEB) and a tidal-tensor code (PWEB). We find that the baryonic processes have almost no impact on large-scale structures - at least not when classified using aforementioned techniques. More importantly, our results confirm that the gas component alone can be used to infer the filamentary structure of the universe practically un-biased, which could be applied to cosmology constraints. In addition, the gas filaments are classified with its velocity (VWEB) and density (PWEB) fields, which can theoretically connect to the radio observations, such as H I surveys. This will help us to bias-freely link the radio observations with dark matter distributions at large scale.

  6. Rain Characteristics and Large-Scale Environments of Precipitation Objects with Extreme Rain Volumes from TRMM Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yaping; Lau, William K M.; Liu, Chuntao

    2013-01-01

    This study adopts a "precipitation object" approach by using 14 years of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Feature (PF) and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data to study rainfall structure and environmental factors associated with extreme heavy rain events. Characteristics of instantaneous extreme volumetric PFs are examined and compared to those of intermediate and small systems. It is found that instantaneous PFs exhibit a much wider scale range compared to the daily gridded precipitation accumulation range. The top 1% of the rainiest PFs contribute over 55% of total rainfall and have 2 orders of rain volume magnitude greater than those of the median PFs. We find a threshold near the top 10% beyond which the PFs grow exponentially into larger, deeper, and colder rain systems. NCEP reanalyses show that midlevel relative humidity and total precipitable water increase steadily with increasingly larger PFs, along with a rapid increase of 500 hPa upward vertical velocity beyond the top 10%. This provides the necessary moisture convergence to amplify and sustain the extreme events. The rapid increase in vertical motion is associated with the release of convective available potential energy (CAPE) in mature systems, as is evident in the increase in CAPE of PFs up to 10% and the subsequent dropoff. The study illustrates distinct stages in the development of an extreme rainfall event including: (1) a systematic buildup in large-scale temperature and moisture, (2) a rapid change in rain structure, (3) explosive growth of the PF size, and (4) a release of CAPE before the demise of the event.

  7. Visualization environment of the large-scale data of JAEA's supercomputer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Kensaku [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Center for Computational Science and e-Systems, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Hoshi, Yoshiyuki [Research Organization for Information Science and Technology (RIST), Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    On research and development of various fields of nuclear energy, visualization of calculated data is especially useful to understand the result of simulation in an intuitive way. Many researchers who run simulations on the supercomputer in Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) are used to transfer calculated data files from the supercomputer to their local PCs for visualization. In recent years, as the size of calculated data has gotten larger with improvement of supercomputer performance, reduction of visualization processing time as well as efficient use of JAEA network is being required. As a solution, we introduced a remote visualization system which has abilities to utilize parallel processors on the supercomputer and to reduce the usage of network resources by transferring data of intermediate visualization process. This paper reports a study on the performance of image processing with the remote visualization system. The visualization processing time is measured and the influence of network speed is evaluated by varying the drawing mode, the size of visualization data and the number of processors. Based on this study, a guideline for using the remote visualization system is provided to show how the system can be used effectively. An upgrade policy of the next system is also shown. (author)

  8. A Recommender System for an IPTV Service Provider: a Real Large-Scale Production Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambini, Riccardo; Cremonesi, Paolo; Turrin, Roberto

    In this chapter we describe the integration of a recommender system into the production environment of Fastweb, one of the largest European IP Television (IPTV) providers. The recommender system implements both collaborative and content-based techniques, suitable tailored to the specific requirements of an IPTV architecture, such as the limited screen definition, the reduced navigation capabilities, and the strict time constraints. The algorithms are extensively analyzed by means of off-line and on-line tests, showing the effectiveness of the recommender systems: up to 30% of the recommendations are followed by a purchase, with an estimated lift factor (increase in sales) of 15%.

  9. Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, A.D.; Turnbull, R.G.H.

    1992-01-01

    The development of the hydrocarbon resources of the North Sea has resulted in both offshore and onshore environmental repercussions, involving the existing physical attributes of the sea and seabed, the coastline and adjoining land. The social and economic repercussions of the industry were equally widespread. The dramatic and speedy impact of the exploration and exploitation of the northern North Sea resources in the early 1970s, on the physical resources of Scotland was quickly realised together with the concern that any environmental and social damage to the physical and social fabric should be kept to a minimum. To this end, a wide range of research and other activities by central and local government, and other interested agencies was undertaken to extend existing knowledge on the marine and terrestrial environments that might be affected by the oil and gas industry. The outcome of these activities is summarized in this paper. The topics covered include a survey of the marine ecosystems of the North Sea, the fishing industry, the impact of oil pollution on seabirds and fish stocks, the ecology of the Scottish coastline and the impact of the petroleum industry on a selection of particular sites. (author)

  10. Annual spatiotemporal migration schedules in three larger insectivorous birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lars Bo; Jensen, Niels Odder; Willemoes, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of spatiotemporal migration patterns is important for our understanding of migration ecology and ultimately conservation of migratory species. We studied the annual migration schedules of European nightjar, a large nocturnal insectivore and compared it with two other larger ...

  11. Listing of nuclear power plant larger than 100 MWe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugh, B.

    1976-03-01

    This report contains a list of all nuclear power plants larger than 100 MWe, printed out from the Argus Data Bank at Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden. The plants are listed by NSSS supply. (M.S.)

  12. A landscape-scale approach to examining the fate of atmospherically derived industrial metals in the surficial environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromsoe, Nicola; Marx, Samuel K; McGowan, Hamish A; Callow, Nikolaus; Heijnis, Henk; Zawadzki, Atun

    2015-02-01

    Industrial metals are now ubiquitous within the atmosphere and their deposition represents a potential source of contamination to surficial environments. Few studies, however, have examined the environmental fate of atmospheric industrial metals within different surface environments. In this study, patterns of accumulation of atmospherically transported industrial metals were investigated within the surface environments of the Snowy Mountains, Australia. Metals, including Pb, Sb, Cr and Mo, were enriched in aerosols collected in the Snowy Mountains by 3.5-50 times pre-industrial concentrations. In sedimentary environments (soils, lakes and reservoirs) metals showed varying degrees of enrichment. Differences were attributed to the relative degree of atmospheric input, metal sensitivity to enrichment, catchment area and metal behaviour following deposition. In settings where atmospheric deposition dominated (ombrotrophic peat mires in the upper parts of catchments), metal enrichment patterns most closely resembled those in collected aerosols. However, even in these environments significant dilution (by 5-7 times) occurred. The most sensitive industrial metals (those with the lowest natural concentration; Cd, Ag, Sb and Mo) were enriched throughout the studied environments. However, in alpine tarn-lakes no other metals were enriched, due to the dilution of pollutant-metals by catchment derived sediment. In reservoirs, which were located lower within catchments, industrial metals exhibited more complex patterns. Particle reactive metals (e.g. Pb) displayed little enrichment, implying that they were retained up catchment, whereas more soluble metals (e.g., Cu and Zn) showed evidence of concentration. These same metals (Cu and Zn) were depleted in soils, implying that they are preferentially transported through catchments. Enrichment of other metals (e.g. Cd) varied between reservoirs as a function of contributing catchment area. Overall this study showed that the fate

  13. Hierarchical Distributed-Lag Models: Exploring Varying Geographic Scale and Magnitude in Associations Between the Built Environment and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Jonggyu; Sanchez-Vaznaugh, Emma V; Sánchez, Brisa N

    2016-03-15

    It is well known that associations between features of the built environment and health depend on the geographic scale used to construct environmental attributes. In the built environment literature, it has long been argued that geographic scales may vary across study locations. However, this hypothesized variation has not been systematically examined due to a lack of available statistical methods. We propose a hierarchical distributed-lag model (HDLM) for estimating the underlying overall shape of food environment-health associations as a function of distance from locations of interest. This method enables indirect assessment of relevant geographic scales and captures area-level heterogeneity in the magnitudes of associations, along with relevant distances within areas. The proposed model was used to systematically examine area-level variation in the association between availability of convenience stores around schools and children's weights. For this case study, body mass index (weight kg)/height (m)2) z scores (BMIz) for 7th grade children collected via California's 2001-2009 FitnessGram testing program were linked to a commercial database that contained locations of food outlets statewide. Findings suggested that convenience store availability may influence BMIz only in some places and at varying distances from schools. Future research should examine localized environmental or policy differences that may explain the heterogeneity in convenience store-BMIz associations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Prevalence and concentration of Salmonella and Campylobacter in the processing environment of small-scale pastured broiler farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Lisa M; Alali, Walid Q; Gibson, Kristen E; Ricke, Steven C; Crandall, Philip; Jaroni, Divya; Berrang, Mark; Habteselassie, Mussie Y

    2013-11-01

    A growing niche in the locally grown food movement is the small-scale production of broiler chickens using the pasture-raised poultry production model. Limited research exists that focuses on Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination in the environment associated with on-farm processing of pasture-raised broilers. The objective of this study was to establish data relative to Salmonella and Campylobacter prevalence and concentration in soil and mortality compost resulting from prior processing waste disposal in the small-scale, on-farm broiler processing environment. Salmonella and Campylobacter concentrations were determined in soil (n = 42), compost (n = 39), and processing wastewater (PWW; n = 46) samples from 4 small broiler farms using a 3-tube most probable number (MPN) method for Salmonella and direct plating method for Campylobacter. Salmonella prevalence and concentration (mean log10 MPN per sample weight or volume) in soil [60%, 0.97 (95% CI: 0.66 to 1.27)], compost [64%, 0.95 (95% CI: 0.66 to 1.24)], and wastewater [48%, 1.29 (95% CI: 0.87 to 1.71)] were not significantly different (P > 0.05). Although Campylobacter prevalence was not significantly different by sample type (64.3, 64.3, and 45.7% in soil, compost, and PWW, respectively), the concentration (mean log10 cfu) of this pathogen was significantly lower (P poultry production waste disposal practices and provides a record of data that may serve as a guide for future improvement of these practices. Further research is needed regarding the small-scale broiler production environment in relation to improving disposal of processing waste for optimum control of human pathogens.

  15. A general explanation on the correlation of dark matter halo spin with the large-scale environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Kang, Xi

    2017-06-01

    Both simulations and observations have found that the spin of halo/galaxy is correlated with the large-scale environment, and particularly the spin of halo flips in filament. A consistent picture of halo spin evolution in different environments is still lacked. Using N-body simulation, we find that halo spin with its environment evolves continuously from sheet to cluster, and the flip of halo spin happens both in filament and nodes. The flip in filament can be explained by halo formation time and migrating time when its environment changes from sheet to filament. For low-mass haloes, they form first in sheets and migrate into filaments later, so their mass and spin growth inside filament are lower, and the original spin is still parallel to filament. For high-mass haloes, they migrate into filaments first, and most of their mass and spin growth are obtained in filaments, so the resulted spin is perpendicular to filament. Our results well explain the overall evolution of cosmic web in the cold dark matter model and can be tested using high-redshift data. The scenario can also be tested against alternative models of dark matter, such as warm/hot dark matter, where the structure formation will proceed in a different way.

  16. Nuclear EMP simulation for large-scale urban environments. FDTD for electrically large problems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, William S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bull, Jeffrey S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilcox, Trevor [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bos, Randall J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shao, Xuan-Min [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goorley, John T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Costigan, Keeley R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-13

    In case of a terrorist nuclear attack in a metropolitan area, EMP measurement could provide: (1) a prompt confirmation of the nature of the explosion (chemical or nuclear) for emergency response; and (2) and characterization parameters of the device (reaction history, yield) for technical forensics. However, urban environment could affect the fidelity of the prompt EMP measurement (as well as all other types of prompt measurement): (1) Nuclear EMP wavefront would no longer be coherent, due to incoherent production, attenuation, and propagation of gamma and electrons; and (2) EMP propagation from source region outward would undergo complicated transmission, reflection, and diffraction processes. EMP simulation for electrically-large urban environment: (1) Coupled MCNP/FDTD (Finite-difference time domain Maxwell solver) approach; and (2) FDTD tends to be limited to problems that are not 'too' large compared to the wavelengths of interest because of numerical dispersion and anisotropy. We use a higher-order low-dispersion, isotropic FDTD algorithm for EMP propagation.

  17. Study of adaptation and validation of the Practice environment scale of the nursing work index for the portuguese reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Sardinheiro do Céu Furtado Ferreira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Testing the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index. Method: A descriptive, analytical and cross-sectional study, for the cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the psychometric properties of the scale. The study participants were 236 nurses from two hospitals in the regions of Lisbon and Vale do Tejo. Results: The 0.92 Cronbach’s alpha was obtained for overall reliability and support of a five-dimension structure. Conclusion: The excellent quality of adjustment of analysis confirms the validity of the adapted version to hospital care settings, although there was no total coincidence of items in the five dimensions

  18. The development of a capability for aerodynamic testing of large-scale wing sections in a simulated natural rain environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezos, Gaudy M.; Cambell, Bryan A.; Melson, W. Edward

    1989-01-01

    A research technique to obtain large-scale aerodynamic data in a simulated natural rain environment has been developed. A 10-ft chord NACA 64-210 wing section wing section equipped with leading-edge and trailing-edge high-lift devices was tested as part of a program to determine the effect of highly-concentrated, short-duration rainfall on airplane performance. Preliminary dry aerodynamic data are presented for the high-lift configuration at a velocity of 100 knots and an angle of attack of 18 deg. Also, data are presented on rainfield uniformity and rainfall concentration intensity levels obtained during the calibration of the rain simulation system.

  19. Scaling Limit of Symmetric Random Walk in High-Contrast Periodic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatnitski, A.; Zhizhina, E.

    2017-11-01

    The paper deals with the asymptotic properties of a symmetric random walk in a high contrast periodic medium in Z^d, d≥1. From the existing homogenization results it follows that under diffusive scaling the limit behaviour of this random walk need not be Markovian. The goal of this work is to show that if in addition to the coordinate of the random walk in Z^d we introduce an extra variable that characterizes the position of the random walk inside the period then the limit dynamics of this two-component process is Markov. We describe the limit process and observe that the components of the limit process are coupled. We also prove the convergence in the path space for the said random walk.

  20. Scaling Environment Justice: The Case of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Brenda L. [Wilfrid Launer Univ., Brantford (Canada); Kuhn, Richard G. [Univ. of Guelph (Canada). Dept. of Geography

    2006-09-15

    The growing body of literature associated with environmental justice documents the extent to which poor, peripheral or minority regions are often burdened with contamination or the siting of new noxious, unwanted facilities. More recently. environmental justice studies have also begun to explore the processes and societal structures that contribute to (in)justice. The environmental justice perspective asserts that instances of local contamination or the siting of noxious facilities in disempowered neighbourhoods are not only problems for those most affected by the facility; such situations are also instances of broader concerns about fairness and equity. At the grass-roots level. in marginalised spaces, residents may adopt the environmental justice frame as a strategy to gain recognition of their 'local' problem by regional. national or global actors. In this paper we problemise this environmental justice perspective, particularly as it relates to the issue of spatial and temporal scale. We utilise the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). the military transuranic nuclear waste disposal facility located in Carlsbad, New Mexico as an example where the environmental justice perspective was not (for the most part) invoked by local residents. Since it was mostly members of civil society groups and state and federal elected officials, most living four hours away who questioned the safety and viability of the facility, while local leaders actively lobbied to bring the facility to Carlsbad, this raises questions regarding 1) what counts as marginalised space and who gets to speak for those spaces, 2) who decides what can be defined as an environmental justice issue, and 3) at what spatial and temporal scale should justice be defined. Following a further elaboration of the conceptual ideas that underpin this discussion, in the subsequent section we present the WlPP case study.

  1. Scaling Environment Justice: The Case of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Brenda L.; Kuhn, Richard G.

    2006-01-01

    The growing body of literature associated with environmental justice documents the extent to which poor, peripheral or minority regions are often burdened with contamination or the siting of new noxious, unwanted facilities. More recently. environmental justice studies have also begun to explore the processes and societal structures that contribute to (in)justice. The environmental justice perspective asserts that instances of local contamination or the siting of noxious facilities in disempowered neighbourhoods are not only problems for those most affected by the facility; such situations are also instances of broader concerns about fairness and equity. At the grass-roots level. in marginalised spaces, residents may adopt the environmental justice frame as a strategy to gain recognition of their 'local' problem by regional. national or global actors. In this paper we problemise this environmental justice perspective, particularly as it relates to the issue of spatial and temporal scale. We utilise the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). the military transuranic nuclear waste disposal facility located in Carlsbad, New Mexico as an example where the environmental justice perspective was not (for the most part) invoked by local residents. Since it was mostly members of civil society groups and state and federal elected officials, most living four hours away who questioned the safety and viability of the facility, while local leaders actively lobbied to bring the facility to Carlsbad, this raises questions regarding 1) what counts as marginalised space and who gets to speak for those spaces, 2) who decides what can be defined as an environmental justice issue, and 3) at what spatial and temporal scale should justice be defined. Following a further elaboration of the conceptual ideas that underpin this discussion, in the subsequent section we present the WlPP case study

  2. Node-based finite element method for large-scale adaptive fluid analysis in parallel environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toshimitsu, Fujisawa [Tokyo Univ., Collaborative Research Center of Frontier Simulation Software for Industrial Science, Institute of Industrial Science (Japan); Genki, Yagawa [Tokyo Univ., Department of Quantum Engineering and Systems Science (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    In this paper, a FEM-based (finite element method) mesh free method with a probabilistic node generation technique is presented. In the proposed method, all computational procedures, from the mesh generation to the solution of a system of equations, can be performed fluently in parallel in terms of nodes. Local finite element mesh is generated robustly around each node, even for harsh boundary shapes such as cracks. The algorithm and the data structure of finite element calculation are based on nodes, and parallel computing is realized by dividing a system of equations by the row of the global coefficient matrix. In addition, the node-based finite element method is accompanied by a probabilistic node generation technique, which generates good-natured points for nodes of finite element mesh. Furthermore, the probabilistic node generation technique can be performed in parallel environments. As a numerical example of the proposed method, we perform a compressible flow simulation containing strong shocks. Numerical simulations with frequent mesh refinement, which are required for such kind of analysis, can effectively be performed on parallel processors by using the proposed method. (authors)

  3. Node-based finite element method for large-scale adaptive fluid analysis in parallel environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshimitsu, Fujisawa; Genki, Yagawa

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a FEM-based (finite element method) mesh free method with a probabilistic node generation technique is presented. In the proposed method, all computational procedures, from the mesh generation to the solution of a system of equations, can be performed fluently in parallel in terms of nodes. Local finite element mesh is generated robustly around each node, even for harsh boundary shapes such as cracks. The algorithm and the data structure of finite element calculation are based on nodes, and parallel computing is realized by dividing a system of equations by the row of the global coefficient matrix. In addition, the node-based finite element method is accompanied by a probabilistic node generation technique, which generates good-natured points for nodes of finite element mesh. Furthermore, the probabilistic node generation technique can be performed in parallel environments. As a numerical example of the proposed method, we perform a compressible flow simulation containing strong shocks. Numerical simulations with frequent mesh refinement, which are required for such kind of analysis, can effectively be performed on parallel processors by using the proposed method. (authors)

  4. On the estimation of wind comfort in a building environment by micro-scale simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter Gross

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional micro-scale model is used to study some aspects of wind comfort in a built-up area. The equations for calculating the mean wind have been extended by a Markov approach for short-term wind fluctuations. The model components have been successfully verified against wind tunnel measurements and observations of a field experiment. The simulated time series are used to estimate wind comfort measures. It turns out that the frequency of exceedance of prescribed thresholds depends strongly on the specification of the gust duration time. It was also possible to calculate the spatial distribution of a gust factor g$g$ depending on local wind characteristics. The simulated range is much broader than a value of g=3–3.5$g=3\\text{--}3.5$ commonly used for wind comfort assessments. Again, the order of magnitude and the bandwidth of g$g$ depends strongly on the definition of a gust.

  5. Engineering design for a large scale renewable energy network installation in an urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri Kouhestani, F.; Byrne, J. M.; Hazendonk, P.; Spencer, L.; Brown, M. B.

    2016-12-01

    Humanity's current avid consumption of resources cannot be maintained and the use of renewable energy is a significant approach towards sustainable energy future. Alberta is the largest greenhouse gas-producing province in Canada (per capita) and Climate change is expected to impact Alberta with warmer temperatures, intense floods, and earlier snow melting. However, as one of the sunniest and windiest places in Canada, Alberta is poised to become one of Canada's leader provinces in utilizing renewable energies. This research has four main objectives. First, to determine the feasibility of implementing solar and wind energy systems at the University of Lethbridge campus. Second, to quantify rooftop and parking lot solar photovoltaic potential for the city of Lethbridge. Third, to determine the available rooftop area for PV deployment in a large scale region (Province of Alberta). Forth, to investigate different strategies for correlating solar PV array production with electricity demand in the province of Alberta. The proposed work addresses the need for Alberta reductions to fossil fuel pollution that drives climate change, and degrades our air, water and land resources.

  6. Effect of environment and fallow period on Cosmopolites sordidus population dynamics at the landscape scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duyck, P-F; Dortel, E; Vinatier, F; Gaujoux, E; Carval, D; Tixier, P

    2012-10-01

    Understanding how the population dynamics of insect pests are affected by environmental factors and agricultural practices is important for pest management. To investigate how the abundance of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is related to environmental factors and the length of the fallow period in Martinique, we developed an extensive data set (18,130 observations of weevil abundance obtained with pheromone traps plus associated environmental data) and analysed it with generalized mixed-effects models. At the island scale, C. sordidus abundance was positively related to mean temperature and negatively related to mean rainfall but was not related to soil type. The number of insects trapped was highest during the driest months of the year. Abundance of C. sordidus decreased as the duration of the preceding fallow period increased. The latter finding is inconsistent with the view that fallow-generated decomposing banana tissue is an important resource for larvae that leads to an increase in the pest population. The results are consistent with the view that fallows, in association with pheromone traps, are effective for the control of the banana weevil.

  7. Performance Analysis and Scaling Behavior of the Terrestrial Systems Modeling Platform TerrSysMP in Large-Scale Supercomputing Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollet, S. J.; Goergen, K.; Gasper, F.; Shresta, P.; Sulis, M.; Rihani, J.; Simmer, C.; Vereecken, H.

    2013-12-01

    In studies of the terrestrial hydrologic, energy and biogeochemical cycles, integrated multi-physics simulation platforms take a central role in characterizing non-linear interactions, variances and uncertainties of system states and fluxes in reciprocity with observations. Recently developed integrated simulation platforms attempt to honor the complexity of the terrestrial system across multiple time and space scales from the deeper subsurface including groundwater dynamics into the atmosphere. Technically, this requires the coupling of atmospheric, land surface, and subsurface-surface flow models in supercomputing environments, while ensuring a high-degree of efficiency in the utilization of e.g., standard Linux clusters and massively parallel resources. A systematic performance analysis including profiling and tracing in such an application is crucial in the understanding of the runtime behavior, to identify optimum model settings, and is an efficient way to distinguish potential parallel deficiencies. On sophisticated leadership-class supercomputers, such as the 28-rack 5.9 petaFLOP IBM Blue Gene/Q 'JUQUEEN' of the Jülich Supercomputing Centre (JSC), this is a challenging task, but even more so important, when complex coupled component models are to be analysed. Here we want to present our experience from coupling, application tuning (e.g. 5-times speedup through compiler optimizations), parallel scaling and performance monitoring of the parallel Terrestrial Systems Modeling Platform TerrSysMP. The modeling platform consists of the weather prediction system COSMO of the German Weather Service; the Community Land Model, CLM of NCAR; and the variably saturated surface-subsurface flow code ParFlow. The model system relies on the Multiple Program Multiple Data (MPMD) execution model where the external Ocean-Atmosphere-Sea-Ice-Soil coupler (OASIS3) links the component models. TerrSysMP has been instrumented with the performance analysis tool Scalasca and analyzed

  8. Biodiversity of indigenous staphylococci of naturally fermented dry sausages and manufacturing environments of small-scale processing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Sabine; Giammarinaro, Philippe; Chacornac, Jean-Paul; Lebert, Isabelle; Talon, Régine

    2010-04-01

    The staphylococcal community of the environments of nine French small-scale processing units and their naturally fermented meat products was identified by analyzing 676 isolates. Fifteen species were accurately identified using validated molecular methods. The three prevalent species were Staphylococcus equorum (58.4%), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (15.7%) and Staphylococcus xylosus (9.3%). S. equorum was isolated in all the processing units in similar proportion in meat and environmental samples. S. saprophyticus was also isolated in all the processing units with a higher percentage in environmental samples. S. xylosus was present sporadically in the processing units and its prevalence was higher in meat samples. The genetic diversity of the strains within the three species isolated from one processing unit was studied by PFGE and revealed a high diversity for S. equorum and S. saprophyticus both in the environment and the meat isolates. The genetic diversity remained high through the manufacturing steps. A small percentage of the strains of the two species share the two ecological niches. These results highlight that some strains, probably introduced by the meat, will persist in the manufacturing environment, while other strains are more adapted to the meat products.

  9. Person-environment fit: using commensurate scales to predict student stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccio, G J; Talbot, R J; Joniak, A J

    1993-11-01

    The relationship between person-environment fit and stress was examined for two samples of university students (N = 55 and 79). The Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory (KAI) was modified to assess the students' perceptions of the adaptor-innovator style required by their course, the styles they exhibited in the course, and their ideal style preferences. To ascertain fit, the KAI total scores and subscale scores (Originality, Efficiency, and Rule/Group Conformity) were used to classify students on three dimensions: (1) perception of what style their course required, adaptive or innovative; (2) congruence between the style the course required and the style they exhibited in the course; and (3) the magnitude of the difference, if any, between the required style and the exhibited style. Points two and three are measures of fit. The dependent variable was stress. Also the students' ideal style scores, KAI total and subscales, were substituted for the exhibited scores and the classification and analyses were repeated. Analysis of the total scores revealed that a course requiring adaptive behaviours was perceived as more stressful than a course requiring innovative behaviours. Similarly, an analysis of the Rule/Group Conformity scores revealed that the greater the conformity required the greater the stress. Also the less originality demanded in the course the greater was the perceived stress. For the KAI total scores and Rule/Group Conformity scores, the two measures of fit (incongruity and magnitude of the incongruity) were not related to stress. However, analyses of the Originality and Efficiency subscales supported the importance of the P-E fit position. For both subscales, stress was associated with the magnitude of the difference between what was required in the course and what students exhibited in the course. Educational implications derived from these findings as well as recommendations for future research are discussed.

  10. The Galaxy Hosts And Large-Scale Environments of Short-Hard Gamma-Ray Bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prochaska, Jason X.; Bloom, J.S.; Chen, H.-W.; Foley, R.J.; Perley, D.A.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Granot, J.; Lee, W.H.; Pooley, D.; Alatalo, K.; Hurley, K.; Cooper, M.C.; Dupree, A.K.; Gerke, B.F.; Hansen, B.M.S.; Kalirai, J.S.; Newman, J.A.; Rich, R.M.; Richer, H.; Stanford, S.A.; Stern, D.

    2005-01-01

    The rapid succession of discovery of short-duration hard-spectrum GRBs has led to unprecedented insights into the energetics of the explosion and nature of the progenitors. Yet short of the detection of a smoking gun, like a burst of coincident gravitational radiation or a Li-Paczynski mini-supernova, it is unlikely that a definitive claim can be made for the progenitors. As was the case with long-duration soft-spectrum GRBs, however, the expectation is that a systematic study of the hosts and the locations of short GRBs could begin to yield fundamental clues about their nature. We present the first aggregate study of the host galaxies of short-duration hard-spectrum GRBs. In particular, we present the Gemini-North and Keck discovery spectra of the galaxies that hosted three short GRBs and a moderate-resolution (R ∼ 6000) spectrum of a fourth host. We find that these short-hard GRBs originate in a variety of low-redshift (z # circle d ot# yr -1 ) or recent star formation. Two of these galaxies are located within a cluster environment. These observations support an origin from the merger of compact stellar remnants, such as double neutron stars of a neutron star-black hole binary. The fourth event, in contrast, occurred within a dwarf galaxy with a star formation rate exceeding 0.5 M # circle d ot# yr -1 . Therefore, it appears that like supernovae of Type Ia, the progenitors of short-hard bursts are created in all galaxy types, suggesting a corresponding class with a wide distribution of delay times between formation and explosion

  11. Using Moss to Detect Fine-Scaled Deposition of Heavy Metals in Urban Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovan, S.; Donovan, G.; Demetrios, G.; Monleon, V. J.; Amacher, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Mosses are commonly used as bio-indicators of heavy metal deposition to forests. Their application in urban airsheds is relatively rare. Our objective was to develop fine-scaled, city-wide maps for heavy metals in Portland, Oregon, to identify pollution "hotspots" and serve as a screening tool for more effective placement of air quality monitoring instruments. In 2013 we measured twenty-two elements in epiphytic moss sampled on a 1km x1km sampling grid (n = 346). We detected large hotspots of cadmium and arsenic in two neighborhoods associated with stained glass manufacturers. Air instruments deployed by local regulators measured cadmium concentrations 49 times and arsenic levels 155 times the state health benchmarks. Moss maps also detected a large nickel hotspot in a neighborhood near a forge where air instruments later measured concentrations 4 times the health benchmark. In response, the facilities implemented new pollution controls, air quality improved in all three affected neighborhoods, revision of regulations for stained glass furnace emissions are underway, and Oregon's governor launched an initiative to develop health-based (vs technology-based) regulations for air toxics in the state. The moss maps also indicated a couple dozen smaller hotspots of heavy metals, including lead, chromium, and cobalt, in Portland neighborhoods. Ongoing follow-up work includes: 1) use of moss sampling by local regulators to investigate source and extent of the smaller hotspots, 2) use of lead isotopes to determine origins of higher lead levels observed in moss collected from the inner city, and 3) co-location of air instruments and moss sampling to determine accuracy, timeframe represented, and seasonality of heavy metals in moss.

  12. Fast Localization in Large-Scale Environments Using Supervised Indexing of Binary Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youji Feng; Lixin Fan; Yihong Wu

    2016-01-01

    The essence of image-based localization lies in matching 2D key points in the query image and 3D points in the database. State-of-the-art methods mostly employ sophisticated key point detectors and feature descriptors, e.g., Difference of Gaussian (DoG) and Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT), to ensure robust matching. While a high registration rate is attained, the registration speed is impeded by the expensive key point detection and the descriptor extraction. In this paper, we propose to use efficient key point detectors along with binary feature descriptors, since the extraction of such binary features is extremely fast. The naive usage of binary features, however, does not lend itself to significant speedup of localization, since existing indexing approaches, such as hierarchical clustering trees and locality sensitive hashing, are not efficient enough in indexing binary features and matching binary features turns out to be much slower than matching SIFT features. To overcome this, we propose a much more efficient indexing approach for approximate nearest neighbor search of binary features. This approach resorts to randomized trees that are constructed in a supervised training process by exploiting the label information derived from that multiple features correspond to a common 3D point. In the tree construction process, node tests are selected in a way such that trees have uniform leaf sizes and low error rates, which are two desired properties for efficient approximate nearest neighbor search. To further improve the search efficiency, a probabilistic priority search strategy is adopted. Apart from the label information, this strategy also uses non-binary pixel intensity differences available in descriptor extraction. By using the proposed indexing approach, matching binary features is no longer much slower but slightly faster than matching SIFT features. Consequently, the overall localization speed is significantly improved due to the much faster key

  13. Dispersal, phenology and predicted abundance of the larger grain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phenology and dispersal of the larger grain borer (LGB) in Africa is described, and comparisons are made between prediction of LGB numbers from laboratory studies and predictions from multiple linear models derived from trapping data in the field. The models were developed in Mexico and Kenya, using ...

  14. Listing of nuclear power plant larger than 100 MWe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugh, B.

    1975-06-01

    This report contains a list of all nuclear power plants larger than 100 MWe, printed out from the Argus Data Bank at Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden. The plants are listed alphabetically. The report contains also a plant ranking list, where the plants are listed by the load factor (12 months) (M.S.)

  15. Listing of nuclear power plant larger than 100 MWe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugh, B.

    1975-12-01

    This report contains a list of all nuclear power plants larger than 100 MWe, printed out from the Argus Data Bank at Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden. The plants are listed by country. The report contains also a plant ranking list, where the plants are listed by the load factor (12 months). (M.S.)

  16. Hands-free administration of subjective workload scales: acceptability in a surgical training environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carswell, C Melody; Lio, Cindy H; Grant, Russell; Klein, Martina I; Clarke, Duncan; Seales, W Brent; Strup, Stephen

    2010-12-01

    Subjective workload measures are usually administered in a visual-manual format, either electronically or by paper and pencil. However, vocal responses to spoken queries may sometimes be preferable, for example when experimental manipulations require continuous manual responding or when participants have certain sensory/motor impairments. In the present study, we evaluated the acceptability of the hands-free administration of two subjective workload questionnaires - the NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) and the Multiple Resources Questionnaire (MRQ) - in a surgical training environment where manual responding is often constrained. Sixty-four undergraduates performed fifteen 90-s trials of laparoscopic training tasks (five replications of 3 tasks - cannulation, ring transfer, and rope manipulation). Half of the participants provided workload ratings using a traditional paper-and-pencil version of the NASA-TLX and MRQ; the remainder used a vocal (hands-free) version of the questionnaires. A follow-up experiment extended the evaluation of the hands-free version to actual medical students in a Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) training facility. The NASA-TLX was scored in 2 ways - (1) the traditional procedure using participant-specific weights to combine its 6 subscales, and (2) a simplified procedure - the NASA Raw Task Load Index (NASA-RTLX) - using the unweighted mean of the subscale scores. Comparison of the scores obtained from the hands-free and written administration conditions yielded coefficients of equivalence of r=0.85 (NASA-TLX) and r=0.81 (NASA-RTLX). Equivalence estimates for the individual subscales ranged from r=0.78 ("mental demand") to r=0.31 ("effort"). Both administration formats and scoring methods were equally sensitive to task and repetition effects. For the MRQ, the coefficient of equivalence for the hands-free and written versions was r=0.96 when tested on undergraduates. However, the sensitivity of the hands-free MRQ to task demands (

  17. Editorial Commentary: The Larger Holes or Larger Number of Holes We Drill in the Coracoid, the Weaker the Coracoid Becomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Paul

    2016-06-01

    The larger holes or larger number of holes we drill in the coracoid, the weaker the coracoid becomes. Thus, minimizing bone holes (both size and number) is required to lower risk of coracoid process fracture, in patients in whom transosseous shoulder acromioclavicular joint reconstruction is indicated. A single 2.4-mm-diameter tunnel drilled through both the clavicle and the coracoid lowers the risk of fracture, but the risk cannot be entirely eliminated. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment and prediction of the scales of radioactive contamination of the environment by emissions from a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elokhin, A.P.; Solovei, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    The assessment of radioactive contamination of the air basin and underlying surface in the direction of emission reduces to determining the volume activity of the radioactive impurity in air, the surface activity on the underlying surface of the radioactive impurity is known at least approximately (for example, it can be set on the basis of the technological regulations at the nuclear power plant or according to the criterion of levels during an accident), by using exposure-dose-rate sensors in a network of posts of the automatic system for monitoring the radiation environment (ASMRE), which are placed on the industrial area of the nuclear power plant, in the shielded zone and in the observation zone, it is possible to determine more accurately the magnitude of the emission and, therefore, to estimate the scale of the radioactive contamination of the medium

  19. USB environment measurements based on full-scale static engine ground tests. [Upper Surface Blowing for YC-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, M. B.; Harkonen, D. L.; Reed, J. B.

    1976-01-01

    Flow turning parameters, static pressures, surface temperatures, surface fluctuating pressures and acceleration levels were measured in the environment of a full-scale upper surface blowing (USB) propulsive-lift test configuration. The test components included a flightworthy CF6-50D engine, nacelle and USB flap assembly utilized in conjunction with ground verification testing of the USAF YC-14 Advanced Medium STOL Transport propulsion system. Results, based on a preliminary analysis of the data, generally show reasonable agreement with predicted levels based on model data. However, additional detailed analysis is required to confirm the preliminary evaluation, to help delineate certain discrepancies with model data and to establish a basis for future flight test comparisons.

  20. A large-scale laboratory investigation into the movement of gas and water through clay barriers exposed to the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report describes a large scale laboratory investigation into the movements of gas and water through clay barriers exposed to the environment. The test beds, each 3m square were constructed and filled with clay to a depth of 400 mm, after compaction. One test bed contained London Clay, the other Glacial Till. The clays were subjected to accelerated environmental cycling and tests carried out on samples of the clays at appropriate intervals. The tests included measurements of the mechanical, physical and chemical properties of the clays and their permeability to gas and water. Gas permeability emerged as the more appropriate for the clays being investigated. The report discusses the difficulties of measuring the permeability of partially saturated clays and the need to define the measuring techniques when specifying limiting acceptability values. 55 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs., 27 plates

  1. SME routes for innovation collaboration with larger enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove

    2017-01-01

    The research in this paper reveals how Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) can contribute to industry competiveness through collaboration with larger enterprises. The research is based on a longitudinal qualitative case study starting in 2011 with 10 SME offshore wind farm suppliers...... and follow-up interviews in 2013. The research continued with a second approach in 2014 within operation and maintenance (O&M) through focus group interviews and subsequent individual interviews with 20 enterprises and a seminar in May 2015. The findings reveal opportunities and challenges for SMEs according...... to three different routes for cooperation and collaboration with larger enterprises: demand-driven cooperation, supplier-driven cooperation and partnerdriven collaboration. The SME contribution to innovation and competiveness is different within the three routes and ranges from providing specific knowledge...

  2. Collision cascades and sputtering induced by larger cluster ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigmund, P.

    1988-01-01

    Recent experimental work on larger cluster impact on solid surfaces suggests large deviations from the standard case of additive sputter yields both in the nuclear and electronic stopping regime. The paper concentrates on elastic collision cascades. In addition to very pronounced spike effects, two phenomena are pointed out that are specific to cluster bombardment. Multiple hits of cluster atoms on one and the same target atom may result in recoil atoms that move faster than the maximum recoil speed for monomer bombardment at the same projectile speed. This effect is important when the atomic mass of a beam atom is less than that of a target atom, M 1 2 . In the opposite case, M 1 >> M 2 , collisions between beam particles may accelerate some beam particles and slow down others. Some consequences are mentioned. Remarks on the nuclear stopping power of larger clusters and on electronic sputtering by cluster bombardment conclude the paper. 38 refs., 2 figs

  3. How do environmental policies fit within larger strategic planning processes

    OpenAIRE

    Crowe, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explores how environmental policies fit within larger strategic processes relevant to sport management and development. It identifies key policy areas such as environmental impact assessment, sustainable land use planning, environmental protection and visitor impact management. Good practice and guidelines which will enable sport managers to integrate their work with these environmental policies are explored. Detailed guidance on design and longer term management and maintenance ...

  4. Adaptation, test-retest reliability, and construct validity of the Physical Activity Neighborhood Environment Scale in Nigeria (PANES-N).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeyemi, Adewale L; Sallis, James F; Oyeyemi, Adetoyeje Y; Amin, Mariam M; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte

    2013-11-01

    This study adapted the Physical Activity Neighborhood Environment Scale (PANES) to the Nigerian context and assessed the test-retest reliability and construct validity of the Nigerian version (PANESN). A multidisciplinary panel of experts adapted the original PANES to reflect the built and social environment of Nigeria. The adapted PANES was subjected to cognitive testing and test retest reliability in a diverse sample of Nigerian adults (N = 132) from different neighborhood types. Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) was used to assess test-retest reliability, and construct validity was investigated with Analysis of Covariance for differences in environmental attributes between neighborhoods. Four of the 17 items on the original PANES were significantly modified, 3 were removed and 2 new items were incorporated into the final version of adapted PANES-N. Test-retest reliability was substantial to almost perfect (ICC = 0.62-1.00) for all items on the PANES-N, and residents of neighborhoods in the inner city reported higher residential density, land use mix and safety, but lower pedestrian facilities and aesthetics than did residents of government reserved area/new layout neighborhoods. The PANES-N appears promising for assessing environmental perceptions related to physical activity in Nigeria, but further testing is required to assess its applicability across Africa.

  5. Test-retest reliability of Physical Activity Neighborhood Environment Scale among urban men and women in Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L; Wang, Z; Qin, Z; Leslie, E; He, J; Xiong, Y; Xu, F

    2018-03-01

    The identification of physical-activity-friendly built environment (BE) constructs is highly useful for physical activity promotion and maintenance. The Physical Activity Neighborhood Environment Scale (PANES) was developed for assessing BE correlates. However, PANES reliability has not been investigated among adults in China. A cross-sectional study. With multistage sampling approaches, 1568 urban adults (aged 35-74 years) were recruited for the initial survey on all 17 items of PANES Chinese version (PANES-CHN), with the survey repeated 7 days later for each participant. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess the test-retest reliability of PANES-CHN for each item. Totally, 1551 participants completed both surveys (follow-up rate = 98.9%). Among participants (mean age: 54.7 ± 11.1 years), 47.8% were men, 22.1% were elders, and 22.7% had ≥13 years of education. Overall, the PANES-CHN demonstrated at least substantial reliability with ICCs ranging from 0.66 to 0.95 (core items), from 0.75 to 0.95 (recommended items), and from 0.78 to 0.87 (optional items). Similar outcomes were observed when data were analyzed by gender or age groups. The PANES-CHN has excellent test-retest reliability and thus has valuable utility for assessing urban BE attributes among Chinese adults. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluating high risks in large-scale projects using an extended VIKOR method under a fuzzy environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ebrahimnejad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of large-scale projects has led to numerous risks in their life cycle. This paper presents a new risk evaluation approach in order to rank the high risks in large-scale projects and improve the performance of these projects. It is based on the fuzzy set theory that is an effective tool to handle uncertainty. It is also based on an extended VIKOR method that is one of the well-known multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM methods. The proposed decision-making approach integrates knowledge and experience acquired from professional experts, since they perform the risk identification and also the subjective judgments of the performance rating for high risks in terms of conflicting criteria, including probability, impact, quickness of reaction toward risk, event measure quantity and event capability criteria. The most notable difference of the proposed VIKOR method with its traditional version is just the use of fuzzy decision-matrix data to calculate the ranking index without the need to ask the experts. Finally, the proposed approach is illustrated with a real-case study in an Iranian power plant project, and the associated results are compared with two well-known decision-making methods under a fuzzy environment.

  7. Mutagenic potential scale developed for relative evaluation of biological system response to environments presenting different gamma exposure rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouailhetas, Yannick; Almeida, Carlos E. Bonacossa de; Mezrahi, Arnaldo; Shu, Jane; Xavier, Ana Maria

    1999-01-01

    The elaboration of a mutagenic potential scale (MPS) will be accomplished through the evaluation of the frequency of induced mutations in a plant biological system in different sites. The selection of these sites will be based on general public perception of risk to health. In this selection, it will include areas such ecological paradises and also neighborhoods of nuclear reactors and uranium mining and milling industry with potential radiological impact. The developed project foresees the contribution of other research groups that will also provide data from different sites. The referred scale will be built based on the response of the genetic system that gives color to the cells of Tradescantia (BNL 4430) stamen hair to mutagenic agents. Methodological improvements has been developed aiming the computerization of mutagenic events evaluation and statistical analysis of data that will significantly increase the efficiency of the system and obtention of results. Other biological systems of environmental quality are being added to the project, for future use. MPS should facilitate the general public and professionals of the nuclear area to understand risks, on a biological basis, of exposure from radiologically impacted environments. (author)

  8. Base stock policies with degraded service to larger orders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Bisheng; Larsen, Christian

    We study an inventory system controlled by a base stock policy assuming a compound renewal demand process. We extend the base stock policy by incorporating rules for degrading the service of larger orders. Two specific rules are considered, denoted Postpone(q,t) and Split(q), respectively. The aim...... of using these rules is to achieve a given order fill rate of the regular orders (those of size less than or equal to the parameter q) having less inventory. We develop mathematical expressions for the performance measures order fill rate (of the regular orders) and average on-hand inventory level. Based...

  9. Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy L Caldwell

    Full Text Available Over thirty years ago anecdotal accounts of the undescribed Larger Pacific Striped Octopus suggested behaviors previously unknown for octopuses. Beak-to-beak mating, dens shared by mating pairs, inking during mating and extended spawning were mentioned in publications, and enticed generations of cephalopod biologists. In 2012-2014 we were able to obtain several live specimens of this species, which remains without a formal description. All of the unique behaviors listed above were observed for animals in aquaria and are discussed here. We describe the behavior, body color patterns, and postures of 24 adults maintained in captivity. Chromatophore patterns of hatchlings are also shown.

  10. Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Roy L; Ross, Richard; Rodaniche, Arcadio; Huffard, Christine L

    2015-01-01

    Over thirty years ago anecdotal accounts of the undescribed Larger Pacific Striped Octopus suggested behaviors previously unknown for octopuses. Beak-to-beak mating, dens shared by mating pairs, inking during mating and extended spawning were mentioned in publications, and enticed generations of cephalopod biologists. In 2012-2014 we were able to obtain several live specimens of this species, which remains without a formal description. All of the unique behaviors listed above were observed for animals in aquaria and are discussed here. We describe the behavior, body color patterns, and postures of 24 adults maintained in captivity. Chromatophore patterns of hatchlings are also shown.

  11. Gamma radiation inactivation of pathogens in sludge under larger-scale condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sermkiattipong, N; Pongpat, S

    1996-12-01

    The effect of gamma radiation on microorganisms in sludge from Huay Kwang Sewage Treatment Plant and Vajira Hospital showed that total bacterial counts were reduced to 2-3 log cycles and 1-2 log cycles at 5 kGy irradiation with and without aeration, respectively. Inactivation of coliform bacteria in sludge required irradiation with and without aeration at the dosages of 3-4.5 and 4-5 kGy, respectively. A dose of 2-3 kGy was sufficient to inactivate fecal coliform bacteria and E. coli. The doses used for inactivation these bacteria depend on the irradiation condition and solid content in sludge sample. Irradiation with aeration led to an increased microbial inactivation. According to our results, the frequency of occurrence of salmonella e contaminated in sludge from Huay Kwang Sewage Treatment Plant and Vajira Hospital was 50% and 75%, respectively. A dose of 2 kGy irradiation with or without aeration, salmonella e could not be detected in any sludge. Clostridium perfringens organisms were also detected in non-irradiated and irradiated sludge from both sources. Moreover, a dose of 5 kGy irradiation with or without aeration was not enough to eliminate C. perfringens. However, no shigella e were isolated from any treatment of sludge

  12. Performance of single carbon granules as perspective for larger scale capacitive bioanodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsje, Casper; Liu, Dandan; Sleutels, Tom H.J.A.; Buisman, Cees J.N.; Heijne, ter Annemiek

    2016-01-01

    The use of high surface area electrodes, like carbon-based felt or granules, in Bioelectrochemical Systems is crucial for high volumetric current production. In case activated carbon granules are used, charge can also be stored in the form of an electric double layer in the pores, which has been

  13. Small-Scale Design Experiments as Working Space for Larger Mobile Communication Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah; Stuedahl, Dagny

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a design experiment using Instagram as a cultural probe is submitted as a method for analyzing the challenges that arise when considering the implementation of social media within a distributed communication space. It outlines how small, iterative investigations can reveal deeper research questions relevant to the education of…

  14. Gamma radiation inactivation of pathogens in sludge under larger-scale condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sermkiattipong, N.; Pongpat, S.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation on microorganisms in sludge from Huay Kwang Sewage Treatment Plant and Vajira Hospital showed that total bacterial counts were reduced to 2-3 log cycles and 1-2 log cycles at 5 kGy irradiation with and without aeration, respectively. Inactivation of coliform bacteria in sludge required irradiation with and without aeration at the dosages of 3-4.5 and 4-5 kGy, respectively. A dose of 2-3 kGy was sufficient to inactivate fecal coliform bacteria and E. coli. The doses used for inactivation these bacteria depend on the irradiation condition and solid content in sludge sample. Irradiation with aeration led to an increased microbial inactivation. According to our results, the frequency of occurrence of salmonella e contaminated in sludge from Huay Kwang Sewage Treatment Plant and Vajira Hospital was 50% and 75%, respectively. A dose of 2 kGy irradiation with or without aeration, salmonella e could not be detected in any sludge. Clostridium perfringens organisms were also detected in non-irradiated and irradiated sludge from both sources. Moreover, a dose of 5 kGy irradiation with or without aeration was not enough to eliminate C. perfringens. However, no shigella e were isolated from any treatment of sludge

  15. The Corporate Connection: Effective Company Research Is Just Like People Research--On a Larger Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourofsky, Carolyn E.

    1992-01-01

    To cultivate companies for fund raising, the college development officer should focus on appropriate people, understand giving trends, follow mergers and acquisitions, and note corporate differences in giving patterns. Annual reports can reveal company self-image, help identify individuals, and illuminate the company's fiscal situation. However,…

  16. Versão em português da Family Environment Scale: aplicação e validação Portuguese version of the Family Environment Scale: aplication and validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia P T Vianna

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Traduzir a Escala do Ambiente Familiar (Family Environment Scale para a língua portuguesa e aplicar o instrumento para sua validação. MÉTODOS: A tradução foi aplicada a membros de famílias brasileiras, visando avaliação da consistência interna e a concordância entre membros da mesma família. Foram selecionados 154 voluntários não sujeitos a qualquer intervenção para lidar com problemas familiares, residentes na cidade de São Paulo, em 2003. As pontuações médias nas dez subescalas do instrumento foram comparadas entre homens e mulheres e entre membros da mesma família. Avaliou-se a consistência interna pelo alfa de Cronbach. RESULTADOS: A pontuação máxima possível era nove em cada subescala (bom funcionamento familiar, exceto em relação a conflito e controle. Na maioria das subescalas, a pontuação média da amostra estudada esteve entre 5,1 e 7,6 (homens e entre 5,4 e 7,7 (mulheres. Nas subescalas conflito e controle as médias variaram entre 1,8 e 4,6 (homens e entre 1,6 e 4,6 (mulheres, sendo semelhantes às relatadas em estudos internacionais, exceto maior pontuação nas subescalas coesão e organização, e menor na subescala conflito. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre as pontuações atingidas por homens e mulheres. A confiabilidade da escala avaliada pelo alfa de Cronbach variou entre 0,61 e 0,78 para as dez subescalas. CONCLUSÕES: Fatores culturais podem ter influenciado os resultados obtidos em algumas subescalas. A versão em português da Escala do Ambiente Familiar apresentou razoável consistência interna que permite sua utilização para avaliar alterações no ambiente ou funcionamento familiar, e após intervenções terapêuticas.OBJECTIVE: To translate the Family Environment Scale into Portuguese and apply the instrument to validate it. METHODS: The translation was applied to members of Brazilian families with the aim of evaluating its internal consistency and

  17. Examples of Small-scale Urban Area. Experiment Energy Leap Built Environment; Voorbeeldenboek Kleinschalige Binnenstedelijke Gebieden. Experiment Energiesprong Gebouwde Omgeving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-03-15

    The Dutch government considers the transition process to be necessary and stimulates investments in energy innovations in the built environment. This innovation effort is the programme 'Energy Leap' (Energiesprong), which is being carried out by the Steering Group Experimental Housing (SEV) on behalf of the Dutch Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations (BZK). The programme is derived from the Innovation Agenda for Energy in the Built Environment. The examples in this book are intended to inspire (potential) participants in the Experiment Energy Leap for Small-scale Urban Areas. The examples focus explicitly on the reduction of CO2 emissions in urban areas, and thus, in addition to CO2 reduction on a building level, the aspects of energy supply, (local) energy production and the energy infrastructure [Dutch] Het SEV-programma Energiesprong (SEV is Stuurgroep Experimenten Volkshuisvesting) beoogt een substantiele bijdrage te leveren aan de condities waaronder de energietransitie effectief tot stand kan komen. In dit basisplan wordt uiteengezet hoe de markt daartoe moet kunnen komen en welke activiteiten daarvoor worden ondersteund, opgezet en/of uitgevoerd vanuit Energiesprong. Het SEV-programma Energiesprong wordt in opdracht van het Ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties (BZK) uitgevoerd. Het programma is afgeleid van de Innovatie Agenda energie Gebouwde Omgeving. Dit voorbeeldenboek dient ter inspiratie van (potentiele) deelnemers aan het Experiment Energiesprong kleinschalige Binnenstedelijke Gebieden. De voorbeelden richten zich expliciet op de CO2-reductie van binnenstedelijke gebieden en daarmee, naast de CO2-reductie op woning- en gebouwniveau, op de aspecten energievoorziening, (locale) energieopwekking en energie-infrastructuur.

  18. Two spatial scales in a bleaching event: Corals from the mildest and the most extreme thermal environments escape mortality

    KAUST Repository

    Pineda, Jesús

    2013-07-28

    In summer 2010, a bleaching event decimated the abundant reef flat coral Stylophora pistillata in some areas of the central Red Sea, where a series of coral reefs 100–300 m wide by several kilometers long extends from the coastline to about 20 km offshore. Mortality of corals along the exposed and protected sides of inner (inshore) and mid and outer (offshore) reefs and in situ and satellite sea surface temperatures (SSTs) revealed that the variability in the mortality event corresponded to two spatial scales of temperature variability: 300 m across the reef flat and 20 km across a series of reefs. However, the relationship between coral mortality and habitat thermal severity was opposite at the two scales. SSTs in summer 2010 were similar or increased modestly (0.5°C) in the outer and mid reefs relative to 2009. In the inner reef, 2010 temperatures were 1.4°C above the 2009 seasonal maximum for several weeks. We detected little or no coral mortality in mid and outer reefs. In the inner reef, mortality depended on exposure. Within the inner reef, mortality was modest on the protected (shoreward) side, the most severe thermal environment, with highest overall mean and maximum temperatures. In contrast, acute mortality was observed in the exposed (seaward) side, where temperature fluctuations and upper water temperature values were relatively less extreme. Refuges to thermally induced coral bleaching may include sites where extreme, high-frequency thermal variability may select for coral holobionts preadapted to, and physiologically condition corals to withstand, regional increases in water temperature.

  19. HIPAA is larger and more complex than Y2K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempesco, J W

    2000-07-01

    The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) is a larger and more complex problem than Y2K ever was. According to the author, the costs associated with a project of such unending scope and in support of intrusion into both information and operational systems of every health care transaction will be incalculable. Some estimate that the administrative simplification policies implemented through HIPAA will save billions of dollars annually, but it remains to be seen whether the savings will outweigh implementation and ongoing expenses associated with systemwide application of the regulations. This article addresses the rules established for electronic data interchange, data set standards for diagnostic and procedure codes, unique identifiers, coordination of benefits, privacy of individual health care information, electronic signatures, and security requirements.

  20. Watershed-Scale Modeling of Land-Use and Altered Environment Impacts on Aquatic Weed Growth in the Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David; Potter, Christopher; Zhang, Minghua

    2016-01-01

    The California Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta is the hub for California's water supply, conveying water from Northern to Southern California agriculture and communities while supporting important ecosystem services, agriculture, and communities in the Delta. Changes in climate, long-term drought, and water quality have all been suspected as playing role in the dramatic expansion of invasive aquatic plants and their impact on ecosystems of the San Francisco Bay / California Delta complex. NASA Ames Research Center, USDA-Agricultural Research Service, the State of California, UC Davis, and local governments have partnered under a USDA sponsored project (DRAAWP) to develop science-based, adaptive-management strategies for invasive aquatic plants in Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Critical to developing management strategies is to understand how the Delta is affected by both the magnitude of fluctuations in land-use and climate / drought induced altered environments and how the plants respond to these altered environments. We utilize the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a watershed-scale model developed to quantify the impact of land management practices in large and complex watersheds on water quality, as the backbone for a customized Delta model - Delta-SWAT. The model uses land-use, soils, elevation, and hydrologic routing to characterize pesticide and nutrient transport from the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers watersheds and loading into the Delta. Land-use within the Delta, as well as water extraction to supply those functions, and the resulting return of water to Delta waterways are included in Delta-SWAT. Hydrologic transport within the Delta has required significant attention to address the lack of elevation driven transport processes. Delta-SWAT water quality trend estimates are compared with water quality monitoring conducted throughout the Delta. Aquatic plant response to water quality and other environmental factors is carried out using a customized

  1. Multi-parameter decoupling and slope tracking control strategy of a large-scale high altitude environment simulation test cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ke

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A large-scale high altitude environment simulation test cabin was developed to accurately control temperatures and pressures encountered at high altitudes. The system was developed to provide slope-tracking dynamic control of the temperature–pressure two-parameter and overcome the control difficulties inherent to a large inertia lag link with a complex control system which is composed of turbine refrigeration device, vacuum device and liquid nitrogen cooling device. The system includes multi-parameter decoupling of the cabin itself to avoid equipment damage of air refrigeration turbine caused by improper operation. Based on analysis of the dynamic characteristics and modeling for variations in temperature, pressure and rotation speed, an intelligent controller was implemented that includes decoupling and fuzzy arithmetic combined with an expert PID controller to control test parameters by decoupling and slope tracking control strategy. The control system employed centralized management in an open industrial ethernet architecture with an industrial computer at the core. The simulation and field debugging and running results show that this method can solve the problems of a poor anti-interference performance typical for a conventional PID and overshooting that can readily damage equipment. The steady-state characteristics meet the system requirements.

  2. Real-Time Observation of Apathy in Long-Term Care Residents With Dementia: Reliability of the Person-Environment Apathy Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao, Ying-Ling; Mogle, Jacqueline; Williams, Kristine; McDermott, Caroline; Behrens, Liza

    2018-04-01

    Apathy is prevalent in individuals with dementia. Lack of responsiveness to environmental stimulation is a key characteristic of apathy. The Person-Environment Apathy Rating (PEAR) scale consists of environment and apathy subscales, which allow for examination of environmental impact on apathy. The interrater reliability of the PEAR scale was examined via real-time observation. The current study included 45 observations of 15 long-term care residents with dementia. Each participant was observed at three time points for 10 minutes each. Two raters observed the participant and surrounding environment and independently rated the participant's apathy and environmental stimulation using the PEAR scale. Weighted Kappa was 0.5 to 0.82 for the PEAR-Environment subscale and 0.5 to 0.8 for the PEAR-Apathy subscale. Overall, with the exception of three items with relatively weak reliability (0.50 to 0.56), the PEAR scale showed moderate to strong interrater reliability (0.63 to 0.82). The results support the use of the PEAR scale to measure environmental stimulation and apathy via real-time observation in long-term care residents with dementia. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 44(4), 23-28.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Groups have a larger cognitive capacity than individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Takao; Pratt, Stephen C

    2012-10-09

    Increasing the number of options can paradoxically lead to worse decisions, a phenomenon known as cognitive overload [1]. This happens when an individual decision-maker attempts to digest information exceeding its processing capacity. Highly integrated groups, such as social insect colonies, make consensus decisions that combine the efforts of many members, suggesting that these groups can overcome individual limitations [2-4]. Here we report that an ant colony choosing a new nest site is less vulnerable to cognitive overload than an isolated ant making this decision on her own. We traced this improvement to differences in individual behavior. In whole colonies, each ant assesses only a small subset of available sites, and the colony combines their efforts to thoroughly explore all options. An isolated ant, on the other hand, must personally assess a larger number of sites to approach the same level of option coverage. By sharing the burden of assessment, the colony avoids overtaxing the abilities of its members. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The cavity-nest ant Temnothorax crassispinus prefers larger nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrus, S

    Colonies of the ant Temnothorax crassispinus inhabit mostly cavities in wood and hollow acorns. Typically in the field, nest sites that can be used by the ant are a limited resource. In a field experiment, it was investigated whether the ants prefer a specific size of nest, when different ones are available. In July 2011, a total of 160 artificial nests were placed in a beech-pine forest. Four artificial nests (pieces of wood with volume cavities, ca 415, 605, 730, and 980 mm 3 , respectively) were located on each square meter of the experimental plot. One year later, shortly before the emergence of new sexuals, the nests were collected. In July 2012, colonies inhabited more frequently bigger nests. Among queenright colonies, the ones which inhabited bigger nests had more workers. However, there was no relationship between volume of nest and number of workers for queenless colonies. Queenright colonies from bigger nests produced more sexual individuals, but there was no correlation between number of workers and sex allocation ratio, or between volume of nest and sex allocation ratio. In a laboratory experiment where ant colonies were kept in 470 and 860 mm 3 nests, larger colonies allocated more energy to produce sexual individuals. The results of this study show the selectivity of T. crassispinus ants regarding the size of nest cavity, and that the nest volume has an impact on life history parameters.

  5. Ecological tolerances of Miocene larger benthic foraminifera from Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Vibor; Renema, Willem

    2018-01-01

    To provide a comprehensive palaeoenvironmental reconstruction based on larger benthic foraminifera (LBF), a quantitative analysis of their assemblage composition is needed. Besides microfacies analysis which includes environmental preferences of foraminiferal taxa, statistical analyses should also be employed. Therefore, detrended correspondence analysis and cluster analysis were performed on relative abundance data of identified LBF assemblages deposited in mixed carbonate-siliciclastic (MCS) systems and blue-water (BW) settings. Studied MCS system localities include ten sections from the central part of the Kutai Basin in East Kalimantan, ranging from late Burdigalian to Serravallian age. The BW samples were collected from eleven sections of the Bulu Formation on Central Java, dated as Serravallian. Results from detrended correspondence analysis reveal significant differences between these two environmental settings. Cluster analysis produced five clusters of samples; clusters 1 and 2 comprise dominantly MCS samples, clusters 3 and 4 with dominance of BW samples, and cluster 5 showing a mixed composition with both MCS and BW samples. The results of cluster analysis were afterwards subjected to indicator species analysis resulting in the interpretation that generated three groups among LBF taxa: typical assemblage indicators, regularly occurring taxa and rare taxa. By interpreting the results of detrended correspondence analysis, cluster analysis and indicator species analysis, along with environmental preferences of identified LBF taxa, a palaeoenvironmental model is proposed for the distribution of LBF in Miocene MCS systems and adjacent BW settings of Indonesia.

  6. Males that drop a sexually selected weapon grow larger testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Paul N; Emberts, Zachary; Sasson, Daniel A; Miller, Christine W

    2018-01-01

    Costly sexually selected weapons are predicted to trade off with postcopulatory traits, such as testes. Although weapons can be important for achieving access to females, individuals of some species can permanently drop (i.e. autotomize) their weapons, without regeneration, to escape danger. We capitalized on this natural behavior to experimentally address whether the loss of a sexually selected weapon leads to increased testes investment in the leaf-footed cactus bug, Narnia femorata Stål (Hemiptera: Coreidae). In a second experiment, we measured offspring production for males that lost a weapon during development. As predicted, males that dropped a hind limb during development grew significantly larger testes than the control treatments. Hind-limb autotomy did not result in the enlargement of other nearby traits. Our results are the first to experimentally demonstrate that males compensate for natural weapon loss by investing more in testes. In a second experiment we found that females paired with males that lost a hind limb had 40% lower egg hatching success than females paired with intact males, perhaps because of lower mating receptivity to males with a lost limb. Importantly, in those cases where viable offspring were produced, males missing a hind limb produced 42% more offspring than males with intact limbs. These results suggest that the loss of a hind-limb weapon can, in some cases, lead to greater fertilization success. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Cognitive issues in autonomous spacecraft-control operations: An investigation of software-mediated decision making in a scaled environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Elizabeth Drummond

    As advances in technology are applied in complex, semi-automated domains, human controllers are distanced from the controlled process. This physical and psychological distance may both facilitate and degrade human performance. To investigate cognitive issues in spacecraft ground-control operations, the present experimental research was undertaken. The primary issue concerned the ability of operations analysts who do not monitor operations to make timely, accurate decisions when autonomous software calls for human help. Another key issue involved the potential effects of spatial-visualization ability (SVA) in environments that present data in graphical formats. Hypotheses were derived largely from previous findings and predictions in the literature. Undergraduate psychology students were assigned at random to a monitoring condition or an on-call condition in a scaled environment. The experimental task required subjects to decide on the veracity of a problem diagnosis delivered by a software process on-board a simulated spacecraft. To support decision-making, tabular and graphical data displays presented information on system status. A level of software confidence in the problem diagnosis was displayed, and subjects reported their own level of confidence in their decisions. Contrary to expectations, the performance of on-call subjects did not differ significantly from that of continuous monitors. Analysis yielded a significant interaction of sex and condition: Females in the on-call condition had the lowest mean accuracy. Results included a preference for bar charts over line graphs and faster performance with tables than with line graphs. A significant correlation was found between subjective confidence and decision accuracy. SVA was found to be predictive of accuracy but not speed; and SVA was found to be a stronger predictor of performance for males than for females. Low-SVA subjects reported that they relied more on software confidence than did medium- or high

  8. Recombining overlapping BACs into a single larger BAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huxley Clare

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BAC clones containing entire mammalian genes including all the transcribed region and long range controlling elements are very useful for functional analysis. Sequenced BACs are available for most of the human and mouse genomes and in many cases these contain intact genes. However, large genes often span more than one BAC, and single BACs covering the entire region of interest are not available. Here we describe a system for linking two or more overlapping BACs into a single clone by homologous recombination. Results The method was used to link a 61-kb insert carrying the final 5 exons of the human CFTR gene onto a 160-kb BAC carrying the first 22 exons. Two rounds of homologous recombination were carried out in the EL350 strain of bacteria which can be induced for the Red genes. In the first round, the inserts of the two overlapping BACs were subcloned into modified BAC vectors using homologous recombination. In the second round, the BAC to be added was linearised with the very rare-cutting enzyme I-PpoI and electroporated into recombination efficient EL350 bacteria carrying the other BAC. Recombined BACs were identified by antibiotic selection and PCR screening and 10% of clones contained the correctly recombined 220-kb BAC. Conclusion The system can be used to link the inserts from any overlapping BAC or PAC clones. The original orientation of the inserts is not important and desired regions of the inserts can be selected. The size limit for the fragments recombined may be larger than the 61 kb used here and multiple BACs in a contig could be combined by alternating use of the two pBACLink vectors. This system should be of use to many investigators wishing to carry out functional analysis on large mammalian genes which are not available in single BAC clones.

  9. Evaluation and Improvement of the Nurse Satisfactory Status in a Tertiary Hospital using the Professional Practice Environment Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Zhou, Hui; Yang, Xiaoqin

    2017-02-18

    The present study was performed to quantitatively examine nurse satisfaction, to investigate the associated factors influencing satisfaction, and to evaluate the effect of improvement measures based on these factors. A survey using the 38-item Chinese version of the Practice Environment Scale (CPPE-38) was performed in a university-affiliated tertiary hospital in Shanghai, China in 2013. Linear regression analysis was performed to screen for associated factors related to each CPPE-3 score and the total satisfaction score. Several improvement measures were established to improve nurse satisfaction, and the CPPE-38 survey was again performed in 2015 to evaluate the effect of these improvement measures. A total of 1,050 respondents were recruited in 2013, with a response rate of 87.6%. The total satisfaction score of the CPPE-38 was 2.99±0.64. The lowest score in a subscale of the CPPE-38 was 2.40±0.59 for interpersonal interaction and the highest score was 3.15±0.40 for internal work motivation. Work location was associated with scores for work motivation and total satisfaction, while the highest education degree was associated with scores for internal relationship and autonomy. The scores for internal work motivation, control over practice, interpersonal interaction, and internal relationship and autonomy were significantly improved in 2015 after two years of improvement efforts, while the total satisfaction score was not significantly different compared to the 2013 score. Working location and education degree were two factors correlated with CPPE-38 scores in our hospital. Humanistic concerns, continuing education, and pay raise may improve the practice satisfaction of nurses.

  10. What Shapes the Phylogenetic Structure of Anuran Communities in a Seasonal Environment? The Influence of Determinism at Regional Scale to Stochasticity or Antagonistic Forces at Local Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Clarissa de Araújo; Roque, Fabio de Oliveira; Santos, Bráulio A; Ferreira, Vanda Lúcia; Strüssmann, Christine; Tomas, Walfrido Moraes

    2015-01-01

    Ecological communities are structured by both deterministic and stochastic processes. We investigated phylogenetic patterns at regional and local scales to understand the influences of seasonal processes in shaping the structure of anuran communities in the southern Pantanal wetland, Brazil. We assessed the phylogenetic structure at different scales, using the Net Relatedness Index (NRI), the Nearest Taxon Index (NTI), and phylobetadiversity indexes, as well as a permutation test, to evaluate the effect of seasonality. The anuran community was represented by a non-random set of species with a high degree of phylogenetic relatedness at the regional scale. However, at the local scale the phylogenetic structure of the community was weakly related with the seasonality of the system, indicating that oriented stochastic processes (e.g. colonization, extinction and ecological drift) and/or antagonist forces drive the structure of such communities in the southern Pantanal.

  11. Effects of the environment on galaxies in the Catalogue of Isolated Galaxies: physical satellites and large scale structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argudo-Fernández, M.; Verley, S.; Bergond, G.; Sulentic, J.; Sabater, J.; Fernández Lorenzo, M.; Espada, D.; Leon, S.; Sánchez-Expósito, S.; Santander-Vela, J. D.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.

    2014-04-01

    Context. We present a study of the 3D environment for a sample of 386 galaxies in the Catalogue of Isolated Galaxies (CIG, Karachentseva 1973) using the Ninth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-DR9). Aims: We aim to identify and quantify the effects of the satellite distribution around a sample of galaxies in the CIG, as well as the effects of the large-scale structure (LSS). Methods: To recover the physically bound galaxies we first focused on the satellites that are within the escape speed of each CIG galaxy. We also propose a more conservative method using the stacked Gaussian distribution of the velocity difference of the neighbours. The tidal strengths affecting the primary galaxy were estimated to quantify the effects of the local and LSS environments. We also defined the projected number density parameter at the fifth nearest neighbour to characterise the LSS around the CIG galaxies. Results: Out of the 386 CIG galaxies considered in this study, at least 340 (88% of the sample) have no physically linked satellite. Following the more conservative Gaussian distribution of physical satellites around the CIG galaxies leads to upper limits. Out of the 386 CIG galaxies, 327 (85% of the sample) have no physical companion within a projected distance of 0.3 Mpc. The CIG galaxies are distributed following the LSS of the local Universe, although presenting a large heterogeneity in their degree of connection with it. When present around a CIG galaxy, the effect of physically bound galaxies largely dominates (typically by more than 90%) the tidal strengths generated by the LSS. Conclusions: The CIG samples a variety of environments, from galaxies with physical satellites to galaxies without neighbours within 3 Mpc. A clear segregation appears between early-type CIG galaxies with companions and isolated late-type CIG galaxies. Isolated galaxies are in general bluer, with probably younger stellar populations and very high star formation compared with older

  12. Cross-validation of the factorial structure of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) and its abbreviated form (NEWS-A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) and its abbreviated form (NEWS-A) assess perceived environmental attributes believed to influence physical activity. A multilevel confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA) conducted on a sample from Seattle, WA, showed that, at the respondent level, th...

  13. Self-Report Measures of the Home Learning Environment in Large Scale Research: Measurement Properties and Associations with Key Developmental Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Frank; Nguyen, Cuc; Cloney, Daniel S.; Tayler, Collette; Adams, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Favourable home learning environments (HLEs) support children's literacy, numeracy and social development. In large-scale research, HLE is typically measured by self-report survey, but there is little consistency between studies and many different items and latent constructs are observed. Little is known about the stability of these items and…

  14. Comparing Cultural Differences in Two Quality Measures in Chinese Kindergartens: The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised and the Kindergarten Quality Rating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bi Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the degrees of congruence between two early childhood evaluation systems on various quality concepts: the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) and Zhejiang's Kindergarten Quality Rating System (KQRS). Analysis of variance and post hoc least significant difference tests were employed to show the extent to…

  15. Do psychosocial work environment factors measured with scales from the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire predict register-based sickness absence of 3 weeks or more in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugulies, Reiner; Aust, Birgit; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: To analyse the predictive validity of 18 psychosocial work environment scales from the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire version II (COPSOQ II) with regard to risk of sickness absence. METHODS: The study population consisted of 3188 wage earners (52% women) from a representative sample ...

  16. In vivo toxicologic study of larger silica nanoparticles in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan WT

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Wai-Tao Chan,1–3 Cheng-Che Liu,4 Jen-Shiu Chiang Chiau,5 Shang-Ting Tsai,6 Chih-Kai Liang,6 Mei-Lien Cheng,5 Hung-Chang Lee,7,8 Chun-Yun Yeung,1,3,9 Shao-Yi Hou2,6 1Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, MacKay Children’s Hospital, 2Graduate Institute of Engineering Technology, National Taipei University of Technology, 3Mackay Medicine, Nursing, and Management College, 4Institute of Preventive Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, 5Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Hsinchu, 6Graduate Institute of Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, 7Department of Pediatrics, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Hsinchu, 8Department of Pediatrics, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, 9Department of Medicine, Mackay Medical College, New Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China Abstract: Silica nanoparticles (SiNPs are being studied and used for medical purposes. As nanotechnology grows rapidly, its biosafety and toxicity have frequently raised concerns. However, diverse results have been reported about the safety of SiNPs; several studies reported that smaller particles might exhibit toxic effects to some cell lines, and larger particles of 100 nm were reported to be genotoxic to the cocultured cells. Here, we investigated the in vivo toxicity of SiNPs of 150 nm in various dosages via intravenous administration in mice. The mice were observed for 14 days before blood examination and histopathological assay. All the mice survived and behaved normally after the administration of nanoparticles. No significant weight change was noted. Blood examinations showed no definite systemic dysfunction of organ systems. Histopathological studies of vital organs confirmed no SiNP-related adverse effects. We concluded that 150 nm SiNPs were biocompatible and safe for in vivo use in mice. Keywords: in vivo, mice, silica nanoparticle, nanotoxicity

  17. Larger aftershocks happen farther away: nonseparability of magnitude and spatial distributions of aftershocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Elst, Nicholas; Shaw, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    Aftershocks may be driven by stress concentrations left by the main shock rupture or by elastic stress transfer to adjacent fault sections or strands. Aftershocks that occur within the initial rupture may be limited in size, because the scale of the stress concentrations should be smaller than the primary rupture itself. On the other hand, aftershocks that occur on adjacent fault segments outside the primary rupture may have no such size limitation. Here we use high-precision double-difference relocated earthquake catalogs to demonstrate that larger aftershocks occur farther away than smaller aftershocks, when measured from the centroid of early aftershock activity—a proxy for the initial rupture. Aftershocks as large as or larger than the initiating event nucleate almost exclusively in the outer regions of the aftershock zone. This observation is interpreted as a signature of elastic rebound in the earthquake catalog and can be used to improve forecasting of large aftershocks.

  18. Protecting the larger fish: an ecological, economical and evolutionary analysis using a demographic model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdiell, Nuria Calduch

    . Recently, there is increasing evidence that this size-selective fishing reduces the chances of maintaining populations at levels sufficient to produce maximum sustainable yields, the chances of recovery/rebuilding populations that have been depleted/collapsed and may causes rapid evolutionary changes...... and the consequent changes in yield. We attempt to evaluate the capability of the larger fish to mitigate the evolutionary change on life-history traits caused by fishing, while also maintaining a sustainable annual yield. This is achieved by calculating the expected selection response on three life-history traits......Many marine fish stocks are reported as overfished on a global scale. This overfishing not only removes fish biomass, but also causes dramatic changes in the age and size structure of fish stocks. In particular, targeting of the larger individuals truncates the age and size structure of stocks...

  19. Investigation of Larger Poly(α-Methylstyrene) Mandrels for High Gain Designs Using Microencapsulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Masaru; Cook, Robert; McQuillan, Barry; Gibson, Jane; Paguio, Sally

    2004-01-01

    In recent years we have demonstrated that 2-mm-diameter poly(α-methylstyrene) mandrels meeting indirect drive NIF surface symmetry specifications can be produced using microencapsulation methods. Recently higher gain target designs have been introduced that rely on frequency doubled (green) laser energy and require capsules up to 4 mm in diameter, nominally meeting the same surface finish and symmetry requirements as the existing 2-mm-diameter capsule designs. Direct drive on the NIF also requires larger capsules. In order to evaluate whether the current microencapsulation-based mandrel fabrication techniques will adequately scale to these larger capsules, we have explored extending the techniques to 4-mm-diameter capsules. We find that microencapsulated shells meeting NIF symmetry specifications can be produced, the processing changes necessary to accomplish this are presented here

  20. Equipment of visualization environment of a large-scale structural analysis system. Visualization using AVS/Express of an ADVENTURE system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Mikiya

    2004-02-01

    The data display work of visualization is done in many research fields, and a lot of special softwares for the specific purposes exist today. But such softwares have an interface to only a small number of solvers. In many simulations, data conversion for visualization software is required between analysis and visualization for the practical use. This report describes the equipment work of the data visualization environment where AVS/Express was installed in corresponding to many requests from the users of the large-scale structural analysis system which is prepared as an ITBL community software. This environment enables to use the ITBL visualization server as a visualization device after the computation on the ITBL computer. Moreover, a lot of use will be expected within the community in the ITBL environment by merging it into ITBL/AVS environment in the future. (author)

  1. Developing Renewable Energy Projects Larger Than 10 MWs at Federal Facilities (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-03-01

    To accomplish Federal goals for renewable energy, sustainability, and energy security, large-scale renewable energy projects must be developed and constructed on Federal sites at a significant scale with significant private investment. The U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) helps Federal agencies meet these goals and assists agency personnel navigate the complexities of developing such projects and attract the necessary private capital to complete them. This guide is intended to provide a general resource that will begin to develop the Federal employee's awareness and understanding of the project developer's operating environment and the private sector's awareness and understanding of the Federal environment. Because the vast majority of the investment that is required to meet the goals for large-scale renewable energy projects will come from the private sector, this guide has been organized to match Federal processes with typical phases of commercial project development. The main purpose of this guide is to provide a project development framework to allow the Federal Government, private developers, and investors to work in a coordinated fashion on large-scale renewable energy projects. The framework includes key elements that describe a successful, financially attractive large-scale renewable energy project.

  2. Micro-scale environment and mental health in later life: Results from the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study II (CFAS II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Tzu; Prina, A Matthew; Jones, Andy; Barnes, Linda E; Matthews, Fiona E; Brayne, Carol

    2017-08-15

    Poor micro-scale environmental features, such as graffiti and broken windows, have been associated with crime and signs of social disorder with a potential impact on mental health. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between micro-scale environment and mental health problems in later life, including cognitive (cognitive impairment and dementia) and common mental disorders (depressive and anxiety symptoms). The method of visual image audits was used to collect micro-scale environmental data for 3590 participants in the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study II, a population-based multicentre cohort of people aged 65 or above in England. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the associations between the quality of micro-scale environment and mental health problems taking into account urban/rural difference. Poor quality of micro-scale environment was associated with nearly 20% increased odds of depressive (OR: 1.19; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.44) and anxiety symptoms (OR: 1.17; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.38) while the direction of association for cognitive disorders differed across urban and rural settings. Although higher odds of cognitive disorders were found in rural settings, living in a poor quality environment was associated with nearly twice higher odds of cognitive impairment (OR: 1.88; 95% CI: 1.18, 2.97) in urban conurbations but 20% lower odds in rural areas (OR: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.57, 1.11). The causal direction could not be fully determined due to the cross-sectional nature of the data. The visual nature of the environmental assessment tool means it likely does not fully capture features related to the availability of local support services, or opportunities for social participation and interaction. The quality of micro-scale environment appears to be important to mental health in older people. Interventions may incorporate the environmental aspect to reduce cognitive and common mental disorders. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by

  3. The nursing work environment and quality of care: A cross-sectional study using the Essentials of Magnetism II Scale in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshodi, Titilayo O; Crockett, Rachel; Bruneau, Benjamin; West, Elizabeth

    2017-09-01

    To explore the structure of the Essentials of Magnetism II (EOMII) scale using data from nurses working in England; and to describe the impact of different aspects of the nursing work environment on nurse-assessed care quality (NACQ). The EOMII Scale was developed in the United States to measure nursing work environments. It has been widely used in the United States and in a number of other countries, but has not yet been used in the UK. Cross-sectional study. Registered nurses (n = 247) providing direct patient care in two National Health Service hospitals in England completed the EOMII scale and a single-item measuring NACQ. Principal components analysis was used to assess the structure of the scale. Correlation and regression analyses were used to describe the relationships between factors and NACQ. A solution with explanatory variance of 45.25% was identified. Forty items loaded on five factors, with satisfactory consistency: (i) ward manager support; (ii) working as a team; (iii) concern for patients; (iv) organisational autonomy; and (v) constraints on nursing practice. While in univariate analyses, each of the factors was significantly associated with NACQ, in multivariate analyses, the relationship between organisational autonomy and NACQ no longer reached significance. However, a multiple mediation model indicated that the effect of organisational autonomy on NACQ was mediated by nurse manager support, working as a team and concern for patients but not constraints on nursing practice. Subscales of the EOMII identified in an English sample of nurses measured important aspects of the nursing work environment, each of which is related to NACQ. The EOMII could be a very useful tool for measuring aspects of the nursing work environment in the English Trusts particularly in relation to the quality of care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Use of an uncertainty analysis for genome-scale models as a prediction tool for microbial growth processes in subsurface environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klier, Christine

    2012-03-06

    The integration of genome-scale, constraint-based models of microbial cell function into simulations of contaminant transport and fate in complex groundwater systems is a promising approach to help characterize the metabolic activities of microorganisms in natural environments. In constraint-based modeling, the specific uptake flux rates of external metabolites are usually determined by Michaelis-Menten kinetic theory. However, extensive data sets based on experimentally measured values are not always available. In this study, a genome-scale model of Pseudomonas putida was used to study the key issue of uncertainty arising from the parametrization of the influx of two growth-limiting substrates: oxygen and toluene. The results showed that simulated growth rates are highly sensitive to substrate affinity constants and that uncertainties in specific substrate uptake rates have a significant influence on the variability of simulated microbial growth. Michaelis-Menten kinetic theory does not, therefore, seem to be appropriate for descriptions of substrate uptake processes in the genome-scale model of P. putida. Microbial growth rates of P. putida in subsurface environments can only be accurately predicted if the processes of complex substrate transport and microbial uptake regulation are sufficiently understood in natural environments and if data-driven uptake flux constraints can be applied.

  5. A SCALE-UP Mock-Up: Comparison of Student Learning Gains in High- and Low-Tech Active-Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneral, Paula A. G.; Wyse, Sara A.

    2017-01-01

    Student-centered learning environments with upside-down pedagogies (SCALE-UP) are widely implemented at institutions across the country, and learning gains from these classrooms have been well documented. This study investigates the specific design feature(s) of the SCALE-UP classroom most conducive to teaching and learning. Using pilot survey data from instructors and students to prioritize the most salient SCALE-UP classroom features, we created a low-tech “Mock-up” version of this classroom and tested the impact of these features on student learning, attitudes, and satisfaction using a quasi-­experimental setup. The same instructor taught two sections of an introductory biology course in the SCALE-UP and Mock-up rooms. Although students in both sections were equivalent in terms of gender, grade point average, incoming ACT, and drop/fail/withdraw rate, the Mock-up classroom enrolled significantly more freshmen. Controlling for class standing, multiple regression modeling revealed no significant differences in exam, in-class, preclass, and Introduction to Molecular and Cellular Biology Concept Inventory scores between the SCALE-UP and Mock-up classrooms. Thematic analysis of student comments highlighted that collaboration and whiteboards enhanced the learning experience, but technology was not important. Student satisfaction and attitudes were comparable. These results suggest that the benefits of a SCALE-UP experience can be achieved at lower cost without technology features. PMID:28213582

  6. Scale effects in food environment research: Implications from assessing socioeconomic dimensions of supermarket accessibility in an eight-county region of South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Timothy L; Colabianchi, Natalie; Hibbert, James D; Porter, Dwayne E; Lawson, Andrew B; Liese, Angela D

    2016-03-01

    Choice of neighborhood scale affects associations between environmental attributes and health-related outcomes. This phenomenon, a part of the modifiable areal unit problem, has been described fully in geography but not as it relates to food environment research. Using two administrative-based geographic boundaries (census tracts and block groups), supermarket geographic measures (density, cumulative opportunity and distance to nearest) were created to examine differences by scale and associations between three common U.S. Census-based socioeconomic status (SES) characteristics (median household income, percentage of population living below poverty and percentage of population with at least a high school education) and a summary neighborhood SES z-score in an eight-county region of South Carolina. General linear mixed-models were used. Overall, both supermarket density and cumulative opportunity were higher when using census tract boundaries compared to block groups. In analytic models, higher median household income was significantly associated with lower neighborhood supermarket density and lower cumulative opportunity using either the census tract or block group boundaries, and neighborhood poverty was positively associated with supermarket density and cumulative opportunity. Both median household income and percent high school education were positively associated with distance to nearest supermarket using either boundary definition, whereas neighborhood poverty had an inverse association. Findings from this study support the premise that supermarket measures can differ by choice of geographic scale and can influence associations between measures. Researchers should consider the most appropriate geographic scale carefully when conducting food environment studies.

  7. Creating Cycling-Friendly Environments for Children: Which Micro-Scale Factors Are Most Important? An Experimental Study Using Manipulated Photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghekiere, Ariane; Deforche, Benedicte; Mertens, Lieze; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Clarys, Peter; de Geus, Bas; Cardon, Greet; Nasar, Jack; Salmon, Jo; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasing participation in transportation cycling represents a useful strategy for increasing children’s physical activity levels. Knowledge on how to design environments to encourage adoption and maintenance of transportation cycling is limited and relies mainly on observational studies. The current study experimentally investigates the relative importance of micro-scale environmental factors for children’s transportation cycling, as these micro-scale factors are easier to change within an existing neighborhood compared to macro-scale environmental factors (i.e. connectivity, land-use mix, …). Methods Researchers recruited children and their parents (n = 1232) via 45 randomly selected schools across Flanders and completed an online questionnaire which consisted of 1) demographic questions; and 2) a choice-based conjoint (CBC) task. During this task, participants chose between two photographs which we had experimentally manipulated in seven micro-scale environmental factors: type of cycle path; evenness of cycle path; traffic speed; traffic density; presence of speed bumps; environmental maintenance; and vegetation. Participants indicated which route they preferred to (let their child) cycle along. To find the relative importance of these micro-scale environmental factors, we conducted Hierarchical Bayes analyses. Results Type of cycle path emerged as the most important factor by far among both children and their parents, followed by traffic density and maintenance, and evenness of the cycle path among children. Among parents, speed limits and maintenance emerged as second most important, followed by evenness of the cycle path, and traffic density. Conclusion Findings indicate that improvements in micro-scale environmental factors might be effective for increasing children’s transportation cycling, since they increase the perceived supportiveness of the physical environment for transportation cycling. Investments in creating a clearly designated

  8. Space and crime in Dutch built environments : Macro and micro scale spatial conditions for residential burglaries and thefts from cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez, M.J.J.; Van Nes, A.

    2007-01-01

    At this moment, more knowledge is available on the physical characteristics of the built environment and their relationship to criminal opportunity rather than the spatial characteristics of potential targets and the public and private space between them. To improve this situation, a research

  9. Predicting evolutionary responses when genetic variance and selection covary with the environment: a large-scale Open Access Data approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramakers, J.J.C.; Culina, A.; Visser, M.E.; Gienapp, P.

    2017-01-01

    Additive genetic variance and selection are the key ingredients for evolution. In wild populations, however, predicting evolutionary trajectories is difficult, potentially by an unrecognised underlying environment dependency of both (additive) genetic variance and selection (i.e. G×E and S×E).

  10. Science Curiosity in Learning Environments: Developing an Attitudinal Scale for Research in Schools, Homes, Museums, and the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weible, Jennifer L.; Zimmerman, Heather Toomey

    2016-01-01

    Although curiosity is considered an integral aspect of science learning, researchers have debated how to define, measure, and support its development in individuals. Prior measures of curiosity include questionnaire type scales (primarily for adults) and behavioral measures. To address the need to measure scientific curiosity, the Science…

  11. Application of Trait Anger and Anger Expression Styles Scale New Modelling on University Students from Various Social and Cultural Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Fethi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the differences in anger traits of university students and teacher candidates studying in various social and cultural regions, of Batman and Denizli, Turkey. Modelling anger and anger expression style scale according to some variables such as age, gender, education level, number of siblings, parents'…

  12. Very high-cycle fatigue failure in micron-scale polycrystalline silicon films : Effects of environment and surface oxide thickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsem, D. H.; Boyce, B. L.; Stach, E. A.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; Ritchie, R. O.

    2007-01-01

    Fatigue failure in micron-scale polycrystalline silicon structural films, a phenomenon that is not observed in bulk silicon, can severely impact the durability and reliability of microelectromechanical system devices. Despite several studies on the very high-cycle fatigue behavior of these films (up

  13. Tree growth and climate in the Pacific Northwest, North America: a broad-scale analysis of changing growth environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney L. Albright; David L. Peterson

    2013-01-01

    Climate change in the 21st century will affect tree growth in the Pacific Northwest region of North America, although complex climate–growth relationships make it difficult to identify how radial growth will respond across different species distributions. We used a novel method to examine potential growth responses to climate change at a broad geographical scale with a...

  14. Resolving the Circumstellar Environment of the Galactic B[e] Supergiant Star MWC 137 from Large to Small Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, Michaela; Nickeler, Dieter H. [Astronomický ústav, Akademie věd České republiky, v.v.i., Fričova 298, 251 65 Ondřejov (Czech Republic); Liimets, Tiina [Tartu Observatory, 61602 Tõravere, Tartumaa (Estonia); Cappa, Cristina E.; Duronea, Nicolas U. [Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomía, CONICET, CCT-La Plata, C.C.5., 1894, Villa Elisa (Argentina); Cidale, Lydia S.; Arias, Maria L. [Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas y Geofísicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque s/n, 1900, La Plata (Argentina); Gunawan, Diah S.; Maravelias, Grigoris; Curé, Michel [Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaíso, Av. Gran Bretaña 1111, Casilla 5030, Valparaíso (Chile); Oksala, Mary E. [California Lutheran University, Department of Physics, Thousand Oaks, CA 91360 (United States); Fernandes, Marcelo Borges [Observatório Nacional, Rua General José Cristino 77, 20921-400 São Cristovão, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Santander-García, Miguel, E-mail: michaela.kraus@asu.cas.cz [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional (IGN), C/Alfonso XII 3, E-28014, Madrid (Spain)

    2017-11-01

    The Galactic object MWC 137 has been suggested to belong to the group of B[e] supergiants. However, with its large-scale optical bipolar ring nebula and high-velocity jet and knots, it is a rather atypical representative of this class. We performed multiwavelength observations spreading from the optical to the radio regimes. Based on optical imaging and long-slit spectroscopic data, we found that the northern parts of the large-scale nebula are predominantly blueshifted, while the southern regions appear mostly redshifted. We developed a geometrical model consisting of two double cones. Although various observational features can be approximated with such a scenario, the observed velocity pattern is more complex. Using near-infrared integral-field unit spectroscopy, we studied the hot molecular gas in the vicinity of the star. The emission from the hot CO gas arises in a small-scale disk revolving around the star on Keplerian orbits. Although the disk itself cannot be spatially resolved, its emission is reflected by the dust arranged in arc-like structures and the clumps surrounding MWC 137 on small scales. In the radio regime, we mapped the cold molecular gas in the outskirts of the optical nebula. We found that large amounts of cool molecular gas and warm dust embrace the optical nebula in the east, south, and west. No cold gas or dust was detected in the north and northwestern regions. Despite the new insights into the nebula kinematics gained from our studies, the real formation scenario of the large-scale nebula remains an open issue.

  15. Resolving the Circumstellar Environment of the Galactic B[e] Supergiant Star MWC 137 from Large to Small Scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, Michaela; Nickeler, Dieter H.; Liimets, Tiina; Cappa, Cristina E.; Duronea, Nicolas U.; Cidale, Lydia S.; Arias, Maria L.; Gunawan, Diah S.; Maravelias, Grigoris; Curé, Michel; Oksala, Mary E.; Fernandes, Marcelo Borges; Santander-García, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The Galactic object MWC 137 has been suggested to belong to the group of B[e] supergiants. However, with its large-scale optical bipolar ring nebula and high-velocity jet and knots, it is a rather atypical representative of this class. We performed multiwavelength observations spreading from the optical to the radio regimes. Based on optical imaging and long-slit spectroscopic data, we found that the northern parts of the large-scale nebula are predominantly blueshifted, while the southern regions appear mostly redshifted. We developed a geometrical model consisting of two double cones. Although various observational features can be approximated with such a scenario, the observed velocity pattern is more complex. Using near-infrared integral-field unit spectroscopy, we studied the hot molecular gas in the vicinity of the star. The emission from the hot CO gas arises in a small-scale disk revolving around the star on Keplerian orbits. Although the disk itself cannot be spatially resolved, its emission is reflected by the dust arranged in arc-like structures and the clumps surrounding MWC 137 on small scales. In the radio regime, we mapped the cold molecular gas in the outskirts of the optical nebula. We found that large amounts of cool molecular gas and warm dust embrace the optical nebula in the east, south, and west. No cold gas or dust was detected in the north and northwestern regions. Despite the new insights into the nebula kinematics gained from our studies, the real formation scenario of the large-scale nebula remains an open issue.

  16. Returns to Scale and Damages to Scale with Strong Complementary Slackness Conditions in DEA Assessment: Japanese Corporate Effort on Environment Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueyoshi, Toshiyuki; Goto, Mika

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes a use of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) for environmental assessment. All organizations in private and public sectors produce not only desirable (good) but also undesirable (bad) outputs as a result of their economic activities. The proposed use of DEA determines the level of unified (operational and environmental) efficiency of all the organizations. A contribution of this study is that it explores how to measure not only RTS (Returns to Scale) on desirable outputs but also a new concept regarding “DTS: Damages to Scale” (corresponding to RTS for undesirable outputs). This study discusses how to measure RTS under natural disposability and DTS under managerial disposability by DEA. The measurement of RTS and DTS is formulated by incorporating “Strong Complementary Slackness Conditions (SCSCs)”. As a result, this study can handle an occurrence of multiple reference sets and multiple projections in the RTS/DTS measurement. The incorporation of SCSCs makes it possible both to restrict DEA multipliers in a specific range without any prior information and to identify all possible efficient organizations as a reference set. Using the unique capabilities of SCSCs, this study discusses the use of DEA environmental assessment by exploring how to classify the type of RTS/DTS with SCSCs. Such analytical capabilities are essential, but not previously explored in DEA environmental assessment for energy industries. As an illustrative example, this study applies the proposed approach for the performance evaluation of Japanese manufacturing industries. This study finds that these firms need to introduce technology innovation to reduce an amount of greenhouse gases and wastes. The empirical result confirms the importance of measuring RTS/DTS in DEA environmental assessment.

  17. Juvenile exposure to predator cues induces a larger egg size in fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segers, Francisca H. I. D.; Taborsky, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    When females anticipate a hazardous environment for their offspring, they can increase offspring survival by producing larger young. Early environmental experience determines egg size in different animal taxa. We predicted that a higher perceived predation risk by juveniles would cause an increase in the sizes of eggs that they produce as adults. To test this, we exposed juveniles of the mouthbrooding cichlid Eretmodus cyanostictus in a split-brood experiment either to cues of a natural predator or to a control situation. After maturation, females that had been confronted with predators produced heavier eggs, whereas clutch size itself was not affected by the treatment. This effect cannot be explained by a differential female body size because the predator treatment did not influence growth trajectories. The observed increase of egg mass is likely to be adaptive, as heavier eggs gave rise to larger young and in fish, juvenile predation risk drops sharply with increasing body size. This study provides the first evidence that predator cues perceived by females early in life positively affect egg mass, suggesting that these cues allow her to predict the predation risk for her offspring. PMID:21976689

  18. Performance of large-R jets and jet substructure reconstruction with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the application of techniques to study jet substructure. The performance of modified jet algorithms for a variety of jet types and event topologies is investigated. Properties of jets subjected to the mass-drop filtering, trimming and pruning algorithms are found to have a reduced sensitivity to multiple proton-proton interactions and exhibit improved stability at high luminosity. Monte Carlo studies of the signal-background discrimination with jet grooming in new physics searches based on jet invariant mass and jet substructure properties are also presented. The application of jet trimming is shown to improve the robustness of large-R jet measurements, reduce sensitivity to the superfluous effects due to the intense environment of the high luminosity LHC, and improve the physics potential of searches for heavy boosted objects. The analyses presented in this note use the full 2011 ATLAS dataset, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.7 \\pm 0.2 fb−1 .

  19. A novel combined SLAM based on RBPF-SLAM and EIF-SLAM for mobile system sensing in a large scale environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bo; Zhang, Shujing; Yan, Tianhong; Zhang, Tao; Liang, Yan; Zhang, Hongjin

    2011-01-01

    Mobile autonomous systems are very important for marine scientific investigation and military applications. Many algorithms have been studied to deal with the computational efficiency problem required for large scale simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) and its related accuracy and consistency. Among these methods, submap-based SLAM is a more effective one. By combining the strength of two popular mapping algorithms, the Rao-Blackwellised particle filter (RBPF) and extended information filter (EIF), this paper presents a combined SLAM-an efficient submap-based solution to the SLAM problem in a large scale environment. RBPF-SLAM is used to produce local maps, which are periodically fused into an EIF-SLAM algorithm. RBPF-SLAM can avoid linearization of the robot model during operating and provide a robust data association, while EIF-SLAM can improve the whole computational speed, and avoid the tendency of RBPF-SLAM to be over-confident. In order to further improve the computational speed in a real time environment, a binary-tree-based decision-making strategy is introduced. Simulation experiments show that the proposed combined SLAM algorithm significantly outperforms currently existing algorithms in terms of accuracy and consistency, as well as the computing efficiency. Finally, the combined SLAM algorithm is experimentally validated in a real environment by using the Victoria Park dataset.

  20. A Novel Combined SLAM Based on RBPF-SLAM and EIF-SLAM for Mobile System Sensing in a Large Scale Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjin Zhang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Mobile autonomous systems are very important for marine scientific investigation and military applications. Many algorithms have been studied to deal with the computational efficiency problem required for large scale Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM and its related accuracy and consistency. Among these methods, submap-based SLAM is a more effective one. By combining the strength of two popular mapping algorithms, the Rao-Blackwellised particle filter (RBPF and extended information filter (EIF, this paper presents a Combined SLAM—an efficient submap-based solution to the SLAM problem in a large scale environment. RBPF-SLAM is used to produce local maps, which are periodically fused into an EIF-SLAM algorithm. RBPF-SLAM can avoid linearization of the robot model during operating and provide a robust data association, while EIF-SLAM can improve the whole computational speed, and avoid the tendency of RBPF-SLAM to be over-confident. In order to further improve the computational speed in a real time environment, a binary-tree-based decision-making strategy is introduced. Simulation experiments show that the proposed Combined SLAM algorithm significantly outperforms currently existing algorithms in terms of accuracy and consistency, as well as the computing efficiency. Finally, the Combined SLAM algorithm is experimentally validated in a real environment by using the Victoria Park dataset.

  1. Transmissible Plasmids and Integrons Shift Escherichia coli Population Toward Larger Multiple Drug Resistance Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhartono, Suhartono; Savin, Mary C; Gbur, Edward E

    2018-04-01

    Transmissible plasmids and integrons may play important roles in the persistence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria throughout aquatic environment by accumulating antibiotic resistance genes (ARG). Class 1 and class 2 integron (intI), mobilization (mob), sulfamethoxazole resistance (sul), and trimethoprim resistance (dfr) genes were PCR-amplified and confirmed through DNA sequencing following plasmid extraction from 139 antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli. E. coli had previously been recovered from wastewater treatment plant effluent and receiving stream water in Northwest Arkansas and isolates had expressed resistance to one to six antibiotics. Almost half of the total isolates (47%) carried putatively transmissible plasmids with mob F12 gene as the most frequently detected mobilization gene. When two or three mob genes were detected per isolate, there was a significant shift in the population toward larger multiple drug resistance (MDR) number. Class 1 and/or 2 integrons were prevalent (46%), and the presence of integron significantly shifted the isolate population toward larger MDR number. More isolates carried single or coexistence of two or three sul genes (99.3%), and single or a combination up to five dfr genes (89.3%) than had exhibited in vitro resistance to the respective antibiotics. These findings indicate not only the role of the wastewater treatment effluent and the stream environment in coaccumulation of ARG with transmissible plasmids and integrons in multiple antibiotic-resistant E. coli populations but also suggest that density of sul and dfr resistance genes within an isolate may serve as a biomarker for mobile MDR in general.

  2. Larger foraminifera of the Devil's Den and Blue Hole sinkholes, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Laura J.; Eder, Wolfgang; Floyd, James

    2018-03-01

    Shallow-water carbonate deposits are well-known from the Eocene of the US Gulf Coast and Caribbean. These deposits frequently contain abundant larger benthic foraminifera (LBF). However, whilst integrated stratigraphic studies have helped to refine the timing of LBF overturning events within the Tethys and Indo-Pacific regions with respect to global bio- and chemo-stratigraphic records, little recent work has been carried out in the Americas. The American LBF assemblages are distinctly different from those of Europe and the Indo-Pacific. It is therefore essential that the American bio-province is included in studies of LBF evolution, biodiversity and climate events to understand these processes on a global scale.Here we present the LBF ranges from two previously unpublished sections spanning 35 and 29 m of the upper Eocene Ocala limestone, as the early stages of a larger project addressing the taxonomy and biostratigraphy of the LBF of Florida. The study indicates that the lower member of the Ocala limestone may be Bartonian rather than Priabonian in age, with implications for the biostratigraphy of the region. In addition, the study highlights the need for multiple sites to assess the LBF assemblages and fully constrain ranges across Florida and the US Gulf and suggests potential LBF events for future integrated stratigraphic study.

  3. Global warming may disproportionately affect larger adults in a predatory coral reef fish

    KAUST Repository

    Messmer, Vanessa

    2016-11-03

    Global warming is expected to reduce body sizes of ectothermic animals. Although the underlying mechanisms of size reductions remain poorly understood, effects appear stronger at latitudinal extremes (poles and tropics) and in aquatic rather than terrestrial systems. To shed light on this phenomenon, we examined the size dependence of critical thermal maxima (CTmax) and aerobic metabolism in a commercially important tropical reef fish, the leopard coral grouper (Plectropomus leopardus) following acclimation to current-day (28.5 °C) vs. projected end-of-century (33 °C) summer temperatures for the northern Great Barrier Reef (GBR). CTmax declined from 38.3 to 37.5 °C with increasing body mass in adult fish (0.45-2.82 kg), indicating that larger individuals are more thermally sensitive than smaller conspecifics. This may be explained by a restricted capacity for large fish to increase mass-specific maximum metabolic rate (MMR) at 33 °C compared with 28.5 °C. Indeed, temperature influenced the relationship between metabolism and body mass (0.02-2.38 kg), whereby the scaling exponent for MMR increased from 0.74 ± 0.02 at 28.5 °C to 0.79 ± 0.01 at 33 °C, and the corresponding exponents for standard metabolic rate (SMR) were 0.75 ± 0.04 and 0.80 ± 0.03. The increase in metabolic scaling exponents at higher temperatures suggests that energy budgets may be disproportionately impacted in larger fish and contribute to reduced maximum adult size. Such climate-induced reductions in body size would have important ramifications for fisheries productivity, but are also likely to have knock-on effects for trophodynamics and functioning of ecosystems.

  4. Global warming may disproportionately affect larger adults in a predatory coral reef fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messmer, Vanessa; Pratchett, Morgan S; Hoey, Andrew S; Tobin, Andrew J; Coker, Darren J; Cooke, Steven J; Clark, Timothy D

    2017-06-01

    Global warming is expected to reduce body sizes of ectothermic animals. Although the underlying mechanisms of size reductions remain poorly understood, effects appear stronger at latitudinal extremes (poles and tropics) and in aquatic rather than terrestrial systems. To shed light on this phenomenon, we examined the size dependence of critical thermal maxima (CTmax) and aerobic metabolism in a commercially important tropical reef fish, the leopard coral grouper (Plectropomus leopardus) following acclimation to current-day (28.5 °C) vs. projected end-of-century (33 °C) summer temperatures for the northern Great Barrier Reef (GBR). CTmax declined from 38.3 to 37.5 °C with increasing body mass in adult fish (0.45-2.82 kg), indicating that larger individuals are more thermally sensitive than smaller conspecifics. This may be explained by a restricted capacity for large fish to increase mass-specific maximum metabolic rate (MMR) at 33 °C compared with 28.5 °C. Indeed, temperature influenced the relationship between metabolism and body mass (0.02-2.38 kg), whereby the scaling exponent for MMR increased from 0.74 ± 0.02 at 28.5 °C to 0.79 ± 0.01 at 33 °C, and the corresponding exponents for standard metabolic rate (SMR) were 0.75 ± 0.04 and 0.80 ± 0.03. The increase in metabolic scaling exponents at higher temperatures suggests that energy budgets may be disproportionately impacted in larger fish and contribute to reduced maximum adult size. Such climate-induced reductions in body size would have important ramifications for fisheries productivity, but are also likely to have knock-on effects for trophodynamics and functioning of ecosystems. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Global warming may disproportionately affect larger adults in a predatory coral reef fish

    KAUST Repository

    Messmer, Vanessa; Pratchett, Morgan S.; Hoey, Andrew S.; Tobin, Andrew J.; Coker, Darren James; Cooke, Steven J.; Clark, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    Global warming is expected to reduce body sizes of ectothermic animals. Although the underlying mechanisms of size reductions remain poorly understood, effects appear stronger at latitudinal extremes (poles and tropics) and in aquatic rather than terrestrial systems. To shed light on this phenomenon, we examined the size dependence of critical thermal maxima (CTmax) and aerobic metabolism in a commercially important tropical reef fish, the leopard coral grouper (Plectropomus leopardus) following acclimation to current-day (28.5 °C) vs. projected end-of-century (33 °C) summer temperatures for the northern Great Barrier Reef (GBR). CTmax declined from 38.3 to 37.5 °C with increasing body mass in adult fish (0.45-2.82 kg), indicating that larger individuals are more thermally sensitive than smaller conspecifics. This may be explained by a restricted capacity for large fish to increase mass-specific maximum metabolic rate (MMR) at 33 °C compared with 28.5 °C. Indeed, temperature influenced the relationship between metabolism and body mass (0.02-2.38 kg), whereby the scaling exponent for MMR increased from 0.74 ± 0.02 at 28.5 °C to 0.79 ± 0.01 at 33 °C, and the corresponding exponents for standard metabolic rate (SMR) were 0.75 ± 0.04 and 0.80 ± 0.03. The increase in metabolic scaling exponents at higher temperatures suggests that energy budgets may be disproportionately impacted in larger fish and contribute to reduced maximum adult size. Such climate-induced reductions in body size would have important ramifications for fisheries productivity, but are also likely to have knock-on effects for trophodynamics and functioning of ecosystems.

  6. How do large-scale agricultural investments affect land use and the environment on the western slopes of Mount Kenya? Empirical evidence based on small-scale farmers' perceptions and remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaehringer, Julie G; Wambugu, Grace; Kiteme, Boniface; Eckert, Sandra

    2018-05-01

    Africa has been heavily targeted by large-scale agricultural investments (LAIs) throughout the last decade, with scarcely known impacts on local social-ecological systems. In Kenya, a large number of LAIs were made in the region northwest of Mount Kenya. These large-scale farms produce vegetables and flowers mainly for European markets. However, land use in the region remains dominated by small-scale crop and livestock farms with less than 1 ha of land each, who produce both for their own subsistence and for the local markets. We interviewed 100 small-scale farmers living near five different LAIs to elicit their perceptions of the impacts that these LAIs have on their land use and the overall environment. Furthermore, we analyzed remotely sensed land cover and land use data to assess land use change in the vicinity of the five LAIs. While land use change did not follow a clear trend, a number of small-scale farmers did adapt their crop management to environmental changes such as a reduced river water flows and increased pests, which they attributed to the presence of LAIs. Despite the high number of open conflicts between small-scale land users and LAIs around the issue of river water abstraction, the main environmental impact, felt by almost half of the interviewed land users, was air pollution with agrochemicals sprayed on the LAIs' land. Even though only a low percentage of local land users and their household members were directly involved with LAIs, a large majority of respondents favored the presence of LAIs nearby, as they are believed to contribute to the region's overall economic development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterizing the Severe Turbulence Environments Associated with Commercial Aviation Accidents. Part 2; Hydrostatic Mesobeta Scale Numerical Simulations of Supergradient Wind Flow and Streamwise Ageostrophic Frontogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Michael L.; Huffman, Allan W.; Lux, Kevin M.; Cetola, Jeffrey D.; Charney, Joseph J.; Riordan, Allen J.; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Waight, Kenneth T., III; Proctor, Fred (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Simulation experiments reveal key processes that organize a hydrostatic environment conducive to severe turbulence. The paradigm requires juxtaposition of the entrance region of a curved jet stream, which is highly subgeostrophic, with the entrance region of a straight jet stream, which is highly supergeostrophic. The wind and mass fields become misphased as the entrance regions converge resulting in the significant spatial variation of inertial forcing, centripetal forcing, and along- and cross-stream pressure gradient forcing over a mesobeta scale region. This results in frontogenesis and the along-stream divergence of cyclonic and convergence of cyclonic ageostrophic vertical vorticity. The centripetally forced mesoscale front becomes the locus of large gradients of ageostrophic vertical vorticity along an overturning isentrope. This region becomes favorable for streamwise vorticity gradient formation enhancing the environment for organization of horizontal vortex tubes in the presence of buoyant forcing.

  8. An Integrative, Multi-Scale Computational Model of a Swimming Lamprey Fully Coupled to Its Fluid Environment and Incorporating Proprioceptive Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, C. L.; Hoffman, K.; Fauci, L.; Tytell, E.

    2016-02-01

    The lamprey is a model organism for both neurophysiology and locomotion studies. To study the role of sensory feedback as an organism moves through its environment, a 2D, integrative, multi-scale model of an anguilliform swimmer driven by neural activation from a central pattern generator (CPG) is constructed. The CPG in turn drives muscle kinematics and is fully coupled to the surrounding fluid. The system is numerically evolved in time using an immersed boundary framework producing an emergent swimming mode. Proprioceptive feedback to the CPG based on experimental observations adjust the activation signal as the organism interacts with its environment. Effects on the speed, stability and cost (metabolic work) of swimming due to nonlinear dependencies associated with muscle force development combined with proprioceptive feedback to neural activation are estimated and examined.

  9. The new affordances in the home environment for motor development - infant scale (AHEMD-IS): Versions in English and Portuguese languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caçola, Priscila M.; Gabbard, Carl; Montebelo, Maria I. L.; Santos, Denise C. C.

    2015-01-01

    The home environment has been established as a crucial factor for motor development, especially in infants. Exploring the home environment can have significant implications for intervention, as it is common practice in physical therapy to have professionals advise patients on home activities. Since 2010, our group has been working on the development of the Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development - Infant Scale (AHEMD-IS), a parental self-reporting instrument designed to assess the quality and quantity of factors (affordances) in the home environment. In Brazil, the instrument has been translated as "Affordances no Ambiente Domiciliar para o Desenvolvimento Motor - Escala Bebê", and it has been extensively used in several studies that address infant development. These studies in Brazil and other parts of the world highly recommended the need for a normative sample and standardized scoring system. A description of the study that addressed that need, along with the English version of the questionnaire and score sheets, was recently published in the well-known and respected journal Physical Therapy. Our intent with the present short communication is to notify Brazilian investigators and clinicians of this latest update so they can download the new instrument, as well as present the Brazilian (Portuguese) version of the AHEMD-IS along with its scoring system. PMID:26647753

  10. The new affordances in the home environment for motor development - infant scale (AHEMD-IS: Versions in English and Portuguese languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila M. Caçola

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The home environment has been established as a crucial factor for motor development, especially in infants. Exploring the home environment can have significant implications for intervention, as it is common practice in physical therapy to have professionals advise patients on home activities. Since 2010, our group has been working on the development of the Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development - Infant Scale (AHEMD-IS, a parental self-reporting instrument designed to assess the quality and quantity of factors (affordances in the home environment. In Brazil, the instrument has been translated as "Affordances no Ambiente Domiciliar para o Desenvolvimento Motor - Escala Bebê", and it has been extensively used in several studies that address infant development. These studies in Brazil and other parts of the world highly recommended the need for a normative sample and standardized scoring system. A description of the study that addressed that need, along with the English version of the questionnaire and score sheets, was recently published in the well-known and respected journal Physical Therapy. Our intent with the present short communication is to notify Brazilian investigators and clinicians of this latest update so they can download the new instrument, as well as present the Brazilian (Portuguese version of the AHEMD-IS along with its scoring system.

  11. A Slovenian version of the "clinical learning environment, supervision and nurse teacher scale (Cles+T)" and its comparison with the Croatian version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žvanut, Boštjan; Lovrić, Robert; Kolnik, Tamara Štemberger; Šavle, Majda; Pucer, Patrik

    2018-02-26

    Nursing clinical learning environments are particularly important for the achievement of good practice in clinical training of student nurses, and thus, for the nursing competence development. Hence, it is important to have an instrument consisting of reliable and valid criteria for assessing the clinical learning environment, applicable in different contexts, and translated in the respondents mother tongue. The goal of the present research was to test the reliability and validity of the Slovenian version of the "Clinical Learning Environment, Supervision and Nurse Teacher evaluation scale", and to compare it with the Croatian version. The data was collected between 10 March and 10 June 2015 at four Slovenian institutions, where nursing BSc study programmes are performed. The final sample consisted of 232 students (response rate 68.8%): 81.9% were females and 18.1% males, average age was 23. The translated instrument in Slovenian language resulted as reliable and valid, it reflects the expected five factors of the original version despite some minor problems in the factor structure and in test-retest. The most important difference between the Slovenian and Croatian version is in the factor structure regarding the implementation of roles in clinical learning environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. FOX: A Fault-Oblivious Extreme-Scale Execution Environment Boston University Final Report Project Number: DE-SC0005365

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appavoo, Jonathan [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    2013-03-17

    Exascale computing systems will provide a thousand-fold increase in parallelism and a proportional increase in failure rate relative to today's machines. Systems software for exascale machines must provide the infrastructure to support existing applications while simultaneously enabling efficient execution of new programming models that naturally express dynamic, adaptive, irregular computation; coupled simulations; and massive data analysis in a highly unreliable hardware environment with billions of threads of execution. The FOX project explored systems software and runtime support for a new approach to the data and work distribution for fault oblivious application execution. Our major OS work at Boston University focused on developing a new light-weight operating systems model that provides an appropriate context for both multi-core and multi-node application development. This work is discussed in section 1. Early on in the FOX project BU developed infrastructure for prototyping dynamic HPC environments in which the sets of nodes that an application is run on can be dynamically grown or shrunk. This work was an extension of the Kittyhawk project and is discussed in section 2. Section 3 documents the publications and software repositories that we have produced. To put our work in context of the complete FOX project contribution we include in section 4 an extended version of a paper that documents the complete work of the FOX team.

  13. A SCALE-UP Mock-Up: Comparison of Student Learning Gains in High- and Low-Tech Active-Learning Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneral, Paula A G; Wyse, Sara A

    2017-01-01

    Student-centered learning environments with upside-down pedagogies (SCALE-UP) are widely implemented at institutions across the country, and learning gains from these classrooms have been well documented. This study investigates the specific design feature(s) of the SCALE-UP classroom most conducive to teaching and learning. Using pilot survey data from instructors and students to prioritize the most salient SCALE-UP classroom features, we created a low-tech "Mock-up" version of this classroom and tested the impact of these features on student learning, attitudes, and satisfaction using a quasi--experimental setup. The same instructor taught two sections of an introductory biology course in the SCALE-UP and Mock-up rooms. Although students in both sections were equivalent in terms of gender, grade point average, incoming ACT, and drop/fail/withdraw rate, the Mock-up classroom enrolled significantly more freshmen. Controlling for class standing, multiple regression modeling revealed no significant differences in exam, in-class, preclass, and Introduction to Molecular and Cellular Biology Concept Inventory scores between the SCALE-UP and Mock-up classrooms. Thematic analysis of student comments highlighted that collaboration and whiteboards enhanced the learning experience, but technology was not important. Student satisfaction and attitudes were comparable. These results suggest that the benefits of a SCALE-UP experience can be achieved at lower cost without technology features. © 2017 P. A. G. Soneral and S. A. Wyse. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  14. Decomposing the trade-environment nexus for Malaysia: what do the technique, scale, composition, and comparative advantage effect indicate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Chong Hui; Ahmed, Khalid; Binti Muhamad, Rusnah; Shahbaz, Muhammad

    2015-12-01

    This paper investigates the impact of trade openness on CO2 emissions using time series data over the period of 1970QI-2011QIV for Malaysia. We disintegrate the trade effect into scale, technique, composition, and comparative advantage effects to check the environmental consequence of trade at four different transition points. To achieve the purpose, we have employed augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) and Phillips-Perron (PP) unit root tests in order to examine the stationary properties of the variables. Later, the long-run association among the variables is examined by applying autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach to cointegration. Our results confirm the presence of cointegration. Further, we find that scale effect has positive and technique effect has negative impact on CO2 emissions after threshold income level and form inverted U-shaped relationship-hence validates the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis. Energy consumption adds in CO2 emissions. Trade openness and composite effect improve environmental quality by lowering CO2 emissions. The comparative advantage effect increases CO2 emissions and impairs environmental quality. The results provide the innovative approach to see the impact of trade openness in four sub-dimensions of trade liberalization. Hence, this study attributes more comprehensive policy tool for trade economists to better design environmentally sustainable trade rules and agreements.

  15. Resolving the Circumstellar Environment of the Galactic B[e] Supergiant Star MWC 137 from Large to Small Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michaela; Liimets, Tiina; Cappa, Cristina E.; Cidale, Lydia S.; Nickeler, Dieter H.; Duronea, Nicolas U.; Arias, Maria L.; Gunawan, Diah S.; Oksala, Mary E.; Borges Fernandes, Marcelo; Maravelias, Grigoris; Curé, Michel; Santander-García, Miguel

    2017-11-01

    The Galactic object MWC 137 has been suggested to belong to the group of B[e] supergiants. However, with its large-scale optical bipolar ring nebula and high-velocity jet and knots, it is a rather atypical representative of this class. We performed multiwavelength observations spreading from the optical to the radio regimes. Based on optical imaging and long-slit spectroscopic data, we found that the northern parts of the large-scale nebula are predominantly blueshifted, while the southern regions appear mostly redshifted. We developed a geometrical model consisting of two double cones. Although various observational features can be approximated with such a scenario, the observed velocity pattern is more complex. Using near-infrared integral-field unit spectroscopy, we studied the hot molecular gas in the vicinity of the star. The emission from the hot CO gas arises in a small-scale disk revolving around the star on Keplerian orbits. Although the disk itself cannot be spatially resolved, its emission is reflected by the dust arranged in arc-like structures and the clumps surrounding MWC 137 on small scales. In the radio regime, we mapped the cold molecular gas in the outskirts of the optical nebula. We found that large amounts of cool molecular gas and warm dust embrace the optical nebula in the east, south, and west. No cold gas or dust was detected in the north and northwestern regions. Despite the new insights into the nebula kinematics gained from our studies, the real formation scenario of the large-scale nebula remains an open issue. Based on observations collected with (1) the ESO VLT Paranal Observatory under programs 094.D-0637(B) and 097.D-0033(A), (2) the MPG 2.2 m telescope at La Silla Observatory, Chile, under programs 096.A-9030(A) and 096.A-9039(A), (3) the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the

  16. Is scale-up of community mobilisation among sex workers really possible in complex urban environments? The case of Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongelf, Anine; Bandewar, Sunita V S; Bharat, Shalini; Collumbien, Martine

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, community mobilisation (CM) interventions targeting female sex workers (FSWs) have been scaled-up in India's national response to the HIV epidemic. This included the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation's Avahan programme which adopted a business approach to plan and manage implementation at scale. With the focus of evaluation efforts on measuring effectiveness and health impacts there has been little analysis thus far of the interaction of the CM interventions with the sex work industry in complex urban environments. Between March and July 2012 semi-structured, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with 63 HIV intervention implementers, to explore challenges of HIV prevention among FSWs in Mumbai. A thematic analysis identified contextual factors that impact CM implementation. Large-scale interventions are not only impacted by, but were shown to shape the dynamic social context. Registration practices and programme monitoring were experienced as stigmatising, reflected in shifting client preferences towards women not disclosing as 'sex workers'. This combined with urban redevelopment and gentrification of traditional red light areas, forcing dispersal and more 'hidden' ways of solicitation, further challenging outreach and collectivisation. Participants reported that brothel owners and 'pimps' continued to restrict access to sex workers and the heterogeneous 'community' of FSWs remains fragmented with high levels of mobility. Stakeholder engagement was poor and mobilising around HIV prevention not compelling. Interventions largely failed to respond to community needs as strong target-orientation skewed activities towards those most easily measured and reported. Large-scale interventions have been impacted by and contributed to an increasingly complex sex work environment in Mumbai, challenging outreach and mobilisation efforts. Sex workers remain a vulnerable and disempowered group needing continued support and more

  17. Is scale-up of community mobilisation among sex workers really possible in complex urban environments? The case of Mumbai, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anine Kongelf

    Full Text Available In the last decade, community mobilisation (CM interventions targeting female sex workers (FSWs have been scaled-up in India's national response to the HIV epidemic. This included the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation's Avahan programme which adopted a business approach to plan and manage implementation at scale. With the focus of evaluation efforts on measuring effectiveness and health impacts there has been little analysis thus far of the interaction of the CM interventions with the sex work industry in complex urban environments.Between March and July 2012 semi-structured, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with 63 HIV intervention implementers, to explore challenges of HIV prevention among FSWs in Mumbai. A thematic analysis identified contextual factors that impact CM implementation. Large-scale interventions are not only impacted by, but were shown to shape the dynamic social context. Registration practices and programme monitoring were experienced as stigmatising, reflected in shifting client preferences towards women not disclosing as 'sex workers'. This combined with urban redevelopment and gentrification of traditional red light areas, forcing dispersal and more 'hidden' ways of solicitation, further challenging outreach and collectivisation. Participants reported that brothel owners and 'pimps' continued to restrict access to sex workers and the heterogeneous 'community' of FSWs remains fragmented with high levels of mobility. Stakeholder engagement was poor and mobilising around HIV prevention not compelling. Interventions largely failed to respond to community needs as strong target-orientation skewed activities towards those most easily measured and reported.Large-scale interventions have been impacted by and contributed to an increasingly complex sex work environment in Mumbai, challenging outreach and mobilisation efforts. Sex workers remain a vulnerable and disempowered group needing continued support

  18. Mapping informal small-scale mining features in a data-sparse tropical environment with a small UAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Peter G.; Dewitt, Jessica D.

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates the use of a small unmanned aerial system (UAS) to collect imagery over artisanal mining sites in West Africa. The purpose of this study is to consider how very high-resolution imagery and digital surface models (DSMs) derived from structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetric techniques from a small UAS can fill the gap in geospatial data collection between satellite imagery and data gathered during field work to map and monitor informal mining sites in tropical environments. The study compares both wide-angle and narrow field of view camera systems in the collection and analysis of high-resolution orthoimages and DSMs of artisanal mining pits. The results of the study indicate that UAS imagery and SfM photogrammetric techniques permit DSMs to be produced with a high degree of precision and relative accuracy, but highlight the challenges of mapping small artisanal mining pits in remote and data sparse terrain.

  19. Genes versus environment: geography and phylogenetic relationships shape the chemical profiles of stingless bees on a global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Sara D.; Rasmussen, Claus; Schmitt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Chemical compounds are highly important in the ecology of animals. In social insects, compounds on the body surface represent a particularly interesting trait, because they comprise different compound classes that are involved in different functions, such as communication, recognition and protection, all of which can be differentially affected by evolutionary processes. Here, we investigate the widely unknown and possibly antagonistic influence of phylogenetic and environmental factors on the composition of the cuticular chemistry of tropical stingless bees. We chose stingless bees because some species are unique in expressing not only self-produced compounds, but also compounds that are taken up from the environment. By relating the cuticular chemistry of 40 bee species from all over the world to their molecular phylogeny and geographical occurrence, we found that distribution patterns of different groups of compounds were differentially affected by genetic relatedness and biogeography. The ability to acquire environmental compounds was, for example, highly correlated with the bees' phylogeny and predominated in evolutionarily derived species. Owing to the presence of environmentally derived compounds, those species further expressed a higher chemical and thus functional diversity. In Old World species, chemical similarity of both environmentally derived and self-produced compounds was particularly high among sympatric species, even when they were less related to each other than to allopatric species, revealing a strong environmental effect even on largely genetically determined compounds. Thus, our findings do not only reveal an unexpectedly strong influence of the environment on the cuticular chemistry of stingless bees, but also demonstrate that even within one morphological trait (an insect's cuticular profile), different components (compound classes) can be differentially affected by different drivers (relatedness and biogeography), depending on the

  20. Measures for minimizing radiation hazardous to the environment in the advent of large-scale space commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, S.N.

    1990-01-01

    The nature of hazardous effects from radio-frequency (RF), light, infrared, and nuclear radiation on human and other biological species in the advent of large-scale space commercialization is considered. Attention is focused on RF/microwave radiation from earth antennas and domestic picture phone communication links, exposure to microwave radiation from space solar-power satellites, and the continuous transmission of information from spacecraft as well as laser radiation from space. Measures for preventing and/or reducing these effects are suggested, including the use of interlocks for cutting off radiation toward ground, off-pointing microwave energy beams in cases of altitude failure, limiting the satellite off-axis gain data-rate product, the use of reflective materials on buildings and in personnel clothing to protect from space-borne lasers, and underwater colonies in cases of high-power lasers. For nuclear-power satellites, deposition in stable points in the solar system is proposed. 12 refs

  1. Large-scale Isolation of Highly Pure "Untouched" Regulatory T Cells in a GMP Environment for Adoptive Cell Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Doreen; Puan, Kia Joo; Starke, Mireille; Lai, Tuck Siong; Soh, Melissa Yan Ling; Karunanithi, Iyswariya; San Luis, Boris; Poh, Tuang Yeow; Yusof, Nurhashikin; Yeap, Chun Hsien; Phang, Chew Yen; Chye, Willis Soon Yuan; Chan, Marieta; Koh, Mickey Boon Chai; Goh, Yeow Tee; Bertin-Maghit, Sebastien; Nardin, Alessandra; Ho, Liam Pock; Rotzschke, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive cell therapy is an emerging treatment strategy for a number of serious diseases. Regulatory T (Treg) cells represent 1 cell type of particular interest for therapy of inflammatory conditions, as they are responsible for controlling unwanted immune responses. Initial clinical trials of adoptive transfer of Treg cells in patients with graft-versus-host disease were shown to be safe. However, obtaining sufficient numbers of highly pure and functional Treg cells with minimal contamination remains a challenge. We developed a novel approach to isolate "untouched" human Treg cells from healthy donors on the basis of negative selection using the surface markers CD49d and CD127. This procedure, which uses an antibody cocktail and magnetic beads for separation in an automated system (RoboSep), was scaled up and adapted to be compatible with good manufacturing practice conditions. With this setup we performed 9 Treg isolations from large-scale leukapheresis samples in a good manufacturing practice facility. These runs yielded sufficient numbers of "untouched" Treg cells for immediate use in clinical applications. The cell preparations consisted of viable highly pure FoxP3-positive Treg cells that were functional in suppressing the proliferation of effector T cells. Contamination with CD4 effector T cells was cell types did not exceed 2% in the final product. Remaining isolation reagents were reduced to levels that are considered safe. Treg cells isolated with this procedure will be used in a phase I clinical trial of adoptive transfer into leukemia patients developing graft-versus-host disease after stem cell transplantation.

  2. Inferring Large-Scale Terrestrial Water Storage Through GRACE and GPS Data Fusion in Cloud Computing Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rude, C. M.; Li, J. D.; Gowanlock, M.; Herring, T.; Pankratius, V.

    2016-12-01

    Surface subsidence due to depletion of groundwater can lead to permanent compaction of aquifers and damaged infrastructure. However, studies of such effects on a large scale are challenging and compute intensive because they involve fusing a variety of data sets beyond direct measurements from groundwater wells, such as gravity change measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) or surface displacements measured by GPS receivers. Our work therefore leverages Amazon cloud computing to enable these types of analyses spanning the entire continental US. Changes in groundwater storage are inferred from surface displacements measured by GPS receivers stationed throughout the country. Receivers located on bedrock are anti-correlated with changes in water levels from elastic deformation due to loading, while stations on aquifers correlate with groundwater changes due to poroelastic expansion and compaction. Correlating linearly detrended equivalent water thickness measurements from GRACE with linearly detrended and Kalman filtered vertical displacements of GPS stations located throughout the United States helps compensate for the spatial and temporal limitations of GRACE. Our results show that the majority of GPS stations are negatively correlated with GRACE in a statistically relevant way, as most GPS stations are located on bedrock in order to provide stable reference locations and measure geophysical processes such as tectonic deformations. Additionally, stations located on the Central Valley California aquifer show statistically significant positive correlations. Through the identification of positive and negative correlations, deformation phenomena can be classified as loading or poroelastic expansion due to changes in groundwater. This method facilitates further studies of terrestrial water storage on a global scale. This work is supported by NASA AIST-NNX15AG84G (PI: V. Pankratius) and Amazon.

  3. Scoping Evaluation of the IRIS Radiation Environment by Using the FW-CADIS Method and SCALE MAVRIC Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, B.

    2008-01-01

    IRIS is an advanced pressurized water reactor of integral configuration. This integral configuration with its relatively large reactor vessel and thick downcomer (1.7 m) results in a significant reduction of radiation field and material activation. It thus enables setting up aggressive dose reduction objectives, but at the same time presents challenges for the shielding analysis which needs to be performed over a large spatial domain and include flux attenuation by many orders of magnitude. The Monte Carlo method enables accurately representing irregular geometry and potential streaming paths, but may require significant computational efforts to reduce statistical uncertainty within the acceptable range. Variance reduction methods do exist, but they are designed to provide results for individual detectors and in limited regions, whereas in the scoping phase of IRIS shielding analysis the results are sought throughout the whole containment. To facilitate such analysis, the SCALE MAVRIC was employed. Based on the recently developed FW-CADIS method, MAVRIC uses forward and adjoint deterministic transport theory calculations to generate effective biasing parameters for Monte Carlo simulations throughout the problem. Previous studies have confirmed the potential of this method for obtaining Monte Carlo solutions with acceptable statistics over large spatial domains. The objective of this work was to evaluate the capability of the FW-CADIS/MAVRIC to efficiently perform the required shielding analysis of IRIS. For that purpose, a representative model was prepared, retaining the main problem characteristics, i.e., a large spatial domain (over 10 m in each dimension) and significant attenuation (over 12 orders of magnitude), but geometrically rather simplified. The obtained preliminary results indicate that the FW-CADIS method implemented through the MAVRIC sequence in SCALE will enable determination of radiation field throughout the large spatial domain of the IRIS nuclear

  4. Scaling between reanalyses and high-resolution land-surface modelling in mountainous areas - enabling better application and testing of reanalyses in heterogeneous environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, S.; Fiddes, J.

    2013-12-01

    In mountainous topography, the difference in scale between atmospheric reanalyses (typically tens of kilometres) and relevant processes and phenomena near the Earth surface, such as permafrost or snow cover (meters to tens of meters) is most obvious. This contrast of scales is one of the major obstacles to using reanalysis data for the simulation of surface phenomena and to confronting reanalyses with independent observation. At the example of modelling permafrost in mountain areas (but simple to generalise to other phenomena and heterogeneous environments), we present and test methods against measurements for (A) scaling atmospheric data from the reanalysis to the ground level and (B) smart sampling of the heterogeneous landscape in order to set up a lumped model simulation that represents the high-resolution land surface. TopoSCALE (Part A, see http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/gmdd-6-3381-2013) is a scheme, which scales coarse-grid climate fields to fine-grid topography using pressure level data. In addition, it applies necessary topographic corrections e.g. those variables required for computation of radiation fields. This provides the necessary driving fields to the LSM. Tested against independent ground data, this scheme has been shown to improve the scaling and distribution of meteorological parameters in complex terrain, as compared to conventional methods, e.g. lapse rate based approaches. TopoSUB (Part B, see http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/gmd-5-1245-2012) is a surface pre-processor designed to sample a fine-grid domain (defined by a digital elevation model) along important topographical (or other) dimensions through a clustering scheme. This allows constructing a lumped model representing the main sources of fine-grid variability and applying a 1D LSM efficiently over large areas. Results can processed to derive (i) summary statistics at coarse-scale re-analysis grid resolution, (ii) high-resolution data fields spatialized to e.g., the fine-scale digital elevation

  5. Reconstruction of centennial-scale fluxes of chemical elements in the Australian coastal environment using seagrass archives

    KAUST Repository

    Serrano, Oscar; Davis, Grace; Lavery, Paul S.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Martinez-Cortizas, Antonio; Mateo, Miguel Angel; Masqué , Pere; Arias-Ortiz, Ariane; Rozaimi, Mohammad; Kendrick, Gary A.

    2015-01-01

    The study of a Posidonia australis sedimentary archive has provided a record of changes in element concentrations (Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, Co, As, Cu, Ni and S) over the last 3000 years in the Australian marine environment. Human-derived contamination in Oyster Harbor (SW Australia) started ~. 100 years ago (AD ~. 1900) and exponentially increased until present. This appears to be related to European colonization of Australia and the subsequent impact of human activities, namely mining, coal and metal production, and extensive agriculture. Two contamination periods of different magnitude have been identified: Expansion period (EXP, AD ~. 1900-1970) and Establishment period (EST, AD ~. 1970 to present). Enrichments of chemical elements with respect to baseline concentrations (in samples older than ~. 115 cal. years BP) were found for all elements studied in both periods, except for Ni, As and S. The highest enrichment factors were obtained for the EST period (ranging from 1.3-fold increase in Cu to 7.2-fold in Zn concentrations) compared to the EXP period (1.1-fold increase for Cu and Cr to 2.4-fold increase for Pb). Zinc, Pb, Mn and Co concentrations during both periods were 2- to 7-fold higher than baseline levels. This study demonstrates the value of Posidonia mats as long-term archives of element concentrations and trends in coastal ecosystems. We also provide preliminary evidence on the potential for Posidonia meadows to act as significant long-term biogeochemical sinks of chemical elements.

  6. Neurocognitive stages of spatial cognitive mapping measured during free exploration of a large-scale virtual environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, Markus; Snider, Joseph; Kaestner, Erik; Halgren, Eric; Poizner, Howard

    2015-02-01

    Using a novel, fully mobile virtual reality paradigm, we investigated the EEG correlates of spatial representations formed during unsupervised exploration. On day 1, subjects implicitly learned the location of 39 objects by exploring a room and popping bubbles that hid the objects. On day 2, they again popped bubbles in the same environment. In most cases, the objects hidden underneath the bubbles were in the same place as on day 1. However, a varying third of them were misplaced in each block. Subjects indicated their certainty that the object was in the same location as the day before. Compared with bubble pops revealing correctly placed objects, bubble pops revealing misplaced objects evoked a decreased negativity starting at 145 ms, with scalp topography consistent with generation in medial parietal cortex. There was also an increased negativity starting at 515 ms to misplaced objects, with scalp topography consistent with generation in inferior temporal cortex. Additionally, misplaced objects elicited an increase in frontal midline theta power. These findings suggest that the successive neurocognitive stages of processing allocentric space may include an initial template matching, integration of the object within its spatial cognitive map, and memory recall, analogous to the processing negativity N400 and theta that support verbal cognitive maps in humans. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Reconstruction of centennial-scale fluxes of chemical elements in the Australian coastal environment using seagrass archives

    KAUST Repository

    Serrano, Oscar

    2015-10-02

    The study of a Posidonia australis sedimentary archive has provided a record of changes in element concentrations (Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, Co, As, Cu, Ni and S) over the last 3000 years in the Australian marine environment. Human-derived contamination in Oyster Harbor (SW Australia) started ~. 100 years ago (AD ~. 1900) and exponentially increased until present. This appears to be related to European colonization of Australia and the subsequent impact of human activities, namely mining, coal and metal production, and extensive agriculture. Two contamination periods of different magnitude have been identified: Expansion period (EXP, AD ~. 1900-1970) and Establishment period (EST, AD ~. 1970 to present). Enrichments of chemical elements with respect to baseline concentrations (in samples older than ~. 115 cal. years BP) were found for all elements studied in both periods, except for Ni, As and S. The highest enrichment factors were obtained for the EST period (ranging from 1.3-fold increase in Cu to 7.2-fold in Zn concentrations) compared to the EXP period (1.1-fold increase for Cu and Cr to 2.4-fold increase for Pb). Zinc, Pb, Mn and Co concentrations during both periods were 2- to 7-fold higher than baseline levels. This study demonstrates the value of Posidonia mats as long-term archives of element concentrations and trends in coastal ecosystems. We also provide preliminary evidence on the potential for Posidonia meadows to act as significant long-term biogeochemical sinks of chemical elements.

  8. The Sense of Agency Scale: A Measure of Consciously Perceived Control over One's Mind, Body, and the Immediate Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Tapal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The sense of agency (SoA is defined as “the registration that I am the initiator of my actions.” Both “direct” and “indirect” measurement of SoA has focused on specific contextualized perceptual events, however it has also been demonstrated that “higher level” cognitions seemingly affect the SoA. We designed a measure of person's general, context-free beliefs about having core agency—the Sense of Agency Scale (SoAS. An exploratory (EFA and confirmatory (CFA factor analyses on samples of 236 (Study 1 and 408 (Study 2 participants yielded two correlated factors we labeled Sense of Positive Agency (SoPA and Sense of Negative Agency (SoNA. The construct validity of SoAS is demonstrated by its low-to-moderate correlations with conceptually relevant tools and by the moderate-strong relationship between the SoNA subscale and obsessive-compulsive (OC symptoms (r = 0.35. We conclude that the SoAS seems to isolate people's general beliefs in their agency from their perceived success in obtaining outcomes.

  9. Investigation of scaling characteristics for defining design environments due to transient ground winds and near-field, nonlinear acoustic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    In order to establish a foundation of scaling laws for the highly nonlinear waves associated with the launch vehicle, the basic knowledge of the relationships among the paramaters pertinent to the energy dissipation process associated with the propagation of nonlinear pressure waves in thermoviscous media is required. The problem of interest is to experimentally investigate the temporal and spacial velocity profiles of fluid flow in a 3-inch open-end pipe of various lengths, produced by the propagation of nonlinear pressure waves for various diaphragm burst pressures of a pressure wave generator. As a result, temporal and spacial characteristics of wave propagation for a parametric set of nonlinear pressure waves in the pipe containing air under atmospheric conditions were determined. Velocity measurements at five sections along the pipes of up to 210 ft. in length were made with hot-film anemometers for five pressure waves produced by a piston. The piston was derived with diaphragm burst pressures at 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 psi in the driver chamber of the pressure wave generator.

  10. The effects on safety, time consumption and environment of large scale use of roundabouts in an urban area: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydén, C; Várhelyi, A

    2000-01-01

    An experiment with small roundabouts-as speed reducing measures-was carried out in a Swedish city. The purpose of the study was to test the large scale and long term effects of the roundabouts. The results showed that the roundabouts reduced the speed considerably at the junctions and on links between roundabouts. The lateral displacement the roundabout forces the driver to has a great importance for the speed of approaching cars to a roundabout. The speed-reducing effect is large already at a 2 m deflection. A larger deflection does not result in a larger effect. Conflict studies indicated an overall decrease in accident risk by 44%. Vulnerable road-users' risk was reduced significantly, while there was no reduction for car occupants. There is a relation between the reduction of approach speed and the reduction of injury accident risk. The time consumption at a time operated signal was reduced heavily by the instalment of a roundabout at a signalised intersection. On average, emissions (CO and NOx) at roundabouts replacing non-signalised junctions increased by between 4 and 6%, while a roundabout replacing a signalised intersection led to a reduction by between 20 and 29%. The noise level was reduced at junctions that were provided with roundabout. Car drivers were less positive to the roundabouts than bicyclists. In the long term, the unchanged roundabouts worked almost as good as they did shortly after the rebuilding. The study showed that details in the design are of decisive importance for road-users' safety. Special attention has to be paid to the situation of bicyclists. The transition between the cycle path/lane and the junction has to be designed with care-the bicyclists should be integrated with motorised traffic before they enter the roundabout. There should be only one car lane both on the approach, in the circulating area and on the exit. The size of the roundabout shall be as small as possible.

  11. Quantitative analysis on the environmental impact of large-scale water transfer project on water resource area in a changing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Yan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The interbasin long-distance water transfer project is key support for the reasonable allocation of water resources in a large-scale area, which can optimize the spatio-temporal change of water resources to secure the amount of water available. Large-scale water transfer projects have a deep influence on ecosystems; besides, global climate change causes uncertainty and additive effect of the environmental impact of water transfer projects. Therefore, how to assess the ecological and environmental impact of megaprojects in both construction and operation phases has triggered a lot of attention. The water-output area of the western route of China's South-North Water Transfer Project was taken as the study area of the present article. According to relevant evaluation principles and on the basis of background analysis, we identified the influencing factors and established the diagnostic index system. The climate-hydrology-ecology coupled simulation model was used to simulate and predict ecological and environmental responses of the water resource area in a changing environment. The emphasis of impact evaluation was placed on the reservoir construction and operation scheduling, representative river corridors and wetlands, natural reserves and the water environment below the dam sites. In the end, an overall evaluation of the comprehensive influence of the project was conducted. The research results were as follows: the environmental impacts of the western route project in the water resource area were concentrated on two aspects: the permanent destruction of vegetation during the phase of dam construction and river impoundment, and the significant influence on the hydrological situation of natural river corridor after the implementation of water extraction. The impact on local climate, vegetation ecology, typical wetlands, natural reserves and the water environment of river basins below the dam sites was small.

  12. Reconstructing the deposition environment and long-term fate of Chernobyl 137Cs at the floodplain scale through mobile gamma spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varley, Adam; Tyler, Andrew; Bondar, Yuri; Hosseini, Ali; Zabrotski, Viachaslau; Dowdall, Mark

    2018-09-01

    Cs-137 is considered to be the most significant anthropogenic contributor to human dose and presents a particularly difficult remediation challenge after a dispersal following nuclear incident. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant meltdown in April 1986 represents the largest nuclear accident in history and released over 80 PBq of 137 Cs into the environment. As a result, much of the land in close proximity to Chernobyl, which includes the Polessie State Radioecology Reserve in Belarus, remains highly contaminated with 137 Cs to such an extent they remain uninhabitable. Whilst there is a broad scale understanding of the depositional patterns within and beyond the exclusion zone, detailed mapping of the distribution is often limited. New developments in mobile gamma spectrometry provide the opportunity to map the fallout of 137 Cs and begin to reconstruct the depositional environment and the long-term behaviour of 137 Cs in the environment. Here, full gamma spectrum analysis using algorithms based on the peak-valley ratio derived from Monte Carlo simulations are used to estimate the total 137 Cs deposition and its depth distribution in the soil. The results revealed a pattern of 137 Cs distribution consistent with the deposition occurring at a time of flooding, which is validated by review of satellite imagery acquired at similar times of the year. The results were also consistent with systematic burial of the fallout 137 Cs by annual flooding events. These results were validated by sediment cores collected along a transect across the flood plain. The true merit of the approach was confirmed by exposing new insights into the spatial distribution and long term fate of 137 Cs across the floodplain. Such systematic patterns of behaviour are likely to be fundamental to the understanding of the radioecological behaviour of 137 Cs whilst also providing a tracer for quantifying the ecological controls on sediment movement and deposition at a landscape scale. Copyright © 2018

  13. Quantitative analysis on the environmental impact of large-scale water transfer project on water resource area in a changing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, D. H.; Wang, H.; Li, H. H.; Wang, G.; Qin, T. L.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, L. H.

    2012-08-01

    The interbasin long-distance water transfer project is key support for the reasonable allocation of water resources in a large-scale area, which can optimize the spatio-temporal change of water resources to secure the amount of water available. Large-scale water transfer projects have a deep influence on ecosystems; besides, global climate change causes uncertainty and additive effect of the environmental impact of water transfer projects. Therefore, how to assess the ecological and environmental impact of megaprojects in both construction and operation phases has triggered a lot of attention. The water-output area of the western route of China's South-North Water Transfer Project was taken as the study area of the present article. According to relevant evaluation principles and on the basis of background analysis, we identified the influencing factors and established the diagnostic index system. The climate-hydrology-ecology coupled simulation model was used to simulate and predict ecological and environmental responses of the water resource area in a changing environment. The emphasis of impact evaluation was placed on the reservoir construction and operation scheduling, representative river corridors and wetlands, natural reserves and the water environment below the dam sites. In the end, an overall evaluation of the comprehensive influence of the project was conducted. The research results were as follows: the environmental impacts of the western route project in the water resource area were concentrated on two aspects: the permanent destruction of vegetation during the phase of dam construction and river impoundment, and the significant influence on the hydrological situation of natural river corridor after the implementation of water extraction. The impact on local climate, vegetation ecology, typical wetlands, natural reserves and the water environment of river basins below the dam sites was small.

  14. Composite and case study analyses of the large-scale environments associated with West Pacific Polar and subtropical vertical jet superposition events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handlos, Zachary J.

    Though considerable research attention has been devoted to examination of the Northern Hemispheric polar and subtropical jet streams, relatively little has been directed toward understanding the circumstances that conspire to produce the relatively rare vertical superposition of these usually separate features. This dissertation investigates the structure and evolution of large-scale environments associated with jet superposition events in the northwest Pacific. An objective identification scheme, using NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis 1 data, is employed to identify all jet superpositions in the west Pacific (30-40°N, 135-175°E) for boreal winters (DJF) between 1979/80 - 2009/10. The analysis reveals that environments conducive to west Pacific jet superposition share several large-scale features usually associated with East Asian Winter Monsoon (EAWM) northerly cold surges, including the presence of an enhanced Hadley Cell-like circulation within the jet entrance region. It is further demonstrated that several EAWM indices are statistically significantly correlated with jet superposition frequency in the west Pacific. The life cycle of EAWM cold surges promotes interaction between tropical convection and internal jet dynamics. Low potential vorticity (PV), high theta e tropical boundary layer air, exhausted by anomalous convection in the west Pacific lower latitudes, is advected poleward towards the equatorward side of the jet in upper tropospheric isentropic layers resulting in anomalous anticyclonic wind shear that accelerates the jet. This, along with geostrophic cold air advection in the left jet entrance region that drives the polar tropopause downward through the jet core, promotes the development of the deep, vertical PV wall characteristic of superposed jets. West Pacific jet superpositions preferentially form within an environment favoring the aforementioned characteristics regardless of EAWM seasonal strength. Post-superposition, it is shown that the west Pacific

  15. The relationship between social, policy and physical venue features and social cohesion on condom use for pregnancy prevention among sex workers: a safer indoor work environment scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Putu; Shoveller, Jean; Dobrer, Sabina; Ogilvie, Gina; Montaner, Julio; Chettiar, Jill; Shannon, Kate

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to report on a newly developed Safer Indoor Work Environmental Scale that characterises the social, policy and physical features of indoor venues and social cohesion; and using this scale, longitudinally evaluate the association between these features on sex workers' (SWs') condom use for pregnancy prevention. Drawing on a prospective open cohort of female SWs working in indoor venues, a newly developed Safer Indoor Work Environment Scale was used to build six multivariable models with generalised estimating equations (GEE), to determine the independent effects of social, policy and physical venue-based features and social cohesion on condom use. Of 588 indoor SWs, 63.6% used condoms for pregnancy prevention in the last month. In multivariable GEE analysis, the following venue-based features were significantly correlated with barrier contraceptive use for pregnancy prevention: managerial practices and venue safety policies (adjusted OR (AOR)=1.09; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.17), access to sexual and reproductive health services/supplies (AOR=1.10; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.20), access to drug harm reduction (AOR=1.13; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.28) and social cohesion among workers (AOR=1.05; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.07). Access to security features was marginally associated with condom use (AOR=1.13; 95% CI 0.99 to 1.29). The findings of the current study highlight how work environment and social cohesion among SWs are related to improved condom use. Given global calls for the decriminalisation of sex work, and potential legislative reforms in Canada, this study points to the critical need for new institutional arrangements (eg, legal and regulatory frameworks; labour standards) to support safer sex workplaces. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Advanced Fabrication Techniques for Precisely Controlled Micro and Nano Scale Environments for Complex Tissue Regeneration and Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Benjamin

    drug delivery nanospheres) can provide high performance, functional materials that also serve as effective tissue forming 3D environments. Both general science knowledge and the translational potential of tissue engineered constructs were advanced by original contributions to the fields for tissue engineering and orthopedic medicine. The most original advancement of general science comes from a successful combination of advanced nanomaterials and biomaterials with existing 3D printing and CAD design to support multiple types of cells and tissues. Future translation of these technologies was advanced due to the highly functional nature of these constructs (i.e. mechanical and hydrodynamic characteristics). Future work would involve more evaluation of vascular neogenesis, small animal models to evaluate bioactivity and biocompatibility and large clinically relevant animals to measure gross tissue formation and biomechanical performance.

  17. A ubiquitous method for street scale spatial data collection and analysis in challenging urban environments: mapping health risks using spatial video in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Andrew; Blackburn, Jason K; Widmer, Jocelyn M; Morris, J Glenn

    2013-04-15

    Fine-scale and longitudinal geospatial analysis of health risks in challenging urban areas is often limited by the lack of other spatial layers even if case data are available. Underlying population counts, residential context, and associated causative factors such as standing water or trash locations are often missing unless collected through logistically difficult, and often expensive, surveys. The lack of spatial context also hinders the interpretation of results and designing intervention strategies structured around analytical insights. This paper offers a ubiquitous spatial data collection approach using a spatial video that can be used to improve analysis and involve participatory collaborations. A case study will be used to illustrate this approach with three health risks mapped at the street scale for a coastal community in Haiti. Spatial video was used to collect street and building scale information, including standing water, trash accumulation, presence of dogs, cohort specific population characteristics, and other cultural phenomena. These data were digitized into Google Earth and then coded and analyzed in a GIS using kernel density and spatial filtering approaches. The concentrations of these risks around area schools which are sometimes sources of diarrheal disease infection because of the high concentration of children and variable sanitary practices will show the utility of the method. In addition schools offer potential locations for cholera education interventions. Previously unavailable fine scale health risk data vary in concentration across the town, with some schools being proximate to greater concentrations of the mapped risks. The spatial video is also used to validate coded data and location specific risks within these "hotspots". Spatial video is a tool that can be used in any environment to improve local area health analysis and intervention. The process is rapid and can be repeated in study sites through time to track spatio

  18. A basin-scale approach for assessing water resources in a semiarid environment: San Diego region, California and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Flint

    2012-10-01

    the coastal plain aquifer to the Pacific Ocean, is calculated to be approximately 50 million cubic meters per year.

    The area-scale assessment of water resources highlights several hydrologic features of the San Diego region. Groundwater recharge is episodic; the Basin Characterization Model output shows that 90 percent of simulated recharge occurred during 3 percent of the 1982–2009 period. The groundwater aquifer may also be quite permeable. A reconnaissance-level groundwater flow model for the San Diego River basin was used to check the water budget estimates, and the basic interaction of the surface-water and groundwater system, and the flow values, were found to be reasonable. Horizontal hydraulic conductivity values of the volcanic and metavolcanic bedrock in San Diego region range from 1 to 10 m per day. Overall, results establish an initial hydrologic assessment formulated on the basis of sparse hydrologic data. The described flow variability, extrapolation, and unique characteristics represent a realistic view of current (2012 hydrologic understanding for the San Diego region.

  19. Validation and Scaling of Soil Moisture in a Semi-Arid Environment: SMAP Validation Experiment 2015 (SMAPVEX15)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliander, Andreas; Cosh, Michael H.; Misra, Sidharth; Jackson, Thomas J.; Crow, Wade T.; Chan, Steven; Bindlish, Rajat; Chae, Chun; Holifield Collins, Chandra; Yueh, Simon H.

    2017-01-01

    PALS soil moisture was also compared to SMAP and in situ soil moisture at the 36-km scale, which is the SMAP grid size for the standard product. PALS and SMAP soil moistures were found to be very similar owing to the close match of the brightness temperature measurements and the use of a common soil moisture retrieval algorithm. Spatial heterogeneity, which was identified using the high-resolution PALS soil moisture and the intensive ground sampling, also contributed to differences between the soil moisture estimates. In general, discrepancies found between the L-band soil moisture estimates and the 5-cm depth in situ measurements require methodologies to mitigate the impact on their interpretations in soil moisture validation and algorithm development. Specifically, the metrics computed for the SMAP radiometer-based soil moisture product over WGEW will include errors resulting from rainfall, particularly during the monsoon season when the spatial distribution of soil moisture is especially heterogeneous.

  20. Qualidade de ambientes de creches: uma escala de avaliação Quality of day care center environment: a rating scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Noronha de Souza

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo apresenta a análise de conteúdo da Infant/Toddler Environment Rating Scale-ITERS. Duas especialistas brasileiras em educação infantil analisaram a pertinência de cada um dos 35 itens da ITERS para avaliar a qualidade de ambientes educacionais oferecidos para crianças de 0 a 30 meses. Considerando-se os 70 itens avaliados, verificou-se que em 69 houve indicação de permanência e apenas uma sugestão de exclusão. As indicações de permanência dos itens foram classificadas nas seguintes categorias: Permanência sem sugestões de alterações (56%; Permanência com sugestão de adequação de termos, de materiais ou de situações (19%; Permanência com sugestão de acréscimo de esclarecimentos (11%; Permanência com alterações de estrutura ou de conteúdo (10%. O alto índice de acordo obtido entre as juízas (97% quanto à permanência de 34 itens sugere a pertinência da ITERS, representada pelos 35 itens, para avaliar a qualidade do atendimento oferecido em ambientes educacionais coletivos em nosso contexto.This study presents an analysis of content of the Infant / Toddler Environment Rating Scale - ITERS. Two Brazilian experts in child education analyzed the pertinence of each of the 35 items of the ITERS to assess the quality of educational environments offered to children 0 - 30 months years old. Considering the 70 items assessed, it was verified that in 69 of them there was indication of permanency, and only one suggestion of exclusion. The indications of permanency of the items were thus classified: permanency without suggestions of alterations (56%; permanency with suggestion of adaptation of terms, materials or situations (19%; permanency with suggestion of adding clarifications (11%; permanency with structural or content alterations (10%. The high index of agreement obtained between the two experts (97% as to the permanency of 34 items, suggests the pertinence of the ITERS, represented by the 35 items, to assess

  1. Patterns of species richness and the center of diversity in modern Indo-Pacific larger foraminifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förderer, Meena; Rödder, Dennis; Langer, Martin R

    2018-05-29

    Symbiont-bearing Larger Benthic Foraminifera (LBF) are ubiquitous components of shallow tropical and subtropical environments and contribute substantially to carbonaceous reef and shelf sediments. Climate change is dramatically affecting carbonate producing organisms and threatens the diversity and structural integrity of coral reef ecosystems. Recent invertebrate and vertebrate surveys have identified the Coral Triangle as the planet's richest center of marine life delineating the region as a top priority for conservation. We compiled and analyzed extensive occurrence records for 68 validly recognized species of LBF from the Indian and Pacific Ocean, established individual range maps and applied Minimum Convex Polygon (MCP) and Species Distribution Model (SDM) methodologies to create the first ocean-wide species richness maps. SDM output was further used for visualizing latitudinal and longitudinal diversity gradients. Our findings provide strong support for assigning the tropical Central Indo-Pacific as the world's species-richest marine region with the Central Philippines emerging as the bullseye of LBF diversity. Sea surface temperature and nutrient content were identified as the most influential environmental constraints exerting control over the distribution of LBF. Our findings contribute to the completion of worldwide research on tropical marine biodiversity patterns and the identification of targeting centers for conservation efforts.

  2. Is a larger refuge always better? Dispersal and dose in pesticide resistance evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Daisuke; Yamanaka, Takehiko; Sudo, Masaaki; Andow, David A

    2017-06-01

    The evolution of resistance against pesticides is an important problem of modern agriculture. The high-dose/refuge strategy, which divides the landscape into treated and nontreated (refuge) patches, has proven effective at delaying resistance evolution. However, theoretical understanding is still incomplete, especially for combinations of limited dispersal and partially recessive resistance. We reformulate a two-patch model based on the Comins model and derive a simple quadratic approximation to analyze the effects of limited dispersal, refuge size, and dominance for high efficacy treatments on the rate of evolution. When a small but substantial number of heterozygotes can survive in the treated patch, a larger refuge always reduces the rate of resistance evolution. However, when dominance is small enough, the evolutionary dynamics in the refuge population, which is indirectly driven by migrants from the treated patch, mainly describes the resistance evolution in the landscape. In this case, for small refuges, increasing the refuge size will increase the rate of resistance evolution. Our analysis distils major driving forces from the model, and can provide a framework for understanding directional selection in source-sink environments. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. An integrated approach coupling physically based models and probabilistic method to assess quantitatively landslide susceptibility at different scale: application to different geomorphological environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandromme, Rosalie; Thiéry, Yannick; Sedan, Olivier; Bernardie, Séverine

    2016-04-01

    Landslide hazard assessment is the estimation of a target area where landslides of a particular type, volume, runout and intensity may occur within a given period. The first step to analyze landslide hazard consists in assessing the spatial and temporal failure probability (when the information is available, i.e. susceptibility assessment). Two types of approach are generally recommended to achieve this goal: (i) qualitative approach (i.e. inventory based methods and knowledge data driven methods) and (ii) quantitative approach (i.e. data-driven methods or deterministic physically based methods). Among quantitative approaches, deterministic physically based methods (PBM) are generally used at local and/or site-specific scales (1:5,000-1:25,000 and >1:5,000, respectively). The main advantage of these methods is the calculation of probability of failure (safety factor) following some specific environmental conditions. For some models it is possible to integrate the land-uses and climatic change. At the opposite, major drawbacks are the large amounts of reliable and detailed data (especially materials type, their thickness and the geotechnical parameters heterogeneity over a large area) and the fact that only shallow landslides are taking into account. This is why they are often used at site-specific scales (> 1:5,000). Thus, to take into account (i) materials' heterogeneity , (ii) spatial variation of physical parameters, (iii) different landslide types, the French Geological Survey (i.e. BRGM) has developed a physically based model (PBM) implemented in a GIS environment. This PBM couples a global hydrological model (GARDENIA®) including a transient unsaturated/saturated hydrological component with a physically based model computing the stability of slopes (ALICE®, Assessment of Landslides Induced by Climatic Events) based on the Morgenstern-Price method for any slip surface. The variability of mechanical parameters is handled by Monte Carlo approach. The

  4. Nano-scale topography of bearing surface in advanced alumina/zirconia hip joint before and after severe exposure in water vapor environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzotti, Giuseppe; Saito, Takuma; Padeletti, Giuseppina; Cossari, Pierluigi; Yamamoto, Kengo

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a surface morphology assessment with nanometer scale resolution on femoral heads made of an advanced zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA) composite. Femoral heads were characterized to a degree of statistical accuracy in the as-received state and after exposures up to 100 h in severe vapor-moist environment. Surface screening was made using an atomic force microscope (AFM). Scanning was systematically repeated on portions of surface as large as several tens of micrometers, randomly selected on the head surface, to achieve sufficient statistical reliability without lowering the nanometer-scale spatial resolution of the roughness measurement. No significant difference was found in the recorded values of surface roughness after environmental exposure (at 134 degrees C, under 2 bar), which was always comparable to that of the as-received head. Surface roughness safely lay <10 nm after environmental exposures up to 100 h, which corresponded to an exposure time in vivo of several human lifetimes (i.e., according to an experimentally derived thermal activation energy). In addition, the roughness results were significantly (about one order of magnitude) lower as compared to those recorded on femoral heads made of monolithic zirconia tested under the same conditions. (c) 2010 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Measuring Co-Presence and Social Presence in Virtual Environments - Psychometric Construction of a German Scale for a Fear of Public Speaking Scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeschl, Sandra; Doering, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) applications use high levels of fidelity in order to produce high levels of presence and thereby elicit an emotional response for the user (like fear for phobia treatment). State of research shows mixed results for the correlation between anxiety and presence in virtual reality exposure, with differing results depending on specific anxiety disorders. A positive correlation for anxiety and presence for social anxiety disorder is not proven up to now. One reason might be that plausibility of the simulation, namely including key triggers for social anxiety (for example verbal and non-verbal behavior of virtual agents that reflects potentially negative human evaluation) might not be acknowledged in current presence questionnaires. A German scale for measuring co-presence and social presence for virtual reality (VR) fear of public speaking scenarios was developed based on a translation and adaption of existing co-presence and social presence questionnaires. A sample of N = 151 students rated co-presence and social presence after using a fear of public speaking application. Four correlated factors were derived by item- and principle axis factor analysis (Promax rotation), representing the presenter's reaction to virtual agents, the reactions of the virtual agents as perceived by the presenter, impression of interaction possibilities, and (co-)presence of other people in the virtual environment. The scale developed can be used as a starting point for future research and test construction for VR applications with a social context.

  6. Multimode Resource-Constrained Multiple Project Scheduling Problem under Fuzzy Random Environment and Its Application to a Large Scale Hydropower Construction Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiuping

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an extension of the multimode resource-constrained project scheduling problem for a large scale construction project where multiple parallel projects and a fuzzy random environment are considered. By taking into account the most typical goals in project management, a cost/weighted makespan/quality trade-off optimization model is constructed. To deal with the uncertainties, a hybrid crisp approach is used to transform the fuzzy random parameters into fuzzy variables that are subsequently defuzzified using an expected value operator with an optimistic-pessimistic index. Then a combinatorial-priority-based hybrid particle swarm optimization algorithm is developed to solve the proposed model, where the combinatorial particle swarm optimization and priority-based particle swarm optimization are designed to assign modes to activities and to schedule activities, respectively. Finally, the results and analysis of a practical example at a large scale hydropower construction project are presented to demonstrate the practicality and efficiency of the proposed model and optimization method. PMID:24550708

  7. Nitrogen and phosphorus availabilities interact to modulate leaf trait scaling relationships across six plant functional types in a controlled-environment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous, Kristine Y; O'Sullivan, Odhran S; Zaragoza-Castells, Joana; Bloomfield, Keith J; Negrini, A Clarissa A; Meir, Patrick; Turnbull, Matthew H; Griffin, Kevin L; Atkin, Owen K

    2017-08-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) have key roles in leaf metabolism, resulting in a strong coupling of chemical composition traits to metabolic rates in field-based studies. However, in such studies, it is difficult to disentangle the effects of nutrient supply per se on trait-trait relationships. Our study assessed how high and low N (5 mM and 0.4 mM, respectively) and P (1 mM and 2 μM, respectively) supply in 37 species from six plant functional types (PTFs) affected photosynthesis (A) and respiration (R) (in darkness and light) in a controlled environment. Low P supply increased scaling exponents (slopes) of area-based log-log A-N or R-N relationships when N supply was not limiting, whereas there was no P effect under low N supply. By contrast, scaling exponents of A-P and R-P relationships were altered by P and N supply. Neither R : A nor light inhibition of leaf R was affected by nutrient supply. Light inhibition was 26% across nutrient treatments; herbaceous species exhibited a lower degree of light inhibition than woody species. Because N and P supply modulates leaf trait-trait relationships, the next generation of terrestrial biosphere models may need to consider how limitations in N and P availability affect trait-trait relationships when predicting carbon exchange. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Multimode resource-constrained multiple project scheduling problem under fuzzy random environment and its application to a large scale hydropower construction project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiuping; Feng, Cuiying

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an extension of the multimode resource-constrained project scheduling problem for a large scale construction project where multiple parallel projects and a fuzzy random environment are considered. By taking into account the most typical goals in project management, a cost/weighted makespan/quality trade-off optimization model is constructed. To deal with the uncertainties, a hybrid crisp approach is used to transform the fuzzy random parameters into fuzzy variables that are subsequently defuzzified using an expected value operator with an optimistic-pessimistic index. Then a combinatorial-priority-based hybrid particle swarm optimization algorithm is developed to solve the proposed model, where the combinatorial particle swarm optimization and priority-based particle swarm optimization are designed to assign modes to activities and to schedule activities, respectively. Finally, the results and analysis of a practical example at a large scale hydropower construction project are presented to demonstrate the practicality and efficiency of the proposed model and optimization method.

  9. Why borrowers pay premiums to larger lenders: Empirical evidence from sovereign syndicated loans

    OpenAIRE

    Hallak, Issam

    2002-01-01

    All other terms being equal (e.g. seniority), syndicated loan contracts provide larger lending compensations (in percentage points) to institutions funding larger amounts. This paper explores empirically the motivation for such a price design on a sample of sovereign syndicated loans in the period 1990-1997. I find strong evidence that a larger premium is associated with higher renegotiation probability and information asymmetries. It hardly has any impact on the number of lenders though. Thi...

  10. Molecular evidence for Lessepsian invasion of soritids (larger symbiont bearing benthic foraminifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gily Merkado

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean Sea is considered as one of the hotspots of marine bioinvasions, largely due to the influx of tropical species migrating through the Suez Canal, so-called Lessepsian migrants. Several cases of Lessepsian migration have been documented recently, however, little is known about the ecological characteristics of the migrating species and their aptitude to colonize the new areas. This study focused on Red Sea soritids, larger symbiont-bearing benthic foraminifera (LBF that are indicative of tropical and subtropical environments and were recently found in the Israeli coast of the Eastern Mediterranean. We combined molecular phylogenetic analyses of soritids and their algal symbionts as well as network analysis of Sorites orbiculus Forskål to compare populations from the Gulf of Elat (northern Red Sea and from a known hotspot in Shikmona (northern Israel that consists of a single population of S. orbiculus. Our phylogenetic analyses show that all specimens found in Shikmona are genetically identical to a population of S. orbiculus living on a similar shallow water pebbles habitat in the Gulf of Elat. Our analyses also show that the symbionts found in Shikmona and Elat soritids belong to the Symbiodinium clade F5, which is common in the Red Sea and also present in the Indian Ocean and Caribbean Sea. Our study therefore provides the first genetic and ecological evidences that indicate that modern population of soritids found on the Mediterranean coast of Israel is probably Lessepsian, and is less likely the descendant of a native ancient Mediterranean species.

  11. Extrapolation of contrail investigations by LIDAR to larger scale measurements. Analysis and calibration of CCD camera and satellite images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussmann, R.; Homburg, F.; Freudenthaler, V.; Jaeger, H. [Frauenhofer Inst. fuer Atmosphaerische Umweltforschung, Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The CCD image of a persistent contrail and the coincident LIDAR measurement are presented. To extrapolate the LIDAR derived optical thickness to the video field of view an anisotropy correction and calibration has to be performed. Observed bright halo components result from highly regular oriented hexagonal crystals with sizes of 200 {mu}m-2 mm. This explained by measured ambient humidities below the formation threshold of natural cirrus. Optical thickness from LIDAR shows significant discrepancies to the result from coincident NOAA-14 data. Errors result from anisotropy correction and parameterized relations between AVHRR channels and optical properties. (author) 28 refs.

  12. The use of wire mesh reactors to characterise solid fuels and provide improved understanding of larger scale thermochemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Gao; Long Wu; Nigel Paterson; Denis Dugwell; Rafael Kandiyoti [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Most reaction products from the pyrolysis and the early stages of gasification of solid fuels are chemically reactive. Secondary reactions between primary products and with heated fuel particles tend to affect the final product distributions. The extents and pathways of these secondary reactions are determined mostly by the heating rate and the size and shape of the reaction zone and of the sample itself. The wire-mesh reactor (WMR) configuration discussed in this paper allows products to be separated from reactants and enables the rapid quenching of products, allowing suppression of secondary reactions. This paper presents an overview of the development of wire-mesh reactors, describing several diverse applications. The first of these involves an analysis of the behaviour of injectant coal particles in blast furnace tuyeres and raceways. The data has offered explanations for helping to understand why, at high coal injection rates, problems can be encountered in the operation of blast furnaces. Another project focused on determining the extents of pyrolysis and gasification reactivities of a suite of Chinese coals under intense reaction conditions. The results showed variations in coal reactivities that were related to the C content. In another project demonstrating the versatility of the WMR configuration, the high pressure version of the reactor is being used for developing the Zero Emission Coal Alliance (ZECA) concept. The work aims to examine and explain the chemical and transport mechanisms underlying the pyrolysis, hydropyrolysis and hydrogasification stages of the process. The results obtained till date have shown the effects of the operating conditions on the extent of hydropyrolysis/gasification of a bituminous coal and two lignites. The lignites were more reactive than the coal, and the data suggests that high levels of conversion will be achievable under the anticipated ZECA process conditions. 29 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Thinking outside the box: effects of modes larger than the survey on matter power spectrum covariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putter, Roland de; Wagner, Christian; Verde, Licia; Mena, Olga; Percival, Will J.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate power spectrum (or correlation function) covariance matrices are a crucial requirement for cosmological parameter estimation from large scale structure surveys. In order to minimize reliance on computationally expensive mock catalogs, it is important to have a solid analytic understanding of the different components that make up a covariance matrix. Considering the matter power spectrum covariance matrix, it has recently been found that there is a potentially dominant effect on mildly non-linear scales due to power in modes of size equal to and larger than the survey volume. This beat coupling effect has been derived analytically in perturbation theory and while it has been tested with simulations, some questions remain unanswered. Moreover, there is an additional effect of these large modes, which has so far not been included in analytic studies, namely the effect on the estimated average density which enters the power spectrum estimate. In this article, we work out analytic, perturbation theory based expressions including both the beat coupling and this local average effect and we show that while, when isolated, beat coupling indeed causes large excess covariance in agreement with the literature, in a realistic scenario this is compensated almost entirely by the local average effect, leaving only ∼ 10% of the excess. We test our analytic expressions by comparison to a suite of large N-body simulations, using both full simulation boxes and subboxes thereof to study cases without beat coupling, with beat coupling and with both beat coupling and the local average effect. For the variances, we find excellent agreement with the analytic expressions for k −1 at z = 0.5, while the correlation coefficients agree to beyond k = 0.4 hMpc −1 . As expected, the range of agreement increases towards higher redshift and decreases slightly towards z = 0. We finish by including the large-mode effects in a full covariance matrix description for arbitrary survey

  14. 29 CFR 779.232 - Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.232 Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise. (a) In other instances, franchise...

  15. Great tits provided with ad libitum food lay larger eggs when exposed to colder temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaper, S.V.; Visser, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    The amount of nutrients deposited into a bird egg varies both between and within clutches of the same female. Larger eggs enhance offspring traits, but as a tradeoff, laying large eggs also infers energetic costs to the female. Income breeders usually lay larger eggs later in the season, when

  16. The genetic architecture of novel trophic specialists: larger effect sizes are associated with exceptional oral jaw diversification in a pupfish adaptive radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christopher H; Erickson, Priscilla A; Miller, Craig T

    2017-01-01

    The genetic architecture of adaptation is fundamental to understanding the mechanisms and constraints governing diversification. However, most case studies focus on loss of complex traits or parallel speciation in similar environments. It is still unclear how the genetic architecture of these local adaptive processes compares to the architecture of evolutionary transitions contributing to morphological and ecological novelty. Here, we identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) between two trophic specialists in an excellent case study for examining the origins of ecological novelty: a sympatric radiation of pupfishes endemic to San Salvador Island, Bahamas, containing a large-jawed scale-eater and a short-jawed molluscivore with a skeletal nasal protrusion. These specialized niches and trophic traits are unique among over 2000 related species. Measurements of the fitness landscape on San Salvador demonstrate multiple fitness peaks and a larger fitness valley isolating the scale-eater from the putative ancestral intermediate phenotype of the generalist, suggesting that more large-effect QTL should contribute to its unique phenotype. We evaluated this prediction using an F2 intercross between these specialists. We present the first linkage map for pupfishes and detect significant QTL for sex and eight skeletal traits. Large-effect QTL contributed more to enlarged scale-eater jaws than the molluscivore nasal protrusion, consistent with predictions from the adaptive landscape. The microevolutionary genetic architecture of large-effect QTL for oral jaws parallels the exceptional diversification rates of oral jaws within the San Salvador radiation observed over macroevolutionary timescales and may have facilitated exceptional trophic novelty in this system. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOCIAL, POLICY AND PHYSICAL VENUE FEATURES AND SOCIAL COHESION ON CONDOM USE FOR PREGNANCY PREVENTION AMONG SEX WORKERS: A SAFER INDOOR WORK ENVIRONMENT SCALE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Putu; Shoveller, Jean; Dobrer, Sabina; Ogilvie, Gina; Montaner, Julio; Chettiar, Jill; Shannon, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aims to: report on a newly developed ‘Safer Indoor Work Environmental Scale’ that characterizes the social, policy and physical features of indoor venues and social cohesion; and using this scale, longitudinally evaluate the association between these features on sex workers’ (SWs’) condom use for pregnancy prevention. Methods Drawing on a prospective open cohort of female SWs working in indoor venues, a newly-developed ‘Safer Indoor Work Environment Scale’ was used to build six multivariable models with generalized estimating equations (GEE), to determine the independent effects of social, policy and venue-based features and social cohesion on condom use. Results Of 588 indoor SWs, 63.6% used condoms for pregnancy prevention in the last month. In multivariable GEE analysis, the following venue-based features were significantly correlated with barrier contraceptive use for pregnancy prevention: managerial practices and venue safety policies (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)=1.09; 95% Confidence Interval (95%CI) 1.01–1.17) access to sexual and reproductive health services/supplies (AOR=1.10; 95%CI 1.00–1.20) access to drug harm reduction (AOR=1.13; 95%CI 1.01–1.28), and social cohesion among workers (AOR=1.05; 95%CI 1.03–1.07). Access to security features was marginally associated with condom use (AOR=1.13; 95%CI 0.99–1.29). Conclusion The findings of the current study highlight how work environment and social cohesion among SWs are related to improved condom use. Given global calls for the decriminalization of sex work, and potential legislative reforms in Canada, this study points to the critical need for new institutional arrangements (e.g., legal and regulatory frameworks; labour standards) to support safer sex workplaces. PMID:25678713

  18. The influence of walkability on broader mobility for Canadian middle aged and older adults: An examination of Walk Score™ and the Mobility Over Varied Environments Scale (MOVES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Jana A; Winters, Meghan; Clarke, Philippa J; Ste-Marie, Nathalie; McKay, Heather A

    2017-02-01

    Neighborhood built environments may play an important role in shaping mobility and subsequent health outcomes. However, little work includes broader mobility considerations such as cognitive ability to be mobile, social connections with community, or transportation choices. We used a population-based sample of Canadian middle aged and older adults (aged 45 and older) from the Canadian Community Health Survey-Healthy Aging (CCHS-HA, 2008-2009) to create a holistic mobility measure: Mobility over Varied Environments Scale (MOVES). Data from CCHS-HA respondents from British Columbia with MOVES were linked with Street Smart Walk Score™ data by postal code (n=2046). Mean MOVES was estimated across sociodemographic and health characteristics. Linear regression, adjusted for relevant covariates, was used to estimate the association between Street Smart Walk Score™ and the MOVES. The mean MOVES was 30.67 (95% confidence interval (CI) 30.36, 30.99), 5th percentile 23.27 (CI 22.16, 24.38) and 95th percentile was 36.93 (CI 35.98, 37.87). MOVES was higher for those who were younger, married, higher socioeconomic status, and had better health. In unadjusted models, for every 10 point increase in Street Smart Walk Score™, MOVES increased 4.84 points (CI 4.52, 5.15). However, results attenuated after adjustment for sociodemographic covariates: each 10 point increase in Street Smart Walk Score™ was associated with a 0.10 (CI 0.00, 0.20) point increase in MOVES. The modest but important link we observed between walkability and mobility highlights the implication of neighborhood design on the health of middle aged and older adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Potential benefits of commercial willow Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) for farm-scale plant and invertebrate communities in the agri-environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, Rebecca L.; Hanley, Mick E.; Goulson, Dave; Clarke, Donna J.; Doncaster, C. Patrick; Taylor, Gail [University of Southampton, Faculty of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Life Sciences Building, Southampton, S017 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    The cultivation of bioenergy crops (BECs) represents a significant land-use change in agri-environments, but their deployment has raised important issues globally regarding possible impacts on biodiversity. Few studies however, have systematically examined the effect of commercial scale bioenergy plantations on biodiversity in agri-ecosystems. In this study we investigate how the abundance and diversity of two key components of farmland biodiversity (ground flora and winged invertebrates) varied between mature willow Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) and two alternative land-use options (arable crops and set-aside land). Although the abundance of winged invertebrates was similar across all land-uses, taxonomic composition varied markedly. Hymenoptera and large Hemiptera (>5 mm) were more abundant in willow SRC than in arable or set-aside. Similarly although plant species richness was greater in set-aside, our data show that willow SRC supports a different plant community to the other land-uses, being dominated by competitive perennial species such as Elytrigia repens and Urtica dioica. Our results suggest that under current management practices a mixed farming system incorporating willow SRC can benefit native farm-scale biodiversity. In particular the reduced disturbance in willow SRC allows the persistence of perennial plant species, potentially providing a stable refuge and food sources for invertebrates. In addition, increased Hymenoptera abundance in willow SRC could potentially have concomitant effects on ecosystem processes, as many members of this Order are important pollinators of crop plants or otherwise fulfil an important beneficial role as predators or parasites of crop pests. (author)

  20. Large Spatial Scale Ground Displacement Mapping through the P-SBAS Processing of Sentinel-1 Data on a Cloud Computing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casu, F.; Bonano, M.; de Luca, C.; Lanari, R.; Manunta, M.; Manzo, M.; Zinno, I.

    2017-12-01

    Since its launch in 2014, the Sentinel-1 (S1) constellation has played a key role on SAR data availability and dissemination all over the World. Indeed, the free and open access data policy adopted by the European Copernicus program together with the global coverage acquisition strategy, make the Sentinel constellation as a game changer in the Earth Observation scenario. Being the SAR data become ubiquitous, the technological and scientific challenge is focused on maximizing the exploitation of such huge data flow. In this direction, the use of innovative processing algorithms and distributed computing infrastructures, such as the Cloud Computing platforms, can play a crucial role. In this work we present a Cloud Computing solution for the advanced interferometric (DInSAR) processing chain based on the Parallel SBAS (P-SBAS) approach, aimed at processing S1 Interferometric Wide Swath (IWS) data for the generation of large spatial scale deformation time series in efficient, automatic and systematic way. Such a DInSAR chain ingests Sentinel 1 SLC images and carries out several processing steps, to finally compute deformation time series and mean deformation velocity maps. Different parallel strategies have been designed ad hoc for each processing step of the P-SBAS S1 chain, encompassing both multi-core and multi-node programming techniques, in order to maximize the computational efficiency achieved within a Cloud Computing environment and cut down the relevant processing times. The presented P-SBAS S1 processing chain has been implemented on the Amazon Web Services platform and a thorough analysis of the attained parallel performances has been performed to identify and overcome the major bottlenecks to the scalability. The presented approach is used to perform national-scale DInSAR analyses over Italy, involving the processing of more than 3000 S1 IWS images acquired from both ascending and descending orbits. Such an experiment confirms the big advantage of

  1. Can next-generation soil data products improve soil moisture modelling at the continental scale? An assessment using a new microclimate package for the R programming environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Michael R.; Maino, James L.

    2018-06-01

    Accurate models of soil moisture are vital for solving core problems in meteorology, hydrology, agriculture and ecology. The capacity for soil moisture modelling is growing rapidly with the development of high-resolution, continent-scale gridded weather and soil data together with advances in modelling methods. In particular, the GlobalSoilMap.net initiative represents next-generation, depth-specific gridded soil products that may substantially increase soil moisture modelling capacity. Here we present an implementation of Campbell's infiltration and redistribution model within the NicheMapR microclimate modelling package for the R environment, and use it to assess the predictive power provided by the GlobalSoilMap.net product Soil and Landscape Grid of Australia (SLGA, ∼100 m) as well as the coarser resolution global product SoilGrids (SG, ∼250 m). Predictions were tested in detail against 3 years of root-zone (3-75 cm) soil moisture observation data from 35 monitoring sites within the OzNet project in Australia, with additional tests of the finalised modelling approach against cosmic-ray neutron (CosmOz, 0-50 cm, 9 sites from 2011 to 2017) and satellite (ASCAT, 0-2 cm, continent-wide from 2007 to 2009) observations. The model was forced by daily 0.05° (∼5 km) gridded meteorological data. The NicheMapR system predicted soil moisture to within experimental error for all data sets. Using the SLGA or the SG soil database, the OzNet soil moisture could be predicted with a root mean square error (rmse) of ∼0.075 m3 m-3 and a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.65 consistently through the soil profile without any parameter tuning. Soil moisture predictions based on the SLGA and SG datasets were ≈ 17% closer to the observations than when using a chloropleth-derived soil data set (Digital Atlas of Australian Soils), with the greatest improvements occurring for deeper layers. The CosmOz observations were predicted with similar accuracy (r = 0.76 and rmse of ∼0

  2. Equivalência semântica, de itens e conceitual da versão brasileira do Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale for Youth (NEWS-Y

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Vieira Lima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever o processo de tradução e adaptação transcultural da versão brasileira do questionário Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale for Youth (NEWS-Y. Foram realizadas traduções independentes para o português da versão original do NEWS-Y e respectivas retrotraduções para o inglês. A análise da adaptação semântica e conceitual foi realizada por um grupo de especialistas. A versão traduzida do NEWS-Y foi aplicada em amostra de oito adolescentes de ambos os sexos e apresentou fácil compreensão. Após discretas modificações apontadas nos processos de tradução, o grupo de especialistas considerou que a versão para o idioma português do NEWS-Y apresentou equivalências semântica e conceitual. A versão traduzida do NEWS-Y necessitou de poucos ajustes para garantir a adaptação conceitual, de itens e semântica. Sugere-se que estudos complementares sejam realizados para analisar as outras etapas da adaptação transcultural da versão do NEWS-Y em português no contexto brasileiro.

  3. Development of an efficient and economic small scale management scheme for low-and intermediate level radioactive waste and its impact on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomon, A.Ph.; Panem, J.A.; Manalastas, H.C.; Cortez, S.L.; Paredes, C.H.; Bartolome, Z.M.

    1976-05-01

    This paper is a preliminary report on the evolution of a pilot-scale management system for low-and intermediate level radioactive wastes to provide adequate protection to the public as well as maintain the equilibrium in the human environment. Discussions on the waste management and disposal scheme proposals, assessment of waste treatment requirements of the Atomic Research Center, Philippine Atomic Energy Commission, previous experiences in the handling and management of radioactive wastes, current practices and alternatives to meet waste management problems and research studies on waste treatment are presented. In the selection of a chemical treatment process for ARC, comparative studies on the different waste processing methods or combination of processes that will be most suitable for the waste requirements of the Center are now in progress. The decontamination efficiency and economy of the lime-soda, ferrocyanide phosphate and ferric hydroxide methods are being compared. Jar experiments were conducted in the Lime-Soda Process to establish the optima conditions for certain parameter required in order to achieve an efficient and economical treatment system applicable to the local conditions for attaining maximum removal of contamination; maximum settling time - 5 hours after treatment, optimum pH-11, 2:3 ppm ratio of Ca +2 to Co 3 -2 concentration, concentration of dosing reagents can further be increased beyond 160 ppm Ca +2 and 240 ppm Co 3 -2 . Cobalt contamination can be removed with lime-soda treatment aside from strontium

  4. The 'Natural Laboratory', a tool for deciphering growth, lifetime and population dynamics in larger benthic foraminifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-04-01

    The shells of symbiont-bearing larger benthic Foraminifera (LBF) represent the response to physiological requirements in dependence of environmental conditions. All compartments of the shell such as chambers and chamberlets accommodate the growth of the cell protoplasm and are adaptations for housing photosymbiotic algae. Investigations on the biology of LBF were predominantly based on laboratory studies. The lifetime of LBF under natural conditions is still unclear. LBF, which can build >100 chambers during their lifetime, are thought to live at least one year under natural conditions. This is supported by studies on population dynamics of eulittoral foraminifera. In species characterized by a time-restricted single reproduction period the mean size of specimens increases from small to large during lifetime simultaneously reducing individual number. This becomes more complex when two or more reproduction times are present within a one-year cycle leading to a mixture of abundant small individuals with few large specimens during the year, while keeping mean size more or less constant. This mixture is typical for most sublittoral megalospheric (gamonts or schizonts) LBF. Nothing is known on the lifetime of agamonts, the diploid asexually reproducing generation. In all hyaline LBF it is thought to be significantly longer than 1 year based on the large size and considering the mean chamber building rate of the gamont/schizonts. Observations on LBF under natural conditions have not been performed yet in the deeper sublittoral. This reflects the difficulties due to intense hydrodynamics that hinder deploying technical equipment for studies in the natural environment. Therefore, studying growth, lifetime and reproduction of sublittoral LBF under natural conditions can be performed using the so-called 'natural laboratory' in comparison with laboratory investigations. The best sampling method in the upper sublittoral from 5 to 70 m depth is by SCUBA diving. Irregular

  5. Larger amygdala volume in first-degree relatives of patients with major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Romanczuk-Seiferth

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Larger gray matter volume in healthy relatives of MDD patients point to a possible vulnerability mechanism in MDD etiology and therefore extend knowledge in the field of high-risk approaches in MDD.

  6. [Research progress of larger flexion gap than extension gap in total knee arthroplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weisong; Hao, Dingjun

    2017-05-01

    To summarize the progress of larger flexion gap than extension gap in total knee arthro-plasty (TKA). The domestic and foreign related literature about larger flexion gap than extension gap in TKA, and its impact factors, biomechanical and kinematic features, and clinical results were summarized. During TKA, to adjust the relations of flexion gap and extension gap is one of the key factors of successful operation. The biomechanical, kinematic, and clinical researches show that properly larger flexion gap than extension gap can improve both the postoperative knee range of motion and the satisfaction of patients, but does not affect the stability of the knee joint. However, there are also contrary findings. So adjustment of flexion gap and extension gap during TKA is still in dispute. Larger flexion gap than extension gap in TKA is a new joint space theory, and long-term clinical efficacy, operation skills, and related complications still need further study.

  7. Purchasing innovations in the construction sector in the Netherlands : a comparison between SMEs and larger companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rijk, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Posterpresentatie Ondernemerschapsmiddag KCO, gehouden op 16 november 2015. Main research question: To what extend does the purchasing activity of incremental and radical innovations of SMEs differ from that of larger companies in the construction sector in the Netherlands?

  8. Three dimensional morphological studies of Larger Benthic Foraminifera at the population level using micro computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Shunichi; Eder, Wolfgang; Woeger, Julia; Hohenegger, Johann; Briguglio, Antonino; Ferrandez-Canadell, Carles

    2015-04-01

    Symbiont-bearing larger benthic Foraminifera (LBF) are long-living marine (at least 1 year), single-celled organisms with complex calcium carbonate shells. Their morphology has been intensively studied since the middle of the nineteenth century. This led to a broad spectrum of taxonomic results, important from biostratigraphy to ecology in shallow water tropical to warm temperate marine palaeo-environments. However, it was necessary for the traditional investigation methods to cut or destruct specimens for analysing the taxonomically important inner structures. X-ray micro-computed tomography (microCT) is one of the newest techniques used in morphological studies. The greatest advantage is the non-destructive acquisition of inner structures. Furthermore, the running improve of microCT scanners' hard- and software provides high resolution and short time scans well-suited for LBF. Three-dimensional imaging techniques allow to select and extract each chamber and to measure easily its volume, surface and several form parameters used for morphometric analyses. Thus, 3-dimensional visualisation of LBF-tests is a very big step forward from traditional morphology based on 2-dimensional data. The quantification of chamber form is a great opportunity to tackle LBF structures, architectures and the bauplan geometry. The micrometric digital resolution is the only way to solve many controversies in phylogeny and evolutionary trends of LBF. For the present study we used micro-computed tomography to easily investigate the chamber number of every specimen from statistically representative part of populations to estimate population dynamics. Samples of living individuals are collected at monthly intervals from fixed locations. Specific preparation allows to scan up to 35 specimens per scan within 2 hours and to obtain the complete digital dataset for each specimen of the population. MicroCT enables thus a fast and precise count of all chambers built by the foraminifer from its

  9. Economic and environmental optimization of a large scale sustainable dual feedstock lignocellulosic-based bioethanol supply chain in a stochastic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmani, Atif; Zhang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • 2-Stage stochastic MILP model for optimizing the performance of a sustainable lignocellulosic-based biofuel supply chain. • Multiple uncertainties in biomass supply, purchase price of biomass, bioethanol demand, and sale price of bioethanol. • Stochastic parameters significantly impact the allocation of biomass processing capacities of biorefineries. • Location of biorefineries and choice of conversion technology is found to be insensitive to the stochastic environment. • Use of Sample Average Approximation (SAA) algorithm as a decomposition technique. - Abstract: This work proposes a two-stage stochastic optimization model to maximize the expected profit and simultaneously minimize carbon emissions of a dual-feedstock lignocellulosic-based bioethanol supply chain (LBSC) under uncertainties in supply, demand and prices. The model decides the optimal first-stage decisions and the expected values of the second-stage decisions. A case study based on a 4-state Midwestern region in the US demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed stochastic model over a deterministic model under uncertainties. Two regional modes are considered for the geographic scale of the LBSC. Under co-operation mode the 4 states are considered as a combined region while under stand-alone mode each of the 4 states is considered as an individual region. Each state under co-operation mode gives better financial and environmental outcomes when compared to stand-alone mode. Uncertainty has a significant impact on the biomass processing capacity of biorefineries. While the location and the choice of conversion technology for biorefineries i.e. biochemical vs. thermochemical, are insensitive to the stochastic environment. As variability of the stochastic parameters increases, the financial and environmental performance is degraded. Sensitivity analysis shows that levels of tax credit and carbon price have a major impact on the choice of conversion technology for a selected

  10. Cross-validation of the factorial structure of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS and its abbreviated form (NEWS-A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerin Ester

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS and its abbreviated form (NEWS-A assess perceived environmental attributes believed to influence physical activity. A multilevel confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA conducted on a sample from Seattle, WA showed that, at the respondent level, the factor-analyzable items of the NEWS and NEWS-A measured 11 and 10 constructs of perceived neighborhood environment, respectively. At the census blockgroup (used by the US Census Bureau as a subunit of census tracts level, the MCFA yielded five factors for both NEWS and NEWS-A. The aim of this study was to cross-validate the individual- and blockgroup-level measurement models of the NEWS and NEWS-A in a geographical location and population different from those used in the original validation study. Methods A sample of 912 adults was recruited from 16 selected neighborhoods (116 census blockgroups in the Baltimore, MD region. Neighborhoods were stratified according to their socio-economic status and transport-related walkability level measured using Geographic Information Systems. Participants self-completed the NEWS. MCFA was used to cross-validate the individual- and blockgroup-level measurement models of the NEWS and NEWS-A. Results The data provided sufficient support for the factorial validity of the original individual-level measurement models, which consisted of 11 (NEWS and 10 (NEWS-A correlated factors. The original blockgroup-level measurement model of the NEWS and NEWS-A showed poor fit to the data and required substantial modifications. These included the combining of aspects of building aesthetics with safety from crime into one factor; the separation of natural aesthetics and building aesthetics into two factors; and for the NEWS-A, the separation of presence of sidewalks/walking routes from other infrastructure for walking. Conclusion This study provided support for the generalizability of the individual

  11. Towards a Scalable and Adaptive Application Support Platform for Large-Scale Distributed E-Sciences in High-Performance Network Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Chase Qishi [New Jersey Inst. of Technology, Newark, NJ (United States); Univ. of Memphis, TN (United States); Zhu, Michelle Mengxia [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    2016-06-06

    The advent of large-scale collaborative scientific applications has demonstrated the potential for broad scientific communities to pool globally distributed resources to produce unprecedented data acquisition, movement, and analysis. System resources including supercomputers, data repositories, computing facilities, network infrastructures, storage systems, and display devices have been increasingly deployed at national laboratories and academic institutes. These resources are typically shared by large communities of users over Internet or dedicated networks and hence exhibit an inherent dynamic nature in their availability, accessibility, capacity, and stability. Scientific applications using either experimental facilities or computation-based simulations with various physical, chemical, climatic, and biological models feature diverse scientific workflows as simple as linear pipelines or as complex as a directed acyclic graphs, which must be executed and supported over wide-area networks with massively distributed resources. Application users oftentimes need to manually configure their computing tasks over networks in an ad hoc manner, hence significantly limiting the productivity of scientists and constraining the utilization of resources. The success of these large-scale distributed applications requires a highly adaptive and massively scalable workflow platform that provides automated and optimized computing and networking services. This project is to design and develop a generic Scientific Workflow Automation and Management Platform (SWAMP), which contains a web-based user interface specially tailored for a target application, a set of user libraries, and several easy-to-use computing and networking toolkits for application scientists to conveniently assemble, execute, monitor, and control complex computing workflows in heterogeneous high-performance network environments. SWAMP will enable the automation and management of the entire process of scientific

  12. Sentinel-1 data massive processing for large scale DInSAR analyses within Cloud Computing environments through the P-SBAS approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanari, Riccardo; Bonano, Manuela; Buonanno, Sabatino; Casu, Francesco; De Luca, Claudio; Fusco, Adele; Manunta, Michele; Manzo, Mariarosaria; Pepe, Antonio; Zinno, Ivana

    2017-04-01

    -core programming techniques. Currently, Cloud Computing environments make available large collections of computing resources and storage that can be effectively exploited through the presented S1 P-SBAS processing chain to carry out interferometric analyses at a very large scale, in reduced time. This allows us to deal also with the problems connected to the use of S1 P-SBAS chain in operational contexts, related to hazard monitoring and risk prevention and mitigation, where handling large amounts of data represents a challenging task. As a significant experimental result we performed a large spatial scale SBAS analysis relevant to the Central and Southern Italy by exploiting the Amazon Web Services Cloud Computing platform. In particular, we processed in parallel 300 S1 acquisitions covering the Italian peninsula from Lazio to Sicily through the presented S1 P-SBAS processing chain, generating 710 interferograms, thus finally obtaining the displacement time series of the whole processed area. This work has been partially supported by the CNR-DPC agreement, the H2020 EPOS-IP project (GA 676564) and the ESA GEP project.

  13. The relationship between the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale and its revised form and child outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Brunsek

    Full Text Available The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (ECERS and its revised version (ECERS-R were designed as global measures of quality that assess structural and process aspects of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC programs. Despite frequent use of the ECERS/ECERS-R in research and applied settings, associations between it and child outcomes have not been systematically reviewed. The objective of this research was to evaluate the association between the ECERS/ECERS-R and children's wellbeing. Searches of Medline, PsycINFO, ERIC, websites of large datasets and reference sections of all retrieved articles were completed up to July 3, 2015. Eligible studies provided a statistical link between the ECERS/ECERS-R and child outcomes for preschool-aged children in ECEC programs. Of the 823 studies selected for full review, 73 were included in the systematic review and 16 were meta-analyzed. The combined sample across all eligible studies consisted of 33, 318 preschool-aged children. Qualitative systematic review results revealed that ECERS/ECERS-R total scores were more generally associated with positive outcomes than subscales or factors. Seventeen separate meta-analyses were conducted to assess the strength of association between the ECERS/ECERS-R and measures that assessed children's language, math and social-emotional outcomes. Meta-analyses revealed a small number of weak effects (in the expected direction between the ECERS/ECERS-R total score and children's language and positive behavior outcomes. The Language-Reasoning subscale was weakly related to a language outcome. The enormous heterogeneity in how studies operationalized the ECERS/ECERS-R, the outcomes measured and statistics reported limited our ability to meta-analyze many studies. Greater consistency in study methodology is needed in this area of research. Despite these methodological challenges, the ECERS/ECERS-R does appear to capture aspects of quality that are important for children

  14. Constraining the relative importance of raindrop- and flow-driven sediment transport mechanisms in postwildfire environments and implications for recovery time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Luke; Kean, Jason W.; Staley, Dennis M.; Rengers, Francis K.; Wasklewicz, Thad A.

    2016-01-01

    Mountain watersheds recently burned by wildfire often experience greater amounts of runoff and increased rates of sediment transport relative to similar unburned areas. Given the sedimentation and debris flow threats caused by increases in erosion, more work is needed to better understand the physical mechanisms responsible for the observed increase in sediment transport in burned environments and the time scale over which a heightened geomorphic response can be expected. In this study, we quantified the relative importance of different hillslope erosion mechanisms during two postwildfire rainstorms at a drainage basin in Southern California by combining terrestrial laser scanner-derived maps of topographic change, field measurements, and numerical modeling of overland flow and sediment transport. Numerous debris flows were initiated by runoff at our study area during a long-duration storm of relatively modest intensity. Despite the presence of a well-developed rill network, numerical model results suggest that the majority of eroded hillslope sediment during this long-duration rainstorm was transported by raindrop-induced sediment transport processes, highlighting the importance of raindrop-driven processes in supplying channels with potential debris flow material. We also used the numerical model to explore relationships between postwildfire storm characteristics, vegetation cover, soil infiltration capacity, and the total volume of eroded sediment from a synthetic hillslope for different end-member erosion regimes. This study adds to our understanding of sediment transport in steep, postwildfire landscapes and shows how data from field monitoring can be combined with numerical modeling of sediment transport to isolate the processes leading to increased erosion in burned areas.

  15. The relationship between the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale and its revised form and child outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsek, Ashley; Perlman, Michal; Falenchuk, Olesya; McMullen, Evelyn; Fletcher, Brooke; Shah, Prakesh S

    2017-01-01

    The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (ECERS) and its revised version (ECERS-R) were designed as global measures of quality that assess structural and process aspects of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) programs. Despite frequent use of the ECERS/ECERS-R in research and applied settings, associations between it and child outcomes have not been systematically reviewed. The objective of this research was to evaluate the association between the ECERS/ECERS-R and children's wellbeing. Searches of Medline, PsycINFO, ERIC, websites of large datasets and reference sections of all retrieved articles were completed up to July 3, 2015. Eligible studies provided a statistical link between the ECERS/ECERS-R and child outcomes for preschool-aged children in ECEC programs. Of the 823 studies selected for full review, 73 were included in the systematic review and 16 were meta-analyzed. The combined sample across all eligible studies consisted of 33, 318 preschool-aged children. Qualitative systematic review results revealed that ECERS/ECERS-R total scores were more generally associated with positive outcomes than subscales or factors. Seventeen separate meta-analyses were conducted to assess the strength of association between the ECERS/ECERS-R and measures that assessed children's language, math and social-emotional outcomes. Meta-analyses revealed a small number of weak effects (in the expected direction) between the ECERS/ECERS-R total score and children's language and positive behavior outcomes. The Language-Reasoning subscale was weakly related to a language outcome. The enormous heterogeneity in how studies operationalized the ECERS/ECERS-R, the outcomes measured and statistics reported limited our ability to meta-analyze many studies. Greater consistency in study methodology is needed in this area of research. Despite these methodological challenges, the ECERS/ECERS-R does appear to capture aspects of quality that are important for children's wellbeing

  16. Una cuestión de escala: sociedad, ambiente, tiempo y territorio A question of scale: society, environment, time and territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Reboratti

    2001-06-01

    history and ecology come closer (paradoxically together with a strong specialization within each of them, the tensions generated when we try to harmonize each field's approach on its object of study are more and more clear. We might summarize those approaches around the subject of scales, techno-cultural approximations used by each discipline in order to reduce its object to a workable dimension. We might find those differences under two non-excluding dimensions: time and space. The scales used to analyze each of them are variable and so far have been object of controversy within the humanities. However, introducing the variable which we may call generically "environmental", the tension becomes very difficult to solve, since we will have to harmonize, on the one hand, the disciplines, such as geology, whose work unit is that of 1 million years, or geomorphology, which works with tens of thousands of years, with history, working with 12.000 years of land cultivation. Not to mention current disciplines, as geography, sociology, whose time span rarely goes beyond one generation. Two basic questions arise from all that controversy: is there a special scale which harmonizes the disciplines that coincide on the environment? What are the meanings of macro, micro and middle for that discipline? Is it possible to relate the time cycles which determine each discipline? How is a conceptual interdisciplinary field built, such as environmental history or historical geography?

  17. Possible Evolution of the Pulsar Braking Index from Larger than Three to About One

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, H.; Kou, F. F.

    2017-01-01

    The coupled evolution of pulsar rotation and inclination angle in the wind braking model is calculated. The oblique pulsar tends to align. The pulsar alignment affects its spin-down behavior. As a pulsar evolves from the magneto-dipole radiation dominated case to the particle wind dominated case, the braking index first increases and then decreases. In the early time, the braking index may be larger than three. During the following long time, the braking index is always smaller than three. The minimum braking index is about one. This can explain the existence of a high braking index larger than three and a low braking index simultaneously. The pulsar braking index is expected to evolve from larger than three to about one. The general trend is for the pulsar braking index to evolve from the Crab-like case to the Vela-like case.

  18. Possible Evolution of the Pulsar Braking Index from Larger than Three to About One

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, H. [School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Guangzhou University, 510006 Guangzhou (China); Kou, F. F., E-mail: htong_2005@163.com [Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830011 (China)

    2017-03-10

    The coupled evolution of pulsar rotation and inclination angle in the wind braking model is calculated. The oblique pulsar tends to align. The pulsar alignment affects its spin-down behavior. As a pulsar evolves from the magneto-dipole radiation dominated case to the particle wind dominated case, the braking index first increases and then decreases. In the early time, the braking index may be larger than three. During the following long time, the braking index is always smaller than three. The minimum braking index is about one. This can explain the existence of a high braking index larger than three and a low braking index simultaneously. The pulsar braking index is expected to evolve from larger than three to about one. The general trend is for the pulsar braking index to evolve from the Crab-like case to the Vela-like case.

  19. When larger brains do not have more neurons: Increased numbers of cells are compensated by decreased average cell size across mouse individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana eHerculano-Houzel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a strong trend toward increased brain size in mammalian evolution, with larger brains composed of more and larger neurons than smaller brains across species within each mammalian order. Does the evolution of increased numbers of brain neurons, and thus larger brain size, occur simply through the selection of individuals with more and larger neurons, and thus larger brains, within a population? That is, do individuals with larger brains also have more, and larger, neurons than individuals with smaller brains, such that allometric relationships across species are simply an extension of intraspecific scaling? Here we show that this is not the case across adult male mice of a similar age. Rather, increased numbers of neurons across individuals are accompanied by increased numbers of other cells and smaller average cell size of both types, in a trade-off that explains how increased brain mass does not necessarily ensue. Fundamental regulatory mechanisms thus must exist that tie numbers of neurons to numbers of other cells and to average cell size within individual brains. Finally, our results indicate that changes in brain size in evolution are not an extension of individual variation in numbers of neurons, but rather occur through step changes that must simultaneously increase numbers of neurons and cause cell size to increase, rather than decrease.

  20. Inter-rater reliability of the South African Triage Scale: Assessing two different cadres of health care workers in a real time environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michèle Twomey

    2011-09-01

    Conclusion: The inter-rater reliability of SATS ratings is excellent within individual HCWs, but significantly lower between different HCWs. This confirms previous reliability studies of the SATS using vignettes and if validated by larger studies would support the feasibility of further implementation of the SATS in primary health care settings across the Western Cape.

  1. Framing the Discussion: Elections as Components of Larger Political and Cultural Geographies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopp, Larry

    2016-01-01

    It is important to remember that elections are but one piece--albeit an important one--of much larger processes of politics and governance. Moreover, in the United States they are increasingly implicated in the construction of identities and places. What goes on in the course of electoral politics (creating electoral systems and voting districts,…

  2. Dust captures effectiveness of scrubber systems on mechanical miners operating in larger roadways.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hole, BJ

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The project was directed towards bord and pillar working by mechanised miners operating in larger section roadways, where the problem of scrubber capture tends to be greatest owing to the limited size of the zone of influence around exhaust...

  3. Larger Bowl Size Increases the Amount of Cereal Children Request, Consume, and Waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wansink, Brian; van Ittersum, Koert; Payne, Collin R.

    Objective To examine whether larger bowls bias children toward requesting more food from the adults who serve them. Study design Study 1 was a between-subject design involving 69 preschool-age children who were randomized to receive either a small (8 oz) or large (16 oz) cereal bowl and were asked

  4. A specialist toxicity database (TRACE) is more effective than its larger, commercially available counterparts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, C.A.; Copestake, P.T.; Robinson, L.

    2000-01-01

    The retrieval precision and recall of a specialist bibliographic toxicity database (TRACE) and a range of widely available bibliographic databases used to identify toxicity papers were compared. The analysis indicated that the larger size and resources of the major bibliographic databases did not,

  5. Larger foraminifera distribution on a mesotrophic carbonate shelf in SW Sulawesi (Indonesia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renema, W.; Troelstra, S.R.

    2001-01-01

    Larger symbiont bearing foraminifera typically live in shallow tropical seas. In this study the fauna composition of patch reefs scattered over the Spermonde Shelf (SW Sulawesi, Indonesia), a mesotrophic carbonate shelf, is examined. The foraminiferal fauna of the Spermonde Shelf is characterised by

  6. Size selectivity of commercial (300 MC) and larger square mesh top ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, size selectivity of a commercial (300 MC) and a larger square mesh top panel (LSMTPC) codend for blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) were tested on a commercial trawl net in the international waters between Turkey and Greece. Trawling, performed during daylight was carried out at depths ...

  7. Larger foraminifera from a relict structure off Karwar western Indian continental margin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.

    of such water masses having been present in the region. Among the larger forms, @iAmphistegina bicirculata, A. radiata@@ var. @ipapillosa@@ and @iOperculina ammonoides@@ indicate mixing, while @iNummulites cumingii@@ and @iBorelis schlumbergeri@@ were relict...

  8. 78 FR 18902 - Defining Larger Participants of the Student Loan Servicing Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1090 [Docket No. CFPB-2013-0005] RIN 3170-AA35... Protection. ACTION: Proposed rule; request for public comment. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection (Bureau or CFPB) proposes to amend the regulation defining larger participants of certain consumer...

  9. Ventilation efficiency in a low-energy dwelling setting – a parameter study for larger rooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, D.; Loomans, M.G.L.C.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Cremers, B.E. (Bart)

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical balanced ventilation systems typically is applied in new and renovated dwellings in The Netherlands. The application assumes an adequate ventilation efficiency but this has not been confirmed for larger rooms (e.g. living rooms with kitchen attached). This study investigates ventilation

  10. A scaling approach to Budyko's framework and the complementary relationship of evapotranspiration in humid environments: case study of the Amazon River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, A. M.; Poveda, G.; Sivapalan, M.; Vallejo-Bernal, S. M.; Bustamante, E.

    2016-02-01

    This paper studies a 3-D state space representation of Budyko's framework designed to capture the mutual interdependence among long-term mean actual evapotranspiration (E), potential evapotranspiration (Ep) and precipitation (P). For this purpose we use three dimensionless and dependent quantities: Ψ = E ⁄ P, Φ = Ep ⁄ P and Ω = E ⁄ Ep. This 3-D space and its 2-D projections provide an interesting setting to test the physical soundness of Budyko's hypothesis. We demonstrate analytically that Budyko-type equations are unable to capture the physical limit of the relation between Ω and Φ in humid environments, owing to the unfeasibility of Ep ⁄ P = 0 when E ⁄ Ep → 1. Using data from 146 sub-catchments in the Amazon River basin we overcome this inconsistency by proposing a physically consistent power law: Ψ = kΦe, with k = 0.66, and e = 0.83 (R2 = 0.93). This power law is compared with two other Budyko-type equations. Taking into account the goodness of fits and the ability to comply with the physical limits of the 3-D space, our results show that the power law is better suited to model the coupled water and energy balances within the Amazon River basin. Moreover, k is found to be related to the partitioning of energy via evapotranspiration in terms of Ω. This suggests that our power law implicitly incorporates the complementary relationship of evapotranspiration into the Budyko curve, which is a consequence of the dependent nature of the studied variables within our 3-D space. This scaling approach is also consistent with the asymmetrical nature of the complementary relationship of evapotranspiration. Looking for a physical explanation for the parameters k and e, the inter-annual variability of individual catchments is studied. Evidence of space-time symmetry in Amazonia emerges, since both between-catchment and between-year variability follow the same Budyko curves. Finally, signs of co-evolution of catchments are explored by linking spatial

  11. Properties of protective oxide scales containing cerium on Incoloy 800H in oxidizing and sulfidizing environments. I. Constant-extension-rate study of mechanical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haanappel, V.A.C.; Fransen, T.; Geerdink, Bert; Gellings, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    The mechanical properties of ceramic coatings containing cerium oxide, prepared by the sol-gel method and used to protect Incoloy 800H against aggressive environments, are reported. Deformation and cracking behavior in oxidizing and sulfidizing environments has been investigated by

  12. Born-Infeld magnetars: larger than classical toroidal magnetic fields and implications for gravitational-wave astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jonas P.; Coelho, Jaziel G.; de Lima, Rafael C. R.

    2018-05-01

    Magnetars are neutron stars presenting bursts and outbursts of X- and soft-gamma rays that can be understood with the presence of very large magnetic fields. In this setting, nonlinear electrodynamics should be taken into account for a more accurate description of such compact systems. We study that in the context of ideal magnetohydrodynamics and make a realization of our analysis to the case of the well known Born-Infeld (BI) electromagnetism in order to come up with some of its astrophysical consequences. We focus here on toroidal magnetic fields as motivated by already known magnetars with low dipolar magnetic fields and their expected relevance in highly magnetized stars. We show that BI electrodynamics leads to larger toroidal magnetic fields when compared to Maxwell's electrodynamics. Hence, one should expect higher production of gravitational waves (GWs) and even more energetic giant flares from nonlinear stars. Given current constraints on BI's scale field, giant flare energetics and magnetic fields in magnetars, we also find that the maximum magnitude of magnetar ellipticities should be 10^{-6}-10^{-5}. Besides, BI electrodynamics may lead to a maximum increase of order 10-20% of the GW energy radiated from a magnetar when compared to Maxwell's, while much larger percentages may arise for other physically motivated scenarios. Thus, nonlinear theories of the electromagnetism might also be probed in the near future with the improvement of GW detectors.

  13. Studies of Ocean Predictability at Decade to Century Time Scales Using a Global Ocean General Circulation Model in a Parallel Computing Environment; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, T.P.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of this report are to determine the structure of oceanic natural variability at time scales of decades to centuries, characterize the physical mechanisms responsible for the variability; determine the relative importance of heat, fresh water, and moment fluxes on the variability; determine the predictability of the variability on these times scales

  14. Challenges and opportunities : One stop processing of automatic large-scale base map production using airborne lidar data within gis environment case study: Makassar City, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widyaningrum, E.; Gorte, B.G.H.

    2017-01-01

    LiDAR data acquisition is recognized as one of the fastest solutions to provide basis data for large-scale topographical base maps worldwide. Automatic LiDAR processing is believed one possible scheme to accelerate the large-scale topographic base map provision by the Geospatial Information

  15. New nonbinary quantum codes with larger distance constructed from BCH codes over 𝔽q2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gen; Li, Ruihu; Fu, Qiang; Ma, Yuena; Guo, Luobin

    2017-03-01

    This paper concentrates on construction of new nonbinary quantum error-correcting codes (QECCs) from three classes of narrow-sense imprimitive BCH codes over finite field 𝔽q2 (q ≥ 3 is an odd prime power). By a careful analysis on properties of cyclotomic cosets in defining set T of these BCH codes, the improved maximal designed distance of these narrow-sense imprimitive Hermitian dual-containing BCH codes is determined to be much larger than the result given according to Aly et al. [S. A. Aly, A. Klappenecker and P. K. Sarvepalli, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 53, 1183 (2007)] for each different code length. Thus families of new nonbinary QECCs are constructed, and the newly obtained QECCs have larger distance than those in previous literature.

  16. Larger eggs in resident brown trout living in sympatry with anadromous brown trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olofsson, H.; Mosegaard, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    Freshwater resident brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) in the stream Jorlandaan (southwestern Sweden) had larger eggs (range of actual mean egg wet weights, 65.9-108.5 mg) than both sympatric migratory trout (76.8-84.2 mg) and trout from five other Swedish streams with allopatric resident (23.7-80.1 mg......) or migratory populations (44.5-121.9 mg), after accounting for differences in body size. In Jorlandaan, some resident females even had a larger absolute mean egg weight than any of the migratory females found in the stream Resident trout had low absolute fecundity, and our data suggest that resident females...... in Jorlandan produce large eggs at the expense of their fecundity The extremely large relative egg size in resident Jorlandaan females suggests that the production of large offspring enhances fitness, possibly through increased fry survival....

  17. A contribution to radiotherapy of the larger-celled bronchial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoubie, I.

    1982-01-01

    This work consists of a retrospective definition of disease courses of 859 patients with lung tumors and the definition of the survival curves in their dependence on histology, radiation dose and sex. With 721 larger-celled bronchial carcinomas the ratio of men to women was 12:1. The age peak lay between 60 and 70 years. The one/five year survival rate of all included larger-celled bronchial carcinomas (n=701) was, independent from the therapy form, 35.7, resp. 4.78%. The one year/five year survival rates were for the squamous epithelia 31.08/0.58%, for the undifferentiated carcinomas 25.34/3.41%, and for the lung tumors without histology 35.4/5.14%. Lobectomized patients with squamous epithelium carcinoma had in comparison to pneumonectomized patients a clearly higher survival chance. A clearly sex-dependent predisposition for a certain type of carcinoma was not present. (TRV) [de

  18. Action video game players and deaf observers have larger Goldmann visual fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, David; Codina, Charlotte; Bhardwaj, Palvi; Pascalis, Olivier

    2010-03-05

    We used Goldmann kinetic perimetry to compare how training and congenital auditory deprivation may affect the size of the visual field. We measured the ability of action video game players and deaf observers to detect small moving lights at various locations in the central (around 30 degrees from fixation) and peripheral (around 60 degrees ) visual fields. Experiment 1 found that 10 habitual video game players showed significantly larger central and peripheral field areas than 10 controls. In Experiment 2 we found that 13 congenitally deaf observers had significantly larger visual fields than 13 hearing controls for both the peripheral and central fields. Here the greatest differences were found in the lower parts of the fields. Comparison of the two groups showed that whereas VGP players have a more uniform increase in field size in both central and peripheral fields deaf observers show non-uniform increases with greatest increases in lower parts of the visual field.

  19. Impact of Alternative Inputs and Grooming Methods on Large-R Jet Reconstruction in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    During Run 1 of the LHC, the optimal reconstruction algorithm for large-$R$ jets in ATLAS, characterized in terms of the ability to discriminate signal from background and robust reconstruction in the presence of pileup, was found to be anti-$k_{t}$ jets with a radius parameter of 1.0, formed from locally calibrated topological calorimeter cell clusters and groomed with the trimming algorithm to remove contributions from pileup and underlying event. Since that time, much theoretical, phenomenological, and experimental work has been performed to improve both the reconstruction of the jet inputs as well as the grooming techniques applied to reconstructed jets. In this work, an inclusive survey of both pileup mitigation algorithms applied to calorimeter cell clusters and grooming algorithms is done to study their pileup stability and ability to identify hadronically decaying W bosons within the ATLAS experiment. It is found that compared to the conventional reconstruction algorithm of large-$R$ trimmed jets form...

  20. Larger-scale irradiation and marketing studies on onions. Part of a coordinated programme on pre-commercial scale radiation treatment of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalman, B.

    1982-08-01

    Seed grown onions of ''Alsogodi'' variety were harvested manually, partially defoliated, irradiated with a dose of 50 Gy at a throughput of 6 tons per hour in a pilot-irradiator specially designed for onions, and then stored at ambient conditions of temperature and humidity, together with non-irradiated onions. Texture, density, growth of inner bud, colour, storage losses and quality were determined. Results clearly demonstrated that irradiation for sprout inhibition has a favourable effect on maintaining good texture of onions during storage. By inhibiting the sprouting, no internal discolouration of the bud occurred during storage. This is important for the quality of fresh onions as well as for that of the final dried product, processed from fresh onions after various periods of storage. Due to sub-optimal initial quality of the onions and unsatisfactory control of storage conditions, total storage losses were too high, compared to the results of previous experiments. Yet, the beneficial effect of irradiation was demonstrated at the end of the considered storage period, since 55% of the irradiated and only 10% of the non-irradiated commodities were of acceptable marketing quality. Cost calculation based on 80% utilization of the pilot irradiator used in this study resulted in a treatment cost of 0.25 forint per kg, which is approximately 8% of the average purchasing price of onions in Hungary

  1. Larger groups of passerines are more efficient problem solvers in the wild

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morand-Ferron, Julie; Quinn, John L.

    2011-01-01

    Group living commonly helps organisms face challenging environmental conditions. Although a known phenomenon in humans, recent findings suggest that a benefit of group living in animals generally might be increased innovative problem-solving efficiency. This benefit has never been demonstrated in a natural context, however, and the mechanisms underlying improved efficiency are largely unknown. We examined the problem-solving performance of great and blue tits at automated devices and found that efficiency increased with flock size. This relationship held when restricting the analysis to naive individuals, demonstrating that larger groups increased innovation efficiency. In addition to this effect of naive flock size, the presence of at least one experienced bird increased the frequency of solving, and larger flocks were more likely to contain experienced birds. These findings provide empirical evidence for the “pool of competence” hypothesis in nonhuman animals. The probability of success also differed consistently between individuals, a necessary condition for the pool of competence hypothesis. Solvers had a higher probability of success when foraging with a larger number of companions and when using devices located near rather than further from protective tree cover, suggesting a role for reduced predation risk on problem-solving efficiency. In contrast to traditional group living theory, individuals joining larger flocks benefited from a higher seed intake, suggesting that group living facilitated exploitation of a novel food source through improved problem-solving efficiency. Together our results suggest that both ecological and social factors, through reduced predation risk and increased pool of competence, mediate innovation in natural populations. PMID:21930936

  2. Magnetic nanoparticles formed in glasses co-doped with iron and larger radius elements

    OpenAIRE

    Edelman , Irina; Ivanova , Oxana; Ivantsov , Ruslan; Velikanov , D.; Zabluda , V.; Zubavichus , Y.; Veligzhanin , A.; Zaikovskiy , V.; Stepanov , S.; Artemenko , Alla; Curély , Jacques; Kliava , Janis

    2012-01-01

    International audience; A new type of nanoparticle-containing glasses based on borate glasses co-doped with low contents of iron and larger radius elements, Dy, Tb, Gd, Ho, Er, Y, and Bi, is studied. Heat treatment of these glasses results in formation of magnetic nanoparticles, radically changing their physical properties. Transmission electron microscopy and synchrotron radiation-based techniques: x-ray diffraction, extended x-ray absorption fine structure, x-ray absorption near-edge struct...

  3. Larger error signals in major depression are associated with better avoidance learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F eCavanagh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC is particularly reactive to signals of error, punishment, and conflict in the service of behavioral adaptation and it is consistently implicated in the etiology of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD. This association makes conceptual sense, given that MDD has been associated with hyper-reactivity in neural systems associated with punishment processing. Yet in practice, depression-related variance in measures of mPFC functioning often fails to relate to performance. For example, neuroelectric reflections of mediofrontal error signals are often found to be larger in MDD, but a deficit in post-error performance suggests that these error signals are not being used to rapidly adapt behavior. Thus, it remains unknown if depression-related variance in error signals reflects a meaningful alteration in the use of error or punishment information. However, larger mediofrontal error signals have also been related to another behavioral tendency: increased accuracy in avoidance learning. The integrity of this error-avoidance system remains untested in MDD. In this study, EEG was recorded as 21 symptomatic, drug-free participants with current or past MDD and 24 control participants performed a probabilistic reinforcement learning task. Depressed participants had larger mPFC EEG responses to error feedback than controls. The direct relationship between error signal amplitudes and avoidance learning accuracy was replicated. Crucially, this relationship was stronger in depressed participants for high conflict lose-lose situations, demonstrating a selective alteration of avoidance learning. This investigation provided evidence that larger error signal amplitudes in depression are associated with increased avoidance learning, identifying a candidate mechanistic model for hypersensitivity to negative outcomes in depression.

  4. When gains loom larger than losses: reversed loss aversion for small amounts of money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harinck, Fieke; Van Dijk, Eric; Van Beest, Ilja; Mersmann, Paul

    2007-12-01

    Previous research has generally shown that people are loss averse; that is, they weigh losses more heavily than gains. In a series of three experiments, we found that for small outcomes, this pattern is reversed, and gains loom larger than losses. We explain this reversal on the basis of (a) the hedonic principle, which states that individuals are motivated to maximize pleasure and to minimize pain, and (b) the assumption that small losses are more easily discounted cognitively than large losses are.

  5. Sequencing Larger Intact Proteins (30-70 kDa) with Activated Ion Electron Transfer Dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Nicholas M.; Westphall, Michael S.; Coon, Joshua J.

    2018-01-01

    The analysis of intact proteins via mass spectrometry can offer several benefits to proteome characterization, although the majority of top-down experiments focus on proteoforms in a relatively low mass range (AI-ETD) to proteins in the 30-70 kDa range. AI-ETD leverages infrared photo-activation concurrent to ETD reactions to improve sequence-informative product ion generation. This method generates more product ions and greater sequence coverage than conventional ETD, higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD), and ETD combined with supplemental HCD activation (EThcD). Importantly, AI-ETD provides the most thorough protein characterization for every precursor ion charge state investigated in this study, making it suitable as a universal fragmentation method in top-down experiments. Additionally, we highlight several acquisition strategies that can benefit characterization of larger proteins with AI-ETD, including combination of spectra from multiple ETD reaction times for a given precursor ion, multiple spectral acquisitions of the same precursor ion, and combination of spectra from two different dissociation methods (e.g., AI-ETD and HCD). In all, AI-ETD shows great promise as a method for dissociating larger intact protein ions as top-down proteomics continues to advance into larger mass ranges. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Stereotactic Radiosurgery with Neoadjuvant Embolization of Larger Arteriovenous Malformations: An Institutional Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Dalyai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study investigates the safety and efficacy of a multimodality approach combining staged endovascular embolizations with subsequent SRS for the management of larger AVMs. Methods. Ninety-five patients with larger AVMs were treated with staged endovascular embolization followed by SRS between 1996 and 2011. Results. The median volume of AVM in this series was 28 cm3 and 47 patients (48% were Spetzler-Martin grade IV or V. Twenty-seven patients initially presented with hemorrhage. Sixty-one patients underwent multiple embolizations while a single SRS session was performed in 64 patients. The median follow-up after SRS session was 32 months (range 9–136 months. Overall procedural complications occurred in 14 patients. There were 13 minor neurologic complications and 1 major complication (due to embolization while four patients had posttreatment hemorrhage. Thirty-eight patients (40% were cured radiographically. The postradiosurgery actuarial rate of obliteration was 45% at 5 years, 56% at 7 years, and 63% at 10 years. In multivariate analysis, larger AVM size, deep venous drainage, and the increasing number of embolization/SRS sessions were negative predictors of obliteration. The number of embolizations correlated positively with the number of stereotactic radiosurgeries (P<0.005. Conclusions. Multimodality endovascular and radiosurgical approach is an efficacious treatment strategy for large AVM.

  7. Historical Carbon Dioxide Emissions Caused by Land-Use Changes are Possibly Larger than Assumed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneth, A.; Sitch, S.; Pongratz, J.; Stocker, B. D.; Ciais, P.; Poulter, B.; Bayer, A. D.; Bondeau, A.; Calle, L.; Chini, L. P.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The terrestrial biosphere absorbs about 20% of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions. The overall magnitude of this sink is constrained by the difference between emissions, the rate of increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and the ocean sink. However, the land sink is actually composed of two largely counteracting fluxes that are poorly quantified: fluxes from land-use change andCO2 uptake by terrestrial ecosystems. Dynamic global vegetation model simulations suggest that CO2 emissions from land-use change have been substantially underestimated because processes such as tree harvesting and land clearing from shifting cultivation have not been considered. As the overall terrestrial sink is constrained, a larger net flux as a result of land-use change implies that terrestrial uptake of CO2 is also larger, and that terrestrial ecosystems might have greater potential to sequester carbon in the future. Consequently, reforestation projects and efforts to avoid further deforestation could represent important mitigation pathways, with co-benefits for biodiversity. It is unclear whether a larger land carbon sink can be reconciled with our current understanding of terrestrial carbon cycling. Our possible underestimation of the historical residual terrestrial carbon sink adds further uncertainty to our capacity to predict the future of terrestrial carbon uptake and losses.

  8. Larger miliolids of the Late Cretaceous and Paleogene seen through space and time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Ćosović

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal occurrences of the larger (complex miliolids are discussed to give more light on biostratigraphy and paleobiogeographic provinces distribution. Seven generaand 47 species from the Late Cretaceous to Oligocene inhabited shallow marine settings in the Indo-Pacific, Tethyan and Caribbean regions. Of all genera only four (Idalina, Periloculina, Pseudolacazina, Lacazina widespread throughout Tethys in theLate Cretaceous and Paleogene. Single occurrence of Lacazina was recorded further to east (Moluccas. By now the Late Cretaceous genus Adrahentina is known only from the Spain. The newcomer’s Eocene genera were Fabularia and Lacazinella. Fabularia reachedhigh diversity in species term in the Central and Western Tethys and occured as unique genus in Caribbean realm, too. Conversely, during the same period, Lacazinella spread over the southern border of Neo-Tethys reaching New Guinea.On the Adriatic – Dinaric Carbonate Platform, larger miliolids occurred from the Late Cretaceous to Cuisian, having the same biostratigraphically trends and distribution as contemporaneous larger miliolids from the Tethys.

  9. Speaker Input Variability Does Not Explain Why Larger Populations Have Simpler Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Mark; Kirby, Simon; Smith, Kenny

    2015-01-01

    A learner's linguistic input is more variable if it comes from a greater number of speakers. Higher speaker input variability has been shown to facilitate the acquisition of phonemic boundaries, since data drawn from multiple speakers provides more information about the distribution of phonemes in a speech community. It has also been proposed that speaker input variability may have a systematic influence on individual-level learning of morphology, which can in turn influence the group-level characteristics of a language. Languages spoken by larger groups of people have less complex morphology than those spoken in smaller communities. While a mechanism by which the number of speakers could have such an effect is yet to be convincingly identified, differences in speaker input variability, which is thought to be larger in larger groups, may provide an explanation. By hindering the acquisition, and hence faithful cross-generational transfer, of complex morphology, higher speaker input variability may result in structural simplification. We assess this claim in two experiments which investigate the effect of such variability on language learning, considering its influence on a learner's ability to segment a continuous speech stream and acquire a morphologically complex miniature language. We ultimately find no evidence to support the proposal that speaker input variability influences language learning and so cannot support the hypothesis that it explains how population size determines the structural properties of language.

  10. Behavior and Welfare of Domestic Cats Housed in Cages Larger than U.S. Norm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, Judith L; Croney, Candace C; Buffington, C Tony

    2017-01-01

    The effect of providing additional floor space on cat behavior and welfare is not well documented. This study involved replication of an investigation of cats' responses to enhanced cage and room environments using cages of 0.56 m 2 with the same methodology but an increased space allowance of 1.1 m 2 . Singly housed adult cats (n = 59) were randomly assigned to a treatment group that was a combination of a managed or unmanaged room and an enriched or unenriched cage environment. Cats were observed for 2 days for maintenance, affiliative, and avoidant behaviors using scan sampling and 5-min, continuous focal sampling. At the end of Day 2, cats' reactions to the approach of an unfamiliar person were assessed. Cats housed in enriched/managed environments exhibited more maintenance and affiliative behaviors and fewer avoidant behaviors than cats in unmanaged/unenriched environments, suggesting that macro and micro environments may be equally relevant to the cat. Increased space did not enhance the cats' welfare outcomes, suggesting that the provision of additional cage space may not be as important to the cat as a managed housing environment.

  11. Scrubbing up: multi-scale investigation of woody encroachment in a southern African savannah

    OpenAIRE

    Marston, Christopher G.; Aplin, Paul; Wilkinson, David M.; Field, Richard; O'Regan, Hannah J.

    2017-01-01

    Changes in the extent of woody vegetation represent a major conservation question in many savannah systems around the globe. To address the problem of the current lack of broad-scale cost-effective tools for land cover monitoring in complex savannah environments, we use a multi-scale approach to quantifying vegetation change in Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa. We test whether medium spatial resolution satellite data (Landsat, existing back to the 1970s), which have pixel sizes larger...

  12. The erection of larger windmills in the open countryside - an investigation of the visual effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    The future use of larger windmills will result in new visual effects. The investigation points out that these effects will be dependent on the main characteristics of the landscape. Windmills with a height of 90 m will be taller than any other element found in the landscape with the exception of some chimneys, masts, etc. It is shown that very tall windmills should not be set up in large dominating groups, that it is important that the towers are slender and that the blades rotate slowly (in order to give a more peaceful effect), if the landscape should not be spoiled. Large windmills dominate an area of 1 - 3 kilometers, but at a distance of 10 - 12 km they can appear to fade away between woods and large buildings etc. Naturally, large windmills will be prominent on heaths and moors, and would not be welcome where there are buildings of cultural interest or where the landscape is under conservation. They could, it is stated, be placed amongst a group of smaller windmills, as this would help to lessen their dominance, but should not be positioned where one type of landscape merges into another, as here they would show up more. Local boundaries should also be taken into consideration. When planning where to locate windmills the overall visual effect over larger areas should be contemplated in addition to the preservation of views of buildings etc. of historical interest. Photographs should be taken of proposed sites so that paper models can be placed so as to produce an idea of the visual effects of erecting larger windmills in various positions in specified areas

  13. Collecting the neclected kingdom: Guidelines for the field mycologist with emphasis on the larger fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buyck, B.; Læssøe, Thomas; Meyer, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Guidelines are provided for collecting a group of organisms that has often been overlooked in earlier inventories: the kingdom Fungi and other groups that are traditionally collected by mycologists such as slime molds. After a short introduction on fungi and the feasibility of an ‘all fungal taxa......’ inventory, the authors divide the fungi in six ‘practical’ groups that require specific approaches: slime molds, lichens, parasitic fungi of plants and animals, larger mushrooms, microscopic fungi. Various topics are discussed in relation to three chronological stages (before, during and after...

  14. An improved permanent magnet quadrupole design with larger good field region for high intensity proton linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, Jose V., E-mail: josev.mathew@gmail.com; Rao, S.V.L.S.; Krishnagopal, S.; Singh, P.

    2013-11-01

    The Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA), being developed at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) will produce a 20 MeV, 30 mA, continuous wave (CW) proton beam. At these low velocities, space-charge forces dominate, and could lead to larger beam sizes and beam halos. Hence in the design of the focusing lattice of the LEHIPA drift tube linac (DTL) using permanent magnet quadrupoles (PMQs), a larger good field region is preferred. Here we study, using the two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) simulation codes PANDIRA and RADIA, four different types of cylindrical PMQ designs: 16-segment trapezoidal Halbach configuration, bullet-nosed geometry and 8- and 16-segment rectangular geometries. The trapezoidal Halbach geometry is used in a variety of accelerators since it provides very high field gradients in small bores, while the bullet-nosed geometry, which is a combination of the trapezoidal and rectangular designs, is used in some DTLs. This study shows that a larger good field region is possible in the 16-segment rectangular design as compared to the Halbach and bullet-nosed designs, making it more attractive for high-intensity proton linacs. An improvement in good-field region by ∼16% over the Halbach design is obtained in the optimized 16-segment rectangular design, although the field gradient is lower by ∼20%. Tolerance studies show that the rectangular segment PMQ design is substantially less sensitive to the easy axis orientation errors and hence will be a better choice for DTLs. -- Highlights: • An improved permanent magnet quadrupole (PMQ) design with larger good field region is proposed. • We investigate four PMQ designs, including the widely used Halbach and bullet nosed designs. • Analytical calculations are backed by 2D as well as 3D numerical solvers, PANDIRA and RADIA. • The optimized 16 segment rectangular PMQ design is identified to exhibit the largest good field region. • The effect of easy axis orientation

  15. An improved permanent magnet quadrupole design with larger good field region for high intensity proton linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathew, Jose V.; Rao, S.V.L.S.; Krishnagopal, S.; Singh, P.

    2013-01-01

    The Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA), being developed at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) will produce a 20 MeV, 30 mA, continuous wave (CW) proton beam. At these low velocities, space-charge forces dominate, and could lead to larger beam sizes and beam halos. Hence in the design of the focusing lattice of the LEHIPA drift tube linac (DTL) using permanent magnet quadrupoles (PMQs), a larger good field region is preferred. Here we study, using the two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) simulation codes PANDIRA and RADIA, four different types of cylindrical PMQ designs: 16-segment trapezoidal Halbach configuration, bullet-nosed geometry and 8- and 16-segment rectangular geometries. The trapezoidal Halbach geometry is used in a variety of accelerators since it provides very high field gradients in small bores, while the bullet-nosed geometry, which is a combination of the trapezoidal and rectangular designs, is used in some DTLs. This study shows that a larger good field region is possible in the 16-segment rectangular design as compared to the Halbach and bullet-nosed designs, making it more attractive for high-intensity proton linacs. An improvement in good-field region by ∼16% over the Halbach design is obtained in the optimized 16-segment rectangular design, although the field gradient is lower by ∼20%. Tolerance studies show that the rectangular segment PMQ design is substantially less sensitive to the easy axis orientation errors and hence will be a better choice for DTLs. -- Highlights: • An improved permanent magnet quadrupole (PMQ) design with larger good field region is proposed. • We investigate four PMQ designs, including the widely used Halbach and bullet nosed designs. • Analytical calculations are backed by 2D as well as 3D numerical solvers, PANDIRA and RADIA. • The optimized 16 segment rectangular PMQ design is identified to exhibit the largest good field region. • The effect of easy axis orientation

  16. Laser-Induced Damage Growth on Larger-Aperture Fused Silica Optical Components at 351 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan-Qing, Huang; Wei, Han; Fang, Wang; Yong, Xiang; Fu-Quan, Li; Bin, Feng; Feng, Jing; Xiao-Feng, Wei; Wan-Guo, Zheng; Xiao-Min, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Laser-induced damage is a key lifetime limiter for optics in high-power laser facility. Damage initiation and growth under 351 nm high-fluence laser irradiation are observed on larger-aperture fused silica optics. The input surface of one fused silica component is damaged most severely and an explanation is presented. Obscurations and the area of a scratch on it are found to grow exponentially with the shot number. The area of damage site grows linearly. Micrographs of damage sites support the micro-explosion damage model which could be used to qualitatively explain the phenomena

  17. Examples of fatigue lifetime and reliability evaluation of larger wind turbine components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp-Johansen, N.J.

    2003-01-01

    This report is one out of several that constitute the final report on the ELSAM funded PSO project “Vindmøllekomponenters udmattelsesstyrke og levetid”, project no. 2079, which regards the lifetime distribution of larger wind turbine components in ageneric turbine that has real life dimensions....... Though it was the initial intention of the project to consider only the distribution of lifetimes the work reported in this document provides also calculations of reliabilities and partial load safetyfactors under specific assumptions about uncertainty sources, as reliabilities are considered...

  18. Dynamical and multi scale approach of the relationships between the aquatic organisms and their environment; Approche multi-echelles des relations dynamiques entre les organismes aquatiques et leur environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daufresne, M

    2004-03-15

    Identifying the causes of spatio-temporal variations in communities has long been at the core of ecological research. I have studied the dynamic relationship between stream-living organisms and their environment. I have shown, for the first time in large stream ecosystems, the effect of climate change on fish and invertebrate community structures. At the population scale, I enhanced understanding of the influence of high discharge level during emergence on brown trout population dynamics. At the individual scale, an experimental study improved understanding of the influence of stream velocity on downstream displacement of emerging trout. Finally, this work highlighted that environmental constraints could have paradoxical effects at different biological or temporal scales. (author)

  19. EOCENE LARGER FORAMINIFERAL BIOSTRATIGRAPHY IN THE SOUTHERNMOST DAUPHINOIS DOMAIN (MARITIME ALPS, FRANCE-ITALY BORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DARIO VARRONE

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The Trucco Formation and the Nummulitic Limestone (Dauphinois Domain, Maritime Alps are characterized by abundant larger foraminifera, specifically nummulitids, orthophragminids and encrusting foraminifera. In the Maritime Alps, previous studies suggest a late Lutetian age for the Trucco Formation and a late Lutetian-Priabonian age for the Nummulitic Limestone.Biostratigraphic analysis of the nummulitids, in 11 stratigraphic sections, allowed us to distinguish 3 biozones:MALF1 Zone: defined by the presence of Nummulites brongniarti d’Archiac & Haime, N. puschi d’Archiac, N. perforatus de Montfort, N. striatus (Bruguière, N. cf. dufrenoyi d’Archiac & Haime, N. variolarius/incrassatus and Operculina schwageri Silvestri.MALF2 Zone: defined by the presence of Nummulites perforatus de Montfort, N. striatus (Bruguière, N. cf. dufrenoyi d’Archiac & Haime, N. variolarius/incrassatus and Operculina schwageri Silvestri.MALF 3 Zone: defined by the presence of gr. Nummulites variolarius/incrassatus, N. striatus (Bruguière and Operculina schwageri Silvestri.According to current larger foraminiferal biozonal schemes, the age of these local biozones corresponds to the Bartonian p.p.Moreover, the comparison with biostratigraphic schemes established for the Dauphinois Domain and for the Tethyan area evidences that several typical nummulitid species of the late Bartonian are lacking in the southern Dauphinois Domain, probably due to a paleogeographic control. 

  20. Changes in Children's Perception-Action Tuning over Short Time Scales: Bicycling across Traffic-Filled Intersections in a Virtual Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumert, Jodie M.; Kearney, Joseph K.; Cremer, James F.; Recker, Kara M.; Strutt, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examined short-term changes in child and adult cyclists' gap decisions and movement timing in response to general and specific road-crossing experiences. Children (10- and 12-year-olds) and adults rode a bicycle through a virtual environment with 12 intersections. Participants faced continuous cross traffic and waited for gaps…

  1. A tale of two scales: Evaluating the relationship among life satisfaction, social capital, income, and the natural environment at individual and neighborhood levels in metropolitan Baltimore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanda W. Vemuri; J. Morgan Grove; Matthew A. Wilson; William R. Jr. Burch

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid growth of cities worldwide, there is a need to better understand factors contributing to life satisfaction in urban environments. Using data from a long-term study of the Baltimore metropolitan region, we build on existing social scientific literature to examine a suite of theoretical factors that have been proposed to explain higher life satisfaction....

  2. Polymer Chain Dynamics in a Random Environment: Heterogeneous Mobilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedzwiedz, K.; Wischnewski, A.; Monkenbusch, M.; Richter, D.; Strauch, M.; Straube, E.; Genix, A.-C.; Arbe, A.; Colmenero, J.

    2007-01-01

    We present a neutron scattering investigation on a miscible blend of two polymers with greatly different glass-transition temperatures T g . Under such conditions, the nearly frozen high-T g component imposes a random environment on the mobile chain. The results demand the consideration of a distribution of heterogeneous mobilities in the material and demonstrate that the larger scale dynamics of the fast component is not determined by the average local environment alone. This distribution of mobilities can be mapped quantitatively on the spectrum of local relaxation rates measured at high momentum transfers

  3. 4π Noncoplanar Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Centrally Located or Larger Lung Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Peng; Lee, Percy; Ruan, Dan; Long, Troy; Romeijn, Edwin; Low, Daniel A.; Kupelian, Patrick; Abraham, John; Yang, Yingli; Sheng, Ke

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric improvements in stereotactic body radiation therapy for patients with larger or central lung tumors using a highly noncoplanar 4π planning system. Methods and Materials: This study involved 12 patients with centrally located or larger lung tumors previously treated with 7- to 9-field static beam intensity modulated radiation therapy to 50 Gy. They were replanned using volumetric modulated arc therapy and 4π plans, in which a column generation method was used to optimize the beam orientation and the fluence map. Maximum doses to the heart, esophagus, trachea/bronchus, and spinal cord, as well as the 50% isodose volume, the lung volumes receiving 20, 10, and 5 Gy were minimized and compared against the clinical plans. A dose escalation study was performed to determine whether a higher prescription dose to the tumor would be achievable using 4π without violating dose limits set by the clinical plans. The deliverability of 4π plans was preliminarily tested. Results: Using 4π plans, the maximum heart, esophagus, trachea, bronchus and spinal cord doses were reduced by 32%, 72%, 37%, 44%, and 53% (P≤.001), respectively, and R 50 was reduced by more than 50%. Lung V 20 , V 10 , and V 5 were reduced by 64%, 53%, and 32% (P≤.001), respectively. The improved sparing of organs at risk was achieved while also improving planning target volume (PTV) coverage. The minimal PTV doses were increased by the 4π plans by 12% (P=.002). Consequently, escalated PTV doses of 68 to 70 Gy were achieved in all patients. Conclusions: We have shown that there is a large potential for plan quality improvement and dose escalation for patients with larger or centrally located lung tumors using noncoplanar beams with sufficient quality and quantity. Compared against the clinical volumetric modulated arc therapy and static intensity modulated radiation therapy plans, the 4π plans yielded significantly and consistently improved tumor coverage and

  4. 4π Noncoplanar Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Centrally Located or Larger Lung Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Peng; Lee, Percy; Ruan, Dan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Long, Troy; Romeijn, Edwin [Department of Industrial and Operations Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Low, Daniel A.; Kupelian, Patrick; Abraham, John; Yang, Yingli [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Sheng, Ke, E-mail: ksheng@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric improvements in stereotactic body radiation therapy for patients with larger or central lung tumors using a highly noncoplanar 4π planning system. Methods and Materials: This study involved 12 patients with centrally located or larger lung tumors previously treated with 7- to 9-field static beam intensity modulated radiation therapy to 50 Gy. They were replanned using volumetric modulated arc therapy and 4π plans, in which a column generation method was used to optimize the beam orientation and the fluence map. Maximum doses to the heart, esophagus, trachea/bronchus, and spinal cord, as well as the 50% isodose volume, the lung volumes receiving 20, 10, and 5 Gy were minimized and compared against the clinical plans. A dose escalation study was performed to determine whether a higher prescription dose to the tumor would be achievable using 4π without violating dose limits set by the clinical plans. The deliverability of 4π plans was preliminarily tested. Results: Using 4π plans, the maximum heart, esophagus, trachea, bronchus and spinal cord doses were reduced by 32%, 72%, 37%, 44%, and 53% (P≤.001), respectively, and R{sub 50} was reduced by more than 50%. Lung V{sub 20}, V{sub 10}, and V{sub 5} were reduced by 64%, 53%, and 32% (P≤.001), respectively. The improved sparing of organs at risk was achieved while also improving planning target volume (PTV) coverage. The minimal PTV doses were increased by the 4π plans by 12% (P=.002). Consequently, escalated PTV doses of 68 to 70 Gy were achieved in all patients. Conclusions: We have shown that there is a large potential for plan quality improvement and dose escalation for patients with larger or centrally located lung tumors using noncoplanar beams with sufficient quality and quantity. Compared against the clinical volumetric modulated arc therapy and static intensity modulated radiation therapy plans, the 4π plans yielded significantly and consistently improved tumor

  5. Gauging policy-driven large-scale vegetation restoration programmes under a changing environment: Their effectiveness and socio-economic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Lü, Yihe; Fu, Bojie; Comber, Alexis J; Harris, Paul; Wu, Lianhai

    2017-12-31

    Large-scale ecological restoration has been widely accepted globally as an effective strategy for combating environmental crises and to facilitate sustainability. Assessing the effectiveness of ecological restoration is vital for researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers. However, few practical tools are available to perform such tasks, particularly for large-scale restoration programmes in complex socio-ecological systems. By taking a "before and after" design, this paper formulates a composite index (E j ) based on comparing the trends of vegetation cover and vegetation productivity to assess ecological restoration effectiveness. The index reveals the dynamic and spatially heterogenic process of vegetation restoration across different time periods, which can be informative for ecological restoration management at regional scales. Effectiveness together with its relationship to socio-economic factors is explored via structural equation modeling for three time periods. The results indicate that the temporal scale is a crucial factor in representing restoration effectiveness, and that the effects of socio-economic factors can also vary with time providing insight for improving restoration effectiveness. A dual-track strategy, which promotes the development of tertiary industry in absorbing the rural labor force together with improvements in agricultural practices, is proposed as a promising strategy for enhancing restoration effectiveness. In this process, timely and long-term ecological restoration monitoring is advocated, so that the success and sustainability of such programmes is ensured, together with more informative decision making where socio-ecological interactions at differing temporal scales are key concerns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Beyond Panglossian Optimism: Larger N2 Amplitudes Probably Signal a Bilingual Disadvantage in Conflict Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R. Paap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this special issue on the brain mechanisms that lead to cognitive benefits of bilingualism we discussed six reasons why it will be very difficult to discover those mechanisms. Many of these problems apply to the article by Fernandez, Acosta, Douglass, Doshi, and Tartar that also appears in the special issue. These concerns include the following: 1 an overly optimistic assessment of the replicability of bilingual advantages in behavioral studies, 2 reliance on risky small samples sizes, 3 failures to match the samples on demographic characteristics such as immigrant status, and 4 language group differences that occur in neural measures (i.e., N2 amplitude, but not in the behavioral data. Furthermore the N2 amplitude measure in general suffers from valence ambiguity: larger N2 amplitudes reported for bilinguals are more likely to reflect poorer conflict resolution rather than enhanced inhibitory control.

  7. Design of reactor internals in larger high-temperature reactors with spherical fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elter, C.

    1981-01-01

    In his paper, the author analyzes and summarizes the present state of the art with emphasis on the prototype reactor THTR 300 MWe, because in addition to spherical fuel elements, this type includes other features of future HTR design such as the same flow direction of cooland gas through the core. The paper on hand also elaborates design guidelines for reactor internals applicable with large HTR's of up to 1200 MWe. Proved designs will be altered so as to meet the special requirements of larger cores with spherical elements to be reloaded according to the OTTO principle. This paper is furthermore designed as a starting point for selective and swift development of reactor internals for large HTR's to be refuelled according to the OTTO principle. (orig./GL) [de

  8. Imaging samples larger than the field of view: the SLS experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogiatzis Oikonomidis, Ioannis; Lovric, Goran; Cremona, Tiziana P.; Arcadu, Filippo; Patera, Alessandra; Schittny, Johannes C.; Stampanoni, Marco

    2017-06-01

    Volumetric datasets with micrometer spatial and sub-second temporal resolutions are nowadays routinely acquired using synchrotron X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM). Although SRXTM technology allows the examination of multiple samples with short scan times, many specimens are larger than the field-of-view (FOV) provided by the detector. The extension of the FOV in the direction perpendicular to the rotation axis remains non-trivial. We present a method that can efficiently increase the FOV merging volumetric datasets obtained by region-of-interest tomographies in different 3D positions of the sample with a minimal amount of artefacts and with the ability to handle large amounts of data. The method has been successfully applied for the three-dimensional imaging of a small number of mouse lung acini of intact animals, where pixel sizes down to the micrometer range and short exposure times are required.

  9. Practical aspects of NMR signal assignment in larger and challenging proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frueh, Dominique P.

    2014-01-01

    NMR has matured into a technique routinely employed for studying proteins in near physiological conditions. However, applications to larger proteins are impeded by the complexity of the various correlation maps necessary to assign NMR signals. This article reviews the data analysis techniques traditionally employed for resonance assignment and describes alternative protocols necessary for overcoming challenges in large protein spectra. In particular, simultaneous analysis of multiple spectra may help overcome ambiguities or may reveal correlations in an indirect manner. Similarly, visualization of orthogonal planes in a multidimensional spectrum can provide alternative assignment procedures. We describe examples of such strategies for assignment of backbone, methyl, and nOe resonances. We describe experimental aspects of data acquisition for the related experiments and provide guidelines for preliminary studies. Focus is placed on large folded monomeric proteins and examples are provided for 37, 48, 53, and 81 kDa proteins. PMID:24534088

  10. The Larger Bound on the Domination Number of Fibonacci Cubes and Lucas Cubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengzhang Ren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Let Γn and Λn be the n-dimensional Fibonacci cube and Lucas cube, respectively. Denote by Γ[un,k,z] the subgraph of Γn induced by the end-vertex un,k,z that has no up-neighbor. In this paper, the number of end-vertices and domination number γ of Γn and Λn are studied. The formula of calculating the number of end-vertices is given and it is proved that γ(Γ[un,k,z]≤2k-1+1. Using these results, the larger bound on the domination number γ of Γn and Λn is determined.

  11. Designing key-dependent chaotic S-box with larger key space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Ruming; Yuan Jian; Wang Jian; Shan Xiuming; Wang Xiqin

    2009-01-01

    The construction of cryptographically strong substitution boxes (S-boxes) is an important concern in designing secure cryptosystems. The key-dependent S-boxes designed using chaotic maps have received increasing attention in recent years. However, the key space of such S-boxes does not seem to be sufficiently large due to the limited parameter range of discretized chaotic maps. In this paper, we propose a new key-dependent S-box based on the iteration of continuous chaotic maps. We explore the continuous-valued state space of chaotic systems, and devise the discrete mapping between the input and the output of the S-box. A key-dependent S-box is constructed with the logistic map in this paper. We show that its key space could be much larger than the current key-dependent chaotic S-boxes.

  12. Smoking Topography among Korean Smokers: Intensive Smoking Behavior with Larger Puff Volume and Shorter Interpuff Interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungroul; Yu, Sol

    2018-05-18

    The difference of smoker's topography has been found to be a function many factors, including sex, personality, nicotine yield, cigarette type (i.e., flavored versus non-flavored) and ethnicity. We evaluated the puffing behaviors of Korean smokers and its association with smoking-related biomarker levels. A sample of 300 participants was randomly recruited from metropolitan areas in South Korea. Topography measures during a 24-hour period were obtained using a CReSS pocket device. Korean male smokers smoked two puffs less per cigarette compared to female smokers (15.0 (13.0⁻19.0) vs. 17.5 (15.0⁻21.0) as the median (Interquartile range)), but had a significantly larger puff volume (62.7 (52.7⁻75.5) mL vs. 53.5 (42.0⁻64.2) mL); p = 0.012). The interpuff interval was similar between men and women (8.9 (6.5⁻11.2) s vs. 8.3 (6.2⁻11.0) s; p = 0.122) but much shorter than other study results. A dose-response association ( p = 0.0011) was observed between daily total puff volumes and urinary cotinine concentrations, after controlling for sex, age, household income level and nicotine addiction level. An understanding of the difference of topography measures, particularly the larger puff volume and shorter interpuff interval of Korean smokers, may help to overcome a potential underestimation of internal doses of hazardous byproducts of smoking.

  13. Larger ATV engine size correlates with an increased rate of traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, C Caleb; Rostas, Jack W; Lee, Y L; Gonzalez, Richard P; Brevard, Sidney B; Frotan, M Amin; Ahmed, Naveed; Simmons, Jon D

    2015-04-01

    Since the introduction of all-terrain vehicles (ATV) to the United States in 1971, injuries and mortalities related to their use have increased significantly. Furthermore, these vehicles have become larger and more powerful. As there are no helmet requirements or limitations on engine-size in the State of Alabama, we hypothesised that larger engine size would correlate with an increased incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in patients following an ATV crash. Patient and ATV data were prospectively collected on all ATV crashes presenting to a level one trauma centre from September 2010 to May 2013. Collected data included: demographics, age of driver, ATV engine size, presence of helmet, injuries, and outcomes. The data were grouped according to the ATV engine size in cubic centimetres (cc). For the purposes of this study, TBI was defined as any type of intracranial haemorrhage on the initial computed tomography scan. There were 61 patients identified during the study period. Two patients (3%) were wearing a helmet at the time of injury. Patients on an ATV with an engine size of 350 cc or greater had higher Injury Severity Scores (13.9 vs. 7.5, p ≤ 0.05) and an increased incidence of TBI (26% vs. 0%, p ≤ 0.05) when compared to patients on ATV's with an engine size less than 350 cc. Patients on an ATV with an engine size of 350 cc or greater were more likely to have a TBI. The use of a helmet was rarely present in this cohort. Legislative efforts to implement rider protection laws for ATVs are warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Larger fig wasps are more careful about which figs to enter--with good reason.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cong; Yang, Da-Rong; Compton, Stephen G; Peng, Yan-Qiong

    2013-01-01

    Floral longevity reflects a balance between gains in pollinator visitation and the costs of flower maintenance. Because rewards to pollinators change over time, older flowers may be less attractive, reducing the value of extended longevity. Un-pollinated figs, the inflorescences of Ficus species, can remain receptive for long periods, but figs that are older when entered by their host-specific fig wasp pollinators produce fewer seeds and fig wasp offspring. Our field experiments with Ficushispida, a dioecious fig tree, examined how the length of time that receptive figs have remained un-pollinated influences the behaviour and reproductive success of its short-lived fig wasp pollinator, Ceratosolensolmsi marchali. The results were consistent in three different seasons, and on male and female trees, although receptivity was greatly extended during colder months. Pollinators took longer to find the ostioles of older figs, and longer to penetrate them. They also became increasingly unwilling to enter figs as they aged, and increasing numbers of the wasps became trapped in the ostiolar bracts. Larger individuals were particularly unwilling to enter older figs, resulting in older figs being pollinated by smaller wasps. On female trees, where figs produce only seeds, seed production declined rapidly with fig age. On male trees, the numbers and size of fig wasp offspring declined, and a higher proportion were male. Older male figs are harder to enter, especially for larger individuals, and offer poorer quality oviposition opportunities. This study opens an interesting new perspective on the coevolution of figs and their pollinators, especially factors influencing pollinator body size and emphasises the subtleties of interactions between mutualists.

  15. Introgression of a Rare Haplotype from Southeastern Africa to Breed California Blackeyes with Larger Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell R Lucas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Seed size distinguishes most crops from their wild relatives and is an important quality trait for the grain legume cowpea. In order to breed cowpea varieties with larger seeds we introgressed a rare haplotype associated with large seeds at the Css-1 locus from an African buff seed type cultivar, IT82E-18 (18.5g/100 seeds, into a blackeye seed type cultivar, CB27 (22g/100 seed. Four RILs derived from these two parents were chosen for marker-assisted breeding based on SNP genotyping with a goal of stacking large seed haplotypes into a CB27 background. Foreground and background selection were performed during two cycles of backcrossing based on genome-wide SNP markers. The average seed size of introgression lines homozygous for haplotypes associated with large seeds was 28.7g/100 seed and 24.8g/100 seed for cycles 1 and 2, respectively. One cycle 1 introgression line with desirable seed quality was selfed for two generations to make families with very large seeds (28-35g/100 seeds. Field-based performance trials helped identify breeding lines that not only have large seeds but are also desirable in terms of yield, maturity, and plant architecture when compared to industry standards. A principal component analysis was used to explore the relationships between the parents relative to a core set of landraces and improved varieties based on high-density SNP data. The geographic distribution of haplotypes at the Css-1 locus suggest the haplotype associated with large seeds is unique to accessions collected from Southeastern Africa. Therefore this QTL has a strong potential to develop larger seeded varieties for other growing regions which is demonstrated in this work using a California pedigree.

  16. Larger Neural Responses Produce BOLD Signals That Begin Earlier in Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena eThompson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Functional MRI analyses commonly rely on the assumption that the temporal dynamics of hemodynamic response functions (HRFs are independent of the amplitude of the neural signals that give rise to them. The validity of this assumption is particularly important for techniques that use fMRI to resolve sub-second timing distinctions between responses, in order to make inferences about the ordering of neural processes. Whether or not the detailed shape of the HRF is independent of neural response amplitude remains an open question, however. We performed experiments in which we measured responses in primary visual cortex (V1 to large, contrast-reversing checkerboards at a range of contrast levels, which should produce varying amounts of neural activity. Ten subjects (ages 22-52 were studied in each of two experiments using 3 Tesla scanners. We used rapid, 250 msec, temporal sampling (repetition time, or TR and both short and long inter-stimulus interval (ISI stimulus presentations. We tested for a systematic relationship between the onset of the HRF and its amplitude across conditions, and found a strong negative correlation between the two measures when stimuli were separated in time (long- and medium-ISI experiments, but not the short-ISI experiment. Thus, stimuli that produce larger neural responses, as indexed by HRF amplitude, also produced HRFs with shorter onsets. The relationship between amplitude and latency was strongest in voxels with lowest mean-normalized variance (i.e., parenchymal voxels. The onset differences observed in the longer-ISI experiments are likely attributable to mechanisms of neurovascular coupling, since they are substantially larger than reported differences in the onset of action potentials in V1 as a function of response amplitude.

  17. Assessment of the Impact of Metropolitan-Scale Urban Planning Scenarios on the Moist Thermal Environment under Global Warming: A Study of the Tokyo Metropolitan Area Using Regional Climate Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuka Suzuki-Parker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a high-resolution regional climate model coupled with urban canopy model, the present study provides the first attempt in quantifying the impact of metropolitan-scale urban planning scenarios on moist thermal environment under global warming. Tokyo metropolitan area is selected as a test case. Three urban planning scenarios are considered: status quo, dispersed city, and compact city. Their impact on the moist thermal environment is assessed using wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT. Future projections for the 2070s show a 2–4°C increase in daytime mean WBGT relative to the current climate. The urban scenario impacts are shown to be small, with a −0.4 to +0.4°C range. Relative changes in temperature and humidity as the result of a given urban scenario are shown to be critical in determining the sign of the WBGT changes; however, such changes are not necessarily determined by local changes in urban land surface parameters. These findings indicate that urban land surface changes may improve or worsen the local moist thermal environment and that metropolitan-scale urban planning is inefficient in mitigating heat-related health risks for mature cities like Tokyo.

  18. Application of chemical mutagens and radiation in breeding buckwheat for larger seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseeva, E.S.

    1988-01-01

    Full text: In 1974, seeds of the Viktoriya variety of buckwheat were treated with 20-30 krad gamma radiation and chemical mutagens in the Biophysics Department of the Kishinev Agricultural Institute. For the chemical mutagen treatment, we used N-ethylnitroso-urea NEH (0.025 and 0.012%), N-methylnitroso-urea NMH (0.01 and 0.005%), ethylenimine EI (0.01 and 0.005%), dimethyl sulphate DMS (0.01 and 0.005%) and 1.4-bis-diazoacetyl butane DAB (0.01 and 0.05%). Since some investigators think that different results are produced by changing the order of the treatment, we treated seeds with chemical mutagens before and after irradiation and this was followed by drying. A total of 2400 seeds were treated. Selection started with M 2 seeds produced by M 1 plants. The thousand seed weight of the best ones ranged from 40.7 to 47.8 g, which was 11.9-18.7 g heavier than the control. The large seed size thus selected was heritable. Since larger seeds are very important for the creation of high yielding varieties buckwheat, only families with these characteristics were selected for further work. We observed even some further increase in seed weight in the next generation. It was observed that when planting large seeds, after six days of growth the cotyledons were significantly larger than in the control plants. This characteristic was used in selecting for a high yielding large-seed variety of buckwheat. The plants were selected twice: once for development of large cotyledon leaves and the second time for plant yield. In the fourth generation, the families thus obtained continued to be studied in greenhouse experiments and the same time be propagated under field conditions. The seeds of these families were then combined and under the name Podolyanka in 1976 were subjected to competitive variety testing. Following the competitive variety testing the mutant variety Podolyanka was released in 1984. It is high yielding (2950 kg/ha), has a short vegetation period (matures 17-18 days

  19. Mud deposit formation on the open coast of the larger Patos Lagoon-Cassino Beach system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinzon, S. B.; Winterwerp, J. C.; Nogueira, R.; de Boer, G. J.

    2009-03-01

    This paper proposes an explanation of the mud deposits on the inner Shelf of Cassino Beach, South Brazil, by using computational modeling. These mud deposits are mainly formed by sediments delivered from Patos Lagoon, a coastal lagoon connected to the Shelf, next to Cassino Beach. The deposits are characterized by (soft) mud layers of about 1 m thick and are found between the -5 and -20 isobaths. Two hydrodynamic models of the larger Patos Lagoon-Cassino Beach system were calibrated against water elevation measured for a 5 months period, and against currents and salinity measured for a week period. The circulation patterns and water exchange through the mouth were analyzed as a function of local and remote wind effects, and river discharges. The remote wind effect mainly governs the quantity of water exchange with the Lagoon through its effect on mean sea level as a result of Ekman dynamics, while river discharges are important for the salinity of the exchanged water masses. Local winds augment the export-import rates by set-up and set-down within the Lagoon, but their effects are much smaller than those of the remote wind. Currents patterns on the inner Shelf during water outflow revealed a recirculation zone south of the Lagoon, induced by the local geometry and bathymetry of the system. This recirculation zone coincides with observed locations of mud deposition. Water, hence suspended sediment export occurs when remote and local winds are from the N-E, which explains why fine sediment deposits are mainly found south of the Lagoon's breakwater. A sensitivity analysis with the numerical model quantified the contribution of the various mechanisms driving the transport and fate of the fine suspended sediments, i.e. the effects of remote and local wind, of the astronomical tide, of river discharge and fresh-salt water-induced density currents, and of earth rotation. It is concluded that gravitational circulation and earth rotation affects the further dispersion of

  20. Description of the person-environment interaction: methodological issues and empirical results of an Italian large-scale disability assessment study using an ICF-based protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francescutti, Carlo; Gongolo, Francesco; Simoncello, Andrea; Frattura, Lucilla

    2011-05-31

    There is a connection between the definition of disability in a person-environment framework, the development of appropriate assessment strategies and instruments, and the logic underpinning the organization of benefits and services to confront disability. The Italian Ministry of Health and Ministry of Labor and Social Policies supported a three-year project for the definition of a common framework and a standardised protocol for disability evaluation based on ICF. The research agenda of the project identified 6 phases: 1) adoption of a definition of disability; 2) analytical breakdown of the contents of disability definition, so as to indicate as clearly as possible the core information essential to guide the evaluation process; 3) definition of a data collection protocol; 4) national implementation of the protocol and collection of approximately 1,000 profiles; 5) proposal of a profile analysis and definition of groups of cases with similar functioning profiles; 6) trial of the proposal with the collected data. The data was analyzed in different ways: descriptive analysis, application of the person-environment interactions classification tree, and cluster analysis. A sample of 1,051 persons from 8 Italian regions was collected that represented different functioning conditions in all the phases of the life cycle. The aggregate result of the person-environment interactions was summarized. The majority of activities resulted with no problems in all of the A&P chapters. Nearly 50.000 facilitators codes were opened. The main frequent facilitators were family members, health and social professionals, assistive devices and both health and social systems, services and politics. The focus of the person-environment interaction evaluation was on the A&P domains, differentiating those in which performance presented limitations and restrictions from those in which performance had no or light limitations and restrictions. Communication(d3) and Learning and Applying Knowledge

  1. Outcomes of multiple wire localization for larger breast cancers: when can mastectomy be avoided?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirstein, Laurie J; Rafferty, Elizabeth; Specht, Michelle C; Moore, Richard H; Taghian, Alphonse G; Hughes, Kevin S; Gadd, Michele A; Smith, Barbara L

    2008-09-01

    Mastectomy is often recommended when mammography shows a breast cancer with extensive calcifications. We wished to determine whether the use of multiple localizing wires to guide lumpectomy in this setting was associated with increased rates of breast conservation. We also wanted to identify factors that predicted a poor chance of successful lumpectomy, to avoid multiple lumpectomy attempts in a patient who would ultimately require mastectomy. Records of 153 women with breast cancer who underwent lumpectomy for larger lesions that required multiple wire localization and 196 controls who required only single wire localization were reviewed retrospectively. The number of localizing wires, specimen volume, largest specimen dimension, number of surgical procedures, and rates of breast conservation were scored. Seventy-seven percent of patients requiring multiple wire localization had successful breast conservation, compared with 90% of those needing only single wire localization. Only 28% of multiple wire patients required more than 1 excision to achieve clear margins, compared with 36% of single wire patients (p localizing wires for excision. The use of multiple wires can decrease the number of procedures required to obtain clear lumpectomy margins.

  2. Technique for Extension of Small Antenna Array Mutual-Coupling Data to Larger Antenna Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, M. C.

    1996-01-01

    A technique is presented whereby the mutual interaction between a small number of elements in a planar array can be interpolated and extrapolated to accurately predict the combined interactions in a much larger array of many elements. An approximate series expression is developed, based upon knowledge of the analytical characteristic behavior of the mutual admittance between small aperture antenna elements in a conducting ground plane. This expression is utilized to analytically extend known values for a few spacings and orientations to other element configurations, thus eliminating the need to numerically integrate a large number of highly oscillating and slowly converging functions. This paper shows that the technique can predict very accurately the mutual coupling between elements in a very large planar array with a knowledge of the self-admittance of an isolated element and the coupling between only two-elements arranged in eight different pair combinations. These eight pair combinations do not necessarily have to correspond to pairs in the large array, although all of the individual elements must be identical.

  3. Larger aggregates of mutant seipin in Celia's Encephalopathy, a new protein misfolding neurodegenerative disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Riquelme, Alejandro; Sánchez-Iglesias, Sofía; Rábano, Alberto; Guillén-Navarro, Encarna; Domingo-Jiménez, Rosario; Ramos, Adriana; Rosa, Isaac; Senra, Ana; Nilsson, Peter; García, Ángel; Araújo-Vilar, David; Requena, Jesús R

    2015-11-01

    Celia's Encephalopathy (MIM #615924) is a recently discovered fatal neurodegenerative syndrome associated with a new BSCL2 mutation (c.985C>T) that results in an aberrant isoform of seipin (Celia seipin). This mutation is lethal in both homozygosity and compounded heterozygosity with a lipodystrophic BSCL2 mutation, resulting in a progressive encephalopathy with fatal outcomes at ages 6-8. Strikingly, heterozygous carriers are asymptomatic, conflicting with the gain of toxic function attributed to this mutation. Here we report new key insights about the molecular pathogenic mechanism of this new syndrome. Intranuclear inclusions containing mutant seipin were found in brain tissue from a homozygous patient suggesting a pathogenic mechanism similar to other neurodegenerative diseases featuring brain accumulation of aggregated, misfolded proteins. Sucrose gradient distribution showed that mutant seipin forms much larger aggregates as compared with wild type (wt) seipin, indicating an impaired oligomerization. On the other hand, the interaction between wt and Celia seipin confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation (CoIP) assays, together with the identification of mixed oligomers in sucrose gradient fractionation experiments can explain the lack of symptoms in heterozygous carriers. We propose that the increased aggregation and subsequent impaired oligomerization of Celia seipin leads to cell death. In heterozygous carriers, wt seipin might prevent the damage caused by mutant seipin through its sequestration into harmless mixed oligomers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Working with and promoting early career scientists within a larger community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, K.

    2017-12-01

    For many scientific communities, engaging early career researchers is critical for success. These young scientists (graduate students, postdocs, and newly appointed professors) are actively forming collaborations and instigating new research programs. They also stand to benefit hugely from being part of a scientific community, gaining access to career development activities, becoming part of strong collaborator networks, and achieving recognition in their field of study — all of which will help their professional development. There are many ways community leaders can work proactively to support and engage early career scientists, and it it is often a community manager's job to work with leadership to implement such activities. In this presentation, I will outline ways of engaging early career scientists at events and tailored workshops, of promoting development of their leadership skills, and of creating opportunities for recognizing early career scientists within larger scientific communities. In this talk, I will draw from my experience working with the Deep Carbon Observatory Early Career Scientist Network, supported by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation.

  5. Assignment methodology for larger RNA oligonucleotides: Application to an ATP-binding RNA aptamer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieckmann, Thorsten; Feigon, Juli

    1997-01-01

    The use of uniform 13C, 15N labeling in the NMR spectroscopic study of RNA structures has greatly facilitated the assignment process in small RNA oligonucleotides. For ribose spinsystem assignments, exploitation of these labels has followed previously developed methods for the study of proteins. However, for sequential assignment of the exchangeable and nonexchangeable protons of the nucleotides, it has been necessary to develop a variety of new NMR experiments. Even these are of limited utility in the unambiguous assignment of larger RNAs due to the short carbon relaxation times and extensive spectral overlap for all nuclei.These problems can largely be overcome by the additional use of base-type selectively 13C, 15N-labeled RNA in combination with a judicious use of related RNAs with base substitutions. We report the application of this approach to a 36-nucleotide ATP-binding RNA aptamer in complex with AMP. Complete sequential 1H assignments, as well as the majority of 13C and 15N assignments, were obtained

  6. Flower-Visiting Butterflies Avoid Predatory Stimuli and Larger Resident Butterflies: Testing in a Butterfly Pavilion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya Fukano

    Full Text Available The flower-visiting behaviors of pollinator species are affected not only by flower traits but also by cues of predators and resident pollinators. There is extensive research into the effects of predator cues and resident pollinators on the flower-visiting behaviors of bee pollinators. However, there is relatively little research into their effects on butterfly pollinators probably because of the difficulty in observing a large number of butterfly pollination events. We conducted a dual choice experiment using artificial flowers under semi-natural conditions in the butterfly pavilion at Tama Zoological Park to examine the effects of the presence of a dead mantis and resident butterflies have on the flower-visiting behavior of several butterfly species. From 173 hours of recorded video, we observed 3235 visitations by 16 butterfly species. Statistical analysis showed that (1 butterflies avoided visiting flowers occupied by a dead mantis, (2 butterflies avoided resident butterflies that were larger than the visitor, and (3 butterflies showed greater avoidance of a predator when the predator was present together with the resident butterfly than when the predator was located on the opposite flower of the resident. Finally, we discuss the similarities and differences in behavioral responses of butterfly pollinators and bees.

  7. Developmental reversals in risky decision making: intelligence agents show larger decision biases than college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Valerie F; Chick, Christina F; Corbin, Jonathan C; Hsia, Andrew N

    2014-01-01

    Intelligence agents make risky decisions routinely, with serious consequences for national security. Although common sense and most theories imply that experienced intelligence professionals should be less prone to irrational inconsistencies than college students, we show the opposite. Moreover, the growth of experience-based intuition predicts this developmental reversal. We presented intelligence agents, college students, and postcollege adults with 30 risky-choice problems in gain and loss frames and then compared the three groups' decisions. The agents not only exhibited larger framing biases than the students, but also were more confident in their decisions. The postcollege adults (who were selected to be similar to the students) occupied an interesting middle ground, being generally as biased as the students (sometimes more biased) but less biased than the agents. An experimental manipulation testing an explanation for these effects, derived from fuzzy-trace theory, made the students look as biased as the agents. These results show that, although framing biases are irrational (because equivalent outcomes are treated differently), they are the ironical output of cognitively advanced mechanisms of meaning making.

  8. Why droplet dimension can be larger than, equal to, or smaller than the nanowire dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, S. Noor

    2009-11-01

    Droplets play central roles in the nanowire (NW) growth by vapor phase mechanisms. These mechanisms include vapor-liquid-solid (VLS), vapor-solid-solid or vapor-solid (VSS), vapor-quasisolid-solid or vapor-quasiliquid-solid (VQS), oxide-assisted growth (OAG), and self-catalytic growth (SCG) mechanisms. Fundamentals of the shape, size, characteristics, and dynamics of droplets and the impacts of them on the NW growth, have been studied. The influence of growth techniques, growth parameters (e.g., growth temperature, partial pressure, gas flow rates, etc.), thermodynamic conditions, surface and interface energy, molar volume, chemical potentials, etc. have been considered on the shapes and sizes of droplets. A model has been presented to explain why droplets can be larger than, equal to, or smaller than the associated NWs. Various growth techniques have been analyzed to understand defects created in NWs. Photoluminescence characteristics have been presented to quantify the roles of droplets in the creation of NW defects. The study highlights the importance of the purity of the droplet material. It attests to the superiority of the SCG mechanism, and clarifies the differences between the VSS, VQS, VLS, and SCG mechanisms. It explains why droplets produced by some mechanisms are visible but droplets produced by some other mechanisms are not visible. It elucidates the formation mechanisms of very large and very small droplets, and discusses the ground rules for droplets creating necked NWs. It puts forth reasons to demonstrate that very large droplets may not behave as droplets.

  9. Dynamics of Transformation from Platinum Icosahedral Nanoparticles to Larger FCC Crystal at Millisecond Time Resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Wenpei [Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering and Fredrick Seitz Materials Research Lab.; Wu, Jianbo [Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Fredrick Seitz Materials Research Lab. and Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. (China). School of Materials Science and Engineering; Yoon, Aram [Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering and Fredrick Seitz Materials Research Lab.; Lu, Ping [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Qi, Liang [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Wen, Jianguo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Nanoscale Materials and Electron Microscopy Center; Miller, Dean J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Nanoscale Materials and Electron Microscopy Center; Mabon, James C. [Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Fredrick Seitz Materials Research Lab.; Wilson, William L. [Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering and Fredrick Seitz Materials Research Lab.; Yang, Hong [Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Zuo, Jian-Min [Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering and Fredrick Seitz Materials Research Lab.

    2017-12-08

    Atomic motion at grain boundaries is essential to microstructure development, growth and stability of catalysts and other nanostructured materials. However, boundary atomic motion is often too fast to observe in a conventional transmission electron microscope (TEM) and too slow for ultrafast electron microscopy. We report on the entire transformation process of strained Pt icosahedral nanoparticles (ICNPs) into larger FCC crystals, captured at 2.5 ms time resolution using a fast electron camera. Results show slow diffusive dislocation motion at nm/s inside ICNPs and fast surface transformation at μm/s. By characterizing nanoparticle strain, we show that the fast transformation is driven by inhomogeneous surface stress. And interaction with pre-existing defects led to the slowdown of the transformation front inside the nanoparticles. Particle coalescence, assisted by oxygen-induced surface migration at T ≥ 300°C, also played a critical role. Thus by studying transformation in the Pt ICNPs at high time and spatial resolution, we obtain critical insights into the transformation mechanisms in strained Pt nanoparticles.

  10. Transport properties of a Kondo dot with a larger side-coupled noninteracting quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y S; Fan, X H; Xia, Y J; Yang, X F

    2008-01-01

    We investigate theoretically linear and nonlinear quantum transport through a smaller quantum dot in a Kondo regime connected to two leads in the presence of a larger side-coupled noninteracting quantum dot, without tunneling coupling to the leads. To do this we employ the slave boson mean field theory with the help of the Keldysh Green's function at zero temperature. The numerical results show that the Kondo conductance peak may develop multiple resonance peaks and multiple zero points in the conductance spectrum owing to constructive and destructive quantum interference effects when the energy levels of the large side-coupled noninteracting dot are located in the vicinity of the Fermi level in the leads. As the coupling strength between two quantum dots increases, the tunneling current through the quantum device as a function of gate voltage applied across the two leads is suppressed. The spin-dependent transport properties of two parallel coupled quantum dots connected to two ferromagnetic leads are also investigated. The numerical results show that, for the parallel configuration, the spin current or linear spin differential conductance are enhanced when the polarization strength in the two leads is increased

  11. Flower-Visiting Butterflies Avoid Predatory Stimuli and Larger Resident Butterflies: Testing in a Butterfly Pavilion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukano, Yuya; Tanaka, Yosuke; Farkhary, Sayed Ibrahim; Kurachi, Takuma

    2016-01-01

    The flower-visiting behaviors of pollinator species are affected not only by flower traits but also by cues of predators and resident pollinators. There is extensive research into the effects of predator cues and resident pollinators on the flower-visiting behaviors of bee pollinators. However, there is relatively little research into their effects on butterfly pollinators probably because of the difficulty in observing a large number of butterfly pollination events. We conducted a dual choice experiment using artificial flowers under semi-natural conditions in the butterfly pavilion at Tama Zoological Park to examine the effects of the presence of a dead mantis and resident butterflies have on the flower-visiting behavior of several butterfly species. From 173 hours of recorded video, we observed 3235 visitations by 16 butterfly species. Statistical analysis showed that (1) butterflies avoided visiting flowers occupied by a dead mantis, (2) butterflies avoided resident butterflies that were larger than the visitor, and (3) butterflies showed greater avoidance of a predator when the predator was present together with the resident butterfly than when the predator was located on the opposite flower of the resident. Finally, we discuss the similarities and differences in behavioral responses of butterfly pollinators and bees.

  12. The application of slip length models to larger textures in turbulent flows over superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairhall, Chris; Garcia-Mayoral, Ricardo

    2017-11-01

    We present results from direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows over superhydrophobic surfaces. We assess the validity of simulations where the surface is modelled as homogeneous slip lengths, comparing them to simulations where the surface texture is resolved. Our results show that once the coherent flow induced by the texture is removed from the velocity fields, the remaining flow sees the surface as homogeneous. We then investigate how the overlying turbulence is modified by the presence of surface texture. For small textures, we show that turbulence is shifted closer to the wall due to the presence of slip, but otherwise remains essentially unmodified. For larger textures, the texture interacts with the turbulent lengthscales, thereby modifying the overlying turbulence. We also show that the saturation of the effect of the spanwise slip length (Fukagata et al. 2006, Busse & Sandham 2012, Seo & Mani 2016), which is drag increasing, is caused by the impermeability imposed at the surface. This work was supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council.

  13. Stable isotope stratigraphy and larger benthic foraminiferal extinctions in the Melinau Limestone, Sarawak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Laura J.; Pearson, Paul N.; Renema, Willem

    2014-01-01

    Important long-ranging groups of larger benthic foraminifera (LBF) are known to have become extinct during a period of global cooling and climate disruption at the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT) but the precise timing and mechanisms are uncertain. Recent study showed unexpectedly that the LBF extinction in Tanzania occurs very close to the Eocene/Oligocene boundary, as recognised by the extinction of the planktonic foraminiferal Family Hantkeninidae, rather than at the later period of maximum global ice growth and sea-level fall, as previously thought. Here we investigate the same phase of extinction in the Melinau Limestone of Sarawak, on the island of Borneo, Malaysia one of the most complete carbonate successions spanning the Eocene to Lower Miocene. Assemblages of LBF from the Melinau Limestone were studied extensively by Geoffrey Adams during the 1960s-80s, confirming a major extinction during the EOT, but the section lacked independent means of correlation. By analysing rock samples originally studied by Adams and now in the Natural History Museum, London, we provide new bulk stable isotope (δ13C and δ18O) records. This enables us to identify, albeit tentatively, the level of maximum stable isotope excursion and show that the LBF extinction event in the Melinau Limestone occurs below this isotope excursion, supporting the results from Tanzania and indicating that the extinction of LBF close to the Eocene/Oligocene boundary may be a global phenomenon.

  14. Volcanism in slab tear faults is larger than in island-arcs and back-arcs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocchi, Luca; Passaro, Salvatore; Tontini, Fabio Caratori; Ventura, Guido

    2017-11-13

    Subduction-transform edge propagators are lithospheric tears bounding slabs and back-arc basins. The volcanism at these edges is enigmatic because it is lacking comprehensive geological and geophysical data. Here we present bathymetric, potential-field data, and direct observations of the seafloor on the 90 km long Palinuro volcanic chain overlapping the E-W striking tear of the roll-backing Ionian slab in Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. The volcanic chain includes arc-type central volcanoes and fissural, spreading-type centers emplaced along second-order shears. The volume of the volcanic chain is larger than that of the neighbor island-arc edifices and back-arc spreading center. Such large volume of magma is associated to an upwelling of the isotherms due to mantle melts upraising from the rear of the slab along the tear fault. The subduction-transform edge volcanism focuses localized spreading processes and its magnitude is underestimated. This volcanism characterizes the subduction settings associated to volcanic arcs and back-arc spreading centers.

  15. Origami-inspired metamaterial absorbers for improving the larger-incident angle absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Yang; Pang, Yongqiang; Wang, Jiafu; Ma, Hua; Pei, Zhibin; Qu, Shaobo

    2015-01-01

    When a folded resistive patch array stands up on a metallic plane, it can exhibit more outstanding absorption performance. Our theoretical investigations and simulations demonstrated that the folded resistive patch arrays can enhance the absorption bandwidth progressively with the increase of the incident angle for the oblique transverse magnetic incidence, which is contrary to the conventional resistive frequency selective surface absorber. On illumination, we achieved a 3D structure metamaterial absorber with the folded resistive patches. The proposed absorber is obtained from the inspiration of the origami, and it has broadband and lager-incident angle absorption. Both the simulations and the measurements indicate that the proposed absorber achieves the larger-incident angle absorption until 75° in the frequency band of 3.6–11.4 GHz. In addition, the absorber is extremely lightweight. The areal density of the fabricated sample is about 0.023 g cm −2 . Due to the broadband and lager-incident angle absorption, it is expected that the absorbers may find potential applications such as stealth technologies and electromagnetic interference. (paper)

  16. Concepts of scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padt, F.J.G.; Arts, B.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides some clarity to the scale debate. It bridges a variety of approaches, definitions and jargons used in various disciplines in order to provide common ground for a concept of scale as a basis for scale-sensitive governance of the environment. The chapter introduces the concept of

  17. Understanding the impact of interprofessional collaboration on the quality of care: a case report from a small-scale resource limited health care environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busari, Jamiu O; Moll, Franka M; Duits, Ashley J

    2017-01-01

    A critical assessment of current health care practices, as well as the training needs of various health care providers, is crucial for improving patient care. Several approaches have been proposed for defining these needs with attention on communication as a key competency for effective collaboration. Taking our cultural context, resource limitations, and small-scale setting into account, we researched the applicability of a mixed focus group approach for analysis of the communication between doctors and nurses, as well as the measures for improvement. Assessment of nurse-physician communication perception in patient care in a Caribbean setting. Focus group sessions consisting of nurses, interns, and medical specialists were conducted using an ethnographic approach, paying attention to existing communication, risk evaluation, and recommendations for improvement. Data derived from the focus group sessions were analyzed by thematic synthesis method with descriptive themes and development of analytic themes. The initial focus group sessions produced an extensive list of key recommendations which could be clustered into three domains (standardization, sustainment, and collaboration). Further discussion of these domains in focus groups showed nurses' and physicians' domain perspectives and effects on patient care to be broadly similar. Risks related to lack of information, knowledge sharing, and professional respect were clearly described by the participants. The described mixed focus group session approach for effectively determining current interprofessional communication and key improvement areas seems suitable for our small-scale, limited resource setting. The impact of the cultural context should be further evaluated by a similar study in a different cultural context.

  18. Efficiency and Reliability of Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy for Renal Tumors Larger than 4 cm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Özgör

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate safety and efficiency of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for renal tumors larger than 4 cm. Methods: We retrospectivelly evaluated the medical records of 65 patients who underwent laparascopic partial nephrectomy between May 2009 and June 2013 in our clinic. The patients were divided into two groups according to tumor size. Patients with a tumor 4 cm were included in group 1 (n=45 and group 2 (n=20, respectively. Demographic, perioperative and postoperative parameters were compared between the groups. Histopathological examination and surgical margin status were also evaluated. Results: The mean age of the patients was 59.2±10.9 (range: 26- 81 years. The mean tumor size and the mean RENAL nephrometry score were significantly higher in group 2 than in group 1. The mean operation time and warm ischemia time were similar between groups but estimated blood loss and transfusion requirement were significantly higher in group 2. Convertion to open surgery was seen two patients in group 2 and one patient in group 1. Only one patient underwent radical nephrectomy for uncontrolled bleeding in group 2. There was no difference in preoperative and 3-month postoperative serum creatinine levels between the groups. The incidence of positive surgical margin was 0% and 5% in group 1 and group 2, respectively. Conclusion: Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for renal tumors is an effective and feasible procedure with acceptable oncologic results. However, tranfusion rate and requiremet of pelvicaliceal system repair were more common in patients with tumor >4 cm. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2015; 53:30-5

  19. Reliable Refuge: Two Sky Island Scorpion Species Select Larger, Thermally Stable Retreat Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jamie E; Brown, Christopher A

    2016-01-01

    Sky island scorpions shelter under rocks and other surface debris, but, as with other scorpions, it is unclear whether these species select retreat sites randomly. Furthermore, little is known about the thermal preferences of scorpions, and no research has been done to identify whether reproductive condition might influence retreat site selection. The objectives were to (1) identify physical or thermal characteristics for retreat sites occupied by two sky island scorpions (Vaejovis cashi Graham 2007 and V. electrum Hughes 2011) and those not occupied; (2) determine whether retreat site selection differs between the two study species; and (3) identify whether thermal selection differs between species and between gravid and non-gravid females of the same species. Within each scorpion's habitat, maximum dimensions of rocks along a transect line were measured and compared to occupied rocks to determine whether retreat site selection occurred randomly. Temperature loggers were placed under a subset of occupied and unoccupied rocks for 48 hours to compare the thermal characteristics of these rocks. Thermal gradient trials were conducted before parturition and after dispersal of young in order to identify whether gravidity influences thermal preference. Vaejovis cashi and V. electrum both selected larger retreat sites that had more stable thermal profiles. Neither species appeared to have thermal preferences influenced by reproductive condition. However, while thermal selection did not differ among non-gravid individuals, gravid V. electrum selected warmer temperatures than its gravid congener. Sky island scorpions appear to select large retreat sites to maintain thermal stability, although biotic factors (e.g., competition) could also be involved in this choice. Future studies should focus on identifying the various biotic or abiotic factors that could influence retreat site selection in scorpions, as well as determining whether reproductive condition affects thermal

  20. Surgical outcome of primary clipping for anterior circulation aneurysms of size 2 centimeters or larger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Sunil V; Saikiran, Narayanam A; Thakar, Sumit; Dadlani, Ravi; Mohan, Dilip; Aryan, Saritha; Hegde, Alangar S

    2014-07-01

    Aneurysms of the anterior circulation larger than 2cm have a complex relationship to the anterior skull base, requiring a multi-modality management approach. This retrospective study of 54 patients with such aneurysms who underwent clipping between 2001 and 2012 analyzes clinical and surgical data, aneurysm characteristics and correlates them with respect to the Glasgow outcome score at follow-up and immediate post-operative clinical status. Patients with an outcome score of 5 or 4 were categorized as "good", while those with score 3-1 were "poor". Fisher's exact test and paired T-test (p<0.5) were used to test statistical significance for discrete and continuous variables respectively. 44 (81.4%) patients had a good outcome. Patients with non-ophthalmic/paraclinoid aneurysms had significantly lower incidence of adverse intra-operative events (p=0.035). Patients older than 50 years (p=0.045), with adverse intra-operative events (p=0.015) and post-operative infarction (p<0.001) had a poor outcome compared to those younger than 50 years age and those without adverse intra-operative events or infarctions. The grouped age variable had maximum influence on patient outcome. Location and size of aneurysm did not have an overall impact on surgical outcome. There were 4 mortalities. Primary clipping of proximal non-cavernous aneurysms on the internal carotid artery is associated with adverse intra-operative events. A multi-modality treatment approach in these aneurysms should be individualized, more so in patients older than 50 years. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Weapons make the man (larger: formidability is represented as size and strength in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M T Fessler

    Full Text Available In order to determine how to act in situations of potential agonistic conflict, individuals must assess multiple features of a prospective foe that contribute to the foe's resource-holding potential, or formidability. Across diverse species, physical size and strength are key determinants of formidability, and the same is often true for humans. However, in many species, formidability is also influenced by other factors, such as sex, coalitional size, and, in humans, access to weaponry. Decision-making involving assessments of multiple features is enhanced by the use of a single summary variable that encapsulates the contributions of these features. Given both a the phylogenetic antiquity of the importance of size and strength as determinants of formidability, and b redundant experiences during development that underscore the contributions of size and strength to formidability, we hypothesize that size and strength constitute the conceptual dimensions of a representation used to summarize multiple diverse determinants of a prospective foe's formidability. Here, we test this hypothesis in humans by examining the effects of a potential foe's access to weaponry on estimations of that individual's size and strength. We demonstrate that knowing that an individual possesses a gun or a large kitchen knife leads observers to conceptualize him as taller, and generally larger and more muscular, than individuals who possess only tools or similarly mundane objects. We also document that such patterns are not explicable in terms of any actual correlation between gun ownership and physical size, nor can they be explained in terms of cultural schemas or other background knowledge linking particular objects to individuals of particular size and strength. These findings pave the way for a fuller understanding of the evolution of the cognitive systems whereby humans--and likely many other social vertebrates--navigate social hierarchies.

  2. Magnetic nanoparticles formed in glasses co-doped with iron and larger radius elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelman, I.; Ivanova, O.; Ivantsov, R.; Velikanov, D.; Zabluda, V. [L.V. Kirensky Institute of Physics SB RAS, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Zubavichus, Y.; Veligzhanin, A. [NRC ' Kurchatov Institute,' 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Zaikovskiy, V. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Stepanov, S. [S.I. Vavilov State Optical Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Artemenko, A. [ICMCB, UPR CNRS 9048, 33608 Pessac cedex (France); Curely, J.; Kliava, J. [LOMA, UMR 5798 Universite Bordeaux 1-CNRS, 33405 Talence cedex (France)

    2012-10-15

    A new type of nanoparticle-containing glasses based on borate glasses co-doped with low contents of iron and larger radius elements, Dy, Tb, Gd, Ho, Er, Y, and Bi, is studied. Heat treatment of these glasses results in formation of magnetic nanoparticles, radically changing their physical properties. Transmission electron microscopy and synchrotron radiation-based techniques: x-ray diffraction, extended x-ray absorption fine structure, x-ray absorption near-edge structure, and small-angle x-ray scattering, show a broad distribution of nanoparticle sizes with characteristics depending on the treatment regime; a crystalline structure of these nanoparticles is detected in heat treated samples. Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) studies of samples subjected to heat treatment as well as of maghemite, magnetite, and iron garnet allow to unambiguously assign the nanoparticle structure to maghemite, independently of co-dopant nature and of heat treatment regime used. Different features observed in the MCD spectra are related to different electron transitions in Fe{sup 3+} ions gathered in the nanoparticles. The static magnetization in heat treated samples has non-linear dependence on the magnetizing field with hysteresis. Zero-field cooled magnetization curves show that at higher temperatures the nanoparticles occur in superparamagnetic state with blocking temperatures above 100 K. Below ca. 20 K, a considerable contribution to both zero field-cooled and field-cooled magnetizations occurs from diluted paramagnetic ions. Variable-temperature electron magnetic resonance (EMR) studies unambiguously show that in as-prepared glasses paramagnetic ions are in diluted state and confirm the formation of magnetic nanoparticles already at earlier stages of heat treatment. Computer simulations of the EMR spectra corroborate the broad distribution of nanoparticle sizes found by 'direct' techniques as well as superparamagnetic nanoparticle behaviour demonstrated in the

  3. Magnetic nanoparticles formed in glasses co-doped with iron and larger radius elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelman, I.; Ivanova, O.; Ivantsov, R.; Velikanov, D.; Zabluda, V.; Zubavichus, Y.; Veligzhanin, A.; Zaikovskiy, V.; Stepanov, S.; Artemenko, A.; Curély, J.; Kliava, J.

    2012-01-01

    A new type of nanoparticle-containing glasses based on borate glasses co-doped with low contents of iron and larger radius elements, Dy, Tb, Gd, Ho, Er, Y, and Bi, is studied. Heat treatment of these glasses results in formation of magnetic nanoparticles, radically changing their physical properties. Transmission electron microscopy and synchrotron radiation-based techniques: x-ray diffraction, extended x-ray absorption fine structure, x-ray absorption near-edge structure, and small-angle x-ray scattering, show a broad distribution of nanoparticle sizes with characteristics depending on the treatment regime; a crystalline structure of these nanoparticles is detected in heat treated samples. Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) studies of samples subjected to heat treatment as well as of maghemite, magnetite, and iron garnet allow to unambiguously assign the nanoparticle structure to maghemite, independently of co-dopant nature and of heat treatment regime used. Different features observed in the MCD spectra are related to different electron transitions in Fe 3+ ions gathered in the nanoparticles. The static magnetization in heat treated samples has non-linear dependence on the magnetizing field with hysteresis. Zero-field cooled magnetization curves show that at higher temperatures the nanoparticles occur in superparamagnetic state with blocking temperatures above 100 K. Below ca. 20 K, a considerable contribution to both zero field-cooled and field-cooled magnetizations occurs from diluted paramagnetic ions. Variable-temperature electron magnetic resonance (EMR) studies unambiguously show that in as-prepared glasses paramagnetic ions are in diluted state and confirm the formation of magnetic nanoparticles already at earlier stages of heat treatment. Computer simulations of the EMR spectra corroborate the broad distribution of nanoparticle sizes found by “direct” techniques as well as superparamagnetic nanoparticle behaviour demonstrated in the magnetization

  4. Magnetic nanoparticles formed in glasses co-doped with iron and larger radius elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, I.; Ivanova, O.; Ivantsov, R.; Velikanov, D.; Zabluda, V.; Zubavichus, Y.; Veligzhanin, A.; Zaikovskiy, V.; Stepanov, S.; Artemenko, A.; Curély, J.; Kliava, J.

    2012-10-01

    A new type of nanoparticle-containing glasses based on borate glasses co-doped with low contents of iron and larger radius elements, Dy, Tb, Gd, Ho, Er, Y, and Bi, is studied. Heat treatment of these glasses results in formation of magnetic nanoparticles, radically changing their physical properties. Transmission electron microscopy and synchrotron radiation-based techniques: x-ray diffraction, extended x-ray absorption fine structure, x-ray absorption near-edge structure, and small-angle x-ray scattering, show a broad distribution of nanoparticle sizes with characteristics depending on the treatment regime; a crystalline structure of these nanoparticles is detected in heat treated samples. Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) studies of samples subjected to heat treatment as well as of maghemite, magnetite, and iron garnet allow to unambiguously assign the nanoparticle structure to maghemite, independently of co-dopant nature and of heat treatment regime used. Different features observed in the MCD spectra are related to different electron transitions in Fe3+ ions gathered in the nanoparticles. The static magnetization in heat treated samples has non-linear dependence on the magnetizing field with hysteresis. Zero-field cooled magnetization curves show that at higher temperatures the nanoparticles occur in superparamagnetic state with blocking temperatures above 100 K. Below ca. 20 K, a considerable contribution to both zero field-cooled and field-cooled magnetizations occurs from diluted paramagnetic ions. Variable-temperature electron magnetic resonance (EMR) studies unambiguously show that in as-prepared glasses paramagnetic ions are in diluted state and confirm the formation of magnetic nanoparticles already at earlier stages of heat treatment. Computer simulations of the EMR spectra corroborate the broad distribution of nanoparticle sizes found by "direct" techniques as well as superparamagnetic nanoparticle behaviour demonstrated in the magnetization studies.

  5. A Larger Social Network Enhances Novel Object Location Memory and Reduces Hippocampal Microgliosis in Aged Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bryon M.; Yao, Xinyue; Chen, Kelly S.; Kirby, Elizabeth D.

    2018-01-01

    The mammalian hippocampus shows marked decline in function with aging across many species, including humans and laboratory rodent models. This decline frequently manifests in memory impairments that occur even in the absence of dementia pathology. In humans, a number of factors correlate with preserved hippocampal memory in aging, such as exercise, cognitive stimulation and number of social ties. While interventional studies and animal models clearly indicate that exercise and cognitive stimulation lead to hippocampal preservation, there is relatively little research on whether a decline in social ties leads to cognitive decline or vice versa. Even in animal studies of environmental enrichment in aging, the focus typically falls on physical enrichment such as a rotating cast of toys, rather than the role of social interactions. The present studies investigated the hypothesis that a greater number of social ties in aging mice would lead to improved hippocampal function. Aged, female C57/Bl6 mice were housed for 3 months in pairs or large groups (7 mice per cage). Group-housed mice showed greater novel object location memory and stronger preference for a spatial navigation strategy in the Barnes maze, though no difference in escape latency, compared to pair-housed mice. Group-housed mice did not differ from pair-housed mice in basal corticosterone levels or adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Group-housed mice did, however, show reduced numbers of Iba1/CD68+ microglia in the hippocampus. These findings suggest that group housing led to better memory function and reduced markers of neuroinflammation in aged mice. More broadly, they support a causative link between social ties and hippocampal function, suggesting that merely having a larger social network can positively influence the aging brain. Future research should address the molecular mechanisms by which a greater number of social ties alters hippocampal function. PMID:29904345

  6. Experience from a number of larger surface earth heating systems. Erfarenheter fraan naagra stora ytjordvaermesystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, J.

    1987-01-01

    The heat pump systems investigated in this project supply heat to the following loads: the Adult High School in Oestra Grevie, a cycle factory in Vandsbro, detached houses in Surte and detached houses in the Sandhed area of Orsa. The heat pumps in all four have operated reasonably well. As far as design is concerned the systems are of monovalent type with low-temperature heating systems. Although the Oestra Grevie installation incorporates an oil-fired boiler for supplying heat during the winter to an older part of the school, there is no load-sharing between the boiler and the heat pump. The Vansbro installation incorporates an eletric boiler, but is has not been necessary in practice to use it. As a result, the systems have not suffered from what would normally be the relatively common problems encountered in bivalent systems from joint operation. Total heat and energy demands are generally over-estimated, which has meant that heat pumps are larger than was originally intended. In purely physical terms, specific heat abstraction from the ground in kWh/m/sup 2/ per year for the various systems could be increased by 100-700%, although abstraction should also be related to the intended use of the ground. However, it is clear that it could be higher in the systems investigated here. If building these systems today, optimum system design would enable capital costs to be reduced by 10-35%. However, there does not appear to be any scope for general cost reductions per m of hose in large collector systems: the decisive factors are ground conditions and the distance between the collector and the heat pump in each individual case.

  7. A Combined Monitoring and Modelling Approach to Maximise Environmental, Social and Economic Outcomes from Agri-environment Subsidies at a National Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmett, B.; Anthony, S.; Chadwick, D.; Cross, P.; Swetnam, R.; Jackson, B. M.; Smart, S.; Skates, J.

    2014-12-01

    Planning, delivery and monitoring of integrated environmental, social and economic outcomes from agri-environmental payments to land owners has rarely been attempted at a national scale. Wales has launched one of the most ambitious projects ever within the EU to frame both delivery of payments and ongoing integrated assessment of outcomes within an ecosystem framework. Payment and evaluation activities are running simultaneously, which when combined with scenario analysis from a suite of biophysical and landscape quality models, allows for adaptive management as the scheme progresses. Social and economic benefits and constraints to uptake of scheme measures and desired outcomes are embedded within the project to ensure benefits to the wider population are realised. Initial modelling results in the first year of the monitoring and evaluation programme quantified potential benefits from a range of management options offered under the subsidy scheme. At a national scale these ranged from: 1 to 9% improvement in flood mitigation; 5 to 10% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions; increased accessible land for 'generic' broadleaf focal species by 3 to 12%, increased national carbon storage by ca. 0.4%, and reduced eroded soil and phosphorus delivery by up to 15% due to reduced connectivity of erodible land to rivers and lakes. Results at local / farm scales could be as high as 80% in some locations. A 75% improvement in habitat for selected 21 indicator plant species was also projected. The inter-dependency between outcomes is being explored through a major integrated rolling monitoring programme taking co-located measurements of soil, vegetation, landuse, soils, water, birds and pollinators, GHG fluxes, landscape and historic features and farmer / landowner surveys using a stratified sampling approach across the country. In addition to scenario analysis, modelling is being used to upscale and integrate findings and to explore the extent of co-benefits and trade

  8. Development of an efficient and economical small scale management scheme for low and intermediate-Level radioactive waste and its impact on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomon, A.Ph.; Panem, J.A.; Manalastas, H.C.; Cortez, S. L.; Paredes, C.H.; Bartolome, Z.M.

    1976-05-01

    This paper describes the efforts made towards the establishment of a pilot-scale management system for the low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes of the Atomic Research Center. The past and current practices in handling radioactive wastes are discussed and the assessment of their capabilities to meet the projections on the waste production is presented. The future waste management requirements of the Center was evaluated and comparative studies on the Lime-Soda and Phosphate Processes were conducted on simulated and raw liquid wastes with initial activity ranging from 10 -4 uCi/ml to 10 -2 uCi/ml, to establish the ideal parameters for best attaining maximum removal of radioactivity in liquids. The effectiveness of treatment was evaluated in terms of the decontamination factor, DF, obtained

  9. Lunar nuclear power plant design for thermal-hydraulic cooling in nano-scale environment: Nuclear engineering-based interdisciplinary nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Tae Ho

    2015-01-01

    The environment of the Moon is nearly vacant, which has very low density of several kinds of gases. It has the molecular level contents of the lunar atmosphere in Table 1, which is recognized that radiation heat transfer is a major cooling method. The coolant of the nuclear power plant (NPP) in the lunar base is the Moon surface soil , which is known as the regolith. The regolith is the layer of loose and heterogeneous material covering the solid rock. For finding the optimized length of the radiator of the coolant in the lunar NPP, the produced power and Moon environmental temperature are needed. This makes the particular heat transfer characteristics in heat transfer in the Moon surface. The radiation is the only heat transfer way due to very weak atmosphere. It is very cold in the night time and very hot in the daytime on the surface of the ground. There are comparisons between lunar high land soil and Earth averages in Table 2. In the historical consideration, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky made a suggestion for the colony on the Moon.. There are a number of ideas for the conceptual design which have been proposed by several scientists. In 1954, Arthur C. Clarke mentioned a lunar base of inflatable modules covered in lunar dust for insulation. John S. Rinehart suggested the structure of the stationary ocean of dust, because there could be a mile-deep dust ocean on the Moon, which gives a safer design. In 1959, the project horizon was launched regarding the U.S. Army's plan to establish a fort on the Moon by 1967. H. H. Koelle, a German rocket engineer of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency, leaded the project (ABMA). There was the first landing in 1965 and 245 tons of cargos were transported to the outpost by 1966. The coolant material of regolith in the Moon is optimized for the NPP. By the simulation, there are some results. The temperature is calculated as the 9 nodals by radiation heat transfer from the potassium coolant to the regolith flow. The high efficiency

  10. Lunar nuclear power plant design for thermal-hydraulic cooling in nano-scale environment: Nuclear engineering-based interdisciplinary nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Tae Ho [Systemix Global Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The environment of the Moon is nearly vacant, which has very low density of several kinds of gases. It has the molecular level contents of the lunar atmosphere in Table 1, which is recognized that radiation heat transfer is a major cooling method. The coolant of the nuclear power plant (NPP) in the lunar base is the Moon surface soil , which is known as the regolith. The regolith is the layer of loose and heterogeneous material covering the solid rock. For finding the optimized length of the radiator of the coolant in the lunar NPP, the produced power and Moon environmental temperature are needed. This makes the particular heat transfer characteristics in heat transfer in the Moon surface. The radiation is the only heat transfer way due to very weak atmosphere. It is very cold in the night time and very hot in the daytime on the surface of the ground. There are comparisons between lunar high land soil and Earth averages in Table 2. In the historical consideration, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky made a suggestion for the colony on the Moon.. There are a number of ideas for the conceptual design which have been proposed by several scientists. In 1954, Arthur C. Clarke mentioned a lunar base of inflatable modules covered in lunar dust for insulation. John S. Rinehart suggested the structure of the stationary ocean of dust, because there could be a mile-deep dust ocean on the Moon, which gives a safer design. In 1959, the project horizon was launched regarding the U.S. Army's plan to establish a fort on the Moon by 1967. H. H. Koelle, a German rocket engineer of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency, leaded the project (ABMA). There was the first landing in 1965 and 245 tons of cargos were transported to the outpost by 1966. The coolant material of regolith in the Moon is optimized for the NPP. By the simulation, there are some results. The temperature is calculated as the 9 nodals by radiation heat transfer from the potassium coolant to the regolith flow. The high efficiency

  11. Microgravity Science Experiment of Marangoni Convection occurred in Larger Liquid Bridge on KIBO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Satoshi; Yoda, Shinichi; Tanaka, Tetsuo

    Marangoni convection is a fluid motion induced by local variations of surface tension along a free surface which is caused by temperature and/or concentration differences. Marangoni convection plays important roll in such applications as crystal growth from melt, welding, con-tainerless material processing, and so on. One of the promising techniques to grow a high quality crystal is a floating-zone method which exists cylindrical melting part at heated region. This liquid part like a column is sustained between solid rods and it has free surface on the side. For investigation of Marangoni convection, a liquid bridge configuration with heated top and cooled bottom is often employed to simplify phenomena. Much work has been performed on Marangoni convection in the past, both experimentally and theoretically. Most of the ex-perimental investigations were conducted in normal gravity but some results from microgravity experiments are now available. However, problems to be solved are still remained in scientific view point. The effect of liquid bridge size on critical Marangoni number to determine the onset of oscillatory flow is one of important subjects. To investigate size effect, the experiment with changing wide range of diameter is needed. Under terrestrial conditions, large size of liquid bridge enhances to induce buoyancy convection. Much larger liquid bridge is deformed its shape or finally liquid bridge could not keep between disks because of its self-weight. So, microgravity experiment is required to make clear the size effect and to obtain precise data. We carried out Marangoni experiment under microgravity condition in Japanese Experiment Module "KIBO". A 50 mm diameter liquid bridge was formed and temperature difference between supporting rods was imposed to induce thermocapillary flow. Convective motion was observed in detail using several cameras, infrared camera and temperature sensors. Silicone oil of 5cSt was employed as a working fluid, which Prandtl

  12. Understanding the impact of interprofessional collaboration on the quality of care: a case report from a small-scale resource limited health care environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busari JO

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Jamiu O Busari,1,2 Franka M Moll,3 Ashley J Duits3-5 1Department of Educational Development and Research, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Maastricht, Maastricht, the Netherlands; 2Department of Pediatrics, Zuyderland Medical Center, Heerlen, the Netherlands; 3Department of Medical Education, St. Elisabeth Hospital, Willemstad, Curaçao; 4Institute for Medical Education, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands; 5Red Cross Blood Bank Foundation, Willemstad, Curaçao Background: A critical assessment of current health care practices, as well as the training needs of various health care providers, is crucial for improving patient care. Several approaches have been proposed for defining these needs with attention on communication as a key competency for effective collaboration. Taking our cultural context, resource limitations, and small-scale ­setting into account, we researched the applicability of a mixed focus group approach for analysis of the communication between doctors and nurses, as well as the measures for improvement. Study objective: Assessment of nurse-physician communication perception in patient care in a Caribbean setting. Methods: Focus group sessions consisting of nurses, interns, and medical specialists were conducted using an ethnographic approach, paying attention to existing communication, risk evaluation, and recommendations for improvement. Data derived from the focus group sessions were analyzed by thematic synthesis method with descriptive themes and development of analytic themes. Results: The initial focus group sessions produced an extensive list of key recommendations which could be clustered into three domains (standardization, sustainment, and collaboration. Further discussion of these domains in focus groups showed nurses’ and physicians’ domain perspectives and effects on patient care to be broadly similar. Risks related to lack of information, knowledge

  13. Interactions among genes, tumor biology and the environment in cancer health disparities: examining the evidence on a national and global scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Tiffany A; Martin, Damali N; Ambs, Stefan

    2011-08-01

    Cancer incidence and mortality rates show great variations across nations and between population groups. These variations are largely explained by differences in age distribution, diet and lifestyle, access to health care, cultural barriers and exposure to carcinogens and pathogens. Cancers caused by infections are significantly more common in developing than developed countries, and they overproportionally affect immigrant populations in the USA and other countries. The global pattern of cancer is not stagnant. Instead, it is dynamic because of fluctuations in the age distribution of populations, improvements in cancer prevention and early detection in affluent countries and rapid changes in diet and lifestyle in parts of the world. For example, increased smoking rates have caused tobacco-induced cancers to rise in various Asian countries, whereas reduced smoking rates have caused these cancers to plateau or even begin to decline in Western Europe and North America. Some population groups experience a disproportionally high cancer burden. In the USA and the Caribbean, cancer incidence and mortality rates are excessively high in populations of African ancestry when compared with other population groups. The causes of this disparity are multifaceted and may include tumor biological and genetic factors and their interaction with the environment. In this review, we will discuss the magnitude and causes of global cancer health disparities and will, with a focus on African-Americans and selected cancer sites, evaluate the evidence that genetic and tumor biological factors contribute to existing cancer incidence and outcome differences among population groups in the USA.

  14. Design, experimental analysis, and unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulation of laboratory-scale counter-rotating vertical-axis turbines in marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Minh; Padricelli, Claudrio; Obi, Shinnosuke; Totsuka, Yoshitaka

    2017-11-01

    We present the torque and power measurement of laboratory-scale counter-rotating vertical-axis hydrokinetic turbines, built around a magnetic hysteresis brake as the speed controller and a Hall-effect sensor as the rotational speed transducer. A couple of straight-three-bladed turbines were linked through a transmission of spur gears and timing pulleys and coupled to the electronic instrumentation via flexible shaft couplers. A total of 8 experiments in 2 configurations were conducted in the water channel facility (4-m long, 0.3-m wide, and 0.15-m deep). Power generation of the turbines (0.06-m rotor diameter) was measured and compared with that of single turbines of the same size. The wakes generated by these experiments were also measured by particle image velocimetry (PIV) and numerically simulated by unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) simulation using OpenFOAM. Preliminary results from wake measurement indicated the mechanism of enhanced power production behind the counter-rotating configuration of vertical-axis turbines. Current address: Politecnico di Milano.

  15. Updating Geospatial Data from Large Scale Data Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R.; Chen, J.; Wang, D.; Shang, Y.; Wang, Z.; Li, X.; Ai, T.

    2011-08-01

    In the past decades, many geospatial databases have been established at national, regional and municipal levels over the world. Nowadays, it has been widely recognized that how to update these established geo-spatial database and keep them up to date is most critical for the value of geo-spatial database. So, more and more efforts have been devoted to the continuous updating of these geospatial databases. Currently, there exist two main types of methods for Geo-spatial database updating: directly updating with remote sensing images or field surveying materials, and indirectly updating with other updated data result such as larger scale newly updated data. The former method is the basis because the update data sources in the two methods finally root from field surveying and remote sensing. The later method is often more economical and faster than the former. Therefore, after the larger scale database is updated, the smaller scale database should be updated correspondingly in order to keep the consistency of multi-scale geo-spatial database. In this situation, it is very reasonable to apply map generalization technology into the process of geo-spatial database updating. The latter is recognized as one of most promising methods of geo-spatial database updating, especially in collaborative updating environment in terms of map scale, i.e , different scale database are produced and maintained separately by different level organizations such as in China. This paper is focused on applying digital map generalization into the updating of geo-spatial database from large scale in the collaborative updating environment for SDI. The requirements of the application of map generalization into spatial database updating are analyzed firstly. A brief review on geospatial data updating based digital map generalization is then given. Based on the requirements analysis and review, we analyze the key factors for implementing updating geospatial data from large scale including technical

  16. Roosevelt elk density and social segregation: Foraging behavior and females avoiding larger groups of males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckerly, F.; McFarland, K.; Ricca, M.; Meyer, K.

    2004-01-01

    Intersexual social segregation at small spatial scales is prevalent in ruminants that are sexually dimorphic in body size. Explaining social segregation, however, from hypotheses of how intersexual size differences affects the foraging process of males and females has had mixed results. We studied whether body size influences on forage behavior, intersexual social incompatibility or both might influence social segregation in a population of Roosevelt elk (Cervus elaphus roosevelt) that declined 40% over 5 y. Most males and females in the population occurred in the same forage patches, meadows, but occupied different parts of meadows and most groups were overwhelming comprised of one sex. The extent of segregation varied slightly with changing elk density. Cropping rate, our surrogate of forage ingestion, of males in mixed-sex groups differed from males in male-only groups at high, but not low, elk density. In a prior study of intersexual social interactions it was shown that females avoided groups containing ???6 males. Therefore, we predicted that females should avoid parts of meadows where groups of males ???6 were prevalent. Across the 5 y of study this prediction held because ???5% of all females were found in parts of meadows where median aggregation sizes of males were ???6. Social segregation was coupled to body size influences on forage ingestion at high density and social incompatibility was coupled to social segregation regardless of elk density.

  17. Recipe Book for Larger Benthic Foraminifera X-ray Investigation: a Process Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgring, E.; Briguglio, A.; Hohenegger, J.

    2012-04-01

    During the past years X-ray microtomography (microCT) has become an essential tool in imaging procedures in micropaleontology. Apart from highest standards in accuracy, well conducted microCT scans aim to resolve the whole specimen in constant quality and free from any artifacts or visual interferences. Normally, to get used to X-ray techniques and get usable results, countless attempts are needed, resulting in enormous waste of time. This work tries to provide an insight into how best exploitable results can be obtained from the scanning process concerning Larger Benthic Foraminifera (LBF). As each specimen features different characteristics regarding substantial composition, density and conservation status, it is impossible and probably erroneous to give standardized guidelines even within this systematic group. Depending on the attributes of the specimen and on the desired visualization, several details have to be taken into account. Samples preparation: to get sharp images the X-ray has to cross the specimen along its shortest diameter, for LBF the equatorial view is almost always the best positioning (not for alveolinids!). The container itself has to be chosen wisely as well; it must not affect a flawless penetration of the specimen by the X-ray and has to provide a high degree of stability. Small plastic pipettes are perfect to store the specimen (or specimens) and some cardboard may help in keeping the position. The nature and quality of the paste used to fixate the object and its container are essential in ensuring a smooth rotation of the specimen which is inevitable for the consistent quality of the image and to avoid vibrations. Scan parameters: beside the correct choice of dedicated filters (which are always different depending on the working station), settings for kv, µA and resolution might have to be revised for each new object to deliver optimal results. Standard values for hyaline forms with empty chambers are normally around 80 Kv and 100 u

  18. Water saving at the field scale with Irrig-OH, an open-hardware environment device for soil water potential monitoring and irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masseroni, Daniele; Facchi, Arianna; Gandolfi, Claudio

    2015-04-01

    Sustainability of irrigation practices is an important objective which should be pursued in many countries, especially in areas where water scarcity causes strong conflicts among the different water uses. The efficient use of water is a key factor in coping with the food demand of an increasing world population and with the negative effects of the climate change on water resources availability in many areas. In this complex context, it is important that farmers adopt instruments and practices that enable a better management of water at the field scale, whatever the irrigation method they adopt. This work presents the hardware structure and the functioning of an open-hardware microstation based on the Arduino technology, called Irrig-OH, which allows the continuous and low-cost monitoring of the soil water potential (SWP) in the root zone for supporting the irrigation scheduling at the field scale. In order to test the microstation, an experiment was carried out during the agricultural season 2014 at Lodi (Italy), with the purpose of comparing the farmers' traditional management of irrigation of a peach variety and the scheduling based on the SWP measurements provided by the microstation. Additional measurements of leaf water potential (LWP), stomatal resistance, transpiration (T), crop water stress index (CWSI) and fruit size evolution were performed respectively on leafs and fruits for verifying the plant physiological responses on different SWP levels in soil. At the harvesting time, the peach production in term of quantity and quality (sucrose content was measured by a rifractometer over a sample of one hundred fruits) of the two rows were compared. Irrigation criteria was changed with respect to three macro-periods: up to the endocarp hardening phase (begin of May) soil was kept well watered fixing the SWP threshold in the first 35 cm of the soil profile at -20 kPa, during the pit hardening period (about the entire month of May) the allowed SWP threshold was

  19. A large-scale solar greenhouse dryer using polycarbonate cover: Modeling and testing in a tropical environment of Lao People's Democratic Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janjai, Serm; Intawee, Poolsak; Kaewkiew, Jinda; Sritus, Chanoke [Solar Energy Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand); Khamvongsa, Vathsana [Department of Physics, Faculty of Natural Science, National University of Laos, P O Box 7322, Vientiane (Lao People' s Democratic Republic)

    2011-03-15

    A large-scale solar greenhouse dryer with a loading capacity of 1000 kg of fruits or vegetables has been developed and tested at field levels. The dryer has a parabolic shape and the dryer is covered with polycarbonate sheets. The base of the dryer is a black concrete floor with an area of 7.5 x 20.0 m{sup 2}. Nine DC fans powered by three 50-W solar cell modules are used to ventilate the dryer. The dryer was installed at Champasak (15.13 N, 105.79 E) in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). It is routinely used to dry chilli, banana and coffee. To assess the experimental performances of the dryer, air temperature, air relative humidity and product moisture contents were measured. One thousand kilograms of banana with the initial moisture content of 68% (wb) was dried within 5 days, compared to 7 days required for natural sun drying with the same weather conditions. Also three hundred kilograms of chilli with the initial moisture content of 75% (wb) was dried within 3 days while the natural sun drying needed 5 days. Two hundred kilograms of coffee with the initial moisture content of 52% (wb) was dried within 2 days as compared to 4 days required for natural sun drying. The chilli, coffee and banana dried in this dryer were completely protected from insects, animals and rain. Furthermore, good quality of dried products was obtained. The payback period of the dryer is estimated to be 2.5 years. A system of partial differential equations describing heat and moisture transfer during drying of chilli, coffee and banana in the greenhouse dryer was developed. These equations were solved by using the finite different method. The simulated results agree well with the experimental data. This model can be used to provide the design data for this type of dryer in other locations. (author)

  20. Defining and measuring cyberbullying within the larger context of bullying victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Michele L; Boyd, Danah; Korchmaros, Josephine D; Oppenheim, Jay Koby

    2012-07-01

    To inform the scientific debate about bullying, including cyberbullying, measurement. Two split-form surveys were conducted online among 6-17-year-olds (n = 1,200 each) to inform recommendations for cyberbullying measurement. Measures that use the word "bully" result in prevalence rates similar to each other, irrespective of whether a definition is included, whereas measures not using the word "bully" are similar to each other, irrespective of whether a definition is included. A behavioral list of bullying experiences without either a definition or the word "bully" results in higher prevalence rates and likely measures experiences that are beyond the definition of "bullying." Follow-up questions querying differential power, repetition, and bullying over time were used to examine misclassification. The measure using a definition but not the word "bully" appeared to have the highest rate of false positives and, therefore, the highest rate of misclassification. Across two studies, an average of 25% reported being bullied at least monthly in person compared with an average of 10% bullied online, 7% via telephone (cell or landline), and 8% via text messaging. Measures of bullying among English-speaking individuals in the United States should include the word "bully" when possible. The definition may be a useful tool for researchers, but results suggest that it does not necessarily yield a more rigorous measure of bullying victimization. Directly measuring aspects of bullying (i.e., differential power, repetition, over time) reduces misclassification. To prevent double counting across domains, we suggest the following distinctions: mode (e.g., online, in-person), type (e.g., verbal, relational), and environment (e.g., school, home). We conceptualize cyberbullying as bullying communicated through the online mode. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD) Mission -Ultraviolet Remote Sensing of Earth's Space Environment from Geostationary Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, A. G.; Eastes, R.

    2017-12-01

    The GOLD mission of opportunity will fly a far ultraviolet imaging spectrograph in geostationary (GEO) orbit as a hosted payload. The mission is scheduled for launch in late January 2018 on SES-14, a commercial communications satellite that will be stationed over eastern South America at 47.5 degrees west longitude. GOLD is on schedule to be the first NASA science mission to fly as a hosted payload on a commercial communications satellite. The GOLD imager has two identical channels. Each channel can scan the full disk at a 30 minute cadence, making spectral images of Earth's UV emission from 132 to 162 nm, as well as make a measurement on the Earth's limb. Remote sensing techniques that have been proven on previous Low Earth Orbit (LEO) missions will be used to derive fundamental parameters for the neutral and ionized space environment. Parameters that will be derived include composition (O/N2 ratio) and temperature of the neutral atmosphere on the dayside disk. On the nightside, peak electron densities will be obtained in the low latitude ionosphere. Many of the algorithms developed for the mission are extensions of ones used on previous earth and planetary missions, with modifications for observations from geostationary orbit. All the algorithms have been tested using simulated observations based on the actual instrument performance. From geostationary orbit, GOLD can repeatedly image the same geographic locations over most of the hemisphere at a cadence comparable to that of the T-I system (order of an hour). Such time resolution and spatial coverage will allow the mission to track the changes due to geomagnetic storms, variations in solar extreme ultraviolet radiation, and forcing from the lower atmosphere. In addition to providing a new perspective by being able to repeatedly remotely sense the same hemisphere at a high cadence, GOLD's simultaneous measurements of not only composition but also temperatures across the disk will provide a valuable, new parameter

  2. Millennial-scale variations of late Pleistocene radiolarian assemblages in the Bering Sea related to environments in shallow and deep waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itaki, Takuya; Kim, Sunghan; Rella, Stephan F.; Uchida, Masao; Tada, Ryuji; Khim, Boo-Keun

    2012-02-01

    A high-resolution record of the radiolarian assemblage from 60 to 10 ka was investigated using a piston core (PC-23A) obtained from the northern slope of the Bering Sea. Faunal changes based on the 29 major radiolarian taxa demonstrated that the surface and deep water conditions in the Bering Sea were related to the orbital and millennial-scale climatic variations known as glacial-interglacial and Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) cycles, respectively. During interstadial periods of the D-O cycles, the assemblage was characterized by increases in the high-latitude coastal species Rhizoplegma boreale and the upper-intermediate water species Cycladophora davisiana, while the sea-ice related species Actinomma boreale and A. leptodermum and many deep-water species such as Dictyophimus crisiae and D. hirundo tended to be reduced. This trend was more apparent in two laminated intervals at 15-13.5 and 11.5-11 ka, which were correlated with well-known ice-sheet collapse events that occurred during the last deglaciation: melt-water pulse (MWP)-1A and MWP-1B, respectively. The radiolarian faunal composition in these periods suggests that oceanic conditions were different from today: (1) surface water was affected by increased melt-water discharge from continental ice-sheet, occurring at the same time as an abrupt increase in atmospheric temperature, (2) upper-intermediate water (ca. 200-500 m) was well-ventilated and organic-rich, and (3) lower-intermediate water (ca. 500-1000 m) was oxygen-poor. Conversely, the sea-ice season might have been longer during stadial periods of the D-O cycles and the last glacial maximum (LGM) compared to the interstadial periods and the earliest Holocene. In these colder periods, deep-water species were very abundant, and this corresponded to increases in the oxygen isotope value of benthic foraminifera. Our findings suggest that the oxygen-rich water was present in the lower-intermediate layer resulting from intensified ventilation.

  3. Nuclear Arms Race and Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Anpeng

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a new factor, environment, into nuclear arms race model. In this model, nuclear weapons produce larger defense power compared with conventional arms, but hurt the environment meanwhile. In the global welfare maximum level, both conventional and nuclear weapons budget are zero. However, the competitive equilibrium may not achieve the optimum. I give the condition to jump out of the prisoner's dilemma.

  4. External energy policy: Old fears and new dilemmas in a larger Union. Chapter 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Linde, C.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter attempts both to analyse the development of energy policy making in the EU and to discuss the energy security dilemmas that confront the member states in the short and medium term. The central issue here is how security of supply and a sustainable energy system can be achieved in a market environment, which is the main thrust of the Commissions proposals, while at the same time government intervention in international energy markets is on the rise. It is suggested that the mismatch between the level of government involvement and the market model in the international energy sector has become more pronounced lately and impacts upon the security of supply and demand policy toolset of consumer and producer countries. Arguably, the switch from an international oil and gas buyers' market to a sellers market has not only rekindled resource nationalism in producer countries but also stimulated a certain preference for bilateral energy relations over multilateral ones in some consumer countries in an attempt to secure supplies. Chinese energy diplomacy in Africa and elsewhere is a good example of bilateralism, while some member states also deem the Nordstream pipeline project to be an example of energy bilateralism on the part of Germany. The latter project was clearly a trigger for the current EU proposal on external energy relations, encouraging member states to 'speak with one voice'. However, it will be argued in this chapter that the asymmetry in import dependency among the member states, the preference of member states for a certain energy mix, the member state' competitive position in world markets and different foreign and security approaches, will make 'speaking with one voice' a lot harder to achieve than in climate change matters. This chapter first gives some facts and figures about European energy. It then discusses both past and current energy policy in the EU. The issue is raised whether the strategic energy interests of the member states are

  5. Pessoas com deficiência: nossa maior minoria People with disability: our larger minority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wederson Rufino dos Santos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Os estudos internacionais sobre deficiência são um campo consolidado nas ciências sociais, embora no Brasil seja incipiente e frágil. O conceito de deficiência diz respeito às restrições sociais impostas às pessoas que possuem variedade nas habilidades corporais. O objetivo deste artigo é analisar o debate sobre deficiência a partir de dois enfoques: 1 compreender a deficiência como uma manifestação da diversidade humana, partindo da análise do debate do modelo social da deficiência - uma corrente política e teórica que reconhece a deficiência como opressão sofrida pelas pessoas com lesões em ambientes sociais pouco adaptados às diversidades corporais; 2 demonstrar que a mudança na compreensão do corpo com deficiência como manifestação da diversidade corporal traz melhores instrumentos para o modo como a sociedade deve se organizar para promover justiça às pessoas com deficiência, promovendo a garantia dos direitos de cidadania dessas pessoas que representam 14,5% da população brasileira, segundo o último Censo de 2000.Although incipient in Brazil, international studies on disability are a consolidated field in social sciences. The concept of disability concerns issues of health or illness faced by people whose abilities are restricted by body impairments. This paper aims to analyze the debate on disability based on two approaches: 1 to understand disability as a manifestation of the human being diversity, analyzing the debate on the social model of disability - a political and theoretical trend that considers deficiency as oppression suffered by impaired people in social environments not adapted to corporal diversities; 2 to show that changes in the comprehension of the disabled body as manifestation of corporal diversity brings better tools to the way society must organize itself to promote justice for disabled people, thus ensuring citizenship rights for those 14.5% of the Brazilian population, according to

  6. International cooperation on the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, V de [Amsterdam University, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Interfaculty Dept. of Environmental Science

    1993-01-01

    For centuries there has been international trade, but since the enormous growth in production, the goods we produce have begun to pollute the global environment. Feed for Dutch cattle is grown in South-East Asia, leading to a manure surplus here and soil erosion there. To provide the Dutch with aluminium for their beer cans, large areas of Brazilian rainforest have been cleared, while the waste mountain grows ever larger in Netherlands. It has been clear since the 1970s that the countries of the world are working in tandem to pollute the environment we all rely on. Similarly, we have to work together to clean it up. Although we are nowhere near a solution, many forms of cooperation have seen the light of day, from global agreements like Agenda 21 to simple declarations by the governments of two countries. The Netherlands has entered into thirteen such small-scale environmental agreements, or memoranda of understanding as they are known. The aim of these agreements is to reinforce each others' environmental management structure. In practice, this modest approach has been found to suit ambitious aims like redistribution of environmental space. The motto is 'small is beautiful'.

  7. International cooperation on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, V. de

    1993-01-01

    For centuries there has been international trade, but since the enormous growth in production, the goods we produce have begun to pollute the global environment. Feed for Dutch cattle is grown in South-East Asia, leading to a manure surplus here and soil erosion there. To provide the Dutch with aluminium for their beer cans, large areas of Brazilian rainforest have been cleared, while the waste mountain grows ever larger in Netherlands. It has been clear since the 1970s that the countries of the world are working in tandem to pollute the environment we all rely on. Similarly, we have to work together to clean it up. Although we are nowhere near a solution, many forms of cooperation have seen the light of day, from global agreements like Agenda 21 to simple declarations by the governments of two countries. The Netherlands has entered into thirteen such small-scale environmental agreements, or memoranda of understanding as they are known. The aim of these agreements is to reinforce each others' environmental management structure. In practice, this modest approach has been found to suit ambitious aims like redistribution of environmental space. The motto is 'small is beautiful'

  8. Past Holocene soil erosion modeling as a new way to decipher human-climate-environment interactions on natural geo-ecosystem over long time-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonneau, Anaëlle; Di Giovanni, Christian; Chapron, Emmanuel

    2017-04-01

    Soil erosion is a global phenomenon dealing with both environmental, societal and economic issues. Soil erosion is also one of the key processes when it is a matter of Human-climate-environment interactions [1, 2] since if mechanical erosion of continental surfaces initially results from climatic forcing, it can be largely amplified by anthropogenic activities. Using multi-scalar datasets to model long-term (Holocene) erosion fluxes in contrasted areas, where human pressure is well documented by geoarchaeology, we address how landscape evolution, geomorphological processes, ecosystem response and human impacts have been connected over time. Beyond that, such interdisciplinary and integrative approach allow (1) to locally date, qualify, and in particular quantify, both climate variability (rainfall) and impacts of human activities on soils, and (2) to discuss of potential feedback mechanisms and the legacy of past socio-cultural systems on actual geo-ecosystems. Lacustrine sediment represents one of the more relevant natural archives in order to reconstruct environmental or climatic variability and human activities over the past thousand years. Over the last 50 years, the edges of lakes Paladru (low altitude site, 640 m a.s.l.) and Blanc Huez (high-altitude site, 2250 m a.s.l.), both located in Western French Alps and therefore sensitive to the same climatic influences, have been deeply studied by archaeologists who documented and dated periods of enhanced human pressures (agriculture, mining [3, 4]). In these two case-studies, we were therefore able to confront the specific calendars of local human activities with past landscape evolution (vegetation cover, 5) and soil erosion fluxes reconstituted from specific organic tracers quantified into the lacustrine sediments [3, 6]. Results demonstrated that, over the Holocene, climatic forcing, and more particularly glacial fluctuations, influenced human accessibility to high-altitude sites (lake Blanc Huez) and therefore

  9. Low-wave number analysis of observations and ensemble forecasts to develop metrics for the selection of most realistic members to study multi-scale interactions between the environment and the convective organization of hurricanes: Focus on Rapid Intensification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristova-Veleva, S. M.; Chen, H.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Haddad, Z. S.

    2017-12-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) are the product of complex multi-scale processes and interactions. The role of the environment has long been recognized. However, recent research has shown that convective-scale processes in the hurricane core might also play a crucial role in determining TCs intensity and size. Several studies have linked Rapid Intensification to the characteristics of the convective clouds (shallow versus deep), their organization (isolated versus wide-spread) and their location with respect to dynamical controls (the vertical shear, the radius of maximum wind). Yet a third set of controls signifies the interaction between the storm-scale and large-scale processes. Our goal is to use observations and models to advance the still-lacking understanding of these processes. Recently, hurricane models have improved significantly. However, deterministic forecasts have limitations due to the uncertainty in the representation of the physical processes and initial conditions. A crucial step forward is the use of high-resolution ensembles. We adopt the following approach: i) generate a high resolution ensemble forecast using HWRF; ii) produce synthetic data (e.g. brightness temperature) from the model fields for direct comparison to satellite observations; iii) develop metrics to allow us to sub-select the realistic members of the ensemble, based on objective measures of the similarity between observed and forecasted structures; iv) for these most-realistic members, determine the skill in forecasting TCs to provide"guidance on guidance"; v) use the members with the best predictive skill to untangle the complex multi-scale interactions. We will report on the first three goals of our research, using forecasts and observations of hurricane Edouard (2014), focusing on RI. We will focus on describing the metrics for the selection of the most appropriate ensemble members, based on applying low-wave number analysis (WNA - Hristova-Veleva et al., 2016) to the observed and

  10. HOW GALACTIC ENVIRONMENT REGULATES STAR FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meidt, Sharon E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie/Königstuhl 17 D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-02-10

    In a new simple model I reconcile two contradictory views on the factors that determine the rate at which molecular clouds form stars—internal structure versus external, environmental influences—providing a unified picture for the regulation of star formation in galaxies. In the presence of external pressure, the pressure gradient set up within a self-gravitating turbulent (isothermal) cloud leads to a non-uniform density distribution. Thus the local environment of a cloud influences its internal structure. In the simple equilibrium model, the fraction of gas at high density in the cloud interior is determined simply by the cloud surface density, which is itself inherited from the pressure in the immediate surroundings. This idea is tested using measurements of the properties of local clouds, which are found to show remarkable agreement with the simple equilibrium model. The model also naturally predicts the star formation relation observed on cloud scales and at the same time provides a mapping between this relation and the closer-to-linear molecular star formation relation measured on larger scales in galaxies. The key is that pressure regulates not only the molecular content of the ISM but also the cloud surface density. I provide a straightforward prescription for the pressure regulation of star formation that can be directly implemented in numerical models. Predictions for the dense gas fraction and star formation efficiency measured on large-scales within galaxies are also presented, establishing the basis for a new picture of star formation regulated by galactic environment.

  11. A large scale study of the assessment of the social environment of middle and secondary schools: the validity and utility of teachers' ratings of school climate, cultural pluralism, and safety problems for understanding school effects and school improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Stephen; Felner, Robert D; Seitsinger, Anne; Burns, Amy; Bolton, Natalie

    2008-10-01

    Due to changes in state and federal policies, as well as logistical and fiscal limitations, researchers must increasingly rely on teachers' reports of school climate dimensions in order to investigate the developmental impact of these dimensions, and to evaluate efforts to enhance the impact of school environments on the development of young adolescents. Teachers' climate ratings exhibited a robust dimensional structure, high levels of internal consistency, and moderate levels of stability over 1-and 2-year time spans. Teachers' climate ratings were also found to be related consistently with students' ratings. In three large-scale samples of schools, teachers' climate ratings were associated significantly and consistently with students' performance on standardized tests of academic achievement, and with indexes of their academic, behavioral, and socio-emotional adjustment.

  12. Wood fuel and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to try and demonstrate the role that the use of Wood as a Fuel can play in our environment. The term ''Wood Fuel'', for the purposes of these proceedings, refers to the use of wood obtained from the forest or the farm. It does not refer to waste wood from for example buildings. The role of wood fuel in the environment can be assessed at many different levels. In this paper three different scales of ''Environment'' and the role of wood fuel in each, will be considered. These three scales are namely the global environment, the local environment, and the National (community) environment. (Author)

  13. New insights to ecology, ontogeny and teratology of Larger Benthic Foraminifera by biometrics based on microCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briguglio, A.; Fabienke, W.; Wolfgring, E.; Ferrández Cañadell, C.; Hohenegger, J.

    2012-04-01

    The main function of tests in Larger Benthic Foraminifera (LBF) is to provide their endosymbiotic algae with enough light to obtain net photosynthetic rates and to create sufficient accommodation space. To study the relation between these two factors and to understand how the cell reacts to growth and to the environment, the newly developed technique of X-ray micro-Computer-Tomography (microCT) allows measurement of all characters of complex tests without destruction. Growth studies on 48 specimens of living and fossil species have been performed. The volumes of the lumina have been calculated as well as further 2-dimensional parameters related to volumes as chamber height, chamber width and septal distance. The volumes of chamber lumina represent cell growth in their sequence, thus demonstrating interruptions, increase/decrease or oscillations in growth rates caused by external factors affecting growth during life time (e.g. seasons). Correlations between volumes and the one-dimensional parameters have been calculated to check the form of relationship. According to our results, some parameters seem to oscillate exactly as the volume (therefore accommodating it), while others seem to oscillate constantly around a given growth function. Concerning the palaeobiology, beside the study of specimens with 'normal' growth, thus not drastically affected by external factors, some interesting morphologies have been investigated. Pluriembryonal apparati as well as secondary equatorial layers have been segmented, extracted and quantified in almost 15 specimens of Cycloclypeus carpenteri, 8 twin specimens of nummulitids tests have been also investigated to show where and how the fusion starts and volumetric quantifications of each single spiral in multispiral grown test of some large Eocene Nummulitids has also been calculated to show in which way and when (ontogenetically) a new spiral starts. The combination of all measurements allows interpretation of different biological

  14. The fluorescence properties of aerosol larger than 0.8 μm in urban and tropical rainforest locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabey, A. M.; Stanley, W. R.; Gallagher, M. W.; Kaye, P. H.

    2011-06-01

    UV-LIF measurements were performed on ambient aerosol in Manchester, UK (urban city centre, winter) and Borneo, Malaysia (remote, tropical) using a Wide Issue Bioaerosol Spectrometer, version 3 (WIBS3). These sites are taken to represent environments with minor and significant primary biological aerosol (PBA) influences respectively, and the urban dataset describes the fluorescent background aerosol against which PBA must be identified by researchers using LIF. The ensemble aerosol at both sites was characterised over 2-3 weeks by measuring the fluorescence intensity and optical equivalent diameter (DP) of single particles sized 0.8 ≤ DP ≤ 20 μm. Filter samples were also collected for a subset of the Manchester campaign and analysed using energy dispersive X-Ray (EDX) spectroscopy and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), which revealed mostly non-PBA at D ≤ 1 μm. The WIBS3 features three fluorescence channels: the emission following a 280 nm excitation is recorded at 310-400 nm (channel F1) and 400-600 nm (F2), and fluorescence excited at 350 nm is detected at 400-600 nm (F3). In Manchester the primary size mode of fluorescent and non-fluorescent material was present at 0.8-1.2 μm, with a secondary fluorescent mode at 2-4 μm. In Borneo non-fluorescent material peaked at 0.8-1.2 μm and fluorescent at 3-4 μm. Agreement between fluorescent number concentrations in each channel differed at the two sites, with F1 and F3 reporting similar concentrations in Borneo but F3 outnumbering F1 by a factor of 2-3 across the size spectrum in Manchester. The fluorescence intensity in each channel generally rose with DP at both sites with the exception of F1 intensity in Manchester, which peaked at DP = 4 μm, causing a divergence between F1 and F3 intensity at larger DP. This divergence and the differing fluorescent particle concentrations demonstrate the additional discrimination provided by the F1 channel in Manchester. The relationships between

  15. Comparison between smaller ruptured intracranial aneurysm and larger un-ruptured intracranial aneurysm: gene expression profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Li, Haowen; Yue, Haiyan; Wang, Wen; Yu, Lanbing; ShuoWang; Cao, Yong; Zhao, Jizong

    2017-07-01

    As it grows in size, an intracranial aneurysm (IA) is prone to rupture. In this study, we compared two extreme groups of IAs, ruptured IAs (RIAs) smaller than 10 mm and un-ruptured IAs (UIAs) larger than 10 mm, to investigate the genes involved in the facilitation and prevention of IA rupture. The aneurismal walls of 6 smaller saccular RIAs (size smaller than 10 mm), 6 larger saccular UIAs (size larger than 10 mm) and 12 paired control arteries were obtained during surgery. The transcription profiles of these samples were studied by microarray analysis. RT-qPCR was used to confirm the expression of the genes of interest. In addition, functional group analysis of the differentially expressed genes was performed. Between smaller RIAs and larger UIAs, 101 genes and 179 genes were significantly over-expressed, respectively. In addition, functional group analysis demonstrated that the up-regulated genes in smaller RIAs mainly participated in the cellular response to metal ions and inorganic substances, while most of the up-regulated genes in larger UIAs were involved in inflammation and extracellular matrix (ECM) organization. Moreover, compared with control arteries, inflammation was up-regulated and muscle-related biological processes were down-regulated in both smaller RIAs and larger UIAs. The genes involved in the cellular response to metal ions and inorganic substances may facilitate the rupture of IAs. In addition, the healing process, involving inflammation and ECM organization, may protect IAs from rupture.

  16. Built-Environment Wind Turbine Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.; Forsyth, T.; Sinclair, K.; Oteri, F.

    2012-11-01

    Although only a small contributor to total electricity production needs, built-environment wind turbines (BWTs) nonetheless have the potential to influence the public's consideration of renewable energy, and wind energy in particular. Higher population concentrations in urban environments offer greater opportunities for project visibility and an opportunity to acquaint large numbers of people to the advantages of wind projects on a larger scale. However, turbine failures will be equally visible and could have a negative effect on public perception of wind technology. This roadmap provides a framework for achieving the vision set forth by the attendees of the Built-Environment Wind Turbine Workshop on August 11 - 12, 2010, at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The BWT roadmap outlines the stakeholder actions that could be taken to overcome the barriers identified. The actions are categorized as near-term (0 - 3 years), medium-term (4 - 7 years), and both near- and medium-term (requiring immediate to medium-term effort). To accomplish these actions, a strategic approach was developed that identifies two focus areas: understanding the built-environment wind resource and developing testing and design standards. The authors summarize the expertise and resources required in these areas.

  17. Virtual interface environment workstations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, S. S.; Wenzel, E. M.; Coler, C.; Mcgreevy, M. W.

    1988-01-01

    A head-mounted, wide-angle, stereoscopic display system controlled by operator position, voice and gesture has been developed at NASA's Ames Research Center for use as a multipurpose interface environment. This Virtual Interface Environment Workstation (VIEW) system provides a multisensory, interactive display environment in which a user can virtually explore a 360-degree synthesized or remotely sensed environment and can viscerally interact with its components. Primary applications of the system are in telerobotics, management of large-scale integrated information systems, and human factors research. System configuration, research scenarios, and research directions are described.

  18. C2 for Computer Networked Operations: Using Computational Experimentation to Identify Effects on Performance in Organizational Configurations within the Larger Network-Centric Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koons, III, Jack L; Bekatoros, Nikolaos; Nissen, Mark E

    2008-01-01

    .... Comprised primarily of defense, attack, and exploitation, the technological capabilities are growing exponentially, as is the rate of data exchange, yet the organizational configurations supporting...

  19. Studying neighborhood crime across different macro spatial scales: The case of robbery in 4 cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipp, John R; Wo, James C; Kim, Young-An

    2017-11-01

    Whereas there is a burgeoning literature focusing on the spatial distribution of crime events across neighborhoods or micro-geographic units in a specific city, the present study expands this line of research by selecting four cities that vary across two macro-spatial dimensions: population in the micro-environment, and population in the broader macro-environment. We assess the relationship between measures constructed at different spatial scales and robbery rates in blocks in four cities: 1) San Francisco (high in micro- and macro-environment population); 2) Honolulu (high in micro- but low in macro-environment population); 3) Los Angeles (low in micro- but high in macro-environment population); 4) Sacramento (low in micro- and macro-environment population). Whereas the socio-demographic characteristics of residents further than ½ mile away do not impact robbery rates, the number of people up to 2.5 miles away are related to robbery rates, especially in the two cities with smaller micro-environment population, implying a larger spatial scale than is often considered. The results show that coefficient estimates differ somewhat more between cities differing in micro-environment population compared to those differing based on macro-environment population. It is therefore necessary to consider the broader macro-environment even when focusing on the level of crime across neighborhoods or micro-geographic units within an area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Does academic performance or personal growth share a stronger association with learning environment perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackett, Sean; Wright, Scott M.; Shochet, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to characterize the relative strength of associations of learning environment perception with academic performance and with personal growth. Methods In 2012-2014 second and third year students at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine completed a learning environment survey and personal growth scale. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was employed to determine if the proportion of variance in learning environment scores accounted for by personal growth was significantly larger than the proportion accounted for by academic performance (course/clerkship grades). Results The proportion of variance in learning environment scores accounted for by personal growth was larger than the proportion accounted for by academic performance in year 2 [R2Δ of 0.09, F(1,175) = 14.99,  p environment scores shared a small amount of variance with academic performance in years 2 and 3.  The amount of variance between learning environment scores and personal growth was small in year 2 and large in year 3. Conclusions Since supportive learning environments are essential for medical education, future work must determine if enhancing personal growth prior to and during the clerkship year will increase learning environment perception. PMID:27570912

  1. Larger Angles For COMPASS

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    A new magnet at CERN is going to allow COMPASS (Common Muon Proton Apparatus for Structure and Spectroscopy) maximum acceptance. Thanks to the 5 tonne, 2.5 m long magnet, which arrived last December, many more events are expected compared to the previous data-taking.

  2. Casting a larger net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle; Villadsen, Anders Ryom

    2013-01-01

    Managerial networking is an important part of public management. Research has forcefully demonstrated how this aspect of management directly and indirectly is related to organizational outcomes. Much less is known, however, about the determinants of managerial networking. This is especially true ...

  3. Understanding the Geographic Controls of Hazardous Convective Weather Environments in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, K. A.; Chavas, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Hazardous Convective Weather (HCW), such as severe thunderstorms and tornadoes, poses significant risk to life and property in the United States every year. While these HCW events are small scale, they develop principally within favorable larger-scale environments (i.e., HCW environments). Why these large-scale environments are confined to specific regions, particularly the Eastern United States, is not well understood. This can, in part, be related to a limited fundamental knowledge of how the climate system creates HCW environment, which provides uncertainty in how HCW environments may be altered in a changing climate. Previous research has identified the Gulf of Mexico to the south and elevated terrain upstream as key geographic contributors to the generation of HCW environments over the Eastern United States. This work investigates the relative role of these geographic features through "component denial" experiments in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5). In particular, CAM5 simulations where topography is removed (globally and regionally) and/or the Gulf of Mexico is converted to land is compared to a CAM5 control simulation of current climate following the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) protocols. In addition to exploring differences in general characteristics of the large-scale environments amongst the experiments, HCW changes will be explored through a combination of high shear and high Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) environments. Preliminary work suggests that the removal of elevated terrain reduces the inland extent of HCW environments in the United States, but not the existence of these events altogether. This indicates that topography is crucial for inland HCW environments but perhaps not for their existence in general (e.g., near the Gulf of Mexico). This initial work is a crucial first step to building a reduced-complexity framework within CAM5 to quantify how land-ocean contrast and elevated terrain control

  4. Suspension tests on a larger scale. Report from the status seminar on magnetic suspension techniques. Testing of the electrodynamic system started

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogg, D; Muckli, W

    1976-07-01

    A world record speed for electromagnetically suspended vehicles as well as successful suspension tests with forced-circulation cooled superconducting magnets were the outstanding success reports at the fifth status seminar 'Magnetic suspension techniques' on 31st March and 1st April in Bad Kissingen. The research work on magnetic suspension techniques in the railborne long-distance travel is supported by the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology (BMFT) within the frameworke of the programme 'Railway engineering - New technologies'.

  5. Brief Report: Theory of Mind, Relational Reasoning, and Social Responsiveness in Children with and without Autism--Demonstration of Feasibility for a Larger-Scale Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, John R., Jr.; Kandala, Sridhar; Petersen, Steven E.; Povinelli, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the underpinnings of social responsiveness and theory of mind (ToM) will enhance our knowledge of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We hypothesize that higher-order relational reasoning (higher-order RR: reasoning necessitating integration of relationships among multiple variables) is necessary but not sufficient for ToM, and that…

  6. Visualization environment and its utilization in the ITBL building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuhara, Yuko

    2004-12-01

    In recent years, visualization techniques have become more and more important in various fields. Especially in scientific fields, a large amount of numerical output data crucially needs to be changed into visualized form, because computations have grown to larger and larger scales as well as have become more complicated, so that computed results must be intuitively comprehensible by using various visualization techniques like 3D or stereo image construction. In the visualization room in the ITBL building, a 3-screen Virtual Reality system, a Portable Virtual Reality system, a Mixed Reality system, and Visualization tools like alchemy etc. are installed for the above-mentioned use. These devices enable us to easily change numerical data into visualized images of a virtual reality world with the use of eye-glasses or a head-mount-display device. This article describes the visualization environment in the ITBL building, it's use, and the tasks to be solved. (author)

  7. The fluorescence properties of aerosol larger than 0.8 μm in urban and tropical rainforest locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Gabey

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available UV-LIF measurements were performed on ambient aerosol in Manchester, UK (urban city centre, winter and Borneo, Malaysia (remote, tropical using a Wide Issue Bioaerosol Spectrometer, version 3 (WIBS3. These sites are taken to represent environments with minor and significant primary biological aerosol (PBA influences respectively, and the urban dataset describes the fluorescent background aerosol against which PBA must be identified by researchers using LIF. The ensemble aerosol at both sites was characterised over 2–3 weeks by measuring the fluorescence intensity and optical equivalent diameter (DP of single particles sized 0.8 ≤ DP ≤ 20 μm. Filter samples were also collected for a subset of the Manchester campaign and analysed using energy dispersive X-Ray (EDX spectroscopy and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM, which revealed mostly non-PBA at D ≤ 1 μm.

    The WIBS3 features three fluorescence channels: the emission following a 280 nm excitation is recorded at 310–400 nm (channel F1 and 400–600 nm (F2, and fluorescence excited at 350 nm is detected at 400–600 nm (F3. In Manchester the primary size mode of fluorescent and non-fluorescent material was present at 0.8–1.2 μm, with a secondary fluorescent mode at 2–4 μm. In Borneo non-fluorescent material peaked at 0.8–1.2 μm and fluorescent at 3–4 μm. Agreement between fluorescent number concentrations in each channel differed at the two sites, with F1 and F3 reporting similar concentrations in Borneo but F3 outnumbering F1 by a factor of 2–3 across the size spectrum in Manchester.

    The fluorescence intensity in each channel generally rose with DP at both sites with the exception of F1 intensity in Manchester, which peaked at DP = 4 μm, causing a divergence between F1 and F3 intensity at larger DP. This divergence and the differing

  8. Ventricular arrhythmia burst is an independent indicator of larger infarct size even in optimal reperfusion in STEMI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Weg, Kirian; Majidi, Mohamed; Haeck, Joost D. E.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Green, Cynthia L.; Koch, Karel T.; Kuijt, Wichert J.; Krucoff, Mitchell W.; Gorgels, Anton P. M.; de Winter, Robbert J.

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that ventricular arrhythmia (VA) bursts during reperfusion phase are a marker of larger infarct size despite optimal epicardial and microvascular perfusion. 126 STEMI patients were studied with 24h continuous, 12-lead Holter monitoring. Myocardial blush grade (MBG) was determined and

  9. Biological control agent of larger black flour beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): A nuisance pest developing in cotton gin trash piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larger black flour beetles (LBFB), Cynaeus angustus, feed on saprophytic fungi found in gin trash piles, and become nuisance pests in homes and businesses. We examined the dose-response of three entomopathogenic nematode species (Steinernema carpocapsae, S. feltiae, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora...

  10. Studies of the impact and mitigation of pile-up on large-$R$ and groomed jets in ATLAS at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Large radius jets provide one avenue towards efficient reconstruction of massive boosted objects whose decay products are sufficiently collimated so as to make standard reconstruction techniques impractical. The potentially adverse impact of additional proton-proton interactions on such large jets is assessed for a variety of jet types and hadronic final state topologies. The mitigation of these effects via jet grooming algorithms such as trimming, pruning, and filtering is then studied for high transverse momentum jets at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV using an integrated luminosity of 4.7 fb$^{-1}$ collected with the ATLAS detector. A total of 29 jet algorithms and grooming configuration combinations are studied. The application of jet trimming and filtering significantly improves the robustness of large-$R$ jets and reduces their sensitivity to the intense environment of the high-luminosity LHC. The consequence is an overall improvement in the physics potential of searches for heavy boosted objects.

  11. Exploring the opinions of registered nurses working in a clinical transfusion environment on the contribution of e-learning to personal learning and clinical practice: results of a small scale educational research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Susan; Donaldson, Jayne H

    2013-05-01

    To explore the opinions of registered nurses on the Learnbloodtransfusion Module 1: Safe Transfusion Practice e-learning programme to meeting personal learning styles and learning needs. A qualitative research methodology was applied based on the principles of phenomenology. Adopting a convenience sampling plan supported the recruitment of participants who had successfully completed the e-learning course. Thematic analysis from the semi-structured interviews identified common emerging themes through application of Colaizzis framework. Seven participants of total sample population (89) volunteered to participate in the study. Five themes emerged which included learning preferences, interactive learning, course design, patient safety and future learning needs. Findings positively show the e-learning programme captures the learning styles and needs of learners. In particular, learning styles of a reflector, theorist and activist as well as a visual learner can actively engage in the online learning experience. In an attempt to bridge the knowledge practice gap, further opinions are offered on the course design and the application of knowledge to practice following completion of the course. The findings of the small scale research study have shown that the e-learning course does meet the diverse learning styles and needs of nurses working in a clinical transfusion environment. However, technology alone is not sufficient and a blended approach to learning must be adopted to meet bridging the theory practice gap supporting the integration of knowledge to clinical practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Report on survey for environment harmonizing type energy community project for Chubu International Airport. District heat supply facilities using large-scale cogeneration systems; Chubu kokusai kuko kankyo chowagata energy community jigyo chosa hokokusho. Daikibo cogeneration chiiki netsu kyokyu shisetsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The Chubu International Airport is positioned as a hub airport scheduled to start its use in the early part of the 21st century, to which introduction of large-scale cogeneration systems was discussed. Structuring an energy supply system conscious of the 21st century is intended, that is friendly to the environment, is attached with importance on the economy, and has high reliability and safety. The systems have cogeneration capacity from 4,500 to 6,000 kW, and utilize high-pressure waste heat from the cogeneration system as the heat source. The system uses the high pressure waste heat, stored heat, and gas at the same time to achieve high economic performance brought about by heat storage and the best energy source mix, while attempting cascade utilization of the heat. Considerations were given to suppress the environmental and energy load on the district as low as possible for the coexistence with the district, and to build framework and coordination to return the merits to the district. Subsidy introduction also has a great effect to assure the economic performance. The optimal specific construction of the system was found in combining the utilization of energy generated from temperature difference in sea water as a heat source system, the topping system utilizing the high pressure waste heat available in the system, high-efficiency heat pumps, and the heat storing system utilizing electric power available at late night. (NEDO)

  13. A novel tool for assessing and summarizing the built environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background A growing corpus of research focuses on assessing the quality of the local built environment and also examining the relationship between the built environment and health outcomes and indicators in communities. However, there is a lack of research presenting a highly resolved, systematic, and comprehensive spatial approach to assessing the built environment over a large geographic extent. In this paper, we contribute to the built environment literature by describing a tool used to assess the residential built environment at the tax parcel-level, as well as a methodology for summarizing the data into meaningful indices for linkages with health data. Methods A database containing residential built environment variables was constructed using the existing body of literature, as well as input from local community partners. During the summer of 2008, a team of trained assessors conducted an on-foot, curb-side assessment of approximately 17,000 tax parcels in Durham, North Carolina, evaluating the built environment on over 80 variables using handheld Global Positioning System (GPS) devices. The exercise was repeated again in the summer of 2011 over a larger geographic area that included roughly 30,700 tax parcels; summary data presented here are from the 2008 assessment. Results Built environment data were combined with Durham crime data and tax assessor data in order to construct seven built environment indices. These indices were aggregated to US Census blocks, as well as to primary adjacency communities (PACs) and secondary adjacency communities (SACs) which better described the larger neighborhood context experienced by local residents. Results were disseminated to community members, public health professionals, and government officials. Conclusions The assessment tool described is both easily-replicable and comprehensive in design. Furthermore, our construction of PACs and SACs introduces a novel concept to approximate varying scales of community and

  14. A novel tool for assessing and summarizing the built environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kroeger Gretchen L

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing corpus of research focuses on assessing the quality of the local built environment and also examining the relationship between the built environment and health outcomes and indicators in communities. However, there is a lack of research presenting a highly resolved, systematic, and comprehensive spatial approach to assessing the built environment over a large geographic extent. In this paper, we contribute to the built environment literature by describing a tool used to assess the residential built environment at the tax parcel-level, as well as a methodology for summarizing the data into meaningful indices for linkages with health data. Methods A database containing residential built environment variables was constructed using the existing body of literature, as well as input from local community partners. During the summer of 2008, a team of trained assessors conducted an on-foot, curb-side assessment of approximately 17,000 tax parcels in Durham, North Carolina, evaluating the built environment on over 80 variables using handheld Global Positioning System (GPS devices. The exercise was repeated again in the summer of 2011 over a larger geographic area that included roughly 30,700 tax parcels; summary data presented here are from the 2008 assessment. Results Built environment data were combined with Durham crime data and tax assessor data in order to construct seven built environment indices. These indices were aggregated to US Census blocks, as well as to primary adjacency communities (PACs and secondary adjacency communities (SACs which better described the larger neighborhood context experienced by local residents. Results were disseminated to community members, public health professionals, and government officials. Conclusions The assessment tool described is both easily-replicable and comprehensive in design. Furthermore, our construction of PACs and SACs introduces a novel concept to approximate varying

  15. Virtual interface environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Scott S.

    1986-01-01

    A head-mounted, wide-angle, stereoscopic display system controlled by operator position, voice and gesture has been developed for use as a multipurpose interface environment. The system provides a multisensory, interactive display environment in which a user can virtually explore a 360-degree synthesized or remotely sensed environment and can viscerally interact with its components. Primary applications of the system are in telerobotics, management of large-scale integrated information systems, and human factors research. System configuration, application scenarios, and research directions are described.

  16. ENVIRONMENTS and EOL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Pletscher-Frankild, Sune; Schnetzer, Julia

    2015-01-01

    are needed to facilitate large-scale analyses. Therefore, we developed ENVIRONMENTS, a fast dictionary-based tagger capable of identifying Environment Ontology (ENVO) terms in text. We evaluate the accuracy of the tagger on a new manually curated corpus of 600 Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) species pages. We use...... the tagger to associate taxa with environments by tagging EOL text content monthly, and integrate the results into the EOL to disseminate them to a broad audience of users. Availability and implementation: The software and the corpus are available under the open-source BSD and the CC-BY-NC-SA 3.0 licenses...

  17. Sudden cardiac death in dogs with remodeled hearts is associated with larger beat-to-beat variability of repolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten Bækgaard; Truin, Michiel; van Opstal, Jurren M

    2005-01-01

    Increased proarrhythmia in dogs with chronic AV block (AVB) has been explained by ventricular remodeling causing a decrease in repolarization reserve. Beat-to-beat variability of repolarization (BVR) has been suggested to reflect repolarization reserve, in which high variability represents...... diminished reserve and larger propensity for repolarization-dependent ventricular arrhythmia. A subset of chronic AVB dogs (10%) suffers sudden cardiac death (SCD). With the assumption that repolarization defects constitute a potentially lethal proarrhythmic substrate, we hypothesized that BVR in SCD dogs...... are larger than in matched control chronic AVB dogs. From a population of 200 chronic AVB dogs, initially two groups were chosen retrospectively: 8 dogs that died suddenly (SCD) and 8 control dogs. Control dogs had a longer lifespan after AVB (10 to 18 weeks) than SCD dogs (5 to 10 weeks). All dogs had...

  18. Larger right posterior parietal volume in action video game experts: a behavioral and voxel-based morphometry (VBM study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Tanaka

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that action video game players exhibit superior performance in visuospatial cognitive tasks compared with non-game players. However, the neural basis underlying this visuospatial cognitive performance advantage remains largely unknown. The present human behavioral and imaging study compared gray matter volume in action video game experts and non-experts using structural magnetic resonance imaging and voxel-based morphometry analysis. The results revealed significantly larger gray matter volume in the right posterior parietal cortex in experts compared with non-experts. Furthermore, the larger gray matter volume in the right posterior parietal cortex significantly correlated with individual performance in a visual working memory task in experts. These results suggest that differences in brain structure may be linked to extensive video game play, leading to superior visuospatial cognitive performance in action video game experts.

  19. Are larger and/or more symmetrical Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera, Drosophilidae males more successful in matings in nature?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofija Pavković-Lučić

    Full Text Available Are larger and/or more symmetrical Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera, Drosophilidae males more successful in matings in nature? Sexual selection in Drosophila melanogaster, related to body size and fluctuating asymmetry in wing length and number of sex comb teeth in males, was tested in natural conditions. Males collected in copula were significantly larger than those collected as a single, while no difference in mean number of sex comb teeth between copulating and single males was observed. On the other hand, single males had greater asymmetry both for wing length and number of sex comb teeth than their mating counterparts. It looks like that symmetry of these bilateral traits also may play a role in sexual selection in this dipteran species in nature.

  20. Diffusion of two-dimensional epitaxial clusters on metal (100) surfaces: Facile versus nucleation-mediated behavior and their merging for larger sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, King C.; Liu, Da-Jiang; Evans, James W.

    2017-01-01

    For diffusion of two-dimensional homoepitaxial clusters of N atoms on metal(100) surfaces mediated by edge atom hopping, macroscale continuum theory suggests that the diffusion coefficient scales like DN ~ N -β with β = 3/2. However, we find quite different and diverse behavior in multiple size regimes. These include: (i) facile diffusion for small sizes N < 9; (ii) slow nucleation-mediated diffusion with small β < 1 for “perfect” sizes N = N p = L 2 or L(L+1), for L = 3, 4,… having unique ground state shapes, for moderate sizes 9 ≤ N ≤ O(10 2 ); the same also applies for N = N p +3, N p + 4,… (iii) facile diffusion but with large β > 2 for N = Np + 1 and N p + 2 also for moderate sizes 9 ≤ N ≤ O(10 2 ); (iv) merging of the above distinct branches and subsequent anomalous scaling with 1 ≲ β < 3/2, reflecting the quasi-facetted structure of clusters, for larger N = O(10 2 ) to N = O(10 3 ); and (v) classic scaling with β = 3/2 for very large N = O(103) and above. The specified size ranges apply for typical model parameters. We focus on the moderate size regime where show that diffusivity cycles quasi-periodically from the slowest branch for N p + 3 (not Np) to the fastest branch for Np + 1. Behavior is quantified by Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of an appropriate stochastic lattice-gas model. However, precise analysis must account for a strong enhancement of diffusivity for short time increments due to back-correlation in the cluster motion. Further understanding of this enhancement, of anomalous size scaling behavior, and of the merging of various branches, is facilitated by combinatorial analysis of the number of the ground state and low-lying excited state cluster configurations, and also of kink populations.

  1. Emotional event-related potentials are larger to figures than scenes but are similarly reduced by inattention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordström Henrik

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In research on event-related potentials (ERP to emotional pictures, greater attention to emotional than neutral stimuli (i.e., motivated attention is commonly indexed by two difference waves between emotional and neutral stimuli: the early posterior negativity (EPN and the late positive potential (LPP. Evidence suggests that if attention is directed away from the pictures, then the emotional effects on EPN and LPP are eliminated. However, a few studies have found residual, emotional effects on EPN and LPP. In these studies, pictures were shown at fixation, and picture composition was that of simple figures rather than that of complex scenes. Because figures elicit larger LPP than do scenes, figures might capture and hold attention more strongly than do scenes. Here, we showed negative and neutral pictures of figures and scenes and tested first, whether emotional effects a